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VOLUME XVII: Numbers 418-443 

July 6 -December 28, 1947 







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APR 30 1948 



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Publication 3073 



INDEX 

Volume XVII : Numbers 418^43, July 6 -December 28, 1947 



Acheson, Edward C, appointment as Special Representa- 
tive of the President as head of surplus foods mission 
to Germany, 96. 
Achilles, Theodore C, designation in State Department, 

1011. 
Agriculture {see also FAO) : 
Cooperation with American republics, article by Mr. 

Moore, 613. 
Relation of ITO charter to quotas, 663. 
Agriculture iti the Atnericas, 1229. 

Aid to foreign countries (see also Europe; Greece; Italy; 
Turkey) : 
Austria : 

Agreement with U.S., 39, 95, 428. 
Mission from U.S., 229, 428. 
Bank and Fund, alleged disapproval of, statement by 

Secretary Marshall, 980. 
China : 
Food and relief agreement, with U.S., signature and 

text, 913, 980. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 970. 
Committees to study relationship to domestic economy, 

creation of, statement by President Truman, 691. 
Council of Economic Advisers, report of (Nourse re- 
port) to President Truman, summary, 932. 
Foreign Aid, President's Committee on (Harriman 

committee). See Foreign Aid. 
Foreign relief program, law authorizing establishment 

of, excerpt of text, 229. 
Impact of Foreign Aid Upon the Domestic Economy 

(Nourse report), 932. 
National Resources and Foreign Aid, report on (Krug 

report), statement by President Truman, 828. 
Poland, survey of food conditions in, text of report of 

Colonel Harrison to Secretary Marshall, 223. 
Statements by President Truman, 498, 691, 828, 853, 932. 
Victims of Nazi aggression, funds for, article by Mr. 
Warren, 639. 
Air. See Aviation. 

Air Force, Security Advisory Board of State-War-Navy- 
Air Force Coordinating Committee, 917, 918. 
Alaska, information transmitted to UN on conditions 

in, 75. 
Albania : 
Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, article by Mr. Stone, 

409. 
Saboteurs, alleged, U.S. denies connection with, 745. 
Allen, Ward P., article on inter-American treaty of re- 
ciprocal assistance, 983. 
Allied Control Commission for Bulgaria, exchange of let- 
ters between U.S. and Soviet representatives, regard- 
ing Petkov case, 429. 
Allied-Swedish accord on German external assets, looted 
gold, and related matters, article by Mr. Rubin, 155. 
Allied-Swedish understanding on German holdings in 

Sweden, exchange of correspondence, texts, 162. 
Ailing, Paul H., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Pakistan, 1229. 
Allison, John M., designation In State Department, 1011. 
AMAG. See American Mission for Aid to Greece. 
American Association for the United Nations, New York 
City, addresses : 
Mr. Austin, 626. 
Secretary Marshall, 539, 680. 

Index, July to December 1947 



American Mission for Aid to Greece (see also Greece) : 
Adaptation of "servicio" pattern to Greek program, 227. 
Addresses by Mr. McGhee, 829, 1206. 
Appointments : Mr. Braithwaite, 1081 ; Mr. Clay, 535 ; 
Mr. Cochran, 334 ; Mr. Gilmor, 592 ; Mr. Iverson, 
227 ; Mr. Reed, 831 ; Mr. WUds, 428, 534. 
Appointments, listed, 334, 832. 
"Bank of Greece Special Account AMAG", 336. 
Chief of Mission (Griswold), 141. 
Cooperation with American Embassy, 1028. 
Cordinator for aid to Greece and Turkey (McGhee), 

829, 1206. 
Departure of Mr. McGhee for survey of, 534. 
Funds from U.S., additional, 649. 
Program, statement by Mr. Griswold concerning, 141. 
Report by Mr. McGhee, 829. 
Return of Mr. Clay (economic adviser), to U.S. for 

consultation, 1081. 
Supplies, urgent, advancement of funds for, 336. 
American-Oivned Assets in Foreign Countries, Census of, 

1271. 
American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Inter-American ; Pan American ; Treaties ; and the 
individual countries) : 
Aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Caribbean affairs. See Caribbean. 

Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from: Argentina, 107; 
Chile, 746, 916; Colombia, 306; Costa Rica, 599; 
Guatemala, 838; Mexico, 437; Nicaragua, 393; 
Panama, 1008; Paraguay, 107; Peru, 838; Uruguay, 
1008 ; Venezuela, 393, 747. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., to: Mexico, 526; Peru, 526. 
Defense, Political, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 

65. 
Economic Commission for Latin America, 763. 
Educational exchange program. See Cultural leaders 

supra. 
European Recovery Program, effects on, discussed by 

Mr. Armour, 1217. 
Health programs with, expansion, 200. 
Hylean Amazon Institute, International, article by Mr. 

Kellogg, 891. 
Inter-American conference for the maintenance of con- 
tinental peace and security. See Inter-American 
conference. 
Motor travel, international, U.S. interest In, article by 

Mr. Kelly, 1063. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter-American treaty of. See 

Reciprocal assistance. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 
Committee on, program of. See Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation. 
U.S. Foreign Service, oral examinations for, 838. 
American Republic Affairs, Office of, appointment of Mr. 

Daniels as Director, 917. 
American-Soviet Commission, Joint. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
American states, 9th international conference of: 
Economic aspects of, address by Mr. Armour, 1214. 
Opening date, 1218. 
Anderson, Clinton P., chairman at special cereals confer- 
ence of FAO, 79. 
Anderson, Karl L., appointment on Tin Study Group, 734. 
Angaur Island, SCAP supervision of Japanese laborers on, 
101. 

1275 



Auglo-Aiiierican talks on Ruhr coal production, 145, 326, 

576. 
Arab American Institute, New York City, address by Mr. 

Armour, 1029. 
Arab State, proposed, discussed in report to General As- 
sembly, 554, 680. 
Architects, eth Pan American congress of, 677. 
Argentina {see also American republics) : 

Cooperation, U.S.-Argentine notes and Argentine draft 

declaration, texts, 337. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 107. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission on, 34, 78, 879, 1082. 
Armed forces of the United Nations, 76, 78, 239, 416, 418. 
Armenia, Soviet, emigration of U.S. citizens to, D.S.-Soviet 

correspondence on question of, 1194. 
Arming the United Nations, Bulletin supplement, 224, 

239, 336, 535. 
Armour, Norman : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Bngotfl conference, economic aspects of, 1214. 
Europe, the stake of America in, 863. 
Palestine, American support for UN plan for, 1029. 
Pan American railway congress, membership in, 136. 
Payments by China and U.S.S.R. on lend-lease ac- 
counts, 148. 
Telegraph service between U.S. and Greece, 143. 
United Nations, reiteration of American faith in, 634. 
World affairs, America's challenge in, 974. 
Appointment to serve as Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary of State, 47. 
Correspondence with Polish Ambassador (Winiewicz), 
regarding Polish opposition to industrial plans for 
Germany, 741. 
Arms and armed forces : 

Detention and mistreatment of Allied military personnel 

in Yugoslavia, U.S. protest, 591. 
Sale of ammunition to China, 49. 
Shipments of arms to Middle East, discontinuance by 

U.S., 1197. 
Summarv statements by Mr. Lie at Security Council, 76, 

78, 416, 418. 
U.S. position on regulation of, discussed by Secretary 

Marshall, 621. 
Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Italy, 1221, 1269. 
Armstrong, W. Park, appointment as Acting Special As- 
sistant to Secretary of State, 750. 
Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, elevation of U.S. Vice 

Consulate to rank of Consulate. 1271. 
Asia, Southeast Territories, Social Welfare Conference of, 

403. 
Assets. See Property. 
Assets, German. See Germany. 
Assistance. See Aid. 

Assistance, reciprocal, inter-American treaty. See Recip- 
rocal assistance. 
Atcheson, George, Jr., death of, statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Lovett, 437. 
Atkins, Paul M., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 335. 
Atlantic City telecommunication conferences. See Tele- 
communication ; Radio. 
Atomic Development Autliority, proposed, discussed by 

Mr. Russell, 12."i5. 
Atomic Energy Act of 1946, reservation of source mate- 
rials in certain lands owned by the U.S. (Ex. Or. 
9908), 122.5. 
Atomic P'nergy Commission : 

Activities of, address by Mr. Austin. 1176. 

Differences in principle with U.S.S.R., discussed by Mr. 

Russell, 1255. 
Discussed in address by Secretary Marshall to General 

Assembly, 620. 
Eniwetok Atoll, closing for atomic experiments, 1174. 
Atomic-energy issue in UN, address by Mr. Austin, 1176. 
Austin, Warren R. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Atomic-energy issue in the UN, 1176. 
Freedom of information, U.S. position, 869. 
General Assembly, final plenary session of 2d regular 
session, 1172. 

1276 



Austin Warren R. — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 

Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance, 574. ' 
United Nations, power and authority of, 626. 
Appointment as U.S. representative to General Assembly, 

211. 
Correspondence : 

President of Security Council (Hood), on closing of 
Eniwetok Atoll for atomic-energy experiments, 
1174. 
Secretary-General of UN, on independence of Korea, 
with draft resolution, 820. 
Australia : 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (ITO), accept- 
ance, 1258. " 
International Bank and Fund, membership in, 328. 
Resettlement of refugees, under IRC, article by Mr. 

Warren, 638. 
U.S. proposals on Japanese peace treaty, attitude, 435. 
Austria : 

Aid from U.S. : 

Agreement with U.S., 39, 95. 
Mission from U.S. : 

Arrival in Austria, 229. 
Report of 1st phase of program, 428. 
Coal from U.S., 95 n. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Four Power Commission : ' 

Proceedings of, termination. 767. 
Recall of Mr. Dodge from, 423. 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, article by Mr. Stone, 

410. 
German assets in, problem of, statements by Secretary 

Marshall, 1183. 
Occupation costs, U.S., financing by currency conversion, 

45. 
Tourist travel from U.S., regulations relaxed, 45. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport agreement, interim, with U.S., signature 

and text of annex, 834, 960. 
Monetary gold, redistribution of, protocol with U.S., 

U.K., and France, signature and text, 959. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Four Power Commission, termination of proceedings, 

767. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 1024, 1247. 
Relief agreement, with U.S., text, 39, 95. 
Aviation (see also ICAO ; Treaties) : 
Air Coordinating Committee, 174, 431. 
Air Policy Commission, 173, 431. 
Civil aviation : 

Cooperation with other American republics, article bv 

Mr. Sinclair, 923. 
Facilities for international civil aviation, article by 

Mr. Cyr, 169. 
U.S. policy, 431. 
Military aviation, policy of U.S., 433. 
Axis war criminals. See War criminals. 



Baig, M. O. A., appointment as U.S. Charge d'Aftaires to 

Pakistan, 480. 
Baldwin, Isabel Ann, article on U.S. cordage-supply policy, 

111. 
Balkan Committee, Special (General Assembly), appoint- 
ment of Admiral Kirk as U.S. representative, 949, 1203. 
Bank and Fund. See International Bank; International 

Monetary Fund. 
Banks, Hungarian, state-controlled, listed, 96. 
Barbour, Walworth, designation in State Department, 1011. 
Barnes, Maynard B., appointment as Deputy for Foreign 

Affairs at National War College, 233. 
Bartlett. Frederic P., appointment on Rubber Study Group 

and Tin Study Group, 734. 
Belgium : 

Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, transfer by U.S. to, 

table showing, 657. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part io, i 
681 n. ! 

Department of State Bulletin 



iJej 



111 



Belgium — Continued 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO), accept- 
ance, 1258. 
Bell, Kathleen, article on 5th session of ECOSOC, 812. 
Benelux Customs Union, 1258. 
Benton, William : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
High-frequency broadcasting, 401. 
Public opinion and world affairs, 522. 
Reorganization of OIC, 304. 
UNESCO, 2d General Conference of, 982. 
"Voice of America" transmitter in Manila, 646. 
Appointment as U.S. representative to UNESCO, 639, 

900, 1203. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, 707. 
Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, article by Mr. Wilkison, 755. 
Bill of Rights Day, 1947, proclamation, 1223. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, U.S.-U.K. (1946), 
revision and extension : 
Anglo-American discussions, 768. 
Level-of-industry plan. See Level-of-industry. 
Summary of agreement, text, and annex, 1262. 
Blaisdell, Donald C, article on arming of UN, 239. 
Board of Foreign Scholarsliips, President's, 198, 779, 1224. 
Bogotd conference. See American states, 9th international 

conference of. 
Bohlen, Charles E., designation in State Department, 232. 
Borton, Hugh, address on occupation policies in Japan, 

1001. 
Boston Conference on Distribution, addresses by Mr. 

Armour and Mr. Wilcox, 863, 881. 
Boundaries, international : 
Balkan Committee, Special, for peaceful settlement of 
border dispute between Greece on the one hand and 
Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other, 949. 
Canadian-U.S., meeting of International Joint Commis- 
sion for control of pollution of water, 182. 
Greek frontier (.see also Investigation, Commission of). 
General Assembly committee to observe alleged vio- 
lations between Greece on the one hand and Albania, 
Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other, 822. 
Palestine, proposed division of, discussed in report of 

Special Committee on Palestine, 554, 558, 680. 
Zonal boundary in Trieste, U.S. protest to Yugoslavia 
regarding. 706. 
Braithwaite, Albert W., appointment to AMAG, 1081. 
Brandel, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur (New York Times and U.P. 

correspondents), expulsion from Yugoslavia, 961. 
Brazil (see also American republics) : 
Combat materiel, transfer from U.S. to, tables showing, 

102, 340, 657, 837. 
Foreign capital, registration requirements, 1191. 
U.S. Consulate at Natal, closing, 650. 
U.S. relations with, address by President Truman, 519. 
Visit of President Truman to, proposed, 341. 
Briggs, Ellis O., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Uru- 
guay, 96. 
Broadcasting, radio. See Radio. 

Bronk, Detlev W., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
Brown, Maj. Gen. Albert E., chief of U.S. delegation at 
meeting of Joint Commission for Korea, 296, 399, 625. 
Bulgaria : 
Agrarian Union, abolition of, U.S. note to U.S.S.R. re- 
garding. 531. 
Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., resumption, 746. 
Execution of Nikola Petkov : 
Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., regard- 
ing, 429, 481, 531. 
U.S. position, 702. 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, article by Mr. Stone, 

315. 
Peace treaty, with Allies, entry into force and proclama- 
tion, 771, 1270. 



Bulgaria — Continued 

Property of U.S. nationals in : 
Claims, procedure for filing, 1270. 
Tax returns, extension of time for filing, 46, 390, 1089. 
State of war with U.S., termination, proclamation, 771. 
Transfer to U.S.S.R. of German assets in, U.S. note 

regarding, 298. 
U. S. Minister (Heath), appointment, 746, 1229. 
Burke, George James, appointment to military tribunal, 

333. 
Burma : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Nyun) : 
Appointment, 648. 
CredenUals, 1227. 
Constituent assembly, attitude toward U.S., 101. 
Elevation of U.S. Consulate General at Rangoon to 

Embassy, 648. 
Propertv of U.S. nationals in, procedure for filing claims, 

1089. 
U.S. Ambassador (Huddle), appointment, 1229. 
U.S. Charge d' Affaires (Packer), appointment, 648. 
Youth mission to U.S., 912. 
Bursley, Herbert S., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Honduras, 1271. 
Butler, George H., designation in State Department, 650. 
Butterworth, W. Walton, designation in State Depart- 
ment, 783. 
Byelorussia, membership in Universal Postal Union, 585. 

Cabinet Committee on World Food Programs, statements 

by President Truman, 85, 690. 
Calendars of meetings of organizations, 34, 212, 464, 674, 

878, 1082. 
Camagiiey, Cuba, opening of U.S. Consulate, 1091. 
Canada : 
Automotive traflSc between U.S. and Canada, discussed 

by Mr. Kelly, 1065. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, tables showing, 

102, 657, 837. 
Imports from abroad, restrictions on, 1053. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, meeting 

for control of pollution of boundary waters, 1S2. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

German enemy assets, multilateral agreement relat- 
ing to resolution of conflicting claims, signature, 
1192. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO), accept- 
ance, 1258. 
Trade, with U.S. (1938), question of U.S. refraining 
from invoking certain provisions, correspondence, 
1053. 
U.S. Consular Agency at Kenora, Ontario, closing, 51. 
U.S. proposals on Japanese peace treaty, attitude, 435. 
Weather stations, supplies for, 82. 
Cancer research, 4th international congress, 472. 
Cargo, William I., article on first special session of Gen- 
eral Assembly, 3. 
Caribbean Air Navigation, Communications Division, 

meeting, 327, 893. 
Caribbean Commission, action of 80th Congress, 1st ses- 
sion, regarding, article by Mr. Kaplan, 847. 
Caribbean regional communications committee of ICAO, 

2d meeting, 893. 
Carnevali, Gonzalo, credentials as Venezuelan Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 231. 
Cartel and commodity policy of Geneva charter for ITO, 

787. 
Carter, Edward Francis, appointment to military tribu- 
nal, 46. 
Carusi, Ugo, assignment in Europte on displaced-persons 

problem, 746. 
Caulfield, Henry P., Jr., article on international statistical 

conferences, 1084. 
Central America. See American republics, and the in- 
dividual countries. 
Cereals, special conference of FAD on, 79. 
Ceylon, elevation of U.S. Consulate at Colombo to rank 
of Consulate General, 1271. 



Index, July to December J 947 



1277 



Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, address by Secretary 

Marshall, 1024. 
Charts. .See Maps. 

Children's Emergency Fund, International : 
Article by Mr. Kaplan, 846. 
Meetings, dates of, for — . 
Executive Board, 213, 878. 
Program Committee, 464, 1083. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 

Coal supplies, U.S. export licenses for, 836. 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 837. 

Commercial agreement, provisional, with U.S. (1945), 

extension, 303. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 746, 916. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at ConcepciOn, closing, 1271. 
China : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Funds for, under food and relief agreement, 913, 980. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 970. 
Fact-Flndiiig Mission from U.S. : 
Membership, 149. 

Report and statements by General Wedemeyer, 476, 
887. 
German nationals in, repatriation of, U.S. position, 437. 
Lend-lease accounts with U.S., payment on, 148. 
Property. U.S., confiscated by Japanese in, instructions 

for filing claims for, 835, 1000. 
Property, U.S., in Shanghai, re-registration of property 

rights required, 916. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Food and relief agreements, with U.S., signature and 

text, 913, 9S0. 
Surplus ammunition, with U.S., signature, 49. 
Surplus property, with U.S. (1946), property made 

available, 230. 
U.S. Educational Foundation in China, establishment 
of, with U.S., signature and text, 1005. 
U.S. proposals on .Japanese peace treaty, attitude, 435. 
"Voice of America" transmitter in Manila, statement 
by Ambassador to U.S. (Koo), 647. 
Cinematographic art, 8th international exhibition, ar- 
rangements, 37. 
CITEJA (Comit6 International Technique d'Experts Juri- 
diques A^riens) : 
Activities of, in connection with Legal Committee of 

ICAO, discussed by Mr. Latchford, 487. 
Resolution no. 156, text, 491. 
Citizens Food Committee, statements by : 
President Truman, 690, 736. 
Secretary Marshall, 738. 
Civil aviation. See Aviation. 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See ICAO. 
Civil liberties in Rumania, U.S. position, 38, 329. 
Civil Service Commission, responsibility in dismissal cases, 

962, 1009. 
Claims (see also Property) : 
German enemy assets, multilateral agreement relating 
to resolution of conflicting claims to, signatures by 
U.S., Canada, and Netherlands, 1192. 
Italian, memoranda of understanding, with U.S., sum- 
mary and tests, 371, 372, 375. 
U.S. nationals in other countries. See Protection of 
U.S. nationals and property. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1941) , payment by Mexico 

of instalment due under, 1058. 
Clay, Eugene H., economic adviser to AMAG: 
Appointment, 5.35. 

Return to U.S. for consultation, 1081. 
Clayton, William L. : 

Addresses and statements: 

European Recovery Program, 1211. 
Geneva draft of ITO Charter, 592. 
Relation of ITO to European recovery, 293. 
Chairman of U.S. delesntion to world trade conference 

at Habana, 981, 1211. 
Resignation as Under Secretary for economic affairs, 
838. 
Cleland, William Wendell, designation In State Depart- 
ment, 232. 

1278 



)t 



Coal: 
European Central Inland Transport Organization 

(ECITO),34, 675, 878. 
European reconstruction needs, 197. > 

Exports to Europe, address by Mr. Thorp, 697. 
Germany : 

Anglo-American talks on production in, 145, 326, 576. 
Ruhr mines, 326, 333, 467, 530, 576, 697, 741. 
U.S. zone, exports from, U.S. reply to Soviet inquiry, 
1205. 
Shipment to Italy, statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 

740. 
Supplies for Austria, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

95 n. 
Supplies for Chile, U.S. export licenses for, 836. 
Coal Exporters Association of U.S., New Tork City, ad- ' 

dress by Mr. Thorp, 697. 
Cochran, Robert LeRoy, appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 334. 
Cocoa committee of International Emergency Food Coun- 
cil, report, 734. 
Codification of international law. See International Law. 
Coffee, corn-substitute cattle feed, 909. 
Coffee agreement, inter-American (1940), protocol extend; 

ing, signature, 836. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, 836. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., resignation as Counselor of State 

Department, 232. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 306. 

Red Cross, American, aid to fire victims at Tumaco, 836. 
Colombo, Ceylon, elevation of U.S. Consulate to rank of 

Consulate General, 1271. 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, sale and transfer of, 

tables showing, 102, 340, 657, 837. 
Combines, Japanese, dissolution, article by Mr. Vernon 

and Miss Wachenheimer, 55. 
Comity International Technique d'Experts Juridiques 

A^riens (CITEJA), 487, 491. 
Commerce. See Trade. 

Commercial aviation agreements. See Treaties. 
Commercial agreement, U.S. and Chile (1945), extension, 

303. 
Commercial policies. See Trade Organization, Interna- 
tional. 
Commission for Korea, Joint. See Korea. 
Commissions, committees, etc., international (see also 
name of commission; United Nations) : 
Allied Control Commission for Bulgaria, 429. 
Atomic Energy Commission, 620, 1174, 1176, 1255. 
Bar Association, Inter-American, 5th meeting, 880, 1083. 
Caribbean Commission, 847. 
CITEJA, 487, 401. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, 836. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 6th meeting, 

207. 
Econometric Society, 1084. 
Education, International Bureau of, 510. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

65. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, 681, 683, 

750, 684, 687, 688, 740. 
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 79, 370, 1015, 

1018, 1072, 1181. 
Far Eastern Commission, 35, 216, 221. 326, 368, 423, 513. 
Food Council, International Emergency, 734, 1181. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of, 677, 767, 824, 880, 987, 

1078, 1083, 1183, 1204, 1244, 1247, 1249. 
Four Power Commission (for Austria), 423, 767. 
Hylean Amazon Institute, International, proposed, 423j 

891. 
ICAO, 35, 169, 171, 175, 327, 466, 487, 497, 506, 677, 766J' 

893, 923, 932, 1069. 
ILO (International Labor Organization), 32, 33, 214 

327, 898, 901. 

Income and wealth, International association for re- 
search in. proposed, 1084. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 1192. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Coimcil, 7.50. 

Depatiment of Sfafe Bulletin 






C'liramissions, committees, etc., international — Continued 
International Banl: for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, 328, 980. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 182. 
International Monetary Fund, 328, 980, 1268. 
IRO (International Refugee Organization), 61, 64, 133, 

137, 179, 188, 438, 638, 801, 1073. 
ITO (International Trade Organization), 293, 425, 592, 

603, 663, 711, 768, 787, 790, 881, 902, 906, 981, 990, 

993, 1042, 1089, 1211, 1258, 1261. 
Joint U.S.-Soviet Oil Commission, 225. 
Korea, Joint Commission for, 294, 296, 398, 399, 473, 623, 

625, 867. 
Meteorological Organization, International, 290, 678, 680. 
Naval Commission, Tripartite, 833. 
Philippine-American Finance Commission, Joint, 146. 
Population Problems, International Union for Scientific 

Investigation of, 1084. 
Preparatory Committee for international trade confer- 
ence, 291, 425. 
Protection of Childhood, American International Insti- 
tute for, 880, 1084. 
Kestitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission 

for, 706, 832, 959, 1269. 
Rubber Study Group, 134, 734. 
Sanitary Organization, Pan American, 589. 
Scientific Unions, International Council of, 34. 
South Pacific Commission, 849. 
Statistical Institute, Inter-American, 517, 1084. 
Statistical Institute, International, 517, 1084. 
Telecommunication Union, International, 1034, 1156, 

1164. 
Tin Study Group, International, 734. 
Trieste Commission of Inquiry, 824. 
UNESCO, 181, 369, 423, 510, 511, 588, 639, 891, 900, 982, 

1072, 1203. 
Wheat Council, International, 17th session, 676, 880, 

1083. 
WHO (World Health Organization), 131, 843, 953, 958, 

1069, 1156, 1164. 
Commissions, committees, etc., national : 
Air Coordinating Committee, 174, 431. 
Air Policy Commission, 173, 431. 
Broadcasting, International, Advisory Committee on, 

748. 
Cabinet Committee on World Food Programs, 85, 690. 
Citizens Food Committee, 690, 736, 738. 
Committee of Nineteen. See Foreign Aid, President's 

Committee on. 
Council of Economic Advisers, 691, 932. 
ERP (European Recovery Program), 590, 942, 967, 976, 

980, 1022, 1186, 1211, 1217, 1233, 1235. 
Foreign Aid, President's Committee on, 691, 692, 696, 

937, 980n. 
Foreign Scholarships, President's Board of, 198, 779, 

1224. 
National Advisory Council, 969, 980. 
National Commission for UNESCO, 369, 588, 951, 1187. 
Red Cross, American, 836. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 

Committee on, 607, 613, 715, 720, 755, 804, 923. 
Wool Manufacturers, National Association of, 1220. 
Committee of Nineteen. See Foreign Aid, President's 

Committee on. 

Uommunications Division for Caribbean Air Navigation, 
meeting: 
Delegation from U.S., 327. 
Report of meeting, 893. 
3oncepci6n, Chile, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 1271. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. (see also name of confer- 
ence; United Nations) : 
Administrative sciences, 7th international congress of, 

215, 894. 
American states, 9th international conference, 1214, 

1218. 
Americanists, 28th international congress, 35, 4M. 
Anglo-American talks on Ruhr coal production, 145, 326, 

576. 
Architects, 6th Pan American congress, 677. 

Index, Jo/y fo December J 947 



Conferences, congresses, etc. — Continued 

Arts and handicrafts exhibition of American scbool 
children, 677, 1083. 

Biological sciences, international union, 1083. 

Bizonal agreement, Anglo-American discussion on, 676, 
879. 

Broadcasting agreement. North American regional meet- 
ing of technicians, 958, 1083. 

Broadcasting conference, international high frequency, 
401, 424, 1033. 

Calendars of meetings, 34, 212, 464, 674, 878, 1082. 

Cancer research, international (4th), 472, 674. 

Cartography and optics, national exhibition and meet- 
ing, 676, 879, 1082. 

Census of the Americas, 1950, committee of, 214, 465, 674. 

Cereals, special conference on, 79. 

Child congress, 9th Pan American, 880, 1083. 

Cinematographic art, 8th international exhibition, 37. 

Communications division meeting of ICAO for Carib- 
bean air navigation region, 327. 

Conservation and utilization of natural resources, 463. 

Dental congress, international, 213, 464. 

Education, public, 10th international conference, 135, 
510. 

Education for international understanding, seminar on 
(UNESCO), 181. 

European Central Inland Transport Organization 
(ECITO), 34, 675, 878. 

Film festival, Cannes, 214, 465, 674. 

Film festival, international (2d), 36. 

Folk art and folklore, international committee, 675, 878. 

Frequency board, provisional, 1st meeting, 1083. 

German external property negotiations with : Portugal 
(Safehaven), 34, 675, 1082; Spain (Safehaven), 34, 
675, 1082; Turkey (Safehaven), 34, 212. 

German trade-mark rights, preliminary discussions, 
1083. 

Grapes, grape juice and wine, 3d international congress, 
675, 878. 

History, 1st Pan American consultation on, 676, 878. 

Inter-Allied Reparations Agency (lARA). 465, 879, 1083. 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 34, 675, 1083. 

Inter-American conference for the maintenance of con- 
tinental peace and security, 324, 325, 367, 414, 498, 
501, 565. 

Inter-American Statistical Institute, 517. 

International Statistical Institute, 517. 

Iron and Steel Production Committee of ILO, 327. 

Japanese peace conference, proposed, 182, 395, 435, 887. 

Labor statisticians, 6th international conference of, 214. 

Level of industry in Anglo-American zones of Germany, 
tripartite talks, 467. 

Liberian centennial and victory celebration, 100. 

Librarians of the Americas, 715. 

Livestock production, international conference on, 676, 
878. 

London conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. 
See Foreign Ministers. 

Malaria and tropical medicine, 4th International con- 
gresses on, 1041. 

Metal Trades Committee of ILO, 327. 

Meteorological Organization, International, Conference 
of Directors, 290, 678, 680. 

Microbiology, 4th international congress, 135. 

Ophthalmology, 3d Pan American congress, 880, 1083. 

Opium Board, Permanent Central, 213, 464. 

Postal Union, Universal, 12th congress of, 585. 

Radio conference, international, 34, 878, 1033. 

Railway congress, 6th Pan American, 136, 1084. 

Safety activities in aviation, meteorology, shipping, and 
telecommunications, 676, 1084. 

Safety of life at sea, 466. 

Social security, inter-American conference on, 912, 1082. 

Social welfare conference of Southeast Asia Territories, 
403, 464. 

South American regional air-navigation meeting, 506. 

South Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting, 506. 

Statistical congress, world, 214, 465, 516, 674, 1084. 

1279 



Conferences, congresses, etc. — Continued 

Telecommunication conference, international, 1033. 
Tourism and immigration, 1st inter-American congress 

of directors, 464, 1250. 
Trade and employment. Preparatory Committee of, 

meeting at Geneva, 291, 425. 
Trade and employment, UN world conference on, Ha- 

bana, 592, 603, 663, 711, 787, 981, 1211. 
Transportation, river, international, 36. 
Tropical medicine and malaria, 4th international con- 
gresses on, 1041. 
Congress, U.S. : 
Action on UN headquarters and Rockefeller gift, 797. 
Aid to Greece and Turkey, 1st report, letter of transmit- 
tal, with summary of, 978. 
Congressional committees examine world food crisis, 

735. 
Crisis in western Europe, special session for, statement 

by President Truman, 852. 
Decontrol Act on Regulation of Critical Commodities, 2d, 

statement by President Truman, 202. 
Eightieth Congress, 1st .session, and the UN, article by 

Mr. Kaplan, 795, 843. 
European Interim Aid Act of 1947, text of draft bill, 972. 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs, aid to Europe, 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 967. 
Legislation, listed, 37, 64, 107, 1.36, 199, 233, 343, 518, 535, 

589, 651, 750, 825, 915, 1187, 1213. 
Messages from President Truman : 

Aviation, civil, international, protocol (1947), amend- 
ing convention (1944), text, transmittal to Senate, 
with report, 175. 
Copyright protection (1946), inter- American conven- 
tion on, transmittal to Senate, with report, 300. 
Displaced persons, entrance into United States urged, 

137. 
Europe, future of, excerpts, 1022. 
European recovery, a program for U.S. aid to, 1233. 
International Labor Conference, 28th session, recom- 
mendations and conventions of, transmittal to 
Senate, 32. 
International Labor Conference, 29th session, adop- 
tion of revision convention, transmittal to Senate, 
33, 
Joint Philippine-American Finance Commission, trans- 
mittal to Congress, with report, 147. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter-American treaty of, with 

report, 1188. 
Trusteeship agreement for Territory of the Pacific 

Islands, approval recommended, 74. 
UN headquarters, agreement for control and adminis- 
tration of, 78. 
Pacific Islands, Territory of, trusteeship agreement for, 

action regarding, 850. 
Procurement act, international organizations, 800. 
Publications. See Legi-slation supra. 
Refugee Organization, International, U.S. membership 

in, resolution, 179. 
Review of work of 80th session, 651, 825.' 
Seal, emblem, and name of UN, protection of, action 

regarding, 801. 
Senate Appropriations Committee, refusal of entry to 
U.S.S.R., statement by Acting Secretary Lovett and 
note from Soviet Deputy Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, 744, 745. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, aid to Europe, 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 967. 
Special session, proclamation, 852. 

Surplus-property disposal, 7th report, transmittal by 
Acting Secretary Lovett, 994. 
Connally, Tom, statement on inter-American treaty of 

reciprocal assistance, 575. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cooperation, international, exchange of notes between Sec- 
retary Marshall and Argentine Minister for Foreign 
Affairs and Worship (Bramuglia), regarding, 337. 
Copyright, abuse of, provisions in Geneva charter for ITO 
to prevent, 788. 

1280 



Copyright protection, inter- American convention (1946), 

transmittal to Senate, with report, 300. 
Copyrights, German, Allied-Swedish correspondence re- 
garding. 164. 
Cordage-supply policy, article by Miss Baldwin, 111. 
Corrigan, Frank P., resignation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Venezuela, 749. 
Costa Rica : 

Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 599. 
U.S. Ambassador (Davis), appointment, 749, 1229. 
Visit of U.S. consultant on fisheries, 201. 
Cotton, articles by Mr. Montgomery : 

International Cotton Advisory Committee, 6th meeting, 

207. 
U.S. cotton-textile export policy during the war period, 
116. 
Council of Economic Advisers, 691, 932. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Crilley, A. Cyril, designation in State Department, 232. 
Cripps. Sir Stafford, letter to Secretary of the Treasury 
(Snyder), regarding U.K. withdrawals against line 
of credit, 1222. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 102, 

657, 837. 
Commercial aviation convention, with U.S. (1928), ter- 
mination, .'■i99. 
Tariff rates, 1259. 

U.S. Consulate at Camagiiey, opening, 1091. 
U.S. educators to teach at Habana, 201. 
Cultural, Educational, and Scientific Cooperation, U.S. Na- 
tional Commission. See ECOSOC. 
Cultural cooperation (see also Education; Radio) : 

Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 
Committee on, program of. See Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation. 
Visitors from U.S. to : Cuba, 201 ; Mexico, 150, 526 ; Peru, 

526. 
Visitors to U.S. from: Argentina, 107; Chile, 746, 916; 
Colombia, 306; Costa Rica, 599; Guatemala, 838; 
Mexico, 437 ; Nicaragua, 393 ; Panama, 1008 ; Para- ' 
guay, 107; Peru, 83S; Uruguay, 1008; Venezuela, 
393. 
Customs. See Tariff. 

Cyr, Leo G., article on facilities for international civil avi- 
ation, 169. 
Czechoslovakia (.see also Europe) : 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, article by Mr. Stone, 

410. 
U.S. property in, instructions regarding tax returns, 46. 

Dairen, question of reopening port to international trade, 
U.S.-Soviet notes, 436, 533. 

Damages. See Claims ; Property. 

Damascus, Syria, attack on U.S. Legation, 1196. 

Daniels, Marietta, article on assembly of librarians of 
the Americas, 715. 

Daniels, Paul C, appointments : 

Inter-American Economic and Social Council, as U.S. 

representative, 7.50. 
Office of American Republic Affairs, as director, 917. 

Davis, Brig. Gen. Benjamin O., appointment as head of 
U.S. delegation to LIberian centennial celebration, 101. 

Davis, Nathaniel P., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Costa Rica, 749, 1229. 

Dawson, William, ai)pointment to Governing Board of Pan 
American Union, 302. 

Decontrol Act on critical materials (2d), statement by 
President Truman on signing, 202. 

Defense, Political, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 1st 
section of 3d annual report, 65. 

Defense of Panama Canal, continued use of sites for, 
agreement between U.S. and Panama, signature, 1219. 

Deitrick, William W., appointment to U.S. mission to 
Greece, 832. 

Deming, Olcott H., article on program of Interdepart- 
mental Committee on Scientific and Cultural Coopera- 
tion, 607. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Denazification of Gennany, 188. 

Denmark, part in, European Economic Cooperation, Com- 
mittee of, 681 n. 
Departmental regulations (D.R.) : 
Foreign Relations of the Untied States, editing of docu- 
mentary record of (297.1), 1090. 
International Organizations Immunities Act, responsi- 
bilities under (240.1), 1272. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt, article on Atlantic City telecommu- 
nication conferences, 1033. 
'Diplomatic relations witli Ecuador, 707. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 151, 198, 

231, 207, 393, 599, 886, 1091, 1227. 
Displaced persons and refugees : 
European, future of, statement by Lieutenant Colonel 

Sage, 86. 
General Assembly resolution on, 1157. 
International Refugee Organization. See Refugee Or- 
ganization. 
Jewish displaced persons, report to General Assembly on, 

548, 560. 
Legislation advocated for entrance into U.S., message 

of President Truman, to Congress, 137. 
Problem, discussion between U.S. representative and 

European military and civilian officials, 746. 
Resettlement, statement by Secretary Marshall, 194. 
Resettlement of non-repatriable victims of German ac- 
tion, Swedish assistance to, U.S.-Swedish notes, 166. 
d Dobson, Arthur A., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 
335. 
Dodd, Norris E., article on FAQ conference at Geneva, 

1015. 
Dodge, .Joseph M., recall from Vienna, statement by Acting 

Secretary Lovett, 423. 
Dominican Republic {see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Thomen), credentials, 1091. 
Bonds, retirement of 1922 issue, 341. 
U.S. Consular Agency at Puerto Libertador, opening, 480. 
Donnelly, Walter J., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Venezuela, 749, 1229. 
Duggan, Laurence, appointment as U.S. Representative to 

UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
Dulles, John Foster, appointment as U.S. Representative to 
General Assembly, 211. 

Econometric Society, 39th session, article by Mr. Caulfield, 

1084. 
Economic Advisers, Council of : 
Creation of Council, 691. 

Impact of Foreign Aid Upon the Domestic Economy 
(Nourse report), statement by President Truman 
and summary, 932. 
Economic Commission for Europe {see also Europe), 
establishment of Office of U.S. Representative to, 766. 
Economic Commission for Latin America, proposed, 763. 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of UN) : 
Appointment of Mr. Thorp as U.S. Representative, 180. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
Conservation and utilization conference, preparatory 

commission for, 463. 
Economic Commission for Asia and Far East, 34, 466, 

676, 1082. 
Economic Commission for Europe. See Europe, Eco- 
nomic Commission for. 
Economic Commission for Latin America, proposed, 

763. 
Economic Development, Subcommission on, 34, 676, 

1082. 
Employment and Economic Stability, Subcommission 

on, 880, 1082. 
Fifth session, 209, 812. 
Human Rights Commission, 1075, 1076. 
Human Rights Drafting Committee, 34. 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on, 724. 
Non-Self-Governing Territories, Committee on Infor- 
mation from, 35, 465, 674. 
Opium Board, Permanent Central, 213, 466, 1082. 
Population Commission, 2d session, 34, 213, 464. 

Index, July fo December 1947 



ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of UN)— Con. 
Commissions, committees, etc. — Continued 
Preparatory Committee for international conference 

on trade and employment, 291, 425. 
Protection of Minorities and Prevention of Discrimi- 
nation, 466, 880, 1082. 
Sixth session, 1083. 

Social Commission, 2d session, 35, 465, 674. 
Statistical Commission, 2d session, 34, 213, 674. 
Statistical Sampling, Subcommission on, 213, 878. 
Transport and Communications. 676, 880. 
Women, Status of, 466, 880, 1083. 
Membership, election to, 1160. 
Work of, remarks by Mr. Hyde, 1071. 
World Statistical Congress, 1084. 
Economics {see also Finance) : 

Bogotd conference, economic aspects of, address by Mr. 

Armour, 1214. 
Council of Economic Advisers, 691, 932. 
Economic Commission for Latin America, proposed, 763. 
Europe, Economic Commission for, Office of U.S. Repre- 
sentative to, 766. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of. See 

European Economic (Cooperation. 
European Recovery Program. See European Recovery 

Program. 
Foreign relief program. See Aid. 
General Assembly recommendations, 1156, 1164. 
Germany, economic situation in. See Germany. 
Objectives of ITO charter, 667. 
Ecuador {see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Ponce), credentials, 151. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 837. 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., 707. 
Eddy, William A., resignation as Special Assistant to 

Secretary of State, 750. 
Education {see also Conferences; UNESCO) : 

Exchange program, U.S. and China (under the Ful- 
bright Act), agreement establishing U.S. Educa- 
tional Foundation in China, signature and text 
1005. 
Exchange program with other American republics. See 

Cultural leaders under American republics. 
Foreign Scholarships, President's Board of, 198, 779, 

1224. 
Fulbright Act, 198, 779, 10O5, 1224. 

Information and Educational Exchange, Office of, 304. 
Information and Educational Exchange Act (Mundt 

bill), 105. 
International Bureau of Education, relation to UNESCO, 

discussed by Mr. Jones, 510. 
Mission to Korea, 231. 
Public education conference, international (10th), 135, 

510. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 
Committee on, program of. See Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation. 
Training for Foreign Service personnel: 
Oral examinations, 838. 
Reorientation seminars, 1010. 
Specialized university study, 749. 
United Nations program in schools, General Assembly 

action, 1157, 1166. 
U.S. cooperation in Germany, discussed in text of new 
directive to AMG, 193. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of 

United Nations. See UNESCO. 
Educational and information exchange act, statement by 

Secretary Marshall, 105. 
Educational Foundation, Inc., Inter-American, statement 
by Colonel Harris, regarding Congressional extension 
of, 303. 
Egypt: 

Discontinuance by U.S. of licensing shipments of arms 

to, 1197. 
Dispute with U.K., summary statement by Mr. Lie at 

Security Council, 419. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 

1281 



Eisenhower, Milton S., appointment as U.S. representa- 
tive to UNESCO, 6.39, 900, 1203. 
Elections, free, U.S. support in eastern Europe, article by 

Mr. Stone, 311, 407. 
Elections, free, in Hungary, U.S. concern regarding, 392. 
El-Kliour.v, Fayez Bey, credentials as Syrian Ambassador 

to U.S., 198. 
El Salvador {see also American republics) : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 

102. 
Military-aviation mission agreement, with U.S., signa- 
ture, 437. 
Ely, Richard R., designation in State Department, 1011. 
Embassies, U.S. Bee Foreign Service. 
Emergency Food Council, International. See Food Coun- 
cil. 
Eminent domain, strategic minerals (Ex. Or. 9908), 1225. 
Employment and trade, world conference on, Habana. 

Bee World conference. 
Enciso Velloso, Gnillermo, credentials as Paraguayan Am- 
bassador to U.S., 84. 
Eniwetok Atoll, installations for atomic experiments, 1174. 
Eriksson, Herman, credentials as Swedish Ambassador to 

U.S., 1227. 
ERP. See European Recovery Program. 
Ethiopia, murder of alien employee of U.S. Legation at 

Addis Ababa, 834. 
Europe {see also Aid to foreign countries) : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Address by : Mr. Armour, 863 ; Secretary Marshall, 

184, 8.56, 1024 ; Mr. Thorp, 697, 857. 
Interim aid bill, text of draft, 972. 
Letter of transmittal from Mr. Harriman to President 
Truman, with summary of report of President's 
Committee on Foreign Aid, n?.6. 
Marshall Plan. Bee European Recovery Program. 
Special session of Congress for, statement by Presi- 
dent Truman, 852. 
U.S. position regarding new Communist manifesto on, 
769. 
Coal imports for reconstructio.n, 197. 
Displaced persons. Bee Displaced persons. 
Economic Commission for, Office of U.S. Representative, 

establishment, 766. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of. Bee 

European Economic Cooi)eration. 
European Recovery Program (ERP). See European 

Recovery Program. 
EVee elections in eastern Europe, U.S. support of, article 

by Mr. Stone, 311, 407. 
Southeastern, U.S. interests in, 996. 
Europe, Economic Commission for: 
Dates of meetings, for — 

Committee on Coal, 676, 1082. 
Committee on Electric Power, 676, 878. 
Committee on Industry and Materials, 676, 880. 
Committee on Inland Transport, 676, 878. 
Panel on Housing Problems, 676, 878. 
Second session, 34. 
Subcommittee on Timber, 676, 878. 
Third session, 880, 1083. 
Office of U.S. Representative to, establishment, 766. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of: 
Countries participating at meeting of, (381 n. 
General report, publication : 
Announcement, 683, 750. 
Elxchange of letters between Secretary Marshall and 

Mr. Bevin, 689. 
Presentation to Paris Conference, 681. 
Statement by : Mr. Alphand, 681 ; Acting Secretary 

Lovett, 687 ; President Truman, 688. 
Summary, 684. 
Technicians of, discussions with U.S. Government rei>- 
resentatives, 740. 
European Recoverii n>ii1 American Aiit, Harriman com- 
mittee report, statement by President Truman and 
summary, 936, 937. 

1382 



European Recovery Program (ERP) : 

Address by: Mr. Armour, 976, 1217; Mr. Clayton, 1211; 

Mr. Russell, 942 ; Mr. Thorp, 1186. 
Bank and Fund, attitude of. 980. 
Committee of 16 nations, 1235. 

Messages to Congress by President Truman, 1022, 1233. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 590, 9G7, 980. 
Exchanges, cultural and educational. See Cultural co- 
operation; Education. 
Executive orders : 

IRO and predecessor, designation of privileges and Im- 
munities (Ex. Or. 9887), 438. 
Military tribunals in Germany, appointments to (Ex. 

Or. 9868 and 9882), 46, 333. 
Source materials in certain lands owned by the U.S., 
reservation of (Ex. Or. 9908), 1225. 
Experts, committee of. Commission of Investigation, 283. 
Export-Import Agency, .Joint (JEIA), functions, 1262. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington : 
Loan to Canada, 1053. 
Payments by France and Netherlands, 85. 
External assets, Allied-Swedish accord on, 155. 
Extradition treaty, U.S. and South Africa, signature, 1270. 

Fahy, Charles: 

Legal adviser in Department of State, resignation, 203. 
U.S. alternate representative to General Assembly, ap- 
pointment, 211. 
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of UN) : 
Accomplishments of, address by Mr. Hyde, 1072. 
Conference of, 3d session : 
Agenda, 79. 

Proceedings, article bv Mr. Dodd, 1015. 
U.S. delegation, 370. 
Control of Infestation of Stored Food Products, Meeting 

of Specialists on, 35, 212, 464. 
Council of, 1st session : 

Establishment of, to replace Executive Committee, 

1018. 
Membership, 1181 n. 
Proceedings, 1181. 
Emergency Food Council, International, transfer to 

FAO, 1181. 
Membership, applications from Austria, Finland, and 1 

Siam, 79. 
Panel on Soil Erosion Control, 35, 212. 
Special Cereals conference, 79. 
Far East (see also the individual countries), "Voice of 

America" broadcasts, 646. 
Far Eastern Commission, policy in Japan, on : 
Allied military-occupation courts, disposition of fines 

collected by, 423. 
Furnaces, temporary retention of, 326. 
Import-export policies, text, 368. 
Industrial war potential, reduction of, 513. 
Post-surrender policy : 

Statement by General MacArthur, 221. 
Text of document, 216. 
Property of Axis war criminals, forfeiture of, 35. 
Feed for cattle, coffee pulp as corn-substitute for, 909. 
Film festival, international (2d), 36. 
Finance (see also Economics) : 
Appropriations, State Department, comparison for fiscal 

years 1947 and 1948, table, 306. 
Balance-of-payment restrictions in ITO charter, dis- 
cussed, 664. 
Bank of Greece : 

"Bank of Greece Special Account AMAG", 336. 
Funds from U.S. made available to, 649. 
Procedure to handle foreign-exchange transactions, 
910. 
Bonds, Dominican Republic, retirement of 1922 issue of, 

341. 
Development of international investment, address by Mr. 

Thorp, 640. 
Final payment by Mexico for expropriation of oil prop- 
erties under agreement of 1943, 747. 
French francs for U.S. Army procurement obligations In 
France and North Africa, 834. 



Department of State Bulletin 



II 



Finance — Continued 
Funds from lend-lease and surplus-property settlements. 

See Lend-lease ; Surplus war property. 
Germany, text of new directive to AMG, 191. 
"Gold Pot" distribution, proposed, 706. 
Greece, relief purchases for, allocation of U.S. funds for, 

482. 
Haiti, request to U.S. for flotation of loan, 149. 
Hungarian banks, nationalized, time extension for tiling 

sliareholdings in, 430. 
International Bank and Fund, 328, 980, 1268. 
Italy : 

Dollar-bond tabulation, discussion and tables, 381. 

Financial mission to U.S., 47. 

U.S. financial and economic understandings with, 

texts, 371. 
U.S. funds for relief purchases, 482. 
Japan, fiscal, monetary, and banking policies, text of Far 

Eastern Commission document, 220. 
Joint Philippine-American Finance Commission, 146. 
Monetary exchange, international, in Western Hemi- 
sphere, address by Mr. Wright, 643. 
Palestine, proposed financial obligations, discussed in 
report to General Assembly by Special Committee on 
Palestine, 552, 680. 
Peruvian bonds, adjustment of, statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 51. 
Registration of foreign capital in Brazil, 1191. 
Remittance facilities between U.S. and Japan, estab- 
lishment, 1059. 
U.S. occupation costs in Austria, conversion of, 45. 
Victims of Nazi aggression, funds for, discusse^ by Mr. 
Warren, 639. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. (1945), resumption of 
withdrawals, exchange of letters between Secretary 
of the Treasury (Snyder) and Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer (Cripps), 1222. 
Financial and economic agreement, U.S. and Italy, mem- 
oranda and correspondence, texts, 371. 
Finland : 
Trade-mark registrations in U.S., extension of time for 

renewal of, proclamation, 1224. 
U.S. Minister (Hamilton), return to U.S., 887. 
U.S. Minister (Warren), appointment, 1271. 
Finnegan, Richard J. (publisher of Chicago Times), let- 
ter to Mr. Benton regarding proposed agreement on 
freedom of information, 527. 
Fisheries, visit to Costa Rica of U.S. consultant, 201. 
Food (see also FAO) : 
Agreement, U.S. with China: 

Shipments in accordance with, 980. 
Signature and text, 913. 
Cabinet Committee on World Food Programs, state- 
ments by President Truman, 85, (5! 0. 
Citizens Food Committee, 690, 736, 738. 
Food-saving program as a contribution to peace, ad- 
dress by President Truman, 738. 
Grain procurement program, report, 691. 
Mission to plan utilization of surplus food for the bi- 
zonal area of Germany, 96. 
Mission to Poland, 223. 
Pepper export in India, decontrol of, 887. 
Report on U.S. shipments to Austria, 429. 
Shipment to Greece, 428. 
Shipment to Italy, statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 

740. 
Sugar Act, General, letter from Secretary Marshall con- 
cerning interpretation of legislation on, 341. 
World food crisis and conservation program, statements 
by President Truman and Secretary Marshall, 735. 
World food problem, statement by Secretary Marshall, 
394. 
Food Council, International Emergency, 734. 1181. 
Foreign Aid, President's Committee on (Harriman com- 
mittee) : 
Membership, 696. 

Proposals, attitude of Bank and Fund, statement by 
Secretary Marshall, 980 n. 

Index, July to December 1947 



Foreign Aid, President's Committee on — Continued 
Reports transmitted to President Truman : 
European Recovery and American Aid: 
Statement by President Truman, 936. 
Summary of, 937. 
Grain-procurement program, 1947-1948, text, 691, 692. 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, 306, 650, 1229. 
Foreign Exchange Agency, Joint (JFEA), functions, 1262. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner {see also Surplus war 
property, disposal) : 
China, sales to, 49, 230. 
Iran, agreement for credit to, signature, 47. 
Report (7th), 994. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 
Commission to examine disagreed questions of Austrian 

treaty (Four Power Commission), 423, 767. 
London conference (Nov. 25-Dec. 15, 1947) : 
Austria : 

German assets in, 1183. 
Independence, U..S. position, 1247. 
Germany, problem of: 

Deputies for Germany, meeting, 677, 880, 1083. 
Economic principles, 1184, 1185. 
Frontier, Polish-German, 1078. 
Government, 1079. 
Reparations, 1204, 1247. 
Soviet position, 1247. 
Unification, 1247. 
Italian colonial problems, deputies for, meeting, 675, 

1083. 
Proposal for adjournment, 1249. 
Report by Secretary Marshall, 1244. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 1078, 1079, 1183, 

1204, 1244, 1247, 1249. 
U.S. delegation, provisional, 987. 
Trieste, financial position of, decision regarding report 
of Trieste Commission of Inquiry, 824. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Accomplishments of 1st session of 80th Congress in 

cooperation with UN, 795. 
Address by : Mr. Armour, 974 ; Mr. Henderson, 996 ; 
Secretary Marshall, 826; Mr. Russell, 1253; Mr. 
Thorp, 903. 
Foreign Relations, Chicago Council of, addresses by Sec- 
retary Marshall and Mr. Thorp, 857, 1024. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, editing of docu- 
mentary record of (D.R.), 1090. 
Foreign relief program. See Aid. 
Foreign Scholarships, President's Board of: 
Appointment, 198. 

Countries eligible to participate in plan, 199. 
Greetings by Acting Secretary Lovett, 779. 
Membership, 198n. 779. 
Proceedings of meeting of, 1224. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (see also Diplomatic) : 
Ambassadors : 

Appointment: Burma (Huddle), 1229; Costa Rica 
(Davis), 749, 1229; Honduras (Bursley), 1271; 
Pakistan (Ailing), 1229; Sweden (Matthews), 
1229; Uruguay (Briggs), 96; Venezuela (Don- 
nelly), 749, 1229. 
Resignation: Venezuela (Corrigan), 749. 
Charg6 d' Affaires, appointment: Burma (Packer), 648; 

Pakistan (Baig), 480. 
Consular office at Damascus, Syria, attack on, 1196. 
Consular offices : Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, ele- 
vation to rank of Consulate, 1271 ; Camagiiey, Cuba, 
opening, 1091 ; Colombo, Ceylon, elevation to rank 
of Consulate General, 1271; Concepci6n, Chile, 
closing, 1271 ; Hanoi, French Indochina, opening, 
438 ; Karachi, Pakistan, elevation to rank of Em 
bassy, proposed, 396 ; 438 ; Kenora, Ontario, Canada, 
closing, 51 ; Kobe, Japan, consular services per- 
formed, 438; Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Union, open 
ing, 838; Lahore, Pakistan, openln,g, 918; Madras, 
India, elevation to rank of Consulate General, 438 
Manila, Philippines, conversion of Embassy to 
combined ofl3ce, 1271 ; Natal, Brazil, closing, 650 
Puerto Libertador, Dominican Republic, opening, 

1283 



Foreign Service, U.S. — Continued 
Consular offices — Continued 

480 ; Kangoon, Burma, elevation to rank of Em- 
bassy, 648 ; Sofia, Bulgaria, elevation to rank of 
Legation, 740 ; Stockholm, Sweden, elevation to 
rank of Eml)assy, 53.0, 1197; Taipei Taiwan (For- 
mosa), elevation to rank of Consulate General, 1229. 
Embassy in Greece, cooperation with American Mission 

for Aid to Greece, 1028. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and — 
Burma, 648. 
Pakistan, 396, 438. 
Legation at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, murder of alien em- 
ployee, 834. 
Ministers : 

Appointment: Bulgaria (Heath), 746, 1229; Finland 
(Warren), 1271; New Zealand (Scotten), 1271; 
Rumania (Schoenfeld), 229, 343; Sweden (Mat- 
thews), 233; .Syria (Keeley), 1229. 
Return to U.S.: Finland (Hamilton), 887; Switzer- 
land (Harrison), 233. 
Oral examinations for, in other American republics, 838. 
Reorientation seminars for returned Foreign Service 

personnel, 1010. 
University study, specialized, for officers of, 749. 
Foreign Traders Association, Philadelphia, address by Mr. 

Wilcox, 989. 
Formosa, elevation to rank of Consulate General of U.S. 

Consulate at Taipei (Taiwan), 1229. 
Four Power Commission, 423, 767. 
France (sec also Europe) : 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
German naval vessels allotted to U.S., transfer to, 833. 
German war documents, publication of, 994. 
Levelof-industry plan for Germany, revised, text of 
communique issued jointly with U.S. and U.K., 467. 
Payments (leiui-lease, surplus property, and Export-Im- 
port Bank), 85. 
Procurement costs of U.S. Army in, payment of, state- 
ment by President Truman, 834. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, procedure for filing claims, 

143. 
Response to U.S. peace-treaty proposals for Japan, 435. 
Trade-mark registrations in U.S., extension of time for 

renewal of, proclamation, 993. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Assets, German external, in Italy, with U.K. and U.S., 

signature and text, 388. 
Industrial-property agreement, supplementary, with 

U.S., signature, 912. 
Monetary gold, redistribution, proctocol with — 
U.S., U.K., and Austria, signature and text, 959. 
U.S., U.K., and Italy, signature, 1269. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO) ac- 
ceptance, 1258. 
Free, Lloyd, departure for Europe with committee to ex- 
amine proposals for a world-wide radio network, 293. 
Free elections. See Elections. 
Freedom, power and responsibilities of, address by Mr. 

Saltzman, 595. 
Freedom of association. ILO resolution on, text, 898. 
Freedom of information. See Information. 
French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate at Hanoi, 438. 
Frontier. See Boundaries. 
Fulbright Act, 198, 779, 1005, 1224. 

Fund, International Monetar.v. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 

Gallagher, Hubert R., appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 335. 
Garcia, Enrique Sayan (Peruvian Foreign Minister), visit 

to U.S., 84. 
Gasperi, Alcide de (Italian Prime Minister), exchange of 
notes with President Truman, on : 
Departure of U.S. troops from Italy, 1269. 
Opening of radiotelegraph circuit between Rome and 
New York, 911. 
General Assembl;/ and the ProMem of Greece, Bulletin 
supplement, 988, 1097. 



General Assembly of UN : 

Addresses by Secretary Marshall, 539, 618, G80. 

Agenda, 562, 618. 

Annual report of Secretary-General (Lie), on work of 
UN, introduction to, 365. 

Bodies established, 1161. 

Budget estimates for 1948 and scale of contributions, 
1158. 

Committee on Progressive Development of International 
Law and Its Codification. See International law. 

Exchange of workers between countries, article on, 1157, 
1165. 

Final plenary session of, statement by Mr. Austin, 1172. 

Freedom of association, ILO resolution on, 898. 

General Assembly and the Problem of Greece, (Bulletin 
supplement), 1097. 

Greece, question of. See Greece. 

Greek Frontier, Special Committee To Observe, estab- 
lishment, text of resolution, 822. 

Information, freedom of, resolutions on, statements by 
Mr. Austin and Mrs. Roosevelt, 869, 874. 

Interim Committee, establishment, 671, 1154, 1162. 

International Children's Emergency Fund, action of 1st 
session of 80th Congress, 846. 

Korea, independence of. See Korea. 

Membership in, resolutions, 1154, 1163. 

Palestine situation. See Palestine. 

Peace and security, interim committee for : 
Address by Mr. Gross, 631. 
Establishment, 950. 

Relations of UN members with Spain, resolution regard- 
ing, 1076. 

Relations of UN with specialized agencies, resolution 
on, 1159. 

Resolutions adopted by, summary of, 1161. 

Rules of procedure, revision, 1160, 1170. 

Special Balkan Committee, appointment of U.S. repre- 
sentative (Kirk), 949, 1203. 

Summary of work of 2d regular session, 1153. 

Tax equalization for UN personnel, action, 11,59. 

U.S. alternate representative (Hilldring), appointment, 
1203. 

U.S. representatives, 211, 544. 

Veto, privilege of, in Security Council, resolution on 
abolishing of, 1077, 115.5, 1163. 
Geneva charter for ITO. See Trade Organization. 
Genocide : 

Discussed in report by U.S. representative (.Tessup), 127. 

Draft convention. General Assembly action, 1160, 1171. 
Germany : 

Assets in: Austria, 1183; Bulgaria, 298: Hung.ary, 298; 
Italy, 388 ; Rumania, 298 ; Sweden, 1.5.5, 162. 

Austria granted share in gold looted by, 959. 

Bizonal arrangements, U.S.-U.K., 768, 1262. 

Enemy assets, multilateral agreement relating to reso- 
lution of conflicting claims to, signature by U.S., 
Canada, and Netherlands, 1192. 

Food, surplus, mission for utilization of, 96. 

Horses seized by U.S. in, negotiations to return to owning 
countries, 770, 912. 

Level-of-industry plan in bizonal area. See Level-of- 
industry plan. 

Narcotics control in, statement by U.S. representative 
to UN Commission, article by Mr. Morlock, 727. 

Naval vessels allotted to U.S., transfer to France, 833. 

Peace treaty, discussed by Council of Foreign Ministers: 
Economic principles, 1183. 
Government, provisional, 1079. 
Polish-German frontier, 1078. 
Reparations from current production, 1204, 1247. 
Unification of, U.S. position, 1247. 

Reparation removals program in, statement by Acting 
Secretary Lovett, 1088. 

Repatriation of nationals from China, U.S. position, 437. 

Restoration of, importance to world progress, address by 
Secretary Marshall, 1027. 

Ruhr, coal mines in. See Ruhr. 

Telegraph service, international, establishment, 1191. 



1284 



Department of State Bulletin 



Germany — Continued 
World War II documents, publication of, 994. 
Zone of occupation, U.S. : 

Business property in, U.S. reply to Soviet inquiry, 1205. 
Fact-finding Metal Scrap Mission, establisliment, 1223. 
Military government : 
Directive, new, test, 186. 
Release of control over property of noa-Germans in, 

41. 
Tribunals, appointments to (Ex. Or. 9868 and Ex. 
Or. 9882), 46, 333. 
Gildersleeve, Virginia C, appointment as U.S. alternate 

representative to General Assembly, 211. 
Gilmor, Reginald E., appointment to AMAG, 592. 
Gold: 
Allied-Swedish accord on German external assets: 
Article by Mr. Rubin, 155. 

Understanding between Allies and Government of 
Sweden, exchange of correspondence, texts, 102. 
Delivery of non-monetary gold from British and French 
zones of Germany for victims of Nazi aggression, 
resolution of IRO Preparatory Commission, 639. 
Monetary gold captured by Allies in Italy, return to Ital- 
ian Government, agreement between U.S., U.K., 
and Italy, signature and text, 770. 
Monetary gold looted by Germany : 

Austria granted share in, protocol between U.S., U.K., 

France, and Austria, signature and text, 959. 
Italy granted share in, protocol between U.S., U.K., 
France, and Italy, signature, 1269. 
Restitution of aionetary Gold, Tripartite Commission 
for: 
Composition of Commission, 832. 

Responsibility for distribution of looted gold, under 
existing protocols : 
Preliminary distribution, 706, 832. 
Share to Austria, 959. 
Share to Italy, 1269. 
Subsidies, policy of International Monetary Fund, state- 
ment by Secretary of the Treasury Snyder, 1268. 
Golden, Clinton Strong, appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 334. 
iGovernors conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, address by 

Secretary Marshall, 184. 
i'Graham, Frank Porter, appointments to UN committees on 

Indonesian question, 731, 877, 1203. 
iiGrain procurement program, 1947-1948, report of Presi- 
dent's Committee on Foreign Aid, 691 ; text, 692. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Address by Jlr. Henderson, 772. 

American Mission for Aid to Greece. See American. 

Factors affecting recovery of Greece, statement by 

Acting Secretary Lovett, 1080. 
Machinery and foodstuffs, 428. 

Materials and equipment, ijrocurement of, establish- 
ment of interagency group to expedite, 96. 
Medical vaccines, 771. 

Relief purchases, allocation of funds for, 482. 
Report to Congress, 1st, letter of transmittal, with 

summary, 978. 
U.S.-Greek relief agreement, text, 139. 
Border incidents, investigation of : 

Commission of. See Investigation, Commission of. 
Special Committee To Observe Greek Frontier, estab- 
lishment by General Assembly, text of resolution, 
822. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Foreign-exchange transactions, negotiable exchange 

certificates for, 910. 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, discussed by Mr. 

Stone, 408. 
General Assembly and the Problem of Greece : 
Bulletin supplement, 988, 1097. 

General Assembly resolutions, 672. 1121, 1153, 1161. 
Soviet position, 1098. 1109, 1114, 1117, 1119. 
U.S. position, 427, 619, 1097, 1102, 1107. 

Index, July /o December 1947 



Greece — Continued 

Government, new, U.S. position on, statement by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 590. 
International brigade, reported participation in fighting 

in Greece, statement by Secretary Marshall, 228. 
Italian peace treaty, ratification, 1058. 
Merger of Greek and Turkish General Staffs, denial by 

State Department, 778. 
Property, U.S. in, procedure for filing claims, 995. 
Telegraph service with U.S., statement by Mr. Armour, 

143. 
U.S. firms, contracts awarded for work in, 335. 
White paper. The United Nations and the Problem of 
Greece, 591. 
Griswold, Dwight P., statement on program of American 

Mission for Aid to Greece, 141. 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Address on the UN, 630. 
Designation in State Department, 232, 390. 
Guam, information transmitted to UN on conditions in, 75. 
Guatemala (see also American republics), agriculturist 

visits U.S., 838. 
Gustavson, Reuben G., appointment as U.S. representative 
to UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 

Habana conference on trade and employment. See World 

conference. 
Haiti (see also American republics), request to U.S. for 

flotation of internal loan, 149. 
Hall, William O., designation in State Department, 483. 
Hamilton, aiaxwell M. (Minister to Finland), recall to 

U.S., 887. 
Hanoi, French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate, 438. 
Harriman, W. Averell, letter to President Truman, with 
report on : 
Committee on Foreign Aid, 937. 
Grain export policy, 691. 
Harriman committee. See Foreign Aid, President's Com- 
mittee on. 
Harris, Col. Arthur R. (president of IIAA), statement on 

Congressional action on IIAA program, 303. 
Harris, Reed, designation in State Department, 783. 
Harrison, Leland (U.S. Minister to Switzerland), return 

to U.S., 233. 
Harrison, Col. R. L., report to Secretary Marshall on food 

conditions in Poland, text, 223. 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., address by Mr. 

Russell, 1253. 
Hawaii, information transmitted to UN on conditions in, 

75. 
Headquarters of UN, permanent, agreement for control 
and administration, U.S.-UN : 
Congressional action, 797, 798. 
Exchange of notes between U.S. representative (Austin) 

and Secretary-General (Lie), 1180. 
General Assembly action, 1159, 1160, 1171. 
Signature and text, 27. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 27. 
Transmittal to Congress, 78. 
Health, cooperative programs with other American re- 
publics, 200. 
Health Organization, World. See WHO. 
Heath Donald R., appointment as U.S. Minister to Bul- 
garia, 746, 1229. 
Hebert, Paul M., appointment to military tribunal, 333. 
Hedley, Oswald Fenton, appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 335. 
Henderson, Loy W., addresses : 
U.S. aid to Greece, 772. 

U.S. interests in Middle East and southeastern Europe, 
996. 
Herald-Tribune Forum, New York, remarks by Secretary 

Marshall, 856. 
Hickerson, John D., designation in State Department, 193, 

783. 
HUldring, John H., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to General Assembly, 1203. 
Historical Policy Research, Division of, editing of Foreign 
Relations of the United States (D.R.), 1090. 

1285 



Holmgreen, Elmer N., appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 334. 
Honduras (see also American republics), appointment of 

U.S. Amba.ssador (Biirsle.v), 1271. 
Hong Kong, filing claims for U.S. property in, 835. 
Horses brought to U.S. from Germany, return to Hungary 

postponed, 912. 
Howard, Harry N., articles and statement on problem of 

Greece, 14, 279, 347, 443, 1097. 
Howard, John Brigham, appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 334. 
Huddle, J. Klahr, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Burma, 1229. 
Hughes, H. Stuart, designation in State Department, 1272. 
Human Rights, UN Commission on : 

Declaration of human rights, statement and text of U.S. 

proposal, 107.5. 
U.S. representative (Mrs. Roosevelt), 874, 1075. 
Hungary : 

Arrest of U.S. citizens, protest by U.S., regarding: 
Proiszl-Pallos, Elizabeth. 911. 
Thuran-sky, Stephen T., text of notes on, 330. 
Banks, state control for: 
List of banks, 96. 

Shareholdings by foreign nationals, final date for dec- 
laration, 4.30. 
Claims for horses captured by U.S. in Germany, 770, 912. 
Free elections, U.S. position on, 392. 411. 
Minister to U.S. (Vflmb^ry), credentials, 886. 
Peace treaty, with Allies, entry into force and proclama- 
tion, 771. 
State of war with U.S., termination, proclamation, 771. 
Transfer of German assets to U.S.S.R., note from U.S. 
Ambassador (Smith) to Soviet Minister (Molotov), 
298. 
Hunt, Edward E., designation in State Department, 1090. 
Hyde, I.ouis Kepler, Jr., address on humanitarian work 

of UN, 1069. 
Hylean Amazon Institute, International, conference for 
establishment of: 
Announcement, 423. 
Article by Mr. Kellogg, 891. 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 
Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division, 35, 

466, 879. 
Air-transport agreement, multilateral, meeting on, U.S. 

delegation, 766. 
Airworthiness committee, meeting at Paris: 
Delegation from U.S., 677. 
Proceedings, 952. 
Articles and addresses: Mr. Cyr, 169: Mr. Hyde, 1069; 
Mr. Latchford, 487; Mr. Sinclair, 923; Mr. Warner, 
,506. 
Communications Division for Caribbean Air Navigation, 

meeting, 327, 893. 
Financial and technical aid through, text of resolution, 

171. 
Legal Committee : 

CITEJA and the, article by Mr. Latchford, 487. 
First meeting, 497. 
Meteorology Division, 213, 466, 674. 
Personnel Licensing Division, 879. 
Relation to UN, report by Secretary Marshall, 175. 
Second session of Council, 879. 

South American and South Atlantic regional air-naviga- 
tion meetings, article by Mr. Warner, 506. 
Statistics Division, 1st session, 879, 1083. 
Treaties. See Aviation under Treaties. 
Iceland, participation in Committee of European Economic 

Cooperation, 681 n. 
lEFC (International Emergency Food Council) : 
Report of cocoa committee, 734. 
Transfer to FAO, 1181. 
IIAA (Institute of Inter-American Affairs), 303, 1227. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 

1286 



Immigration (see also Displaced persons) : 

Displaced persons, legislation for entrance into U.S. 
urged, message of President Truman to Cong,ress, 
137. 
Passport and frontier formalities, world conference on, 

466. 
Rights of U.S. citizens to emigrate to Soviet Armenia, 

question of, 1194. 
Tourism and immigration, 1st inter-American congress 
of directors of. article by Mr. Shaw, 1250. 
Import restrictions between U.S. and : 
Canada, negotiations, 1053. 
Sweden, understanding concerning, 42. 
Income and wealth, international association for research 

in, proposed, discussed by Mr. Caulfield. 1084. 
Income taxes, conventions on. See Double taxation. 
India: 

Greetings from President Truman, 396. 
Pepper export, decontrol of, 887. 
Relations with Pakistan, U.S. position, 748. 
Response to U.S. peace-treaty proposals for Japan, 435. 
U.S. Consulate at Karachi. See Pakistan. 
U.S. Consulate at Madras, elevated to rank of Consulate 
General, 438. 
Indonesia, dispute with Netherlands. See Indonesian 

question under Security Council. 
Industrial Organizations, Congress of, Boston, address by 

Secretary Marshall, 826. 
Industrial property: 

Agreement, supplementary, concerning restoration of 
certain rights affected by World War U, U.S. and 
France, signature, 912. 
German trade-marks, Allied-Swedish correspondence on, 

164. 
Patents, trade-marks, copyrights, abuse of, provisions 

in Geneva charter for ITO regarding, 788. 
Trade-mark registration in U.S., extension of time for 
renewal, proclamation regarding: Finland, 1224; 
France, 993; Netherlands, 993; Switzerland, 332; 
United Kingdom, 332. 
Industry, level of. See Level-of-industry plan. 
Information (see also Radio) : 

Classified, recommendation by Security Advisory Board 

on handling, 917. 
Expulsion of U.S. correspondents from Yugoslavia, U.S. 

note regarding, 961. 
Freedom of: 
Draft of proposed treaty, text, 529. 
General Assembly action on conference on, 1156, 1165. 
Letter to Mr. Benton from publisher of Chicago Times 

(Finnegan), 527. 
U.S. position, statement by — 
Mr. Austin, 869. 
Mrs. Roosevelt, 874. 
Information and Cultural Affairs, International, Office of. 
See Information and Educational Exchange, OfBce of. 
Information and Educational Exchange, Office of, forma- 
tion, 304. 
Information and Educational Exchange Act (Mundt bill), 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 105. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs. See Inter-American 

Affairs. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, agreement relating to 
resolution of conflicting claims to German enemy as- 
sets, signatures by U. S., Canada, and Netherlands, 
1192. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan. See Japan. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of: 
Congressional extension, statement by Colonel Harris, 

303. 
Myer, Dillon S., appointment as president, 1227. 
Inter-American conference for the maintenance of con- 
tinental peace and security : 
Addresses and statements by : Mr. Lleras Caraargo, 324 ; 
President Truman, 4!i8; Secretary Marshall, 367, 
414, 501 ; Senator Vandenberg, 501. 
Chairman of U.S. delegation (Secretary Marshall), 325, 

367, 414, 501. 
Conclusion of conference, 501. 

Department of State Bulletin 



luter-Ainerican conference for the maintenance of con- 
tinental peace and security — Continued 
Hemisphere defense, U.S. modification of position, 367. 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance. See Re- 
ciprocal assistance. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 325. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, appoint- 
ment of Mr. Daniels as U.S. representative, 750. 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, statement by 
Colonel Harris regarding Congressional extension of, 
303. 
Inter-American Military Cooperation Act, proposed, 50. 
Inter-American Statistical Institute, 1st General Assem- 
bly, 517, 1084. 
Inter-American treaty for reciprocal assistance. See Re- 
ciprocal assistance. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : 
Australia, membership in, 328. 

Foreign-aid proposals, attitude on, statement by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 980. 
International Civil Aviation Organization. See ICAO. 
International Court of Justice of UN, 1160, 1170. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, meeting for 

control of pollution of boundary waters, 182. 
International Labor Organization : 
Asian Regional Conference, Preparatory, agenda and 

U.S. delegation, 901. 
Committees : 
Agricultural Committee, Permanent, 35. 
Iron and Steel Production, 35, 327. 
Metal Trades, 327. 
Freedom of association, resolution on, 898. 
Governing Body, 103d session, 676, 880, 1083. 
International Labor Conference: 
28th and 29th sessions, recommendations and conven- 
tions, transmittal to Senate, 32, 33. 
30th session, 34. 
Joint Maritime Commission, 676, 880, 1083. 
Labor Statisticians. International Conference of (6th), 
agenda and U.S. delegation, 35, 214. 
International Law and Its Codification, Committee on the 
Progressive Development of, report of U.S. repre- 
sentative (Jessup), 121. 
International Law Commission, establishment of: 
General Assembly action, 122, 732, 1159, 1170. 
Report of U.S. representative to UN Committee on 
Progressive Development of International Law and 
Its Codification (Jessup), 121. 
International Monetary Fund: 
Australia, membership in, 328. 

Foreign-aid proposals, attitude on, statement by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 980. 
Gold subsidies, policy on, 1268. 
International motor travel, U.S. interest in, article by Mr. 

Kelly, 1063. 
International Organizations Immunities Act, responsibili- 
ties under (D.R.), 1272. 
International Statistical Institute, 25th session, 517, 1084. 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Ex- 
perts (CITEJA), 487, 491. 
International Trade Organization. See Trade Organiza- 
tion. 
Invp.stigation, Commission of: 
Article by Mr. Howard, 279, 347, 443. 
Committee of experts, 283. 
Conclusions and results, 358, 427. 
Draft resolutions, 24, 364, 444, 672. 
Proposals of, 359. 

Ueports to Security Council, text, 18. i 

Summary statements: Mr. Howard, 14; Mr. Johnson, 

362 ; Mr. Lie, 77, 417. 
UN Subsidiary Group, work of, 282, 287, 356, 427, 453, 
462 n. 
Investment, international, development of, address by Mr. 

Thorp, 640. 
Investment Bankers Association of America, Hollywood, 
Fla., address by Mr. Thorp, 1186. 

Index, July fo December 1947 



Iran: 

Summary statements by Secretary-General (Lie) at 

Security Council, 76, 416. 
Surplus property, agreement with U.S., signature, 47. 
Iraq, discontinuance by U.S. of licensing shipments of 

arms to, 1197. 
Ireland, participation in European Economic Cooperation, 

Committee of, 681 n. 
IRO. jSee Refugee Organization, International. 
Iron and Steel Production Committee of ILO, 2d session, 

327. 
Ispahani, Mirza Abdul Hassan, credentials as Pakistan 

Ambassador to U.S., 599, 886. 
Italy : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Arrival of 100th ship with supplies, message from Am- 
bassador Tarchiani to Secretary Marshall, 980. 
Relief mission from U.S., 99, 229. 
Relief purchases, allocation of funds, 482. 
Shipments from U.S., 740. 
Assets in Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania, proposed 

transfer to U.S.S.R., 298. 
Departure of U.S. troops, 1221, 1269. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Financial mission to U.S., negotiations, 47. 
Personal representative of President Truman to Vatican 
(Taylor) : 
Return to Rome, statement by President Truman, 390. 
Report to President Truman, 746. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between Rome and New York, 
exchange of notes between Prime Minister de 
Gasperi and President Truman, 911. 
Return of ships by U.S., 47, 371, 769, 834. 
State of war with U.S., termination, proclamation, 771. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Assets, German external, in Italy, with France, U.S., 
and U.K. : 
Memorandum, signature and text, 388. 
Statements regarding, 389. 
Financial and economic agreement, with U.S., signa- 
ture, tests of memoranda and correspondence, 
371. 
Monetary gold captured by Allies in Italy, return to, 
agreement with U.S. and U.K., signature and 
text, 770. 
Peace treaty : 

Discussion in UN General Assembly, 1155, 1163. 
Entry into force, 77. 
Ratification by — 
Greece, 1058. 
Italy, 298. 
Relief agreement, with U.S., signature and text, 97. 
Restitution of monetary gold, protocol, with U.S., 
U.K., and France, signature, 1269. 
Trieste. See Trieste. 

U.S. interest in, statement by President Truman, 1221. 
ITO. See Trade Organization, International. 
Iverson, Kenneth R., appointment to U.S. mission to 
Greece, 227, 335. 

Jago, John W., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 335. 
Japan : 

Feudal combines, dissolution of, article by Mr. Vernon 

and Miss Wachenheimer, 55. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for, allocation of private 

traders, 102. 
Mandated islands. See Pacific Islands, Territory of. 
Narcotics control in, 726. 
Occupation policies, U.S., in, address by Mr. Borton, 

1001. 
Peace treaty: 

Eleven-power conference, proposed, 182, 395. 
Negotiations for, appointment of Mr. Hamilton as 

U.S. adviser, 887. 
U.S. proposals, summary of responses by other gov- 
ernments, 435. 
Policy of Far Eastern Commission. See Far Eastern 
Commission. 

1287 



Japan — Continued 
Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. See SCAP. 
U.S. consular services performed at Kobe, 438. 
JEIA (Joint Export-Import Agency), functions, 1262. 
Jerusalem : 
Grand Mufti of, statement by Secretary Marshall, 46. 
Becommendations in report to General Assembly, 555, 
680. 
Jessup, Philip C., report on International Law and Its 
Codification, Committee on Progressive Development 
of, 121. 
Jewish question. See Palestine; Displaced persons. 
JFEA (Joint Foreign Exchange Agency), functions, 1262. 
Johnson, Charles S., appointment as U.S. alternate rep- 
resentative to UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
Johnson, Herschel V. : 
Appointment as U.S. representative to 2d session of 

General Assembly, 211. 
Statements : 

Greek frontier, 362, 822. 

Palestine question, position of U.S. delegation, 761. 
Johnson, Joseph E., resignation from Policy Planning 

Staff, 390. 
Joint Philippine-American Finance Commission, report 

and letters, 146. 
Joint Soviet-American Commission. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Jones, Galen, article on 10th international conference on 

public education, 510. 
Jones, S. Sliepard, designation in State Department, 599. 
Josselyn, Paul R., designation as observer to social wel- 
fare conference of Southeast Asia Territories, 403. 
Journalists. See Information. 

Kaplan, Sheldon Z., article on 80th Congress, 1st session, 

and the UN, 795, 843. 
Karachi, Pakistan : 

Elevation of U.S. Consulate to Embassy, 396. 
Opening of U.S. combined office, 438. 
Keeley, James Hugh, Jr., appointment as U.S. Minister 

to Syria, 1229. 
Kellogg, Remington, article on establishment of an Inter- 
national Hylean Amazon Institute, 891. 
Kelly, H. H. : 

Designation in State Department, 232. 
U. S. interest in international motor travel, article on, 
1063. 
Kennedy, Donald D., appointment to Rubber Study Group 

and Tin Study Group, 734. 
Kenora, Ontario, Canada, closing of U. S. Consular Agency, 

51. 
King, Charles Dunbar Burgess, credentials as Liberian 

Minister to U.S., 231. 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., appointment as U.S. representa- 
tive on Special Balkan Committee of General As- 
sembly, 949, 1203. 
Knight, Louis M., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

832. 
Kobe, Japan, consular services performed, 438. 
Korea : 

Four-power conversations, proposed, U.S.-U.S.S.R. cor- 
respondence regarding, 473. 
Independence, question of: 
Addresses by Mr. Armour and Secretary Marshall, 

610, 636. 
General Assembly action, 820, 1031, 1154, 1162. 
U.S. position : 

Denial of change in policy, 399. 

Exchange of notes between Acting Secretary Lovett 

and Mr. Molotov, 473, 623, 867. 
Proposals by U.S., 474. 
Joint Commission for, 294, 296, 398, 399, 473, 623, 625, 

867. 
Missions from U.S. : 

Educational and informational survey, 231. 
Fact-finding, 149, 476, 887. 
Korea, Joint Commission for, meeting of: 

Chief Commissioner of U.S. delegation (Brown), 296, 
399, 625. 

1288 



Korea, Joint Commission for, meeting of — Continued 
Consultative groups, question of admission, 294. 
Political parties in, statement by Major General Brown, 

296. 
National Assembly of, proposed, 821. 
Questioning of certain Korean groups, Soviet proposal 
for, statement by Chief Commissioner of U.S. delt*- 
gation (Brown) concerning, 399. 
U.S. position regarding, exchange of notes between Act- 
ing Secretary Lovett and Mr. Molotov, 4T3. 623, 867. 
U.S. request for report from, letter from Secretary 

Marshall concerning, 398. 
U.S.-U.S.S.R. deadlock on report, 625. 
Korea's Independence, 822, 838. 
Kotschnig, Walter M., designation In State Department, 

1272. 
Krakow trials, U.S. position regarding charges against for- i 
mer Ambassador Lane, 706. ^D 

Krug, Julius A. (Secretary of the Interior) : f| 

Conservation and utilization conference, letter from 

President Truman regarding, 463. 
National Resources and Foreign Aid, report, statement 
by President Truman on receiving, 828. 
Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Union, opening of U.S. Consulate, 
838. 



Labor Organization, International. See International La- 
bor Organization. 
Labor statisticians, 6th International conference, 214. , 

Labor's part in foreign policy, address by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 826. 
Lahore, Pakistan, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 918. 
Lane, Arthur Bliss, denial by State Department of charges 

against, at Krakow trials, 706. 
Lansdale, Herbert P., Jr., appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 229. 334. 
Latchford, Stephen, article on CITEJA and the Legal Com- 
mittee of ICAO, 487. 
Latin American countries. See American republics. , 

Law. See International Law. i 

Lebanon, discontinuance by U.S. of licensing shipments of I 

arms to, 1197. 
Legal Committee of ICAO, 487, 497. 
Legations, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 

Lend-lease (see also Surplus war property), payment on 
settlement agreement, to U.S., by: China (1946), 148; 
France (1946), 85; Netherlands, 85; U.S.S.R. (1945), 
148. 
Level-of-industry plan in bizonal area of Germany : 
Communique, joint (U.S., U.K.. and France), 467. 
Joint statement by State and War Departments, test, 

468. 
Polish opposition to, exchange of notes between Acting 
Secretary Armour and Polish Ambassador Winie- 
wicz regarding, 741. 
Revision : 

Discussed by Mr. Thorp, 699. 
Table showing, 470. 
Text, 468. 
Ruhr, coal mines in. See Ruhr. 
Level-of-industrv tripartite talks, relating to Germany, 

467. 
Lewis, Charles W., Jr., appointment as Counselor of Em- 
bassy and Charge d'Affaires at Pakistan, 396. 
Liberia : 

Centennial celebration, 100. 
Minister to U.S. (King), credentials, 231. 
Libraries : 

Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, article by Mr. Wllklson, 

755. 
Librarians of the Americas, assembly of, article by Miss 
Daniels, 715. 
Lie, Trygve ( Secretary -General of UN ) : 

Annual report to General Assembly on work of UN, 

introduction, 365 
Note regarding agenda items of 2d session of General 
Assembly, 618. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Lie, Trygve — Continued 

Summaries of matters under consideration by Security 
Council, 76, 416. 
Lleras Camargo, Alberto, statement concerning interna- 
tional conference for maintenance of continental peace 
and security, 324. 
Loan, Haitian, notes regarding U.S. flotation of, 149, 150. 
London conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. See 

Foreign Ministers. 
Lovett, Robert A. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aid to Europe, program for, U.S. position on new Com- 
munist manifesto for deflecting, 769. 
Board of Foreign Scholarsliips, 779. 
Death of George Atcheson, Jr., 437. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, report, 

687. 
Financial and economic understandings, U.S.-Italian, 

376. 
Food shipments to Italy, 740. 

German external assets in Italy, quadripartite agree- 
ment on, 389. 
"Gold Pot", preliminary distribution of, 706. 
Greece, factors affecting recovery program in, 1080. 
Greece, ratification of iieace treaty with Italy, 1058. 
Greek territorial integrity. General Assembly action 

sought by U.S. on question of, 427. 
India and Pakistan, U.S. position on cordial relations 

between, 748. 
Japanese treaty negotiations, appointment of Mr. 

Hamilton as adviser, 887. 
Recall of Mr. Dodge from Vienna for consultation, 

423. 
Reparation removals program in Germany, objectives 

of, 1088. 
Trade concessions, mutual, benefits from, 1089. 
Trieste, zonal boundary in, protest to Yugoslavia re- 
garding, 706. 
U.S.S.R. refuses entry to Congressional committee to 
visit American Embassy, 744. 
Correspondence : 

Cliief of Italian Economic and Financial Delegation 
(Lombardo), on U.S.-Italian financial and eco- 
nomic understandings, 378. 
Dismissed employees' counsel, on State Department 

position regarding dismissal cases, 963. 
President of National Association of Wool Manufac- 
turers (Besse), denying accusation regarding 
U. S. tariffs, 1220. 
Soviet Chargi? d'Affaires (Tsarapkin), on Soviet posi- 
tion on the Ruhr, .530. 
Soviet Minister for Foreign Affairs (Molotov), on the 
Korean question, 474, 623, 867. 
Report on foreign surplus disposal (7th), 994. 
Report on inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance, 
1188. 
Loyalty Review Board, 203, 962, 1009. 
Luckman, Charles, appointment as chairman of Citizens 

Food Committee, 690, 736 n. 
Luxembourg : 

European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO), accept- 
ance, 1258. 
Lyon, Cecil B., designation in State Department, 1011. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas (see also SCAP), statement on 
Far Eastern Commission post-surrender policy for 
Japan, 221. 

Machinery, U.S., en route to Greece, 428. 

Madras, India, elevation of U.S. Consulate to rank of Con- 
sulate General, 438. 

Maguire, Philip F., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 
334. 

Malaria and tropical medicine, 4th international con- 
gresses, 1041. 

Malaya : 

U.S. Consulate at Kuala Lumpur, opening, 838. 
U.S. property in, filing claims for, 230, 398. 



Mandated islands, Japanese. See Pacific Islands, Terri- 
tory of. 
Manila, Philippines, conversion of U.S. Embassy to com- 
bined office, 1271. 
Maniu trial at Bucharest, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

995. 
Maps and charts : 

State Department, organization of, 598, 1196. 
State Department buildings, 1039. 
Maritime («ee also Vessels) : 

International congress of river transportation, agenda 

and U.S. delegation, 36. 
International maritime conference, dates of meeting, 

466, 1083. 
Tripartite Naval Commission, 833. 
Marshall, George C. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aid programs, statement before joint session of Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations and House Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs, 967. 
America's well-being, importance of world stability 

and prosperity to, 83. 
Appointment of Mr. Armour as Special Assistant to 

the Secretary, 47. 
Citizens Food Committee, 738. 

Council of Foreign Ministers, London conference: 
1078, 1079, 1183, 1204, (report) 1244, 1247, 1249. 
Dismissal cases in State Department, 962. 
Displaced persons, resettlement of, 194. 
Europe, problem of reconstruction of, 184, 590, 856. 
European revival and German and Austrian peace set- 
tlements, 1024. 
Foreign policy, American labor's part in determining, 

826. 
Fund and Bank, reported disapproval of foreign-aid 

proposals, 980. 
German documents, publication plans for, 994. 
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, activities of, 46. 
Greece, fighting in, 228. 

Greece, new government in, U.S. position, 590. 
Headquarters of UN, agreement regarding, 27. 
Hemisphere defense, 367. 

Import controls, quantitative, U.K. propo.sal for modi- 
fication, 228. 
Information and educational exchange act, 105. 
Inter-American conference at Rio de Janeiro, conclu- 
sion of, 501. 
Inter-American Military Cooperation Act, 50. 
Inter-American system, bases for, 414. 
International brigade, 228. 
Italian financial mission, negotiations with, 47. 
Japanese laborers on Angaur Island, SCAP supervi- 
sion of, 101. 
Japanese whaling expedition, 48. 
Lend-lea.se, surplus property, and Export-Import Bank 

payments by France and Netherlands, 85. 
Maniu trial at Bucharest, 995. 
Nomination of Rudolph E. Schoenfeld as U.S. Minister 

to Rumania, 229. 
Peruvian defaulted bonds, adjustment of, 51. 
Pilgrims Society in London, 1201. 
Turkey, sale of ships to, 198. 
United Nations, American pledge to, 539, 680. 
United Nations, program for a more effective. 618. 
United Nations Charter, 2d anniversary of, 26. 
World food problem, 394. 
Correspondence : 
Argentine Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship 
(Bramuglia). on promotion of international co- 
operation, 340. 
European Economic Cooperation, Chairman of Com- 
mittee of (Bevin), on report, 689. 
French Foreign Minister (Bidault), on bizonal level- 

of-industry plan, 333. 
Italian Foreign Minister (Sforza) : 

Telegram regarding Italian ratification of peace 

treaty, text, 298. 
U.S. rejection of Italian naval vessels, 769. 



Index, July to December 7947 



1289 



Marshall, George C. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Paliistan, President (Jinnah) of Constituent Assembly 

of, on 1st convening of Assembly, 336. 
Secretary-General of UN (Lie), on trusteeship agree- 
ment for Territory of Pacific Islands, 420. 
Soviet Minister for Foreign Affairs (Molotov), re- 
questing report from Joint Commission for Korea, 
398. 
Designation as senior U.S. representative to 2d session of 

UN General Assembly, 544. 
Reports on treaties : 

Inter-American convention on copyright protection 

(1946), 300. 
International civil aviation, protocol (1947) amend- 
ing convention (1944), 175. 
Interpretation of legislation on General Sugar Act, 
341. 
Marshall Plan. See European Recovery Program. 
Martin, Haywood P., designation in State Department, 51. 
Matthews, H. Freeman, appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Sweden, 233, 1229. 
May, Geoffrey, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 335. 
McGhee, George C. : 

Addresses on Greece, 829, 1206. 

Departure for survey of Greek-Turkish aid program, 534. 
McGiU, Kenneth H., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

832. 
Medicine : '^ 

Cancer research, 4th international congress, 472. 
Malaria and tropical medicine, 4th international con- 
gresses on, 1041. 
Shipment to Italy, statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 

740. 
Vaccines shipped to Greece, 771. 
Metal-Scrap Mission to Germany, Fact-Finding, establish- 
ment, statement by Mr. Steelman, 1223. 
Metal Trades Committee of ILO. 2d session, 327. 
Meteorological Organization, International, Conference of 
Directors : 
Agenda, 680. 

Address by Mr. Norton, 678. 
U.S. delegation, 290, 680. 
Mexico {see also American republics) : 

Automotive tratfic between U.S. and Mexico, article by 

Mr. Kelly, 1065. 
Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, article by Mr. Wilkison, 

755. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 837. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 437. 
Imports, limitation of, 151. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims convention, with U.S. (1941), payment of in- 
• stalment due under, 1058. 

Oil proi>erties, expropriation, with U.S. (1943), final 

payment, 747. 
Trade, with U.S. (1942), provisional agreement for 
modification of duty rates, 1219. 
Visiting professors from U.S., 150, 526. 
Microbiology, 4th international congress for, 135. 
Middle East: 
Arms and ammunition, discontinuance of licensing of 

shipments from U.S., 1197. 
U.S. interests in, address by Mr. Henderson, 996. 
Migratorv Bird Treaty Act, amendments of, proclamation, 

707. 1227. 
Military Cooperation Act, inter-American, proposed, state- 
ment by Secretary Marshall, 50. 
Military equipment, sale and transfer of nondemilitarized 

combat materiel, tables showing, 102, 340, 657, S37. 
Military Establishment, National, information for press 
on establishment of Pacific experimental installations, 
1175. 
Military government for U.S. zone in Germany. See Ger- 
many. 
Military personnel in Yugoslavia: 
Allied, detention and maltreatment: 
Protest by U. S., 591. 
Release of personnel, 649. 

1290 



Military personnel in Yugoslavia — Continued 
U.S., alleged misconduct, U.S.-Yugoslav notes regard- 
ing, and summary of answers to Yugoslav charges, 
703. 
Military Staff Committee of UN: 

ApiKiintment of Lieutenant General Ridgway as senior 

U.S. Army member, 1272. 
Arming the United Nations (Bulletin supplement), 

224, 239, 247, 249, 336. 
Report regarding organization of UN armed forces, 247 ; 

text, 249. 
Statute and rules of procedure, summary statement by 
Secretary -General (Lie) at Security Council, 76, 
416. 
Milk Producers Federation, National Cooperative, St. 

Louis, address by Mr. Russell, 942. 
Mills, Sheldon T., designation in State Department, 1011. 
Minerals, reservation of source materials in certain lands 

owned by the U.S. (Ex. Or. 9908), 1225. 
Mission to U.S. from Burma, youth, 912. 
Missions, U.S. (see also Foreign Service), to: 
Austria, relief, 229. 
China, fact-finding, 149, 476. 
El Salvador, military aviation, 437. 
Germany, fact-finding metal-scrap, 1223. 
Germany, food for bizonal area, 96. 
Greece, aid, 141, 227, 220, 334, 336, 428, 534, 535, 592, 649, 

829, 831, 1028, 1081, 1208. 
Greece, economic, 829, 831, 832. 
Italy, relief, 99, 229. 
Korea, educational, 231. 
Korea, fact-finding, 149, 476, 887. 
Poland, food. 223. 
Trieste, relief, 229. 

United Kingdom, science and technology, 908. 
Moffat, Abbot Low, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

334. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (Soviet Foreign Minister), 298, 

475, 531, 623, 744, 867. 
Monetary exchange, international, in Western Hemisphere, 

address by Mr. Wright, 643. 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 
Monetary gold. See Gold. 
Montgomery, ,Tohn C, articles : 
Cotton-textile export policy, 116. 

International Cotton Advisorv Committee, 6th meeting, 
207. 
Monticello. Charlottesville, Va., address by President Tni- 

man, SO. 
Moore, Ross, article on agricultural cooperation with 

American republics, 613. 
Morlock, George A., article on 2d session of UN Commis- 
sion on Narcotic Drugs, 724. 
Morris, .Tames, appointment to military tribunal, 333. 
Motion pictures (see also Information) : 

Cinematographic art, 8th international exhibition, 37. 
Film festival, 2d international, 36. 
U.S.-U.K. discussions, 437. 
Motor travel, international, U.S. interest in, article by Mr. 

Kelly, 1063. 
Mundt bill, 105. 
Murphy, Edmund R., article on coope'-ation with cultural 

centers in other American republics, 804. 
Myer, Dillon S., appointment as president of Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs, 1227. 

Narcotic drugs: 

Control of, in Japan and Germany, discussed, 726, 727. 

Protocol (1946) amending previous agreements (1912, 
1031), proclamation, 825. 
Narcotic drugs, UN Commission on : 

Accomplishments of 2d session, article by Mr. Morlock, 
724. 

Meeting, 3d, proposed, 730. 
Natal, Brazil, closing of U.S. Consulate, 650. 
National Advisory Council, 969, 980. 

Department of State Bulletin 



National Commission for UNESCO : 
Membership of Commission, 369. 
Plans for Chicago meeting, 369, 588. 
National Commission News, UNESCO, 951, 1187. 
National Military Establishment, information for press on 
establishment of Pacific experimental installations, 
1175. 
National War College, appointment of Mr. Barnes as 

Deputy for Foreign Affairs, 233. 
Naval Commission, Tripartite, 833. 

Navy Department, Security Advisory Board of State- 
Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee, 917, 
918. 
Near East, aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, Ofl5ce of, reorganization, 

750. 
Netherlands : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Van Kleffens), credentials, 297. 
Dispute with Indonesia. See Indonesian question un- 
der Security Council. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part 

in, 681 n. 
German enemy assets, multilateral agreement relating 
to resolution of conflicting claims to, signature, 
1192. 
Payments (lend-lease, surplus property, and Export- 
Import Bank), 85. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO), ac- 
ceptance, 1258. 
Trade-mark registrations in U.S., extension of time for 

renewal of, proclamation, 993. 
U.S. property in, procedure for filing war-damage claims, 

299, 332, 910. 
U.S. proposals on Japan peace treaty, response, 436. 
Netherlands Indies, procedure for filing claims for U.S. 

property in, 1090. 
Netherlands West Indies, elevation of U.S. Vice Consulate 

at Aruba to rank of Consulate, 1271. 
New York Times, expulsion of correspondent from Yugo- 
slavia, U.S. note regarding, 961. 
New Zealand : 

Response to U.S. Japanese peace-treaty proposals, 436. 
U.S. Minister (Scotten), appointment, 1271. 
Newspapermen. See Information. 
Nicaragua (see also American republics), visit of cultural 

leader to U.S., 393. 
Nicholson, Donald L., designation in State Department, 

1272. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
North Africa, payment of procurement costs of U.S. Army 

in, statement by President Truman, 834. 
North Borneo, procedure for tiling claims for U.S. property 

in, 649, 1224. 
Norton, Garrison, address at IMO Conference of Directors, 

678. 
Norton, Lawrence H., appointment to U.S. mission to 

Greece, 335. 
Norway : 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, transfer by U.S. to, 

table showing, 657. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 
681n. 
Nounse report. See Economic Advisers, Council of. 
Nuevitas, Cuba, closing of U.S. Consulate, 1091. 
NUrnberg tribunal. See War criminals, Axis. 
Nyun, So, Ambassador from Burma to U.S., 648, 1227. 

Occupied areas (see also Austria; Germany; Japan; 
Korea) : 
Administration by State Department, question of, post- 
ponement of plans for, 917. 
Departure of U.S. troops from Italy, 1221, 1269. 
Office International d'Hygiene publique. See Health. 
OIC. See Information and Cultural Affairs, International. 
OIB. See Information and Educational Exchange. 
Oil: 

Joint U.S.-Soviet Commission on, In Rumania, termina- 
tion, 225. 



Oil — Continued 
Oil properties, expropriation, agreement between U.S. 

and Mexico (1943), final payment for, 747. 
Oil tankers to relieve transportation shortages, 771. 
Petroleum adviser in State Department (Rayner), 

resignation, 749. 
U.S. interests in Middle East and southeastern Europe, 
discussed by Mr. Henderson, 997. 
Organizations immunities act, international, organiza- 
tions participating, 799, SOOn. 

Pacific Islands, Territory of : 
Trusteeship agreement for : 

Action of 1st session of 80th Congress regarding, 850. 
Administration, interim, provisions for, 178. 
Eniwetok Atoll, installations for atomic experiments, 

in accordance with, 1174. 
Negotiations, in Security Council, 128. 
Signature, 178. 

Statements by President Truman, 74, 178. 
Transmittal to Congress, 74. 
U.S. approval, 420. 
Packer, Earl L., appointment as U.S. Chargd d' Affaires in 

Burma, 648. 
Pakistan : 
Admission to UK, 1153, 1161. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ispahani). credentials, 599, 886. 
Constituent Assembly, 1st, convening of, message from 

Secretary Marshall to President of, 336. 
Greeting from President Truman to, 396. 
Relations with India, statement by Acting Secretary 

Lovett, 748. 
U.S. Ambassador (Ailing), appointment, 1229. 
U.S. Charge d'Affaires (Baig), appointment, 480. 
U.S. Consulate at Karachi, Embassy rank, and reopened 

as combined office, 396, 438. 
U.S. Consulate General at Lahore, opening, 918. 
U.S. Counselor of Embas.sy and Charge d'Affaires 
(Lewis), appointment, 396. 
Palestine situation : 
Arms and ammunition from U.S., licensing, discontinued, 

1197. 
Discussed by: Mr. Armour, 636, 1029; Mr. Cargo, 3; 

Mr. Johnson, 761 ; Secretary Marshall, 619. 
Government, future, General Assembly resolution, 1156, 

1163. 
Position of U.S. delegation, statement by U.S. Deputy 

Representative (Johnson), 761. 
Special Committee on Palestine : 
Report to General Assembly, 546, 680. 
Representation, 12. 
Special Session of General Assembly, work of, article 

by Mr. Cargo, 3. 
UN plan for, American support of, address by Mr. Ar- 
mour, 1029. 
Pan American congress of architects (6th), 677. 
Pan American League, Miami, address by Mr. Armour, 634. 
Pan American Sanitary Organization, meeting of Execu- 
tive Committee and Directing Council, 589. 
Pan American Society, New York City, address by Mr. 

Armour, 1214. 
Pan American Union : 
Director General (Camargo), statement on inter- 
American conference for the maintenance of con- 
tinental peace and security, 324. 
Governing Board, appointment of Mr. Dawson to, 302. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1008. 
Defense of Panama Canal, continued use of sites for, 

agreement with U.S., signature, 1219. 
UN draft declaration on rights and duties of states pre- 
sented by, 126. 
Panama Canal, defense of, continued use of sites for, agree- 
ment between U.S. and Panama, signature, 1219. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Enciso Velloso), credentials, 84. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 107. 



Index, July to December 1947 



1291 



Paris conference for European economic cooperation. See 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, meet- 
ing of. 
Passports : 

Inter-American congress of directors of tourism and 

immigration (1st), 1250. 
Passport and frontier formalities, world conference on, 
466. 
Patents, abuse of, provisions in Geneva charter for ITO to 

prevent, 788. 
Peace : 
Address by : Mr. Gross, 630 ; Mr. Henderson, 772 : Secre- 
tary Marsliall, 1201; Mr. Russell, 942; President 
Truman, 80, 738. 
Interim committee of General Assembly for, establish- 
ment, 671, 950. 
UN policies for, article by Mr. Kaplan, 795. 
Peace and security, inter-American conference for the 

maintenance of. See Inter-American conference. 
Peace treaties. See Austria; Bulgaria; Germany; Hun- 
gary; Italy; Japan; Rumania. 
Pepper export in India, decontrol of, 887. 
Pereira, Pedro Theotonio, credentials as Portuguese Am- 
bassador to U.S., 393. 
Persinger, David, report on Preparatory Commission for 

IRQ, 61. 
Personnel Security Board, review of security risk cases, 

202. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 
Bonds, defaulted, adjustment of, statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 51. 
Combat mat(5riel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 102, 

340, 657, 837. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 838. 
Public health services, allocation of funds for, 200. 
Recommendation regarding chewing coca leaf, 726. 
Tingo Maria, agricultural station in, article by Mr. 

Moore, 615. 
Visit to U.S. of Foreign Minister (Garcia), 84. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 526. 
Petkov, Nikola ( Bulgaria ) , execution of, 429, 481, 531, 702. 
Petroleum. See Oil. 

Petropolis, Brazil, conference. See Inter-American con- 
ference for the maintenance of continental peace and 
security. 
Philippine-American Finance Commission, Joint, report 

and letters, 146. 
Philippines : 

Response to U.S. proposals for Japanese i)eace treaty, 

436. 
U.S. Embassy at Manila, conversion to combined office, 

1271. 
"Voice of America" broadcasts, new transmitter in 
Manila for, 646; statement by Counselor to U.S. 
(Ramos), 647. 
Pilgrims Society, London, address by Secretary Marshall, 

1201. 
Poland : 
Attitude toward industrial plans for Germany, exchange 
of notes between Ambassador Winiewicz and Acting 
Secretary Armour, 741. 
Claims for liorses captured by U.S. in Germany, 770. 
Food mission from U.S., text of report by Colonel Harri- 
son, 223. 
Free elections in, U.S. support of, discussed by Mr. 

Stone, 320. 
Krakow trials, U.S. position regarding charges against 

former Ambassador Lane, 706. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, procedure for filing war 
claims, 1196. 
Political Science, Academy of, New York City, address by: 
Mr. Armcmr, 974 ; Mr. Borton, 1001 ; Mr. Henderson, 
996. 
Ponce, L. Neftali, credentials as Ecuadoran Ambassador to 

U.S., 151. 
Pope Pius XII, exchange of letters with President Truman, 

on peace, 479. 
Population Problems, International Union for Scientific 
Investigation of, discussed by Mr. Caulfield, 1084. 

1292 



Porter, Paul R., designation as alternate U.S. representa- 
tive to Economic Commission for Europe, 766. 
Portugal : 

Air transport agreement, with U.S. (1945), revision, 

text, 103. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Pereira), credentials, 393. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 
681 n. 
Postal Union, Universal, 12th congress, 585. 
Preparatory Commission for IRO. See Refugee Organiza- 
tion, International. 
Preparatory Committee for international conference on 
trade and employment : 
Address by Mr. Wilcox, 425. 
Report from Geneva, 291. 

World conference on trade and employment. See under 
Trade Organization, International. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry S. 
President's Committee on Foreign Aid. See Foreign Aid. 
Press. See Information. 
Prisoners of war, German, return of, AMG directive on, 

189. 
Proclamations : 

Bill of Rights Day, 1947: 1223. 

Migratory Bird Treaty Act, amendments of, 707. 

Narcotic drugs, protocol (1946), amending previous 

agreements (1912, 1931), 825. 
Peace treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Ru- 
mania, 771. 
Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, closed area 

adjacent to, 1227. 
Special session of Congress, 852. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (ITO), text, 

1258. 
Termination of state of war with Italy, Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania, 771. 
Trade-mark registration : Finland, 1224 ; France and 

Netherlands, 993; U.K. and Switzerland, 332. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocols, 526. 
Proiszl-Pallos, Elizabeth, arrest in Hungary, U.S. posi- 
tion, 911. 
Projects Division, Special, change in name, 343. 
Propaganda and inciters of a new war. General Assembly 

action, 1153, 1162. 
Property (see also Surplus war property) : 
Axis war criminals, policy of Far Eastern Commission 

on forfeiture, 35. 
Ex-enemy countries, U.S. position on question of trans- 
fer to U.S.S.R. of assets in, 298. 
German, in Sweden, Allied-Swedish accord on, 155, 162. 
Italy, return of ships by U.S., 47, 709, 834; memoranda 
of understanding, summary and texts, 371, 372, 375. 
Japan, policy of Far Eastern Commission, 35, 216, 221, 

515. 
Palestine, committee report to General Assembly regard- 
ing allocation of movable assets, 554. 
Polish, Yugoslav, and Hungarian horses, in U.S., nego- 
tiations for return of, 770. 
UN nationals. Far Eastern Commission policy regarding 

property in Japan belonging to, 51.5. 
UN nationals, return of property in Bulgaria, 1270. 
U.S., in other countries. See Protection of U.S. na- 
tionals. 
Yugoslav, alleged attacks by U.S. military forces, 703. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 
Arrests in Hungary, U.S. position regarding: 
Proiszl-Pallos, Elizabeth, 911. 
Thuransky, Stephen T., 330. 
Brazil, registration requirements for investors in, 1191. 
Bulgaria, property in : 

Instructions for filing tax returns, 46, 390, 1089. 
Procedure for filing claims, 1270. 
Burma, procedure for tiling war-damage claims, 1089. 
China, instructions lor filing claims, 835, 1000. 
Conspiracy of Americans against Rumanian Govern- 
ment, alleged, U.S. note denying, 1057. 
Czechoslovakia, instructions for filing tax returns, 46, 
887. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Protection of U.S. nationals and property — Continued 
Emigration of U.S. citizens to Soviet Armenia, U.S.- 
Soviet correspondence on question of, 1194. 
Employees in UN secretariat, question of tax equaliza- 
tion for, 1159. 
Expulsion of U.S. journalists from Yugoslavia, note from 

U.S. regarding, 961. 
France, instructions for filing claims, 143. 
Germany, instructions for filing claims for property re- 
leased from control of military government, 41. 
Greece, procedure for filing claims, 995. 
Hungarian banks, nationalized, time extension for tiling 

shareholdings, 430. 
Italy, memorandum of understanding regarding certain 

claims, 374, 375. 
Japan, instructions for filing claims for, 49. 
Malaya, Instructions for filing claims, 230, 398. 
Netlierlands, procedure for filing war claims, 299, 332, 

910. 
Netherlands Indies, procedure for filing claims, 1090. 
North Borneo, instructions for filing claims, 649, 1224. 
0(1 properties expropriated in Mexico, final payment by 

Mexico, 747. 
Poland, procedure for filing war claims, 1196. 
Shanghai, re-registration of property rights required, 

916. 
Singapore, instructions for filing claims, 230, 398. 
Tourist travel to Austria, relaxation of regulations, 45. 
Tunisia, procedure for filing claims, 1052. 
Public education conference, international (10th) : 
Agenda and U.S. delegation, 135. 
Article by Mr. Jones, 510. 
Public Opinion Research, 2d International Conference on, 

Williamstown, Mass., address by Mr. Benton, 522. 
Publications : 

Agriculture in the Americas, 1229. 

American-Owned Assets in Foreign Countries, Census 

of. Treasury Department publication, 1271. 
BuixETiN supplements : 

Arming the United Nations, 224. 239, 336, 535. 
General Assembly and the Problem of Greece, 988. 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, 306, 650, 1229. 
German war documents, 994. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 37, 64, 107, 136, 199, 2.33, 343, 518, 535, 

589, 651, 750, 825, 915, 1187, 1213. 
State Department, 054, 750, 838, 887, 918, 963, 1008, 

1058, 1081, 1197, 1228, 1271. 
United Nations, 13, 73, 127, 174, 181, 210, 293, 342, 364, 
421, 463, 497, 545, 561, 637, 673, 730, 764, 803, 868, 
897, 951, 1032, 1077, 1171, 1228, 1272. 
National Commission News, UNESCO, 951, 1187. 
State Department : 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of: 

Volume I — General Report, 683, 750. 
Korea's Independence, 822, 838. 

United States and Non-Self-Governing Territories, 534. 
United Nations and the Problem of Greece (white 

paper), 591. 
United Nations Charter and Chart, reprint, 393. 
Publications, obscene, trafiic in, General Assembly action, 

1157, 1165. 
Puerto Libertador, Dominican Republic, opening of U.S. 

Consular Agency, 480. 
Puerto Rico : 

Conditions in, information transmitted to UN, 75. 
Governorship, change in status of, letter from President 
Truman to Governor Pinero, 342. 

Radio : 

Advisory Committee on International Broadcasting, 
membership, 748. 

Broadcasting agreement. North American regional, meet- 
ing of technicians in connection with, U.S. delega- 
tion, 958. 

International Broadcasting Foundation of the U.S., cre- 
ation of, proposed, 748. 



Radio — Continued 
International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference : 
Address by Mr. Benton, 401. 
U.S. delegation, 424. 
Telecommunication conferences at Atlantic City, article 

by Mr. de Wolf, 1033. 
"Voice of America" : 

Eastern Russia, new program, 1196. 

Manila, new transmitter in, statements by Mr. Benton 

and others, 646. 
Programming by major networks, 747. 
Programming revised to meet new budget, statement 
by Mr. Benton, 304. 
World-wide network, proposals for, committee to exam- 
ine, 293. 
Railway congress. Pan American, membership in, state- 
ment by Mr. Armour, 136. 
Rayner, Charles, resignation as adviser on petroleum 

policy, 749. 
Reber, Samuel, designation in State Department, 599. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter- American treaty of, with other 
American republics : 
Article by Mr. Allen, 983. 
Statements by : Mr. Austin, 574 ; Mr. Connally, 575 ; 

U.S. delegation, 573. 
Text of treaty and final act, 565, 567. 
Transmittal to Senate, with report, 1188. 
Red Cross, American, aid to fire victims at Tumaco, Colom- 
bia, 836. 
Reed, George L., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

831. 
Refugee Organization, International : 

Accomplishments, discussed by Mr. Hyde, 1073. 
Designation of privileges and immunities (Ex. Or. 

9887), 438. 
Entrance of displaced persons into U.S., message of 
President Truman to Congress regarding legislation 
concerning, 137. 
Movement of German refugees, discussed in text of new 

directive to AMG, 188. 
Preparatory Commission : 
Executive Secretary of, election of Mr. Tuck to suc- 
ceed Mr. Altmeyer, 638. 
Second session, report on, article by Mr. Persinger, 61. 
Third session : 

Report on, article by Mr. Warren, 638. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 133. 
U.S. membership in, 64, 179, 801. 
Relief and rehabilitation. See Aid; Food; Displaced per- 
sons. 
Reparation : 
Austria : 

Four Power Commission, proceedings, 423, 767. 
Soviet position, statement by — 
Acting Secretary Lovett, 423. 
Secretary Marshall, 1183. 
Germany : 

Current production, question of reparations from, 

statements by Secretary Marshall, 1204, 1247. 
Discussed in text of new directive to AMG, 189. 
German enemy assets, multilateral agreement relat- 
ing to resolution of conflicting claims to, signature 
by U.S., Canada, and Netherlands, 1192. 
Removals program in Germany, statement by Acting 
Secretary Lovett, 1088. 
Japan, policy of Far Eastern Commission : 
Post-surrender policy, 220. 
Reduction of war potential, 513. 
Retention of steel furnaces, 326. 
Repatriation. See Displaced persons; Refugee Organi- 
zation. 
Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission for. 

See Gold. 
Richmond Council on Adult Education, Public Forum Com- 
mittee of, Richmond, Va., address by Mr. Austin, 1176. 
Ridgway, Lt. Gen. Matthew Bunker, appointment to Mili- 
tary Staff Committee of UN, 1272. 



Index, July fo December 7947 



7 293 



Rio de Janeiro conference for the maintenance of peace 

and security. See Inter-American conference. 
Robinson, Hamilton : 
Security program of State Department, statement, 782. 
State Department personnel, letter to New York Herald 
Tribune regarding dismissal, 1226. 
Rockefeller gift to UN, 797. 
Rooks, Maj. Gen. Lowell W., letter to President Truman 

on termination of UNRRA, 106. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D. : 
Address on freedom of inforiuation, 874. 
U.S. representative to Commission on Human Rights, 
statement and text of proposal on human rights, 
1075. 
U.S. representative to General Assembly, appointment, 
211. 
Roseman, Alvin J., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

335. 
Rubber Study Group, International : 
Accomplishments of 4th meeting, 134. 
Management committee of, appointment of Mr. Kennedy 
as U.S. representative, 734. 
Rubin, Seymour J., article on Allied-Swedish accord on 
German external assets, looted gold, and related mat- 
ters, 155. 
Ruhr, coal mines in, bizonal level-of-industry plan for: 
Anglo-American talks on Ruhr coal production : 
Announcement, 145. 
Delegations, 326. 
Report, 576. 
Communications from Secretary Marshall to French 

Foreign Minister (Bidault), 333. 
Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R. regarding 

refutation of Soviet position, 530. 
Joint communique (U.S., U.K., and France), text, 467. 
Polish opposition, exchange of notes between U.S. and 

Poland, 741. 
Statement by Mr. Thorp, 699. 
Rumania : 

Civil liberties in, U.S. position regarding, 38, 329. 
Conspiracy of U.S. citizens against Government of, 

alleged, U.S. note regarding, 1057. 
Free elections in, article by Mr. Stone, 317. 
Joint U.S.-Soviet Oil Commission in, termination, 225. 
Maniu trial, statement by Secretary Marshall, 995. 
Peace treaty : 

Entry into force, 771. 
Excerpt, 38. 
Proclamation, 771. 
State of war with U.S., termination, proclamation, 771. 
Transfer to U.S.S.R. of German assets In, U.S. note 

regarding, 298. 
U.S. Minister ( Schoenfeld ) , appointment, 229, 343. 
Russell, Francis H., addresses : 
European reconstruction, America's stake in, 942. 
Foreign policy and the democratic process, 1253. 

Saboteurs in Albania, alleged, U.S. denial of connection 

with, 745. 
Sage, Lt. Col. Jerry M., article on displaced persons in 

Europe, 86. 
Saif al-Islam Abdullah (Prince of Yemen), visit to U.S., 

101, 198. 
Saltzman, Charles E. : 
Assistant Secretary of State, appointment, 96, 534 . 
Freedom, power and responsibilities of, address, 595. 
Samoa, American, information transmitted to UN on 

conditions in, 75. 
Sandifer, Durward V., statement on WHO, 131. 
Sanitary conventions and WHO: 
Article on, 953. 

Parties to certain international sanitary conventions 
for maritime and aerial navigation, 954, 956, 957. 
Sanitary Organization, Pan American, 589. 
Sargeant, Huwland H., designation as Deputy Assistant 

Secretary of State, 707. 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, designation in State Depart- 
ment, 783. 

1294 



Saudi Arabia, discontinuance by U.S. of licensing ship- 
ments of arms to, 1197. 
Sayre, Francis B., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to General Assembly, 211. 
SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Powers) : 
Foreign property holdings in Japan, restitution of, 49. 
Implementation of policies of Far Eastern Commission 
(see also Far Eastern Commission) on — 
Allied military-occupation courts, 423. 
Forfeiture of property of war criminals, 35. 
Post-surrender [wlicy for Japan, 216. 
Japanese laborers on Angaur Island, supervision of, 101. 
Japanese whaling expedition, authorized by, 48. 
Remittance facilities between U.S. and Japan through 

commercial banking channels, 1059. 
Statement on Far Eastern Commission post-surrender 
policy for Japan, 221. 
Schoenfeld, Rudolf E. : 
Appointment as U.S. Minister to Rumania, 229, 343. 
Note to Rumanian Government regarding alleged con- 
spiracy of U.S. citizens, 1057. 
Scholarships, foreign. See Education. 
Science and technology, U.S. mission in U.K. for, 908. 
Sciences, administrative, 7th international congress of: 
Accomplishments, 894. 
U.S. delegation, 215, 894. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 
Committee on, program of, article by : 
Miss Daniels, on assembly of librarians of the Americas, 

715. 
Mr. Deming, on international cooperation, laboratory of, 

607. 
Mr. Moore, on agricultural cooperation with American 

republics, 613. 
Mr. Murphy, on cultural centers of other American re- 
publics, 804. 
Mr. Sinclair, on cooperation with American republics 

in civil aviation, 923. 
Mr. Wilkison, on Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, 755. 
Mr. Woofter, on liemisphere development of social 
services, 720. 
Scientic studies in Hylean Amazon, establishment of in- 
stitute for, 891. 
Scotten, Robert M., appointment as U.S. Minister to New 

Zealand, 1271. 
Seal, emblem, and name of UN, protection of, 801. 
Secretary of State. See Marshall, George C. 
Securities. See Property. 

Security Advisory Board ( State- Army-Navy-Air Force 
Coordinating Committee) : 
Basic principles for, 918. 
Classified information, handling, 917. 
Security Board, Personnel (State Department) : 
Creation of, 202. 
Membership of, 202. 

Principles and hearing procedure, text, 780. 
Security Council of UN : 
Armaments and armed forces. See Arm.s. 
Austin, Warren R. (U.S. representative). See Austin. 
Effective operation of. address by Secretary Marshall to 

General Assembly, 621. 
Egyptian question, summary statement by Secretary- 
General Lie, 419. 
Greek question. See Greece. 
Indonesian question : 

Good offices, U.S. offer of, 397. 

Good Offices Committee of Security Council, appoint- 
ment of U.S. representative (Graham), 731, 877, 
1203. 
Netherlands-Indonesian negotiations : 
Favorable view by U.S., 48. 
U.S. regret at breakdown, 230. 
Resolutions, 731. 

S'ummary statement by Secretary-General Lie, 419. 
Iranian question, summary statements by Secretary- 
General Lie, 76, 416. 
Membership in Council, nonpermanent, election to, 1160. 
Membership in UN, applications for, summary state- 
ments by Secretary-General Lie, 77, 416. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Security Council of UN — Continued 

Pacific Islands, Territory of (see also Pacific Islands), 

negotiations, 128. 
Status of matters under consideration, summary state- 
ments by Secretary-General Lie, 76, 416. 
Trieste, appointment of governor, summary statements 

by Secretary-General Lie, 78, 418. 
Veto question : 

Address by Mr. Armour, 635. 
General Assembly action, 1077, 1155, 1163. 
Security program. State Department: 
Director, Office of Controls (Robinson), letter and state- 
ment on dismissal of personnel, 782, 1226. 
Dismissal of employees in accordance with, 749, 1091. 
Dismissed employees' counsel, letter from Acting Sec- 
retary Lovett to, 963. 
Loyalty Review Board, 203, 962, 1009. 
Personnel Security Board, 202, 780. 
Security Advisory Board, 917, 918. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 105, 962. 
Senate, U.S. See Congress. 
"Servicio" pattern, inter-American, to be adapted to Greek 

program, 227. 
Shake, Curtis Grover, appointment to military tribunal, 46. 
Shaw, George P., article on 1st inter-American congress of 

directors of tourism and immigration, 1250. 
Shea, Frank, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 335. 
Shipping (see also Vessels) : 
International congress of river transportation, agenda 

and U.S. delegation, 36. 
International maritime conference, dates of meeting, 

466, 1083. 
Tripartite Naval Commission, 833. 
Siam, statement by Prince Wan Waithayakon, regarding 

new relay broadcasting station in Manila, 648. 
Sinclair, Howard W., article on cooperation with American 

republics in civil aviation, 923. 
Singapore, instructions for filing claims for U.S. and other 

foreign property in, 230, 398. 
Slaght, L. Malcolm, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

832. 
Smith, Donald W., designation in State Department, 51. 
Smith, W. Bedell (Ambassador to U.S.S.R.), notes to Mr. 
Molotov, on : 
Soviet press attack on President Truman, 743. 
Stifling of Opposition in Bulgaria, 531. 
Transfer to U.S.S.R. of assets of ex-enemy countries, 
298. 
Snyder, John W. (Secretary of Treasury) : 
Correspondence : 

British Chancellor of Exchequer (Cripps), on resump- 
tion of withdrawals against line of credit, 1222. 
President Truman, transmitting report of Joint Phil- 
ippine-American Finance Commission, 148. 
Statement on policy of International Monetary Fund re- 
garding gold subsidies, 1268. 
Social security, inter-American conference on, 2d session, 

912. 
Social services, hemisphere development of, article by Mr. 

Woofter, 720. 
Social Welfare Conference of Southeast Asia Territories, 

designation of Mr. Josselyn to, 403. 
Social Work, Connecticut Conference of, Waterbury, Conn., 

address by Mr. Hyde, 1069. 
Sofia, Bulgaria, elevation of U.S. Mission to rank of Lega- 
tion, 746. 
South American and South Atlantic regional air-naviga- 
tion meetings of ICAO, article by Mr. Warner, 506. 
South Pacific Commission, action of 80th Congress, 1st 

session, regarding, 849. 
South-West Africa, trusteeship agreement for, 1157, 1166. 
Soviet-American Commission, Joint. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Soviet Armenia, emigration of U.S. citizens to, U.S.-Soviet 

correspondence on question of, 1194. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain, relation of UN members with. General Assembly 
action, 1076, 1155, 1163. 

Index, July to December 1947 



Specialized agencies of UN {see also name of agency), 
privileges and immunities, General Assembly action 
on, 1160, 1171. 
State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee, Se- 
curity Advisory Board of, 917, 918. 
State Department: 
Appointment of — 
Armour, Norman, to serve as Special Assistant to the 

Secretary, 47. 
Gross, Ernest A., as Legal Adviser, 232, 390. 
Saltzman, Charles E., as Assistant Secretary, 534. 
Sargeant, Howland H., as Deputy Assistant Secretary, 
707. 
Appropriations for fiscal years 1947 and 1948 compared, 

table, 306. 
Buildings, old and new, photographs and plans, 1035, 

1036, 1037, 1039. 
Departmental regulations, 1090, 1272. 
Employees terminated for security reasons. See Se- 
curity program. 
Eniwetok Atoll atomic-energy experiments, joint state- 
ment with National Military Establishment, 1175. 
Joint statement with War Department, on revised level- 
of-industry plan for the U.S.-U.K. zones in Germany, 
468. 
Merger of Greek and Turkish General Staffs, denial of 

rumor, 778. 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, Office of, reorganiza- 
tion, 750. 
Occupied areas administration, postponement of plans 

for assuming, 917. 
Organization, chart showing, 598, 1196. 
Organizational titles, name changed from — 

Central Translating Division, to Division of Language 

Services, 438. 
Office of International Information and Cultural Af- 
fairs, to Office of Information and Educational 
Exchange, 438. 
Special Projects Division, to Division of Protective 

Services, 343. 
UNRRA Division, to Division of Procurement Control, 
51. 
Photographs, 1035, 1036, 1037. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Relocation of, 1035. 
Report on China by General Wedemeyer, confidential, 

887. 
Resignation of — 

Benton, William, as Assistant Secretary, 707. 
Clayton, William L., as Under Secretary for economic 

affairs, 838. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., as Counselor, 232. 
Security program. See Security program. 
Tariffs, denial of charges alleging wholesale reductions 

in, 1220. 
"Voice of America". See "Voice of America". 
Statistical conferences, international : 
Article by Mr. Caulfield, 1084. 
U.S. delegations, 516. 
Steelman, John R., statements: 
Fact-Finding Metal-Scrap Mission to Germany, 1223. 
U.S. Mission on Science and Technology in London, 908. 
Stevenson, Adlai E., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to General Assembly, 211. 
Stillwell, James A., designation in State Department, 599. 
Stock exchanges, 1st hemispheric conference of. New York 
City, addresses by Mr. Thorp and Mr. Wright, 640, 
643. 
Stockholm, Sweden, elevation of U.S. Legation to rank of 

Embassy, 535, 1197. 
Stoddard, George D., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
Stone, Isaac A., article on U.S. support of free elections in 

eastern Europe, 311, 407. 
Strong, Philip G., designation in State Department, 51. 
Sugar, interpretation of legislation on General Sugar Act, 

letter from Secretary Marshall concerning, 341. 
Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. See SCAP. 

1295 



Surplus war property, disposal : 
Agreements, U.S. and — 
China, educational exchange (under Fulbright Act), 

1005. 
China (1946), property made available to, 230. 
China, for sale of ammunition, signature, 49. 
France (1946), payment, 85. 
Iran, extension of credit to, signature, 47. 
Netherlands, payment, 85. 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, sale and transfer 

of, table showing, 102, 340, 057, 837. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, 7th report of, 994. 
Report to Congress, 994. 

U.S. study abroad in exchange for surplus property 
(Fulbright Act), 198, 779, 1005, 1224. 
Sweden : 
Allied-Swedish accord on German external assets in, 

155, 162. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Eriksson), credentials, 1227. 
Combat materiel, transfer from U.S. to, table showing, 

340. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Import restrictions, understanding with U.S., exchange 

of memoranda, 42. 
U.S. Ambassador (Matthews), appointment, 1229. 
U.S. Legation, at Stockholm, elevation to rank of Bm- 

ba.ssy, 5.35, 1197. 
U.S. Minister (Matthews), appointment, 233. 
Switzerland : 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, transfer by U.S. to, 

table showing, 657. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Trade-mark registration in U.S., renewal, proclamation 

by President Truman, 332. 
U.S. Minister (Vincent), appointment, 233. 
SWNCC. See State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating 

Committee. 
Syria : 
Ambassador to U.S. (El-Khoury), credentials, 198. 
Arms, discontinuance by U.S. of licensing shipments to, 

1197. 
U.S. Legation at Damascus, attack on, 1196. 
U.S. Minister (Keeley), appointment, 1229. 

Tacoma World Affairs Council, Tacoma, Wash., address 

by Mr. McGhee, 1206. 
Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa), elevation of U.S. Consulate to 

rank of Consulate General, 1229. 
Tariff, wholesale reductions in, letter from Acting Secre- 
tary Lovett to president of National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers (Besse), denying charges, 1220. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on: 
Analysis and excerpts of text, 1042. 
Completion of negotiations, 902. 
Proclamation, text, 1258. 
Rates, explanation of, 1258. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 1089. 
U.K., suspension of undertaking, 1261. 
Tate, Jack Bernard, designation in State Department, 

1272. 
Tax, property. See Property. 
Tax equalization for UN personnel, General Assembly 

action, 1159, 1168. 
Taylor, Myron C. : 
Departure for Rome, statement by President Truman, 

390. 
Report to President Truman on mission to Vatican, 746. 
Telecommunication (see also Radio) : 
Atlantic City conferences, article by Mr. de Wolf, 1033. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between Rome and New York, 
opening, exchange of notes between President Tru- 
man and Prime Minister de Gasperi, 911. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and Greece, oi)en- 

ing, statement by Mr. Armour, 143. 
Telegraph service, international, established with Ger- 
many, 1191. 

1296 



Telecommunication Union, International: 
Relation to UN, 1156, 1164. 
Reorganization, discussed by Mr. de Wolf, 1034. 
Territory of the Pacific Islands. See Pacific Islands. 
Tewksbury, Howard H., designation in State Department, 

lOlL 
Thomen, Luis Francisco, credentials as Ambassador to 

U.S. from the Dominican Republic, 1091. 
Thompson, Llewellyn E., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 1011. 
Thorium, reservation for use of U.S. (Ex. Or. 9908), 1225. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses : 

Coal for Europe, 697. 

Development of international investment, 640. 
European recovery, 857, 1186. 
U.S. trade policy, 903. 
Appointments : 

U.S. alternate representative to General Assembly, 211. 
U.S. representative to ECOSOC, ISO. 
Thuransky, Stephen T., arrest of, in Hungary, U.S.-Hun- 

gariau notes concerning, 330. 
Tin Study Group, International, appointment of U.S. rep- 
resentatives to Management Committee, 734. 
Tito, Marshal, charges against U.S., 391. 
Tourism and immigration, 1st inter-American congress 

of directors of, article by Mr. Shaw, 1250. 
Tourists, U.S., regulations for travel to Austria, 45. 
Trade, international : 

Canadian restrictions on imports from abroad, question 
of U.S. invoking certain provisions of 1938 agree- 
ment, and of Export-Import Bank loan, general 
statement and correspondence, 1053. 
Conference at Geneva. Sec Preparatory Committee for 

international conference. 
Conference at Habana. See Trade Organization, Inter- 
national. 
Dairen, reopening, U.S.-U.S.S.R. notes concerning, 436. 

533. 
Greece, issuance of negotiable foreign-exchange certifi- 
cates for, 910. 
Import controls, quantitative, U.K. proposal for modifi- 
cation, statement by Secretary Marshall, 228. 
Import-export policies, interim, for Japan, Far Eastern 

Commission policy, regarding, 368. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 102. 
Mexico, limitation of importation of non-essential goods, 

151. 
Mutual concessions, benefits from, statement by Acting 

Secretary Lovett, 1089. 
Pepper export in India, decontrol of, 887. 
Policy in perspective, address by Mr. Wilcox, 989. 
Policy on, address by Mr. Thorp, 903. 
Tariff reductions, wholesale, denial by State Depart- 
ment of charges by President of National Associa- 
tion of Wool Manufacturers regarding, 1220. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. See Treaties. 
Trade and employment, world conference on, Habana. 

See World Conference. 
Trade-marks. Sec Industrial property. 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 
Constitution of, 790. 

Geneva agreement. See Tariffs and trade infra. 
Geneva charter : 

Addresses : Mr. Clayton, 592 ; Mr. Wilcox, 881. 
Articles : 603, 663, 711, 787. 
Cartel and commodity policy, 787. 
Commercial provisions, 605, 768. 
Differences from predecessors, 604. 
Employment and economic development, 667, 768, 883. 
Origin and development, 603. 
Restrictions, quantitative, 663, 768, 787. 
Subsidies and state trading, 711, 883. 
Habana conference. See ^Vorld conference infra. 
Preparatory Committee for international conference on 
trade and employment : 
Address by Mr. Wilcox, 425. 
Report from Geneva, 291. 
World conference. See World conference infra. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Trade Organization, International — Continued 

Statements by : Mr. Clayton, 293, 1211 ; Mr. Lovett, 1089 ; 
Mr. Thorp, 906 ; President Truman, 902 ; Mr. Wil- 
cox, 8S1, 990, 993. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Analysis and excerpts of text, 1042. 
Completion of negotiations, 902. 
Proclamation, text, 1258. 
Rates, explanation of, 1258. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 1089. 
Statement by President Truman, 902! 
U.K., suspension of undertaliing, 1261. 
World conference on trade and employment, at Habana : 
Address by Mr. Clayton, 1211. 
Agenda, 603, 663. 
Plans, 592, 603, 663, 711, 787. 
U.S. delegation : 

Chairman (Clayton), 981, 1211. 
List, 981. 
Trade-union rights (freedom of association), General As- 
sembly action, 1157, 1166. 
Transjordan, discontinuance by U.S. of licensing ship- 
ments of arms to, 1197. 
Transportation (see also Vessels) : 

International congress of river transportation, agenda 

and U.S. delegation, 36. 
International maritime conference, dates of meeting, 

466. 1083. 
International motor travel, U.S. interest in, article by 

Mr. Kelly, 1063. 
U.S. Public Roads Administration, aid to Turkey, 1080. 
Travel grants. See Education. 
Treasury Department : 

Census of American-Ovmed Assets in Foreign Countries, 

1271. 
Secretary of Treasury (Snyder) : 
Correspondence : 
British Chancellor of Exchequer (Cripps), on re- 
sumption of withdrawals against line of credit, 
1222. 
President Truman, transmitting report of Joint 
Philippine-American Finance Commission, 148. 
Statement on policy of International Monetary Fund 
regarding gold subsidies, 1268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid to Tuikey, with Turkey, text and notes, 144. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, convention on regu- 
lation of, with other American republics (1946), 
article by Mr. KeUy, 1063. 
Aviation : 

Air transport, multilateral, proposed, 766. 
Air transport, U.S. with — 

Austria, interim, signature and text of annex, 834, 

960. 
Portugal (1945), revision of, text, 103. 
Civil aviation, international, protocol (1947), amend- 
ing convention (1944), text, transmittal to Sen- 
ate, with report, 175. 
Commercial aviation convention, with Cuba (1928), 

termination, 599. 
Military-aviation mission to El Salvador, with El 
Salvador, signature, 437. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, U.S.-U.K., revi- 
sion and extension: 
Anglo-American discussions, 768. 
Summary of agreement, text, and annex, 1262. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1941), payment by 

Mexico of instalment due under, 1058. 
Coffee agreement, inter- American (1940), protocol ex- 
tending, signature, 836. 
Commercial, provisional, with Chile (1945), extension, 

303. 
Copyright protection, inter-American convention (1946), 

transmittal to Senate, with report, 300. 
Defense of Panama Canal, continued use of sites for, 

with Panama, signature, 1219. 
Educational exchange, with China (1st treaty under 

terms of Pulbright Act), 1005. 
Extradition treaty, with South Africa, signature, 1270. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Financial agreement, with U.K. (1945), resumption of 
withdrawals, exchange of letters between Secretary 
of the Treasury (Snyder) and Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer (Cripps), 1222. 
Financial and economic, with Italy, memoranda and 

correspondence, texts, 371. 
Food and relief, with China, signature and text, 913, 980. 
German assets in Sweden, Allied-Swedish accord, ar- 
ticle by Mr. Rubin, 155. 
German enemy assets, multilateral agreement relating 
to resolution of conflicting claims to, signature by 
U.S., Canada, and the Netherlands, 1192. 
German external assets in Italy, liquidation of, mem- 
orandum of understanding between U.S., U.K., 
France, and Italy, signature and text, 388. 
Industrial-property agreement, supplementary, with 

France, signature, 912. 
Information, freedom of, draft of proposed treaty on, 

text, 529. 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance, with 
other American republics: 
Article by Mr. Allen, 983. 
Statements by : Mr. Austin, 574 ; Mr. Connally, 575 ; 

U.S. delegation, 573. 
Test of treaty and final act, 565, 567. 
Transmittal to Senate, with report, 1188. 
Italian monetary gold, agreement for return of, U.S., 

U.K., and Italy, signature and text, 770. 
Lend-lease, payment on settlement agreement, to U.S., 
by: China (1946), 148; France (1946), 85; Nether- 
lands, 85; U.S.S.E. (1945), 148. 
Migratory bird treaty, closed area under, proclamation 

mentioned, 1227. 
Monetary gold, redistribution, protocol with — 

U.K., France, and Austria, signature and text, 959. 
U.K., France, and Italy, signature, 1269. 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1946), amending previous 

agreements (1912, 1931), proclamation, 825. 
Oil properties, expropriation of, with Mexico (1943), 

final payment, 747. 
Pacific Islands, Territory of, trusteeship agreement for: 
Action of 1st session of 80th Congress regarding, 850. 
Administration, interim, provisions for. 178. 
Eniwetok Atoll, installations for atomic experiments, 

in accordance with, 1174. 
Negotiations, in Security Council, 128. 
Signature, 178. 

Statements by President Truman, 74, 178. 
Transmittal to Congress, 74. 
U.S. approval, 420. 
Peace treaties. See Austria ; Bulgaria ; Germany ; Hun- 
gary ; Italy ; Japan ; Rumania. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter-American treaty. See Inter- 
American supra. 
Relief, signature and texts of agreements, U.S. with: 
Austria, 39; Greece. 139; Italy, 97; Turkey, 144. 
Sanitary conventions and WHO : 
Article on, 953. 

Parties to certain international sanitary conventions 
for maritime and aerial navigation, 954, 956, 957. 
Surplus war property, with: 
China, educational exchange (under Fulbright Act), 

1005. 
China, surplus ammunition, signature, 49. 
China (1946), property made available to, 230. 
France (1946), payment, 85. 
Iran, extension of credit to, signature, 47. 
Netherlands, payment, 85. 
Swedish import restrictions, with Sweden, exchange of 

memoranda, 42. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreements on (ITO) : 
Analysis and excerpts of text, 1042. 
Completion of negotiations, 902. 
Proclamation, text, 1258. 
Rates, tariff, explanation of, 1258. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 1089. 



Index, July to December J 947 



1297 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Tariffs and trade, general agreements on (ITO) — Con. 
Statement by President Truman, 002. 
U.K., suspension of undertaliing with, 12G1. 
' Trade, with Canada (193S), question of U.S. refraining 
from involving certain provisions, correspondence, 
105:5. 
Trade, with Mexico (1942), provisional agreement for 

modification of duty rates, 1219. 
Trusteeship agreements. See Trusteeship. 
United Nations, establishment of Universal Postal Union 

as specialized agency of, proposed, 585. 
United Nations lieadquarters, permanent, agreement for 
control and administration of, with UN : 
Congressional action, 797, 798. 
Exchange of notes between U.S. representative 

(Austin) and Secretary-General (Lie), 1180. 
General Assembly action, 1159, 1160, 1171. 
Signature and text, 27. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 27. 
Transmittal to Congress, 78. 
U.S. Educational Foundation in China, establishment of, 

with China, signature and text, 1005. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937) : 

As amended (1938), supplementary protocol amend- 
ing (1945), proclamation, 526. 
Protocols amending (1946, 1947), proclamation, 526. 
Trieste : 
Appointment of Governor, summary statements by Sec- 
retary-General Lie, 78, 418. 
Commission of Inquiry for, decision of Foreign Min- 
isters on report of, 824. 
Financing of, General Assembly action, 1158. 
Relief mission from U.S., 229. 

Zonal boundary in, U.S. protest to Yugoslavia regarding, 
statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 706. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addres.ses, statements, etc. : 

Cabinet Committee on World Food Programs, 85, 690. 
Citizens Food Committee, 736. 

Committees to study foreign aid and domestic econ- 
omy, 691. 
Crisis in Europe, 8.53. 
Decontrol Act on regulation of critical commodities, 

2d, 202. 
Economic rehabilitation, 498. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, report, 

688. 
European recovery and American aid, 936. 
Food-saving program as a contribution to peace, 738. 
Foreign aid, impact upon domestic economy, 932. 
Italy, continued interest of U.S. in, 1221. 
Loyalty Review Board, 1009. 
National resources and foreign aid, report on, 828. 
Peace, common goals of, 80. 
Procurement obligations of U.S. Army in France and 

North Africa, payment, 834. 
Return of Myron C. Taylor to Vatican, 390. 
Tariffs and trade, Geneva agreement on, 902. 
Trusteeship agreement for Territory of the Pacific 

Islands, 74, 178. 
United Nations Charter, 2d anniversary of, 26. 
U.S. membership in IRO, 64. 
U.S. relations with Brazil, 519. 
Western Europe, special session of Congress for crisis 

in, 8.52. 
World food crisis, examination by Congressional com- 
mittees, 735. 
Appointment of Board of Foreign Scholarships, 198. 
Correspondence : 
Air Policy Comml.ssion and Air Coordinating Commit- 
tee members, on appointment of Air Policy Com- 
mission, 173. 
Anniversary greetings to U.S.S.R., 960. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., on resignation as Counselor, 232. 
Congressional committees, on European food crisis, 

735. 
Fahy, Charles, on resignation as legal adviser of State 
Department, 203. 

1298 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Governor General of India (Mountbatten), on new 

Dominion, 396. 
Governor General of Pakistan (Jinnah), on new Do- 
minion, 396. 
Italian Prime Minister de Gasperi, on — 
Departure of American troops from Italy, 1269. 
Opening of radiotelegraph circuit between Rome and 
New Tork, 911. 
Krug, Julius A., on resources conservation and utiliza- 
tion conference, 463. 
Norton, Garrison, on formation of Air Policy Com- 
mission, 174. 
Piiiero, Jesus T. (Governor of Puerto Rico), on act 

concerning Governorship of Puerto Rico, 342. 
Pope Pius XII, on invigorating the faith of men, 478. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Instrument of approval, trusteeship agreement for Trust 

Territory of Pacific Islands, 420. 
Messages to Congress : 

Aid to European recovery, program for, 1233. 
Congress, transmitting — 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 1st report, summary, 

978. 
Displaced persons, entrance into U.S. urged, 137. 
Europe, future of, excerpts, 1022. 
Joint Philippine-American Finance Commission, re- 
port, 147. 
Trusteeship agreement for Territory of the Pacifle 

Islands, approval recommended, 74. 
UN headquarters, agreement for control and ad- 
ministration of, 78. 
Senate, transmitting — 
Aviation, civil, international, protocol (1947), 
amending convention (1944), text, with report, 
175. 
Copyright protection (1946), inter-American con- 
vention on rights of author in literary, scien- 
tific, and artistic works, with report, 300. 
ILO, conventions of 2Sth and 29th sessions, 32, 33. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter-American treaty of, with 
report, 1188. 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
Visit to Brazil, 341, 519. 
Trusteeship : 

Nauru, agreement for. General Assembly action, 1166. 
Non-self-governing territories administered by U.S., 

transmittal to UN of information concerning, 75. 
Pacific Islands. See Pacific Islands. 
South-West Africa, agreement for. General Assembly 
action, 1157, 1167. 
Trusteeship Council, countries elected to, 1160. 
Tuck, W. Hallam, election as executive secretary of Pre- 
paratory Commission for IRO, 638. 
Tunisia, procedure for filing claims for U.S. property in, 

1052. 
Turkey : 

Agreement concerning aid from U.S., text and notes, 144. 
Aid Mission : 

Chief of Mission (Wilson), 48. 

Deputy Coordinator (Wilds), 428, 534. 

Report to Congress, 1st, letter of transmittal, with 

summary, 978. 
Roads program, assistance of U.S. Public Roads Ad- 
ministration, 1080. 
Survey by Mr. McGhee, 534. 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part in, 

681 n. 
Merger of Turkish and Greek General Staffs, denial by 

State Department, 778. 
Sale of U.S. ships to, statement by Secretary Marshall, 
198. 
Tyson, Robert W., designation in State Department, 650. 

Ukraine, membership in Universal Postal Union, 585. 
Underwood, William A., appointment to U.S. mission to 
Greece, 832. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization) : 

Education for international understanding, seminar on, 
appointment of U.S. educators, 181. 

Educational reconstruction In Europe and Asia, address 
by Mr. Hyde, 1072. 

Executive Board, date of meeting, 35. 

General Conference, 2d session, in Mexico : 
Agenda, 639, 901. 
Remarks by Mr. Benton, 982. 
U.S. delegation : 
Appointments, 639, 900, 1203. 
Chairman (Benton), 639, 900, 982, 1203. 

Hylean Amazon Institute, International, conference for 
establisliment, 423, 891. 

Museums, International Council of, date of meeting of 
Interim General Council, 879, 1082. 

National Commission for, 369, 588, 951, 1187. 

Public education, 10th international conference, at Ge- 
neva, 135, 510. 

Radio Network and Program Conference, 212, 464. 
Union of South Africa : 

Extradition treaty, with U.S., signature, 1270. 

Treatment of Indians, General Assembly action on, 1155, 
1163. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Atomic energy development and control, attitude on, re- 
marks by — 
Mr. Austin, 1176. 
Mr. Russell, 1255. 

Emigration of U.S. citizens to Soviet Armenia, question 
of, 1194. 

German assets in Austria, attitude on, statements by 
Secretary Marshall, 11S3. 

German business property in U.S. zone, U.S. reply to 
Soviet inquiry, 1205. 

Germany, fundamental principles for, disagreement with 
Allies regarding, statement by Secretary Marshall, 
1247. 

Greek question, Soviet position, 1098, 1109, 1114, 1117, 
1119. 

Joint U.S.-Soviet Oil Commission, termination, 225. 

Korea, Joint Commission for. See Korea, Joint Com- 
mission for. 

Lend-lease accounts with U.S., payment on, 148. 

Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (Soviet Foreign Minister), 298, 
475, 531, 623, 744, 867. 

National anniversary, greetings from President Tru- 
man, 960. 

Petkov, Nikola (Bulgarian Opposition leader), exchange 
of letters with U.S. regarding execution of, 429, 
481, 531, 702. 

Port of Dairen, question of reopening, U.S.-Soviet notes, 
436, 533. 

Position on plan for Ruhr, exchange of notes with U.S., 
530. 

Refusal of entry to U.S. Senate Appropriations Commit- 
tee, statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, and note 
from Soviet Deputy Minister Malik, 744, 745. 

Reparation from Germany, discussed by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 1246, 1248. 

U.S. protest to Soviet press attack on President Truman, 
743. 

"Voice of America," new program to, 1196. 
United Kingdom : 

European Economic Cooperation, Committee of, part 
in, 681 n, 689. 

German war documents, Anglo-French-American proj- 
ect on publication of, 994. 

Imiwrt controls, quantitative, proposal for modification, 
statement by Secretary Marshall, 228. 

Importation of U.S. motion pictures, discussion with 
U.S., 437. 

Level-of-industry plan for Germany, revised, text of 
communique issued jointly with U.S. and France, 
467. 

London conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. 
See Foreign Ministers. 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Pilgrims Society in London, address by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 1201. 

Ruhr, bizonal plan for. See Ruhr. 

Science and technology mission in American Embassy, 
establishment, statement and letter from Mr. Steel- 
man, 908. 

Trade-mark registration in U.S., renewal, 332. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, -with U.S. (1946), 
revision and extension: 
Discussions, 768. 

Summary of agreement, text, and annex, 1262. 
Financial agreement, with U.S. (1945), resumption 
of withdrawals, exchange of letters between Sec- 
retary of the Treasury (Snyder) and Chancellor 
of Exchequer (Cripps), 1222. 
German external assets in Italy, quadripartite agree- 
ment, signature and text, 388. 
Italian monetary gold, agreement for return of, U.K., 

U.S., and Italy, signature, 770. 
Monetary gold, redistribution, protocol with — 

U.S., France, and Austria, signature and text, 959. 
U.S., France, and Italy, signature, 1269. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement (ITO) : 
Acceptance, 1258. 
Suspension of section C of schedule XIX, 1261. 

U.S. proposals on Japanese peace treaty, attitude, 436. 
United Nations : 

Addresses and statements: Mr. Armour, 634; Mr. Aus- 
tin, 626, 1176 ; Mr. Gross, 630 ; Mr. Hyde, 1069 ; Sec- 
retary-General Lie, 76, 416, 365, 618; Secretary 
Marshall, 26, 175, 539, 680, 838 ; President Truman, 
26. 

Advisory Social Welfare Services program, appropria- 
tion for, 1156. 

Agreement with Universal Postal Union, as specialized 
agency, proposed, 585. 

Appointments to, 1203. 

Armaments, Conventional, Commission on, 34, 78, 879, 
1082. 

Armed forces, 76, 78, 239, 416, 418. 

Arming the United Nations (Bulletin supplement), 224, 
239, 336, 535. 

Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. 

Atomic-energy issue in, address by Mr. Austin, 1176. 

Charter, 2d anniversary of signing, statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Secretary Marshall, 26. 

Charter, reprint of, 393. 

Children's Emergency Fund, International, 846. 

Documents, listed, 13, 73, 127, 174, 181, 210, 293, 342, 
364, 421, 463, 497, 545, 561, 637, 673, 730, 764, 803, 
868, 897, 951, 1032, 1077, 1171, 1228, 1272. 

Economic and Social Council. See ECOSOC. 

Eightieth Congress, 1st session, cooperation on policies 
of, article by Mr. Kaplan, 795, 843. 

Faith and Fidelity — American Pledge to the United Na- 
tions, address by Secretary Marshall, 539, 680, 838. 

General Assembly. See General Assembly. 

Headquarters, permanent, agreement with U.S. See 
Headquarters of UN. 

Human Rights, Commission on, 874, 1075. 

Humanitarian work of, address by Mr. Hyde, 1069. 

ICAO, relationship to, discussed in report by Secretary 
Marshall, 175. 

International law and its codification, committee on pro- 
gressive development of, 121, 732, 1159, 1170. 

Korea, question of independence of. See Korea. 

Maritime conference, international, 466, 1083. 

Membership in, summary statements by Secretary-Gen- 
eral Lie, 77, 416. 

Military Staff Committee. See Military Staff Commit- 
tee. 

Narcotic Drugs Supervisory Body, 28th and 29th ses- 
sions, dates of meetings, 213, 466, 675, 1082. 

Nationals of members of, return of property in Bulgaria, 
1270. 



Index, July to December 1947 



1299 



United Nations — Continued 

Passport and frontier formalities, world conference on, 

466. 
Power and authority of, address by Mr. Austin, 626. 
Property in Japan belonging to citizens of, FEC policy 

on, 515. 
Publications. See Documents supra. 
Publication.?, reprint of charter and other, 393. 
Relation of members of, with Spain, action by General 

Assembly, 1155, 1163. 
Rockefeller gift to. Congressional acceptance of, 797. 
Seal, emblem, and name of, protection of. Congressional 

action regarding, 801. 
Secretary-General (Trygve Lie), 76, 3G5, 416, 618. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
. Specialized agencies, relations with : 

Agreement with Universal Postal Union, proposed, 

585. 
General Assembly action on, 1156, 1159, 1164. 
Trade and employment conference at Habana. See 

World conference. 
Trusteeship Council, countries elected to, 1160. 
U.S. personnel in, tax equalization for, General Assembly 

action on, 1159. 
U.S. representatives and alternates, appointments to 
various organs, 1203. 
United Nations and the Problem of Greece, 591. 
United Nations Week Rally, Rochester, N.Y., address by 

Mr. Gross, 630. 
United Press, expulsion of correspondent from Yugoslavia, 

U.S. note regarding, 961. 
United States and Non-Self -Governing Territories, 534. 
United States citizens. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 
United States Public Roads Administration, aid to Turkey, 

1080. 
Universal Postal Union, relation to UN, 1156, 1164. 
UNRRA, termination of, letter to President Truman from 

Director General (Rooks), 106. 
UNRRA Division In State Department, change of name, .">1. 
Uranium, reservation for use of U.S. (Ex. Or. 9908), 1225. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 

Combat mat(?riel, transfer from U.S. to, tables showing, 

340, 657, 837. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1008. 
U.S. Ambassador (Briggs), appointment, 96. 
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Commission for Korea. See Korea, Joint 
Commission for. 

Vfimb^ry, Rustem, credentials as Hungarian Minister to 

U.S., 886. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., address on conclusion of inter- 
American conference at Rio de Janeiro, 502. 
van Kleffens, Dr. Eelco Nicholas, credentials as Nether- 
lands Ambassador to U.S., 297. 
Vatican, personal representative of President Truman to 
(Taylor) : 
Departure for Rome, statement by President Truman, 

890. 
Report to President Truman on mission, 746. 
Venezuela («ee also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Carnevali), credentials, 231. 
Combat matc^riel, transfer from U.S. to, tables showing, 

340, 657, 837. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 393. 
U.S. Ambassador (Corrigan), resignation, 749. 
U.S. Ambassador (Donnelly), appointment, 749, 1229. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 747. 
Vernon, Raymond, article on dissolution of Japanese feudal 

combines, 55. 
Vessels : 
Arrival of 100th ship in Italy witli supplies, message 
from Ambassador Tarchiani to Secretary Marshall, 
980. 
German naval vessels allotted to U.S., transfer to Branca, 

833. 
Italian, return to Italy by U.S. : 

Memoranda of understanding, with U.S., summary and 
texts, 371. 

1300 



Vessels — Continued 

Italian, return to Italy by U.S. — Continued 
Position of Italy, 834. 
U.S. position, 47, 769. 
Oil tankers, additional, to relieve transport shortage, 

771. 
Sale to Turkey, 198. 
Veto question in Security Council : 
Discussed by Mr. Armour, 635. 
General Assembly action on, 1077, 1155, 1163. 
Vincent, John Carter, appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Switzerland, 233. 
Virgin Islands, information transmitted to UN on condi- 
tions in, 75. 
"Voice of America" (radio broadcasts) : 
Eastern Russia, new program, 1196. 
Manila, new transmitter in, statements by Mr. Benton 

and others, 646. 
Programming by major networks, 747. 
Programming revised to meet new budget, statement 
by Mr. Benton, 304. 
Voting in Security Council, 635, 1077, 1155, 1163. 
Vyshinsky, Andrei, letter to Trygve Lie, on financial posi- 
tion of Trieste, 824. 

Wachenheimer, Carotene, article on dissolution of Japan- 
ese feudal combines, 55. 
War criminals : 
General Assembly action, 1159, 1169. 
Japanese: 

Property of, forfeiture, 35. 

Punishment of, discussed in test of proclamation of 
FEC, 218. 
Military tribunals for Germany, appointments to (Ex. 

Or. 9868 and Ex. Or. 9882), 46, 333. 
Niirnberg tribunal, principles in charter, plans for for- 
mulation of, discussed in report of U.S. representa- 
tive to UN, 126. 
War-damage claims. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 
War Department : 

Joint statement with State Department, on revised 
level-of-industry plan for U.S. -U.K. zones in Ger- 
many, 468. 
Security Advisory Board of State-Army-Navy-Air Force 
Coordinating Committee, 917, 918. 
Warner, Percy de F., article on Sontli American and South 
Atlantic regional air navigation meetings of ICAO, 
506. 
Warren, Avra M., appointment as U.S. Minister to Finland, 

1271. 
Warren. George L., article on report on 3d meeting of 

Preparatory Commission for IRO, 638. 
Weather stations, Canadian, supplies for, 82. 
Wedemeyer, Gen. Albert C. (head of mission to study con- 
ditions in China and Korea) : 
Appointment, 149. 
Report. 887. 
Statements, 476. 
Weindling, Ludwig, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

832. 
Wellesley Club, Washington, D.C., address by Mr. Hen- 
derson, 772. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), proclamation of 

protocols concerning, 526. 
Whaling, Japanese, SC.'VP announcement concerning, 48. 
Wheat, shipments from U.S. to China, 980. 
White, Edna N., appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 

832. 
White, Helen C, appointment as U.S. representative to 

UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
WHO (World Health Organization) : 
Action of 80th Congress, 1st session, regarding, article 

by Mr. Kaplan, 843. 
Commissions and committees, dates of meetings: 
Administration and Finance, 35, 674, 1084. 
Death and Morbidity, Expert Committee on Revision 

of International List of Causes of, 213, 878. 
Interim Commission, 4th session, 35, 674. 

Department of State Bulletin 



WHO (World Health Organization) — Continued 

Commissions and committees, dates of meetings — Con. 
Interim Commission, 5th session, 880, 1084. 
Quarantine, Expert Committee on, 878. 
Tuberculosis, Expert Committee on, 1st meeting, 35, 
464. 
Membership in, benefits, statement by Mr. Sandtfer, 131. 
Relation of sanitary conventions to, 953. 
Relation to UN, 1156, 1164. 
Work of, discussed by Mr. Hyde, 1069. 
World Health Assembly, regulations for international 
health, discussed, 958. 
Wiens, Henry, appointment to U.S. mission to Greece, 832. 
Wilcox, Clair, addresses : 

Preparatory Committee of international trade confer- 
ence, 425. 
Trade policy in i)erspective, 989. 
World trade, Geneva charter for, 881. 
Wildlife Refuge, Sanibel National, Florida, proclamation 

concerning, 1227. 
Wilds, Walter, appointment as deputy coordinator for aid 

to Greece and Turkey, 428, 534. 
Wilkison, Andy G., article on Biblioteca Benjamin Frank- 
lin, 755. 
Wilson, Edwin C., appointment as chief of American mis- 
sion for aid to Turkey, 48. 
Wilson, Howard E., appointment as U.S. alternate repre- 
sentative to UNESCO, 639, 900, 1203. 
Wisner, Frank Gardiner, designation in State Department, 

1011, 1090. 
Women, International Council of, Philadelphia, address 

by Mr. Saltzman, 595. 
Women and children, traffic in. General Assembly action 

concerning, 1157, 1165. 
Women Voters, League of. New York City, address by 

Mr. Thorp, 903. 
Women's National Press Club, Washington, address by 

Secretary Marshall, 83. 
Woof ter, T. J., article on hemisphere development of social 

services, 720. 
Wool Manufacturers, National Association of, letter from 
Acting Secretary Lovett to president of (Besse), on 
U.S. tariffs, 1220. 
World Bank. See International Bank. 



World conference on trade and employment, at Habana : 
Address by Mr. Clayton, 1211. 
Agenda, 603, 663. 
Flans (see also Trade Organization), 592, 603, 663, 711, 

787. 
U.S. delegation: 

Chairman (Clayton), 981, 1211. 
List, 981. 
World Fund. See International Monetary Fund. 
World Health Organization. See WHO. 
World Statistical Congress, 516, 1084. 
World War II, termination of, between U.S. and Italy, 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, proclamation, 771. 
Wright, James H. : 

Designation in State Department, 203, 599. 
International monetary exchange in Western Hemi- 
sphere, address, 643. 
Wright, Louise Leonard, appointment as U.S. alternate 
representative to UNESCO, 1203. 

Yemen : 

Admission to UN, 1153, 1161. 

Visit of Prince Saif al-Islam Abdullah to U.S., 101, 198. 
Yugoslavia : 

Allied military personnel in, detention and maltreat- 
ment: 
Protest by U.S., 591. 
Release, 649. 

Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 
Commission of. 

Charges against U.S., by Marshal Tito, 391. 

Claims for horses captured by U.S. in Germany, 770. 

Free elections in, U.S. support of, discussed by Mr. Stone, 
407. 

Journalists, U.S., expelled from, note from U.S. request- 
ing reconsideration, 961. 

Property, alleged misconduct of U.S. military personnel 
toward, exchange of notes with U.S. regarding, and 
summary of answers by U.S. to charges, 703. 

Trieste, zonal boundary in, statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Lovett, 706. 

Zimmermann, Frederick L., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 838. 
Zones of occupation. See under Germany. 



Index, July to December 1947 



1301 



U. S. SOVERHMENT PRINTING OFPlCEt I94S 




J/i& ^eha^i^ten(/ xw Crtat^ 




HEADQUARTERS AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE 

UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED STATES 27 

THE CREATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS SPE- 
CIAL COMMITTEE ON PALESTINE • Article 

by William I. Cargo 3 

THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION OF INVES- 
TIGATION CONCERNING GREEK FRONTIER 

INCIDENTS • Sumrtiary Statement by Harry N. 

Hou-ard 14 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XVII, No. 418 
July 6, 1947 




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July 6, 1947 



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I 



THE CREATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PALESTINE 



Work of the First Special Session of the General Assembly 



hy WiUiam I. Cargo 



The General Assembly of the United Nations met in its 
f/rst special session to establish a United Nations investi- 
gating committee for Palestine. This article describes the 
work of the special session and the principal issues which 
were involved in determining the composition of the Special 
Committee aiid its terms of reference. 



The First Special Session of the General As- 
sembly of tlie United Nations met in New York 
from April 28 to May 15, 1947. It was called at 
the request of the United Kingdom for the purpose 
of constituting and instructing a special committee 
to undertake a preliminary study of the Palestine 
question. The results of the special session are em- 
bodied in two resolutions. The first establishes a 
special committee of 11 members, endowed with 
broad powers to investigate all aspects of the Pal- 
estine problem, and under specific instructions to 
submit for consideration by the second regular ses- 
sion of the General Assembly "such proposals as it 

, may consider appropriate for the solution of the 
problem of Palestine". In a second resolution, the 

u General Assembly calls upon all governments and 
peoples to refrain from the threat or use of force 

^ or any other action which might create an atmos- 
phere prejudicial to an early settlement of the 
question of Palestine.^ 

The First Special Session also was the occasion 
for the formal ceremonies welcoming Siam as the 
fifty-fifth member of the United Nations.- Siam 
had been admitted to membership in the preceding 
session but too late to permit formal installation 
at that time. 

Jo/y 6, 7947 



The Calling of the Special Session 

In a letter dated April 2, 1947, Sir Alexander 
Cadogan, Permanent Representative of the United 
Kingdom to the United Nations, transmitted to the 
Secretary-General the following message from his 
Goverimaent : 

His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom re- 
quest the Secretary-General of the United Nations to place 
the question of Palestine on the Agenda of the General 
Assembly at its next regular Annual Session. They will 
submit to the Assembly an account of their administration 
of the League of Nations Mandate and will ask the As- 
sembly to make recommendations, under Article 10 of the 
Charter, concerning the future government of Palestine. 

In making this request, His Majesty's Government draw 
the attention of the Secretary-General to the desirability 
of an early settlement in Palestine and to the risk that the 
General Assembly might not be able to decide upon its 
recommendations at its next regular Annual Session unless 
some preliminary study of the question had previously 
been made under the auspices of the United Nations. They 
therefore request the Secretary-General to summon, as 
soon as possible, a special Session of the General Assembly 
for the purpose of constituting and instructing a Special 
Committee to prepare for the consideration, at the regular 



' For text of first resolution see Bulj.etin of May 25, 
1947, p. 1024 ; for text of second resolution see post, p. 12. 
• U.N. doc. A/P.V.68 (Apr. 28, 1947). 



Session of the Assembly, of the question referred to in the 
preceding paragraph.' 

The request of the British Government for the 

convening of a special session was immediately 

communicated to the other 54 members of the 

United Nations.'' By April 13, 1947, a majority 

of the members had concurred in the request.^ 

The Secretary-General accordingly summoned the 

General Assembly of the United Nations into its 

first special session. He addressed the following 

telegraphic communication to the members of the 

United Nations : 

Have honor inform you that a majority of Members 
have today concurred in the request of United Kingdom 
to summon a Special Session of General Assembly. In 
accordance with Rules Three and Eight of Provisional 
Rules of Procedure of General Assembly I hereby notify 
yoii that Special Session will open on Monday 28 April 
1947 at eleven A. M. in General Assembly Hall Flushing 
Meadow New York City. 

Provisional Agenda of Special Session follows : 

1. Opening of Session by Chairman of Belgian Delega- 
tion 

2. Election and report of Credentials Committee 

3. Election of President 

4. Organization of the Session 

5. Adoption of Agenda 

6. Constituting and instructing Special Committee to 
prepare for consideration of the question of Palestine at 
second regular Session." 

The United States concurred in the calling of the 
special session and mad^ its view known at an early 
stage in informal conversations with the United 
Kingdom. The United States believed that if the 
General Assembly was to deal effectively with the 
question of Palestine at its second regular session 
in September 1947, preliminary work by a United 
Nations body was highly desirable, if not indis- 
pensable. The United States further believed that 
any such preliminary study of the Palestine ques- 
tion by the United Nations should be carried out 
by a process of unquestioned legality under the 
Charter. A special session of the General As- 



'U.N. doc. A/2S6 (Apr. 3, 1047) ; Bui-letin of May 4, 
1947, p. 795. 

'Text of communication in U.N. doc. A/295 (Apr. 25, 
1947). 

^ Ultimately 40 states replied, 39 concurring, Ethiopia 
opposed. See U.N. docs. A/295 and A/295/corr. 1 (May 7, 
1947). 

• U.N. doc. A/295. 

' Charter of the United Nations, art. 9. 



sembly for the purpose of constituting and in- 
structing a special committee to investigate th« 
Palestine situation and to report to the second reg- 
ular session of the General Assembly appeared tc 
satisfy both of these desiderata. 

Although a special session of the General Assem- 
bly seems to be, on first analysis, a costly method oi 
setting up an investigating committee, it must be 
recalled that there is not in existence a continuing 
body of the General Assembly or any sort of per- 
manent machinery which can perform the func-l 
tions of the General Assembly between sessions. 
In view of this fact and considering the desirability ; 
of conducting the preparatory work of the United; 
Nations on the Palestine question on the clear au- 
thority of one of its principal organs, a special 
session of the General Assembly emerged as the 
best choice of the available alternatives. 

Representation at the Special Session 

The majority of the members of the United Na- 
tions conceived of tlie first special session of the 
General Assembly in the literal terms of the pur 
pose for which it was called. They felt that tht 
work of the special session should be the procedura 
task of establishing a United Nations Special Com 
mittee on Palestine. Thus, although the Chartei 
of the United Nations allows each member to desig- 
nate as many as five representatives to the Genera' 
Assembly,' most of the members named only om 
or two rej^resentatives to the special session. Then 
was, in addition, a noticeable tendency to relj 
upon personnel already available in New York oi 
"Washington. 

The United States was represented at the special 
session by Ambassador Warren R. Austin, Perma- 
nent Representative at the Seat of the United Na-^ 
tions, as Chairman of the Delegation, and 
Ambassador Herschel V. Johnson as Alterna 
Representative. 

Organization of the Session 

The organization of a special session of the Gen-^ 
eral Assembly designed for a single, limited pur-' 
pose presented certain problems not encountered! 
in the normal procedures for organizing the regu-' 
lar sessions of the General Assembly. Thesf 
problems centered principally around the question 
of whether it was necessary to organize the General 
Assembly in full, including its six main committees! 

Department of State Bulletin 



lo 



Ib 



I 



and its General Committee, or whether some 
streamlined organization should be sought. Ow- 
ing to widespread exchanges of views among the 
various delegations before the special session began 
and to a wide area of agreement among the Five 
Powers on the organization of the session, these 
problems were solved without great difficulty. 

Election of the President 

The first meeting of the special session was 
opened on April 28 by Fernand van Langenhove, 
as head of the delegation of the state (Belgium) 
from which the preceding president of the General 
Assembly, Paul-Henri Spaak, had been chosen.' 
On the first vote, taken by secret ballot in accord- 
ance with the Provisional Kules of Procedure for 
the General Assembly, Oswaldo Aranha, chairman 
of the Brazilian Delegation and former Foreign 
Minister of Brazil, was elected president for the 
special session. He received 45 of the 50 votes 
cast. Five other individuals each received a single 
vote.^ 

Organization of the General Cormnittee 

The General Committee is in effect the steering 
committee of the General Assembly. It is com- 
posed of 14 members : the president of the General 
Assembly, the seven vice presidents, and the chair- 
men of the six main committees. Its principal 
tasks are to report to the General Assembly on the 
agenda, to assist the president and the General 
Assembly in matters relating to the agenda and 
the coordination of the proceedings of the com- 
mittees, and generally to assist the president in 
the conduct of the work of the General As- 
sembly.^" 

After giving careful attention to the most de- 
sirable procedure for organizing the special ses- 
sion, the president proposed that the Provisional 
Rules of Procedure should be closely followed and 
' that the General Committee should be established. 
To this end, he suggested that the seven vice presi- 
dents of the General Assembly be elected and that 
thereafter the plenary session should successively 
constitute itself into the six main committees, each 
committee meeting briefly to elect its chairmaia. 
In this way, the president pointed out, the General 
Committee could be set up rapidly and could begin 
its task of examining the proposed agenda items in 
order to make its report on the agenda to the 
plenary session.^^ 

Jo/y 6, 1947 



The suggestion of President Aranha was 
adopted without objection. The General Assem- 
bly proceeded to the election of the seven vice 
presidents.'^ The chairmen of the six main com- 
mittees were then elected in the manner pro- 
posed." The General Committee was thus estab- 
lished and the formal organization of the special 
session was completed during its first day of 
meetings.'* 

Adoption of the Agenda 

The special session of the General Assembly had 
before it two proposed agenda items. The first of 
these was the item proposed by the United King- 
dom for which the special session had been called : 
"Constituting and instructing a Special Committee 
to prepare for the consideration of the question of 
Palestine at the Second Regular Session". 

The second proposed agenda item was put for- 
ward in identical terms, but individually, by each 
of the five Arab States : Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Leba- 
non, and Saudi Arabia.''^ This item was carried 
on the supplementary list of agenda items in the 
following language : "The termination of the man- 
date over Palestine and the declaration of its inde- 
pendence"." 

It was the task of the General Committee to ex- 



"Ru!e 25, Provisional Rules of Procedure of the General 
Assembly. 

" U.N. doe. A/P.V.68, p. 16. 

" Rule 33, Provisional Rules of Procedure of the General 
Assembly 

" U.N. doc. A/P.V.68, p. 47. 

" /6i(Z., pp. 51-56. 

" U.N. docs. A/C.1/P.V.45; A/C.2/P.V.30; A/C.3/P.V.49; 
A/C.4/P.V.28; A/C.5/P.V.46 ; and A/C.6/P.V.34, all of 
Apr. 28, 1947. For each of the committees except the 
First Committee the election of a chairman was its first 
and last official action at the special session. 

"The composition of the General Committee was as 
follows: president: Oswaldo Aranha (Brazil) ; vice presi- 
dents: China, Ecuador, France, India, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, and United States; 
chairmen of the six main committees: First Committee, 
Lester B. Pearson (Canada) ; Second Committee, Jan 
Papanek (Czechoslovakia) ; Third Committee, Mahmoud 
Hassan Pasha (Egypt) ; Fourth Committee, Herman G. 
Ericksson (Sweden); Fifth Committee, Jozef Winiewicz 
(Poland) ; and Sixth Committee, Tiburcio Cartas, Jr. 
(Honduras). 

" U.N. docs. A/287 (Apr. 21, 1947) , and 288, 289, 290, and 
291 (Apr. 23,1947). 

"U.N. doc. A/294 (Apr. 25, 1947). 



amine both of these proposed agenda items and to 
report on them to the General Assembly. The 
General Assembly would then proceed to adopt its 
agenda, a majority vote being required in the case 
of the item for which the special session was called 
and a two-thirds majority in the case of the pro- 
posed additional item." 

The General Committee considered the proposed 
agenda items in four meetings on April 29-30." 
At the opening meeting of the General Committee, 
the President of the General Assembly, presiding 
also over the General Committee, pointed out that 
the item on the provisional agenda had already 
been approved by implication in view of the fact 
that a majority of the members of the United Na- 
tions had agreed to the holding of a special session 
to consider this item. After a two-hour discussion, 
during which the president felt obliged to remind 
the committee on two occasions that it should not 
enter into a discussion of political matters, the 
General Committee agreed to recommend that the 
item relating to the constituting and instructing of 
a special committee be placed on the agenda of the 
General Assembly and that it be referred to the 
First Committee. The Egj'ptian Representative 
on the General Committee recorded his objection to 
this recommendation." 

During the discussion in the General Committee 
on the agenda item proposed by the United King- 
dom, the Delegate from India raised the question 
of what the position of the United Kingdom Gov- 
ernment might be with regard to whatever recom- 
mendations the United Nations might make con- 
cerning Palestine.-" A similar query was subse- 
quently addressed to the United Kingdom Repre- 
sentative by the Lebanese Delegate during the 
work of the First Committee.^' In both cases Sir 
Alexander Cadogan replied on behalf of the Brit- 
ish Government. On the latter occasion he set 
forth the position of the United Kingdom Gov- 
ernment in the following terms : 

We have tried for years to solve this problem of Pales- 



" See "The First Special Session of the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations : Procedural Questions With Re- 
lation to Agenda", Sheldon Z. Kaplan and Betty C. Gough, 
Bulletin of May 2.5. 1947, p. 1013. 

"U.N. docs. A/BUR/P.V.28-31 (Apr. 29 and 30, 1047). 

" U.N. doc. A/BUR/P.V.28, p. 51. 

" Ibid., pp. 11-15. 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.52 (May 9, 1947), pp. 64-66. 

" Ibid., pp. 66-67. 



tine. Having failed so far, we now bring it to the United 
Nations, in the hope that they can succeed where we have 
not. If the United Nations can flud a just solution which 
will be accepted by both parties, it could hardly be ex- 
pected that we should not welcome such a solution. All 
we say — and I made this reservation the other day — Is 
that we should not have the sole responsibility for en- 
forcing a solution which is not accepted by both parties and 
which we cannot reconcile with our conscience. Is there 
any other Member of the United Nations which, in our 
place, would not make so reasonable a stipulation? But 
if this question is addressed to us, concerning our accept- 
ance of any recommendation which the Assembly may 
make, I suggest that it might also be addressed to other 
interested parties and, indeed, to all other Members of 
the United Nations.'' 

AVlien the General Committee began its consider- 
ation of the item proposed by the Arab States, the 
president invited the Delegates of Iraq, Lebanon, 
Saudi Arabia, and Syria to participate in the de- 
bate without the right of vote. This was in ac- 
cordance with rule 34 of the Provisional Rules of 
Procedure, which provides that a member of the 
General Assembly which has no representative on 
the G«neral Committee and which has requested 
the inclusion of an additional item in the agenda 
shall be entitled to attend any meeting of the Gen- 
eral Committee at which its request is discussed, 
and may participate, without vote, in the discussion 
of that item. 

In a debate extending over a period of two days, 
the representatives of the Arab States urged the 
inclusion in the agenda of the item proposed by 
them. The consensus of the majority of the mem- 
bers of the General Committee, however, was op- 
posed to the inclusion of this item. Those who 
opposed the inclusion of the item made it clear 
that this opposition was not directed against the 
possibility of independence for Palestine. Oppo- 
sition to the inclusion of the Arab item was vari- 
ously put by speakers on the grounds that its con- 
sideration by the special session of the General 
Assembly would be premature, that it would pre- 
judge the work of the commission of inquiry which 
was to be established, that the function of the spe- 
cial session was the procedural task of setting up 
the commission of inquiry, and that it would not 
serve the interests of either the parties directly con- 
cerned or the United Nations as a whole if a hur- 
ried approach should lead to a hurried decision. 
Wlien the vote was taken in the General Commit- 
tee, Egypt alone voted for the inclusion of the | 

Department of State Bulletin 



Arab item. Eight states were opposed; five ab- 
stained." 

The report of the General Committee to the 
General Assembly on the agenda was drawn up in 
two parts.^* The first part contained the recom- 
mendation of the General Committee for the inclu- 
sion of the item proposed by the United Kingdom 
and for its reference to the First Committee. The 
second part of the report recorded the decision of 
the General Committee not to recommend the in- 
clusion of the item entitled "The Termination of 
I the Mandate over Palestine and the Declai'ation of 
its Independence". After debate the General As- 
sembly adopted without a record vote the item 
proposed by the United Kingdom and recom- 
mended by the General Committee. The second 
recommendation of the General Committee was 
likewise upheld. In a roll-call vote on the item 
proposed by the Arab States, this item was refused 
by a vote of 15 for, 24 against, and 10 abstentions.'^' 
Thus the agenda of the special session as finally 
adopted by the General Assembly consisted solely 
of the item originally proposed by the United 
Kingdom and for which the special session was 
called, namely, "constituting and instructing a spe- 
cial committee to prepare for the consideration of 
the question of Palestine at the second regular 
session." 

Organization and Work of the First Committee 

The First (Political and Security) Committee, 
to which the agenda item of the special session was 
referred, met under the very competent chairman- 
ship of Lest«r B. Pearson, Canadian Under Secre- 
tarj' of State for External Affairs and former 
Ambassador to the United States. Padilla Nervo 
(Mexico) served as vice chairman and Henrik de 
Kauffmann (Denmark) served as rapporteur. 
Tlie First Committee, on which each of the 55 
members of the United Nations is represented, 
held 12 meetings, from May 6 to May 13, 1947.2" 
By using the facilities for simultaneous interpre- 
tation available at Lake Success, the First Com- 
mittee completed successfully a difficult task, 
which, if the method of subsequent interpretation 
had been used, would have taken more than twice 
as long. This use of simultaneous translation was 
an important element in expediting the progress 
of the special session. It made possible extensive 
consideration of the item for which the session was 

iuly 6, J 947 



called and still permitted the General Assembly 
to conclude its work in less than three weeks. 

Two subconmiittees were established by the 
First Committee during the course of its proceed- 
ings. One was a drafting subcommittee which 
met on two occasions, with a slightly different com- 
position each time, for the purpose of working out 
terms of reference for the Special Committee. 
The other dealt with the question of the hearing of 
nongovernmental organizations. 

The Hearing of Nongovernmental Organizations 

In connection with its main task of establishing 
a United Nations committee of inquiry on Pales- 
tine, the General Assembly was confronted with 
the special problem of reaching a decision on the 
request of many nongovernmental oi'ganizations 
to be heard during the special session. Owing to 
the high degree of interest of many private organi- 
zations in the Palestine problem, the Secretary- 
General received several communications from 
such organizations even before the special session 
began, urging that they be allowed to make their 
views known to the General Assembly. Addi- 
tional communications were received while the 
special session was in progress.^' 

Certain nongovernmental organizations specifi- 



''U.N. doc. A/BUR/P.V.31 (Apr. 30, 1947), pp. 127-130. 

^ U.N. doc. A/29S (May 1, 1947) . 

""U-N. doc. A/P.V.71 (May 1, 1947), pp. 131-132. The 
states which voted for the inclusion of the Arab Item were : 
Afghanistan, Argentina, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Cuba, Eg.vpt, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi 
Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and Yugoslavia. 

"U.N. docs. A/C.l/P.V.46-57 (May 6-13, 1947). 

" In addition to communications from the Jewish Agency 
for Palestine (U.N. doe. A/C. 1/139, May 5, 1947) and the 
Arab Higher Committee of Palestine (U.N. doc. A/C. 1/143, 
May 5, 1947) — organizations which were heard at the 
First Committee — communications were also received by 
the Secretary-General from the following groups : Agudas 
Israel World Organization ; Political Action Committee 
for Palestine; Progressive Zionist District 95 of New 
York ; Zionist Organization of America ; Hebrew Commit- 
tee of National Liberation ; Committee for Freedom of 
North Africa ; Palestine Communist Party Central Com- 
mittee; Institute of Arab American Affairs; Young Egypt 
Party ; League for Peace with Justice in Palestine ; Union 
for the Protection of the Human Person ; United Israel 
World Union, Inc. ; Church of (3od, Faith of David, Inc. ; 
Catholic Near East Welfare Association (U.N. docs. A/C. 
1/138, May 5, 1947; 140-142, May 5, 1947; 152, May 6, 
1947 ; 154, May 7, 1947 ; and 157-163, May 8 and 9, 1947) . 



cally requested that their representatives be al- 
lowed full rights of participation, except for the 
right to vote, in the deliberations of the General 
Assembly. Such participation was manifestly im- 
possible, for the theory of the Charter of the 
United Nations is that full rights of participation 
in the General Assembly is limited to representa- 
tives of members of the United Nations. The 
members of the United Nations are states and 
states only. 

A number of delegations, including that of the 
United States, considered that the sole function of 
the special session was the procedural task of con- 
stituting and instructing a special committee on 
Palestine. It would be for the special committee 
itself to hear such views on the substance of the 
Palestine question as it might think useful. How- 
ever, as early as the initial discussions in the Gen- 
eral Committee it became apparent that references 
to the substance of the Palestine problem would 
very likely continue to be made throughout the 
session. The vast majority of delegations came to 
the conclusion that it would be helpful to hear, in 
some appropriate manner, the views of those non- 
governmental organizations which were most di- 
rectly interested in the Palestine question and were 
representative of considerable elements of the 
population of Palestine. 

After a preliminary discussion had taken place 
in the General Committee,^^ the General Assembly 
on May 5 adopted the following resolution regard- 
ing the hearing of nongovernmental organizations : 

The General Assembly resolves 

1. That the First Committee grant a hearing to the 
Jewish Agency for Palestine on the question before the 
Committee; 

2. To send to that same Committee for its decision those 
other communications of a similar character from the 



"U.N. docs. A/BUR/P.V.32-33 and A/299 (all of May 
2, 1947). 

" U.N. docs. A/P.V.7.5 (May 5, 1947), p. 81, and A/C.1/144 
(May 5, 1947). 

'"Resolution adopted by the First Committee on May 6, 
1947 (U.N. doc. A/C.1/151). 

" See telegram from the Palestine Arab Delegation to 
the Secretary-General dated May 5, 1947 (U.N. doc. 
A/C.1/14.5. May G, 1947). 

" U.N. doc. A/P.V.76 ( May 7, 1947 ) . See also U.N. docs. 
A/C.1/P.V.48 (May 6, 1947), p. 61, and A/C.1/153 (May 7, 
1947). 

*" Colombia, Iran, Polandr Sweden, and the United 
Kingdom. 

"U.N. doe. A/C.1/164 (May 9, 1947). 



Palestinian population which have been received by this 
special session of the General Assembly or may later on be 
submitted to it." 

Acting upon this resolution, the First Commit- 
tee authorized its chairman to make the necessary 
arrangements to give an opportunity to the Jewish 
Agency for Palestine, the Arab Higher Committee 
as representative of the views of the Arab popula- 
tion, and any other organization representative of 
a considerable element of the population of Pales- 
tine, to appear before the First Committee and to 
present their views with regard to the constituting 
and instructing of a sj^ecial committee on Pales- 
tine.^o 

The Jewish Agency for Palestine, it will be 
noted, was specifically mentioned in the resolution 
adopted by the General Assembly in plenary ses- 
sion, whereas the Arab Higlier Committee was not 
mentioned by name. In order to dispel any pos- 
sible doubt that these organizations were on a plane 
of complete equality in appearing before the First 
Committee,^^ the General Assembly convened 
briefly in a plenary meeting on May 7 and passed 
a second resolution on nongovernmental organiza- 
tions affirming that "the decision of the First 
Committee to grant a hearing to the Arab Higher 
Committee gives a correct interpretation to the 
Assembly's intention".^^ 

The First Committee took the further step of 
establishing a subcommittee of five members ^^ to 
consider the communications received from other 
nongovernmental organizations and to advise the 
committee whether any of these organizations were 
representative of a considerable element of the 
population of Palestine. The subcommittee ex- 
amined all requests received by the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations prior to the agreed 
deadline of midnight of May 8. It found that 
some of the requests originated with organizations 
establislied outside Palestine and that the requests 
emanating from organizations within Palestine 
did not represent "a sufficiently considerable ele- 
ment of the population of Palestine" to justify a 
recommendation of a hearing before the First 
Committee. As a consequence the subcommittee 
unanimously decided to advise the First Commit- 
tee not to grant a hearing to organizations other 
than the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Arab 
Higher Committee. The subcommittee, in its re- 
port to the First Committee on May 9," made it 
clear that this recommendation did not exclude the 



Department of State Bulletin 



possibility of any organization's being heard by 
the Special Committee on Palestine once it had 
been established. The report of the subcommittee 
was accepted by the First Conmiittee without 
objection .^= 

Carrying out the resolutions of the General As- 
sembly and its own decision, the First Committee 
on May 8 heard Dr. Silver, representative of the 
Jewish Agency for Palestine ;^ on May 9 it heard 
Mr. Kattan, representative of the Arab Higher 
Committee.^^ In both cases questions were put to 
these two representatives by members of the First 
Committee. During the meetings of the First 
Committee on May 12 spokesmen for the Jewish 
Agency and the Arab Higher Committee replied 
to these questions. Representatives of the two 
organizations made their final contributions by ex- 
pressing their views on the proposed terms of ref- 
erence of the Special Committee on Palestine. 

The method devised during the special session 
for hearing the Jewish Agency and the Arab 
Higher Committee was well suited to the special 
circumstances of the question under consideration. 
Certain aspects of this procedure merit close atten- 
tion. It will be noted that the General Assembly 
itself specifically sanctioned both hearings by res- 
olutions adopted in plenary session. The hearings 
themselves took place before the First Committee 
and not before the plenary body. Moreover, the 
appearances of representatives of these two non- 
governmental organizations were "hearings" in the 
familiar usage of the term ; that is, the represent- 
atives of the two organizations appeared under 
arrangements effected by the chairman of the com- 
mittee, made statements to the committee on the 
matter before it, and answered questions which 
members of the committee desired to put to them. 
The criterion of representation of a "considerable 
element of the population" was recognized in this 
special case and adopted by the First Committee 
in its task of deciding which organizations should 
be heard. The Jewish Agency and the Arab 
Higher Committee both represent substantial ele- 
ments of the population of Palestine. It may also 
be noted that the Jewish Agency is a body specifi- 
cally recognized in the terms of the Mandate for 
Palestine.^ The Arab Higher Committee, for its 
part, has participated in conversations with the 
United Kingdom Government, at the request of 
that Government, concerning the future admin- 
istration of Palestine. The First Committee was 

July 6, 1947 

749707 — 47 2 



further assured by the Delegation of the United 
Kingdom, which is the responsible administering 
authority for Palestine, that the Arab Higher Com- 
mittee is in fact representative of the views of a 
substantial element of the population of Palestine.^ 
The special arrangements worked out for hear- 
ing the Jewish Agency and the Arab Higher Com- 
mittee seem, under the unusual circumstances of 
this case, to have provided a suitable and practical 
means of giving effect to the desire of the General 
Assembly to learn at first hand the views of the 
inhabitants of Palestine. It is understood that 
the circumstances in this case were so exceptional 
that the arrangements made would not constitute 
a precedent for the General Assembly in its con- 
sideration of other questions in the future. 

Discussions in tlie First Committee on the Creation 
of the Special Committee on Palestine 

The basic work in determining the composition 
and terms of reference of the Special Committee 
on Palestine, which it was the purpose of the spe- 
cial session to create, was carried on in the First 
Committee. The resolution establishing the Spe- 
cial Committee on Palestine, as finally drawn up 
by the First Committee, was accepted in the ple- 
nary session without change. 

At the outset of its work the First Committee 
had before it draft resolutions submitted by Argen- 
tina and the United States. Both of these resolu- 
tions proposed the establishment of a committee 
of inquiry with broad powers. The Argentine 
resolution " proposed that "The investigating 
committee shall have the widest powers, both to 
record facts and to make recommendations." The 
draft resolution put forward by the United States *^ 
suggested that the committee should make "such 
proposals for the solution of the problem of Pales- 
tine as it may determine to be useful for the effec- 
tive consideration of the problem by the General 
Assembly." The two draft proposals, however, 
diverged fundamentally on the question of the 



=' U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.52 (May 9, 1947), pp. 1-11. 

™ For Dr. Silver's statement see U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.50, 
pp. 13-27. 

"For Mr. Rattan's statement see U.N. doc. A/C.l/ 
P.V.52, pp. 77-92. 

'' Mandate for Palestine, arts. 4, 6, and 11. 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.47, pp. 3-10. 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/149 (May 6, 1947) . 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/150 (May 6, 1947) . 



membei-ship of the special committee which was to 
be created. The Argentine resolution proposed a 
committee composed of (a) the Five Powers and 
(b) six other states chosen by lot on the basis of 
geographic distribution. The United States proj- 
ect, on the other hand, was premised upon the view 
that the five permanent members of the Security 
Council — China, France, the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States — should not form a part of the spe- 
cial committee and that the special committee 
should consist of a small number of states not 
directly interested in the Palestine problem. 

The draft proposals submitted by the United 
States and Argentina were used as a basis for a 
general discussion which began in the First Com- 
mittee on May 7.*^ As a result of this general 
discussion, it was decided to consider first of all 
the terms of reference of the special committee and 
then, having reached agreement on what the spe- 
cial committee was to do, its composition. 

7'ermS of Reference of the Special Committee 

The majority of the members of the First Com- 
mittee were agreed that a special committee of 
inquiry on Palestine should have broad powers. 
The principal point of contention in the framing 
of terms of reference for such a committee was 
whether it should be specifically instructed to ex- 
amine particular aspects of the Palestine problem. 
Certain delegations felt that the committee should 
be instructed, for example, to visit the European 
displaced persons' camps and Cyprus. Others felt 
that the terms of reference should include, for the 
guidance of the committee, some reference to the 
desirability of independence for the population of 
Palestine. However, the majority of the delega- 
tions, including the United States Delegation, felt 
that such specific instructions would tend to ham- 
per the Special Committee in its broad examina- 
tion of the problem and might, in fact, prejudge 
the work of the committee. Moreover, the ven- 
tures that the First Committee made in the direc- 
tion of drafting detailed directives for the Special 
Committee made it clear that the process of reach- 
ing agreement within the First Committee on the 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.48. 
" U.N. docs. A/C.1/P.V.48, 50, 51, and 57. 
"U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.51, pp. 42-45. 
"U.N. doe. A/C.1/P.V.50, p. 57. 



precise language of such detailed instructions 
would indeed be very long. 

As a consequence of the foregoing considerations, 
the terms of reference as set forth in the final reso- 
lution establishing the Special Committee on Pal- 
estine contain, with but a single exception, no spe- 
cial instructions to the committee. This exception 
requires the committee to "give most careful con- 
sideration to the religious interests in Palestine 
of Islam, Judaism and Christianity". 

The Special Committee is thus the master of its 
own actions. It is assigned by the terms of the res- 
olution "the widest powers to ascertain and record 
facts, and to investigate any questions and issues 
relevant to the problem of Palestine". It is em- 
powered to detei-mine its own procedure. The re- 
port of the Special Committee, to be submitted not 
later than September 1, 1947, may contain what- 
ever proposals the committee may consider appro- 
priate for the solution of the problem of Pales- 
tine. 

Composition of the Special Committee *' 

The most important issue relating to the mem- 
bership of the Special Committee was the question 
of whether or not the Five Powers — the perma- 
nent members of the Security Council — should be 
included. As indicated above, the draft resolu- 
tion put forward by Argentina proposed the in- 
clusion of the Five Powers; the United States 
draft resolution contemplated their exclusion or, 
in the phrase of the Representative of China, their 
"non-inclusion". ** 

All delegations at the special session recognized 
that the attitude of the Major Powers would be a 
factor of primary importance in reaching a stable 
solution of the Palestine problem. Those who 
supported the inclusion of the Five Powers on the 
Special Committee felt that this was desirable 
because it would put them in a position of respon- 
sibility from the very outset of the work of the 
United Nations on the Palestine question. The 
Representative of Czechoslovakia, for example, 
stated the view that "the great Powers and the 
Mandatory Power will be charged with the execu- 
tion of the proposals that will emanate from that 
committee". He inquired why they should not 
therefore participate in the preparation of such 
proposals.''^ It was suggested by others that 
failure to include the permanent members of tlie 
Security Council on the S^Decial Committee might 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



allow them to avoid their responsibilities. It was 
also felt by certain delegations that if the Five 
Powers were not on the committee of inquiry, the 
result might be a very prolonged discussion of the 
Palestine problem in September. It may be noted 
that of the Great Powers themselves only the 
Soviet Union proposed that these powers should 
be included on the special committee." 

Certain delegations which opposed the inclusion 
of the major powers on the Special Committee 
referred to various failures of the Five Powers to 
reach agreement on matters pertaining to the 
United Nations and the peace settlements. They 
suggested that, if the Five Powers were included 
on the Special Committee, there was a risk that 
disagreement among them would result in failure 
of the Special Committee to make agreed recom- 
mendations to the General Assembly in Sep- 
tember.*' 

A major argument against the inclusion of the 
Five Powers was the generally accepted view that 
if one of them served on the Special Committee, 
all five should serve; or, conversely, if one of the 
Five Powers was not in a position to serve on the 
Special Committee, none should serve. In view 
of the special situation of the United Kingdom 
with respect to the Palestine question, there was a 
feeling among the delegations that the United 
Kingdom should not be asked to serve on the 
Special Committee. It was suggested by the 
United Kingdom Representative himself that his 
Government was "in a rather particular position", 
and that if the United Kingdom was named to 
the Special Committee it would be at times on the 
witness stand only to resume its seat with the jury 
shortly thereafter.** If the United Kingdom could 
not serve on the Special Committee, it followed in 
the minds of most delegations — on the principle 
of "all or none" — that the Five Powers should be 
excluded from the Special Committee. This con- 
clusion was recoi'ded by the First Committee in a 
series of votes on May 13.*° 

Once the basic issue of Five-Power membership 
had been decided, the task of determining the pre- 
cise composition of the committee was a relatively 
short one. The First Committee decided, on the 
basis of an Australian proposal, that the Special 
Committee should consist of 11 members, not in- 
cluding the permanent members of the Security 
Council.^" The draft resolution put forward by 

July 6, 1947 



the United States had named seven states : Canada, 
Czechoslovakia, Iran, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden^ 
and Uruguay. Two additional states, Guatemala 
and Yugoslavia, were suggested by the Chilean 
Delegation in an amendment to the United States 
proposal.^^ After electing these nine states in a 
group as members of the Special Committee, the 
First Committee elected the tenth and eleventh 
members individually and in a manner designed 
to preserve proper geographical representation on 
the Special Committee. Australia was elected 
from the South Pacific area, and India from Asia. 
The composition of the Special Committee as a 
whole was approved by 39 votes in favor, 3 against, 
with 10 abstentions.^^ 

Approval of the Resolution hy the 
First Committee 

In approving the resolution as a whole, the First 
Committee took note of the view expressed by the 
Delegation of Venezuela ^^ that the states compris- 
ing the Special Committee should appoint persons 
of high moral character and of recognized com- 
petence in international affairs and that those ap- 
pointed would act impartially and conscientiously 
in accordance with the purposes and principles of 
the Charter of the United Nations. The First 
Committee associated itself with this view and in- 
ckided it in the rejjort of its rapporteur." 

The Committee also took note of certain reserva- 
tions put forward by the Delegations of the Arab 
States. These delegations were unable to agree 
with the resolution prepared by the First Commit- 



" Statement by the Soviet Delegate, U.N. doc. 
A/C.1/P.V.51, pp. 62-77. See also U.N. doc. A/C.l/m 
(May 13, 1947) for the Soviet proposal that the composition 
of the Special Committee on Palestine should be the same 
as the Security Council or "be based on the same 
principle". 

*' See especially remarks by the Australian Delegate : 
U.N. docs. A/C.1/P.V.48, p. 27 ; A/C.1/P.V.57, pp. 27-31. 

" U.N. doe. A/C.1/P.V.50, p. 61. 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/P.V.57, pp. 63 flf. 

•» U.N. doc. A/C.1/178 (May 13, 1947). 

" U.N. doc A/C.1/180 (May 13, 1947). 

" U.N. doc. A/C.l/P.V. 57, pp. 86-102. 

■"U.N. doc. A/C.1/179 (May 13, 1947). 

" U.N. doc. A/307 (May 13, 1947) , p. 6. This portion of 
the report of the First Committee was quoted by the Sec- 
retary-General in his communication to the 11 states 
elected to the committee, requesting them to name their 
representatives to the Special Committee (U. N. press re- 
lease PAL/2, May 15, 1947) . 

11 



tee. The Lebanese Kepresentative felt himself 
unable to subscribe to the resolution partly on the 
grounds that "any mention of independence for 
Palestine has been severely suppressed from the 
terms of reference". He reserved the position of 
his Government as did the Representatives of 
Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria." 

Final Actions of tlie Special Session 

The General Assembly considered the report of 
the First Committee in plenary meetings on May 
14 and 15.'* Speeches of general opposition to the 
resolution were made by Arab Representatives, 
who again formally reserved the positions of their 
respective governments. The idea of Five Power 
participation in the Special Committee again 
found certain support. The majority of the 
speakers, however, supported the draft resolution 
prepared in the First Committee. At the conclu- 
sion of the two-day debate it was adopted by a vote 
of 45 for, 7 against, and 1 abstention." 

The plenary meeting on May 15 also unani- 
mously adopted a second resolution put forward 
by the Norwegian Delegation : 

The Gieneral Assembly calls upon all Governments and 
peoples, and particularly on the inhabitants of Palestine, 
to refrain, pending action by the General Assembly on the 
report of the Special Committee on Palestine, from the 
threat or use of force or any other action which might 
create an atmosphere prejudicial to an early settlement of 
the question of Palestine." 

The adoption in plenary meeting of the resolu- 
tion establishing the Sj^ecial Committee and of the 
Norwegian proposal concluded the work of the 
special session. 

Beginning of the Work of the Special Committee 
on Palestine 

The representation on the Special Committee on 
Palestine is as follows :'' 

Australia 

John D. L. Hood 

S. L. Atyeo, Alternate 



" U.N. doc. A/307, pp. 7-8. 

" U.N. docs. A/P.V.77, 78, and 79 (May 14 and 15, 1947). 

"Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, 
Syria, and Turkey voted against the resolution; Siam ab- 
stained (U.N. doc. A/P.V.79, p. 116). 

"Ibid., p. 106; Bulletin of June 8, 1947, p. 1110. The 
phrase and particularly on the inhabitants of Palestine was 
inserted at the suggestion of the Delegation of El Salvador. 

"Based on information supplied by the U. N. secretariat 
as of June 17, 1947. 



Canada 

Justice I. C. Rand 

Leon Mayrand, Alternate 

Czechoslovakia 

Karel Lisicky 

Ricliard Pech, Alternate 

Ouatemala 

Jorge Garcia Granados 

S. Z. Gonzales, Alternate 

India 

Sir Abdur Bahman 

Venkata Viswanathan and Harishwar Dayal, Alternates 

Iran 

Nasrollah Entezam 

Netherlands 
Nicholas S. Blom 
A. I. Spits, Alternate 

Peru 

Alberto Ulloa 

Ajturo Garcia Salazar, Alternate 

Sweden 

Justice Emil Sandstrom 

Paul Mohn, Alternate 

Uruguay 

Enrique Rodriguez Fabregat 

Oscar Secco Ellauri, Alternate 

Yugoslavia. 

Dalado Simic 

Jose Brilej, Alternate 

The secretariat of the Special Committee is 
headed by Victor Hoo, Assistant Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the United Nations. Alfonso Garcia 
Robles, Director of the General Political Division 
of the Department of Security Council Affairs, is 
the principal secretary of the Palestine committee. 
Ralph J. Bunche, Director of the Division of Trus- 
teeship of the Department of Trusteeship and In- 
formation from Non-Self-Governing Territories, 
is special assistant to Dr. Hoo. The full secre- 
tariat staff, including interpreters, translators, and 
stenographers, is about 50 persons. 

On May 26, 1947, the Special Committee as- 
sembled at Lake Success, New York, for the first of 
a series of organizational meetings. The Special 
Committee elected Justice Emil Sandstrom of 
Sweden as its chairman and Alberto Ulloa of Peru 
as vice chairman. After adopting rules of pro- 
cedure and completing other preparatory work, the 
committee decided to proceed immediately to 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



Palestine to investigate the situation on the spot. 
They left New York for Jerusalem by plane in two 
groups on June 10 and June 12. 

Significance of the Special Session on Palestine 

Viewed as the first example of its kind in the 
practical application of the machinery of the 
United Nations, the First Special Session of the 
General Assembly seems to have established a con- 
structive precedent. It is to be hoped that, as 
international machinery under the Charter is pro- 
gi-essively develoj^ed, it will not ordinarily be neces- 
sary for the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions to meet in special session to perform an essen- 
tially procedural task. However, the recent ses- 
sion satisfactorily demonstrated that a special ses- 
sion of the General Assembly is not an unwieldy 
device. It is now clear that the General Assembly 
of the United Nations can, at the request of a ma- 
jority of its members, be called into session for a 
particular purpose, adhere to that purpose, and 
reach its conclusions with dispatch. It is worth 
noting that this conception of the proper function 
of a special session was not merely the view of a 



few states, but was a common view of the great 
majority of the members of the United Nations. 
The conviction that special machinery is in fact 
available for special purposes should, if it con- 
tinues to be borne out in practice, be a positive 
force in the development of the United Nations. 

Viewed in relation to the task of reaching a 
settlement of the Palestine problem, the special 
session of the General Assembly and the initial 
actions of the Special Committee mean that the 
United Nations is "off to a good start". The pre- 
liminary discussions in the special session revealed 
some of the complications of the problem and 
clearly indicated the intense feelings to which this 
question gives rise. The Special Committee on 
Palestine — endowed with broad powers and unim- 
peded by limiting directives — is an instrument well 
devised to assist the General Assembly in its ulti- 
mate task of arriving at recommendations on the 
future government of Palestine. To say this is 
not to suggest in any way that the road to a stable 
solution for Palestine is an easy one. The United 
Nations has thus far fashioned only procedures 
and machinei-y. It has yet to deal with the sub- 
stance of the Palestine question. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



There will be listed periodically in the Bulletin a 
selection of United Nations documents which may be of 
interest to readers. 

Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

General Assembly 

The Committee on the Progressive Development of Inter- 
national Law and Its Codification. Statement by the 
Representative of Sweden Before the Third Meeting 
of the Committee. A/AC.10/24, May 16, 1947. 5 pp. 
mimeo. 

Methods for Encouraging the Progressive Development 

of International Law and Its Eventual Codification. 
Memorandum prepared by the Rapporteur at the re- 
quest of the Committee. A/AC.10/2G, May 16, 1947. 
5 pp. mimeo. 

Methods for Encouraging the Progressive Development 

of International Law and Its Eventual Codification. 
Proposal Regarding the Organization and Procedures 

July 6, 1947 



of the Commission of Experts on International Law 
(CEIL). Proposed Jointly by the Delegations of the 
United States and China. A/AC.10/33, May 23, 1947. 
6 pp. mimeo. 

Committee on the Progressive Development of Interna- 
tional Law and Its Codification. Statement by the 
Representative of the United Kingdom Before the 
Tenth aieeting of the Committee. 23 May 1947. 
A/AC.10/35, May 28, 1947. 5 pp. mimeo. 

^Draf t Resolution of the Draft Convention on Genocide. 

Presented by the Delegation of the United Kingdom. 
A/AC.10/44, June 6, 1947. 1 p. mimeo. 

Suggestions by the Delegation of Argentina . . . 

A/AC.10/45, June 7, 1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Joint First and Sixth Committee. Check List of Docu- 
ments . . . Prepared by the Documents Index Unit. 
A/C.l & 6/24, June 2, 1947. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Trusteesliip Council 

Provisional Questionnaire as approved by the Trusteeship 
Council at the twenty-fifth meeting of its first session 
on 25 April 1947. T/44, May 8, 1947. 17 pp. Printed 
[150]. 

13 



THE UNITED NATIONS COMIVIISSION OF INVESTIGATION 
CONCERNING GREEK FRONTIER INCIDENTS 



A Summary Statement 
by Harry N. Howard 



Kesolves : That the Security Council under Article 3^ of 
the Charter establish a Commission of Investigation to ascer- 
tain the facts relating to the alleged border violations along 
the frontier between Greece on the one hand and Albania, 
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other. 

That the Commission shall proceed to the area not later 
than 15 January 10Jf7, and shall submit to the Security Coun- 
cil at the earliest possible date a report of the facts disclosed 
by its investigation. 

— From resolution adopted by the Security Council 
on December 19, 1946. 



Under the resolution of the Security Council of 
December 19, 1946, a Commission was appointed 
to investigate incidents occurring along the north- 
ern Greek frontiers. This Commission, composed 
of representatives of the 11 members of the Se- 
curity Council, held its first meeting in Athens 
on January 30, 1947, and concluded the European 
phase of its work in Geneva on May 23, 1947, with 
the signing of its report to the Security Council. 

All told, the Commission held some 87 meetings 
in Europe, although, in fact, many of these meet- 
ings consisted of two or more parts, with the 
result that the Commission actually held some 
113 meetings. Of these meetings, 61 meetings 
were held in Gi-eece, 6 in Sofia, 7 in Bel- 
grade, and 19 in Geneva. The Athens phase of 
the work of the Commission was largely confined 
to the problems of initial organization, hearing 
the basic statements of the Albanian, Bulgarian, 
Greek, and Yugoslav liaison representatives and 
hearing the statements of various individuals and 

14 



nongovernmental organizations. The Salonika 
phase centered about the examination of witnesses, 
and Salonika served as a base from which the 
Commission sent out field investigating teams. 
Sofia and Belgrade, despite the brevity of the 
Commission's visit (March 26-28 and March 30- 
April 2, respectively) served a similar purpose. 
The work of the Commission in Geneva, which be- 
gan on April 7, 1947, was devoted to the drafting 
of the report of the Commission to the Security 
Council. Indeed, Geneva was chosen for this work 
because of the desire of the ovei-whelming majority 
of the Commission to prepare the report in an 
atmosphere of relative quiet and calm, removed 
from the scene of the investigation. At the same 
time, in pursuance of the resolution of the Security 
Council on April 18, 1947, a subsidiary group was 
established on April 30, 1947, with headquarters in 
Salonika, for the purpose of keeping the Commis- 
sion and the Security Council informed of devel- 
opments in the area, pending ultimate decision of 

Department of State Bulletin 



the Security Council on the report of the Com- 
mission. On May 12, the Security Council invited 
the Commission to come to Lake Success during the 
consideration of its report. 

Witnesses and Statements 

Altogether, the Commission and its seven in- 
vestigating teams heard some 256 witnesses or 
statements during the course of its work^ and 
accumulated approximately 20,000 pages of evi- 
dence and other materials. Of the 256 witnesses, 
79 were presented by the Greek liaison representa- 
tive, 60 by the Yugoslav liaison representative, 33 
by the Bulgarian liaison representative, and 22 by 
the Albanian liaison representative. The Com- 
mission and its teams selected 30 witnesses, and 
some 32 statements were made by individuals and 
nongovernmental bodies.^ More than 3,000 com- 
munications were received by the Commission 
from various individuals and organizations. 

Field Investigations 

The Commission and its seven field investigating 
teams made some 33 field investigations in various 
parts of Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugo- 
slavia, ranging all the way from the islands of 
Syros and E^aria to Bullies, Yugoslavia, and the 
Greek frontiers with Albania, Bulgaria, and 
Yugoslavia. Proposals for these field investiga- 
tions were made as follows : ^ 

Albania 3 

Bulgaria 1 

Greece 12 

Yugoslavia 9 

U.S.S.R. 2 

Bulgaria and Yugoslavia 1 

Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia 1 

Albania and Greece 1 

Greece and Yugoslavia 1 

Commission, Greece, and Yugoslavia 1 

Commission, Albania, and Greece 1 

Composition of the Report 

With all its annexes, the report of the Commis- 
sion consists of three volumes and a total of 767 
pages. The report proper, which is contained in 
volume I, totals 253 pages and is divided into the 
four following parts : 

Part I. History and Organization of the Commis- 
sion, pp. 1-21 ; 

July 6, 7947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

Part II. Survey of Evidence Submitted to the Com- 
mission, pp. 22-166 ; 

Part III. Conclusions, pp. 167-238; 

Part IV. Proposals Made in Pursuance of the Final 
Paragraph of the Security Council's Reso- 
lution of 19 December 1946, pp. 246-251. 

Volume n of the Keport contains the following 
annexes : 

Annex I. Composition of the Commission ; 
Annex II. Teams of the Commission ; 
Annex III. List of Witnesses Heard by the Commission 

and its Teams ; 
Annex IV. Bibliography of Commission Documenta- 
tion ; 
Annex V. Field Investigations of the Commission and 

its Teams ; 
Annex VI. Comments and Oral Statements Made by 
the Liaison Representative of Albania on 
Parts II and III of the Report ; 
Annex VII. Comments and Oral Statements Made by 
the Liaison Representative of Bulgaria on 
Parts II and HI of the Report. 

Volume in contains the following annexes : 

Annex VIII. Comments and Oral Statements Made by 
the Liaison Representative of Greece on 
Parts II and III of the Report ; 
Annex IX. Comments and Oral Statements Made by 
the Liaison Representative of Yugoslavia 
on Parts II and III of the Report. 

About 447 pages of the report are given to the 
written and oral comments of the four liaison rep- 
resentatives. 



Tlie Conclusions: The Position of the Delegations 

Parts I and II of the report, which deal with the 
history and organization of the Commission and 
the survey of the evidence submitted to it, were ac- 
cepted by all representatives on the Commission, 
with minor reservations as to details on the part of 
the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics.* 

Eight Delegations, including those of Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, Syria, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States, sub- 
scribed to the conclusions set forth in part III, 



'Report by the Commission of Investigation Concerning 
Greek Frontier Incidents to the Security Council. U.N. 
doc. S/360 (May 27, 1947), I, pp. 16-20; II, Annex III. 

' Ibid., Annex IV, pp. 284-304. 

'For the composition of these teams and a summary 
report see ibid.. Annex II, pp. 259-272. A table of field 
Investigations will be found in ibid., Annex V, pp. 305-308. 

* Ibid., vol. I, pp. 164, 165-166. 

IS 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

chapter I, of tlie report,' the general purport of 
which was that the three northern neighbors of 
Greece had encouraged, assisted, trained, and sup- 
plied the Greek guerrillas in their armed activities 
against the Greek Government. The Delegations 
of Poland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics did not approve these conclusions. Although 
the Delegations of Colombia and Belgium felt that 
"the evidence pointing to the conclusion that the 
charges brought by Greece against her northern 
neighbors were justified," they expressed the view 
that it was not for the Commission, "which was set 
up in the spirit of conciliation of Chapter VI of 
the Charter, to give any decision as to the possible 
responsibility of the Albanian, Bulgarian and 
Yugoslav Governments." ^ 

The Delegation of France abstained from ap- 
proving the conclusions set forth in chapter I, since 
it was "not without some doubt as to the necessity 
and some apprehension as to the advisability of 
including a chapter devoted to formal conclu- 
sions." Moreover, the French Delegation declared 
that i' 

1. The Security Council Instructed the Commission to 
"verify the facts" and make a report; 

2. The Commission could properly make recommenda- 
tions without basing them on formal conclusions ; 

3. The conditions under which the Commission worked 
probably were not such "as to allow us to draw from it any 
conclusions based on sound juridical principles" ; 

4. No conclusions implying condemnation could be 
formulated, except In the light of what has happened in 
Greece and elsewhere in the Balkans since 1940 ; 

5. The task of the Commission should aim at pacifica- 
tion and reconciliation. 

The conclusions of the Soviet Delegation, em- 
bodied in part III, chapter II,' which set forth the 
view that the Greek Government was solely re- 
sponsible for the conditions in Greece and that 
Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia were in no way 
responsible, were approved by the Soviet and 
Polish Delegations. The Polish Delegation made 
a declaration as to the following points : * 

1. The Commission did not determine that Albania, Bul- 
garia and Yugoslavia had provoked or supported the "civil 
war In Greece" ; 



■ Hid., pp. 167-182. 
' Ibid., p. 239. 
' Ibid., pp. 239-245. 
' Ibid., pp. 183-238. 
'Ibid., pp. 245-245b. 
" Ibid., pp. 24&-251. 



1« 



2. The Commission did not determine the existence in 
Greek Macedonia of a separatist movement inspired by 
Yugoslavia or Bulgaria ; 

3. The Commission did not determine that Albania, Bul- 
garia and Yugoslavia were responsible for the frontier 
incidents investigated in pursuance of the Greek appeal; 

4. The following conclusions were to be drawn from the 
inquiry: (a) "The civil war" in Greece originates directly 
from the abnormal political situation in that country; (b) 
The disturbed situation in Nortliern Greece and along the 
frontiers is "considerably increased" by the persecution 
of the Slavo-Macedonian and Tchamourian minorities. 

5. The Commission is not competent to examine ter- 
ritorial claims formulated by the countries before inter- 
national organs or evoked by public opinion in these 
countries. 

The Proposals of the Commission 

In essence the Commission made the following 
proposals to the Security Council : '" 

A. The Security Council should recommend to the Gov- 
ernments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia 
to do their utmost to establish normal good neighborly 
relations, to abstain from all action direct or indirect 
wliich is likely to increase or maintain the tension and 
unrest in the border areas, and rigorously to refrain from 
any support, overt or covert, of elements in neighboring 
countries aiming at the overthrow of the lawful govern- 
ments of those countries. 

B. The Security Council should recommend to the gov- 
ernments concerned that they enter into new conventions 
along the lines of the Greco-Bulgarian Convention of 
1931, taking into account the needs of the present situa- 
tion. 

C. A body should be established by the Security Coun- 
cil, eitlier in the form of a small Commission or a single 
Commissioner, for the purpose of investigating frontier 
violations, hearing complaints, using its good offices, mak- 
ing studies and investigations, and reporting to the Se- 
curity Council. 

D. This Commission should also have supervisory power 
over refugees, who should be placed under some kind of 
international supervision. 

E. The Security Council should recommend to the gov- 
ernments concerned that they study the practicability of 
concluding agreements for the voluntary transfer of 
minorities. 

In addition, the Commission declared that "in 
the event the Greek Government decides to grant 
a new amnesty for political prisoners and guerril- 
las, the Commission suggests that the Security 
Council make known to the Greek Government its 
willingness, if that Government so requests, to 
lend its good offices in order to secure by all possi- 
ble means the realisation of this measure." 

These proposals were accepted by nine Delega- 
tions on the Commission, including those of 
Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, 

Department of Stafe Bulletin 



France, Syria, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States of America. In explaining his posi- 
tion, the Representative of China, who subscribed 
to the conclusions which had been accepted by 
the majority of the Commission, declared : " 

The reasons for these decisions are obvious enough. The 
constructive and well-halanced manner and moderate tone 
In which these two documents were prepared, revised and 
presented bear testimony to the presence of a genuine spirit 
of good-will towards the four Ball^an countries of Albania, 
Bulgaria. Greece and Yugoslavia. There adoption by this 
Commission and ultimately by the Security Council would 
represent a serious effort to help these four countries in 
their present difficulties. The purpose is doubtless to pave 
the way for the elimination of the causes of tension be- 
tween Greece on the one hand and her three northern 
neighbours on the other, the gradual improvement of 
their mutual relations and the promotion and consolida- 
tion of peace in the Balkans. Indeed, the Commission has 
a far more Important mission to fulfil and far larger 
interests to serve than the mere discharge of its quasi- 
judicial functions. 

The Chinese Delegation attached "great impor- 
tance" to the fact that, in making its proposals, the 
Commission had taken care "not to intervene in the 
domestic matters of any of the four countries con- 
cerned, thei-eby safeguarding one of the funda- 
mental principles of the Charter." Moreover, it 
was believed that the suggestion as to a new 
amnesty which the Greek Government might 
decide to grant in favor of political prisoners and 
guerrillas did ^''not amount to such an intervention. 
At the same time, there is also every reason in 
believing that the fundamental principle in ques- 
tion will receive a new proof of scrupulous observ- 
ance, when actual action is taken on this sugges- 
tion." 

The Soviet and Polish Delegations were unable 
to accept the proposals put forward by the nine 
other Delegations. The Soviet Delegation gave the 
following reasons for its position : " 

1. The proposals in no way proceeded from the facta 
and documents gathered by the Commission, but were 
based "merely on the unfounded assertions" of the Greek 
Government ; 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

2. The proposals admitted the possibility of frontier 
incidents, conflicts and even acts of aggression in the 
future, although the Commission had "no grounds what- 
ever for proposals of such a nature" ; 

3. The proposals contemplated measures concerning 
Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, although it 
was evident from the documents that there was a tense 
situation in Greece which was "due to internal causes" ; 

4. The establishment of a permanent frontier Commis- 
sion or body representing the Security Council and the 
conclusion of conventions among Greece, Albania, Bul- 
garia and Yugoslavia "is tantamount to a limitation of 
the sovereign rights of these States in settling their rela- 
tions among themselves." 

The Polish Delegation objected to the proposals 
on the following grounds : '' 

1. Tlie measures seemed ineffectual, since they did not 
strike at the causes of the troubles in northern Greece 
and along the frontiers ; 

2. Some of the proposals did not take into account the 
absence of diplomatic relations between Greece and Al- 
bania and Greece and Bulgaria; 

3. Establishment of a permanent frontier Commission 
would prejudice the sovereign rights of the parties con- 
cerned and would constitute a measure of coercion with 
respect to Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. 

Finally, the Polish Delegation felt that it was 
for the Security Council itself to make recom- 
mendations for a solution of the problems involved, 
not the Commission. 

The Security Council 

The report of the Commission was presented 
to the Security Council on June 27, when the 
Delegate of the United States " proposed a reso- 
lution in accordance with the recommendations 
of the majority of the Commission. 

Herewith, the Bulletin is printing the conclu- 
sions of the report to which eight Delegations sub- 
scribed, and the recommendations to which nine 
of the Delegations of the Commission subscribed. 



" U. N. doc. S/AC.4/PV/87, pp. 9-10. 
•= U. N. doc. S/360, I, p. 252. 
'= Ibid., p. 253. 
" Mark Ethridge. 



July 6, 7947 



17 



REPORT BY THE COMMISSION OF INVESTIGATION CONCERNING 
GREEK FRONTIER INCIDENTS TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL 



Volume I 



u 



PART III: Conclusions 

Chapter I [pp. 167-182] " 

SECTION A: Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and the 
Guerillas in Greece 

1. Introduction 

The charge by the Greek Government that its northern 
neighbours were supporting the guerilla warfare in Greece 
was directed jointly against Albania, Bulgaria and Yugo- 
slavia. The evidence submitted, however, related prima- 
rily to Yugoslavia intervention in this regard, and only to 
a lesser degree to that of Albania and Bulgaria. Although 
the Liaison Representatives repeatedly denied these 
charges, and attacked the credibility of the witnesses who 
testified in their support, little direct evidence was brought 
forward to disprove them. On the basis of the facts 
ascertained by the Commission, it is its conclusion that 
Yugoslavia, and to a lesser extent, Albania, and Bulgaria, 
have supported the guerilla warfare in Greece. 

2. Yugoslavia 

a. The Commission heard a considerable amount of 
evidence by direct testimony and by deposition that 
assistance had been rendered in Yugoslavia to the gueril- 
las, taking the form of training refugees from Greece 
within the borders of Yugoslavia, recruiting and dispatch- 
ing them to Greece for action with the guerillas' units there, 
as well as supplying them for this purpose with arms, 
supplies, transport, guides, hospitalization, etc., and pro- 
viding an avenue of escape for guerillas fleeing from Greek 
Government forces. 

b. The Commission heard the testimony of several wit- 
nesses that in the spring of 1946 a special course for 
guerilla leaders was established in the refugee camp at 
Bulkes in Yugoslavia, which was designed to give theo- 
retical and practical training to refugees from Greece in 
guerilla warfare. There was presented to the Commis- 
sion a copy of a military manual for training in guerilla 
tactics and several witnesses testified that it was used as 
the text book in the Bulkes school. Indeed, one witness, a 
Greek refugee, testified that he was one of the authors of 
the manual when it was written in the summer of 1945. 
The evidence indicated that during the spring and at least 
through the summer of 1946 actual training in partisan 
warfare was given to selected personnel among the refu- 
gees at the Bulkes camp. Furthermore, the Commission 
heard evidence which demonstrated that at least some of 



" U.N. doc. S/360, May 27, 1947. 

" For the attitude of the various delegations to the con- 
clusions set out in chap. I, see chap. Ill [not here printed]. 



the refugees who had received military training returned 
to Greece and participated in the operations of the guerilla 
bands. Certain witnesses testified that they had served 
in the Yugoslav Army and had later been released so that 
they might return to Greece and join the guerillas. 

c. The Commission was provided with considerable evi- 
dence indicating that preparatory to returning to Greece, 
Greek refugees at the Bulkes camp and in other places in 
Yugoslavia were provided with arms and other military 
supplies, clothing and food. Other refugees testif.ving be- 
fore the Commission stated that in crossing the frontier to 
or from Greece, transportation was provided them In 
Yugoslavia, that they were conducted by Yugoslav guides, 
including Yugoslav soldiers, and that they were provided 
with a network of liaison agents who facilitated the cross- 
ings. According to the evidence Yugoslav frontier guards 
permitted guerilla bands to escape into Yugoslavia when 
pursued by the Greek army. This was clearly demon- 
strated to the Commission by its investigation of the in- 
cidents at Sourmena and Idhomeni. 

d. In addition, the evidence showed that as part of the 
pattern of assistance to the guerilla movement, arrange- 
ments were made for the transportation of guerillas 
wounded in Greece into Yugoslavia where hospitalization 
was provided. Three witnesses testified that they them- 
selves had transported wounded guerillas on donkeys to 
or across the Yugoslav border. 

e. At the time of its visit to the camp at Bulkes on April 

2, 1947, the Commission was unable to find evidence of 
military activities or of the military training which had 
theretofore been carried on. 

f. There is no doubt, however, that at the Bulkes camp 
the refugees from Greece were subjected to political in- 
doctrination and propaganda looking toward the overthrow 
of the Greek Government. Witnesses uniformly testified 
that on March 25, 1946, Greece's Independence Day, the 
leader of the Greek Communist Party, Zachariades, visited 
the camp at Bulkes and made a speech urging the refugees 
to prepare themselves to return to Greece "when the Greek 
people will need them". The evidence also indicated that 
the refugees at Bulkes heard similar propaganda from 
other ofiicial personnel, including the Yugoslav Minister Of 
Education for Viovodina, and a Bulgarian Commission of 
several officers, who paid visits to the camp. While at 
Bulkes Novi Sad, Djevdjelija and Strumitsa, the Commis- 
sion witnessed political demonstrations antagonistic to the 
present Greek Government, which indicated that political 
activity among the refugees continued to be sanctioned. 

3. Albania 

a) In the case of Albania, evidence presented to the 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITBD NATIONS 



Commission indicated that at Rubig, a village about 50 
miles north of Pirana, a camp for Greek refugees had been 
in existence from the Spring of 1945 to October 1945. Dur- 
ing that period the refugees there received political In- 
struction as well as practical and theoretical military 
training. A military training manual, written in Greek at 
Rubig, similar to the one used at Bulkes, was presented in 
evidence to the Commission. Moreover, the Commission 
heard testimony that one manual, which was published in 
Albania, was mimeographed on paper furnished by the 
Albanian Press Ministry. 

b) Witnesses testified before the Commission that after 
the Varkiza Agreement of February 12, 1945, former mem- 
bers of ELAS (the military arm of EAM) were advised 
by KKE (the Communist Party of Greece) or their ELAS 
comrades, to cross into Albania, as well as into Bulgaria 
and Yugoslavia, to avoid persecution. The evidence in- 
dicated that officers of the KKE made arrangements with 
Albanian security authorities for the reception, transporta- 
tion, feeding and housing of refugees. Witnesses testified 
that before returning to Greece they were supplied in 
Albania with food, clothing, military equipment and trans- 
portation to the border. Evidence was also brought for- 
ward that refugees were given assistance by Albanian mili- 
tary personnel in their efforts to cross the frontier be- 
tween Greece and Albania. 

c) The evidence presented to the Commission indicated 
that there was no military or other training of Greek 
refugees in Albania after October 1945 when the refugees 
in the camp at Rubig were transferred to Bulkes in Yugo- 
slavia. However, the evidence indicated that as late as 
November 1946 Albanian assistance to the Greek guerrillas 
continued in the form of providing arms and ammunition, 
as well as making available routes of entry, guides and 
liaison assistance for guerrilla groups returning to Greece 
from both Albania and Yugoslavia. 

4. Bulgaria 

a) The evidence submitted to the Commission regarding 
Bulgarian aid to the Greek guerrilla movement indicated 
that Greek guerrillas, in groups and individually were as- 
sisted in crossing Bulgarian territory from Yugoslavia to 
Greece, and that sizeable Greek guerrilla groups had on a 
number of occasions taken refuge on Bulgarian soil, with 
the assistance of Bulgarian authorities. Evidence was 
also presented to show that, in certain instances, Greek 
guerrillas were given arms in or near Sofia while on their 
way to Greece from Yugoslavia, and that hospital facilities 
were offered to Greek guerrillas who were transferred for 
this pui-pose to Bulgarian territory. 

b) The Commission feels that the weight of the evi- 
dence indicates that aid was provided the Greek guerrillas 
by the Bulgarian Government in the form of assistance 
in entering and leaving Bulgarian territory, provision of 
transportation for guerrillas crossing Bulgaria to and from 
Yugoslavia, and hospitalization of guerrillas wounded in 
Greece. Less evidence was provided the Commission, 
however, as to the arming and equipping of guerrillas. 

SECTION B : Movement to Detach Macedonia from Greece. 
5. a ) The Greek government charged that support was 

Jo/y 6, 1947 



being given by the Yugoslav and Bulgarian Government, 
through propaganda and otherwise, looking towards the 
detachment of the province of Macedonia from Greece 
and its incorporation together with Bulgarian and Yugo- 
slavian Macedonia into the Federative People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia. 

b) Evidence was introduced in the Commission, con- 
sisting of these quotations from speeches by responsible 
Yugoslav and Bulgarian statesmen and from the govern- 
ment-controlled press, which indicated that these govern- 
ments adopted a policy of support for a separate Mace- 
donian state within the Yugoslav federation, and ex- 
ploited the aspirations of Slavo-Macedonians in Greece 
for an autonomous Macedonia. This exploitation had 
the natural consequence of fomenting dissatisfaction and 
disturbances among the Slavo-Macedonians. 

c) In addition, the Commission heard witnesses who 
testified that there was in Yugoslavia an organization 
known as NOF (National Liberation Front), one of whose 
objects was to detach Greek Macedonia from Greece and 
to incorporate it into the federation of Yugoslavia. These 
witnesses testified that the activities of NOF were directed 
from its headquarters in Skoplje and during its most 
active phase through a special "Aegean Bureau" in Bitolj 
(Monastir). The program of NOF included propaganda 
supporting the Macedonian movement. 

d) In explanation of the organization called NOF, it 
was stated that it was in fact no more than the name of 
the Greek EAM in Slavic translation. Both the Yugoslav 
and Bulgarian Representatives denied, however, that NOP 
was engaged in activities of the tJT)e described in the Greek 
charge. Although certain witnesses testified to the Com- 
mission that they had not heard of this aspect of the func- 
tions of NOF, the references to NOF's relationship to the 
Macedonian movement were so numerous and so uniform 
as to leave little doubt on this point in the minds of the 
Commission. 

e) Furthermore it is quite clear that Bulgaria also sup- 
ported the movement for the unification of the three parts 
of Macedonia as a republic within the Yugoslav feder- 
ation. As late as November 16, 1946, an article in the 
official Communist paper Rahotnichesko Delo welcomed 
the creation of the Republic of Macedonia within the 
Yugoslav Federation, and asserted that "unification of 
other parts of the Macedonian nation can take place only 
on the basis of this republic. Such unification is in the 
interests of the future peaceful development of Bulgaria 
in close cooperation with Yugoslavia." 

f) In explaining the attitude of his Government with 
regard to the Macedonian question the Yugoslav Liaison 
Representative stated that Yugoslavia could not be indif- 
ferent to the "terrible state" of the Slav minority In 
Macedonia. He stated that Yugoslavia's interest was in 
assisting this minority in its achievement of full political 
and cultural rights and that this was to be achieved 
within the framework of the Charter of the United 
Nations. 

g) It was pointed out to the Commission, and not dis- 
puted, that after the Varkiza Agreement over 20,000 Greek 
citizens had fled Into Yugoslavia, (either directly or 
through Albania or Bulgaria) and approximately 5,000 

19 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

luto Bulgaria, a substantial proportion in each case being 
of Slavo-Macedonian origin. Evidence was also pre- 
sented in support of the charge that Greece has sanc- 
tioned persecution of its Slavo-Macedonian minorities. 
Furthermore, the Commission heard some testimony that 
the Slavic dialect spolfen by the Slavo-Macedonians who 
comprise about 85,000 persons was not taught in schools, 
and that in certain areas the use of this dialect by Greek 
nationals had on occasions been prohibited. 

h) The Commission is of the opinion that such treat- 
ment has resulted in unrest and discontent on the part 
of the Slavic minority in Greek Macedonia and has pro- 
vided fertile breeding ground for separatist movements. 
Tills does not, of course, absolve the Northern neighbours 
from their responsibility for their support of the Mace- 
donian movement. 

i) Although it is undoubtedly true, as pointed out by 
the Yugoslav Liaison Representative that during the war 
the Axis occupying authorities had themselves supported 
a Macedonian autonomist movement in an effort to cre- 
ate controversy among the Balkan states, it seems equally 
clear that since the war the Yugoslav and Bulgarian gov- 
ernments, by speeches of responsible officials and articles 
in the press, have themselves revived and promoted a 
separatist movement among the Slavo-Macedonians in 
Greece. 

III. SECTION C. Frontier Yiolations Not Involving Aid 
to Greek Ouerrillas 

6. Introduction 

The Greek Government charged that Albania, Bulgaria 
and Yugoslavia were deliberately provoking Incidents on 
their common frontier. In turn, Albania, Bulgaria and 
Yugoslavia made similar accusations against Greece. In 
each case a substantial number of witnesses were heard 
by the Commission as well as extensive documentation in 
support of the charges. The incidents brought to the Com- 
mission's attention ranged from penetrations across the 
border of a few yards, to sheep stealing, and exchanges of 
shots between frontier guards. In these conclusions the 
Commission clearly distinguishes between the activities 
of Greece's three northern neighbours in support of the 
guerrillas in Greece as set forth above, and frontier provo- 
cations and incidents not connected with aid to the guer- 
rilla movement, as set forth in the present chapter. 

7. The Qreeo-Albanian Frontier 

a. The Greek Government submitted a list of 108 inci- 
dents on the Greco-Albanian frontier during 1946, declar- 
ing that they were characteristic of a "policy of systematic 
provocation adopted by the Albanian Government". The 
majority of these incidents concerned the theft of livestock, 
shooting affrays between Greek and Albanian patrols, and 
the abduction of Greek soldiers and civilians into Albanian 
territory. The total casualties resulting from these inci- 
dents amounted to between 20 and 30 persons killed, 
wounded, and captured. 

b. Similarly, Albania charged Greece with 111 provo- 
cations on the frontier during the year 1946, including 
violation of Albanian territorial rights on land, on sea 
and in the air as well as the traditional sheep-stealing Incl- 

20 



dents and skirmishes between border patrols. The total 
casualties resulting from these Incidents amounted to 
4 persons killed and two wounded, as well as a certain 
relatively minor damage in property rights. The Albanian 
Liaison Representative charged that these incidents were 
deliberately provoked by the Greek Government in pursu- 
iince of its claim to the Albanian region of Northern 
Epirus, and further, that they were deliberate incursions 
evidencing the aggressive intentions of the Greek Govern- 
ment. 

8. The Qreco-Bulgarian Frontier 

(a) It was charged in the Greek case that thirty-two 
incidents had occurred in 1946 and two in 1947, on the 
Greco-Bulgarian frontier for which it regarded the Bul- 
garian authorities as responsible. These incidents had 
cost the lives of 11 Greeks, although the majority of them 
were minor incidents and of a non-political character. The 
Bulgarian case, in turn, made mention of thirty-three 
incidents attributed to Greek initiative in 1946 and forty- 
six violations of the frontier from 23 January to the end 
of February 1947 including numerous territorial violations 
by planes. 

(b) These charges were denied by the Greek and Bul- 
garian Representatives, respectively. To the Bulgarian 
assertion that the provocations were a result of the fact 
that Greek -frontier posts had been withdrawn to a depth 
of several kilometres and that the Greek territory along 
the frontier was not under the control of Greek authori- 
ties, it was replied that the frontier posts had been with- 
drawn for the very purpose of preventing undue friction. 

(c)In reply to the Greek charges, the Bulgarian repre- 
sentative pointed out that its government had faithfully 
notiiied the Allied Control Commission in Sofia of all 
frontier incidents, and that during the two years since 
the war there had been no disturbances or disorders on the 
Bulgarian side of the frontier. In the spring of 1946 the 
Bulgarian Government expressed its willingness to put 
into effect again the Greek-Bulgarian frontier accord of 
1931, which has been inoperative since 1941, and re- 
quested the Greek Government to execute a protocol to 
implement the 1981 accord with the modifications necessary 
to give effect to the changes which have taken place in 
the border service since the original agreement. The Greek 
Government did not respond on the ground that diplo- 
matic relations did not exist between the two countries, 
stating, however, that it. on its part, had lived up to the 
spirit of the 1931 agreement. 

9. The Oreco-Tugoslav Frontier 

a) It was charged by the Greek Representative that 
fifty-seven incidents had occurred along the Greco-Yugoslav 
frontier in 1946 which had cost the lives of nineteen Greek 
military personnel. The Yugoslav representative, in turn, 
cited thirty -five frontier incidents alleged to have occurred 
between 13 June 1945 and 18 Dec. 1946, in addition to 
forty-three flights over Yugoslav territory by seventy-seven 
Greek planes between 18 May 1945 and 3 Dec. 1946. 

b) In estimating the violating on all three frontiers the 
evidence showed clearly that there have been since the war 
a large number of violations on each side. On the other 

Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



band, no evidence of probative value was Introduced which 
tended to Indicate that the frontier violations not connected 
with guerrilla activities were deliberately provoked either 
by the governments of the northern neighbors or by that of 
Greece, or that there was any policy of systematic provo- 
cation on either side, or that the Incidents themselves were 
evidence of the aggressive intentions of either country. 

c) The conclusion Is inevitable, however, that the large 
number of incidents, the accusations and counter-accusa- 
tions made by the governments against one another, and 
the willingness of the authorities on both sides to magnify 
minor incidents into important skirmishes, accompanied by 
shooting and bloodshed. Is evidence of the strained rela- 
tions between the countries. 

SECTION D: Oreek Domestic Policy in Relation to the 
Commission's Inquiry 

10 (a) The Commission, in considering the relation of 
I Greek internal policy to the area of its inquiry, recognized 
that the disturbed conditions in Greece are a heritage of 
the tragic events of the war and of the consequent prob- 
lems facing the Greek Government since the liberation 
In its efforts to carry on a program of economic rehabilita- 
tion. Furthermore, the experience of the Commission in 
Greece, especially in Athens and Salonika, showed that 
there existed a considerable degree of political freedom, 
freedom of speech, press, and assembly, despite disturbed 
conditions. Indeed, of the four countries visited by the 
Commission, only in Greece did it hear witnesses who 
criticized the policies of their government or receive dele- 
gations from free organizations which presented it with 
evidence against the government. 

(b) The Representatives of Albania, Bulgaria and Yugo- 
slavia charged that the present regime was responsible for 
a state of civil war in Greece and for the disturbed condi- 
tions in the northern provinces. The Greek government 
took the position that an investigation of this charge would 
involve the internal affairs of Greece which were not within 
the Commission's competence. Accordingly the Greek 
government did not on these grounds present evidence in 
refutation and in consequence the evidence before the Com- 
mission was inevitably one-sided. Nevertheless it was felt 
by the Commission that insofar as it might constitute a 
factor contributing to the disturbed conditions in Northern 
Greece along the Greek frontier, the Greek internal situa- 
tion could not be ignored. 

(c) The evidence presented to the Commission revealed 
that the great majority of the clashes between the guer- 
rillas and the forces of the Greek Government had occurred 
in the northern Greek provinces of Epirus, Macedonia and 
Thrace. Of two estimates submitted to the Commission, 
one showed that 707 out of 922 clashes had occurred in 
the three northern provinces of Greece, and the other 769 
out of 1,338 had taken place there. A sufficient number of 
Incidents were recorded in central and southern Greece, 
however, to impress the Commission that while conditions 
in Northern Greece were far more acutely disturbed than 
elsewhere there was a general condition of unrest in Greece 
as a whole. The Commission does not find, however, that 
this condition amounts to a state of civil war. It noted 
however that an important factor in this unrest is the per- 

Jo/y 6, 1947 



THE UN/rED NATIONS 

sistent effort of the Greek Communist Party, which directs 
the EAM coalition and the operations of the Greek guer- 
rillas, to participate in the government without elections. 

(d) In connection with the present situation in Greece 
the Commission was presented with a body of evidence 
In support of the charge that responsibility for the situa- 
tion lay in Greek domestic policy. This evidence was 
presented not only by the representatives of Greece's three 
northern neighbours, but by three Communist-controlled 
groups : the EAM (National Liberation Front), the Central 
Committee of the General Confederation of Labour, and 
the EPON youth organization. In addition the Commis- 
sion heard Representatives of the Left Liberal Party as 
well as a number of individual witnesses. This body of 
evidence was to the effect that opposition political groups 
in Greece had been subject to persecution in violation of 
the Varkiza Agreement of February 12, 1945 and that the 
civil rights of the Macedonian and Chamuriot minorities 
had been restricted. Tlie persecution of opposition groups 
was said to have taken the form of large scale arrests, of 
imprisonment or exile, beatings and other brutalities and 
the burning of houses as a punitive measure. The evidence 
Indicated that this persecution was conducted by some 
members of the Greek gendarmerie and by officially toler- 
ated right wing bands and extended to a wide variety of 
political groups, especially the partias of the EAM 
coalition. 

(e) On the other hand, the Rector of the University 
of Athens who said he represented some sixty organiza- 
tions, including certain labour groups, testified to the 
contrary asserting that it was the Communists who carried 
on terrorism in Greece. Moreover, there was a con- 
siderable body of evidence to show that EAM had itself 
violated the Varkiza Agreement by failing to carry out 
its obligation to surrender all its arms to the Greek Govern- 
ment, and by urging its members to hide their arms and 
to leave Greece or go underground. Furthermore, although 
EAM charged before the Commission that the Greek regime 
was wholly responsible for the disorders in Greece, the 
Commission noted that EAM had refused to take part in 
the 1946 elections, despite the fact that these elections 
were held under international observations in the spirit 
of the Varkiza Agreement. 

(f) The Commission received sufficient evidence, how- 
ever, to warrant the conclusion that immediately after 
the liberation of Greece the small Slav-speaking and 
Chamuriot minorities in Greek Macedonia and Epirus had 
been the victims of retaliatory excesses. As a result the 
numbers of the Chamuriot minorities who had not already 
left with the Germans were forced to flee. In reply the 
Greek Government asserted that the acts in question were 
committed before it had re-established control of the areas 
concerned, and that members of these minority groups had 
collaborated with the Axis occupying forces during the 
war. 

(g) The Albanian Representative charged that numer- 
ous Albanian war criminals and Quislings had been 
granted asylum in Greece. It was alleged that they were 
not only given exceptionally favourable treatment in 
Greece as regards rations, housing, and personal liberty, 
but were encouraged in their political activity by the Greek 

21 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



authorities. Similar charges were made by the Yugoslav 
Representative, who claimed that Greece had become "the 
meeting point" of Yugoslav war criminals and quislings. 
To a lesser degree charges of this character were also made 
by the Bulgarian Repre.sentative. 

(h) In reply the Greek Liaison Representative asserted 
that, while indeed a considerable number of refugees from 
the three Northern countries had entered Greece since the 
end of the war, the Greek Government had dealt with 
them in accordance with international practice. It was 
pointed out that all of these refugees had been established 
in camps in the Southern part of Greece and they had not 
been permitted to engage in any activity whatsoever which 
could be regarded as inimical to Albania, Bulgaria and 
Yugoslavia. A team of the Commission visited a number 
of places where these refugees were held, and although 
there was some testimony indicating political activities 
on the part of the internees directed against Albania, 
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, the Commission does not feel 
that the Greek Government itself had encouraged it. On 
the basis of the team's visit the Commission also is of the 
opinion that the charge that the internees received prefer- 
ential treatment was refuted. It should be mentioned in 
this connection that following requests to each of the four 
governments for information in respect to refugees within 
their borders, only the Greek Government furnished the 
Commission with the detailed information requested. 

(i) In summation, the Commission is of the opinion 
that the discrimination and persecution to which minor- 
ities and political opposition groups were subjected by 
the Greek Government in the atmosphere of bitterness and 
reprisal following the civil war of 1944-1945 as well as 
communist propaganda had caused several thousand per- 
sons to flee to the mountains or take refuge on the soil of 
Greece's three Northern neighbours, where they formed 
groups actively hostile to the Greek regime. To this ex- 
tent it is the Commission's opinion that the present general 
disturbed conditions in Greece which have existed since 
the beginning of the war are factors which help to explain 
and thus bear an indirect relation to the situation investi- 
gated by the Commission. On the other hand, the exist- 
ence of disturbed conditions in Greece in no way relieves 
the three Northern neighbours of their duty under interna- 
tional law to prevent and suppress subversive activity on 
their territory aimed against another Government, nor 
does it relieve them of direct responsibility for their sup- 
port of the Greek guerrillas." 

SECTION E: Territorial Claims 

11 (a) The Albanian Representative charged that Greek 
insistence that a state of war still existed between Albania 
and Greece and Greece's continued assertion of its terri- 



" [Editor's Note: The Delegations of Australia, Bel- 
gium, Brazil, China, Colombia, France, Syria, the United 
Kingdom and the United States of America subscribed to 
these conclusions. The Delegations of Poland and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were unable to approve 
these conclusions and set forth their own as embodied in 
part III, chapter II, not here printed.] 

" For the attitude of various delegations to the proposals 
set out in chap. I, see chap. II [not here printed]. 

22 



torial claim on Southern Albania (Northern Epirus) were 
Important factors contributing to strained relations be- 
tween the countries. In reply, the Greek Representative 
recalled that it was the Albanians who had initiated the 
state of war when they participated in the Italian aggres- 
sion against Greece in 1940, and that such territorial 
claims as the Greeks might have against Albania had been 
placed before the appropriate international bodies. 

(b) The Commission did not investigate these charges 
regarding Greek foreign policy, as they related more to 
official territorial claims and to traditional Greek- 
Albanian rivalry than to matters coming within the 
scope of the Commission's inquiry. The CommLssion be- 
lieves, however, that the fact that Greece has maintained 
an uncompromising attitude on these questions has un- 
doubtedly increased the tension between the two countries 
and contributed to the psychological atmosphere evi- 
denced in part by the frontier clashes. 

(c) Bulgarian charges with regard to the alleged expan- 
sionist foreign policy of Greece made reference both to 
Greek claims made at the Paris Peace Conference and 
to extremist statements which have been made in the 
Greek press and at public meetings. To these charges 
Greece replied by pointing out that Greek claims against 
Bulgaria had been restricted to strategic frontier rectifi- 
cations, while Bulgaria had persistently made claims for 
the whole province of Western Thrace. 

(d) Yugoslav charges, alleging that Greece desired to 
annex a portion of Southern Yugoslavia, were based on 
several unofficial statements and newspaper articles. 
These charges were categorically denied by the Greek 
Representative, and were not investigated by the Com- 
mission. 

(e) The Commission did not regard the settlement of 
territorial claims raised before appropriate international 
bodies as within the scope of its work. It nevertheless 
felt that the continued reiteration of Greece's claims 
against Bulgaria, and Bulgaria's claim to Western 
Thrace, after they had been rejected at the Peace Con- 
ference, as well as Greece's claim against Albania, was a 
factor which tended to increase the tension between the 
countries. The Commission noted that the EAM coalition 
had supported Greek territorial claims, both against Al- 
bania and Bulgaria, and was therefore in the same posi- 
tion as the Greek Government in this regard. 

PART IV: Proposals Made in Pursuance of the 
Final Paragraph of the Security Council's Reso- 
lution of 19 December 1946 >» 

Chapter I: Proposals [pp. 246-251] 

Before coming to its actual proposals the Commission 
feel it would be useful to recapitulate in brief the situa- 
tion along Greece's northern border which these proposals 
are designed to alleviate and remedy. First there are the 
allegations by the Greek Government that its three north- 
ern neighbors are assisting the guerrilla warfare in Greece. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Secondly, there is the present disturbed situation In Greece 
which is a heritage from the past and the causes of which 
are to be found in Greece's tragic experience during the 
war, in her occupation by the Italians, Germans and Bul- 
garians, in the guerrilla warfare waged during the occupa- 
tion and the political bitterness and economic difficulties 
to which this war gave rise. 

Next to be mentioned is the refusal of most of the coun- 
tries concerned to accept as final their frontiers as at 
present defined. Some of these claims have been advanced 
In a perfectly legitimate manner before the forum of the 
United Nations or other competent international instances 
but their reiteration has undoubtedly exacerbated an al- 
ready dangerous situation. 

Furthermore in the case of the Macedonian question, 
claims have been ventilated not before the United Nations 
but in speeches by representatives of individual Govern- 
ments or in government controlled organs of press. The 
exploitation of the Macedonian question in this manner is 
in the Commission's opinion a positive threat to the tran- 
quillity of the Balkans and can only add to existing tension 
and suspicion and increase national passions which, far 
from being decreased as the result of the exi)erience of 
the war, have been sharpened by their identification in 
many cases with political ideas. 

Also to be mentioned is the presence in Greece on the one 
hand and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Albania on the other, 
of political refugees from each other's territory, many of 
whom have taken part in the political struggles which have 
raged in their own countries both during and since the 
war. Some of these refugees have been quartered near 
the frontier of the country from which they came. Some 
again have, during their exile, engaged in political and 
military activity, and all too many live in hope that there 
will be some violent turn of the tide which will enable them 
to return to their homes on the conditions they choose. 
Other of these refugees have been victims of panic, flight 
and would, if given a free choice, gladly return to their 
homes. The continued presence of all of them under the 
conditions in which they live at present is however all too 
clearly a serious contributory factor to the present 
situation. 

Lastly the violence and scale of the propaganda used by 
some of the protagonists in their relations with each other 
could not escape the notice of the Commission during its 
stay in the four countries. Such propaganda always serves 
to inflame passions which are already too high. 

In such a set of circumstances it would be idle to believe 
that the situation in northern Greece could be cured by a 
stroke of the pen but the proiwsals which now follow 
have been framed in the spirit of Chapter VI of the Charter 
of the United Nations with a view first to preventing any 
aggravation of the situation, and secondly to alleviating 
it and eventually restoring it to normal. 

The Commission has not made any suggestions in mat- 
ters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdic- 
tion of the countries concerned as they would be contrary 
to the provisions of paragraph 7 of Article 2 of the Char- 
ter. However, in the event the Greek Government decides 
to grant a new amnesty for political prisoners and guer- 

July 6, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

rillas, the Commission suggests that the Security Council 
make known to the Greek Government its willingness, if 
that Government so requests, to lend its good offices in 
order to secure by all possible means the realisation of 
this measure. 

The following are, the Commission's proposals : 

A. The Commission proposes to the Security Council 
that it should recommend to the governments of Greece 
on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia 
on the other, to do their utmost to establish normal good 
neighbourly relations, to abstain from all action direct 
or indirect which is likely to increase or maintain the 
tension and unrest in the border areas, and rigorously to 
refrain from any support, overt or covert, of elements 
in neighbouring countries aiming at the overthrow of the 
lawful governments of those countries. Should subjects 
of complaint arise these should be made not the object 
of propaganda campaigns, but referred either through 
diplomatic channels to the Government concerned, or 
should this resource fail, to the appropriate organ of the 
United Nations. In the light of the situation investigated 
by it the Commission believes that, in the area of its 
investigation future cases of support of armed bands 
formed on the territory of one State and crossing into 
the territory of another State, or of refusal by a govern- 
ment in spite of the demands of the State concerned to 
take all possible measures on its own territory to deprive 
such bands of any aid or protection, should be considered 
by the Security Council as a threat to the peace within 
the meaning of the Charter of the United Nations. 

B. With a view to providing effective machinery for the 
regulation and control of their common frontiers, the 
Commission proposes that the Security Council recommend 
to the governments concerned that they enter into new 
conventions along the lines the Greco-Bulgarian Con- 
vention of 1931, taking Into account the needs of the 
present situation. 

C. For the purpose of restoring normal conditions along 
the frontiers between Greece on the one hand and Albania, 
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, and thereby as- 
sisting in the establishment of good neighbourly relations, 
the Commission recommends the establishment of a body 
with the following composition and functions: 

a) The body should be established by the Security 
Council in the form of either a small Commission or a 
single Commissioner. If the body is a small Commission 
it should be composed of representatives of Governments. 
If the body is to consist of a Commissioner he and his staff 
should be nationals of States who are neither permanent 
members of the Security Council nor have any direct 
connection or interest in the affairs of the four countries 
concerned. 

b) The Commission or Commissioner should have the 
staff necessary to perform their functions including per- 
sons able to act as border observers and to report on the 
observance of the frontier conventions referred to in 
recommendation (B), the state of the frontier area, and 
cognate matters. 

c) The Commission or Commissioner should have the 
right to perform their functions on both sides of the 

23 



THE UNITBD NATIONS 

border and the Commission or Commissioner should have 
the right of direct access to the four Governments of 
Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Greece. The functions 
and duties of the Commission or the Commissioner should 
be: 

(i) To Investigate any frontier violations that occur; 
(li) To use its good oflSces for the settlement, by the 
means mentioned in Article 33 of the Charter, of: 

a. Controversies arising from frontier violations ; 

b. Controversies directly connected with the applica- 
tion of the Frontier Conventions envisaged In (B) ; 

c. Complaints regarding conditions on the border 
which may be brought by one Government against 
another. 

(ill) To u.se Its good offices to assist the Governments 
concerned in the negotiation and conclusion of the 
frontier conventions envisaged in recommendation 
(B). 

(Iv) To study and make recommendations to the govern- 
ments concerned with respect to such additional 
bilateral agreements between them for the pacific 
settlement of disputes relating to frontier Incidents 
or conditions on the frontier, as the Commission 
considers desirable. 

(v) To assist in the Implementation of Recommendation 
D below ; to receive reports from the four govern- 
ments with respect to persons who have fled from 
any one of such countries to any of the others ; to 
maintain a register for their confidential use of all 
such persons and to assist in the repatriation of 
those who wish to return to their homes, and in 
connection with the.se functions to act in concert 
with the appropriate agency of the United Nations. 

(vi) To report to the Security Council every three months, 
or whenever they think fit. 

It is recommended that this body should be estab- 
lished for a period of at least two years, before the 



expiry of which the necessity for its continued 
existence should be reviewed by the Security Council. 

D. The Commission recognises that owing to the deep- 
rooted caases of the present disturbances and to the nature 
of the frontiers it is physically impossible to control the 
passage of refugees across the border. As the presence 
of these refugees in any of the four countries Is a disturb- 
ing factor each Government should assume the obligation 
to remove them as far from which they came as it is 
physically and practically possible. 

Tiiese refugees should be placed In camps or otherwise 
segregated. The governments concerned should undertake 
to ensure that they should not be permitted to indulge 
In any political or military activity. 

The Commission would also strongly recommend tliat 
if it is practicable the camps containing the refugees 
should be placed under the supervision of some inter- 
national body authorised by the United Nations to under- 
take the task. 

In order to ensure that only genuine refugees return, 
their return to their country of origin shall not take 
place except after (1) arrangement with the government 
of such country and (2) notification to the Commission or 
Commissioner or to the international United Nations 
body If such Is established. The Commission would here 
point out the desirability of the governments concerned 
encouraging the return of refugees to their homes. 

E. The Commission propo.ses that the Security Council 
recommend to the governments concerned that they study 
the practicability of concluding agreements for the volun- 
tary transfer of minorities. In the meantime minorities 
in any of the countries concerned desiring to emigrate 
should be given all facilities to do so by the government 
of the State in which they at present reside. The arrange- 
ments of any such transfers could be supervised by the 
Commission or Commissioner who would act as a registra- 
tion authority for any person desiring to emigrate. 



UNITED STATES DRAFT RESOLUTION ON THE GREEK QUESTION 



The Security Council, having received and considered 
the report of the Commission of Investigation established 
by resolution of the Council dated 19 December 1946; 

Convinced, on the l)asis of the Commission's report, that 
further action is required by the Security Council ; 

Resolves that: 

1. The Security Council adopts the proposals made by 
the majority of tlie Members of the Commission ; 

2. In giving effect to proiwsals contained in paragraphs 
A, B, D and E the Security Council hereby recommends 
to the governments of Greece on the one hand, and Albania, 
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, that they take the 
action proposed therein ; 

3. In giving effect to paragraph C of these proposals, 
the Security Council for the purpose of restoring normal 



" Submitted to the Security Council by the U.S. repre- 
sentative on June 27, 1W7 ; see U.N. doc. S/391, June 27, 
1947. 



conditions along the frontiers between Greece on the one 
hand and All>ania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, 
and thereby assisting in the establishment of good neigh- 
bourly relations, establishes a Commission as a subsidiary 
organ. 

(a) The Commission shall be composed of a representa- 
tive of each of the Nations Members of the Security Coun- 
cil as they may be from time to time. 

(b) The duties and powers of the Commission shall be: 
(1) To use its good oflBces for the settlement, by the 

means mentioned In Article 33 of the Cluirter, of : 

(a) Controversies arising from frontier violations; 

(b) Controversies directly connected with the appli- 
cation of the frontier conventions recommended to the 
four governments under this resolution ; 

(c) Complaints regarding conditions on the border 
which may be brought to the attention of the Commis- 
sion by one Government against another; and In order 
to carry out these tasks the Commission Is empowered 
to make an investigation of any frontier violations that 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



occur and of any complaints brought by one government 
against another in connection with the application of the 
frontier conventions or regarding conditions on the 
border. 

(2) To use Its good offices to assist the governments 
concerned in the negotiation and conclusion of the fron- 
tier conventions recommended under this resolution ; 

(3) To study and make recommendations to the govern- 
ments concerned with respect to such additional bilateral 
agreements between them for the pacific settlement of dis- 
putes relating to frontier Incidents or conditions on the 
frontier as the Commission considers desirable. 

(4) To assist In the Implementation of the recommenda- 
tions made to the four governments under this resolution 
with respect to refugees ; to receive reports from the four 
governments with respect to persons who may cross or 
have crossed from the territory of any one of such coun- 
tries to any of the others; to maintain a register for Its 
confidential use of all such persons and to assist in the 
repatriation of those who wish to return to their homes; 
and in connection with these functions to act In concert 
with the appropriate agency of the United Nations. 

(5) If called upon by any of the governments concerned 
to supervise the arrangements for the transfer of minori- 
ties recommended to such governments under this resolu- 
tion and to act as a registration authority for any per- 
sons desiring to emigrate. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

(6) To have such other duties and powers as the Secu- 
rity Council may determine from time to time. 

(c) The Commission shall have its headquarters in 
Salonika and shall have authority to perform Its functions 
on either side of the Frontier. 

(d) The Commission shall have the right of direct ac- 
cess to the governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and 
Yugoslavia and shall have authority to call upon the 
nationals and officials of those governments to testify 
before It on any matters coming within its competence. 

(e) The Commission shall establish its own rules of 
procedure and methods of conducting Its business. 

(f) The Commission shall render regularly quarterly 
reports to the Security Council, or more frequently if it 
thinks fit. 

(g) The Commission shall commence its work as soon 
as practicable and shall remain in existence until 31 
August 1949, before which date the necessity for its 
continued existence after that date shall be reviewed by 
the Security Council. 

(h) The Commission shall have the staff necessary to 
perform Its functions, including persons able to act as 
border observers and to report on the observance of fron- 
tier conventions recommended under this resolution, the 
state of the frontier area, and cognate matters. 



July 6, 1947 

749707 — 47- 



25 



Second Anniversary of Signing of United Nations Cliarter 



REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT' 



Today, on the second anniversary of the signing 
of the United Nations Charter, I am happy to speak 
for the Government and the people of the United 
States in sahiting the Organization and the ideals 
of international cooperation which gave it life. 

For the last two years, the members of the United 
Nations have been exerting gi'eat effort to build and 
set in motion its machinery. This process of or- 
ganization has gone forward in an atmosphere of 
disturbance and uncertainty, the aftermath of the 
second World War. From the very first sessions 
of its principal components, the United Nations 
has been asked to contend with some highly con- 
troversial international political issues. It has 
found it necessary to chart new paths of economic 
and social cooperation in the complexities of a 
postwar world. 

The effectiveness of the United Nations depends 
upon the member states' meeting all their obliga- 
tions. Assurance that these obligations will be 
met depends in turn upon the will of the peoples of 
the member states. The vigor of the United Na- 
tions stems therefore from a public opinion edu- 
cated to understand its problems. 

The existence of the United Nations obviously 
affords no guaranty that every international prob- 
lem can be solved easily, or automatically, or im- 
mediately. It should not be a matter for surprise 
or disillusionment that many issues arising as a 
result of the war still remain unsettled. The 
strength of the United Nations rests in the recog- 
nition by the member states that, despite all differ- 
ences, they have a common interest in the preser- 



vation of international peace and in the attainment 
of international security. 

The member states are not only bound by the 
Charter, jointly and severally, to execute the de- 
cisions of the Organization ; they are bound to con- 
duct their day-to-day foreign relations in accord- 
ance with the principles of freedom and justice 
prescribed by the Charter. 

During the last two years the Government and 
the people of the United States have demonstrated 
their support of the United Nations. They have 
attempted consistently and actively to achieve the 
purposes set forth in the United Nations Charter — 
to prevent war, to settle international disputes by 
peaceful means and in conformity with the prin- 
ciples of justice, to cooperate in securing economic 
and social advancement, to encourage respect for 
fundamental human rights and freedoms, and to 
build genuine security. 

The Government and the people of the United 
States are aware that the realization of these 
objectives is not easy. They know that it is a 
continuing task. They will not be discouraged by 
temporary setback or delay. 

The enterprise which was laimched at San 
Francisco two years ago is the hope of the world 
for lasting peace. It provides mankind today with 
the best opportunity to unite for the preservation 
of civilization and for the continuation of human 
progress. 

On behalf of the United States Government and 
of its people, I renew the pledge of our utmost 
efforts to insure the success of the United Nations. 
We shall do our part. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press June 25] 

Commemorative ceremonies have been planned 
for tomorrow, June 26, the second anniversary of 
the signing of the United Nations Charter at San 
Francisco. This date, which is already becoming 



' Broadcast by transcription in a United Nations radio 
program on June 2G, 1947, and released to the press by the 
White House on the same date. 

26 



known as Charter Day, affords the peoples of all 
the member states of the United Nations an oppor- 
tunity to manifest their support of the Organiza- 
tion and their devotion to the principles on which 
it is founded. 

The United Nations has made extensive plans 
for observance of Charter Day throughout the 
world. The high lights of this observance will, I 

Department of State Bulletin 



understand, take the form of a world-wide radio 
broadcast in which several Heads of State have 
been asked to participate through recorded 
messages. President Truman has recorded his 
message. 



The UNITED NATIONS 

I know that the citizens of the United States will 
join, in every appropriate manner, in the celebra- 
tion of United Nations Charter Day and will con- 
tinue to work for the strengthening and success of 
the United Nations Organization. 



U.N.-U.S. Agreement Regarding Headquarters of the United Nations 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE > 



The second anniversary of the signing of the 
Charter of the United Nations at San Francisco is 
a fitting occasion for the signature of this agi-ee- 
ment defining the arrangements for the establish- 
ment of the permanent headquarters of the United 
Nations. 

The United States is conscious of the honor 
which has been bestowed upon it by the selection 
of a site for the headquarters in this country. It 
is also conscious of its obligations as the host of the 
United Nations to make arrangements which will 
be satisfactory in every way so that the United 
Nations may carry on its gi-eat work under auspi- 
cious conditions. 

It is not merely the Federal Government which 
is in the position of host to the United Nations. 



The State and City of New York share this honor 
with all our people. Representatives of the State 
and City participated in negotiation of this 
agreement, and the Legislature of the State has 
enacted enabling legislation. Before the agree- 
ment comes into effect it will, of course, be submit- 
ted to the Congi-ess of the United States and to the 
General Assembly of the United Nations. 

In this, as in other matters, it will continue to be 
the central purpose of the United States foreign 
policy to advance and strengthen the United Na- 
tions, so that we may, in the words of the Charter, 
"save succeeding generations from the scourge of 
war, which twice in our lifetime has brought un- 
told sorrow to mankind". 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 



[Released to tbe press June 26] 
The United Nations and the United States of America : 
Desiring to conclude an agreement for the purpose of 
carrying out the Kesolution adopted by the General As- 
sembly on 14 December 1946 to establish the seat of the 
United Nations in The City of New York and to regulate 
questions arising as a result thereof; 

Have appointed as their representatives for this pur- 
pose: 
The United Nations : 

Trygve Lie, Secretary-General, and 
The United States of America : 

George C. Marshall, Secretary of State, 
Who have agreed as follows : 

ARTICLE I 

DEFINITIONS 

Section 1 

In this agreement : 

(a) The expression "headquarters district" means (1) 

Ju/y 6, 1947 



the area defined as such in Annex 1, and (2) any other 
lands or buildings which from time to time may be in- 
cluded therein by supplemental agreement with the ap- 
propriate American authorities ; 

(b) the expression "appropriate American authorities" 
means such federal, state, or local authorities in the 
United States as may be appropriate in the context and in 
accordance with the laws and customs of the United 
States, including the laws and customs of the state and 
local government involved ; 

(c) the expression "General Convention" means the 
Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the 
United Nations approved by the General Assembly of the 
United Nations 13 February 1946, as acceded to by the 
United States ; 

(d) the expression "United Nations" means the inter- 
national organization established by the Charter of the 



' Made on the occasion of the signing of the agreement on 
June 26, 1947, and released to the press on the same date. 

27 



THE UNITED NAT/ONS 



United Nations, hereinafter referred to as the "Charter" ; 
(e) the expression "Secretary -General" means the Sec- 
retary-General of the United Nations. 

ARTICLE II 

THE HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT 

Section 2 

The seat of the United Nations shall be the head- 
quarters district. 

Section S 

The appropriate American authorities shall take what- 
ever action may be necessary to assure that the United 
Nations shall not be dispossessed of its property in the 
headquarters district, except as provided in Section 22 in 
the event that the United Nations ceases to use the same; 
provided that the United Nations shall reimburse the ap- 
propriate American authorities for any costs incurred, 
after consultation with the United Nations, in liquidating 
by eminent domain proceedings or otherwise any adverse 
claims. 

Section 4 

(a) The United Nations may establish and operate in 
the headquarters district : 

(1) Its own short-wave sending and receiving radio 
broadcasting facilities (including emergency link equip- 
ment) which may be used on the same frequencies (within 
the tolerances prescribed for the broadcasting service by 
applicable United States regulations) for radiotelegraph, 
radioteletype, radiotelephone, radiotelephoto, and similar 
services ; 

(2) one point-to-point circuit between the headquarters 
district and the office of the United Nations in Geneva 
(using single sideband equipment) to be used exclusively 
for the exchange of broadcasting programs and Inter-ofBce 
communications ; 

(3) low power micro-wave, low or medium frequency 
facilities for communication within headquarters buildings 
only, or such other buildings as may temporarily be used 
by the United Nations; 

(4) facilities for jwiut-to-point communication to the 
same extent and subject to the same conditions as per- 
mitted under applicable rules and regulations for amateur 
operation in the United States, except that such rules and 
regulations shall not be applied in a manner inconsistent 
with the inviolability of the headquarters district provided 
by Section 9(a); 

(5) such other radio facilities as may be specified by 
supplemental agreement between the United Nations and 
the appropriate American authorities. 

(h) The United Nations shall make arrangements for 
the operation of the services referred to in this section 
with the International Telecommunication Union, the 
appropriate agencies of the Government of the United 
States and the appropriate agencies of other affected 
governments with regard to all frequencies and similar 
matters. 



(c) The facilities provided for in this section may, to 
the extent necessary for efficient operation, be established 
and operated outside the headquarters district. The ap- 
propriate American authorities will, on request of the 
United Nations, make arrangements, on such terms and 
in such manner as may be agreed upon by supplemental 
agreement, for the acquisition or use by the United 
Nations of appropriate premises for such purposes and 
the inclusion of such premises in the headquarters district. 

Section 5 

In the event that the United Nations should find it 
necessary and desirable to establish and operate an aero- 
drome, the conditions for the location, use and operation 
of such an aerodrome and the conditions under which 
there shall be entry into and exit therefrom shall be 
the subject of a supplemental agreement. 

Section 6 

In the event that the United Nations should propose to 
organize its ovi'n postal service, the conditions under which 
such service shall be set up shall be the subject of a 
supplemental agreement. 

ARTICLE III 

LAW AND AUTHORITY IN THE HEADQUARTERS DISTKICTT 

Section 7 

(a) The headquarters district shall be under the control 
and authority of the United Nations as provided in this 
agreement. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this agreement 
or in the General Convention, the federal, state and local 
law of the United States shall apply within the head- 
quarters district. 

(c) Except as otherwise provided in this agreement or 
in the General Convention, the federal, state and local 
courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction over 
acts done and transactions taking place in the headquar- 
ters district as provided in applicable federal, state and 
local laws. 

(d) The federal, state and local courts of the United 
States, when dealing with cases arising out of or relating 
to acts done or transactions taking place in the head- 
quarters district, shall take into account the regulations 
enacted by the United Nations under Section 8. 

Section 8 

The United Nations shall have the power to make regu- 
lations, operative within the headquarters district, for the 
purpose of establishing therein conditions in all re- 
spects necessary for the full execution of its functions. No 
federal, state or local law or regulation of the United 
States which is inconsistent with a regulation of the 
United Nations authorized by this section shall, to the 
extent of such inconsistency, be applicable within the 
headquarters district. Any dispute, between the United 
Nations and the United States, as to whether a regula- 
tion of the United Nations is authorized by this section or 
as to whether a federal, state or local law or regulation is 
inconsistent with any regulation of the United Nations 
authorized by this section, shall be promptly settled as pro- 



28 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



vided in Section 21. Pending such settlement, the regula- 
tion of the United Nations shall apply, and the federal, 
state or local law or regulation shall be inapplicable in 
the headquarters district to the extent that the United 
Nations claims it to be inconsistent with the regulation 
of the United Nations. This section shall not prevent 
the reasonable application of fire protection regulations of 
the appropriate American authorities. 

Section 9 

(a) The headquarters district shall be Inviolable. Fed- 
eral, state or local officers or officials of the United States, 
whether administrative, judicial, military or police, shall 
not enter the headquarters district to perform any official 
duties therein except with the consent of and under con- 
ditions agreed to by the Secretary-General. The service 
of legal process, including the seizure of private property, 
may take place within the headquarters district only with 
the consent of and under conditions approved by the Sec- 
retary-General. 

(b) Without prejudice to the provisions of the General 
Convention or Article IV of this agreement, the United 
Nations shall prevent the headquarters district from be- 
coming a refuge either for persons who are avoiding ar- 
rest under the federal, state, or local law of the United 
States or are required by the Government of the United 
States for extradition to anotlier country, or for persons 
who are endeavoring to avoid service of legal process. 

Section 10 

The United Nations may expel or exclude persons from 
the headquarters district for violation of its regulations 
adopted under Section 8 or for other cause. Persons who 
violate such resulations shall be subject to other penalties 
or to detention under arrest only in accordance with tlie 
provisions of such laws or regulations as may be adopted 
by the appropriate American authorities. 

ARTICLE IV 
COMMTJNICATIONS AND TRANSIT 
Section 11 

The federal, state or local authorities of the United 
States shall not impose any impediments to transit to or 
from the headquarters district of (1) representatives of 
Members or officials of the United Nations, or of specialized 
agencies as defined In Article 57, paragraph 2, of the 
Charter, or the families of such representatives or officials, 
(2) experts performing missions for the United Nations 
or for such specialized agencies, (3) representatives of the 
press, or of radio, film or other information agencies, who 
have been accredited by the United Nations (or by such a 
specialized agency) In its discretion after consultation 
with the United States, (4) representatives of non-gov- 
ernmental organizations recognized by the United Nations 
for the purpose of consultation under Article 71 of the 
Charter, or (5) other persons invited to the headquarters 
district by the United Nations or by such specialized 
agency on official business. The appropriate American 
authorities shall afford any necessary protection to such 
persons while in transit to or from the headquarters dis- 
trict. This section does not apply to general Interruptions 

Ju/y 6, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

of transportation which are to be dealt with as provided 
in Section 17, and does not Impair the effectiveness of 
generally applicable laws and regulations as to the opera- 
tion of means of transportation. 

Section 13 

The provisions of Section 11 shall be applicable Irrespec- 
tive of the relations existing between the Governments of 
the persons referred to In that section and the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

Section 13 

(a) Laws and regulations in force in the United States 
regarding the entry of aliens shall not be applied in such 
manner as to interfere with the privileges referred to in 
Section 11. When visas are required for persons referred 
to In that Section, they shall be granted without charge 
and as promptly as possible. 

(b) Laws and regulations in force in the United States 
regarding the residence of aliens shall not be applied In 
such manner as to interfere vcith the privileges referred 
to in Section 11 and, specifically, shall not be applied In 
such manner as to require any such person to leave the 
United States on account of any activities performed by 
him in his official capacity. In case of abuse of such privi- 
leges of residence by any such person in activities in the 
United States outside his official capacity, it is under- 
stood that the privileges referred to in Section 11 shall 
not be construed to grant him exemption from the laws 
and regulations of the United States regarding the con- 
tinued residence of aliens, provided that : 

(1) No proceedings shall be Instituted under such laws 
or regulations to require any such person to leave the 
United States except with the prior approval of tlie Secre- 
tary of State of the United States. Such approval shall 
be given only after consultation with the appropriate 
Member in the ease of a representative of a Member (or 
a member of his family) or with the Secretary-General 
or the principal executive officer of the appropriate 
specialized agency in the case of any other person referred 
to in Section 11 ; 

(2) A representative of the Member concerned, the 
Secretary-General, or the principal executive officer of 
the appropriate specialized agency, as the case may be, 
shall have the right to appear in any such proceedings 
on behalf of the person against whom they are instituted; 

(3) Persons who are entitled to diplomatic privileges 
and immunities under Section 15 or under the General 
Convention shall not be required to leave the United States 
otherwise than in accordance with the customary pro- 
cedure applicable to diplomatic envoys accredited to 
the United States. 

(c) This section does not prevent the requirement of 
reasonable evidence to establish that persons claiming the 
rights granted by Section 11 come within the classes de- 
scribed in that section, or the reasonable application of 
quarantine and health regulations. 

(d) Except as provided above In this section and in 
the General Convention, the United States retains full 
control and authority over the entry of persons or prop- 
erty into the territory of the United States and the 

29 



THB UNITED NATIONS 

conditions under whicli persons may remain or reside 
there. 

(e) The Secretary-General shall, at the request of the 
appropriate American authorities enter into discussions 
with such autliorities, with a view to making arrange- 
ments for registering tlie arrival and departure of per- 
sons who have been granted visas valid only for transit 
to and from the headquarters district and sojourn therein 
and in its immediate vicinity. 

(f ) The United Nations shall, subject to the foregoing 
provisions of this section, have the exclusive right to au- 
thorize or prohibit entry of persons and property into 
the headquarters district and to prescribe the conditions 
under which persons may remain or reside there. 

Section H 

The Secretary-General and the appropriate American 
authorities shall, at the request of either of them, consult 
as to methods of facilitating entrance into the United 
States, and the use of available means of transportation, 
by persons coming from abroad who wish to visit the 
headquarters district and do not enjoy the rights re- 
ferred to in this Article. 

ARTICLE V 
RESIDENT REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS 
Section 15 

(1) Every person designated by a Member as the prin- 
cipal resident representative to the United Nations of such 
Member or as a resident representative with the rank of 
ambassador or minister plenipotentiary, 

(2) such resident members of their staffs as may be 
agreed upon between the Secretary-General, the Govern- 
ment of the United States and the Government of the 
Member concerned, 

(3) every person designated by a Member of a special- 
ized agency, as defined in Article 57, paragraph 2, of the 
Charter, as its principal resident representative, with 
the rank of ambassador or minister plenipotentiary, at 
the headquarters of sucli agency in the United States, and 

(4) such other principal resident representatives of 
members to a specialized agency and such resident mem- 
bers of the staffs of representatives to a specialized agency 
as may be agreed upon between the principal executive 
officer of the specialized agency, the Government of the 
United States and the Government of the Member con- 
cerned, 

shall, whether residing inside or outside the head- 
quarters district, be entitled in the territory of the United 
States to the same privileges and immunities, subject to 
corresponding conditions and obligations, as it accords 
to diplomatic envoys accredited to it. In the case of Mem- 
bers whose governments are not recognized by the United 
States, such privileges and immunities need be extended 
to such representatives, or persons on the staffs of such 
representatives, only within the headquarters district, at 
their residences and offices outside the district, in transit 
between the district and such residences and offices, and 
in transit on official business to or from foreign countries. 

30 



ARTICLE VI 
POLICE PROTECTION OF THE HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT 
Section 16 

(a) The appropriate American authorities shall exer- 
cise due dilif-'ence to ensure that the tranquility of the 
headquarters district is not disturbed by the unauthorized 
entry of groups of persons from outside or by disturbances 
in its immediate vicinity and shall cause to be provided on 
the boundaries of the headquarters district such police 
protection as is required for these purposes. 

(b) If so requested by the Secretary-General, the ap- 
propriate American authorities shall provide a sufficient 
number of police for the preservation of law and order 
in the headquarters district, and for the removal there- 
from of persons as requested under the authority of the 
United Nations. The United Nations shall, if requested, 
enter into arrangements with the appropriate American 
authorities to reimburse them for the reasonable cost of 
such services. 

ARTICLE VII 

PUBLIC SER\1CES AND PROTECTION OF THE HEAD- 
QUARTERS DISTRICT 

Section 17 

(a) The appropriate American authorities will exer- 
cise to the extent requested by the Secretary-General the 
powers which they possess with respect to the supplying 
of public services to ensure that the headquarters district 
shall be supplied on equitable terms with the necessary 
public services, including electricity, water, gas, post, tele- 
phone, telegraph, transportation, drainage, collection of 
refuse, fire protection, snow removal, et cetera. In case 
of any interruption or threatened interruption of any 
such services, the appropriate American authorities will 
consider the needs of the United Nations as being of equal 
importance with the similar needs of essential agencies 
of the Government of the United States, and will take 
steps accordingly, to ensure tliat the work of the United 
Nations is not prejudiced. 

(b) Special provisions with reference to maintenance 
of utilities and underground construction are contained 
in Annex 2. 

Section 18 

The appropriate American authorities shall take all 
reasonable steps to ensure that the amenities of the head- 
quarters district are not prejudiced and the purposes for 
which the district Is required are not obstructed by any 
use made of the land in the vicinity of the district. The 
United Nations shall on its part take all reasonable steps 
to ensure that the amenities of the land in the vicinity 
of the headquarters district are not prejudiced by any 
use made of the land In the headquarters district by the 
United Nations. 

Section 19 

It is agreed that no form of racial or religious discrim- 
ination shall be permitted with the headquarters district 

Department of State Bulletin 



ARTICLE VIII 

MATTERS REIiATING TO THE OPERATION OF THIS 
AGREEMENT 

Section 20 

The Secretary-General and the appropriate American 
authorities shall settle by agreement the channels through 
which they will communicate regarding the application 
of the provisions of this agreement and other questions 
aflfecting the headquarters district, and may enter into 
such supplemental agreements as may be necessary to ful- 
fill the purposes' of this agreement. In making supple- 
mental agreements with the Secretary-General, the United 
States shall consult with the appropriate state and local 
authorities. If the Secretary-General so requests, the 
Secretary of State of the United States shall appoint a 
special representative for the purpose of liaison with the 
Secretary-General. 

Section 21 

(a) Any dispute between the United Nations and the 
United States concerning the interpretation or application 
of this agreement or of any supplemental agreement, which 
is not settled by negotiation or other agreed mode of settle- 
ment, shall be referred for final decision to a tribunal of 
three arbitrators, one to be named by the Secretary- 
General, one to be named by the Secretary of State of the 
United States, and the third to be chosen by the two, or, if 
they should fail to agree upon a third, tlien by the Presi- 
dent of the International Court of Justice. 

(b) The Secretary-General or the United States may 
ask the General Assembly to request of the International 
Court of Justice an advisory opinion on any legal question 
arising in the course of such proceedings. Pending the 
receipt of the opinion of the Court, an interim decision of 
the arbitral tribunal shall be observed by both parties. 
Thereafter, the arbitral tribunal shall render a final deci- 
sion, having regard to the opinion of the Court. 

ARTICLE IX 
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 

Section 22 

(a) The United Nations shall not dispose of all or any 
part of the land owned by it in the headquarters district 
without the consent of the United States. If the United 
States Is unwilling to consent to a disposition which the 
United Nations wishes to make of all or any part of such 
land, the United States shall buy the same from the United 
Nations at a price to be determined as provided In para- 
graph (d) of this section. 

(b) If the seat of the United Nations is removed from 
the headquarters district, all right, title and interest of the 
United Nations in and to real property in the headquarters 
district or any part of it shall, on request of either the 
United Nations or the United States, be assigned and con- 
veyed to the United States. In the absence of such request, 
the same shall be assigned and conveyed to the subdivision 
of a state in which it is located or. If such subdivision shall 
not desire it, then to the state in which it Is located. If 
none of the foregoing desires the same, it may be disposed 
of as provided in paragraph (a) of this section. 

(c) If the United Nations disposes of all or any part 

July 6, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

of the headquarters district, the provisions of other sec- 
tions of this agreement which apply to the headquarters 
district shall immediately cease to apply to the laud and 
buildings so disposed of. 

( d ) The price to be paid for any conveyance under this 
section shall, in default of agreement, be the then fair 
value of the land, buildings and installations, to be deter- 
mined under the procedure provided in Section 21. 

Section 23 

The seat of the United Nations shall not be removed from 
the headquarters district unless the United Nations should 
so decide. 

Section 24 

This agreement shall cease to be in force if the seat of 
the United Nations is removed from the territory of the 
United States, except for such provisions as may be ap- 
plicable in connection with the orderly termination of the 
operations of the United Nations at its seat in the United 
States and the disposition of its property therein. 

Section 25 

Wherever this agreement Imposes obligations on the 
appropriate American authorities, the Government of the 
United States shall have the ultimate responsibility for 
the fulfillment of such obligations by the appropriate 
American authorities. 

Section 26 

The provisions of this agreement shall be complementary 
to the provisions of the General Convention. In so far as 
any provision of this agreement and any provisions of 
the General Convention relate to the same subject matter, 
the two provisions shall, wherever possible, be treated 
as complementary, so that both provisions shall be ap- 
plicable and neither shall narrow the effect of the other ; 
but in any case of absolute conflict, the provisions of this 
agreement shall prevail. 

Section 27 

This agreement shall be construed In the light of its 
primary purpose to enable the United Nations at its head- 
quarters in the United States, fully and efficiently to dis- 
charge its responsibilities and fulfill its purposes. 

Section 28 

This agreement shall be brought Into effect by an ex- 
change of notes between the Secretary-General, duly au- 
thorized pursuant to a resolution of the General Assembly 
of the United Nations, and the appropriate executive offi- 
cer of the United States, duly authorized pursuant to 
appropriate action of the Congress. 

In witness whereof the respective representatives have 
signed this Agreement and have affixed their seals hereto. 

Done in duplicate, in the English and French languages, 
both authentic, at Lake Success the twenty-sixth day of 
June 1947. 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA: 

G C Marshall 
Secretary of State 
FOR THE UNITED NATIONS : 

Trtgve Lib 
Secretarif-Oeneral 

31 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Annex 1 



The area referred to in Section 1 (a) (1) consists of 
(a) tlie premises bounded on tlie East by the westerly 
side of Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive, on the West by the 
easterly side of First Avenue, on tlie North by the south- 
erly side of East Forty-Eighth Street, and on the South 
by the northerly side of East Forty-Second Street, all 
as proposed to be widened, in the Borough of Manhattan, 
City and State of New York, and (b) an easement over 
Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive, above a lower limiting 
plane to be fixed for the construction and maintenance 
of an esplanade, together with the structures thereon and 
foundations and columns to support the same in loca- 
tions below such limiting plane, the entire area to be 
more definitely defined by supplemental agreement between 
the United Nations and the United States of America. 



Annex 2: Maintenance of Utilities and Underground Con- 
struction 

Section 1 

The Secretary-General agrees to provide passes to duly 
authorized employees of The City of New York, the State 
of New York, or any of their agencies or subdivisions, for 
the purpose of enabling them to inspect, repair, maintain, 
reconstruct and relocate utilities, conduits, mains and 
sewers within the headquarters district. 

Section 2 

Underground constructions may be undertaken by The 
City of New York, or the State of New York, or any of 
their agencies or subdivisions, within the headquarters 
district only after consultation with the Secretary-General, 
and under conditions which shall not disturb the carrying 
out of the functions of the United Nations. 



Recommendations and Conventions off Twenty-eightli 
International Labor Conference 

THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL TO THE SENATE' 



[Released to the press by the White House June 23] 

To the Senate of the United States : 

In accordance with the obligations of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America as a 
Member of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion, I transmit herewith authentic texts of nine 
Conventions and four Recommendations formu- 
lated at the Twenty-eighth (Maritime) Session 
of the International Labor Conference, held at 
Seattle, Washington, June 6 to 29, 1946. 

I transmit also the report of the Secretary of 
State regarding those Conventions and Recom- 
mendations, together with a copy of each of the 
communications with respect thereto addressed 
to the Department of State by the Secretary of La- 
bor, the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the At- 
torney General, the Secretary of Commerce, the 
Chairman of the United States Maritime Com- 
mission, the Federal Security Administrator, and 
the Assistant Secretary of Agriculture. 

I ask that the Senate give its advice and con- 
sent, subject to appropriate definitions in certain 
cases as indicated in the enclosed communications, 
to ratification of the following Conventions : 

Convention (No. 68) concerning food and catering for 

crews on board ship ; 
Convention (No. 69) concerning the certification of ships' 

cooks ; 



' For text of the President's letter of transmittal to the 
House of Representatives, see White House press release 
of June 23. 

32 



Convention (No. 70) concerning social security for sea- 
farers ; 

Convention (No. 73) concerning the medical examination 
of seafarers ; 

Convention (No. 74) concerning the certification of able 
seamen ; 

Convention (No. 75) concerning crew accommodation on 
board ship ; and 

Convention (No. 76) concerning wages, hours of work 
on board ship and manning. 

I request advice and consent to ratification of 
Convention (No. 72) concerning vacation holidays 
with pay for seafarers only in the event that the 
conditions explained in the accompanying report 
of the Secretary of State have been met. 

In view of certain objections thereto, as ex- 
plained more fully in the enclosed report and com- 
munications, I do not request at this time advice 
and consent to ratification of Convention (No. 71) 
concerning seafarers' pensions. 

The Constitution of the International Labor 
Organization under Article 19, paragraph 5, re- 
quires that Recommendations be brought "before 
the authority or authorities within whose com- 
petence the matter lies, for the enactment of legis- 
lation or other action." Accordingly, I request 
consideration of the following Recommendations : 

Recommendation (No. 75) concerning agreements relat- 
ing to the social security of seafarers; 

Recommendation (No. 76) concerning medical care for 
seafarers' dependents; 

Department of State Bulletin 



Recommendation (No. 77) concerning the organization of 

training for sea service; and 
Recommendation (No. 78) concerning tlie provision to 

crews by shipowners of betiding, mess utensils and 

other articles. 

Many of the provisions of the enclosed Con- 
ventions and Recommendations fall short of stand- 
ards already in effect in the American merchant 
marine. Some of the provisions are disappointing 
to those who had hoped through these instruments 
to raise substantially the level of standards in all 
Member Countries. It is believed, however, that 
general acceptance of the instruments by Member 
Countries will result in definite progress being 
made where that progress is most needed. Any 
such progi-ess will benefit the competitive position 
' of American seafarers and shipowners. At the 
same time, participation by the United States will 
necessitate relatively small change in the statutes 
or regulations of this Government. 

Inasmuch as concurrent action by the Senate and 
House of Representatives would be necessary for 
the implementation of any of the enclosed Conven- 
tions or Recommendations, I am transmitting to 
the House of Representatives authentic copies of 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

the Conventions and Recommendations, together 
with a copy of this message, a copy of the report by 
the Secretary of State, and a copy of each of the 
above-mentioned communications. I call attention 
particularly to the need for extending the pro- 
visions of any implementing legislation to the ter- 
ritories and insular possessions in accordance with 
Article 35 of the Constitution of the International 
Labor Organization. 

Enclosures : ' 

1. Authentic text of Conventions and Recommendations, 

2. Report of Secretary of State, 

3. From Secretary of Labor, 

4. From Acting Secretary of the Treasury, 

5. From the Attorney General, 

6. From Secretary of Commerce, 

7. From Chairman of United States Maritime Commia- 

sion, 

8. From the Federal Security Administrator, 

9. From Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, 

10. Memorandum from Sliipping Division, Department 
of State. 

Hakkt S. Truman 

The White House 

June 23, 1947 



Revision Convention Adopted at Twenty-ninth Session of 
International Labor Conference 

THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL TO THE SENATE 



[Released to the press by the White House June 24] 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith 
an authentic text of the Final Articles Revision 
Convention, 1946 (No. 80) , adopted at the Twenty- 
ninth Session of the International Labor Confer- 
ence at Montreal on October 9, 1946.^ In my opin- 
ion this Convention is essential to bring the lan- 
guage of previously adopted Conventions into 
conformity with present conditions and specifi- 
cally to recognize the present relationship of the 
International Labor Organization to the United 
Nations under Article 57 of the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

This Convention was adopted unanimously by 
the Conference. On the part of the United States 
delegation, affirmative votes were cast by the two 
Government delegates, by the delegate represent- 

Ju/y 6, 7947 



ing employers, and by the delegate representing 
workers. 

The purpose of the Convention is to make verbal 
changes in the texts of Conventions adopted at 
the previous twenty-eight sessions and to assign 
responsibility to the Director-General of the Inter- 
national Labor Office for certain of the chancery 
functions for which previously the Secretary- 
General of the League of Nations was responsible. 

The effect of this Convention is described in 
more detail in the report of the Secretary of State, 
enclosed herewith, and in a communication from 
the Secretary of Labor, a copy of which is en- 
closed.' 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House 
June 24, 1947 



' None printed. 
' Not printed. 



33 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



In Session as of June 29, 1947 

Far Eastern Commission 

United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

Commission on Conventional Armaments 

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council): Human Rights Drafting Com- 
mittee. 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 

With Turkey 

International Conference on Trade and Employment: Second Meeting of the 
Preparatory Committee. 

Congress of the Universal Postal Union 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Committee To Examine Disagreed Questions of 
the Austrian Treaty. 

International Radio Conference 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): South American Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting. 

ECITO (European Central Inland Transport Organization): Seventh Session 
of the Council (Second Part) . 

ILO (International Labor Organization): 30th Session of the International 
Labor Conference. 

Second International Film Festival 

Scheduled for June-August 1947 

International Telecommunications Plenipotentiary Conference 

International Council of Scientific Unions: Executive Committee 

International Rubber Study Group 

United Nations: 

Economic Commission for Europe: Second Session 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: Committee of the Whole . 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council): 

Fifth Session 

Narcotic Drugs Commission: Second Session 

Subcommission on Economic Development 

Population Commission: Second Session 

Human Rights Commission: Second Session 

Statistical Commission: Second Session 

' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of 
Bulletin this calendar will appear only in the first issue of each month. 

34 



Washington 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Washington 



Lisbon 
Madrid 

Ankara 
Geneva 

Paris . 
Vienna 



Atlantic City 
Lima ... 

Paris ... 

Geneva . . 

Locarno . . 

Atlantic City 
Paris ... 
Paris ... 



Geneva . . . 
Lake Success . 

Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Geneva . . . 
Lake Success . 



1946 

Feb. 26 

Mar. 25 
Mar. 25 
June 14 
1947 

Mar. 24 
June 9-25 

Oct. 24 

1946 

Sept. 3 
Nov. 12 

1947 

June 
Apr. 10 

May 7 
May 12 

May 15 
June 17 

June 17-19 

June 19-July 11 

June 26-July 6 

July 1 
July 1-2 
July 1-10 

July 5 
July 10 

July 19 
July 24 
Aug. 18 
Aug. 18 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 28 



State. Beginning with this volume of the 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 



United Nations: ECOSOC — Continued 

Social Comnaission: Second Session 

Committee on Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories .... 

Special Cereals Conference 

10th International Conference on Public Education 

IRO (International Refugee Organization) : Third Part of First Session of the 
Preparatory Comnnssion. 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

South Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting 

Caribbean Communications Committee 

Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division 

Fourth International Congress on Microbiology 

Seventh International Congress of Administrative Sciences 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) : 
Executive Board. 

WHO (World Health Organization): 

Expert Committee on Tuberculosis: First Meeting 

Committee on Administration and Finance 

Fourth Session of the Interim Commission 

ILO (International Labor Organization) : 

Permanent Agricultural Committee 

Sixth International Conference of Labor Statisticians 

Industrial Committee on Iron and Steel Production 

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): 

Panel on Soil Erosion Control 

Meeting of Specialists on the Control of Infestation of Stored Food Products . 

Executive Committee , 

Annual Conference: Third Session 

International Meteorological Organization: Meeting of Technical Commis- 
sions. 

International Exhibition of Cinematographic Arts 

28th International Congress of Americanists 

International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference 



Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Paris . . . 

Geneva . . 

Lausanne . 



Rio de Janeiro 
Mexico City . 
Montreal . . 

Copenhagen . 

Bern .... 

Paris .... 

Paris .... 
Geneva . . . 
Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 
Montreal . . 
Stockholm . . 

Washington . 

London . . . 

Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 

Toronto . . . 

Venice . , . 
Paris . . . . 

Atlantic City 



Aug. 28 
Aug. 28 

July 9 

July 14-21 

July 15 

July 15 
Aug. 18 
Aug. 19 

July 20-26 

July 23-30 

July 24 



July 30 
Aug. 28 
Aug. 30-Sept. 14 

July 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 19 

July 
Aug. 6 
Aug. 21 
Aug. 25 

Aug. 4-Sept. 13 



Aug. 23 

Aug. 24^31 

August or Sep- 
tember 



Activities and Developments ^ 



PROPERTY OF WAR CRIMINALS < 

1. The property of convicted war criminals 
should be forfeited if so ordered by a tribunal. If 
not so ordered, it should be returned to the owner 



^ Policy decision approved by the Far Eastern Commis- 
sion on June 12, 1947, and released to the press on June 25. 
A directive based upon this decision has been forvearded to 
the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers for imple- 
mentation. 



Ju/y 6, 7947 



35 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVBLOPMENTS 

or to his legal heirs, unless it is subject to other 
occupation policy directives of general applica- 
tion requiring impounding, forfeiture, or restitu- 
tion. The Far Eastern Commission should recom- 
mend to member governments that they inform the 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers of any 
sentences imposed by their tribunals on convicted 
war criminals which involve forfeiture of or levy 
upon such property within his jurisdiction. Upon 
receipt of such information, the Supreme Com- 
mander should cause the property of persons so 
convicted to be forfeited pursuant to the tribunal's 
order. 

2. Such property forfeited or fines levied at the 
direction of the Supreme Commander pursuant to 
an order of a tribunal should become available for 
occupation costs. 

3. The property taken under control by military 
commanders of accused persons who have been ac- 
quitted or who die before completion of trial should 
be returned to the accused persons or the legal 
heirs, as the case may be, provided that where it is 
claimed that its acquisition was unlawful or incon- 
sistent with occupation policy directives or where 
its release to these persons would be inconsistent 
with such directives, the acquittal or death should 
not prevent its forfeiture or other treatment pur- 
suant to occupation policy directives. 

U.S. DELEGATION TO INTERNATIONAL 
CONGRESS OF RIVER TRANSPORTATION 

[Released to the press June 23] 

The Secretary of State announced on June 23 
that the President has approved the composition 
of the United States Delegation to the Inter- 
national Congress of Kiver Transportation which 
is scheduled to be held at Paris, from June 26 to 28, 
1947. The nomination of the delegates, submitted 
by the Secretary of State, was based upon the 
recommendations of officials of the Department of 
State, other interested Government agencies, and 
the American Waterways Operators, Inc., Wash- 
ington, D.C. The United States Delegation is as 
follows : 

Chairman 

Eussell S. McClure, Inland Transport Attach^, American 
Embassy, Paris 

Oovernment Advisers 

Col. Beverly C. Dunn, Division Engineer, North Atlantic 
Division, Corps of Engineers, War Department 



Capt. Harry C. Moore, U.S. Coast Guard, Treasury De- 
partment 

Paul M. Zeis, Bureau of Domestic Commerce, Department 
of Commerce 

Industry Advisers 

Harry B. Dyer, President, Nastiville Bridge Company, 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Harry B. Jordan, Vice President, Canal Barge Company, 

Inc., New Orleans, La. 

The invitation to the Kiver Transportation 
Congress was extended by the French Government 
on behalf of the International Committee on In- 
land Navigation which organized the Congress. 
The following nations have been invited to at- 
tend : Belgivun, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, the Nether- 
lands, Poland, Rumania, Switzerland, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States, 
and Yugoslavia. 

The purpose of the Congress, which is under the 
personal patronage of the President of the French 
Republic and otlier high dignitaries, is to show the 
importance of river transport in international 
trade and to emphasize the commercial and indus- 
trial aspects of inland shipping. The program 
includes a meeting devoted to foreign and river 
shipping, a session devoted to French and Rhine 
river shipping, and an excursion on the Seine to 
inspect river installations. Reports will be pre- 
sented by members of the various participating 
delegations on the problenas of inland navigation 
in their respective countries. For the United 
States Delegation, Mr. Zeis and Colonel Dunn have 
prepared papers on inland-navigation problems in 
the United States. 

U.S. TO PARTICIPATE IN SECOND 
INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL 

(Released to the press June 24] 

The Department of State announced on June 24 
that this Government has accepted an invitation to 
participate in the Second International Film 
Festival which is scheduled to be held at Locarno, 
from June 26 to July 6, 1947. The purpose of the 
Festival is to present previews of films which 
illustrate the progress in cinematographic art of 
the various film-producing countries of the world. 
The First International Film Festival was held at 
Locarno in 1946. 

For the forthcoming Festival the committee in 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



charge of the program has chosen the over-all 
tlieme of "Reconstruction". Cinema-producing 
countries will present examples of new films with 
artistic and technical value, and prizes will be 
awarded to the best films shown. The United 
States Government will exhibit the following 
films: Prosthesis — Ocular Replacement and Re- 
habilitation — Voyage to Recovery by the Navy 
Department; Quiet Triumph by the Veterans' 
Administration; Guardians of the Wild, Harvest 
for Tomorroto, and There Is More Than Timber in 
Trees by the Department of Agriculture. 

At the request of the Department of State Edgar 
Dale of Ohio State University has prepared a 
paper for presentation at the Festival on "Motion 
Picture Production in American Schools" which 
is to .be illustrated by the film entitled The Uni- 
versity in Transition, made by the department of 
photography of Ohio State University. The 
paper has been forwarded to the American Lega- 
tion at Bern and will be read for Dr. Dale at 
Locarno by a member of the Legation staflf. 

U.S. TO PARTICIPATE IN INTERNATIONAL EX- 
HIBITION OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC ART 

[Released to the press June 27) 

The Department of State announced on June 
27 that the United States Government has accepted 
an invitation from the Italian Government to par- 
ticipate in the Eighth International Exhibition of 



ACJlViJlBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Cinematographic Art which is scheduled to open 
at Venice on August 23, 1947. An invitation has 
also been extended to the American motion-picture 
industries. The seventh international exhibition 
was held at Venice in August and September 1946. 

The purpose of the forthcoming exhibition is to 
show the progress that has been made in cinema- 
tography toward artistic expression and as a means 
of advancing both civilization and culture. The 
motion-picture producing nations of the world will 
display new films of artistic and technical caliber. 
Prizes will be awarded by an international jury for 
the best films shown. The jury will be composed 
of one representative from each of the partici- 
pating nations. 

For competition in the exhibition, the following 
government-made fihns have been transmitted to 
the American Embassy at Rome: Aerology — 
Thunderstorms by the Navy Department ; Camou- 
flage Cartoon, Diar^ of a Sergeant, and Schisto- 
somiasis by the War Department; and Filleting 
and Packaging Fish by the Department of the In- 
terior. For noncompetitive display the following 
are being forwarded: ABC of G and Occluded 
Fronts by the Navy Department; DonH Be a 
Sucker and Sandfly Control by the War Depart- 
ment. 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, is 
assembling non-Govermnent films for display at 
the exhibition. 



THE CONGRESS 



Report on Audit of the Export-Import Bank of Waslilng- 
ton, 1946: Letter from the Comptroller General of the 
United States transmitting report on audit of Export- 
Import Bank of Washington for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1946. H. Doc. 249, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 42 pp. 

Protocol Amending the Agreements, Conventions, and 
Protocols on Narcotic Drug.s. S. Exec. Kept. 5, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany Executive N, 80th Cong., 
1st sess. 3 pp. [Favorable report] 

Government Corporations Appropriation Bill, 1948. H. 
Rept. 544, 80th Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 3756, 
55 pp. [State Department, pp. 47, 48.] 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion Liquidation. S. Rept. 266, 80th Cong., 1st sess., Ho 
accompany S. J. Res. 124. 2 pp. [Favorable report] 

Providing Support for Wool. H. Rept. 584, 80th Cong., 
1st sess., To accompany S. 814. 3 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Providing Expenses of Conducting the Studies and In- 
vestigations With Respect to the Activities of the Depart- 



ment of State Relative to Personnel and Efficiency and 
Economy of Its Operations. H. Rept. 576, 80th Cong., 1st 
sess.. To accompany H. Res. 185. 1 p. [Favorable 
report. ] 

Administration of Guam, Samoa, and the Pacific Islands 
To Be Placed Under United States Trusteeship : Communi- 
cation from the President of the United States transmitting 
copy of a report from the Secretary of State indicating a 
course of action which the Secretaries of State, War, Navy, 
and Interior have agreed should be followed with respect 
to the administration of Guam, Samoa, and the Pacific 
Islands to be placed under United States trusteeship. H. 
Doc. 333, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 3 pp. 

Authorizing the Study of Pacific Fisheries. H. Rept 
610, 80th Cong., 1st sess., To accompany H.R. 859. 5 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Prisoners of War and Internees Removed From a Pos- 
session of the United States by the Enemy. H. Rept. 617, 
80th Cong., 1st sess. 2 pp. [Favorable report.] 



July 6. 1947 



37 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Concern Over Drastic Deprivation of Civil Liberties in Rumania 



NOTE FROM ACTING U.S. REPRESENTATIVE AT BUCHAREST 
TO RUMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER 



[Released to the press June 25] 

Text of a note which the Acting United States 
Representative at Bucharest, Roy M. Melbourne, 
was instructed to deliver to the Rumanian For- 
eign Minister, Gheorghe Tatarescu. The message 
was delivered on June 21^ to the Secretary-General 
of the Foreign Office. 

I have been instructed to convey to you my Gov- 
ernment's serious concern over the drastic depri- 
vation of civil liberties to which the Rumanian 
people are being subjected, by or with the acquies- 
cence of the Rumanian authorities, in particular 
the arbitrary arrest without warrant or charge of 
hundreds of Opposition Party and non-party per- 
sons and the indefinite detention of such indi- 
viduals in prisons and concentration camps under 
reportedly deplorable conditions. 

Wliile the communique of May 6, 1947 issued by 
the Rumanian Minister of Interior suggests that 
the Rumanian Government proposes to justify 
these measures as necessary to the preservation of 
internal order in the face of provocative or sub- 
versive activities, they seem rather to represent a 
deliberate effort at the suppression or terroristic 
intimidation of democratic elements of the Ru- 
manian population who oppose the present 
regime. 

My Government is following closely these de- 
velopments which appear to contravene formal 
and informal assurances given by officials of the 
Rumanian Government on several occasions to 
Representatives of the United States with refer- 
ence to specific public liberties as well as profes- 
sions of the Rumanian Government's adherence to 
principles of freedom and justice. Moreover, such 
evident deprivation of the most elemental human 
rights and fundamental freedoms is in conflict 
with Article Three of the Peace Treaty which the 

38 



Rumanian Government has signed and whose 
terms will obligate the Rumanian Government to 
secure to all persons under Rumanian jurisdiction 
the enjoyment of such rights and freedoms. My 
Government is deeply concerned that the fulfill- 
ment of these treaty provisions not be prejudiced 
bj' actions anticipating the coming-into-force of 
treaty which effectively nullify the Rumanian 
Government's undertakings with respect thereto. 
My Government considers that the obligations 
of Article Three of the Peace Treaty are unequivo- 
cal and that the rights therein assured to the Ru- 
manian people cannot be denied or modified by 
domestic legislation or judicial process. 



Excerpt From Rumanian Treaty 

Article 3. 1. Roumania shall take all 
measures necessary to secure to all persons 
under Roumanian jurisdiction, without dis- 
tinction as to race, sex, language or religion, 
the enjoyment of human rights and of the 
fundamental freedoms, including freedom of 
expression, of press and publication, of re- 
ligious worship, of political opinion and of 
public meeting. 

2. Roumania further undertakes that the 
laws in force in Roumania shall not, either 
in their content or in their application, dis- 
criminate or entail any discrimination be- 
tween persons of Roumanian nationality on 
the ground of their race, sex, language or 
religion, whether in reference to their per- 
sons, property, business, professional or 
financial interests, status, political or civil 
rights or any other matter. 



Deparlment of Sfafe Bulletin 



United States-Austrian Relief Agreement' 



Whereas, it Is the desire of the United States to provide 
relief assistance to the Austrian people to prevent suffering 
and to permit them to continue effectively their efforts 
toward recovery ; and 

Whekeas, the Austrian Government has requested the 
United States Government for relief assistance and has 
presented information which convinces the United States 
Government that the Austrian Government urgently needs 
assistance in obtaining the basic essentials of life for the 
people of Austria ; and 

Whereas, the United States Congress has by Public Law 
84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, authorized the provision 
of relief assistance to the people of those countries which, 
in the determination of the President, need such assistance 
and have given satisfactory assurances covering the relief 
program as required by the Act of Congress ; and 

Whereas, the Austrian Government and the United 
States Government desire to define certain conditions and 
understandings concerning the handling and distribution of 
the United States relief supplies and to establish the gen- 
eral lines of their cooperation in meeting the relief needs 
of the Austrian people ; 

The Government of Austria and the Government of the 
United States have agreed as follows : 

Article I. Furnishing of Supplies 

(a) The program of assistance to be furnished shall 
consist of such types and quantities of supplies, and pro- 
curement, storage, transportation and shipping services 
related thereto, as may be determined from time to time 
by the United States Government after consultation with 
the Austrian Government in accordance with Public Law 
84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, and any Acts amendatory 
or supplementary thereto. Such supplies shall be con- 
fined to certain basic essentials of life ; namely, food, 
medical supplies, processed and unprocessed material for 
clothing, fertilizers, pesticides, fuels and seeds. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of Article III, the 
United States Government will make no request, and will 
have no claim, for payment for United States relief sup- 
plies and services furnished under this Agreement. 

(c) United States Government agencies will provide 
for the procurement, storage, transportation and shipment 
to Austria of United States relief supplies, except to the 
extent that the United States Government may authorize 
other means for the performance of these services in ac- 
cordance with procedures stipulated by the United States 
Government. All United States relief supplies shall be 
procured in the United States except when specific ap- 
proval for procurement outside the United States is given 
by the United States Government. 

(d) The Austrian Government will from time to time 
sabmit In advance to the High Commissioner of the United 

July 6, 1947 



States in Austria its proposed programs for relief import 
requirements. These programs shall be subject to screen- 
ing and approval by the United States Government and 
procurement will be authorized only for items contained 
in the approved programs. 

(e) Transfers of United States relief supplies will be 
made under arrangements to be determined by the High 
Commissioner of the United States or other designated 
officials of the United States Government in consultation 
with the Austrian Government. The United States Gov- 
ernment, whenever it deems it desirable, may retain pos- 
session of any United States relief supplies, or may recover 
possession of any United States relief supplies transferred 
up to the city or local community where such supplies are 
made available to the ultimate consumers. 

Article II. Distribution of Supplies in Austria 
(a) All United States relief supplies shall be distrib- 
uted by the Austrian Government under the direct super- 
vision and control of the United States representatives and 
in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. The 



Austria Welcomes Relief Assistance 

[Released to the press Jane 26] 

The Secretary of State received on June 25, 1947, 
the following message from the Austrian Govern- 
ment: 

"On the occasion of the signature today of the 
agreement concerning the provision of relief assist- 
ance to Austria we beg you to receive the expression 
of the sincerest gratitude of the Federal Government 
and should be thankful if you also would kindly 
convey the warmest thanks of Austria to the United 
States Government and the American people. 

"Figl' Geubee ' 

An appropriate acknowledgment of this message is 
being made by the Secretary of State through the 
American Legation in Vienna. 



^Agreement executed at Vienna on June 25, 1947, be- 
tween the Government of the United States and the Gov- 
ernment of Austria, and released to the press on the same 
date. Printed from telegraphic text. 

° Leopold Figl is Chancellor of the Austrian Federal 
Republic. 

'Karl G ruber is Foreign Minister of the Austrian Fed- 
eral Republic. 

39 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 



distribution will be through commercial channels to the 
extent feasible and desiralile. 

(b) All United States relief supply imports shall be 
free of fiscal charges including customs duties up to the 
point where they are sold for local currency as provided 
by Article III of this Agreement unless when because of 
price practices, it is advisable to include customs charges 
or government taxes in prices fixed, in which case the 
amount thus collected on United States relief supply im- 
ports will accrue to the special account referred to in 
Article III. All United States relief supply imports given 
free to indigents, institutions and others will be free of 
fiscal charges, including customs duties. 

(c) The Austrian Government will designate a high 
ranking official who shall have the responsibility of liaison 
between the Austrian Government and the United States 
representatives responsible for the relief program. 

(d) The Austrian Government will distribute United 
States relief supplies and similar supplies produced lo- 
cally or imported from outside sources without discrimina- 
tion as to race, creed or jwlitical party or belief. Such 
supplies shall not be diverted to non-essential uses or for 
export or removal from the country and an excessive 
amount of said supplies will not be used to assist in the 
maintenance of Austrian armed forces, and in no event 
will such supplies be used to maintain the armed forces of 
any occupying power. 

(e) The Austrian Government will so conduct the dis- 
tribution of United States relief supplies and similar sup- 
plies produced locally and imported from outside sources 
as to assure a fair and equitable share of the supplies to all 
classes of the people throughout Austria. 

(f) A ration and price control system will be main- 
tained and the distribution shall be so conducted that all 
classes of tlie population, irrespective of purchasing power, 
shall receive their fair share of supplies covered in this 
Agreement. 

Article III. Utilisation of Funds Accruing from Sales of 
United States Supplies 

(a) The prices at which the United States relief sup- 
plies will be sold in Austria shall be agreed upon between 
the Austrian Government and the United States Govern- 
ment. 

(b) When United States relief supplies are sold for 
local currency, the amount of such local currency will be 
deposited by the Austrian Government in a si)ecial account 
In the name of the Austrian Government. 

(c) Until June 30, 1948, such funds shall be disposed 
of only upon approval of the duly authorized representa- 
tives of the United States Government for relief and work 
relief purposes within Austria, Including local currency 
expenses of the United States incident to the furnishing of 
relief. Any unencumbered balance remaining in such ac- 
count on June 30, 1948, shall be disposed of within Austria 
for such purposes as the United States Government, pur- 
suant to Act or Joint Resolution of Congress, may 
determine. 

(d) The Austrian Government will upon request ad- 
vance funds to the United States representatives to meet 



local currency expenses incident to the furnishing of 
relief. 

(e) While it is not intended that the funds accruing 
from sales of the United States relief supplies normally 
will be used to defray the local expenses of the Austrian 
Government in handling and distributing the United States 
relief supplies the United States representatives will con- 
sider with the Austrian Government the use of the funds 
to cover unusual costs which would place an undue burden 
on the Austrian Government. 

(f) The Austrian Government will each month make 
available to the United States representatives reports on 
collections, balances and expenditures from the fund. 

(g) The Austrian Government will assign officials to 
confer and plan with the United States representatives 
regarding the disposition of funds accruing from sales and 
to assure proper use of such funds. 

Article IV. Effective Production, Food Collectiovs and 
Use of Resources to Reduce Relief Needs 

(a) The Austrian Government affinns that it has taken 
and is taking in so far as possible the economic measures 
necessary to reduce its relief needs and to provide for its 
own future reconstruction. 

(b) The Austrian Government will undertake not to 
permit any measures to be taken involving delivery, sale 
or granting of any articles of the character covered in this 
Agreement which would reduce the locally produced sup- 
ply of such articles and thereby increase the burden of 
relief. 

(c) The Austrian Government will furnish regularly 
current information to the United States representatives 
regarding plans and progress in increasing production and 
Improving collection of locally produced supplies suitable 
for relief throughout Austria. 

Article V. United States Mission 

(a) The United States Government will attach to the 
United States Legation In Vienna, representatives who will 
constitute a relief mission and will act under instructions 
of the High Commissioner of the United States in Austria 
in discharging the responsibilities of the United States 
Government under this Agreement and Public Law 84, 
80th Congress, May 31, 1947. The Austrian Government 
will permit and facilitate the movement of the United 
States representatives to, in and from Austria. 

(b) The Austrian Government will permit and facil- 
itate in every way the freedom of the United States repre- 
sentatives to supervise, inspect, report and travel through- 
out Austria at any and all times, and to cooperate fully 
with them in carrying out all of the provisions of this 
Agreement. The Austrian Government will furnish the 
necessary automobile tran.sportation to i)ermit the United 
States representatives to travel freely throughout Austria 
and without delay. 

(c) The United States representatives and the prop- 
erty of the mission and of its personnel shall enjoy in 
Austria the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed 
by the personnel of the United States Legation in Austria 
and the property of the Legation and of its personnel. 



40 



Deparlmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 



Artiele VI. Freedom of United States Press and Radio 
1 Representatives to Observe and Report 

' The Austrian Government agrees to permit representa- 
tives of the United States Press and Radio to observe 
freely and report fully and without censorship regarding 
the distribution and utilization of relief supplies and the 
use of funds accruing from sale of United States relief 
supplies. 

Article VII. Reports, Statistics and Information 

(a) The Austrian Government will maintain adequate 
statistical and other records on relief and will consult with 
the United States representatives, upon their request, with 
regard to the maintenance of such records. 

(b) Tt-> Austrian Government will furnish promptly 
upon request of the United States representatives informa- 
tion concerning the production, use, distribution, importa- 
tion, and exportation of any supplies which affect the relief 
needs of the people. 

(c) In case United States representatives report appar- 
ent abuses or violations of this Agreement, the Austrian 
Government will investigate and report and promptly take 
such remedial action as is necessary to correct such abuses 
or violations as are found to exist. 

Article VIII. Publicity Regarding United States Assistance 

(a) The Austrian Government will permit and arrange 
full and continuous publicity regarding the purpose, source, 
character, scope, amounts and progress of the United 
States relief program in Austria, including the utilization 
of funds accruing from sales of United States relief sup- 
plies for the benefit of the people. In addition, at least 
on two occasions, on its coming into force, and once during 
the period relief distribution is in effect, the Austrian Gov- 
ernment will arrange that this entire Agreement be pub- 
lished in the newspapers of the three largest communities 
of the country. 

(b) All United States relief supplies and any articles 



processed from such supplies, or containers of such sup- 
plies or articles, shall, to the extent practicable, be marked, 
stamped, branded, or labelled in a conspicuous place in 
such a manner as to indicate to the ultimate consumer 
that such supplies or articles have been furnished by the 
United States for relief assistance ; or if such supplies, 
articles, or containers are incapable of being so marked, 
stamped, branded, or labelled, all practicable steps will be 
taken by the Austrian Government to inform the ultimate 
consumer thereof that such supplies or articles have been 
furnished by the United States for relief assistance. 

Aiticle IX. Termination of Relief Assistance 
The United States Government will terminate any or 
all of its relief assistance at any time whenever it deter- 
mines (1) by reason of changed conditions the provision 
of relief assistance of the character authorized by Pub- 
lic Law S4, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, is no longer neces- 
sary (2) any provisions of this Agreement are not being 
carried out (3) an excessive amount of United States 
relief supplies, or of similar supplies produced locally or 
imported from outside sources, is being used to assist in 
the maintenance of Austrian armed forces, or if any such 
supplies are used to assist in the maintenance of armed 
forces of any occupying power, or (4) United States relief 
supplies or similar supplies produced locally or imported 
from outside sources are being exported or removed from 
Austria. The United States Government may stop or 
alter its program of assistance whenever in its determina- 
tion other circumstances warrant such action. 

Article X. Date of Agreement 
This Agreement shall take effect as from this day's date. 

It shall continue in force until a date to be agreed upon 

by the two Governments. 
Done in duplicate in the English and German languages 

at Vienna, this 25th day of June, 1947. 



Property of Non-Germans in U.S. Occupation Zone 
Released From Military Control 



[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State announced on June 
25 that the American Military Government in Ger- 
many has taken action to release from Military 
Government control properties in the American 
zone and the United States sector of Berlin which 
are owned by nonresidents of Germany who are 
citizens or residents of United Nations or neutral 
countries, with the exception of Spain and 
Portugal. 

This action makes it possible for the nonresi- 
dent owner of property in the American zone of 
Germany to transfer the responsibility for the 

Ju/y 6, 7947 



operation and management of his property from 
the custodian appointed by Military Government 
to an agent of his own designation who will be 
responsible to the owner. This will apply only 
to properties title to which cleai'ly rests in a non- 
resident owner and does not affect property which 
was seized or transferred by the Nazis under force 
or duress and which is subject to restitution. 

The following conditions must be met by the 
owner and his agent before Military Government 
will effect a release of the property : 

1. The agent must present a document executed 
on or after June 15, 1947, which constitutes a valid 

41 



THE RECORD Of THE WUK 

power of attorney or a confirmation of an existing 
power of attorney. This document must include 
authority to execute a release to Military Govern- 
ment at the time the agent receives the property. 

2. Ownership of 51 percent or more of the prop- 
erty must be evidenced, and title must be clear. If 
official German records do not show prima facie 
evidence of such ownership, detailed proof must 
be submitted. 

3. The designated agent must be politically 
acceptable under the denazification law and must 
be a resident of Germany. 

4. The property must have been taken under 
Military Government control solely because of 
absentee ownership. 

Military Government officials have emphasized 
that property owners who wish to obtain such a re- 
lease must make their own arrangements by direct 
correspondence with their agent, and that Military 
Government is not in a position to recommend 
agents, although the present custodians who have 
been appointed by Military Government may be 
reappointed as agents by the owners. If the owner 
of property subject to release has not taken ad- 
vantage of this new policy by January 1948, pres- 
ent plans are that full responsibility for such 
property will be turned over to German state prop- 
erty-control agencies, which will be under the gen- 
eral supervision of Military Government. 

No license will be necessary, either under United 
States law or Military Government law, for the 
agent to accept an appointment for the manage- 



ment of property in the American zone. Existing 
general licenses under Military Government laws 
relating to the control of foreign-owned property 
authorize all transactions ordinarily incident to 
the normal conduct of business enterprises. How- 
ever, any transactions not considered to be covered 
by the general licenses, such as capital investment 
by an enterprise in property or other business, will 
require a special license from Military Govern- 
ment. 

Documents necessary to the appointment of an 
agent to take over the control of property of resi- 
dents of the United States should be authenticated 
by the clerk of the county court and the Secretary 
of State of the state in which the owner resides, as 
well as the Secretary of State of the United States. 
They should then be sent through the normal mail 
channels to the agent in Germany who must make 
application to the German State Property Control 
Agency for the release of the property. In the 
case of properties located in the American sector 
of Berlin, the agent should apply directly to the 
Property Control Branch, Office of Military Gov- 
ernment (U.S.), Berlin. 

Approximately 10,000 properties valued at about 
1.5 billion reichsmarks are subject to release under 
this program. The properties consist of real 
estate, industrial, retail, and other commercial 
businesses, and securities and bank accounts di- 
rectly related to the operation of such properties. 
Military Government is not as yet prepared to 
release bank accounts and securities which are held 
independently of real property. 



Understanding Reached on Question of Swedish Import Restrictions 



[Released to the press June 25] 

The Depai-tment of State announced on June 25 
that an understanding has been reached between 
the Governments of the United States and Sweden, 
following conversations in Washington, in con- 
nection with the problems arising out of the im- 
position of quantitative import restrictions by the 
Swedish Government on March 15, 1947. This 
understanding, which has taken the form of an 
exchange of memoranda between the two Govern- 
ments, deals with the broader aspects of the prob- 
lem not covered by the statement of the Swedish 
Government of May 3, 1947, which set forth the 



treatment to be accorded goods en route or on order 
at the time of the imposition of the import re- 
strictions. 

Under the terms of the present exchange of 
memoranda, the Government of Sweden, imless 
otherwise agreed, undertakes to administer the 
import controls so as to grant licenses to commodi- 
ties listed in schedule I of the commercial agree- 
ment of 1935 between the United States and 
Sweden, and not on the unrestricted list, to the 
amount, for the period fi'om January 1, 1947, to 
June 30, 1948, equivalent to not less than 150 per- 
cent of the volume of like imports from the United 



42 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



States during 1946. The quantities of other re- 
stricted commodities licensed for import will be 
determined at the discretion of Sweden. Licenses 
will be issued without regard to the country of 
origin, thereby assuring a degree of competition 
between alternate sources of supply. Under cer- 
tain circumstances, however, where the over-all 
volume of Sweden's imports would otherwise be 
restricted without improving its multilateral- 
payments possibilities, the Swedish Government 
may take into consideration the special-payments 
situation which may exist with particular coun- 
tries of origin in providing for supplementary 
imports. 

The Swedish Government also agrees not to 
exclude entirely any commodity or class of com- 
modities previously imported from the United 
States and undertakes not to remove commodities 
from the unrestricted list without providing 
equitable transitional arrangements. 

The Government of the United States on its 
part, realizing that the Swedish import restrictions 
were necessitated by the serious reduction in 
Sweden's reserves of gold and foreign exchange, 
agrees not to invoke the provisions of articles II 
and VII of the commercial agreement of 1935 be- 
tween the United States and Sweden for a period 
of 12 months. 

Both Governments recognize that the commer- 
cial agreement of 1935 between the United States 
and Sweden remains in full force and effect, save as 
temporarily modified in its operation under the 
existing circumstances, and agree to review the 
situation within a period of 12 months. 

The text of the exchange of memoranda follows : 

Legation of Sweden 

Washington 8, D. C. 
AIDE-MDMOIRE 

The Government of Sweden wishes to refer to 
the discussions which have recently taken place be- 
tween its representatives and representatives of the 
Government of the United States of America, con- 
cerning the problems, in relation to the Commer- 
cial Agreement between the United States of 
America and Sweden of May 25, 1935, which have 
arisen as a result of the imposition of quantitative 
import restrictions by the Swedish Government on 
March 15, 1947. 

1. During the coui-se of these discussions the 
July 6, 1947 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

Swedish representatives have presented extensive 
information setting forth the serious reduction in 
Sweden's reserves of gold and foreign exchange, 
and the resulting necessity of imposing measures 
of control for the purpose of correcting this 
situation. 

2. With respect to goods en route or on order at 
the time of the imposition of quantitative import 
restrictions on March 15, 1947, the Government of 
Sweden, after consultation with the United States 
Government, has announced that licenses will be 
granted for the import of all commodities which 
were placed under import restrictions on that date, 
provided that the Swedish importer when apply- 
ing for an import license establishes the following 
facts : 

a. that a bona fide contract contemplating de- 
livery prior to October 1, 1947 had been entered 
into, on or before March 15, 1947, and 

b. that the delivery in Sweden of the goods men- 
tioned in the contract will be effected before 
October 1, 1947. 

3. The Government of Sweden brings to the 
notice of the United States Government the state- 
ment of its support of the principle of unre- 
stricted, multilateral trade on the basis of free 
competition and of those policies which have for 
their purpose the encouragement of this principle, 
recently made in the official communique of May 
12, 1947, regarding discussions between the Min- 
isters of Foreign Affairs and other representatives 
of the Governments of Denmark, Norway and 
Sweden. The Swedish Government has officially 
announced its desire that the quantitative restric- 
tions upon imports, imposed by it on March 15, 
1947, shall be of as short duration as possible. The 
Swedish Government also brings to the notice of 
the United States Government the Government 
Bill of May 30, 1947, in which it indicated its de- 
sire, due consideration being given to existing 
trade agreements, to see an expansion of the vol- 
ume and a development of the direction of Swed- 
ish exports serving to redress Sweden's intenia- 
tional balance of payments at the earliest possible 
date. The Swedish Government has not at present 
any undertaking, and does not propose to enter 
into midertakings, that specific commodities will 
be delivered to specific countries unless such a pol- 
ic3' should form part of a fair allocation among 

43 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 

all importing countries of essential commodities 
in short supply. 

4. During the period while the quantitative im- 
port restrictions remain in force, the Government 
of Sweden, which has taken note of the fact that 
the Government of the United States of America 
does not in relation to Sweden restrict the free dis- 
position of dollar earnings or assets, except as pro- 
vided for in the exchange of letters of March 18 
and 25, 1947 establishing the procedure for un- 
blocking of Swedish assets in the United States, 
will continue to authorize all current payments, 
including payments for imports and the transfer 
of earnings and remittances, and will limit such 
control of foreign exchange as it may become 
necessary to maintain to the control of inter- 
national capital movements. 

5. During the period while the quantitative re- 
strictions upon imports remain in force the Gov- 
ernment of Sweden when administering the con- 
trols will observe the following principles: 

a. Commodities will be licensed without regard 
to the country of origin, except as stated below. 

h. In those instances where, during the period 
covered by the present arrangements, the above 
licensing principle would exert a restrictive in- 
fluence on the overall volume of international 
trade by reducing imports from areas experiencing 
a serious shortage of gold and/or convertible cur- 
rencies in a way which would not improve 
Sweden's multilateral payments possibilities, 
Sweden in granting import licenses may take into 
consideration the special payments possibilities 
which may exist between Sweden and the country 
of origin. 

c. Licenses will, unless otherwise agreed, be 
granted permitting the importation of commod- 
ities from the United States listed in Schedule I 
of the Commercial Agreement between the United 
States of America and Sweden of 1935, and not on 
the unrestricted list, to an amount, for the period 
from January 1, 1947 to June 30, 1948, equivalent 
to not less than 150% of the volume of like im- 
ports from the United States during 1946. 

d. No commodity or class of commodities im- 
ported from the United States during the opera- 
tion of the Commercial Agreement between the 
United States of America and Sweden of 1935 
shall be entirely excluded. 

e. No commodity now on the unrestricted list 



and imported from the United States during the 
operation of the Commercial Agreement between 
the United States of America and Sweden of 1935 
shall be removed from that list without equitable 
transitional arrangements having been provided. 

6. The Government of Sweden will place in oper- 
ation as of July 1, 1947 the system of administer- 
ing the import controls envisaged in this aide- 
memoire. 

7. The Government of Sweden recognizes that 
the Commercial Agreement between the United 
States of America and Sweden of 1935 remains in 
full foi-ce and effect, save for those temporary 
modifications in its operation provided for in this 
exchange of memoranda. 

8. If unforeseen developments require a tem- 
porary modification in the terms of the under- 
standing embodied in this exchange of memoranda, 
and in any event before the expiration of this 
understanding on June 30, 1948, the Government 
of Sweden agrees to review the situation with the 
Government of the United States of America foi 
the purpose of considering such action as the cir- 
cumstances may demand. 

Washington, D.C. 
June 24, 1947. 

AIDE-MEMOIRE 
The Government of the United States of Ameri- 
ca refers to the aide-memoire of the Government of 
Sweden, dated June 24, 1947, concerning the prob- 
lems, in relation to the Commercial Agi'eement be- 
tween the United States of America and Sweden of 
May 25, 1935, which have arisen as a result of the 
imposition of quantitative import restrictions by 
the Swedish Government on March 15, 1947. The 
Government of the United States of America : 

1. Takes note of the extensive information pre- 
sented by the representatives of the Swedisli Gov- 
ernment with respect to the serious reduction in 
Sweden's reserves of gold and convertible ex- 
change indicating the necessity of imposing meas- 
ures to correct this situation ; 

2. Acknowledges the declaration made by the 
Government of Sweden of its adherence to the 
principle of unrestricted, multilateral trade on the 
basis of free comiDctition, and takes note of the 
desire of the Swedish Government that the quan- 
titative restrictions upon imports imposed by it 

Department of State Bulletin 



on March 15, 1947 shall be of as short duration 
as possible ; 

3. Takes note of the statements of the Govern- 
ment of Sweden with respect to the administration 
of the quantitative import restrictions; 

4. Agrees for the duration of the present ar- 
rangement not to invoke the provisions of Articles 
II and VII of the Commercial Agreement between 
the United States of America and Sweden of 1935, 
in respect of the measures taken or to be taken 
by the Government of Sweden as set forth in its 
aide-memoire; 

5. Recognizes that the Commercial Agreement 
between tlie United States of America and Swe- 
den of 1935 remains in full force and effect, save 
for those temporary modifications in its operation 
provided for in this exchange of memoranda; 

6. Agrees to review the situation with the Gov- 
ernment of Sweden prior to July 1, 1948 for the 
purpose of considering such action as the circum- 
stances may demand. 

Department of State, Washington, 
June 2k-, 19p. 

American Tourist Travel to Western Austria 

[Released to the press June 26] 

The Department of State has been advised that 
it can obtain military permits promptly for Amer- 
ican citizens in possession of passports who wish 
to visit western Austria, which excludes Vienna, 
for pleasure travel during the period July 1, 1947, 
to September 15, 1947. 

Persons desiring to undertake such travel must 
present with their applications for passport facili- 
ties a letter of endorsement signed by Rudolf F. 
Matesich, Austrian State Tourist Department, 247 
Park Avenue, New York City ; evidence of round- 
trip transportation by air or sea ; and a cable of 
confirmation from one of the hotels specified by 
the Austrian State Tourist Department. Tourists 
visiting Austria will be restricted to the western 
portion of that country and must obtain accommo- 
dations at hotels specified by the Austrian State 
Tourist Department. 

Detailed information regarding hotel accommo- 
dations, food supplies, currency restrictions, and 
transportation while in Austria may be obtained 
from the Austrian State Tourist Department. 

Jo/y 6, ?947 



THE RECORD OF THE WBiK 

The relaxation of the regulations governing 
tourist travel to western Austria does not affect the 
present restrictions placed upon persons desiring 
to visit that country on matters of a personal or 
business nature. Such travel is still greatly lim- 
ited and must be approved by tlie appropriate 
military authorities. 



Dollars Exchanged for Schillings To Meet 
Occupation Costs in Austria 

[Released to tbe press June 23] 

In a statement by the Department of State on 
October 28, 1946,^ this Government, on the basis 
of the Moscow Declaration on Austria of Novem- 
ber 1, 1943, and other international acts, reaffirmed 
tlie policy of treating Austria as a liberated coun- 
try. This policy lias been implemented by the 
United States in its relations with Austria, sub- 
ject only to the provisions of the New Control 
Agi-eement for Austria of June 28, 1946.^ In ac- 
cordance with this policy and with the policy of 
the United States to assist in the restoration of 
the Austrian economy, the United States forces in 
Austria, as announced in Vienna on June 21 by 
Lt. Gen. Geoffrey Keyes, United States High Com- 
missioner in Austria, will after July 1 meet their 
costs of occupation incurred in Austria with 
schillings acquired from the Austrian Government 
for United States dollars. These costs include 
schilling expenditures for rental of requisitioned 
buildings, transportation on Federal railways, 
and the procurement of other goods, services, and 
facilities. 

It is anticipated that, as part of this program, 
existing rest-center facilities will be consolidated 
and that certain facilities now under requisition 
will be released to the Austrian economy. These 
may be utilized for tourist accommodations under 
plans now being worked out for tourist travel to 
Austria. 

The dollars that will accumulate to Austria un- 
der this program will aid in the revival of the 
Austrian economy by providing funds for essen- 
tial imports such as coal, fertilizer, and other 
materials. 



• BtTLLETiN of Nov. 10, 1946, p. 864. 
' Bulletin of July 28, 1946, p. 175. 



45 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEJf 

The United States Government considers this 
step an important contribution toward the inter- 
national recognition of Austria as an independent 
state and toward the easement of the burdens of 
occupation prior to the conclusion of a state treaty. 

Time Extension for Filing Tax Returns 

[Released to the press June 26] 

Bulgaria 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the American Mission at Sofia that the deadline 
for filing returns under the Bulgarian capital-levy 
tax law has been extended to July 31 for persons 
residing abroad. The Department has also been 
informed that the Bulgarian Political Repi'esenta- 
tive, 2841 McGill Terrace NW., Washington, 
D.C., is authorized to accept the returns. 

The Bulgarian capital-levy tax law became eflPec- 
tive upon its publication in the official gazette of 
April 8, 19-i7. According to its provisions, assets 
including real projjerty, bank accounts, securities, 
et cetera, in Bulgaria owned by foreign nationals 
are subject to the tax. The original deadline 
for filing returns was May 31, 1947. 

Czechoslovakia 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the Czechoslovak authorities that the deadline 
for filing returns required by the capital-levy and 
war-profits tax law (Law no. 134 of May 15, 1946) 
has been further extended to October 31, 1947, for 
persons outside Czechoslovakia. The original 
deadline of November 30, 1946, had previously 
been extended to March 31, 1947. 

The Czechoslovak Embassy has also informed 
the Department that the forms required to be used 
in filing these I'eturns may now be obtained from 
and filed with Czechoslovak consular offices in the 
United States. Detailed instructions are attached 
to the declaration forms. However, owners of 
extensive properties located in Czechoslovakia are 
advised to submit the declarations through their 
authorized I'epresentatives in Czechoslovakia, es- 
pecially in cases involving complex assessments. 

As indicated in previous announcements,' re- 
turns must be filed by United States nationals 

' BuLijiTiN of Nov. 17, 1046, p. 918 ; Dec. 18, 1946, p. 1108. 
' Not printed. 



owning property in Czechoslovakia, such as 
real estate, commercial enterprises, currency, 
bank accounts, securities, insurance policies, pat- 
ents, valuable metals, precious stones, jewelry, 
objects of art, antiques, and coin, stamp 
and other collections, et cetera. Returns must 
also be filed by United States nationals who hold 
claims in Czechoslovakia. Such claims may arise 
in connection with confiscation of property during 
the occupation as a result of racial or other legisla- 
tion, war damage to property, nationalization of 
property by the Czechoslovak Government, patent 
rights, and insurance policies. 

Activities of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 25] 

In answer to requests at his conference on June 
25, the Secretary of State authorized the following 
statement with respect to Senator Wagner's let- 
ter " regarding the activities of the Grand Mufti 
of Jerusalem : 

"My reply to Senator Wagner has gone forward. 
In it I pointed out that 'At the present time the 
numerous documents bearing on the activities of 
the Nazi and Fascist parties, their leaders and 
collaborators, which were seized during the con- 
quest of the Axis countries by the Allied Ai-mies, 
are being examined, analyzed, translated, and 
classified by teams of historians representing the 
United States, British and French Governments. 
The three governments have agreed that this ma- 
terial will be published just as soon as the work 
on it, which is necessarily slow and arduous, has 
advanced to a stage that will permit its presenta- 
tion in a manner which will give an accurate and 
complete picture of the events, personalities and 
developments during the Nazi-Fascist period.'" 

Appointments to Military Tribunal 

On June 25, by Executive Order 9868 (12 Federal 
Register 4135), the following persons were appointed to 
serve on military tribunals established by the military 
governor for the United States zone of occupation withiii 
Germany : 

Edward Francis Carter, Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the State of Nebraska, and Curtis Grover 
Shake, former Judge of the Supreme Court of the State 
of Indiana. 



46 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Negotiations Witli Special Italian 
Financial Mission 

Statement hy the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State has recommended to 
Congress the passage at this session of legislation 
dealing with the question of the return of Italian 
property in the United States which has been 
vested by the Office of Alien Property, the return 
to Italy of former Italian shii^s acquired by the 
United States, and a transfer to Italy of surplus 
liberty ships of a tonnage approximately equiva- 
lent to the tonnage of former Italian ships which 
were seized by the United States prior to Decem- 
ber 7, 19-11, and were subsequently lost while in 
United States war service. 

The negotiations with the special financial mis- 
sion from Italy are progressing most satisfactorily. 
Agreement in substance has been reached with 
respect to the release to Italy of Italian property. 
The proposed legislation makes possible the return 
to Italy of Italian property which has been vested 
by the Office of Alien Property. Both these ac- 
tions are consistent with the statements made by 
this Government during the Paris peace negotia- 
tions that this Government would return the 
greater part of Italian property in this country. 
It is intended that a lump simi payment in dollars 
will be made by Italy, to be utilized at a future 
date for the satisfaction of highly meritorious 
claims of American nationals arising out of the 
war against Italy. 

The return of vested property will permit the 
return of approximately eight ships formerly un- 
der Italian registry and flag. A provision in the 
pi'oposed legislation would also authorize the Pres- 
ident to return five Italian ships seized by other 
American republics and acquired by the United 
States. The legislation would also authorize the 
President to make available to Italy surplus Lib- 
erty ships of equivalent tonnage to 18 Italian ves- 
sels which were seized by the United States and 
subsequently lost in the war effort. This action, 
which gives recognition to the substantial contri- 
butions made by the Italian merchant fleet to the 
Allied war effort since September 3, 1943, will 
be of substantial importance to the Italian econ- 
omy, and the use of these vessels by Italy will play 
an important part in Italy's recovery. 

Jo/y 6, J 947 



THE RECORD OF IHE WtEK 

Iran Granted Credit To Purchase 
War Surplus 

[Released to the press June 20] 

An agreement, extending credit to the Iranian 
Government for the purchase of U.S. war surplus 
equipment through the Office of the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner, was signed on June 20 
by the Iranian Ambassador and Maj. Gen. Donald 
H. Connolly, Commissioner. 

The Iranian Government approached this Gov- 
erimient last year with a request for the purchase 
of surplus equipment. Preliminary conversations 
were begun in Washington last October, and it was 
agreed in principle in December that that Govern- 
ment, would sell to the Iranian Army and Gen- 
darmerie, through loutine arrangements with 
OFLC, reasonable quantities of military supplies 
for the purpose of re-equipping the Iranian Army 
and Gendarmerie in order to maintain internal 
security in Iran. On the basis of that agreement 
the Iranian Government reviewed its essential 
needs in this respect and dispatched a purchasing 
mission, under Major General A. Hedayat, to this 
country early in April. 

The agreement now concluded provides for the 
routine sale to Iran through FLC, on credit, of 
surplus supplies consisting mainly of noncombat 
equipment but including also modest quantities of 
such light combat material as may be available. 

The credit will be for $25,000,000, repayable in 
15 years with 2% percent interest. Repayment will 
be in dollars or, at U.S. option, in Iranian cur- 
rency or in properties in Iran for the official use 
of the U.S. Government. The agreement as now 
signed remains subject to the approval of the 
Iranian Majlis (Parliament). 



Norman Armour Serves as Special Assistant 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 25] 
Mr. Norman Armour reported for duty and was 
sworn in as Special Assistant to the Secretary on 
last Monday. He is currently familiarizing bimself 
with the organization of the Department and con- 
ferring with key ofReials including Mr. Acheson and 
Mr. Lovett. He will be sworn in as Assistant Secre- 
tary for political affairs after the departure of Mr. 
Braden on June 30. 



47 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Renewed Netherlands-Indonesian Negotiations 
Viewed Favorably 

[Released to the press June 25] 

The United States Government is encouraged by 
preliminary reports that renewed negotiations 
between the Dutch and the Indonesians have 
shown the way toward overcoming the major ob- 
stacles to the establisliment of an interim govern- 
ment in Indonesia along federal lines. 

The area of agreement reported thus far demon- 
strates the fact that even the most difficult prob- 
lems can be solved by the exercise of a spirit of 
good faith and compromise. This Government 
feels that the Netherlands proposals of May 27 
were made in good faith and that they represent 
a reasonable approach to securing agreement on 
an effective federal government for all of In- 
donesia during the interim period j^ending the 
constitutional development of the United States 
of Indonesia and the Netherlands-Indonesian 
Union. The recent radio address of Premier 
Sjahrir revealed a high quality of statesmanship 
and has increased the expectation of this Govern- 
ment that a mutually beneficial settlement will 
be promptly achieved. 



Japanese Whaling Expedition Authorized 

I Released to the press June 25] 

In answer to inquiries at his conference on June 25 
the Secretary of State read the following SCAP 
annoimcement previously released in Tokyo 

A second SCAP-controlled and Japanese- 
manned Antarctic whaling expedition has been 
authorized by the Supreme Commander pursuant 
to instructions from the United States Govern- 
ment. 

The reasons for this action ai'e obvious. The 
last whaling expedition produced for Japanese 
consumption some 21,000 metric tons of needed 
protein foods which helped make up the food defi- 
cit in Japan. It also produced for the world 
market, which is in short supply, over 12,000 tons 
of whale oil and 11 tons of vitamin A and D oil. 
It is expected that the second expedition will pro- 
vide an equivalent amount of whale meat for con- 
sumption in Japan and an equivalent amount of 

48 



needed oils for allocation to other parts of the 
world by the International Emergency Food 
Council. 

There is a continuing food shortage in Japan, 
The burden of supplying the deficit imports of 
food continues to fall upon the United States, 
which is also endeavoring to meet demands for 
food from many other countries. With their 
wjialing fleets and trained crews the Japanese pos- 
sess a means of providing additional food for 
themselves and of helping to meet a world deficit 
in oils. These utilities at this moment of need 
must be used. 

Not to do so would mean a direct cost to the 
United States of over U.S. $10,000,000, the equiva- 
lent of approximately 40,000 tons of wheat and an 
additional loss of approximately U.S. $6,000,000 
in foreign exchange from the sale of whale oil. 
There was no Antarctic whaling during the war 
and the supply of whales there has accordingly 
increased so that no undue diminution of the whal- 
ing potential is involved. 

The second expedition, as was the case with the 
first, is being organized under the immediate su- 
pervision of Colonel Hubert G. Schenck, Chief of 
SCAP's Natural Resources Section. Allied ob- 
servers will supervise as before. The Antarctic 
waters in which the whaling is to be conducted are 
international. The SCAP observers accompany- 
ing the vessels will submit full radio reports daily 
and will require implicit observance of interna- 
tional whaling regulations. 

As SCAP-controlled Japanese-manned ships 
operating to repatriate 51/2 million Japanese pris- 
oners of war and civilians have during the past 
18 months entered numerous Allied ports in the 
west and southwest Pacific without incident, it 
is believed that no problem of security is involved 
in this second whaling expedition. 



Confirmation of Edwin C. Wilson 

The Senate on June 24, 1947, confirmed the nom- 
ination of Edwin C. Wilson to be Chief of the 
American Mission for Aid to Turlsey. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Provisions for Facilitating Restitution of Foreign 
Property Holdings in Japan 



[Released to the press June 29] 

The Secretary of State announced on June 29 
that the Supreme Commander for the Allied Pow- 
ers in Japan has modified theater regulations to 
permit the transmission to Japan through of- 
ficial channels of limited powers of attorney. This 
action was taken to enable nationals of members 
of the United Nations to designate and empower 
agents in Japan to seek and accept on their behalf 
restitution of property owned by them in Japan 
which was confiscated, blocked, or wrongfully 
transferred by the Japanese during the war. 

Persons in Japan holding such powei's of attor- 
ney may make application in the owner's name 
for the return of property under procedures which 
have been establislied by the Supreme Commander. 
Following the return of the property the agent will 
be permitted to use the property only in such nor- 
mal commercial activities as are approved by the 
Military Government authorities. Funds re- 
turned under this procedure may not be converted 
into dollars or other foreign exchange at this time. 
Following the return of the property no further 
special responsibility' for its protection and preser- 
vation will devolve upon the Supreme Commander. 

The grantors of these limited powers of attor- 
ney must be nationals of the United States or of 
other members of the United Nations having prop- 
erty in Japan which was treated as enemy property 
by the Japanese. Agents to whom powers of at- 
torney are to be sent may be freely selected by the 
property owners from persons resident or present 
in Japan, providing they ai-e acceptable to the 
Militai-y Government authorities. No person will 
be acceptable as an agent who is in Japan on official 
Government business, other than that of the Japa- 
nese Govermnent, or who is attached to or asso- 
ciated with any agency of the Military Govern- 
ment, or any government mission or similar group 
sponsored by the United States or other foreign 
government. Dependents of such persons are also 
excluded from serving in this capacity. 

In addition to such other instructions or in- 
formation as the grantor may desire to include, the 
power of attorney must contain complete iden- 

July 6, 1947 



tification of the grantor, including his nationality, 
the name and address of the designated agent, and 
a list of property to which the power of attorney 
is intended to apply. It should specifically em- 
power the agent to seek and accept return of such 
property and to exercise absolute discretion in the 
administration of any funds of the grantor which 
have been returned. The instrument must state 
that the grantor acknowledges that the Supreme 
Commander will be relieved of all special re- 
sponsibility for the preservation and protection 
of the property when it is returned to the agent in 
Japan. A statement shall also be included to the 
effect that the use of restituted property will be 
subject to all applicable regulations of the Supreme 
Commander. 

Property, upon return to the duly appointed 
agent, will be administered under Japanese civil 
law, with decisions in all civil cases subject to re- 
view by the Supreme Commander. 

United States nationals desiring to appoint 
agents in Japan to seek and accept return of their 
IDroperty in accordance with this procedure should 
mail their powers of attorney to the Special Proj- 
ects Division, Department of State, Washington, 
D.C., for forwarding to Japan. Powers of at- 
torney must be executed before the clerk of a 
county court or before a notary public whose seal 
and signature must then be certified by a clerk of 
a county court. 

Nationals of other members of the United Na- 
tions who are resident in the United States and who 
desire to transmit powers of attorney to Japan 
should communicate with their ajDpropriate gov- 
ernmental representatives. 



Surplus Rifle Ammunition Sold to China 

[Released to the press June 27] 

The Department of State aimounced on June 27 
that a contract has been signed for the sale to the 
Govei'nment of China, through the Office of the 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, of 130,000,- 
000 rounds of 7.92 mm. ammunition. 

The sales price, for which the Government of 

49 



THE RECORD Of THE W£BK 

China has paid in American dollars, was $656,658. 
The original or procurement cost of the ammuni- 
tion was $6,566,589. 

The ammunition, comparable to .30 caliber rifle 
ammunition, was manufactured in this country in 
1942 through 1944 to meet Chinese specifications 
and was scheduled to be shipped to China under 
lend-lease but, because of insurmountable trans- 
portation difficulties during the war, never left 



this country. It is of a special caliber used by the 
Chinese and is not susceptible of use by the Ameri- 
can Army and therefore is surplus to the needs of 
the United States Government. 

The ammunition is currently in storage in sev- 
eral western States, and all arrangements for its 
shipment to China will be handled by the Chinese 
Government. 



Passage Urged for Inter-American Military Cooperation Act 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE > 



Mr. Chairman: In my testimony this morning 
regarding the Inter- American Military Coopera- 
tion Act, I shall limit my remarks to those factors 
of primary importance to the Department of State. 
Representatives of the War and Navy Depart- 
ments will furnish you their views on the purpose 
and operation of the bill. 

The message of May 23 " from the President to 
the Congress covered the general aspects of the 
problem. I wish to call your attention to the ef- 
fects of certain provisions of this legislation upon 
our relations with foreign countries. 

In a recent appearance before Mr. Mundt and 
his subcommittee considering legislation to au- 
thorize the Department of State to carry on certain 
educational activities abroad, I stated that the 
lack of knowledge and understanding in many 
countries about the United States, its people, and 
its way of life is appalling in its extent. The inter- 
change of citizens of the various nations, regard- 
less of occupation, would lead to a better under- 
standing of the character and customs of all of 
them. This interchange is bound to enhance the 
mutual esteem and respect which now exist be- 
tween and among the nations of the Western Hem- 
isphere. Section 2 of this bill provides for such 
interchange. It authorizes the President to enter 
into agreements with the governments of other 
American states to provide "for the instruction 
and training of military or naval personnel of such 
countries". This clause in itself indicates that the 



' Made before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs 
on June 23, 1947, and released to the press on the same 
date. 

' BuiXETiN of June 8, 1947, p. 1121. 

50 



objectives of the bill will have much greater bene- 
fits to all the American republics than those nor- 
mally to be expected from straight military 
cooperation. 

Visitors from the Latin American republics will 
live with our young men and will become for a 
time close observers of our country. They will 
have opportunities to see all phases of our insti- 
tutions and our country as a whole and to mingle 
with our people in all walks of life. When these 
young leaders return to their homes it will be with 
a vastly better knowledge of the United States and 
what we stand for. These continued contacts 
should produce the results we hope for in the way 
of closer ties among the nations of the Western 
Hemisphere. 

There are two major considerations in the po- 
litical field which have a direct bearing on this bill. 
The first is the Act of Chapultepec, which provides 
for mutual defense, the maintenance of peace, and 
the close collaboration of the American republics. 
A similarity of training methods and equipment 
and a general standardization of military pro- 
cedures is a prerequisite to adequate and effective 
military cooperation. It follows that this legisla- 
tion is in specific accord with the Act of Chapul- 
tepec. 

The second consideration is the manner in which 
this proposed legislation fits into the framework 
of the United Nations. The objectives of this bill 
are in conformity with the Charter of the United 
Nations. You will recall that the Act of Chapul- 
tepec, which was signed before the drafting of the 
United Nations Charter, provided that the ar- 
rangements made under it should be consistent 
with that Charter when it was adopted. 

Department of State Bulletin 



It is the recognized policy of the United States 
Gfovemment to place major reliance on the United 
Nations as the medium for achieving international 
peace and security. The United States is actively 
supporting the United Nations effort to produce 
in effective program for international control and 
regulation of armaments. The proposed bill takes 
cognizance of these policies, stipulating expressly 
that the program of standardization of arms and 
^uipment of the American republics shall be sub- 
ject to any general system for the regulation of 
irmaments which may be adopted by the United 
Sfations, and to any other international treaty or 
convention for the regulation or limitation of 
irmaments or arms traffic to which the United 
States may become a party. The explicit language 
)f the bill insures that the assistance provided to 
he other American states under the terms of this 
ict will not run counter to these fundamental 
enets of our foreign policy. 

Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter 
.uthorizes the existence of regional arrangements 
or dealing with matters relating to the main- 
enance of international peace and security, and 
)rovides further that the Security Council shall, 
fhere appropriate, utilize such regional arrange- 
oents for enforcement action. The inter-Ameri- 
an system is just such an arrangement as the 
charter refers to, fully consistent with the pur- 
)0ses and principles of the United Nations. 

Furthermore, article 51 of the Charter of the 
Jnited Nations recognizes the inherent right of 
ndividual or collective self-defense if an armed 
.ttack occurs against a member of the United Na- 
ions until the Security Council has taken the 
neasures necessary to maintain international 
>eace and security. The measures taken by the 
nembers in the exercise of self-defense are to be 
mmediately reported to the Security Council for 
iction. But pending such action the American 
;ountries can defend themselves to the fullest ex- 
ent of their power against an armed attack by 
my enemy. 

At no time in the history of this country have 
■loser bonds been found between and among the 
lations of the Americas than at present. During 
he war the interdependence of the economies of 
he American nations, which had long been recog- 
lized, required the Latin American republics and 
he United States to coordinate their military 

\uIy 6, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

activities. Without military collaboration the de- 
fense of the Americas would have been danger- 
ously weakened. Our cooperation during the war 
was, of course, made more difficult because many 
Latin American countries had received military 
equipment and training from Germany and other 
European countries. We may be sure that if we 
are not willing to assist our Latin American 
friends, as well as Canada, to which the terms of 
the act also apply, in the procurement of arms and 
in obtaining instruction and training for their 
military personnel, they will of necessity seek this 
help elsewhere. 

I believe firmly that the opportunity presented 
to us to give material assistance to the foreign 
policy of our country at so little cost should not 
now be lost. I urgently recommend early and 
favorable action on this legislation. 

Adjustment of Defaulted Bonds of 
Peruvian Government 

Statement by the Secretaiy of State 

[Released to the press June 26] 

I have been told of the offer by the Government 
of Peru to resume service on an adjusted basis of 
its defaulted external obligations under provisions 
of its law promulgated on March 14, 1947. It is 
very gratifying to have tliis evidence of an effort 
to resolve a situation which has existed for over 
15 years. 

THE DEPARTMENT 
Appointment of Officers 

Haywood P. Martin as Deputy Director General, the 
Foreign Service, and Director, Office of the Foreign Serv- 
ice, both effective June 1, 1947. 

Donald W. Smith as Deputy Director, Office of the 
Foreign Service, effective June 3, 1947. 

Pliilip G. Strong as Chief, Acquisition and Distribution 
Division, Office of Intelligence Collection and Dissemina- 
tion, effective July 31, 1946. 



Change of Name of UNRRA Division 

Effective June 13, 1947, the name of the UNRRA Division 
in the Office of Budget and Planning was changed to 
Division of Procurement Control. The functions remain 
unchanged. 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE 
Consular Agency at Kenora Closed 

The American Consular Agency at Kenora, Ontario, 
Canada, was closed on May 31, 1947. 

51 



The United Nations Page 

The Creation of the United Nations Special 
Conimittee on Palestine: Work of the 
First Special Session of the General 
Assembly. Article by William I. Cargo . 3 

U. N. Documents: Selected Bibliography . . 13 

United Nations Commission of Investigation 
Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents: 
A Summary Statement by Harry N. 

Howard 14 

Report by the Commission of Investigation 
Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents 

to the Security Council 18 

U.S. Draft Resolution on the Greek Ques- 
tion 24 

Second Anniversary of Signing of United Na- 
tions Charter: 

Remarks by the President 26 

Statement by the Secretary of State ... 26 

Recommendations and Conventions of 28th 
International Labor Conference. The 
President's Mes.sage of Transmittal to the 

Senate 32 

Revision Convention Adopted at 29th Ses- 
sion of International I^abor Conference. 
The President's Message of Transmittal 
to the Senate . . . , 33 

General Policy 

Concern Over Drastic Deprivation of Civil 
Liberties in Rumania. Note From Act- 
ing U.S. Representative at Bucharest to 
Rumanian Foreign Minister 38 

Activities of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. State- 
ment by the Secretary of State .... 46 

Renewed Netherlands-Indonesian Negotia- 
tions Viewed Favorably 48 

Confirmation of Edwin C. Wilson 48 

Passage Urged for Inter-American Military 
Cooperation Act. Statement by the Sec- 
retary of State 50 

Economic Affairs ' > S'^-i 

U.S. Delegation to International Congress of 

River Transportation 36 

U.S. To Participate in Second International 

Film Festival 36 

U.S. To Participate in International Exhibi- 
tion of Cinematographic Art 37 



Economic Affairs — Continued Page 
American Tourist Travel to Western Aus- 
tria 45 

Time Extension for Filing Tax Returns: 

Bulgaria 46 

Czechoslovakia 46 

Negotiations With Special Italian Financial 
Mission. Statement by the Secretary of 

State 47 

Surplus Rifle Ammunition Sold to China . . 49 
Adjustment of Defaulted Bonds of Peruvian 
Government. Statement by the Secre- 
tary of State 51 

Occupation Matters 

Property of War Criminals 35 

Property of Non-Germans in U.S. Occupation 

Zone Released From Military Control . 41 

Dollars Exchanged for Schillings To Meet 

Occupation Costs in Austria 45 

Appointments to Military Tribunal .... 46 

Japanese Whaling Expedition Authorized . . 48 

Provisions for Facilitating Restitution of 

Foreign Property Holdings in Japan . . 49 

Treaty Information 

U.N.-U.S. Agreement Regarding Headquar- 
ters of the United Nations: 
Statement by the Secretary of State ... 27 

Text of the Agreement 27 

Excerpt From Rumanian Treaty 38 

U.S. -Austrian Relief Agreement 39 

Austria Welcomes Relief Assistance 39 

Understanding Reached on Question of Swed- 
ish Import Restrictions 42 

Iran Granted Credit To Purchase War Sur- 
plus 47 

Calendar of Internationa! Meetings . . 34 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Agency at Kenora Closed 51 

The Department 

Norman Armour Serves as Special .\ssistant. 

Statement by the Secretary of State . . 47 

Appointment of Officers 51 

Change of Name of UNRRA Division ... 51 

The Congress 37 



Vtto/H 



ViiUiam I. Cargo, author of the article on the United Nations 
Special Committee on Palestine, is Assistant in Dependent Area 
Affairs, Division of Dependent Area Affairs, Department of State. 

Harry N. Howard, author of the summary statement on the United 
Nations Commission of Investigation Concerning Greek Frontier 
Incidents, is Chief, Near East Branch, Division of Research for 
Near East and Africa, Office of Intelligence Research, Department 
of State. Dr. Howard is Adviser to the United States Delegation, 
United Nations Balkan Commission. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PHINTING OFFICE: 1947 



tJAe/ z/^eha'^to^teni/ /(w CHaie^ 




TOWARD COMMON GOALS OF PEACE • Addreaa 

by the President 80 

A STABLE AND PROSPEROUS WORLD IS IMPOR- 
TANT TO AMERICA'S WELL-BEING • Address 
by the Secretary of State 83 

REPORT ON THE PREPARATORY COMMISSION 

FOR THE IRO • Article by David Persinger ... 61 

DISSOLUTION OF JAPAN'S FEUDAL COMBINES • By 

Raymond Vernon and Carotene Wachenheimer .... 55 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XVII, No. 419 
July 13, 1947 




U. S. SUPERItfTENOENT OF DOCUMENTS 

JUL 28 1947 




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Vol. XVII, No. 419 • Publication 2875 
July 13, 1947 



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Washington 25, D.C. 

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Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies t/ 
the Government tcith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the tcork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
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made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officer* 
of the Department, as tcell as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
natioruil affairs and the functions of . 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 

United States is or may become a 

. ■ It 

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at the end of each quarter, as tvell 

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as legislative material in the field of 11 
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M 



DISSOLUTION OF JAPAN'S FEUDAL COMBINES 



ly Raymond Vernon 

arid Carolene Wachenheimer 



Domination of the Japanese economy by feudal combines 
was an intrinsic part of the pattern of prewar Japanese life. 
This article traces the reasons for the emergence of such 
excessive concentrations of economic power, and the steps 
that are being taken to eliminate them, and prevent their 
resurgence. 



The deconcentration of Japanese industry is 
one aspect of a program for accomplishing a much 
larger objective in Japan. The objective is one 
of educating the Japanese people to the responsi- 
bility of controlling their own society. It pro- 
ceeds on the premise, which is implicit in our oc- 
cupation policies in Japan and Germany, that the 
most effective restraint against the organization 
of a nation for aggression is a functioning democ- 
racy. The close relation between democracy and 
the economic structure of Japan will become ap- 
parent with a cursory review of the recent history 
of that country. 

Japan's Industrial Revolution 

Japan's introduction to the Western World was 
abrupt. With the ousting of the feudal shogun- 
ates in 1867, Japan launched a deliberate effort to 
assimilate the institutions of the West. The role 
of the Government in this program was a very 
active one; it introduced central banking to the 
country, spurred industry with subsidies and other 
mcentives, and aggressively encouraged interna- 
tional trade. 

A number of the great mercantile and mining 
houses, exemplified by the Mitsui and the Sumi- 
tomo, survived the change and grew stronger by 
it. Eelying heavily upon government largesse, 
these houses entered new industrial fields. Thus, 

Ju/y 13, 1947 



the House of Mitsui, originally in commerce and 
banking, enlarged its interests to cover mining 
and lumbering, chemicals, machinery, textiles, in- 
surance, and many other lines of activity. 

However, the period of great change also af- 
forded certain humbler Japanese the opportunity 
to amass fortunes. The Iwasaki family, whose 
business is done under the name of Mitsubishi, 
had its beginnings in this period, as did the Yasuda 
and Asano clans. Each of these newer groups, 
like the Mitsui, relied upon government support 
to develop sprawling interests in the fields of ship- 
ping, mining, steel, chemicals, banking, insurance. 
Although a tendency to specialize was evident in 
some cases, the specialization of these groups was 
never sufficiently great to suggest the existence of 
an underlying technological bond. 

In time, the groups controlling these agglom- 
erations of enterprise came to be known as the 
"zaibatsu," or money clique. By ploughing back 
excessive profits, obtaining substantial advances 
of credit from the Government, and dominating 
the commercial banking system, these groups 
tapped the only substantial sources of credit 
available in Japan. 

The possibility of competition with these groups 
was greatly reduced by the fact that the indi- 
vidual Japanese has never been in a position to 
save in amounts sufficient to constitute an impor- 



55 



tant source of capital for industry ; Japanese busi- 
ness, therefore, has had to rely on internal growth, 
government subsidy, or bank credit to supply it 
with funds. Tlie economic weakness of the indi- 
vidual in Japanese society can be laid partly to 
the fact that the industrial revolution of Japan 
left undisturbed much of the old feudal structure 
of Japan. Industrial empires were organized in 
much the same fashion as a feudal clan. Illustra- 
tive of this feature of Japan's industrial life is 
the method by which its business executives were 
selected. The day-to-day affairs of these empires 
were entrusted to the hands of promising young 
men drawn from among the more outstanding 
students at the Imperial University at Tokyo and 
other leading institutions. Once selected, these 
men were expected to serve the clan for their 
entire lives ; the practice of hiring away the execu- 
tives of one's competitors was almost unheard of 
in Japan, and such an act would have carried with 
it a connotation of treachery. 

A similar paternalistic attitude dominated the 
relations between the larger employer and his 
factory hands. A subsistence income in bad times 
as well as good was virtually assured to labor by 
employers. But this expectation of a steady in- 
come was acquired at the sacrifice of independence 
on the part of labor. By and large, factory labor 
was expected to adhere to the same employer re- 
gardless of competitive opportunities elsewhere 
and to accept the proffered wage without question. 

This same acceptance of clan loyalty and con- 
stituted authority permeated politics, government, 
education, and family structure. It is still a dom- 
inant feature of Japanese national thinking and 
remains the great problem in preventing the re- 
crudescence of excessive concentrations of power 
in Japanese society. 

The Structure of the Zaibatsu 

The extraordinary degree to which the Japanese 
economy rested under the control of a few com- 
bines is suggested by the fact that 15 of these 
combines alone, according to figures prepared by 
the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander, 
accounted for 51 percent of Japan's coal output, 56 
percent of its pulp, 88 percent of its soda, and 50 
percent of its synthetic dyes. The banks con- 
trolled by the principal zaibatsu groups accounted 
for 57 percent of Japan's commercial bank assets 

56 



and 99 percent of its savings bank assets. The 
zaibatsu insurance companies represented 74 per- 
cent of the assets of all Japanese fire-insurance 
companies and 36 percent of life-insurance com- 
pany assets. 

The statistics, however, fail to reflect the full 
measure of zaibatsu domination of Japan's eco- 
nomic life. For this domination was exercised 
not only through the holding of controlling blocks 
of shares but also through numerous collateral 
means — through the control of the sources of 
credit, through the domination of the powerful 
trade organizations or "control associations", 
through the financing and control of political 
parties, and through the government bureaucracy. 
To appreciate the nature and extent of this con- 
trol, it may be helpful to examine the structure 
of the zaibatsu groups in somewhat more detail. 

A distinction can be drawn between the zaibatsu 
groups which trace their origin back to the Meiji 
restoration or earlier and those which were the 
product of the new wave of Japanese imperialism 
of the 1930's. The older gi-oups, which include the 
Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda, and Asano, 
had a family organization of their apex. Japa- 
nese law contains numerous provisions designed to 
preserve the integrity of the family and to fortify 
the powers of the head of the house. But the 
zaibatsu families were held together also by a set of 
rules, such as the famous will of Sochiku Mitsui of 
1722, which defined the rights, duties, and privi- 
leges of members of the family and set out the line 
of succession of the family wealth. 

The underlying purpose of these rules was to 
prevent the process of inheritance from diffusing 
family wealth and to insure that such wealth 
would be managed as a unit. To achieve these 
ends, primogeniture was the prescribed means of 
succession, and wealth passed on by the succession 
was managed by a family council. 

The powers of the family council were typically 
sweeping and arbitrary. They included the right 
to disinherit and expel unwoithy members, to 
choose or reject a prospective wife, to designate a 
job, and generally to control the personal and busi- 
ness affairs of all the membei-s of the family. The 
rules of the family were ordinarily interspersed 
with moralistic homilies, such as the following j 
which appears in the Mitsui will : 

To believe in God and Buddha and follow the teaching 
of Confucianism is essential for our life, but do not go to 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



extremes. Extremists in religion would never be success- 
ful merchants. They are bound to neglect their own busi- 
ness and are liable to lead the Hou.se to ruin. Special care 
should be taken as to the donation of huge sums of money 
or treasures for temples or shrines.' 

The family council ordinarily controlled a 
family holding company — a honsha or hozensha — 
through control of all or most of the shares of the 
holding company. The holding company, in turn, 
typically had an extensive portfolio containing the 
stocks of the leading enterprises in the group. 
Thus, the Mitsui Honsha controlled the Mitsui 
Trading Co., Mitsui Chemical Co., Mitsui Ship- 
building Co., Mitsui Mining Co., Mitsui Steamship 
Co., and a host of other key enterprises." From 
that point on, the ramifications of stock ownership 
became bewilderingly complex. The principal 
companies each customarily controlled a cluster of 
subsidiaries, but they also commonly held the stock 
of one another and even the stock of the holding 
company above them. 

The ties of close ownership were supplemented 
by the extensive use of interlocking directorates. 
In some of the zaibatsu groups, each of the promi- 
nent members of the family held directorships in a 
number of key enterprises. Other zaibatsu groups 
followed the policy of refraining from overt par- 
ticipation in the enterprises of the combine; in 
such cases, their leading subordinates assumed a 
multiplicity of directorships and officerships. 

Figuring prominently in these complexes were 
the financial institutions of the zaibatsu. Since 
the commercial banks were virtually the only im- 
portant source of non-government credit, each of 
the older zaibatsu sought diligently to bring a net- 
work of banks under its control. The importance 
to the zaibatsu of controlling sources of bank credit 
was liighlighted by their activities during the 
war; by inspiring and supporting the govern- 
ment's program of merging and reducing the 
number of individual commercial and financial 
enterprises, the zaibatsu enormously strengthened 
their control over the nation's banking structure. 

Of the older zaibatsu groups in existence at the 
time of the surrender, only the Asano had failed 
to obtain control of a large banking system. And 
their failure in this respect contributed to a con- 
stant attrition upon their wealth. Because they 
were compelled to rely upon the Yasuda banks for 
their financing, the Asano family through defaults 
on loans lost control of a significant number of 

July 73, 7947 



their key enterprises, thereby contributing to the 
growth of the Yasuda group. 

The newer zaibatsu, whose existence was made 
possible largely by the expansion of the Japanese 
Empire in the 1930's, were financed partly by the 
banks of the older groups but to a far greater 
degree by special banks set up and financed by the 
Government. The latter included the Industrial 
Bank of Japan, the Wartime Finance Bank, and 
the Yokohama Specie Bank. Lacking this source 
of credit, the newer zaibatsu could not have ef- 
fected their phenomenal expansion. 

In structure, these new groups differed some- 
what from the older zaibatsu. In many cases, 
the new groups consisted simply of a cluster of re- 
lated corporations, pyramided in accordance with 
the holding-company pattern which, before the 
operation of the Holding Company Act of 1935, 
characterized American public-utility companies. 
In these cases, unlike the older zaibatsu groups, 
those in control usually held only a small propor- 
tion of the stock of the companies they controlled. 

The use made by the zaibatsu of control associa- 
tions requires a word of explanation. These asso- 
ciations were founded on statutory enactments, the 
first of which was the Major Industries Control 
Law of 1931. This law, in effect, authorized en- 
terprises in the same field to enter into agreements 
limiting production, proportioning orders, divid- 
ing fields of operation, fixing prices, and allocat- 
ing markets among them. In 1937, the law was 
revised to permit the Minister of Commerce and 
Industry to bind all enterprises in a given field 
to the agreements to which two thirds of such 
enterprises had adhered. After additional 
strengthening through the General Mobilization 
Law of 1938, control associations assumed very 
broad functions of regulation, allocation, and 
price fixing in their respective industries. 

Much has been written regarding the question 
of whether the control associations tended to domi- 
nate, or to be dominated by, the Japanese Gov- 
ernment. It is doubtful that any categorical con- 
clusions on this point could be made unequivocally. 
However, it is evident that the zaibatsu groups 
wielded an extraordinary measure of influence not 



' Report of the Migaion on Japanese Combines, part I, pp. 
123-126, a report to the Department of State and the War 
Department, March 1»46. Department of State publication 
2628. 

'Ibid., appendix A, exhibit la. 

57 



only as officers of the control associations but also 
as political sponsors of many of the Cabinet Min- 
isters. Relations between the control associations 
and the Government during the war were marred 
from time to time by dissension on policy and 
power, but the compromises which grew out of 
this dissension did little to modifj' the control 
associations' discipline over their respective in- 
dustries. The effect of this control is suggested 
by the fact that while Soichiro Asano was chair- 
man of the Cement Control Association, for ex- 
ample, the Asano Portland Cement Company in- 
creased its share of Japan's asbestos-cement out- 
put from 36 percent to 63 percent; in the same 
period, this firm's Portland-cement output rose 
from 28 percent to 34 percent of Japan's total pro- 
duction. 

In summary, zaibatsu domination of the Japa- 
nese economy was an intrinsic part of the pattern 
of Japanese life. The termination of the domi- 
nation, therefore, requires measures which, if 
gauged by the standards of other economies, may 
appear excessively drastic. The nature of the re- 
quired measures, however, is dictated by the scope 
of the problem; anything short of the most com- 
prehensive steps cannot hope to be of lasting effect. 
The nature of some of the measures which have 
been taken is described in the sections that follow. 

The Zaibatsu Dissolution Program 

The initial postsurrender policy for Japan of 
August 1945 laid the basis for United States pol- 
icy toward the zaibatsu. It included provisions 
directing the Supreme Commander for the Al- 
lied Powers (SCAP) to encourage a wide dis- 
tribution of income and of ownership of the means 
of production and trade. To this end he was "to 
favor a program for the dissolution of the large 
industrial and banking combinations which have 
exercised control of a great part of Japan's trade 
and industry." Within this general framework 
the Japanese Government under the direction and 
supervision of SCAP has already taken certain 
major steps toward the dissolution of the zaibatsu 
and the prevention of restrictive business prac- 
tices in domestic and international trade. The 
Far Eastern Commission is now considering addi- 
tional measures which are needed in order to in- 



' Report of the Mission on Japanese Combines, part I, 
p. 179. 

58 



sure the acliievement of our basic objectives re- 
garding the zaibatsu. 

Shortly after issuance of the initial postsur- 
render policy statement SCAP held informal con- 
versations with Japanese Government officials and 
representatives of the largest zaibatsu groups, in 
order to acquaint them with general United States 
policy toward the zaibatsu. In the light of these 
discussions, the four major combines prepared vol- 
untary dissolution plans. The Japanese Govern- 
ment selected the Yasuda plan as the most accept- 
able and was authorized by SCAP to proceed in 
accordance with its provisions. SCAP, however, 
expressly indicated that it proposed to supervise 
the execution of the plan and subsequently to elab- 
orate or modify the plan if necessary. 

Under the terms of the Yasuda plan, members 
of the zaibatsu families and persons holding re- 
sponsible positions in the family holding compa- 
nies or firms directly controlled by them were tc 
resign; the holding companies and family mem- 
bers were to divest themselves of all holdings in 
companies which were regarded as subsidiaries: 
and all the shares of "controlled companies" held 
by the family holding companies or by banks asso- 
ciated with the holding companies were to b« 
transferred to a liquidating commission whict 
would dispose of them. 

The plan had certain patent weaknesses. Undei 
it, many companies which actually were controlled 
by the zaibatsu were not treated as subsidiaries. 
Furthermore, the plan took no cognizance of the 
fact that much of the zaibatsu strength lay in the 
intercorporate holdings of their subsidiaries ; thus, 
even with the holding company separated from 
the subsidiaries, the latter could continue to oper- 
ate as effectively integrated units. Finally, the 
plan was silent regarding measures which might 
be taken to prevent the emergence of new zaibatsu 
groups. Therefore, in January 1946, at the invi- 
tation of SCAP, the State and War Departments 
sent a mission to Japan to study the zaibatsu 
problem, to propose modifications in the Yasuda 
plan, and to recommend to the two Departments 
sjjecific policy to implement tlie basic postsurren- 
der directive for destroying the power of the zai- 
batsu. In June 1946, SCAP transmitted to the 
State and War Departments the findings of the 
Mission on Japanese Combines. The descriptive 
portion of this Mission's findings have since been 
published by the Department of State.' 

Department of State Bulletin 



But before the submission of the report and at 
an accelerated pace since that time, SCAP has 
initiated a number of decisive steps toward the 
ultimate dissolution of the zaibatsu. The most 
important of these have been day-to-day super- 
vision of the business activities of the major zai- 
batsu, establishment of a Holding Company Liqui- 
dation Commission, dissolution of many control 
associations, passage of an antitrust lav?, formu- 
lation of a program to purge certain financial and 
industrial leaders, and enactment of a securities 
and exchange law. These steps, complemented by 
correlative action on reparations, confiscation of 
Japanese assets abroad, and a capital levy have 
gone far toward the reduction of zaibatsu power in 
Japan. 

Shortly after the occupation of Japan, in order 
to supervise the activities of the major zaibatsu, 
SCAP ordered the freezing of all security trans- 
actions of 15 large combines and their subsidiaries. 
Under the terms of this directive and its amend- 
ments, SCAP approval is required when these com- 
bines sell, trade, or otherwise transfer certain cap- 
ital stocks, bonds, debentures, voting tnists, or 
other forms of capital securities.* 

In December 1945, SCAP supplemented the 
above step by establishing a list of restricted con- 
cerns. This list originally contained 18 holding 
companies and 325 subsidiaries, but names have 
been added to or deleted from the list whenever 
examination has proved such action necessary. At 
the end of 1946 the list contained about 65 holding 
companies and about 1,100 subsidiaries. Activities 
of restricted concerns are governed by specific reg- 
ulations which require SCAP approval of trans- 
actions relating to credit, payments, transfers, and 
withdrawals not incidental to the normal course 
of business ; sales, transfers, and other dispositions 
of capital assets ; changes in capital stock ; and is- 
suance of new securities." 

In accordance with the Yasuda suggestion, a 
Holding Company Liquidation Commission was 
established by Imperial ordinance in April 1946 
and approved by SCAP in July of that year. Its 
purpose is "to promote the prompt liquidation of 
such companies as may be designated in accord- 
ance with [the] ordinance ... by receiving trans- 
fer of securities (including all evidences of owner- 
ship) and other properties owned by them, and by 
administering and disposing of such securities and 

J«/y 13, 1947 



other properties with a view to democratizing the 
ownership and management of enterprises." * Em- 
ployees of the companies are to be given prefer- 
ential purchase rights with limitation placed on 
the amount of securities that can be purchased by 
any individual. Pending the liquidation of the 
companies, the commission will supervise and con- 
trol the business of the holding companies and 
determine the compensation to be paid to the zai- 
batsu for the property transferred to it. Upon 
final liquidation of the properties, such compen- 
sation will be made in nonnegotiable bonds of the 
Japanese Government with a maturity date of not 
less than 10 years. A Securities Disposal Adjust- 
ment Council will coordinate the disposal of securi- 
ties with respect to such matters as time, price, 
quantity, and broad distribution of securities. 

The prevention of the cloaking and dissipation 
of assets by the zaibatsu has required constant vig- 
ilance on the part of SCAP and constant improve- 
ment of his regulatory mechanisms. In Novem- 
ber 1946 the original ordinance regulating zaibatsu 
enterprises was amended so as to prohibit re- 
stricted companies, their subsidiaries, and affiliates 
from acquiring shares of other companies except 
as permitted by special decree. Under the terms 
of this decree, officers and employees of restricted 
nonfinancial companies are prohibited from acquir- 
ing shares of other companies for the account of 
such companies, and officers of restricted companies 
are required to resign their directorships in others. 
Contracts between restricted companies, subsid- 
iaries, and others which restrict competition in 
production, sale and distribution of or trade in 
goods are prohibited except as permitted by de- 
cree, and all such existing contracts are null and 
void. The decree requires restricted companies to 
divest themselves of all share holdings in other 
companies. Their subsidiaries and affiliates must 
take such action toward all share holdings which 
they have acquired since December 8, 1945. 

As a first step in its operations, the Holding 
Company Liquidation Commission selected five 
principal holding companies for dissolution — Mit- 
sui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, Sumitomo, and Fuji In- 
dustrial. These have surrendered the bulk of 



* SCAP Directive AG 004 (Oct. 31, 1945) ESS. 

" SCAP, Summation of Non-Military Activities in Japan 
and Korea, no. 3, Dec. 1945, p. 147. 

'Japanese Government Official Gazette, no. 14, Apr, 20, 
1946. 

59 



their securities to the Commission and have sub- 
mitted liquidation plans. The Mitsui, Mitsu- 
bishi, and Yasuda top holding companies have 
voted their own dissolution and have adopted 
resolutions authorizing the first steps toward ac- 
tual liquidation. The other two have been de- 
layed because they must dispose of operating prop- 
erties before they can liquidate.^ In addition, Ja- 
pan's two largest export-import firms, one a Mitsui 
concern and the other a Mitsubishi enterprise, are 
in the first stages of liquidation. In December 
1946, 60 additional zaibatsu were designated for 
dissolution. The companies which are on the re- 
stricted list but have not yet been designated for 
liquidation are subject to supervision by the Min- 
istry of Finance and SCAP, and many of them will 
probably be subject to dissolution in the future. 

In January 1946, a SCAP directive ordered the 
removal and exclusion of undesirable personnel 
from public office.' This directive was of course 
motivated by considerations extending well be- 
yond the zaibatsu problem and called for a purge 
which was more extensive than that required on 
the basis of the zaibatsu problem alone. It affects 
zaibatsu personnel who at any time between July 
7, 1937, and September 2, 1945, occupied a posi- 
tion as chairman of the board of directors, presi- 
dent, vice president, director, adviser, auditor, or 
manager of certain industrial and financial con- 
cerns or any other bank development company or 
institution whose foremost purpose was assisting 
in militaristic aggression. The first recommenda- 
tions relating to specific industrial and financial 
leaders were made in February 1947 when 56 mem- 
bers of 10 zaibatsu were designated for purging 
action under this directive. This action supple- 
ments the earlier resignation of important zaibatsu 
officers which took place shortly after the start of 
the occupation. 

In March 1947 the Japanese Diet approved an 
antitrust law which forbids entrepreneurs from 
effecting a private monopolization, undertaking 
any unreasonable restraint of trade, or employing 
unfair methods of competition. It prohibits par- 



' SCAP, Summation, no. 13, Oct. 1946, p. 216. 

' Orders from SCAP to Japanese Government, AG 091-1 
(Jan. 4, 1946), GS, APO 500. 

' SCAP, Summation, Aug. 1946, p. 218. 

'° SCAP, Summation, Nov. 1946, p. 255; Dec. 1946, p. 216. 

" Japanese Government bill no. 51, Minister of Finance 
no. 9, Securities and Exchange Law, Feb. 25, 1947. 



ticipation in agreements which would impose cer- 
tain restrictions upon foreign trade. Undue dis- 
parities in bargaining power between an entre- 
preneur and his competitors are to be eliminated; 
the formation of holding companies is prohibited, 
restrictions are placed on the acquisition by com- 
panies of stocks in other companies, and mergers 
must be authorized by a fair-trade commission. 
An officer or employee of a company cannot con- 
currently hold a position as an officer in another 
company if the two companies are in competition 
with one another or if one fourth or more of the 
officers of either of the two companies are con- 
currently holding positions as officers of a third 
company. The law specifically exempts from its 
provisions natural monopolies, enterprises, and 
certain associations for which special laws exist, 
and rights under patent, trade-mark, and copy- 
right laws. A fair-trade commission is to be estab- 
lished to insure proper operation of the law. 

SCAP has also ordered the Japanese Govern- 
ment to dissolve all control associations, to repeal 
all laws and regulations pertaining to them, and 
to create proper governmental agencies to insure 
adequate distribution.^ The Japanese Govern- 
ment has already issued regulations designed to 
eliminate more than 2,000 control associations and 
companies which have monopolized control func- 
tions in the allocation of basic raw materials such 
as coal, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, and 
critical chemicals. Suitable governmental agen- 
cies are being established to assume temporarily 
the control-association functions that are needed 
for the allocation of goods." 

In February 1947 the Diet passed a securities 
and exchange act ^^ designed to secure information 
relating to the flotation of securities by joint-stock 
companies and joint-stock limited-liability part- 
nerships by requiring them to disclose certain data 
before they can issue securities. The information 
requirements are somewhat similar to those of the 
United States Securities Act of 1933 and the Se- 
curities and Exchange Act of 1934. The effect of 
the Japanese act upon the zaibatsu will be to force 
them to release information regarding their assets 
and business activities which has hitherto been 
unavailable to the general jjublic in Japan. The 
act, it is hoped, will assist in making management 
more responsive to public opinion. 
{Continued on page 6')) 



60 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



REPORT ON PREPARATORY COMIVIISSION FOR THE IRO 



Jy David Persinger 



On July 1, 1947, the Preparatory Commission for the 
International Refugee Organization assumed responsibility 
for the care, maintenance, repatriation, and resettlement of 
almost one million refugees and displaced persons still living 
in temporary quarters in Europe, Africa, the Near East, and 
the Far East. The Preparatory C ommission will reconvene 
in Lausanne, Switzerland, on July 15, 1947. 



Preparatory Commission for the International 
Refugee Organization 

The work which the Preparatory Commission 

of the International Refugee Organization took 

over on July 1, 19i7, has heretofore been carried 

on by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 

1 tion Administration (UNRRA) and the Inter- 

' governmental Committee on Refugees (IGC). 

I UNRRA was established during the war to care for 

I persons displaced by the war ; IGC was set up in 

■ 1938 to care for refugees from Nazi oppression. 
I Its mandate was extended in 1943 to include all 
1 refugees anywhere who, as a result of events in 

Europe, had to leave or might have to leave their 
I countries because of danger to their lives or liber- 
( ties on account of their race, religion, or political 
; beliefs. Both UNRRA and IGC ceased opera- 

■ tions on June 30, 1947. 

I 

^ Scope of tlie Commission's Undertaking 

! The responsibility which the Preparatory Com- 

. mission assumes is formidable. The best esti- 

I mates now available indicate that the Commission 

I must be prej^ared to provide care and mainte- 

i nance for a total of 879,950 refugees and displaced 

I persons. Most of these are now residing in Ger- 

! many, Austria, and Italy.^ The Commission must 

also be prepared to begin as promptly as possible 

the necessary arrangements for the repatriation or 

legal protection and resettlement of a total of 

|Ju/y J 3, ?947 

753718 — 47 2 



1,345,912 refugees and displaced persons. This 
number includes those mentioned above who will 
need care and maintenance and, in addition, 465,- 
962 who are at present supporting themselves but 
who are entitled to international protection in civil 
status and aid in becoming permanently settled. 

The foregoing totals are regarded by the 
Preparatory Commission as estimated maxima ; it 
is hoped that they will be smaller. 

Developments Leading to the Creation of the 
International Refugee Organization 

In February 1946 the General Assembly of the 
United Nations decided that the problem of 
refugees and displaced persons was international 
in character and that an organization should be 
established to deal with it. The constitution of 
the International Refugee Organization was 
adopted by the General Assembly of the U.N. in 
December 1946 and deposited for signature with 
the Secretary-General of the U.N. It will come 
into force when 15 states have signed it without 
reservation, provided the total of their assigned 
contributions as set out in an appendix to the con- 



' Germany 657,500 ; Austria 128,500 ; Italy 36,000 ; Afri- 
ca, Near East, and India 30,000; Europeans in Slianghai 
10,000; and 17,950 in various parts of Europe outside 
Germany, Austria, and Italy. Included in the number 
last mentioned are such refugees as the Spanish Repub- 
licans now living in France. 

61 



stitution amounts to 75 percent of the total budget 
for the fiscal year 19^7. This budget was estab- 
lished at $151,060,500 plus an administrative 
budget of $4,800,000. 

Interim Measures 

The General Assembly of the U.N. adopted an 
agreement on interim measures providing that the 
signers of the lEO Constitution constitute a Pre- 
paratory Commission for the IRO. According to 
paragi'aph 3 of this agreement on interim meas- 
ures the Preparatory Commission, after agree- 
ment with existing organizations dealing with ref- 
ugees and displaced persons, could assume the 
functions of these organizations pending the 
establishment of IRO, if this became essential in 
order to accomplish their orderly transfer to the 
IRO. 

First Session of the Preparatory Commission, 
February 1947 

The Preparatory Commission convened in Feb- 
ruary 1947 at Geneva, Switzerland, and set up its 
Secretariat under the direction of its elected Ex- 
ecutive Secretary, Arthur J. Altmeyer. Operat- 
ing funds were loaned by the Secretary-General 
of the United Nations, to be repaid out of con- 
tributions to the IRO. The Preparatory Com- 
mission directed its Executive Secretary to open 
negotiations with UNRRA, the IGC, the govern- 
ments or authorities of the countries of residence 
of the refugees and displaced persons, and any 
other governments and authorities, as appropri- 
ate, in order to perfect arrangements for the 
transfer of operations to the IRO. 

' Present were representatives of Canada, the Domini- 
can Republic, France, Guatemala, the Netherlands, Nor- 
way, the United Kingdom, and the United States. During 
the session, representatives of Australia, Belgium, China, 
and New Zealand were seated. UNRRA, the IGC, and 
the ILO were represented in a consultative capacity. The 
Director of the European Office of the U.N. and the Chief 
of the Refugee Section of the U.N. were present as ob- 
servers. Also present as an observer was Baron Con- 
faloniere of Italy. Henri Ponsot of France was Chair- 
man, Mr. Skylstad of Norway was Vice Chairman, and 
Dr. Sassen of Holland was Rapporteur. The Representa- 
tive of the United States was George L. Warren ; his ad- 
visers were VPilliam O. Hall and David Persinger of the 
Department of State, Colonel Baker and Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Frost of Hq. European Conmiand, and Lieutenant 
Colonel Walton of USFA. 



Tile Second Part of the First Session of the 
Preparatory Commission 

The Preparatory Commission for the Interna- 
tional Refugee Organization met ^ for the second 
time at Lausanne, Switzerland, on May 1 and 
recessed on May 21, 1947, to reconvene in mid- 
July. The purpose of the meeting was to receive 
reports requested of the Executive Secretary at 
the first meeting held in February 1947, to con- 
sider the status of government adherences to the 
IRO constitution, and to take such action as might 
be indicated to bring the IRO into being, includ- 
ing provision for the orderly transfer to the Inter- 
national Refugee Organization of functions of 
UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee 
on Refugees which were to be terminated on June 
30, 1947. 

The meeting opened on a note of pessimism, 
since the required number of adherences to the 
constitution had not been received, and doubt was 
expressed that some governments which had 
already signed the constitution ad referendum 
would complete the necessary legislative actions. 

It was at once apparent that the IRO would 
not come into being by July 1, 1947. As of May 
21, 16 states had signed the IRO constitution, and 
their total assigned contributions exceeded 75 per- 
cent of the first year's budget established by the 
General Assembly of U.N., but most of the signa- 
tory states had not tlien ratified their signatures; 
some indicated that they would be unable to do so 
for several months. After considering various 
proposals for bridging the gap which would occur 
on July 1, including a proposal to continue the 
IGC and UNRRA for several months after June 
30, the Preparatory Commission decided to invoke 
paragraph 3 of the interim agreement and to 
assume IRO functions as of July 1, pending the 
coming into force of the constitution of IRO. 

The Executive Secretary 

The Preparatory Commission authorized its 
Executive Secretary to conclude agreements with 
UNRRA and the IGC for the Commission's 
assumption of functions relative to refugees and 
displaced persons, to conclude necessary agree- 
ments with the occupying authorities of Germany 
and the appropriate governments and authorities 
of the other countries in which the refugees and 
displaced persons are temxjorarily residing, and 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



in general to exercise the powers and functions of 
the Director General of the IRO. The guide for 
the actions of the Executive Secretary are the 
terms of the IRO constitution and the interim 
agreement, the resolutions passed by the Prepara- 
tory Commission, and the advice of the Advisory 
Committee. 

The Advisory Committee 

During the course of the meetings the Nether- 
lands, Belgian, and French Delegations urged 
the appointment of an Executive Committee of 
the Preparatory Commission to pass on adminis- 
trative acts of the Executive Secretary during the 
interim period between meetings of the Commis- 
sion. The United States Delegation argued that 
the Commission had no power to establish such 
a committee and that such practice would be in- 
consistent with the provisions of the constitution 
which clearly assigns the functions of policy mak- 
ing to the Council of the IRO, and tliose of 
administration to the Director General; and that 
the organization of the Preparatory Commission 
should conform closely to that planned for the 
lEO. A compromise was finally voted, setting 
up an Advisory Committee of seven governments 
to advise the Executive Secretary solely on the 
form of organization and the selection of senior 
personnel, the committee to convene on June 10. 

The Advisory Committee consisted of repre- 
sentatives of Belgium, Canada, China, France, the 
Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. It is to meet on the call of its Chairman, 
M. Ponsot, Representative of France. Four rep- 
resentatives shall constitute a quorum. 

Funds for the Preparatory Commission 

The Commission decided to invoke paragraph 
6 of the interim agreement, which provides that 
the expenses of the Commission may be met from 
funds voluntarily advanced by member govern- 
ments and funds transferred from other interna- 
tional organizations. Several member govern- 
ments volunteered to make advances on their con- 
tributions to the IRO. In the case of the United 
States it was believed that the bill then pending 
before Congress would be amended to authorize 
the payment to the Preparatory Commission in 
any one month of not more than one twelfth of 
the United States contribution to the IRO. Such 

July 13, 7947 



advance payments are to be deducted from the U.S. 
contributions to the IRO for the first year. 

From such funds as may become available, the 
Commission plans to operate from month to 
month, beginning July 1, on the basis of the fol- 
lowing annual IRO budget: $11,135,000 for the 
repatriation of 150,000 persons ; $8,430,000 for the 
emigration and reestablishment in permanent 
homes of 150,000 persons ; $100,650,000 for the care 
and maintenance of 879,950 persons. The total 
operating budget is thus tentatively fixed at $120,- 
215,000, approximately 75 percent of the total 
budget adopted by the General Assembly of U.N. 
when it drafted the IRO constitution. 

Emergency Staff 

The next important issue before the Prepara- 
tory Commission was the employment by the end 
of June of a staff large enough and experienced 
enough to carry on the work being done by 
UNRRA and the IGC. It was apparent that a 
number of experienced field workers were needed 
and that only UNRRA and the IGC could fill that 
need quickly. In view of the desire of the Pre- 
paratory Commission to make a new attack on 
the problem, while at the same time insuring un- 
interrupted operation, it was decided to authorize 
the Executive Secretary to employ by July 1 as 
many of the UNRRA and IGC personnel as he 
deemed necessary but to employ them subject to 
such readjustments as might later have to be made 
in building a permanent staff. He was further 
instructed to make arrangements for considering 
all applications for permanent employment on the 
basis of individual qualifications, and to be pre- 
pared to hire a permanent staff by the end of 
September. The Advisory Committee will assist 
the Executive Secretary in the selection of the 
senior members of the staff. 

Conclusion 

The Preparatory Commission has decided to as- 
sume the responsibility of caring for and, as rap- 
idly as possible, reestablishing in permanent 
homes about one million persons of many nation- 
alities and diverse cultural backgrounds. Clearly, 
it is a task that cannot be performed, even during 
the few months prior to the inception of the IRO, 
without the full support of many governments. 
In particular, the wholehearted support of the 

63 



United States is essential. If the Commission 
should fail to receive adequate funds, the burden 
it is preparing to assume will fall back upon the 
governments and authorities of the countries in 
which the refugees and displaced persons ore now 
located. This means that almost 60 percent of 
the million persons would become the charges of 
the United States and the United Kingdom, to 
be cared for by the military authorities in Ger- 
many and Austria. It is, therefore, in the in- 
terest of the United States as well as of the refu- 
gees and displaced jiersons themselves that the 
Preparatory Commission maintain continuity of 
service following the end of operations of 
UNRRA and the IGC, that every effort be made 
to speed the entry into force of the constitution 
of the IRO, and that all members of the United 
Nations who have not yet signed the constitution 
be urged to do so.^ 

The Preparatory Commission of the IRO will 
reconvene in Lausanne, Switzerland, on July 15, 
1947. 



'On July 1, 1947, the President signed S. J. Res. 77, 
(Public L. 146) , which provided for U.S. membership in the 
International Refugee Organization. 



U.S. Becomes Member of International 
Refugee Organization 

Statement by the President 

[Released to the press by the White House July 1] 
I have just signed the joint resolution authorizing 
the President to accept membership in the Inter- 
national Refugee Organization. Pursuant to this 
authorization I have also signed, on behalf of the 
United States, the necessary instrument of accept- 
ance, vs-hich will be deposited promptly with the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations by our 
Representative, the Honorable Warren R. Austin. 

This action constitutes an important step toward 
the creation of an operating specialized agency 
established by the United Nations. I am confident 
that, through the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion, we shall give tlie world new reason to believe 
that no problem is too diflBcult if the nations firmly 
resolve to cooperate in solving it. 

I am happy to accept membership in the Interna- 
tional Refugee Organization on behalf of the United 
States. 



64 



Japanese Combines — Continued from page 60 

Future Policy 

Although basic policy has been formulated and 
preliminary action taken toward the dissolution 
of the zaibatsu, further steps must still be taken. 
In order to make the proposed program completely 
effective the stock of the zaibatsu companies must 
be sold, the sources of credit expanded, the tax 
system overhauled, an efficient antitrust agency 
established, and the Japanese public opinion 
oriented toward a zaibatsu-f ree economy. 

Certain holding companies have transferred 
their stock to the Holding Company Liquidation 
Commission, which has been instructed to liquidate 
the concerns and sell their assets. Acceptable new 
owners for these shares will have to be found. 
The obvious possibilities are the employees of the 
concerns involved, independent investors, the state, 
trade unions, and cooperatives. The composition 
of the new ownership of the Japanese industry will, 
of course, be a major determinant in shaping the 
future Japanese economic system. 

But in the long run the success of the zaibatsu 
program in Japan will depend upon the effects of 
these institutional changes on Japanese attitudes 
and patterns of thought. The resurgence of ex- 
cessive concentrations of economic power in one 
form or another can be prevented only by the 
development of an informed and independent pub- 
lic opinion conscious of the dangers of such concen- 
trations of power and a government responsive to 
such public opinion — such a development must be 
our long-range objective in Japan. 

THE CONGRESS 

Draft of a Proposed Provision Pertaining to an Appro- 
priation for Administrative Expenses: Communication 
from the President of the United States transmitting draft 
of a proposed provision pertaining to an appropriation for 
the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion for administrative expenses of United States agencies 
incident to the liquidation of United States participation in 
the work of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration. H. Doc. 336, SOth Cong., 1st sess. 2 pp. 

Amending the Nationality Act of 1940 To Preserve the 
Nationality of Citizens Who Were Unable To Return to 
the United States Prior to October 14, 1946. S. Rept. 352, 
SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany S. 518. 4 pp. [Fa- 
vorable report.] 

Department of State Bulletin 



A STUDY OF CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO 
ASSURE POLITICAL DEFENSE 



I The Problem 

The essential task of the Emergency Advisory 
Committee for Political Defense at the present 
time is that of preparing and submitting to the 
American Governments specific recommendations 
with a view to eradication of the remaining centers 
of Axis influence in the Hemisphere, in compliance 
with Resolution VII of the Inter-American Con- 
ference on Problems of War and Peace held in 
Chapultej^ec, Mexico in Febi-uary and March of 
1945. 

The preamble of the aforementioned Resolution 
clearly states that the measures already recom- 
mended against Nazi-Fascist activities are based 
on the principle of adherence by the American Re- 
publics to democratic ideals and on the conviction 
of the participating governments that "the dis- 
semination of totalitarian doctrines in this Con- 
tinent would endanger the American democratic 
ideal". 

The "Political Defense of the Continent", to the 
realization of which this Committee must con- 
tribute within its functions, is therefore the de- 
fense of the "American democratic ideal" against 
"the dissemination of totalitarian doctrines" to 
use the exact words of Resolution VII of Chapul- 
tepec, which sums up and reiterates resolutions and 
declarations approved in previous inter- American 
conferences.^ All the activities, all the recom- 
mendations of this Committee should, therefore, be 
guided by this criterion and construed according to 
this context. The defeat of Nazi-Fascism on the 
battlefield has advanced the cause of democracy 
enormously, but the democratic gains, won at heavy 
cost and sacrifice may, however, be jeopardized 
unless the political defense of the Continent is 
undertaken as a permanent defense of the demo- 
cratic system as such. This interpretation is in 
harmony with the directives of the general policy 
of the American Republics and with the principles 

July 13, 1947 



on which they have agreed to establish the bases of 
international society. 

The American Republics have placed them- 
selves under the "symbol of democracy by solemn 
engagements, based on the firm conviction that the 
safeguard and application of democratic principles 
are essential to good understanding among peoples 
and the maintenance of peace in the world; and 
that, conversely, Nazi-Fascist doctrines, based on 
contempt of law and exaltation of force, cannot 
exist in any country without, from that very fact, 
a threat arising to the security of all the rest. For 
this reason the Committee believed it appropriate 
to prepare and include the present study in its 
Third Annual Report. This study, although con- 
taining no specific recommendations such as those 
covered by the terms of Resolution VII of Mexico, 
is designed to assist in analyzing the political and 
social conditions of the Continent which are at 
the root of the problem of its political defense. 



[First Section of the Third Annual Report of the Emer- 
gency Advisory Committee for Political Defense. The re- 
port was released in Montevideo on .Tan. 2, 1947. Pierre 
de L. Boal of the U.S. served as a member of the Committee 
at the time the report was vsnritten and continued to serve 
until June 30. For an article on the Emergency Advisory 
Committee for Political Defense, set up by the Third Meet- 
ing of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American 
Republics at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942, see Bulujiin 
of Jan. 7, 1945, p. 3. — Editoe.] 

' Resolution XI of the First Meeting of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of the American Republics (Panama, 1939) 
on Protection of the Inter-American Ideal against Sub- 
versive Ideologies; Resolution VI of the Second Meeting 
of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Re- 
publics (Habana, 1940), on Activities Directed from 
Abroad against Democratic Institutions ; Resolution VII 
of the the same Meeting, on Diffusion of Doctrines Tending 
to Place in. Jeopardy the Common Inter-American Demo- 
cratic ideal or to Threaten the Security and Neutrality of 
the American Republics; Resolution XVII of the Third 
Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Ameri- 
can Republics (Rio de Janeiro, 1942) on Subversive 
Activities. 

65 



The Committee deems it timely to recall that 
mere profession of the general principles of de- 
mocracy, without unceasing efforts to implement 
them in practice, will not achieve the political 
conditions which are indispensable to the full ef- 
fectiveness of even the best inspired measures of 
political defense. 

The essential point which it is desired to bring 
out is the following: where the fundamental 
characteristics of democratic life are not firmly 
established or their development is retarded, the 
capacity for resistance against the infiltration of 
totalitarian ideologies and combat tactics is also 
found to be proportionately weakened and slack- 
ened. Wlierever there exist privileged minorities 
able to exert arbitrary pressure ; wherever progress 
toward an effective participation by the people in 
the choice and conduct of government is retarded ; 
wherever force prevails over reason ; wherever 
poverty presses the bulk of the people to despair 
and revolt; wherever democratic institutions are 
tainted by deceit and venality; that is, wherever 
democracy is not a living and moving force, the 
framework of political defense loses its capacity of 
resistance against forces which are the antithesis 
of democracy. Lip service to democracy, accom- 
panied by cynical denial of democratic practices, 
leads the people to loss of faith in its very institu- 
tions. A system cannot effectively be defended 
which is in itself indefensible, any more than a 
fort can be held if its garrison is demoralized be- 
forehand and ready to surrender to the enemy. 

The Committee has concluded that it is an indis- 
pensable condition to securing the best practical re- 
sults from the measures it recommends, that in all 
the American countries there exist a genuinely 
democratic regime, free from faults and weaknesses 
which would lower their resistance to the infiltra- 
tion and development of totalitarian doctrines. 

II Contents of the Present Study 

The Committee therefore considers it timely, 
within the spirit of Resolution VII of the Con- 
ference of Mexico, summarily to enumerate and 
define characteristics of democracy indicating the 
existence of the most elementary conditions which, 
in its opinion, are indispensable before the political 
defense of any country can be effectively assured 
in face of the ever-present danger of totalitarian 
ideologies, heavy with menace to the happiness of 
men and the peace of nations. 



The Committee also believes it appropriate to 
refer to certain practices and customs observed in 
American sountries which may retard or thwart 
the growth of democracy and into which the citi- 
zens have fallen in the past, sometimes in complete 
good faith. Some of these practices and customs 
exist even today, and are certainly symptoms of 
imperfections in democratic institutions, and con- 
sequently indicate the existence of obstacles to po- 
litical defense of the Continent as well as of poten- 
tial dangers to good harmony among the American 
Republics. Others may reappear at any time, un- 
less the dangers they represent are not only borne 
in mind but vigorously combatted to prevent any 
resurgence. 

A. Characteristics of a True Democracy 

In its true sense, the ideal of a democratic society 
has nowhere, as yet, been fully achieved, but all 
free peoples must strive for its attainment. 

It is the very essence of democracy to recognize 
the right of each nation to develop its institutions 
in accordance with its own customs and traditions 
and the special genius of its own people. But re- 
gardless of how much nations may differ in the 
precise forms of their institutions, the essential 
characteristics of democracy are everywhere the 
same. Wherever some of these characteristics are 
not applied or not respected, the spirit and practice 
of democracy suffers. These essential character- 
istics are primarily those which the Inter- Ameri- 
can Juridical Committee defined and proclaimed in 
the first eighteen articles of its draft Declaration 
of the International Rights and Duties of Man, 
approved by that Committee in Rio de Janeiro on 
December 31, 1945. These principles are the fol- 
lowing : 

1. Right to life 
II. Right to personal liberty 

III. Right to freedom of speech and of ex- 
pression 

IV. Right to freedom of religious worship 
V. Right to freedom of assembly 

VI. Right to freedom of association 

VII. Right to petition the government 

VIII. Right to own property 

IX. Right to a nationality 

X. Right to freedom of family relations 

XL Right to be free from arbitrary arrest 

XII. Right to a fair trial 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



XIII. Right to participate in elections 

XIV. Eight to work 
XV. Right to share in benefits of science 

XVI. Right to social security 

XVII. Right to education 

XVIII. Right to equality before the law 

B. Specific Dangers to Political Defense 

The practical application of the foregoing prin- 
ciples, wherever it occurs, constitutes an assurance 
of the existence and progress of democracy. De- 
mocracy may be threatened, however, by the in- 
troduction into the political society or cultural 
life of any people of such practices and customs 
as, even without ostensibly violating constitu- 
tional democratic principles, tend to undermine 
and destroy faith in them, thereby opening the 
way to the establishment of totalitarian regimes. 
Certain of these harmful practices may be ob- 
served even in those countries where democracy 
has attained its greatest development. 

The impairment of democratic institutions, that 
is to say, of their fundamental principles — such 
as popular sovereignty, individual freedom, and 
equality — generally arises from one of two 
sources : either the exercise of power by an oppres- 
sive minority, or government by a majority that 
disregards the rights of minorities. Political de- 
fense becomes precarious wherever the principles 
of popular sovereignty, duly consecrated in Amer- 
ican constitutions and guaranteed by the free op- 
eration of representative institutions, is replaced 
by the arbitrary will of one man or organized 
group. 

1) Violation of the Principle of Popular Sov- 
ereignty. Even where the measure of civic re- 
sponsibility of the citizens is not yet sufficient to 
enable them to cope with the urgent and vital 
problems of their nation, it is essential to the 
development of that very responsibility that they 
be provided opportunity to participate fully and 
continuously in government. The problems of 
government, however serious, afford no justifica- 
tion for suppression of the practice of popular 
sovereignty. 

At times, also, political venality on the part of 
those who govern leads to coups d'etat which are 
a consequence of the failure of previous govern- 
ments to foster the development of the civic re- 
sponsibility of the citizens; in turn, such coups 
d'etat continue to retard such development. 

July 13, 1947 



It has happened frequently in this Continent, 
as throughout the world, that strongly organized 
minorities have succeeded in seizing the manage- 
ment of public affairs, either for their own per- 
sonal advantage or through motives which, to 
them, seemed sincerely patriotic. In either case, 
government by these groups entails more or less 
serious restrictions upon public liberty and par- 
ticularly upon the exercise of political rights by 
the people themselves. Such governments, even 
when they are characterized by the sincerity of 
their intentions and by the moderation of their 
procedures, are the negation of democracy, the 
manifestations of which they smother and the very 
concept of which they aim to eliminate. 

Sometimes a coup d'etat is brought about sud- 
denly by the direct action of a group which idol- 
izes force and desires to impose its arbitrary wiU 
upon the people. Sometimes the way to a coup 
d'etat is prepared for considerable periods of time, 
through the dissemination of doctrines which un- 
dermine the resistance of the nations either to 
attack from abroad or from within. The use of 
such tactics by the advocates of Nazi-Fascist doc- 
trines has been repeatedly observed. 

One of the greatest dangers to democracy, which 
threatens to render powerless any system of politi- 
cal defense, lies in the illegal dissolution of rep- 
resentative bodies — which constitute the most 
significant application of popular sovereignty — in 
order to give way to the executive power which 
assumes the exercise of legislative functions with- 
out the control of the organs normally charged 
with expressing the national will. 

This type of coup d'etat is almost always under- 
taken on the pretext that the legislative bodies are 
incapable of discharging their functions satisfac- 
torily, or that they do not adequately represent 
public opinion. Sometimes, a need to secure pub- 
lic peace against the danger of subversion of the 
social order is also alleged. 

All these pretexts are, in reality, mortal attacks 
directed against democracy itself. Criticism 
levelled in such a spirit at institutions emanating 
from democracy is really directed against democ- 
racy itself, since it is democracy that must be 
discredited in the eyes of the people in order to 
place them under the rule of any kind of oligarchy, 
political faction, military clique, or economic 
group. 



67 



To achieve this end, false and pernicious theories 
closely allied to chauvinistic and racist doctrines 
proclaim that the salvation of the people lies in 
the passive subordination of the individual to the 
State, through the sacrifice of the rights of the 
individual in the interest — it is alleged — of the 
community. This means the dangerous fanati- 
cism of dissolution of the individual in the group, 
of "national discipline", and "the strong state". 

Undoubtedly, the interests of the nation as a 
whole must prevail over the selfish interests of 
the individual, always provided that his human 
rights are respected. The duties of the citizen 
in representative government are, actually, an 
obligation to the community; and the State can- 
not protect the security and wellbeing of the citi- 
zens unless they, in turn, individually fulfill their 
trust. 

However, this democratic concept is far re- 
moved from the totalitarian dogma which de- 
mands the sacrifice of the rights of man on the 
altar of the State, a dogma which nourished one 
of the most nefarious ideological scourges of our 
times. In the face of this pernicious dogma, it 
must loudly be proclaimed that the State exists 
essentially to serve man and man does not exist 
to be enslaved by the State. 

Violations of the principle of popular sover- 
eignty may present themselves under nmnerous 
aspects, but as regards the nations of this Conti- 
nent they appear principally vuider the forms 
enumerated below ; by reason of their frequency 
and importance these political phenomena merit 
special attention. 

a) Governments tending to personal rule. Fre- 
quently, in American countries, a type of cult has 
been established, officially or otherwise, around 
the person at the head of the government, and a 
blind faith has arisen in his personal capacity 
rather than confidence in the wisdom of the in- 
stitutions and laws. 

Goverimients have been formed in this manner 
of an all-absorbing personalistic character sup- 
ported by fanatical devotion to one man, in whom 
public salvation is supposed to reside, — govern- 
ments in which the Executive Power is so well 
entrenched that it can violate democratic institu- 
tions with impunity. This type of government, 
even though it may seem to respect the forms of 
democracy, is in fact dictatorial or tyrannical. 

68 



Governments of democratic countries should be 
strictly impersonal. The discredit of representa- 
tive institutions and the weakening of the legal 
system open the way to the development of totali- 
tarian ideas. 

It is necessary to combat political messianism, 
faith in "the providential man", which leads to 
the stagnation of democratic institutions. 

Free nations have no Caesars. They have 
magistrates who govern only in the name of the 
law. Authority is inherent in the laws and not 
in those to whom their enforcement is entrusted. 

h ) Intervention of the armed forces in internal 
politics. Generally, liberty-stifling coups d'etat 
are brought about through the instrumentality of 
the armed forces or with their consent ; not infre- 
quently, also, the armed forces stand ready to settle 
political difficulties by arms, either by overthrow- 
ing the government or by eliminating the organs 
of the opposition. Finally, it sometimes happens 
that the armed forces appropriate public author- 
ity to themselves. This is the political phenome- 
non of "prommciamientos", unfortunately too fre- 
quent in the American Continent. 

Sometimes, however, it is in perfect good faith 
that the armed forces act in this fashion, in the 
erroneous belief that they have the right to take 
initiatives of their own in the internal political 
life of their respective countries; guardians of the 
security of their country, they imagine that they 
are also the privileged trustees of national senti- 
ment and reserve to themselves the final authority 
to make decisions in the interest of the country in 
every crisis, and to interpret national sentiment 
by weight of arms. 

In others cases, arbitrary, tyrannical govern- 
ments, illegally constituted and unable to find sup- 
port in public opinion, seek to purchase support 
from the armed forces by flattery. The dignity 
of the latter should keep them from becoming 
henchmen of such I'egimes; on the contrary, they 
should always respect the laws and tlie will of the 
sovereign people, of which they are no more than 
a part and a product. 

AVlien persons of all ranks of the armed forces 
are assimilated with their countrymen, it can be 
expected that they will act individually, as private 
citizens, in every domestic crisis in which demo- 
cratic institutions are threatened by force, but if 
such assimilation does not occur and they form 

Department of State BuUetin 



a distinct political body within the nation, the 
danger will always exist that they may become 
the instruments of civilian or military anti-demo- 
cratic minorities. 

The precise function of the armed forces is to 
guarantee the securitj' of the country in time of 
war and the free exercise of the legitimate organs 
of popular sovereignty at all times. 
I Experience has shown that one of the most 
" serious threats to democracy and liberty consists in 
the interference of the military authorities in 
political affairs. In countries where the function- 
ing of the government is dependent on the wishes 
of the armed forces, democracy does not exist, and 
there appears a grave menace ipso facto of totali- 
tarian infiltration dangerous to the security of 
neighboring countries. 
I It is of vital importance to the survival of democ- 
racy strictly to prevent any undue interference by 
the armed forces, as a class, in the conduct of pub- 
lic affairs, which is within the jurisdiction of civil 
authorities or of the representative political bodies. 

c) Pressure on the authority of the State by 
economic interests. Another form of violation 
of popular sovereignty occurs when economic or 
financial groups directly influence the powers of 
the State, seeking to exploit their own or any 
other country for purely selfish purposes, without 
consideration of the welfare or social aspirations 
of the people, or of the democratic ideal which is 
the basis of American political institutions. 

Should economic and financial oligarchies of 
great capitalists or great landholders at any time 
attempt to perpetuate in America methods of ex- 
ploitation of labor without relation to the equitable 
distribution of the fruits thereof, they would be- 
come threats to the political defense of the Con- 
tinent, not only because they would create fertile 
ground for totalitarian agitation but because, fur- 
thermore, they might often be disposed to implant 
Nazi-Fascist methods of repression in order to 
maintain the people in subjection. 

It is equally inadmissible, on the other hand, 
that professional, management, labor or other or- 
ganizations, for political ends and outside of the 
legitimate exercise of the right to strike, should 
employ illegal and coercive anti-democratic pres- 
sure methods in order to make their will prevail 
arbitrarily over that of the majority of the nation. 

d) Anti-democratic activity in political life, in 

July 13, 1947 



the name of religion, or against religious freedom. 
Religious beliefs, whicli exert a powerful influence 
upon the spirit of man, may be exploited for 
political ends incompatible with real democracy. 

If, making use of the spiritual hold of any 
religion, political pressure is resorted to for the 
purpose of impairing the rights of man, democracy 
is threatened and a way is opened to the intoler- 
ance of the totalitarian systems. 

The American Continent shelters believers of 
diverse religions and innumerable sects, as well as 
persons who profess no religion whatsoever. All 
of them should be assured the right to live ac- 
cording to their conscience and to express their 
convictions freely. The activity of a group or an 
individual, in the name of religion, or against a 
religion, to prevent the free expression of opinion 
or arbitrarily to impose their system upon a na- 
tion, threatens democratic ideals and impairs the 
political defense of the Continent. 

2) Violation of the Principle of Individval Lib- 
erty. Individual freedom and security of man, 
in his person and in his actions, are the bases of 
the social structure according to democratic con- 
cepts, and should be limited only by reason of the 
collective interest. 

It has often been asserted that the dei»<)cracies 
lack capacity for resistance against the ideological 
attack of the totalitarians, on the ground that their 
respect for individual freedom allows agents and 
propagandists of enemy doctrines to carry out 
their nefarious activities under the protection of 
the very laws they strive to destroy. 

Even were it considered that the use of liberty 
might lead to abuses which spell danger to democ- 
racy, still more dangerous on the other hand 
would be actions restricting liberty which might 
drag democracy down the incline that leads to 
totalitarianism. 

Democracy possesses all the political weapons 
necessary to fight its enemies ; it becomes more vul- 
nerable, however, when it discards the means of 
defense that are its own in order to oppose the 
totalitarians with the weapons which are theirs, 
that is to say, arbitrary and despotic measures 
based on disregard of the rights and individual 
dignity of the citizens. 

It is not with intolerance and violence that the 
dogmas of intolerance and violence should be 
fought ; on the contrary, against the "metaphysics 

69 



of slavery" must be raised the "logic and ethics of 
freedom". 

The draft Declaration of the International 
Rights and Duties of Man, of the Inter-American 
Juridical Committee, recognizes certain limita- 
tions to the exercise of individual rights, founded 
above all on the principle that this exercise is lim- 
ited by the fact that each individual must respect 
the rights of others. 

Other restrictions on the exercise of individual 
freedoms recognized in the aforementioned draft 
Declaration are those imposed by the needs of 
public order, morals, health and national or con- 
tinental security. 

It is fitting to recognize that the American 
Governments have in general shown more respect 
for individual freedom than many governments 
in other parts of the veorld. It is also appropriate, 
however, to mention certain abuses in this regard 
which render political defense of the Continent 
difficult. 

a) Abuse of extraordinary powers. The con- 
stitutions of almost all of the American Eepublics 
establish, among the attributes of the Executive, 
the power to proclaim the existence of a state of 
emergency and to decree, in consequence, the 
suspension of individual guarantees. 

This authority has often been abused, in order 
to govern in an arbitrary manner, and to impair 
with impunity the liberty and security of the 
citizens. It is undoubtedly useful that govern- 
ments may occasionally employ extraordinary 
powers; but these powers are only justified in case 
of public calamity, violent disturbances, or na- 
tional peril, and may never be employed in the 
selfish interest of those who govern, since this 
would create precisely the atmosphere of violence 
and oppression most favorable to the progress of 
totalitarian ideas. 

Doubtless the very rights of the community may 
justify isolated exceptions in case of urgent and 
unmistakeable danger. In its comments on the 
right to personal liberty the Inter-American 
Juridical Committee recognizes that the state, by 
general laws, may provide for "cases of public 
emergency in which the public safety prevails over 
the right of the individual" ; but were these excep- 
tions to become the rule, freedom would cease to 
exist. 

b) Violations of individual freedom, not based 
on extraordinary measures. In the American 



countries in general it can be observed that while 
the judiciary is imbued to a high degree with a 
sense of responsibility and respect for the laws, 
and is as a whole notably independent of political 
interference, the same cannot always be said of 
other officials entrusted with the maintenance of 
public order. 

Occasionally, for this reason, the citizen has been 
exposed to arbitrary acts and even to considerable 
violence committed against his person or his prop- 
erty. Arbitrary imprisonment and mistreatment 
of detained persons constitute an exceedingly seri- 
ous violation of one of the fundamental principles 
of the democratic system, that of personal security. 
This would be even more harmful if it were toler- 
ated through the indifference of those who govern. 

The rights set forth in the draft Declaration of 
the International Rights and Duties of Man by the 
Inter-American Juridical Committee include se- 
curity from arrest "except upon warrant duly is- 
sued in accordance with the law, unless the person I 
is arrested "flagranie delicto''' and also include "the 
right to a prompt trial and to proper treatment 
during the time he is in custody". 

3) Violation of the Principle of Equality, a) 
Racial or religious discrimination. The ethnic 
and religious diversity of the American Continent 
is one of its more widespread and valuable charac- 
teristics. The maintenance of the rights of each 
ethnic or religious group is basic to the defense of 
democracy against the regimenting tactics of 
totalitarianism. 

The presence of persons of different racial and 
ethnic origins is evident in all the American coun- 
tries. Unfortunately there may also be observed 
evidences of racial antagonism and even hatred, 
and it frequently happens that persons belonging 
to a given race arrogate to themselves an unjusti- 
fiable superiority over those of different ethnic 
origins, who are subjected to discriminatory meas- 
ures which are alwaj'S humiliating and sometimes 
inhuman. These evidences — which in extreme 
cases may become so thoroughly barbarous as faith- 
fully to reflect Nazi mentality and its racial the- 
ories — are the very negation of democracy. 

Those who are the object of such discrimination 
are in danger of losing their faith in democracy, 
and of becoming fertile ground for the propagation 
of contrary doctrines. 

5) Economic inequality. Countries where polit- 
ical emancipation is not accompanied by an im- 



70 



Department of State Bulletin 



provement in the material welfare of the people 
are naturally exposed to the triumph of totali- 
tarian propaganda. Peoples would have no interest 
in defending purely fictitious regimes of equality 
which gave them nothing more than misery to- 
gether with daily hard labor, and in their despera- 
tion would let themselves be carried away by 
whatever propaganda offered them hope of a better 
material lot. 

Where economic democracy does not exist, polit- 
ical democracy is illusory and cannot be lasting. 
It is essential, therefore, to watch over the appli- 
cation of the principles solemnly consecrated in the 
various inter-American conferences, assuring to 
all men an equitable share in the enjoyment of the 
riches of the earth and of the fruits of their labor. 

4) Regimentation of Individtcals and Public 
Opinion, and Exaltation of Nationalism, a) Reg- 
imentation of individuals and public opinion. 
Among tlie practices that weaken democracy, and 
therefore lessen its capacity for resistance against 
the Nazi-Fascist tactics of ideological infiltration, 
are methods borrowed from the totalitarian states 
which tend to the regimentation of individuals and 
public opinion by means of official imposition of 
political or other doctrines, or the systematic sup- 
pression of opinions opposed to these doctrines or 
to government policy. 

There have been created in some countries, as 
integral parts of the structure of government, and 
maintained at public expense, organs of official 
propaganda especially designed to praise the gov- 
ernment and by artificial and demagogic means to 
achieve for it, with devious and anti-democratic 
purposes, an atmosphere of popularity ; thus it is 
sought to establish a state of mind of fanatical 
partisanship for those in power, quite distinct 
from the reasoned support, by a majority, of its 
freely chosen democratic government. To this 
purpose methods have been employed greatly dif- 
fering from a government's constructive efforts to 
develop the civic responsibility of citizens and of 
democratic institutions through the teaching and 
practice of democracy. 

These procedures are dangerous in that they 
virtually suppress free criticism of governmental 
acts — which is inherent in the democratic tradi- 
tion — and reduce public opinion to such a state 
of passivity and submission that it is ready to al- 
low itself to be contaminated and dominated by 
totalitarian doctrines without resistance. They 

July 13, J 947 



are the more dangerous when carried out through 
political organizations of a military character sim- 
ilar to the Nazi or Fascist storm-troops. 

b) Exaltation of nationalism. However, the 
greatest danger of regimentation of public opin- 
ion — especially when exercised directly or indi- 
rectly by the government — lies in the attainment 
of such regimentation by means of exaggerated 
exaltation of nationalist sentiment. Thus is 
achieved, in accordance with totalitarian tactics, 
submergence of the personality of the citizens and 
complete renunciation of their individual rights 
as a sacrifice to the fanatic concept of force. 

This type of nationalism is so characteristic 
of the totalitarian ideologies that the very word 
"nationalism" has now taken on an equivocal 
meaning and automatically evokes the idea of 
Nazi-Fascism. Ln its essence it contains an idea 
of comparison unfavorable to other nations, and, 
as a result, a germ of unhealthy rivalries which 
inevitably degenerate into feelings of hostility. 

Men can and should love their native country 
above all others; but aggressive nationalism and 
hatred of foreigners are the very beginnings of 
Nazi-Fascism. This all-absorbing nationalism 
is the myth with which people are deceived and 
transported toward dictatorship and totalitarian 
slavery. It strongly arouses a feeling of animos- 
ity toward other peoples, which sooner or later 
demands war as its supreme tribute. 

The soil of America is unfortunately furrowed 
with traces of ancient wai"S and of more recent 
conflicts. Violent national and regional preju- 
dices are likely to revive old hates which the Pan 
American ideal aims to abolish forever. The 
ultra-nationalist spirit, essentially proud and ag- 
gressive, resorts to praise of military glories and 
bellicose memories, with which it seeks to turn 
the thoughts of the people away from their aspira- 
tions to liberty and peace. 

Any ideology, any doctrine, any political pro- 
gram which proclaims a suspicious and hate- 
inspiring nationalism, sows seeds of disunion and 
enmity and is an obstacle to political defense; it 
directly jeopardizes the security of the Americas 
and must be regarded as an immediate and mortal 
danger to continental harmony. 

C. Economic Cooperation 

The loyal and sincere Pan-American policy of 
unity, carried out without high-handedness on 

71 



the part of strong nations which might wound 
the dignity of the other countries, has been until 
now the best bulwark not only against military 
invasion of our Continent in the recent war, but 
also against propagation of Nazi-Fascist ideas 
which might have weakened our defense. For 
continuance in peaceful neighborliness of the com- 
mon ideal which united us during peril, it is 
necessary that all the American peoples be firmly 
convinced that they can discern the coming of a 
beneficial change, not only in the life of individ- 
uals but also in that of groups as political entities. 
To cherish the Pan-American system of interde- 
pendence of nations and defend the common dem- 
ocratic ideals which give life to such a continental 
system, not only as individuals must men look 
forward to safer and happier fear-free lives, but 
also they must see that the fulfillment of these 
hopes will be guaranteed by a fruitful economic 
cooperation between the American countries. It 
is indispensable that present collaboration between 
the American nations become constantly more 
practical and be translated into an even greater 
effort than in the past on the part of technically 
developed countries to help others achieve their 
own economic rise. 

It must be recogni2ed that uimecessary barriers 
to commercial and economic interchange, as well 
as to interchange of ideas and persons, impede 
broader understanding and more generous help 
between peoples. 

Should there exist in this Hemisphere any inter- 
est which for selfish reasons attempted to hinder 
the technical development and economic progress 
of some countries, this very attempt would retard 
better understanding between the American na- 
tions. 

It should also be noted that interests exist which 
up to the present have remained in the hands of 
persons who used them to collaborate with the 
Axis in the struggle against the democracies : the 
influence of such persons on the economic power 
such interests represent must be eliminated as a 
potential danger to the unity, security and tran- 
quillity of the Continent. 

The economic democracy referred to in para- 
graph 3, letter h, of the preceding section, must 
obtain not only for the life of individuals within 
their own countries but also for relations between 
the American countries. 



72 



The Committee for Political Defense believes 
that the principles dealt with in the first part of 
this study constitute the very substance of the 
political system it is called upon to defend; it 
believes that such defense is weakened in the meas- 
ure that these principles are affected by the harm- 
ful circumstances indicated in the second part of 
this same study. 

This Committee considers that the way of life 
chosen by the Western Hemisphere will subsist or 
disappear according to the success or failure of the 
American Governments in obtaining the sincere, 
warm, and responsible support of all the peoples 
of this Continent for the democratic ideal. 

If we wish to defeat for all time the totalitarian 
creed of violence, oppression, and hate which so 
lately plunged half the world into darkness, and 
still constitutes a potential threat to humanity, we 
must make of democracy in our countries some- 
thing more than a word ; we must make it a living 
reality, a way of life and of thought based on 
tolerance, justice, and freedom, effectively applied 
in practice. Otherwise, all organizations of 
political defense will be fighting a battle fore- 
doomed to failure against an enemy who can with 
impunity operate within the lines and under the 
very banner of democracy. 

It is the opinion of this Committee that there 
are no two ways in which permanently to assure 
an adequate political defense of the Continent; 
this objective can only be reached by giving the 
millions of men and women of America cause to 
feel, with no room for doubt, that democracy 
constitutes so great a heritage that it is worth 
living for, and dying for if necessary. 

It is, therefore, indispensable that in every part 
of this Hemisphere the fundamental principles of 
democracy be firmly established and protected 
against every menace. Everywhere and always 
it must be clearly understood that sovereign power 
resides only in the people, and that governments 
are only the people's servants and never their mas- 
ters; that men must live free of the fear of any 
arbitrary threat to their lives, property, physical 
security, and personal dignity; that no one must 
be forcibly restrained in his expressions, acts, or 
movements, except to assure to others a similar 
freedom; that all men are entitled to decent, fit- 
ting, and wholesome conditions of life and to 
economic security based on a fair participation in 
the common wealth; that all men are equal, what- 

Department of State Bulletin 



ever their race, religion, or social circumstance, 
and to all must be given equal opportunity for the 
peaceful pursuit of their legitimate aspirations 
and welfai'e; and, finally, that the dangerous fe- 
tishism of national pride and susceptibility must 
forever give place to a broader and nobler concept 
of all nations and of all men, that they may live 
one with another in a -well-organized international 
society in peace, security and dignity. 

It is fervently to be hoped that the American 
Governments will give their resolute attention to 
this far-reaching problem, and that they will de- 
vote their greatest eflForts to assuring within their 
respective jurisdictions real democracy, which is 
the only effective safeguard against invasion by 
totalitarian doctrines. To this end not only is ' 
strict observance by all the American states of the 
fundamental rights of man essential, but also it 
seems most highly advisable, within the spirit of 
the suggestion contained in the report annexed 
to the draft Declaration of the International 
Eights and Duties of Man, that a consultative 
Inter- American Committee be formed whose pur- 
pose it should be, with all the respect due to the 



principle of national sovereignty, to report on the 
progress of democracy in the Continent and to of- 
fer constructive suggestions for the promotion of 
such progress and the removal of all obstacles 
which may stand in its way. 

Tlae Emergency Advisory Committee for Polit- 
ical Defense deems it appropriate that all meas- 
ures necessary to forestall the dangers which may 
threaten the American democratic ideal be taken, 
so that the breaches through which Nazi-Fascist 
doctrines might infiltrate may be closed. The 
Committee states its belief that the political de- 
fense of the Continent against these doctrines, and 
the dangers they represent for the peace of the 
peoples, has, as a necessary prerequisite, the free 
play of democratic institutions which are whole- 
some and strong and constantly renewed through 
the deep, sincere, and real faith of the citizens. 
Only thus will it be possible to ring this Continent 
from the Arctic ices to the Straits of Magellan 
with an impregnable breastwork against invasion 
by doctrines of violence and slavery, so that within 
it the genius of Liberty may eternally watch over 
the soil of America. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliograpliy 



There will be listed periodically in the Bulletin a selec- 
tion of United Nations documents which may be of interest 
to readers. 

Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York City. Other ma- 
terials (mimeographed or processed documents) may be 
consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

Economic and Social Council 

Transfer to the United Nations of the Functions and 
Powers Exercised by the League of Nations Under the 
Conventions on the TraflSc in Women and Children 
and in Obscene Publications. Note by the Secretary- 
General. E/444, June 12, 1947. 51 pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Employment Commission. Report. Second 
Session— 2 June to 17 June 1947. E/445, June 18, 1947. 
33 pp. mimeo. 

Committee on Negotiations With Specialized Agencies. 
Draft Agreement With the International Telecom- 
munications Union. Note by the Secretary-General. 
E/C.1/12, June 10, 1947. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Agreement With International Telecommunica- 



tion Union Proposed by the Delegation of the United 
Kingdom. E/C.1/13, June 10, 1947. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Employment Commission. Views on Eco- 
nomic Development Put Forward by the International 
Labour Organization. E/CN.1/44, June 12, 1947. 15 
pp. muneo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Drafting Committee. In- 
ternational Bill of Rights. Documented Outline. Part 
I— Texts. E/CN.4/AC.l/3/Add.l, June 2, 1947. 408 
pp. mimeo. 

Plan of the Draft Outline of an International Bill of 

Rights. (Prepared by the Secretariat.) E/CN.4/ 
AC.l/3/Add.2, June 9, 1947. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Documented Outline Texts. United Kingdom Draft 

International Bill of Bights. Textual Comparison 
. . . E/CN.4/ AC.l/3/Add.3, June 10, 1947. 15 pp. 
mimeo. 

• General Observations Made by Various Members of 

the (Commission on Human Rights Concerning the 
Form and Content of the International Bill of Bights. 
E/CN.4/ AC.1/7, June 9, 1947. 6 pp. mimeo. 

United States Revised Suggestions for Redrafts of 

Certain Articles in the Draft Outline (E/CN.4/AC.1/ 
3). B/CN.4/AC.l/8/Rev.l, June 19, 1947. 4 pp. 
mimeo. 



July 13, 1947 



73 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

Approval Recommended for Trusteeship Agreement for 
Territory of the Pacific Islands 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESS 



[Released to the press by the White House July 3] 

To the Conffress of the United States : 

I wish to recommend to the Congress action en- 
abling this Government to approve the Trusteeship 
Agreement for the Territory of the Pacific Islands 
which was approved unanimously by the Security 
Council of the United Nations on April 2, 1947. 
There is attached a letter from the Secretary of 
State enclosing a copy of the Trusteeship Agree- 
ment and a memorandum with reference to its 
negotiation in the Security Council.^ 

The Trusteeship Agreement was proposed by the 
United States to the Security Council and ap- 
proved by the Council with certain changes which 
were acceptable to the United States Government. 
Its terms are in conformity with the policy of this 
Government and with its obligations under the 
Charter of the United Nations. The terms of the 
Agreement make ample provision for the political, 
economic, social, and educational development of 
the inhabitants of the Trust Territory, and at the 
same time fully protect the security interests of the 
United States. 

The United States has taken an active role from 
the beginning in the establishment of the trustee- 



ship system of the United Nations. I believe, 
therefore, that it would be only fitting, as well as 
in the interest of the inhabitants of the islands, that 
the Trusteeship Agreement should be brought into 
force as soon as possible. 

I have given special consideration to whether the 
attached Trusteeship Agreement should be sub- 
mitted to the Congress for action by a joint resolu- 
tion or by the treaty process. I am satisfied that 
either method is constitutionally permissible and 
that the agreement resulting will be of the same 
effect internationally and under the supremacy 
clause of the Constitution whether advised and 
consented to by the Senate or whether approval 
is authorized by a joint resolution. The interest 
of both Houses of Congress in the execution of 
this Agreement is such, however, that I think it 
would be appropriate for the Congress, in this 
instance, to take action by a joint resolution in 
authorizing this Government to bring the Agree- 
ment into effect. 

I hope that the Congress may give early con- 
sideration to this matter. 

Habkt S. Tkuman 

The White House 
July 3, 19Jf7 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House July 3] 

I have today requested the Congress to enact 
legislation authorizing me to approve on behalf 
of the United States, the Trusteeship Agreement 
between the Security Council of the United Na- 
tions and the United States of America. The 
Agreement provides that the Marianas, Caroline, 
and Marshall Islands, formerly mandated to Ja- 
pan, shall be placed under the international trus- 
teeship system of the United Nations and admin- 
istered by the United States. It was approved 
by the Security Council on April 2, 1947. 

' Not printed. 
74 



On this occasion I should like to reaffirm what 
I have said on other occasions, that the policy 
of the United States is to support the United Na- 
tions with all its resources as a permanent part- 
nership ; this policy has the support of the over- 
whelming majority of the American people. I 
should like also to say again that America has 
long been a symbol of freedom and democratic 
progress to peoples less favored than we have been 
and that we must continue to justify their con- 
fidence in us by our policies and our acts. 

This occasion serves to emphasize the steadfast 

Department of State Bulletin 



adherence of the United States to these principles. 
On presenting formally to the Security Council 
on February 26, 1947, the terms upon which we 
would be prepared to place the former Japanese 
Mandated Islands under international trusteeship, 
the United States Representative stated: 

"It is the profound belief of the Government 
of the United States and of the American people 
that the administration of these islands by the 
United States in accordance with the terms of 
this . . . agreement ' would contribute both to the 
maintenance of international peace and security 



THB UNITED NATIONS 

and to the well-being and advancement of the in- 
habitants of the islands." 

At the same time, the favorable action which the 
Security Council has accorded the United States 
proposals serves to demonstrate the faith of the 
United Nations in our pledge to administer the 
territory in accordance with the terms of the 
agreement and the provisions of the Charter. 

I firmly believe that the United States, by car- 
rying out fully the terms of the agreement, will 
fulfill the obligations entrusted to it by the United 
Nations. 



U.S. Transmits Information on Conditions in Non-Self-Governing Territories 



[Released to the press July 1] 

On June 30 the Secretary of State transmitted 
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
specially prepared reports containing information 
on economic, social, and educational condi- 
tions in the following non-self-governing terri- 
tories administered by the United States : the Ter- 
ritory of Alaska, Ajnerican Samoa, Guam, the 
Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin 
Islands of the United States. These reports are 
transmitted for information purposes pursuant to 
article TZ{e) of the Charter of the United Na- 
tions, which reads in part as follows: 

Members of the United Nations which have or assume 
responsibilities for the administration of territories 
whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of 
self-government . . . accept . . . the obligation . . . 

e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for in- 
formation purposes, subject to such limitation as security 
and constitutional considerations may require, statistical 
and other information of a technical nature relating to 
economic, social, and educational conditions in the ter- 
ritories for which they are respectively responsible other 
than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII 
apply. 

In view of the fact that the General Assembly 
during the second part of the first session agreed 
not to attempt, for the time being, the task of es- 
tablishing criteria for determining the territories 
which are non-self-governing territories within 
the meaning of article 73(e) of the Charter, the 
United States, as it did last year, is transmitting 
information without prejudice as to the territories 

July 13, 1947 



on which information will in future be sent. It 
has not been thought practicable or necessary to 
transmit information on certain minor island pos- 
sessions which are iminhabited or sparsely popu- 
lated. 

The action by the United States in transmitting 
this information at this time conforms with the 
resolution on transmission of information under 
article 73(e) of the Charter, which was adopted 
by the General Assembly at its last session. This 
resolution, in part, "invites the Members trans- 
mitting information to send to the Secretary- 
General by 30 June of each year the most recent 
information which is at their disposal." 

The information transmitted by the United 
States was prepared by the Departments of the 
Govermnent responsible for the administration 
of the respective territories and possessions: the 
Department of the Interior prepared the reports 
relating to the Territory of Alaska, the Territory 
of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 
and the Navy Department prepared those relating 
to American Samoa and Guam. 

It is the hope of the United States Government 
that this information, which will be made avail- 
able to the public, will help to keep persons 
throughout the world currently informed of the 
progress being made in achieving the objectives set 
forth in the declaration regarding non-self-gov- 
erning territories which comprises chapter XI of 
the Charter of the United Nations. 



^ BuiiETiN of Mar. 9, 1947, p. 419. 



75 



Summary Statement by the Secretary-General 



MATTERS OF WHICH THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS SEIZED 
AND THE STAGE REACHED IN THEIR CONSIDERATION 



Pursuant to Eule 11 of the Provisional Rules of 
Procedure of the Security Council, I submit the 
following Summary Statement of matters of 
which the Security Council is seized and of the 
stage reached in their consideration on 27 June 
1947: 

1. The Iranian Question (see document S/31fi) 
[See Bulletin of May 19, 1946, p. 849 ; Sept. 22, 

1946, p. 528; and Dec. 29, 1946, p. 1172.] 

2. Special Agreements under Article JfS of the 

Charter and the Organization of the United 
Nations Armed Force 
[See Bulletin of May 19, 1946, p. 850, and Mar. 
2, 1947, p. 385.] 

By letter dated 30 April 1947 addressed to the 
Secretary-General (document S/336) , the Military 
Staff Committee forwarded its report on "General 
Principles governing the organization of the 
Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations of the United 
Nations." 

By letter dated 30 April (document S/338), the 
Deputy United States Representative on the 
Security Council requested that the Secretary- 
General place this item on the provisional agenda 
of the next meeting of the Security Council. 

This item was placed on the agenda at the one 
hundred and thirty-eighth meeting on 3 June. 
The general discussion on the report of the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee continued at the one hundred 
and thirty-ninth, fortieth and forty-first meetings 
on 5, 10 and 16 June 1946. At the one hundred 
and forty-first meeting the Security Council com- 
pleted its general discussion and decided to use 
the report of the Military Staff Committee as a 
working paper, studying it article by article.' 

Tlie discussion on the separate articles of the 
Report was taken up at the one hundred and forty- 



' U.N. doe. S/382, June 20, 1947. 
" U.N. doc. S/392, June 27, 1947. 



second meeting on 18 June and continued at the 
one hundred and forty-third, fifth and sixth meet- 
ings on 24 and 25 June. The Council adopted 
various ai'ticles of the Report including several 
amendments submitted by the Representatives of 
Australia and Belgium. 

On 19 June, the President addressed two letters 
to the Cliairman of the Military Staff Committee 
requesting answers to questions raised at the 
one hundred and forty-second meeting and re- 
ceived replies on 19 and 20 June. (Document 
S/380.) At the one hundred and forty -fifth 
meeting, the Council decided to consult the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee on the interpretation of 
Article 18. At the one hundred and forty-sixth 
meeting, the Council requested the Military Staff 
Committee to prepare and submit to the Council 
with all possible dispatch, and on the basis of 
Articles 5 and 6 of its Report (S/336) , an estimate 
of the overall strength of the Armed Forces to be 
made available to the Security Council, indicating 
the strength and composition of the separate com- 
ponents, land, sea and air, and indicating the pro- 
portion that should be provided by the Five Per- 
manent Members of the Security Council.^ 

3. Rules of Procedure of the Security Cowncil {see 

document S/340) 
[See Bulletin of Sept. 22, 1946, p. 530.] 

4. Statute and Rules of Procedure of the Military 

Staff Committee 
At the twenty-third meeting it was agreed to 
postpone consideration of the Report of the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee concerning its Statute and 
Rules of Procedure (document S/10) . The Com- 
mittee of Experts was instructed to examine the 
Report. It was agreed that pending the approval 
of the Council of the Report of the Military Staff 
Committee, the Military Staff Committee was au- 
thorized to carry out its business along the lines 
suggested in its Report. 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



At the twenty-fifth meeting consideration of 
the Report was further postponed pending exami- 
nation by the Committee of Experts. The Com- 
mittee has been examining the Report.^ 

5. Rules Concerning the Admission of New 

Members 
[See Buu^ETiN of Dec. 29, 1946, p. 1172.] 

Tine General Assembly and Security Council 
Committees held their first conference on 28 May 
1947 and commenced their work.^ 

6. Applications for Membership ^V^, the United 

Nations (see documents SfSJ^O and S/358) 

[See Bulletin of Dec. 29, 1946, p. 1173.] 

By letter dated 22 April 1947 (document S/333) 
the Minister for Hungary to the United States 
on behalf of the Republic of Hungary applied for 
membership in the United Nations. At its one 
hundred and thirty-second meeting the Security 
Council resolved that the application of Hungary 
for admission into membership in the United Na- 
tions should be referred to the Membership Com- 
mittee for study and report to the Security Coun- 
cil at the appropriate time.° 

By letter dated 7 May (document S/355) the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Italy submitted 
the application of Italy for admission to Mem- 
bership in the United Nations. At its one hun- 
dred and thirty-seventh meeting on 22 May, the 
Council referred this application to the Commit- 
tee on the Admission of New Members for study 
and report.® 

7. The Greek Question {see docwments S/31fi and 

S/358) 

[See Bulletin of Dec. 29, 1946, p. 1173; Mar. 
2, 1947, p. 385; and May 4, 1947, p. 799.] 

By cablegram dated 30 April 1947 (document 
S/337) the Chairman of the Commission of in- 
vestigation concerning Greek Frontier Incidents 
transmitted directions for the subsidiary group 
adopted at the seventy-ninth Meeting of the 
Commission.' 

By cablegram dated 5 May 1947 (document 
S/343) the Chairman of the Commission of In- 
vestigation concerning Greek Frontier Incidents 
informed the President of the Security Council 

Jo/y 73, 1947 

753718 — 47 1 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

that the Commission had decided to refer to the 
Security Council the question arising from the 
refusal of Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia to 
appoint liaison representatives to the Subsidiary 
Group. 

By cablegram dated 6 May 1947 (document 
S/348/Corr. 1) the Chairman of the Commission 
of Investigation concerning Greek Frontier Inci- 
dents requested the opinion of the Security Coun- 
cil concerning the appearance of the Commission 
in New York for presenting its report. 

By letter dated 7 May 1947 (document S/347) 
the Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics requested the Secretary-General to place 
the Greek Question on the provisional agenda for 
the next meeting of the Security Council. 

Discussion of the above communications took 
place at the one hundred and thirty-third meeting 
on 11 May, the Representatives of Albania, Bul- 
garia and Greece and Yugoslavia participating. 
The Council decided to answer in the affirmative 
the Commission's question concerning its appear- 
ance in New York, with the understanding that 
only the chief representatives or their substitutes 
were necessary. The Representative of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics submitted a draft 
resolution concerning the terms of reference of 
the Subsidiary Group (S/PV/133, page 48). 

The discussion continued at the one hundred 
thirty-fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh meetings 
on 16, 20 and 22 May. Draft resolutions were 
submitted by the Representatives of Australia 
(S/PV/135,page81) and Syria (S/PV/137, page 
21). The U.S.S.R. draft resolution was rejected, 
and the Australian and Syrian draft resolutions 
withdrawn. After discussing several proposals 
for postponement, the Council resolved : "that fur- 
ther discussion of the Greek Question be postponed 
until such time as the Report of the Commission 
is submitted to the Security Council."^ 

Discussion of the Report of the Commission of 
Investigation concerning Greek Frontier Inci- 
dents (document S/360) was commenced at the 
one hundred and forty-seventh and eighth meet- 



■ U.N. doc. S/340, May 2, 1947. 
' U.N. doc. S/364, May 30, 1947. 
" U.N. doc. S/340, May 2, 1947. 
' U.N. doc. S/358, May 23, 1947. 
' U.N. doc. S/340, May 2, 1947. 
' U.N. doc. S/358, May 23, 1947. 



77 



THB UNITED NATIONS 

ings on 27 June 1947. A draft resolution was sub- 
mitted by the Representative of the United States 
(document S/391). Tlie discussion was ad- 
journed until 1 July.' 

8. The General Regulation and Reduction of Arm- 
aments and Infoi'mation on Armed Forces 
of the United Nations {See also docwment 

smo) 

[See BUU.ETIN of Feb. 2, 1947, p. 196 ; Mar. 2, 
1947, p. 386; and Apr. 13, 1947, p. 657.] 

By letter dated 12 May 1947 (document S/ 
352), the Chairman of the Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments brought to the attention of 
the Council a letter from the Chairman of the 
Commission's Sub-Committee which had been 
charged with submitting a plan of work. This 
letter stated that owing to a series of unexpected 



circumstances, the Sub-Committee was not in a 
position to submit any definite proposals to the 
Commission.^" 

9. Appointment of a Governor of the Free Ter- 
ritory of Trieste 

By letter dated 13 June 1944, addressed to the 
Secretary-General, the Representative of the 
United Kingdom requested that an early date be 
fixed for the discussion by the Security Council 
of the question of the appointment of a Governor 
of the Free Territory of Trieste. The cjuestion 
was placed on the provisional agenda at the one 
hundred and forty-third meeting of the Security 
Council, and discussed at the one hundred and 
forty-fourth meeting on 20 June 1947. In a closed 
session the members of the Council exchanged 
views and decided to meet again on this matter in 
a few days." 



Control and Administration of Headquarters of the United Nations 

THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



[Released to the press by the White House July 2] 

To the Congress of the United States: 

I transmit herewith for the consideration of the 
Congress an agreement between the United States 
and the United Nations concerning the control and 
administi-ation of the Headquarters of the United 
Nations in the City of New York.^= I also enclose 
a letter from the Secretary of State regarding this 
Agreement." 

As you will recall, on December 10 and 11, 1945 
the Congress by concurrent resolution unani- 
mously invited the United Nations to locate its 
permanent headquarters in the United States. 
After long and careful study, the General As- 
sembly of the United Nations decided during its 
session last winter to make its permanent home in 
New York City. 

The United States has been signally honored in 
the location of the headquartere of the United 



' U.N. doc. S/392, June 27, 1947. 
'" U.N. doc. S/354, May 16, 1947. 
" U.N. doc. S/3S2, June 20, 1947. 

"^For text of agreement, see Bxjlletin of July 6, 1947, 
p. 27. 
'' Not printed. 



Nations within our country. Naturally the 
United States wishes to make all appropriate ar- 
rangements so that the Organization can fully and 
effectively perform the functions for which it was 
created and upon the successful accomplishment 
of which so much depends. 

This Agreement is the product of months of 
negotiations between representatives of this Gov- 
ernment and the United Nations. Representa- 
tives of the City and State of New York partici- 
pated in these negotiations. The Agreement 
carefully balances the interests of the United 
States as a Member of the United Nations and the 
interests of the United Nations as an international 
organization. 

I urge the Congress ot give early consideration 
to the enclosed Agreement and to authorize this 
Government by joint resolution, to give effect to 
its provisions. 

When the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions meets in New York City this fall it would be 
most appropriate if this Government were ready 
for its part to bring the Agreement into effect. 

Hakkt S. Trxjman 

The WnrrE House 
July 2, m7 



78 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



U.S. Delegation to Special Cereals 
Conference of FAO 

The Department of State announced on July 3 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the Special Cereals Conference which has been 
called by the Food and Agriculture Organization 
(FAO) of the United Nations. The conference 
is scheduled to convene at Paris on July 9, 1947, 
and is expected to last three or four days. The 
Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Clinton P. Anderson, Secretary of Agriculture 

Advisers 

Stanley Andrews, Director, International Food Supply 
Programs, Production and Marketing Administra- 
tion, Department of Agriculture 
y Jesse B. Gilmer, Administrator, Production and Marketing 
f! Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Col. R. L. Harrison, Special Assistant to the Secretary, 

Department of Agriculture 
Donald D. Kennedy, Chief, Division of International Re- 
sources, Department of State 
Nathan Koenig, Executive Assistant to the Secretary, De- 
I partment of Agriculture 

' Ralph S. Trigg, Deputy Administrator, Production and 
Marketing Administration, Department of Agricul- 
j ture 

Secretary 

Ben Thibodeaux, Agricultural Attach^, American Em- 
bassy, Paris 

The purpose of the Special Cereals Conference 
is to discuss the grain shortage and to formulate 
recommendations to insure maximum collections 
and orderly distribution of grain supplies. The 
provisional topics for discussion, subject to change 
by the steering committee and the conference 
itself, include: (a) preliminary estimate of the 
world cereal position and the outlook for 1947-48 ; 
(5) export availabilities ; (c) collections and pro- 
curement organization, techniques, and regula- 
tions; (d) rationing and distribution techniques 
and administration; (e) farm retention practices 
and policies for food, feed, and seed, et cetera; 
(/) the use of grain for livestock feeding; (g) 
price relationship between grains and grain and 
animal products; (A) stock management, conser- 
vation, and control; (i) milling practices and 
. problems (extraction rates, dilution, milling of 

July 13, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

corn and other substitute grains) ; (j) industrial 
uses of grain; and (k) public information, 
methods, and teclmique. 

Agenda for Third FAO Conference 

[Released to the press by FAO June 4] 

The Executive Committee of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
met in Washington from June 2 to 5 to frame the 
agenda of the annual FAO Conference to be 
convened at Geneva August 26. 

Prominent on the Conference agenda will be 
the report of the FAO Preparatory Commission 
on World Food Proposals. 

One of the recommendations of the Commission 
will be incorporated in the Conference agenda 
when, at this session, it will hold the first annual 
review of the world situation and outlook for food, 
agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, including na- 
tional nutrition and food production programs. 

The Conference will consider the Commission's 
proposal to create a world food council to serve 
as a connecting link between policy discussions 
at the annual program reviews at each regular 
session of the FAO Conference. 

A constitutional amendment submitted by the 
United States proposing the establishment of a 
council of FAO, or world food council, composed 
of representatives of 18 member nations will be 
before the Conference for action. Other proposed 
amendments would change the structure of the 
Executive Committee, having its membei-s here- 
after represent governments, whereas the mem- 
bers heretofore have been elected by the Confer- 
ence on the basis of their personal qualifications. 

Tlie Executive Committee has recommended 
that the FAO Conference itself shall serve as the 
world food coimcil. 

Selection of the permanent site of FAO head- 
quarters is also to be considered by the Conference. 

Three governments — Austria, Finland, and 
Siam — have applied for membership ; their appli- 
cations will be on the Conference agenda for 
action. 

Other agenda items will be technical problems 
connected with the work of FAO in science, sta- 
tistics, and economics, and administrative and 
budgetary matters. 

79 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Toward Common Goals of Peace 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT' 



Governor Tuck, Mr. Houston, Distinguished 
Guests, Fellow Countrymen : It is fitting that we 
should come to Monticello to celebrate the anniver- 
sary of oiu- independence. Here lived Thomas Jef- 
ferson, author of the Declaration of Independence. 
Here Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 18'26, 50 
years from the day the Declaration was adopted by 
the Continental Congress and proclaimed to the 
world. 

Tlie Declaration of Independence was an expres- 
sion of democratic philosophy that sustained 
American patriots during tlie Revolution and has 
ever since inspired men to fight to the death for 
their "unalienable rights". 

The standard plirase used by writers of Jeffer- 
son's day to describe man's essential rights was 
"life, liberty and property". But to Jefferson, hu- 
man rights were more important than property 
rights, and the phrase, as he wrote it in the Decla- 
ration of Independence, became "Life, Liberty and 
the pursuit of Happiness". 

Tlie laws and the traditions of the colonies in 
1776 were designed to support a monarchial system 
rather than a democratic society. To Thomas Jef- 
ferson the American Revolution was far more than 
a struggle for independence. It was a struggle for 
democracy. 

Within a few weeks after independence had been 
proclaimed at Philadelpliia, Jefferson resigned his 
seat in the Continental Congress and returned to 
his place in the Virginia legislature. Tliere he be- 
gan his monumental work of laying the founda- 
tion of an independent democracy. 

Within a few j'ears the Virginia legislature, un- 
der Jefferson's leadership, instituted full religious 
freedom, abolished the laws wliich had permitted 
great estates to pass undivided from generation to 
generation, prohibited the importation of slaves, 

' Delivered at Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, 
ill Charlottesville, Va.. on July 4, 1!)47, and released to the 
press by the White House on the same date. 

80 



revised the civil and criminal code of laws, and 
established a general system of public education. 
These acts, according to Jefferson, eradicated every 
fiber of ancient and future aristocracy. These acts 
formed the basis for a truly democratic govern- 
ment. 

Jefferson knew that it was necessary to provide 
in law the requisites for the survival of an inde- 
pendent democracy. He knew that it was not 
enough merely to set fortli a declaration of inde- 
pendence. 

Two years ago the United States and 50 other 
nations joined in signing that great declaration of 
interdependence known as the Charter of the 
United Nations. We did so because we had 
learned, at staggering cost, that the nations of the 
world cannot live in peace and prosperity if, at 
the same time, they try to live in isolation. We 
have learned that nations are interdependent and 
that recognition of our dependence upon one 
another is essential to life, liberty, and the pur- 
suit of happiness of all mankind. 

It is now the duty of all nations to converge 
their policies toward common goals of peace. 
Of course, we cannot expect all nations, with 
different histories, institutions, and economic con- 
ditions, to agree at once upon common ideals and 
policies. But it is not too much to expect that all 
nations should create, each within its own borders, 
the requisites for tlie growth of world-wide 
harmony. 

The first requisite of peace among nations is 
common adherence to the principle that govern- 
ments derive their just powers from the consent 
of the governed. There must be genuine effort to 
translate that principle into reality. 

The respective constitutions of virtually all 
members of the United "Nations subscribe to the 
proposition that governments derive their just 
powers from the consent of the governed. In 

• Department of Stale Bulletin 



many countries, however, progress toward that 
goal is extremely slow. In other countries prog- 
ress in that direction is nonexistent. And in 
still others the course of govermnent is in the 
opposite direction. 

It is necessary, if we are to have peace, that the 
peoples of the earth know each other, that they 
trade with each other and trust each other, and 
that they move toward common ideals. And yet, 
when governments do not derive their powers from 
the consent of the governed, these requirements 
are usually denied, and peoples are kept in iso- 
lation. 

The stronger the voice of a people in the formu- 
lation of national policies, the less the danger of 
aggression. ^\lien all governments derive their 
just powers from the consent of the governed, 
there will be enduring peace. 

A second requisite of peace among nations is 
common respect for basic human rights. Jeffer- 
son knew the relationship between respect for these 
rights and peaceful democracy. We see today 
with equal clarity the relationship between respect 
for human rights and the maintenance of world 
peace. So long as the basic rights of men are 
denied in any substantial portion of the earth, 
men everywhere must live in fear of their own 
rights and their own securitj'. 

We have learned much in the last 15 years from 
Germany, Italy, and Japan about the intimate 
relationship of dictatorship, aggression, and the 
loss of human rights. The problem of protecting 
human rights has been recognized in the Charter 
of the United Nations, and a commission is study- 
ing the subject at this time. 

No country has yet reached the absolute in pro- 
tecting human rights. In all countries, certainly 
including our own, there is much to be accom- 
plished. The maintenance of peace will depend 
to an important degree upon the progress that 
is made within nations and by the United Na- 
tions in protecting human rights. 

The third requisite of peace is the free and full 
exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information 
among the peoples of the earth and maximum 
freedom in international travel and communica- 
tion. 

Jefferson well understood this principle. On 
one occasion he said, "If a nation expects to be 
ignorant and free in a state of peace, it expects 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

what never was and never will be". Today, we 
can paraphrase these words in international terms 
as follows: "If the nations of the world expect 
to live in ignorance and suspicion of each other 
in a state of peace, they expect what never was 
and never will be." 

Malay members of the United Nations have 
jointly created and now support the United Na- 
tions Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation for the purpose of promoting the free 
exchange of ideas and information among the 
peoples of the earth. In the preamble to the con- 
stitution of this organization the member nations 
have declared that "the wide diffusion of culture, 
and the education of humanity for justice and 
liberty and peace . . . constitute a sacred duty 
which all the nations must fulfill". 

The United States has taken a leading role in 
furthering this ideal. We believe that it is essen- 
tial to a peaceful and prosperous world. We be- 
lieve that common knowledge and understanding 
among men can be greatly expanded in the years 
to come. We have the mechanical facilities — the 
radio, television, airplanes— for the creation of a 
world-wide culture. We have only to set them to 
work for international good. 

Unfortunately, a number of countries maintain 
barriers against the flow of information and ideas 
into, or out of, their territories. Many of them 
restrict international travel. Some of them, be- 
hind barriers of their own creation, present to 
their citizens carefully selected or distorted ver- 
sions of the facts about other countries. They 
teach and broadcast distrust and scorn of their 
neighbors. 

These activities of organized mistrust lead the 
people away from peace and unity. They are a 
far cry from contributing to the full and free 
exchange of knowledge and ideas which we need 
if we are to have a peaceful world. 

The first step to end ignorance and suspicion 
would be to stop propaganda attacks upon other 
nations. The second step would be to let down 
the barriers to information, ideas, and travel. The 
final step would be to cooperate with other nations 
who are so earnestly endeavoring to increase 
friendly understanding among men. 

Here at the home of Thomas Jefferson, who 
dedicated his life to liberty, education, and in- 
tellectual freedom, I appeal to all nations and 



July 13, 1947 



81 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

to all peoples to break down the artificial barriers 
that separate them. I appeal for tolerance and 
restraint in the mutual relations of nations and 
peoples. And I appeal for a free flow of knowl- 
edge and ideas that alone can lead to a harmonious 
world. 

The fourth requisite of peace is that nations 
shall devise their economic and financial policies 
to support a world economy rather than separate 
nationalistic economies. 

It is important to recognize that the United 
States has heavy responsibilities hei'e. The 
United States is the greatest industrial nation of 
the world, the leading exporter of agricultural 
products, and the greatest creditor nation. Eu- 
rope and Asia, on the other hand, have been devas- 
tated by war and with insufficient funds and ma- 
terials are struggling desperately with mountain- 
ous problems of reconstruction. In this situation 
the economic and financial policies maintained by 
the United States are of crucial importance. 

We have contributed nearly 20 billion dollars 
since the war to world relief, reconstruction, and 
stabilization. We have taken the lead in the estab- 
lishment of the World Bank and the World Stabi- 
lization Fund. We have cooperated fully in the 
work of the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations. We have authorized aid to 
Greece and Turkey. We have made generous loans 
through our Export-Import Bank. And we have 
suggested to European nations that further re- 
quests for American aid should be on the basis of a 
sound plan for European reconstruction. 

Our representatives are in Geneva negotiating a 
series of tariff-reducing trade agreements. They 
are seeking agreement with other nations on the 
charter of an International Trade Oi'ganization 
designed to bring fairness and a spirit of coopera- 
tion into the trade relations of nations. 

I believe that the United States is living up to 
its responsibilities for creating the economic con- 
ditions of peace. We must realize that these re- 
sponsibilities are continuous. Even the emergency 
aspects of the job are not yet behind us. 

It is not enough, however, for one nation to 
live up to its responsibilities for aiding reconstruc- 
tion and for cooperating in the production and the 
exchange of goods. The cooperation of all nations 
is necessary if the job is to be done. To the extent 
that any nation falls behind, to that extent will 



urgent needs for food, clothing, and shelter remain 
unfilled. 

Yet, certain nations today are withholding their 
support of reconstruction plans on the ground that 
this would mean interference by some nations in 
the internal affairs of others. This is as fallacious 
as the refusal of a man to enter a profitable business 
partnership on the ground that it would involve 
interference in his private affairs. 

Surely after two world wars nations should have 
learned the folly of a nationalism so extreme as to 
block cooperative economic planning among na- 
tions for peaceful reconstruction. 

The life of Thomas Jefferson demonstrates, to a 
remarkable degi-ee, the strength and power of 
trutli. 

He believed, with deep conviction, that in this 
young nation the survival of freedom depended 
upon the survival of truth. 

And so it is with the world. 

As the spirit of f I'eedom and the spirit of truth 
spread throughout the world, so shall there be 
understanding and justice among men. 

This is the foundation for peace — a peace which 
is not merely the absence of war but a deep, lasting 
l^eace built upon mutual respect and tolerance. 

Our goal must be — not peace in our time — but 
peace for all time. 

Supplies Shipped to Weatlier Stations in 
Canadian Far North 

[Released to the press July 3] 

Announcement was made in Ottawa and Wash- 
ington on July 3 that a small supply mission of 
United States Navy and Coast Guard ships would 
sail about July 15 from Boston to carry fuel, food- 
stuffs, and supplies to the weather stations which, 
as the Canadian Government announced on March 
4, 1947, are being maintained in the Canadian Far 
North. 

The first of these stations has already been estab- 
lished at Eureka Sound, EUesmere Island, and 
weather reports are now being received from this 
post. The second station will be established this 
summer near Winter Harbour on Melville Island. 

The contingent, which is expected to return in 
October, includes the following United States 
vessels: U.S.S. Edisto (ice breaker), U.S.S. Wy- 
andot (supply ship), U.S.S. Whifewood (ice 
breaker). 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



A Stable and Prosperous World Is Important to America's Well-Being 



BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 1] 

Some people tliink they see in the evolution of 
our political life evidences of radical changes in 
our policy on international affairs. The past two 
years have been rejslete with allegations that with 
the coming and going of various public officials 
there has been an alteration of American foreign 
policy. Actually, the attitude of our people and 
of this Government has shown a remarkable degree 
of continuity in the face of a complicated and rap- 
idly changing international situation. The Amer- 
ican people emerged from this war with an abiding 
determination to lay the foundations of a world 
order in which more could turn their hands to con- 
structive tasks and look with confidence to the 
development of better lives for themselves and 
their children. It was for this reason, I think, 
that they took the prominent part they did in the 
establishment of the United Nations. 

They have been sorely disappointed and dis- 
turbed by the setbacks which the principles of 
international organization have received. They 
recognize that the conditions of the postwar world 
have not proved to be as favorable as they had 
- hoped to the development of this concept. They 
know that the task will be harder than appeared 
to be in prospect three years ago. But nothing has 
changed, I am sure, in their determination to 
create a world in which the principles of the 
United Nations can have a chance to take root 
and to flourish. It was on this determination that 
United States policy rested as the recent hostilities 
came to an end, and it is on this determination 
that it is based today. 

In a democracy no policy, whether foreign or 
domestic, has the slightest chance of being effec- 
tive unless it enjoys popular support. This, I 
think, is especially true of foreign affairs where 
the remoteness of the events and the strangeness 
of foreign national traditions make it very diflS- 
cult for our people to get a clear understanding 
of even the elements of the problem. Under these 
conditions the only way in which general or popu- 

Ju/y 13, 1947 



lar support can be secured for any measure re- 
lating to foreign affairs is through the medium 
of the press and radio. 

The more complete the public understanding of 
the issues the less, the public will be swayed by 
the winds of passion and prejudice. The ideal 
that we could desire in this country would be a 
public opinion so well grounded that it would dis- 
count propaganda and would insure a steady and 
consistent support of the fundamental objectives 
of our foreign policy. We cannot expect 100 per- 
cent support for any particular measure. Our 
democratic system thrives upon diversity of 
opinion, and it is this very diversity which oper- 
ates as a correcting and improving mechanism. 
With a free press, serious departures from fact 
or principle, however skilfully promoted, cannot 
survive very long. 

In addition to the difficulty of comprehending 
the multitudinous factors involved in foreign 
affairs, there is the fact of a continuous propa- 
ganda of misrepi-esentation. It is regrettable, but 
perhaps natural in view of our position in the 
world today, that much of this propaganda is 
directed against the United States. Our purposes 
are distorted, our motives impugned, our tradi- 
tions and institutions decried and smeared. In 
countries where a free press operates, as I have 
remarked, such propaganda has a tendency to cor- 
rect itself within a reasonable time. But this, 
unfortunately, is not the case where a free press 
is suppressed. 

There has also been much of misunderstanding 
abroad of the degree and purpose of American 
economic assistance to other countries and of the 
conditions under which it has been extended. 
Much of this has been due to purposeful misrepre- 
sentation. Those responsible for this misrepre- 
sentation are doing a grave disservice to the suf- 



' Remarks made before the Women's National Press 
Club in Washington, D. C, on July 1, 1S47, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

83 



THE RECORD Of THE W£BK 

fering peoples whose future depends directly on 
the success of international cooperation in the 
economic field. 

Historical records clearly show that no people 
have ever acted more generously and more unself- 
ishly than the American people in tendering 
assistance to alleviate distress and suffering. The 
history of past decades records numerous exam- 
ples of readiness to lend a helping hand in situa- 
tions where there could not possibly have been 
other compensation than the satisfaction that 
comes from assisting those in need. 

But it would not be entirely accurate to say that 
the efforts of this Government to contribute to the 
restoration of world economy since the termina- 
tion of the recent war have been motivated solely 
by considerations of charity. Our people do 
realize, I feel sure, that a stable and prosperous 
world is important to their own well-being. They 
also recognize that a contribution has already been 
made by many peoples or nations to such a world 
in the way of tremendous sacrifices in life and 
property suffered in the course of military opera- 
tions. Since the United States suffered no such 
destruction on its own territory, although suffer- 
ing heavy losses in lives and national wealth, our 
people felt it right that this country should make 
a direct contribution to reconstruction abroad. 
Accordingly, they offered and expended out of the 
fruits of their own labor the enormous quantities 
of American goods and services which have gone 
to other countries during the past two years. And 
they have voiced no complaint that for the con- 
siderable part of this contribution there has been 
little of favorable reaction from certain areas 
abroad — that, in fact, there has been more of criti- 
cism than of appreciation. 

There could be no more fantastic misrepresenta- 
tion, no more malicious distortion of the truth than 
the frequent propaganda assertions or implications 
that the United States has imperialist aims, or that 
American aid has been offered in order to fasten 
upon the recipients some form of political and 
economic domination. At the end of the war our 
Government demobilized the greatest concentra- 
tion of military power that the world has ever seen. 
Our armed strength was deployed from the Elbe in 
Germany to the islands of Japan. This great 
array was demobilized with amazing rapidity until 
only comparatively small garrisons of troops were 

84 



left on the necessary occupation duty in the prin- 
cipal enemy countries. No conditions were at- 
tached to this withdrawal. Since the termination 
of the war, American goods in the amount of some 
82 million tons, valued at over 9 billion dollars, 
have flowed into Europe from this country. No 
political parties subservient to United States in- 
terests have been left behind in European coun- 
tries to attempt conquest of goverimients from 
within. No American agents have sought to 
dominate the jDolice establishment of European 
countries. No "joint American-European com- 
panies" have been forced upon reluctant govern- 
ments. I do not cite this record as evidence of 
our peaceful intentions by way of indulging in 
national boasting but merely because it is true, 
and judging from some of the charges leveled 
against the United States, it may be in danger of 
being forgotten. 

It would be incorrect to say that the people of 
this country make no demands regarding the utili- 
zation of their contribution to world recovery. 
They emphatically demand that whatever they 
contribute shall be effectively used for the purpose 
for which it was intended ; that it should not be 
expended to serve selfish economic or political in- 
terests ; and that it should be employed specifically 
to assist in economic rehabilitation ; finally, that it 
should serve a great purpose in restoring hope and 
confidence among the people concerned that the 
world will know peace and security in the future. 

Visit of Peruvian Foreign Minister 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The Foreign Minister of Peru, Enrique Garcia 
Sayan, expects to make a brief visit to the United 
States, arriving in Washington by air on the eve- 
ning of Monday, July 7. He will remain in Wash- 
ington until Thursday, July 10; while here he 
will be the oiBcial guest of the Government and 
will stay at the Blair House. 

Letters of Credence 

Paraguay 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Paraguay, 
Guillermo Enciso Velloso, presented his creden- 
tials to the President on July 2, 1947. For texts 
of the translation of the Ambassador's remarks, 
and the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 546 of July 2. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Report of the Cabinet Committee on 
World Food Programs' 

Statement by the President 

The Cabinet Committee on World Food Pro- 
grams, which I appointed last September to 
coordinate the activities of the United States in 
shipping food abroad, has submitted a report that 
should gratify every American. 

To meet urgent human needs abroad, nearly 
ISYo million long tons of grain and other food 
were exported by the United States in the year 
ending June 30, 1947. This is the largest total of 
food ever shipped from one country in a single 
year. 

Our country was blessed last year with the most 
bountiful harvest in our history. Our farmers 
worked hard to produce record crops. The food 
industries, the railroads, the shipping companies, 
and the Government agencies cooperated to make 
possible the movement of food on schedule from 
American farms to foreign ports. 

But we must not lose sight of the fact that even 
the gi-eat efforts of this and other exporting coun- 
tries fell short of meeting the world's urgent post- 
war needs for food. Many millions of people are 
still desperately hungry. 

Tlie Cabinet Committee reports that crop 
prospects abroad have been reduced by the severe 
winter in Northern Europe and that in the 
months ahead substantial shipments of food — 
especially wheat — must be continued. 

Within our ability to share our resources, we 
will continue to do our part to relieve human suf- 
fering and to help other countries to help them- 
selves. It is the course we must follow. 

The arrangements under which it was possible 
for us to ship such large quantities of food abroad 
are, therefore, being continued. I have asked the 
Cabinet Committee and the Coordinator of Emer- 
gency Export Programs to carry on for the coming 
year. The Assistant to the President will, as in 
the past, take all possible steps to help expedite 
this program. 



' For text of the report, see White House press release of 
July 5, 1947. 

July 13, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Lend-Lease, Surplus Property, and 
Export- Import Bank Payments 

Statements by the Secretary of State 
France 

[Released to the press July 2] 

Yesterday the French Government paid to the 
Export-Import Bank a total of $19,471,078.81, of 
which $9,167,000 is a partial repayment of the first 
of two credits granted to France by the Bank, the 
balance representing the interest due on both 
credits. This becomes in fact the third instalment 
paid by France on the first credit, the Export- 
Import Bank having already received in interest 
and payments on capital nearly $6,000,000 on July 
1, 1946, and more than $14,000,000 on January 1, 
1947. The present outstanding principal amount 
of both credits aggregates $974,902,500. 

The instalment of interest due July 1, 1947, to 
the United States Government under the lend- 
lease and surplus-property settlement agreement 
of May 28, 1946, was also paid yesterday by the 
French Government, which delivered a check in 
Washington in the amount of $8,800,000. This 
payment is in addition to approximately $1,340,- 
000 worth of property located in France previ- 
ously delivered for use by the diplomatic estab- 
lislmient of the United States Government and 
applied in partial settlement of the interest due 
yesterday. The French also deposited yesterday 
to the account of the Treasurer of the United 
States in Paris a sum in francs sufficient to make 
the total payment of interest equal to $12,800,000. 

Under the agreement, interest payments of 2 
percent of the net amount of principal clue, which 
is now estimated at $640,000,000, are payable on 
the first of July of each year. Principal is to be 
paid in thirty annual equal instalments beginning 
July 1, 1951. 
Netherlands 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The Netherlands Government paid $1,000,000 
yesterday to the United States in payment of the 
interest due July 1, 1947, under the Netherlands- 
United States lend-lease, surplus, and war- 
accounts settlement of May 28, 1947. No pay- 
ments on principal are due until July 1, 1951. 

85 



The Future off Displaced Persons in Europe 



STATEMENT BY LT. COL. JERRY M. SAGE 



On my return to Europe in 1946, 1 learned that 
of the about 8,000,000 displaced persons that the 
German armies had forced into Germany from 
other countries of Europe which they had occu- 
pied, approximately 7,000,000 had returned, with 
the aid of the Western Allied Armies, to the areas 
in which they formerly lived. In the zones of the 
Western Allies in Germany, Austria, and Italy, 
there were at the first of this year slightly over 
a million displaced persons in the hands of the 
Western Allied Armies. Between 80 and 90 per- 
cent of these had been forced into German ter- 
ritory by the Nazi armies before the end of hos- 
tilities. The balance were persecutees, for the 
most part the Jewish people who fled into our zones 
in Austria and Germany, almost entirely from 
Poland, in 1946. This movement was greatly ac- 
celerated by the murder of 40 Jews at Kielce on 
July 4, 1946. 

At this point I should like to clarify a misap- 
prehension which has arisen in previous discus- 
sions of this bill. It has been erroneously stated 
that 80 percent of the DP's entered the occupied 
zones after the end of hostilities. As I have in- 
dicated above, the true situation is exactly the re- 
verse. I do not know how this misapprehension 
came about. It may possibly stem from the fact 
that millions of Germans and persons of German 
ethnic origin ("Volksdeutsch") have fled or been 
transferred into the western zones of Germany 
from eastern Germany or from eastern European 
countries where they formerly resided. It is not 
with these people that we are concerned as they 
are Germans and have become a part of the Ger- 
man economy. 

Of the million displaced persons remaining, 
Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Poles, Jews, 



' Excerpts from statement made on July 2, 1947, before 
the House Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion, and released to the press on the same date. Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Sage of the United States Army is attached to 
Headquarters of European Command, Frankfurt, Germany. 



Yugoslavs, Ukrainians, and stateless persons, of 
wliom we are talking here now, the United States 
has control of about 600,000 in Germany, Austria, 
and Italy. Of this number, I have been vitally 
concerned with those residing in the U.S. zone of 
Germany, a total of over 500,000. When I left 
Germany a month ago, there were 354,000 of these 
displaced persons in assembly centers in our zone 
and about 150,000 living outside centers, either in 
labor units working for the U.S. Army or working 
in the German economy. 

The United States Array has been charged with 
the responsibility for this group of half a million 
people. We have endeavored, with the assistance 
of UNRRA workers, to feed, clothe, and rehabili- 
tate these people to the best of our ability and 
resources. 

But we are continually asked one question and it 
is one we continually ask ourselves: "What is to 
become of these people — the ones our Army took 
under its control and still has under its control ?" 

The four alternative solutions presented by 
General Hilldring are not new. They have been 
discussed, considered, and elaborated on around 
our conference tables in Germany for many 
months. But the United States Army in Ger- 
many, although charged with the responsibility 
for displaced persons within American zones, can- 
not make the decision as to what we are to do with 
these people in the future. That decision, w^e are 
fully aware, must be made by the United States 
Government — by the Congress — the ultimate gov- 
ernmental authority over them. 

There are four possible alternatives : 

1. Forcible repatriation. 

2. Closing the camps and telling the displaced 
persons to become Germans and fend for them- 
selves as best they can in Germany. 

3. Continuing to maintain them separate from 
the political and economic organization in Europe, 
indefinitely, in the little communities which they 
form in the assembly centers. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



4. Endeavoring to secure their resettlement in 
countries where they can rebuild their lives and 
strike new roots. 

All I am here for is to give you briefly such of 
my observations of these people as you might feel 
to be useful to you in reaching your decision as to 
which of these alternative courses is to be pursued. 

I shall endeavor to answer any questions which 
occur to you and to develop more fully any aspect 
that you may desire. 

Repatriation 

The alternative of repatriation must, at this 
point, be definitely termed "forcible repatriation". 
As has just been pointed out, a tremendous job 
has been done in returning 7,000,000 persons to 
their homelands. Over the past two years every 
opportunity has been afforded to those now re- 
maining in our zones to return. From my obser- 
vation, those whom we still have on our hands are 
essentially a hard core of nonrepatriables who 
will not return to their place of origin because the 
map of the area where they formerly lived has 
been redrawn and a government alien to them is 
in power. They fear a lack of political freedom 
and have a real dread of persecution. I can cer- 
tainly testify as to the presence of those fears. 
It is not unusual in the United States zone of 
Germany, when a movement of displaced persons 
is contemplated from one installation to another 
for better accommodations or to meet a military 
exigency, that rumors immediately begin to circu- 
late about the camp, and the fear is developed that 
transportation is coming to repatriate the dis- 
placed persons against their will. On several oc- 
casions it has been part of my job to visit such 
installations to quiet the panic among the people 
by giving them the true facts about the movement 
and reiterating that it has not been and is not the 
policy of the United States Government to force 
displaced persons to return to the area from which 
I they came. There are still a few people who are 

I accepting our continuing offer to aid those who are 
willing to go. They receive, when they reach their 
destination, a two months' ration to insure their 
subsistence until they get their feet on the ground 

II and become reestablished. Those who have gone 
during the last year and those who may still be 
willing to go are mainly Poles who came from 
that part of Poland which is still Poland. But 

July 13, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

the vast majority of displaced persons now in 
our hands have convinced me that they will not go 
back. I cannot number the occasions on which I 
have asked every variety of DP, "Wliy don't you 
go home — to the piece of ground you know, the 
members of your family and old friends, to the 
place where you can use your native tongue?" 

These are the answers I receive, and I receive 
them every day from people of nearly every walk 
of life. The Baltic peoples— the Lithuanians, Lat- 
vians, and Estonians — have said to me, "I would 
rather die than return to my home — it is no longer 
mine. It is in the hands of the same people who 
took away every right I had in 1940 and 1941 
and who took away friends and relatives of mine 
whom I never saw again." 

Many of the Poles and Ukrainians who for- 
merly lived in Poland east of the Curzon Line, 
now Poland no longer, say, "I will not return to 
land now held by the U. S. S. E." 

The Jews in our camps tell me : "The Nazi teach- 
ings were far reaching. I am still attacked in 
eastern Europe, as well as in Germany. Let me 
go to Palestine." 

I recall a remark by a Yugoslav DP who was in 
the same prison camp with me in 1943. "Should 
I go home to a political regime I hate and fear — 
to be tried by Tito, who accuses me of being a col- 
laborator during the time I was spending two 
years and 50 pounds of flesh in German prison 
camps? The only one with whom I could have 
collaborated was God !" 

Such observations, multiplied hundreds of times, 
are heard not only by me, but by every person who 
works with displaced persons in our zone. It does 
not do any good to say to these people that "7,000,- 
000 displaced persons have gone back to where 
they came from: why don't you?" The answer 
is too simple and too clear. Naturally, the mil- 
lions of French and other western Europeans went 
back home. Naturally, the millions of Russians 
who believed in the Russian economic and govern- 
mental system went back. Naturally, also, any- 
one who believed in or was indifferent about the 
new systems of government in other eastern areas 
went back. The ones who have gone were the 
ones who were willing to go. Their experience is 
no guide for those who are now unwilling to go. 
Is it reasonable to expect the DP Baits, for ex- 
ample, who are bitterly hostile to the political 



87 



THB RECORD Of THE WEEK 

and economic system which they experienced in 
1940 and 1941 and which now rigidly controls their 
countries, to feel that it is safe for them to go back, 
carrying their hostility with them, to work against 
Communism? The very fact that they go back 
umoillingly is enough to endanger them. Or are 
we to expect and demand of them tluit, because 
their native countries have changed hands, they 
must therefore change their beliefs and accept 
Communism as their way of life ? We believe that 
these persons unwilling to go back would have to 
be rounded up by the U.S. constabulai'y or German 
police and forced into repatriation trains with 
gun and bayonet. 

Shall We Close the Camps? 

The second alternative is to close the camps and 
tell the displaced persons that they should be- 
come Germans and get such work or relief as the 
Germans might provide. From my contacts with 
these people I have observed several aspects of 
this alternative wliich you gentlemen may wish to 
consider in determining what course to choose. 
The first is that the great body of these people 
would regard it as a return to imprisonment to be 
turned back to the Germans whose armies brought 
them into Germany for forced labor or into pris- 
oner-of-war or concentration camps. It has been 
equally apparent from my contacts that the Ger- 
mans do not want the displaced persons in their 
midst. The Germans have not forgotten the Nazi 
indoctrination which looked on the non-German 
as an inferior person to be exploited by the "mas- 
ter race". This feeling appears as one of our dif- 
ficulties in finding employment for displaced 
persons. Too often the German administrator of 
a labor office discriminates against the displaced- 
person applicant, at least by passive if not active 
means. These ingrained antagonisms would be a 
perpetual source of conflict. They would prolong 
and make more burdensome our task in the occu- 
pation of Germany. 

In addition to these deep-rooted antagonisms, 
there are factors in the economy of the western 
zone of Germany, as we over there observe it, 
which also have a definite bearing on the practica- 
bility of this second alternative. There are 
slightly over 500,000 displaced persons in the U.S. 
zone of Germany alone. Can we expect the econ- 
omy of the zone to absorb this half million? Be- 
fore the war, this area contained about 14 million 

88 



people. In addition to that population we have 
had to accept 1^ million expellees (ethnic Ger- 
mans) from eastern countries such as Czechoslo- 
vakia, Hungarj', and Poland. Another million 
people liave been added to the German economy 
in our zone under the classification of German 
I'efugees — Germans displaced from their homes in 
either the Russian zone or in the area presently 
under Polish administration. Thus, excluding 
the displaced persons, the total population of our 
zone has now been brought to about 16V^ million. 
Wlien one considers that at least 30 percent of the 
housing in the U.S. zone has been destroyed and 
its industries for the most part destroyed or col- 
lapsed ; that even before the war, under the ex- 
treme food-production efforts of the Nazis, this 
ai-ea had to import 20 percent of its food require- 
ments for a normal population of 14 million ; that 
21/2 million Germans have been added to the area; 
and that it is also supposed to feed a million per- 
sons in the U.S. sector of Berlin, the reason why 
American taxpayers have the alternative of con- 
tributing heavily to the support of this surplus 
German population or letting it starve is apparent. 
Merely to close the camps and add these half- 
million non-Germans to the already surplus Ger- 
mans in our area would give us only an apparent 
but no real relief from the situation we created 
when we conquered Germany and took these vic- 
tims of Germany into our hands. 

Indefinite Maintenance 

The third alternative is to continue to keep these 
displaced persons alive by maintaining them in- 
definitely in assembly centers in the hostile en- 
vironment of Germany. This obviously is no 
solution. It merely perpetuates a heavy charge 
on the American taxpayer. It keeps these victims 
of the Germans in a situation where they cannot 
help themselves, without plan or hope of building 
new lives for themselves or their children. These 
people, as I have lived among them, are funda- 
mentally not so different from you or me. You 
can picture without any aid from me what that sit- 
uation would mean to us if we were in it and 
determine whether this is the alternative you pro- 
pose to adoi^t. 

Resettlement 

To aid in your consideration of the fourth alter- 
native to the solution of the DP problem, I shall 

Department of Sfafe Butlefin 



endeavor to answer for you, from my personal 
experiences, the following questions, plus any ad- 
ditional questions that you may wish to ask : 

How are we sheltering and feeding the dis- 
placed persons under our care in Germany this 
summer of 1947 ? 

Wliat kind of people are they ? 

What are their basic political and religious be- 
liefs, their attitudes toward employment, the state 
of law and order in their communities, their occu- 
pational skills, their health and morals ? 

And in addition, what are other countries doing 
about these displaced persons? 

The shelter is the best we can provide in view 
of the destruction during the war of 30 percent of 
the housing in our zone and the great increase over 
the prewar population. It varies with each local- 
ity of the nearly 500 different installations. We 
try to do the best we can with what we have and 
perhaps get accustomed to it, but I don't believe 
that you would like the looks of some of our neces- 
sarily overcrowded conditions. Our largest as- 
sembly center at Wildflecken, Germany, houses 
about 15,000 Poles and Polish Ukrainians in a 
cluster of huge barracks and apartment buildings. 
Some larger rooms have to accommodate a number 
of families — from 20 to 30 persons. Other instal- 
lations are composed of groups of long, low, 
wooden barracks built for the German armed 
forces. Still others are former prisoner-of-war 
and concentration camps. I have inspected two 
DP camps which had been P.O.W. "homes" of 
mine in 1943 and 1944. The barbed wire and 
machine guns have been removed and great im- 
provements have been made, but the environment 
you would not regard as conducive to a normal 
family life. At times at one installation it has 
been necessary to shelter as many as 250 men, 
women, and children in one very large room. 
Fortunately, we have passed that stage. We try to 
get down to one family to a room or partitioned 
part of a large room and sometimes can do better. 

A typical DP room has a row of double-decker 
wooden bunks around the sides of the walls, a 
makeshift table, a few wooden chairs, a small 
wood-burning stove, and what other articles of 
furniture the DP's can make from scraps of mate- 
rial they dig up. Karely is any quantity of 
material found available which can be furnished 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

for floor and window coverings or to provide some 
of the innumerable comforts of home which we 
take for granted in this country. But the DP's 
make a little go a long way. It is surprising how, 
with a few odds and ends of personal belongings, 
the atmosphere of a separate family center can be 
given to that particular corner of a large room 
which a father, mother, and several children have 
curtained off as their own. 

We are able to furnish to displaced persons 
sufficient food to maintain health, with a normal 
consumer ration of 2,000 calories per day. Sup- 
plements are granted for various categories, such 
as gi'owing teen-age children, pregnant and nurs- 
ing mothers, hospital inmates, and certain workers. 
These supjilements bring the average caloric in- 
take to 2,400 in our zone. I would estimate that 
the average American adult consumes between 
3,000 and 4,000 calories a day. The daily bill of 
fare is in the main starchy foods — grains and po- 
tatoes. It is sustaining and puts on weight. Ex- 
cept for vegetables grown in the small gardens 
which are tilled in every patch of ground the DP's 
can find, there is naturally little opportunity for 
variation in this diet. 

The primary fact to be borne in mind is that 
they are above all else working people. That is 
because the Nazi Labor Office which accompanied 
the German Armies was interested in bringing 
into Germany only those people who were capable 
of working in the factories and on the farms. 
Therefore, they selected for deportation to Ger- 
many primarily persons in the younger age groups 
and those physically qualified to do manual labor. 
It is noteworthy that in the average DP camp 
one will find relatively few old people or physical- 
ly handicapped people. Further, it was hard for 
any without great moral and physical stamina to 
survive the experiences they went through. As 
working people in their own countries, they were 
accustomed to long hours of toil. In German 
labor camps they worked long hours on short 
rations. Today, in the DP camps, as employment 
can be found for them, they are still working 
willingly and industriously in the maintenance of 
the camp, improving the physical appearance, and 
in outside employment in Army units and in the 
local economy. In the administration of the em- 
ployment program in DP camps, the problem has 
not been so much that of inducing people to work 



July 13, 1947 



89 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

but of finding work for them to do, for reasons 
which I will presently point out. Secondly, in the 
general picture, I must say that I have been con- 
tinually surprised by the resiliency of the vast 
majority of these displaced persons. I have seen, 
in my present tour of duty, the same prisoners and 
forced laborers of the Nazis who had been with 
me in Germany in '43 and '44, still residing in 
the depressing atmosphere of the abnormal camp- 
type life described above, and have been amazed 
at their ability to make the best of their situations 
by studying, working, and striving to improve 
themselves. 

In order to further the rehabilitation of the 
DP's, to respond to their urgent desire for some- 
thing constructive to do, and to save the expense of 
our own personnel, we have turned most of the 
administration of the assembly centers over to the 
DP's themselves. 

In order to give you a clear picture of the DP, 
I shall describe as accurately as possible a typical 
assembly center and what goes on there. 

This cluster of buildings was probably built for 
the German Army and has a wall or fence around 
it. At the main gate, you will find a man wearing 
an arm band or an old GI helmet-liner hat, with 
the inscription DP Police on it. These police are 
trained by military personnel operating directly 
under my office. Their functions are much the 
same as those of policemen in a rural town. They 
preserve internal order in the camps, keep out 
personnel who try to enter for illegitimate busi- 
ness, and assist our military law-enforcement 
agencies in apprehending wrongdoers. 

And here I'd like to give some observations on 
the state of law and order among DP's. DP's 
have always been a good source of news. An in- 
cident involving DP's which is handled by our 
military agencies attracts much more attention 
than a similar incident involving Germans, which 
is handled by German police. Consequently, I 
have run into some exaggerated reports of DP 
misbehavior. My office happens to have a direct 
responsibility for supervising law and order 
among DP's and maintaining records of inci- 
dents involving them. Of course, there are law 
violators among DP's. I have personally assisted 
in arrests of them and in prosecutions resulting in 
court sentences from several months to several 
years. However, the nimabers of those jailed or 

90 



cited for offenses in the U. S. zone, taken from 
statistics of the German Bureau of Criminal Iden- 
tification and Statistics, indicate that non-Germans 
have not committed more than a proportionate 
share of the total crimes in the first few months 
of this year. In fact, the last figures I have avail- 
able on oifenses against German criminal law show 
that non-Germans have committed proportion- 
ately less than the Germans. From the standpoint 
of immigration into the United States, the rec- 
ords we have, covering a period of two years, 
would give an unusually good opportunity to 
screen out the lawbreakers. 

Continuing with the DP policeman on your way 
to the administrative office in our sample camp, 
you will notice that there is considerable evidence 
of repairs and reconstruction of the buildings. 
The majority of our assembly centers are in areas 
in which countless bombs of the Allied Air Forces 
dropped. After liberation, the DP's who were 
gathered together in a partially demolished instal- 
lation went to work on it. Some of the buildings 
in a camp you visit will have been almost entirely 
rebuilt from salvaged bricks and odd pieces of 
steel, glass, and lumber. In an eifort to brighten 
the surroundings, the inhabitants usually make a 
neat and ornamental design of whitewashed stones 
and a few flowers near the entrance to the camp. 

In a nearby building labeled "Administration", 
you get a good general picture of the political and 
social views of the people. Since soon after libera- 
tion, it has been our policy to allow the inhabi- 
tants of each assembly center to elect their own 
leaders and camp committees. The precise form 
of the elections has not been prescribed, but a sur- 
vey of a few months ago showed that the typical 
camp election followed a pattern of nomination 
of candidates by petition and voting by secret 
ballot. Some camps have direct election of the 
leader, and others elect the camp council, the mem- 
bers of which choose the camp leader from among 
their number. These people have in the past 
served as advisers and executive intermediaries 
for the official camp administrator and generally 
have proved so responsible that they have been 
constantly given additional authority. 

While we are thinking about this community, 
which elects its leaders in much the same way as 
a small town in this country, you may be inter- 
ested in my observations on DP "isms". If I were 

Department of State Bulletin 



asked to point out the community which I con- 
sidered the least susceptible to and the most thor- 
. oughly indoctrinated against Nazism, Fascism, 
and Communism, I would not take you to the iso- 
lated "100 percent American" small town in the 
Middle West. I would take you to a DP center in 
our zone of Gei-many. The vast majority of the 
people of the United States definitely dislike these 
"isms" but have not had a gi-eat deal of intimate 
contact with them. The DP who describes his 
being rounded up at night, torn from his family 
and brought to Germany to labor, the DP who 
shows you the tattooed concentration-camp num- 
ber of his arm are certainly actively indoctrinated 
against any form of Nazism or Fascism. 

As for Communism, the very fact that they are 
ready to accept any fate rather than be sent back 
to Communist-dominated countries shows their 
attitude toward that "ism". Further, if I may say 
so, I have had a wide opportunity to be among 
them, and I know their attitude. These DP's do 
not take democracy for granted. They have seen 
these "isms", can recognize them, and violently 
oppose them. 

To return to our visit to the administration 
building, we find that the keeping of i-ecords, all 
stenographic work, maintenance work — in fact all 
phases of the operations of the camp — are actually 
conducted by the displaced persons themselves. 

In some camps one of the DP committeemen is 
the labor representative for his community. The 
strides that have been made by the DP's them- 
selves in finding employment have been consider- 
able, although they have been faced with two or 
three serious handicaps. 

We have been forced to place DP's in whatever 
housing is available. We do not have the mate- 
rial to build special laborers' housing near works 
projects, and in Germany transportation is almost 
non-existent, with the result that many DP's 
cannot get to the jobs they would otherwise jump 
at. A prime example is our largest camp in Ger- 
many, Wildflecken, which I mentioned previously. 
Wildflecken is a large unit providing much-needed 
space for 15,000 people, but it is distant from any 
projects which could furnish employment. The 
agricultural fields near by are already producing 
full time for the local economy. Woodcutting is 
about the one opportunity for out-of-camp work, 
and many are kept busy at this work. 

July ?3, 7947 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

Representatives of DP's welfare agencies, and 
the Army, who have exliaustively studied the pos- 
sibilities of numerous manufacturing projects that 
would utilize the vast quantity of skills available 
in the DP population, have run into the terrific 
handicap of having no raw material with which 
to work. There has also been a reluctance on the 
part of many DP's to work for a German or 
the German economy, after having been forced to 
do so under oppressive conditions for several years. 
They are eager to work for the Allied occupying 
authorities, however. Despite these handicaps, 
the majority of employables residing in DP cen- 
ters, from 16 to 65 years of age, are at work. 

Of those residing outside the camps, the United 
States Army has 40,000 DP employees organized 
in labor-service companies. These companies can 
be broken down into the following categories: 
watchmen, engineer construction, engineer main- 
tenance, engineer dump truck, ordnance depot, 
quartermaster depot, quartermaster truck. Of 
this group all of the engineer and quartermaster 
construction and trucking companies contain 90 
percent skilled labor. 

Those displaced persons not under direct care 
in assembly centers or in labor-service companies 
are working and eking out an existence in the 
German economy. But it must be pointed out 
that these people are also displaced persons and 
should not be lost sight of in the determination 
of the solution of the problem. 

As our armies advanced into Germany, General 
Eisenhower appealed to the displaced persons to 
remain where they were, if they had a roof over 
their heads and a place to work, rather than to 
further congest the badly overcrowded DP centers. 
I have handled countless petitions from these dis- 
placed persons residing outside of centers who 
say that they will remain where they are, where 
they have shelter near a job rather than to come 
into a center, but who make urgent appeals for 
documents showing them to be displaced persons 
and not Germans. With the return of the Ger- 
man prisonei'S of war and with the influx of the 
German expellees, many thousands of these out- 
of-camp displaced persons lost their outside jobs 
and shelter to the Germans in 1946 and had to 
enter our assembly centers. This movement was 
stopped, however, in the U.S. zone of Germany 
by the closing of assembly centers to new entrants 
on the first of June 1947. 

91 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

In our average camp, you can learn from the 
displaced-persons representative the various skills 
available there. These are listed on a card in a 
card index so that a prospective employer can 
readily find a person with the skill he requires. 
An over-all survey of the occupational skills of 
366,553 employable displaced persons in assembly 
centers in Germany, Austria, and Italy was made 
in the summer of 1946. Another survey covering 
237,727 employable DP's, in the U.S. zone of 
Germany only, was completed just prior to my 
departure from Frankfurt a month ago. 

The following figures show the percentage of 
the employables surveyed last year, 366,553, in 
each general classification of occupational skill. 
The more recent survey in just the U.S. zone of 
Germany indicates approximately the same per- 
centages. 

A list of tlie approximately 1-10 specific skills 
represented under the 17 occupational categories 
presented below is attached to this statement. 

Percent of total 
General classification surveyed 

Construction and maintenance 6.7 

Administrative, clerical, commercial 11.3 

Agriculture, fore.str,v, dairy, food proces.sing 24.5 

Health and sanitation 3.2 

Miscellaneous services 9.1 

Tailors and seamstresses 6.2 

Domestic and related commercial services 10.0 

Communications, transportation, supply 7.6 

Artists 15 

Professionals 6.4 

Recreational workers 0.2 

Metal trades 2.1 

Mining, chemical, and processing 0.4 

Miscellaneous processing 4.0 

Laborers 04 

Inexperienced persons 2.3 

Students 2.1 

Excellent vocational-training courses are con- 
tinually supplementing these skills available 
among DP's. In our zone alone, there are over 
16,000 displaced persons receiving vocational 
training. There is at least one training course in 
each assembly center; however, the majority have 
a minimum of five different courses. In addition 
to the assembly-center schools there are seven 
formal vocational-training installations in the 
U.S. zone of Germany, offering a total of 24 dif- 
ferent courses, lasting approximately two months 
each, and attended by 1,000 displaced persons. 

If you leave the administration building of the 

92 



typical camp with which we are concerned, you 
will probably see a long, low warehouse building 
or former shop of some kind which has been re- 
fitted as a vocational school. There you will see 
DP's working at a forge and anvil pounding out 
the tools, the bolts, the locks, and practically all 
the metal equipment which is needed in the camp 
and perhaps for a neighboring camp which does 
not have a blacksmith shop. Adjacent you can 
see the carpenter shop where various items of fur- 
niture are made and where apprentices learn to aid 
in the maintenance and reconstruction of parts of 
the camp. 

The supply of fuel presents a terrific problem 
in Germany today. One of the prime projects in 
the summer and fall is to see that sufficient trees 
are cut from the forests and chopped and stored 
in the camps for the winter. The DP's do this 
work themselves. 

The next building in our DP camp may be a 
hospital which is operated by displaced persons. 
The DP head doctor will proudly show you his 
health charts and the cleanliness of the institution. 
We have found excellent nurses among the DP 
women, and others have been trained to hospital 
service. The majority of the doctors are DP's 
who make regular checks on the health of each 
member of the center population. There are 10,500 
hospital beds available for long-term illnesses and 
four special tuberculosis sanitariums located at 
strategic points in the United States zone. Both 
mass radiographic surveys and hospitalization 
checks agree on the following figures on tuber- 
culosis in the United States zone: active TB 0.4 
percent ; inactive TB 2.5 percent. 

The over-all health condition of DP's is con- 
siderably better than that of the Germans. No 
serious outbi'eak of any disease has occurred from 
the begimiing of the DP operations, probably as 
a result of using the same immunization procedures 
that are used in the U.S. Army. Medical supplies 
for all purposes are drawn from the U.S. Army 
medical stocks. 

There is a slow increase of weight in DP's from 
month to month and almost no incidence of edema, 
despite the preponderance of starchy foods in their 
diet. The weight of displaced persons averages 
about 2 percent over the normal, based on U.S. 
Army standards. 

The center doctor may point with pride to the 

Department of State Bulletin 



fact that the incidence of venereal disease is negli- 
gible among his patients. A contributing factor 
may be found in the devotion of DP's in general 
to a family life. The birth and death rates of 
DP's are comparable to those m the United States. 
The young children are the healthiest that I have 
seen anywhere. 

Near the hospital you will probably find the 
building which houses both the grade school and 
high school. In our zone nearly 70,000 children 
attend these schools, taught by DP instructors. In 
addition to the usual basic courses, one or two other 
languages, nearly always including English, are 
taught. 

Another prominent place in the camp is the 
church. Each group worships under its indige- 
nous religious leader. It is amazing to wallf into 
that church in a former bombed-out building and 
see the beauty that has been wrought from bits of 
cloth woven into tapestries and altar cloths, from 
scraps of tin for chandeliers or candleholders, and 
the beautiful carvings in wood. 

When you visit the rooms of DP's themselves, 
you will find today in addition to the minimum 
equipment furnished them, which I described 
earlier, samples of the work of their hands and 
imagination. Woven from woi'n-out stockings 
and other salvaged articles of clothing are tiny 
rugs, tapestries, or sweaters for the children. 

I recall one small Ukrainian center where 70 
women were working in one large room, all knit- 
ting gloves and muflflers which were distributed 
not only to inhabitants of their camp but to others 
in the vicinity. We have several such self-aid 
work projects in the zone, again handicapped by 
the lack of raw material. 

In 12 assembly centers DP's have organized "fac- 
tories" which are using material from captured 
enemy stocks or surplus army stocks, converting 
them into boys' suits, girls' dresses, children's 
overcoats, baby dresses, baby blankets, boys' over- 
alls, and babies' sleeping bags, which are distrib- 
uted to other displaced persons. Equipment for 
these "factories" consists of many skilled DP 
hands and sewing machines on loan from the U.S. 
Army or procured by voluntary agencies abroad 
and brought into Germany. 

The average DP is physically fit, is a person who 
longs to have and to participate in political and 
religious freedom, is a person who abides by the 

July ?3, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

rules of the community, and has skills, ingenuity, 
and strength which he wants to put to use in a 
new permanent home. Another point which you 
gentlemen may feel to be important is that the 
DP's still residing in the assembly centers of the 
U.S. zone are in many respects a picked and care- 
fully seeded group. In the first place, as I have 
mentioned earlier in discussing law enforcement, 
we have put criminals in jail. In the second place, 
a tremendous screening program has been under- 
taken and accomplished by the U.S. Army through- 
out our zone. A total of 375,310 DP's have been 
screened to remove from the centers those persons 
who may have been Volksdeutsch, volunteer mem- 
bers of the SS or Gestapo, and collaborators with 
the enemy. A total of 37,207 persons, about 10 
percent, have been found ineligible and removed 
from our care. I hope I have given you a clear 
picture of those who remain. 

In general, as I have outlined, the DP's are 
making the best of the situation. But at best that 
situation is a grim one quite apart from the physi- 
cal overcrowding and other matters I have de- 
scribed. There is not work enough available to 
keep them all occupied, for the reasons I have 
pointed out. There is no opportunity for them 
to plan for their future, for the future of their 
children, or to help themselves and their families 
to rebuild their lives. They have kept going in the 
hope of getting out of the camps and out of Ger- 
many and having a chance to fend for themselves. 
If the decision is that they are to stay on indefi- 
nitely in the camps, hopelessness and deterioration 
cannot, as I have observed the situation, much 
longer be averted. 

Other Countries' Views 

What do the other countries of the world think 
of DP's? 

Officers of our headquarters have done a great 
deal of work, in conjunction with the Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees, with representa- 
tives of other nations on the negotiations for the 
resettlement of displaced persons. 

Most of the western European countries and 
some South American countries are taking at least 
a few DP's. I understand that England is taking 
considerable numbers from the British zone of 
Germany, in addition to assuming the responsi- 
bility for 200,000 Poles of the Anders Army. 

93 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

In our zone two or three months ago we watched 
a group leave for Norway, laughing and crying 
with pure joy to be leaving Germany. A short 
time later a friend of mine in Norway gave me an 
informal report that the Norwegians were happy 
to have them. 

The Belgian Government has contracted to take 
20,000 workers with their families, a probable to- 
tal of from 60,000 to 70,000 DP's, in the next few 
months. I worked very closely witli the Belgian 
representative in charge of this operation and 
visited him in Belgium about a month ago. He 
reported that the first 3,000 workers were already 
producing in the economy and that the Belgian 
employers are completely satisfied with the ar- 
rangement. In DP camps, I have picked up let- 
ters from these DP's to their families in Germany 
who will soon join them in Belgium. The letters, 
which I have here with me, indicate the great hap- 
piness of the DP immigrants to be at work again, 
to be producing, to be able to take the money that 
they had earned fi'om their pockets and put it on 
a shop counter for food and clothing, rather than 
have it doled out to them. 

Holland is very much interested in taking 
skilled nurses. Small groups have already entered 
the Dutch city hospitals as nurses' aides, paid by 
the city. Holland may also take 8,500 single men 
and women — artisans and industrial workers. 

The French apparently like the caliber of our 
DP's since members of the French Army have 
proselyted 300 woodworkers plus 180 family mem- 
bers from Augsburg in our zone and persuaded 
them to enter the adjoining French zone of occu- 
pation for work under the French Army. This 
is done on an informal basis but indicates the ac- 
ceptability of DP's to those who know them. 

Sweden and several South American countries 
are negotiating for DP's to augment their labor 
pool. Shiploads of DP's have gone to Brazil and 
Paraguay. One is on the way to Venezuela. But 
all the efforts and agreements now in sight will not 
solve the problem. They are hopeful indications 
of what might be accomplished if we joined in. 
Representatives of other governments definitely 
indicate that they are waiting to see if we are going 
to do so. 

In attending international conferences, we are 
constantly met with this question: "What is the 
United States going to do about these people?" 

94 



The Belgian representative said to me, "My 
country has a population density eight or ten times 
as great as your country's, yet we can handle some 
DP's. Why don't you ?" To this question we had 
no answer. 

It does seem clear, however, that the fourth al- 
ternative, to finally liquidate the DP problem by 
a wide resettlement program, can succeed only in 
the event that the United States aids in it by ad- 
mitting a substantial number. 

Conclusion 

I have tried to give you my observations which 
bear on your choice of the various alternatives as 
outlined by General Hilldring. I fully appreciate 
that this is a matter for the Congress and not the 
soldiers to decide. The American occupation 
forces have 600,000 DP's under their control. It 
is for the Congress to detei-mine by its action 
whether or not the Army is to be directed to turn 
back these people who were victims of the Ger- 
mans to the Germans. It is for the Congress to 
determine whether or not the Army should be di- 
rected to round them up and send them back 
against their will to the areas of eastern Europe. 
It is for the Congress to determine, by action or in- 
action, whether or not they shall continue indefi- 
nitely to be maintained in the present camps with 
such support as the United States taxpayers and 
those of other countries may contribute. It is for 
the Congress to determine whether or not resettle- 
ment in friendly countries, where they can strike 
new roots, is a desirable solution and whether or 
not it will take steps to participate in that resettle- 
ment in a way to make this solution possible. 

Summary of occupational skills of 366,653 employ- 
able displaced persons surveyed in assembly 
centers in Germany, Au^stria, and Italy, showing 
the percentage which each skill classification 
comprises of the total 

Total oj employable displaced persons surveyed . . 366, 653 



Percent of 
total 

6.7 



General classiScatlon 

Construction and maintenance 

Architects, bricklayers, carpenters, con- 
struction-machine operators, furnacemen, 
dredgemen, draftsmen, electricians, engine- 
men, glaziers, masons, blasters, painters, 
plumbers, riggers, riveters, sawmill opera- 
tors, steel workers, surveyors 

Department of State Bulletin 



General classification 

Administrative, clerical, commercial 

Auditors, bookkeepers, business executives, 
office clerks, sales clerks, office-machine 
operators, office managers, stenographers, 
interpreters, typists 

Agriculture, forestry, dairy, and food processing . 
Farmers (all types), lumbermen, hunters, 
fishermen, millers. N.B.: This does not in- 
clude agronomists, who are listed under 
"Professionals" 

Health and sanitation 

Dentists, dietitians, hospital attendants, 
midlives, nurses (all types), optometrists, 
ophthalmologists, pediatricians, physical 
therapists, physicians, surgeons, pharma- 
cists, sanitary engineers, veterinarians. 
X-ray technicians 

Miscellaneous services 

Barbers, blacksmiths, bookbinders, butchers, 
firefighters, jewellers, laundrymen, lino- 
typists, locksmiths, opticians, photogra- 
phers, piano tuners, policemen, pressmen, 
printers, projectionists, shoe and harness 
makers, undertakers, upholsterers, watch 
repairers 

Tailors and seamstresses 

Domestic and related commercial services . . . 
Workers in this category are domestics, 
waiters, kitchen help, gardeners, bakers, 
cooks 

Communications, transportation, supply .... 
Airplane mechanics, airplane pilots, auto 
mechanics, auto body repairmen, drivers, 
craters, telephone and telegraph repairmen, 
linesmen, radio operators, radio repairmen, 
railway workers, seamen, teamsters, tele- 
graph operators, telephone operators, tele- 
typists, tire rebuOders, warehousemen 

Artists 

Writers, artists, sculptors, musicians, pro- 
fessional entertainers 

Professionals 

Agronomists, clergymen, chemists, child- 
care workers, engineers (civil, electrical, in- 
dustrial, mechanical, mining), lawyers, li- 
brarians, social workers, teachers (academic, 
vocational, technical), occupational advisers 

Recreational workers 

Athletic instructors, recreation leaders 

Metal trades 

Electroplaters, foundrymen, forgemen, heat 
treaters, machine operators, machinists, 
metalsmiths, millwrights, welders, tool- 
makers 

Mining, chemicals, and processing 

Ceramic workers, glass blowers, miners, 
petroleum workers, steel-mill workers, 
quarrymen 

July 13, 1947 



Percent of 
total 

11.3 



24.5 



3.2 



9. 1 



6.2 
10.0 



7.6 



1.5 



6.4 



0.2 



2. 1 



0.4 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Percent of 
General classification total 

Miscellaneous processing 4.0 

Clothing-machine operators, coopers, leather 
workers, paper workers, rubber workers, 
power-plant installers, textile workers, wood- 
workers 

Laborers 2. 4 

Inexperienced persons 2. 3 

Students 2. 1 



Austrian Government Expresses Gratitude 
for Relief Assistance 

Letter From, Austrian Minister of Foreign 
Ajfairs to the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 2] 

There follows the text of a letter from Karl 
Gruber, Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, to 
the Secretary of State. It was delivered to the 
Secretary by Ludwig Kleinwaechter, Austrian 
Minister in Washington, on July 2.^ 

Vienna, June 26, IdJfl. 

Sir: The Federal Government has been in- 
formed that the President of the United States 
has ratified on May 1st, 1947 an act passed by Con- 
gress which authorizes the provision of relief as- 
sistance to the people of countries needing such 
assistance and that thereby the basis has been es- 
tablished on which Austria may be gi-anted such 
relief assistance within the frame authorized by 
Congress. 

On behalf of the Federal Government I beg 
to transmit to Your Excellency the expression of 
the deeply felt gratitude of the Austrian people 
for this action undertaken by the United States. 

I should also greatly appreciate it if Your 
Excellency could convey the expression of this 
feeling of thankfulness which animates all Aus- 
trians to the President, the United States Govern- 
ment and the American people. 

I beg [etc.] Gruber 



' The Secretary expressed his appreciation for this mes- 
sage and expressed the hope tliat the relief granted Aus- 
tria under the act will assist in the economic lehabilita- 
tion of that country. The Secretary also said he was 
gratified to learn that coal from the United States had 
been made available to Austria. 

95 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 

Interagency Group To Expedite Procurement 
for Greek-Aid Program 

[Released to the press by the White House July 2] 

The Assistant to the President, John R. Steel- 
man, announced on July 2 that an interagency 
working group is being established to expedite 
the procurement of materials and equipment un- 
der the Greek-aid progi-am. The interagency 
group will be composed of representatives of the 
Departments of State, Treasury, Agriculture, and 
Commerce. The respective Cabinet members are 
being asked to name their representatives at an 
early date. 

This action was taken, Mr. Steelman said, after 
Secretary Marshall had called to the attention 
of the President the necessity that all agencies of 
the Government join in giving the program their 
full and active support. 

The primary function of the working group, 
Mr. Steelman said, will be to seek out and break 
any bottlenecks that threaten to delay procure- 
ment of key items urgently needed in the Greek- 
aid program. Robert C. Turner, of Mr. Steel- 
man's staff, will serve as chairman of the group. 



Edward C. Acheson To Head Mission Planning 
Utilization of Surplus Foods for Germany 

Edward Campion Acheson has been designated 
as Special Representative of the President with 
the rank of Minister to head an American mission 
whose object is to negotiate with various northern 
European countries for the purpose of implement- 
ing Mr. Hoover's recommendation for the utiliza- 
tion of surplus foods for bizonal area of Ger- 
many. Dr. Acheson left this country on July 4 
for Berlin where he will confer with General Clay 
and with General Robertson, head of the British 
Military Government in Germany. From Berlin 
he will go on to London and other northern Euro- 
pean capitals. This mission is of special interest 
to the Secretary of War because of the War De- 
partment's concern with the economic aspects of 
the occupation policy. Dr. Acheson will be ac- 
companied by Lt. Col. George E. Deshon of the 
War Department, and he will be joined in Europe 
by other advisers from the bizonal area of Ger- 
many. 



Hungarian Banks in Central Corporation 
To Be State-Controlled 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the American Mission at Budapest that pursuant 
to decree no. 6850/1947 of June 1, 1947, all Hun- 
garian banks in the first category of member banks 
of the Central Corporation of Banking Companies 
would be placed under state control to be exercised 
through a ministerial commission. The follow- 
ing banks are listed as being in this category : 

Anglo-Hungarian Bank (Anglo-Magyar Bank R.T.) 
Hungarian General Credit Bank (Magyar Altalanos 

Hitelbank) 
Hungarian Commercial Bank of Pest (Pesti Magyar 

Kereskedelmi Bank) 
Hungarian Discount and Exchange Bank (Magyar Le- 

szamitolo es Penzvalto Bank) 
First National Savings Bank of Pest (Pesti Hazai Elso 

Takarekpenztar Egyesulet) 
City Savings Bank (Belvarosi Takarekpenztar R.T.) 
Budapest Municipal Savings Bank (Budapest Szekes- 

favarosi Kozseigi Takarekpenztar R.T.) 
Creditanstalt (Budapest Brancli) (Creditanstalt Bank- 

verein ) 
Danul)e Valley Bank (Dunavolgyi Bank R.T.) 
Hungarian-Italian Bank (Magyar Olasz Bank R.T.) 
National Land Credit Institute (Orszagos Foldhitelinte- 

zet) 
National Central Credit Cooperative (Orszagos Kosponti 

Hitelsovetkezet) 
Commerce and Industries Bank (Kereskedelmi es Ipar- 

bank) 

The decree provides that foreign nationals who 
hold shares in any of the above-named Hungarian 
banks must declare their holdings to the Central 
Corporation of Banking Companies, Szabadsag 
Ter 5-6, Budapest, Hungary, by September 1, 
1947. The decree further states that after June 
1, 1947, shares of any of these banks may be sold 
only with the permission of the Hungarian Min- 
ister of Finance. 



CONFIRIVSATIONS 



Charles E. Saltzman as Assistant Secretary 

The Senate on July 2, 1947, confirmed the nomination 
of Charles E. Saltzman to be Assistant Secretary of State 
for occupied areas. 

Ellis O. Briggs as Ambassador to Uruguay 

The Senate on July 2, 1947, confirmed the nomination of 
Ellis O. Briggs to be Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of the United States of America to Uruguay. 



96 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



U.S.-ltalian Relief Agreement 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND ITALY' 



[Released to the press July 4] 

An agreement was signed on July 3 at Eome to 
provide food relief to Italy under the recently en- 
acted foreign-relief program of the United 
States. Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi and 
Foreign Minister Count Carlo Sforza signed for 
Italy. Ambassador James Clement Dunn signed 
for the United States. 

The United States foreign-relief progi-am is 
designated to alleviate the misery of peoples in 
countries devastated by war. The Congress of the 
United States has voted 350 million dollars to 
authorize relief supplies, including food and 
medicines, to the following countries: Italy, 
Trieste area, Greece, Austria, Hungary, Poland, 
and China. This program will remain in opera- 
tion through June 30, 19-i8. 

The terms of the agreement which the two gov- 
ernments signed at Rome are based on an act of 
Congress of the United States and are virtually 
the same as those currently being negotiated with 
other eligible countries. 

The amount of funds as well as the types and 
tonnages of supplies to be authorized for Italy 
and other nations will be determined periodically 
in joint consultation as internal requirements 
manifest themselves. 

In order to insure maximum expenditure for 
actual relief supplies and to supplement the pro- 
gram with donations by American voluntary relief 
agencies, a total of five million dollars is set aside 
in law for the expense of ocean transportation and 
related costs incidental to the work of private non- 
profit American relief agencies. The assistance of 
these private agencies is expected to augment 
considerably aid received by Italy. 

The United States relief program will carry on 
the humanitarian work of UNERA, through 
which the United States contributed supplies 
valued at over 400 million dollars to Italy, and 
will give aid to the Italian economy while long- 

July 13, 1947 



term measures for the rehabilitation of Italy have 
time to become effective. 

This agreement illustrates once again the 
strong sentiments of mutual friendship and sym- 
pathy that animate the peoples of the two coun- 
tries. The purpose of the United States foreign- 
relief program is relief on a broad popular scale. 
It is another indication of the desire of the Amer- 
ican i^eople to assist Italy toward a ^^oint where 
her economy can carry on alone with full and 
unimpeded strength. 

The text of the agreement follows : ^ 

WiiEREAS, it is the desire of the United States to 
provide relief assistance to the Italian people to 
prevent suffering and to permit them to continue 
effectively their efforts toward recovery ; and 

Whereas, the Italian Government has requested 
the United States Government for relief assistance 
and has presented information which convinces 
the Government of the United States that the 
Italian Govermnent urgently needs assistance in 
obtaining the basic essentials of life for the people 
of Italy ; and 

Whereas, the United States Congress has by 
Public Law 84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, au- 
thorized the provision of relief assistance to the 
peoj^le of those countries which, in the determina- 
tion of the President, need such assistance and have 
given satisfactory assurances covering the relief 
program as required by the Act of Congress ; and 

Whereas, the Italian Government and the 
United States Government desire to define certain 
conditions and understandings concerning the 
handling and distribution of the United States 
relief supplies and to establish the general lines of 
their cooperation in meeting the relief needs of the 
Italian people ; 

The Government of the United States of America 
represented by James Clement Dumi, Ambassador 



' Printed from telegraphic text. 



97 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

of the United States of America to Italy and the 
Italian Government, represented by Alcide de 
Gasperi, President of the Council of Ministers, 
Carlo Sforza, Minister for Foreign Affairs, have 
agreed as follows : 

Article I. Furnishing of Supplies 

(a) The program of assistance to be furnished 
shall consist of such types and quantities of sup- 
plies, and procurement, storage, transportation 
and shipping services related thereto, as may be 
determined from time to time by the United States 
Government after consultation with the Italian 
Government in accordance with the Public Law 84, 
80th Congi-ess, May 31, 1947, and any Acts amend- 
atory or supplementary thereto. Such supplies 
shall be confined to certain basic essentials of life, 
namely, food, medical supplies, processsed and un- 
processed material for clothing, fertilizers, pesti- 
cides, fuel, and seeds. 

(6) Subject to the provisions of Article III, the 
United States Government will make no i-equest, 
and will have no claim, for payment for United 
States relief supplies and services furnished under 
this Agreement. 

(e) The United States Government agencies 
will provide for the procurement, storage, trans- 
portation and shipment to Italy of United States 
relief supplies, except to the extent that the United 
States Government may authorize other means for 
the performance of these services in accordance 
with procedures stipulated by the United States 
Government. All United States relief supplies 
.shall be procured in the United States except when 
specific approval for procurement outside the 
United States is given by the United States 
Government. 

(d) The Italian Government will from time to 
time submit in advance to the United States Gov- 
ernment its proposed programs for relief import 
requirements to be furnished by the United States. 
These programs shall be subject to screening and 
approval by the United States Government and 
procurement will be authorized only for items con- 
tained in the approved programs. 

(e) Transfers of United States relief supplies 
shall be made under arrangements to be deter- 
mined by the United States Government in con- 
sultation with the Italian Government. The 
United States Government, whenever it deems it 
desirable, may retain possession of any United 

98 



States relief supplies, or may recover possession 
of such supplies transferred, up to the city or 
local community where such supplies are made 
available to the ultimate consumers. 

Article II. Distribution of Supplies in Italy 

(a) All United States relief supplies shall be 
distributed by the Italian Government under the 
direct supervision and control of the United States 
representatives and in accordance with the terms 
of this Agreement. The distribution will be 
through commercial channels to the extent feas- 
ible and desirable. 

(b) All United States relief supply imports 
shall be free of fiscal charges including customs 
duties up to the point where they are sold for 
local currency as provided by Article III of this 
Agreement unless when because of price practices, 
it is advisable to include customs charges or 
government taxes in prices fixed, in which case 
the amount thus collected on United States relief 
supply imports will accrue to the special account 
referred to in Article III. All United States re- 
lief supply imports given free to indigents, insti- 
tutions and others will be free of fiscal charges, 
including customs duties. 

(c) The Italian Government will designate 
a high ranking official who shall have the respon- 
sibility of liaison between the Italian Government 
and the United States representatives responsible 
for the relief program. 

(d) The Italian Government will distribute 
United States relief supplies and similar supplies 
produced locally or imported from outside sources 
without discrimination as to race, creed or politi- 
cal belief, and will not permit the diversion of 
any such supplies to non-essential uses or for ex- 
port or removal from the country while need there- 
for for relief purposes continues. The Italian 
Government will not permit the diversion of an 
excessive amount of United States relief supplies 
and similar supplies produced locally or imported 
from outside sources to assist in the maintenance 
of armed forces. 

(e) The Italian Government will so conduct 
the distribution of United States relief supplies 
and similar supplies produced locally or imported 
from outside sources as to assure a fair share of 
the supplies to all classes of the people and will 
maintain a ration and price control system to 
that end wherever practicable. 

Department of State Bulletin 



(/) Distribution shall be so conducted that all 
classes of the population, irrespective of purchas- 
ing power, shall receive their fair share of sup- 
plies covered in this Agreement. 

Article III. Utilization of Fu7ids Accruing From 
Sales of United States Stipplies 

(a) The prices at which the United States re- 
lief supplies will be sold in Italy shall be agreed 
upon between the Italian Government and the 
United States Government. 

(b) Wlien the United States relief supplies are 
sold for local currency, the amount of such local 
currency will be deposited by the Italian Govern- 
ment in a special account in the name of the Italian 
Government. 

(c) Until June 30, 1948, such funds shall be 
disposed of only upon approval of the duly au- 
thorized representatives of the United States Gov- 
ernment for relief and work relief purposes within 
Italy, including local currency expenses of the 
United States incident to the furnishing of relief. 
Any unencumbered balance remaining in such ac- 
count on June 3, 1948, shall be disposed of within 
Italy for such purposes as the United States Gov- 
ernment, pursuant to Act or Joint Resolution of 
Congress, may determine. 

(d) The Italian Government will upon request 
advance funds to the United States representa- 
tives to meet local currency expenses incident to 
the furnishing of relief. 

(e) While it is not intended that the funds ac- 
cruing from sales of the United States relief sup- 
plies normally will be used to defray the local 
expenses of the Italian Government in handling 
and distributing the United States relief supplies, 
including local currency costs of discharging cargo 
and other port charges, the United States repre- 
sentatives will consider with the Italian Govern- 
ment the use of the funds to cover the unusual 
costs which would place an undue burden on the 
Italian Government. 

(/) The Italian Government will each month 
make available to the United States representa- 
tives reports on collections, balances and expendi- 
tures from the fund. 

(g) The Italian Government will assign offi- 
cials to confer and plan with the United States 
representatives regarding the disposition of funds 

July 13, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

accruing from sales and to assure a prompt and 
proper use of such funds. 

Article IV. Effective Production., Food Collections 
and Use of Resowces to Reduce Relief Needs 

(a) The Italian Government will exert all pos- 
sible efforts to secure the maximum production and 
collection of locally produced supplies needed for 
relief purposes. 

(5) The Italian Government undertakes not 
to permit any measures to be taken involving de- 
livery, sale or granting of any articles of the char- 
acter covered in this Agreement which would re- 
duce the locally produced supply of such articles 
and thereby increase the burden of relief. 

(c) The Italian Government will furnish regu- 
larly current information to the United States 
representatives regarding plans and progress in 
achieving this objective. 

(d) The Italian Government affirms that it has 
taken and is taking in so far as possible the eco- 
nomic measures necessary to reduce its relief needs 
and to provide for its own future reconstruction. 

Article V. United States Mission 

(a) The United States Government will attach 
to the United States Embassy in Rome, represen- 
tatives who will constitute a relief mission and 
will, in cooperation with the regular Embassy staff, 
discharge the responsibilities of the United States 
Government under this Agreement and the Public 
Law 84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947. The Italian 
Government will permit and facilitate the move- 
ment of the United States representatives to, in 
and from Italy. 

(h) The Italian Government will permit and 
facilitate in every way the freedom of the United 
States representatives to supervise, inspect, report 
and travel throughout Italy at any and all times, 
and will cooperate fully with them in carrying out 
all of the provisions of this Agreement. The Ital- 
ian Government will furnish the necessary auto- 
mobile transportation to permit the United States 
representatives to travel freely throughout Italy 
and without delay. 

(c) The United States representatives and the 
property of the mission andof its personnel shall 
enjoj' in Italy the same privileges and immunities 
as are enjoyed by the persomiel of the United 

99 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

States Embassy in Italy and the property of the 
Embassy and of its personnel. 

Article VI. Freedom of United States Press and 
Radio Representatives to Observe and Report 

The Italian Government agrees to permit repre- 
sentatives of the United States Press and Radio 
to observe freely and report fully and without 
censorship regarding the distribution and utiliza- 
tion of relief supplies and the use of funds accru- 
ing from the sale of United States relief supplies. 

Article VII. Reports, Statistics and Infoimation 

(a) The Italian Government will maintain 
adequate statistical and other records on relief 
and will consult with the United States repre- 
sentatives, upon their request, with regard to the 
maintenance of such records. 

(i) The Italian Government will furnish 
promptly upon request of the United States repre- 
sentatives information concerning the production, 
use, distribution, unportation, and expoi'tation of 
any supplies which affect the relief needs of the 
people. 

(c) In case United States representatives re- 
port apparent abuses or violations of this Agree- 
ment, the Italian Government will investigate and 
report and promptly take such remedial action as 
is necessary to correct such abuses or violations as 
are found to exist. 

Article VIII. Publicity Regarding United States 
Assistance 

(a) The Italian Government will permit and 
arrange full and continuous publicity regarding 
the purpose, source, character, scope, amounts and 
progress of the United States relief program in 
Italy, including the utilization of funds accruing 
from the sales of United States relief supplies for 
the benefit of the people. 

(b) All United States relief supplies and any 
articles processed from such supplies, or contain- 
ers of such supplies or articles, shall, to the extent 
practicable, be marked, stamped, branded, or la- 
belled in a conspicuous place in such a manner 
as to indicate to the ultimate consumer that such 
supplies or articles have been furnished by the 
United States for relief assistance; or if such 

100 



supplies, articles or containers are incapable of 
being so marked, stamped, branded, or labelled, 
all practicable steps will be taken by the Italian 
Government to inform the ultimate consumer 
thereof ,that such supplies or articles have been 
furnished by the United States for relief assist- 
ance. 

Article IX. Termination of Relief Assistance 

The United States Government will terminate 
any or all of its relief assistance at any time when- 
ever it determines (1) by reason of changed con- 
ditions, the provision of relief assistance of the 
character authorized by the Public Law 84, 80th 
Congress, May 31, 1947, is no longer necessary (2) 
any provisions of this Agreement are not being 
carried out (3) an excessive amount of United 
States relief supplies, or of similar supplies pro- 
duced locally or imported from outside sources, 
is being used to assist in the maintenance of armed 
forces in Italy, or (4) United States relief sup- 
plies or similar supplies produced locally or im- 
ported from outside sources are being exported or 
removed from Italy. The United States Govern- 
ment may stop or alter its program of assistance 
whenever in its determination other circumstances 
warrant such action. 

Article X. Date of Agreement 

This Agi-eement shall take effect as from this 
day's date. It shall continue in force until a date 
to be agreed upon by the two Governments. 

Done in duplicate in the English and Italian 
languages at Rome, this 4th day of July, 1947. 

James Clement Dunn 
For the Government of the United States 

Alcide de Gaspeei 
Carlo Sforza 
For the Goverimient of Italy 

U.S. Delegation to Liberian 
Centennial Celebration 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 1 the 
composition of the United States Delegation to the 
Liberian Centennial Celebration, scheduled to be 
held at Monrovia, Liberia, from July 24 to August 

Department of State Bulletin 



11, 1947. The United States Delegation is as 
follows : 

President's Special Representative With Persorml Rank of 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 

Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis, U.S.A. 

Representatives 

Col. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Military Aide, U.S.A. 

Sidney de La Rue, Special Assistant to the Director of 
Near Eastern Affairs, Department of State 

Dudley C. Bostwick, Country Specialist, Division of Afri- 
can Affairs, Department of State 

The purpose of the celebration is to commemo- 
rate the one hundredth anniversary of the inde- 
pendence of the Republic of Liberia. The pro- 
gram will demonstrate the progress and develop- 
ment of this African republic whose government 
is modeled after that of the United States of 
America. Liberia, founded by the American 
Colonization Society in 1822, declared her inde- 
pendence on July 26, 1847. 

The United States Navy is dispatching the fol- 
lowing ships which are scheduled to arrive at 
Monrovia on July 24 to attend the ceremonies: 
The U.S.S. Palau, an escort aircraft carrier, the 
U.S.S. T. E. Frazier, a destroyer, and the U.S.S. 
Shunnon, a destroyer. The United States Dele- 
gation will arrive at Monrovia aboard the U.S.S. 
Palau and will return to the United States on the 
same vessel. 

Burma Assembly Expresses Friendship for U.S. 

Letter From Chairman of the Burma Cor^stitu^nt 
Assembly to the 8ecretary of State 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The following letter dated June 13 from Thakin 
Mya, Chairman of the Constituent Assembly of 
Burma, has been received in reply to the Secretary 
of State's message read before the Burma Con- 
stituent Assembly at Eangoon on June 10, 1947 : ^ 

Sir: On behalf of myself and the Constituent 
Assembly of Burma, 1 desire to thank you most 
warmly for your very kind message of good will 
and good wishes which has been most deeply ap- 
preciated by the Constituent Assembly and coun- 
try. Such cordial greetings and sincere good 
wishes from the Government and people of the 
United States of America, at the outset of our 

Jo/y 13, 7947 



THE RECORD OF THC WEEK 

deliberations, would be a source of inspiration 
and encouragement to us in the task of framing a 
constitution for free and united Burma. I can as- 
sure you that free Burma will regard it as its spe- 
cial duty and privilege to maintain most cordial 
and friendly relations with your country and to 
make all possible contributions to the peace and 
happiness of the world. 
Yours sincerely, 

Thakin Mta 

Prince Saif ai-islam Abdullah of Yemen 
Visits the United States 

The Department of State announced on July 3 
that Prince Saif al-Islam Abdullah of Yemen, 
sixth son of the Imam Yahya, has accepted an in- 
vitation of this Government to visit the United 
States. It is expected that Prince Abdullah will 
come by air from Cairo with three companions 
and will arrive in Washington July 8. He will 
be the official guest of the Department during a 
three-day stay in this city. 

This Government and the Kingdom of Yemen 
established diplomatic relations on March 4, 1946, 
and Prince Abdullah's visit will afford an oppor- 
tunity for discussions with the Secretary of State 
and other American officials on questions of mutual 
interest to the two Governments. Following his 
official visit in Washington it is expected that 
Prince Abdullah will travel in various parts of the 
United States. This will be the first visit to this 
country of any Yemeni official. 

SCAP Supervision of Japanese Laborers 
on Angaur Island 

Statement ly the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The Australian Goverimient on May 29 ex- 
pressed its concern over a reported decision by 
the Supreme Commander to transfer responsibil- 
ity for the management of the Angaur phosphate 
industry to the Japanese laborers in an area close 
to AustraUan fisheries. In fact, the operation is 
and will remain under the close supervision of the 
Supreme Commander's Headquarters. All Japa- 
nese will be returned to Japan on completion of the 



' BuixETiN of June 29, 1947, p. 1314. 



101 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

project, which is designated to alleviate the fer- 
tilizer shortage in Japan and so reduce the burden 
of Japanese food supplies on the United States. 
The Supreme Commander has been informed of 
the Australian Government's concern and, in an- 
swer to our request, has provided full information 
in the matter. 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

[Released to the press by the Inter-Allied Trade Board July 3] 

The Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan an- 
nounced on July 3 its unanimous agreement on the 
allocation of the initial 400 private traders which 
the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers 
announced on June 9 would be permitted to enter 
Japan for trade after August 15. 

In reaching its agreement the Board gave con- 
sideration to such factors as the prewar trade pat- 
terns and volume, the possible contribution to 
Japanese trade, and the number of traders from 
each country who were in Japan in prewar years. 
The Board said that it would keep the distribution 
under review in the light of the actual development 
of trade with Japan. 

Inquiries being received from businessmen are 
far beyond the accommodations immediately avail- 



able, and all members of the Board urged that, in 
view of the widespread interest in restoring private 
trade with Japan, the accommodations available 
should be expanded at an early date. 

The number of entrants permitted each country 
is as follows : 

Country Number 

United States 102 

China 64 

United Kingdom (and colonies) 64 

India 39 

Netherlands (and N.E.I.) 27 

Australia 23 

France (and French Indochina) 16 

Canada 8 

New Zealand 6 

Philippines 6 

Others 45 

Total 4(K) 

No allocation has been made to the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics; the provision to be 
made for representatives of Soviet trade organiza- 
tions is still under consideration. 

Entry permits will be issued by the Supreme 
Commander for the Allied Powers, but traders 
should make application to their own govern- 
ments. 



-' . 



Sales and Transfer of Nondemilitarized Combat Materiel 



[Released to the press June 23] 

a list of authorizations and 



The following is 
transfers of surplus nondemilitarized combat ma- 
teriel effected by the Department of State in its 



capacity as foreign-surplus and lend-lease disposal 
agent, during the months of April and May 1947 
and reported to the Munitions Division tlirough 
June 20, 1947 : 



Country 


Description of matSricl 


Procurement cost 


Sales price 


Date of 
transfer 


Brazil 


Miscellaneous cartridges, shells, fuses, grenades, and 
rockets. 


$933, 174. 84 


$73, 195. 88 


4/28/47 




Miscellaneous cartridges, clips, shells, rockets, signals, 


117, 112. 18 


15, 163. 00 


5/2/47 




bayonet knives, bayonets, machine guns, howitzers, 










grenade launchers, mortars, pistols, projectors, and 










rifles. 










Thirty P-5 ID aircraft 


1, 574, 670. 00 


300, 000. 00 


4/25/47 






288. 70 


15. 38 


4/7/47 






3, 900. 00 


390. 00 


5/22/47 


Cuba 


Three patrol frigates; five submarine chasers 


8, 592, 280. 00 


87, 500 00 


5/15/47 


El Salvador . . 


Miscellaneous cartridges, rifle grenades, shells, and 
fuses. 


20, 934. 66 


1, 448. 98 


4/18/47 


Peru 


Six Navy model PV-2 aircraft and spare parts .... 


1, 128, 959. 00 


49, 500. 00 


4/17/47 





102 



Department of Stale Bulletin 






Air-Transport Agreement With Portugal Revised 



[Released to the press June 30] 

The Department of State announced on June 
30 that the annex of the bilateral air-transport 
agreement concluded with the Portuguese Govern- 
ment on December 6, 1945, has been revised in 
accordance with an exchange of notes and sup- 
plementary letters between the American Embassy 
in Lisbon and the Portuguese Government. 

The United States routes authorized under the 
original agreement have been extended and revised 
as follows : 

Route One, which formerly read "United States 
to the Azores to Lisbon and beyond to (a) London 
and (b) Barcelona and points beyond; in both 
directions", has been amended to read "The United 
States to the Azores and thence (a) to London and 
beyond on a route without stops in the Iberian 
Peninsula, and (b) to Lisbon and thence (a) to 
London and (b) to Barcelona and points beyond". 

A new route has been added to provide for the 
Pan American Airwaj's' certificated route from 
the United States via the Azores to the Union of 
South Africa, reading as follows: "The United 
States to the Azores and points beyond to the 
Union of South Africa." 

In addition, use of the Azores by United States 
civil air carriers has been provided as follows: 

"In addition to the routes enumerated above air- 
lines of the United States of America are accorded 
the right of non-traffic stop at the Azores on trans- 
Atlantic routes between the United States and 
the continent of Europe including the British Isles 
on routes without stops in the Iberian Peninsula." 

The Portuguese routes authorized under the 
original agreement have been extended and re- 
vised as follows : 

Route One, which formerly granted the Portu- 
guese a route to New York via the Azores and 
Bermuda, now reads: "Lisbon via the Azores (a) 
to Bermuda, New York City and Boston or (b) to 
Gander, Boston and New York City." 

In addition a second route has been granted 
to the Portuguese from Lisbon via the Azores and 
Bermuda to Miami and beyond. 

July 13, 1947 



A new section (section 2) has also been added 
to the annex for the purpose of bringing the agree- 
ment more closely in line with Bermuda principles. 

In a supplementary exchange of letters it is also 
provided that the United States will be accorded 
rights of transit and non-traffic stop in Portu- 
guese territory on the route "United States via 
the east coast of South America and intermediate 
points to Johannesburg and Capetown", and that 
Portugal will be accorded similar rights in United 
States territory on the route "Lisbon via the Azores 
and/or Gander to Montreal". 

Revised Text of Annex ^ 

Section I. (A) Airlines of the United States 
of America authorized under the present agree- 
ment are accorded rights of transit and non-traffic 
stop in Portuguese territory. The right to pick 
up and discharge international traffic in passen- 
gers, cargo and mail at the Azores, Lisbon and 
Macao is granted on the following routes via in- 
termediate points in both directions. 

1. The United States to the Azores and thence 
(a) to London and beyond on a route without 
stops in the Iberian Peninsula, and (b) to Lisbon 
and thence (a) to London and (b) to Barcelona 
and points beyond. 

2. The United States to Lisbon (the airline 
operating this route will have the right of non- 
traffic stop at the Azores) thence to Madrid and 
points beyond. 

3. The United States to the Azores and points 
beyond to the Union of South Africa. 

4. The United States via intermediate points 
in the Pacific to Macao thence to Hong Kong 
(and/or Canton). 

In addition to the routes enumerated above 
airlines of the United States of America are ac- 
corded the right of non-traffic stop at the Azores 
on trans-Atlantic routes between the United States 
and the continent of Europe including the British 
Isles on routes without stops in the Iberian 
Peninsula. 

(B) Airlines of Portugal authorized under the 
present agreement are accorded rights of transit 



^ Printed from telegraphic text. 



103 



THE RECORD Of THE WEBK 

and non-traffic stop in the territory of the United 
States as well as the right to pick up and discharge 
international traffic in passengers, cargo and mail 
at New York, Boston, and Miami on the following 
routes via intermediate points in both directions : 

1. Lisbon via the Azores (a) to Bermuda, New 
York City and Boston or (b) to Gander, Boston 
and New York City. 

2. Lisbon via the Azores and Bermuda to Miami 
and beyond. 

Section II. The contracting parties agree on 
the following : 

(1) That the air transport facilities available 
to the traveling public should bear a close relation- 
ship to the requirements of the public for such 
transport. 

(2) There shall be a fair and equal opportunity 
for the airlines of the two nations to operate on 
any route between their respective territories cov- 
ered by the agreement and this annex. 

(3) That in the operation by the air carriers of 
either government of the trunk services described 
in this annex the interest of the air carriers of the 
other government shall be taken into consideration 
so as not to affect unduly the services which the 
latter provides on all or part of the same routes. 

(4) It is understood by both governments that 
services provided by a designated airline under 
the agreement and this annex shall retain as their 
primary objective the provision of capacity ade- 
quate to the traffic demands between the country 
of which such airline is a national and the coun- 
try of ultimate destination of the traffic. The 
right to embark or disembark on such services in- 
ternational traffic destined for and coming from 
third countries at a point or points on the routes 
specified in this annex shall be applied in accord- 
ance with the general principles of orderly de- 
velopment to which both governments subscribe 
and shall be subject to the general principle that 
capacity should be related: (a) To traffic require- 
ments between the country of origin and the coun- 
tries of destination; (b) to requirements of 
through airline operation and (c) to the traffic 
requirements of the area through which the air- 
line passes after taking account of local and 
regional services. 

' 12 Fedtral RcgMcr 1935. 
104 



Text of supplementary letter 

It is mutually agreed by the Governments of 
the United States of America and of Portugal that, 
in addition to the routes described in the annex 
to the air transport agreement between the United 
States of America and Portugal, dated December 
6, 1945, airlines of the United States of America 
operating on the following route are accorded the 
rights of transit and non-traffic stop in Portuguese 
territory : (a) The United States via the east coast 
of South America and intermediate pomts to Jo- 
hannesburg and Capetown. 

It is equally agreed that airlines of Portugal 
operating on the following route are accorded the 
rights of transit and non-traffic stop in United 
States territory: (b) Lisbon via the Azores 
and/or Gander to Montreal. 



' 

s 



Termination of Ten Employees Under McCar- 
ran Rider to 1947 Appropriation Act 

Statement hy the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The Department statement announced on June 
27 that it had terminated 10 employees. These ter- 
minations were made under the so-called McCar- 
ran rider to the 1947 Appropriation Act giving 
the Secretary of State authority and responsibility 
for summary action where the Government's inter- 
ests appear to warrant this action. 

Many of the news stories made reference to "con- 
tinuing investigations" in the Department. I ar 
merely taking steps to assure myself of the securitj 
of the Department and the loyalty of the person- 
nel. I have asked that the FBI give priority to 
name check of State Department employees.' 
These name checks were called for on all Federal 
employees by the President in Executive Order 
9835 of March 21.' 

I wisli to emphasize that I am certain that the 
great bulk of the employees of the Department are 
wholly loyal and conscientious. We are not en- 
gaged in a witch-hunt and I will not permit un- 
founded charges based on prejudice to force our 
hand. I mean to see that the rights of the per- 
sonnel as well as the interests of the Government 
are secured. 

Department of Stafe BulleI'm 






Action Urged on Information and Educational Exchange Act 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE' 



There is no question today that the policies and 
actions of the United States are often misunder- 
stood and misrepresented abroad. The facts about 
the United States are withheld or falsified and our 
motives are distorted. Our actions do not always 
speak for themselves unless the people of other 
countries have some understanding of the peaceful 
intention of our people. An understanding of our 
motives and our institutions can come only from 
a knowledge of the political principles which our 
history and traditions have evolved, and of daily 
life in the United States. 

Winning this understanding is in part a problem 
of broadcasting and of making the facts known to 
the press everywhere. I urge the Congress to en- 
able us to engage in these activities so vital to the 
success of our foreign policy. In addition, there 
are countries of the world where understanding of 
America can best be advanced by sending a few 
governmental advisers, or by bringing students to 
the United States, or by training in our Depart- 
ment of Agriculture or our Weather Bureau a few 
foreign technicians, or by a combination of these 
activities.. Such activities provide opportunity 
for contacts which develop lasting impressions of 
the United States. 

Our libraries abroad have come to be world-wide 
reference centers on what is developing in the 
United States. They contain books on our home 
building, our public health, our fire and accident 
prevention, as well as our economic and cultural 
developments. These libraries are used often by 
editors of foreign newspapers and magazines. The 
Department is reluctant to see any of these li- 
braries closed, but some must be closed under the 
limited appropriations recently voted by the 
Senate. 

I earnestly hope that the Senate will act on this 
bill, H.R. 3342,^ at the present session of Congress, 
and not postpone action until next January. We 
shall have some serious handicaps if the bill is 
furtlier delayed. 

First, this bill has come to be identified very 

July 13, 1947 



closely with the problem of appropriations. The 
amount of money which the Senate recently ap- 
proved for the information program represents 
only about half of the amount requested by the 
Pi'esident. This sum will certainly not enable the 
Department to carry on the information activities 
at a level which our Embassies abroad consider to 
be essential. Many members of the Senate, I am 
advised, have said they are reluctant to approve 
additional funds for information work until the 
Mundt bill becomes law. 

Second, there are serious personnel problems 
growing out of the insecurity of this program. 
It is true that we must reduce the total staff for 
information work by more than half. At the same 
time the Department has been looking for a few 
top-level persons to fill key positions. We have 
not been able to obtain the caliber of replacements 
we need so long as congressional approval of the 
program is in doubt. 

Third, the Department now has requests from a 
number of foreign governments asking for Amer- 
ican governmental advisers. Some of these re- 
quests include offers to reimburse the full expense. 
The Department does not now have the authority 
for the assignment of such advisers outside of the 
Western Hemisphere, except to Liberia and the 
Philippines. Officers of the Department who will 
testify later can give you the details of these 
requests. 

I would like to say a few words about section 
601, concerning the Advisory Commission, known 
as the Dirksen amendment, which constitutes title 
VI of the bill. It begins at the bottom of page 
11. According to its title, it provides for a Com- 
mission which advises the Secretary of State, but 
the language which follows might be construed 



'Jlade before the Subcommittee of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations on July 2, 1947, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

-Introduced to the House by Congressman Karl 
Mundt and entitled "U.S. Information and Educational 
Exchange Act of 1&47." 

105 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

to permit the Commission actually to formulate 
the policies to be carried out. 

Any Secretary of State will welcome the best 
advice he can obtain for this program. But the 
bill of course should not seek to remove the deter- 
mination of foreign policies from the responsi- 
bilities of the President and the Secretary of 
State. 

Our Ambassadors and their staffs in the field 
are often the principal source of guidance for 
our information policy. The Ambassadors know 
the people to whom this information is sent. They 
observe the results. 

The Advisory Commission would also be given 
a voice in the assignment of American officials 
as advisers to other governments. I cannot im- 
agine an activity of government which is more 
intimately connected with our political and eco- 
nomic relations. 



But it is not absolutely necessary, I am advised, 
that the bill be amended in this regard. The ad- 
visory character of the Commission can be made 
known by a paragraph of interpretation to that 
effect in the committee report. 

My principal purpose in coming before you 
is to ask the Congress before it adjourns to lay a 
firm legislative foundation under the program 
of making known the truth about our country. I 
consider this a very important factor in the suc- 
cessful conduct of our foreign relations. 

The legislative staff of the Department has pre- 
pared five proposed amendments which would 
modify certain changes made by the House. I 
shall leave these amendments with the committee 
in written form. I shall not discuss them at this 
time because I believe you will wish to study them 
with members of the Department staff who have 
prepared them for your consideration. 



United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Operations Terminated 

LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT FROM THE DIRECTOR GENERAL OF UNRRA 



[Released to the press by the White House June 30] 

The President received on June 30 the following 
letter from Maj. Gen. Lotoell W. Rooks., Director 
General of the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration 

Mt Dear Mr. President: The great work of 
the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration, to which the United States has 
made such an outstanding contribution, is now 
drawing to a close and its operations are, for the 
most part, reaching their termination on the 30th 
of June. 

In my service as Director General of UNRRA, 
I have had an opportunity to see the countries 
and talk to the people to whom it has provided 
invaluable assistance. I have seen the effects of 
its work — the hungry who have been fed, the war 
shattered economies which have been helped to- 
ward restoration, the uprooted persons who have 
been given a chance to return to useful lives in 
their homelands throughout the world. 

The people, the Congress and the President of 
the United States, in the splendid American tradi- 



tion of generous response to suffering wherever it 
appears, have through UNRRA made a contribu- 
tion the value of which should long outlast the 
supplies which UNRRA has provided. From my 
visits to all the receiving countries as Director 
General of UNRRA, I am convinced, despite the 
deterioration of the international political situa- 
tion, of the warm gratitude felt by the common 
people for the help given by UNRRA and by the 
United States, its largest contributor. That 
gratitude, I most earnestly hope, will provide a 
lasting basis for good will and friendship on the 
part of people of the world. In any event, surely 
it was right that we in the United States should 
come to the aid of those of our Allies who had 
suffered more; it was right that we should keep 
our commitments made in time of war; it was 
right to suppose that the people of the United 
States would never wish to live amid overplenty 
while millions starved and despaired in the war- 
torn countries. 

In sum, it can be stated of UNRRA's work that 
it prevented actual starvation in Europe and in 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



all except a few remote areas of China — but only 
by the narrowest of margins; there have been 
conditions of widespread hunger and undernour- 
ishment, and they still exist. Wliile agriculture 
and industry in the devastated countries still have 
a long way to go before real recovery is achieved, 
there is not the slightest doubt that inestimably 
better conditions now exist than would otherwise 
have been the case. Outstanding success has been 
achieved by UNRRA, through such measures as 
our very effective anti-malarial campaigns, in pre- 
venting all major epidemics. 

In the closing days of UNRRA, therefore, I am 
sure that I can speak for the coimtless millions 
who have been helped in voicing to you, and 
through you to the people of the United States, 
their thanks and profoundest appreciation for 
the vital assistance provided to them in their criti- 
cal need. As a citizen of the United States, I 
am personally proud to be able to feel that such 
assistance was made available in large measure 
due to the generosity of my own country. 

I am sure that, although UNRRA is now com- 
ing to an end, the generosity and enlightened in- 
terest of the United States will make themselves 
felt through other channels and that UNRRA it- 
self will remain a symbol for the future of inter- 
national cooperation and good will. 
Sincerely yours, 

Lowell W. Rooks 

Director General 



Argentine Writer and Paraguayan 
Publisiier Visit U.S. 

A prominent author and a prominent editor 
from Latin America have arrived in Washington 
for a three-month tour of the United States to 
visit literary and art centers, newspapers, and 
schools of journalism under arrangements made 
by the Department of State. They are Alberto 
Prando, vice president of the Argentine Society 
of Authors, of Buenos Aires, and Arturo 
Schaerer, editor and publisher of La Tribuna, 
leading daily newspaper of Asuncion, Paraguay. 
The visits were arranged by the Division of 
International Exchange of Persons under the pro- 
gram of the Department's Office of International 
1 Information and Cultural Affairs for cultural co- 



THe RECORD OF THE WEEK 

operation with the other American republics. The 
visitors were selected by the American Embassies 
in Argentina and Paraguay. 

THE CONGRESS 

Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, and the Judi- 
ciary Appropriation Bill, 1948. S. Kept. 343, SOtli Cong., 
1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 3311. 36 pp. [State De- 
partment, pp. 3-4, 12-18, 23, 27-29.] 

Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation for Assistance 
to Greece and Turl^ey : Communication from the President 
of the United States transmitting supplemental estimate 
of appropriation for the fiscal year 1947 in the amount 
of $400,000,000 for assistance to Greece and Turkey. H. 
Doc. 344, SOth Cong., 1st sess. 2 pp. 

International Trade Organization : Hearings before the 
Committee on Finance, United States Senate, SOth Cong., 
1st sess., on trade agreements system and proposed Inter- 
national Trade Organization charter. Part 1, Testimony, 
March 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, AprU 1, 2, 3, 1947. 
Part 2, Exhibits. 1425 pp. 

Price Support Program for Wool : Hearings before the 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States 
Senate, SOth Cong., 1st sess., on S. 103, S. S14, and S. 917, 
bills to provide a price support program for wool, and 
for other purposes. March 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, and April 
1, 1947. 212 pp. 

Regulating Powers of Attorney General To Suspend De- 
portation of Aliens : Hearings before Subcommittee on 
Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the 
Judiciary, House of Representatives, SOth Cong., 1st sess., 
on H.R. 245, H.R. 674, H.R. 1115, and H.R. 2933, bills to 
amend subsections (c) and (d) of section 19 of the Immi- 
gration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended. February 
26, March 19, April 21, 25, 28, 29, and May 2, 1947. Serial 
no. 5. 151 pp. 

National Defense Establishment (Unification of the 
Armed Services) : Hearings before the Committee on 
Armed Services, United States Senate, SOth Cong., 1st 
sess., on S. 758, a bill to promote the national security 
by providing for a national defense establishment which 
shall be administered by a Secretary of National Defense, 
and for a Department of the Army, a Department of the 
Navy, and a Department of the Air Force within the 
National Defense Establishment, and for the coordination 
of the activities of the National Defense Establishment 
with other Departments and Agencies of the Government 
concerned with the national security. Part 2, April 8, 9, 
15, 18, 22, 24, and 25, 1947. Part 3, April 30, May 2, 6, 
7, 9, 1947. 467 pp. 

Amending the Act of June 28, 1935, Authorizing Partic- 
ipation by the United States in the Interparliamentary 
Union. H. Rept. 716, SOth Cong., 1st sess., To accompany 
S. 1005. 4 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Providing Support for Wool. S. Rept. 377, SOth Cong., 
1st sess.. To accompany S. 1498. 1 p. 

Providing for Returns of Italian Property in the United 
States. S. Rept. 390, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany 
S. J. Res. 138. 4 pp. 



Ju/y ?3, 7947 



107 



The United Nations Page 

Report on Preparatory Commission for the 

IRO. Article by David Persinger ... 61 

U.S. Becomes Member of International 
Refugee Organization. Statement by 
the President 64 

U.N. Documents: Selected Bibliography . . 73 

Approval Recommended for Trusteeship 
Agreement for Territory of the Pacific 
Islands: 
The President's Message to the Congress . 74 

Statement by the President 74 

U.S. Transmits Information on Conditions 

in Non-Self-Governing Territories ... 75 

Summary Statement by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. Matters of Which the Security 
Council Is Seized and the Stage Reached 
in Their Consideration 76 

Control and Administration of Headquarters 
of the United Nations. The President's 
Letter of Transmittal 78 

U.S. Delegation to Special Cereals Confer- 
ence of FAO 79 

Agenda for Third FAO Conference .... 79 

General Policy 

A Study of Conditions Necessary To Assure 

Poiifical Defense 65 

Toward Common Goals of Peace. Address 

by the President 80 

Supplies Shipped to Weather Stations in 

Canadian Far North 82 

A Stable and Prosperous World Is Important 
to America's Weil-Being. By the Secre- 
tary of State 83 

Visit of Peruvian Foreign Minister .... 84 

Letters of Credence: Paraguay 84 

Interagency Group To Expedite Procurement 

for Greek-Aid Program 96 

Edward C. Acheson To Head Mission Plan- 
ning Utilization of Surplus Foods for 
Germany 96 

U.S. Delegation to Liberian Centennial Cele- 
bration 100 

Burma Assembly Expresses Friendship for 
U.S. Letter From Chairman of the 
Burma Constituent Assembly to the 
Secretary of State 101 

Prince Saif al-Islam Abdullah of Yemen 

Visits U.S 101 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 

Administration Operations Terminated . 106 



Economic Affairs Page 

Report of the Cabinet Committee on World 
P'ood Programs. Statement by the 
President 85 

Lend-Lease, Surplus Property, and Export- 
Import Bank Payments. Statements by 
the Secretary of State 85 

Sales and Transfer of Nondemilitarized Com- 
bat Materiel 102 

Occupation Matters 

Dissolution of Japan's Feudal Combines. 
Article by Raymond Vernon and Caro- 
lene Wachenheimer 55 

The Future of Displaced Persons in Europe. 

Statement by I,t. Col. Jerry M. Sage . . 86 

Austrian Government E.\presses Gratitude 
for Relief Assistance. Letter From Aus- 
trian Minister of Foreign Affairs to the 
Secretary of State 95 

Hungarian Banks in Central Corporation To 

Be State-Controlled 96 

SCAP Supervision of Japanese Laborers on 
Angaur Island. Statement by the Secre- 
tary of State 101 

Inter- -Allied Trade Board for Japan .... 102 

Treaty Information 

U.S. Becomes Member of International Refu- 
gee Organization. Statement by the 

President 64 

U.S.-Italian Relief Agreement 97 

Air-Transport Agreement With Portugal Re- 
vised 103 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Action Urged on Information and Education- 
al Exchange Act. Statement by the 
Secretary of State 105 

Argentine Writer and Paraguayan Publisher 

Visit United States 107 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations: Ellis O. Briggs as .Embassador 

to Uruguay 96 

The Congress 64, 107 

The Department 

Confirmations: Charles E. Saltzman as Assist- 
ant Secretary 96 

Termination of Ten Employees. Statement 

by the Secretary of State 104 



idc/y^ 



Raymond Vernon and Caroleve 'Wachenheimer, authors of the article 
on the dissolution of Japan's feudal combines, are members of the staff 
of the International Resources Division, Office of International Trade 
Policy, Department of State ; Mr. Vernon is Assistant Chief, and Miss 
Wachenheimer is an Economist. 

David Pei-sinyer, author of the article on the Preparatory Commission 
for the IRO, was an adviser to the U.S. Representative to the Prepara- 
tory Commission. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947 



IF' 



^ri/e/ ^e/ia^tmeni/ 4m t/tate^ 




U.N. COMIMITTEE ON THE PROGRESSIVE DEVEL- 
OPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ITS 
CODIFICATION • Report of the U.S. Representative . 

UNITED STATES CORDAGE SUPPLY POLICY • 

Article by Isabel Ann Baldwin 



UNITED STATES COTTON-TEXTILE EXPORT 
POLICY DURING THE WAR PERIOD • Article by 

John C. Montgomery 



121 



111 



116 



i'or complete cunUnU sec 



I.. I., on iinr 




AUG '3, .^1 




Me Qje/tw}<i^7t€^ ^/ y^ale JOUllGtin 



Vol. XVII, No. 420 • Publication 2878 
July 20, im 



For sale by the SuperintendcDt of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

SnBSCRIPTION: 

62 issues, $5, single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication arc not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
apprecialed. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government mith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to ivhich the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
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Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which'are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
nationalrelations,arelistedcurrently. 



UNITED STATES CORDAGE SUPPLY POLICY 



by Isabel Ann Baldvnn 



The United States is totally dependent upon imports for 
its supply of hard cordage fibers. With the outbreak of the 
war, the Allies laere soon cut off from major sources at the 
very time that military requirements were high. This 
article outlines the tnea.'iures taken by the Government to 
provide for military and civilian needs. 



None of the principal cordage fibers is grown 
commercially in the United States, and imports of 
such fibers are admitted free of duty under the 
provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930. Some cord- 
age products are subject to import duties and 
others are admitted free. Binder twine, the chief 
hard-fiber product imported, is duty-free. Eope, 
cord, and other items are dutiable. 

The use and iDroduction of the principal hard 
fibers (abaca, sisal, and henequen) have spread 
around the world since the latter part of the nine- 
teenth century following the invention of rope- 
making machinery and twine-using mechanical 
grain-binders. Although large-scale cordage pro- 
duction expanded chiefly in the North Temperate 
Zone, fiber production engirdled the world in the 
Tropics. 

The United States is one of the major cordage- 
manufacturing countries, consuming during the 
period 1935-38 over one third of the world's ex- 
portable supply of hard fibers. Average annual 
United States imports for these years amounted to 
i 162,000 long tons, of which 62,000 tons were Mexi- 
'" can henequen, 38,000 tons Philippine abaca, 30,000 
tons Netherlands Indies sisal, and 17,000 tons 
British East African sisal, and smaller quantities 
of Cuban, Portuguese, African, Haitian, and Sal- 
vadoran fiber. 



There is sufficient American mill capacity to pro- 
duce for total American needs, but foreign com- 
petitors have been able to produce at lower costs 
and to undersell in this market. In 1939, for ex- 
ample, imports of hard-fiber cordage products 
(rope, wrapping twines, and binder twine) were 
26 percent of the quantity of United States sales, 
and 86 percent of the imports were admitted duty- 
free. Although rope is dutiable, the duty was 
applicable to only 14.5 percent of the imports in 
1939 because Philippine abaca rope, which is im- 
ported free of duty, accounted for 85.5 percent of 
the total. 

An annual tariff quota of 3,000,000 pounds of 
duty-free rope from the Philippines was estab- 
lished in the Philippine Independence Act of 1934. 
Imports over 3,000,000 pounds were subject to duty 
payment. The Cordage Act, effective May 1, 1935, 
revised this to an annual absolute quota of 
6,000,000, all of which was duty-free. The latter 
has been extended to 1954 by the Philippine Trade 
Act of 1946 (Public Law 371, 79th Cong.), which 
also provides for the gradual application of duty. 
Beginning in 1954, a duty of 5 percent of the lowest 
duty charged wiU be levied and will be increased 
5 percent each year until 1974 when the full general 
tariff rate will be applicable. With the imposition 



Jo/y 20, 1947 



111 



of the full tariff rate, the quota restriction will 
expire. 

National Security Policy 

Abaca rope, which is the best type for marine 
purposes, is essential for Navy operations. The 
fact that cordage-fiber sources of supply are dis- 
tant and widespread made the United States 
mindful of its need of an abaca stockpile for na- 
tional security. As early as 1937, the Army and 
Navy Munitions Board recognized that Philippine 
abaca was a vital war material, and when Con- 
gress passed Public Act 117 (Strategic War Mate- 
rials Act) on June 7, 1939, for Treasury procure- 
ment of essential materials for national defense, 
abaca was included. Because of this foresight, 
approximately 30,870 tons of abaca had been stock- 
piled in this country by December 1941 in addition 
to inventories built up by the Navy Rope Walk 
and American factories. A program for public 
purchase and stockpile of 40,000 tons of agave fiber 
(sisal and henequen) was instituted April 30, 1941. 
This supply was intended at that time chiefly to 
protect civilian requirements. The Office of Pro- 
duction Management issued Conservation Order 
M-3G, August 29, 1941, which regulated the domes- 
tic processing and sale of abaca and abaca rope. 

When the Philippines and the Netherlands East 
Indies were lost at the beginning of the war, the 
Allies were faced with the threat of an increas- 
ingly grave shortage of hard fibers. 

The United Kingdom, Canada, and the United 
States joined forces immediately to insure the 
most equitable and effective utilization of cordage 
fiber available to the Allies. The Combined Raw 
Materials Board was formed in January 1942 as 
an organization through which the countries could 
exchange necessary information concerning sup- 
plies and requirements of essential raw materials 
and through which allocations could be estab- 
lished. Early in 1942 cordage fibers and their 
products were brought under international con- 
trol and allocation by the Board. 

This action was followed by an early change- 
over from private to public purchase and importa- 
tion of cordage fibers and products in order to 
obtain as much fiber as possible. The United 
Kingdom Ministry of Supply arranged to pur- 
chase the entire sisal output of British East 

112 



Africa, which was the major source of sisal left to 
the Allies. The United States, through the Recon- 
struction Finance Corporation and its subsidi- 
aries, purchased the exportable supply of Mexican 
and Cuban henequen, Bahaman and Madagascan 
sisal, and Portuguese African sisal other than the 
quantities required to meet the quotas established 
by the Combined Raw Materials Board for the 
Iberian Peninsula. Although all available fiber 
was obtained and controlled, supplies were still far 
short of essential requirements. 

To implement the change-over from private to 
public purchase. United States importers, dealers, 
and jobbers were permitted to complete deliveries 
of agave contracts entered into prior to February 
20, 1942, the date on which General Conservation 
Order M-84, regulating agave fibers, was issued. 
Since abaca fiber was no longer available from the 
Philippines, imports, except those afloat, were un- 
likely. On January 18, 1943, agave fiber, cords, 
and twines were placed under the general super- 
visory provisions of General Imports Order M-63. 
Abaca fiber was put under M-63 on April 28, 1943, 
and abaca cordage on June 28, 1943. 

One of the most effective devices for safeguard- 
ing Allied shipment and delivery of supplies was 
the navicert system, put into effect August 1, 
1940, an instrument of the British blockade. 
Although the United Kingdom was vitallj' inter- 
ested in stopping the flow of raw materials to the 
Axis, it did not want to disturb the bona "fide 
trade of neutrals. An efficient blockade required 
many patrol boats and large bases for the exam- 
ination of cargo. In order to safeguard neutrals, 
many of the details of the blockade, which could be 
handled ashore, were shifted to British consulates 
the world over. Cargoes and credentials were ex- 
amined in port, and if they were approved the 
ship's captain was furnished a navicert, or block- 
ade passport. British port facilities and insur- 
ance were denied to ships traveling without navi- 
certs. The British Navy confined its sea activity 
chiefly to ships thought to be without navicerts. 
Shipments of sisal from Portuguese Africa were 
regulated by this system, many of the sisal planta- 
tions were German-owned. 

In order to augment the supply, abaca and sisal 
plantations were developed in Central America 
and Haiti, respectively, and true hemp (Canna- 

Department of State Bulletin 



iis sativa) production was greatly expanded in the 
United States. 

Abaca plants had been brought from the Philip- 
pines to Panama by the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture in the years 1925-27 for experimental pur- 
poses, because it had been realized that a war in 
the Pacific might cause the United States to lose 
its contact with the Philippines. These abacii 
plants had been cared for as a seed bed on United 
Fruit Company lands in Panama and were avail- 
able in 1941 for jDlanting stock. 

On December 18, 1941, the Army and Navy 
Munitions Board asked the Office of Production 
Management to take immediate action to insure 
maximum pi-oduction of abaca in Central America. 
The first step was a contract entered into on Janu- 
ary 2, 1942, between the Defense Supplies Cor- 
poration and the United Fruit Company for the 
leasing of the 2,046-acre seed bed in Panama and 
additional suitable lands not to exceed 20,000 acres 
in Panama and Costa Rica for the growth of 
abaca. This was followed on September 11, 1942, 
by two additional contracts in which the United 
Fruit Company agreed to select but not to lease 
suitable lands in Guatemala and Honduras 
amounting to 5,000 acres in each country with an 
additional 5,000-acre option in Guatemala. Un- 
der the terms of these contracts, 28,694 acres were 
planted. Approximately 25,900 acres are now 
maintained. Production increased from 400 long 
tons in 1942 to ahnost 10,000 long tons in 1945. 
It has been estimated that the plantations will 
reach full maturity in 1949 with optimiun produc- 
tion set at slightly under 29,000 long tons. All 
fiber produced under these contracts, which are 
effective until December 31, 1948, is the property 
of the Defense Supplies Corporation. Although 
the production was comparatively small during the 
war years, it represented a significant step toward 
hemispheric security and if continued, under 
either governmental or private control, might be- 
come an effective stockpile in the groimd for future 
years. 

Sisal production in Haiti has been greatly ex- 
panded because of the wartime demand, and the 
Haitian fiber is now known as one of the finest 
sisals in the world. Commercial production had 
been started in 1926 when approximately 1,000 
acres were planted ; by 1932 there wei-e about 12,- 
600 acres, and by the end of 1945 almost 50,000 



acres were under cultivation. On April 6, 1942, 
an agreement between the Haitian and United 
States Governments was signed which pledged 
that the two countries would employ their full 
resources against the common enemy and pro- 
vided that the Export-Import Bank of the United 
States would make a loan to the Haitian Govern- 
ment for the planting of essential crops in Haiti 
by the Societe Haitiano-Americaine de Developpe- 
ment Agricole (SHADA). Among such crops 
was sisal. In addition the U.S. Commercial Com- 
pany financed the expansion of the Haitian Agri- 
cultural Corporation (HACOR) plantations. The 
United States bought by public-purchase con- 
tracts all Haitian plantation sisal except specified 
quantities set aside for the Haitian sisal handi- 
craft industry. Total Haitian exports increased 
from 358 long tons in the fiscal year 1929-30 to 
16,521 long tons in the year 1945^6. 

Wheh the Allies found themselves short of hard 
fiber, it seemed feasible to supplement the supply 
with hemp, which is an annual plant that can be 
grown in the temperate zone and which had been 
the chief cordage fiber used prior to 1850. Having 
this in mind, on February 9, 1942, the War Pro- 
duction Board recommended a program for Amer- 
ican hemp production and extended priority as- 
sistance to expedite the building of scutching mills 
and other necessary equipment. The Department 
of Agriculture was requested to j^lant hemp in 
1942 in order to obtain seed for large-scale fiber 
production in 1943. Following this fiber-produc- 
tion schedule, seed grown in 1942 was planted in 
both Canada and the United States in 1943. Hemp 
fiber was harvested in 1943 and 1944. Experience 
showed that this fiber was comparatively expensive 
to raise and difficult to use as an extender in hard- 
fiber cordage manufacture. Beginning in late 
1944, therefore, the program was gradually cur- 
tailed. 

Jute rope was manufactured in larger than usual 
quantities to meet a part of the wartime demand. 
Since supplies of raw jute were also limited during 
the war, its permitted use pattern was integrated 
with that of the hard fibers to meet the most essen- 
tial requirements. 

Extensive research was made into the utiliza- 
tion of various native Western Hemisphere fibers, 
including Ixtle, Pita Floja, Cabuya, Fique Roselle, 
and Sansevieria. 



Jo/y 20, 1947 



113 



Rope and twine were bought in Mexico and Cuba 
under public-purchase programs in order to meet 
the requirements not covered by fiber availabili- 
ties. It is of some significance that the United 
States imports of hard-fiber cordage products 
(largely Government purchases) totaled approxi- 
matelj^ 56,700 long tons in 1945 and that under 
the impetus of this heavy United States demand 
there has resulted the development of rather large 
hard -fiber cordage and twine productive capacities 
in those two countries. 

Cordage fiber allocated to the United States by 
the Combined Eaw Materials Board was bought 
under exclusive public purchase and importation 
and was allocated by the War Production Boai-d 
to the domestic mills, including the Navy Eope 
Walk. Production quotas for each mill were cal- 
culated from prewar production rates and formed 
the basis for fiber allocations. Abaca was released 
from stockpile for only the most critical military 
uses. Sisal was allocated as the cargo approached 
port and was transferred by rail directly to the 
cordage mills. 

Strict control of fiber inventories, products to 
be manufactured, and use of the products was 
maintained on the same basis in the United States, 
United Kingdom, and Canada. 

As previously indicated, use and sale of abaca 
and abaca products were restricted by Conserva- 
tion Order M-36, which became effective August 
29, 1941. This order was amended many times, 
each revision substantially reducing the consump- 
tion and tightening the uses of abaca. Sisal hav- 
ing a tensile strength equal to 80 percent of that 
of abaca is its best substitute and consequently 
was utilized where abaca was no longer permitted. 
Order M-84, restricting the use of agave (sisal 
and henequen), was first issued February 20, 1942. 
Originally its principal effect was to reduce and 
then, on October 1, 1942, to prohibit the manu- 
facture of wrapping twine. On October 27, 1943, 
the abaca and sisal orders were combined in a re- 
vision of M-84, and permitted end-uses of both 
fibers and manufactures were set forth. The or- 
der was continually revised to reflect changes in 
supply and demand. After the drop in military 
requirements following V-J Day, M-84 has re- 
flected the channeling of fiber toward the essential 
civilian requirements. In the revision of April 
16, 1947, processing quotas and a simplified end- 
use schedule were still maintained, although abaca 



restrictions on use and inventory were subse- 
quently removed on May 2, 1947. Effective July 
16, 1947, all domestic cordage regulations were 
removed as the result of termination of enabling 
legislation. 

In the fall of 1944, it became apparent that the 
United States military forces in the Pacific would 
regain the Philippines and that abaca could prob- 
ably again be obtained. For that reason, on Octo- 
ber 4, 1944, the War Production Board authorized 
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy 
100,000 bales of abaca. This quantity was in- 
creased to 200,000 bales on November 1, 1944. 

In order to procure the needed Philippine abaca, 
a company known as PAMCO (Philippine Abaca 
Management Corporation) was organized in late 
1944 as an agent of the RFC. Four American 
firms which had had prewar experience in the 
Philippines in the marketing and exporting of 
abaca joined their forces and knowledge in 
PAMCO. This company began the rehabilitation 
of the industry by making arrangements for 
equipment, warehousing, and other activities nec- 
essary for restoration of production and market- 
ing. Since consumer goods were in critically short 
supply in the Philippine Islands, PAMCO paid 
for part of its fiber with incentive trade goods, 
such as cotton fabrics and food. Exports, although 
amounting to only 2,473 long tons in 1945, had 
reached 40,140 long tons in 1946. Although not a 
great quantity of fiber was obtained from the Phil- 
ippines in time for the heavy late-war military 
requirements, the fact that the industry was be- 
ginning to recover cushioned the impact of the 
steady diminution of fiber supplies. 

Postwar Policy 

By the end of the war the fiber stockpile had 
been exhausted, and industry stocks represented 
less than three months' supply on the basis of exist- 
ing restrictions in M-84. V-J Day was followed 
by wide-scale cancellation of military rope con- 
tracts and requirements which enabled a substan- 
tial reduction in rope production. However, the 
output had to be maintained at a level consider- 
ably above the prewar normal owing to greatly 
expanded merchant shipping and the level of in- 
dustrial and agricultural requirements. More- 
over, minimum requirements of fiber for the manu- 
facture of binder and baler twine were in excess of 
current receipts of sisal and henequen. 



114 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



The Combined Raw Materials Board was dis- 
solved on December 31, 1945. After that date, the 
United Kingdom allocated British East African 
sisal on a unilateral basis. During 1946 sisal ex- 
ports from British East Africa amounted to 
135,712 long tons, of which 84,855 tons were sent to 
the United Kingdom, 24,625 to Canada, 11,450 long 
tons to Australia, 11,095 long tons to tlie United 
States, 2,437 to South Africa, 550 tons to India, 
350 tons to New Zealand, and 350 to the Middle 
East. From the quantity shipped to the United 
Kingdom, allocations were made to European 
countries. 

The United States lias continued its public pur- 
chase of both fiber and binder twine, in order to 
assure more adequate supplies. 

A Philippine-United States Government-to- 
Governmeiit abaca agreement was signed August 
8, 1946. This provided that during the period 
August 8, 1946, to June 30, 1947, the United States 
would have the exclusive right to purchase the 
exportable surplus of Philippine abaca. Prices 
were established by terms of the agreement, but a 
clause was inserted which permitted a review of 
prices on the initiative of either Government. In 
October, tlie Philippine Government asked that an 
upward revision of pi'ices be considered but shortly 
thereafter requested cancellation of the agreement. 
On November 18, the contract was canceled and 
free market conditions in Philippine abaca were 
established. In this connection it should be 
pointed out tliat production of abaca in the Pliilip- 
pines totaled only 49,000 tons in 1946, or approxi- 
mately one fourth of prewar normal output. How- 
ever, the rate of production has increased during 
the first quarter of 1947, and if this rate is main- 
tained throughout the year, 1947 production may 
amount to half the prewar annual output. Ex- 
change difficulties in the European countries have 
limited thus far their purchases of Philippine 
abaca. As a result of this and the inability of 
the Japanese to purchase their prewar quantities, 
the U.S. importers have been obtaining the bulk 
of the Philippine abaca. 

American public-purchase contracts with Mex- 
ico and Haiti for agave fiber have been extended 
with minor price revisions and are expected to 
continue until December 31, 1947. 

An agreement with the Portuguese Government 
for the U.S. procurement of Mozambique and An- 
golan sisal was reached on May 17, 1946, to permit 



the purchase of the total production of the Ger- 
man plantations in the two colonies and 40 per- 
cent of the production of the Portuguese producers 
in Mozambique during the period June 1, 1946, to 
June 30, 1947. This differed from previous RFC 
contracts which had covered total Angolan and 
Mozambique production less the quota for the 
Iberian Peninsula. The new agreement freed 60 
jDei-cent of Portuguese-produced Mozambique sisal 
and 100 percent of Portuguese-produced Angolan 
sisal for other markets, in recognition of the need 
of other importing countries, especially Europe. 
This contract has not been renewed beyond June 
30, 1947. 

There was a serious shortage of binder and baler 
twine for the 1946 harvest. In order to avoid a 
similar situation in 1947, the Civilian Production 
Administration took steps to insure sufficient 
twine. Fiber bought under the Mexican and 
Portuguese African contracts was allocated for 
binder- and baler-twine production. In addition, 
CPA recommended that the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation buy 30,000,000 pounds of 
Mexican or Cuban binder twine. Against this 
recommendation RFC contracted for 22,500,000 
pounds of Mexican binder twine. Low grades of 
abaca are being used in American mills for these 
twines. Notwithstanding, the 1947 prospects in- 
dicate a continuing shortage, and difficulties in 
meeting these requirements will probably continue 
until Javanese or some other fiber production 
increases the over-all world production within the 
reach of demand. 

Rope requirements no longer present a serious 
problem because Philippine abaca is becoming 
available in quantities sufficient to meet the Ameri- 
can demand. 

The necessity of adequate and accessible sup- 
plies for our maritime, industrial and agricul- 
tural economies in both war and peace is clearly 
recognized. The Strategic and Critical Materials 
Stockpiling Act was passed by Congress on July 
23, 1946, as an amendment to the act of June 7, 
1939. Due to the continuing civilian deficiency 
no fiber has been stockpiled under this authority 
since the end of the war, but consideration has 
been given to the various methods by which it 
may be done; namely, storage of either raw fiber 
or rope, or the maintenance of certain Western 
Hemisphere plantations as living sources of 
supply. 



July 20, 7947 



115 



UNITED STATES COTTON-TEXTILE EXPORT POLICY 
DURING THE WAR PERIOD 



by John €. Montgomery 



During World War II cotton textiles became one of the 
items in most critically short supply in the United States. 
This article summarizes the policy of the United States Gov- 
ernment with regard to exports of cotton textiles through the 
war and immediate postwar periods. 



General Cotton-Textile Situation 

During the 15 years before the recent war, world 
cotton-textile imports and exports declined by 
about two billion yards or about 25 percent. Most 
of the change took place in Asia where imports 
into India and China declined by more than half 
as a result of the expansion of the textile indus- 
tries of those countries. 

One of the most striking developments in the 
world cotton-textile situation during the prewar 
period was the decline of British and American 
exports and the parallel increase in Japanese ex- 
ports. During the years 1924-28 cotton-textile ex- 
ports from the United States averaged 529 million 
square yards, but during the period 1934-38 the 
average was 234 million yards, which represented 
a decline of 295 million yards. 

The war brought a drastic change in the world 
cotton-textile situation. Production in the United 
States had to be enormously expanded to meet the 
military requirements of the United States and 
of the Allies. In 1935 production in this country 
amounted to 6,713 million yards, in 1939 to 8,421 
million yards, and in 1943 to 10,700 million yards. 
Even with this great increase, supplies for direct 

116 



military purposes were short, and over-all sup- 
plies of cotton textiles were desperately inadequate. 
The pattern of distribution of the available tex- 
tiles was completely altered, with a large part of 
world supplies earmarked for military use. It is 
estimated that during the war, even in those coun- 
tries not invaded by the Axis, the quantity of cot- 
ton textiles available for civilian purposes declined 
b}' 20 to 50 percent of prewar. 

The extreme world shortage of cotton textiles 
which began during the war continued during the 
postwar years. The temporary elimination of 
Japanese and German production, which together 
had furnished 20 percent of the total textile sup- 
plies before the war and over 40 percent of the total 
moving into foreign trade, accounted for much of 
the world shortage. Another major contributing 
factor in the postwar textile shortage was the 
slow rate of i-ecovery of the textile industry in the 
United Kingdom. 

Textile production in ex-enemy countries had 
dropped to a negligible figure and revived slowly 
after the war as raw material was made available. 
The textile industry was hampered, however, by 
the shortage of fuel and the lack of incentives to 

Depaiiment of Sfafe Bulletin 



labor, and it was only gradually that a partial re- 
vival was possible. Consequently the greatest 
shortage of cotton textiles occurred in the areas 
which had previously depended on German or 
Japanese supplies. 

Since the end of the war, progress has been made 
in the Allied countries toward increasing supplies 
for civilian consumption both at home and abroad, 
and reconversion of the textile industry has been 
partially completed. These gains were offset to 
some extent, however, by the heavy replacement 
needs of personnel released from the armed forces. 

In the United States, supplies for the domestic 
market progressively increased during 1946 as 
military needs declined, until the prewar level was 
reached in most cotton products. The increase in 
the civilian supply of cotton textiles was largely 
offset by the demand for textiles resulting from 
demobilization. However, the benefits of large 
American production began to spread over a wider 
field, and the over-all supply situation was im- 
proved not only by the increased output in the 
chief producing countries, but also by the resump- 
tion of ex-enemy production. 

At the present time the cotton-textile industry 
in the United States is producing at the rate of 
10,000 million square yards, of which as much as 
900 million may be exported during 1947, as con- 
trasted with the average of 234 million yards 
exported annually a decade ago. 

World export supplies at present are roughly 
estimated to be about 50 percent greater than actual 
global exports for the year ending in June 1946 
but still only 50 percent of the international trade 
in textiles of 10 years ago. Taken on the whole, 
active demand in terms of purchasing power is, of 
course, below that of 10 years ago. Today foreign 
exchange is rigidly conserved. Also, the use of 
rayon has cut into the demand for cotton textiles. 
From a welfare standpoint, world needs are in 
excess of present world supplies, but an expansion 
of effective demand awaits a rise in the general 
purchasing power of importing countries. 

International Agreements Affecting Wartime 
Cotton-Textile Export Policy 

Rio de Janeiro Agreement 

In 1943 the United States and the United King- 
dom entered into an agreement, signed in Rio de 
Janeiro, which generally divided the responsibility 

Jo/y 20, ?947 

754447—47—2 



of those countries in meeting the textile require- 
ments of the non-Axis world. The United King- 
dom undertook to supply the Eastern textile mar- 
ket, and the United States made itself responsible 
for meeting the textile requirements of the Western 
Hemisphere, as fully as possible within the limited 
supplies available. 

Combined Prodiiction mid Resources Board and 
Comhined Textile Committee 

The Combined Production and Resoui'ces Board 
was established in June 1942 and under it a Textile 
Committee was organized to correlate the textile- 
export piograms of the exporting Allied countries. 
Ultimately the members of the committee were: 
Canada, France, India, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States. The Textile Committee be- 
gan functioning in the early part of 1943. Each 
quarter, commencing with the last quarter of 
1943, the committee received production and 
domestic-requirements data from the member 
countries and import requirements from import- 
ing countries. It then recommended to the re- 
spective member countries the distribution of any 
textiles which could be made available for export. 

The final meeting of the Combined Production 
and Resources Board was held on December 28, 
1945, and at that time the establisliment of the 
Combined Textile Committee as a successor to the 
Textile Committee of the Combined Production 
and Resources Board was agreed upon. World 
supply was still far short of requirements, as evi- 
denced by the continued existence of price and 
allocation controls in all countries which were 
members of the committee. 

The Combined Textile Committee was set up as 
an autonomous group to recommend to member 
countries the most equitable possible distribution 
to importing comitries and to insure that member 
countries did their part in implementing these 
recommendations. The committee was also to 
give advice on the distribution of textile exports 
from ex-enemy countries. This latter responsibil- 
ity was carried out only in the case of Japanese 
cotton-textile exports. 

The membership of the Combined Textile Com- 
mittee was the same as that of the earlier Textile 
Committee of the Combined Production and Re- 
sources Board. 

During 1946, as the supply situation improved, 

117 



arrangements were made to provide elasticity in 
the transitional period from war to peace and to 
provide for the most rapid possible return to un- 
restricted trade. In line with this policy it was 
arranged that United States militai"y surpluses 
should be released for export without prior con- 
sultation with the Combined Textile Committee. 
It was also arranged that the United Kingdom 
should sell textiles from a free pool of about 30 
million yards without reference to the Combined 
Textile Committee. 

Since the functions of the Combined Textile 
Committee were becoming less vital because of the 
improved world supply situation, it was decided 
in June 1946 that, in the future, committee recom- 
mendations would be confined to countries in the 
most urgent need. At the November meeting of 
the committee, the United States member an- 
nounced that the United States policy of earmark- 
ing part of the over-all cotton-textile production 
for export would be discontinued on December 31 
and stated that this would make it impossible in the 
future for the United States Government to im- 
plement any further recommendations of the com- 
mittee. Largely as a result of the termination of 
export set-asides by the United States and im- 
proved supply conditions, the Combined Textile 
Committee was ended on December 31, 1946. 

United States Policies on Cotton-Textile Exports 

In the -early years of the war, with supplies of 
cotton textiles in the United States becoming in- 
adequate even for military needs, the United States 
Government adopted increasingly rigid controls 
over production and distribution. In 1942 a 
system of export license controls was instituted, 
for the purpose of limiting and directing the 
quantities of cotton textiles moving out of this 
country. During the first stages of license con- 
trol, licensing was on a fairly generous scale with 
relatively few restrictions either as to quantities 
or as to countries of destination. 

As the situation developed, the policy of the 
United States formed along the following lines: 
First, cotton-textile exports were to be limited as 
to quantity. Secondly, exports were to be en- 
couraged within the over-all quantitative limita- 
tions in order that the United States should meet 
its obligations for maintaining the civilian econ- 
omies of the Allies on a minimum basis. In effect, 

118 



then, the export limitations were both limits and 
goals. 

In this connection, the United States Govern- 
ment in the middle of 1943 initiated a system of 
quarterly allocations of cotton textiles. The 
Board of Economic Warfare was given an allo- 
cation for each quarter for those countries which 
were purchasing textiles in this country through 
commercial channels. The over-all quota was 
broken down into country allocations based on 
minimum requirements, gathered and formulated 
by the Board of Economic Warfare, against which 
individual export licenses were charged when ap- 
proved. The Lend-Lease Administration, which 
was responsible for supplies for certain countries, 
also received quarterly allocations. Initially, a 
preference rating was assigned to most allocations 
of cotton textiles for export. This was necessary 
because the developing acute shortage of textiles 
in this country made it extremely unlikely that 
manufacturers of textiles would voluntarily sell 
their limited "free goods" for export. 

By the end of 1943, the policy of the United 
States had definitely become that of assuring 
textile exports sufficient to meet the export quotas 
of this country. Since the system of preference 
ratings which had been followed so far had failed 
to assure deliveries of textiles for export, a system 
of export set-asides was established on cotton 
textiles in December 1943 and was later extended 
to cotton yarns, rayon yarns, and raj'on fabrics. 
Under this system a certain percentage of the pro- 
duction of each manufacturer, by types of cloth, 
was earmarked for export during each quarter. 
The cotton-textiles set-aside was one of the first 
export set-asides established during the war. It 
lasted three full years — until the end of December 
1946. The set-aside was administered in con- 
junction with a preference rating on practically 
all export orders. The export allocations and set- 
asides were broken down into types of fabrics 
by the War Production Board, and the total ex- 
port quota in each class was then broken down by 
countries of destination by the Foreign Economic 
Administration. 

The export set-aside policy Avas relatively suc- 
cessful in obtaining goods for export, since the 
manufacturers generally delivered about 75 per- 
cent or more of their established export quotas. 

Under the Decentralization Plan — which ap- 

Department of Siafe Bulletin 



plied to most of the Latin American countries, and 
under a similar import-permit plan used with 
other countries — the United States Government 
and the importing countries cooperated in an 
effort to assure maximum available quantities of 
scarce connnodities as well as optimum distribu- 
tion under wartime conditions of tight com- 
modity situations and difficult ocean transporta- 
tion. Under this system, import permits were 
issued by the importing government, with the co- 
operation of the American Embassy in the case of 
countries operating under the Decentralization 
Plan, in quantities at least theoretically equal to the 
quarterly allocations announced to the importing 
governments by the United States authorities. 
The authorities in the United States would then, 
in the instance of specified countries and commodi- 
ties, issue licenses only when the applications were 
accompanied by the necessary import licenses, 
already issued by the country of final destination. 
In effect, then, during this period of import-export 
licensing agreements, the government of the im- 
porting country, rather than the United States 
licensing authorities, determined the trade chan- 
nels at the export end and little discretion was left 
to the United States licensing authorities in dis- 
tributing textile-export quotas among United 
States exporters. 

Cuba and Mexico were the outstanding excep- 
tions. Neither country employed imjjort permits 
for cotton fabrics. Instead, the United States 
based its distribution of export licenses within the 
quotas upon the historical trade pattern of three 
prewar years. 

In many countries and particularly from the 
standpoint of the United States authorities, the 
import-permit system worked out very badly in 
practice, because most of the governments of im- 
porting countries, under pressure from their 
traders, issued permits far in excess of the an- 
nounced quotas. This was especially true of fab- 
rics most in demand, such as print cloth. Those 
American exporters who considered the existence 
of an import permit as a guaranty of receiving an 
export license were often disappointed, and the 
United States licensing authorities were periodi- 
cally faced with the problem of carrying over from 
quarter to quarter an excessive backlog of export- 
license applications accompanied by valid import 
permits. Tlie necessity forced upon the United 

Juiy 20, 1947 



States Government for delaying or reducing 
approval of such applications caused considerable 
dissatisfaction among the export trade as well as 
the importers. 

The Decentralization Plan, which had applied 
to the countries of Latin America, was formally 
terminated by the United States on October 1, 
1945, and in the ensuing months the import-permit 
system with other than Latin American countries 
was gradually abandoned. The United States 
licensing authorities were consequently obliged to 
develop a new technique for determining the distri- 
bution of export licenses for allocated commodities. 
In the case of most commodities, including cotton 
textiles, it was decided to base the issuance of ex- 
port licenses primarily upon the historical ship- 
ping position of the individual exporter of cotton 
textiles to a particular country. An effort was 
made to use the most representative base period in 
the case of each country. Usually, 1939 to 1946 
was the official base period, and from these j'ears 
sample quarters were selected from which to draw 
the required export data. About 80 percent of 
the cotton-textile quotas usually was distributed to 
the traditional exporters, the balance being re- 
served for veterans, newcomers, and producers 
without a historical record in the export business. 

Every producer was required to deliver 6 to 10 
percent, on the average, of his output for export 
through the end of 1945. Many of them, either 
looking to the future possibility of surplus produc- 
tion or else determined to make the most of a tem- 
2)orai'ily difficult situation of wartime controls, de- 
cided to export directly as much of their required 
export set-asides as they could receive licenses for 
(which was never over 50 percent). This rather 
important development was a manifestation of the 
trend toward vertical integration which was then 
occurring in the entire textile industry. It is in- 
teresting to notice that some of the largest manu- 
facturers in the coimtry established their own 
export departments and embarked upon an ap- 
parently serious long-term export plan. Others 
have discontinued exporting directly on their own 
account since the termination of the export set- 
asides. 

One of the major problems in exporting cotton 
textiles during the war was pricing. The Office of 
Price Administration, endeavoring merely to 
freeze the normal export margins, allowed manu- 

119 



factoring exporters a markuji of 7 percent over 
domestic ceilings and merchant expoilers a markup 
of 25 percent. The stated intention of the Office 
of Price Administration was merely to compen- 
sate the exporter for added selling costs and added 
risks in making export sales as compared with 
domestic. The trade generally agi'eed that 25 per- 
cent was higher than necessary and many of the 
larger export houses habitually marked their 
prices up only 10, 12, or 15 percent. 

Under the criteria established by the Office of 
Price Administration for specifying conditions 
under which the export markup might be charged, 
the United States Government and foreign supply 
missions were at a serious disadvantage, compared 
with commercial exporters, in buying cotton tex- 
tiles for export. At best, most mills were reluctant 
to sell goods for export, during the wartime scar- 
city, when they could not keep their regular cus- 
tomers even partially satisfied. Because deliveries 
fell short of export quotas, mills — unless they had 
export departments — almost invariably had com- 
mercial exporters to whom they preferred to sell 
rather than to missions or other government agen- 
cies. On this account purchasers for govern- 
ments, buying at the same pi'ices, were always far 
short of their procurement programs which had 
been approved under the export quotas. 

The problem of Treasury Procurement, which 
was charged with buying all cotton goods under 
non-military lend-lease and also for the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Eehabilitation Operations 
(later UNRRA), was exceedingly difficult. It 
was finally alleviated — ^but never solved — by es- 
tablishing a separate export set-aside specifically 
requiring each producer to deliver a specified per- 
centage of his production each quarter to Treasury 
Procurement. A similar earmarking of part of 
American textile production was made at about the 
same time for Canada. Treasui-y Procurement 
continued to have an incredible backlog of unpro- 
cured requisitions, legitimately issued under the 
export quotas with export ratings, which some- 
times reached a level of 100 million yards. The 
separate set-asides were helpful, but in the months 
following the termination of lend-lease most of the 
backlog was wiped out by straight cancellation or 
by transfer to mission procurement. 

The foreign missions continued to face very 



strong reluctance on the part of producers and 
converters to sell to them at domestic ceilings. 
Some individual exceptions were made by the 
Office of Price Administration to permit export 
premiums in the case of govermnent-mission pur- 
chasing, and in other cases adjustments to the 
letter of the Office of Price Administration's I'egu- 
lations were made which permitted payment of the 
export premium for purchases made actually by 
foreign missions. 

As stated earlier. United States supplies in- 
creased during 1946 until the prewar level was 
reached in most lines. Regulation of cloth and 
garment production was relaxed, and toward the 
end of 1946 the prices of textiles were decontrolled. 
Quantitative set-asides for export were completely 
abandoned at the end of the year. In January 
1947 an over-all ceiling limit for export of a fairly 
generous character was established by the Civilian 
Production Administration, and this was broken 
down by the Office of International Trade in the 
Department of Commerce into a separate alloca- 
tion for each group of countries. No preference 
ratings were provided since goods were available 
rather readily for export without procurement as- 
sistance of any kind. The consolidated license 
system which was established on July 1, 1946, au- 
thorized exportation to areas rather than to in- 
dividual countries, and gave wider discretion to an 
exporter in selecting his customer both as to 
country of destination and as to individual con- 
signee. Controls were exercised after July 1, 1946, 
only over the single category "cotton piece goods", » 
and licenses were no longer issued by individual 
fabric types. Thus the controls in the first quarter 
of 1947 were of a very broad character, intended 
mainly to limit the total quantity of goods ex- 
ported and to provide a minimum degree of direc- 
tion as to the destination of the textiles. 

In view of the constantly improving supply sit- 
uation in the United States, export controls were 
removed on March 15, 1947. An additional factor 
in the decision to terminate controls was the plan 
of the United States Commercial Company to com- 
mence unrestricted offerings of Japanese and Ger- 
man cotton textiles, which might have placed 
United States exports under a competitive disad- 
vantage with goods from these ex-enemy sources 
if export restrictions on commercial transactions 
were continued. 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



U.N. Committee on the Progressive Development of 
International Law and Its Codification 



REPORT OF THE U.S. REPRESENTATIVE' 



I. Composition of the Committee 

Tlie United Nations Committee on the Progres- 
sive Develoj)ment of International Law and its 
Codification, hereinafter referred to as the Com- 
mittee, was estahlished by Eesolution no. 94 (1), 
unanimously adopted by the General Assembly 
on December 11, 1946. On the same date, the Gen- 
eral Assembly, on tlie recommendation of the 
President, appointed the following states to sei've 
on the Conunittee: 

Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, 
Egypt, France, India, Netherlands, Panama, 
Poland, Sweden, Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, United Kingdom, United States of Amer- 
ica, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. 

II. Delegation of the United States 

The Delegation of tJie United States to the Com- 
mittee consisted of Professor Philip C. Jessup, 
Representative, and Dr. John Maktos, Adviser. 

III. Tasks of the Committee 

The above-mentioned resolution directed the 
Conmiittee to study: 

'•(a) The methods by which the General As- 
sembly should encourage the progi'essive develop- 
ment of international law and its eventual codifi- 
cation ; 

(b) Methods of securing the co-operation of 
the several organs of the United Nations to this 
end ; 

(c) iMethods of enlisting the assistance of such 
national or international bodies as might aid in 
the attainment of this objective ; 

and to report to the General Assembly at its next 
regular session." 

By General Assembly Resolution no. 95 (1) of 
December 11, 1946, the Committee was requested : 

July 20, 7947 



"To treat as a matter of primary importance 
plans for the formulation, in the context of a gen- 
eral codification of offences against the peace and 
security of mankind, or of an International Crim- 
inal Code, of the princii^les recognized in the 
Charter of the Niirnberg Tribunal and in the 
judgment of the Tribunal." 

By another resolution of tlie General Assembly 
of December 11, 1946, no. 38 (1), the Draft Dec- 
laration on the Rights and Duties of States pre- 
sented by Panama to the Second Part of the First 
Session of the General Assembly (Doc. A/285) 
was referred to the Committee for a report to the 
General Assembly. 

The final task of the Committee resulted from 
a letter from the Secretary-General transmitted 
to the Committee pursuant to a resolution of the 
Economic and Social Council of March 28, 1947. 
The resolution instructed the Secretary-General 
to undertake the necessary studies with a view to 
drawing up a draft convention on genocide and 
to consult the Committee in regard thereto. 

IV. Organization of the Worit of the Committee 

The first meeting of the Committee was held on 
March 12, 1947, at Lake Success. Sir Dalip 
Singh, Representative for India, was elected 
chairman of the Committee. Dr. Antonio Rocha, 
Representative for Colombia, and Professor 
Vladimir Koretsky, Representative for USSR 
were chosen vice chairmen. Professor J. L. 
Brierly, Representative for the United Ivingdom, 
was elected rapporteur. Dr. Yuen-li Liang, Di- 
rector for the Secretariat Division of Develop- 
ment and Codification of International Law, acted 
as secretary to the Committee. 



'U.N. doc. US/A/AC.10/4. June 19, 1947. The U.S. 
Representative is Philip C. .Jessup. 



121 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

The Committee held thirty meetings, the last 
one on June 17, 1917. Its final reports are : Docu- 
ment A/AC.10/51 (Codification of International 
Law) ; document A/AC.10/52 (Nuremberg Prin- 
ciples) ; and document A/AC.10/53 (Rights and 
Duties of States). 

At its first meeting the Committee adopted the 
provisional agenda drawn up by the Secretariat 
(Doc. A/AC.10/1) and agreed to begin with the 
item relating to the methods by which the Gen- 
eral Assembly should encourage the progressive 
development of international law and its eventual 
codification. 

V. Method for Encouraging Development and 
Codification of International Law 

A. International Law Commission (ILC) 

1. Single coinmission. The Committee agreed 
that, in order to carry out the progressive develop- 
ment of international law and its eventual codi- 
fication, the General Assembly should establisli a 
single commission composed of persons of recog- 
nized competence in international law. 

The Committee agreed also that the ILC should 
deal not only with public international law but 
with private international law as well as penal 
international law. Certain delegations had taken 
the position that more than one commission was 
needed. Separate commissions for public, for pri- 
vate, and for penal international law were pro- 
posed. Other suggestions related to the desira- 
bility of having one commission for the develop- 
ment of international law and another for 
codification. The United States Representative 
pointed out that, while different procedures 
might be utilized for codification and for devel- 
opment, the task should be undertaken by a single 
commission. Separate commissions would render 
the work unnecessarily complex. 

The Committee agreed that the Commission 
should be called the International Law Commis- 
sion, hereinafter referred to as the ILC. 

2. Number of memiers. The United States 
proposed that the ILC should be composed of nine 
persons. The United Kingdom proposed seven. 
Several delegations advocated a larger number in 
order that more systems of law should have an 
opportunity to be represented. 

The Committee first decided to limit the number 
of members of the ILC to nine. Subsequently, 
however, during discussion of the rapporteur's re- 

122 



port, the Committee reconsidered this decision, 
and by a vote of 9 to 5, increased the number to 
fifteen. 

The United States Representative argued that 
a Commission of nine members could work more 
effectively ; that it would be more economical ; and 
that nine members were sufiicient to secure a repre- 
sentation of the principal systems of law and of 
civilization. He pointed out in answer to argu- 
ments in the debate, that the number of judges on 
the Permanent Court of International Justice had 
originally been fixed at eleven with four deputy 
judges and that the regular bench had been in- 
creased to fifteen, not because of any decision that 
there are fifteen systems of law which require rep- 
resentation but to facilitate the obtaining of the 
necessary quorum of the Court. 

3. Method of election. In regard to the method 
of election of the members of the ILC, a large 
majority of the Committee preferred, and the Com- 
mittee adopted, the plan which, with some slight 
modification, is prescribed by the Statute of the 
International Court of Justice for the election of 
the judges of the Court. The recommendation 
of the Committee is in accord with the position 
taken by the United States. 

One delegation advocated a procedure where- 
by the members of ILC would have been chosen 
by the judges of the Court, while another delega- 
tion advanced an intermediate thesis whereby 
the President of the Court, after consultation 
with his fellow judges, would have selected 
twenty names from the panel of names nomi- 
nated by governments. Under this plan, the 
Sixth Committee of the General Assembly would 
have nominated from these twenty the fifteen 
members of the ILC and the General Assembly 
would have proceeded to their election. 

The proposal for election by the Court was in- 
spired by the belief that under this plan the 
membership of the ILC would be more likely to 
represent the best expert talent of the world and 
that political appointments would be minimized. 

The procedure recommended by the Committee 
was advocated by the United States Representa- 
tive and by other members of the Committee on 
(he ground that it would contribute to the pres- 
tige and importance of the position. It was 
argued that it was desirable to draw govern- 
ments into the process of nomination and election 
in order that the work of the ILC might be 

Department of State Bulletin 



brought to public attention, a result which might 
not be secured if the election were made by the 
Court. 

The Committee recommended the following 
procedure for nominating and election: 

Each member of the United Nations should 
nominate, as candidates for membei'ship of the 
ILC, not more than two of its nationals and not 
more than eight persons of other nationalities. 
In making their nominations the governments are 
recommended to consult their highest courts of 
justice, their legal faculties and schools of law, 
their national academies and national sections of 
international academies devoted to the study of 
law and, where such exist, the national groups in 
the Permanent Court of Arbitration. 

The provision for nomination of eight non-na- 
tionals was inspired by the belief that many states 
would thus be encouraged to nominate their best 
jurists with a view to having them nominated 
also by other governments. The provision re- 
garding consultation was based on Article 6 of 
the Statute of the International Court of Justice. 

According to the Committee's recommendation, 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
should submit this panel of candidates to the Gen- 
eral Assembly and the Security Council, which 
would elect fifteen persons in accordance with the 
principle laid down in Article 3 and the procedure 
contained in Articles 8-12 of the Statute of the 
International Court of Justice. 

With respect to the method of filling vacancies, 
the Committee decided by a majority that the ILC 
itself might nominate a certain number of persons 
from among those whose names were on the panel 
of candidates, and that the Security Council might 
choose from the nominees a member of the Com- 
mission to hold office until the next General As- 
sembly when the vacancy would be filled by the 
same method as that laid down for the election of 
the original members of the ILC. 

In connection with the election of the membei-s 
of the ILC, the United States Representative, in 
order to render possible the election of members of 
the ILC before the adjournment of the Second 
Session of the General Assembly submitted a pro- 
posal on the basis of which the Committee re- 
quested the Secretary-General. 

July 20, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

(a) to transmit its report to the members of the 
United Nations at the eai'liest possible moment; 

(b) to call to their special attention that jjart 
of the report which contains the proposals for the 
nomination and election of the members of the 
ILC and to the possibility that the election might 
take place before the adjourmnent of the Second 
Session of the General Assembly, if the General 
Assembly accepts the recommendation to estab- 
lish the ILC. 

4. Duration of the ILC. Wliile the Committee 
expressed the hope that the ILC might be a per- 
manent body, it also felt that it might be desirable, 
in the first instance, to establish it on a provisional 
basis. It therefore recommended that the mem- 
bers of the ILC be elected for a term of three 
yeai-s, but that they be eligible for reelection if the 
ILC is continued after this period. 

5. Full-time service of members. The recom- 
mendation that the members of the ILC should be 
required to render full-time service was warmly 
debated in the Committee. By a vote of 9 to 5 the 
Committee thought that this would be necessary. 
Several representatives thought that it would be 
more difficult to secure the best men on this basis. 
The Representative of the United States argued 
that the best men would be more available if asked 
to serve full-time for a reasonably long tenn 
(three years) than if asked to devote several 
months each year to this work. The United States 
position was also based on the magnitude and im- 
portance of the tasks upon which the ILC is to 
engage. 

6. Salaries. All the members of the Committee 
agi-eed that the salary of the members of the ILC 
should be proportionate to the dignity and im- 
portance of their office. 

The Budget of the ILC should include items 
for the salaries of members, travel expenses, for 
meetings, etc. It was agreed that "etc." would 
include all expenditures that may arise as a result 
of subsequent decisions of ILC. 

7. Seat. The Committee agi-eed that the seat 
of the ILC should be at Lake Success, where the 
headquarters of the United Nations are estab- 
lished. It was pointed out by the Secretariat that 
any other decision would result in additional 
heavy expense. 

It was agreed, however, that the ILC might de- 

123 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

cide from time to time to hold its sessions at other 
places. 

8. Staff. The Committee recommended that the 
Secretary-General should be requested to make 
available to the ILC the services of the Division 
of Development and Codification of International 
Law. 

9. Procedures for the '■'■Progressive Develop- 
ment of hdernational Law'''' and the '■'■Codification 
of International LawP In order to expedite and 
facilitate the work of the General Assembly and 
of its Sixth Committee (Lep;al), the United States 
Representative made tlie following proposal : The 
General Assembly might constitute annually a 
special Committee, composed of rei:)resentatives of 
states to be selected in the same manner as that 
which was utilized in the appointment of the Codi- 
fication Committee. This special Committee 
might meet somewhat in advance of the opening 
of the General Assembly session. The General 
Assembly would recommend to the states repre- 
sented in this special Committee that they appoint 
as representatives the individuals whom they wish 
subsequently to designate as their members of the 
Sixth Committee. The function of the si:)ecial 
^Jommittee would be to study the reports and rec- 
ommendations of the ILC and to consider what 
recommendations should be made regarding the 
reference of projects or draft conventions to the 
ILC. If the states concerned acted in accordance 
with the recommendation of the General Assem- 
bly regarding the choice of personnel, the Sixth 
Committee might be inclined to designate the 
same group as its subcommittee on this subject. 

This useful proposal was defeated by the very 
close vote of 8 to 7 with two states abstaining. 

In its recommendations regarding procedure of 
the work of the ILC, the Committee drew a dis- 
tinction between (a) progressive development of 
international law and (b) codification of inter- 
national law. The ILC might have the task of 
drafting a convention on a subject not yet regu- 
lated bj' international law or in which the law has 
not yet been highly developed or formulated in the 
practice of states. On the other hand, the ILC 
miglit have another task, the formulation and sys- 
tematic arrangement of law in areas where there 
has been extensive state practice, precedent and 
doctrine. For jjurposes of the following proce- 
dures the Committee, by a majority vote, referred 



to the first type of task as "progressive develop- 
ment" and to the second type as "codification". It 
was realized that the terms employed are not mu- 
tually exclusive, that a clear-cut distinction be- 
tween the law as it is and the law as it ought to 
be could not lie maintained \\\ practice. It was 
jjointed out that codification incvitablj' has to fill 
in gaps and amend the law in the light of chang- 
ing conditions. 

Some delegations expressed the view that all the 
work of the ILC should take the form of draft 
multipartite conventions which would bind no 
state unless it ratified the convention. The use 
of the term "international legislation" as a syn- 
onj'm for "multipartite conventions" was strongly 
objected to by some delegations. The United 
States Representative agreed that in connection 
with the regulation of new subjects or of subjects 
in regard to which the law has not yet been highly 
developed the only possible procedure for the de- 
velopment of international law is through the 
ratification of multipartite conventions. How- 
ever, he pointed out that for work in the field of 
codification as distinguished from development of 
international law a different pi'ocedure was de- 
sirable. While the opposition to scientific restate- 
ments of law by the delegations advocating con- 
ventions as the only means was quite strong, most 
of the proposals of the United States which drew 
a distinction between procedure for development 
of international law and procedure for codifica- 
tion were accepted. (Doc. A/AC.10/3.3 intro- 
duced jointly with the Representative for China). 

As a compromise, the United States Representa- 
tive agreed that in connection with codification of 
international law, ILC should frame its conclu- 
sions in the form of draft articles of multipartite 
conventions. He secured, howevei-, the Commit- 
tee's approval of a detailed procedure which pre- 
serves much of the scientific value of the restate- 
ment process. Furthermore, the Committee 
agreed that for work in the field of codification, 
the results of the studies of the ILC might be 
either (a) allowed to rest in the form of a pub- 
lished volume whicli would have whatever in- 
fluence its quality warranted, (b) might be 
adopted in whole or in part by a resolution of the 
General Assembly', or (c) embodied in a multi- 
partite convention to be submitted to the states 
for ratification. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



In connection with procedure, the question 
whether the ILC should be free to go outside its 
own membership in the choice of a rapporteur gave 
rise to a warm debate. The decision giving such 
freedom to the ILC in connection with develop- 
ment of international law was approved by a vote 
of 8 to 7. In voting in favor of this decision, the 
United States Representative expressed the view 
that the ILC might find it necessary to go outside 
its membership to secure the services of expert 
rapporteurs in the many fields of international law 
in which it would have to deal. One of the main 
arguments of the opponents of this view was that 
Article 22 of the Rules of Procedure of the Gen- 
eral Assembly required the rapporteur of a Com- 
mittee to be a member thereof. It was pointed 
out, however, that Article 22 did not envisage a 
rapporteur of a Committee such as the ILC because 
its rapporteur would not have the role of the rap- 
porteur of a committee of the General Assembly. 
In connection, however, with the codification of 
international law, the Committee by a close vote 
eliminated from its proposals any reference to the 
choice of a rapporteur from outside its member- 
ship. 

A majority of the Committee decided to recom- 
mend that the ILC should be authorized to consider 
projects and draft conventions recommended by 
governments, other United Nations organs, spe- 
cialized agencies and those official bodies estab- 
lished by intergovernmental agreement to further 
the progressive development of international law 
and its codification. However, certain delegations 
desired to limit the authority of the ILC to proj- 
ects submitted only by the General Assembly, al- 
though it was generally recognized that the 
Economic and Social Council possessed the initia- 
tive in proposing conventions. The decision was 
based largely on a proposal by the United States 
Representative (Doc. A/AC.10/33, introduced 
jointly with the Representative for China). 

10. Special methods of encouraging development 
of international law. The majority of the Com- 
mittee decided to recommend that the ILC should 
consider the absence of uniformity in the drafting 
of the formal clauses of multipartite conventions 
and the ways and means of bringing about 
improvements in the technique of drafting such 
instruments, with a view to making ultimate rec- 
ommendations to the General Assembly. It was 
pointed out that absence of uniformity sometimes 

Ju/y 20, 7947 

754447 — 47 3 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

leads to unnecessary delays in the conclusion of 
multipartite conventions as well as creates certain 
difficulties of interpretation afterwards. 

Another matter considered by the Committee 
was the encouragement of ratification of multi- 
lateral conventions already concluded. A ma- 
jority of tlie Committee desired that the ILC 
should consider this matter with a view to ulti- 
mate recommendation to the General Assembly. 
The Committee also recommended that the ILC 
consider ways and means for making evidences 
of customary intei-national law more readilj' avail- 
able by the compilation of digests of state pi'ac- 
tice, and by the collection and publication of the 
decisions of national and international courts on 
international law questions. 

B. Cooperation of the Untied Nations Organs 
With respect to the request of the General As- 
sembly that the Committee study methods of se- 
curing the cooperation of the several organs of 
the United Nations in the task of the development 
and codification of intei'national law, the Commit- 
tee recommended: 

(a) that the ILC should be authorized to con- 
sult with such organs. 

(b) that in projects referred to it by an organ 
of the United Nations, the ILC should be author- 
ized to make an interim report to the organ con- 
cerned prior to submitting its final report to the 
General Assembly. This resolution was carried 
by a majority of the Committee. A minority of 
the members dissented from it on the ground that, 
in their view, it would not be in accordance with 
the provisions of the United Nations Charter for 
any organ of the United Nations other than the 
General Assembly to refer a project to the ILC. 
Two members of this minority would add "or the 
Economic and Social Council under the author- 
ity of the General Assembly" at this point. 

(c) that all ILC documents which are circu- 
lated to governments should also be circulated to 
the organs of the United Nations. 

C. Assistance of National or International 

Bodies 

The General Assembly resolution of December 
11, 1946 directed the Committee to study also 
methods of enlisting the assistance of such na- 
tional or international bodies as might aid in the 

125 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

attiiiiimciit of its objective. With respect to this 
point, the Committee recommended: 

(a) that the ILC should be authorized to con- 
sult such bodies, official or unofficial. A minority 
of the Committee was of the opinion that the con- 
sultation should be limited to organizations in- 
eluded in the list referred to in the sub-paragraph 
following. 

(b) that, for the purpose of distribution of 
ILC documents, the Secretary-General, after con- 
sultation with the ILC, should draw up a list of 
national and international organizations dealing 
with questions of international law. 

It was also decided that, in connection with the 
consultation and in making up such a list, the 
Secretary-General should take into account the 
resolutions of the General Assembly and of the 
Economic and Social Coimcil concerning relations 
with Franco-Spain and that organizations which 
collaborated with the Nazis and Fascists should 
be excluded both from consultation and the list. 

The Committee recommended that the ILC 
should be free to consult, if desired, with scienti- 
fic and professional institutions. Wliile some 
delegations objected to consultation with indivi- 
dual experts, the Committee decided in favor of 
such consultation. 

It should be noted that the above-mentioned 
list of organizations which is to be prepared by 
the Secretary-General is only for the purpose of 
distribution of ILC documents. One of the Com- 
mittee's recommendations regarding procedure 
was that, when the ILC considers a draft to be in 
satisfactory form, it should be published by the 
Secretariat as an ILC docimient with such ex- 
planation and supporting material as the ILC 
considers appropriate. This draft is to be given 
the widest possible publicity and any organization 
would be free to submit such comments and obser- 
vations as it may deem desirable. 

By a majority the Committee decided to refer 
specially to the desirability of consultation be- 
tween the ILC and the Pan American Union, 
without, however, disregarding the claims of 
other systems of law. 

VI. Plans for the Formulation of the Principles Rec- 
ognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal 
and in the Judgment of the Tribunal 

As pointed out at the beginning of this report 
another task of the Committee resulted from a 

126 



General Assembly resolution of December 11, 
1946 directing this Committee to "treat as a mat- 
ter of primary importance plans for the formu- 
lation, in the context of a general codification of 
offences against the peace and security of man- 
kind, or of an International Criminal Code, of 
the principles recognized in the Charter of the 
Niirnberg Tribunal and in the judgment of the 
Tribunal." 

By a majority the Committee decided not to 
UJidertake the actual formulation of the Nurem- 
berg principles which would clearly be a task 
demanding careful and prolonged study. It rec- 
ommended unanimously that the ILC should be 
invited to prepare : 

(a) a draft convention incorporating the Nu- 
remberg jDrinciples and 

(b) a detailed draft plan of general codification 
of offences against the peace and security of man- 
kind in such a manner that the plan should clearly 
indicate the place to be accorded to the Nuremberg 
principles. The Committee further expressed its 
opinion that this task would not preclude the ILC 
from drafting in due course a code of international 
penal law. 

By a majority the Committee decided to draw 
the attention of the General Assembly to the fact 
that the implementation of the Nuremberg princi- 
jjles and of other international criminal law may 
render desirable the existence of an international 
judicial authority. The Representatives for 
Egypt, Poland, the United Kingdom, USSR and 
Yugoslavia desired to have their dissent from this 
part of the decision recorded. In their opinion, 
the question of establishing an international crim- 
inal court falls outside the terms of reference from 
the General Assembly to the Committee. 

VII. Draft Declaration on the Rights and Duties of 
States Presented by Panama 

By a resolution of December 11, 1946, the Gen- 
eral Assembly instructed the Secretary-General 
to transmit to members of the United Nations and 
to national and international bodies concerned 
with international law the text of the draft Dec- 
laration on the Rights and Duties of States pre- 
sented by Panama (Doc. A/28.5) with a request 
that they should submit their comments and ob- 
servations to the Secretary-General before June 

Department of State Bulletin 



1, 1947. This resolution also refei'red the Dec- 
laration to the Committee and requested the Sec- 
retary-General to transmit to it tire comments and 
observations of the governments as they were re- 
ceived and to request the Committee to report 
thereon to the second regular session of tlie Gen- 
eral Assembly. The Committee noted that a very 
limited number of comments and observations 
from members of the United Nations (6) and 
national and international nongovernmental bod- 
ies (3) had been received. It noted also tliat the 
majority of these comments recommended post- 
ponement of the study of the substance of this 
question. The Committee, therefore, recom- 
mended that: 

(a) The General Assembly entrust furtlier 
studies concerning this subject to the ILC. 

(b) that the ILC should take the draft Declara- 
tion on the Eights and Duties of States presented 
by Panama as one of the bases of study. 

VIII. Genocide 

Under cover of a letter of June 10, 1947 from the 
Acting Secretary-General, the Committee received 
the text of the draft convention for tlie prevention 
and punishment of the crime of genocide, (Doc. 
A/AC.10/42) drawn up by the Secretariat, with 
the assistance of experts in the field of hiterna- 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

tional and criminal law, in accordance with the 
resolution of the Economic and Social Council of 
28 March 1947. 

The Committee took notice of the resolution of 
the Economic and Social Council of March 28, 
1947 which instructed the Secretary-General 
"after consultation with the General Assembly 
Committee on the Development and Codification 
of International Law and if feasible the Commis- 
sion on Human Rights and after reference to all 
Member Governments for comments, to submit 
to the next session of the Economic and Social 
Council a draft convention on the crime of Geno- 
cide." 

The Committee was informed that tlie next ses- 
sion of the Economic and Social Council was 
scheduled to be held on July 16, 1947. In reply- 
ing to the above-mentioned communication from 
the Acting Secretary-General, the Committee 
noted "that the text prepared by the Secretariat, 
owing to lack of time, has not yet been referred 
to the Member Governments of the United Na- 
tions for their comments, as is contemplated in 
the Resolution of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, and it regrets that, owing to the absence of in- 
formation as to the views of the governments, it 
feels unable at present to exjiress any opinion in 
the matter." 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



There will be listed periodically in the Bulletin a 
selection of United Nations documents which may be of 
interest to readers. 

I'rinted materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

General Assembly 

Committee on the Progressive Development of Interna- 
tional Law and Its Codification. Draft Convention for 
the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. (Pre- 
pared by the Secretariat.) A/AC.lO/42/Rev.l. 9 
pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Committee. Item 4 of the Agenda 

(A/AC.10/1). A/AC.lO/46/Corr.l, June 16, 1947. 2 
pp. mimeo. 

Proposal Submitted by the Representative of the 

United States in Connection With the Election of 



the Members of the International Law Commission. 
A/AC.10/4S, June 13, 1947. 1 p. mimeo. 

Report of the Rapporteur, Professor J. L. Brierly, on 

Item 3 of the Agenda. (A/AC.10/1). A/AC.10/50, 
June 13, 1947. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Committee on the Methods for Encour- 
aging the Progressive Develoijment of International 
Law and Its Eventual Coditication. A/AC.10/51, June 
17, 1947. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Committee on the Plans for the Formu- 
lation of the Principles of the Nuremberg Charter and 
Judgment. A/AC.10/52, June 17, 1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Sixth Committee. Check List of Documents of the Sixth 
Committee (Legal Committee) and Its Sub-Commit- 
tees, and the Negotiating Committee on Headquarters, 
First Session of tlie General Assembly, 1946. Prepared 
by the Documents Index Unit. A/C.6/132, June 25, 
1947. 31 pp. mimeo. 

Trusteeship Council 

Resolutions Adopted by the Trusteeship Council During 
Its First Session From 2G March to 28 April 1947. 
T/43, June 19, 1947. 9 pp. printed. [10 cents.] 



July 20, 7947 



127 



Negotiations in Security Council on Trusteeship of Pacific Islands ^ 



President Truman announced on November 6, 
1946, that "The United States is prepared to place 
under trusteeship, with the United States as the 
administering authority, the Japanese Mandated 
Islands and any Japanese islands for which it as- 
sumes responsibilities as a result of the second 
World War." A draft strategic trusteeship agree- 
ment was developed after long and careful inter- 
departmental consultations. Its pi'ovisions were 
a synthesis of State, War, and Navy Department 
views. It contained the terms whereby the United 
States was prepared to place within the trusteeship 
system of the United Nations the former mandated 
Marianas, Caroline, and Marshall Islands which 
are now administered under United States mili- 
tary government. Copies of the draft agreement 
were transmitted for information to the other 
members of the Security Council (Australia, 
Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Mexico, the Nether- 
lands, Poland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, and the United Kingdom) and to New 
Zealand and the Republic of the Philippines and 
were later transmitted to the newly elected mem- 
bers of the Security Council (Belgium, Colombia, 
and Syria). 

On February 17, 1947, the text of the draft 
trusteeship agreement was submitted by the 
United States Representative at the Seat of the 
United Nations, Warren R. Austin, to the Secre- 



' Memorandum accompanying Trusteeship Agreement 
submitted to the Congress for approval on July 3, 1947. 
For the President's letter of transmittal see Bulletin of 
July 13, p. 74. 

' For complete statement by Ambassador Austin see 
BurxETlN of Mar. 9, 1947, pp. 416-419. 

" See Bm.LETiN of Mar. 9, 1947, pp. 420-423, for the ex- 
planatory comments on each article of the agreement. 
For the text of the agreement as approved by the Security 
Council on Apr. 2, 1947, see Btru.ETiN of May 4, 1947, pp. 
791-792, 794. 

* Verbatim records of the Security Council discussions on 
the United States draft trusteeship agreement for the 
former Japanese Mandated Islands are contained in the 
following United Nations documents: S/P.V. 113, Feb. 26, 
1947; S/P.V. 116, Mar. 7, 1947; S/P.V. 118, Mar. 12, 1947; 
S/P.V. 119, Mar. 17, 1947; S/P.V. 123, Mar. 28, 1947; 
S/P.V. 124, Apr. 2, 1947. 

128 



tary-General with a request that the matter be 
placed on the agenda of the Security Council at 
an early date. The United States submitted the 
draft trusteeship agreement for approval by the 
Security Council rather than by the General As- 
sembly, because under its terms the territory is 
designated as strategic. This is in accordance 
with article 82 of the Charter which provides 
tliat "There may be designated, in any trustee- 
ship agreement, a strategic area or areas which 
may include part or all of the trust territory 
. . .", and article 83 which states that "All func- 
tions of the United Nations relating to strategic 
areas, including the approval of the terms of the 
trusteeshifD agreements . . . shall be exer- 
cised by the Security Council." 

Mr. Austin formally submitted the United 
States draft trusteeship agreement to the Security 
Council on February 26, 1947.^ At that time he 
submitted to the Security Council a paper con- 
taining the text of the draft agreement with 
article-by-article explanatory comments.' The Se- 
curity Council began consideration of the draft 
trusteeship agreement on March 7, 1947, and dis- 
cussions on the question were continued at four 
later meetings held on March 12, 17, and 28, and 
April 2, 1947. During the course of the de- 
bates * the Governments of New Zealand and 
India requested, under article 31 of the Charter, 
that they participate in the discussions. The 
New Zealand Government also requested that 
those members of the Far Eastern Commission 
not represented in the Security Council be invited 
to participate, if they so desired, in the discus- 
sions. The Security Council accordingly invited 
Canada, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, 
and the Republic of the Philippines to be repre- 
sented at subsequent discussions on the United 
States trusteeship agreement. The views of all 
of those states were heard at the Council's table. 

During a long session on April 2, 1947, the Se- 
curity Council reconsidered the entire agreement 
article by article. In voting on proposed amend- 
ments, the United States Representative followed 

Department of State Bulletin 



the rule of casting a vote when the United States 
vote would be in the affirmative, and abstaining 
from voting in cases wherein the United States 
did not favor the proposal before the Council. 
Thus, he abstained from voting on proposals to 
revise article 8(1) and article 15. Prior to the 
voting on each of these articles, the United States 
Kepresentative declared that the United States 
would not veto the amendment. In advance of his 
first abstention, he stated that, "On questions such 
as this, it is perfectly clear — to us anyway — that 
the United States, where it may be obliged in view 
of its responsibilities to withdraw the tender of 
an agreement, should certainly not exercise a veto 
in the Security Council also". Prior to his second 
abstention he said, "The United States being a 
party to the agi'eement, all I can do is, with the 
utmost modesty, state that an amendment in the 
nature of that proposed . . . probably could not 
be accepted by the United States as a party to the 
agreement". At the close of the session, the Se- 
curity Council approved unanimously the United 
States draft agreement as a whole including 
three minor revisions which were accepted by the 
United States Representative with the consent of 
the United States Govermnent. The three amend- 
ments are as follows : 

Article 3. An amendment proposed by the 
Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics to delete the words "as an integral part 
of the United States". Upon accepting this 
amendment at the 116th meeting of the Security 
Council, the United States Representative said 
inter alia: "In agreeing to this modification, my 
Government feels that it should affirm for the 
record that its authority in the trust territory is 
not to be considered in any way lessened thereby." 

Article 6(1). An amendment proposed by the 
Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and revised in the Council, to add after 
the words "toward self-government," the words 
"or independence as may be appropriate to the 
particular circumstances of the trust territory and 
its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the 
peoples concerned,". In accepting modification in 
article 6(1) at the 116th meeting of the Security 
Council, the United States Representative de- 
clared that "the United States feels that it must 
record its opposition not to the principle of inde- 
pendence, to which no people could be more con- 

Jo/y 20, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

secrated than the people of the United States, but 
to the thought that it could possibly be achieved 
within any foreseeable future in this case." 

Article 6{1). An amendment suggested hy the 
Representatives of New Zealand and India and in- 
troduced on behalf of the latter at the 12'4th meet- 
ing of the Security Council, to delete the word 
"local" from the phrase "in local government;". 
The observation of the Representative of India at 
the 124th meeting in behalf of this deletion was 
that in certain countries the word "local" connotes 
municipal government, and that surely would not 
be the intention of the Representative of the 
United States. 

In the final consideration of the United States 
trusteeship proposals, the original text of articles 
1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 19 was approved in. 
each case without objection or comment. The 
American Representative, Mr. Austin, requested 
that article 7 be perfected as follows: 

In discharging its obligations under Article 76(c), of 
the Charter, the administering authority shall guarantee 
to the inhabitants of the trust territory freedom of con- 
science, and, subject only to the requirements of public 
order and security, freedom of speech, of the press, and of 
assembly; freedom of worship, and of religious teaching; 
and freedom of migration and movement." 

Mr. Austin stated: "The significance of this 
perfection of the article is that it moves up free- 
dom of conscience so that it will not be subject to 
the requirements of public order and security." 
The approval of the trusteeship agreement with 
the three minor amendments and this slight 
change followed the withdrawal or rejection of 
several other proposed amenchnents as follows : 

Preamble. Discussions on the preamble con- 
cerned three alternative versions — suggested by 
Poland, the Netherlands, and the United States — 
of an amendment proposed originally by the Rep- 
resentative of Poland at the 116th meeting of the 
Security Council. This proposal was to add the 
following phrase to paragraph four: "Whereas 
Japan has violated the terms of the above-men- 
tioned mandate of the League of Nations and 
has thus forfeited her mandate . . . ". The 
United States Representative endorsed this jDro- 
posal, but the amendment was reconsidered at the 
124th meeting. The Netherlands Representative 



' Bulletin of May 4, 1947, p. 7S 



129 



754447- 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

proposed that the amendment read : "Whereas, 
as a result of the signature by Japan of an act of 
unconditional surrender, the mandate held by 
Japan for these islands has come to an end." As 
a compromise, the United States Representative 
proposed the following wording: "Whereas the 
mandate, held by Japan for these Islands has 
come to an end." After failure to reach agree- 
ment on these alternative proposals, the original 
wording of the preamble was approved unani- 
mously. 

Article 8(1). The United Kingdom Represen- 
tative proposed an amendment to article 8(1) to 
delete the phrase "except the administering au- 
thority", holding that the inclusion of those words 
would give preferential position to the United 
States which did not seem to be in strict accord- 
ance with articles 83(2) and 76(d) of the Char- 
ter. He asked whether that phrase in article 
83(3) "without prejudice to security considera- 
tions" would not really give the United States 
sufficient safeguard. After replying to this ques- 
tion in the negative, the American Representative 
stated for the record : "... the United States 
Government has no intention, through this clause 
or any other clause, of taking advantage for its 
own benefit, and to the detriment of the welfare 
of the inhabitants, of the meager and almost non- 
existent resources and commercial opportunities 
that exist in the scattered and barren islands. The 
nature of this proposed clause is dictated by the 
fact that these islands are proposed as a strategic 
trusteeship area and by the obligations which the 
administering authority will assume under the 
Charter 'to further international peace and secur- 
ity' and to insure that the territory itself 'shall 
play its part' in the maintenance of international 
peace and security." 

Article 13. The United Kingdom Representa- 
tive proposed a redraft of article 13 to read : 

The provisions of Articles 87 and 88 of the Charter 
shall be applicable to the trust territory, provided that the 
administering authority may at any time inform the Se- 
curity Council, in accordance with Article 83(3) of the 
Charter, that security considerations do not permit the 
exercise of the functions of the Trusteeship Council In re- 
gard to specific areas. 

He did not insist on this amendment, however, be- 
cause the United States Representative stated for 
the record that the United States contemplates 
that notification shall be made to the Security 



Council whenever the proviso that is contained in 
article 13 comes into use. 

Article 15. Extended debate took place before 
reaching agreement on article 15. Two formal 
amendments to this article were presented by the 
Representatives of Poland and the Union of So- 
viet Socialist Republics. The Soviet amendment 
was to make article 15 read as follows: "The 
terms of the present agreement may be altered and 
amended or the terms of its validity discontinued 
by decision of the Security Council." The Polish 
amendment was to modify article 15 to read : "The 
terms of the present agreement shall not be al- 
tered, amended or terminated except as provided 
by the Charter." The United States indicated a 
willingness to accept the following text as a com- 
promise: "The terms of the present agreement 
shall not be altered, amended, or terminated ex- 
cept by agreement of the administering authority 
and the Security Council." The rejection of the 
Soviet and Polish amendments was followed by 
the acceptance of the original wording of article 
15. 

Proposed Article 17. An issue debated at 
length in the Security Council was embodied in an 
amendment proposed by Australia to add an ar- 
ticle 17 to the agreement which would have de- 
layed its coming into force until the effective date 
of the peace treaty with Japan. The view thus 
expressed was supported by the United Kingdom 
and by New Zealand. The United States Repre- 
sentative argued most forcefully against this pro- 
posal which would have left the agreement in sus- 
pense for an indefinite period. As a basic conten- 
tion of the United States Government, he empha- 
sized throughout the debates that the matter did 
not depend upon, and need not await, the general 
peace settlement with Japan. Following this 
widening of the Council's discussions to include 
representatives of Canada, India, the Nether- 
lands, and the Republic of the Philippines for the 
purpose of stating their views on the United 
States trusteeship proposals, the Australian Rep- 
resentative withdrew his proposal. 

According to article 16 of the agreement, the 
Security Council having approved its terms of 
trusteeship, only the approval by the United 
States in accordance with its constitutional proc- 
ess is now required to bring the trusteeship agree- 
ment for the Territoiy of the Pacific Islands into 
force. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



[\ Benefits of Membership in the World Health Organization 

STATEMENT BY DURWARD V. SANDIFER • 



I appreciate the opportunity which your Com- 
mittee has given to a representative of the Depart- 
ment of State to appear before you for the purpose 
of supporting S. J. Res. 98 to provide for United 
States membership in the World Health Organiza- 
tion. 

The provisions of the bill may be briefly stated : 
( 1 ) it authorizes the President to accept the con- 
stitution of the World Health Organization on 
behalf of the United States; (2) it authorizes the 
appointment of representatives to attend meetings 
of the constituent bodies of the organization ; and 
(3) it authorizes appropriations for United States 
participation in the organization. 

I think you will agree with me that this country 
should be an active member of an organization 
which is designed to further cooperation among 
nations to their mutual advantage in helping to 
solve public-health problems which no nation can 
adequately handle by itself. As you will recall, 
in December 1945 the Senate unanimously adopted 
a joint resolution to urge the early establishment 
of an international health organization. This bill 
is, therefore, a means of giving effect to the pur- 
pose of the Senate's earlier resolution. 

With a view to improving public-health admin- 
istration the organization will promote better 
standards of teaching and training health officials 
and, at the request of governments, will provide 
technical assistance and advice. It will promote 
research on diseases and their treatment as a 
means of improving health conditions. The or- 
ganization will have responsibility for receiving 
and disseminating epidemiological information, 
as required by international treaties which have 
been concluded for the purpose of preventing the 
spread of epidemic diseases. It is authorized by 
the constitution to prepare conventions and to 
adopt regulations to keep these treaties abreast of 
scientific developments. Since the Surgeon Gen- 
eral of the United States Public Health Service 
is here, I am sure that the Conunittee will be able 



to obtain from him a more complete account of 
the organization than I could provide. 

Governments long ago realized that their com- 
bined efforts were requii'ed to prevent the spread 
of disease. Hence there is a long tradition of in- 
ternational cooperation in the interest of health. 
This Government has helped to build this tradi- 
tion. The United States has been a party to the 
sanitary conventions in which the governments 
have agreed to notify each other of the outbreak 
of an epidemic disease. Also, this Government 
has been a member of the International Office of 
Public Health, which was designed and developed 
to perform special functions pursuant to the sani- 
tary conventions. Although not a member of the 
League of Nations, the United States cooperated 
with its health organization, whose work was one 
of the League's principal achievements. That or- 
ganization was supported in part by funds from 
the Rockefeller Foundation, and an official of this 
Government sat in his private capacity as a mem- 
ber of the organization's advisory committee. 

During the war the activities of these two organi- 
zations were necessarily curtailed. To insure the 
continuance of essential functions for safeguard- 
ing public health and to be ready to meet any 
threat from an epidemic in war-torn countries, the 
governments supporting UNRRA assigned to it 
certain responsibilities in the international health 
field. The Health Division of UNRRA per- 
formed epidemiological-intelligence functions as 
required by the 1944 sanitary conventions, and 
maintained health missions to combat tuberculosis, 
typhus, malaria, etc., in several countries where 
health administration had been interrupted by the 
war, to assist local governments in re-establishing 
their health services. No other organization was 
in a position to undertake this work. 

The problem of the best way to organize 
future international health activities was carefully 



' Made before the Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions on .Tune 17, 1947. Mr. Sandifer is Acting Legislative 
Counsel for the Department of State. 



July 20, 7947 



13) 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

studied by the Technical Preparatory Committee 
which the United Nations appointed in February 
1!)46, when it was decided to convene an interna- 
tional health conference. This committee, com- 
posed of health experts, was asked to prepare 
proposals for the consideration of the conference, 
which woulil meet to determine the appropriate 
machinery for international action in the field of 
public health. Realizino; that existing organiza- 
tions could not cope with new conditions resulting 
from the developments of medical science and 
transportation, the committee proposed that exist- 
ing health agencies be c(jnsolidatt>d into one single, 
modern, international organization. It recom- 
mended specifically that the International Office of 
Public Health be absorbed into this new inter- 
national organization and that the health functions 
of the League and UNRRA be taken over by the 
organization. These pi'oposals were accepted by 
the International Health Conference and subse- 
quently approved by the Economic and Social 
Council and the General Assembly of the United 
Nations. 

The absorption of the League health organiza- 
tion and of UNRRA's Health Division presented 
no problems since the League was being dissolved 
and since UNRRA was admittedly a temporary 
organization. The International Oflice of Public 
Health, however, was established by an interna- 
tional treaty, the Rome agreement of 1907, to 
which, in July ID-IC, 45 states (including the United 
States) and 14 protectorates, colonies, or other de- 
pendent territories were parties. Consequently a 
new agreement was needed to bring about the ab- 
sorption of the Office by the new organization, and 
accordingly a protocol was signed on behalf of 60 
states at the International Health Conference. 
This protocol was transmitted to the Senate on 
February 10, 1947 (Senate Document, 80th Cong., 
1st sess., Executive D) , and I hope that the Senate 
will act upon this instrument together with the 
World Health Organization constitution. 

The need for special arrangements for regional 
health organizations like the Pan American Sani- 
tary Bureau and Pan Arab Health Bureau has also 
been recognized. It is agreed that these organiza- 
tions should continue their activities but, in order 
to insure coordinated action with respect to meas- 
ures in the international health field and to avoid 
unnecessary duplication and overlapping, that 
they should be brought within the framework of 

132 



the World Health Organization by mutual 
agreement. 

The Charter of the United Nations clearly rec- 
ognizes the importance of international coopera- 
tion in finding solutions for social and economic 
as well as for political problems. By unanimous 
decision of the delegates at the San Francisco con- 
ference, health is specifically mentioned as one of 
the fields in which such cooperation is to be 
promoted. 

The Charter also recognizes that international 
cooperation to deal with social and economic prob- 
lems may take different forms. In some cases co- 
operation can be undertaken best by using the ma- 
chinery of the United Nations itself, but in fram- 
ing the Charter it was agreed that in other 
instances international organizations to be con- 
cerned with specialized subjects should rest upon 
separate intergovernmental agreements. A spe- 
cialized agency such as the World Health Organi- 
zation is particularly appropriate for international 
cooperation in a technical field. 

The Technical Preparatory Committee, to 
which I have already referred, recommended that 
the organization be established as a specialized 
agency and that it be brought into close relation- 
ship with the United Nations by an agreement 
in accordance with article 57 of the Charter. In 
its observations to the International Health Con- 
ference on the report of this committee, the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council apijroved this recom- 
mendation. 

I mention this matter of the form of the World 
Health Organization in order to make it clear 
that, while the Congress is being asked to ap- 
prove United States membership in a new organi- 
zation, this organization is being established pur- 
suant to action initiated within the United Nations 
and in accordance with the Charter. Further- 
more, the basic instrument of the new health or- 
ganization provides that it should be brought into 
close relationship with the United Nations and 
other organizations already established as spe- 
cialized agencies. 

I should like to emphasize the imi:)ortance which 
the Department of State attaches to favorable 
action by the Congress on this joint resolution. 

The organization provided for by the constitu- 
tion is urgently needed to insure adequate means 
of meeting any emergency situation and to serve 
the other laudable but perhaps less conspicuous 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



1 



purposes defined in the constitution. Favorable 
action by this Congress would not only mean ac- 
ceptance by one more of the 26 members of the 
United Nations required to bring the organiza- 
tion into being but would almost certainly be the 
spur to action by other governments, 10 of which 
have already accepted membership. 

Because it was expected that several months 
would elapse before the constitution could be ac- 
cepted by a sufficient number of governments to 
enable the organization to be established, the In- 
ternational Health Conference set up an Interim 
Commission as a stop-gap. The conference con- 
curred with the recommendation of the Technical 
Preparatory Committee that such a body was nec- 
essary in order to make plans for the establish- 
ment of the organization and to perform essential 
functions in the international health field pend- 
ing the coming into force of the constitution. The 
United Nations was convinced of the necessity of 
continuing this work and advanced funds to the 
Commission for this purpose. These functions 
may be divided into three categories: 

(1) Performing certain duties required by in- 
ternational conventions, to which the United 
States is a party, such as the dissemination of epi- 
demiological information on the basis of which 
governments may take measures to curb the spread 
of contagious diseases. The Interim Commission 
is performing these duties by virtue of decisions of 
the International Office of Public Health and 
UNRRA and in pursuance of the protocol to pro- 
long the 1944 sanitary conventions, to which the 
Senate gave its advice and consent on July 25, 
1946. 

(2) Continuing a number of activities of the 
League of Nations health organization : for ex- 
ample, the standardization of drugs and biological 
products, which had been assumed by the United 
Nations and transferi'ed by it to the Commission ; 
and the continuance of certain health missions 
formerly supported by UNRRA and financed 
temporarily by funds received from that organi- 
zation. It was recognized that the sudden termi- 
nation of some of these programs, such as malaria 
and tuberculosis control in Greece, might have 
calamitous consequences, and the liquidation of 
the program of aid being given to certain coun- 
tries in rebuilding their health services, which is 
the primary aim of the new organization, might 
be disastrous. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

(3) Taking measures to deal with emergency 
situations such as the outbreak of an epidemic. 

Provision has therefore been made for continu- 
ing without any bi-eak functions required by in- 
ternational conventions, for carrying on other es- 
sential activities, and for meeting any emergency 
which might arise. The Commission's work is ad- 
visory and administrative; it has no regulatory 
functions. The Interim Commission was designed 
as a temporary body and is not equipped to ful- 
fil more than minimum needs. The establishment 
of the organization at the earliest possible mo- 
ment is, therefore, highly desirable. 

It is our conviction that cooperation among 
governments to find solutions for international 
problems in the nonpolitical fields will contribute 
to the development of effective international co- 
operation and to solving of problems in the po- 
litical field. Governments have shown a willing- 
ness to cooperate in dealing with health problems. 
The World Health Organization will afford great- 
er opportunities for such cooperation. Certainly 
one of the first prerequisites of well-being of peo- 
ple, upon which peace and security rest, is health. 



U.S. Delegation to Third Part of 
First Session of IRQ 

The Department of State announced on July 11 
that the United States Delegation to the Third 
Part of the First Session of the International Ref- 
ugee Organization will leave July 12 for Lau- 
sanne, where the meeting is scheduled to open on 
July 15. The United States Delegation is as fol- 
lows : 

United States Representative on the Preparatory Com- 
mission 

George L. Warren, Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 
Persons, Department of State 

Advisers 

Dorothy Lally, Technical Assistant, Office of the Commis- 
sioner, Social Security Administration, Federal Se- 
curity Agency 

George W. Lawson, Jr., Administrative Analyst, Bureau 
of the Budget 

Administrative Assistant 

Eleanor A. Burnett, Secretary to the Adviser on Refugees 
and Displaced Persons, Department of State 



July 20, 7947 



133 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Activities and Developments 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF FOURTH MEETING OF 
RUBBER STUDY GROUP' 

The fourth meeting of the Rubber Study 
Group, held in Paris under the chairmanship of 
Georges Peter, Director of Economic Affairs at 
the Ministry of France Overseas, ended on July 8. 

The meeting was attended by delegates from 
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, British Colonies, 
Canada, Ceylon, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ecua- 
dor, France, Hungai'y, Italy, Liberia, Nether- 
lands, Norway, Siam, United Kingdom, United 
States, and Venezuela, and by observers from 
Brazil, Colombia, Finland, Guatemala, Mexico, 
Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the 
United Nations, and the Food and Agriculture 
Organization. 

It is regretted that Brazil and Poland were 
wrongly shown in the communique released on 
July 1 as sending delegates; they sent only ob- 
servers. Chile did not send an observer as an- 
nounced in the communique. 

The principal objects of the meeting were: 

1. To consider the organization of the enlarged 
Study Group. 

2. To review the world rubber situation in the 
light of changes since the previous meeting, held 
at The Hague in November 1946. 

The Study Group adopted a resolution recom- 
mending that participating governments accept 
new terms of reference, of which the principal 
features are : 

1. That membership shall be open to all coun- 
tries substantially interested in the production of, 
consumption of, or trade in I'ubber. 

2. That the group shall consider measures de- 
signed to expand world consumption of rubber. 

3. That the group shall consider how best to 
deal with any special difficulties which may exist 
or may be expected to arise and may submit rec- 



" Released to the press by the Rubber Study Group in 
Paris on July 8 and in Washington on July 9, 1047. 



ommendations on the subject to the participating 
governments. 

4. That the group shall maintain such secre- 
tariat as it may deem necessary for the proper 
conduct of its work and shall arrange for the col- 
lection and dissemination of statistics. 

For the purpose of facilitating the establish- 
ment of a permanent secretariat, the Study Group 
has recommended unanimously to the participat- 
ing governments the setting up as soon as possi- 
ble of a management committee to supervise the 
establishment and work of the secretariat, the fol- 
lowing members to be represented, in the first in- 
stance, on the management committee: France, 
Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States. 
The question of the membership of the manage- 
ment committee will be reexamined at the next 
meeting. 

It was agreed that the permanent site of the 
secretariat should be in London. 

The group examined the current statistical po- 
sition but, because of the many imponderables 
which now affect the situation, refrained from 
making any firm estimates for supply and demand 
beyond the end of 1947. During 1947, as far as 
could be foreseen in present conditions, it was es- 
timated that the production of natural rubber will 
be about 1,200,000 tons and of synthetic rubber 
about 515,000 tons. The total consumption of nat- 
ural rubber is estimated at just over 1,000,000 tons 
and of synthetic rubber at 585,000 tons. These 
figures do not include any estimates for the Soviet 
Union except in respect of imports of natural rub- 
ber. 

If these estimates are realized, stocks of natural 
rubber at the end of 1947 will be 140,000 tons 
higher than at the end of 1946, and stocks of syn- 
thetic rubber 70,000 tons lower. Both the United 
States and United Kingdom Govei'uments are at 
present holding substantial stocks of natural rub- 
ber, and these should be taken into account in look- 
ing at the over-all stock position. 

The Rubber Study Group noted with great con- 
cern the downward trend in the market price of 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



natural rubber and decided to recommend that 
the governments concerned sliould consider, as a 
' matter of urgency, what action tliey are in a posi- 
tion to take to meet this special difficulty. 

The gi'oup considered what action could be 
taken to expand world consumption of rubber. 
They hoped that no avoidable obstacles would be 
placed in the way of international trade in and 
use of rubber and that maximum assistance would 
be given to the countries which desire to make an 
extensive use of rubber but which, on account of 
the war, cannot afford to pay in foreign currencies 
for the rubber imports they require. 

U.S. DELEGATION TO MICROBIOLOGY 
CONGRESS 

[Released to the press July 10] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 10 
that the President has approved the composition 
of the United States Delegation to attend the 
Fourth International Congress for Microbiology 
which is scheduled to be held at Copenhagen from 
July 20 to 26, 19-17. The United States Delegation 
is as follows : 

chairman 

Dr. Malcolm H. Soule, School of Medicine, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Delegates 

Dr. J. Howard Brown, Department of Baeteriolog.v, Johns 

Hopkins University School of Medicine, Balti- 
more, Md. 
iDr. Kene Jules Dubos, professor of comparative pathology 
and tropical medicine. Harvard Medical School, 

Boston, Mass. 
Dr. Jlichael Heidelberger, professor of biochemistry. Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 

New York, N.T. 
Dr. Herman E. Hilleboe, United States Public Health 

Service, Washington, D.C. 
Dr. I. Forest Huddleson, Michigan State College, East 

Lansing, Mich. 
Dr. Stuart Mudd, professor of bacteriology. University of 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dr. John R. Paul, professor of preventive medicine, Yale 

University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. 
Dr. James M. Sherman, professor of bacteriology and 

dairy industry, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Dr. S. A. Waksman, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 

Station, New Brunswick, N.J. 
Dr. C. H. Werkman, Department of Bacteriology, Iowa 

State College, Ames, Iowa. 
H Dr. H. S. Willis, National Tuberculosis Association, New 

York, N.Y. 
Dr. Claude E. ZoBell, University of California, the Scripps 

Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 

Jufy 20, 7947 



ACJlVn\e% AND DEVELOPMENTS 

The First International Congress for Microbi- 
ology was held at Paris in 1930. The second meet- 
ing was held at London in 1936 and the third at 
New York City in 1939. The purpose of the con- 
gresses is to disseminate and facilitate the exchange 
of ideas among scientists from all parts of the 
world who are interested in the problems of 
microbiology. 

The forthcoming congress will be divided into 
sections for lectures and discussions on the follow- 
ing subjects: (1) general microbiology; (2) med- 
ical and veterinary bacteriology; (3) viruses and 
viral diseases ; (4) serology and immunology ; (5) 
variation and mutation in microorganisms; (6) 
plant pathology and mycology; and (7) soil and 
water microbiology. The two principal speakers 
in the general forum of the congress will be Dr. 
Waksman, the discoverer of streptomycin, and Dr. 
Werlcman. 

U.S. DELEGATION TO PUBLIC EDUCATION 
CONFERENCE 

[Released to the press July 10] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 10 
that the President has approved the composition 
of the United States Delegation to the Tenth In- 
ternational Conference on Public Education 
which is scheduled to be held at Geneva begin- 
ning on July 14, 1947. The Delegation is as fol- 
lows: 

Chairman 

Galen Jones, Director, Division of Secondary Education, 

United States Office of Education, Federal Security 

Agency 

Delegate 

Howard E. Wilson, Assistant Director, Division of In- 
tercourse and Education, Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace, Washington, D.C. 

Sponsored by the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 
and the International Bureau of Education 
(IBE), the Tenth International Conference on 
Public Education will be essentially technical in 
character. The purpose of the meeting is to af- 
ford an opportunity for an exchange of informa- 
tion on the recent developments of educational 
movements in the various countries and to make 
jDossible the discussion, on an international plane, 
of a certain number of educational problems 
which are of current interest and which have 

135 



>»cr;v;nES and developments 

formed tlie subject of inquiries or study on the 

part of UNESCO and the IBE. 

The agenda of the conference will include dis- 
cussion of the following points: (1) reports from 
the Ministers of Education on educational move- 
ments during the school year 1946-47; (2) gra- 
tuity of school supplies; (3) physical education 
in secondary schools; and (4) a teachers' charter. 

MEMBERSHIP IN PAN AMERICAN 
RAILWAY CONGRESS 

Statement hy Assistant Secretary Armour 

[Released to the press July 9] 

The Department has transmitted draft legisla- 
tion to the Bureau of the Budget to enable United 
States participation in the Pan American Rail- 
way Congress. The Congress, which originated 
as a South American organization in 1910, serves 
as a forum for the discussion of technical, eco- 
nomic, and administrative problems of railways 
and the formulation of recommendations leading 
to the improvement of the transportation systems 
of the Americas. Membership was opened to 
countries of Central and North America in 1941; 
however, earlier action for United States parti- 
cipation was delayed by the war. The sixth ses- 
sion of the Congress is scheduled to be held m 
Habana next February. 

THE CONGRESS 

The Wool Act of 1947 — Veto Message : Jlessage from 
the President of the United States returning without ap- 
proval the bill (S. S14) entitled "An Act To Provide Sup- 
port for Wool, and for Other Purposes". S. Doc. GS, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess. 3 pp. 

Authorizing the Attorney General To Adjudicate Cer- 
tain Claims Resulting From Evacuation of Certain Per- 
sons of .Japanese Ancestry Under Military Orders. H. 
Rept. 732, 80th Cong., 1st sess., To accompany H.R. 3999. 
5 pp. 

Protection, Preservation, and Extension of the Sock- 
eye Salmon Fishery of the Fraser River System. H. 
Rept. 729, 80th Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 37G7. 
C pp. 

Continuing the Authority of the Maritime Commission 
To Sell, Charter, and Operate Ships. H. Rept. 725, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 3911. 2 pp. 

Providing for Membership and Participation by the 
United States in the World Health Organization and 
Authorizing an Appropriation Therefor. S. Rept. 421, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany S. J. Res. 98. 22 pp. 
[Favorable report] 

Authorizing the Appropriation of Conscientious Ob- 



jectors* Earnings to the International Children's Emer- 
gency Fund of the United Nations. S. Rept. 434, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany S. 1502. 2 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and the 
Judiciary Appropriation Bill, 1948. H. Rept. 787, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H R. 3311. 8 pp. 

Providing for Removal From, and the Prevention of 
Appointment to, Offices or Positions in the Executive 
Branch of tlie Goveriunent of Persons Who Are Found To 
Be Disloyal to the United States. H. Rept. 616, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess., To accompany H.R. 3813. 10 pp. [Favor- 
able report.] 

The Panama Canal. H. Rept. 781, 80th Cong., 1st sess., 
pursuant to H. Res. 36, 80th Cong,, 1st sess. 22 pp. 

Emergency Appropriation Bill, 1948. H. Rept. 782, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 4031. 5 pp. 

Sugar Act of 1948. H. Rept. 796, 80th Cong., 1st sess., 
To accompany H.R. 407.5. 21 pp. 

Constitution of the International Labor Organization 
Instrument of Amendment : Hearing before a Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States 
Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on providing for acceptance 
hy the United States of America of the Constitution of the 
International Labor Organization Instrument of Amend- 
ment, and further authorizing an appropriation for pay- 
ment of the United States share of the expen.ses of mem- 
bership and for expenses of participation by the United 
States ; May 19, 1947. ii, 19 pp. 

Convention With France on Double Taxation : Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, United States Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on 
Executive A, convention with France on double taxation ; 
January 30, February 6, and April 17, 1947. iii, 191 pp. 
[Department of State, pp. 26-27; 137-141.] 

Investigation of Expenditures, Bureau of Customs: 
Hearings before the Committee on Expenditures in the 
Executive Departments, United States Senate, 80th Cong., 
1st sess., on Investigation of Expenditures, Bureau of 
Customs; April 2, 7, 11, and 14, 1947. iii, 113 pp. 

Long-Range Agricultural Policy : Hearings before the 
Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess. ; April 21, 22, and 23, 1947. Part I. iii, 
89 pp. 

The Fur Situation : Hearings before Special Subcom- 
mitttee on Fur of the Committee on Agriculture, House of 
Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st sess. ; April 17 and 18, 
1947. Part I. iii, 8G pp. [Department of State, pp. 
18-21.] 

Government Corporations Appropriation Bill for 1948. 
Hearings before the Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Appropriations, House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st 
sess., on the Government Corporations Appropriation Bill 
for 1948. Part I. ii, 494 pp. [Department of State, pp. 
359-408.] 

Reorganization Plans Nos. 1 and 2 of 1947: Hearings 
before the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive 
Departments, House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st 
sess., on H. Con. Res. 49, H. Con. Res. 50 ; May 21, 22, 23, 
24, 26, and 27, 1947. iv, 248 pp. 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Legislation Advocated for Entrance of Displaced Persons 
Into the United States 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



To the Congress of the United States: 

On several occasions I have advocated legisla- 
tion to enable a substantial number of displaced 
persons to enter the United States as imiuigiants. 
I stated this view in opening the Second Session 
of the General Assembly of the United Nations. 
In tlie message on the state of the Union on Janu- 
ary 6, 1947, I said: 

". . . The fact is that the executive agencies 
are now doing all that is reasonably possible un- 
der the limitation of existing law and established 
quotas. Congressional a&sistance in the form of 
new legislation is needed. I urge the Congress to 
turn its attention to this world problem, in an 
effort to find ways whereby we can fulfill our re- 
sponsibilities to these thousands of homeless and 
suffering refugees of all faiths." - 

I express appreciation to the Congress for the 
attention already being given to this problem, 
an appreciation which appears to be generously 
sliared by tlie public with increasing understand- 
ing of the facts and of our responsibilities. 

Because of the ui-gency of this subject I should 
like again to call attention to some of its funda- 
mental aspects. We are dealing here solely with 
an emergency problem growing out of the war — 
the disposition of a specific group of individuals, 
victims of war, who have come into the hands of 
our own and the other western Allied armies of 
occupation in Europe. 

We should not forget how their destiny came 
into our hands. The Nazi armies, as they swept 
over Europe, uprooted many millions of men, 
women, and children from their homes and forced 



them to work for the German war economy. The 
Nazis annihilated millions by hardship and per- 
secution. Survivors were taken under tire care 
of the western AUied armies, as these armies lib- 
erated them during the conquest of the enemy. 
Since the end of hostilities, the armies of occupa- 
tion have been able to return to their homes some 
7,000,000 of these people. But there still remain, 
in the western zones of Germany and Austria and 
in Italy, close to a million survivors who are un- 
willing by reason of political opinion and fear of 
persecution to return to the areas where they 
once had homes. The great majority come fi'om 
the northern Baltic areas, Poland, the Russian 
Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. 

The new International Refugee Organization, 
supported by the contributions of this and other 
countries, will aid in the care and resettlement of 
these displaced persons. But, as I have pointed 
out before, the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion is only a service organization. It cannot im- 
pose its will on member countries. Continuance 
of this Organization and our financial support of 
its work will be required as long as the problem 
of these homeless people remains unsolved. 

It is unthinkable that they should be left in- 
definitely in camps in Europe. We cannot turn 
them out in Germany into the community of the 
very people who persecuted them. Moreover, the 
German economy, so devastated by war and so 

' Read in the Senate and the House of Representatives 
on July 7, 1947, and released to the press by the White 
House on the same date. H. Doc. 382. 

' Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1947, p. 124. 



Ju/y 20, J 947 



137 



THE RECORD Of THC WEEK 

badly overcrowded with the return of people of 
German origin from neighboring countries, is ap- 
proaching an economic suffocation which in itself 
is one of our major problems. Turning these dis- 
placed persons into such chaos would be disastrous 
for them and would seriously aggravate our prob- 
lems there. 

This Government has been firm in resisting any 
proposal to send these people back to their former 
homes by force, where it is evident that their un- 
willingness to return is based upon political con- 
siderations or fear of persecution. In this policy 
I am confident I have your support. 

These victims of war and oppression look hope- 
fully to the democratic countries to help them re- 
build their lives and provide for the future of 
their children. We must not destroy their hope. 
The only civilized course is to enable these people 
to take new roots in friendly soil. Already certain 
countries of western Europe and Latin America 
have opened their doors to substantial numbers of 
these displaced persons. Plans for making homes 
for more of them in other countries are under con- 
sideration. But our plain duty requires that we 
join with other nations in solving this tragic 
problem. 

We ourselves should admit a substantial number 
as immigrants. We have not yet been able to do 
this because our present statutory quotas applica- 
ble to the eastern European areas from whicli most 
of these people come are wholly inadequate for this 
purpose. Special legislation limited to this par- 
ticular emergency will therefore be necessary if we 
are to share with other nations in this enterj^rise 
of offering an opportunity for a new life to these 
people. 

I wish to emphasize that there is no proposal for 
a general revision of our immigi'ation policy as 
now enunciated in our immigi-ation statutes. 
There is no proposal to waive or lower our present 
prescribed standards for testing the fitness for ad- 
mission of ever^' immigrant, including these dis- 
placed persons. Those permitted to enter would 
still have to meet the admission requirements of 
our existing immigration laws. These laws pro- 
vide adequate guaranties against the entry of 
those who are criminals or subversives, those likely 
to become public charges, and those who are other- 
wise undesirable. 

These displaced persons are hardy and re- 



sourceful or they would not have survived. A sur- 
vey of the occupational backgrounds of those in 
our assembly centers shows a wide variety of pro- 
fessions, crafts, and skills. These are people who 
oppose totalitarian rule and who because of their 
burning faith in the principles of freedom and 
democracy have suffered untold privation and 
hardship. Because they are not Communists and 
are opposed to Communism, they have stanchly 
resisted all efforts to induce them to return to Com- 
munist-controlled areas. In addition, they were 
our individual allies in the war. 
■ In the light of the vast numbers of people of all 
countries that we have usefully assimilated into 
our national life, it is clear that we could readily 
absorb the relatively small number of these dis- 
placed persons who would be admitted. We should 
not forget that our Nation was founded by immi- 
grants many of whom fled oppression and persecu- 
tion. We have thrived on the energy and di- 
versity of many peoples. It is a source of our 
strength that we number among our people all the 
major religions, races, and national origins. 

Most of the individuals in the displaced persons 
centers already have strong roots in this country — 
by kinship, religion, or national origin. Their oc- 
cupational background clearly indicates that they 
can quickly become useful members of our Ameri- 
can communities. Their kinsmen, already in the 
United States, have been vital factors in farm and 
workshop for generations. They have made last- 
ing contributions to our arts and sciences and j 
political life. They have been numbered among \ 
our honored dead on every battlefield of war. 

We are dealing with a human problem, a world 
tragedy. Let us remember that these are fellow 
human beings now living under conditions which 
frustrate hope ; which make it impossible for them 
to take any steps, unaided, to build for themselves 
or their children the foundations of a new life. 
They live in corroding uncertainty of their future. 
Their fate is in our hands and must now be decided. 
Let us join in giving them a chance at decent and 
self-supporting lives. 

I urge the Congress to press forward with its 
consideration of this subject and to pass suitable 
legislation as speedily as possible. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House 
July 7, 1947 



138 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



United States-Greek Relief Agreement 



[Released to the pi'ess July 8] 

Whereas, it Is the desire of the United States to provide 
relief assistance to the Greek people to prevent suffering 
and to permit them to continue effectively their efforts 
toward recovery ; and 

Whereas, the Greek Government has requested the 
United States Government for relief assistance and has 
presented information which convinces the Government 
of the United States that the Greek Government urgently 
needs assistance in obtaining the basic essentials of life 
I for the people of Greece ; and 

Whereas, the United States Congress has by Public 
, Law 84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, authorized the pro- 
vision of relief assistance to the people of those countries 
which, in the determination of the President, need such 
assistance and have given satisfactory assurances cover- 
ing the relief program as required by the Act of Congress ; 
and 

Whereas, the Greek Government and the United States 
Government desire to define certain conditions and under- 
standings concerning the handling and distribution of the 
United States relief supplies and to establish the general 
lines of their cooperation in meeting the relief needs of the 
Greek people; 

The Government of Greece represented by Premier 
Demetrios Maximos and the Government of the United 
States represented by Ambassador Lincoln MacVeagh 
have agreed as follows : 

Article I. Furnishing of Supplies 

(a) The program of assistance to be furnished shall 
consist of such types and quantities of supplies, and 
procurement, storage, transportation and shipping services 
related thereto, as may be determined from time to time 
by the United States Government after consultation with 
the Greek Government in accordance witli Public Law 
84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, and any Acts amenda- 
tory or supplementary thereto. Such supplies shall be 
confined to certain basic essentials of life ; namely, food, 
medical supplies, processed and unprocessed material for 
clothing, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, and seeds. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of Article III the United 
States Government will make no request, and will have 
no claim, for payment for United States relief supplies 
and services furnished under this Agreement. 

(c) The United States Government agencies will pro- 
vide for the procurement, storage, transportation and ship- 
ment to Greece of United States relief supplies, except 
to the extent that the United States Government may 
authorize other means for the performance of these 
services in accordance with procedures stipulated by the 
United States Government. All United States relief 
supplies shall be procured in the United States except 



when specific approval for procurement outside the United 
States is given by the United States Government. 

(d) Tiie Greek Government will from time to time 
submit in advance to the United States Government its 
proposed programs for relief import requirements. These 
programs shall be subject to screening and approval by 
the United States Government and procurement shall be 
authorized only for items contained in the approved pro- 
grams. 

(e) Transfers of United States relief supplies shall be 
made under arrangements to be determined by the United 
States Government in consultation with the Greek Gov- 
ernment. The United States Government, whenever It 
deems it desirable, may retain possession of any United 
States relief supplies, or may recover possession of such 
supplies transferred up to the city or local community 
where such supplies are made available to the ultimate 
consumers. 

Article II. Distriiution of Supplies in Greece 

(a) All United States relief supplies shall be distri- 
buted by the Greek Government under the direct super- 
vision and control of the United States representatives 
and in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. 
The distribution shall be through commercial channels 
to the extent feasible and desirable. 

(b) All United States relief supply imports shall be 
free of fiscal charges including customs duties up to the 
point where they are sold for local currency as provided 
by Article III of this Agreement unless when because 
of price practices, it is advisable to include customs 
charges or government taxes in prices fixed, in which 
case the amount thus collected on United States relief 
supply imports shall accrue to the special account referred 
to in Article III. All United States relief supply imports 
given free to indigents, institutions and others shall be 
free of fiscal charges, including customs duties. 

(c) The Greek Government will designate a high rank- 
ing official who shall have the responsibility of liaison 
between the Greek Government and the United States 
representatives responsible for the relief program. 

(d) The Greek Government will distribute United 
States relief supplies and similar supplies produced locally 
or imported from outside sources, without discrimina- 
tion as to race, creed or political belief, and will not per- 
mit the diversion of any of such supplies to non-essential 
uses or for export or removal from tlie country while need 



^ Signetl at Athens on July 8, 1947, on behalf of the 
Government of Greece by Premier Demetrios Maximos and 
on behalf of the Government of the United States by 
Ambassador Lincoln MacVeagh. Printed from telegraphic 
text. 



Ju/v 20. J 947 



139 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



therefor for relief purposes continues. The Greek Govern- 
ment will not permit the diversion of an excessive amount 
of United States relief supplies and similar supplies pro- 
duced locally or imported from outside sources to assist 
in the maintenance of armed forces. 

(e) The Greek Government will so conduct the distri- 
bution of United States relief supplies and similar supplies 
produced locally and imported from outside sources as to 
assure a fair and equitable share of the supplies to all 
classes of the people throughout Greece. 

(f) A ration and price control system shall be main- 
tained and the distribution shall be so conducted that 
all classes of the population, irrespective of purchasing 
power, shall receive their fair share of supplies covered 
in this Agreement. 

Article III. Vtilization of Funds Awruing from Sales of 
United States Supplies 

(a) The prices at which the United States supplies 
shall be sold in Greece shall be agreed upon between the 
Greek Government and the United States Government. 

(b) When United States relief supplies are sold for 
local currency, the amount of such local currency shall 
be deposited by the Greek Government in a .special ac- 
count in the name of the Greek Government. 

(e) Until June 30, 1948, such funds shall be disposed 
of only upon approval of the duly authorized representa- 
tive of the United States Government for relief and work 
relief purposes within Greece, including local currency 
expenses of the United States incident to the furnishing 
of relief. Any unencumbered balance remaining in such 
account on June 30, 1948, shall be disposed of within 
Greece for such purposes as the United States Govern- 
ment, pursuant to Act or Joint Resolution of Congress, 
may determine. 

(d) The Greek Government will upon request advance 
funds to the United States representatives to meet local 
currency expenses incident to the furnishing of relief. 

(e) While it is not intended that the funds accruing 
from sales of the United States relief suiiiJlies normally 
shall be used to defray the local expenses of the Greek 
Government in handling and distributing the United 
States relief supplies, including local currency costs of 
discharging cargo and other port charges, the United 
States representatives shall consider with the Greek 
Government the use of the funds to cover the unusual 
costs which would place an undue burden on the Greek 
Government. 

(f) The Greek Government will each month make 
available to United States representatives reports on 
collections, balances and expenditures from the fund. 

(g) The Greek Government will assign offlcials to 
confer and plan with the United States representatives 
regarding the disposition of funds accruing from sales 
to assure a prompt and proijer use of such funds. 

Article IV. Effective Production. Food Collections and 
Use of Resources to Reduce Relief Needs 

(a) The Greek Government will exert all possible 
efforts to secure the maximum production and collection 

140 



of locally produced supplies needed for relief purposes. 

(b) The Greek Government will undertake not to per- 
mit any measures to be taken involving delivery, sale or 
granting of any articles of the character covered in this 
Agreement which would reduce the locally produced 
supply of such articles and thereby increase the burden 
of relief. 

(c) The Greek Government will furnish regularly cur- 
rent information to the United States representatives 
regarding plans and progress in achieving this objective. 

(d) The Greek Government affirms that it has taken 
and is taking in so far as possible, the economic measures 
necessary to reduce its relief needs and to provide for its 
own future reconstruction. 

Article V. United States Representatives 

(a) The United States Government will send to Greece 
the representatives required to discharge responsibilities 
of the United States Government under this Agreement 
and the Public Law 84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947. 
The Greek Government will permit and facilitate the 
movement of the United States representatives to, in or 
from Greece. 

(b) The Greek Government will permit and facilitate 
in every way the freedom of the United States representa- 
tives to supervise, inspect, report and travel throughout 
Greece at any and all times, and will cooperate fully with 
them in carrying out all of the provisions of this Agree- 
ment. The Greek Government will furnish the necessary 
automobile transportation to permit the United States 
representatives to travel freely throughout Greece and 
without delay. 

(c) The United States representatives and the property 
of the mission and of its personnel shall enjoy in Greece 
the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by 
the personnel of the United States Embassy in Greece 
and the property of the Embassy and of its personnel. 

Article VI. Freedom of United States Press and Radio 
Representatives to Observe and Report 

The Greek Government will permit representatives of 
the United States Press and Radio to observe freely and 
report fully and without censorship regarding the distri- 
bution and utilization of relief supplies and the use of 
funds accruing from sale of United States relief supplies.,' 

Article VII. Reports, Statistics and Information 

(a) The Greek Government will maintain adequate 
statistical and other records on relief and will consult 
with the United States representatives, upon their request, 
with regard to the maintenance of such records. 

(b) The Greek Government will furnish promptly upoa 
request of the United States representatives information 
concerning the production, use, distribution, importation, 
and exportation of any supplies which affect the relief 
needs of the people. 

(c) In case United States representatives report ap- 
parent abuses or violations of this Agreement, the Greek 
Government will investigate and report and promptly 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



take such remedial action as is necessary to correct such 
abuses or violations as are found to exist. 

Article VIII. Publicity Regarding United States 
Assistance 

(a) The Greek Government will permit and arrange 
full and continuous publicity regarding the purpose, 
source, character, scope, amounts and progress of the 
United States relief program in Greece, including the 
utilization of funds accruing from sales of United States 
relief supplies for the benefit of the people. 

(b) All United States relief supplies and any articles 
processed from such supplies, or containers of such sup- 
plies or articles, shall, to the extent practicable, bo 
marked, stamped, branded, or labelled in a conspicuous 
place in such a manner as to indicate to the ultimate con- 
sumer that such supplies or articles have been furnished 
by the United States for relief assistance ; or if such 
supplies, articles or containers are incapable of being so 
marked, stamped, branded, or labelled, all practicable 
steps will be taken by the Greek Government to inform 
the ultimate consumer thereof that such supplies or 
articles have been furnished by the United States for 
relief assistance. 

Article IX. Termination of Relief Assistance 
The United States Government will terminate any or 



all of its relief assistance at any time whenever it de- 
termines (1) by reason of changed conditions, the pro- 
vision of relief assistance of the character authorized by 
the Public Law 84, 80th Congress, May 31, 1947, is no 
longer necessary (2) any provisions of this Agreement 
are not being carried out (3) an excessive amount of 
United States relief supplies, or of similar suijplies pro- 
duced locally or imported from outside sources, is being 
used to assist in the maintenance of armed forces in 
Greece, or (4) United States relief supplies or similar 
supplies produced locally or imported from outside sources 
are being exported or removed from Greece. The United 
States Government may stop or alter its program of as- 
sistance whenever in its determination other circum- 
stances warrant such action. 

Article X. Date of Agreement 

This Agreement shall take effect as from this day's 
date. It shall continue in force until a date to be agreed 
upon by the two Governments. 

Done in duplicate in the English and Greek languages 
at Athens, this eighth day of July, 1947. 

Lincoln SIacVeagh 

For the Government of the United States 

Demetkios Maximos 

For the Government of Greece 



.Program of the American IVIission for Aid to Greece 



STATEMENT BY THE CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN MISSION' 



Organization and Program 

I The Greek nation, devastated by war and occu- 
pation and plunder, was forced to get outside help. 
When the British, who had been assisting Greece, 
announced their intention of wdthdrawing, Greece 
turned to the United States for help. As soon as 
her appeal was received, President Truman ad- 
dressed a joint session of Congress requesting au- 
thority to furnish aid to Greece. On May 22d 
Congress passed an act authorizing the United 
States to furnish economic, technical, and material 
I assistance to Greece. Following this action the 
: President named me to head a mission to go to 
Greece to administer, in cooperation with the Greek 
Government, the actual assistance to be provided 
by this country. The Senate has confirmed the 
appointment, and the mission will leave for Greece 
in a few days. 

Ju/y 20, 7947 



The mission will cooperate with the Greek Gov- 
ernment in developing recovery and reconstruction 
programs which will provide for effective use of 
United States aid and also of Greece's own re- 
sources. The chief of mission is to have authority 
over both civilian and military aid. He is au- 
thorized to direct the performance by the mission 
of all activities and functions which he considers 
necessary to carry out the provisions of the act of 
May 22, 1947, and the agreement of June 20, 1947, 
between the Governments of Greece and the 
United States. The mission will have charge of 
all allotments of funds made under the act and 
will supervise and control all assistance furnished 
by the United States. 



' E>;cerpts from a broadcast over the Columbia Broad- 
casting System on .Inly 9, 1947 ; for complete text see 
Department of State press release 507. Dvsdght P. Griswold 
is Chief of the American Mission for Aid to Greece. 

141 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

Certain tentative progi-ams have been estab- 
lished. These will form the basis of planning be- 
tween the mission and the Greek Government. 
These programs cover reconstruction ; agricul- 
tural rehabilitation; industry and mining; im- 
port and export; relief and welfare; public 
health; labor; training; finance; and public ad- 
ministration, militarj' and naval. In addition to 
these operating programs the mission will include 
program coordination, information, legal and ad- 
ministrative units. 

Reconstruction and Rehabilitation 

Much remains to be done to restore facilities 
systematically destroyed by the Germans, so that 
normal production, distribution, and commerce 
can be restored. Essential bridges, highways, 
canals, ports, and railroads must be restored. For 
example, the vitallj' important Corinth Canal will 
be reopened and the port at Piraeus rebuilt. Other 
reconstruction projects in such fields as communi- 
cations, agriculture, and industry will be under- 
taken. 

Our aim is to continue the restoration of agri- 
cultural production, of cultivation and processing. 
It will be up to the mission to plan with the Greek 
Government for the importation of agricultural 
equipment, fertilizer, seed, and pesticides; collec- 
tion of the greatest possible volume of agricul- 
tural commodities from Greek farms ; and the dis- 
tribution of food so that at least minimum nutri- 
tional requirements are met. The agricultural 
program also contemplates the employment of 
technicians and sjjecialists in agricultural I'ehabil- 
itation who Avill help suj^ply the "know-how'' 
which is needed if the equipment and supplies fur- 
nished are to be effectively used. 

On the import side, as I've indicated, the mis- 
sion would aim for the most effective use of 
Greece's foreign-exchange resources to meet her 
essential import needs. The development of 
Greek productive facilities will aim at expanding 
exports to the greatest degree consistent with the 
internal requirements of the country. The objec- 
tive of both programs is to help restore the na- 
tion's economy to a position where it can meet its 
foreign-exchange requirements out of its own 
foreign-exchange earnings. 

Our principal attack will be against Greece's 



' Bulletin of June 29, 1947, p. 1298. 
142 



two dominant diseases, tuberculosis and malaria. 
The country needs help in improving sanitation 
and medical services and supplies. The public- 
health program should play a vital part in pre- 
venting a further deterioration of Greek man- 
power, ji 
The question of manpower leads to another 
factor — the labor problems. The labor section of 
the mission will assist the Greek Government in 
improving coordination of labor supply with 
manpower needs and labor productivity, in bal- 
ancing the wage-price relationship, and encourag- 
ing adoption of more effective employer-employee 
relations. 

Training of Greei< Civilians 

The purpose of the training program is to train 
a number of selected Greek civilians in the meth- 
ods of modern government and technology, so 
that they will be able to assume the increased re- 
sponsibilities imposed by the present crisis at the 
end of the American aid program. Training will 
be in the fields of agriculture, public health and 
sanitation, fisheries, industry, finance, government 
administration, transportation, and communica- 
tion. The program will include training both in 
Greece and in the United States. Trainees would 
be carefully screened in the field by the mission 
and their training closely supervised at all stages. 

Relation of Mission to Greek Army and Government 

The relation of the mission to the Greek Army 
will be to assist in providing the Greek National 
Army with the equipment and supplies necessary 
for the restoration of internal order. The objec- 
tive of the naval program would be to strengthen 
and make more effective the Greek Navy for the 
same purpose. 

The basic objective with respect to the Greek 
Government will be to diagnose those adminis- 
trative difficulties which impede reconstruction 
and recovery and to assist in remedying them ; the 
mission's Public Administration Division will 
have this responsibility. 

Controls of Mission 

There are certain controls that have been re- 
quested by the Gi'eek Government in their note 
to us of June 15.^ Put them into three categories : 
fund, supply, and administrative controls. Un- 
der the first, the American mission will control the 

Department of State Bulletin 



disbursements of all U.S. funds. The mission 
will approve expenditures of Greek funds for 
activities involving directly or indirectly the use 
of U.S. aid and will approve the use of all Greek 
foreign exchange. There are also controls ap- 
plicable to supply, such as the establishment of 
points of transfer of supplies procured by U.S. 
Government agencies, ■which will permit the mis- 
sion effectively to account for all such supplies 
distributed in Greece; retention of the right of 
recapture with respect to civilian supplies; and 
controls to help assure equitable distribution of 
supplies and eliminate unreasonable profits. 

In executing this program the mission plans, 
in agreement with the Greek Government, to 
utilize the cooperative program technique suc- 
cessfully developed by the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs in various Latin American 
countries. This entails pooling of the resources 
of the two countries in achieving agreed objectives 
under an operating organization set up within 
the framework of the Greek Government and 
administered by an American. This technique 
should prove most effective in the fields of agri- 
culture, reconstruction, public health, and training. 

Let me stress that this is not a unilateral action, 
since the Greek Govermnent has specifically and 
urgently requested United States assistance. I 
would also point out that the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization of the United Nations, after 
having made an exhaustive study of Greece's prob- 
lems, recommended that Greece seek special assist- 
ance from the United States. The American Mis- 
sion for Aid to Greece will cooperate to the ut- 
most with the UNO and will assist the Greeks 
in every way to win the support of UNO and its 
affiliated organizations. 

I want to make it clear that we go to Greece 
to help Greece. We want to see this long-time 
friend and brave ally restored to her rightful 
place in the peaceful family of nations. We feel 
that Greece should have the chance to put her 
house in order, free from the menace of hostile 
forces across her frontiers. 

We can, unfortunately, help in only a small 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

way; the need is so great. But perhaps we can 
help the Greek people to a point where they can 
independently and effectively help themselves. 
Only in that way will our aid be permanent ; only 
with that approach will it be truly effective. 

Telegraph Service Between America and Greece 

Statement hy Assistant Secretary Armoior 

[Released to the press July 9] 

Direct radiotelegraph service between the 
United States and Greece has been opened. RCA 
will operate the United States terminal, while 
Cable and Wireless will operate the terminal in 
Greece mitil such time as the Government of 
Greece is prepared to assume control. 

The new direct service will provide for public 
telegraphic messages at greatly reduced rates in 
comparison with those previously in effect where 
the telegi-ams were routed via London. 

Procedure for Filing War Claims 
With France 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The time limit for the filing of claims under 
French war-damage compensation legislation by 
American nationals who suffered war damage to 
property in France has been extended by the 
French Government to December 31, 1947. 

French consular offices in the United States are 
authorized to receive claims and to furnish the 
necessary forms and information. French Con- 
sulates General are located in New York, San 
Francisco, Chicago, and New Orleans. French 
Consulates are located in Boston, Washington, 
St. Louis, Los Angeles, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

The basic French law providing compensation 
for war damage to property in France is law no. 
46-2389 of October 28, 1946, which was published 
in the Jowvial Officiel of October 29, 1946.^ 



' For information concerning the oflSces of the French 
Government in France with which claims may be filed and 
the evidence required to prove the nationality of indi- 
vidual and corporate claimants, see Bulletin of Jan. 26, 
1947, p. 166. 



July 20, 1947 



143 



Agreement Between U.S. and Turkey To Govern 
Application of Turkish Aid Program' 



[Released to the press July 12] 

The Government of Turkey liaviug requested the Gov- 
ernment of the United States for assistance which will 
enable Turkey to strengthen the security forces which 
Turkey requires for the protection of her freedom and 
independence and at the same time to continue to main- 
tain the stability of her economy and ; 

The Congress of the United States, in the act approved 
May 22, 1!>47, having authorized the President of the 
United States to furnish such assistance to Turkey, on 
terms consonant with the sovereign Independence and se- 
curity of the two countries ; and 

The Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Turkey believing that the furnishing of such as- 
sistance will help to achieve the basic objectives of the 
Charter of the United Nations and by inaugurating an 
auspicious chapter in their relations will further 
strengthen the ties of friendship between the American 
and Turkish peoples ; 

The undersigned, being duly authorized by their respec- 
tive Governments for that puriwse, have agreed as fol- 
lows: 

ArticJe I 

The Government of the United States will furnish the 
Government of Turkey such assistance as the President 
of the United States may authorize to be provided in ac- 
cordance with the act of Congress approved May 22, 1947 
and any acts aniendatoi-y or supplementary thereto. The 
Government of Turkey will make effective use of any 
such assistance in accordance with the provisions of this 
agreement. 

Article II 

The chief of mission to Turkey designated by the Pres- 
ident of the United States for the purpose will represent 
the Government of the United States on matters relating 
to the assistance furnished under this agreement. The 
chief of mission will determine, in consultation with rep- 
resentatives of the Government of Turkey, the terms and 
conditions upon which specified assistance shall from time 
to time be furnished under this agreement, except that the 
financial terms upon which specified assistance shall be 
furnished shall be determined from time to time in advance 
by agreement of the two governments. The chief of mis- 



' Signed at Ankara on July 12, 1947, on behalf of the 
Government of Turkey by Foreign Minister Hasan Saka 
and on behalf of the Government of the United States by 
Ambassador Edwin C. Wilson. 

144 



sion will furni.sh tlie Government of Turkey such informa- 
tion and technical assistance as may be appropriate to help 
in achieving the objectives of the assistance furnished 
under this agreement. 

Tlie Government of Turkey will make use of the assist- 
ance furnished for the purposes for which it has been 
accorded. In order to permit the chief of mission to fulfill 
freely his functions in the exercise of his responsibilities, 
it will furnish him as well as his representatives every 
facility and every assistance which he may request in the 
way of reports, information and observation concerning 
the utilization and progress of assistance furnished. 

Article III 

The Government of Turkey and the Government of the 
United States will cooperate in assuring the peoples of the 
United States and Turkey full information concerning the 
assistance furnished pursuant to this agreement. To this 
end, insofar as may be consistent with tlie security of the 
two countries : 

(1) Representatives of the press and radio of the United 
States will be permitted to observe freely and to report 
fully regarding the utilization of such assistance ; and 

(2) The Government of Turkey will give full and con- 
tinuous publicity within Turkey as to the purpose, source, 
character, scojie, amounts, and progress of such assistance. 

Article IV 

Determined and equally interested to assure the security 
of any article, service, or information received by the 
Government of Turkey pursuant to this agreement, the 
Governments of the United States and Turkey will respec- 
tively take after consultation such measures as the other 
Government may judge necessary for this purpose. The 
Government of Turkey will not transfer, without the con- 
sent of the Government of the United States, title to or 
possession of any such article or information nor permit, 
without such consent, the use of any such article or the 
use or disclosure of any such information by or to anyone 
not an officer, employee, or agent of the Government of 
Turkey or for any purpose other than that for which the 
article or information is furnished. 

Article V 

The Government of Turkey will not use any part of the 
proceeds of any loan, credit, grant, or other form of aid 
rendered pursuant to this agreement for the making of any 
payment on account of the principal or interest on any loan 
made to it by any other foreign government. 

Department of State Butletin 



Article VI 

Any or all assistance authorized to be provided pur- 
suant to this agreement will be withdrawn : 

(1) If requested by the Government of Turkey; 

(2) If the Security Council of the United Nations finds 
(with respect to which finding the United States waives 
the exercise of any veto) or the General Assembly of the 
United Nations finds that action taken or assistance fur- 
nished by the United Nations makes the continuance of 
assistance by the Government of the United States pur- 
suant to this agreement unnecessary or undesirable ; and 

(3) Under any of the other circumstances specified in 
I section five of the aforesaid act of Congress or if the 

President of the United States determines that such with- 
drawal is in the interest of the United States. 

I Article VJI 

This agreement shall take effect as from this day's date. 
It shall continue in force until a date to be agreed upon 
by the two governments. 

Article VIII 

This agreement shall be registered with the United Na- 
tions. 

Done in duplicate, in the English and Turkish languages, 
at Ankara, this twelfth day of July, 1947. 

Edwin C. Wilson 
For the Government of the United States 

Hasan Saka 
For the Government of Turkey 

Text of United States note to the Turkish Gov- 
ernment 

May 26, 19J,7. 
Excellency: I have the honor, under instruc- 
tions from my Government, to communicate the 
following to your Excellency : 

"The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica refers to past discussions between the Govern- 
ments of the United States of America and Tur- 
key regarding the latter's need for various kinds 
of assistance. This Government is pleased to in- 
form the Government of Turkey that the Presi- 
\ dent has been authorized to extend such assistance 
by an Act of Congress signed May 22, 1947. 

"The Goverimient of the United States of Amer- 
ica is now prepared to enter into discussions re- 
garding the type of assistance which is best suited 
to Turkish needs and the American Ambassador 
in Ankara is being instructed accordingly. 

"This Government will welcome an assurance 
that the Turkish Government is prepared to enter 
into negotiations leading to a mutually acceptable 

July 20, J 947 



THE RECORD OF THB WBBK 

agreement betweeit the two Governments on the 
terms under which American aid will be extended." 

Please accept [etc.] Edwin C. Wilson 

His Excellency 
Hasan Saka 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 
Ankara 

Text of the Turkish Governments Reply 

May 27, 1.9 /,.7. 

Me. Ambassadok : I have the honor to acknowl- 
edge receipt of Your Excellency's note of May 26, 
1947, No. 1432, by which you have been so good as 
to inform me that the President of the United 
States of America has been authorized, in virtue 
of an Act of Congress signed on May 22, 1947, to 
furnish to Turkey various kinds of assistance and 
that the Government of the United States is pre- 
pared to enter into discussions regarding the type 
of assistance which is best suited to the needs of 
Turkey. 

In reply I desire to assure Your Excellency that 
the Government of the Kepublic of Turkey, for its 
part, is prepared to enter into negotiations for the 
conclusion of an agreement mutually acceptable 
to the two Governments as regards the extension 
of American aid to Turkey. 

Accept [etc.] Hasan Saka 

His Excellency 

Mr. Edwin C. Wilson 
Ambassador of the United States of America 
Ankara 

Anglo-American Talks Planned on 
German Coal Production 

[Keleased to the press July 11] 

At the invitation of the United States Govern- 
ment, the British Govermnent has agreed to send 
a mission to Washington to discuss urgent prob- 
lems concerning the improvement of coal produc- 
tion in the Anglo-American zones of Germany. 

It is recognized by the two Governments that 
improvement of production of coal in the bizonal 
area is essential to the success of any European 
recovery plans which may be developed by tlie 
European countries who are meeting in Paris on 
July 12. 

The actual date of the beginning of the talks 
will be announced soon. 

145 



Report of Joint Philippine-American Finance Commission 



SUMMARY OF REPORT > 



[Released to the press by the White House July 8] 

The President on Jnly 8 transmitted to the 
Congress for its information the report and recom- 
mendations of tlie Joint Philippine-American 
Finance Commission, wliich recently completed a 
study of financial and budgetary problems of the 
Philippine Government. 

The President expressed confidence in the ability 
of the Philijjpine Government to achieve the ob- 
jectives outlined in the i-eport, which was for- 
warded to him by Secretary of the Treasuiy 
Snyder. 

The most significant finding of the Commission 
is that the Philippines is among the five countries 
of the world having the highest dollar balances in 
the United States and that inore than $2,000,000,- 
000 in foreign exchange will accrue to the Philip- 
pine economy over the next four years. The Com- 
mission estimated that more than one half of these 
receipts will result from war-damage payments, 
veterans' benefits, back pay to guerrilla troops, 
and other United States Government outlays. 
Most of the balance will arise from Philippine ex- 
ports. 

Accordingly, the Commission recommended that 
the principal Philippine economic objective for 
the next few years should be to accelerate greatly 
the country's rate of economic growth and to bring 
about a rapid increase of production and a cor- 
responding rise in the standard of living which 
these foreign-exchange receipts will make possible. 

The Commission reported that if the substance 
of a fiscal program which it recommends is put into 
efi'ect the Philippine Government will not require 
additional foreign loans to meet internal budget- 
ary deficits and that the Philippine economy 
should be able to finance itself through a period 
of construction and expansion which promises to 
be greater than the country has ever experienced. 

The report advised the Philippine Government 
to adopt the objective of meeting next year's bud- 
get from the proceeds of taxation and internal 

'For complete Report, see White House press release 
of July 7, 1947. 

146 



borrowing, and to this end the Commission pro- 
posed the strengthening of the country's tax-col- 
lecting machinery through rigid enforcement of 
present tax laws, prosecutions for tax evasion, 
and increases in the corporate income tax, taxes on 
luxury goods, and processing and other taxes. 

Observing that the present debt of the Philip- 
pine Government is relatively small and that 
money incomes are higher than ever before, the 
Commission recommended creation of a broad 
market for Government securities, initially to 
meet budgetary deficits and later to provide funds 
for economic development. 

The rej^ort sets forth a plan for a limited issue 
of Philippine treasury certificates in excess of the 
present 100 percent dollar and silver backing, if 
additional funds are required to cover the Govern- 
ment's budget for the fiscal year 1948. To preserve 
the 100 percent reserve principle pending the 
working out of more comprehensive monetary and 
banking reform, the plan recommends a tempo- 
rary guarantee, in effect, of the limited issue of 
treasury certificates by the United States Ex- 
change Stabilization Fund. The guarantee would 
rfflnain in force only until a central bank is estab- 
lished in the Philippines and in no event for more 
than two years. The issue of treasury certificates 
could not exceed 100,000,000 pesos, or $50,000,000. 

The Commission recommended adoption by the 
Philippines of a monetary system in which mone- 
tary authority and responsibility would i-est in a 
central bank. Such a system, to be instituted 
within a .year, would entail an abandonment of the 
100 percent monetary reserve requirement, and 
permit the central bank to regulate the money 
supply to meet the internal needs of the economy. 
The present system, the Commission said, is 
not permanently suitable for an independent 
Philippines. 

The central bank would exercise controls to 
moderate the alternating inflationary and defla- 
tionary effects of temporary surpluses and deficits 
in the balance of international payments. The 
bank would enable the Government to make more 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



efficient use for rehabilitation and development 
purposes of its present dollar resources, which are 
considered larger than necessary to maintain free 
convertibility of the peso. It also could assist in 
establishing a domestic market for both short- 
term and long-term Philippine Government secu- 
rities, and increase the effectiveness of the banking 
system by offering rediscount facilities to other 
banks and by coordinating the supervision of 
banks. 

The report presents a number of recommenda- 
tions for meeting the most important unfilled 
credit needs in the Philippines through use of the 
country's own resources. 

Pending establishment of a central bank, the 
Commission suggested that application be made 
to the United States Export-Import Bank and the 
Intei-national Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment for loans to finance reconstruction and 
develojDment projects now held up for lack of 
funds. 

A program of import controls is recommended, 
which would be limited initially to a relatively 
few commodities. The program could be ex- 
panded or contracted as the balance-of-payments 
situation dictated. The program would prevent 
the possible dissipation of foreign-exchange re- 
-sources on imports of nonessential and luxury 
goods. The report does not recommend control 
over foreign-exchange transactions. It is believed 
the Philippines will experience a net inflow of 
capital over the next few years and that conditions 
in the islands will not give rise to a flight of 
capital. 

The report presents what the Commission con- 
siders to be maximum estimates of Philippine 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

capital requirements for a five-year program to 
expand agricultural and industrial output and to 
provide the additional services required by such a 
lirogram. Under this program the Philippines 
would produce more of the goods which it now 
imports and would sustain and expand the pro- 
duction of Philippine export commodities. The 
total capital requirements for the program are 
placed at 2,100,000,000 pesos, of which 1,400,- 
000,000 pesos ($700,000,000) would be needed to 
finance imported equipment and supplies. 

The Joint Finance Commission was created last 
December by agreement of the two Governments, 
following requests by the Philippine Government 
for substantial American budgetary and rehabili- 
tation loans. Its three American and three Fili- 
pino members and a staff of technicians spent 
several months surveying the Philippine taxes, 
budget, public debt, currency and banking sys- 
tems, and problems of exchange and trade and 
of reconstruction and development. 

All members of the Commission signed the 
report. These were: 

Philippine section : Miguel Cuaderno, Sr., Sec- 
I'etary of Finance, chairman; Pio Pedrosa, Com- 
missioner of the Budget; Vicente Carmona, 
President of the Philippine National Bank. 

American section: Edgar G. Grossman, chair- 
man; Arthur W. Stuart, Treasury Department; 
John Exter, Board of Governors of the Federal 
Reserve System. 

Executive secretaries of the Commission were 
Felix de la Costa, Banking Commissioner, for the 
Philippine section and Edward W. Doherty of the 
Department of State for the American section. 



LETTERS FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE PRO TEMPORE 

AND TO THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE 



[Released to the press by the White House July 8] 

July 8, m?. 
Mt Dear Mr. : 

I am presenting herewith the Report and Rec- 
ommendations of the Joint Philippine-American 
Finance Commission, dated June 7, 1947, and a 
Technical Memorandum entitled "Philippine 
Economic Development" which was prepared for 
the use of the Joint Commission. I also enclose 

July 20, 7947 



the letter of the Chairman of the National Ad- 
visory Council transmitting this Report to me. 
Very sincerely youis, 

H.\RRT S. Truman 
Honorable Arthur H. Vandenberg 
President of the Senate pro tempore 

Honorable Joseph W. Martin, Jr. 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 

J 47 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

TO THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House July 8] 

July 2, 191,7. 
My Dear Mr. President : 

Pursuant to action taken by the National Ad- 
visory Council on International Monetary and 
Financial Problems on July 1, 1947, I have the 
honor to submit the Report of the Joint Philip- 
pine-American Finance Commission, dated June 
7, 1947, and a technical memorandum .on 
Philippine Economic Development, whicli have 
been transmitted to me by Mr. Edgar G. Crossman, 
American Co-Chairman of the Commission. 

The Report outlines a comprehensive and inte- 
grated financial, monetary, fiscal and trade pi'o- 
gram to achieve economic recovery and develop- 
ment in the Philippines and the establishment of 
sound governmental financial policies and prac- 
tices suited to post-war conditions and the inde- 
pendent status of the Philippine Government. 
The Rejoort stresses the full utilization of available 
Philippine resources for these purposes. 

I recognize that tlie Commission outlines a chal- 
lenging program. I am confident that the Report 
will serve as a basis for constructive action by the 
Philippine Government and people. The Report 
emphasizes the special relationship existing be- 
tween the Philippine and United States Govern- 
ments, and the sympathetic interest of this 
Government in the fiscal independence and eco- 
nomic development of the Pliilippines. I sin- 
cerely hope that action taken by the Philippine 
Government in carrying out the program recom- 
mended by the Commission will lead to careful 
consideration by the appropriate United States 
Government agencies of the recommendations ad- 
dressed to this Government. 

In my opinion, the Joint Philippine-American 
Finance Commission, in its establishment, work 
and results, is a most significant demonstration of 
the mutually beneficial cooperation which can be 
achieved by democratic nations. I believe that 
those persons whose efforts, energy and study 
made possible the findings and recommenda- 
tions of the Joint Philippine-American Finance 

148 



Commission, are deserving of the highest 
commendation. i, 

Faithfully yours, ' 

John W. Snyder 
Chairman, National Advisory Council on 
International Monetary and Financial Problems 

TiiE Prestoent 
The White House 



Payments on Lend-Lease Accounts 

China 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Armour 

[Released to the press July 9 J I 

We have received a check for $2,820,020.32 from ' 
the Chinese Supply Commission in payment of 
principal and interest due on July 1, 1947, from 
the Republic of China under the terms of "agree- ' 
ment between the Governments of tlie United 
States and the Republic of China on the disposi- 
tion of lend-lease supplies in inventory or pro- 
curement in the United States" dated June 14, 
1946. 

Of this amount, $1,095,020.32 represents in- 
terest payable July 1, 1947, at the rate of 2% per- ' 
cent on $40,106,118.75, the amount so far officially 
reported to the Chinese Government. Additional 
interest payments are expected as additional prin- 
cipal amounts are reported. An additional sum 
of $1,725,000 represents an instalment of principal 
payable July 1, 1947. This principal amount rep- 
resents one tliirtieth of $51,750,000, which is the 
total estimated amount of the Chinese obligation • 
under the lend-lease pipeline agreement of June 
14, 1946. 

U.S.S.R. 

[Released to the press July 9] 

The Soviet Government has paid $4,170,000 to 
the United States Government on account of in- 
terest due on July 1, 1947, under the terms of the 

Department of State BuHetin | 



Soviet lend-lease pipeline agreement of October 
15, 1945. 

Further payments of interest as of July 1, 1947, 
are expected as additional records of transfers 
made under the agreement are audited and re- 
ported to the Soviet Government. Payments of 
principal under the agreement of October 15, 1945, 
are due to begin on July 1, 1954. 

Lt. Gen. A. C. Wedemeyer Heads Mission 
To Study Conditions in China and Korea 

[Released to the press by the White House July 11] 

j The AVhite House announced on July 11 that 

' Lt. Gen. A. C. Wedemeyer will depart for China 

and Korea immediately to make an appraisal of 

the over-all situation in that region. His mission 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

will be fact-finding. He will be accompanied by 
a small group of expeits whose names appear be- 
low. It is expected that General Wedemeyer will 
return within six weeks to submit a report of his 
observations to the President. 

Bead of Mission: Lt. Gen. A. C. Wedemeyer, Special Rep- 
resentative of the President with the rank of Am- 
bassador 

Fiscal Adviser: David Jenkins, Far East Section, Division 
of Monetary Research, Treasury Department 

Political Adviser: Philip Sprouse, Office of Far Eastern 
Affairs, Department of State 

Engineering Adviser: Rear Adm. Carl A. Trexel, Civil 
Engineer Corps, Navy Department 

Eeonomic Adviser: Melville Walker, Division of Invest- 
ment and Economic Development, Department of 
State 

PuUic Relations Adviser: Mark Watson, Baltimore Sun- 



Request of Haiti for Flotation cf interna! Loan 



[Released to the press July 10] 

The Government of Haiti, acting under the 
provisions of the Executive agreement of Sep- 
1 tember 13, 1941,' entered into between the Govern- 
ments of Haiti and the United States, has re- 
quested the acquiescence of this Government to 
the flotation of an internal loan in Haiti of $10,- 
000,000. The acquiescence of this Govenmient 
was given in an exchange of notes signed at Port- 
au-Prince on July 4, 1947. 

Article VII of the Executive agreement of 1941 
provides that, until the amortization of the whole 
amount of the bonds of the external debt of 1922 
and 1923 of the Government of Haiti shall have 
been completed, the public debt of the Republic 
of Haiti shall not be increased except by previous 
agreement between the two Governments. The 
Government of Haiti, in requesting such an ac- 
quiescence at this time, stated that the proceeds 
of the internal loan would be used in part for 
amortization of the 1922 and 1923 bond issues. 

Translation of note from the Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs- of Haiti to the Amencan 
Anibassador ^ at Port-au-Prince 

I have the honor to inform you that, com- 
mencing on or before August 1, 1947, the Govern- 

l\i\^ 20, 7947 



ment of the Republic of Haiti will give notice 
under Article V of loan agreements of the 1922-23 
Series A and C bonds of redemption on October 
1, 1947 of all the bonds of these issues and the 
certificates of interest in Series C bonds and that 
in this connection and for other public purposes 
the Government of the Republic of Haiti desires 
to proceed at once to float an internal loan in the 
amount of $10,000,000. 

To the extent necessary, the proceeds of the pro- 
posed internal loan will be used in the first in- 
stance exclusively for the purpose of redeeming 
the said bonds and certificates of interest. To 
this end the proceeds of the internal loan will be 
delivered to the designated representative in 
Haiti of the holders of the Series A and C bonds 
immediately upon the receipt of such proceeds 
by the Government of the Republic of Haiti and 
such representative will cause the said proceeds 
to be converted into United States dollars as ex- 
peditiously as possible and transferred to the 
Fiscal Agent of the loans. For the purpose of 
further assuring the redemption of the said bonds 
and certificates of interest on October 1, 1947 my 



'Executive Agreement Series 220. 
= Edm§ Th. Manigot. 
'Harold H. Tittmann, Jr. 



149 



THE RECORD OF THE W££K 

Government will confer upon the Fiscal Agent 
of the loans irrevocable authority on behalf of my 
Government to cause notice of redemption of the 
said bonds to be given in the manner provided 
in the loan contracts and will procure from the 
National Bank of the Republic of Haiti and de- 
liver to your Government and to the Fiscal Agent 
prior to the first publication of such notice of 
redemption the said Bank's undertaking that on 
or before October 1, 1947 there will be on deposit 
with the Fiscal Agent in trust for the redemption 
of the said bonds and certificates of interest on 
that date a sum in United States dollars (in im- 
mediately available New York City funds) suf- 
ficient so to redeem the same. 

In this connection, I refer to the second para- 
graph of Article VII of the Executive Agreement 
of September 13, 1941, which provides that, un- 
til the complete amortization of the whole amount 
of the bonds of the external debt of 1922 and 
1923 of the Government of Haiti, the public debt 
of the Republic of Haiti shall not be increased ex- 
cept by previous agreement between the Govern- 
ments of the United States of America and the 
■Republic of Haiti. 

I would appreciate it if you would confirm the 
understanding of my Government that no objec- 
tion is entertained by the Goveriunent of the 
United States to the flotation of the said internal 
loan, and that when notice of redemption of the 
said bonds of Series A and C and certificates of 
interest in Series C bonds shall have been given 
in accordance with the loan contracts and funds 
sufficient for the redemption thereof shall have 
been deposited with the Fiscal Agent in trust for 
the redemption of the said bonds and certificates 
of interest on October 1, 1947 as above set forth, 
the Government of the United States will con- 
sider that the conditions set forth in the second 
paragraph of Article XI of the Agreement of 
September 13, 1941 have been met. 

I have the honor to inform you that my Gov- 
ernment will consider this note, together with a 
note from you in reply indicating the approval 
of your Government as constituting an agreement 
between the two Governments, on the terms out- 
lined above, with respect to the proposed Haitian 
internal loan and redemption of outstanding ex- 
ternal bonds of 1922 and 1923 and certificates of 
interest. 

Accept [etc.] 

150 



Jl 



7'ext of reply froin the American Ambassador at 
Port-att-Prince 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
Your Excellency's note of July 4, 1947 with refer- 
ence to the desire of Your Excellency's Govern- 
ment to float an internal loan in connection with 
its intention to redeem in their entirety the bonds 
and certificates of interest in bonds of the external 
debt of 1922-23 of the Government of Haiti. 

In reply to the inquiry in Your Excellency's 
note, July 4, 1947, I take pleasure in informing 
you, pursuant to instructions from my Govern- 
ment, as follows : 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica is agreeable to the proposed internal loan. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica will consider the full execution of the under- 
takings set forth in your note, including the call- 
ing for redemption of the outstanding bonds of 
Series A and C and certificates of interest in 
Series C bonds and the deposit of monies with the 
Fiscal Agent in trust for the redemption of such 
bonds and certificates of interest, all as set forth 
in your note, as meeting the conditions set forth 
in the second paragraph of Article XI of the 
Executive Agreement of September 13, 1941. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica will consider Your Excellency's note, together 
with this note in reply, as constituting an agree- 
ment between the two Governments under the 
terms outlined above, with respect to the proposed 
Haitian internal loan and redemption of outstand- 
ing external bonds of 1922-23. 

Accept [etc.] 



Herbert J. Spinden To Lecture at 
University of IV!eKico 

Herbert J. Spinden, world authority on Maya 
culture, left on July 8 for Mexico City, where he 
will be visiting professor at the University of 
Mexico. Dr. Spinden, dean of the Scientific Sec- 
tion of the Brooklyn Museum, will lecture at the 
Institute of Anthropology of the National Univer- 
sity of Mexico, under the joint sponsorship of the 
Department of State and the University of 
Mexico. 

Department of State BuUetin 



Mexico Limits Importation of Nonessential Goods 



[Released to the press July 11] 

The Departments of Commerce and State an- 
nounced on July 11 that the Government of Mex- 
ico has taken action which will affect United 
States exports to that country. In decrees pub- 
lished on July 11 in the Diario Ofcial (Official 
Gazette), the Mexican Government took action to 
suspend temporarily the importation of certain 
goods regarded as nonessential and also to in- 
crease import duties on an additional selected 
group of commodities. The action was taken in 
order to check the heavy drain upon the Mexican 
reserves of foreign exchange by continued heavy 
imports. None of the articles enumerated in 
schedule I of the trade agxeement between the two 
countries signed December 23, 1942, on which 
Mexico granted tariff concessions in the agree- 
ment, has been subjected to increase in duties. 

The Mexican action with respect to suspension 
of imports of those commodities covered by the 
trade agreement was taken after full consultation 
with representatives of the United States pursuant 
to article X of the trade agreement. 

It is understood that this action represents no 
change in the long-term foreign economic policy 
of the Mexican Government, which continues to 
have as its objective the general expansion of in- 
ternational trade. The action is a temporary 
measure to correct the current deficit in Mexico's 
balance of international payments. 

The decree suspending imports was effective as 
of July 11, but there are provisions for the grant- 
ing of import permits on all shipments in transit 
and also for hona fide orders placed before May 
18, 1947, for which payment arrangements have 
been fixed and which are to be delivered before 
October 15, 1947. Application for import licenses 
for such orders must be made by Mexican import- 
ers before August 15, 1947. In addition, there is 
provision for special consideration in cases of 
grave injury to exporters or importers. 

The decree suspending imports envisages that 
quotas will later be established to replace the sus- 
pensions and that these restrictions will ultimately 

Ju/y 20, 1947 



be withdrawn as the Mexican balance of interna- 
tional payments improves. 

The classes of commodities affected by the sus- 
pension order are : 

Canned meat; certain fresh, dried, and canned 
fruits; furniture (wood and metal) ; tanned furs, 
fur wearing apparel; bags, wallets, and purses (of 
or containing leather) ; cut diamonds; glass and 
crystal wares; jewelry; refrigerators; certain 
wearing apparel and hosiery ; coated cotton cloth ; 
velvets; carpets; certain cosmetics; wines and al- 
coholic beverages; Kraft paper and cardboard; 
advertisements; catalogs and calendars (but not 
before January 1, 1948) ; antiques; certain foun- 
tain pens and pencils; radio receivers, phono- 
graphs, and pianos ; watches ; automobiles, trucks, 
and busses. 

The decree establishing increased rates of duties, 
also published on July 11, will become effective 15 
days from that date. It affects the following 
classes of commodities: 

Certain preserved fish, including codfish and 
sardines ; artificial fibers of animal origin ; bever- 
age coloring (sugar base) ; unspecified essential 
oils ; copper, including electrolytic ; lamps and lan- 
terns ; locks and key blanks ; curtain rods ; calcium 
carbide; certain buttons; cigaret paper; trimmed 
felt hats ; machetes ; motorcycles. 

Details as to the list of commodities subject to 
suspension and the list subject to duty increases 
will shortly be obtainable from the Department of 
Commerce or any of its field offices. 

Letters of Credence 

Ecuador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador, 
L. Neftali Ponce, presented his credentials to the 
President on July 11, 1947. For texts of the trans- 
lation of the Ambassador's remarks, and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 573 of July 11, 1947. 

151 



^cm/teo^t^' 



Economic Affairs Page 

U.S. Cordage Supply Policy. Article by 

Isabel Ann Baldwin Ill 

U.S. Cotton-Textile Export Policy During the 
War Period. Article by John C. Mont- 
gomery 116 

Accomplishments of Fourth Meeting of Rub- 
ber Study Group 134 

Membership in Pan American Railway Con- 
gress. Statement by Assistant Secretary 

Armour 136 

Telegraph Service Between America and 
Greece. Statement by Assistant Secre- 
tary Armour 143 

Procedure for Filing War Claims With 

France 143 

Report of Joint Philippine-American Finance 
Commission: 

Summary of Report 146 

Letters From the President to the President 
of the Senate Pro Tempore and to the 

Speaker of the House 147 

Letter of Transmittal From the Secretary of 

the Treasury to the President .... 148 
Mexico Limits Importation of Nonessential 

Goods 151 

The United Nations 

U.N. Committee on the Progressive Develop- 
ment of International Law and Its Codi- 
fication. Report of the U.S. Repre- 
sentative 121 

U.N. Documents: Selected Bibliography . . 127 

Negotiations in Security Council Concerning 

Trusteeship of Pacific Islands 128 

Benefits of Membership in the World Health 
Organization. Statement by'Durward 
V. Sandifer 131 



The United Nations — Contimted page 

U.S. Delegation to Third Part of First 

Session of IRQ 133 

General Policy 

Legislation Advocated for Entrance of Dis- 
placed Persons Into U.S. Message of the • 
President to the Congress 137 

Program of the American Mission for Aid to 
Greece. Statement by the Chief of the 
American Mission 141 

Agreement Between U.S. and Turkey To 
Govern Application of Turkish Aid 
Program 144 

Lt. Gen. A. C. Wedemeyer Heads Mission To 

Study Conditions in Cliina and Korea. ■ . 149 

Letters of Credence: Ecuador 151 

Treaty Information 

U.S.-Greek Relief Agreement 139 

Payments on Lend-Lease Accounts: 

China. Statement by Assistant Secretary 

Armour 148 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .... 148 
Request of Haiti for Flotation of Internal 

Loan 149 

Occupation Matters 

Anglo-American Talks Planned on German 

Coal Production 145 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to Microbiology Congress . 135 
U.S. Delegation to Public Education Con- 
ference 135 

Herbert J. Spinden To Lecture at University 

of Mexico 150 

The Congress 136 



^mvt/if'VUvtm^ 



Isabel A. linhlwiti, author of the article on U.S. cordage supply policy, 
is a Commodities Specialist in the Division of International Resources, 
Department of State. 

Johji C. Montgomery, author ot the article on U.S. cotton textile 
export policy, is Divisional Assistant, Division of International Re- 
sources, Department of State. 



tJri€/ U^ehiM^tmeni/ ^^ tnate^ 





BASIC POST-SURRENDER POLICY FOR JAPAN: 

Decision Adopted by Far Eastern Commission . . . 216 
Statement by General MacArthur 221 

SURVEY OF FOOD CONDITIONS IN POLAND • 

Report to the Secretary of State 223 

SIXTH MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL COTTON 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE • Article by John C. 
Montgomery 207 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XVII, No. 
August 3, 1947 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OUOUWLNia 

AUG 26 1941 




bulletin 

Vol. XVII, No. 422 • Publicatiow 2893 
August 3, 1947 



For sale by the Superintendent of Dociiincnts 

U.S. Ooyernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Subscription: 
62 issues, $5; single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



r/ie Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as uiell as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
tertuitional agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well 
as legislative material in the field of 
international relations, are listed 
currently. 



THE SIXTH MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
COTTON ADVISORY COMIVIITTEE 



hy John C. Montgomery 



The International Cotton Advisory Committee is an inter- 
national organization for the exchange of information on 
cotton statistics and policies. Between June 9 and June 11, 
19Ji7, it held its sixth plenary meeting in Washington, D.C. 
This article reviews the work done at that meeting. 



The Sixth Plenary Meeting of tlie International 
Cotton Advisory Committee took place in Wash- 
ington, D.C, from June 9 through June 11, 1947, 
under the chairmanship of Leslie A. Wheeler, Di- 
rector of the Office of Foreign Agricultural Rela- 
tions of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. The meeting was called to review and to act 
on a number of recommendations of the Executive 
Committee regarding tlie establishment of a per- 
manent secretariat and other organizational mat- 
ters. 

Twenty countries having an interest in cotton 
were represented at the meeting, as were the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of the United Nations, 
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations, and the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development. Brazil and the 
Soviet Union, both large cotton producers, were 
absent. 

The International Cotton Advisory Committee 
was organized in 1939 as an intergovernmental 
agency composed of cotton-exporting and cotton- 
importing countries — an agency designed to be a 
medium for the exchange of information on cot- 
ton conditions and policies in the member coun- 
tries. Between 1941 and 1945 the activities of the 
Committee were suspended because of the war, but 
during the past year, the Committee has resumed 

Augysf 3, )947 



its activities and the study of current cotton prob- 
lems. The organizational work of the Sixth Meet- 
ing of the International Cotton Advisory Commit- 
tee should be of great value for the future since it 
provides for a permanent organization which 
should more effectively contribute toward the solu- 
tion of postwar cotton problems. A permanent 
secretariat of technically trained specialists has 
been needed to do basic statistical and economic 
research on cotton. For example, there has long 
been a need for a centralized organization to cor- 
relate and unify world cotton statistics. 

The organizational proposals of the Executive 
Committee as adopted at the Sixth Plenaiy Meet- 
ing of the International Cotton Advisory Com- 
mittee were as follows : 

1. The invitation to all governments of the 
United Nations having a substantial interest in 
cotton — as either producers or consumers — to join 
the International Cotton Advisory Committee was 
to be announced as still open. The same invitation 
was to be extended to other governments having 
a substantial interest in cotton which, although 
not members of the United Nations, are members 
of some one or more of the specialized inter- 
national organizations, such as the Food and 
Agriculture Organization, or one of the inter- 

207 



national commodity organizations such as the 
International Wheat Council. 

2. A graduated scale was established for finan- 
cial contributions by the members of the Inter- 
national Cotton Advisory Committee. For this 
purpose the member countries were grouped into 
five categories according to the annual average of 
total cotton exports and imports in the five years 
1934-35 to 1938-39. The amount of the contri- 
bution assessed to each government within each 
group is to be the same as that assessed to every 
other member within the same group. The groups 
and the amounts actually to be assessed to each 
are as follows : 

Group I — Countries having an annual average of 
exports and imports of over 4,000.000 bales : 
United States to be assessed $12,000 

Group II — Countries having an annual average of 
exports and imports of 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 
bales: India and the United Kingdom, each 
to be assessed $8,000 

Group III — Countries having an annual average of 
exports and imports of 500,000 to 2,000,000 
bales: Brazil, China, Egypt, and France, 
each to be assessed $4,000 

Group IV — Countries having an annual average of 
exports and imports of 100,000 to 500,000 
bales: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czech- 
oslovakia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru, 
the Soviet Union, and the Sudan, each to 
be assessed $2,500 

Group V — Countries having an annual average of 
exports and imports less than 100,000 
bales: Australia, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, 
Cuba, Greece, Iran, Nicaragua, Paraguay, 
Turkey, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia, each 
to be assessed $1,000 

3. The number of governments represented in 
the Executive Committee was increased from 12 
to 14; the governments of countries in Groups I, 

II, and III were to be ex ofilcio members of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee ; two member countries were to 
be elected from Group V ; and after account had 
been taken of the membership from Groups I, II, 

III, and V, there should be elected from Group IV 
as many governments of exporting countries and 
as many governments of importing countries as 
might be needed to bring the total membership in 
the Executive Committee to seven governments of 
exporting countries and seven governments of im- 
porting countries. 

4. The payment of a country's financial contri- 
bution when due was to be made a condition of the 



208 



country's membership in the International Cotton 
Advisory Committee as well as in the Executive 
Committee, and a rule to that effect is to be inaug- 
urated in the fiscal year 1948-49. Pending the 
adoption of such a rule, the Executive Committee 
was authorized to consider with any government 
whose contribution remains unpaid beyond a rea- 
sonable time the conditions responsible therefor 
and to take such action as may be judged appro- 
priate. The vote on the election of members of the 
Executive Committee from Groups IV and V was 
to be by the entire membership of the International 
Cotton Advisory Committee. Finally, in this con- 
nection, the principle was to be observed of secur- 
ing as far as practicable a fair geographical dis- 
tribution of membership in the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

5. The Executive Committee was authorized to 
approve expenditures in the 12 months ending on 
June 30, 1948, totaling $60,000. The authorized 
expenditures are : salaries, $44,000 ; office expenses, 
$3,000; communications, $3,000; transportation, 
$5,000; and contingent expenses, $4,900. How- 
ever, the Executive Committee was authorized to 
make any shifts and adjustments of funds from 
one item to another within the total of $60,000 as 
should be found desirable. 

6. The balance of any funds pledged or received 
in the fiscal year 1946—47 and remaining unex- 
pended or uncommitted on July 1, 1947, shall be 
set aside in a reserve fund ; any excess of contribu- 
tions in 1947—48 over and above the $60,000 pro- 
posed for expenditure in that year shall be added 
to the reserve fund ; and any country in Group V 
which in 1946—47 has actually paid the initial con- 
tribution of $2,500 shall be entitled to credit in the 
sum of $1,500 to apply against its assessment for 
1947-48 and 1948-49. 

The International Cotton Advisory Committee 
elected the following countries to be members of 
the Executive Committee for 1947-48: Argen- 
tina, Australia, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Greece, 
Mexico, and Peru. The ex offieio members of the 
Executive Committee were declared to be : Brazil, 
China, Egypt, France, India, the United King- 
dom, and the United States. 

The closing plenary session reelected Leslie A. 

(Continued on page S33) 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Agenda for Fifth Session of Economic and Social Council 



At its first meeting of the Fifth Session on 
19 July 1947 the Council had before it the Keport 
of the Agenda Committee (E/475), and adopted 
the agenda submitted by the Committee, as annexed 
to this document. 

This decision was made subject to the under- 
standing that during the first three days of the 
Session the inclusion or exclusion of items appear- 
ing in the annexed list might be further considered 
by the Council on the motion of the President in 
the light of representation made to him by and 
consultation with delegations. 

1. Adoption of Agenda 

2. (a) Rules of Procedure of Commissions of tlie 
Council (E/460) 

(b) Proposed amendment of Council Kule of Pro- 
cedure No. 10 

3. Application of Hungary for Membership of UNESCO 
(E/261/Add.l) 

4. Report of the Secretary-General on the Draft Con- 
vention on the Crime of Genocide (E/447 and E/476) 

5. Examination of Question of Universal Adoption of 
a World Calendar: (E/291, E/465) 

6. Examination of Question of the Universal Adoption 
of the International Metric System of Measures and 
Weight and of the Decimal System of Currencies and 
Coinage: (E/472) 

7. Report of the Fiscal Commission (E/440) 

8. Chapter V of the Report of the First Session of the 
Commission on Human Rights concerning communications 
(E/259) 

9. Chapter III of the Report of the First Session of the 
Commission on the Status of Women concerning com- 
munications (E/281/Rev.l) 

10. Report of the First Session of the Sub-Commission 
on Freedom of Information and of the Press (E/441; 
E/448) 

11. Transfer to the United Nations of functions and 
powers previously exercised by the League of Nations 
under the International Conventions for the Suppression 
of the Traffic in Women and Children of 30 September 
1921 and 11 October 1933, and the International Con- 
vention for the Suppression of the Circulation and of the 
traffic in obscene Publications of 12 September 1923 
(E/444) 

12. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on imple- 
mentation of Resolution 58 of the General Assembly on 



the Advisory Social Welfare Functions of UNERA trans- 
ferred to the United Nations (E/458) 

13. Transfer of certain assets from the United Nations 
to the World Health Organization (E/470) 

14. Report of the Committee on Negotiations with 
Specialized Agencies on Negotiations with the Universal 
Postal Union 

15. Interim Report of the Second Session of the Pre- 
paratory Committee of the International Conference on 
Trade and Employment (E/469) 

16. Report on the International Timber Conference 
convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of 
the United Nations (E/455) 

17. Report of the Second Session of the Economic and 
Employment Commission (E/445) 

18. Report of the Secretary-General on Relief Needs 
after the Termination of UNRRA (E/462) 

19. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on Finan- 
cial Needs of Devastated Countries (E/457) 

20. Expert Assistance to Member Governments (E/471) 

21. Report of the First and Second Session of the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe 

22. Report of the First Session of the Economic Com- 
mission for Asia and the Far East and Report of the Com- 
mittee of the Whole (E/452) 

23. Report of the Secretary-General on the reconstruc- 
tion of Ethiopia and other devastated areas not included 
in the Report of the Temporary Sub-Commission on Eco- 
nomic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas (E/450) 

24. Establishment of an Economic Commission for Latin 
America : Item proposed by the Delegation of Chile 
{E/468) 

25. Appointment of Members to fill two temporary va- 
cancies in the Permanent Central Opium Board (E/467) 

26. Interim Report of the International Children's 
Emergency Fund (E/459) 

27. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the 
One Day's Pay Proposal (E/464) 

28. Report of the Council NGO Committee 

29. *Trade Union Rights (Freedom of Association) 
(E/C.2/28, E/C.2/32, E/372) 



' U.N. doc. E/480, July 19, 1947. 

*This item was considered at the Fourth Session of the 
Council under the title "Guarantees for the Exercise and 
Development of Trade Union Rights", and in pursuance of 
the Council resolution of 24 March 1947 (E/437, page 43) 
was considered by the International Labour Conference 
in June 1947 under the title "Freedom of Association". 
The Agenda Committee therefore proposed for conven- 
ience the short title above. 



August 3, 1947 



209 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

30. Procedural Arrangements for Co-operation with 
Trusteeship Council 

31. Advice on the provisional Questionnaire adopted by 
the Trusteeship Council under Article 88 of the Charter 

32. Report of Meeting of Experts on Passport and 
Frontier Formalities (E/43G) 

33. Further Reports of the Committee on Negotiations 
with Specialized Agencies 

34. Reports of Specialized Agencies, and note on pro- 
cedure by the Secretary-General 

35. Protection of Migrant and Immigrant Labour: 
Item proposed by the American Federation of Labour 
(E/454) 

36. International Control of Oil Resources: Item pro- 



posed by the International Co-operative Alliance (E/449) 

37. Confirmation of Members of Commissions 

38. Election of two Members of the Agenda Committee 
for Sixth Session 

39. Draft Programme of Meetings and Conferences for 
1948 

Kecommended for deferment: Elimination of 
taxes, subsidies, and tariffs, which interfere with 
the supplying by natural and efficient producers 
of food commodities essential to consuming coun- 
tries : Item proposed by the Delegation of Cuba 
(E/466). 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography ^ 



Economic and Social Council 

Oificial Records. First Year, First Session. June 26, 
1947. 174 pp. printed [$1.30]. 

Official Records. First Year, Second Session. June 26, 
1947. 410 pp. printed [$3]. 

International Timber Conference, Convened by the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
at Marianslie Lazne, April 1947. E/455, July 8, 1947. 
4 pp. mimeo. 

Progress Report of the Secretary-General on Implementa- 
tion of Resolution 58 of the General Assembly on the 
Advisory Social Welfare Functions of UNRRA Trans- 
ferred to the United Nations. E/458, July 10, 1947. 
36 pp. mimeo. 

International Children's Emergency Fund. Report of the 
Executive Board of ICEF. Submitted to the Fifth 
Session of the Economic and Social Council. E/459, 
July 10, 1947. 40 pp. mimeo. 

Interim Report of the United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization to the Economic and 
Social Council at Its Fifth Session. E/461, July 15, 
1047. 62 pp. mimeo. 

Activities Under the Resolution on Relief Needs After the 
Termination of UNRRA. Report of the Secretary- 
General. E/462, July 10, 1947. 66 pp. mimeo. 

Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference 
on Trade and Employment : Interim Report of the 
Second Session to the Economic and Social Council. 
E/469, July 14, 1947. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Transfer to the World Health Organization of Certain 
Assets of the United Nations. Memorandum by the 



'Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 29C0 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



Secretary-General. E/470, July 16, 194T. 3 pp. 
mimeo. 

Committee on Negotiations With Specialized Agencies. 
Negotiations With the Interim Commission of the 
World Health Organization. E/C.1/18, July 11, 1947. 
12 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Drafting Committee on 
an International Bill of Human Rights. First Ses- 
sion. Report of the Drafting Committee to the Com- 
mission on Human Rights. E/CN.4/21, July 1, 1947. 
97 pp. mimeo. 

Fiscal Commission. List of Documents Distributed Dur- 
ing the First Half of 1947. E/CN.S/27, July 14, 1947. 
3 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Europe. Report of the First 
and Second Sessions. E/451, July 18, 1947. 37 pp. 
mimeo. 

World Calendar. Note by the Secretary-General. E/465, 
July 14, 1947. 23 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Agreement Between the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the 
International Federation of Library Associations. 
E/473, July 18, 1947. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Agreement Between the United Nations Educa- 
tional Scientific and Cultural Organization and the 
International Council of Museums. E/474, July 18, 
1947. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Agenda Committee. Report to the Fifth Session of the 
Council. E/475, July 18, 1947. 9 pp. mimeo. [See 
also E/4S0, printed elsewhere in this issue.] 

Draft Programme of Meetings and Conferences in 1948. 
Note by the Secretary-General. E/478, July 18, 1947. 
7 pp. mimeo. 

Transfer to the United Nations of Functions and Powers 
Previously Exercised by the League of Nations Under 
the International Conventions for the Suppression of 
the Traffic in Women and Children of 30 September 
1921 and 11 October 1933, and the International Con- 
vention for the Suppression of the Circulation and of 



210 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



THB UNITED NATIONS 



the Traffic in Obscene Publications of 12 September 
1923. E/482, July 21, 1947. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Committee on Negotiations With Specialized Agencies. 
Negotiations With the Universal Postal Union. 
E/C.1/17, July 10, 1947. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Committee on Negotiations With Specialized Agencies. 
Negotiations With the Universal Postal Union. 
E/C.1/14, July 3, 1&47. 2 pp. mimeo. E/C.1/16, July 
3, 1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Com- 
mittee of the Whole. Background Information Witli 
Eeference to Item 3 of the Provisional Agenda : Rec- 
ommendations to the Economic and Social Council. 
(Note by the Secretariat.) E/CN.ll/AC.1/3, July 8, 
1947. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Security Council 

Ofhcial Records. First Year, Second Series. Supplement 
No. 13, June 27, 1947. 2 pp. printed [lO^f]. 

Official Records. Second Year. No. 16, June 27, 1947. 25 
pp. printed [204]. 

Official Records. Second Year. No. 19, June 25, 1947. 
18 pp. printed [15^]. 

Official Records. Second Year. No. 21, June 23, 1947. 24 
pp. printed [204]. 

Letter From the Chairman of the Commission of Investi- 
gation Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents to the 
President of the Security Council, Dated 17 July 1947 
and Enclosed Telegram. S/419, July 17, 1947. 6 
pp. mimeo. 

Letter From the Chairman of the Commission of Investi- 
gation Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents to the 
President of the Security Council, Dated 17 July 1947 
Concerning Alleged Incidents at Sarandaporos and 
Bania. S/420, July 17, 1947. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Letter From the Chairman of the Commission of Investi- 
gation to the President of the Security Council Dated 
17 July 1947 and Enclosed Preliminary Report on 
Incidents of Kapnotopos and Angistron-Lipa. S/423, 
July IS, 1947. 35 pp. mimeo. 

Letter From the Representative of Netherlands to United 
Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General Dated 
21 July 1947. S/426, July 22, 1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Letter From the Bulgarian Political Representative to the 
United [Nations] Addressed to the President of the 
Security Council Dated 22 July 1947. S/427, July 22, 
1947. 1 p. mimeo. 

Letter From the Chairman of the Commission of Investiga- 
tion Concerning Greek Frontier Incidents Addressed 
to the President of the Security Council Dated 22 July 
1947 and Enclosed Telegram. S/428, July 22, 1947. 
4 pp. mimeo. 



Amendments to the U.S. Draft Resolution on the Greek 
Question Submitted by the Representative of the 
United Kingdom at the 162nd Meeting of the Security 
Council. S/429, July 22, 1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Amendments to the United States Draft Resolution on 
the Greek Question Submitted Ijy the Representative 
of France at the One Hundred and Sixty-second 
Meeting of the Security Council. S/430, July 22, 
1947. 3 pp. mimeo. 

General Assembly 

Measures To Economize the Time of the General Assembly. 
Report of the Secretary-General. A/316, July 8, 1947. 
65 pp. mimeo. 

Provisional Agenda for the Second Regular Session of the 
General Assembly. A/329, July 18, 1947. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Progressive Development of International Law and Its 
Codification. Note by the Secretary-General. Letter 
from the Chairman of the Committee to the Secre- 
tary-General. Report of the Committee. A/331, 
July 18, 1947. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Plans for the Formulation of the Principles of the 
Niirnberg Charter and Judgment. Report of the 
Committee on the Progressive Development of Inter- 
national Law and Its Codification. A/332, July 21, 
1947. 2 pp. mimeo. 

U.N. Department of Public Information 
Research Section 

Economic Commission for Europe. 11 pp. mimeo. 

The Charter of the United Nations and the Covenant of 

the League of Nations. 45 pp. mimeo. 
United Nations Chronology, 1 January 1942-30 April 1947. 

43 pp. mimeo. 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Background Paper No. 11. 

July 2, 1947. 25 pp. mimeo. 

Confirmations 

The Senate on July 23, 1947, confirmed the 
nominations of Warren K. Austin, Herschel V. 
Johnson, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, and John Fos- 
ter Dulles to be Eepresentatives of the United 
States of America to the second session of the 
General Assembly of the United Nations, to be 
held at New York, beginning September 16, 1947, 
and of Charles Fahy, Willard L. Thorp, Francis 
B. Sayre, Adlai E. Stevenson, and Virginia C. 
Gildersleeve to be Alternate Representatives. 



August 3, 1947 



211 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ' 



In Session as of July 25, 1947 

Far Eastern CommLssion . . . 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee . . , 
Commission on Atomic Energy , 



Commission on Conventional Armaments . . . 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) : 

Fifth Session 

Narcotic Drugs Commission: Second Session . 



Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 



With Turkey 

International Conference on Trade and Employment: Second Meet- 
ing of the Preparatory Committee 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Committee To Examine Disagreed 
Questions of the Austrian Treaty 

International Radio Conference 

International Telecommunications Plenipotentiary Conference . . . 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): South Atlantic 
Regional Air Navigation Meeting. 

Liberian Centennial and Victory Celebration 

WHO (World Health Organization): Expert Committee on Tuber- 
culosis, First Meeting. 

Scheduled for August-October 1947 

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): 

Panel on Soil Erosion 

Meeting of Experts on the Control of Infestation of Stored Food- 
stuffs. 

Executive Committee: Ninth Session 

Annual Conference: Third Session 



Inter-American Congress of the Directors of Tourism and Immigra- 
tion. 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization): Radio Network and Program Conference. 



Washington . 

Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 

Lake Success . 

Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 

Washington , 



Lisbon 
Madrid 

Ankara 
Geneva 

Vienna 



Atlantic City . 
Atlantic City 
Rio de Janeiro 



Monrovia 
Paris . . 



Washington 
London . . 



Geneva 
Geneva 

Panama 



Paris 



1946 

February 26 

March 25 
March 25 
June 14 

1947 

March 24 

July 19-Aug. 16 
July 24-Aug. 8 



1946 



Oct. 24 



Sept 
Nov. 


3 
12 




1947 

June 2 




Apr. 


10-Aug. 


30> 



May 12 



May 


15 




July 


1 




July 


15-Aug. 


5> 


July 


26 




July 


30 





August 1 2 
Aug. 5-12 

Aug. 21-23 ' 
Aug. 25-30 2 

Aug. 4-9 



Aug. 4 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. The calendar of meetings will appear 
in the first issue of each month. 
' Tentative. 



212 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Calendar of meetings — Continued 



ILO (International Labor Organization): 

Sixth International Conference of Labor Statisticians 

Industrial Committee on Iron and Steel Production 

Industrial Committee on Metal Trades 

Preparatory Regional Asian Conference ' 

IMO (International Meteorological Organization) : 

Meeting of the Technical Commissions 

Conference of the Directors 

International Dental Congress 

Inter- American Conference on the Maintenance of Continental Peace 
and Security. 

International High Frequency Broadcasting. 

Conference 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Communications Committee of the Caribbean Regional Air 
Navigation Area. 

Legal Committee 

Meteorology Division 

Air Operating Committee 

Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids Division Meeting. . . . 
Special Conference on Multilateral Aviation Agreement 

ICEF (International Children's Emergency Fimd) : 

Program Committee 

Executive Board 

United Nations: 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) : 

Populations Commission: Second Session 

Human Rights Commission: Second Session 

Social Commission: Second Session 

Statistical Commission: Second Session 

Subcommission on Statistical Sampling 

Permanent Central Opium Board 

Committee on Information for Non-Self-Goveming Territories . . 
General Assembly 

Narcotic Drugs Supervisory Body 

Japanese Peace Conference 

Social Welfare Conference of Southeast Asia Territories '. 

Conference To Examine Proposals for the Establishment of an In- 
stitute of the Hylean Amazon. 

International Exhibition of Cinematographic Arts 

28th International Congress of Americanists 

WHO (World Health Organization): 

Committee on Administration and Finance 

Fourth Session of the Interim Commission 

Expert Committee on the Revision of the International List of 
Causes of Death and Morbidity. 

' Tentative. 

' United States represented by official observer. 

August 3, 1947 



Montreal 

Stockholm 

Stockholm 

New Delhi 

Toronto 

Washington 

Boston 

Petropolis (near Rio de 
Janeiro) . 

Atlantic City 

Mexico City 

Europe 

Montreal 

Paris 

Montreal 

Rio de Janeiro 

Paris 

Paris 

Lake Success 

Geneva 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Geneva 

Lake Success 

Lake Success and Flushing 

Meadows. 
Geneva 

United States ' 

Singapore 

Bel6m, Brazil 

Venice 

Paris 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Ottawa 



Aug. 4 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 3 
Oct. 27-Nov. 6 



Aug. 4-Sept. 13 
Sept. 22-Oct. 7 

Aug. 5-8 

Aug. 15 



Aug. 15 



Aug. 18 

Sept. 15 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 23 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 20 



Aug. 18 
September 



Aug. 18-27 
Aug. 25-Sept. 8 
Aug. 28 2 
Aug. 28-Sept. 6 
Sept. 22- Oct. 7 
Aug. 25-30 ' 
Aug. 28 
Sept. 16-Nov. 8 ' 

Oct. 6-11 
Aug. 19 2 
Aug. 19-21 
Aug. 20 

Aug. 23 
Aug. 24-31 

Aug. 28 

Aug. 30-Sept. 14 

Sept. 16 



313 



Calendar of meetings — Continued 



IRO (International Refugee Organization): First Meeting of the 
General Council. 

Committee of the 1950 Census of the Americas 

Fourth International Cancer Research Congress 

World Statistical Congress 

25th Session of the International Statistical Institute 

First General Assembl3' of the Inter-American Statistical Institute . . 

Second Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 

Second Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund. 

Cannes Film Festival 

Pan American Sanitary Bureau: 

Executive Committee 

Directing Council 

Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers 

General Assembly of the International Conference of National Tourist 
Organizations. 

Sixth Pan-American Congress of Architects 

Fifth Meeting of the International Emergency Food Council . . . . 

' Tentative. 



Geneva . . 

Washington 
St. Louis . 
Washington 
Washington 
Washington 
London . . 

London . . 

Cannes . . 

Buenos Aires 
Buenos Aires 

New York 

Paris . . . 

Lima . . . 
Washington 



August ' 



Sept. 


2-8 


Sept. 


2-7 


Sept. 


6-8 


Sept. 


6-18 


Sept. 


6-18 


Sept. 


11 


Sept. 


11 


Sept. 


12-25 


Sept. 
Sept. 


22 
24 


September • 


Oct. 


1-4 


Oct. 


15-25 


October 



Activities and Developments » 



U.S. DELEGATION TO 6TH INTERNATIONAL 
CONFERENCE OF LABOR STATISTICIANS 

[Released to the press July 22] 

The President has approved the composition of 
the United States Delegation to the International 
Labor Organization's Sixth International Confer- 
ence of Labor Statisticians, as recommended by the 
Secretary of State and the Secretary of Labor. 
The conference is scheduled to convene at Montreal 
on August 4, 1947, and is expected to last approxi- 
mately 10 days. The LTnited States Delegation is 
as follows : 

Delegate 

Ewan Clague, Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
Department of Labor 

AdiHsera 

A. Ross Eckler, Assistant Director, Bureau of the Census, 

Department of Commerce 
Lester S. Kellogg, Chief of the Prices and Cost of Living 



214 



Department of State Bulletin 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 



Branch, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of 

Labor 
Max D. Kossoris, Chief of the Industrial Hazards Division, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor 
Thomas J. Mills, Assistant Chief, Division of Statistical 

Standards, Bureau of the Budget 

Called by the Governing Body of the ILO, the 
purpose of the meeting is to study and suggest in- 
ternational standards appropriate in present con- 
ditions to statistics of employment, payrolls, and 
unemployment. The recommendations and views 
of the conference will be available for the forth- 
coming World Statistical Congress which will 
open at Washington on September 8, 1947. 

Invited to participate in the ILO Conference 
are the 52 member states of the ILO and interested 
international agencies including the United Na- 
tions, the Food and Agriculture Organization of 
the United Nations, the International Bank, and 
the International Monetary Fund. The United 
States has been officially represented at previous 
international conferences on labor statistics and 
has been active in this phase of ILO operations 
since becoming a member of the Organization in 
1934. 

The agenda is expected to include the following 
items: (a) employment and payroll statistics ; (6) 
unemployment statistics ; (c) cost-of-living statis- 
tics; and (d) amendments to resolutions on sta- 
tistics of industrial accidents adopted by the First 
International Conference on Labor Statistics in 
October 1923. 

U.S. DELEGATION TO 7TH INTERNATIONAL 
CONGRESS OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES 

[ReleaBed to the press July 21] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 21 
that the President has approved the composition 
of the United States Delegation to the Seventh 
International Congi-ess of Administrative Sciences 
which is scheduled to be held at Bern, from July 
22 to 30, 1947. The purpose of the Congress is 
to exchange views and information on problems 
of government organization and management. 
The invitation to attend this meeting was extended 
by the Swiss Government. The United States 
Delegation is as follows : 

Chai7-man 

Donald C. Stone, Assistant Director in Charge of Adminis- 
trative Management, Bureau of the Budget 



Delegates 

James V. Bennett, Director, Bureau of Prisons, Depart- 
ment of Justice 
Mrs. Esther Bromley, Commissioner, New Yorlj City Civil 

Service Commission, New York 
Rowland Egger, Director, Bureau of Public Administration, 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville 
Herbert Emmerich, Director, Public Administration 

Clearing House, Chicago 
Edward H. Litchfield, OMGUS, Germany 
Simon L. Millner, New York 
John D. Millett, Associate Professor, Department of Public 

Law and Government, Columbia University, New 

York 
James M. Mitchell, Director, Civil Service Assembly of 

the United States and Canada, Chicago 

The First International Congress of Adminis- 
trative Sciences was held at Brussels in 1910. The 
Congress held at Madrid in 1930 established the 
International Institute of Administrative Sciences 
to act as the permanent organization of the In- 
ternational Congresses of Administrative Sciences. 
The Institute, which is concerned primarily with 
problems of national government administration, 
makes comparative examination of administrative 
experiences in different countries, studies rational 
administrative methods and principles, and con- 
siders general problems, projects, and undertakings 
toward improvement of administrative practice. 
The United States Government was officially rep- 
resented at the last two Congresses in this series. 
At the present time the membership of the In- 
stitute is comprised of approximately 20 con- 
stituent members (national governments with 
titular representatives) and numerous adhering 
members (organizations, institutes, and individ- 
uals interested in administrative matters). Al- 
though the United States is not a member, there is 
an American section of the Institute composed of 
private individuals prominent in the field of pub- 
lic administration in this country. 

The agenda for the forthcoming Congress is ex- 
pected to include discussion on the following 
items: (1) the tasks incumbent upon government 
administration after the war and lessons to be 
learned from the experience of the war in adminis- 
trative affairs ; (2) the head of the government and 
organization of his services ; (3) the participation 
of officials in the management of central, regional, 
and local administrations; and (4) the position of 
regional and local powers in relation to central 
authorities. 



August 3, 1947 



215 



Basic Post-Surrender Policy for Japan 



TEXT OF DOCUMENT i 



[Released to the press by the Far Eastern Commission July 11] 

Tliis document is a statement of general policy 
relating to Japan after surrender. It does not 
deal with all matters relating to the occupation of 
Japan requiring policy determinations. Such 
matters as are not included or are not fully covered 
will be dealt with separately. 

Preamble 

Whereas on September 2, 1945, Japan surren- 
dered unconditionally to the Allied Powers and is 
now under military occupation by forces of these 
Powers under the command of General of the 
Army Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers, and 

Whereas representatives of the following na- 
tions, namely, Australia, Canada, China, France, 
India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philip- 
pines, the U.S.S.K., the United Kingdom, and the 
United States of America, which were engaged in 
the war against Japan, have on the decision of the 
Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers met to- 
gether at Washington as a Far Eastern Commis- 
sion, to formulate the policies, principles and 
standards in conformity with which the fulfill- 
ment by Japan of its obligations under the Terms 
of Surrender may be accomplished ; 

The nations composing this Commission, with 
the object of fulfilling the intentions of the Pots- 
dam Declaration, of carrying out the instrument 
of surrender and of establishing international se- 
curity and stability, 



i\ 



' Adopted on June 10, 1947, by the Far Eastern Commis- 
sion, which gave final approval to a set of fundamental 
principles which had been under continuing examination 
since the organization of the Commission. The Commis- 
sion's basic post-surrender policy for Japan will be effec- 
tive until such time as the treaty of peace comes into force. 
A directive based upon this policy decision has been for- 
warded to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers 
for implementation. 

216 



Conscious that such security and stability de- 
pend first, upon the complete destruction of the 
military machine which has been the chief means 
whereby Japan has carried out the aggressions of 
past decades; second, upon the establishment of 
such political and economic conditions as would 
make impossible any revival of militarism in 
Japan ; and third, upon bringing the Japanese to 
a realization that their will to war, their plan of 
conquest, and the methods used to accomplish such 
plans, have brought them to the verge of ruin. 

Resolved that Japan cannot be allowed to con- 
trol her own destinies again until there is on her 
part a determination to abandon militarism in all 
its aspects and a desire to live with the rest of the 
world in peace, and until democratic principles are 
established in all spheres of the political, eco- 
nomic, and cultural life of Japan ; 

Are therefore agreed : 

To ensure the fulfillment of Japan's obligations 
to the Allied Powers ; 

To complete the task of physical and spiritual 
demilitarization of Japan by measures including 
total disarmament, economic reform designed to 
deprive Japan of power to make war, elimination 
of militaristic influences, and stern justice to war 
criminals, and requiring a period of strict control; 
and 

To help the people of Japan in their own in- 
terest as well as that of the world at large to find 
means whereby they may develop within the 
framework of a democratic society an intercourse 
among themselves and with other countries along 
economic and cultural lines that will enable them 
to satisfy their reasonable individual and national 
needs and bring them into permanently peaceful 
relationship with all nations ; 

And have adopted the following basic objec- 
tives and policies in dealing with Japan : 

Department of State Bulletin 



Part I — Ultimate Objectives 

1. The ultimate objectives in relation to Japan, 
to which policies for the post-surrender period for 
Japan should conform, are: 

a. To insure that Japan will not again become 
a menace to the peace and security of the world. 

h. To bring about the earliest possible establish- 
ment of a democratic and peaceful government 
which will carry out its international responsibili- 
ties, respect the rights of other states, and support 
the objectives of the United Nations. Such gov- 
ernment in Japan should be established in accord- 
ance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese 
people. 

2. These objectives will be achieved by the 
following principal means: 

a. Japan's sovereignty will be limited to the 
islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku 
and such minor outlying islands as may be 
determined. 

h. Japan will be completely disarmed and de- 
militarized. The authority of the militarists and 
the influence of militarism will be totally elimi- 
nated. All institutions expressive of the spirit of 
militarism and aggression will be vigorously 
suppressed. 

c. The Japanese people shall be encouraged to 
develop a desire for individual liberties and 
respect for fundamental human rights, particu- 
larly the freedoms of religion, assembly and asso- 
ciation, speech and the press. They shall be 
encouraged to form democratic and representative 
organizations. 

d. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such 
industries as will sustain her economy and permit 
the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not 
those which would enable her to rearm for war. 
To this end access to, as distinguished from control 
of, raw materials should be permitted. Eventual 
Japanese participation in world trade relations 
will be permitted. 

Part 11 — Allied Autliority 

I 1. Military Occupation 

There will be a military occupation of the 
Japanese home islands to carry into effect the 
surrender terms and further the achievement of 
the ultimate objectives stated above. The occupa- 



ACllVniES AND DBVEiOPMENTS 

tion shall have the character of an operation in 
behalf of the Powers that have participated in 
the war against Japan. The principle of partici- 
pation in the occupation of Japan by forces of 
these nations is affirmed. The occupation forces 
will be under the command of a Supreme Com- 
mander designated by the United States. 

2. Relationship to Japanese Government 

The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese 
Government will be subject to the Supreme Com- 
mander, who will possess all powers necessary to 
effectuate the surrender terms and to carry out 
the policies established for the conduct of the 
occupation and the control of Japan. 

The Supreme Commander will exercise his au- 
thority through Japanese governmental machin- 
ery and agencies, including the Emperor, but only 
to the extent that this satisfactorily furthers the 
objectives and policies stated herein. According 
to the judgment and discretion of the Supreme 
Commander, the Japanese Government may be 
permitted to exercise the normal powers of gov- 
ernment in matters of domestic administration, 
or the Supreme Commander may in any case di- 
rect action to be taken without making use of the 
agencies of the Japanese Government. 

After appropriate preliminary consultation 
with the representatives of the Allied Powers in 
the Allied Council for Japan, the Supreme Com- 
mander may, in cases of necessity, take decisions 
concerning the removal of individual ministers of 
the Japanese Government, or concerning the fill- 
ing of vacancies created by the resignation of in- 
dividual cabinet members. Changes in the gov- 
ernmental machinery, or a change in the Japanese 
Government as a whole, will be made in accord- 
ance with the principles laid down in the Terms of 
Reference of the Far Eastern Commission. 

The Supreme Commander is not committed to 
support the Emperor or any other Japanese gov- 
ernmental authority. The policy is to use the ex- 
isting form of government in Japan and not to 
support it. Changes in the pre-surrender form of 
the Emperor institution and in the form of gov- 
ernment in the direction of modifying or remov- 
ing its feudal and authoritarian character and of 
establishing a democratic Japan are to be en- 
couraged. 



August 3, 1947 



217 



ACT/V/n£S AND DEVELOPMENTS 

3. Protection of United Nations Interests 

It shall be the duty of the Supreme Commander 
to protect the interests, assets, and rights of all 
Members of the United Nations and their na- 
tionals. Where such protection conflicts with the 
fulfillment of the objectives and policies of the 
occupation, the government of the nation con- 
cerned shall be informed through diplomatic 
channels and shall be consulted on the question of 
proper adjustment. 

4. Publicity as to Policies 

The peoples of the nations which have partici- 
pated in the war against Japan, the Japanese peo- 
ple, and the world at large shall be kept fully in- 
formed of the objectives and policies of the occu- 
pation, and of progress made in their fulfillment. 

Part III— Political 

1. Disarmament and Demilitarization 

Disarmament and demilitarization are the inti- 
tial [sic] tasks of the military occupation and shall 
be carried out promptly and with determination. 
Every effort shall be made to bring home to the 
Japanese people the part played by those who have 
deceived and misled them into embarking on world 
conquest, and those who collaborated in so doing. 

Japan is not to have any army, navy, airforce, 
secret police organization, or any civil aviation, or 
gendarmerie, but may have adequate civilian 
police forces. Japan's ground, air and naval 
forces shall be disarmed and disbanded, and the 
Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, the 
General Staff and all secret police organizations 
shall be dissolved. Military and naval material, 
military and naval vessels and military and naval 
installations, and military, naval and civilian air- 
craft, whereever [sic] situated, shall be surrendered 
to the appropriate Allied commanders in their 
zones of capitulation of the Japanese troops and 
shall be disposed of in accordance with decisions of 
the Allied Powers already adopted or which may 
be adopted. Inventories shall be made and in- 
spections authorized to insure complete execution 
of these provisions. 

High officials of the Japanese Imperial General 
Headquarters and General Staff, other high mili- 
tary and naval ofiicials of the Japanese Govern- 
ment, leaders of ultra-nationalist and militarist 
organizations and other important exponents of 

218 



militarism and aggression will be taken into 
custody and held for future disposition. Persons 
who have been active exponents of militarism and 
militant nationalism will be removed and ex- 
cluded from public office and from any other posi- 
tion of public or substantial private responsibility. 
Ultra-nationalistic or militaristic social, political, 
professional and commercial societies and institu- 
tions will be dissolved and prohibited. 

The restoration, even in a disguised form, of 
any anti-democratic and militaristic activity shall 
be prevented, particularly on the part of former 
Japanese career military and naval officers, gen- 
darmerie, and former members of dissolved 
militaristic, ultra-nationalistic and other anti- 
democratic organizations. 

Militaristic, ultra-nationalistic and anti-demo- 
cratic doctrines and practices, including para- 
military training, shall be eliminated from the 
educational system. Former career military and 
naval officers, both commissioned and non-com- 
missioned, and all other exponents of militaristic, 
ultra-nationalistic and anti-democratic doctrines 
and practices shall be excluded from supervisory 
and teaching positions. 

2. War Criminals 

Stern justice shall be meted out to all war 
criminals, including those who visited cruelties 
upon prisoners of war or other nationals of Mem- 
bers of the United Nations. Persons charged by 
the Supreme Commander, or appropriate United 
Nations agencies with being war criminals shall be 
arrested, tried and, if convicted, punished. Those 
wanted by another of the United Nations for 
offenses against its nationals, shall, if not wanted 
for trial or as witnesses or otherwise by the Su- 
preme Connnander, be turned over to the custody 
of such other nation. 

3. Encouragement of Desire for IndividtuU 

Liberties and Democratic Processes 
Freedom of worship and observance of all 
religions shall be proclaimed and guaranteed for 
the future. It should also be made plain to the 
Japanese that ultra-nationalistic, militaristic and 
anti-democratic organizations and movements will 
not be permitted to hide behind the cloak of 
religion. 

The Japanese people shall be afforded oppor- 
tunity and encouraged to become familiar with 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



the history, institutions, culture and the accom- 
plishments of the democracies. 

Obstacles to the revival and strengthening of 
democratic tendencies among the Japanese people 
shall be removed. 

Democratic political parties, with rights of as- 
sembly and public discussion, and the formation 
of trade unions shall be encouraged, subject to the 
necessity for maintaining the security of the oc- 
cupying forces. 

Laws, decrees, and regulations which establish 
discrimination on grounds of race, nationality, 
creed or political opinion shall be abrogated ; those 
which conflict with the objectives and policies out- 
lined in this document shall be repealed, suspended 
or amended as required, and agencies charged spe- 
cifically with their enforcement shall be abolished 
or appropriately modified. Persons unjustly con- 
fined by Japanese authority on political grounds 
shall be released. The judicial, legal and police 
systems shall be reformed as soon as practicable 
to conform to the policies set forth herein and it 
shall be the duty of all judicial, legal and police 
officers to protect individual liberties and civil 
rights. 

Part IV — Economic 

1. Economic Demilitarization 

The existing economic basis of Japanese mili- 
tary strength must be destroyed and not be per- 
mitted to revive. 

Therefore, a program will be enforced contain- 
ing the following elements, among others : the im- 
mediate cessation and future prohibition of pro- 
duction of all goods designed for the equipment, 
maintenance, or use of any military force or es- 
tablishment; the imposition of a ban upon facili- 
ties for the production or repair of implements of 
war, including naval vessels and all forms of air- 
craft ; the institution of a system of inspection and 
control designed to prevent concealed or disguised 
military preparation ; the elimination in Japan of 
those industries or branches of production which 
would provide Japan with the capacity to rearm 
for war; and the prohibition of specialized re- 
search and instruction contributing directly to the 
development of war-making power. Research for 
peaceful ends will be permitted, but shall be 
strictly suprevised [s?'c] by the Supreme Com- 
mander to prevent its use for war purposes. Japan 
shall be restricted to the maintenance of these in- 



ACrtWr/ES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

dustries which will sustain the level of economy and 
standard of living fixed in accordance with prin- 
ciples determined by the Far Eastern Commission, 
and consistent with the Potsdam Declaration. 

The eventual disposition of those existing pro- 
duction facilities within Japan which are to be 
eliminated in accord with this program, as be- 
tween transfer abroad for the purpose of repara- 
tions, scrapping, and conversion to other uses, will 
be determined, after inventory, in accordance with 
the principles laid down by the Far Eastern Com- 
mission or pursuant to the Terms of Reference of 
the Far Eastern Commission. Pending decision, 
no such facilities either suitable for transfer 
abroad or readily convertible for civilian use, shall 
be destroyed except in emergency situations. 

2. Promotion of Democratic Forces 

Organizations of labor in industry and agricul- 
ture, organized on a democratic basis, shall be en- 
couraged. Other organizations in industry and 
agriculture, organized on a democratic basis, shall 
be encouraged if they will contribute to furthering 
the democratization of Japan or other objectives 
of the occupation. 

Policies shall be laid down with the object of 
insuring a wide and just distribution of income 
and of the ownership of the means of production 
and trade. 

Encouragement shall be given to those forms of 
economic activity, organization and leadership 
deemed likely to strengthen the democratic forces 
in Japan and to prevent economic activity from 
being used in support of military ends. 

To this end it shall be the policy of the Supreme 
Commander : 

a. To prohibit the retention in important posi- 
tions in the economic field of individuals who 
because of their past associations or for other 
reasons cannot be trusted to direct Japanese 
economic effort solely towards peaceful and demo- 
cratic ends ; and 

h. To require a program for the dissolution of 
the large industrial and banking combinations 
accompanied by their progressive replacement by 
organizations which would widen the basis of 
control and ownership. 

3. Remmption of Peaceful Economic Activity 
The policies of Japan have brought down upon 



Augusf 3, 1947 



219 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

the people great economic destruction and con- 
fronted them with economic difficulty and suffer- 
ing. The plight of Japan is the direct outcome of 
its own behavior, and the Allies will not undertake 
the burden of repairing the damage. It can be 
repaired only if the Japanese people renounce all 
military aims and apply themselves diligently 
and with single pui'pose to the ways of peaceful 
living. It will be necessary for them to undertake 
physical reconstruction and basically to reform 
the nature and direction of their economic activi- 
ties and institutions. In accordance with assur- 
ances contained in the Potsdam Declaration, the 
Allies have no intention of imposing conditions 
which would prevent the accomplislunent of these 
tasks in due time. 

Japan will be expected to provide goods and 
services to meet the needs of the occupying forces 
to the extent that this can, in the judgment of the 
Supreme Commander, be effected without causing 
starvation, wide-spread disease and acute physical 
distress. 

The Japanese authorities will be expected, and 
if necessary directed, to maintain, develop and 
enforce programs, subject to the approval of the 
Supreme Commander, which are designed to serve 
the following purposes : 

a. To avoid acute economic distress. 

b. To assure just and impartial distribution of 
available supplies. 

c. To meet the requirements for reparations 
deliveries. 

d. To make such provision for the needs of the 
Japanese population as may be deemed reasonable 
in accordance with principles formulated by the 
Far Eastern Commission in the light both of 
supplies available and of obligations to other 
peoples of the United Nations and territories 
formerly occupied by Japan. 

4. Reparations and Restitution 

Repakations 
For acts of aggression committed by Japan and 
for the purpose of equitable reparation of the 
damage caused by her to the Allied Powers and in 
the interests of destruction of the Japanese war 
potential in those industries which could lead to 
Japan's rearmament for waging war, reparations 
shall be exacted from Japan through the transfer 

220 



of such existing Japanese capital equipment and 
facilities or such Japanese goods as exist or may 
in future be produced and which under policies set 
forth by the Far Eastern Commission or pursuant 
to the Terms of Reference of the Far Eastern 
Commission should be made available for this pur- 
pose. The reparations shall be in such a form as 
would not endanger the fulfillment of the program 
of demilitarization of Japan and which would not 
prejudice the defraying of the cost of the occupa- 
tion and the maintenance of a minimum civilian 
standard of living. The shares of particular coun- 
tries in the total sum of the reparations from 
Japan shall be determined on a broad political 
basis, taking into due account the scope of mate- 
rial and human destruction and damage suffered 
by each claimant country as a result of the prepa- 
ration and execution of Japanese aggression, and 
taking also into due account each country's con- 
tribution to the cause of the defeat of Japan, in- 
cluding the extent and duration of its resistence 
[sicl to Japanese aggression. 

Restitution 
Full and prompt restitution will be required of 
all identifiable property, looted, delivered under 
duress, or paid for in worthless currency. 

5. Fiscal, Monetary, and Banking Policies 

While the Japanese authorities will remain re- 
sponsible for the management and direction of the 
domestic fiscal, monetary, and credit policies, this 
responsibility is subject to the approval and re- 
view of the Supreme Commander, and wherever 
necessary to his dii'ection. 

6. International Trade ami Financial Relation's 

Eventual Japanese participation in world trade 
relations shall be permitted. During occupation 
and under suitable controls and subject to the 
prior requirements of the peoples of countries 
which have participated in the war against Japan, 
Japan will be permitted to purchase from foreign 
countries raw materials and other goods that it 
may need for peaceful purposes. Japan will also 
be permitted under suitable controls to export 
goods to pay for approved imports. Exports other 
than those directed to be shipped on reparations 
account or as restitution may be made only to those 
recipients who agree to provide necessary imports 
in exchange or agree to pay for such exports in 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



foreign exchange usable in purchasing imports. 
The proceeds of Japanese exports may be used 
after the minimum civilian standard of living has 
been secured to pay for the costs of non-military 
imports necessary for the occupation which have 
already been made since the surrender. 

Control is to be maintained over all imports and 
exports of goods and foreign exchange and finan- 
cial transactions. The Far Eastern Commission 
shall formulate the policies and principles govern- 
ing exports from and imports to Japan. The Far 
Eastern Commission will formulate the policies to 
be followed in the exercise of these controls. 

7. Japanese Property Located Abroad 
The clauses herein on reparations and references 



ACUVniES AND DBVELOPMENTS 

to this subject are without prejudice to the views 
of Governments on the overseas assets issue. 

8. Equality of Opporttmity for Foreign Enter- 
prise within Japan 

All business organizations of any of the United 
Nations shall have equal opportunity in the over- 
seas trade and commerce of Japan. Within Japan 
equal treatment shall be accorded to all nationals 
of the United Nations. 

9. Imperial Household Property 

Imperial Household property shall not be 
exempt from any action necessary to carry out the 
objectives of the occupation. 



STATEMENT BY GENERAL MacARTHUR> 



The policy decision just adopted by the Far 
Eastern Commission dealing with the postsur- 
render treatment of the Japanese problem is one of 
the great state papers of modern history. It estab- 
lishes definitely the type, the extent, and the scope 
of Japan's future and the position the Japanese 
Nation shall occupy in relation to the world at 
large. It not only ratifies the course which thus 
far has been taken but signifies a complete unity of 
future purpose among the 11 nations and peoples 
concerned. It at once sweeps aside fears currently 
felt that the great nations of the world are unable 
to reconcile divergent views on such vital issues in 
the international sphere and demonstrates with 
decisive clarity that from an atmosphere of con- 
flicting interests and opposing predilections may 
emerge common agreement founded upon experi- 
ence and shaped to a realistic appreciation of world 
conditions and the basic requirements of a progres- 
sive civilization. For in this agi-eement have been 
firmly resisted two insidious concepts — poles apart 
but equally sinister — the one which would seek 
harsh and unjust treatment of our fallen foe and 
the other which would seek partially to preserve 
and perpetuate institutions and leadership which 
bear responsibility of war guilt. The first would 
have produced a mendicant country dependent 
upon charity to live, while the second would have 
encouraged the regrowth of antidemocratic forces 

August 3, 1947 

755939 — 47 3 



with the consequent revival of international dis- 
trust and suspicion. It confirms by the considered 
action of the representatives of the Allied Nations 
a sound moderate course based upon a concept era- 
bodying firmness but justice, disarmament but re- 
habilitation, lower standards but the opportunity 
for life — a concept shunning both the extreme right 
and the extreme left and providing for the great 
middle way of the ordinary man. 

The basic and easily the most essential require- 
ment of the policy— disarmament and demilitariza- 
tion—has already been fully accomplished. Even 
were there no external controls, Japan could not 
rearm for modern war within a century. This pri- 
mary objective has led all aims in the occupation 
of Japan. Japanese military forces have been dis- 
armed, demobilized, and absorbed in peaceful pur- 
suits ; Japan's remaining war potential has either 
been destroyed or completely neutralized. The 
political and economic phases of the disarmament 
program have been effected through the dissolu- 
tion of the alliance long existing between govern- 
ment and industry, the breaking up of monopolistic 
combines and practices which have suppressed pri- 
vate enterprise, and the raising of the individual 
to a position of dignity and hope, with provision 

'Made on July 12, 1947, in Tokyo and released to the 
press in Tokyo on the same date. Printed from telegraphic 
text. Douglas MacArthur is Supreme Commander for 
the Allied Powers. 



221 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVELOPMENTS 

made for a new leadership untainted by war re- 
sponsibility and both mentally and spiritually 
equipped to further democratic growth. The 
transition stage of destroying those evil influences 
which misguided Japan's past has been A'irtually 
completed, and the course has been set upon which 
Japan is now embarked toward a peaceful and 
constructive future. We thus see here the trans- 
formation of a state which once proclaimed its 
mastery of war into one which from material im- 
230verisliment and spiritual dedication now seeks 
its destiny as a servant of peace. 

This action, representing the agreement of the 
Allied Nations engaged in the Pacific war, not 
only confirms the postsurrender policies previ- 
ously evolved and largely implemented, but it es- 
tablishes at the same time a form for the restora- 
tion of peace. Resting squarely upon those same 
principles and ideals written at Potsdam, re- 
affirmed on the Missouri, and subsequently trans- 
lated into action in the occupation of Japan, this 
accord provides the entire framework for a treaty 



of peace — a treaty which, if it is to be faithfully 
honored, should constitute within itself a charter 
of human liberty to which the Japanese citizen will 
look for guidance and protection, rather than shun 
with the revulsion of shame ; a treaty which, with- 
out yielding firmness in its essential mandates, 
should avoid punitive, arbitrary, and unrealistic 
provisions and by its terms set the pattern for fu- 
ture peace thi'oughout the world. It should in full 
reality mark the restoration of a peace based upon 
justice, good will, and human advancement. Such 
a treaty may now be approached with the assur- 
ance of complete understanding in principle and 
full unity of purpose in evolving its detail. 

Viewing this international accord in the light 
of the great strides made by the Japanese them- 
selves toward the achievement of those very objec- 
tives which it prescribes, without confusion, 
without disorder, and with steady progress toward 
economic recovery despite the destruction of war 
and defeat, it becomes unmistakably clear that 
here in Japan we shall win the peace. 



222 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Survey of Food Conditions in Poland 



U.S. GOVERNMENT WILL NOT UNDERTAKE RELIEF PROGRAM FOR POLAND 



[Released to the preee July 23] 

In order to obtain a more accurate and up-to- 
date appraisal of the need for relief supplies, 
particularly food, in Poland, a mission headed by 
Col. R. L. Harrison, Special Assistant to the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, recently visited that coun- 
try at the request of Secretary Marshall. Colonel 
Harrison is an outstanding authority on food con- 
ditions and has recently surveyed food conditions 
in a number of areas throughout the world. He 
has just submitted his report, the text of which 
follows. The report concludes that the minunum 
food needs of Poland during the calendar year 
1947 generally can be met without assistance from 



the United States. Colonel Harrison indicates 
that there may be a need for small quantities of 
supplies for special groups. 

It would appear that such special items as 
Colonel Harrison indicated might be needed can 
be supplied through private relief agencies of the 
United States, as well as through other sources, 
including the International Emergency Children's 
Fund, which this country and others are sup- 
porting. 

In view of the above and of the fact that the 
funds available are suiScient to meet only the most 
urgent relief needs, it has been decided not to 
undertake a relief program for Poland. 



REPORT OF COLONEL HARRISON TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 23] 

July 18, 19Jf7. 

The Honorable 

The Secretary of State 

Dear Mr. Secretary : You will be pleased, I am 
sure, to learn that the Mission to Poland to survey 
the food situation there, consisting of Nathan 
Koenig, Gail E. Spain and myself, found the 
Polish food situation much better than in many 
other countries which were visited by two mem- 
bers of the Mission in the last year. Food condi- 
tions were noticeably better than those observed 
in Greece, Italy, Austria, the US-UK Zones of 
Germany, and Japan. 

The general health of the Polish people ap- 
peared to be good, their spirit excellent, and their 
ability to work well above average. There are 
substantial reasons why this is so. Amongst them 
is the progress made in industrial and agricultural 
recovery. 

The industrial section of Silesia presents a 
scene of bustling activity. As a matter of fact, it 

August 3, 1947 



is by far the most active industrial area members 
of the Mission have observed outside the United 
States. Poland is already exporting a consider- 
able tonnage of coal and exports of coal and other 
raw materials together with finished and semi- 
finished industrial products will undoubtedly con- 
tinue to increase. 

Polish food production is on the increase. While 
rainfall in the spring of 1947 was below average 
and some losses were suffered because of winter 
kill, general rains in June greatly improved crop 
prospects and made obsolete earlier estimates of 
the 1947-48 crop production. Particularly note- 
worthy are the developments in fish production. 
1947 fish production is estimated to about equal 
prewar production of 20,000 tons. Fishing settle- 
ments on the Baltic have increased from 23 prewar 
to 94. In the beginning of 1947 there were approx- 
imately 3,500 men engaged in fishing and over 
1,000 boats of various sizes. 

Other food production has been increased to the 
point where some exports have been made. Ex- 

223 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

ports of livestock products and eggs although 
small are significant. Approximately 30,000 tons 
of sugar were exported within the last year. It is 
expected that 60,000 to 80,000 tons of sugar will be 
exported during the next year. In addition, it is 
estimated that as much as a million tons of pota- 
toes will be available for export from the present 
crop. The Poles have made excellent progress 
toward rehabilitating their industry and restoring 
Poland's historic position as a food exporting 
nation. 

Polish officials interviewed were imanimous in 
stating that the food production, collection, dis- 
tribution and rationing systems, which they have 
established, assure that there will be no starvation 
in Poland or acute malnutrition on a widespread 
basis even without food imports. With this gen- 
eral statement all members of the Mission concur. 
The harvest of winter wheat and rye is already in 
progress. Fresh fruit and vegetables are coming 
on the market in increasing quantities as are fish, 
milk, eggs and meat. These crops will have a 
markedly beneficial effect on the Polish food situa- 
tion this summer and fall while grain and potato 
crops are in process of being harvested and dis- 
tributed. 

Polish officials pointed out that imports of food, 
tractors, machinery, etc. received from UNRRA 
and other sources have played an important part 
in the postwar rehabilitation of Polish industry 
and agi-iculture. They stressed very strongly their 
desire for continuing imports of foodstuffs to ac- 
celerate this rehabilitation. They also stressed 
their need for fertilizers, particularly phosphate 
rock; seed, particularly rye; draft animals; trac- 
tors, and agricultural machinery. They empha- 
sized the need for fats and oils, dairy products, 
and other supplementary foodstuffs to make pos- 
sible a better balanced diet for the growing popu- 
lation, industrial workers, the sick, and the aged. 
Emphasis was also placed on the need for medi- 
cal supplies. The Mission recognizes the benefi- 
cial effect that meeting these needs even in part 
would play in further Polish recovery. 

The Mission received voluminous statistics and 
other factual information from the Polish Govern- 

224 



ment which we have analyzed carefully. On the 
basis of this and the information obtained from " 
on-the-spot observations it was clear that sufficient 
food is available to take care of the minimum 
basic needs of the Polish people during the re- 
mainder of this calendar year. Until the final out- 
turn of the 1947 crop is known this fall, the needs 
for imports next spring cannot be detennined. 

The IMission had an opportunity to inspect at ' 
first hand, both by plane and by car, representa- 
tive parts of the agricultural areas. In general the 
production of foodstuffs appeared to be proceed- 
ing in a satisfactory manner. 

The Mission concludes on the basis of its own 
observations and the information provided by the | 
Polish and other authorities that : 

(a) Grain and other foods are available to meet 1 
the minimum food needs of the Polish people gen- 
erally for the balance of this calendar year. 

(&) Imports of medical supplies and supple- 
mentary foodstuffs for relief of special groups 
such as children, orphans, sick, and aged appear 
justified. 

(c) Some imports of grain seeds, especially rye, ' 
and fertilizer would be helpful in promoting fur- I 
ther recovery of Polish food production and in- 
dustry. 

Respectfully yours, 

R. L. Harrison, Colonel, GSC 
Special Assistant to the Secretary 



Arming the United Nations 

A supplement to The Department of State Bul- 
letin entitled "Arming the United Nations", pub- 
lication number 2892, dated August 3, 1947, will 
appear on August 8. The supplement will include 
the Report by the Military Staff Committee to the 
Security Council on the general principles govern- 
ing the organization of armed forces (issued as 
United Nations document S/336 of the April 30, 1947) 
and introductory remarks by Donald C. Blaisdell on 
the special agreements under article 43 of the 
Charter. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Joint U.S.-Soviet Oil Commission in Rumania Dissolved 



OIL EQUIPMENT REMOVAL 

[Released to the press July 21] 

The Department of State announced on July 21 
that the American Embassy in Moscow has pre- 
sented a protest to the Soviet Foreign Office con- 
cerning the failure of the joint United States- 
Soviet Oil Commission in Rumania to reach a set- 
tlement on the removal by Soviet military forces, 
in the early days of their occupation of Rumania, 
of approximately 7,000 tons of oil equipment from 
Romano-Americana, the Rumanian subsidiary of 
the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. The 
decision to conclude American participation in the 
joint Commission was made on June 12, 1947, after 
it became obvious that there was no hope of secur- 
ing any cooperation from the Soviet members in 
carrying out the Commission's responsibilities. 
Tlie protest presented to the Soviet Government 
embodied a factual summary of the origin and 
operations of the Commission along the lines in- 
dicated below, together with a request for a state- 
ment of the Soviet Government's views and 
intentions with respect to the matter : 

The question of removal of Allied property in 
Rumania by Soviet military forces during their 
early days of occupation of that country was dis- 
cussed at Potsdam and an agreement was reached 
at Potsdam by the Governments of the United 
States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics that a joint U.S.-Soviet oil commission should 
be established in Rumania to investigate the facts 
and examine the documents as a basis for the set- 
tlement of claims arising from the removal of oil 
equipment in Rumania. The oil equipment in- 
volved amounted to approximately 7,000 tons 
taken from the properties of Romano-Americana, 
the Rumanian subsidiary of the Standard Oil 
Company of New Jersey, in the latter months of 
1944. At the time of removal the 7,000 tons of 
equipment was valued by the company at approxi- 
mately $1,000,000. 

Early in the Commission's operations, which be- 
gan on August 20, 1945, the Soviet members of the 
Commission took the position that the burden of 
proof of Soviet removal and of American owner- 

Augusf 3, 1947 



CLAIMS REMAIN UNSETTLED 

ship of the equipment removed rested solely upon 
the American members of the Commission. This 
Soviet view was rejected by the American mem- 
bers who maintained that achievement of the Com- 
mission's objective was a joint responsibility. At 
the first meeting of the Commission the American 
members proposed to submit documents as soon 
as possible on the quantity and ownership of the 
equipment removed and requested the Soviet mem- 
bers to prepare and submit similar information, 
which the latter promised to do. 

At the second meeting of the Commission on 
August 29, 1945, the American members presented 
documents evidencing American ownership of 
Romano-Americana and showing the quantity of 
equipment removed ; they requested that the Soviet 
members examine these documents and compare 
them with corresponding data which at the first 
meeting of the Commission they had promised to 
prepare. 

At the third meeting of the Commission on 
September 6, 1945, the American members (1) 
requested the views of the Soviet members on 
the data submitted by the American members 
at the previous meeting and (2) asked whether the 
Soviet members were prepared to present their 
data. The Soviet members announced the posi- 
tion that a determination on the equipment taken 
could not be made pending establishment of the 
ownership of all of the equipment in the posses- 
sion of, acquired, and used by Romano-Americana 
between January 1, 1942, and October 1, 1944. 
The Soviet members then presented the American 
members with a request for this comprehensive 
data, including the quantity and ownership of 
materials and equipment on hand on Romano- 
Americana properties as of January 1, 1942; 
quantity, sources, shipping routes, methods of pay- 
ment, and value of material and equipment ac- 
quired by Romano-Americana between January 1, 
1942, and October 1, 1944 ; and the quantity and 
value of materials used during this period. The 
American members stated they would consider the 
Soviet request but would consult their Govern- 

225 



THE RECORD Of THB W£BK 

ment, since they considered that the provision 
of such information did not come within the terms 
of reference of the Commission and was irrelevant 
to the accomplishment of the Commission's objec- 
tive. The American members restated that the 
Commission's purpose was to determine quantity 
and ownership of the equipment "removed" and 
unsuccessfully repeated their previous request for 
(1) the reaction of the Soviet members to the 
United States data presented at the second meet- 
ing and (2) the corresponding Soviet data on the 
equipment removed. 

At the fourth meeting of the Commission on 
October 30, 1945, the American members, on 
instructions from their Government, presented a 
note stating that the information requested by the 
Soviet members at the third meeting was not 
pertinent to the Commission's functions, which 
were to reach agreement on (a) the identity, quan- 
tity, and value of the materials removed, (b) the 
ownership of the materials removed, and (c) 
arrangements for the restoration of or compensa- 
tion for the materials removed. The note also 
presented additional information concerning the 
materials removed and stated that the United 
States side had now submitted the documents 
required to reach a determination on points (a) 
and (b), which would provide the basis for reach- 
ing agreement on point (c), whereas the Soviet 
members had failed to produce any documents or 
data on equipment removals. The Soviet side 
again refused to reply to the request for Soviet 
data on the materials removed, contending that 
the burden of proof of materials removed and 
American ownership thereof rested upon the 
United States side and that the latter must furnish 
the comprehensive data requested at the third 
meeting before any conclusions could be reached. 
The United States side again stated that the latter 
information was irrelevant and would not be pro- 
vided and that carrying out the Commission's 
functions was a joint responsibility. The Soviet 
side stated that they considered the United States 
position as a counterproposal which required study 
and consultation with their Government. 

The Commission met again January 22 and 
February 15, 1946, without making any progress 
despite repeated efforts of the United States side 
to obtain from the Soviet side either (1) evidence 
disproving the quantity and American ownershij) 
of materials removed or (2) definitions distin- 



guishing between American- and German-owned 

materials. 

At the seventh meeting of the Commission on 
April 8, 1946, the Soviet members reported they 
had examined the documents previously submitted 
by the United States side and that even with the 
additional data just presented the information was 
incomplete. In view of this attitude of the Soviet 
members, the American Government was forced 
to conclude that further efforts of the Commis- 
sion would be fruitless. Accordingly, on April 30, 
1946, the American members of the Commission 
were instructed by their Government to prepare a 
factual report of the Commission's operations and 
present it to the Commission with a statement that 
unless the Soviet members could at an early date 
either (1) reach an agreement on the basis of 
the documents presented by the United States 
side or (2) present factual evidence disproving the 
findings of the United States side, the United 
States side would consider its report as final and as 
terminating the Commission. 

The United States side prepared a report on 
the Commission's operations in accordance with 
the instructions of their Government, but in a 1 
further effort to bring about a successful con- 
clusion of the Commission's terms of reference also 
prepared extensive data as requested by the Soviet 
members at the third meeting. This report and 
the additional data were presented at the eighth 
meeting of the Commission on October 8, 1946. 
Despite the fact that the Soviet side at the eighth 
meeting had agreed to communicate the results of 
their study of this report and additional data 
promptly to the American members, nothing was 
heard from the Soviet side until the beginning of 
June 1947. Accordingly, the American members 
were instructed on May 27, 1947, to terminate the 
Commission unless the Soviet members would 
agree to collaborate in reaching an agreement 
within a specified time period. 

At the ninth meeting, held on June 12, 1947, the 
Soviet membei-s presented a letter conmienting on 
the report and other data presented by the United 
States side at the eighth meeting but stated that 
their letter was based solely on the American data. 
The United States side could not obtain an agree- 
ment from the Soviet side to deliver a Soviet state- 
ment of facts without further delay, the Soviet 
side replying that the task of the Commission was 



226 



Department of State Bulletin 



to ascertain whether the equipment removed was 
German or American property and that until the 
United States side should prove that all the equip- 
ment held or received by Romano-Americana 
Company during the period 1942 to 1944 was 
American property, the Soviet side would not pro- 
duce any data of their own concerning the equip- 
ment taken by Soviet forces. Reiteration by the 
Soviet members of their initial position disre- 
garded the efforts made by the American members 
during the 23 months of the Commission's exist- 



THB RECORD OF THE WEOi 

ence to secure Soviet recognition of either (1) the 
adequacy of the exhaustive ownership data sup- 
plied by the American members or (2) the obliga- 
tion to submit Soviet data disproving American 
ownership of the equipment removed. Feeling 
that the continued existence of the Commission 
would serve no useful purpose, the American mem- 
bers, in accordance with the instnictions of their 
Government, announced that they would consider 
the Conunission terminated as of that date, June 
12, 1947. 



Inter-American "Servicio" Pattern To Be Adapted to Greek Program 



[Released to the press by the IIAA July 22] 

The American Mission for Aid to Greece will 
have available first-hand knowledge of methods 
whereby the American republics have attacked 
basic economic problems successfully under a co- 
operative service system. 

Access by Greek program builders to this inti- 
mate experience with the successful Inter- Ameri- 
can "servicio" pattern has been assured by the 
transfer of Kenneth R. Iverson, counselor of the 
Institute of Inter- American Affairs and the Inter- 
American Educational Foundation, Inc., to serve 
as a counselor in the Greek mission. Mr. Iverson 
left for Greece July 17. 

Announcing the departure of his former legal 
adviser, Col. Arthur R. Harris, president of the 
Institute of Inter- American Affairs and the Edu- 
cational Foundation, said Mr. Iverson had been 
recruited by Chief Dwight Griswold and Covm- 
selor John B. Howard of the Greek aid mission 
because of his five years of legal background in the 
evolution of the inter-American "servicio" system. 
Mr. Iverson served with the Institute during the 
whole period of development of the cooperative 
service structure in basic economy, a structure set 
up by Maj. Gen. George C. Dunham to confront 
basic economic problems of the American re- 
publics, both from wartime emergency and long- 
range peacetime points of view. 

Colonel Harris offered no opinion as to how the 
inter- American "servicio" pattern m i g h t be 
adapted to the Greek situation. In the American 
Continent, however, it has worked out so that the 
principle of diminishing United States financial 

August 3, 7947 



commitments, as the cooperating nations absorb 
most of the financial burden, is firmly established. 
Colonel Harris explained that several of the 
American republics now cooperating with the 
United States are committing program funds at 
ratios running as high as eleven dollars to one dol- 
lar allocated by the United States. Under agree- 
ments for 1947, for example, a cooperative health 
and sanitation program in Colombia is being car- 
ried out at a cost of $933,000 for Colombia to 
$134,700 for the United States. In Paraguay the 
ratio is roughly $650,000 to $156,000; in Peru 
$889,700 to $79,000. The Peruvian agreement, ex- 
tended until June 1948, involves Peruvian pro- 
gram funds of $550,000 as against $50,000 for the 
United States. 

The Institute of Inter- American Affairs and the 
Inter-American Educational Foundation operate 
under the authority and responsibility of the 
Department of State in the fields of health and 
sanitation, food supply, elementary and secondary, 
rural, and vocational education. There are 31 
"action programs" in 17 of the other American 
republics. Institute records indicate that up- 
wards of 25,000,000 ijeople in Latin America have 
received benefits from the programs. Each of the 
participating governments has requested contin- 
uance of the programs. 

Awareness of the part the cooperative programs 
play in upwai-d scaling of living standards 
throughout the Hemisphere is demonstrated by 
willingness to assume increasing proportions of 
program costs, Colonel Harris pointed out. 

With the concrete results of cooperative effort 

227 



THB RECORD Of THE WEEK 

to stimulate better productive power through 
better public health and environmental sanitation, 
better nutrition, and the spreading out of more 
productive education, the other participating 
American governments have asked the Depart- 
ment of State to continue to maintain field parties 
of technicians in their countries until the gains 
already made may be consolidated through the 
continued development of national technical 
personnel. 

After an exhaustive study of the cooperative 
"servicio" programs, the Department of State 
asked for legislation to extend the charter of the 
Institute and the Educational Foundation to work 
as a single cooperative organization for another 
five years. The yearly budget visualized for peace- 
time operations is about $5,000,000. Legislation 
for the new charter has been favorably reported 
by the House Foreign Affairs Committee and 
awaits action by the House itself. 

Fighting in Nortliwestern Greece 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 23] 

Reports from American sources in Greece 
indicate that the large-scale fighting which began 
last week in the Konitsa and Yannina areas has 
subsided. A complete inquiry into these incidents 
is being conducted by the U.N. subsidiary group. 
Lt. Col. A. B. Miller, assistant military attache in 
Athens and United States Representative on the 
group, was a member of the U.N. team that made 
a preliminary investigation in this area last week. 
This team's report has been made available to the 
press by the U.N. headquarters at Lake Success. 
The report states that testimony from Greek wit- 
nesses indicates that large numbers of men crossed 
the border from Albania into Greece on July 11 
and 12. The members of the team reported that 
they heard little first-hand evidence in relation to 
the charge that detachments of an "international 
brigade" coming from Albania invaded Greece. 

International Brigade 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 23] 

The Department of State has no recent infor- 
mation on this subject beyond that contained in 
the preliminary report of the U.N. team that 

228 



investigated the situation in Konitsa and Yannina 
areas. The Department cannot confirm or deny 
the existence of such a brigade or its participation 
in fighting in Greece. 

U.K. Proposes To Modify Quantitative Import 
Controls 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 23) 

The Government of the United Kingdom has ex- 
pressed its willingness to modify existing quanti- 
tative import controls in the dependencies so that 
there will be no discrimination against imports 
from the United States except with respect to 
goods from other dependencies and from the 
United Kingdom. The basis for such an excep- 
tion is the fact that the United Kingdom and the 
dependencies share a common quota in the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, and the United King- 
dom is responsible for maintaining the parities 
of the colonial currencies. 

Specifically, this means that while either the 
United Kingdom or any of the dependencies in- 
cluded within the British Fund quota would be 
permitted to discriminate in favor of each other, 
they could not discriminate against the United 
States in favor of any country or area having a 
separate quota in the Fund, for example, Australia 
or Canada or Brazil. As you know, the United 
Kingdom is presently experiencing balance-of- 
payments pressure on its dollar resources. In so 
far as it can maintain its purchases within the area 
for which it has the sort of monetary responsibil- 
ity recognized in the establishment of a common 
quota in the Fund, it is relieved of that pressure. 
This is the basis for the proposed exception to 
which I have referred. The exception would, I 
may add, be temporary only. 

In approaching the consideration of this pro- 
posal by the Government of the United Kingdom, 
the question has arisen whether the exception 
would be inconsistent with section 9 of the Anglo- 
American financial agreement. We are of the 
opinion that it is not, and the National Advisory 
Council has concurred. In these circumstances we 
are currently proceeding to study the British pro- 
posals in cooperation with other departments. In 
this connection it will be necessary to examine 
carefully the rights assured the United States 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



under mandate conventions, the trusteeship agree- 
ments, and other international acts. 

Areas affected are the following: Aden, Ba- 
hamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Guiana, Brit- 
ish Honduras, Cyprus, Falkland Islands, Fiji, 
Gambia, Gibraltar, Gold Coast, Hong Kong, Ja- 
maica, Kenya, Leeward Islands, Malaya, Malta, 
Mauritius, Nigeria, North Borneo, Northern Kho- 
desia, Nyasaland, Palestine, St. Helena (with As- 
cension and Tristan da Cunha), Sarawak, Sey- 
chelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somaliland Pro- 
tectorate, Tanganyika Territory, Trinidad, 
Uganda, Western Pacific, Windward Islands, 
Zanzibar. 

Nomination of Rudolph E. Schoenfeld as 
Minister to Rumania 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 23] 

With the termination of a state of war between 
Kumania and the United States imminent, the 
U.S. Government considers it desirable to 
accredit a diplomatic representative to Kumania 
to supersede the U.S. Political Representative who 
has been stationed in Rumania during the armis- 
tice regime. Mr. Burton Y. Berry served as U.S. 
Political Representative to Rumania from Decem- 
ber 1944 until his return to this country last 
month. In his absence Mr. Roy M. Melbourne 
has been Acting U.S. Political Representative in 
Rumania. 

The appointment of Mr. Rudolph E. Schoenfeld 
as U.S. Minister to Rumania is predicated on the 
intention of the United States to maintain its 
interest in the welfare of the Rumanian people, 
to keep itself informed of developments in Ruma- 
nia, and to continue its effoi'ts on behalf of 
American interests there. It does not imply that 
the U.S. Government condones the actions of the 
Rumanian Government in denying the Rumanian 
people fundamental freedoms, regarding which 
the U.S. position has been set forth on various 
occasions. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEJf 

Foreign Relief Aid Staff Arrives 
at Field Posts 

The Department of State announced on July 18 
that Richard F. Allen, Field Administrator of the 
United States Foreign Relief Program, has arrived 
at his headquarters in Rome. 

Members of the several country missions on for- 
eign relief who have been selected and have as- 
sumed their duties are as follows : 

Richard W. Bonnevalle, acting adviser on relief 
for Italy, left on July 15 for Rome. He was ac- 
companied by Francis Abbott Ingalls and D. 
Robert Ricciardi, assistant adviser and field ob- 
server, respectively, for Italy. Durand Smith, an- 
other field observer for Italy, is expected to leave 
July 20. 

William H. G. Giblin, adviser on relief for 
Austria, has arrived in Vienna, where he will be 
joined within the next week by Claudius B. Web- 
ster, Mark D. Sanborn, and Frank S. Curtis, field 
observers. Herbert P. Lansdale, Jr., adviser on 
relief for Greece, has arrived at Athens. George 
deF. White, assistant adviser, and George H. Gard- 
ner, field observer, are already in Athens. Archie 
W. Johnston, field observer, left for Greece on 
July 15. 

Stanley L. Sommer, adviser on relief for Trieste, 
left for his station there on July 13. 

Public Law 84, approved May 31, 1947, au- 
thorizes field missions as follows : 

There shall be established and maintained, out of the 
funds authorized under this joint resolution, a relief dis- 
tribution mission for each of the countries receiving aid 
under this joint resolution. Such missions shall be com- 
prised solely of American citizens who sliall have been 
investigated as to loyalty and security by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. Such missions shall have direct 
supervision and control, in each country, of relief supplies 
furnished or otherwise made available under this joint 
resolution, and, when it is deemed desirable by the field 
administrator provided for in section 4, such missions 
shall be empowered to retain possession of such supplies 
up to the city or local community where such supplies are 
actually made available to the ultiniate consumers. 



August 3, 1947 



229 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

U.S. Regrets Breakdown of Peaceful 
Negotiations in Indonesia 

(Released to the press July 21] 

The United States Government was informed on 
July 20 of the decision of the Netherlands Govern- 
ment to resort to military action in Indonesia be- 
ginning on July 21. The Netherlands Govern- 
ment stated that this is a police measure of a 
strictly limited character, tliat it has no designs 
on the integrity of the Republic of Indonesia, and 
that as soon as Netherlands authority is reestab- 
lished it is prepared to put into force the Ling- 
gadjati agreement of March 25 which provides for 
establishment by January 1, 1949, of a United 
States of Indonesia as an equal partner with the 
Netherlands in a Netherlands-Indonesian Union. 
The United States of Indonesia would comprise the 
Republic of Indonesia and the states of East Indo- 
nesia and Borneo. 

The hope for a peaceful settlement of Dutch- 
Indonesian differences which the United States 
Government had publicly expressed as early as De- 
cember 19, 1945, seemed to have been realized in 
the signing of the Linggadjati agreement. Un- 
fortunately, serious differences as to the implemen- 
tation of that agreement arose during the subse- 
quent negotiations. "When it appeared that re- 
course might be had to military action to resolve 
these differences, the United States Government 
again urged on both sides a peaceful settlement. 

On May 27 the Dutch proposed a specific pro- 
gram for implementing the Linggadjati agree- 
ment. The United States considered that these 
proposals furnished a reasonable basis for negotia- 
tion and urged both sides to make every effort to 
reach a settlement in a spirit of good faith and 
compromise. The United States subsequently sent 
an aide-memoire to the Indonesians urging their 
prompt cooperation for establishment of an in- 
terim central government and informed both the 
Indonesians and the Dutch of our willingness to 
discuss economic aid for the rehabilitation of In- 
donesia as soon as an interim government had been 
established. 

Both the Dutch and the Indonesians expressed 
their appreciation of this action, and the Indo- 
nesians announced their acceptance of all points 
in the May 27 proposals except that relating to 
police procedure. When, however, on July 17 it 
seemed that discussion on this point had reached 

230 



an impasse, the United States Government once 
more expressed its concern to the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment, and on July 20, when our Embassy at The 
Hague was informed of the Dutch decision to use 
force, our Ambassador was authorized to restate to 
the Netherlands Goverimient our position. 

The United States Government profoundly re- 
grets that negotiation has been discarded as the 
means of achieving the voluntary association be- 
tween the Netherlands and Indonesian peoples con- 
templated by the Linggadjati agreement. 



Procedure for Filing War Claims in 
Singapore and Malaya 

[Released to the press July 25] 

The Department of State has been informed 
that the Malayan War Damage Claims Commis- 
sion has fixed July 31, 1947, as the closing date for 
the registration of claims for war damage to 
property in Singapore and Malaya. The Com- 
mission is authorized to register claims of Ameri- 
can nationals. Although the Department has 
requested that the time limit be extended in view 
of the lack of prior notice to American nationals 
in the United States, no assurance has been given 
that the request will be granted. 

Claims should be addressed, for registration, to 
the Secretary, War Damage Claims Commission, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Union. Forms may also 
be obtained at the same address. Provision has 
not yet been made for the payment of compensa- 
tion to claimants. 



Surplus Property Made Available to China 

[Released to the press July 22] 

The China and Eastern Asia Office of the For- 
eign Liquidation Commissioner has announced 
that, contrary to pi-evious reports, as of May 31, 
1947, about U. S. $170,000,000 (procurement cost) 
of movable surplus United States property had 
been made available to China. These turnovers 
were made under the terms of the bulk-sale agree- 
ment of August 30, 1946. The current figure 
represents the first part of the $500,000,000 of 
property (procurement cost) provided for by the 
agreement. Previous to the signing of the agree- 
ment, the United States Government had turned 

Depor/menf of State Bulletin 



(jver to China a total of approximately $324,000,- 
000 of property at cost, in addition to the $500,- 

• 000,000 of movable goods. 

■ Movable property on which notices of avail- 
ability have been sent to China includes many 
types of equipment, including trucks, road and 
construction equipment, clotliing, food, and medi- 

j cal supplies, but specifically excluding aircraft, 

; combat materiel, ships, and other maritime equip- 
ment. The property is located in China itself and 
on 17 islands of the Pacific including Guam and 
Okinawa. 

At the end of May the Board of Supplies of the 
Executive Yuan had taken possession of $59,700,- 
000 (procurement cost) of movable property. 
The rate of acceptance by China necessarily lags 
behind notification by the Office of the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner, because of transporta- 
tion problems and an-angements. 

The procedures have been set up and large 
amounts of movable property have already been 
transferred to China. The transfer rate is now 
accelerated and under these procedures it is to be 
expected that the transfer operation will be com- 
pleted within the 22 months allowed by the basic 
contract. 

Educational and Vocational Training 
Institute for Korea 

[Released to the press July 25] 

As a step in the American program to accelerate 
the rehabilitation of South Korea, an institute 
staffed by outstanding American educational and 
vocational training specialists is scheduled to be 
set up in the near future in Seoul, Korea, to pro- 
vide intensive, short-term courses of training for 
Korean specialists in general educational, admin- 
istrative, and vocational-technical fields, it was 
announced on July 25 by the State and War 
Departments. 

The idea of the institute has been advocated by 
Korean educational authorities themselves, and 
the formulation of plans to facilitate its establish- 
ment follows a recommendation made by the re- 
cently returned Educational and Informational 
Survey Mission to Korea, appointed jointly by the 
State and War Departments to survey present pro- 
grams for education and public information be- 
ing carried out by the U.S. Military Government 
in Korea. 

August 3, 1947 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEff 

The Educational and Informational Survey 
Mission was composed of the following members : 

C. O. Arndt, Professor of Education, New York University 

A. J. Brumbaugh, Vice-President, American Council on 
Education 

James R. D. Eddy, Director, Bureau of Industrial and 
Business Training, Division of Extension, University 
of Texas 

J. Franljlin Ray, Jr., former Director of UNRRA for the 
Far East 

Capt. Douglas N. Batson, Reorientation Branch, Civil Af- 
fairs Division, War Department Special Staff 

While in Korea, the Mission conferred with Lt. 
Gen. John R. Hodge, Commanding General, 
United States Armed Forces in Korea; Maj. Gen. 
Archer L. Lerch, United States Military Governor 
in Korea; other American and Korean officials; 
and groups and individuals responsible for the 
various aspects of education and public informa- 
tion at national, regional, and local levels. Also, 
members of the Mission visited, in Seoul and in 
villages and towns of several provinces of South 
Korea, educational institutions, industrial estab- 
lishments, and other facilities concerned with edu- 
cation and public information. 

Other findings and recommendations of the 
Mission are being studied by the State and War 
Departments in connection with the formulation 
of plans to carry out the announced American pol- 
icy of aiding Korea in establishing itself as an in- 
dependent, democratic nation. 

Letters of Credence 

Liberia 

The newly appointed Minister of Liberia, 
Charles Dunbar Burgess King, presented his 
credentials to the President on July 25. For texts 
of the Minister's remarks and the President's 
reply, see Department of State press release 608 
of July 25. 

VenesueJa 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Venezuela, 
Gonzalo Carnevali, on July 22, 1947, presented his 
credentials to the President. For texts of the 
translation of the Ambassador's remarks and for 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 598 of July 22. 

231 



THE DEPARTIVIENT 



Benjamin V. Cohen Resigns as Counselor 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MR. COHEN 



[Released to the press July 21] f^y.^ qj Presidenfs Utter to Mr. Cohen 



Text of Mr. Cohen''s letter to the President 

June U, WW- 

My Dear Mr. President : I submit herewith my 
resignation as Counselor of the Department of 
State to become effective at your earliest 
convenience. 

You appointed me Counselor shortly after Mr. 
Byrnes became Secretary of State. When Mr. 
Byrnes resigned, I submitted my resignation, but 
at Secretary Marshall's request I agreed to stay on 
until after the Moscow Conference. It is now my 
wish, after fourteen years of almost continuous 
Government service to take a rest free from all 
official responsibility. 

I want to thank you for the opportunity that 
you have given me to serve with you and Secretary 
Byrnes and Secretary Marshall in this important 
period of transition from war to peace. It has 
been an experience that I shall always cherish. I 
hope that you and Secretary Marshall will feel 
free to call upon me as a private citizen at any 
time you think I can be of help. 

With deepest appreciation and respect, 
Sincerely yours, 

Benjamin V. Cohen 



AiJy £1, 1947. 

Dear Mr. Cohen: I have received your letter 
of June twenty-fourth, offering your resigiiation 
as Counselor of the Department of State. 

After consultation with Secretary Marshall I 
have reluctantly decided that I must agree to ac- 
cept your resignation, to be effective on July thirty- 
first. I am glad to note that I shall be able to 
call upon you again should I have need of your 
services. 

I know how highly Secretaries Byrnes and 
Marshall have valued your assistance to them. I 
wish to add my own personal appreciation of your 
services to the Department of State and to your 
Government during these difficult years. 

I wish you every success for the future. 
Very sincerely yours, 




Appointment of Officers 

A. Cyril Crilley as Chief, Division of Foreign Reporting 
Services, OflBce of the Foreign Service, effective June 1, 
1947. 

William Wendell Cleland as Chief, Division of Research 
for Near East and Africa, Office of Intelligence Research, 
effective July 1. 1947. 

H. H. Kelly as Assistant Director of the OfBce of 
Transport and Communication. 

232 



Confirmations 

The Senate on July 23, 1947, confirmed the nomination 
of Charles E. Bohlen to be counselor of the Department 
of State. 

The Senate on July 19, 1947, confirmed the nomination 
of Ernest A. Gross to be legal adviser of the Department 
of State. Mr. Gross succeeds Charles Fahy. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Sixth Meeting of International Cotton 
Advisory Committee — Continued from page 208 

Wlieeler as chairman of the Executive Committee 
for the coming year. 

Finally, the Committee resolved that the next 
plenary meeting should take place in Cairo in 
April 1948. 

In addition to reviewing and adopting organiza- 
tional recommendations which had been made by 
tlie Executive Committee, the International Cot- 
ton Advisory Committee reviewed and adopted 
the report, The Current 'World Cotton Situation, 
which had been written by the Executive Commit- 
tee and which is briefly summarized as follows : 

World cotton consumption for the present sea- 
son will probably be about 27.5 million bales, 
which is close to 95 percent of the 29-million-bales 
average for the period 1934-35 to 1938-39. 

Production, after continuing high throughout 
the war, is sharply down for the second successive 
year. In the present season, the world crop is ex- 
pected to be less than 21.5 million bales, or not 
quite 70 percent of the prewar average of about 31 
million bales. 

Because of imbalance of production and con- 
sumption, stocks have declined sharply. World 
stocks were 28 million bales on August 1, 1945. 
Last season stocks declined by 4.5 million bales 
and this year will decline another 6 million bales. 

International trade in raw cotton may be some- 
what less in 1946-47 than in 1945-46. Several im- 
porting countries have drawn heavily on the stocks 
with which they entered the present season, but 
since these countries will have smaller stocks at the 
beginning of 1947-48 their imports in that season 
should be not much less than their consumption. 

Keflecting the unequal rates of production and 
consumption, prices are about three times the aver- 
age in the five years preceding the war. 

Interest is concentrated on cotton-production 
trends, but the main market factor is the rate of 
cotton-textile production. The world pattern of 
raw-cotton consumption was markedly altered 
during the war, and as between countries the situa- 
tion is very uneven. 

August 3, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Appointment of Deputy for Foreign Affairs 
at National War College 

[Released to the press July 21] 

The Department of State announced on July 

21 that Maynard B. Barnes, Foreign Service offi- 
cer of the class of career minister, has been desig- 
nated to serve as Deputy for Foreign Affairs at 
the National War College. Mr. Barnes has re- 
cently returned from Sofia, where he has served 
as Chief of the United States Mission. 

As Deputy for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Barnes 
succeeds George F. Kennan, Foreign Service offi- 
cer of the class of career minister, who is now 
serving as Chief of the Policy Planning Staff in 
the Department of State. 

Leiand Harrison Recalled From Switzerland 
To Serve in Washington 

The Department of State announced on July 

22 that Leiand Harrison, who has been American 
Minister to Switzerland for the past 10 years, has 
been requested by the President to relinquish that 
post and to return to Washington. It is the desire 
of the President and of the Department of State 
that the knowledge, background, and long experi- 
ence in world affairs which Mr. Harrison pos- 
sesses be available to the Goverimient in meeting 
the many problems which arise daily, particularly 
with regard to European affairs. 

Confirmations 

The Senate on July 23, 1947, confii-mecl the nomination 
of John Carter Vincent to be Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America 
to Switzerland. 

The Senate on July 19, 1947, confirmed the nomination of 
H. Freeman Matthews to be Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America 
to Sweden. 

THE CONGRESS 

Federal Reincorporation of Export-Import Bank: 
Hearings before the Committee on Banking and Currency, 
House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on S. 
993, a bill to provide for the "Reincorporation of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank of Washington, and for other purposes" ; 
may 8 and 12, 1947. iii, 65 pp. 

233 



THE CONGRESS 

Agreement Between the United States and the United 
Nations Concerning Control and Administration of United 
Nations Headquarters in New York City: Message from 
the President of the United States transmitting au agree- 
ment between the United States and the United Nations 
concerning the control and administration of the head- 
quarters of the United Nations in the City of New York ; 
and a copy of a letter from the Secretary of State re- 
garding this agreement. H. Doe. 376, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 
14 pp. 

Sugar Act of 1948. H. Kept. 796, Part 2, Supplemental 
Report, To accompany H.R. 4075, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 

2 pp. 

Legislation To Enable Displaced Persons To Enter the 
United States as Immigrants: Message from the Presi- 
dent of the United States transmitting his recommenda- 
tion that Congress enact legislation to enable displaced 
persons to enter the United States as immigrants. H. Doc. 
382, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 3 pp. 

Continuing Support for Wool. H. Rept. 920, 80th Cong., 
1st sess.. To accompany S. 1498. 8 pp. 

Authorizing the President To Accept on Behalf of the 
Government of the United States the Convention on the 
Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. S. Rept. 
509, 80th Cong., 1st sess., To accompany S. J. Res. 144 
and S. J. Res. 136. 8 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Amending the Nationality Act of 1040, as Amended. 
S. Rept. 489, 80th Cong., 1st sess., To accompany H.R. 84. 

3 pp. [Favorable report] 

International Organizations Procurement Act of 1947. 
H. Rept. 952, 80th Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H.R. 
4010. 5 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Providing for the Reincorporation of the Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs. H. Rept. 955, 80th Cong., 1st 
sess.. To accompany H.R. 4168. 15 pp. [Favorable re- 
port.] 

Authorizing the President To Bring Into Effect an 
Agreement Between the United States and the United Na- 
tions for the Purpose of Establishing the Permanent Head- 
quarters of the United Nations in the United States and 
Authorizing the Taking of Measures Necessary To Facili- 
tate Compliance With the Provisions of Such Agreement. 
S. Rept. 522, 80th Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany S. J. Res. 
144. 10 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Protocol Relating to an Amendment to the Conven- 
tion on International Civil Aviation : Message from the 
President of the United States transmitting a protocol 
dated at Montreal May 27, 1917, relating to an amend- 
ment to the convention on international civil aviation. S. 
Exec. GG, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 5 pp. 

Convention and Protocols Dealing With the Regulation 
of Whaling. S. Exec. Rept. 6, 80th Cong., 1st sess.. To 
accompany Executives L, K, and P, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 
3 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Convention With the Union of South Africa With Re- 
spect to Taxes on the Estates of Deceased Persons: Mes- 
sage from the President of the United States transmitting 
the convention between the United States of America anil 
the Union of South Africa, signed at Capetown on April 
10, 1947, in the English and Afrikaans languages, for the 



avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal 
evasion with respect to taxes on the estates of deceased 
persons. S. Exoc. FF, SOth Cong., 1st sess. 12 pp. 

Anglo-American Oil Agreement. S. Exec. Rept. 8. 80th 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany Executive H, 79th Cong., 
1st sess. 15 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Authorizing the Committee on Foreign Affairs To Con- 
duct Studies and Investigations of All Matters Coming 
Within the Jurisdiction of That Committee and Providing 
for Participation Ijy Members of Other Standing Commit- 
tees of the House of Representative.?. H. Rept. 999, SOth 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H. Res. 295. 1 p. 

Authorizing Any Agency of the United States Govern- 
ment To Furnish or To Procure and Furnish Materials, 
Supplies, and Equipment to Pul)lic International Organi- 
zations. S. Rept. 611, SOth Cong., 1st sess., To accompany 
S. 1574. 3 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Providing for Membership and Participation by the 
United States in the Caribbean Commission and Authoriz- 
ing an Appropriation Tlierefor. H. Rept. 956, SOth Cong., 
1st sess., To accompany H. J. Res. 231. 6 pp. [Favor- 
able report.] 

Providing for Membership and Participation by the 
United States in the World Health Organization. H. Rept. 
979, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H. J. Res. 161. 
10 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Prisoners of War and Internees Removed From a Pos- 
session of the United States by the Enemy. S. Rept. 575, 
SOth Cong., 1st sess., To accompany H.R. 3444. 2 iip. 
[Favorable report.] 

Amending tlie Trading With tlie Enemy Act ; Creating a 
Commission To Make Inquiry and Report With Respect 
to VVar Claims; and Providing Relief for Internees in 
Certain Cases. H. Rept. 976, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To 
accompany H.H. 4044. 23 pp. [Favorable report] 

Providing for Membership and Participation by the 
United States in the South Pacific Commission and Au- 
thorizing an Appropriation Therefor. H. Rept. 957, SOth 
Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany H. J. Res. 232. 6 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Sugar Act of 1048. S. Rept. 578, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To 
accompany H.R. 4075. 19 pp. 

Amending Section 12 of the Immigration Act of 1917. 
S. Rept. 596, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To accompany S. 1463. 
4 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Enabling tlie Government of the United States More 
Effectively To Carry on Its Foreign Relations by Means of 
Promotion of the Interchange of Persons, Knowledge, and 
Skills Between tlie People of the United States and Other 
Countries, and by Means of Public Dissemination Abroad 
of Information About the United States, Its People, and 
Its Policies. S. Rept. 573, SOth Cong., 1st sess.. To 
accompany H.R. 3342. 11pp. [Favorable report.] 

Supplemental Estimates of the Administrative Limita- 
tions for the Institute of Inter-American Affairs and the 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc. Communi- 
cation from the President of the United States transmitting 
supplemental estimates of the administrative limitations 
for the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, $116,000 and 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc., amounting 
to $16,000. S. Doc. 92, SOth Cong., 1st sess. 2 pp. 



234 



Department of State Bulletin 



Economic Affairs Fag« 

The Sixth Meeting of the International Cot- 
ton Advisory Committee. Article by 
John C. Montgomery 207 

U.S. Delegation to Sixth International Con- 
ference of Labor Statisticians 214 

Inter-American "Servicio" Pattern To Be 

Adapted to Greek Program 227 

U.K. Proposes To Modify Quantitative Im- 
port Controls. Statement by the Secre- 
tary of State 228 

Procedure for Filing War Claims in Singapore 

and Malaya 230 

General Policy 

Survey of Food Conditions in Poland: 

U.S. Government Will Not Undertake Re- 
lief Program for Poland 223 

Report of Colonel Harrison to the Secretary 

of State 223 

Joint U.S.-Soviet Oil Commission in Rumania 
Dissolved. Oil Equipment Removal 

Claims Remain Unsettled 225 

Fighting in Northwestern Greece. State- 
ment by the Secretary of State .... 228 
International Brigade. Statement by the 

Secretary of State 228 

Nomination of Rudolph E. Schoenfeld as 
Minister to Rumania. Statement by 

the Secretary of State 229 

Foreign Relief Aid Staff Arrives at Field 

Posts 229 

U.S. Regrets Breakdown of Peaceful Nego- 
tiations in Indonesia 230 

Letters of Credence: 

Liberia 231 

Venezuela 231 



United Nations page 
Agenda for Fifth Session of Economic and 

Social Council 209 

U.N. Documents: Selected Bibliography . . 210 

Confirmations 211 

Arming the United Nations 224 

Occupation Matters 

Basic Post-Surrender Policy for Japan: 

Text of Document 216 

Statement by General MacArthur .... 221 

Educational and Vocational Training Insti- 
tute for Korea 231 

Treaty Information 

Surplus Property Made Available to China . 230 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

U. S. Delegation to Seventh International 

Congress of Administrative Sciences . . 215 

Calendar of International Meetings . . 212 

The Foreign Service 

Appointment of Deputy for Foreign Affairs 

at National War College 233 

Leland Harrison Recalled From Switzerland 

To Serve in Washington 233 

Confirmations 233 

The Congress 233 

The Department 

Benjamin V. Cohen Resigns as Counselor. 
Exchange of Letters Between the Pres- 
ident and Mr. Cohen 232 

Appointment of Officers 232 

Confirmations 232 



vcm^Muic^ 



John G. Montgomery, author of the article on the International 
Cotton Advisory Committee, is Divisional Assistant, Division of 
International Resources, OflSce of International Trade Policy, Depart- 
ment of State. 



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ARMING THE 
UNITED NATIONS 



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Vol. XVII. No. 422 A • Publication 2892 

United States-United Nations 
Information Series 23 

August 3, 1947 
SUPPLEMENT 

The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in tlie Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
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of the Department, as well as special 
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tlie Department. Information is in- 
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terruitional agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
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Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well 
as legislative material in the field of 
international relations, are listed 
currently. 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

AUG 27 1947 
ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Special Agreements Under Article 43 of the Charter 

BY DONALD C. BLAISDELL 



On April 30, 1947, Lieutenant Genei-al A. Ph. 
Vrtsiliev, of the Red Army, chairman of the Mili- 
tary Staif Committee of the United Nations, for- 
warded to Trygve Lie, Secretary-General, for 
transmission to the Security Council, a report of 
the Military Staff Committee containing I'ecom- 
mendations on the general principles governing 
the organization of the armed forces made avail- 
able to the Security Council by member Nations of 

; the United Nations.^ Thus the Security Council 

I received the report which it had requested from 
the Military Staff Committee on February 13, 
1947.= On April 30 Herschel V. Johnson, Deputy 
Representative of the United States in the Security 
Council, requested the Seci-etary-General to place 
on the Council's provisional agenda the item, "Dis- 
cussion of the best means of arriving at the con- 
clusion of the special agreements referred to in 
article 43 of the Charter." ^ Consideration of this 

I item had been deferred since February 1946. On 
June 3 the Security Council began its formal study 

j of this subject.^ 

Wliere the debate on the best means to imple- 

1 ment article 43 will lead the Security Council be- 
fore any special agi'eements are negotiated, it 
would be difficult to say. The Military Staff Com- 
mittee has recommended one means — developing 
and agreeing, as a preliminary to negotiation, on 
basic principles of organization. In the summer 
of 1947 it is already clear that some time must yet 
elapse before armed forces, assistance, and facil- 
ities, including rights of i^assage, necessary to 
maintain international peace and security, will be 
available to the Security Council. In the mean- 
time, it may be worth while to recall briefly the 
place of the provisions of article 43 in the United 
Nations, the role of the Military Staff Committee, 
and the events which culminated in Soviet General 

Supplement, August 3, 1947 

755861—47 1 



Vasiliev's transmission of the Committee's report 
to the Security Council on April 30. 

I. Article 43 in the Charter 

Article 43 of the Charter appears in Chapter 
VII, "Action With Respect to Threats to the Peace, 
Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggi-ession". 
This article contains the undertaking assumed by 
members to make military forces available to the 
Security Council. Following is the text : 

1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to con- 
tribute to the maintenance of international peace and 
security, undertake to nialje available to the Security 
Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agree- 
ment or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facil- 
ities, including rights of passage, necessary for the pur- 
pose of maintaining international peace and security. 

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the num- 
bers and types of forces, their degree of readiness and 
general location, and the nature of the facilities and 
assistance to be provided. 

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as 
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. 
They shall be concluded between the Security Council and 
iSIembers or between the Security Council and gi-oups of 
Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signa- 
tory states in accordance with their respective constitu- 
tional processes. 

Authorization for the Security Council to 
employ such forces is contained in article 42. 
According to this article, if the Security Council 
considers that economic and other nonmilitary 
measures authorized in article 41 would be inade- 
quate or have pt-oved to be inadequate, "it may take 
such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be 
neeessarj' to maintain or restore international 
peace and security." Before Security Council 



' U.N. doc. S/330, Apr. 30, 1947. 

= U.N. doc. S/26S, Rev. 1, Feb. 13, 1947, par. 4. 

' U.N. doc. S/338. 

' U.N. doe. S/370, June 6, 1947. 



239 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

decisions can be taken under either article 41 (non- 
military sanctions) or article 42 (military sanc- 
tions) , it must presumably have determined under 
article 39 tlie existence of a threat to the peace, 
breach of the peace, or act of aggression. Resort to 
enforcement action of any kind under article 41 or 
article 42 must be in harmony with the purposes 
of the United Nations, the first of which, as stated 
in chapter I, article 1, paragraph 1, is "To main- 
tain international peace and security, and to that 
end: to take effective collective measures for the 
prevention and removal of threats to the peace, 
and for the suppression of acts of aggression or 
other breaches of the peace . . ." 

The security system forecast by the Charter in 
these and other articles in chapter VII will not 
come into being, however, before special agree- 
ments for making armed forces available are 
negotiated between member states and the Secu- 
rity Council. At San Francisco it was correctly 
foreseen that some time would be needed for the 
Security Council, with the advice and assistance 
of the Military Staff Committee, to negotiate spe- 
cial agreements with members. During this tran- 
sitional period the responsibility for maintaining 
international peace and security rests upon those 
states which are signatories of the Four-Nation 
Declaration signed in Moscow, October 30, 194.3, 
and upon France. These states are the permanent 
members of the Security Council, the Soviet 
Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, 
China, and France. According to article 106 these 
states shall "consult with one another and as oc- 
casion requires with other Members of the United 
Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf 
of the Organization as may be necessary for the 
purpose of maintaining international peace and 
security." This mandate shall continue "Pending 
the coming into force of such special agi'eements 
referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the 
Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of 
its responsibilities under Article 42" (measures in- 
volving the use of armed force). 

According to article 27 of the Charter, decisions 
of the Security Council on procedural matters 
shall be made by an alKrmative vote of seven of 
the eleven members. Decisions on all other mat- 
ters, which would include those made pursuant to 
authority in chapter VII, shall be made by an af- 
firmative vote of seven members, including the 

240 



concurring votes of permanent members, with cer- 
tain exceptions noted in paragraph 3 of article 27. 

I I. Role of the Military Staff Committee 

Ailvice and assistance to the Security Council 
on all questions relating to its military require- 
ments for the maintenance of international peace 
and security, the employment and conmiand of 
forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of 
armaments, and possible disarmament, is pro- 
vided by a Military Staff Committee which was 
established in January 1946 in accordance with 
article 47 of the Charter. 

According to this same article (paragraph 2) 
the Committee is composed of the Chiefs of Staff 
of the permanent members of the Security Council 
or their representatives. The Committee's re- 
sponsibilities include the strategic direction, un- 
der the Security Council, of any armed forces 
placed at the disposal of the Security Council. 
Another responsibility is assistance in making 
plans for the application of armed forces, which 
is the responsibility of the Security Council (arti- 
cle 46) . Still another type of assistance which the 
Committee is to supply the Security Council un- 
der specific Charter provisions is with reference to 
the strength and degree of readiness of national 
air force contingents which, according to article 
45, members shall hold immediately available in 
order to enable the United Nations to take urgent 
military measures. Plans for their combined 
action as well as the strength and degi-ee of readi- 
ness of these contingents shall be determined 
within the limits laid down within the special 
agreement or agreements referred to in article 43 
by the Security Council with the assistance of the 
Military Staff Committee. The Committee is 
authorized to establish regional subcommittees 
(article 47, paragi'aph 4), and provision is also 
.made for members of the United Nations not 
permanently represented on the Military Staff 
Committee to be invited by it to be associated 
with it "when the efficient discharge of the Com- 
mittee's responsibilities requires the participa- 
tion" of a member in its work (article 47, para- 
graph 2) . 

III. Implementation of Article 43 

Action by the Security Council to implement 
article 43 was recommended by the Preparatory 
Commission, which met in London in December 
1945, and which placed on the draft agenda pre- 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



pared for tlie Security Council an item : "Discus- 

* sion of the best means of arriving at the conclu- 
sion of the special agi-eements referred to in Arti- 
cle 43 of the Charter." Although the agenda was 
adopted by the Secui'ity Council as recommended, 
consideration of this item was deferred. There 
was no consideration of article 43 or of the best 
means to arrive at the conclusion of the special 
agreements. 

The Council nearly adjourned its London meet- 
ings without providing the Military Staff Com- 
mittee with an assignment or a directive. Only 
on the last day, February 1.5, 1946, did the United 
Kingdom Representative, Sir Alexander Cadogan, 
make the suggestion to the Council which has 
guided the Military Staff 0)mmittee in its work 
ever since. The suggestion. Sir Alexander said, 
was "simple" but he added, "it may be of some 

' importance". He proposed that the Security 
Council "direct the Military Staff Committee as its 
first task to examine from the military point of 
view the provisions in article 43 of the Charter 
and submit the results of the study and any recom- 
mendations to the Council in due course." The 
suggestion was agreed to by the Council without 
objection.^ 

Until the Security Council, 14 months later, re- 
ceived the Military Staff Committee report on 
basic i^rinciples, information about the Commit- 
tee's work was meager." Some inkling of the way 
it was carrying out the Security Council directive 
of February 16 is contained in the Council's annual 
report of 1946 to the General Assembly.' Al- 

, though it covers only the period to July 15 it does 
disclose that formulation of recommendations on 
the basic principles which should govern the or- 
ganization of the United Nations Forces (sic) was 
decided on by the Military Staff Committee "as a 
first step towards the accomplishment of its task." * 
A subcommittee was formed and by April 3, four 
of the five delegations had submitted their views. 
On July 15, however, the Soviet Delegation "was 

• still studying the problem, and was not ready, at 
that time, to submit its views."* The Military 
Staff Committee, therefore, the Security Council 
report states, was "not yet ready to submit its rec- 
ommendations concerning the basic principles of 
the organization of the United Nations Forces." 
Not before September, with the second part of the 
first session of the General Assembly approaching, 
did the Soviet Representatives in the Military 

Supplement, August 3, 1947 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Staff Committee introduce any proposals.'" Ap- 
parently work on reconmiended principles had been 
suspended some time after April 3, for "Toward the 
end of the year [1946] the Military Staff Commit- 
tee's work on these basic principles was resumed." " 
Some time before July 15 attention was turned to 
the possibility of preparing a standard form of 
agreement between members and the Security 
Council pursuant to article 43,'^ but the subcom- 
mittee which had been set up was only then "about 
to commence studying this question." " The de- 
cisions of the Military Staff Committee to ap- 
proach its assigimient by way of recommended gen- 
eral principles as well as to prepare a draft stand- 
ard form of agreement were taken on the initiative 
of the representatives of the United States Joint 
Chiefs of Staff." 

When the General Assembly convened at Flush- 
ing Meadows in October 1946 for the second part 
of its first session, very little information of an offi- 
cial sort was available on the work of the Military 
Staff Committee during the preceding seven 
months. To the paucity of information in the 
Security Council report to the General Assembly, 
the report of the Secretary-General on the work of 
the Organization added nothing. A brief six-line 
entry stated that the Security Council had "de- 
ferred consideration of Item 10 of the provisional 
agenda : 'Discussion of the best means of arriving 
at the conclusion of the special agreements referred 
to in Article 43 of the Charter,' " and that "this 
question is being examined by the Military Staff 

"Journal of the Security Council, First Year, no. 16, Mar. 
1, 1946, p. 348. 

" From the point of view of circulation and distribution, 
United Nations documents are classified as restricted and 
unrestricted. Military Staff Committee documents are in 
the former category. Meetings are private. Monthly 
press communiques are issued. 

' According to art. 24, par. 3, of the Charter the Security 
Council is obligated to submit annual and, when necessary, 
special reports to the General Assembly for its consid- 
eration. 

* U.N. doc. A/93, Oct. 3, 1946, p. 124. 

' Ibid. 

" The United States and the United Nations. Report hy 
the President to the Congress for the year 1946. Depart- 
ment of State publication 2735, p. 42. 

" Ibid. 

" U.N. doe. A/93, p. 125. 

" Ibid. 

" The United States and the United Natiotis. Report hy 
the President to the Congress for the year 19^6. Depart- 
ment of State publication 2735, p. 42. 

241 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Committee." '■■ The Secretary-Genenil's "Oral 
Supplementary Report to the General Assembly" 
contained no reference to the special agreements 
under article 43 of the Charter nor to the progress 
of the Military Staff Conmiittee in carrying out the 
February 16 directive of the Security Council to 
"examine from the military point of view the pro- 
visions in Article 43." 

Members of the United Nations and their repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly were thus with- 
out much information on the progress being made 
for imj)lementing article 43. They did know, how- 
ever, that no special agreements had been nego- 
tiated; they knew also that the Security Council 
had received no recommendations growing out of 
the Military Staff Committee's study of article 43 
from the military point of view ; and finally, they 
knew that the Security Council itself had not given 
active consideration to the subject of special agree- 
ments, since an item to this effect appeared regu- 
larly every two weeks on the Secretary-General's 
list of matters of which the Security Council is 
seized, but never on its active agenda. 

The General Assembly took cognizance of the 
matter of negotiating special agreements with the 
unanimous adoption on December 14, 1946, of a 
resolution entitled "Principles Governing the Gen- 
eral Regulation and Reduction of Armaments." ^^ 
In the first days of the Assembly's general debate, 
representatives of several members referred to the 
fulfilment of article 43. President Truman stated 
in his welcoming address on October 24. the open- 
ing day of the session, that the United States will 
"press for preparation of agreements in order that 
the Security Council may have at its disposal peace 
forces adequate to prevent acts of aggression." ^' 

Referring to the military Staff Committee, the 
United Kingdom Delegate. Noel Baker, stated on 
October 25 that his Government "should like to 



" U.N. doc. no. A/65, June 30, 1&46, p. 9. 

" U.N. (toe. A/64/Adcl.l, January 31, 1947, p. R5. 

"Journal of the UniteO Nations, no. 13, suppli'mwil 
A-A/P.V./34. i>. 11. 

" Jhid., no. 10, -supplement A-A/P.V./37, p. 73. 

'"Ibid.. MO. 17, supplement A-A/P.V./:19. p. 98. 

-"Ihid.. ]i. 1.37. 

'-' Ibid., p. lOl-.'i. 

"Ibid., no. 18, .supplciueMt A-A/P.V./ll, p. 157. 

" For article on regulation and redviction of armaments, 
see Bulletin of Feb. 23, 1947, and for article on the 
establishment of the Ciunmission for Conventional Arma- 
ments, see Bulletin of Ai)r. 27, 1947. 



see them pushing forward with greater energy 
and reaching more practical results than they have 
achieved up to now." '* 

On October 28 the spokesman for the Egyptian 
Delegation asked whether a time limit should not 
be fixed for the submission of the Militaiy Staflf 
Committee's concrete proposals for the immediate 
creation of the armed forces of the United Na- 
tions."* The chief representative of France, too, 
referred to the modest accomplishments of the Mil- 
itary Staff Committee, but suggested that delays 
might be due not only to the inherent difficulties 
of the problems but also to "the lack of sufficient 
directives on the part of the Security Council, in 
respect to the political and legal framework of the 
use of international armed forces as well as a mod- 
ern definition of aggressor." -" On the same day 
the Chinese Representative expressed the hope of 
his delegation that the Military Staff Com- 
mittee could "make more rapid progress in its 
work . . ." -' The following day the chief rep- 
resentative of Canada expressed concern that the 
Securitj' Council and the Military Staff Com- 
mittee had failed to make substantial progress." 

In the general debate in the plenary meetings 
of the General Assembly the whole subject of 
implementing article 43 became tied to other sub- 
jects, with the result that attention was largely 
diverted from the work of the Military Staff Com- 
mittee. Provision of the "peace forces", as Presi- 
dent Truman called them, never received separate 
Assembly consideration. Other fundamental 
problems of organizing international security were 
pressed to the fore — atomic energy control and the 
elimination of atomic weapons from national ar- 
maments. Closely related were the problems of 
general regulation and reduction of armaments,'^ 
information on armed forces, and the presence of 
troops on foreign soil. 

When the Soviet Foreign Minister, Mr. Molotov, 
on October 29 called for a general restriction of 
armaments, he was answered the following day by 
Warren R. Austin, Chairman of the Delegation of 
the United States, who declared that a system for 
regulating armaments could not be planned except 
in relation, among other things, to progress in 
negotiating special agreements for making avail- 
able to the Security Council, according to article 
43, armed forces adequate to prevent aggression. 
The establishment of that connection between 
aramaments regulation and security, to be pro- 



242 



Department of State Bulletin 



vided by the availability of forces to the Security 
Council, practically assured that the General 
Assembly in its recommendations on regulation 
and reduction of armaments would make some 
reference to the special agreements. Several 
delegations — Canadian, Argentine, and Egj'p- 
tian — introduced resolutions proposing specifi- 
cally that forces be made available to the Securitj^ 
Council. 

In the form finally adopted by the General As- 
sembly the reference to article 43 is contained in 
l)aragraph 7: "THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 
regarding the problem of security as closely con- 
nected with that of disarmament, RECOM- 
^lENDS the Security Council to accelerate as 
nuich as possible the placing at its disposal of the 
armed forces mentioned in Article 43 of the 
Charter." 

Formal action on this recommendation of the 
General Assembly materialized promptly. In a 
communication to the President of the Security 
Council dated December 30, 1946, the Secretary- 
General, transmitted the General Assmbly's reso- 
lution of December 14 on the principles governing 
the general regulation and reduction of arma- 
ments.-* On January 9, 1947, at its 90th meeting, 
the Security Council on the suggestion of its Presi- 
dent, Mr. Makin of Australia, agreed without ob- 
jection to adopt the recommendations which the 
General Assembly made to the Security Council." 
Although the Security Council thus experienced 
I ; no difficulty and no loss of time in taking formal 
: action, when it came to take further steps progress 
was not so rapid. In the six-weeks' period from 
January 9, the date of the Security Council's 
formal action, to February 13, when it adopted its 
resolution establishing the Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments and requested the submis- 
sion of a report from the Military Staff Committee, 
two distinct stages emerged in the Council's de- 
bates. The first ran from January 9 to January 
20. On the latter date the Security Council de- 
cided, at the request of the Representative of the 
United States, Warren R. Austin, to postpone until 
February 4 further consideration of the imple- 
mentation of the General Assembly's armaments 
regulation resolution. The second stage runs from 
February 4 to Februarj^ 13. 

Thus the two-weeks' suspension of debate marks 
the first stage from the second. Moreover, during 
both stages, steps to accelerate the placing at the 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Security Council's "disposal of the armed forces 
mentioned in Article 43 of the Charter" consumed 
but a small portion of the time devoted by the Secu- 
rity Council to deciding the initial steps tobe taken 
in carrying out the General Assembly's recommen- 
dations. The Security Council had received the 
Atomic Energy Commission's first report simul- 
taneously with the General Assembly's resolution 
on regulation and reduction of armaments. By 
far the greater part of the Council's time during 
this series of meetings was given to deciding when 
to take up consideration of the first report of the 
Atomic Energy Commission and where to draw the 
line of competence between that agency and the 
subsidiary body, then still to be established, which 
would deal with armaments except atomic weapons 
and other major weapons adaptable to mass de- 
struction. 

The first stage of the debate was marked by the 
introduction of several resolutions proposing dif- 
ferent procedures for dealing with these two mat- 
ters which had thus almost simultaneously been 
thi-own into the Security Council's lap. Within 
the space of 20 days no less than 5 such resolutions 
were introduced. On December 27, before either 
the Atomic Energy Commission report or the 
General Assembly resolution had been received, the 
Representatives of the U.S.S.R. introduced a 
resolution for implementing the resolutioii of the 
General Assembly.-" Three days later the United 
States introduced a draft resolution giving pri- 
ority in consideration to the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission repoi't.-' On January 9 the French Repre- 
sentative introduced a resolution,-** on January 15 a 
draft resolution was introduced by the Australian 
Representative,™ and another by the Colombian 
Representative.^" On February 4 the United 
States Representative introduced a second resolu- 
tion.'^ 

Not all of these proposals for Security Council 
action referred to that part of paragraph seven 
of the General Assembly resolution of December 
14 which referred to the making available of 



" U.N. doc. S/231, Dec. 30, 1946. 

^ U.N. Security Council Official Records. Jan. 9, 1947. 
p. 42. 
="U.N. doc. S/229. 
" U.N. doc. S/233. 
='U.N. doc. S/243. 
^U.N. doc. S/249. 
=" U.N. doc. S/251. 
" U.N. doc. S/264. 



Supplement, August 3. 1947 



243 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

armed forces to the Security Council. It was 
not mentioned in the Soviet resolution of Decem- 
ber 27 nor in either of the two American resolu- 
tions. But the other three took cognizance of it. 
By proposing to fix a time limit within which the 
Military Staff Committee should make its pro- 
posals and recommendations, the French, Aus- 
tralian, and Colombian resolutions sought to 
hasten action by the Military Staff Committee on 
the assignment given it by the Security Council 
in February 1946. Three of these six resolutions 
placed before the Security Council thus focused 
attention on the fact that practically no visible 
progi-ess had been made in carrying out the provi- 
sions of article 43 of the Charter. 

Throughout the first stage of the Council's de- 
bate the question of accelerating the negotiation of 
the special agreements referred to in article 43 
received practically no attention. Aside from the 
paragraphs in the French, Australian, and Colom- 
bian resolutions on the matter, no references were 
made to the subject. 

Only at the beginning of the second stage did it 
call for comment by any representative. At the 
end of the Security Council's ninety-ninth meeting 
on February 4, following the two weeks' suspension 
of debate, the Representative of Syria made a short 
speech in which he stressed the question of the im- 
plementation of article 43 of the Charter. In- 
formal consultations among the authors of the 
various pending resolutions to work out an agreed 
composite resolution had been agreed to by the 
Council at the suggestion of the Australian Repre- 
sentative. Just before the Council was to adjourn 
for these consultations, the Syrian Representative, 
Mr. Zurayk, referred to the pending Soviet and 
United States resolutions, neither of which re- 
ferred to the recommendation of the General As- 
sembly, accepted by the Security Council, to "ac- 
celerate as much as possible" the conclusion of the 
special agreements referred to in article 43 of the 
Charter. In the view of the Syrian Delegation, 
Mr. Zurayk said, "this is a very important and 
fundamental element in the discussion of this prob- 
lem. We believe," he continued, "that the carrj'- 
ing out of proposals for agi-eements with the Secu- 



" U.N. Security Council Official Records, Feb. 4, 1047, 
p. 171. 

" U.N. doc. S/268, par. 4. 
" U.N. Doc. S/231. 



rity Council regarding the maintenance of forces 
to assure international peace and security is very 
essential, both from the point of view of the regula- 
tion of armaments . . . and also in order to 
spread further that spirit of confidence which is 
necessary to implement the General Assembly reso- 
lution on disarmament. . . . The Military 
Staff Committee has been given this task, and we 
hope that, in the resolution that is to come out of 
this general discussion between the authors of the 
resolutions, this element of the situation will be 
expressed as clearly as possible. As the repre- 
sentative of a small Power, I should like to say 
that, to us, this is a very important element in the 
whole question of disarmament." ^^ 

Significant support for requesting the Military 
Staff Committee to hurry up its report came during 
these informal consultations held under the guid- 
ance of the President of the Council. Although it 
did not prove possible to find language express- 
ing the competence of the new commission for con- 
ventional armaments which the Council proposed 
to set up, the Representatives of the U.S.S.R. and 
of the United States joined with those from Aus- 
tralia, France, and Colombia in agreeing on a para- 
graph requesting the Military Staff Committee to 
submit its recommendations to the Council "as 
soon as possible".^^ 

In the 103d meeting of the Security Council on 
February 12 the French Representative related 
what had happened in the consultations regarding 
the request for the Military Staff Committee rec- 
ommendations. The French resolution had been 
taken as a basis for discussion. The fourth para- 
graph of this proposal would have requested the 
Military Staff Connnittee to submit within three 
months its recommendations for the organization 
of an international force pursuant to article 43 of 
the Charter. Also, it would have been reciuested to 
submit within the same time limit recommenda- 
tions for the application of the last two para- 
graphs of article 7 of the General Assembly resolu- 
tion on withdrawal of armed forces from ex- 
enemy as well as from other territories and for a 
corresponding reduction of national armed 
forces.^ At the request of the Soviet Delegate 
the latter provision was withdrawn. Also with- 
drawn at the request of Mr. Gromyko, who said 
he could not accept it, was the time limit for the 
submission of the Military Staff Committee's rec- 
ommendations based on the study of article 43 



244 



Department of State Bulletin 



from the military point of view.'^ "From 15 
February 1946", the French Kepresentative stated, 
"to the present date, the Military Staff Commit- 
tee has not provided the Council with any in- 
formation as to the performance of its task. 
That omission is all the more regrettable" since its 
task is "essential" and "no general reduction of 
armaments is conceivable unless international as- 
sistance is organized; otherwise there would be a 
risk that the security of States which disarmed 
would no longer be assured. The Security 
Council should "most urgently remind the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee of the task entrusted to it 
on 15 February 1946, which, as far as the Council 
is aware, it has not begun to carry out." ^ 

The dropping of the time limit within which 
the Military Statf Committee was to make its rec- 
ommendations was not agreeable to the Repre- 
sentative of the United Kingdom. The British 
had introduced no resolution on either the Atomic 
Energy Commission report or on the December 14 
General Assembly resolution. Hence their Repre- 
sentative had not participated in the informal 
consultations. The text of that part of the com- 
posite draft calling for a speeding up in the work 
of the Military Staff Committee, however, was 
not satisfactory to the United Kingdom Repre- 
sentative. After endorsing what the representa- 
tive of France had previously said in the Security 
Council on implementation of article 43 of the 
Charter, Sir Alexander Cadogan reminded the 
Council of certain words which appeared in the 
General Assembly resolution : "The General As- 
sembly, regarding the problem of security as 
closely connected with that of disarmament 
. . . ". "All experience teaches us that," Sir 
Alexander observed and went on to say that "with 
our concentration on the regulation of armaments, 
we have relegated, or risked relegating, the con- 
sideration of security to the backgi'ound. My 
Government would wish me to resist very strongly 
any tendency of that kind . . . "." Stating 
that there was a short reference to security in the 
last paragraph of the composite resolution. Sir 
Alexander added that he thought "it needs 
strengthening a little . . . ". "I feel", he 
said, "that some stimulation should be given to the 
work of the Military Staff Committee . . . ", 
and he then proposed the following as an addition 
to paragraph 4 : 

. . . and, as a first step, to submit to the Security 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Council, not later than 30 April 1947, its recommendations 
with regard to the basic principles which should govern 
the organization of the Unitetl Nations armed forces." 

The pi-oposal to insei't a time limit received the 
support of the Australian Representative at the 
next meeting of the Security Council. Mr. 
Hasluck wished to impart even more of a sense of 
urgency to the request. To the paragraph as 
amended by the United Kingdom Representative, 
the further words "and as a matter of urgency" 
were proposed for addition by the Australian Rep- 
resentative. In his opinion, the Security Council 
"before going much farther with this work of dis- 
armament ... should receive some indication 
from the Military Staff Committee of what it has 
been doing during the past year, what difficulties 
it has encountered and what prospects there ai"e of 
building a security system". Mr. Hasluck pointed 
out the "less fortunate position" occupied by a 
non-permanent member, like Australia, with 
respect to the work of the Military Staff Commit- 
tee, than that of a permanent member, like the 
United Kingdom. "Since the Military Staff Com- 
mittee was asked, nearly a year ago, to undertake 
this urgent work," the non-permanent members, 
Mr. Hasluck stated, "have nothing before us but 
a complete blank. We do not know what this body 
has been doing. It has submitted a brief report 
to be included in our annual report to the General 
Assembly; but whether it is making progress, 
what progress it is making, or why it is not mak- 
ing progress, is all closed behind a dark wall. The 
small countries of this world depend even more 
than the great countries on the building up of a 
sound and effective security system". Hence 
the Australian Representative's plea that the 
urgency of the Military Staff Committee recom- 
mendations be stressed.^** 

At the same meeting in which the Australian 
Repi'esentative commented on the work of the 
Military Staff Committee, the Chinese Represent- 
ative, Dr. Quo Tai-chi, supported the amendment 
proposed earlier by the United Kingdom Repre- 
sentative. He added that non-members "of the 
Military Staff Committee may well have reason to 
complain that they know little or nothing of the 



"^ U.N. Sccuritif Council OfUcial Records, Feb. 12, 1947, 
p. 21.^. 

'Vftirf., Feb. 12, 1947, pp. 215, 216. 
" Jhid., p. 22.5. 
^/6/f/., p. 226. 
" Ihid.. p. 233. 



Supplement , August 3, 1947 



24S 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

work tliiit this Committee has been doing. I 
am afraid the representatives of the countries 
which are members ... do not . . . know much 
more than those wliich are not members." He 
joined with his British coUeajiue in urging that the 
Military Statf Committee expedite its work "in 
order to provide some plan or basis for the Coun- 
cil's consideration concerning the problems of dis- 
armament and security, which are inseparably 
linked."*' 

On February 13, 1947, the Security Council 
adopted a resolution requesting a report from the 
Military Staff Committee. At its 105th meeting 
held that day, the amendments proposed the pre- 
vious day by the Representatives of the United 
Kingdom and Australia came up for debate and 
vote. On the understanding that the United King- 
dom amendment would call in effect for an interim 
report, the Representative of the United States, 
Warren R. Austin, said that he would support the 
amendment." The Australian Representative, 
Mr. Hasluck, viewed the amendment of the United 
Kingdom Representative and his own amendment 
as applying to different parts of the task before 
the Military Staff Committee. The Australian 
amendment would emphasize the urgency of com- 
pleting the examination of article 43 from the 
military point of view while that of the United 
Kingdom Representative, calling for recommenda- 
tions on basic principles by not later than April 
30, 1947, would provide the Security Council with- 
out further delay with I'ecommendations on the 
first stage of the task. When he stated that the 
Security Council had been "informed yesterday 
that last April, the Military Staff Committee de- 
cided that, as the first stage in the completion of 
its task, it would devote itself to drawing up a 
statement of the principles governing the organi- 
zation of armed forces to be placed at the disposal 
of the United Nations", the Australian Repre- 
sentative indicated clearly that this was the first 
official information of this decision which non- 



'" Ibid., p. 237. 

" Ihiil.. Feb. 13, 1947, p. 270. 

" Ibiil.. p. 271. 

" Ihid., p. 2<kS. 



' Ibid.. 



p. 27: 



' U.N. Ibid., p. 274. 

' U.N. doc. S/268/Rev. 1, Feb. 13, 1947. 



permanent members of the Security Council, and 
others, had received.^- Without specifying how it 
siiould be done, the French and United States Rep- 
resentatives referred to the duty which rests upon 
the permanent members to keep the non-]iernianent 
members of the Security Council informed of the 
work of the Military Staff Committee.'*^ 

The Representative of the Soviet Union argued 
that the Australian amendment was "unnecessarj'"' 
and questioned the advisability, as he had the 
previous day, of trying to fix a date for the sub- 
mission of the report on the general principles 
"without having consulted the Military Staff Com- 
mittee [or its chairman] at all, although it is lo- 
cated here in New York"." Mr. Gromyko added, 
however, that he would not "object" if the majority 
of the Security Council wished to insert the Aus- 
tralian amendment "and as a matter of urgency". 

Wlien the President put the U.K. amendment to 
the vote, Representatives of nine members voted 
yes, there were no negative votes, and Representa- 
tives of two members, Poland and the U.S.S.R., ab- 
stained. The Australian amendment was adopted 
unanimously. AVhen paragraph 4, as amended, 
was put to the vote, the same division, nine in favor, 
none opposed, and two, Poland and the U.S.S.R., 
abstaining, was the result. The Soviet Union was 
alone in abstaining in the vote on the document 
as a whole.*^ 

As finally adopted, the request of the Security 
Council for a report from the Military Staff Com- 
mittee read as follows : 

4. to request the Military Staff Committee to submit to 
it, as sooH as possible and as a. matter of urgency, the 
i-econunendatioiis for which it has lieen asked by the 
Security Council on 15 February 1046 in pursuance of 
Article 43 of tlie Charter, and as a first step, to submit to 
the Security Council not later than 30 April 1M7, its 
recommendations witli regard to the basic principles widcli 
should Kovern the organization of the United Nations 
Armed Force.'" 

Under this spur the Military Staff Committee on 
April 30, 1947, submitted to the Security Council 
recommendations based on the first stage of its ex- 
amination of article 43 from the military point of 
view — "General Principles governing the Organi- 
zation of the Armed Forces made available to the 
Security Council by Member Nations of the United 
Nations." 



246 



Department of State Bulletin 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE 
ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMED FORCES 

Made Available to the Security Council 
By Member Nations of the United Nations 



LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE MILITARY STAFF COMMITTEE TO THE 
SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS 



30 April 1047 
Sir, In piusiiance of the Directive of the Security 
Council of February 16, 1946, the Military Staff 
Committee studied Article 43 of the Charter from 
a military point of view and as a first stage of the 
study of the provisions of Article 43 has prepared 
recommendations on the General Principles Gov- 
erning the Organization of tlie Armed Forces made 
available to the Security Council by Member Na- 
tions of the United Nations. 

In accordance with the decision of the Security 
Council of February 13, 1947, I have the honour 
on instructions of the Military Staff Committee to 
forward to you the Report containing the above 
recommendations on the General Principles and 
to request you to forward that Report to the Secu- 
rity Council for consideration. 

The Report includes both recommendations 
agreed upon by all Delegations represented on the 
Military Staff Committee and the proposals of 
individual Delegations on which unanimous deci- 
sion has not been achieved in the Military Staff 

U. N. doc. S/336, Apr. 30, 1947. 



Committee. In this latter case, the positions of 
the vai'ious Delegations are set out in Annex "A". 
Certain general comments by the French Delega- 
tion are set out in Annex "B". 

The Military Staff Conunittee has instructed me 
to request you to draw the attention of the Security 
Council to the fact that the question of financial 
expenditures which might arise in connection with 
the fulfillment by countries — Members of the 
United Nations — of measures envisaged in Article 
42 of the Charter, has not been reflected in the 
recommendations prepared. 

In accordance with Rule 13 of its Rules of Proce- 
dure, the Military Staff Conunittee has the honour 
to inform the Security Council that it does not at- 
tach any categorj' of secrecy to this Report. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

A. Ph. Vasimev, 
Lt.-General, Soviet Army 
Chairman, Military Staff Committee 

The Secretary-General, of the United Nations 



Supplement, August 3, 1947 



247 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 



CONTENTS 
Letter of Transmittal 




Page 

247 
249 

249 
249 
249 
250 
251 
251 

252 
253 
253 

254 

255 

255 
255 

255 
258 
259 

261 
262 

263 

264 
265 

266 

266 

268 
269 
270 

271 

272 


Report by the Military Staff Committee 




Chapter I : Purpose of Armed Forces 




Chapter II: Composition of Armed Forces 




Chapter III : Overall Strength of Armed Forces . . 




Chapter IV : Contribution of Armed Forces by Member 
Chapter V: Employment of Armed Forces .... 


Nations . 


Chapter VI: Degree of Readiness of Armed Forces . . 




Chapter VII: Provision of Assistance and Facilities, 
Rights of Passage, for Armed Forces 


including 


Chapter VIII : Logistical Support of Armed Forces 
Chapter IX: General Location of Armed Forces . . . 




Chapter X : Strategic Direction and Command c 
Forces 


f Armed 


Annex A: Positions of the Delegations of the Military Staff 
Conunittee on the Articles of the General Principles Govern- 
ing the Organization of Armed Forces on which the Military 

Staff Committee has not reached unanimity 

Chapter III 

Article 7 - 


Article 8 




Chapter IV 

Article 11 




Article 16 




Article 17 




Chapter V 

Article 20 




Article 21 




Chapter VI 

Article 25 




Chapter VII 

Article 26 




Article 27 




Article 28 




Chapter VIII 

Article 31 




Chapter IX 

Article 32 




Article 33 




Article 34 




Chapter X 

Article 41 




Annex B: General Comments by the French Delegation . . . 



248 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



REPORT BY THE MILITARY STAFF COMMITTEE 



CHAPTER I 
Purpose of Armed Forces 

Article 1 

Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations of the United Nations 
are intended for the maintenance of the restoration 
of international peace and security in cases : 

a. of existence of any threat to international 
peace ; 

b. of any breach of international peace and 
security ; 

c. of any act of aggression, 

when measures undertaken by the Security Council 
in accordance with Article 41 of the United Nations 
Charter would be inadequate or have proved to be 
inadequate and when the threat to international 
peace and security is such that it necessitates the 
employment of these Armed Forces. 

Article 2 

These Armed Forces may not be employed for 
purposes inconsistent with the purposes, princi- 
ples and spirit of the United Nations Charter as 
defined in its Preamble and Chapter I. 

CHAPTER II 

Composition of Armed Forces 

Article 3 

Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations of the United Nations 
in accordance with Article 43 of the Charter shall 
be composed of units (formations) of national 
armed forces, land, sea and air which are normally 
maintained as components of armed forces of 
Member Nations of the United Nations. 

Article 4 

These Armed Forces shall be made available to 
the Security Council from the best trained and 
equipped units (formations) of Member Nations 
of the United Nations. 

CHAPTER III 
Overall Strength of Armed Forces 

Article 5 

The moral weight and the potential power be- 
hind any decision to employ the Armed Forces 

Supplement, August 3, 1947 



made available to the Security Council by Member 
Nations of the United Nations in enforcement ac- 
tion will be very great, and this fact will directly 
influence the size of the Armed Forces required. 

Article 6 
The Armed Forces made available to the Se- 
curity Council by Member Nations of the United 
Nations shall be limited to a strength sufficient to 
enable the Security Council to take prompt ac- 
tion in any part of the world for the maintenance 
or the restoration of international peace and se- 
curity as envisaged in Article 42 of the Charter. 

Article 7 

Accepted by the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 
Delegations : 

An estimate of the overall strength of the 
Armed Forces and the strength of the Services, 
land, sea and air, constituting those Forces will be 
made by the Security Council with the assistance 
of the Military Staff Committee, and used as a 
basis for negotiating the Special Agreements re- 
ferred to in Article 43 of the Charter, The final 
decision regarding the overall strength required 
will be made by the Security Council as a result of 
these negotiations. 

The U.S.S.R. Delegation accepts Article 7 condi- 
tionally: 

The final acceptance of Article 7 by the 
U.S.S.R. Delegation will depend on the accept- 
ance by the other Delegations of the Principle of 
Equality regarding strength and composition of 
Armed Forces contributed by the five Permanent 
Members of the Security Council, as stated in the 
proposal by the U.S.S.R. Delegation for Article 11. 

Article 8 
Accepted by the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 

Delegations: 

In order to adapt the overall strength of the 
Armed Forces to international conditions, this 
overall strength and the strength of the Services 
constituting these Forces, may be changed on the 
initiative of the Security Council by additional 
agi-eements between the Security Council and the 
Member Nations of the United Nations. 

249 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

The U.S.S.R. Delegation accepts Article 8 condi- 
tionally : 

Tlie final acceptance of Article 8 by the 
U.S.S.R. Delegation will depend on the accept- 
ance by the otlier Delegations of the Principle of 
Equality regarding strength and composition of 
Armed Forces contributed by the five Permanent 
jNIembers of the Security Council, as stated in the 
proposal by the U.S.S.R. Delegation for Article 11. 

CHAPTER IV 
Contribution of Armed Forces by Member Nations 

Article 9 

All Member Nations shall have the opportunity 
, as well as the obligation to place armed forces, 
facilities and other a.ssistance at the disposal of the 
Security Council on its call and in accordance with 
their capabilities and the requirements of the 
Security Council. 

Article 10 

In order to facilitate the early establishment of 
the Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council, the Permanent Members of the Security 
Council shall contribute initially the major por- 
^tion of these Forces. As the contributions of 
other Nations of the United Nations become avail- 
able they shall be added to the forces already 
contributed. 

Article 11 

Accepted hy the Chinese, French, U-K. and U.S. 
Delegations: 

Each of the five Permanent Members of the Se- 
curity Council will make a comparable initial over- 
all contribution to the Armed Forces made avail- 
able to the Security Council by Member Nations 
of the United Nations. In view of the differences 
in size and composition of national forces of each 
Permanent Member and in order to further the 
ability of the Security Council to constitute bal- 
anced and effective combat forces for operations, 
these contributions may differ widely as to the 
strength of the separate components, land, sea and 
air. 

Accepted hy the U.S.S.R. Delegation: 

Permanent Members of the Security Council 
shall make available armed forces (land, sea and 
air) on the Principle of Equality regarding the 
overall strength and the composition of these 

250 



forces. In indi\ndual instances, deviations from 
this principle are permitted by special decisions 
of the Security Council, if such a desire is ex- 
pressed by a Permanent Member of the Security 
Council. 

Article 12 

The size and composition of contributions of 
individual Member Nations will be determined on 
the initiative of the Security Council, and on the 
advice of the Military Staff Committee, in the 
process of negotiations with each Member Nation 
in accordance with Article 43 of the Charter. 

Article 13 

No Member Nation of the United Nations shall 
be urged to increase the strength of its armed 
forces or to create a particular component thereof 
for the specific purpose of making a contribution 
to the Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations of the United Nations. 

Article 1-i 

Contributions by Member Nations of the United 
Nations, other than the Permanent Members of 
the Security Council, may not necessarily be rep- 
resented by armed forces. Such other Member 
Nations which may be unable to furnish armed 
forces may fulfill their obligation to the United 
Nations by furnishing facilities and other assist- 
ance in accordance with agi'eements reached with 
the Security Council. 

Article 15 

Proposals for changes in the size or composition 
of contributions of a Member Nation or a group 
of Nations may be initiated by the Security Coun- 
cil or by the Member Nation or group of Nations. 
Any change in contributions will be effected by 
additional agreements between the Security Coun- 
cil and the respective Member Nation or group of 
Nations. 

Article 16 

Accepted by the Chinese, French, U.K. and UJS. 
Delegations : 

The strengtli and composition of national air 
force contributions made available to the Security 
Council shall be determined as set forth in Article 
12 above taking into account the obligations aris- 
ing from Article 45 of the Charter. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Accepted by the V.S.S.R. Delegation: 

The strength and composition of national air 
force contingents made avaihible to the Security 
Council by Member Nations for action envisaged 
in Article 45 of the Charter are determined by the 
Security Council, with the assistance of the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee, within the limits of a Spe- 
cial Agreement or Agreements referred to in 
Article 43 of the Charter. 

Article 17 
Accepted hy the Chinese and French Delegations: 

In case of self-defense (Article 51 of the Char- 
ter) and of national emergencies, IMember Nations 
will have the right to make use of Armed Forces, 
which they have made available to the Security 
Council in conformity with the terms of special 
agreements. They undertake, however, to assume 
anew all of their obligations within the shortest 
possible space of time. 

Not accepted by the U.S.S.R., U. K. and V. S. 
Delegations. 

CHAPTER V 
Employment of Armed Forces 

Article 18 

The Armed Forces made available to the Secu- 
rity Council by Member Nations of the United 
Nations will be employed, in whole or in part, 
only by the decision of the Security Council and 
only for the period necessary for the fulfillment 
of the tasks envisaged in Article 42 of the Charter. 

Article 19 

In view of the military advantages which would 
accrue, the employment of the Armed Forces un- 
der Article 42 of the Charter should, whenever 
possible, be initiated in time to forestall or to sup- 
press promptly a breach of the peace or an act of 
aggression. 

Article 20 

Accepted by the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 
Delegatiojis: 

After tlie Armed Forces, including line of com- 
munication forces, made available to the Security 
Council have carried out the tasks with which they 
have been entrusted by the Security Council under 
Article 42 of the Charter, they shall be withdrawn 
as soon as possible to the genei'al locations gov- 



ARMING THE UNITBD NATIONS 

erned by the Special Agreement or Agreements 
provided for by Article 43 of the Charter. The 
time for the beginning and completion of the 
withdrawal shall be fi.xed by the Security Council. 

Accepted by the U.S.S.R. Delegation: 

The Armed Forces will be withdrawn to their 
own territories and territorial waters within a 
time-limit of thirty to ninety days after they have 
fulfilled the measures envisaged in Article 42 of 
the Charter, unless otherwise decided by the 
Security Council. This time-limit should be pro- 
vided for in Agreements concluded under Article 
43 of the Charter. 

Article 21 

Not accepted by the Chineise, French, U.K. and 
U.S. Delegations: 

Accepted by the U.S.S.R. Delegation: 

If for any reasons these Armed Forces remain 
in territories or territorial waters granted for the 
use of such forces, under agreements between the 
Security Council and other Member Nations of the 
United Nations for the passage, stationing or ac- 
tion of these forces, they should be withdrawn to 
tlieir own territories or territorial waters not later 
than tliirty days after the expiration of the period 
indicated in Article 20,' unless otherwise decided 
by the Security Council. This time-limit should 
be provided for in Agreements concluded under 
Article 43 of the Charter. 

CHAPTER VI 
Degree of Readiness of Armed Forces 

Article 22 

The degree of readiness of the Armed Forces 
made available by individual Member Nations of 
the United Nations is fixed by the Security Coun- 
cil, on the advice of the Military Staff Committee, 
as a result of the negotiations in concluding the 
Special Agreements with those Member Nations 
under Article 43 of the Charter. 

Article 23 

Tlie degree of readiness of the Armed Forces 
should be maintained at a level which will enable 
these Forces to start in good time with the fulfill- 
ment of the Security Council measures envisaged 
in Article 42 of the Charter. 



' See proposal b.v the U.S.S.R. Delegation. 



Supplement, August 3, 1947 



251 



arming the united nations 

Article 24 

These Armed Forces should be eitlier main- 
tained in readiness for combat or brought up to 
readiness for combat within the time-limits to be 
specified in the Special Agreements. 

Article 25 

Accepted by the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 
DelegatioTin : 

The degree of readiness of national air force 
contingents should be maintained at a level which 
•will enable the United Nations to take urgent mili- 
tary measures in accordance with the provisions 
of Article 45 of the Charter. 

Accepted hy the U.S.S.R. Delegation: 

The degree of readiness of national air force 
contingents made available to the Security Coun- 
cil by Member Nations for action envisaged in 
Article 45 of the Charter are determined by the 
Security Council, with the assistance of the Mili- 
tary Staff Cominittee. within the limits of a special 
Agreement or Agreements referred to in Article 43 
of the Charter. 

CHAPTER VII 

Provision of Assistance and Facilities, Including 
Rights of Passage, for Armed Forces 

Article 26 

Accepted hy thr Chinese, U.K. and U.S. 
Delegations : 

The Special Agreements between the Security 
Council and Member Nations under Article 43 of 
the Charter shall include the following : 

a. A general guarantee of rights of passage 
and of the use of such of the Member Nation's 
available bases as are required by Armed Forces 
operating under the Security Council ; 

&. Specific provisions covering details of bases 
and other assistance and facilities, including 
rights of passage, which Member Nations agree to 
make available to the Security Council on its call. 
Such specific provisions may be contained in the 
original agreement or in subsequent agreements 
under Article 43 of the Charter to be concluded 
at the appropriate time. 

Accepted hy the French Delegation: 

Special Agreements envisaged in Article 43 of 
the Charter will indicate bases, assistance and 



facilities, including the right of passage, which 
the Member Nations will put at the disposal of 
the Security Council on its call. 

In case of necessity. Member Nations undertake, 
on call of the Security Council and through addi- 
tional Special Agreements, to make available to 
it, other bases, assistance and facilities which 
would have proved necessary to the operations 
undertaken. 

Sjjecific Agreements, concluded at the appro- 
priate time, between the Security Council and the 
Member Nation concerned, will indicate the dm-a- 
tion and the other conditions involved in the exer- 
cise of rights thus extended to the Armed Forces 
operating under the direction of the Security 
Council. 

Accepted hy the U.S.S.R. Delegation: ^ 

Special Agreements envisaged in Article 43 of 
the Charter will indicate assistance and facilities, 
including the rights of passage, which the Member 
Nations will make available to the Security Coun- 
cil on its call and in accordance with Specific 
Agreements concluded between the Security Coun- 
cil and the Member Nations concerned. Specific 
Agreements, concluded at the appropriate time 
between the Security Council and the Member 
Nation concerned, will indicate the duration and 
the other conditions involved in the exercise of 
rights thus extended to the Armed Forces operat- 
ing under the direction of the Security Council. 

Article 27 

Adcepted hy the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 

Delegations : 

A Member Nation will retain its national 
sovereignty, and its control and command, over 
bases and other facilities placed at the disposal of 
the Security Council. 

Not accepted hy the U.S.S.R. Delegation. 

Article 28 

Accepted hy the Chinese, French . U.K. and U.S. 

Delegations: 

If additional contributions from Permanent 
Members of the Security Council are requested 
when enforcement action under Chapter VII of 
the Charter is under consideration, those contri- 
butions should also be of comparable size taking 
into account the value of assistance and facilities 



252 



Deparimeni of State Bulletin 



as well as armed forces which any of the above 
Member Nations may provide. 

Not accepted by the U.S.S.R. Delegation. 

CHAPTER VIII 
Logistical Support of Armed Forces 

Articix 29 

Member Nations of the United Nations which, 
in accordance with Special Agreements, have 
placed armed forces at the disposal of the Security 
Council on its call for the carrying out of measures 
envisaged in Article 42 of tlie Charter, will pro- 
vide their respective forces witli all necessary re- 
placements in personnel and equipment and with 
all necessary supplies and transport. 

Article 30 

Each Member Nation will at all times maintain 
a specified level of reserves to rejDlace initial per- 
sonnel, transport, equipment, spare parts, ammu- 
nition and all other forms of supply for the forces 
which it has agreed to place at the disposal of the 
Security Council on its call. This reserve level 
will be prescribed in the Special Agreements un- 
der Article 43 of the Charter. 

Article 31 

Accepted by the Chinese, V.K. and U.S. Dele- 
gations : 

Member Nations, in the event of inability to dis- 
charge to the full extent their responsibilities un- 
der Article 29 above, may invoke the aid of the 
Security Council, which, on the advice of the 
Military Staff Committee, will negotiate witli 
other appropriate Member Nations for the pi-o- 
visions [of] such assistance as it deems necessary. 
The agreement of Member Nations concerned must 
be obtained by the Security Council before the 
deficiencies in the contribution of one Member 
Nation can be made up by transfers from the 
contribution of another Member Nation. 

»_ Accepted by the French and U.S.S.R. Delegations: 

Deviations from the principle stated in Article 
29 above shall be permitted in individual instances 
at the request of a ]\Iember Nation, by special 
decisions of the Security Council on the advice of 
the Military Staff Committee, if this Member Na- 
tion desires to have supplies and transport made 

Supplement, August 3, 1947 



ARMING THE UHITBD NATIONS 

available to it for the proper provision of the 
Armed Forces placed by this Member Nation at 
the disposal of the Security Council. 

CHAPTER IX 
General Location of Armed Forces 

Article 32 

Accepted by the Chinese, U.K. and U.S. Delega- 
tions: 

Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations when not employed by 
the Security Council will, within the terms of Spe- 
cial Agreements referred to in Article 43 of the 
Charter, be based at the discretion of Member Na- 
tions in any tei-ritories or waters to whicli they 
have legal right of access. 

Accepted by the French Delegation: 

When they are not employed by the Security 
Council, the Armed Forces which the Member 
Nation undertakes to make available to the Secu- 
rity Council, on its call, are stationed in the gen- 
eral locations governed by the Special Agreement 
or Agreements concluded between the Security 
Council and the Member Nation under Article 43 
of the Charter : 

(1) either within the national borders of the 
Member Nation or the territories or waters under 
its jurisdiction; 

(2) or within the territory or waters of ex- 
enemy nations under Article 107 of the Charter or 
under the terms of the Peace Treaties ; 

(3) or within the territory or waters of other 
Nations where Armed Forces have access under 
international agreements registered with the 
United Nations Secretariat and published by it in 
accordance with Article 102 of the Charter; 

(4) or in certain strategic areas specified by the 
Security Council and whicli have been the subject 
of specific agreements between the Security Coun- 
cil and the Member Nation under Articles 82 and 
83 of the Charter. 

Accepted by the U.S.S.R. Delegation: 

Armed Foices made available to the Security 
Council by Member Nations of the United Na- 
tions shall be garrisoned within the frontiers of the 
contributing Member Nations' own ten-itories or 
territorial waters, except in cases envisaged in 
Article 107 nf the Charter. 



253 



arming the united nations 

Article 33 

Accepted hij the Chinese, French., U.K. and U.S. 

Delegations : 

The locations of these Armed Forces should be 
so distributed geo<j;riiphically as to enable the 
Security Council to take prompt action in any part 
of the world for the maintenance or restoration of 
international peace and security. 
Not accepted by the U.S.S.R. Delegation. 
Articlj: 34 

Accepted hy the Chinese, French, U.K. and U.S. 

Delegations: 

Any displacement of forces likely to modify 
their availability as governed by the Special 
Agreement or Agreements shall be brought to the 
notice of the Security Council. 

Not accepted ly the U.S.S.R. Delegation. 

Articij: 35 

The Armed Forces made available to the Secu- 
rity Council by Member Nations of the United 
Nations, on its call, for the fulfillment of measures 
envisaged in Article 42 of the Charter will be 
based, during the carrying out of these measures, 
in areas designated by the Security Council. 

CHAPTER X 
Strategic Direction and Command of Armed Forces 

Article 36 

The Armed Forces which Member Nations of 
the United Nations agree to make available to the 
Security Council shall be under the exclusive com- 
mand of the respective contributing Nations, ex- 
cept when operating under the Security Council. 

Article 37 

Wlien these forces are called upon for the ful- 
fillment of measures envisaged in Article 42 of the 
Charter, they shall come under the control of the 
Security Council. 

Note : The word "control" is translated into Frencli as 
"autorite" and into Russian as "noAiHHeHHe". 



Article 38 

During the period these armed forces are em- 
I)lf)yed hy the Security Council, the Military Staff 
Conunittee shall be responsible, under the Security 
Council, for their strategic direction. The time 
and place at which the Military Staff Committee 
will assume or relinquish strategic direction will 
be designated by the Security Council. 

Article 39 

The command of national contingents will be ex- 
ercised by Commanders appointed by the respec- 
tive Member Nations. These contingents will re- 
tain their national character and will be subject at 
all times to the discipline and regulations in force 
in tlu'ir own national armed forces. 

Article 40 

The Commanders of national contingents will 
be entitled to communicate dii'ectly with the au- 
thorities of their own country on all matters. 

Article 41 

Accepted by the Chinese, U.S.S.R. and U.S. 
Delegations : 

An overall Commander or overall Commanders 
of Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council may be appointed by the latter, on the 
advice of the Military Staff Committee, for the 
period of employment of these forces by the 
Security Council. 

Accepted by the French and U.K. Delegations : 

A supreme Commander or supreme Commanders 
of Armed Forces made available to the Security 
Council may be appointed by the latter, on the 
advice of the Military Staff Committee, for the 
period of employment of these forces by the 
Security Council. 

Conunanders-in-Chief of land, sea or air forces 
acting under the supreme Commander or Com- 
manders mentioned above may be appointed by the 
Security Council on the advice of the ^Military 
Staff Committee. 



254 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ANNEX A 



Positions of tiie Delegations of tlie Military Staff Committee on the Articles of 
the General Principles Governing the Organization of Armed Forces on Which 
the Military Staff Committee Has Not Reached Unanimity 



CHAPTER III 
Overall Strength of the Armed Forces 

Article 7 

Position of the Chinese Delegation 

The Chinese Delegation accepts the Article be- 
cause it considers that in determining the overall 
strength of the Armed Forces made available to the 
Security Council, both the requirements of the Se- 
curit}' Council and the conditions of Member Na- 
tions concerned should be taken into account. 

Regarding the principle of equality as proposed 
by the U.S.S.R. Delegation, see the Chinese 
position on Article 11. 

Position of the French Delegation 
See French position on Article 11 below. 

Position of the U.S.S.R. Delegation 

The U.S.S.R. Delegation conditionally accepts 
Article 7. The final acceptance of Article 7 by 
the U.S.S.R. Delegation will depend on the ac- 
ceptance by the other Delegations of the principle 
of equality regarding the strength and composition 
of Armed Forces made available by the five Perma- 
nent Members of the Security Council as stated in 
the U.S.S.R. proposal on Article 11. 

Position of the U.K. Delegation 

The arguments of the U.K. Delegation against 
the principle of equality are contained in full in 
the U.K. position for Article 11. 

Position of the U.S. Delegation 

See the U.S. position on Article 11 below. 

Article 8 

Position of the Chinese Delegation 

The Chinese Delegation considers that since the 
Security Council has been entrusted, under Article 
24 of the Chai-ter, with the responsibility for the 
maintenance of international peace, it is only logi- 
cal that the Security Council should be given the 

Supplement, August 3, 1947 



authority to initiate proposals to change the over- 
all strength of the Armed Forces in accordance 
with the prevailing international situation. 
Hence, this text is acceptable to the Chinese Dele- 
gation. 

Regarding the principle of equality as proposed 
by the U.S.S.R. Delegation, see the Chinese posi- 
tion on Article 11. 

Positio7i of the French Delegation 

See French position on Article 11 below. 

Position of the U.S.S.R. Delegation 

The U.S.S.R. Delegation conditionally accepts 
Article 8. The final acceptance of Article 8 by 
the Soviet Delegation will depend on the accept- 
ance by the other Delegations of the principle of 
equality regarding the strength and composition 
of Armed Forces made available by the five Perma- 
nent Members of the Security Coimcil as is stated 
in the U.S.S.R. proposal on Article 11. 

Position of the U.K. Delegation 

The arguments of tlie U.K. Delegation against 
the principle of equality are contained in full in 
the U.K. position for Article 11. 

Position of the U.S. Delegation 

See the U.S. position on Article 11 below. 

CHAPTER IV 
Contribution of Armed Forces by Member Nations 

Article 11 
Position of the Chinese Delegation 

The Chinese Delegation feels that the spirit of 
the Charter emphasizes throughout above all else 
the importance of maintenance or restoration of 
international peace. It is with such an object in 
view that the Armed Forces are going to be 
organized. Hence, it seems to the Chinese Dele- 
gation that how these Armed Forces are organized 

255 



755861- 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

matters less than the fact that the United Nations 
do have an effective police force that would be 
powerful enough to guard the peace. 

The Chinese Delegation is by no means unaware 
of the fact that the Permanent Members of the 
Security Council in a sense share equal responsi- 
bility in maintaining international peace and 
security, and does not deny that it would be an 
ideal to make the contributions of the Permanent 
Members absolutely equal down to the smallest 
detail. On the other hand, however, the Military 
Staff Committee should not blind itself to the 
realities of the present situation. The military 
conditions of the Permanent Members differ 
widely from one another and the strengths of their 
three different Services, land, sea and air, are not 
of the same level. Hence, it seems to the Chinese 
Delegation that it would be highly inadvisable to 
allow scrupulous regard to an ideal impractical at 
least at the present stage to prejudice the efficiency 
and effectivenes of the international force, thereby 
weakening the guardian of universal peace. 

For the above reasons, the Chinese Delegation 
prefers the text accepted by the four Delegations. 

Position of the French Delegation 

The French Delegation considers that contribu- 
tions from Members of United Nations should be 
determined on the basis of the following 
principles : 

A. With regard to the comparison between the 
contributions by each of the five Permanent Mem- 
bers, the French Delegation is in favour of 
equality of responsibility as well as equality of 
sacrifice and equality of rights among the five 
Permanent Members of the Security Council, but 
considers that it would be Utopian to insist that 
each of them provide contributions equal in quan- 
tity and in quality. 

That is why the French Delegation proposes 
that the Armed Forces envisaged in the initial 
Special Agreements should be provided on the 
principle of equivalent contributions by the five 
Permanent Members of the Security Council. On 
this assumption, the French Delegation waives the 
obligation that the five Permanent Members 
should provide forces of identical composition 
with regard to land, sea and air components, and 
insists solely on a comparable overall strength of 
the contingents. 

The French Delegation forsees, should the occa- 

256 



sion arise to appreciably increase the overall 
strength of the United Nations Armed Forces, the 
provision by the five Permanent Members, to the 
extent of their capacity, of additional equivalent 
contributions, taking into account bases, assistance 
and facilities. 

B. With regard to the comparison of contribu- 
tions by Permanent Members and by other Mem- 
ber Nations of United Nations, the French 
Delegation considers that, in spirit, the Charter I 
entrusts the five Permanent Members with the 
major portion of responsibilities. The proof of 
this can be found in two of its main provisions : 

i. Article 27 of the Charter requires the con- 
curring votes of the five Permanent Members 
to adopt any decision by the Security Council 
on any question other than a matter of pro- 
cedure. The greater the responsibility, the 
greater should be the liabilities. 
ii. Article 106 of the Charter entrusts the five 
Permanent Members with the responsibility 
of maintaining international peace and se- 
curity, pending the coming into force of 
Special Agreements referred to in Article 43 
of the Charter. 

As long as the Charter remains in force, without 
amendments, this main responsibility of the five 
Permanent Members will be the decisive factor of 
the system. 

Moreover, the French Delegation considers that, 
in practice, the vast superiority of the Permanent 
Members, viewed from every angle (population, 
economic and financial strength, area of terri- 
tories, geographical distribution of these terri- 
tories), is such that the greater part of the Armed 
Forces of United Nations will always be provided 
by the five Permanent Members. 

Position of the V.S.S.R. Delegation 

The principle of equality in the contribution of 
Armed Forces by the five Permanent Members of 
the Security Council proposed by the U.S.S.R. 
Delegation is based on the provisions of the United 
Nations Charter which lay the main responsibility 
for the maintenance of international peace and 
security on those States and that corresponds to 
their equal status in the Security Council. 

The overall size of the armed forces made avail- 
able to the Security Council will not be too large. 
Therefore the five States can make Armed Forces 

Department of State Bulletin 



available on the principle of equality, that is they 
can contribute Armed Forces, land, sea and air, 
which would be equal in strength and composition. 
The principle of equality does not permit advan- 
tages in the position of any Permanent Member of 
j the Security Council in the contribution of armed 
forces by that Member. 

The principle of "comparable contributions" 
proposed by the other Delegations permits a situ- 
ation when certain of the five States may, for in- 
stance, contribute the major portion of the Armed 
Forces chiefly in air forces, others chiefly in sea 
forces, and a third group chiefly in land forces, 
and so on. That would lead to advantages in the 
positions of certain States in the contribution of 
Armed Forces by these States and therefore would 
be in contradiction with the equal status of these 
States as Permanent Members of the Security 
Council. 

Position of the U.K. Delegation 

The U.K. Delegation considers that the existing 
variation in the size and composition of the three 
Services amongst the five Permanent Members of 
the Security Council must be a major consideration 
in determining their contributions to the United 
'' Nations Forces. It seems essential to maintain as 
far as possible equality of sacrifice amongst the 
five Permanent Members and at the same time en- 
sure that the Security Council is provided with 
armed forces, from which it can select a balanced 
force for a specific operation. 

In the opinion of the U.K. Delegation, a rigid 
rule of equality would not in practice be capable 
of implementation and in fact the proposal of the 
U.S.S.R. Delegation has had to recognize the need 
for deviations from such a principle. Further- 
more by accepting deviations from this principle, 
an equality of sacrifice amongst the five Permanent 
Members would not necessarily be maintained. 
On the other hand, the U.K. Delegation considers 
that the principle of comparable overall contri- 
butions is the only realistic one, and that given 
goodwill, common sense and military knowledge 
it could be implemented among the Five Perma- 
nent Members of the Security Council without par- 
ticular advantage to any specific Member. Thus 
the U.K. Delegation is firmly convinced that the 
principle of comparable overall contributions is 
the only practical one. 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

Position of the U.S. Delegation 

The U.S. Delegation believes that the funda- 
mental and dominant aim of the General Prin- 
ciples is the establishment and organization of 
effective United Nations Armed Forces. The con- 
tributions of all Member Nations will and should, 
in large measure, be based upon the capability and 
willingness of the Member Nations and the require- 
ments of the Security Council. Every Member 
Nation should have the right to offer as its own con- 
tribution such forces as it considers reasonable and 
proper. Each Permanent Member should have 
the right to contribute armed forces equal to those 
contributed by any other Permanent Member, but 
these contributions should not be limited or re- 
stricted by this right. The Security Council will, 
of course, determine the acceptability of contribu- 
tions offered. It is desirable that these forces 
should result from contributions of the Permanent 
Members which are comparable or not greatly dis- 
proportionate in overall strength. However, no 
principle governing national contributions should 
jeopardize the all-important goal of effective 
United Nations Armed Forces. 

The U.S.S.R. "Principle of Equality" is incon- 
sistent with the goal of effective United Nations 
Armed Forces and with Article 9, and is, therefore, 
unacceptable to the United States. This prin- 
ciple has been interpreted by the U.S.S.R. Dele- 
gation to mean that each of the five Permanent 
Members of the Security Council must make 
available identical forces. The militai-y power of 
each of the five Permanent Members does not rest 
on equal military forces or on equal services, land, 
sea, and air, and probably never will. Hence, the 
Permanent Members should not be expected to 
provide equal forces. Under the "Principle of 
Equality" as defined by the U.S.S.R. Delegation 
every component and every element of every com- 
ponent, contributed by the Permanent Members 
would be limited so that it must be equal in 
strength and composition to the weakest corres- 
ponding component or element provided by any 
Permanent Alember. 

It is recognized that the Soviet proposal pro- 
vides that deviations from the Principle of Equal- 
ity may be made by special decision of the Security 
Council. However, the U.S. Delegation believes 
that, if the goal of effective forces is to become 
a reality, the deviations would of necessity become 
the rule. 



Supplemenf, August 3, 1947 



257 



ARMING THE UNITED NATIONS 

In the discussions leading to the formulation of 
this Article, there arose the question as to whether 
or not the Permanent Members of the Security 
Council should contribute, for all time, the major 
portion of the Armed Forces made available to the 
Security Council. Certain Delegations indicated 
the belief that the major portion of these Armed 
Forces should always be provided by the Perma- 
nent Members of the Security Council. Wliereas 
this concept is no longer implicit in the proposals 
for this Article, the U.S. Delegation nevertheless 
desires to state its position on this principle. 

The U.S. Delegation agrees that the Permanent 
Members of the Security Council should contribute 
initially the major portion of the Armed Forces 
in order to facilitate the early establishment of 
these forces as indicated in Article 10. It may 
be that the contributions of the other nations will 
never overtake those of the five Permanent Mem- 
bers. However, the U.S. Delegation cannot agree 
that this condition necessarily will govern for all 
time. It may be that the collective capabilities 
of the members of the United Nations, other than 
the Permanent Members of the Security Council, 
might at sometime in the future exceed the 
capabilities of the five Permanent Members of the 
Security Council, in which case, the U.S. Delega- 
tion conceives of no reasons why the contributions 
of those other Members of the United Nations 
should not exceed those of the Permanent Members 
of the Security Council. 

Therefore, in recognition of the national in- 
terests of all Members of the United Nations, the 
U.S. Delegation is opposed to expressing as a 
permanent principle that the five Permanent 
Members would, for all time, contribute the major 
portion of the Armed Forces. 

Article 16 
Position of the Chinese Delegation 

In view of the fact that the Air Force is essen- 
tial to prompt military action, the Chinese Delega- 
tion believes that in determining the strength of 
national air force contributions of the Member 
Nations, the obligations arising out of Article 45 
of the Charter should be taken into consideration. 
Hence, it prefers the text agreed upon by the four 
Delegations. 

Position of the U.K. Delegation 

The U.K. Delegation does not agree with the 
U.S.S.R. Delegation that the provisions of Article 

258 



45 of the Charter should not be reflected in the 
General Principles, since in the opinion of the 
U.K. Delegation these provisions must be taken 
into consideration at the time when the Special 
Agreements envisaged in Article 43 of the Charter 
are negotiated. 

Article 45 of the Charter deals with the strength 
and composition and the state of readiness of na- 
tional air force contingents. In the opinion of the 
U.K. Delegation, any reference to these factors 
should be made separately under the appropriate 
Chapters of the General Principles. 

The U.K. Delegation considers the implementa- 
tion of Article 45 of the Charter would be carried 
out by the following processes : 

a. In determining the strength and composition 
of the total national air force contributions, the 
obligations arising from Article 45 of the Charter 
would be taken into account. 

b. Tlie air force contingents for action envisaged 
in Article 45 of the Charter would be selected from 
amongst the national air force contributions made 
under Article 43 of the Charter. 

c. The Security Council, advised by the Military 
Staff Committee, would request Member Nations 
to maintain at a high degree of readiness the air 
force contingents selected for this purpose. 

The U.K. Delegation considers that the pro- 
posal of the U.S.S.R. Delegation, being phrased in 
the exact wording of Article 45 of the Charter, does 
not give the full military interpretation of this 
Article. 

Position of the U.S. Delegation 

The U.S. Delegation interprets Article 45 of the 
Charter as making available to the Security Coun- 
cil specific contingents of national air force con- 
tributions for the special purpose of providing the 
United Nations with a means of taking urgent 
military measures. It will be necessary to estab- 
lish these particular contingents as a part of the 
overall national air force contributions. This re- 
quirement will be a major consideration in deter- 
mining the strength and composition of the 
national air force contributions. The U.S. Dele- 
gation considers it most appropriate to include, in 
the Chapter concerned with the principles govern- 
ing national contributions under Article 43 of the 
Charter, an article which will ensure recognition 
of these obligations arising from Article 45 of the 
Charter. 

Department of State Bul