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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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VOLUME XVIII: Numbers 444-469 

Janunry i-Junp 27, 194fi 



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Publication 3344 



INDEX 



Volume XVIII: Numbers 444-469, January 4-June 27, 1948 



Ackerman, Ralph H., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Dominican Republic. 719. 
Addresses, broiulcasts, and statements of the week, listed, 

401, 687. 
Aeronautical radio conference, international, 649. 
Afghanistan : 
U.S. Ambassador (Palmer), appointment, 719. 
U.S. Legation at Kabul, elevation to rank of Embassy, 

491, 782. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Agriculture, cooperative programs under Institute of 

Inter-American Affairs, article by Mr. Halle, 758. 
Agriculture. International Institute of, termination, final 

act of permanent committee, 828. 
Aid to foreign countries (see also China; and individual 
countries of Europe) : 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. See Economic Co- 
operation Act. 
Economic Cooperation Administration. See Economic 

Cooperation Administration. 
European Recovery Program. See European Recovery 

Program. 
Financial (1948-49), estimate of, letter from Ambassa- 
dor Douglas to Senator Vandenberg, 233. 
Foreign Aid Act of 1947, administration of (Ex. Or. 

9914), 24. 
Foreign-aid program, 1st report to Congress released, 

648. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948. See Foreign Assistance 

Act. 
Foreign-relief program, 2d report to Congress released, 

554. 
President's budget on, 126, 255. 
Ships, proposed sale to foreign countries to facilitate 

aid programs, 311. 
Tabular report, 350. 
Air. See Aviation. 
Allen, George V. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Pan American Day, 546. 
Progress of human liberty in democratic forms, 476, 

587. 
Student ships, assignment, for education program, 488. 
UNESCO, accomplishments of, 727. 
U.S. position in Iran, 223. 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 361. 
Allied Control Council for military government in Ger- 
many, statement by Secretary Marshall, 456. 
AMAG. See American Mission for Aid to Greece. 
American Association for the UN, Inc., New York, N. T., 

address by Mr. Thorp, 83. 
American Federation of Labor, protests to Department of 
State concerning Greek anti-strike, anti-lockout law, 
letter from Secretary Marshall, 315. 
American Importers, National Council of, New York, N. Y., 

address by Mr. Thorp, 603. 
American Mission for Aid to Greece (see also Greece) : 
Accomplishments : 

Address by Mr. Henderson, 272. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 271. 
Appointment of Burton Y. Berry and Charles E. Moore, 

115. 
Refugee care, article by Mr. Howard, 291. 
Survey of transportation in Greece, 779. 



American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Inter-American ; Pan American; Treaties; and the in- 
dividual countries) : 
Economic development in, financing by Export-Import 

Bank, message by President Truman, 548. 
European Recovery Program, relation to, 184. 
Health and sanitation programs, 819. 
Interdependence of, address by Secretary Marshall, 469. 
Law schools in, survey of, 844. 
UN Economic Commission for Latin America : 
Appointment of U.S. Representative, 828. 
First session, 831. 
American states, 9th international conference of : 
Addresses by — 
Mr. Allen, .546. 
Mr. Armour, 714. 
Secretary Marshall, 469. 
Charter of Organization of American States drawn up 

at, text, 666. 
Discussed in article by Mr. Sanders, 158] 181. 
Economic-cooperation agreement, text of draft to be 

presented at, 308. 
Policy group, designation of deputy chairman, 449. 
Preparatory work for, assistance of Mr. Pawley, 149. 
U.S. delegation, 417, 473. 
American States, Organization of, charter establishing, 

666. 
American Statistical Association, New York, N. Y., ad- 
dress by Mr. Thorp, 53. 
Andrews, John N., appointment to Board of Foreign 

Scholarships, 489. 
Anglo-American Press Club, Paris, address by Mr. Benton. 

518. 
Arab Higher Committee. See Palestine situation. 
Arab States. See Palestine situation. 
Arabic, teaching of, in Foreign Service Institute, 618. 
Argentina {see also American republics) : 

(3ombat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 390, 846. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 751. 
Minister of War (Sosa Molina), visit to U.S., 318. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission on, 25, 144, 300, 

449, 579, 734. 
Armed forces, U.S., withdrawal from defense sites in 

Panama, 31, 317. 
Armour, Norman : 

Address on 9th international conference of American 

states, 714. 
Note to Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin) on Soviet 
objections to tripartite discussions on Germany, 457. 
Arms, ammunition, and scrap, embargo on exports, 318, 

551. 
Armstrong, W. Park, Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 391. 
Army, U.S., retention as U.S. property of horses from 

Hungary, 221. 
Aruba, West Indies, elevation of U.S. Vice Consulate to 

rank of Consulate, 124. 
Asia. See Far East. i 5lV? 

Assets. See Property. ' 

Assistance. See Aid. 
Atomic energy, control of, statement by Mr. Jessup on U.S. 

po.sition, 798. 
Atomic Energy Commission of UN: 

Dates of meeting, 25, 144, 300, 449, 579, 733. 
Reports to UN: 

Discussion of 3d report in Security Council, 731, 802, 
830. 



Index, January to June 1948 



849 



Atomic Energy Commission — Continued 
Reports to UN — Continued 

Transmittal of 1st, 2d, and 3d reports to General 

Assembly, 830. 
UN resolution accepting 1st, 2d, and 3d reports, 799. 
Suspension of negotiations, recommendation in 3d re- 
port to Security Council, 704. 
Austin, Warren R. : 

Address on tensions in UN, 14. 

Appointment to Interim Committee of UN General As- 
sembly, 47. 
Note to Secretary-General of UN regarding accreditation 

of UN correspondents, 48. 
Statements : 

Czechoslovak situation, 411, 446, 517, 536. 
Indonesian situation, 333. 
ITO charter, completion of, 445. 
Military training, universal, 418. 
Palestine situation, 294, 342, 402, 514, 515, 568, 695, 763. 
UN, strengthening of, 626. 
Australia, treaties : 

General agreement on tariffs and trade : 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 120, 

373, 652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120, 373, 652. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Austria : 

Aid from U.S. : 

Allocation under interim-aid program, 138. 

Expression of gratitude for, 82. 

Note to U.S. on passage of act, 585. 

Streptomycin, shipment from U.S. under interim-aid 

program, 611. 
Supply and sliipping goal for foreign-aid program, 

234. 
Tabular report, 350. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid agreement, interim, with U.S., remarks by U.S. 

High Commissioner (Keyes) on signature, 52. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to 
purposes of, exchange of notes with U.S., 645, 
686, 712. 
Peace treaty with Allies, negotiations in Council of 
Foreign Ministers: 
Resumption, 213. 
Suspension, 746. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 739. 
U.S. property in, extension of time for filing claims, 357. 
Aviation (see also International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion; Treaties) : 
Aeronautical radio conference, administrative and 
preparatory conference, U.S. delegations, 543, 649. 
Air Policy Commission, President's, report of, discussed 

in statement by Mr. Kuter, 116. 
Cooperation in, necessity for, statement by Mr. Kuter, 

116. 
International Air Exposition, invitations to, 474. 
U.S. aircraft, activities over waters adjoining Japan, 

U.S. reply to Soviet protests, 746. 
U.S: military aircraft, transit through airfield in Azores, 
agreement between U.S. and Portugal (1946), ex- 
tension, 221, 358, 839. 
Azores. See Aviation. 

Balkans, UN Special Committee on : 
Action in UN, 768, 831. 
Dates of meetings, 25, 144, 300. 
Bangkok, Siam, regional Foreign Service conference to be 

held in, 815. 
Bank for International Settlements, relinquishment of 

monetary gold looted by Germany, agreement with 

U.S., U.K., and France, 713. 
Barrows, Leland, designation in State Department, 63, 

615. 
B.C.G. vaccine, 1st international congress, U.S. delegation, 

777. 
Beattie, Edward W., Jr., designation in State Department, 

617. 

850 



Belgian Congo, opening of U.S. Consulate at Elisabethville, 

619, 751. 
Belgium : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 846. 
Property of U. S. nationals in, procedure for filing 

claims, 278. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, with U.K., France, Luxem- 
bourg, and Netherlands, text, and communique of 
meeting of Permanent Consultative Council, 600, 
602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 68G. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade: 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

120, 373, 652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120, 373, 652. 
German enemy assets, signature, 93. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Tripartite conversations on German economic unity, 
U.S., U.K., and France (representation at), 285, 380, 
457, 778, 807. 
Visit of Prince Charles to U.S., 522. 
Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union, trade agreement, with 

U.S. (1935), proclamation rendering inoperative, 30. 
Benelux (Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg Customs 
Union), participation in conversations on German 
economic unity between U.S., U.K., and France, 120, 
285, 380, 778, 807. 
Benton, William, addresses on freedom of information, 

489, 518. 
Bergen, Norway, opening of U.S. Consulate, 349. 
Bermuda, civil use of air bases in, agreement between U.S. 

and U.K. regarding, 305. 
Bernadotte, Count Folke (UN mediator in Palestine) : 
Creation of position of mediator. General Assembl] 

resolution, 694. 
Imposition of truce in Palestine: 

Messages to Secretary-General of UN, 764, 797. 
Note to provisional government of Israel and the Arab 
States, 794. 
Berry, Burton Y., appointment to AMAG, 115. 
Bill of rights, international, article by Mr. Hendrick, 195. 
Bipartite Board for U.S.-U.K. zones of Germany, 708. 
Bizone. See Germany. 

Bogota conference. See American states, 9th interna- 
tional conference of. 
Bogotd incident, 546. 
Bohlen, Charles E. : 
Addresses : 

Problems of U.S. foreign relations, 751. 
U.S. aid to Europe, 78, 349. 
Correspondence : 
Chairman of House Foreign Affairs Committee 
(Eaton), regarding proposed foreign-policy legis- 
lation, 385. 
Senator Vandenberg, on Uruguayan gift, 585. 
Bolivia {see also American republics), cultural leader, 

visit to U.S., 716. 
Boundary commission, .loint, U.S.-Canada, 150, 522, 718. 
Boundary waters, U.S.-Canadian, treaty with Canada 
(1909), referral to International Joint Commission, 
letters of Secretary Marshall, 150. 
Bowers, Claude G., appointment as U.S. representative on 

Economic Commission for Latin America, 828. 
Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, opening of U.S. Consulate 

General, 427. 
Brazil (see aho American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Nabuco), credentials, 782. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 122, 390. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 716, 751, 845. 
Foreign capital in, registration of, extention of deadline 

for, 95. 
Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U.S., establishment 

proposed, 303. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Lend-lease, with U.S., final settlement, 552. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Brazil — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador (Jolinson), appointment, 687. 
U.S. Consular Agency at Curltiba, opening, S29. 
British West Indies, elevation of U.S. Consulate at Port- 

of-Spain, Trinidad, to Consulate General, 124. 
Broadcasting, radio. See Radio. 
Broadcasts, addresses, and statements of the week, listed, 

401, 687. 
Brown, lla.i. Gen. Philip E., designation in State De- 
partment, 520. 
Brown, Winthrop G., addresses on trade, 478, 605. 
Brussels treaty. Sec Economic, social and cultural col- 
laboration. 
Bulgaria : 
Gitchev, Dimiter, indictment of. statement by Depart- 
ment of State concerning, 219. 
Minister to U.S. (Mevorah), credentials, 62. 
Nonenemy status of, statement by Secretary of the 

Treasury, 121. 
Revival of prewar treaties and agreements by U.S., text 

of U.S. note, 383. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 741. 
U.S. property in, registration of claims, 711. 
Burma : 

Educational-exchange program, with U.S., under Ful- 
bright act : 
Grants under, 4S7, 552, 782. 
Signing of agreement establishing, 27, 388. 
Establishment of independent republic, messages from 
President Truman and Acting Secretary Lovett, 61. 
Burns, Norman, article on U.S. responsibility in world 

trade, 663. 
Butler, George H., designation in State Department, 317. 
Butler, Robert, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Cuba, 
710. 

Caffery, Jefferson, remarks regarding Interim-aid agree- 
ment with France, .50. 
Cale, Edward G., article on international wheat agreement, 

395. 
Calendars of meetings of organizations and conferences, 

25, 144, 300, 449, 579, 733. 
Calkins, G. Nathan, Jr., article on 1st meeting of Legal 

Committee of ICAO, 506. 
Canada : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 122, 390, 846. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, on bound- 
ary waters : 
Investigation of dredging operations in Niagara River, 

718. 
Meeting, 522. 

Referral of terms of reference to, 150. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Pur seals, protection of, provisional agreement, with 

U.S. (1942), extension (1947), 94. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade: 
Signature of protocol of provisional application, 120, 

373, 652. 

Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120, 373, 652. 

German enemy assets, resolution of conflicting claims 

to, with U.S. and Netherlands (1947), signature, 3. 

Shellfish industry, sanitary control of, with U.S., text 

and correspondence regarding, 717. 
Trade agreement, with U.S. (193S), proclamation ren- 
dering inoperative, 30. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
U.S. Consulate at St. Stephen, New Brunswick, closing, 

63. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at Fredericton, New Brunswick, 

closing, 349. 
Weather stations in Canadian Arctic, resupply program 
with U.S., 782. 
Cancer research congress, 4th international, article by Mr. 
Scheele, 147. 

Caribbean area, civil use of air bases in, agreement between 
U.S. and U.K., 305. 



Caribbean Commission : 

Organization and function, article by Mr. Taussig, 691. 
Relation to UN, 693. 
U.S. acceptance of member.ship, 360, 491. 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, regional 
conference, St. Louis, Mo., address by Mr. Jessup, 573. 
Cates, John M., articles : 
Conference of directors of Internatioaal Meteorological 

Organization, 43. 
UN maritime conference, 495. 
Cebu, Republic of the Philippines, opening of U.S. Con- 
sulate, 517. 
CEEC. See European Economic Co-operation, Commit- 
tee of. 
Census of Americas, 1950, consultation by El Salvador 

with Census Bureau on, 815. 
Centennial celebration of State of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wise, address by Mr. Bohlen, 78. 
Central America. See American republics and the iti- 

dimdual countries. 
Ceylon : 

Dominion status achieved, U.S. attitude, 316. 
Exchange of Ambassadors with U.S., 687. 
U.S. Ambassador ((3ole), appointment, 517. 
CFM. See Foreign Ministers, Council of. 
Chamber of Commerce, Pittsburgh, Pa., address by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 108. 
Changchun, China, closing of U.S. Consulate General, 349. 
Chapman, Wilbert M., designation as Special Assistant 

to Under Secretary of State, 815. 
Charts analyzing Inter-American System, 164, 166, 180. 
Chemical Industries Committee, U.S. delegation, 450. 
Chiang Kai-shek, Generalissimo, inauguration as Presi- 
dent of Chinese Republic, 713. 
Chicago Council of Foreign Relations, address by Mr. 

Austin, 14. 
Child congress, 9th Pan American, 62, 595. 
Children's Emergency Fund, International, Executive 

Board, 25. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 
Bond service, new, plans for, 486. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to. table, 122, 554. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 390, 489, 552, 751. 
Czechoslovak situation, request for investigation by 
Security Council : 
Letter from Chilean representative to UN Secretary- 
General, 409. 
Statement by U.S. representative (Austin), 446. 
Interference by U.S.S.R. in internal affairs charged by 
representative to UN, 411. 
China : 
Aid from U.S. : 

China Aid Act of 1948, proposals regarding, exchange 
of notes between Secretary Marshall and Ambas- 
sador Koo, 647. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, qualification for aid 

under, 686. 
Proposed extension of aid, message of President Tru- 
man to Congress and statement by Secretary 
Marshall, 268. 
Supply and shipping target, 237. 
Tabular report, 350. 
Technical mission, Chinese, to U.S., 115. 
Chiang Kai-shek, Generalissimo, inauguration as Presi- 
dent of Chinese Republic, 713. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, and retransfer to 

U.S., table, 123, 390, 554, 846. 
Communists in Government of, U.S. position, 384. 
Educational-exchange program, with U.S., under Ful- 
bright act : 
Grants under, 487, 654. 
Signing of agreement establishing, 388. 
Property of U.S. citizens confiscated during Japanese 

occupation of, procedure for filing claims, 253. 
Surplus-property contract for, statement by Secretary 
Marshall, 384. 



Index, January to June 1948 



851 



China — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

General agreement on tariffs and trade : 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 652. 
U.S. Educational Foundation in China, agreement 

establishing (1947), signature, 388. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
U.S. Consulate General at Changchun, closing, 349. 
U.S. policy in Japan, statement b.v U.S. Ambassador 
(Stuart) on attitude of Chinese students toward, 
813. 
Ohisholm, Dr. Brock, correspondence with U.S. regarding 

attendance at World Health Assembly, 540. 
Citizens, U.S. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 
Civil aviation. See Aviation ; ICAO ; Treaties. 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Interna- 
tional. 
Claims. .See Property; Protection of U.S. nationals and 

property. 
Clayton, William L. : 

Address on United Nations conference on trade and 

emplo.vment, 825. 
Statement on completion of ITO charter, 444. 
Coal exports to Italy, aid for gas-producing industry, 552. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, 26. 
Cohen, Wilbur J., article on 2d inter-American conference 

on social security, 376. 
Cole, Felix, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Ceylon, 

517, 687. 
Colombia («ee also American republics) : 

American Red Cross, aid during Bogoti'i demonstrations, 
correspondence between President of Colombia 
(Ospina Perez) and President Truman, 716. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 815. 
Reconstruction in, commitment for, by Export-Import 

Bank, 549. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Columbia Broadcastins System correspondent (Polk), 

Greek investigation of murder, 713, 748. 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarized, transfer of : 

Iran, supplemental appropriation for, proposed, 780. 
Tables showing, 122, 390, 554, 846. 
Commerce. See Trade. 

Commerce, Department of, joint announcement on restitu- 
tion of looted ijroperty in Japan, 483. 
Commissions, committees, etc., international (.see also 
name of commission; Conferences; United Nations) : 
Allied Control Council for Germany, 456. 
American States, Organization of, 660. 
Bar Association, Inter-American, 844. 
Bipartite Board for U.S.-U.K. Zones in Germany, 708. 
Cancer Research Commission, International, 14S. 
Caribbean Commission, 300, 491, 691. 
European Economic Co-operation, Committee of, 138, 

375, 074. 
Eui'opean Economic Co-operation, Organization for, 040. 
European Manpower Movements, Committee for Co- 
ordination of, 675. 
Far Eastern Commission, 92, 93, 213, 482, 530. 
Fisheries Commission, International Pacific Salmon, 95. 
Food and Agriculture Organization, 26, 145, 2S2, 300, 

301, 449, 769. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agenc.v, 227, 240. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 25, 144, 301. 
Inter-Auieriean Affairs, Institute of, 659, 758, 819. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council of Pan 

American Union, 426. 
International Civil Aviation Organization, 116, 463, 704, 

776. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 150, 522, 

718. 
Literary and Artistic Works, International Union for 

Protection of, 677. 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmen- 
tal, 286, 495. 



Commissions, committees, etc., international — Continued 
Military Committee, Permanent, of U.K., Belgium, 

France, Luxembourg, and Netherlands, proposed, 

602. 
Nationality Commission, Mixed, 781. 
Permanent Committee of International Institute of 

Agriculture, 828. 
Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission 

for, 551. 
South Pacific Commission, 214, 598. 693. 
Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U.S., 303. 
Trade Organization, International, 367, 373, 441, 478. 
UNESCO, 212, 727. 

World Health Organization, 431, 802, 832. 
Commissions, committees, etc., national : 
Air Policy Commission, President's, 116. 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, 389, 489, 654. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 60. 
Red Cross, American, 716. 
Communications and Transport Commission of ECOSOC, 

131. 
Communists : 

Chinese Government, inclusion in, U.S. position, 384, 
Czechoslovakia, seizure, 304, 381, 409, 446, 517, 536, (i39. 
Germany, "People's Congress", 456. 
Greece, activities in, 59. 
Conferences, congresses, etc., international {see also 
name of conference ; United Nations) : 
Aeronautical radio conference, 543, 649. 
American states, 9th international conference, 149, 158, 

181, 417, 449, 469, 473, 5^6, 666, 714. 
Arts and handicrafts exhibition of American elementary 

school children, 146, 302. 
Bar Association, Inter-American, 5th meeting, 25. 
B.C.G. vaccine, 1st international congress, 777. 
Biological sciences, international union, meeting, 26, 

145, 300. 
Broadcasting conference, international high frequency, 

379. 
Brussels fair, 22d international, 146, 302. 
Calendars of meetings, 2.5, 144, 300, 449, 579, 733. 
Canadian international trade fair, 302. 
Cancer research congress, 4th international, 147. 
Cartography, 4th Pan American consultation, 146, 302. 
Chemical Industries Committee of ILO, first session, 

450. 
Child congress, 9th Pan American, 62, 144, 595. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, meeting, 26. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 7th meeting, 

379, 702. 
Dams, large, 3d international congress, 734, 737. 
Danube, conference to consider free navigation of, 735, 

793. 
Diseases, international lists of, and causes of death, 

conference for revision, 545. 
Education, public, 11th international conference, 734. 
Electric systems, large, international conference, 12th 

biennial session, 833. 
Entomology, 8th international congress, 803. 
European Economic Co-operation, Committee of, man- 
power conference, 138, 674. 
Food and Agriculture Orsranlzation, meetings sponsored 

by, 26, 145, 282, 300, 301, 449, 769. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 

Austria, Deputies for, 213, 301, 449, 579, 733, 746. 

Germany, Deputies for, 25. 

Italian colonial problems, Deputies for, 25, 301, 449, 

579. 
Italian colonies, former, commission of investigation 

to, 25, 144, 301, 449, 579, 734. 
Third session (1946), 730. 
Frequency board, provisional, 22, 26, 301, 449, 579, 734. 
Genetics, Sth interuatioiuil congress, 834. 
German external property negotiations (Safehaven) 

with Portugal and .Spain, 25, 144, 301, 734. 
Health congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, 302, 580, 

733. 
Highway congress, 5th Pan American, 146, 302. 



852 



Department of State Bulletin 



Conferences, congresses, etc., international — Continued 
History, Commission on, of Pan American Institute of 

Geoerrapliy and History, 1st consultation, 87. 
Hydraulic structures research, International Associa- 
tion of,' meeting, 734. 
International Civil Aviation Organization, meetings, 25, 
145, 801, 449, .50(3, 5S0, 678, 703, 733, 77.5, 776, 831. 

International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, meeting, 
.522. 

International labor conference, 31st session, 701, 773. 

International Labor Organization, meetings, 25, 139, 
301, 303, 378, 450, 771. 

Journ^es Medicates de Bruxelles, 22d session, 777. 

Leprosy congress, 5th international, 4.50. 

Literary and artistic worlds, international convention 
for protection of, dii)lomatic conference for revision, 
677. 

Lyon international fair, 145, 302, 449. 

Malaria and tropical medicine, 4th international con- 
gresses, 303, 475, 545. 

Manpower conference, 138, 674. 

Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovern- 
mental, conference to consider establishment, 286, 
495. 

Meteorological Organization, International, conference 
of directors, 43. 

Milan fair (26th), 146, 302. 

Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Permanent Consultative 
Council, meeting, 602. 

North American regional broadcasting agreement, meet- 
ing of technicians, 25, 541, 747. 

Ophthalmology, 3d Pan American congress, 26, 144. 

Pan American child congress (9th), 62. 

Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Com- 
mission on History, 1st consultation, 87. 

Pan American Sanitary Organization, 1st meeting of 
directing council, 283. 

Paris international fair, 302. 

Physiopathology of animal reproduction and artificial 
insemination, 1st international congress, 832. 

Poultry congress, 8th world, 379, 803. 

Praha international spring fair, 26, 145, 301. 

Protection of Childhood, American International Insti- 
tute for, Council of, annual meeting, 776. 

Public education, 11th international conference, 833. 

Radio conference, aeronautical, 543. 

Radio Consultative Committee of CCIR, 5th meeting, 
834. 

Railway congress, 6th Pan American, 449. 

Refugee Organization, International, meetings of Pre- 
paratory Commission, 21, 49, 451, 580. 

Resources, renewable natural, 1st inter-American con- 
ference on conservation, 146. 

Rhine Commission, Central, meeting, 302. 

Rice meeting, international, 282, 769. 

Royal Netherlands Industries fair, 146, 302. 

Royal Sanitary Institute, health congress, 678. 

Rubber Study Group, 5th meeting, 474, 650. 

Safety activities in fields of aviation, meteorology, 
shipping, and telecommunications, meeting of com- 
mittee to make recommendations on, 26, 145, 3(X). 

Safety of life at sea, international conference on, .544. 

Ships, tonnage measurement of, meeting of technicians. 
302, 449. 

Social security, inter-American committee on, 3d meet- 
ing, 377. 

Social security, 2d Inter-American conference on, 376. 

Social work, international conference on, 146, 302. 

Soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 2d inter- 
national conference on. 734, 737. 

Soils, tropical and subtropical, specialist conference. 
734. 

Sugar Council, international, meeting, 580. 

Surgeons, International College of, 6th congress, 649. 

Telecommunication Union, International, meetings spon- 
sored by, 22, 122, 379, 534, 543, 599, 649, 834. 

Telegraph and consultative committee, 6th plenarv meet- 
ing, 302, 580, 599, 733. 



Index, January fo June 1948 



Conferences, congresses, etc., international — Continued 
Telephone consultative committee, rates, traffic, and 

technical meetings, 146, 734. 
Textiles conference, 734. 
Tin Study Group, 2d meeting, 475, 599. 
Trade-marks rights, German, preliminary discussions on 

treatment of, 25. 
Travel congress, 3d inter-American, 146, 302. 
Tropical medicine and malaria, 4th International con- 
gresses, 303, 475, 545. 
UNESCO, meetings sponsored by, 25, 145, 300, 302, 579, 

598, 733. 
Wheat Council, International, special .session, 215, 300, 

395 
World health assembly, 440, .540, .581, 734, 8.32. 
World Health Organization, Interim Commission, meet- 
ings, 23, 144, 300, 734, 774. 
World Health Organization, meetings sponsored by, 26, 

144, 300, 580, 733. 
Zagreb international fair, 302. 
Conferences, congresses, etc., national : 

Pacific regional conference on UNESCO, 727. 
Regional consular conferences: 
Bangkok, 815. 
Capetown, 450. 
Mexico City, 389, 450. 
Congress, U.S. : 
Aid, proposed, to — 
China, 268. 

Greece and Turkey, 298, 346. 
Trieste, 348. 
Economic Cooperation Act. See Economic Cooperation 

Act. 
Educational-exchange programs, report on operations 
of State Department, transmittal to Congress, with 
text of report, 387. 
Foreign-aid program, transmittal of 1st report, 648. 
Foreign Assistance Act. See Foreign Assistance Act. 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs : 

China, aid to, statement by Secretary Marshall, 270. 
ERP, relation to foreign policy, statement by Secre- 
tary Marishall, 112. 
Foreign-policy legi.slation, proposed, letter from Coun- 
selor of State Department (Bohlen), 385. 
Greece and Turkey, extension of aid to, statement by 

Secretary Marshall, 346. 
Palestine situation, UN solution of, letter from Secre- 
tary Marshall, 281. 
UN, strengthening of, statements by Secretary Mar- 
shall and Ambassador Austin, 623. 
House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 
letter and enclosures from Secretary Marshall re- 
garding extension of Ship Sales Act of 1946, 311. 
House Committee on Ways and Means, statement and 
correspondence by Secretary Marshall on renewal 
of Trade Agreements Act, 651, 7.50. 
Legislation, listed, 123, 230, 533, 619, 730, 750, 782. 
Messages from President Truman : 
Annual message, 90. 
China, proposed aid to, 268. 
Cuban anniversary (50th), joint session on, .582. 
Export-Import Bank financing of economic develop- 
ment in American republics, 548. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty with 

Ital.v, transmittal to Senate, 550. 
Peace, means of securing, 418. 

Trade Agreements Act, Reciprocal, extension of, 351. 
Wheat agreement, international, transmittal to Sen- 
ate, 606. 
Presidential term. Constitutional amendment, status of 

ratifications, 427. 
Publications. See Legislation supra. 
Senate Committee on Armed Services, address by Secre- 
tary Marshall concerning relation of military 
strength to diplomatic action, 421. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations : 
ERP legislation, preparation of draft bill, 233. 



853 



Congress, U. S. — Continued 

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations — Continued 
European economic recovery, statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 71. 
Foreign financial aid (1948-49), estimates, 233. 
U.S. participation in UN, 1947, rfeum^ of report, 279. 
Uruguayan gift, legislation proposed on acceptance of, 
letter from Counselor of State Department ( Bohlen) 
to President pro tempore of Senate (Vandenberg), 
585. 
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), protests to 
Department of State concerning Greek anti-strike, 
anti-lockout law, letter from Secretary Marshall, 
315. 
Constitution of U.S., status of ratifications of proposed 
amendment regarding term of oflBce of the President, 
427. 
Constitutions of German states, article discussing, 559. 
Consular convention, U.S. with — • 
Costa Rica, signature, 314. 
U.K., negotiations, 191. 
Consultative Council, Permanent, of Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs of U.K., Belgium, France, Luxembourg, and 
Netherlands, communique on first meeting, 602. 
Convention.?. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Copyright protection, convention on (1886), as revised, 
U. S. observer delegation to conference for revision of, 
677. 
Correspondents. See Information. 
Costa Rica : 
Agricultural program, cooperative, with Institute of 

Inter-American Affairs, 762. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Esquivel), credentials, 747. 
Consular convention, with U.S., signature, 314. 
U.S. Consulate at Port Llm6n, closing, 517. 
Cotton, trade of, in Japan, discussed in article by Mr. 

Nehnier and Miss Crimmins, 528. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 7th meeting: 
Agenda and U.S. delegation, 379. 
Article by Mr. Evans, 702. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Crimmins, Marguerite C, article on significance of textiles 

in Japanese economy, 527. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 122, 390, 554. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 845. 

Independence, 50th anniversary, address by President 
Truman and statement by Secretary Marshall, 582. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

General agreement on tariffs and trade : 
Exclusive supplementary agreement with U.S., text, 

signature, and proclamation, 28, 29, 60, 841. 
Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

120, 373, 652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120, 373, 652. 
Trade agreement, with U.S. (1934, 1939, 1941), procla- 
mation rendering Inoperative, 29. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
U.S. Ambassador (Butler), appointment, 719. 
U.S. educator, visit to Habana, 390. 
Cultural cooperation (see also Educational exchange pro- 
gram) : 
Law schools in other American republics, survey, 844. 
Student exchange, pictorial record, 845. 
Visitors from U.S. to: Cuba, 390; Guatemala, 3.57; Mexi- 
co, 357 ; other American republics. 716 ; Peru, 357. 
Visitors to U.S. from: Argentina, 751; Bolivia, 716; 
Brazil, 716, 751, 845 ; Chile, 390, 489, 552, 751 ; Colom- 
bia, 815 ; Cuba, 845 ; Dominican Republic, 814, 844 ; 
El Salvador, 844 ; Guatemala, 31 ; Mexico, 611 ; Peru, 
716; Uruguay, 814, 845. 
Cyprus, Oldening of U.S. Consulate at Nicosia, 619. 
Czechoslovakia (see also Europe) : 

Combat materiel, retransfer to U.S., table, 123. 
Communist seizure of power: 

Joint U.S., French, and U.K. declaration, 304. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 381. 



854 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 

Communist seizure of power — Continued 
Investigation by Security Council : 
Request by Chilean and Czechoslovak representa- 
tives, 409. 
Statements by U.S. representative (Austin), 446, 

517, 536. 
Summary statement by Secretary-General of UN 
(Lie), 639. 
Declaration on German problems, U.S. position, 384. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade : 
Intention to sign, 425. 
Signature of protocol of provisional application, 610, 

652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 610, 652. 
Masaryk, Jan, death of, statement by Department of 

State, 381. 
U.S. Consulate General at Bratislava, opening, 427. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 

Damages. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 

Dams, large, 3d International congress, U.S. delegation, 

737. 
Daniels, Paul C, designation in State Department, 449. 
Danube, conference to consider free navigation of: 
Background, 703. 
Decisions of Council of Foreign Ministers, December 

1946 : 736. 
Exchange of views with U.K., French, and Soviet Gov- 
ernments, review of, 735. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 736. 
Danube, freedom of navigation on, article by Mr. Hadsel, 

787. 
Day, Albert M., appointment to International Pacific Sal- 
mon Fisheries Commission, 95. 
Death, lists of causes of, international conference, U.S. 

delegation, 545. 
Defense sites in Panama, agreement between U.S. and 

Panama (1942), termination, 317. 
Defense sites in Panama, agreement between U.S. and 
Panama (1947), rejection of ratification by Panama, 
31. 
Denmark : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, and retransfer to 

U.S., table, 122, 123. 
Trade-mark registration, extension of time for renewal 

of, 222. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, with U.S., signature and statement 

by Secretary Marshall, 653. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 640 n., 686, 712. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Detention of U.S. nationals by Lebanon, 712, 749, 780. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt, appointment to ITU Administra- 
tive Council, 122. 
Dillon, Augusto, credentials as Ecuadoran Ambassador to 

U.S., 62. 
Diplomatic relations with — 
Ceylon, 687. 
Israel. See Israel. 
Nepal, 215. 
Nicaragua, 716. 
Siam, 360, 686. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 62, 215, 

318, 486, 717, 747, 782. 
Diseases and causes of death, international lists of, in- 
ternational conference on, U.S. delegation, 545. 
Displaced persons and refugees : 

Discussion of, in CEEC manpower conference, 138. 
European, transporting, discussed in State Department 

memorandum, 314. 
Greece, problem in, article by Mr. Howard, 291. 
International Refugee Organization. Sec Refugee Or- 
ganization, International. 
Proposed international tr.icing service for, discussed by 
Mr. Warren, 22. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Documents and State Papers, State Department publica- 
tion, announcement on initiation of, 524. 
Dod(i, Norris E. (Acting Secretary of Agriculture), letter 
to Secretar.v Marsliall recommending Senate approval 
of international wlieat agreement, 609. 
Domestic jurisdiction, impact of UN upon, article by Mr. 

Gross, 259. 
Dominican Republic (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 814, 844. 
U.S. Amliassador (Ackerman). appointment, 719. 
Wheat asreement, signature, 474. 
Donnelly, Walter J. (American Ambassador to Venezuela) , 
attendance at inauguration of Venezuelan President- 
elect, 222. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 

Denmark, signature and statement by Secretary Mar- 

sball, 653. 
France, modification of, signature, remarks, and rati- 
fication, 711, 841. 
Netherlands, signature and statement by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 611. 
New Zealand, signature, 486. 
Douglas, Lewis W. (Ambassador to Great Britain), letter 
to Senator Vandenberg regarding estimate for foreign 
financial aid for 1948-49 : 233. 
DouU, James A., article on 1st meeting of directing coun- 
cil of the Pan American Sanitary Organization, 283. 
Dublin, Ireland, conversion of U.S. Legation and Con- 
sulate to combined office, 349. 
Dunn, James C. (U.S. Ambassador to Italy), remarks 
regarding interim-aid agreement with Italy, 51. 

EGA. See Economic Cooperation Administration. 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe. 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and collective 
self-defence, treaty between U.K., Belgium, Prance, 
Luxembourg, and Netherlands, text, 600. 
Economic agreement, inter-American, text of draft, 308. 
Economic and Social Council, Inter-American, 184, 426. 
Economic and Social Council of UN (ECOSOC) : 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 

Dates of meetings, 25, 26, 144, 145, 301, 449, 579, 733, 

734. 
Economic Commission for Asia and Far East, 768. 
Economic Commission for Europe, 27, 737, 831. 
Economic Commission for Latin America, 828, 831. 
Economic Commission for Mid-East, proposed, 732. 
Genocide, ad hoc Committee on, 723. 
Human Rights Commission, 195, 264, 732, 768, 801, 831. 
Transport and Communications Commission, 131. 
Freedom of information, conference on, 337, 378, 518. 
Resolution on Yugoslav gold reserves in U.S., 209, 448. 
Sixth session, statement by U.S. representative (Thorp) 
and agenda, 209. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, discus- 
sion in UN, 768. 
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) : 
Appointment of Mr. Harriman as U.S. representative, 

831. 
Coal, Committee on, 579, 733. 
Electric Power, Committee on, 579, 733. 
Housing, Panel on, .579, 733. 
Inland Transport Committee: 

Designation of highways for truck transport, 737. 
Discus.sed by Acting Secretary Lovett, 27. 
Economic Commission for Latin America : 
Fir.st session, 831. 

U.S. representative, appointment, 828. 
Economic Commission for Mid-East, proposed by UN, 732. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 {see also Foreign As- 
sistance Act) : 
Adherence to purposes of, by : Austria, 645, 686 ; Belgium, 
686; Denmark, 040 n., 686; France, 640 n., 686; 
French zone of Germany, 838 ; Greece, 708 ; Iceland, 
640 n., 686 ; Ireland, 642, 686 ; Italy, 642, 686 ; Lux- 
embourg, 640 n., 712 ; Netherlands, 640, 686 ; Norway, 
640 n., 686 ; Sweden, 640 n., 712 ; Turkev, 779 ; U.K., 
644, 686 ; U.S.-U.K. zones of Germany, 708. 



Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 — Continued 

Pas.sage of, note of thanks to U.S. from Austria, 585. 
Statement by Department of State and Economic Co- 
operation Administration, 640. 
Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) : 

Appointment of Mr. Hoffman as Administrator, 516. 

Cooperation with State Department, 718. 

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, joint statement with 

State Department, 640. 
Transportation in Greece, joint survey with AMAG, 779. 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social CounciL 
Ecuador (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Dillon), credentials, 62. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 122, 846. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Educational-exchange program, under Fulbright act: 
Agreements with : Burma, 27, 388 ; China, 388 ; Greece, 

654; Philippine Republic, 488. 
Educational Exchange, Ofiice of, establishment, 615. 
Foreign Scholarships. Board of, membership, 389, 489. 
Grants for ; Burma, 487, 552, 782 ; China, 487, 654. 
Operations of State Department, report by Secretary 
Marshall, 387. 
Educational-exchange program with other American re- 
publics. See Visitors under Cultural cooperation. 
Egypt : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 122. 

Palestine situation. See Palestine. 

Question in Security Council, summar.v statement by 

Secretar.v-General (Lie), 633. 
Steamship service to U.S., inauguration, 486. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Elections in Korea : 
Date proclaimed by U.S. commander in Korea (Hodge), 

344. 
Need for, resolution by Interim Committee of UN, 297. 
Views of Interim Committee of UN, conformity with, 
statement by Secretary Marshall, 375. 
Electric systems, large, 12th biennial session of interna- 
tional conference, U.S. delegation, 833. 
Elisabethville, Belgian Congo, opening of U.S. Consulate, 

610, 751. 
Ellis. Leonard B., article on international rice meeting of 

FAO, 769. 
El Salvador (see also American republics) : 

Census, 1950, consultation with U.S. Census Bureau on, 

815. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 123, 390. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 844. 
Embargo on exportation of arms and scrap iron, 318. 
Embassies, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Employment and trade, UN conference on. See Trade and 

employment. 
Enemy assets, German. See Germany. 
Entomology, 8th international congress, U.S. delegation, 

803. 
ERP. See European Recovery Program. 
Esquivel, Mario A., credentials as Costa Rican Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 747. 
Europe. See Aid to foreign countries ; Displaced persons ; 

European Recovery Program. 
Europe, Economic Commission for, 26, 27, 145, 301, 579, 

733, 737, 831. 
European Economic Co-operation, Committee of (CEEC) : 
Exploratory discussions with U.S. on import program 

under ERP, 375. 
Manpower conference (Rome) : 
Article by Mr. Lorwin, 674. 
Observers from U.S., 138. 
European Economic Co-operation, Organization for, 138, 

640. 
European Manpower Movements, Committee for Coordi- 
nation of, establishment, article by Mr. Lorwin, 675. 
European-Mediterranean regional air-navigation meeting 
of ICAO, 2d, U.S. delegation, 580. 



Index, January Jo June 1948 



855 



European Recovery Program (ERP) : 
Addresses and statements by — 
Mr. Bohlen, 78, 349. 
Mr. Gross, 564. 
Acting Secretary Lovett, 468. 

Secretary Marshall, 71, 108, 112, 115, 137, 231, 374, 651. 
Mr. Thorp, 55. 137, 354, 373, 491, 655. 
American republics, relation to, 184. 
Appointment of Mr. Thorp and deputies as Department 

of State coordinators, 350. 
Austria, attitude, 585. 
Country studies on, release of, 114. 
Draft bill, progress of congressional hearings, 233. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948: 585, 640, 686, 708, 

712, 779, 838. 
Economic Cooperation Administration, 516, 640, 718, 779. 
Foreign-aid shipments under Public Laws 78, 84, and 

389, tables showing, 350. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948: 468, 686, 718. 
Germany, relationship to, 242, 354. 

Import program under, exploratory discussions between 
U.S. and representatives of Committee of European 
Economic Co-operation, 375. 
Italy, discus.sed in statement by Mr. Lovett, 468. 
Manpower conference (Rome), 138, 674. 
Militar.v bases, no provision for, statement by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 115. 
U.S. roving ambassador in Europe (Harriman), appoint- 
ment, 619. 
European Union, Western, proposed : 

Proposal by U.K. Foreign Minister (Bevin) for, state- 
ment by Department of State, 138. 
Treat.v of economic, social and cultural collaboration 
and collective self-defence, text, and communique 
of meeting of Permanent Consultative Council, 600, 
602. 
U.S. attitude, 138. 
Evans, .lames G., article on 7th meeting of International 

Cotton Advisory Committee, 702. 
Exchanges, cultural and educational. See Cultural co- 
operation ; Educational-exchange. 
Executive orders : 

Foreign Aid Act of 1947, administration of (Ex. Or. 

9914), 24. 
Italy, transfer of passenger and cargo vessels to (Ex. 

Or. 9935), 454. 
Military tribunals for U.S. zone in Germany (Ex. Or. 

9917), 316. 
Transfer of property to Philippines (Ex. Or. 9921), 124. 
Executive Staff in State Department, establishment, 615. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington : 

Commitment for reconstruction in Colombia, 549. 
Financing of economic development of American re- 
publics, message of President Truman to Congress, 
548. 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Far East, Economic Commission for Asia and, 768. 
Far Eastern Commission (FEC) : 

Discu.ssions in, clarification of status, 213. 
Policy in Japan : 

Food, supply of, for civilian consumption, 93. 
Looted property, 482. 
Reparation, distribution of, 92. 
Textiles, 530. 
Farm Institute, National, Des Moines, Iowa, address by 

Secretary Marshall, 231. 
Farm-labor migration agreement, U.S. with Mexico, ex- 
change of notes, 317. 
FEC. See Far Eastern Commission. 
Federal Council of Churches, Washington, D.C., address by 

Secretary Marshall, 374. 
Ferreyros Ayulo, Alfredo, credentials as Peruvian Am- 
bassador to U.S., 318. 
Finance : 

Bank for International Settlements, agreement with 
U.S., U.K., and France on monetary gold looted by 
Germany, 713. 

856 



Finance — Continued 

Bond service, Chilean, new plans for, 486. 

Capital, foreign, in Brazil, extension of registration 

deadline, 95. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington, 548. 
Foreign-aid program, funds for, 138, 233, 2.34, 237, 755. 
Funds from lend-lease and surplus-property settlements. 

See Lend-lease ; Surplus war property. 
Germany, currency-reform program, 835. 
Gold. See Gold. 
I'resident's budget on international affairs and finance, 

326, 255. 
Sweden, trade and financial discussions with, summary 
of developments and U.S.-Sweden correspondence, 
251. 
Finland, ships requisitioned during war, compensation for, 

62. 
Fisheries and wildlife problems, international, procedure 
for handling, exchange of letters between Departments 
of State and Interior, 586. 
Fisheries Commission, International Pacific Salmon, ap- 
pointment of Mr. Day, 95. 
Fitch, Thomas, designation in State Department, 845. 
Food: 

Japan, supply for civilian consumption. Far Eastern 

Commission policy decision regarding, 93. 
Rice, current situation and future prospects, discussed 
in article by Mr. Ellis, 769. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of UN (FAO), con- 
ferences : 
Dates of meetings, 26, 145, 300, 301, 449. 
Rice meeting, 282, 769. 

Study of the sea, regional meeting to consider formation 
of a regional council of, 282. 
Foreign Agriculture, publication of Department of Agricul- 
ture, 125. 
Foreign Aid Act of 1947, administration of (Ex. Or. 9914), 

24. 
Foreign aid and assistance programs. Sec Aid ; Economic 
Cooperation Act ; Economic Cooperation Administra- 
tion ; European Recovery Program ; Foreign As- 
sistance Act; and the individual countries. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 (see also Economic Coop- 
eration Act) : 
Cooperation between State Department and EGA under, 

718. 
Signature of act, statements by President Truman and 

Secretary Marshall, 468. 
Title IV (China Aid Act), 647, 686. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission {see also Surplus war 
property), appointment of Commissioner and Deputy 
Commissioner, 520. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM) : 

Danube, 1946 decisions regarding free navigation of, 

736. 
Deputies for Austria : 

Designation of Mr. Reber as U.S. Deputy, 213. 
Resumption of discussions, 213. 
Suspension of discussions, 746. 
Foreign Ministers, U.S., U.K., and French, meeting of, 456. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
Address by Mr. Allen, 476. 
Address by Mr. Thorp, 53. 
European Recovery Program, relationship to, statement 

by Secretary Marshall, 112. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, significance in, ar- 
ticle by Mr. Halle, 659. 
Legislation, proposed, letter from Counselor of the De- 
partment of State (Bohlen) to Chairman of House 
Foreign Affairs Committee (Eaton), 385. 
Reciprocal trade-agreements program, relationship to, 
351, 307. 
Foreign Relations of the United States. 1932, vol. II, re- 
leased, 459: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, vol. 
XII, piiblislu'd, 319. 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of. See Educational-ex- 
change program. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Foreign Service, U.S. : 
Ambassadors, appointment : 

Afghanistan (Palmer), 719; Brazil (Johnson), 687; 
C^fjion (Cole), .'ilT, ()S7; Cuba (Butler), 710; Do- 
minican Republic (Aclierman), 710; European coun- 
tries (Harriman), 619; Greece (Grady), 782; Iran 
(Wile.v), 390: Nicaragua (Shaw), 719; Peru (Titt- 
mann), 820; Portugal (MacVeagh), 390, .517. 
Arabic, teaching of, in Foreign Service Institute, 618. 
Consular conferences, regional: 
Bangkok, Sl.'i. 
Capetown. 450. 
Mexico City, 389, 450. 
Consular convention, with — 
Costa Rica, signature, 314. 
U.K., negotiations, 191. 
Consular offices : Aruba, West Indies, elevation to rank 
of Consulate, 124; Bergen, Norway, opening, 349; 
Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, opening, 427 ; Cebu, Re- 
public of the Philippines, opening, 517 ; Changchun, 
China, closing, 349; Curitiba, Brazil, opening, 829; 
Dublin, Ireland, conversion of Legation and Con- 
sulate to combined office, 349; Elisabethville, Bel- 
gian Congo, opening, 619, 751 ; Fredericton, New 
Brunswick. Canada, closing, 349 ; Haifa, Palestine, 
opening, 619; Kabul, Afghanistan, elevation to rank 
of Embas.sy, 491, 782 ; Nicosia, Cyprus, opening, 619 ; 
Palermo, Italy, elevation to rank of Consulate 
General. 517. 619; Port Limon. Costa Rica, closing, 
517; Port-of-Spaln, Trinidad, British West Indies, 
elevation to rank of Consulate General, 124 ; Puerto 
Cortes, Honduras, opening, 340 ; St. Stephen, New 
Brunswick, Canada, closing, 63. 
Ministers, appointment: Nepal (Grady), 686; Union of 

Soutli Africa (Winship), 491. 
Written examinations for, 389. 
France : 

Aid from U.S.: 

Economic Cooperation Act of 194S, adherence to pur- 
poses of. 640 n., 686. 
Foreign-aid program, supply and shipping goal, 234. 
Foreign-aid shipments from U.S., tabular report, 350. 
Interim-aid agreement, with U.S., 50. 
Interim-aid allocation, 1.S8. 
Combat materiel, transfer bv U.S. to, and retransfer to 

U.S., table, 123, 390. 
Communist seizure of power in Czechoslovakia, joint 

declaration with U.S. and U.K., 304. 
Customs union, with Italy, U.S. attitude, 253. 
Danube, conference to consider free navigation of, ex- 
change of views with U.S., U.K., and Soviet Govern- 
ments, 735. 
Expropriation of German assets in Spain, G^iS. 
Foreign Minister, meeting with U.S. and U.K. Foreign 

Siinisters, di.scussed, 456. 
Prisoners of war, status of release of, 221. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation (1946), protocol modifying: 
Ratification, 841. 

Signature and remarks, 711. , 

Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, with U.K., Belgium, Luxem- 
bourg, and Netherlands, text, and communique of 
meeting of Permanent Consultative Council, 600, 
602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 640 n., 686. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade : 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

120, 373, 6.52. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120, 373, 652. 
Industrial-property agreement, supplementary, with 

U.S. (1947), entry into force, 485. 
Interim-aid agreement, with U.S., signature and re- 
marks, 50. 
Trade agreement (1936), proclamation rendering in- 
operative, 30. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 

Index, January to June 1948 



France — Continued 

Trieste, Free Territory of, return to Italy proposed, 

joint statement with U.S. and U.K., 425. 
Tripartite conversations with U.S. and U.K. on German 
economic unity. See Tripartite. 
Franks, Oliver Shewell, appointment as British Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 7S2. 
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, closing of U.S. Vice 

Consulate, 349. 
Free Territory of Trieste. See Trieste. 
Freedom and tyranny, world-wide struggle between, ad- 
dress by Secretary Marshall, 422. 
Freedom of information. See Information. 
Freezing of as.sets in U.S., Yugoslav complaint and 

U.S. attitude, 117. 
Friendshii), Commerce, and navigation, treaty with Italy ; 
Signature, 219. 

Summary of provisions and transmittal to Senate, 550. 
Fulbright act. See Educational-exchange program. 
Fund, International Children's Emergenc'y, 25. 
Fur seals, protection of, provisional agreement, U.S. and 
Canada (1942), extension (1947), 94. 

Gallegos, R6mulo (President-elect of Venezuela), U.S. 

diplomatic representation at inauguration of, 222. 
General Assembly and the Problem of Greece, Buixetin 

supplement, 49. 
General Assemlily of UN : 

Balkans, Special Committee on, 25, 144, .300, 768, 831. 
Economic accomplishments of, address by Mr. Thorp, 

83. 
Greek question, special committee on, 449, 579, 734. 
Indians in South Africa, discussion, 263. 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee. 
International Law Commission, action regarding, 732. 
Korea, Temporary Commission on, 297, 344, 375, 575, 

700, 768, 800. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
Statements by U.S. representative (Austin), .514, 568. 
Genetics, 8th international congress of, U.S. delegation, 

834. 
Geneva agreement. See Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on. 
Genocide, report of U.S. representative on ECOSOC com- 
mittee and text of draft convention, 723. 
Geography and History, Pan American Institute of. Com- 
mission on History, article by Mr. Whitaker, 87. 
Germany : 
Allied Control Council, statement by Secretary Marshall 

on Four Power responsibilities, 456. 
Assets, external : 

Agreement relating to resolution of conilicting claims 

to, 3, 93. 
Rules for accounting for, in countries members of 

Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 227. 
Soviet proposals on, 191. 
Spain, expropriation of, 653. 
Currency reform, statements regarding, and summary, 

835. 
Declaration on problems in, by Yugoslavia, Czechoslo- 
vakia, and Poland, U.S. position, 384. 
Documents on Soviet-German relations, release of, by 

State Department, 1.50. 
Future of, address by Mr. Thorp, 353. 
Gold, monetary, loote*l by, agreement between Bank for 
International Settlements and U.S., U.K., and 
France, 713. 
Level-of-industry plan in bizonal area, 188, 241. 
"People's Congress", U.S. and U.K. position, statement 

by Secretary Marshall, 4.56. 
Reparation program : 

Memorandum of State Department, with letter from 

Secretary Marshall to Senator Vandenberg, 238. 
Removal of industrial plants, letter from Under Sec- 
retary Lovett to House Speaker Martin, with data 
requested, 185. 
State constitutions, article from Information Bulletin of 
U.S. Military Government in Germany, 559. 

857 



Germany — Continued 

Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 738. 
Tripartite conversations on economic unity in (U.S., 
U.K., and France with Benelux representation), 285, 
380, 457, 778, 807. 
Zone of occupation, French, adherence to purposes of 

Economic Cooperation Act, 838. 
Zone of occupation, Soviet, lack of information regard- 
ing, discussed in letter by Under Secretary Lovett, 
185. 
Zone of occupation, U.S. : 
Civil administration : 

Studv by State Department survey group proposed, 

352. 
To remain under Department of the Army, 456. 
Military tribunals, appointments to, 316. 
Zones of occupation, U.S. and U.K. : 

Bipartite Board for U.S.-U.K. Zones, adherence to 

purposes of Economic Cooperation Act, 708. 
Level-of-industry plan, revised, discussed in questions 
and an.swers on removal of industrial plants from 
Germany, 188. 
Plants, industrial, removal by reparation, correspond- 
ence and questions and answers concerning, 185. 
Gitchev, Dimiter, indictment of, in Bulgaria, statement 

by Department of State, 219. 
Gold: 
Looted by Germany, restitution : 

Agreement between Bank for International Settle- 
ments and U.S., U.K., and France, 713. 
Spain, exi)ropriation in, 653. 

Tripartite Commission for, share allowed to Italy, 
551. 
Yugoslav, reserves in U.S., ECOSOC resolution, 448. 
Gonzalez-Arevalo, Ismael, credentials as Guatemalan Am- 
bassador to U.S., 486. 
Good Offices Committee of the Security Council, negotia- 
tions for settlement of Netherlands-Indonesia dis- 
pute, 143, 323, 634, 802. 
Grady, Henry F. : 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Greece, 782. 
Credentials as U.S. Minister to Nepal, 686. 
Graham, Frank P., statement to Security Council on Good 

Offices Committee on Indonesia, 331. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Address by Mr. Henderson, 272. 
Aid from U.S. : 

Addresses by Mr. McGhee and Mr. Henderson, cited, 

491, 655. 
American Mission for Aid to Greece (AMAG), 115, 

271, 272, 291, 779. 
Request for continuation of, 298, 346. 
Tabular report, 3.50. 
Anti-strike, anti-lockout law, U.S. attitude, 315. 
Assassination of Minister of Justice (Ladas), me.ssage 

from Secretary Marshall to Greek officials, 713. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, and retransfer 

to U.S., table, 123, 846. 
Communists in, attempt to overthrow recognized Gov- 
ernment, U.S. position, 59. 
Economic situation, relation to AMAG, address by Mr. 

Henderson, 275. 
General Assemhly and the Problem of Greece. Bulletin 

supplement, 49. 
General Assembly special committee on Greek question, 

449, 579, 734. 
Murder of CBS correspondent (Polk) : 
Announcement, 713. 
Investigation, 748. 
Refugee problem, article by Mr. Howard, 291. 
Transportation in, joint survey by ECA and AMAG, 779. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S., 708. 



Greece — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Educational-exchange program, agreement putting in- 
to operation, with U.S., signature, 654. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
U.S. Ambassador (Grady), appointment, 782. 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Address on role of international law in European Be- 

covei'y Program, 564. 
Article on impact of UN upon domestic jurisdiction, 259. 
Guatemala {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Gonzalez-Arevalo), credentials, 

486. 
Combat matMel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 846. 
Educator, visit to U.S., 31. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 357. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 

Habana charter. See Trade Organization, International. 
Habana conference. See Trade and employment, UN 

conference on. 
Hadsel, Fred L., article on freedom of navigation on the 

Danube, 787. 
Haifa, Palestine, opening of U.S. Consulate, 619. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 

Agricultural program, cooperative, with Institute of 

Inter-American Affaii-s, 761. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 846. 
Halle, Louis J., Jr., articles on Institute of Inter-American 

Affairs, 659, 758, 819. 
Harriman, W. Averell, appointments : 

U.S. representative on UN Economic Commission for 

Europe,' 831. 
U.S. special representative in Europe with rank of Am- 
bassador, 619. 
Hasan, Syed Sibtay (alien correspondent at UN), case of, 

statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 20, 48. 
Health and sanitation, cooperative programs, under In- 
stitute of Inter-American Affairs, article by Mr. 
Halle, 819. 
Health congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, U.S. delega- 
tion, 678. 
Health Organization, World. See World. 
Henderson, Loy W., addresses on Greece, 272, 491. 
Hendriek, James P., article on international bill of human 

rights, 195. 
Herald Trilnme Forum, New York, N. Y., address by Mr. 

Thorp, 353. 
Highway system, European, designation by Inland Trans- 
port Committee of Economic Commission for Europe, 
737. 
Hilldring, John H., appointment as Si)ecial Assistant to 

the Secretary of State, 618, 751. 
Hines, Frank T. (U.S. Ambassador to Panama), exchange 
of notes with Panamanian Minister for Foreign Affairs 
(De Diego), on termination of 1942 defense sites 
agreement, 317. 
History and Geography, Pan American Institute of, Com- 
mission on History, article by Mr. Whitaker, 87. 
Hodge, Lt. Gen. John R. : 

I'roclamation and statement on Korean elections, 344. 
Letter to Korean Assemblymen on formation of new 
government, 80O. 
Hoffman, Paul G., appointment as ECA administrator, 516. 
Holland, Kenneth : 

Appointment as U.S. counselor on UNESCO in Paris, 212. 
Designation in State Department, 61.5. 
Honduras (see also American republics), opening of U.S. 

consular agenc.v at Puerto Cortes, 349. 
Horses, from Hungary, U.S. decision on disposition of, 

letter from Mr. Lovett to Senator Gurney, 221. 
House of Representatives. See Congress. 
Howard, Harry N., article on refugee problem in Greece, 

291. 
Huddle, J. Klahr, appointment as U.S. representative on 
Security Council Commission on Kashmir, 732, 828. 



858 



Department of State Bulletin 



Human Rights, UN Commission on: 
Articles on : 
Mr. Gross, 264. 
Mr. Hendricks, 195. 
Covenant of Human Rights, anal.vsis, 203. 
Draft Declaration of Human Rights, action on, 199, 732, 
76S, 801, 831. 
Hungary : 

Arrest of American officers in, texts of U.S. and Hun- 
garian notes, 244. 
Horses from, U.S. decision on disposition of, letter from 

Mr. Lovett, 221. 
Nonenemy status of, statement by Secretary of the 

Treasury, 121. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, procedure for filing claims, 

485. 
Revival of prewar treaties and agreements, by U.S., 

text of U.S. note, 382. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 740. 
Hyde, H. van Zile, article on progress and plans of World 

Health Organization, 431. 
Hylean Amazon, International Institute of, U.S. delegation 
to conference for establishment of, 598. 

lARA. See Inter-AlUed Reparation Agency. 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 
Iceland : 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, &40 n., 686. 
North Atlantic States concerned in joint support of air- 
navigation services in, ICAO conference, 776. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
IMO. See Meteorological Organization. 
Income taxes, conventions on. See Double taxation. 
India: 
Dispute with Pakistan on Kashmir: 

Proceedings of Security Council, 732, 767. 
Resolutions of Security Council, 143, 698. 
Summary statement by Secretary-General (Lie) to 
Security Council, 638. 
Nationals in South Africa, treatment of, discussion in 

General Assembly, 263. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Indonesian situation : 
Good Offices Committee of the Security Council: 
Message to parties to dispute, draft, 330. 
Negotiations for settlement of dispute, 143, 323. 
Linggadjati agreement, text, 325. 
Security Council, proceedings, 262, 802. 
Security Council, resolutions, texts, 328, 329, 336. 
Summary, with documents relating to, 327. 
Summary statement by Secretary-General (Lie), 634. 
Truce agreement (Renville agreement), Netherlands 

and Indonesia, text, 334. 
U.S. statements, 143, 331, 3.33. 
Industrial plants, removal of, from Germany, as repara- 
tion, correspondence and data concerning, 185. 
Industrial property: 
Agreement, supplementary, concerning restoration of 
certain rights afieected by World War II, U.S. and 
France (1947), entry into force, 485. 
Trade-mark registrations, extension of time for re- 
newal of, with respect to — 
Denmark and Luxembourg, 222. 
Norway, 93. 
Philippines, 717. 
Industry, level of, in bizonal area of Germany. See Level- 

of-industry plan. 
Information (see also Radio) : 
Alien correspondents at the United Nations : 
Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 20. 
Note from U.S. Mission to Secretary-General Lie, 48. 
Murder of CBS correspondent (Polk), text of official 

statements and notes, 713, 748. 
Overseas information program, role of libraries, 842. 
Yugoslav press, accusations against U.S. officials, U.S. 
position, 707. 

Index, January to June 1948 



Information, Freedom of, UN Conference on : 
Addresses by Mr. Benton, regarding, 489, 518. 
UN conference on : 

Agenda and organization, 337, 378. 
U.S. delegation, 378. 
Information and Educational Exchange, Office of, in State 

Department, abolishment, 615. 
Inland Transport Committee, improvement of transport in 

Europe, 27, 737. 
Institute of Agriculture, International, termination, final 

act of permanent committee, 828. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs. Bee Inter-American 

Affairs. 
Inter- Allied Reparation Agency: 

German assets abroad, rules for accounting for, in coun- 
tries members of, 227. 
German industrial plants, attitude toward dismantling 

of, 240. 
Membership, 227 n. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, articles by Mr. 
Halle- 
Cooperative agricultural programs, 758. 
Health and sanitation, cooperative programs, 819. 
U.S. foreign policy, significance in, 659. 
Inter-American Bar Association, 25; survey of law schools 

in other American republics, 844. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, memoran- 
dums submitted by U.S. representative, 184, 426. 
Inter-American economic cooperation agreement, text of 

draft, 308. 
Inter-American system : 
American States, Organization of, charter establishing. 

text, 666. 
Article by Mr. Sanders, 155. 

United Nations, coordination with, article and charts 
166, 177, 180. 

Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947) 
ratification by U.S., 60. 

Intergoyernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. 
See Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovern- 
mental. 

Interim Committee of General Assembly: 
Accomplishments and future of : 
Address by Mr. Jessup, 573. 
Statement by Mr. Johnson, 801, 823. 
Appointments : 
Mr. Austin and Mr. Jessup, as U.S. representative 

and deputy U.S. representative, 47. 
Mr. Johnson as deputy U. S. representative, 732. 
Korean elections: 
Conformity with views of, statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 375. 
Resolution on implementing program for elections, 
297. 
Pacific settlement of disputes, progress, 767. 
Voting in Security Council, U.S. proposals, and draft 
resolution, 86, 412. 
Interior, Department of the, fisheries and wildlife prob- 
lems, international, procedure for handling, exchange 
of letters with Department of State, 586. 
International Civil Aviation 1945-1948: Report of the 

U.S. Representative, excerpts, 704. 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 
Activities and functions, article, 463. 
Articles and addresses : 
Mr. Adams, 775. 
Mr. Calkins, 506. 
Mr. Kuter, 116. 
Assembly, 2d annual, 703, 734, 775, 831. 
Civil-aviation agreements (1944), status as of Apr 

1,1948: 612. 
Council, 2d session, 25. 
Conferences : 

European-Mediterranean regional air-navigation 

meeting, 2d, 580. 
North Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting, 2d. 
580. 



859 



International Civil Aviation Organization — Continued 
Conferences — Continued 

North Atlantic states concerned in joint support of 
Iceland air-navigation services, U.S. delegation, 
734, 776. 
Facilitation Division, 2d session, U.S. delegation and 

agenda, 678. 
International Civil Aviation 1945-19 'iS: Report of the 

U.S. Representative, excerpts, 704. 
Treaties. See Aviation under Treaties. 
International conference of American states, 9th. See 

American states. 
International Information, Office of, establishment in 

State Department, 615. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada : 
Field Investigation of dredging operations in Niagara 

Eiver, 718. 
Negotiations regarding boundary waters agreement, 
l.'-.O, 522. 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Appointments : 

Mr. Landon as delegate to session of Permanent Mi- 
gration Committee, 303. 
Mr. Morse as director general of ILO, 802. 
Ooverning Body, sessions, 25, 378, 379, 734, 771. 
Industrial Committee on Cliemicals, 301. 
International Labor Conference, 31st general .session: 
Agenda, 701, 774. 
U.S. delegation, 773. 
Maritime Commission, Joint, 25. 
Permanent Migration Committee, 2d session, 303. 
Regional meeting for Near and Middle East, article by 
Mr. Tobin, 139. 
International lau', role in European Recovery Program, ad- 
dress by Mr. Gross, 564. 
International Law Commission of UN, UN action, 732. 
International Meteorological Organization. See Meteor- 
ological Organization, International. 
International Trade Organization. See Trade Organiza- 
tion, International. 
Intervention in domestic jurisdictions, limitations of UN, 

259. 
Iran : 
Schwarzkopf mission, clarification of, requested by U.S., 

307. 
Summary statement by Secretary-General (Lie) to Se- 
curity Council, 633. 
Surplus war property, request for supplemental appro- 
priation for extending credit for, 780. 
U.S. Ambassador (Wiley), appointment, 390. 
U.S. position in, remarlis by Mr. Allen, 223. 
Iraq, truce with provisional government of State of Israel, 

acceptance, 795 n. 
Ireland : 

Conversion of U.S. Legation and Consulate at Dublin 

to combined office, 349. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S., 642, 686. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
IRO. See Refugee Organization, International. 
Israel, State of (see also Palestine situation), provisional 
government, U.S. recognition : 
Reque.st for, letter from agent of provisional government 

(Epstein), 673. 
Statement by President Truman, 673. 
Italy : 

Aid from U.S. : 
Agricultural survey, 551. 
Article by Mr. Smith on relief operations, 755. 
Coal, 138, 552. 

Food and other commodities (under Public Laws 84 
and 389), 51, 138, 234, 350. 
Committee for economic and social development of, re- 
marks by Mr. Lovett before, 468. 
Customs union, with France, U.S. attitude, 253. 
Development of Sicily and southern Italy, statement by 
Mr. Lovett, 468. 



Italy — Continued 

European Recovery Program for, discussed by Mr. 

Lovett, 469. 
Nonenemy status of, statement by Secretary of the 

Treasury, 121. 
Restitution of monetary gold looted by Nazis, allowance 

of claims for, 551. 
Scientific survey by U.S. scientists, 551. 
Scrap metal for U.S., sources, 551. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid agreement, interim, with U.S., signature, and 

statement lay Ambassador Dunn, 50, 51. 
Air transport (1946) with U.S., signature, 220. 
American dead in World War II, exchange of notes 

on military cemeteries, 250. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S., 643, 686. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with U.S., 

signature and transmittal to Senate, 219, 550. 
Peace treaty, protocol, drafting of, rejection by 

U.S.S.R., 549. 
Revival of prewar, by U.S., text of U.S. notes, 248, 

4.55. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Trieste situation. See Trieste. 

U.S. Consulate at Palermo, elevation to rank of Con- 
sulate General, 517, 619. 
Vessels, return to Italy by U.S., statement by President 

Truman and Executive order, 454. 
Vessels, U.S., visits to Italian ports, U.S.-U.S.S.R. cor- 
respondence concerning, 218. 
War claims, U.S., payment of and procedure for filing, 
584. 
ITO. See Trade Organization. 
ITU. See Telecommunication Union. 

Ja^n Guardia, Ernesto, credentials as Panamanian Am- 
bassador to U.S., 486. 
Japan : 
Activities of U.S. aircraft over waters adjoining, U.S. 

reply to Soviet protests, 746. 
Economy, textiles, significance in, article by Mr. Nehmer 

and Mrs. Crimmins, .527. 
Mandated Islands. See Pacific Islands, Territory of. 
Policy of Far Eastern Commission. See Far Eastern 

Commission. 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. See Su- 
preme Commander. 
Trade with U.S., release of regulations for, 254. 
U.S. policy in, statement by Ambassador Stuart on 
attitude of Chinese students toward, 813. 
Jerusalem, City of. See Palestine situation. 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, U.S. position, 798. 
Interim Committee of UN, 414, 573. 
Jerusalem, U.S. position on French projMsal, 591. 
Palestine, question of trusteeship for, 502. 
Appointment as deputy U.S. representative in Interim 
Committee and in Security Council, 47, 732. 
Jewish question. See Palestine; Displaced persons. 
Johnson, Her.schel V., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Brazil, 687. 
Johnson, Joseph E. : 

Appointment as deputy U.S. representative in Interim 

Committee of General Assembly, 732. 
Statement on work of Interim Committee, 823. 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission. See Technical. 
Journalists and correspondents. See Information. 
Journ^es MMicales, 22d session, U.S. delegation, 777. 

Kabul, Afghanistan, elevation of U.S. Legation to rank of 
Embassy, 491, 782. 

Kaiser, Commanding General Sir Shum Shere Jung Ba- 
hadur Rana, credentials as Nepalese Minister to U.S., 
215, 318. 



860 



Department of State Bulletin 



Kasliniir Commission of Security Council of UN: 

Appointment of Mr. Huddle as U.S. Representative, 
732, 828. ^ ^ 

■^ Security Council resolutions, 143, 098. 

Summnry statement liy Secretary-General (Tiie) at Se- 
curity Council, G3S. •' ' 
UN action. 732, 767. /[ 
Keith, Gerald, designation as liaison officer to act be- 
tween meetings of Deputies for Austria of Council 
of Foreign Ministers, 747. 
Kelly, Helen G. : 

Appointment to ITU Administrative Council, 122. 
Article on International Telecommunication Union, 534. 
Kentucky Women's Action Committee Forum, Louisville, 

address by Mr. Henderson, 272. 
Keyes. Gen. Geoffrey, remarks regarding Interim-aid agree- 
ment with Austria, 52. 
Knapp, J. Burke, designation in State Department, 751. 
Kopcsak, Lt. Col. Peter J., arrest of, in Hungary, texts of 

U.S.-Hungarian notes, 244. 
Korea : 
Elections, observance of: 

Interim Committee. of UN, resolutions and relation 
to UN Temporary Commission on Korea, 297, 
375, 575. 
Lieutenant General Hodge, proclamation and state- 
ment, 344, 345. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 375, 700. 
UN Temporary Commission on Korea, activities in 

observance of elections, 375, 700, 768, 800. 
U.S. draft resolution, 297 n. 
Government, new, formation of, letter from Lieutenant 

General Hodge to Assemblymen, 800. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 742. 
Kuter, Laurence S., statement on necessity for interna- 
tional cooperation in aviation matters, 116. 
Kyriazides, Nicolas (alien correspondent at UN), case 
of, statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 20, 48. 

Labor Organization, International. See International. 
Labouisse, Henry, designation in State Department, 845. 
Lagens Airfield in Azores, agreement between U.S. and 

Portugal, 358, 839. 
Landon, Herman R., appointment as U.S. delegate to 2d 
session of Permanent Migration Committee of ILO, 
303. 
Latin America, Economic Commission for, 828, 831. 
Latin American countries. See American republics. 
Lebanon : 
Detention of U.S. nationals removed from S.S. Marine 

Carp, exchange of notes with U.S., 749, 780. 
Removal of U.S. nationals from S.S. Marine Carp, l'\2. 
Truce with provisional government of State of Israel, 

acceptance, 795. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Legal Committee of ICAO, 1st meeting, 506. 
Legations, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 

Lehrbas, Lloyd A., designation in State Department, 845. 
Lend-lease (see aJso Surplus war property), settlement 
agreements, U.S. and— 
Brazil, 552. 
Norway, 306. 
Lenroot, Katharine F., article on 9th Pan American child 

congress, 595. 
Leprosy, 5th international congress, U. S. delegation, 450. 
Level-of-industry plan in bizonal area of Germany : 
Discussed in qiiestions and answers on removal of in- 
dustrial plants from Germany, 188. 
State Department memorandum, 241. 
Liberia, wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Libraries, in overseas information program, 842. 
Lie, Trygve (Secretary-General of UN), summary of mat- 
ters under consideration by Security Council, 633. 
Linggadjati agreement between the Netherlands and 
Indonesia, text, 325. 



Literary and artistic works, diplomatic conference for re- 
vision of international convention for protection of, 
U.S. observer delegation, 677. 
Little Assembly of UN. See Interim Committee. 
London conference on economic unity of Germany. See 

Germany ; Tripartite conversations. 
Lorwin, Val R., article on Rome manpower conference, 674. 
Lovett, Robert A. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Alien correspondents at the UN, 20. 

Inland transport, international, facilitation of, in 

Europe, 27. 
Sicily and southern Italy, development, 468. 
Trade agreement with Mexico, Schedule I, negotia- 
tions for revision of, 59. 
Correspondence : 

Ambassadors of Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Po- 
land, regarding declaration on German prob- 
lems, 384. 
Burmese President (Sao Shwe Thaike), on establish- 
ment of Union of Burma, 61. 
European Economic Co-operation, Organization for, 
members of, on Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 : 
640. 
Gurney, Senator, on disposition of captured Hungar- 
ian horses, 221. 
Secretary of Interior (Krug), on procedure for han- 
dling international fisheries and wildlife problems, 
586. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin), memorandum re- 
garding tripartite conversations (U.S., U.K., and 
France) on German economic unity, 286. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin), on use of Mellaha 

airfield by U.S. Air Force, 220. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin), on visit of U.S. 

vessels to Italian ports, 219. 
Speaker of the House of Representatives (Martin), on 
removal of industrial plants from Germany as 
reparation, 185. 
Turkish Ambassador (Ba.vdur), regarding adherence 

of Turkey to Economic Cooperation Act, 779. 
World health assembly, U.S. representation, 581. 
Loyalty of State Department employees, statement by 

Secretary Marshall, 390. 
Luxembourg : 

Trade-mark registrations, extension of time for renewal 

of, 222. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, with U.K., Belgium, France, 
and Netherlands, text and communique of meet- 
ing of Permanent Consultative Council, 600, 602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 640 n., 712. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade; 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

120, 373, 652. 
U. S. proclamation, 120. 
Tripartite conversations on German economic unity, 
U.S., U.K., and France (representation at), 285, 380, 
457, 778, 807. 
U.S. property in, filing claims for, 355. 

MacQuivey, Donald R., article on North American broad- 
casting-engineers' meeting, 541, 747. 

MacVeagh, Lincoln, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Portugal, 390, 517. 

Malaria and tropical medicine, 4th international con- 
gresses, 303, 475, 545. 

Manchuria, treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 743. 

Mandated islands, Japanese. See Pacific Islands, Terri- 
tory of. 

Manpower conference (Rome) : 

Article by Mr. Loi'win, 674. 

U.S. observer to, 138. 
Marine Carp, removal of U.S. nationals by Lebanese au- 
thorities at Beirut, 712, 749, 780. 



Index, January fo June 1948 



861 



Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental: 
Article by Mr. Gates, 495. 
Conference to consider development of, 286. 
Convention, text, 499. 

Eesolutions of United Nations maritime conference, 
text, 505. 
Marshall, George C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Allied Control Council, four-power responsibilities, 

456. 
American Overseas Aid and United Nations Appeal 

for Children, cited, 751. 
American republics, interdependence of, 469. 
China, aid to, 270. 

Chinese .surplus-property contract, 384. 
Communists in Chinese Government, U.S. position, 384. 
Cuban independence, 50th anniversary, 583. 
Czechoslovakia, Communist seizure, 381. 
Danube, conference to consider free navigation of, 

736. 
Double-taxation conventions, with Denmark, France, 

and the Netherlands, 611, 653, 711. 
European economic recovery, assistance to, before 

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 71. 
ERP, relation to U.S. policy, 108, 112, 115, 137, 231, 

374, 468. 
Exchange of views between Ambassador Smith and 
Foreign Minister Molotov on U.S.-Soviet rela- 
tions, 683. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, 468. 
Funds, restoration of, for conduct of foreign rela- 
tions, 489. 
German "People's Congress", 456. 
Germany, London conference on, 380, 778, 810. 
Greece, outstanding work of AMAG, 271. 
Greece and Turkey, extension of aid, 346. 
Greek investigation of murder of CBS correspondent 

(Polk), 748. 
ITO charter, completion of, 443. 
Japan, restitution of property in, 484. 
Korean elections under observance of U.N. Temporary 

Commission, 375, 700. 
Lend-lease settlement agreement, with Norway, 307. 
Loyalty of State Department employees, 390. 
Military bases, no provision in ERP for, 115. 
Military strength, relation to diplomatic action, state- 
ment before Senate Armed Services Committee, 
421. 
Palestine situation, 408. 
Totalitarian propaganda and democratic processes, 

744. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal of, 651. 
Tripartite conversations on Germany, acceptance, 

380, 778, 810. 
United Nations, strengthening of, 623. 
World-wide struggle between freedom and tyranny, 
422. 
Correspondence : 

Chinese Ambassador (Koo), on China Aid Act of 

1948: 647. 
Representative Doughton, on proposed extension of 

Trade Agreements Act, 750. 
Greek Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for For- 
eign Affairs (Tsaldaris), on assassination of 
Greek Minister of Justice (Ladas), 713. 
Green, William (president of American Federation of 
Lal)or), answering protests of AFL concerning 
Greek anti-strike, anti-lockout law, 315. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canadian, on 

boundary waters agreement, 150. 
Italian Ambassador (Tarchiani), on acceptance by 
Italy of U.S., U.K., and French proposal on 
Trieste, 454. 
Italian Ambassador (Tarchiani), on granting of land 
by Italy for American military cemeteries, 250. 
Javits, Jacob K., regarding solution of Palestine ques- 
tion In UN, 281. 



Marshall, George C. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Murray, Philip (president of Congress of Industrial 
Organizations), answering protests of CIO con- 
cerning Greek anti-strike, anti-lockout law, 315. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin), on Soviet objec- 
tions to tripartite discussions on Germany, 457. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyusiikin), requesting U.S.S.R. 

views on return of Trieste to Italy, 778. 
Vandenberg. Senator, on continuation of aid to Greece 

and Turkey, 298. 
Vandenberg, Senator, on continuation of aid to 

Trieste, 348. 
Vandenberg, Senator, on German reparation program, 

238. 

Welchel, Alvin F. (chairman of House Committee on 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries), on extension 

of Ship Sales Act of 1946, with enclosures, 311. 

Yugoslav Ambassador (Kosanovic), on U.S. refusal 

to release Yugoslav assets, 117. 
Yugoslav Ambassador (Kosanovic), on Yugoslav 
comments on personal American activities, 485. 
Reports : 

Educational-exchange programs, 387. 
Wheat agreement, international, 606. 
Marshall Plan. See European Recovery Program. 
Masaryk, Jan, death of, statement bv Department of 

State, 381. 
Maurer, Ely, article on German assets claims agreement, 3. 
May, Parker, designation in State Department, 615. 
McDonald, Eula, article on a world maritime organization, 

99, 131. 
McGhee, George C, addresses on aid to Greece and Turkey, 

cited, 491, 655. 
aiediator in Palestine, UN, 694, 764, 794, 797. 
Medicine : 
Surgeons, international college of, 6th conference, U.S. 
■ delegation, 649. 

Tropical medicine and malaria, 4th international con- 
gresses, 303, 475, 545. 
Mellaha airfield, use of, by U.S. Air Force, U.S.-U.S.S.R. 

notes concerning, 220. 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House Committee on, 
letter from Secretary Marshall regarding extension 
of Ship Sales Act of 1946, 311. 
Meteorological Organization, International, conference of 
directors of: 
Article by Mr. Gates, 43. 
U.S. delegation, 44 n. 
Mevorah, Nissim Judasy, credentials as Bulgarian Minis- 
ter to U.S., 62. 
Mexico (see aUo American republics) : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 123. 
Cultural leader, vLsit to U.S., 611. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Farm-labor migration agreement, with U.S., exchange 

of notes, 317. 
Trade agreement, with U.S. (1942), revision of 

Schedule I, 59, 212, 553. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 357. 
Middle East, regional meeting of ILO for, article by Mr 

Tohin, 139. 
Military air transit through Lagens Airfield in Azores, 
agreement between U.S. and Portugal, 221, 358, 839, 
840. 
Military bases under ERP, no provision for, statement 

by Secretary Marshall, 115. 
Military cemeteries, American, grant of land for, by Italy, 

U.S.-Italian exchange of notes, 250. 
Military Committee, Permanent, of U.K., Belgium, France, 

Luxembourg, and Netherlands, plan for, 602. 
Military equipment, transfer of nondemilitarized combat 
materiel : 
Iran, supplemental appropriation for, proposed, 780. 
Tables showing, 122, 390, 554, &16. 



662 



Department of State Bulletin 



Military government in Germany, statement by Secretary 
ilarshall on Fonr Power responsibility in Allied 
Control Council, 4oG. 

Military Staff Committee of UN, dates of meetings, 25, 
144, 300, 449, 579, 733. 

Military strength, relation to diplomatic action, statement 
liefore Senate Armed Services Committee by Secretary 
Marshall. 421. 

Military training, universal. See Universal military 
training. 

Military tribunals for Germany, appointments to, 316. 

Mission, American, for Aid to Greece (AMAG), 115, 271, 
272, 291, 779. 

Mission, to U.S. from China, aid, 115. 

Mississippi Valley world trade conference (3d), New Or- 
leans, La., address by Mr. Brown, cited, 605. 

Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (Soviet Foreign Minister), state- 
ment on Soviet-American relations, 680. 

Monetary gold. See Gold. 

Moore, Charles E., appointment to AM.\G, 115. 

Morales. ,Iuan Felix, appointment as Paraguayan Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 717. 

Morgenstierne. See Munthe de Morgenstierne. 

Morse, David A., appointment as Director General of ILO, 
S02. 

Munthe de Morgenstierne, Wilhelm (Norwegian Ambassa- 
dor), remarks on signing of lend-lease settlement 
agreement between U.S. and Norway, 307. 

Nabuco, Mauricio, appointment as Brazilian Ambassador 

to U.S., 782. 
Nationality Commission. Mixed, in Poland, request for 

termination by U.S., 781. 
Navigation, free, on the Danube, conference to consider, 

793. 
Nazi-Soviet Relations. 1939-1941, 1.50. 
Near East, regional meeting of ILO for, article by Mr. 

Tobin, 139. 
Nehmer, Stanley, article on significance of textiles in 

Japanese economy, 527. 
Nepal : 
Minister to U.S. (Kaiser), credentials, 215, 318. 
U.S. Minister (Grady), credentials, 686. 
Netherlands : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 390. 
Indonesian dispute with Netherlands. See Indonesian 

situation. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Double taxation, convention with U.S., signature and 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 611. 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, with U.K., Belgium, France, 
and Luxembourg, text, and commimiqu^ of meet- 
ing of Permanent Consultative Council, 600, 602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S., (541, 686, 
712. 
German enemy assets, resolution of conflicting claims 

to, with IF.S. and Canada (1947), signature, 3. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade : 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

120, 373, 652. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120. 
Trade agreement (1935), proclamation rendering in- 
operative, 30. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Tripartite conversations on German economic unity, 
U.S., U.K., France (representation at), 285, 380, 
457, 778, 807. 
Wheat from U.S., message to U.S. on receipt of, 611. 
New Brunswick, U.S. Vice Consulate at Fredericton, clos- 
ing, 349. 
Newspapermen. See Information. 
New Zealand : 

Combat materiel, retransfer to U.S., table, 123. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, with U.S., signature, 486. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 



Niagara River, investigation of dredging operations, 718. 
Nicaragua (.sec also American republics) : 
U. S. Ambassador (Shaw), appointment, 719. 
U.S. diplomatic relations with, resumption of, proposal, 
716. 
Nicosia, Cyprus, opening of U.S. Consulate, 619. 
Nitze, Paul H., designation in State Department, 350, 845. 
Nonintervention of UN in domestic jurisdictions, article 

by Sir. Gross, 259. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
North Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting of ICAO, 

2d. U. S. delegation, 580. 
North Atlantic States concerned in .ioint support of Ice- 
land air-navigation services, ICAO conference of, 
U.S. delegation, 776. 
Norway : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 123. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 640 n., 686. 
Lend-lease settlement agreement, with U.S. (1942) : 
Signature and statements by Secretary Marshall 
and Ambassador Morgenstierne, 306, 307. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Trade-mark registrations, renewal of, by, 93. 
U.S. Consulate at Bergen, opening, 349. 

Occupied areas (see also Austria; Germany; Japan; 

Korea), administration of Germany by State Depart- 
ment, plans for. 3.'i2, 450. 
Oechsner, Frederick C, designation in State Department, 

719. 
OIE. See Information and Educational Exchange. 
Oil, world supply, memorandum by U.S. representative to 

Inter-American Economic and Social Council of Pan 

American Union, 426. 
Opium Board, UN, Permanent Central, 145, 734. 
Organization for European Economic Co-operation 

(OEEC), 138, 640. 
Organization of American States, charter, 666. 
Overseas Press Club, Washington, D.C., address by Mr. 

Allen, 476, 587. 

Pacific Islands, Territory of, trusteeship, summary state- 
ment by Secretary-General (Lie) at Security Council, 
6;36. 
Pacific settlement of disputes, action in Interim Commit- 
tee of General Assembly, 576, 767. 
Pakistan : 

Dispute with India on Kashmir : 

Proceedings of Security Council, 732, 767. 
Resolutions of Security Council, 143, 698. 
Summary statement by Secretary -General (Lie) at 
Security Council, 638. 
Palermo, Italy, elevation of U.S. Consulate to rank of 

Consulate General, 517, 619. 
Palestine, U.S. Consulate at Haifa, opening, 619. 
Palestine situation : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Mr. Austin, 294, 342, 402, 514, 515, 568, 695, 763. 
Secretary-General (Lie), 636. 
Secretary Marshall, 281, 408. 
President Truman, 451. 
Arab Higher Committee, attitude, 402, 514, 569, 695. 
Arab States, countries of, 795. 

Cease-fire order of May 22 and U.S. support, 695, 729. 
Congress, House Committee of Foreign Affairs, letter 

from Secretary Marshall to member of, 281. 
General Assembly, 2d Special Session : 

Appointment of United Nations Mediator, resolution, 

694. 
Statement by Mr. Austin requesting special session 
and presenting in Security Coimcil a draft reso- 
lution, 514, 515. 
Trusteeship for Palestine, statement by Mr. Jessup, 

592. 
U.S. attitude reviewed by Mr. Austin, 568. 



Index, January fo June 1948 



863 



Palestine situation — Continued 
Jerusalem, protection of: 

Cease- tire order of Security Council (May 22), reso- 
lution, 729. 
French resolution and Swedish amendment in General 

Assembly, 591 n., 592 n. 
Trusteeship Council resolution, 572. 
U.S. position on French resolution, statement by Mr. 
Jes,sup, 591. 
Jewish attitude, 402, 569, 69.5. 
Lebanon : 

Removal of U.S. citizens from S. S. Marine Carp, 712. 
U.S. and Lebanon, exchange of notes, 749, 780. 
Security Council : 
Proceedings in, 731, 767, 802, 830. 

Resolutions: creating committee (Feb. 25), 297; call- 
ing on permanent members for recommendations 
(Mar. 5), 344; establishing Truce Commission 
(Apr. 23), 594; cease-fire order (May 22), 729; 
four-week truce (May 29), 729. 
Summary of, statement by Mr. Austin, 568. 
Truce beginning June 11 : 

Acceptance by Arab States, text, 795. 

Acceptance by provisional government of State of 

Israel, text, 796. 
Cease-fire and truce proposals submitted to Arab 
States and Israel, note from UN mediator (Berna- 
dotte), presenting, 794. 
Message to intereste<l governments from UN media- 
tor (Bernadotte) , announcing acceptance of truce, 
797. 
Truce Commission, Security Council resolution on es- 
tablishment, 594. 
Truce resolution of May 29: 
Acceptance of Security Council resolution by Jewish 

and Arab leaders, 764, 765. 
Cablegram from UN mediator (Bernadotte) to Sec- 
retary-General Lie, 7(>4. 
U.S. support, 763, 830. 
Trusteeship for, U.S. proposal, statements by Mr. Austin 

and Mr. Jessup, 570. .592. 
UN mediator in Palestine, creation of position by Gen- 
eral As.sembly (see also Bernadotte, Count), 694. 
UN Palestine Connuission : 
Reports of, discussed, 281, 296. 
Liquidation, 694. 
U.S. support of efforts to solve, 568, 729, 830. 
Palmer, Ely E., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Afghanistan, 719. 
Pan American child congress (9th), 62, .595. 
Pan American Day, Washington, D. C, address by Mr. 

Allen, .546. 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Com- 
mission on History, article by Mr. Whitaker, 87. 
Pan American organizations, chart showing, 164. 
Pan American Sanitary Organization, 1st meeting of di- 
recting council of, article by Mr. DouU, 283. 
Pan American Union (see also American States, Ninth 
International Conference) : 
History and functions, article by Mr. Sanders, 159. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, 184, 426. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ja^n Guardia), credentials, 486. 
Defense sites, withdrawal of U.S. armed forces, 31. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Defense sites in. use of, with U.S. (1942), exchange 

of notes and termination, 317. 
Defense sites in, use of, with U.S. (1947), rejection 
of ratification by Panama, 31. 
Panyushkin, Alexander Semenovich, credentials as Soviet 

Ambassador to U.S., 62. 
Papanek, Jan, letter concerning Czechoslovak coup, 409 n. 
Papers Relating to Foreign Relations of the United States: 
1932, vol. II, released, 459; The Paris Peace Confer- 
ence, 1919, vol. XII, published, 819. 

864 



Paraguay (.sec also American republics) : 
Agricultural program, cooperative, with Institute of 

Inter-American Affairs, 759. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Morales), credentials, 717. 
Paris Peace Conference 19Jf6: Selected Documents, 125. 
Passports, tourist, for Philippines, 717. 
Pawley, William D., assistance of, in preparatory work 

for inter-American conference at Bogotfl, 149. 
Peace treaties. See Austria, Italy, Rumania. 
Peru (sec also American republics) : 
Agricultural program, cooperative, with Institute of 

Inter-American Affairs, 762. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Ferreyros Ayulo), credentials, 318. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 554. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 3.57, 716. 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 829. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Petroleum, world supply, 426. 
Philippines, Republic of tlie: 

Combat mat(?riel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 846. 

Opening of U.S. Consulate at Cebu, 517. 

Property, transfer to (Ex. Or. 9921), 124. 

Tourist passports, 717. 

Trade-mark registrations, extension of time for renewal, 

717. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational-exchange program, with U.S. (1947), 

signature, 488. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Physiopathology of animal reproduction and artificial 
insemination, first international congress, U.S. delega- 
tion, 832. 
Poland : 

Declaration on German problems, U.S. position, 384. 
Nationality Commission, Mixed, request by U.S. for 

termination, 781. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violation, 739. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Policy Planning Staff, appointment of Mr. Butler as mem- 
ber of, 317. 
Polk, George, murder of, in Greece : 

Correspondence and statements concerning, 713. 
Greek investigation, 748. 
Port Limon, Costa Rica, closing of U.S. Consulate, 517. 
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, British West Indies, elevation of 

U.S. Consulate to rank of Consulate General, 124. 
Portugal : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Transit of U.S. military planes through airfield in 
Azores, with U.S. (1946), extension of, signature 
and exchange of notes, 221, 358, 839, 840. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
U.S. Ambassador (MacVeagh), appointment, 890, 517. 
Poultrv congress, world, 8th : 
Plans, 379. 
U.S. delegation, 803. 
Preparatory Commission for IRO. See Refugee Organi- 
zation, International. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry S. 
Presidential term, constitutional amendment, status of 

ratifications, 427. 
Press. Sec Information. 
Prisoners of war, release, status of, from French, British, 

and Soviet Governments, 221. 
Proclamations : 

Sugar protocol (1947), 815. 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
China, 652. 
Cuba, 60, 841. 
Czechoslovakia, 610. 
Supplementary proclamations, 250, 841. 
Union of South Africa, 840. 
Trade agreements, termination, 30. 
Trade-mark registrations, extension of time for renewal 
of: 
Luxembourg and Denmark, 222. 
Norway, 93. 
Philippine Republic, 717. 

Depattment of State Bulletin 



Proclamations — Continued 

Wlialins, international agreement (1937), protocol 
(104t>). 318. 
Propaganda methods, totalitarian, discussion by Secretary 

Marshall, 744. 
Proport.v {see also Surplus war property) : 
German external assets : 
Agreement with Canada and Netherlands (1947) on 
resolution of conflicting claims to, text, 6. 
Article by Mr. Maurer and Mr. Simsarian, 3. 
Signatures, 93. 
Assets in Spain, expropriation of, 653. 
Rules for accounting for, in lARA member countries, 

article by Mr. Simsarian, 227. 
Soviet proposals on, 191. 
Italy, war claims, payment of and procedure for filing, 

5S4. 
Japan : 

Announcement by Departments of State and Com- 
merce on restitution, 483. 
Policy of Far Eastern Commission, U.S. directive, 

482. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 484. 
Philippines, transfer of property to (Ex. Or. 9921), 

124. 
Tort claims, procedure for handling and settlement of 

(D.R.),31. 
UN nationals, return of property in Rumania, 316. 
U.S., in other countries. See Protection of U.S. na- 
tionals. 
Yugoslav assets frozen in U.S., U.S. position, exchange 
of notes between Secretary Marshall and Yugoslav 
Ambassador, 117. 
Protection of Childhood, American International Insti- 
tute for, council of, U.S. delegate, 776. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 
Austria, extension of time for filing claims, 357. 
Belgium, procedure for filing war-damage claims, 278. 
Bulgaria, registration of claims for, 711. 
China, property confi.scated during Japanese occupation 

of, procedure for filing claims, 25,3. 
Europe, State Department memorandum regarding 

repatriation, 313. 
Greece, murder of George Polk in, 713, 748. 
Hungary : 

Procedure for filing war-damage claims, 485. 
U.S. officers, arrest of, 244. 
Lebanon, removal of U.S. citizens from S.S. Marine 
Carp, representations and exchange of notes, 712, 
749, 780. 
Luxembourg, instructions for filing claims, 355. 
Poland, Nationality Commission, Mixed, request for 

termination by U.S., 781. 
Rumania, procedure for filing war-damage claims, 316. 
Yugoslavia : 
Exchange of notes between Secretary Marshall and 

Yugoslav Ambassador, 117. 
Press accusation against U.S. oflScials, protest, text, 

707. 
Property, ownership declaration, procedure for filing, 
707. 
Public education, 11th international conference, U.S 

delegation, 833. 
Publications : 
Blxlettin supplement. General Assembly and the Prob- 
lem of Greece, 49. 
Documents and State Papers, 524. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, vol. II, 

459. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, The Paris Peace 

Conference, 1919, vol. XII, 319. 
General Assembly and the Problem of Greece, Bulletin 

supplement, 49. 
International Civil Aviation 1945-1948: Report of the 

U.S. Representative, 794. 
Lists : 

Congress, U. S., 123, 230, 533, 619, 730, 750, 782. 

Index, January to June 1948 



Publications — Continued 
Lists — Continued 

State Department, .35, 63, 124, 151, 255, 287, 319, 361, 

391, 427, 459, 555, 587, 619, 655, 687, 783, 847. 
United Nations, 208, 267, 293, 341, 391, 408, 448, 639, 
730, 766, 829. 
Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939^1941 : 150. 
Paris Peace Conference 1946 : Selected Documents, 125. 
Soviet Supply Protocols, 523. 

United States and the United Nations: Report by the 
President to the Congress for the Year 1947 : 279. 
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, opening of U.S. consular agency, 
349. 

Radio (see also Telecommunication) : Broadcasting-en- 
gineers' meeting. North American, article by Mr. Mac- 
Quivey, 541, 747. 
Railway congress, 6th Pan American, U.S. observers, 449. 
Railway-transport equipment, German, questions and an- 
swers concerning, 189. 
Ramsey, Fred W., designation in State Department, 520. 
Rayon, in Japan, discussed in article on textiles in Jap- 
anese economy, 533. 
Reber, Samuel : 

Designation as U.S. Deputy for Austrian treaty at pro- 
posed meeting of Deputies of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 213. 
Letter to Secretary General of CFM on suspension of 
meetings of Council's Deputies for Austria, 747. 
Reciprocal assistance, inter-American treaty of (1947), 

U.S. ratification, 60. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, public notice of, 
regarding revision of Schedule I of trade agreement 
with Mexico, 60. 
Recognition of new governments. See Diplomatic rela- 
tions. 
Recovery Program, European. See European Recovery 

Program. 
Red Cross, American, aid to Colombia during Bogotd 

demonstrations, exchange of messages, 716. 
Refugee Organization, International (IRO), Preparatory 
Commission : 
Agenda, 63. 
Fourth and fifth meetings, articles by Mr. Warren, 21, 

451. 
U.S. delegations, 49, .580. 
Refugees and displaced persons. See Displaced persons. 
Reparation : 
Germany : 

Letter from Secretary Marshall to Senator Vanden- 

berg, 238. 
Memorandum of Department of State, 239. 
Removal of industrial plants from, letter from Under 
Secretary Lovett to Speaker Martin, with data 
requested, 185. 
Inter- Allied Reparation Agency, 227, 240. 
Japan, Far Eastern Commission, policy decision, 92. 
Repatriation, State Department memorandum regarding, 

313. 
Republic of the Philippines. See Philippines. 
Resources, renewable natural, conservation of, 1st inter- 
American conference on, agenda, 146. 
Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission for 

(see also Gold), 551. 
Revival of prewar bilateral treaties. See under Treaties, 

prewar. 
Rhine Commission, Central, 302. 
Rice meeting of PAO, 282, 769. 
Royal Sanitary Institute, health congress, U.S. delegation, 

678. 
Rubber Study Group, International, 5th meeting, 474, 650. 
Rumania : 
Nonenemy status of, statement by Secretary of the 

Treasury, 121. 
Property of UN nationals in, procedure for filing claims, 
316. 

865 



Rumania — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Peace treaty, with Allies, violations of, U.S. letter to 

Rumanian Government, 216. 
Revival of prewar, by U.S., text of U.S. note, 356. 
Soviet violation, 742. 

Saar, French Union and, signatorv to wheat agreement, 

474. 
Safety of life at sea, conference on, U.S. delegation, 544. 
St. Stephen, N.B., Canada, closing of U.S. Consulate, 63. 
Salmon Fisheries Comuiission, International Pacific, 95. 
Sanders, William, article on the Inter-American System, 

155. 
Sandifer, Durward V., designation in Department of 

State, 215. 
Sanitary Organization, Pan American, 283. 
■Santa Cruz, Hernan, letter concerning Czechoslovak coup, 

409. 
Sargeant, Howland H., article on role of libraries in the 

overseas information program, 842. 
Saudi Arabia, truce with provisional government of State 

of Israel, acceptance, 795. 
SCAP. See Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. 
Scheele, Leonard A., article on 4th international cancer 

research congress, 147. 
Schwarzkopf mission, in Iran, clarification requested by 

U.S., 307. 
Science, survey, U.S., of southern Italy and Sicily, 551. 
Scrap metal : 
Embargo on export, 318. 
For Italian shipments, sources, 551. 
Sea, regional meeting to consider formation of a regional 

council for study of, 282. 
Secretary of State. See Marshall, George C. 
Securities. See Property. 
Security Council of UN: 
Appointment of Mr. Jessup as deputy U.S. representa- 
tive, 732. 
Atomic energy, gee Atomic energy ; Atomic Energy 

Commission. 
Austin, Warren R. (U.S. representative). See Austin. 
Czechoslovak question. See Czechoslovakia. 
Date of meeting, 25, 144, 300, 449, 579, 733. 
Egyptian question, summary statement by Secretary- 
General Lie, 633. 
Good Offices Committee of. See Indonesian situation. 
Greek question. See Greece. 
India-Pakistan dispute. See Kashmir. 
Indonesian-Netherlands disijute. See Indonesian situ- 
ation. 
Iranian question, summary statement by Secretary- 
General Lie, 633. 
Jammu and Kashmir. See Kashmir. 
Kashmir situation. See Kashmir. 

Membership in UN, application for, summary state- 
ment by Secretary-General Lie, 636. 
Pacific Islands, Territory of, summary statement by 

Secretary-General Lie, 636. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
Resolutions : 

Atomic Energy Commission, 799. 
India-Pakistan, 143, 698. 
Indonesian situation, 328, 329, 336. 
Kashmir, 143, 698. 
Palestine situation, 297, 344, 729. 
Status of matters under consideration, summary state- 
ment by Secretary-General Lie, 633. 
Trieste. See Trieste, Free Territory of. 
Trusteeship Council, 572, 734, 801, 830. 
Voting problem, U.S. draft resolution and proposals in 

Interim Committee of General Assembly, 86, 412. 
Voting procedure, summary statement by Secretary- 
General Lie, 635. 
Security program. State Department, loyalty of employees, 
statement by Secretary Marshall, 390. 



Selective service legislation : 
Addres.ses, statements, etc. : 
Austin, Warren R., 418. 
President Truman, 420. 
Senate, U.S. See Congress. 
Shaw, George P., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Nicaragua, 719. 
Shellfish Industry, sanitary control, agreement between 

United States and Canada, 717. 
Ship Sales Act of 1946, extension of, letter from Secretary 
Marshall to House Committee on Merchant Marine 
and Fisheries, 311. 
Shipping (see also Vessels) : 

German, questions and answers concerning, 189. 

Goal of, for foreign-aid program, 234, 237. 

Maritime organizations, development of, article by Miss 

McDonald, 99, 131. 
Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946, extension of, proposed, 

311. 
Safet.v of life at sea, conference on, 505, 544. 
Transport and Communications Commission of ECOSOC, 

131. 
United Nations maritime conference, article by Mr. 
Gates, 495. 
Slam, U.S. recognition of Government, attitude, 360, 686. 
Sicily : 

Development of, statement by Mr. Lovett, 468. 
Scientific survey, by U.S. scientists, 551. 
Silk, raw, trade of, in Japan, discussed In article on 

textiles in Japan, 528. 
Simsarian, James, articles on German assets, 3, 227. 
Singapore, combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 

554. 
Smith, Durand, article on relief operations in Italy, 755. 
Smith, Walter Bedell (Ambassador to U.S.S.R.), state- 
ment on U.S. relations with Soviet Union, 679, 682. 
Snyder, Jolin W. (Secretary of Treasury), statement on 
nonenemy status of Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, and 
Rumania, 121. 
Social security : 
2d inter-American conference on, article by Mr. Cohen, 

376. 
3d meeting of Inter-American committee on, 377. 
Soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 2d interna- 
tional conference, U.S. delegation and agenda, 737. 
Sosa Molina, Maj. Gen. Jos^ Humberto (Argentine Min- 
ister of War), visit to U.S., proposed, 318. 
South Africa. See Union of South Africa. 
South Pacific Commission : 
Appointment of U.S. commissioners on, 598. 
Creation, 693. 

Membership in, acceptance by U.S., 214. 
Soinet Supply Protocols, release of, 523. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain, German assets in, expropriation of, 653. 
State Department : 
Appointment of — 

Allen, George V., as Assistant Secretary, 361. 
Chapman, Wilbert M., as Special Assistant to Under 

Secretary of State, 815. 
Hilldring, John H., as Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary, 618. 
Hilldring, John H., as Special Assistant on Palestine 
Affairs, inability to fulfill, 7.51. 
Assistant Secretary — Public Affairs, reorganization of 

area under jurisdiction of, 615. 
Coordinator for Foreign Aid and Assistance, creation 

of post, 718. 
ECA, cooperation with, as required in Foreign Assist- 
ance Act of 1948 (text of Department announce- 
ment of May 7, 1948), 718. 
Educational Exchange, Office of, establishment, 615. 
Executive Stafi', establishment, 615. 
Foreign policy legislation, proposed, letter from Coun- 
selor (Bohlen) to Chairman of House Foreign Af- 
fairs Committee (Eaton), 385. 
Funds, appeal for restoration by Congress, statement 
by Secretary Marshall, 489. 



866 



Department of State BuUetin 



state Department — Continued 

Information and Educational Exchange, Office of, 

abolishment, 615. 
International Information, Office of, establishment, 615. 
Joint announcement with Department of Commerce re- 
garding restitution of looted property in Japan, 483. 
Occupied areas administration, Germany, plans for 

assuming, 352, 456. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Security program, loyalty of employees, statement by 

Secretary Marshall, 390. 
Survey group, visit to U.S. zone in Germany, proposed, 

352. 
Tort claims, procedure for handling and settlement of 

(D. R.), 31. 
Treaty Committee, establishment, 491. 
Statements, addresses, and broadcasts of the week, listed, 

401, 687. 
Statistics and foreign policy, address by Mr. Thorp, 53. 
Stillwell, James A., designation in State Department, 350. 
Stone, William T., designation in State Department, 

615, 845. 
Streptomycin, shipment to Austria under Interim Aid Pro- 
gram, 611. 
Stuart, J. Leighton, statement on opxMDSition of Chinese 

students to U.S. policy in Japan, 813. 
Student exchange, pictorial record presented to Secretary 

Marshall, 845. 
Student ships, assignment to transport students to for- 
eign ports, 487. 
Study of the sea, regional meeting to consider formation 

of a regional council for, 282. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production and 
marketing (1937), protocol prolonging (1947), proc- 
lamation, 815. 
Supply protocols, Soviet, with U.S., U.K., and Canada, 

release of, by U.S., 523. 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) : 
Foreign property holdings in Japan, restitution of, 482. 
Implementation of policies of Far Eastern Commission 
on— 
Food, civilian consumption of, in Japan, 93. 
Japanese reparations, distribution, 92. 
Textiles, 530. 
Surgeons, International College of, 6th congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, (549. 
Surplus war property, disposal (see also Educational 
exchange program) : 
Agreements, U.S. and^ 
Burma, 27, 388. 
China, 388. 
Greece, 654. 

Philippine Republic, 488. 
China, contract for, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

384. 
Embargo on exportation of arms and scrap iron, 318. 
Iran, request for supplemental appropriation for credit 

for, 780. 
Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946, extension of, proposed, 

311. 
Nondemilitarized combat materiel, transfer of, tables 
sliowing, 122, 390, 554, 846. 
Sweden : 

Combat materiel, retransfer to U.S., table, 123. 
Trade and financial discussions with U. S., correspond- 
ence regarding and summary, 251. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Economic Cooperation Act of 194S, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 640 n., 712. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Switzerland, wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Syria, truce with provisional government of State of 
Israel, acceptance, 795. 

Tariff, customs union, France with Italy, U.S. attitude, 
253. 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Mr. Brown, 478. 
Mr. Wilcox, 39, 125. 
Mr. Willoughby, 67. 
Article XIV, protocol modifying, 841. 
Cuba, exclusive supplementary agreement, 28, 29 (text), 

60, 841. 
Czecho.slovakia, attitude, 425, 610. 
Proclamations putting into effect for — 
China, 652. 
Cuba, 60, 841. 
Czecho.slovakia, 610. 
Union of South Africa, 840. 
Relationship to ITO, discussed, 373. 
Signature of protocol of provisional application by — 
China, 652. 
Czechoslovakia, 610. 
Original signatories, 120, 373, 652. 
Union of South Africa, 840. 
Supplementary proclamations, 250, 841. 
Trade agreements rendered inoperative upon proclama- 
tion, 30, 60. 
Taussig, Charles W., article on Caribbean Commission, 

691. 
Tax, property. See Property. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U.S., proposed, 303. 
Tehran Press Club (Iran), address by Mr. Allen, 223. 
Telecommunication convention, final protocol and Radio 

Regulations, ratification, 841. 
Telecommunication Union, International : 
Administrative Council, appointment of U.S. represen- 
tatives and advisers, 122. 
Administrative council, second session, article by Miss 

Kelly, 534. 
Aeronautical radio conference, administrative, and pre- 
paratory conference, U.S. delegations, 543, 649. 
International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference, 

Planning Committee, U.S. delegation, 379. 
Provisional Frequency Board, list of U. S. delegation, 

22. 
Radio Consultative Committee, 5th meeting, 834. 
Telegraph consultative committee, U.S. delegation to 
6th plenary meeting, 599. 
Textiles, Japanese : 

FEC policy regarding, 530. 

Significance of, in economy, article by Mr. Nehmer and 
Mrs. Crimmins, 527. 
Thielen, Lt. Col. Bernard, arrest of, in Hungary, texts of 

U.S.-Hungarian notes, 244. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
ECOSOC, 6th session of, 209. 
European recovery, cited, 137, 373, 491, 655. 
General Assembly, economic accomplishments of, 83. 
Germany, future of, 353. 
Imports, importance of, 603. 
■Statistics and foreign policy, 53. 
Appointment as coordinator for ERP, 350. 
Correspondence : 

Canadian Ambassador (Wrong), on extensioq of 
agreement (1942) with Canada for protection of 
fur seals, 94. 
Swedish Charge (de Aminoff), on U.S.-Swedish for- 
eign-exchange transactions, 253. 
Tin Study Group, International : 
Purpose of, 475. 

U.S. delegation to 2d meeting, 599. 
Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., appointment as Ambassador 

to Peru, 829. 
Tobin, Irwin M., article on ILO regional meeting for Near 

and Middle East, 139. 
Tomlinson, John D., appointment to ITU Administrative 
Council, 122. 



Index, January to June 1948 



867 



Tort claims, procedure for handling and settlement of 

(D.R.), 31. 
Tracing service for displaced persons, international, pro- 
posed, discussed by Mr. Warren, 22. 
Trade. Sec Tariffs and trade. 
Trade, international : 

Barriers, reduction of, address by Mr. Brown, 478. 
Conference at Habana, address by Mr. Clayton, 82i). 
Imports, with reference to ERP, address by Mr. Thorp, 

603. 
Japan, textiles, article by Mr. Nehmer and Mrs. Crim- 

mins, 527. 
Japan, trade with U.S., regulations regarding, 254. 
Mexico, revision of Schedule I of trade agreement 

(1942), 50, 212, 553. 
Quantitative restrictions, statement by Mr. Wilcox, 39, 

125. 
Reciprocal trade-agreements program and proposed In- 
ternational Trade Organization, 367, 373, 605. 
Sweden, trade and financial discussions, .summary of de- 
velopments and U.S.-Swedish correspondence, 251. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. See Treaties. 
U.S. policy, article on the Habana charter by Mr. Wil- 

loughby, 67. 
U.S. responsiliility in, article by Mr. Burns, 663. 
Trade agreements, proclamation rendering certain inoper- 
ative for contracting parties to general agreement on 
tariffs and trade, 30. 
Trade Agreements Act, proposed extension : 

Correspondence between Representative Doughton and 

Secretary Marshall, 750. 
Message of President Truman to Congress, 351. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 651. 
Trade and employment, UN conference on {see also 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : Mr. Brown, 478; Mr. Burns, 
663 ; Mr. ( Uayton, 825 ; Mr. Wilcox, 39, 125 ; Mr. Wil- 
loughby, 67. 
Sessions, 25, 144, 300. 
Trade-marks. See Industrial property. 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 

Habana charter, addresses and statements on by : Mr. 
Austin, 445; Mr. Brown, 478; Mr. CUiyton, 444; De- 
partment of State, 441; Secretary ftiarshall, 443; 
President Truman, 443; Mr. Wood, cited, 373. 
Reciprocal trade-agreements program, relationship to, 
367, 373, 605. 
Transjordan, truce with provisional government of State 

of Israel, acceptance, 795 n. 
Transport and Communications Commission of ECOSOC, 

discussed in article by Miss McDonald, 131. 
Transportation : 

Danube, free navigation on. See Danube. 
Egypt-U.S. steamship service, inauguration, 4S6. 
Greece, survey of, by ECA and AMAG, 779. 
Inland transport, international, in Europe, statement 

by Acting Secretary Lovett, 27. 
Inland Tran.sport Committee of Eciinomic Commission 
for Europe, designation of main international truck- 
transport highways, 737. 
Land and water, in Germany, questions and answers 
concerning, 189. 
Travel grants. See Education. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid, interim agreement for, witli Italy, France, and 

Austria, signature, 50. 
American States, Organization of, text of charter, 666. 
Aviation : 

Air bases in Caribliean area and in Bermuda, civil use 
of, with U.K., expansion of 1941 agreement, signa- 
ture, 305. 
Air trau.sport (1046), U.S. with : 
Italy, signature, 220. 
Venezuela, signature, 716. 
Chicago aviation agreements (1944), status as of Apr. 
1, 1948: 612. 

868 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Aviation — Continued 

Military air transit through airfield in Azores (1946), 
extension, with Portugal : 
Communication from U.S. Secretar.v of Defense 
(Forrestal) to Portuguese Prime Minister (Oli- 
veira Salazar), 840. 
Summary of negotiations, 221, 839. 
Text of agreement, 358. 
Boundary waters, U. S.-Canadian (1909), with Canada, 
referral to International Joint Commission, letters 
of Secretary Marshall, 1.50. 
Bulgaria, revival by U.S. of prewar treaties, text of U.S. 

note, 383. 
Caribbean Commission, agreement for establishment 

(1946), U.S. instrument of approval, 360, 491. 
Consular convention, with Costa Rica, signature, 314. 
Consular treaty, with U.K., negotiations, 101. 
Defense sites in Panama, use of, with Panama (1942), 

exchange of notes and termination, 317. 
Defense sites in Panama, use of, with Panama (1947), 
rejection of ratification by Panama, 31. 

Double taxation, U.S. and — 
Denmark, signature and statement by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 653. 
France (1946), protocol modifying, ratification, 841; 
signature and remarks by Secretary Marshall and 
Ambassador Bonnet, 711. 
Netherlands, signature and statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 611. 
New Zealand, signature, 486. 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and collec- 
tive self-defence, between five Western European 
Powers, text and communique of meeting of Perma- 
nent Consultative Council, 600, 602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S. : Austria, 645 ; 
Belgium, 686; Denmark, 640 n. ; France, 640 n. ; 
French zone of Germany, 8.38 ; Greece, 708 ; Iceland, 
640 n., 6S6 ; Ireland, 642 ; Italy, 642 ; Luxembourg, 
640 n., 712; Netherlands, 640; Norway, 640 n. ; 
Sweden. 640 n., 712 ; Turkey, 779 ; United Kingdom, 
644; U.S.-U.K. zone of Germany, 708. 
Educational-exchange progi'am, signature with — 
Burma (1947), 27, 388. 
China (1947), 388. 
Greece, 654. 

Philippine Republic, 488. 
Farm-labor migration agreement, with Mexico, exchange 

of notes, 317. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 (see also Economic Co- 
operation Act), China, adherence to purposes of, 
686. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with Italy, signa- 
ture, summary, and transmittal to Senate, 219, 550. 
Fur seals, protection of, provisional agreement, with 

Canada (1942), extension (1947). 94. 
Genocide, draft convention on, text. 725. 
German enemy assets, resolution of conflicting claims 
to, with (Canada and the Netherlands (1047), sig- 
nature and text, 3, 6. 
Belgium, signature, 03. 
Hungary, revival by U.S. of prewar treaties, text of 

U.S. note, 382. 
Income tax. See Double taxation. 
Industrial-propert.v agreement, supplementary, with 

France (1947), entry into force, 485. 
Inter-American economic cooperation agreement, pro- 
posed, text of draft, 308. 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947), 

U.S. ratification, 00. 
Lend-lease, settlement of, with — 
Brazil, .552. 
Norway, 306. 
Literary and artistic works, convention for protection 
of (1886), as revised, U.S. observer delegation to 
conference for revision of, 677. 
Peace treaties. See Austria ; Italy ; Rumania. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Prewar treaties, revival by U.S., test of U.S. note to — 
Rulsaria, 3S3. 
Hiinsary, ;?S2. 
Italy, 24.S, 4.55. 
IJumanla, .S.'iB. 
Slielltish industry, sanitary control of, with Canada, 

text and correspondence, 717. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production 
an(i marlvptiug (1937), protocol prolonging (1947), 
proclamation, 815. 
TarifF.s and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Mr. Brown, 478. 
Mr. Wilcox, 39, 125. 
Mr. AVillongliby. 67. 
Article XIV, protocol modifying, 841. 
Cuba, exclusive supplementary agreement, 28, 29 

(text), CO, 841. 
Czechoslovakia, attitude. 425, 610. 
Proclamations putting into effect for — 
China, 6.52. 
Cuba. 60, 841. 
Czechoslovakia, 610. 
Union of South Africa, 840. 
Relationship to ITO, discussed, 373. 
Signature of protocol of provisional application by — 
China, 652. 
Czechoslovakia, 610. 
Original signatories, 120, 373, 652. 
TTnion of South Africa, 840. 
Supplementary proclamations, 2.50. 841. 
Trade agreements rendered inoperative upon procla- 
mation, 30. 60. 
Telecommunication convention, international, final pro- 
tocol and Radio Regulations, ratification, 841. 
Trade, with Mexico (1942), revision of Schedule I, ,59, 

212, 553. 
Trade agreements, proclamation rendering certain in- 
operative for contracting parties to general agree- 
ment on tariffs and trade, 30, t50. 
Treaty Committee, establishment, 491. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocol 

amending (1946), proclamation, 318. 
Wheat agreement, international : 
Article by Mr. Cale, 395. 

Letter from Acting Secretary of Agriculture to Secre- 
tary of State recommending Senate approval, 609. 
Principal provisions, summary, 607. 
Signature, 474. 
Transmittal to Senate, 606. 
Treaty obligations, Soviet violations. State Department 
report to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 738. 
Trieste, Free Territory of : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Draft liill for continuation of aid (to amend Public 

Law 389),. 349. 
Letter from Secretary Marshall to Senator Vanden- 

berg enclosing draft bill, 348. 
Tabular report, 3.50. 
Boundary, violations, U.S. note to Yugoslavia, 521. 
Return to Italy, proposed : 

Italian Ambassador (Tarchiani), note to Secretary 

of State accepting proposal, 4.54. 
Joint proposal by U.S., U.K., and France, 425. 
Memoranda of Department of State to Italy and 

U.S.S.R. submitting proposal, 453, 491, 521, 522. 
President Truman and Italian Ambassador (Tar- 
chiani), exchange of notes, 583. 
Secretary Marshall to Soviet Ambassador, note re- 
questing Soviet views on, 778. 
Soviet attitude, exchange of memoranda, 549. 
Summary statement by Secretary-General (Lie) to Se- 
curity Council, 633. 



Tripaitite conversations (U.S., U.K., and France), on 
German economic unity : 
Announcement, 285. 
Benelux countries, entry of, 380. 

Communique, joint, by U.S., U.K., France, Belgium, 
Netherlands, and Luxembourg on agreement at Lon- 
don conference, 380, 778. 
Purpose, 811. 

Report of agreed recommendations, 807. 
Statement released to press by Department of State, 

778. 
U.S. attitude: 

Secretary Marshall, notes to Soviet Ambassador, 286, 

457. 
Secretary Marshall, statements, 380, 810. 
Truce. See Palestine. 
Truman, Harry S. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, 468. 

Israel, recognition by U.S. of provisional government, 

673. 
Italy, transfer of vessels to, 454. 
ITO charter, completion of, 443. 
Palestine, U.S. position in UN regarding, 451. 
Peace policy, U.S., 47, 418, 8114. 
United Nations, as means of world peace, 47. 
U. S.-Soviet relations, 683. 
Budget on international affairs and finance, 126, 255. 
Corre.spondence : 
Burmese President (Sao Shwe Thaike), on establish- 
ment of Union of Burma, 61. 
Colombian President (Ospiua Perez), on American 
Red Cross aid to Colombia during Bogota dem- 
onstrations, 716. 
Italian Ambassador (Tarchiani), on proposed return 
of Trieste to Italy, 583. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress : 
Annual message, 90. 
China, proposed aid to, 268. 
Cuban independence, 50th anniversary, joint session 

on, 582. 
Economic development in other American republics, 

financing by Export-Import Bank, 548. 
Peace, means of securing, 418. 

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, extension of, 351. 
Congress, transmitting — 
Report of UN activities and U.S. participation, 279. 
Educational-exchange programs, operations of State 
Department, with report by Secretary Marshall, 
387. 
Foreign-aid program, 1st report, 648. 
Senate, transmitting — 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 

Italy, 550. 
Wheat agreement, international, with report by Sec- 
retary Marshall and letter from Acting Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, 606. 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
Trusteeship : 

Pacific Islands. Territory of, summary statement by 
Secretary -General (Lie) at Security Council, 636. 
Palestine, question of, statement by Mr. Jessup, 592. 
Security Council di.scussion, 830. 
Trusteeship Council of UN : 

.lerusalem. City of, resolution concerning draft statute 

for, 572. 
Strategic trusteeships, action in UN, 801, 830. 
Third session, 734. 
Turkey : 
Aid from U. S. : 

Address by Mr. McGhee, cited, 491. 
Draft bill (to amend Public Law 75) , 299. 
Extension of, statement by Secretary aiarshall, 346. 
Secretary Marshall, letter to Senator Vandenberg, 
requesting continuation, 298. 



Index, January to June 1948 



869 



Turkey — Continued 

Combat mat^^riel, transfer by U.S. to, and retransfer, 

table, 123. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1&48, exchange of notes 
with U.S. regarding adherence to purposes of, 779. 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization) : 

Accomplislinients, address by Mr. Allen, 727. 

Appointment of Mr. Holland as U.S. counselor, in Paris, 
212. 

Art and general education, meeting of experts on, 579, 
733. 

General Conference, 2d ses.sion in Mexico, 25. 

Executive Board, 6th session, 145, 300. 

Hylean Amazon, International Institute of, calling of 
conference for establishment of, 598. 

Pacific regional conference, address by Mr. Allen, 727. 

Teachers organization, international. 579, 733. 

Theatre Institute, International, conference on, 580. 

Translation of great books, experts for study of plan for, 
committee of, 579, 733. 
Union of South Africa : 

General agreement on tariffs and trade (1947) : 

■ Signature of protocol of provisional application, 840. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 840. 

Treatment of Indians in, discussion in General As- 
sembly, 263. 

U.S. Minister (Winship), appointment, 491. 

Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Panyushkin), credentials, 62. 

Arrest of American officers in Hungary by Soviet troops, 
texts of notes regarding, 244. 

Czechoslovak independence. See Czechoslovakia. 

Danube, conference to consider free navigation of, ex- 
change of views witli U.S., U.K. and French Gov- 
ernments, 735. 

Germany, tripartite discussions on, U.S. reply to Soviet 
objections regarding, 457. 

Interference in Chilean internal affairs, accusation, 
411. 

Italy, peace treaty, rejection of drafting procedure 
exchange of memoranda with U.S., 549. 

Mellaha airfield, use of, by U.S. Air Force, U.S.-U.S.S.R 
notes concerning, 220. 

Prisoners of war, status of release of, 221. 

Propaganda methods, discussion by Secretary Marshall 
744. 

Protests regarding activities of U.S. aircraft over waters 
adjoining Japan, U.S. reply to, 746. 

Relations with Germany, documents bearing on, re- 
lease by State Department, 150. 

Marshal Stalin, statement responding to open letter 
from Mr. Wallace, U.S. attitude, 705. 

Supply protocols, with U.S., U.K., and Canada, publica- 
tion of, by U.S., .523. 

Treaty obligations, violations. State Department report 
to U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 738. 

Trieste, notes from U.S. regarding return to Italy. 52'' 
778. 

Trieste, return to Italy, attitude, 549. 

U.S. relations with : 

Statements by President Truman and Secretary Mar- 
shall, 683. 
Statements by Ambassador Smith and Foreign Minis- 
ter Molotov, 079, 682. 

U.S. vessels, visits to Italian ports, correspondence with 
U.S. concerning, 218. 

Zone of occupation in Germany, position on informa- 
tion regarding, 185. 
United Kingdom : 

Amba.ssador to U.S. (Franks), credentials, 782. 

Bipartite Board for U.S.-U.K. Zones in Germany, 70S. 

Communist seizure of power in Czechoslovakia, joint 
declaration with U.S. and France, 304. 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Danube, conference to consider free navigation of, ex- 
change of views with U.S., French, and Soviet Gov- 
ernments, 735. 
Dominion status for Ceylon, 316. 
Expropriation of German as.sets in Spain, (553. 
Foreign Minister, meeting with U.S. and French Foreign 

Ministers, discussed, 456. 
German "People's Congress", U.S. and U.K. position, 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 4.56. 
Prisoners of war, status of release of, 221. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air bases in Caribbean area and in Bermuda, civil 
use of, witli U.S., expansion of 1941 agreement, 
signature, 305. 
Consular treaty, with U.S., negotiations, 191. 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, with Belgium, France, Lux- 
embourg, and Netherlands, text, and communique 
of meeting of Permanent Consultative Council, 
600. 602. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, exchange of notes with U.S., 645, 686. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade : 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 

121. 
Tariff concessions, U.S. proclamation, 120. 
Trade agreement (1938), proclamation rendering in- 
operative, 30. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Trieste, Free Territory of. See Trieste. 
Tripartite conversations with U.S. and France on Ger- 
man economic unity. See Tripartite. 
Union of Western Europe, proposal by Mr. Bevin for, 
statement by Department of State, 138. 
United Nations : 

Addresses and statements : 
Mr. Austin, 14, 446, 626. 
Secretary Marshall, 623. 
President Truman, 47. 
Atomic energy, action on, 731, 802, 8.30. 
Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. 
Charter, invocation of, in Pale.stine situation, Security 

Council re.solution, 695. 
Children's Emergency Fund, International, 25. 
Correspondents : 
Review of accrediting of, note from U.S. Mission to 

Secretary-General Lie, 48. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett, 20. 
Documents, listed, 208, 267, 293, 341, 391, 408, 448, 639, 

730, 766, 829. 
Economic and Social Council. See Economic and Social 

Council. 
General Assembly. Sec General Assemlily. 
Human Rights, Commission on. See Human Rights. 
Inter-American reirional system, coordination with : 
Chart showing, 180. 
Discussed by Mr. Sanders, 177. 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee. 
Korea, Temporary Commission on. See Korea. 
Little Assembly. See Interim Committee. 
Maritime conference, international : 
Annexes of final act, text, 505. 
Article by Mr. Gates, 495. 
Mediator in Palestine. See Bernadotte, Count. 
Membership in, summary statement by Secretary- 
General (Lie) at Security Council, 636. 
Nonintervention in domestic jurisdictions, article by 

Mr. Gross, 259. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
Property in Rumania belonging to nationals of, pro- 
cedure for filing claims, 316. 
Publications. See Documents supra. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Specialized agencies. See name of agency. 



870 



Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations — Continued 

Trade and employment conference at Habana. See 
Trade and employment, United Nations conference 
on. 

United yations Netcsletter, 655. 

United States and the United Nations: Report hy the 
President to the Congress for the Year 19.',7, 279. 

United States in, special reports, 731, 767, 801, 830. 
United States citizens. iS'ee Protection of U.S. nationals. 
Universal military training, addresses, statements, etc. : 

Mr. Austin, 418. 

Secretary Marshall, 421. 

President Truman, 420. 
University of California, Berkeley : 

Address by Secretary Marshall, 422. 

Address by President Truman, 804. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 123, 390, 846. 

Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 814, 845. 

Gift to U.S., proposed legislation for acceptance, 585. 

Venezuela (see also American republics) : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table, 390, 554. 
Inauguration of President (Gallegos), attendance of 

American Ambassador (Donnelly), 222. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air-transport agreement with United States, signa- 
ture, 716. 
Wheat agreement, signature, 474. 
Vessels (see also Maritime) : 

Egypt-U.S. steamship service, inauguration, 486. 
Finnish, requisitioned during war, compensation for, 63. 
Italian, return to Italy by U.S., statement by President 

Truman and Executive order, 454. 
Marine Carp, removal of U.S. nationals from, by Leban- 
ese authorities at Beirut, 712, 780. 
Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946, extension of, letter 
from Secretary Marshall to House Committee on 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 311. 
Student ships : 
Assignment of, for educational-exchange program, 

487. 
Statement by Mr. Allen, 488. 
U.S., to resupply Canadian Arctic weather stations, 782. 
U.S., visit to Italian ports, U.S.-U.S.S.R. correspondence 
concerning, 218. 

Veto question in Interim Committee of UN, discussion, 575. 
Voting in the Security Council, 635. 

Wallace, Henry, statements of Department of State on 
Marshal Stalin's response to letter of, 705. 

War-damage claims. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 

Warren, George L., articles on IRO, 21, 451. 

Weather stations in Canadian Arctic, resupply program by 
U.S. and Canada, 782. 

West Indies, elevation of U.S. Vice Consulate at Aruba to 
rank of Consulate, 124. 

Western European Powers, treaty of economic, social and 
cultural collaboration and collective self-defence, and 
communique on 1st meeting of Permanent Consulta- 
tive Council, texts, 600, 602. 

Western Union. See European Union. 

Whaling, international agreement (1937), proclamation of 
protocol (1946) concerning, 318. 

Wheat, U.S., shipment to Netherlands, message of thanks 
from Queen, 611. 



Wheat agreement, international : 

Acting Secretary of Agriculture, letter to Secretary of 

State recommending Senate approval, 609. 
Article by Mr. Cale, 395. 

Signature, summary, and transmittal to Senate, 474, 
606, 007. 
Wheat Council, International : 
Article by Mr. Cale, 395. 
Special session, at Washington, 215. 
Wliitaker, Arthur P., article on first consultation of Com- 
mission on History, 87. 
Wilcox, Clair: 
Resignation as director of Office of International Trade 

Policy, 719. 
Statement at UN conference on trade and employment, 
39, 125. 
Wiley, John C, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Iran, 

390. 
Willoughby, Woodbury, article on postwar commercial 

policy of U.S., 67. 
Winship, North, apix)intment as U.S. Minister to Union 

of South Africa, 491. 
Wood, C. Tyler, address on ITO and reciprocal trade-agree- 
ments program, cited, 373. 
Wool, in Japan, discussed in article on textiles in Japanese 

economy, 533. 
World conference on trade and employment. See Trade 

and employment, UN conference on. 
World health assembly. See World Health Organization. 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Administration and Finance Committee, meetings, 26, 

144. 
Diseases, international lists of, and causes of death, ex- 

Ijert committee on, meetings, 580, 733. 
Interim Commission, 5th session, agenda and U.S. dele- 
gation, 23. 
Interim Commission, 6th session, work of and U.S. dele- 
gation, 734, 774, 833. 
Malaria, expert committee on, meetings, 302, 580, 733. 
Membership, listed, 431 n., 802. 
Progress and plans, article by Dr. Hyde, 431. 
Tuberculosis, expert committee on, meetings, 26, 145, 

300. 
U.S. membership, 802. 

World health assembly, 1st session, and U.S. representa- 
tion, 540, 581, 734, 832. 
World health assembly, discussed, 440. 
World Trade Conference of Cleveland World Trade Asso- 
ciation, address by Mr. Brown, 478. 
Wright, William D., designation in State Department, 
845. 

Yemen, truce with provisional government of State of 

Israel, acceptance, 795 n. 
Yugoslavia : 
Accusations against U.S. officials by press of, U.S. posi- 
tion, 707. 
Assets frozen in U.S., demand for release, U.S. position, 

117. 
Comments on personal American activities, U.S. posi- 
tion, text of note from Secretary Marshall, 485. 
Declaration on German problems, U.S. position, 384. 
Gold reserves in U.S., ECOSOC resolution, 448. 
Property of U.S. nationals : 

Procedure for filing claims, 707. 
U.S. position, 117. 
Trieste, zonal boundary, note from U.S., 521. 

Zones of occupation. See Germany. 



Index, January to June 1948 



871 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE^ 1348 



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AGREEMENT RELATING TO THE RESOLUTION 
OF CONFLICTING CLAIMS TO GERMAN 
ENEMY ASSETS: 

Article by Ely Maurer and James Simsarian 3 

Text of Agreement 6 

FOURTH MEETING OF PREPARATORY COM- 
MISSION FOR IRO • fr- ', f... frn-. r n,-rrrr- 21 

TENSIONS IN THE UNITED NATION^ i.idrex, 

by Warren R, Austin 14 



For complete contenu tee bo: 




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tJAe zi/Ci 



rs,^^.,^^ bulletin 



Vol. XVIII, No. 444 • Publication 3013 
January 4, 1948 



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currently. 



i 



AGREEMENT RELATING TO THE RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTING 
CLAIMS TO GERMAN ENEMY ASSETS 



hy Ely Maurer 

and 
James Simsarian 



The United States, Canada, and the Netherlands signed at 
Brussels on December 5, 19Jf7, the '■'■Agreement Relating to 
the Resolution of Convicting Claims to German Enemy 
Assets^'' the first comprehensive, multilateral agreement on 
the problem of conflicting claims by governments to German 
external assets. The agreement was designed to avoid the 
vexatious and lengthy litigation and negotiations which took 
place after the first World War. The article below sum- 
marises the main provisions of the agreement. 



The United States, Canada, and the Netherlands 
signed on December 5, 1947, at Brussels the "Agree- 
ment Relating to the Resolution of Conflicting 
Claims to German Enemy Assets", the first com- 
prehensive, multilateral agreement on the com- 
plex and important problem of conflicting claims 
by governments to German external assets. The 
agreement is designed to avoid the vexatious and 
lengthy litigation and negotiations which took 
place after the first World War. The agreement 
does not become binding on the United States 
before it has been approved by Congress. 

The types of claims covered by the agreement 
are those where the alien property custodians of 
two countries both claim the same German external 
asset or where an alien property custodian claims 
that certain propei'ty is a German external asset 
and a national of a friendly country claims the 
property is owned by him beneficially through an 
intermediate corporation. 

The types of property covered by the agreement 
over which conflicts may arise are securities, 
negotiable instruments, currency, warehouse re- 

January 4, 1948 



ceipts, foreign currency bank deposits, decedents' 
estates, trusts, and the property in one signatory 
country of corporations organized under the laws 
of another signatory country or under the laws of 
Germany. 

Of most importance are the provisions on secu- 
rities, bank deposits, and the property of corpora- 
tions. The agreement provides that if a security, 
owned by a German, was issued by an entity 
organized in one signatory country, and the 
certificate is physically located in another signa- 
tory country, the security shall go to the alien 
property custodian of the signatory country where 
the entity is organized. Bank deposits main- 
tained in one signatory country by a bank located 
in another signatory country for the benefit of a 
German customer will, with certain exceptions, be 
divided equally between the custodians of the 
countries concerned. In the case of property in 
one signatory country belonging to a corporation 
organized under the laws of another signatory 
country or of Germany, the general rule is laid 
down (subject to exceptions for administrative 



practicality) that the signatory country where the 
property is located is entitled to that portion of the 
property corresponding to the German interest in 
the corporation, while that portion corresponding 
to the nonenemy interest will be free from seizure. 

The agreement will enable the United States 
Office of Alien Property, Department of Justice, 
to secure without undue delay clear title to assets 
which might otherwise be the subject of extended 
and complicated litigation and negotiations with 
other governments or their nationals. The agree- 
ment, furthermore, will carry out the established 
policy of the Department of State of protecting 
the interests of United States nationals in assets 
outside Germany owned either by a corporation in 
which there is a German interest or by a corpora- 
tion organized under the laws of Germany. 

In the event a dispute arises between signatory 
countries regarding the interpretation, implemen- 
tation, or application of the agreement, provision 
is made for compulsory and binding conciliation. 

The agreement is the outcome of approximately 
18 months of discussion and negotiation with other 
countries, members of the Inter- Allied Reparation 
Agency.' In these deliberations the United 
States Eepresentatives took a responsible part. 
It was appreciated early in 1946 that it would be 
desirable to have a multilateral agreement for the 
purpose of resolving the problems of conflicts be- 
tween custodians or between custodians and na- 
tionals of another country relating to German ex- 
ternal assets. Accordingly discussions were first 
held of a preliminary character, in the Committee 
of Experts of Iara from June to July 1946, and 
then the matter was taken up for the purpose of 
arriving at a multilateral agreement in the Ger- 



' Mr. Maurer and Mr. Simsarian served as advisers to 
Russell H. Dorr, U.S. Minister and Delegate to the Inter- 
Allied Reparation Agency, who represented the United 
States Government in the course of the negotiations lead- 
ing to the agreement. Other advisers were from the Of- 
fice of Alien Property, Department of Justice, Henry 
Hilken, Malcolm Mason, Donald Sham, and Leon Brooks ; 
and from the Treasury Department, Elting Arnold and 
I. G. Alk. In the last part of the negotiations, Alex B. 
Daspit, Alternate U.S. Delegate to the Inter-Allied 
Reparation Agency, took Mr. Dorr's place in the latter's 
ab.'ience. 

' The organization of Iaba provides a convenient 
forum for these discu.ssions. The Committee of Exiii'rts 
was provided for under part I, article 6F, of the Paris 
agreement on reparation of Jan. 14, 194G (Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 16.j5), "in order to over- 



man External Assets Committee of Iara.- A 
series of meetings were held from November to 
December 1946, then from January to March 1947, 
and then from September to November 1947. The 
Committee on German External Assets included 
for this purpose representatives from Belgium, 
Canada, France, the Netherlands, the United 
Kingdom, the United States, and Yugoslavia. On 
several occasions, however, in the course of the 
discussions the views of the other 11 members of 
Iara — Albania, Australia, Czechoslovakia, Den- 
mark, Egypt, Greece, India, Luxembourg, Nor- 
way, New Zealand, Union of South Africa — were 
requested and considered. 

By its terms the Brussels agreement is open for 
signature immediately, and up to six months from 
its effective date, by the 15 other governments 
which are members of Iara. In addition a pro- 
cedure exists for permitting governments which 
are not members of Iara to participate, with the 
consent of the signatories, in the agreement or in 
a similar agreement any time within nine months 
after its effective date. Under this procedure it 
is possible that Latin American countries, and 
countries which were neutrals during the war, as 
well as other non-lARA countries, may ultimately 
participate in this agreement or a similar 
agreement. 

The agreement becomes effective when it is 
adhered to by countries, members of Iara, who 
are collectively entitled to 35 percent of the shares 
of assets in category A ^ of German reparation 
under article IB of the Paris agreement. Under 
article IB Canada, the Netherlands, and the United 
States together constitute 35.4 percent. Since the 
United States signed ^ "subject to approval" and 



come practical difficulties of law and interpretation which 
may arise" in matters of enemy property custodianship. 
The German External Assets Committee was created by 
the Assembly of Iara to consider all problems which might 
arise under article 6. This article is entitled "German 
External Assets". See also Bulletin of Jan. 27, 1946, 
p. 114. 

' Assets in category A include "ail forms of German 
reparation except those included in category B". Assets 
in category B include "industrial and other capital equip- 
ment removed from Germany and merchant sliips and 
Inland water transport". Category A thus includes Ger- 
man external assets. 

* In signing the agreement the United States stipulated 
that the agreement shall not apply to the Interest of the 
United States in General Aniline and Film Corporation, 
New York, N. Y. 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Netherlands signed "sous reserve de ratifica- 
tion", the agreement cannot come into effect be- 
fore it has been approved by the legislatures of the 
United States and the Netherlands. 

A short summary of the main provisions of the 
Brussels agreement follows. The agreement con- 
sists of a covering document and an annex which 
is divided into six parts. 

Covering Document 

Article 1 of the covering document provides that 
in dealing with German enemy assets the parties 
"shall be guided as far as possible . . . by the pro- 
visions'' of the agreement and "shall take such ac- 
tion to give effect to the Agreement as may be nec- 
essary and approiariate." 

The other articles in the covering document 
deal with prior and future agreements, the settle- 
ment of disputes by negotiation between the par- 
ties or by joint appointment of a conciliator, the 
effective date of the agreement, the accession to 
the agreement by countries members of Iara and 
countries not members of Iaka, and the applica- 
tion of the agreement to colonies or overseas terri- 
tories or mandates. 

Annex 

Part I concerns certain types of property owned 
by German enemies or held for German enemies, 
such as securities, currency, negotiable instru- 
ments, bills of lading, warehouse receipts, and for- 
eign currency bank deposits or accounts. The pro- 
visions as to securities and foreign currency bank 
deposits have been discussed. Currency, as in the 
case of securities, goes to the country of issue ; ne- 
gotiable instruments to the country of residence 
of the principal obligor ; and warehouse receipts to 
the country where the property is located. 

Part II concerns the estates of nonenemy dece- 
dents and trusts created by nonenemies, in which 
there is a German enemy interest. It provides in 
general that property of such estates and trusts, 
wherever situated, shall be subject to "normal 
administration" and the German enemy interest 
retained by the country of the domicile of the 
decedent or the country under whose laws the 
trust is administered. An exception exists for real 
estate in a decedent's estate. In this case the 
country where the real estate is located may retain 
the German enemy interest. 

January 4, 1948 



Part III concerns property situated within the 
jurisdiction of one party (secondary country) and 
owned by an enterprise (primary company) 
organized under the laws of another party (pri- 
mary country) , in which enterprise there exi.sts a 
German interest. Where the German interest in 
the property in the secondary country or the pri- 
mary company amounts to control (as defined in 
detail in article llB), it is provided that, with 
certain exceptions, the property shall be released 
in kind but the secondary country shall be entitled 
to receive reimbursement from the primary coun- 
try in an amount representing that portion of the 
value of the property in the secondary country 
corresponding to the percentage of German inter- 
est in the primary company (articles 11, 12, 13). 

These exceptions concern German controlled 
production enterprises in a secondary country, 
considered by it to be necessary to its national se- 
curity; cases involving property in a secondary 
country belonging to dummy or closely held hold- 
ing companies ; and cases where the parties agree 
that release in kind is not practicable or that ad- 
ministrative difficulty or other special circum- 
stances require the liquidation of the property in 
the secondary counti'y. In these cases provision 
is made for the retention and liquidation of the 
property or the German interest in the property 
and for protection of the nonenemy interests in 
the primary company, rather than for release of 
the entire property and reimbursement (articles 
13, 15, 16). 

The nonenemy interests in a primary company 
are entitled to that portion of the property in the 
secondary country corresponding to these inter- 
ests (articles 15, 16, 17). 

If the property in the secondary country and 
the primary company are not German controlled, 
the property must be released without reimburse- 
ment (articles 11, 12), unless the primary com- 
pany is a dummy or a closely held company (arti- 
cle 16). 

Part IV concerns property within the jurisdic- 
tion of a party and owned by an enterprise or- 
ganized under the laws of Germany, in which en- 
terprise nonenemy nationals of parties have an in- 
terest (article 21). The agreement provides that 
this property shall be released to the extent of 
the interests in the enterprise of the nonenemy 
nationals and pursuant to arrangements to be made 
between the parties concerned, if the nonenemy 



nationals directly or indirectly own 25 percent or 
more of the shares in the enterprise, or control the 
enterprise (article 22). 

Release shall be made in kind except in the cases 
of German controlled enterprises in a signatory 
country considered by that country to be neces- 
sary to its national security, and in the cases where 
the parties agree that release in kind would not 
be practicable. In these cases provision is made 
for the release of the proceeds of sale or liquida- 
tion in substitution of the property which would 
otherwise have been released in kind (article 24). 

Part V contains a number of miscellaneous pro- 
visions which supplement the substantive provi- 
sions of the first four parts. Thus a party is not 
obliged to release an enemy interest in property 
if this interest will not be treated by the recipient 
party as German enemy (article 26A). The re- 
lease of property may be affected by the existence 
of judicial or administrative proceedings as to the 
property (article 26H). In determining whether 
propei'ty is owned or controlled by a German en- 
emy, certain transfers need not be recognized if 
they occurred after the institution of wartime 
emergency measures or after the occupation of a 
country ; or if they were "forced transfers" in Ger- 



many; or if they were forced transfers outside 
Germany within the meaning of the inter- Allied 
declaration of January 5, 1943, against acts of dis- 
possession (article 27) . Property which is cloaked 
for a German enemy shall be regarded as directly 
owned by that German enemy (article 28) . Noth- 
ing in the agreement may be construed to confer 
any right on a person to prosecute a claim in any 
court or administrative tribunal against his gov- 
ernment or any other party (article 33). 

Part VI concerns the machinery and procedure 
of conciliation to be followed if a dispute with re- 
spect to the interpretation, implementation, or 
application of the agreement is not resolved by 
negotiation between the parties. Provision is 
made for a panel of seven conciliators to be 
elected by the parties (article 35). A party may 
request the appointment of a conciliator from this 
panel to decide a dispute. This conciliator will 
hear the parties and formulate a solution which is, 
in his opinion, the best possible solution in the 
spirit of the agreement, and the solution so formu- 
lated will be binding and final ( article 37A). The 
question whether the national security of a coun- 
try requires retention of property is not subject to 
the i^rocedure of conciliation (article 38). 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT' 



The Governments Parties to the present Agreement, 
Desiring to resolve conflicting claims to German enemy 
assets vs^ilhin their respective jurisdictions and to facili- 
tate the disposal of such assets to the common advantage, 
Have agreed as follows : 

Article 1 

In dealing with German enemy assets the Parties to 
the present Agreement (hereinafter and in the Annex 
hereto referred to as Parties) sliall be guided as far as 
possible, in their relations with each otlier, by the pro- 
visions set forth in the present Agreement and in Its An- 
nex (hereinafter and in the Annex hereto together re- 
ferred to as the Agreement), and shall take such action 
to give effect to the Agreement as may be necessary and 
appropriate. 

Article 2 

The Agreement shall not supersede any prior agree- 
ments concluded between any two or more Parties, or 
between a Party and another Government not a Party ; 
provided that no such prior agreement between any of 



' Text printed from Department of State press release 
944 of Dec. 4, 1947. 



the Parties shall adversely affect the rights under the 
Agreement of another Party not party to the prior agree- 
ment, or those of its nationals. 

When a prior agreement between a Party and another 
Government is deemed by a Party, not party to the prior 
agreement, to affect adversely its rights under the Agree- 
ment or those of its nationals, the Party who is also party 
to the prior agreement shall approach the other Govern- 
ment in order to secure, if possible, such modification of 
the relevant provisions of the prior agreement as will 
render them consistent with the Agreement. 

Article S 

Nothing in the Agreement shall preclude any Party or 
Parties from concluding in the future any separate agree- 
ment ; provided that such subsequent agreement shall not 
affect advorsely the rights under the Agreement of another 
Party not party to the subsequent agreement, or those 
of its nationals. 

Article 4 

If a dispute arises between two or more Parties with 
respect to the interpretation, implementation or applica- 
tion of the Agreement, such Parties shall endeavour by 
every means possible to settle such dispute by negotia- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



tiou between themselves, which may include the use of a 
mutually acceptable conciliator with such powers as the 
Parties in dispute may agree. If the dispute is not re- 
solved within a reasonable time by such negotiation, the 
dispute shall be settled in the manner provided in Part 
VI of the Annex. 

Article 5 

The Agreement shall come into force, as respects Gov- 
ernments which have signed it before it comes into force, 
as soon as it has been signed at any time before September 
1, 1948, on behalf of Governments which, under Part 1, 
Article 1 B of the Paris Agreement on Reparation of Janu- 
ary 24, 1946, are collectively entitled to not less than 35 
percent of the aggregate of shares in Category A of German 
reparations. 

The Agreement shall remain open for signature by other 
Governments Members of the Inter-Allied Reparation 
Agency for a period of six months from the date upon 
which it comes into force, and shall become effective with 
respect to those Governments immediately upon signature. 

Article 6 

If any Government which is not a member of the Inter- 
Allied Reparation Agency signifies in writing to the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium within nine months of the date upon 
which the Agreement comes into force that it desires to 
become a Party to the Agreement, or to a similar agree- 
ment, the Parties will consider in consultation with one 
another and with that Government its participation in such 
an agreement ; provided that nothing in this Article shall 
be deemed to qualify any right of any Party under Article 
3 above. 

Article 7 

Any Government to which the Agreement is open for 
signature may, in lieu of signing, give notification of acces- 



sion, in writing, to the Government of Belgium, and a 
Government making such notification of accession shall be 
deemed to have signed the Agreement on the date of 
receipt of the notification by the Government of Belgium. 

Article 8 

Any signatory Government may, at the time of signature 
or later, declare by notification in writing to the Govern- 
ment of Belgium that it desires the Agreement to apply 
to all or any of its overseas territories or colonies or ter- 
ritories under its suzerainty or protection or territories 
in respect of which it exercises a mandate or trusteeship, 
and the Agreement shall apply to the colonies and terri- 
tories, named in the notification, from the date of receipt 
thereof by the Government of Belgium or from the date on 
which the Agreement comes into force in respect of the 
notifying Government, whicheverjs the later. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly author- 
ized by their respective Governments, have signed this 
Agreement. 

Done in Brussels on December 5, 1947, in the English 
and French languages, the two texts being equally authen- 
tic, in a single original which shall be deposited in the 
Archives of the Government of Belgium. The Government 
of Belgium will furnish certified copies of the Agreement 
to each Government Signatory of the Paris Agreement 
on Reparation of January 24, 1946, and to each other 
Government on whose behalf the Agreement is signed, and 
will also inform those Governments of all signatures of 
the Agreement and of any notifications received there- 
under. 

For the Government of Canada 

For the Government of the Netherlands 

For the Government of the United States 



ANNEX 



Part I: Property Owned by German Enemies 

Article 1 

A. For the purpose of this Article, "security" means any 
stock, bond, debenture, share or, in general, any similar 
property known as a "security", in the country of Issue. 

B. Where a security owned by a German enemy has 
been issued by a Party or by a governmental or private 
organisation or person within its territory but the certif- 
icate is in the territory of another Party, tlie certificate, 
whether in registered or in bearer form, shall be released 
to the former Party. 

C. A German enemy owner of a certificate issued by an 
administration office, voting trustee or similar organisa- 
tion or person, and indicating a participation in one or 
more specifically named securities, shall be regarded as 
the owner of the amount of securities specifically indi- 
cated, and Paragraph B of this Article shall apply to these 
securities. 

D. A Party obliged under this Article to release a certif- 
icate shall not be required to release the income (in cash 
or otherwise) which has before July 1, 1947, been received 



In its territory by the releasing Party or by any person 
acting under its authority. Income received by such Party 
or person on or after July 1, 1947, shall be released to the 
Party entitled to the release of the certificate. 

E. A Party obliged under this Article to release a certif- 
icate shall not be required to release the proceeds of any 
liquidation by sale, redemption or otherwise, which were, 
on December 31, 1946, in the form of cash or of securities 
issued by that Party or by a Governmental or private 
organisation or person within its territory, even if such 
cash was reinvested or such securities were sold or traded 
after that date. If the proceeds were, on December 31, 
1946, in the form of securities issued by another Party or 
by a Governmental or private organisation or person within 
its territory, such securities (or the proceeds of their 
liquidation after that date) shall be released to the latter 
Party. 

Article 2 

A. For the purpose of this Article, "currency" means 
any notes, coins or other similar monetary media except 
those of numismatic or historical value. 



January 4, 1948 



B. Where currency has been issued by a Party or by a 
Governmental or private organisation acting under its 
authority but the currency is owned by a German enemy 
and is in the territory of another Party, the currency shall 
be released to the former Party. 

C. Where currency has been sold before January 1, 
1947, no release shall be required; but release of the pro- 
ceeds shall be required if sale has taken place on or after 
January 1, 1947. 

D. Nothing in this Article shall prejudice any rights or 
obligations which Parties may have under Part III of the 
Paris Agreement on Reparation. 

Article S 

Where a negotiable instrument (such as a bill of ex- 
change, promissory note, cheque or draft ) , not covered by 
Article 4 of this Annex, owned by a German enemy, is in 
the territory of a Party and the principal obligor is resi- 
dent in the territory of another Party, the instrument 
shall be released to the latter Party. 

Article .'t 

Where a bill of lading, warehouse receipt or other 
similar instrument, whether or not negotiable, owned by 
a German enemy, is in the territory of a Party but the 
property to which it relates is located in the territory of 
another Party, the insti-ument shall be released to the 
latter Party. 

Article 5 

A. A foreign currency account ("primary account") 
maintained in favour of a German enemy by a financial 
Institution in the territory of a Party ("primary country") 
covered in whole or in part by an account ("cover ac- 
count") with a financial institution in the territory of 
another Party ("secondary country") shall be treated as 
follows : 

(i) The cover account shall be released and the pri- 
mary country shall reimburse the secondary country in 
an amount equal to 50% of the cover account applicable 
to the primary account. Such reimbursement shall be 
made in accordance witli the terms of Article 14 of this 
Annex. 

(ii) Where the secondary country has vested or other- 
wise taken under custodian control the income from 
German enemy property situated in the secondary coimtry 
or the proceeds of the liquidation of German enemy owned 
securities issued by the secondary country or by a Gov- 
ernmental or private organisation or person within its 
territory and which securities were held in a custody or 
depot account, such income or such proceeds may be 
retained by the secondary country and sub-paragraph 
(i) of this Paragraph shall not apply thereto. 

B. For the purpose of this Article, accounts shall include 
named, numbered or otherwise specially designated ac- 
counts and sub-accounts as well as undesignated accounts 
and sub-accounts. 

Article 6 

Where property covered by this Part is owned partly 
by a German enemy and partly by a non-enemy, the 
method of segregating the respective interests and releas- 



ing the enemy interests shall be determined by agreement 
between the interested Parties. The German enemy inter- 
ests shall then be released to the Party which would have 
been entitled to the property if it had been wholly Gei-maa 
enemy owned. 

Part II: Deceaseds' Estates, Trusts and Other 
Fiduciary Arrangements Under Which a German 
Enemy Has an Interest 

Article 7 

A. Except as provided in Paragraph B of this Article, 
property within the jurisdiction of a Party, forming part 
of the estate of a non-enemy person who has died domi- 
ciled in the territory of another Party, in which estate a 
German enemy has an interest whether as a beneficiary 
or creditor, shall be released from control of the custo- 
dian authorities of the former Party with a view to facili- 
tating normal administration of the estate in the ter- 
ritory of the latter Party. Property so released shall be 
subject to the application of the laws of the releasing 
Party governing administration and distribution of the 
deceaseds' estates. When under such laws distribution 
of the deceased's estate is made directly to the persons 
who have an interest in the estate, the releasing Party 
shall take appropriate action to assist in making avail- 
able to the other Party the distributive share of each 
German enemy. 

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph A of 
this Article, where a non-enemy domiciled in the terri- 
tory of one Party has died owning immovable property 
in the territory of another Party and an interest in the 
property devolves upon or is to be distributed to a German 
enemy under the will of the deceased or under the applica- 
ble laws of descent, the interest may be retained by the 
latter Party, subject to the rights of non-enemy creditors 
of the deceased or of non-enemy heirs to whom, under ap- 
plicable law, a portion of the immovable property is 
reserved. 

C. This Article shall not apply to any property in the 
estate of a deceased if the property was administered and 
distributed before the Party in whose territory the prop- 
erty was located instituted war-time emergency meas- 
ures applicable to the administration and distribution of 
the property of the deceased. 

D. For the purposes of this Article, the domicile of a de- 
ceased shall be determined according to tlie law of the 
Party within whose jurisdiction the property is located. 

Article 8 

Property within the jurisdiction of a Party which is 
held under a bona fide trust or other bona fide fiduciary 
arrangement in which a German enemy has an interest 
as a beneficiary or otherwise, and which trust or fiduciary 
arrangement is being administered under the laws of an- 
other Party, shall be released from the control of the 
custodian authorities of the former Party, except that 
such Party may retain any interest of a German enemy in 
immovable property located in its territory. Such re- 
lease shall not be obligatory under this Part of this Annex 
in cases where the triist or other fiduciary arrangement 



Deoarfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



was established by a person resident in Germany, or a 
German e-iemy, or a person wlio subsequently became a 
German enemy. 

Article 9 

The Party in favour of which property is released un- 
der this Part of this Annex shall recognise the rights 
of non-enemies in the estate, trust or other fiduciary ar- 
rangement. 

Article 10 

The principles of Part I of this Annex shall not be ai)- 
plical)le to property released under this Part or dis- 
tributed to the custodian authorities of a Party from an 
estate, bona fide trust or other bona fide fiduciary arrange- 
ment governed by this Part. 

Part III: Property Owned by Enterprises Organised 
Under tlie Laws of a Party 

Article 11 

A. This Part shall apply to property situated within 
the jurisdiction of a Party and owned by an enterprise 
organised under the laws of another Party in which enter- 
prise tJiere was a direct or indirect German enemy interest 
on the material date. The Party within whose jurisdic- 
tion the property is situated shall be referred to as the 
"secondary country" with respect to tliat property. The 
enterprise owning the property .shall be referred to as 
the "primary company" with respect to that property. 
The Party under whose laws the enterprise is organised 
shall be referred to as the "primary country" with respect 
to that property. The terms "enterprise" and "com- 
pany" shall include any firm or body of persons, whether 
corporate or unincorporate. Property of an enterprise 
organised in the form of a trust, and property of a banking 
or financial institution other than the foreign currency 
cover accounts governed by Article 5 of this Annex, shall 
be dealt with under this Part. However, this exception 
with respect to cover accounts shall not be construed to 
imply that any cover accounts are or are not the property 
of the institution. 

B. An enterprise shall be deemed to be German con- 
trolled if at the material date German enemies held 
directly or indirectly : 

(i) 50 percent or more of the voting rights, outstanding 
capital stock or other proprietorship interests, or 

(ii) participating rights in a voting trust arrangement 
which rights represented 50 percent or more of such 
voting rights, outstanding capital stock or other proprie- 
torship interests ; 

or if at the material date German enemies directly or 
indirectly controlled the policy, management, voting 
power or operations of the enterprise. The property in 
the secondary country shall be deemed to be German 
controlled if at the material date German enemies directly 
or indirectly controlled the policy, management, use, or 
operation of the property. 

Article 12 
Except as otherwi.se provided in this Agreement, all 
property in a secondary country owned by a primary 

January 4, 1948 

771892—48 2 



company shall be released by the secondary country and 
the secondary country shall be entitled to receive reim- 
bursement from the primary country in an amount repre- 
senting that portion of the value of the property in the 
secondary country which corresponds to the percentage 
of direct and indirect German enemy interest in the pri- 
mary company on the material date. Release in each 
case shall take place as soon as an agreement has been 
reached between the countries concerned on whether 
either the property in the secondary country or the pri- 
mary company shall be treated as German controlled and 
on the general limits of, and method of calculating, the 
percentage of direct and indirect German enemy interest 
in the primary company on the material date. If the 
property in the secondary country and the primary com- 
pany are not German controlled, the property shall be 
released forthwith without reimbursement. 

Article 13 

A. Release of property in a secondary country shall be 
made in kind unless : 

(i) the property has been liquidated by the secondary 
country prior to the date on which the Agreement comes 
into force in respect of that country ; or 

(ii) the primary and secondary countries concerned 
agree that release in kind would not be practicable or the 
primary company consents to the sale or liquidation of the 
property by the secondary country ; or 

(iii) the property in the secondary country is a pro- 
duction enterprise or a substantial interest therein, and 
such property or the primary company concerned is Ger- 
man controlled and, after full consideration of the eco- 
nomic interest of the primary country, the secondary coun- 
try determines in exceptional cases that its national se- 
curity nevertheless requires retention of the property and 
gives notice to the primary country to that effect. 

B. Where release is not made in kind, the secondary 
country shall release in substitution the proceeds of the 
sale or liquidation of the property which would otherwise 
have been released in kind. If such property has not been 
sold or liquidated within one year after agreement or con- 
sent under sub-paragi-aph (ii) of Paragraph A of this 
Article or the giving of notice under sub-paragraph (iii) 
tliereof, or within an agreed extension beyond that period, 
the value of the property retained as determined by ac- 
cepted principles of valuation shall be released. 

Article IJf 

Reimbursement shall be paid to the secondary country 
by the primary country in the currency of the secondary 
country within two years after the date of release of the 
property. Payment may be delayed, however, in accord- 
ance with foreign exchange restrictions applicable gener- 
ally to payment of capital obligations from time to time 
in effect in the primary country, provided that such re- 
strictions are maintained in accordance with the Articles 
of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund and 
provided further that in any event full payment shall be 
made within seven years after the date of the release. 
Interest at the rate of 2 percent per annum shall be paid 



to the secondary country by the primary country on such 
balance of reimbursement as remains unpaid at and after 
the end of the two year period. 

AHicle 15 

Where administrative difficulty to the secondary country 
requires it or in other special circumstances the second- 
ary and primary countries concerned may agree that the 
secondary country shall retain that proportion of the 
value of the property in the secondary country to which 
it is entitled under the provisions of Article 12 of this 
Annex. In such event, tlie secondary country shall re- 
lease the excess of the property above the amount to which 
it is entitled and such excess shall inure to the benefit 
solely of the non-enemy interests in the primary company. 

Article 16 

Where the primary company is a dummy company or is 
a holding company whose outstanding stock is closely held 
or is not regularly traded in a recognised financial market, 
the secondary country, notwithstanding the provisions of 
Article 12 of this Annex, may retain that proportion of 
the property in the secondary country which corresponds 
to the percentage of direct and indirect German enemy 
interest in the dummy or holding company on the ma- 
terial date. In such event, the secondary country shall 
release the excess of the property above the amount to 
which it is entitled and such excess shall inure to the 
benefit solely of the non-enemy interests in the primary 
company. 

Article 17 

It is contemplated that the proportion of the value of 
the property in the secondary country which corresponds 
to the percentage of the direct and indirect non-enemy 
interests in the primary company shall inure to the benefit 
of such non-enemy interests. In arrangements for release 
and reimbursement made under this Part between two or 
more Parties, the Parties shall make reasonable provisions 
to avoid injury to interests in the primary company of 
non-enemies who are nationals of a third Party. 

Article IS 
In applying the rules of this Part to a case involving a 
chain of companies, releases of property and reimburse- 
ment payments shall be made between secondary coun- 
tries and their respective primary companies and countries. 
On the other hand, in calculating the percentage of direct 
and indirect German enemy interest in each of the suc- 
cessive primary companies, such interests shall be traced 
through the entire chain of companies. 

Article 19 

With respect to the types of property covered by Articles 
1 to 4 inclusive of this Annex, owned by enterprises gov- 
erned by Part III of this Annex, that country which would 
be entitled to obtain release of property under the prin- 
ciples of such Articles shall be regarded as the secondary 
country for the purposes of Part III ; in the case of foreign 
currency accounts under Article 5 of this Annex, main- 
tained in favour of an enterprise governed by Part III, 
the country where the primary account is maintained and 

10 



the country where the cover account is maintained shall 
each be regarded as the secondary country for the purposes 
of Part III to the extent of 50 percent of the foreign 
currency cover account. 

Article 20 
An enterprise organised under the laws of Germany 
shall be considered as wholly German enemy for the pur- 
pose of administering this Part, but property which is 
received in reimbursement or retained by any country 
under this Part shall be available for the protection of 
non-enemy interests in such enterprise, in accordance with 
the provisions of Part IV of this Annex. 

Part IV: Property Owned by Enterprises Organised 
Under the Laws of Germany 

Article 21 
This Part shall apply to property within the jurisdiction 
of a Party owned by an enterprise organised under the 
laws of Germany in which entei'prise non-enemy nationals 
of Parties directly or indirectly have, and on September 
1, 1939, had an interest. Non-enemy nationals of Parties 
referred to in this Part must have been nationals of 
Parties as of September 1, 1939. 

Article 22 
For the protection of the interests in the entei-prise of 
non-enemy nationals, referred to in Article 21 of this An- 
nex, the property to which this Part applies shall, subject 
to the provisions of Articles 23 and 24 of this Annex, be 
released to the extent of those interests and pursuant to 
arrangements to be made between the Parties concerned, 
if non-enemy nationals of Parties directly or indirectly : 

(i) own and, on September 1, 1939, owned 25% or more 
of the shares in the enterprise ; or 

(ii) control and, on September 1, 1939, controlled the 
enterprise. 

Article 23 

No Party shall be obliged to release property under this 
Part, in respect of which no claim, sponsored by another 
•Party, has been received by the former Party within one 
year after the coming into force of the Agreement between 
the respective Parties. Before sponsoring a claim under 
this Part, a Party shall be satisfied by a claimant, being 
one of its nationals, that Article 22 of this Annex ajjplies. 
Where a claim is filed with the Party in whose jurisdiction 
the property is located and Article 22 of this Annex ap- 
plies, such Party shall notify all otiier Parties and shall 
consider the claims of all non-enemy nationals of Parties 
who qualify under Article 21 of this Annex. 

Article 24 
A. Release of property under this Part shall be made 
in kind unless: 

( i ) the property has been liquidated prior to the date on 
which an eligible sponsored claim is filed with respect to 
the property pursuant to Article 23 of this Annex ; or 

(ii) the Parties concerned agree that release in kind 
would not be practicable ; or 

(iii) the property to be released is a production enter- 
prise or a substantial interest therein, and such property 

Department of State Bulletin 



or the enterprise organised under the laws of Germany 
is German controlled and, after full consideration of the 
economic interests of the other Party or Parties concerned, 
the Party in whose jurisdiction the property is located 
determines in exceptional cases that its national security 
nevertheless requires retention of the property and gives 
notice to the other Party or Parties to that effect. 

B. Where release Is not made in kind, there shall be 
released in substitution the proceeds of the sale or liqui- 
dation of the property which would otherwise have been re- 
leased in kind. If such projjerty has not been sold or 
liquidated within one year after agreement under sub- 
paragraph (ii) of Paragraph A of this Article or the 
giving of notice under sub-paragraph (iii) thereof, or 
within an agreed extension beyond that period, the value 
of the property retained as determined by accepted prin- 
ciples of valuation shall be released. 

Artiele 25 
With respect to the types of property covered by Articles 
1 to 4 inclusive of this Annex, owned by enterprises gov- 
erned by Part IV of this Annex, property shall be re- 
garded as being within the jurisdiction of the Party which 
would be entitled to obtain the release of such property 
under the principles of such Articles ; in the case of 
foreign currency accounts under Article 5 of this Annex, 
maintained in favour of an enterprise governed by Part 
IV, the country where the primary account is maintained 
and the country where the cover account is maintained 
shall each be regarded as having jurisdiction over the 
property to the extent of 50% of the foreign currency 
cover account. 

Part V: Interpretation and Application 

Article 26 

A. A Party shall not be obliged to release an enemy 
interest in property to another Party or to an enterprise 
organised under the laws of that other Party except to the 
extent that such interest will be treated directly or in- 
directly by the recipient Party as German enemy. 

B. A Party obliged under the Agreement to release prop- 
erty shall not be required to reverse any act of liquidation 
which has been carried out by sale, redemption or other- 
wise. The vesting, sequestration or confiscation of prop- 
erty shall not be regarded as constituting liquidation for 
the purposes of the Agreement. 

C. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the Agree- 
ment, a Party obliged to release property shall, if the 
property has been liquidated, release the proceeds of sucli 
liquidation. 

D. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the Agree- 
ment, a Party obliged to release property shall release all 
income or other benefits (in cash or otherwise) which 
have been received by it or by any person in its territory 
acting under its authority in respect of that property. 

E. The Party to which property is released under the 
Agreement shall fully recognise bona fide liens or pledges 
thereon legally obtained within the territory of the re- 
leasing Party which became effective prior to the date 
when the recipient Party took war-time emergency 



measures to prevent the acquisition of liens or pledges 
with respect to such property or the date when the terri- 
tory of the recipient Party was invaded by Germany and 
were valid under the laws of the recipient Party in effect 
prior to such date. A releasing Party shall not be obliged 
hereby to take any measures to set aside any bona fide 
lien or pledge valid under its laws which arose or was 
created either (a) prior to the date on which the releasing 
Party took war-time emergency measures to prevent the 
acquisition of such liens or pledges with respect to the 
property involved, or (b) after such date under license or 
other authorisation by such Party. 

F. Administrative charges and expenses of conservation 
and liquidation shall be borne by the recipient Party unless 
that Party requests the releasing Party to bear a portion 
thereof. In such event the obligation of the releasing 
Party shall be limited to the amount of the income or other 
benefits (if any) which the recipient Party establishes were 
received and were retained under the Agreement by the 
releasing Party or by any person in its territory acting 
under its authority with respect to the specific property 
released. 

G. Where property is subject to release under the 
Agreement the method of delivery and the payment of any 
delivery costs shall be arranged between the Parties 
concerned. 

H. (i) A Party shall not be required under the Agree- 
ment to make a release of property so long as there is 
pending any judicial or administrative proceeding in the 
territory of: 

(a) The releasing Party, if the proceeding requires re- 
tention of the property by that Party or may result in a 
determination that the property is not directly or in- 
directly German enemy owned or controlled ; 

(b) the recipient Party, if the proceeding may result in 
a determination that the property is not directly or in- 
directly German enemy owned or controlled and may thus 
prevent that Party from treating the released property as 
German enemy. 

(ii) If, after property is released under the Agreement : 

(a) the recipient Party is obliged as a result of litiga- 
tion in its territory to surrender custodian control of the 
property, the releasing Party may reassert its custodian 
control over the property in order to make an independent 
test of the litigated issue ; 

(b) the releasing Party is obliged as a result of litiga- 
tion in its territory to make a disposition of the property 
which release has prevented it from making, that Party 
may reassert custodian control over the property in order 
to comply with the obligation imposed by the litigation. 

If reassertion of custodian control by the releasing Party 
is required under this sub-paragraph, the recipient Party 
shall take appropriate action to facilitate such reassertion. 
(iii) At the request of the releasing Party, appropriate 
arrangements shall be made by the recipient Party prior 
to the release of any property : 

(a) assuring tlie releasing Party that it will be able to 
regain custodian control over the property or of the pro- 
ceeds of sale or liquidation or of the value thereof, if 
required under the terms of sub-paragraph (ii) above; 



January 4, 1948 



11 



(b) for indeniniflcation of charges or expenses which 
may be incurred by the releasing Party with respect to 
the released property after the date of release. 

I. The release of property under the provisions of the 
Agreement shall not terminate or otherwise affect the 
dedication of patents to the public, the placing of patents 
in the public domain or the grant of licenses to patents 
with or without royalty, pursuant to the provisions of 
Articles 1 or 2 of the German Patent Accord signed in 
London on July 27, 1946, or other agreement, when such 
action is taken prior to the release of the property. 

J. A Party shall be entitled at its discretion to refuse 
to accept a release under the provisions of the Agreement 
and in such event shall not be liable for payment of the 
charges and expenses referred to in Paragraphs F and G 
and sub-paragraph (iii) of Paragraph H of this Article. 

Article 27 

A. Nothing in the Agreement shall oblige any Party 
to recognise : 

(i) any transfer of, or other transaction relating to, a 
German enemy interest, occurring after the institution 
of war-time emergency measures by that Party or after 
the invasion of the territory of that Party by Germany; 

(ii) any transfer of non-enemy property in Germany 
to German enemies, or any assumption by German ene- 
mies from non-enemies, of control over property in Ger- 
many, which was forced without adequate consideration 
by action of the Government of Germany whether before 
or after September 1, 1939. This sub-paragraph shall 
apply only to property of, or controlled by, non-enemies 
who were nationals of Parties at the time of the transfer 
of the property or the assumption of control over the 
property. 

B. In determining whether any property is owned or 
controlled by a German enemy no transfer to a German 
enemy or dealings with a German enemy shall be taken 
into account vi^hich represent looting or forced transfers 
within the meaning of the Inter-Allied Declaration of 
January 5, 1943, against Acts of Dispossession. 

Article 28 

Property which is held for the benefit of a German 
enemy by any individual or body of persons, corporate or 
unincorporate, as a cloak, nominee, agent, trustee or in 
any other capacity, shall be regarded as directly owned 
by that German enemy. The question of recognising any 
interest which the holder of such property may claim 
therein shall not be prejudiced by the foregoing but shall 
be resolved in each case by negotiation between the Parties 
concerned. 

Article 29 

The assertion of custodian control over a German enemy 
interest in property within the territory of one Party 
shall not be deemed to have destroyed the German enemy 
interest in property within the territory of another Party. 

Article 30 

A branch or other similar office within the territory of 
a Party of an enterprise organised under the laws of 

12 



another country shall be regarded as a separate entity 
located within the territory of the Party. A partnership 
having its principal office in the territory of any Party 
shall be regarded as an enterprise located in that territory 
regardless of the residence or domicile of the partners. 

Article 31 

Where under the Agreement special problems arise 
respecting a complex organisation having subsidiary or 
affiliated organisations with proi)erties within the terri- 
tories of several of the I'arties, a committee composed of 
representatives of each of the interested Parties may be 
constituted to con.sider the problems and make recom- 
mendations for their solution. 

Article 32 

Parties shall exchange information and otherwise co- 
operate for the purpose of giving effect to the Agreement; 
provided that information given pursuant hereto shall be 
regarded as confidential by the Party receiving it which 
undertakes to use it exclusively for the jwrpose of imple- 
menting the Agreement and the Paris Agreement on Rep- 
aration of January 24, 1946. 

Article 33 

Nothing in the Agreement shall be construed to confer 
any right on an individual or body of persons, corporate 
or unincorporate, to prosecute a claim in any court or ad- 
ministrative tribunal against his or their Government or 
against any other Party. 



Article 34 



In this Annex : 



(i) the term "property" shall include all rights, titles 
and interests in property ; 

(ii) the expression "war-time emergency measures" 
means the measures for the control of German enemy 
owned property, or of transactions by or on behalf of Ger- 
man enemies taken by a Party on or after September 1, 
1939 whether or not taken prior to that Government's 
actual participation in the War ; 

(iii) the expression "the material date" means the day 
on which the secondary country as defined in Part III of 
this Annex came into the war or took war-time emergency 
measures, whichever is earlier. 

Part VI: Conciliation 

Article 35 

In order to give effect to the provisions of Article 4 
of the Agreement to which this is the Annex, a Panel of 
Conciliators consisting of seven members shall be es- 
tablished in the following manner: 

(i) Each Party which has signed the Agreement be- 
fore the expiry of six months after its coming into force 
may, by written notice to the Secretary General of the 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, nominate not more than 
three candidates for election to the Panel, and the Secre- 
tary General shall not accept any nomination after the 
expiry of that period. 

Department of State Bulletin 



(ii) The Secretary General shall, by secret ballot, con- 
duct an election of the Panel of Conciliators and only 
those Parlies which have signed the Agreement before 
the expiry of six months after its coming into force shall 
be entitled to vote. 

(iii) Each Party shall be entitled to east one vote in 
respect to each vacancy on the Panel. A Party shall not 
cast more than one vote for any one candidate. 

(iv) The seven candidates receiving the highest num- 
ber of votes shall be elected to the Panel ; provided that 
no candidate shall be elected who has not received the 
vote of at least two-thirds of the Parties voting, and pro- 
vided that not more than two nationals of the same 
country shall be elected. 

(v) From the seven members of the P?inel so elected, 
the Parties entitled to vote, exercising one vote each, 
shall elect by secret ballot a President of the Panel by a 
majority of at least two-thirds of the votes cast. 

(vi) In case of the death or retirement of the Presi- 
dent or any other member of the Panel, the vacancy shall 
be filled by vote of the then Parties. Each Party may 
nominate one candidate, and election shall be by a major- 
ity of at least two-thirds of the votes cast. 

Article 36 
Immediately upon its election the Panel shall formu- 
late, for its internal organization and its work, such basic 
rules as it deems necessary. A fee therefor shall be paid 
to the members of the Panel by the Parties specified in 
sub-paragraph (ii) of Article 35 at a rate fixed by the 
Secretary General of the Inter-Allied Reparation Agency. 

Article 37 
A. If a dispute is not resolved within a reasonable 
time by negotiation as provided in Article 4 of the Agree- 
ment to which this is the Annex, a Party may request the 
President of the Panel of Conciliators referred to in 
Article 35 of this Annex to appoint from the Panel an 



impartial Conciliator who shall hear the Parties and may 
call for additional evidence. The Conciliator shall for- 
mulate a solution which is in his opinion the best possible 
solution in the spirit of tlie Agreement, and the solution 
so formulated shall be binding upon the Parties con- 
cerned and final. 

B. The President shall, upon application of any of the 
parties in dispute, determine whether a reasonable time 
has elapsed before submission of the case to conciliation 
under Paragraph A of this Article; provided that a period 
of less than one year from the commencement of negotia- 
tions between the Parties in dispute shall not be con- 
sidered a reasonable time for the purposes of this Para- 
graph. 

Article 38 

The question whether in the opinion of the secondary 
country, its national security requires the retention of 
property under sub-paragraph (iii) of Paragraph A of 
Article 13 of this Annex and sub-paragraph (iii) of Para- 
graph A of Article 24 of this Annex shall not be subject 
to the procedure of conciliation. 

Article 39 

The Conciliator shall not be entitled to grant any modi- 
fication of the obligation to make full iiayment in the 
currency of the secondary counti-y within seven years after 
the date of the release as required by Article 14 of this 
Annex. 

Article 40 

Each Party in dispute shall pay to the Conciliator such 
fees and expenses as he may determine. Any such Party 
may request the President of the Panel to review the fees 
and expenses fixed by the Conciliator, or their allocation 
between the Parties. The decision of the President on the 
matter shall be final. 



January 4, 7948 



13 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Tensions in the United Nations 



BY WARREN R. AUSTIN i 
U.S. Representative at the Seat of the United Nations 



Before launching upon the subject of our dis- 
cussions, I wish to express the deep appreciation 
of the American Delegation for the service ren- 
dered our cause by one of your distinguished citi- 
zens, Mr. Adlai Stevenson. He played a significant 
role in the drafting of the United Nations Charter 
at San Francisco, in the initial period of organi- 
zation at London, and as a member of the American 
Delegation to the first and second sessions of the 
General Assembly in New York. I personally, and 
my colleagues in the United States Mission to the 
United Nations, are indebted to Mr. Stevenson for 
his counsel on the broad range of our problems 
as well as his competent handling of the specific 
responsibilities entrusted to him. He has won the 
admiration and friendship of foreign delegations 
as a spokesman for his country who in his person 
displays the qualities of leadership. 

The most important prohlem of our generation 
is that of preventijiff and abolishing toar and of 
iuilding and maintaining peace. I want to say 
at the outset that in attempting a realistic analysis 
of this problem, giving frank recognition to the 
difficulties we must surmount, I do not waiver in 
my conviction that we can and shall succeed in 
using the United Nations to achieve collective se- 
curity. My conviction is based on a very simple 
proposition — namely, the people of the world want 
peace more than they ever have before in human 
history. Where there is a will there is a way. I am 
persuaded that there is not only a desire but also 

' Addres.s delivered before the Chicago Council on For- 
eign Relations at Chicago, Dec. 17, 1047, and released to 
the press by the U.S.Mission to the United Nations on 
the same date. 

14 



a powerful will to peace in all countries and that 
we can find the way to make peace prevail. 

Yet it will not serve our cause to underestimate 
the difficulties in the way nor to overestimate the 
gains we are able to make in the short run. Our 
support of the United Nations must rest upon a 
realistic appraisal of the problem and the forces 
operating within the international organization. 
In spite of the road-blocks in the way of our cen- 
tral goal of collective security, we continue our sup- 
port and persist in exercising our influence within 
the counsels of nations. Why? We are deter- 
mined to reach the goal, and therefore we hold 
steadfastly to the best means of reaching it. 

The very fact that we have a vast international 
organization meeting in conferences in various 
places all over the world enables us to see in bold 
relief the differences and tensions between nations 
as they appear and as they reflect realistically the 
situation in the international world today. We 
have a unique oj^portunity to study at close range, 
in open forums, both the tensions and the condi- 
tions they reflect. 

I should like to discuss with you frankly the 
tensions in the United Nations, suggest how we 
might act to relieve these tensions and how we 
might hasten the realization of collective security 
envisaged in the United Nations Charter. 

We have just concluded a significant session of 
the General Assembly in New York. During this 
Assembly, we have had an opportunity to observe 
the expression of opinions — so violent at times that 
many people wondered whether any common 
ground could be found for agreement. Let us look 
for a moment at a few of the achievements and 
then face up to the frustrations. 

Department of State Bulletin 



In spite of disturbing signs of disunity, the 
rital objective of keeping the differing parties 
around the same table, clarifying their views for 
each other and world opinion, seems more assured 
now than before. On most basic issues the mem- 
ber nations displayed determination to act to- 
gether by impressively large majorities. 

By a vote of 40 to 6, they asserted the power and 
authority of the General Assembly in the Greek 
border case, action by the Security Council having 
been prevented by the Soviet veto. During the de- 
bate, tlie entire membership learned about the find- 
ings of the Commission of Investigation and the 
claims of all sides were given a thorough airing in 
the world forum. Such exposure, in my judgment, 
is a powerful brake on aggressive action. The 
Greek Border Commission established by the As- 
sembly at this session is a tangible accomplishment. 
It will keep an area which has been a danger spot 
for generations under a strong international flood- 
light. It is now impossible for the territorial in- 
tegrity and political independence of Greece to be 
assassinated in the dark. Everyone knows who 
wants the light and who does not. 

By a vote of 41 to 6, the General Assembly 
strengthened its own machinery by creating an In- 
terim Committee of the whole membership to meet 
during the recess between the end of the session and 
the beginning of the next one. Wliile the Interim 
Committee does not give the Assembly any new 
constitutional authority, it buttresses its existing 
authority by enabling it to carry out its respon- 
sibilities in the field of peace and security more 
continuously and efficiently. 

In the future, issues which have tended to dom- 
inate the agenda at the regular annual sessions will 
be explored and prepared in advance. The In- 
terim Committee will relieve the Assembly of in- 
consequential matters and bring the issues into 
clearer focus. 

Under the Charter, nations can bring situations 
or disputes either to the Security Council or the 
Assembly. If a nation feels that the situation re- 
quires a decision carrying the power of enforce- 
ment it would ordinarily take the case to the Se- 
curity Council. On the other hand, a nation might 
feel that the tremendous moral power of recom- 
mendation could best serve the cause of peace, and 
it would therefore bring the problem to the As- 
sembly. Wlien the arm of the Security Council 

January 4, 1948 



THB UNITBD NATIONS AND iPECIAUZED AGENCIES 

is threatened with paralysis by the veto, it is natu- 
ral for nations to lean more heavily on the im- 
f ettered arm of the Assembly. 

By a vote of 43 to 0, another significant step 
was taken by the Assembly in the case of Korea. 
It created a commission to help prepare for and 
observe an election and to recommend steps lead- 
ing toward unity and independence. The mere 
presentation of the stalemated Korean situation to 
the Assembly produced an immediate reaction on 
the part of the Soviet Union. In committee, the 
Soviet Union offered proposals with the obvious 
hope of avoiding or at least delaying Assembly ac- 
tion. Wlien these proposals were turned down, it 
refused to participate in the vote. Once again 
the process of exposure of the issues and claims was 
made, and it is clear who wanted to submit the 
problem to the world conununity and who did not. 

In the case of Palestine, the Assembly took a far- 
reaching step by its vote for partition with a 
United Nations trusteeship over Jerusalem. The 
full gamut of Assembly methods was used : a spe- 
cial Assembly last spring which set up a commis- 
sion of disinterested parties to investigate and 
recommend ; review of the long history and on-the- 
spot study of the case by that commission; the 
formulation of minority and majority recommeia- 
dations; full debate of both reports in committee 
and plenary session of the regular Assembly ; and 
finally, the taking of the decision by two-thirds 
vote. The United States and the Soviet Union 
stood together in this case. 

The Palestine case was the only crucial issue on 
which the United States and the Soviet Union 
found common ground. Although dramatic divi- 
sions have been widely publicized, they have not 
been as numerous as is generally supposed. 

The very existence and present development of 
the United Nations rests on a rather broad area 
of agreement and a willingness of nations, par- 
ticularly the great powers, to compromise their 
views and accommodate themselves to majority 
positions. We have thus been able to set in motion 
the most ambitious organization for peace ever 
conceived. We have built up an efficient Secre- 
tariat, introduced novel methods of breaking down 
barriers of language, developed fact-finding facili- 
ties and arsenals of information for combating 
such ancient evils as disease, hunger, and ignorance. 
We have created commissions and specialized agen- 

15 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

cies to deal with a whole range of vital problems 
througli international consultation : 

the problem of control of atomic and other 

weapons of mass destruction ; 
of reduction and regulation of armaments; 
of human rights ; 
of finance and trade; 
of health and narcotics ; 
of food and agriculture ; 
of economics and employment; 
of education, science, and culture; 
of labor standards ; 
of displaced and stateless persons. 

The crowded calendar of United Nations confer- 
ences this year bears eloquent testimony to the 
progress we have made in a very short time in sub- 
miitting problems to international treatment. I 
do not share the cynical view that all these confer- 
ences, although they do involve interminable talk 
and endless drafting of documents, are of little 
consequence. They are of great consequence, even 
when they fail to reach agreements or to take ac- 
tions which some regard as the only test of their 
success. They assemble together responsible polit- 
ical leaders and experts fo grapple with i^ractical 
problems. Only through this gradual process of 
consultation and discussion can we hope to develop 
the understandings essential to conmion jii'ogi-ams 
of action. By this means we associate people of 
different experiences and views. Together they 
seek a world view and build up a body of knowl- 
edge which is used by specialists in all nations and 
eventually through education becomes a founda- 
tion for public opinion. There is no short-cut to 
world order. The concepts and understandings 
must be built patiently in the minds of men. 

Not only do we need to understand what will 
help build world order but also what will disrupt 
it. In this Assembly the delegates after historic 
debates repulsed at least three adventures by the 
police states to extend the reach of their system of 
regimentation through the United Nations. 

The fii-st and most important was a demand for 
world-wide suppression and censorship — a direct 
blow at freedom of speech wherever it exists in the 
world. The resolution embodying this invasion of 
human rights was put forward as the major drive 
of the Soviet Union under the pretext of prevent- 
ing war-mongering and propaganda disturbing to 
peaceful and friendly relations among nations. 

16 



Not only was this resolution roundly defeated, but 
the delegates put in its place a positive and demo- 
cratic proposition calling for "peace-mongering" 
as the antidote. 

The second attempt at universalizing police-state 
methods concerned war criminals and displaced 
persons. The delegates again clarified the princi- 
ples of human rights and legal protections in great 
debates. They defeated the effort to force the de- 
livery of innocent people into the hands of their ac- 
cusers to be put in jeopardy for their political 
views. 

The third adventure was designed to hamstring 
the cooperative plans of member nations for mu- 
tual aid in programs of recovery and reconstruc- 
tion. The overwhelming majority rejected the 
attacks on relief and recovery programs and 
asserted the freedom of nations to collaborate in 
ways best calculated to serve their welfare con- 
sistent with the Charter. 

The General Assembly just concluded continued 
and expanded United Nations activities all along 
the front. It agreed on plans for building its 
headquarters in New York City, called upon the 
schools of the world to teach the youth about the 
United Nations, and raised a new flag symboliz- 
ing the international union. 

So much for the credit side of the ledger. What 
do we find on the debit side ? 

We have not succeeded in making peace settle- 
ments outside of the United Nations through the 
machinery of the Council of Foreign Ministers. 
This fact is a major obstruction on the road to 
peace through collective security. The United 
Nations is constituted to keep peace once it has 
been made. 

We have not found a basis for agreement on the 
control and outlawry of atomic and other weapons 
of mass destruction. The Soviet Unitm persists in 
its effort to prohibit the manufacture and use of 
atomic bombs by a treaty before establishing any 
system of control and inspection. The majority 
of all the other nations on the Atomic Energy 
Commission, except Poland, has rejected this pro- 
posal as ineffective and likely to stimulate national 
rivalries in this dangerous field. The majority — 
13 of the 15 nations that have worked in the Com- 
mission — ^lias developed a plan for control of 
atomic energy to insure its use for peaceful pur- 
poses only. The Soviet Union even declined the 
invitation to participate in the working groups 

Department of State Bulletin 



formulating specific proposals on the functions 
and powers of an international control agency. 
Here we have a second major obstruction to col- 
lective security. 

We have carried on extensive discussions in the 
Military Staff Committee on peace forces to im- 
plement the Charter provisions for enforcement 
of Security Council decisions, but there is as yet 
no basis for agreement. 

Peace settlements, control of atomic energy, and 
an acceptable formula for peace forces are essen- 
tial prerequisites to negotiations for the reduction 
and control of national armaments in general. 
The opposition by the Soviet Union to majority 
proposals in these four fields presents a formidable 
blockade on the road to collective security. 

In the recent Assembly a small minority, led 
by the Soviet Union, vigorously opposed pro- 
posals supported by large majorities, such as those 
dealing with the Greek border, the Interim Com- 
mittee, and Korea. When these proposals were 
adopted by more than the required two-thirds 
vote of the Assembly, the minority of 6 out of 
57 made declarations of noncooperation on the 
ground that these measures violated provisions 
of the Charter. According to the majority inter- 
pretation of the meaning of the Charter, the ac- 
tions taken were consistent with the letter and 
spirit of the basic law. However, a suggestion 
was made that the Court of International Justice 
be asked to rule on differences of interpretation. 
It was rejected by the minority. The members 
of the minority claimed they were right and the 
majority was wrong. In the view of the Soviet 
Union, there the matter rests. 

The division within the United Nations is seri- 
ous because it strikes at the central issue of col- 
lective security. That concept was based on the 
unanimity of the large powers. That unity is 
lacking on crucial issues. The Soviet Union has 
demonstrated an unwillingness on most vital mat- 
ters to join with the majority. Rather, it has 
insisted that the majority accept the uncompro- 
mised position of the minority, which it claims 
is the only right one. In the face of this division, 
the Soviet Union accuses the majority of blocking 
the will of the minority and thus endangering 
peace and security. 

It goes still further. It makes use of the United 
Nations as a sounding board to conduct a propa- 
ganda attack on member states, particularly the 

January 4, 1948 

771892 — 48 S 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

United States. In vitriolic and intemperate tei'ms, 
it charges that the United States is seeking to 
dominate other nations, that certain circles, in- 
cluding government officials, are conducting a 
propaganda campaign for a new war and attempt- 
ing to build up military power for aggression. 

The record of discussion and voting in the 
United Nations makes it clear that the division is 
not correctly put as one between the Soviet Union 
and the United States. It is rather a division be- 
tween a tiny minority of border states dominated 
and led by the Soviet Union on the one hand and 
most of the rest of the world on the other. 

Most of the significant points over which seem- 
ingly irreconcilable differences develop concern 
the question of security. Collective security 
means that the member nations must be willing 
to trust their individual security.primarily to the 
collective defense facilities of the Organization. 
Obviously the Soviet Union is not yet ready to 
do this. It hesitates to take any of the risks in- 
volved in the establishment of collective security. 
It gives evidence of a purpose to rely on its own 
national defense. 

I can understand the fear and apprehension 
which undoubtedly exists in the Soviet Union, a 
fear which, as long as we lack real collective 
security, will exist to some degree everywhere. 
People and nations can only have real security 
together, mutually. One does not have to ascribe 
motives of aggression to explain expansionist ten- 
dencies. They can be explained as defensive 
moves. Yet, putting the best construction on the 
motives does not make the moves less dangerous 
to all concerned. 

The fear of the Russian people feeds on vivid 
experience. They have suffered two destructive 
invasions in 30 years. They are naturally security- 
conscious. They are likely to be apprehensive of 
any proposal which they think might weaken their 
existing defenses. 

This understandable fear is constantly stimu- 
lated by the ruling group through a rigidly con- 
trolled press and radio. The Russian people live 
in the presence of publicity playing up foreign 
hostility. They are told that the large majority 
votes in the United Nations show that they are 
surrounded by hostile forces. On the other hand, 
they are also told that these votes do not really 
represent the will of these countries but are cast 
under duress. 

17 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

The Soviet leaders visualize a rather unique 
defense mechanism. As a first line in the outer 
defenses they rely upon the Communist Parties 
in various countries to oppose any moves they 
consider contrary to Soviet interests. If the Com- 
munist Party in a given country could actually 
become the government, the "hostile majority" 
would lose one vote in the United Nations and the 
Soviet Union would gain a dependable ally. Thus 
step by step they would move toward unanimity — 
Communist unanimity — in the United Nations, 
and achieve their brand of collective security. 

A great part of the tension in the United Na- 
tions grows out of the fact that the economic and 
social instability in the wake of war has favored 
the growth of Communist Parties in many coun- 
tries. Communist leaders in those countries try 
to exploit chaotic conditions to seize power. They 
are properly regarded as fifth columns. 

Whether these parties are part of a Soviet plan 
for world domination through world revolution 
or merely outposts convenient to Russian defense 
makes no difference in .ultimate consequences. It 
is obvious that their existence and prospects for 
their ultimate success must encourage intransi- 
gence on the part of the Soviet Union on all mat- 
ters involving collective security. 

The United States does not seek any particular 
brand of unanimity in the United Nations, nor 
any particular political or economic system in the 
individual member states. But we do seek to 
assist in the restoration of conditions that will 
safeguard the freedom of member nations. 

The second line of Soviet defense consists of 
buffer states subject to her domination. She 
« would no doubt rather have them "friendly" of 
their own free will, but "friendly" they must be. 
And the ruling group in Russia decides precisely 
how a border state must demonstrate its friend- 
liness. This bear hug of "friendliness" seeks to 
embrace all distressed, frightened, and despair- 
ing neighbor states. 

The third and inner line is, of course, the mili- 
tary organization and economic support of it in- 
side Russia. Whether you assume that the motive 
of the Soviet action is one or another of the three 
I have mentioned — namely, the Politburo's pur- 
pose to maintain its grip on the Russian people, 
or world domination, or national defense — the con- 
clusion is irresistible that the consequent need is 



activation of the purposes and principles of the 
United Nations. 

This state of affairs calls for constructive ac- 
tion on many fronts. 

In the first j^lace, we must patiently and per- 
sistently work through all the organs of the United 
Nations doing everything in our power to keep 
the contending parties around the common con- 
ference tables. In this way the great force of 
world public opinion is continuously brought to 
bear on the problems of peace. 

Through the many agencies for economic and 
social progress, where no veto applies, we can 
take the leadership and work for improvement 
in the conditions which favor peace. Especially 
must we build up the facilities for long-range 
activities in the fields of health and trade and 
social progress. 

Second, we must carry through emergency 
measures of relief to prevent hunger and despair 
this winter. 

Third, we must join forces with those nations 
which are united in the self-help European Re- 
covery Program. 

Fourth, we must develop the kind of trading 
world where reconstructed nations can go forward 
to real prosperity. This requires continuation of 
the reciprocal trade program and participation in 
the International Trade Organization and other 
economic agencies of the United Nations. 

And fifth, we must demonstrate by deeds that 
Soviet fear of mvasion or attack is unfounded. 

This program might be called a pincer move- 
ment for peace. On the one side, we use our eco- 
nomic strength to help free nations remain free 
and become self-reliant and strong. On the other 
side, we maintain a strong defense of our own 
capable of discouraging threats to the peace 
anywhere. 

If this works, the first-line Soviet defense, 
Coirmaunist F'arties in other countries, will dis- 
integrate. With the revival of confidence the 
parties which thrive on fear and despair will lose 
strength. Most of all, the Communist predictions 
of economic collapse in the free countries will be 
frustrated by economic recovery, stability, and the 
ever higher productivity of our trading world. 

As the initiative and resourcefulness of 200 mil- 
lion Europeans increases the output of the most 
advanced industrial area in the world outside of 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



the United States, economic isolationism will be- 
come highly unattractive to eastern Europe. The 
people of that area will reach out for their cus- 
tomary trade. They will build business bridges 
over which manufactured goods and farm prod- 
ucts can be exchanged. The second line of buffer 
states will be hard to hold under those conditions. 

New power relationships in the world will de- 
velop because in the last analysis power is based 
on productivity. There will be a strong America 
and Western Hemisphere which have demon- 
strated by their acts that they are not engaged 
in dominating others nor preparing for assaults. 
The term "preventive war" will be forgotten. 
Those who startle people by talking about it will 
be recognized as irresponsible elements tolerated 
but not followed. There should be a strong Brit- 
ish Commonwealth once again active in the grow- 
ing trade of the world. There should be a recon- 
structed Europe rising to new levels of living by 
adapting the methods of modern technology and 
science to a large and free market. 

Tensions reflect unstable and unbalanced condi- 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

tions. We are planning definite acts to change 
those conditions. But these tensions also reflect 
a state of mind — a sickness of spirit. Merely 
changing the physical conditions will not suffice 
to release the full powers of the human spirit for 
peaceful progress. 

We must overcome fear with faith. We must 
break the vicious circles of recriminations and ac- 
cusations by our own emphasis on the positive, 
the constructive, the creative. It is by our faith 
that our world will be made whole. 

Money and materials can contribute to recon- 
struction only if the hands which make use of them 
are moved by a human spirit expressing faith in 
great purposes and plans. The purpose is not 
merely to build a material foundation for life but 
to cultivate a good life. 

For this reason we put stress on freedom and 
responsibility. Europe wants more than eco- 
nomic recovery. It wants a new birth of freedom. 
Our faith in the power of free men to act rationally 
in the common mterest is the true basis of the 
coming collective security. 



January 4, 1948 



19 



Alien Correspondents at United Nations 

STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY LOVETT 



[Released to the press December 24] 

The Department of State has received the com- 
munication from the United Nations regarding 
the case of Nicolas Kyriazides and intends to pass 
this communication on to the Justice Department 
today. In so far as the case of the Indian 
student, Syed Sibtay Hasan, is concerned, it is 
our understanding that the United Nations has 
requested the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service to allow Hasan to depart voluntarily from 
the United States. 

I should like to refute any imputation or alle- 
gation that this Government has violated in any 
way the United Nations Headquarters Agreement 
which was enacted into law by joint resolution of 
Congress dated August 4, 1947. We have ad- 
hered not only to the letter but to the spirit of 
this agreement even before the recent action of 
the United Nations in ratifying it. 

In order to keep the record straight, it should 
be stressed that Kyriazides, in so far as this 
Government was concerned, ceased being a tona 
■fide journalist at the United Nations on October 
18, the date the Greek Government closed the 
two Athens Communist newspapers which he 
represented at United Nations. We were ad- 
vised informally this week, after the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service took action 
against him, that Kyriazides on October 24 re- 
quested United Nations accreditation in repre- 
senting himself as correspondent for a weekly 
newspaper published in Cyprus. We were in- 
formed this week that a clerk in the United Na- 
tions accreditation office accredited Kyriazides 
without referring the matter to the higher offi- 
cials or notifying anyone. 

The United Nations Headquarters Agreement 
provides, of course, that accreditation of alien 
correspondents at United Nations shall be only 
after consultation with the Department of State. 
This Government, of course, has in no way yielded 
up its sovereign rights to challenge the bona fides 
of any alien journalist seeking to enter this coun- 
try or already in this country. It has in no way 
yielded its sovereign rights to investigate, to hold 

20 



hearings, and to deport alien journalists or persons 
holding themselves as such if the circumstances 
warrant, while of course seeking to be as liberal 
as possible in any cases involving such aliens. 

In the cases of both Kyriazides and Hasan the 
United Nations failed to communicate with the 
Department of State concerning either of these 
two men until this week after the Justice Depart- 
ment action was known. The Department, of 
course, knew of Kyriazides' presence, because he 
obtained a visa in Geneva to come to United Na- 
tions, at the same time withholding information 
that he was a Communist. In the case of Hasan 
we considered him a student, as he entered on a stu- 
dent visa, and we learned with surprise this week 
that United Nations had accredited him months 
ago as a correspondent. 

In Kyriazides' case, the Department of State has 
been kept currently informed for weeks concern- 
ing developments in his case, and we have coop- 
erated fully with the Immigration and Naturali- 
zation Service, and are continuing to cooperate 
with that Service. It should be added that the 
Department has information showing conclusively 
that the newspaper which Kyriazides claims to rep- 
resent is a small weekly paper of possibly several 
thousand circulation at most, and that it is finan- 
cially unable to contribute to Kyriazides more than 
an infinitesimal portion of the amount which he 
would need to support himself as a hona fide^ full- 
time alien correspondent in the United States. 
The Department considers that the provision in 
the United Nations Headquarters Agreement con- 
cerning representatives of the press relates only 
to persons who come to this country for iona fide 
full-time newspaper work and not to those who 
take up such work incidentally. 

The Department is ready at any time to desig- 
nate a group of its officials to meet with U. N. 
officials to recommend to them a drastic revision 
of the U. N. system of accreditation of alien jour- 
nalists. It is hoped that a meeting can be ar- 
ranged at the earliest opportunity to discuss 
various phases of the relationships existing be- 
tween this Government and United Nations. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Fourth Meeting of Preparatory Commission for IRO 



ARTICLE BY GEORGE L. WARREN 



The Preparatoiy Commission for the Interna- 
tional Kefugee Organization (Pciro) met for the 
fourth time at Geneva, Switzerland, on October 
21, 1947. It had, on July 1, 1947, assumed operat- 
ing responsibilities on behalf of the International 
Refugee Organization for the care, repatriation, 
and resettlement of displaced persons.' The pur- 
pose of this session was, therefore, to consider the 
report of the Executive Secretary on the activities 
of the Preparatory Commission since July 1 and 
the status of adherences to the Iro Constitution. 

Budget Discussions 

The chief problem confronting the Commission 
was the ajiparent inadequacy of funds for re- 
settlement — the onl}' available solution for the 
majority of refugees remaining in the assembly 
centers. Analysis of the budget showed that 
$80,000,000 of the total 1947-48 budget of 
$115,645,000 was set aside for the care and main- 
tenance of displaced persons as compared with 
approximately $14,840,000 for resettlement. The 
Executive Secretary reported that 660,000 refu- 
gees had been taken under care and maintenance, 
and that 50,000 to 60,000 in-camp displaced per- 
sons remained to be taken over from the occupy- 
mg authorities. The Executive Secretary pre- 
sented a new budget for 1947^8 to the Commis- 
sion, approximately $14,000,000 in excess of the 
budget adopted in May, and requested that gov- 
enmient members consider additional contribu- 
tions to meet the expanded budget. Practically 
all members of the Commission reported, how- 
ever, that they were not in a position to make 
additional contributions to the Iro, and the 
Preparatory Commission decided that in order to 
avoid a deficit in operations the budget for the 
fiscal year July 1, 1947, through June 30, 1948, 
should remain at $115,645,000, the anticipated in- 
come for the year. 

Eligibility Provisions for Care and Maintenance and 
Resettlement 

The Executive Secretary also proposed that 
the Commission give serious consideration to the 

January 4, 1948 



settling of a date, such as January 1 or July 1, 
1948, after which displaced persons eligible for 
care under the constitution of Iro would not be 
accepted for care. This proposal was in line 
with two "freeze orders" which had already been 
issued by the administration, one restricting in- 
take of new cases to those suffering extreme hard- 
ship and the other restricting resettlement 
activities solely to in-camp displaced persons. 
The restriction of resettlement services to in-camp 
displaced persons was rejected by the Commis- 
sion, which took the view that this policy would 
penalize refugees who have become self-support- 
ing but who require Pciro assistance in finding 
new homes, and the Executive Secretary was 
instructed to cancel the administrative order. 
With respect to the "freeze order" restricting 
the number of displaced persons to be accepted 
for care, the Executive Secretary declared tliat 
it had been adopted with extreme reluctance for 
overwhelming reasons of a purely budgetary na- 
ture. The Preparatory Commission requested 
the Executive Secretary to interpret the hard- 
ship exception as liberally as possible and to re- 
port further to the Commission at its next 
meeting. 

International Conference on Resettlement 

The Executive Secretary proposed that the mem- 
bers of the United Nations be called upon to im- 
plement the United Nations Assembly Resolution 
of December 15, 1946, which urged each member 
to take its fair share of displaced persons. A de- 
tailed discussion on the calling of an international 
conference to determine specific numbers of refu- 
gees which receiving governments might agree to 
accept demonstrated the desirability of coordinat- 
ing such i^lans with the International Labor Office 
and the Economic Committee for Europe and the 
wisdom of consulting governments as to the time, 



' For the report on the Third Meeting of the Preparatory 
Commission for Iro, see Bulletin of Sept. 28, 1947, 
p. 638. 

21 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

place, sponsorship, and specific objectives of such 
a conference. The Executive Secretary was con- 
sequently instructed to consult governments and 
international organizations concerning these mat- 
ters and to report to the next meeting of the Com- 
mission. 

Assistance to Refugees in France 

The French Delegation introduced a draft reso- 
lution to organize a progi-am of assistance for the 
several thousand refugees now living in France 
who were refugees before the outbreak of the sec- 
ond World War, for reasons of race, religion, or 
political opinion. Included in this group are po- 
litical refugees from Spain and refugees from 
Nazi persecution as well as the "Nansen" refugees 
of Russian and Armenian origin. The Prepara- 
tory Commission directed the Executive Secretary 
to undertake a more adequate program of assist- 
ance for needy persons in these categories as soon 
as possible. 

International Tracing Service 

The Commission recognized the importance ,of 
establishing a single unified international tracing 
service for displaced persons; this would coordi- 
nate all the separate tracing services now in ex- 
istence. The Executive Secretary was therefore 
directed to invite all interested governments, 
whether or not members of the Preparatory Com- 
mission, as well as voluntary societies engaged in 
tracing persons, to relate their tracing activities 
to the work of the International Tracing Service 
whose functions will include mass tracing activi- 
ties and the tracing of children. 

International Travel Document 

Large numbers of refugees and displaced per- 
sons are without travel documents of any kind. 
The Preparatory Commission discussed the ad- 
vantages offered by an internationally valid travel 
document similar to the Nansen passport and in- 
structed the Executive Secretary to insure that 
persons within the mandate of the organization be 
provided with identity papers and travel docu- 
ments without which the formalities of travel pre- 
requisite to resettlement cannot be completed. 

Recognition of the Work of Voluntary Organizations 

The Preparatory Commission took special note 
of the valuable work which was being carried for- 

22 



ward by voluntary organizations, on behalf of dis- 
placed persons and requested the Executive Sec- 
retary to intensify liaison work with these agencies 
so that their work may be more closely integrated 
with that of Pcmo. 

Other Items Discussed 

The Commission also considered reports on 
reparations payments, public information, and 
progress on the establishment of a semi-judicial 
machinery to determine the eligibility of dis- 
placed persons. 

During the meeting of the Commission the ad- 
herence of the Dominican Republic to the Con- 
stitution of Iro, as the eleventh full member was 
reported. Belgium also promised early rati- 
fication. 

The Commission recessed on November 1, 1947, 
to reconvene again on January 20, 1948, as the 
Fifth Part of the First Plenary Session of 
Pcmo. 



U.S. Delegation to Provisional Fre- 
quency Board of the International Tele- 
communication Union 

[Released to the press December 26] 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 26 that the President has approved the com- 
position of the United States Delegation to the 
Provisional Frequency Board of the International 
Telecommunication Union which is scheduled to 
convene at Geneva, Switzerland, on January 15, 
1948. It is expected to continue its work for 
approximately two years. The Delegation is as 
follows : 

Representative and Chairman 

Ray C. Wakefield, former Commissioner, Federal Com- 
munications Commission 

AdHsers 

Gordon L Caswell, Capt., U.S.N., Assistant Chief of 
Naval Communications for Frequencies, Department 
of the Navy 

Randolph V. Fite, Lt. Col., U.S.A., Specialist assigned to 
the Department of State 

Carl W. Loeber, Chief, Radio Section, Common Carrier 
Division, Engineering Department, Federal Communi- 
cations Commission 

Lawton S. F. Mealser, Radio Engineer, Air Communica- 
tions Office, Department of the Air Force 



Department of State Bulletin 



Newbern Smith, Assistant Chief, Central Radio Propa- 
gation Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards, 
Department of Commerce 

Nathaniel White, Chief, Frequency and Call Sign Section, 
Communications Liaison Branch, Office of the Chief 
Signal Officer, Department of the Army 

Administrative Assistant 

Helen S. Norman, Department of State 

In addition, the following representatives of the 
telecommunication industry will sei-ve with the 
Delegation : 

F. C. Alexander, Mackay Radio and Telegraph, Inc., New 
York City 

R. D. Campbell, American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, New York City 

H. H. Edwards, Rca Communications, Inc., Rc.\ Labora- 
tories Division, Princeton, N. J. 

C. B. Pfautz, Rca Communications, Inc., New York City 

W. E. We-iver, Aeronautical Radio, Inc., Washington 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

The Provisional Frequency Board is an inter- 
national body formed under agreements made at 
the Atlantic City International Radio Conference 
of 1947. Tlie Board was established to prepare 
a proposed international frequency list for presen- 
tation to a special administrative conference of 
the International Telecommiuiication Union, ten- 
tatively scheduled to be held in 1949. In accom- 
plishing this work the Board will examine world 
requirements for radio frequencies with a view to 
reassigning them on the basis of good engineer- 
ing practices and in conformity with the radio- 
frequency allocation table drawn up at the Atlan- 
tic City conference. Any country which is a 
member of the International Telecommunication 
Union may participate in the work of the Pro- 
visional Frequency Board. 



U.S. DeBegation to Fifth Session of interim Commission of WHO 



[Released to tbe press December 23] 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 23 the composition of the American Delega- 
tion to the Fifth Session of the Interim Commis- 
sion of the World Health Organization (Who), 
which is scheduled to be held at Geneva, Switzer- 
land, January 22-Februaiy 7, 1948, and to the 
preliminary committee meetings which are sched- 
uled to be held January 16-21, 1948. The Dele- 
gation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Dr. H. van Zile Hyde, Senior Surgeon, U.S. Public 
Health Service; Assistant Chief, Health Branch, 
Division of International Labor, Social and Health 
Affairs, Department of State; and alternate U.S. 
representative on the Interim' Commission of the 
World Health Organization 

Advisers 

Dr. Martha Eliott, President, American Public Health 
Association ; and Associate Director, Children's Bu- 
reau, Federal Security Agency 



Dr. Morton Kramer, Chief, Research Branch, Office of 
International Health Relations, U.S. Public Health 
Service 

John Tomlinson, Assistant Chief, Division of Interna- 
tional Organization Affairs, Department of State 

The Interim Commission of the World Health 
Organization, set up at the International Health 
Conference at New York in July 1946, has met 
four times: at New York in July 1946, and at 
Geneva in November 1946, March and April 1947, 
and August and SeiDtember 1947. Tlie purpose 
of the Commission meetings is to consider urgent 
health problems arising during the period prior 
to the establishment of the World Health Organi- 
zation and to formulate plans for setting up the 
permanent organization. 

The American representative on the Interim 
Commission of the World Health Organization 
is Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, U.S. 
Public Health Service. 



January 4, 1948 



23 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



Providing for the Administration of the Foreign Aid Act of 1947 ' 



By virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
Constitution and statutes of the United States, 
particularly the Foreign Aid Act of 1947, and as 
President of the United States, it is hereby ordered, 
in the interest of the internal management of the 
Government, as follows : 

1. The Secretary of State is hereby authorized 
and directed : 

(a) To i^erform the functions and exercise the 
powers and authority vested in the President by 
the Foreign Aid Act of 1947 (hereinafter referred 
to as the Act), exclusive of sections 11 (b) and 
11 (d) thereof: 

Provided that — 

(1) In designating, under section 3 of the Act, 
the existing departments, agencies, or independent 
establishments of the Government through which 
certain functions, powers, and authority under 
the Act shall be performed or exercised, i\\e Sec- 
retary shall act with the concurrence of the de- 
partment, agency, or establishment concerned in 
each case. 

(2) In i^romulgating, under section 4 of the 
Act, any regulations controlling the purchase or 
procurement of commodities, and in promulgating, 
under section 10 of the Act, any rules and regula- 
tions necessary and proper to carry out any of the 
provisions of the Act, the Secretary shall, to the 
extent that any such rule or regulation affects the 
operations of any agency, establishment, or de- 
partment other than the Department of State, act 
with the concurrence of the agency, establishment, 
or dej^artment concerned in each case. 

(3) In making the determinations, required 
under paragraphs 2 and 3 of section 4 of the Act, 
whether commodities to be purchased or procured 
under the Act are in short supply in the United 
States, the Secretary of State shall act on the 
advice of the heads of the appropriate depart- 
ments, agencies or establishments. 

(4) In making the determinations required 



under subsection (e) of section 11 of the Act, 
whether a commodity required by any agency of 
the Government under any price support pro- 
gram is in excess of domestic requirements, the 
Secretary of State shall act on the advice of the 
Secretary of Agriculture; and such determina- 
tions shall be restricted to those necessary in 
connection with aid to the recipient countries, as 
defined in the Act. 

(b) To take such other action, not inconsistent 
with the Act and this order, as may be necessary 
to provide aid in accordance with the provisions 
of the Act, including the making of provisions 
for such personnel, supplies, facilities, and serv- 
ices as shall be necessary to carry out the pro- 
visions of this order, and the making of such 
arrangements with other depai"tments, agencies 
and independent establishments of the Govern- 
ment and with other countries and international 
organizations as may be necessary and proper 
for carrying out the provisions and accomplish- 
ing the purposes of the Act. 

2. The field administrator referred to in sec- 
tion 10 of the Act, in exercising his resjoonsibility 
for administering in the recipient countries the 
progi-am of assistance provided for in the Act, 
shall act under the guidance and in accordance 
with the instructions of the Secretary of State. 

3. All funds appropriated to carry out the pro- 
visions of the Act by the Tliird Supplemental 
Appropriation Act, 1948 (such funds being in 
the amount of $522,000,000), are hereby trans- 
ferred to the Department of State, to be admin- 
istered in accordance with the provisions of the 
Act (as implemented by this order) and of the 
said Aijpropriation Act. 




'Ex. Or. 9014 (12 Federal Register S867). 



24 



The AVhite House 
December 26, 1947. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned During Month of December 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): Second Session of 
Council. 

Nahba (North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement): Meet- 
ing of Technicians. 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organ- 
ization) : Second Session of General Conference. 

Cfm (Council of Foreign Ministers) : 

Meeting of Deputies for Germany 

Fifth Session 



United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Suboommission on Employment and Economic Stability . . . . 

Subcommission on Economic Development 

Subcommission on Protection of Minorities and Prevention of 
Discrimination. 

Human Rights Commission: Second Session 

Trusteeship Council: Second Session 

EcAFE (Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East) . . . . 

Fifth Meeting of Inter-American Bar Association 

IcEF (International Children's Emergency Fund) : Executive Board . 

PreUminary Discussions on Treatment of German Trade-Mark Rights . 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Joint Maritime Commission 

103d Session of Governing Body 



Fifth Meeting of Caribbean Commission . 
International \Yheat Council: 17th Session 
In Session as of December 31, 1947 
Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

MiUtary Staff Commhtee . . 
Committee on Atomic Energy 



Commission on Conventional Armaments 

Security Council's Good Offices Committee on Indonesia 

Trade and Employment Conference 

General Assembly's Special Balkan Committee 



German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 



Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

Cfm (Council of Foreign Ministers) : 

Meeting of Deputies for Italian Colonial Problems . . . 
Commission of Investigation to Former Italian Colonies 





1947 


Montreal 


Sept. 2-Dcc. 12 


Habana 


Nov 1-Dec 6 


Mexico City 


Nov. 6- Dec. 3 


London 


Nov. 6-Dec 15 


London 


Nov. 25-Dec. 15 


Lake Success 


Nov. 17-Dec. 9 


Lake Success 


Nov. 17-Dec. 16 




Nov. 24-Dec. 6 


Geneva 


Dec. 1-I?ec. 18 


I ake Success 


Nov. 20-Dec. 16 


Baguio, Philippines 


Nov. 24-Dec. 6 


Lima 


Nov. 25-Dcc 8 


Lake Success 


Dec. 2-3 


London 


Dec. 2- 


Geneva 


Dec. 2-6 


Geneva 


Dec. 11-15 


Trinidad 


Dec 8-13 


Washington 


Dec. 8- 




1946 


Washington 


Feb. 26- 


Lake Success 


Mar. 25- 


Lake Success 


Mar. 25- 


Lake Success 






1947 


Lake Success 


Mar. 24- 


Indonesian territory .... 


Oct. 20- 


Habana 


Nov. 21- 


Salonika 


Nov. 21- 




1946 


Lisbon 


Sept. 3- 


Madrid 


Nov. 12- 


Washington 


Oct. 24- 




1947 


London 


Oct. 3- 


Former Italian Colonies . . . 


Nov. 8- 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
Jonuary 4, 1948 



25 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled for January-March 1948 

Third Pan American Congress of Ophthalmology 

United Nations: 

Interim Committee of the General Assembly 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Sixth Session 

Subcommission on Economic Development 

Subcommission on Employment and Economic Stability . . . . 

World Conference on Freedom of Information 

Social Commission: Third Session 

EcE (Economic Commission for Europe) : Third Session 

Meeting of the Inter-American Coffee Board 

Ninth Pan American Child Congress 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Statistics Division: First Session 

Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Provisional Frequency Board 

Who (World Health Organization) : 

Committed on Administration and Finance 

Fifth Session of Interim Commission 

Expert Committee on Tuberculosis 

Iro (International Refugee Organization) : Fifth Part of First Session 
of Preparatory Commission. 

International Telecommunication Union: Meeting of Administrative 
Council. 

Meeting of Special Committee to Make Recommendations for the 
Coordination of Safety Activities in Fields of Aviation, Meteor- 
ology, Shipping and Telecommunications. 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: 
Meeting of International Council. 

lUBS' (International Union of Biological Sciences): Executive 
Committee. 

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Regional Meeting of Technical Nutritionists 

Regional Meeting to Consider Creation of Councils for Study of 
the Sea. 

Rice Meeting 

Second Meeting of Council 

Sixth Pan American Railway Congress 

Praha International Spring Fair 

First Meeting of Planning Committee on High Frequency Broad- 
casting. 

Ninth International Conference of American States 



Habana . . . 

Lake Success . 

Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Geneva . . . 
Lake Success . 
Geneva . . . 

Washington . 

Caracas . . . 

Montreal . . 
Brussels . . 
Montreal . . 

Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 
Geneva . . . 
Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 
Geneva . . . 
London . . . 

Caracas . . . 
Geneva . . . 

Baguio . . . 
Baguio . . . 

Southeast Asia 
Washington . 

Habana . . . 

Praha .... 

Geneva . . . 

Bogota . . . 



1948 

Jan. 4-10 

Jan. 5- 



Jan. 


5-16 


Feb. 


2- 


Mar 


8- 


Mar 


8- 


Mar 


22- 


Mar 


30- 


Mar 


31-2 


Jan. 


5- 


Jan. 


5-10 


Jan. 


13- 


Mar 


. 8- 


March 


Jan. 


15- 


Jan. 


19- 


Jan. 


22- 


Feb. 


17- 


Jan. 


20- 


Jan. 


20- 



Jan. 27- 



January 


Feb. 


2-3 


Feb. 


9-15 


Feb. 


9-15 


Feb. 


16-28 


Mar 


18-31 


Feb. 


28- 


Mar 


12-21 


Mar 


22- 


Mar 


30- 



> Tentative. 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Facilitation of International Inland Transport in Europe 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY LOVETT 



[Keleased to the press December 24] 

One of the most progressive steps in the advance- 
ment and facilitation of international inland 
transport in Europe since the end of the war was 
developed at the December meeting of the Inland 
Transport Committee of the Economic Commis- 
sion for Europe in Geneva. 

Eight European governments together with the 
three western zones of Germany have agreed to 
grant or maintain freedom of operation for six 
months for highway trucks engaged in transit 
movements through any of the following partici- 
pating countries: the three western zones of Ger- 
many; France; the Netherlands; Sweden; Swit- 
zerland; Italy; Denmark; and Czechoslovakia. 
This means, for example, that it will now be pos- 
sible for trucks from Italy, en route to the 
Netherlands, to pass through Switzerland, France, 
and western Germany without transferring their 
loads to locally operated carriers. 

The three German zones, Denmark, the Nether- 
lands, Sweden, and Switzerland also agreed to 
grant or maintain freedom of movement for all 
other international transport of goods by high- 
ways for a six-month period. Belgium, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, and Italy agreed to the most 
liberal application of their present systems of au- 
thorization. Adherence to this accord permits 
delivery of goods by highway transport from the 
factory or farm in one country direct to the con- 
sumer in another. 

The only restrictions connected with these two 
agreements are: 

(a) The road services of countries and zones 
granting such facilities shall enjoy recij^rocal 
facilities in the beneficiary country; 

(b) The carriers shall conform to existing laws 
and regulations of a technical or administrative 
character now in force. 

Significance is attached to these agreements as 
evidence of the desire of European countries to 

January 4, 1948 



promote economic cooperation among themselves. 
Increased use of highway transport will help re- 
lieve the presently overburdened continental 
railroads. 

Action was also taken by the Inland Transport 
Committee to have custom offices reduce customs 
formalities and delays at frontiers. 

Tlie Committee recognized the urgent import- 
ance of obtaining the fullest utilization of avail- 
able road transport, particularly during the next 
six months, of conserving fuel, tires, vehicles, and 
materials for road maintenance, and of reducing 
the burden of transport costs on commodity 
prices. It recommended that particijDating gov- 
ernments take all practical steps to reduce the 
ratio of empty loads to revenue loads, and that 
governments and international organizations 
should notify the Secretariat periodically of the 
capacity of vehicles utilized and the load actually 
carried in both directions over the principal in- 
ternational routes. 

Consideration will be given to adopting a long- 
range program for the facilitation of the inter- 
national movement of highway transport at a 
meeting in Geneva in January. Continuation of 
certain aspects of the present short-term progi-am 
will also be covered in the January meeting. 



Agreement With Burma on Educational 
Exchange 

[Released to the press December 22] 

An agreement putting into operation the pro- 
giam of international educational exchanges 
authorized by the Fulbright act (Public Law 584, 
79th Congress) was signed in Rangoon on Decem- 
ber 19 between the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
U Tin Tut, on behalf of the Government of Burma, 
and E. Austin Acly, Charge d'Affaires ad interim 
of the American Embassy, on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. This is the Ee- 

27 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

public of Burma's first agi'eement with any foreign 
country to be signed in Burma. 

This agreement establishes the United States 
Educational Foundiition in Burma to administer 
certain funds resulting from the sale of surplus 
property to Burma. The Fulbright act, which 
amends the Surplus Property Act of 19-14, is predi- 
cated on a desire to cement international under- 
standing and good- will by developing interchanges 
of students, specialists, and scholars on an un- 
precedented scale, and on the knowledge that many 
countries are not able to make complete payment 
for purchases of these supplies in United States 
dollars. It provides that partial payment may be 
made in local currencies which will then be used by 
the United States for educational purposes. 

The present agreement places at the disposal of 
the Government of the United States the equiva- 
lent in Burmese national currency of $200,000 a 
year until the equivalent of 3 million dollars in 
United States dollars has been deposited for such 
activities. These include the financing of "studies, 
research, instruction, and other educational activ- 
ities of or for citizens of the United States of 
America in schools and institutions of higher 
learning located in Burma, or of the citizens of 
Burma in United States schools and institutions 
of higher learning located outside the continental 



United States . . . including payment for 
transportation, tuition, maintenance, and other 
expenses incident to scholastic activities; or fur- 
nishing transportation for citizens of Burma who 
desire to attend United States schools and institu- 
tions of higher learning in the continental United 
States . . . whose attendance will not deprive 
citizens of the United States of America of an 
opi^ortunity to attend such schools and 
institutions". 

The Foundation will have an eight-man Board 
of Directors under the chairmanship of Frederick 
L. Jochem. Public Affairs Oflicer of the American 
Embassy in Rangoon. Its first meeting is sched- 
uled in Rangoon on December 23. Tin Aung, 
U Cho, and Sao Sai Mong have been nominated 
by the Government of Burma and appointed by 
the American Embassy as Burmese Representa- 
tives on the Board. Other members will be J. 
Russell Andrus of the American Embassy, Martin 
P. Detels, Jr., of the American Embassy, and two 
American educators resident in Burma, as yet to 
be appointed. 

Now that the Foundations in Burma and China 
have been established, information will be made 
public in the near future as to where and how 
United States citizens can apply for grants.^ 



Cuba-U.S. Tariff Concessions To Be Effective 



[Released to the press December 22] 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 22 that Cuba and the United States will each 
make jDrovisionally effective on January 1, 1948, 
the tariff concessions of principal interest to the 
other and will on that date generally apply the 
provisions of the exclusive agi'eement signed by 
the two countries supplementary to the general 
agreement on tariffs and trade, which was signed 
at Geneva on October 30, 1947, by 23 countries, 
including Cuba and the United States. 

Cuba signed on December 17, 1947, at Lake Suc- 
cess the protocol of provisional application of the 
general agreement. Cuba is thus the first country 



' For agreement with China see Bulletin of Nov. 23, 
1947, p. 1005. 



to sign the protocol since it was signed by the orig- 
inal group of countries, Australia, Belgium, Can- 
ada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States prior to 
November 15, 1947. 

Application by the United States of the pro- 
visions of the exclusive agreement with Cuba will 
be effected by presidential proclamation in the 
usual manner in accordance with the Trade 
Agreements Act. 

The new provisions for trade between the United 
States and Cuba represent another milestone in 
the mutually beneficial commercial relations which 
have existed for many years between our two 
countries. 

A copy of the text of the exclusive agreement 
follows : 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



EXCLUSIVE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF 
CUBA SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 



The Governments of the United States of America and 
the Reiniblie of Cuba, 

Having participated in the framing of a General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade, hereinafter referred to as the 
General Agreement, and a Protocol of Provisional Appli- 
cation, the texts of which have been authenticated by the 
Final Act adopted at the conclusion of the Second Session 
of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Con- 
ference on Trade and Employment, signed this day, 

Hereby agree as follows : 

1. The Convention of Commercial Reciprocity between 
the United States of America and the Republic of Cuba 
signed December 11, 1902, and the Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ment between the United States of America and the Re- 
public of Cuba signed August 24, 1934, with its accompany- 
ing exchange of notes, as amended by the supplementary 
trade agreement signed December 18, 1939, with its ac- 
companying protocol and exchange of notes, and by the 
supplementary trade agreement signed December 23, 1941, 
with its accompanying exchange of notes, shall be inopera- 
tive for such time as the United States of America and the 
Republic of Cuba are both contracting parties to the Gen- 
eral Agreement as defined in Article XXXII thereof. 

2. For such time as the United States of America and 
the Republic of Cuba are both contracting parties to the 
General Agreement, the products of either country im- 
ported into the other shall be accorded customs treatment 
as follows : 

(a) The provisions of Part II of Schedule IX of the 
General Agreement shall apply exclusively to products 
of the United States of America, and the provisions of 
Part II of Schedule XX of the General Agreement shall 
apply exclusively to products of the Republic of Cuba. 

(b) Products of the United States of America described 
In Part I, but not in Part II, of Schedule IX of the General 
Agreement, imported into the Republic of Cuba, and prod- 
ucts of the Republic of Cuba described in Part I, but not 
in Part II, of Schetlule XX of the General Agreement, 
imported into the United States of America, shall be sub- 
ject to the customs treatment provided for in Part I of 
the applicable Schedule. 

(c) Subject to the principles set forth in Article 17 of 
the Draft Charter for an International Trade Organiza- 
tion recommended by the Preparatory Committee of the 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment — 

(i) any product of the United States of America not 
described in either Part of Schedule IX of the General 
Agreement which would have been subject to ordinary 
customs duty if imported into the Republic of Cuba on 
April 10, 1947, any temporary or conditional exemption 
from duty to be disregarded, and which is of a kind which 
tlie Government of Cuba shall determine to have been 
imported into its territory as a product of the United 
States of America in any quantity during any of the 
calendar years 1937, 1939, 1944, and 1945, shall be entitled 
upon importation into the Republic of Cuba to a margin 

January 4, 1948 



of preference in the applicable rate of duty equal to the 
absolute difference between the most-favored-nation rate 
for the like product existing on April 10, 1947, including 
any such rate temporarily suspended, and the preferential 
rate likewise existing on that date in respect of such 
product of the United States of America; and 

(ii) any product of the Republic of Cuba not described 
in either Part of Schedule XX of the General Agreement, 
which would have been subject to ordinary customs duty 
if imported into the United States of America on April 10, 
1&47, any temporary or conditional exemption from duty 
to be disregarded, and which is of a kind which the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America shall determine 
to have been imported into its territory as a product of 
Cuba in any quantity during any of the calendar years 
1937, 1939, 1944, and 1945, shall be entitled upon impor- 
tation into the United States of America to a margin of 
preference in the applicable rate of duty equal to the 
absolute difference between the most-favored-nation rate 
for the like product existing on April 10, 1947, including 
any such rate temporarily suspended, and the preferential 
rate likewise existing on that date in respect of such 
product of the Republic of Cuba. 

(d) Any product of the United States of America or of 
the Republic of Cuba for which customs treatment is not 
prescribed above shall be dutiable, when imported into the 
other country, at the most-favored-nation rate of duty of 
the importing country for the like product. 

(e) Nothing in this Agreement shall require the applica- 
tion to any product of the Republic of Cuba imported into 
the United States of America of a rate of ordinary cus- 
toms duty higher than one and one-half times the rate 
existing in respect of such product on January 1, 1945, 
any temporary or conditional exemption from duty to be 
disregarded. 

3. The term "most-favored-nation rate" in this Exclu- 
sive Supplementary Agreement means the maximum rate 
which may be, or could have been, applied consistently with 
the principles set forth in Article I of the General Agree- 
ment to a product of a country which is a contracting 
party to that Agreement. 

In witness whekeof the representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United States of America and the Republic of 
Cuba, after having exchanged their full powers, found 
to be in good and due form, have signed this Exclusive 
Supplementary Agreement. 

Done in duplicate, in the English and Spanish languages, 
both texts authentic, at Geneva, this thirtieth day of 
October, one thousand nine hundred and forty-seven. 

For the Government of the United States of America : 

WiNTHEOp G. Bkown 

For the Government of the Republic of Cuba : 

S. I. Clark 

29 



Termination of Trade Agreement Proclamations 



By the President of the United States of America 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas (1), pursuant to the authority con- 
ferred by section 350 (a) of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended by the act of June 12, 1934 en- 
titled "An Act To amend the Tariff Act of 1930" 
(48 Stat. 943 and 944, ch. 474) the President of 
the United States of America entered into the fol- 
lowing trade agreements : 

(a) With the Belgo-Luxemburg Economic 
Union on February 27, 1935 (49 Stat. (pt. 2) 3681 
to 3716), which trade agreement was proclaimed 
by the President on April 1, 1935 (49 Stat. (pt. 2) 
3680 to 3717), 

(b) With the Government of the French Repub- 
lic on May 6, 1936 (53 Stat. (pt. 3) 2237 to 2290), 
which trade agreement was proclaimed by the 
President on May 16, 1936 (53 Stat. (pt. 3) 2236 
to 2291), and 

(c) With Her Majesty the Queen of the Nether- 
lands on December 20, 1935 (50 Stat. (pt. 2) 1505 
to 1557), which trade agreement was proclaimed 
by the President on December 28, 1935 (50 Stat, 
(pt. 2) 1504 to 1558) and was the subject of a 
supplementary proclamation by the President of 
April 10, 1937 (50 Stat. (pt. 2) 1559) ; 

Whereas (2), pursuant to the authority con- 
ferred by said section 350 (a), the period within 
which such autliority might be exercised having 
been extended by the Joint Resolution approved 
March 1, 1937 (50 Stat. 24, ch. 22), the President 
entered into the following trade agreements : 

(a) With His Majesty the King of Great Brit- 
ain, Ireland and the British dominions beyond the 
Seas, Emperor of India, in respect of Canada, on 
November 17, 1938 (53 Stat. (pt. 3) 2350 to 2392), 
which trade agreement was proclaimed by the 
President on November 25, 1938 (53 Stat. (pt. 3) 
2348 to 2394) and was the subject of a supplemen- 
tary proclamation by the President of June 17, 
1939 (53 Stat. (pt. 3) 2394 and 2395), and 



' Proc. 2763, 12 Federal Register 8866. 



30 



(b) With His Majesty the King of Great Brit- 
ain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond 
the Seas, Emperor of India, in respect of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, on November 17, 1938 (54 Stat. (pt. 2) 
1898 to 1985), which trade agreement was pro- 
claimed by the President on November 25, 1938 
(54 Stat. (pt. 2) 1897 to 1986) and was the sub- 
ject of a supplementary proclamation by the Presi- 
dent of December 6, 1939 (54 Stat. (pt. 2) 1987) ; 
Whereas (3) the Government of the United 
States of America has agreed severally with the 
Governments of Belgium (on behalf of the Belgo- 
Luxemburg Economic Union), Canada, the 
French Republic, the Kingdom of the Nether- 
lands, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland that the trade agreement 
with each of said countries which is listed in the 
1st or the 2nd recital of this proclamation, except 
the right of termination on six months' notice of 
each such trade agreement, shall be inoperative for 
such time as the United States of America and 
such other country are both contracting parties 
to the General Agi'eement on Tariffs and Trade 
of October 30, 1947 as defined in article XXXII 
thei-eof ; 

Whereas (4), as indicated in the 7th recital of 
the proclamation by the President of December 
16, 1947 with respect to said general agreement, 
the Governments of the United States of America 
and of each of the countries named in the 3rd 
recital of this proclamation will apply the general 
agreement provisionally on and after January 1, 
1948, and the United States of America and each 
of said countries will then be a contracting party 
to the general agreement as defined in article 
XXXII thereof; 

And whereas the final sentence of said section 
350 (a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 authorizes the 
President to terminate in whole or in part the proc- 
lamation carrying out any trade agreement entered 
into under section 350 (a) ; 

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Harry S. 
Truman, President of the United States of 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



America, acting under the authority conferred by 
the said section 350(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, 
as amended, do hereby proclaim that each of the 
proclamations listed in the 1st or the 2nd recitals 
of this proclamation shall not be in effect after 
December 31, 1947 except insofar as it relates to 
the termination on six months' notice of the trade 
agreement M'ith respect to which it was issued. 

In witxess whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty- 
fourth day of December in the year of 

[seal] our Lord nineteen hundred and forty- 
seven and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
seventy-second. 




By the President : 
Robert A. Lovett 
Actmgr /Secretary of /State 



Panama Rejects Ratification of Defense- 
Sites Agreement 

[Released to the press December 23] 

According to official reports the National Assem- 
bly of Panama has rejected the ratification of the 
defense-sites agreement signed on December 10, 
1947, by the Governments of the Republic of Pan- 
ama and the United States of America. This 
agreement was reached in accordance with the 1936 
treaty of friendship and cooperation providing for 
joint responsibility of the two countries for the 
effective jjrotection of the Canal. 

Throughout the period of more than 15 months 
during which negotiations for a defense-sites 
agreement have taken place, the United States 
Government has endeavored at all times to share 
with the Government of Panama its estimates of 
the minimum defense needs of the Canal. It has 
been the constant aim of the United States negoti- 
ators to consult with the appropriate Panamanian 
authorities in all frankness with respect to the 
considerations underlying these estimates which 

January 4, 1948 



THE DEPARTMENT 

have provided the basis for the recent defense pro- 
posals of this Government. 

Substantial and repeated concessions were made 
during the lengthy negotiations on the agreement 
in an attempt to reconcile Panamanian desires 
with the defense requirements of the Canal. The 
negotiations were concluded on December 10 by the 
signature of the agreement in terms which were 
intended to take into account the legitimate in- 
terests of both countries. 

In accordance with oral statements made to the 
Panamanian Government in the course of the 
negotiations, the necessary steps will be taken im- 
mediately with a view to evacuation of all sites 
in the Republic of Panama outside the Canal Zone 
where United States armed forces are now sta- 
tioned. This withdrawal will be completed as 
quickly as possible, consistent with the number of 
personnel and the amount of materiel involved. 

Failure to conclude an agreement will not, of 
course, affect the normal friendly relations be- 
tween the two countries. 



Visit of Guatemalan Educator 

Dr. Carlos Martinez Duran, rector of the Uni- 
versity of San Carlos, Guatemala, has arrived in 
the United States to confer with officials of Amer- 
ican universities concerning university organiza- 
tion and administration, in order to aid in plan- 
ning a university city at the University of San 
Carlos. 

Dr. Martinez Duran is one of a distinguished 
group of specialists from the other American re- 
publics who have been awarded grants by the De- 
partment of State under its program for the inter- 
change of professors, specialists, and distinguished 
leaders between the United States and the other 
American republics. 

THE DEPARTMENT 
Departmental Regulations 

290.5 Procedure for the Handling and Settlement of 
Certain Tort Claims: (Effective 11-1-47) This regu- 
lation delegates authority to settle claims for personal 
injury or property damage under the Federal Tort Claims 
Act (60 Stat. 842; 28 U.S.O. 921) and the Small Claims 
Act (42 Stat. 1060; 31 U.S.C. 215-217), and claims for 
property damage under the Act of June 19, 1939 (53 Stat. 
841; 22 U.S.C. 277e), and to establi.sh and provide the 

31 



THE DEPARTMENT 



exclusive autluirization and procedure whereby claims 
arising from tiie negligent or wrongful acts or omissions 
of employees of the Department of State or of the United 
States Section, International Boundary and Water Com- 
mission, United States and Mexico, and claims for property 
damage not based on negligence and cognizable under the 
Act of June 19, 1939, may be considered, adjusted, deter- 
mined, or settled within the Department or the Commisson. 

I Delegation of Authority for Adjudication and 
Settlement of Claims. The Legal Adviser is hereby au- 
thorized to settle all claims cognizable, as the ca.se may be, 
under the Federal Tort Claims Act ((iO Stat. 842; 28 U.S.C. 
921) or the Small Claims Act (42 Stat. 1060 ; 31 U.S.C. 215- 
217), arising out of the negligent or wrongful acts or 
omissions of employees of the Department in accordance 
with the authority vested in the Secretary pursuant to 
those Acts, except those claims arising out of the negligent 
or wrongful acts or omissions of employees of the Com- 
mission. The CommLssioner is authorized to settle those 
claims which arise out of the negligent or wrongful acts 
or omi.ssions of employees of the Commission, and claims 
for property damage not based on negligence cognizable 
under the Act of .Tune 19, 1939. The approval or disap- 
proval, in whole or in part, of any claim by the approving 
authority constitutes final action in the case so far as the 
Department or the Commission is concerned, and no fur- 
ther review in the Department or in the Commission may 
be obtained. 

II General Provisions. 

A Definitions. As used in this part — - 

1 The word Secretary refers to the Secretary of 
State. 

2 The word Department refers to the Department 
of State, its offices, bureaus, and divisions and its 
Foreign Service establishments abroad. 

3 The word Commission refers to the United States 
Section, International Boundary and Water Commis- 
sion, United States and Mexico. 

4 The word Legal Adviser refers to the Legal Ad- 
viser of the Department of State, or his designee. 

5 The word Commissioner refers to the United 
States Commissioner, International Boundary and 
Water Commission, United States and Mexico. 

6 The word eniplo'yee includes officers or em- 
ployees of the Department or of the Commission, and 
persons acting on behalf of the Department or of the 
Commission in an official capacity, temporarily or per- 
manently in the service of the Department or of the 
Commission, whether with or without compensation. 

7 The words approving authority refer to the Legal 
Adviser or to the Commissioner, as the case may be. 

B Action iy Claimant. 

1 Claims for damage to, or loss of, property, or 
FOB personal in.iury OR DEATH. Claims for damage to, 
or loss of, property or for personal injury or death may 
be presented by the individual or firm sustaining injury 
or damages in his or its own right, by a duly-authorized 
agent or legal representative, or by an attorney. The 
claim, if filed by an agent or legal representative, must 



show the title or capacity of the person presenting the 
claim and must be accompanied by evidence of the ap- 
pointment of such person as agent, executor, adminis- 
trator, guardian, or other fiduciary. 

2 Form of claim. Claims should be submitted by 
presenting, in duplicate, a statement in writing setting 
forth the claimant's name and address ; the amount of 
the claim ; the detailed facts and circumstances sur- 
rounding the accident or incident, indicating the date and 
the place ; the property and persons involved ; the nature 
and extent of the damage, loss, or injury ; and the office, 
bureau, division, or Foreign Service establishment of 
the Department, or the Commission, which was the cause 
or occasion thereof, if known. Where damage to prop- 
erty is involved, there should be a statement as to the 
ownership of the propert.v, whether liens exist thereon, 
and, if so, the nature of and amount of the lien and the 
names and addresses of the lien-holders. If the loss is 
covered by any insurance, there should be a statement 
thereof; and if, under the terms of the insurance con- 
tract, the insurer is subrogated in whole or in part to 
the claim of the insured, the insurer should be made a 
party to the claim. The claimant may, if he desires, file 
a brief with his claim setting forth the law or other 
arguments in support of his claim. In cases involving 
several claims arising from a single accident or inci- 
dent, individual claims should be filed. 

3 Place of filing claim. Claims should be sub- 
mitted directly to the head of the office, bureau, division, 
or Foreign Service establishment of the Department, or 
of the Commission, out of whose activities the accident 
or incident occurred, if known ; or, if not known, to the 
Legal AdvLser, Department of State, Washington 25, 
D.C. ; or United States Commissioner, International 
Boundary and Water Commission, United States and 
Mexico, P.O. Box 1859, El Paso, Texas, as the case 
may be. 

4 Evidence to be submitted by claimant. 

a General. The amount claimed for damage to 
or loss of property or for personal injury or death 
should be substantiated by competent evidence. All 
statements or estimates required to be submitted by 
the following subparagraphs should, if possible, be by 
disinterested competent witnesses, and, in the case of 
property, preferably reputable dealers or persons fa- 
miliar with the type of property damaged. Such 
statements and estimates should be certified as just 
and correct ; and, if payment has been made, itemized 
receipts evidencing such payment should be included. 

b Damage to Personal Property. In support of 
claims for damage to personal property which has 
been or can be economically repaired, the claimant 
should submit an itemized receipt if payment has been 
made or an itemized estimate of the cost of repairs. 
If the property is not economically reparable, a state- 
ment as to depreciation in value should be included; 
or if the property is lost or destroyed, the value of 
the property at the time of loss or destruction should 
be stated, together with the date of acquisition and 
the purchase price. 



32 



Depar/menf of State Bulletin 



c Personal Injury. In support of claims for 
personal injury or death, the claimant should submit 
a writteu report by the attending physician, showing 
the nature and extent of injury, the nature and ex- 
tent of treatment, the degree of permanent disability, 
if any, the prognosis, and the period of hospitalization 
or incapacitation, attaching itemized bills for medical, 
hospital, or burial expenses actually incurred. 

d Damage to Real Property. In support of 
claims for damage to land, trees, buildings, fences, 
and other improvements, and similar property, the 
claimant should submit an itemized receipt, if pay- 
ment has been made, or an Itemized signed statement 
or estimate of the cost of repairs. If the property is 
not economically reparable, a statement as to its 
value both before and after the accident should be 
included. If the damages to improvements can be 
readily and fairly valued apart from the damage to 
the land, the damage to such improvements should be 
stated separately from the damage to land. The 
value of such improvements at the time of loss or 
destruction should be stated, as well as the date the 
improvements were made and the original cost of 
such improvements. 

e Damage to Crops. In support of claims for 
damage to crops, the claimant should submit an item- 
ized signed statement showing the number of acres, 
or other unit measure, of the crops damaged, the nor- 
mal yield per unit, the gross amount which would 
have been realized from such normal yield and an 
estimate of the costs of cultivating, harvesting, and 
marketing such crops. If the crop is one which need 
not be planted each year, the diminution in value of 
the land beyond the damage to the current year's crop 
should also be stated. 

f Claims of Subrogees and Lien-holders. The 
rights of subrogees or lien-holders will be determined 
according to the law of the jurisdiction in which the 
accident or Incident occurred. 

g Signatures. The claim and all other papers 
requiring the signature of the claimant should be in 
affidavit form signed by the claimant personally or by 
a duly-authorized agent or legal representative. The 
claim should also be signed by the insurance com- 
pany as one of the claimants, where the claim is 
covered by insurance in whole or in part and the con- 
tract of insurance contains a provision for the subro- 
gation of the insurance company to the rights of the 
insured, in accordance with paragraph II B 2 hereof. 
Section 35 (A) of the Criminal Code (18 U.S.C. 80) 
imposes a fine of not more than $10,000 and imprison- 
ment of not more than 10 years, or both, for present- 
ing false claims or making false or fraudulent state- 
ments or representations in connection with making 
claims against the Government. A civil penalty or 
forfeiture of $2,000 plus double the amount of damages 
sustained by the United States is provided for pre- 
senting false or fraudulent claims (see 31 U.S.C. 231). 

C Approval of Claim. Claims under paragraph II 
are approved, or disapproved, in whole or in part, by the 
Legal Adviser, after transmittal to him, with recommenda- 

January 4, 1948 



THE DEPARTMENT 

tions, by the head of the office, bureau, division, or For- 
eign Service establishment of the Department out of 
wliose activities the accident or incident aro.se. Claims 
under paragraph II arising out of the activities of the 
Commission are approved or disapproved, in whole or in 
part, by the Commissioner. 

D Acceptance of Settlement by Claimant. The ac- 
ceptance of the settlement by the claimant shall be final 
and conclusive on the claimant, and shall constitute a 
complete release by the claimant of any claim again.st the 
Government and against the employee of the Government 
whose act or omission gave rise to the claim, by reason 
of the same subject-matter. 



Ill 



Federal Toet Claims Act. 



A General. The Federal Tort Claims Act (60 Stat. 
842; 28 U.S.C. 921) conferred upon the head of each Fed- 
eral agency, or his designee, acting on behalf of the United 
States, authority to ascertain, adjust, determine, and 
settle certain claims against the United States for money 
only, accruing on and after January 1, 1945. 

B Allowable Claims. Claims are payable by the De- 
partment or by the Commission under the Federal Tort 
Claims Act and paragraph III, on account of damage to or 
loss of property or on account of personal injury or death, 
where the total amount of the claim does not exceed $1,000, 
caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any 
employee of the Department or of the Commission, while 
acting within the scope of his office or employment, under 
circumstances where the United States, if a private person, 
would be liable to the claimant for such damage, lo.ss, in- 
jury, or death, in accordance with the law of the place 
where the act or omission occurred. The Department or 
the Commission does not have legal authorization to con- 
sider administratively claims in excess of $1,000 which 
are otherwise cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims 
Act. The claimant's remedy, if any, in such cases is by 
suit in the United States District Court for the district 
wherein the act or omission complained of occurred, in- 
cluding the United States District Courts for the Terri- 
tories and possessions of the United States. 

C Exclusions. As provided in section 421 of the 
Federal Tort Claims Act, claims, among others, not pay- 
able under that act and paragraph III include : 

1 Any claim based upon an act or omission of an 
employee of the Government, exercising due care, in 
the execution of a statute or regulation, whether or not 
such statute or regulation be valid, or based upon the 
exercise or performance or the failure to exercise or 
perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of 
a Federal agency or an employee of the Government, 
whether or not the discretion involved be abused. 

2 Any claim arising out of the loss, miscarriage, 
or negligent transmission of letters or postal matter. 

3 An.v claim arising out of an act or omission of 
any employee of the Government in administering the 
provisions of the Trading-with-the-Enemy Act, as 
amended. 

4 Any claim for damages caused by the imposition 
or establishment of a quarantine by the United States. 

33 



THE DEPARTMENT 

5 Any claim arising from injury to vessels, or to 
the cargo, crew, or passengers of vessels, while passing 
through the locks of the Panama Canal or while in 
Canal Zone waters. 

6 Any claim arising out of assault, battery, false 
imprisonment, false arrest, malicious prosecution, abuse 
of process, libel, slander, misrepresentation, deceit, or 
interference with contract rights. 

7 Any claim arising in a foreign country. 

D Application to Claims Not Previously Adjusted. 
The provisions of paragraph III shall apply to all claims 
otherwise within its scope, not heretofore adjusted, in- 
cluding claims formerly payable under provisions of laws 
and regulations now super.seded, arising out of accidents or 
incidents occurring on or after January 1, 1945. Claims 
arising out of accidents or incidents occurring prior to 
January 1, 1945, or claims not cognizable under para- 
graph III, including, among others, claims arising in for- 
eign countries, will be settled under the provisions of the 
Small Claims Act, the Act of December 28, 1922 (42 Stat. 
10C6; 31 U.S.C. 215-217). See paragraph IV. Claims for 
damage to lands or other private property of any kind by 
reason of the operations of the United States, its officers 
or employees, in the survey, construction, operation, or 
maintenance of any project constructed or administered 
through the Commissioner, not based upon the negligence 
or wrongful act or omission of any employee of the United 
States while acting within the scope of his office or em- 
ployment, will be settled under the provisions of the Act 
of June 19, 1939 (53 Stat. 841 ; 22 U.S.C. 277e). See para- 
graph V. 

E Statute of Limitations. Claims under the Federal 
Tort Claims Act and under paragraph III must be pre- 
sented in writing to the Department or to the Commission, 
as the case may be, within one year after the claim ac- 
crued, or by August 2, 1947, whichever is later. 

F Payment of Claims. When an award is made, the 
Legal Adviser or the Commissioner, as the case may be, 
will transmit the file on the case to the appropriate fiscal 
office for payment out of funds appropriated, or to be 
appropriated, for the purpose. Claims under the Federal 
Tort Claims Act shall be paid in accordance with the 
provisions of General Regulations No. 110, General Ac- 
counting Office, February 12, 1947. 

G Withdrawal of Claim. A claimant may, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of section 410 (b) of the 
Federal Tort Claims Act, withdraw his claim from con- 
sideration upon fifteen days' notice in writing to the Legal 
Adviser or to the Commissioner, as the case may be. 

H Attorneys' Fees. In accordance with section 422 
of the Federal Tort Claims Act, reasonable attorneys' fees 
may be paid under paragraph III out of, but not in addition 
to, the amount of the award or settlement. If the award 
or settlement is $500 or less, reasonable attorneys' fees, 
but not in excess of $.50, may be allowed. If the award 
is $500 or more, reasonable attorneys' fees, but not in excess 
of 10 percent of the amount of the award or settlement, 
may be allowed. Attorneys' fees under this paragraph 
may be fixed only on written request of either the claimant 
or his attorney. 



I Questions of Law. Questions of reasonable care, 
scope of employment, proximate cause, joint tort-feasors, 
contributory negligence, negligence per se subrogation, the 
allowance of damages for pain and suffering, and other 
questions of law will be determined by the law of the place 
where the accident or incident occurred. 



IV 



Small Claims Act. 



A General. The Act of December 28, 1922 (42 Stat. 
1060; 31 U.S.C. 215-217), the so-called Small Claims Act, 
authorized the head of each department and establishment 
to consider, ascertain, adjust, and determine claims of 
$1,000 or less for damage to, or loss of, privately owned 
property caused by the negligence of any officer or employee 
of the Government acting within the scope of his employ- 
ment. The Federal Tort Claims Act superseded the Small 
Claims Act with respect to claims that are allowable under 
the Federal Tort Claims Act. However, with respect to 
claims that are not allowable under the Federal Tort 
Claims Act, for example, claims arising in foreign coun- 
tries, claims are allowable under the Small Claims Act. 
The Federal Tort Claims Act specifically exempts from 
its provisions claims arising in foreign countries. Hence, 
since exempted under the Federal Tort Claims Act, those 
claims are considered still allowable under the Small 
Claims Act. 

B Exclusion. The following claims are not cogniz- 
able under the Small Claims Act and paragraph IV : 

1 Claims which are cognizable under the Federal 
Tort Claims Act. 

2 Claims which are cognizable under the Act of 
June 19, 1939. See paragraph V. 

O Statute of Limitations. No claim will be con- 
sidered by the Department or by the Commission under 
paragraph IV unless presented to it within one year from 
the date of the accrual of said claim. 

D Payment of Claim. Claims cognizable under para- 
graph IV, upon approval, in whole or in part, shall be 
forwarded to the Bureau of the Budget for inclusion in 
an appropriation bill. After enactment of the bill by the 
Congress, the appropriate fiscal office of the Department 
or of the Commission shall make arrangements for pay- 
ment. 

V Act of June 19, 1939. 

A General. The Act of June 19, 1939 (53 Stat 841; 
22 U.S.C. 277e), provides as follows: 

The Secretary of State acting through such officers as 
he may designate, is further authorized to consider, 
adjust, and pay from funds appropriated for the project, 
the construction of which resulted in damages, any 
claim for damages occurring after March SI, 1937, caused 
to owners of land or other private property of any kind 
by reason of the operations of the United States, its 
officers or employees, in the survey, construction, opera- 
tion, or maintenance of any project constructed or 
administered through the American Commissioner, In- 
ternational Boundary Commission, United States and 
Mexico, if such claim docs not exceed $1,000 and has 
been filed with the Ameri<ian Commissioner within one 



34 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



year after the damage is alleged to have occurred, O/nd 
tohen in the opinion of the American Commissioner such 
claim is substantiated by a report of a board appointed 
by the said Commissioner. 

This Act covers only claims for damages to lands or other 
private property and not claims for personal injuries. 
(Decision Comptroller General B-36817, September 28, 
1943, unpublished.) To the extent that claims for dam- 
ages to land.s or other private property are based upon 
negligence, the provisions of this Act have been super- 
seded by the Federal Tort Claims Act (26 Comp. Gen. 452, 
Decision B-61757, January 6, 1947). Hence claims cog- 
nizable under the Act of June 19, 1939, are limited to 
claims for damages accruing after March 31, 1937 — 

1 For damages to lands or other private property 
of any kind by reason of the operations of the United 
States, its officers or employees, in the survey, construc- 
tion, operation, or maintenance of any project con- 
structed or administered through the Commissioner : 

2 Where such claims do not exceed $1,000; and 

3 Which claims are not based upon the negligence 
of any officer or employee of the Government acting 
within the scope of his employment. 

B Exclusion. Claims which are cognizable under 
the Federal Tort Claims Act or the Small Claims Act are 
not cognizable under the Act of June 19,1939 and paragraph 
V. 

C Stattite of Limitations. No claim will be con- 
sidered by the Commissioner under paragraph V unless 
filed with him within one year after the damage is alleged 
to have occurred. 

D Action by Claimant. The provisions of paragraph 
II B shall be applicable to claims for damages cognizable 
under paragraph V, except those provisions relating to 
personal injury or death. 

E Payment of Claim,. Upon receipt of a claim by 
the Commissioner, the Commissioner will appoint a board 
to investigate the facts surrounding the claim and to make 
its report and recommendations to the Commissioner. 
The Commissioner will thereupon approve the claim in 
whole or in part, or disapprove the claim. If the claim is 
approved in whole or in part, and claimant accepts the 
settlement tendered by the Commissioner, the claimant 
will execute a release of his claim in the form prescribed 
by the Commissioner and will execute a voucher in the 
sum approved by the Commissioner. The file on the case, 
including the claim, the findings of the board, the approval 
of the Commissioner, the release, and the voucher, will 



PUBUCATtONS 

thereupon be transmitted by the Commissioner through 
the Department to the General Accounting Office for 
settlement. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

The London Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers, 

Nov. 25-Dec. 16, 1947. 10 pp. 

Report on tlie re.sult of the recent meeting of the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers in London by George C. Mar- 
shall, Secretary of State. Broadcast from Washing- 
ton, D. C, on December 19, 1947. 

Air Transport Services. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1587. Pub. 2764. 29 pp. 100. 

Agreement Between the U.S. and Peru, and Accom- 
panying Notes — Signed at Lima December 27, 1946 ; 
entered into force December 27, 1946; and agreement 
effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
May 6 and 8, and July 21, 1947 ; entered into force 
July 21, 1947. 

Haitian Finances. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1643. Pub. 2945. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the U.S. and Haiti — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Port-au-Prince July 4, 
1947 ; entered into force July 4, 1947. 

Passport Visa Fees. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1644. Pub. 2946. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the U.S. and Norway — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Washington July 7 and 
29, 1947; entered into force July 29, 1947; effective 
August 1, 1947. 



National Commission News, January 1, 1948. 
10 pp. 100 a copy ; $1 a year. 



Pub. 3003. 



Published monthly for the United States National 
Commission for the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. 



January 4, 1948 



35 



^€'n£en£i^ 



"A 



The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

Tensions in the United Nations. By Warren 

R. Austin 14 

Alien Correspondents at United Nations. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Lovett . . 20 

Fourth Meeting of Preparatory Commission for 

Iro. Article by George L. Warren ... 21 

U.S. Delegation to Provisional Frequency 
Board of International Telecommunication 
Union 22 

U.S. Delegation to Fifth Session of Interim 

Commission of Who 23 

Treaty Information 

Agreement Relating to the Resolution of Con- 
flicting Claims to German Enemy Assets: 
Article by Ely Maurerand James Simsarian . 3 

Text of Agreement 6 

Agreement With Burma on Educational Ex- 
change 27 

Cuba-U.S. Tariflf Concessions To Be EfiFective . 28 
Exclusive Agreement Between U.S. and 
Cuba Supplementary to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade 29 



Treaty Information— Continued Page 

Termination of Trade Agreement Proclamations . 30 
Panama Rejects Ratification of Defense-Sites 

Agreement 31 

Foreign Aid and Reconstruction 

Providing for the Administration of the Foreign 

Aid Act of 1947 24 

Economic Affairs 

Facilitation of International Inland Transport 
in Europe. Statement by Acting Secretary 
Lovett 27 

Calendar of International Meetings ... 25 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Visit of Guatemalan Educator 31 

The Department 

Departmental Regulations 31 

Publications 

Department of State 35 



mm/(mitdcaf^ 



Ely Maurer and James Simsarian, authors of the article on the 
agreement relating to conflicting claims to German enemy assets, are 
respectively an Assistant to the Legal Adviser, Department of State, 
and Special Assistant to the U. S. Delegate to the Inter-Allied Repa- 
ration Agency. 

Qvorge L. Warren, author of the article on the fourth meeting of the 
Preparatory Commission for Iro, is Adviser on Refugees and Dis- 
placed Persons for the Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas. 
Mr. Warren was the American Delegate at the meeting of the Prepar- 
atory Commission. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE^ 1946 



^mi^-^ilW'^vtt-A'f '■ "■'■1 ■ 



tyA^ z^e^ 



aT^imem 



%al& 





HABANA MEETING OF U.N. CONFERENCE ON 
TRADE AND EMPLOYMENT • Statement on Quan- 
titative Restrictions by Vice Chairman of the U.S. Delegation 39 

STATISTICS AND FOREIGN POLICY • By An,Utant 

Secretary Thorp 53 

MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL 

ORGANIZATION • /Article by John M. Cates, Jr. . . . 43 



Vol. XVIII, No. 445 
Januan- 11, 1948 



For complete contents see back cover 




^»HT o» 




<i. S. SUPERINTEKOENT OF OML'MENTS 

JAN 21 1948 



■■>»•• o' 



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Vol. XVIII, No. 445 • Publication 3015 
January 11, 1948 



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Habana Meeting of U.N. Conference on 
Trade and Employment 



STATEMENT ON QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS BY VICE CHAIRMAN OF U. S. DELEGATION' 



The issue now before us, Mr. Chairman, must 
will be forthcoming if trade is rigoi-ously re- 
be narrowly defined. 

It is Tiot whether quantitative restrictions are 
to be abolished, immediately and completely. 
That there must be exceptions to the rule against 
QR everybody is agreed. 

It is not whether undeveloped countries should 
be developed. On this question there has never 
been any dispute. 

It is not even whether QK. may be used for 
development. Under the present draft of Article 
13 it may. 

The issue, simply and solely, is whether QR for 
protection may be freely used by everybody all the 
time or may only be used where and when there is 
no superior alternative. 

The United States has reluctantly come to the 
position that QR may be used for purely protec- 
tive purposes in exceptional cases with appropri- 
ate safeguards. It cannot agree, however, to the 
proposal that is contained in certain amendments 
that are now before this Committee. Under these 
amendments, any country would be completely 
free, at any time, to impose on the imports of any 
product from any other country any quantitative 
limits that it might desire. There is only one way 
in which this proposal can be described: it is a 
prescription for economic anarchy. 

If QR is to be fastened on the commerce of the 
world without let or hindrance, the restrictionism 
of the fifties and the sixties will make the re- 
strictionism of the thirties look like absolute free 

January 11, 1948 



trade. If this is to be the outcome of our negotia- 
tions here, I say that all our hopes for expanding 
trade, for raising standards of living, for promot- 
ing economic development, for achieving economic 
peace are doomed to failure. 

I must confess to a total inability to follow the 
logic of those who have argued here that we can 
expand trade by forbidding exporters to sell and 
importers to buy. I find it equally difficult to 
understand how we can raise standards of living 
by making goods so scarce that people can't get 
them and so expensive that they can't afford to 
buy them. 

So, too, with economic development. A reading 
of the verbatim record of these proceedings might 
lead one to the conclusion that an undeveloped 
country could achieve a rapid and far-reaching 
industrialization simply and solely by imposing 
quantitative restrictions on its trade. Nothing 
could be further from the truth. Industrialization 
requires capital. It requires equipment. It re- 
quires technology. It requires know-how. And 
one wonders to what extent any of these requisites 
will be forthcoming if trade is rigorously re- 
strained. For investors will not be attracted to 
new industries unless they promise to succeed. 
New industries will not promise to succeed unless 
they have access to adequate markets. And they 
will not have access to adequate markets if every- 

^ Made on Dec. 23, 1947, and released to the press in 
Habana op. the same date. Clair Wilcox, Director of the 
Office of International Trade Policy, Department of State, 
is Vice Chairman of the U. S. Delegation. 

39 



body, everywhere, resorts to QR. QR does not 
open markets ; it closes them. That is what it is 
for. And when it spreads, through example and 
retaliation, to the point where every little coun- 
try and every undeveloped country on earth is 
isolated from every other by a tight wall of pro- 
hibitions, the chances of vigorous industrial de- 
velopment will finally have been destroyed. 

One way for a man to grow strong is to observe 
the proper diet, take plenty of sleep, and get plenty 
of exercise. Another way to present a superficial 
appearance of animation is to take an injection of 
a powerful drug. The former is slower and 
harder, but it lasts longer. The latter is quicker, 
but it is transitory, habit-forming, and may end 
in stupefaction. QR is a shot in the arm. A mod- 
erate dose may put an industry on its feet. An 
overdose can lay a whole economy flat on its back. 

Several delegates, in the course of this debate, 
have referred to QR as a "weapon" and have said 
that the "weapon" is one of which they must not 
be deprived. The metaphor is all too appropriate. 
For a weapon is something that one uses in a war, 
and economic war will be the normal state of trade 
relations when everybody resorts to QR. Wliat 
we are dealing with here — and we might as well 
recognize it — is the psychology of conflict, not the 
psychology of peace. A weapon is something that 
someone uses to hurt someone else. And I think 
it might be well for us to consider, if we place this 
weapon in the hands of every nation, big and little, 
strong and weak, and turn them all loose on the 
field of battle, who is going to be hurt and how 
much. 

It should be clear that countries differ markedly 
in their ability to adapt themselves to a situation 
which closes the markets of the world to their 
products. A small, highly industrialized country 
depends upon its exports of manufactured goods 
to purchase the very food that is required to main- 
tain the life of its people. A small, relatively un- 
developed country, specializing in the production 
of one or two commodities — minerals or food- 
stuffs — depends upon foreign markets for the sales 
that enable it to acquire capital equipment and 
manufactured consumers' goods. Even a large 
country, if it specializes in a few export crops, may 
find its whole economic life seriously affected by 
its ability — or inability — to sell abroad. For any 
of these countries the general imposition of QR 

40 



around the world might spell disaster — unemploy- 
ment, bankruptcy, and wide-spread distress, with 
all of the social and political consequences that 
they entail. If however, a country were large, if 
it had a gi'eat diversity of resources, if it had an 
extensive domestic market, and if it depended only 
to a minor extent on foreign trade, this would not 
be the case. For such a country, the general im- 
position of QR around the world would be annoy- 
ing and inconvenient. But it would not be dis- 
astrous. The moral of this is plain. If we are to 
arm the nations of the world with this "weapon" 
of QR and send them into economic battle, the 
advantage will not be with the smaller and the 
weaker adversaries. It will be with the big and 
the strong. And this, I submit, is why every small 
country and every weak country should insist that 
this "weapon" be outlawed or, at least, if it cannot 
be outlawed, that its edge be blunted and its use 
controlled. 

The debate in this Committee seems to have pro- 
ceeded on the assvunption that the smaller coun- 
tries and the weaker countries will be accorded 
complete freedom to employ QR while the larger 
and the stronger ones will voluntarily forego its 
use. This, I fear, is the sheerest phantasy. One 
amendment would confine QR to "countries that 
have not reached an advanced stage of industriali- 
zation as a whole'''. Another would confine it to 
"countries in an early stage of industrial develop- 
ment". Just what do these terms mean? How 
would they be defined ? How, for instance, would 
they apply to the United States ? Certainly there 
are 12 of our 48 States that have reached an ad- 
vanced stage of industrialization. But the 
"whole" of our Union includes 36 other States, not 
to mention the Territory of Alaska, which is an 
undeveloped country in itself. I invite the au- 
thors of these amendments to drive through the 
States that lie south of the Potomac and east of 
the Mississippi, to roam the whole area that lies 
between the Mississippi and the Rockies from 
Canada to Mexico, to fly over the vast reaches of 
Alaska, and then to report on the extent to which 
the industrialization of these areas is really "ad- 
vanced". It would be instructive, too, to inter- 
view the Governors of these 36 States and the 
Chambers of Commerce in their cities to ask them 
whether they consider their stage of industrial de- 
velopment to be "early" or late. If QR for protec- 
tion is open to one it will be open to all, including 

Depatfment of State Bulletin 



[ 



the United States. And nobody is likely to intro- 
duce a form of words that would prevent it. 

My Government offered, in the Proposals which 
it published in December of 1945, to enter into an 
international agreement under which it would 
surrender its freedom to use QE, for protective 
purposes. It maintained this offer at London. It 
maintained it at Geneva. It will maintain it at 
Havana. If this offer is accepted, no nation need 
fear that the United States will ever employ QR 
in ways that would be harmful to them. But if 
the offer is rejected, what then ? 

If the offer were rejected, I assure you that my 
Government would do everything within its power 
to prevent the general employment of QR by the 
United States. But I cannot assure you that it 
would succeed. For as QE. spreads around the 
world, and as one group after another in the 
United States came to feel its effects, there would 
be angry reactions and insistent demands for re- 
taliation. If QR were everywhere accepted in 
principle and widely employed in practice, it is 
less than likely that these demands could be re- 
sisted. If the United States, however reluctantly 
and however tardily, were to join in the procession 
that marched behind the banner of QR, how would 
this affect the welfare of the other countries of the 
world ? 

Let us take the case of Country A. Country A 
is a snudl country. It is highly industrialized. It 
specializes in the manufacture of semi-durable 
consumers' goods. It relies upon its export of this 
goods to pay for a large part of the goods which 
it imports. It finds a major part of its market for 
this goods in the United States. But this article 
is also manufactured in the United States. And 
our own factories could be so expanded as to meet 
all of the requirements of our market. Suppose 
that we finally were to yield to persistent pres- 
sures to impose upon imports of this article a 
quota which would cut our imports to a half or a 
third of their pi-esent size. Who would suffer most 
from this action — the big country or the little 
country ? Would the unfettered use of QR really 
serve the interests of this little country ? I think 
not. 

Take the case of Country B. Country B is also 
a small country. It produces a basic raw material. 
It ships this material into our market in large 
quantities. Its whole economy is heavily de- 
pendent on these sales. It finds in them a source 



of dollars that it can use in developing its in- 
dustries and raising its standard of living. But 
we have developed, in the United States, a syn- 
thetic substitute for this raw material. By ex- 
panding our productive capacity we could satisfy 
the entire demand of our domestic market. Sup- 
pose that we yield to pressure to increase our out- 
put of the synthetic product by imposing stringent 
quotas on our imports of the natural product. Who 
would suffer most from this action — the big 
country or the little country ? Would the interests 
of the little coimtry really be served by untram- 
meled freedom to use QR ? I think not. 

Take the case of Country C. Country C is a 
small country. It sells us, in large quantity, a ij)}& 
of foodstuff that is closely competitive with food- 
stuffs produced in many of our agricultural states. 
Our own farmers, with little effort, could com- 
pletely satisfy our appetites for this element in 
our diets. Suppose that we were to yield to pres- 
sure to give them a monopoly or a near-monopoly 
of our market by cutting down our imports of the 
foreign food. Who would suffer — the big country 
or the little country? Would the welfare of 
Country C really be advanced by the general ap- 
plication of QR ? I think not. 

Take the cases of Countries D and E. These are 
large countries, but they are, as yet, relatively un- 
developed. Both of them sell us, in quantity, raw 
materials which constitute a large part of their 
export trade. In the case of Country D, we pro- 
duce the same material in smaller quantity. In 
the case of Country E, we produce a substitute that 
will serve the same purpose at a slightly higher 
cost. Suppose that we impose quotas on these im- 
ports and expand production at home. Who 
would suffer most — the developed country or the 
undeveloped countries? Would the exercise of 
freedom to use QR really be helpful to Countries 
DandE? I think not. 

Mr. Chairman, these are not imaginary cases. 
In eveiy one of these cases there has been agitation 
for the use of QR in the United States. In every 
one of them, its employment would have been 
harmful, if not disastrous, to the country con- 
cerned. And in every one of them, the delegate 
who represents that country in this Committee has 
spoken in glowing terms of the blessings of QR. 

Let me carry the argument a step further. 
Country F produces a raw material that it does not 



January 11, 1948 



41 



sell to the United States. But the price of that 
material is nonetheless influenced by the fact that 
we are making heavy demands upon the world 
market. Suppose that we impose a quota that 
cuts our imports from Countries D and E. Ob- 
viously, Countries D and E are hurt. But what 
about Country F ? Is it immune ? Certainly not. 
When our demand is withdrawn from the market, 
the price falls. And the goods that Country F sells 
elsewhere in the world bring it a smaller return. 
Is our use of QR a good thing for Country F ? I 
think not. 

One final case: — The United States imports a 
product from Countries G and H. Suppose that 
we inaugurate a quota system without cutting our 
total imports at all. But we give a bigger quota to 
G and a smaller quota to H. G may gain in the 
process or it may lose. That will depend entirely 
on whether we exact a price for the favor we 
confer. But certainly nobody will contend that 
Country H is better off because every country on 
earth is free to use QR. 

It is probable that somebody will remind me, in 
the course of this debate, that certain products 
imported into the United States have been and are 
subject to QR. In a few cases, — a very few 
cases — , I am aware that this is true. If the rales 
of the Charter are adopted, these cases will be only 
tho.se in which domestic production is similarly 
controlled. And QR will 7Wt be used to expand 
our own producer's share in our own market. But 
even in these cases, and even under .such rules, I 
have gathered from these proceedings that our 
employment of QR has met with something less 
than universal acclaim. There are even those who 
have said that they don't like it. If we were to 
extend this principle to the whole range of our 
import trade, would the general enthusiasm for its 
employment be increased? 

I have always .supposed, Mr. Chairman, that the 
future economic policy of the United States is a 
matter of great importance to the other nations of 
the world. I have been led to believe that an 
increase in oUr tariffs or the gejieral imposition of 
import quotas would be regarded as a serious blow 
to their essential interests. If this is indeed the 
case, I must ask other countries to consider for 
a moment the direction in which some of them 
are asking us to go, and what the consequences 
would be. 

If the trading pattern now written into the 

42 



Charter is ultimately adopted, there will be no 
official limit on the total quantity of goods that 
they can sell in the United States. They will not 
be told that some part or all of our market has 
been reserved for somebody else. They will not 
be told that we will not take their goods because 
we do not like their policies. They will not be told 
that we will not take their goods unless they pledge 
themselves to take specific quantities of ours. 
They will not find themselves excluded from other 
markets by the fact that we have pre-empted 
them for ourselves. 

But let us suppose that any one of a dozen 
amendments that are now before us should be 
adopted and that all restraints on quantitative re- 
strictions would finally be destroyed. Does any one 
really suppose, if the scourge of restrictionism in 
its most virulent form is to sweep over a large part 
of the world that the rest of us, or specifically, that 
the United States would remain completely im- 
mune? Suppose that we eventually succumb, 
what then? Other countries may be told when 
they appi'oach us with their goods that they can 
sell to us but only up to a certain limit, regardless 
of quality. They may be told that they cannot sell 
to us unless they agi'ee to take specific quantities of 
specific goods — not harmonicas perhaps, but some- 
thing else — in return. They may be told that our 
market is reserved for someone else. They may 
be told they cannot sell to us until they modify 
domestic policies we do not like. They may dis- 
cover, when they attempt to sell in other markets, 
that we have been there first to freeze them out. 

I do not utter these words, Mr. Chairman, as a 
threat. I want to make it perfectly clear that that 
is not the way we want to do business. And, 
unless we are driven to it, it is not the way that 
we shall do business. But if some of the proposals 
now before us were adopted, this is the destination 
towards which we should be asked to turn our feet. 

It was always our idea, Mr. Ciiairman, that it 
would be the purpose of the Ito to organize the 
world for economic peace. But if our future were 
to lie in conflict, one doubts that organization 
would be required. If nation were to strike at 
nation, if retaliation were to go around the circle 
again aiid again and again, all of this could be 
accomplished without any agreement of any sort. ' 
If QR were to be released from all restraints, it is 
difficult to see why anyone should want a Charter ■ 
or an International Trade Organization. 



Department of Stale BuUetin 



\ 



Meeting of International Meteorological Organization: 
Conference of Directors 



ARTICLE BY JOHN M. CATES, JR. 



The Conference of Directors of the Interna- 
tional Meteorological Organization closed its 
twelfth session on October 11, 1947, with an im- 
pressive record of nearly 75 j'ears of uninterrupted 
international service.^ In the short space of three 
weeks the Conference had adopted 220 technical 
resolutions dealing witli the science of meteorol- 
ogy, concluded an international convention by 
which the Imo is to be reorganized into an inter- 
governmental organization, and approved a pro- 
cedure for the establishment of relationship as a 
specialized agency of the United Nations. In ac- 
complishing this last step toward specialized- 
agency status and consequent relationship with the 
United Nations, the Isio prepared the way for the 
conclusion of an early agreement with the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council and close cooperation 
with the United Nations. The World Meteorolog- 
ical Organization will thereby take its place with 
the closely related transport and communications 
organizations in the aviation, telecommunications, 
and postal fields as a member of the family of the 
United Nations. The relationship thus to be es- 
tablished between the United Nations and the 
international technical organizations is expected 
to provide the basis for the coordination of the 
closely related activities of these organizations 
with consequent benefits to the specialized agencies 
themselves, to the United Nations, and to the world 
at large. 

The Imo has for three quarters of a century been 
composed of the directors of meteorological serv- 
ices of the various states and territories of the 
world, with almost universal membership. Of its 
88 members, 55 attended the Conference : 



Anglo-Egyptian 


French Equatorial 


Norway 


Sudan 


Africa 


Pakistan 


Argentina 


French West 


Palestine 


Australia 


Africa 


Paraguay 


Belgian Congo 


Greece 


Philippines 


Belgium 


Guatemala 


Portugal 


Bermuda 


Hong Kong 


Rhodesia 


Brazil 


Hungary 


Siam 


British East 


Iceland 


Sweden 


Africa 


India 


Switzerland 


Burma 


Indo-China 


Tunisia 


Canada 


Ireland 


Turkey 


China 


Italy 


Union of Soviet 


Colombia 


Malaya 


Socialist Repub- 


Cuba 


Mauritius 


lics 


Czechoslovakia 


Mexico 


United Kingdom 


Denmark 


Morocco 


United States 


Ecuador 


Netherlands 


Uruguay 


Egypt 


Netherlands East 


Venezuela 


Finland 


Indies 


Yugoslavia 


France 


New Zealand 




Four additional members were represented by 


observers : 






Chile 


Poland 


Union of South 


Dominican 


Rumania 


Africa 


Republic ' 







The representation at the Conference of both 
sovereign states and territories indicates the dual 
nature of the Conference. It was both a conference 
of meteorological directors, members of a non- 
governmental technical organization convened to 
consider meteorological regulations essential to 
the accomplishment of the Organization's primary 



'"Final Report (mimeographed edition), Twelfth Con- 
ference of Directors", International Meteorological Or- 
ganization, Washington, Sept. 22-Oct. 11, 1947. 

' Attended by invitation although not a member. 



January 11, 1948 



43 



functions, and a conference of plenipotentiaries 
convened to conclude an international convention 
under which there might be established an inter- 
governmental organization eligible for status as 
a specialized agency with formal relationship with 
the United Nations. 

The United States Delegation,' headed by Dr. 
Francis W. Reichelderfer, Chief of the United 
States Weather Bureau, urged that consideration 
be given to the following points : 

(1) That an intergovernmental status was es- 
sential to assure to a world meteorological organi- 
zation the prestige it deserved in its relationships 
to other intergovernmental organizations and to 
assure its accomplishment of the various responsi- 
bilities placed upon it; (2) that a formal relation- 
ship with the United Nations was in the best in- 
terests of both the Wmo and the United Nations ; 
(3) that the membership of the new organization 
should conform to any decisions of the United 
Nations relating to membership in specialized 
agencies; and (4) that the Imo should continue in 
existence until such time as the convention estab- 
lishine the intergovernmental Wmo should come 
into force. 

With regard to technical matters, the United 
States Delegation directed its efforts toward ob- 
taining the highest possible degree of uniformity 
in procedures and symbols used in reporting 
meteorological data and toward a clarification of 
the relationship between the Imo and the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization. 

The problems before the Conference of Directoi-s 
thus fell into two general categories : (a) technical 
meteorological questions and (&) organizational 
and policy questions. 

Technical Questions 

Immediately preceding the Conference of Di- 
rectors in Washington, there had been held in 
Toronto joint meetings of the so-called technical 
commissions of the Imo through which the basic 
work of the Organization is accomplished. Thei'e 
are presently 11 Conunissions : Agricultural Me- 



' The United States Delegation, in addition, consisted of : 
H. R. Byers, University of Chicago ; John M. Gates, Jr., 
State Department ; Commander G. Van A. Graves, 
U.S.C.G. ; Delbert M. Little, Weather Bureau; Capt. 
Howard T. Orville, U. S. N. ; Ivan R. Tannehill, Weather 
Bureau; and Brig. Gen. D. N. Yates, U.S.A.A.F. 



teorology. Aeronautical Meteorology, Maritime 
Meteorology, Synojjtic Weather Information, 
Hydrology, Instruments and Methods of Observa- 
tion, Polar Meteorology, Radio-Electric Meteor- 
ology, Climatology, Bibliography and Publica- 
tions, and the Aerological Commission. 

The Toronto meetings developed 405 technical 
resolutions which, by the action of the Resolutions 
Committee of the Conference, were consolidated 
into 220 resolutions. These resolutions are indica- 
tive of the importance of weather forecasting to 
the fields of agriculture, aviation, flood prevention, 
shipping, applied science, and safety at sea and in 
the air. The common purpose behind all the res- 
olutions was the standardization of meteorological 
procedures and facilities with a view to obtaining 
a uniform quality of meteorological information 
throughout the world. 

Although a detailed description of these techni- 
cal resolutions is not necessary to a general account 
of the Conference, mention should be made of 
several of outstanding importance : the agreement 
between the Imo and the Icao on standard proce- 
dures and reporting forms for aeronautical mete- 
orolog}^; the adoption of a universal code of 
symbols for describing various types of mete- 
orological conditions; agreement on projects for 
the study of climatology and the effect of weather 
conditions on crops; and a hj'drographical study 
with particular reference to the forecasting of 
flood conditions. The broad scope of the activities 
of the Imo and the importance of its forecasts to 
every human activity is dramatically illustrated 
by the subjects of these highly technical resolu- 
tions. These resolutions, together with those of 
previous conferences, are the basis on which an 
accurate world-wide weather-observing and fore- 
casting system has been developed. 

The Conference accepted the report of the or- 
ganization's secretary general and the recom- 
mendations of its Executive Council on its budget 
for the next year. Because of increased activities 
of the organization, contributions to meet the 
1947-48 budget of $90,000 are to be increased to 
three times the normal prewar annual contribu- 
tion. Because of changes in membership, this will 
result in a 50 percent increase on current contribu- 
tions. The United States contribution will 
thereby be increased approximately from $3,000 
to $4,500. 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Conference, recognizing that the new gov- 
ernmental organization would not come into exist- 
ence for several years, agreed that the Imo should 
carry on its usual functions until the entry into 
force of the convention of the Wmo in order to in- 
sure the necessary continuity in the world-wide 
cooperation of meteorological services. Further, 
to bridge the gap between the Imo and the proposed 
Wmo the Conference directed its Executive Coun- 
cil to prepare and submit to the first meeting of 
the congress of the Wmo recommendations govern- 
ing the administration of the new organization and 
the transfer to it of the functions and activities of 
the Imo. 

Organizational and Policy Matters 

The Conference, sitting in its capacity as a con- 
ference of plenipotentiaries to consider a conven- 
tion for the establishment of a world meteorologi- 
cal organization, had before it a draft convention 
prepared by a committee of the previous meteoro- 
logical conference and individual drafts prepared 
by Canada, France, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States. Before consideration of the con- 
vention itself, the Conference argued at length 
upon the relative merits of an intergovernmental 
organization as against a more informal nongov- 
erimaental organization of the type of the Imo. 
The proposed relationship with the United Na- 
tions and the possibility that the organization 
would thereby lose some of its autonomy and suffer 
from the injection into its technical affairs of the 
disturbing influence of international politics were 
the main points upon which the opponents of the 
convention and of the Wmo based their arguments. 
The final decision of the Conference to adopt a 
convention and change the status of the Imo to 
that of an intergovermnental organization was due 
in great part to the strong beliefs, as expressed by 
Argentina, France, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, in the advantages which would follow 
not only from placing the organization upon a 
convention basis but also from a relationship to 
the United Nations, which relationship was in 
turn dependent upon the adoption of a convention. 

The convention, as adopted, follows in general 
the form of the conventions of Icao, the Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union, and other 
specialized agencies, although its specialized pur- 
poses and functions and its unique membership 

lanuary J I, 1948 

772309 — 48 2 



and voting articles give it particular interest. The 
basic purposes of the organization are set forth 
in the preamble, whereby the contracting states 
"with a view to coordinating, standardizing, and 
improving world meteorological activities, and to 
encouraging an efficient exchange of meteorolog- 
ical information between countries in the aid of 
human activities" agree to the present convention. 
These purposes are to be accomplished through 
facilitating the establishment of a world-wide net- 
work of weather-observation stations, the estab- 
lishment of systems for the rapid exchange of 
weather information, the promotion of the stand- 
ardization of meteorological observation, and the 
furtherance of the application of meteorology to 
aviation, shipping, agriculture, and other human 
activities. 

Membership in the organization is not limited to 
sovereign states, as is the case with most inter- 
governmental organizations, nor is provision made 
for associate members. Membership in the or- 
ganization is open to states represented at the 
Conference as listed in annex I of the convention ; 
members of the United Nations having meteor- 
ological services ; states not members of the United 
Nations but having meteorological services, upon 
approval of two-thirds of the members; any terri- 
tory or gi'oup of territories as listed in annex II 
whose mother countries were represented at the 
Conference; and any territories not listed in the 
annex but maintaining meteorological service on 
behalf of which the convention is applied by the 
state having responsibility for their international 
relations and upon approval of two thirds of the 
members. In the discussions of this membership 
clause, a great point was made that only sovereign 
states could become parties to an international 
convention and membei-s of the organization set 
up under the convention. However, with the re- 
cent experiences of the Universal Postal Union and 
the International Telecommunication Union in 
mind, the meteorologists, whether representing 
sovereign states or territories, were determined to 
maintain as fully as possible the world-wide-mem- 
bership concept of the International Meteor- 
ological Organization. This concept had made no 
distinction between the directors of meteorological 
services of states, territories, or other forms of 
political and even geographic divisions. The re- 
quirements of international law and the demands 
of certain states were met by providing that only 

45 



those members of the orgcanization which were 
sovereign states could vote upon reserved subjects ; 
namely, the amendment or interpretation of the 
present convention or proposals for a new conven- 
tion; membership in the organization, relations 
with the United Nations and other intergovern- 
mental organizations ; and the election of certain 
ofBcers of the organization. It is believed that 
this membership formula, unique in the annals of 
international organizations, is practicable and will 
serve to meet not only the needs of the Wmo but 
also the requirements of the formalities of inter- 
national law and practice. This provision of vir- 
tually full membership for territories is particu- 
larly appropriate in view of the fact that the terri- 
tories, almost without exception, support their 
own activities in the organization without aid 
from the mother country. 

The vexatious question of membership in the 
new World Meteorological Organization of states 
not fully recognized as being sovereign was met 
by providing that only states represented at the 
Conference, as listed in annex I of the convention 
could become members merely by signing and rati- 
fying; all others, except members of the United 
Nations, must secure approval of two thirds of the 
members. Among this latter group are the states 
and would-be states, the status of which has so 
complicated the conferences of other specialized 
agencies during the 3'ear.'' The postponement of a 
final decision of these questions until the Wmo 
itself becomes established expedited the business 
of the Conference considerably. 

The question of Spanish participation in the 
Wmo was handled by a protocol similar to those 
adopted by the International Telecommunication 
Conference and the Universal Postal Congress.^ 

The question of Spanish participation in the 
Conference of Directors of the Ijio, a nongovern- 



' International Civil Aviation Organization (Icao), 
Bulletin of June 1.5, 1947, p. 1145; Internationnl Tele- 
communication Union (Ittt), Bulletin of Nov. 30 1947, 
p. 1033; also, Univer.sal Postal Union (Upu) Co; gress 
held In Paris, Ma.v-June 1947. 

""It is hereby agreed that Spain may, as soon as the 
Resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations 
dated December 12, 1946 shall be abrogated or shall cease 
to be applicable, accede to the Convention of the World 
Meteorological Organization by complying with the pro- 
visions of Article 33 of the said Convention, without having 
to comply with the provisions of Article 3(c) of the said 
Convention". (Article 3(c) requires approval of two 
thirds of the members for admission to membership.) 

46 



mental organization, presented a unique problem, 
which was solved by the adoption of a realistic 
resolution recognizing "that in consequence of the 
Resolution of the General Assembly of the United 
Nations, dated December 12, 1946, the Director of 
the Spanish Meteorological Service is prevented 
from exercising his rights as a Member of the Con- 
ference of Directors until such time as said Resolu- 
tion shall be abrogated or cease to be applicable". 
This resolution implied approval by the Confer- 
ence of the action of the United States in with- 
holding from the Director of the Spanish Mete- 
orological Service an invitation to the Conference 
of Directors. 

The final point for the convention to consider, 
establishment of a formal relationship with the 
United Nations, was carried without difficulty 
after the adoption by the Conference of the con- 
vention in the form described briefly above. Par- 
ticularly dramatic was the support given to the 
relationship by the representative from Portugal, 
whose country had recently been barred from 
membership in the United Nations but who stated 
that, nevertheless, his goveimment wished to sup- 
port fully the principles to which the United Na- 
tions were devoted. As a basis for consideration 
of an agreement of relationship, the Conference 
appointed a committee on which were represented 
France, Norway, Portugal, the United States, and 
the United Kingdom. This committee met for 
three days immediately following the termination 
of the Conference and agreed upon a draft agree- 
ment of relationship between the United Nations 
and the Wmo. This draft agreement is to be cir- 
culated to the members of the Imo for comment 
before presentation to the United Nations as a 
basis for discussion by the respective negotiating 
committees. 

The re-establishment of the Imo on an inter- 
governmental basis and on an equal level with 
other specialized agencies in the field of transport 
and connnunications will make possible future j 
cooperation and coordination among these tech- \ 
nical organizations which are so dependent upon 
each other for aid in performing the functions for 
which each is i-esponsible. The Conference of Di- 
rectors, in paving the way for the provision of 
accurate and universal weather forecasting to the 
people of the world, has set an outstanding ex- 
ample for service cooperation among governments 
and among international organizations. 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Expression of Faith in United Nations as Means of World Peace 



EXTEMPORANEOUS REMARKS BY PRESIDENT TRUMAN' 



I want to wish all of you a happy and prosperous 
1948 and to say to you that I think 1947 has been 
a good year — not as good as we would like to have 
had it, none of them ever are — and that I am still 
confidently looking forward to a world peace on 
which all the nations can agree, and the proper 
implementation of the United Nations. 

I always think of the Constitution of the United 
States and the difficulties that took place in the 
Colonies between 1781 and 1789, and then the diffi- 
culties that took place between 1789 and 1809. If 
you carefully look over that situation, you will 
find that they had tremendous difficulties in those 
days, almost exactly the same difficulties with 
which we are faced now both in Europe and here. 



It took just about eighty years, really, to get the 
Constitution properly implemented. In fact it 
was not the Constitution of the United States 
until 1865. 

So I don't think we ought to be discouraged at 
things that sometimes get in our way in making 
this tremendous peace organization work. I did 
not intend to make you a speech, but I am very 
much interested in peace, and I have every faith in 
the final working of the United Nations as a means 
of general world peace, for the simple reason that 
we can't afford anything else. It is to our selfish 
interests and to the selfish interests of every coun- 
try in the world that we do have a workable world 
peace. 



Presidential Appointments to U.N. Interim Committee 



[Released to the press by the White House January 3] 

The President on January 3 appointed Warren 
R. Austin, United States Representative at the 
Seat of the United Nations, as United States Rep- 
resentative in the Interim Committee of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations ; and Philip 
C. Jessup, Hamilton Fish professor of inter- 
national law and diialomacy at Columbia Uni- 
versity, as Deputy United States Representative. 
The Interim Committee of the United Nations 
General Assembly was established in accordance 
with a resolution adopted on November 13, 1947, 
at the Second Session of the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly and will meet on January 5, 1948, at 
United Nations headquarters. Lake Success, New 
York. 

The proposal for the establishment of an In- 
terim Committee was placed on the agenda of 
the General Assembly by the United States after 
the Secretary of State, speaking in the Assembly 
on September 17, 1947, had suggested that such 

January 11, 1948 



a committee be created. The resolution on the 
Interim Committee, adopted 41-6, with six ab- 
stentions, provides that the Interim Committee 
shall assist the General Assembly by considering 
matters specifically referred to it by the Assembly ; 
by considering disputes or situations placed on the 
Assembly's agenda by a member state or by the 
Security Council ; by making studies on how the 
general principles of international cooperation in 
the political field and in the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security shall be implemented ; 
and, within the scope of its jurisdiction, by con- 
ducting investigations and appointing commis- 
sions of inquiry. The Interim Committee has also 
been instructed to undertake a study of the veto, 
in consultation with any committee which the 
Security Council may designate. 
Mr. Austin, formerly Senator from Vermont, 

' Made before the President's press and radio conference 
at the White House on Dec. 31, 1947. 

47 



THE UNITCD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

holds the rank of Ambassador. In addition to his 
duties as Permanent Representative at the Seat 
of the United Nations, he was a member of the 
United States Delegation to the Second Part of 
the First Session of the General Assembly and to 
the Second Regular Session of the Assembly. 

Professor Jessup recently served as the United 
States Representative on the United Nations Com- 



mittee for the Progressive Development of Inter- 
national Law and Its Codification. He has had 
long experience in international affairs. Follow- 
ing service in 1943 as a division chief in the De- 
partment of State's Office of Foreign Relief, Dr. 
Jessup acted as Assistant Secretai-y General to the 
Unrra and Bretton Woods conferences in 1943 
and 1944. 



Review of Facts Regarding Accreditation of Bona Fide 
U.N. Correspondents 



NOTE FROM THE UNITED STATES MISSION TO THE UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press December 31] 

Text of the communication delivered December 31 
iy this Governm,ent, through the United States 
Mission to the United Nations, to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations concerning the 
subject of accreditation of correspondents 

Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to your telegrams of 
December 22 and 23, i-egarding the detention and 
proceedings in connection with possible deporta- 
tion in the cases of Nicholas Kyriazidis and Syed 
S. Hasan, which state that both these persons 
have been accredited as press correspondents by 
the United Nations. On instructions from my 
Government I beg to reply as follows : 

"The Government of the United States intends 
to abide fully, both in letter and spirit, with the 
Agi-eement of June 26, 1947, regarding the head- 
quarters of the United Nations which became effec- 
tive November 21, 1947, as authorized by Public 
Law 357 of the 80th Congress and by the resolu- 
tion of October 31, 1947 of the General Assembly. 

"Although the Agreement became generally ef- 
fective on November 21, its specific applicability 
to the interim headquarters of the United Nations 
at Lake Success and Flushing was not effective 
until the execution of the Supplemental Agree- 
ment of December 18. It is not entirely clear, 
therefore, whether the agreement was technically 
in force at the time of Mr. Kyriazidis' detention 
on December 17. My Government appreciates, 
however, the desirability of giving the fullest pos- 

48 



sible effect to the Agreement regardless of any such 
technicality. 

"Under Section 13 (b) of the Agreement, the 
United States retains the right to deport any per- 
sons who, in activities outside their official capac- 
ity, have abused the privileges granted under 
Section 11 and 13. It is provided that deportation 
proceeding shall not be instituted except with the 
prior approval of the Secretary of State, which 
shall be given only after consultation with the 
Secretary General (or the appropriate Member 
Nation if a representative of a Member is in- 
volved) . 

"In considering the application of the Head- 
quarters Agreement in the instant cases, it is perti- 
nent to note that the individuals were accredited 
by the United Nations without the 'consultation 
with the United States' referred to in Section 11. 
Since accreditation took place before the Agree- 
ment became effective, there was no legal obliga- 
tion on the United Nations to hold such consulta- 
tions. Absence of consultation does, however, 
leave unconsidered any view of the United States 
on the question of whether the individuals con- 
cerned are legally entitled to the privileges 
granted by Section 11 and as to whether the United 
States was consequently under obligation to con- 
sult the Secretary General pursuant to Section 
13 (b) before instituting the proceedings. 

"The application of Section 13 (b) to the pres- 
ent cases may be uncertain for another reason. The 
issue may be not whether the individuals may 
have abused their privileges in activities outside 
of their official capacity, but whether their privi- 

Department of State Bulletin 



leges may be void on account of misrepresentation 
of, or failure to disclose, material facts bearing on 
their accreditation or the issuance of their visas. 

''While my Government does not believe that it 
has failed to comply with the Headquarters Agree- 
ment, it recognizes that it was unfortunate that 
the status of these persons was not clarified by an 
exchange of views before the exercise of discretion 
by the United Nations to accredit them and before 
the cases reached the stage of legal proceedings. 

"It is the view of my Government that the fol- 
lowing steps should be taken to avoid any further 
misunderstandings: (1) The entire list of repre- 
sentatives of the press, radio, film or other infor- 
mation agencies accredited by the United Nations 
in its disci-etion should be reviewed by the United 
Nations in consultation with the United States, so 
as to bring all bona fide representatives clearly 
under the protection of the Agreement; (2) Pro- 
cedures, data and criteria for handling future 
accreditations should be worked out jointly be- 
tween officials of the United Nations and of the 
United States; (3) In all future cases where there 
appears to be any question as to compliance with 
or interpretation of the Headquarters Agreement, 
every effort should be made by both parties to 
settle the matter by informal discussion without 
taking steps that might be construed as engaging 
in public controversy. Representatives of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States are available for 
early discussion of all these matters at the conven- 
ience of United Nations officials at Lake Success. 
"Meanwhile both Mr. Kyriazidis and Mr. Hasan 
have been released from custody. It is our under- 
standing that Mr. Hasan plans to leave the country 
voluntarily in the immediate future. No further 
steps will be taken in either case without consulta- 
tion with the Secretary General. 

"In conclusion let me assure your Excellency that 
my Government is deeply conscious of its obliga- 
tions as host to the United Nations and is fully con- 
fident that the problems which may arise in im- 
plementing the Headquarters Agreement can be 
readily solved by mutual understanding and good 
will without prejudicing either the security of the 
United States or the stated purposes of the Agree- 
ment 'to enable the United Nations at its head- 
quarters in the United States, fully and efficiently 
to discharge its responsibilities and fulfill its 
purposes.' " 

Accept [etc.] 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

The General Assembly and the 
Problem of Greece 

[Released to the press January 4] 

The Department of State on January 4 released 
a special supplement to the Bulletin entitled The 
General Assembly and the Problem of Greece. 
This publication supplements the materials issued 
by the Department in September 1947 under the 
title The United Nations and the Problem of 
Greece. It summarizes the lengthy General As- 
sembly discussion of the question of relations be- 
tween Greece and its northern neighbors, analyzes 
the voting on the various resolutions offered on 
this subject, and describes the positions adopted by 
Greece's northern neighbors, the U.S.S.E., and 
Poland. The current publication also contains 
an analysis of the evidence developed by the Sub- 
sidiary Group of the Balkan investigating com- 
mission from April to September 1947. This 
material shows that foreign assistance to the Greek 
guerrillas was continued on a considerable scale 
even during the period of active consideration of 
the Greek problem by the Security Council, and 
that Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia consist- 
ently refused to cooperate in any way with the 
work of the United Nations Subsidiary Group. 

The supplement is being issued as Department 
of State Publication 2986, Near Eastern Series 12. 
Copies may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C., for 25 cents each. 



U.S. Delegation to 
Commission 



IRQ Preparatory 



[Released to the press December 31] 

The Department of State announced December 
31 the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the fifth part of the first session of the Prepara- 
tory Commission for the International Refugee 
Organization (Iro) , which is scheduled to be held 
at Geneva, Switzerland, from January 20 to ap- 
proximately January 30, 1948. The Delegation is 
as follows : 

Chairman 

George L. Warren, Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 
Persons, Department of State, and United States 
Representative on the Preparatory Commission of 



Warren R. Austin 



Ibo 



{Continued on page 63) 



January 1 1, 1948 

772309—48 3 



49 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



Interim Aid Agreement Signed With France, Italy, and Austria 



REMARKS BY AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE' 



[Released to the press January 2] 

Since liberation France has made encouraging 
progress towards economic recovery. It has be- 
come increasingly apparent, however, that, due to 
the unprecedented wartime destruction and ex- 
haustion of stocks, combined with two disastrously 
short crops, complete recovery would take longer 
than previously anticipated. The reconstruction 
task has been a heavy one and progress has been 
at the cost of the near-exhaustion of France's ex- 
ternal financial resources and of the credits re- 
ceived from the United States and other sources. 

When the special session of Congress convened 
last month at the call of the President of the 
United States, Fi'ance was facing a situation in 
wliich her dollar resources were not adequate to 
procure the quantities of food, fuel, and materials 
needed from abroad to keep her people and her 
economy going during the winter and early spring. 
It was evident that unless something could be 
done and done quickly, wheat imports would have 
to be reduced and shipments of coal and petroleum 
decreased or eliminated entirely. A crisis was 
impending which, unless resolved, would have 
resulted in a further reduction in the already in- 
adequate diet of the French people; in the closing 
of factories with resulting unemployment ; and in 
impairment of transportation through lack of fuel. 

The agreement which we have signed today is 
in pursuance of the response of the American 



* Made upon the occasion of his signing the interim aid 
agreement with France in Paris on Jan. 2, 10-18. Jefferson 
Caffery is the American Ambassador to France. For text 
of agreement see Department of State press release 3 of 
Jan. 2, 1948. 

^ Public Law 389, approved Dec. 17, 1947. The Secre- 
tary of tie Senate reported tliat on Dec. 16 he presented 
to the President the enrolled bill (S. 1774). 



people to this emergency situation. In the same 
spirit in which they recently despatched their 
Friendship Train to France, the American people, 
through their elected Congressional representa- 
tives, have allocated part of the taxes they are 
paying to assist France "to alleviate conditions of 
hunger and cold and to prevent serious economic 
retrogression". 

The meaning of the United States foreign-aid 
program to France is best defined in terms of re- 
ceipts in France of scarce commodities urgently 
needed to support French economic recovery. Fol- 
lowing the enactment of the United States foreign- 
aid legislation on December 16, 1947,'' and without 
awaiting the signing of today's agreement, criti- 
cally needed items actiuilly being unloaded in 
French ports became subject to payment from 
United States aid funds. Among these items are 
part of the allocation of United States supplies to 
France of 343,500 tons of bread grains for De- 
cember-January 1947-48, and one million tons 
of coal for December 1947. . These scheduled ship- 
ments represent the beginning of a program that 
will include not only these items but also petro- 
leum, various foods, including notably fats and 
milk, and fertilizers and other items needed to 
speed the recovery of French agriculture. 

The nature of this aid is well exemplified also by 
the assistance being furnished by the use of the 
French bread ration, which has been maintained 
at present levels only by large imports of cereals. 
In December of this year, for example, the alloca- 
tion to France by the United States of 183,.500 tons 
of wheat would, if devoted entii'ely to that pur- 
pose, cover approximately 70 percent of the bread 
ration in France during this month. The im- 



50 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



poi'tance of coal imports to the Fi-ench economy 
was indicated by the fact that during the first 10 
months of 1947, imports of this commodity from 
the United States were equal to 24 percent of 
French production. 

In facing the future, I believe we can all take 
hope and inspiration from President Truman's 
Christmas message to the American people, which 
said in part : 

"As we prepare to celebrate our Christmas this 
year in a land of plenty, we would be heartless. 



FORCIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

indeed, if we were indifferent to the plight of less 
fortunate peoples overseas. 

"We have supplied part of their needs and we 
shall do more. In this we are maintaining the 
American tradition. 

"Because of our efforts people of other lands 
see the advent of a new day in which they can lead 
lives free from the harrowing fear of starvation 
and want. 

"With the return of hope to these people will 
come renewed faith — faith in the dignity of the 
individual and the brotherhood of man." 



REMARKS BY AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO ITALY > 



tKeleased to the press January 3) 

For the second time within a six-month period, 
I have had the honor and pleasure to represent 
the Government of the United States in the negoti- 
ation and signing of an agreement to bring aid to 
the people of Italy.* The law enacted by the Con- 
gress of the United States on December 17 has 
but one major objective in Italy — to provide im- 
mediate assistance in form of food, fuel, and 
other commodities urgently needed by the people 
of Italy to alleviate conditions of hunger and cold 
and prevent an economic retrogression which 
would jeopardize any general European recovery 



program based on self-help and cooperation. The 
assistance to the Italian people is being given 
freely by the people of the United States, with the 
firm belief that this help will assure the develop- 
ment of Italy as a free and independent nation. 
My Government has only this as its objective. 

The action of the American Congress in au- 
thorizing these shipments of wheat, coal, and other 
supplies demonstrates the confidence of the Ameri- 
can people that the will to work of the Italian 
people will overcome the economic difficulties and 
problems which have resulted from the war. 



PRESS RELEASE ISSUED BY THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT ON JANUARY 3, 1948 



[Released to the press January 3] 

An important milestone on the path of interna- 
tional cooperation was passed today in Palazzo 
Chigi in Rome when the Italian Government, 
represented by Premier de Gasperi and Foreign 
Minister Carlo Sforza, and the American Govern- 
ment, represented by Ambassador Dunn, signed an 
agreement between the two countries, under which 
Italy will receive free from the United States es- 
sential food, medical supplies, fuel, and other 
commodities to carry her people through the 
serious winter months. 

This additional assistance became possible as a 
result of a special session of the United States Con- 
gress called by President Truman to enact legis- 
lation which would provide resources to carry out 



the will of the American people to help alleviate 
suffering in the war-devastated countries. 

A program of assistance made possible by the 
Foreign Aid Act of 1947, passed by Congress on 
December 17, 1947, has but one major purpose — 
to provide immediate assistance in the form of 
food, fuel, and other commodities urgently needed 
by the people of Italy, France, Austria, and China 



' Made iipon the occasion of his signing the interim aid 
agreement with Italy in Rome on Jan. 3, 1948. James C. 
Dunn is the American Ambassador to Italy. For text of 
agreement see Department of State press release 9 of 
Jan. 3, 1948. 

* For text of agreement of July 4, 1947, see Bulletin 
of July 13, 1947, p. 97. 



January 11, 1948 



51 



fOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

to alleviate conditions of intolerable hunger and 
cold, and prevent serious economic retrogression 
■which would jeopardize any general European 
economic program based on self-help and coopera- 
tion. This element of the intention of the United 
States is again brought out in the preamble of the 
agreement just signed by representatives of the 
two Governments: "The Government of the 
United States of America and the Government of 
Italy considering the desire of the people of 
America to provide immediate assistance to the 
people of Italy and considering that the enactment 
by the United States of America of the Foreign 
Aid Act of 1947 provides basis of such assistance 
to the people of Italy, have agi-eed as follows". 

Assistance to Italy under this act follows a 
program initiated by the United States in July 
1947 whereby approximately $120,000,000 worth 
of food, fuel, and medical supplies were provided 



free to the Italian Government for distribution to 
its people. That program, which is nearly com- 
pleted, resulted in the people of Italy receiving 
2,000,000 tons of coal, 564,000 tons of cereals and 
flour, 7,000 tons of fats and oils, 2,000 tons of dairy 
products, 18,000 tons of pulses, and $649,000 worth 
of medical supplies. 

The supplies to be made available under this 
agreement will be turned over to the Italian Gov- 
ernment free of charges. The majority of these 
supplies will be sold for lire by the Italian Govern- 
ment through commercial channels. The pro- 
ceeds of such sales will be deposited in a special 
account in the name of the Government of Italy 
and will be used for effective retirement of the 
national debt, to promote stabilization of the 
Italian currency, and for such other purposes as 
may be mutually agreed by the two Governments. 



REMARKS BY UNITED STATES HIGH COMMISSIONER IN AUSTRIA ' 



[Released to the press January 3] 

For the second time within the space of ap- 
proximately six months, it is my privilege and 
honor to sign, on behalf of the United States Gov- 
ernment, an agreement with the Austrian Govern- 
ment to provide urgently needed basic commodities 
designed to contribute to Austria's reconstruction 
and rehabilitation." The effects of tlie initial aid 
agreement signed in June of last year are in evi- 
dence in the noticeable progress which Austria has 
made to restore stable economic conditions. 

The purpose of these aid agreements is to help 
you help yourselves. The Americans, acting 
through their elected representatives in Congress, 
have appreciated the problem faced by Austria and 



'Made upon the occasion of his signing the interim aid 
agreement with Austria in Vienna on Jan. 8, 1948. Gen- 
eral Geoffrey Kcyes is the United .States High Commis- 
sioner in Austria. For text of agreement see Department 
of State press release 6 of Jan. 2, 1948. 

" For text of agreement of June 25, 1947, see Bulletin 
of July 6, 1947, p. 39. 



other devastated countries in Europe. In the in- 
terests of restoring peaceful and stable conditions 
to the world, the people of the United States are 
sharing, freely and without recompense, their 
money and goods to help create conditions in Aus- 
tria and the rest of Europe conducive to normal 
relations between sovereign states. The condi- 
tions of this have been freely and voluntarily ac- 
cepted by both sovereign Governments and there 
are no stipulations, secret or otherwise, which in 
any way limit the authority or infringe upon the 
independence of the Austrian Government. For 
the people of the United States these aid agree- 
ments represent an investment for peace and no 
price is too high to pay in order to avoid the costly 
waste of war. We had hoped that this agreement 
might have been signed by Austria as a completely 
liberated state, with its treaty assured. We shall 
continue to take all practicable measures to help 
you achieve this ultimate goal, with Austria in- 
tact and governed by a government of its own 
free choice. 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Statistics and Foreign Policy 



BY WILLARD L. THORP > 



Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



An increasing number of major problems of 
foreign policy are of such a character that meas- 
urement and magnitude become elements of basic 
importance. It is worthy of note that recently, 
when a delegation from the United Kingdom ar- 
rived to discuss with us a revision of the bizonal 
fusion agreement for Germany, included in its im- 
pedimenta was a calculating machine. The classic 
"S" commodity list, beginning "shoes and ships", 
has been out-of-date for some time due to the 
lamentable obsolescence of that colorful item 
known as sealing wax, but the new "F" list — food, 
fuel, fibers, and fertilizer — has top jDriority on the 
current foreign-policy agenda of most govern- 
ments, and these items appear there almost entirely 
as problems of magnitude. Today calories get 
more attention than kings. The slide rule, the 
calculating machine, and the statistical yearbook 
have become necessary tools of diplomacy. 

The statistical puzzles arising out of foreign- 
policy problems naturally are as varied as the 
universe. They are not limited by subject- 
matter, area, or time. What should be the number 
of whales permitted under the international whal- 
ing convention to be caught during the next 
whaling season in order to maintain a stable whale 
population, keeping also in mind the world short- 
age of fats and oils — a neat problem in the vital 
statistics and caloric content of whales ? What are 
the proper cost-of-living-adjustment allowances 
to permit U.S. Government representatives in 
various countries to maintain approximately equiv- 
alent living standards — an index-number problem 
with peculiar difficulties not merely for price-level 
and foreign-exchange reasons, but because of dif- 
fering national customs of hospitality and pat- 
terns of protocol ? What was the probable amount 
of destruction to American property in Italy 
arising out of the war and for which Italy must 
make partial payment under the peace treaty — 
a problem of statistical inference from quite f ortu- 

January II, 1948 



itous and incomplete sample data? What is the 
fair proportion between the United States and 
India for the shipment of raw cotton to Japan 
under present controlled trade conditions — a prob- 
lem in which the accepted guiding principle re- 
quires the finding of a "representative base period" 
out of a most abnormal series of years? What is 
the relationship between the availability of tobacco 
products in the Ruhr and the production of coal 
and steel — a problem of psychological measure- 
ment since the proposal as made by several Sena- 
tors rests in the allegation that tobacco products 
are particularly effective as incentive goods? 
Wliat amount of goods sent to Russia under the 
lend-lease program was presumably unused and 
undestroyed at the end of the war and thus subject 
to a negotiated settlement — a problem in waitime 
and peacetime property life tables, and attrition, 
and depreciation rates ? This random list of a few 
problems may serve to establish the inference of the 
presence of statistics in the State Department, but 
the record will be clearer if we consider two 
illustrations in somewhat fuller detail. 

In a world where there are desperate shortages 
of commodities, the problem of allocation has be- 
come a matter of prime importance. Countries 
have become competing purchasers, and even, in a 
few tragic cases, competitors for relief assistance. 
The shortages are wide-spread and severe, and for 
many commodities there are few countries with an 
exportable surplus. Foodstuffs are in this cate- 
gory, and no government with any claim to respon- 
sibility can look away while its people are hungry. 
The State Department has probably received more 
aide-memoire, notes, memoranda, and formal and 
informal visitations from Prime Ministers, Am- 
bassadors, foreign technicians, and even self-ap- 
pointed representatives concerning the subject of 



" An address delivered before the American Statistical 
Association, New York, N.Y., Dec. 29, 1947. Mr. Thorp 
is president of the Association. 

53 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

fuod allocations than any other single topic during 
the last two j'ears. The Wliite House too has had 
distinguished callers on the same subject. 

The development and application of the concept 
of equitable food allocation, based on a careful 
examination of requirements and availabilities, 
was done first by a small international committee, 
then by the International Emergency Food Coun- 
cil, and is now in process of being taken over by 
the Food and Agriculture Organization, one of 
the specialized agencies of the United Nations. 
This international body makes recommendations 
to the supi^lying countries as to the proper distri- 
bution of their surpluses, and these recommenda- 
tions are followed with little variation. 

The problem is a most complex one. The basic 
unit for comparing food levels is the calorie, but 
unfortunately the simple definition in Webster 
that a calorie is the amount of heat required to 
raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 
one degree centigrade has not been so exact and 
indisputable when applied in the field of nutrition. 
Two caloric tables for valuing foods are in general 
use now, one by the United States Army and one 
by the International Emergency Food Council. 
There are at least half a dozen other tables used 
in various parts of the world. The two i^rincipal 
ones vary in caloric content from 10 to 15 percent. 
Similarly, the effort to measure various types of 
grain in "wheat equivalent" opens the door to a 
thorough state of confusion. It is self-evident that 
when statisticians of many countries meet together 
to discuss a given problem, a primary requirement 
is that there be some common measure for setting 
down the facts, and this has been a major task in 
the food field. Although this does eliminate one 
standard area for professional controversy, there 
will always remain enough other factors of dis- 
agreement to pei'mit full self-expression. 

Obviously, the first information required for 
making international allocations is that pertaining 
to the requirement and the indigenous supplj' in 
each country. If these can be satisfactorily de- 
termined, the import requirement follows merely 
by subtraction. At once it is necessary to remark 
that in many countries where industrial produc- 
tion is lagging, the production of statistics is also 
below prewar, both in quality and quantity. Un- 
fortunately, statistical organizations have been 
disorganized at the same time that the items to 
be measured have been subjected to wide varia- 

54 



tion. Even as basic a datum as population must 
be approached through estimation. Substantial 
movements of peoples have taken place, in addition 
to the abnormal effects of war on both birth and 
death rates. And none of the devastated countries 
has had the time or energy to take a postwar cen- 
sus, necessary to obtain a relatively secure bench 
mark. Similarly, agricultural production in most 
cases is measured much less accurately than before 
the war by the surviving statistical agencies in the 
various governments. And even less certain, both 
abroad and at home, are the important estimates 
of wheat and coarse grains consumed by man and 
beast on the farm and thus not moving into the 
available suj^ply. However, on the basis of the 
prewar picture for which more reliable data are 
available, and the records for the past two years, 
including ration levels, the amounts imported, and 
the apparent stocks on hand, estimated import re- 
quirements for the current year, quarterly and by 
months, are woiked out regularly by the experts. 

On the other side of the equation, the possible 
export surplus, three of the chief exporting coun- 
tries have regularly indicated their availabilities 
as best they can. Argentina, which provides about 
20 percent of the world's exports of grain, has not 
participated in the effort to plan the most effective 
distribution of the available supply. This unfor- 
tunate situation has been met in part by the other 
exporting countries through adjustment of the 
allocations to offset supplies obtained from the 
Argentine. Russia's exports, which have been 
limited in amount and have gone to very few re- 
cipient countries, have also not been subject to 
international allocation. 

But even the direct facts on iimnediate require- 
ments and supplies are not enough to solve the 
problem. Wheat, of course, is only one of many 
foods. It happens to be the cheapest form in 
which calories can be purchased in substantial 
quantities. In allocating wheat, the international 
committee must consider what other foods are 
available in the country with a wheat deficit. 
Obviously, it is quite proper in the light of the 
world shortage to cut down on wheat shipments 
to countries which have a fair amount of other 
foods. Even then, however, one must have some 
regard for the necessities of balanced diets. 

Furthermore, food habits and food requirements 
must be considered. Even in times of great need, a 
people does not change its way of eating over 

Department of State Bulletin 



night. New foods are not easilj^ introduced, even 
to a starving people, and established prejudices are 
surprisingly tenacious. For example, corn is not 
regarded as a proper food for human beings in a 
number of European countries, nor are potatoes 
in the normal diet of Italy, while rice is consumed 
much more than wheat in Cuba. Differences are 
• not merely the result of taste. Countries with long 
winters have different requirements from those in 
the Tropics. And even in our own experience as 
an occupying power, we have recognized that a 
much higher caloric requirement is needed for 
Germans than for Japanese to maintain the same 
health level. So the statistician, in figuring the 
amount of wheat to allocate to any deficit nation, 
must have a clear picture of that country's histori- 
cal eating habits and be familiar with its prefer- 
ences and prejudices. 

Finally, in considering the amount which is to 
be permitted to come from abroad, the allocations 
must not work in such a way as to punish the coun- 
try which brings its maximum to the market place, 
or all enterprise and initiative in the direction of 
improved collections from the farms will be de- 
stroyed. Conversely, there must be some penalty 
for failure to use the indigenous supplies most 
efficiently. 

Since the beginning of the allocation procedure, 
it has always been true that the screened require- 
ments for foodstuffs for all the deficit countries 
have totaled to substantially more than the avail- 
abilities, and here the really painful job begins — 
the effort to determine where the requirements can 
be cut with the minimum of hardship. The figures 
of each country are reviewed again and again, and 
there are many conferences to explore various as- 
pects of the situation more thoroughly. Finally, 
the allocations are announced. At least, the proc- 
ess has made everyone aware of the limitations on 
supply and the urgency of the demands from other 
countries. 

These random comments about the allocation 
machinery may make the task appear exceedingly 
complex. But the fact remains that the job must 
be done. These formidable calculations, aimed to 
take into consideration both the over-all require- 
ments and supply situation and the peculiar cir- 
cumstances in each case, are the only hope of pro- 
viding some basis of fairness and equity in the 
distribution of scarce things to people who are in 
desperate need of them. 



THE RECORD Of THE WBEK 

There is no question but that living for millions 
of individuals, for the next few years at least, will 
have to continue under rationing and allocations 
of critical, scarce commodities. The peoples in 
these countries know that death from starvation 
is just as permanent as death from bombing. They 
know that allocations and rationing are protec- 
tions to their lives — that the rationing of milk, for 
instance, may cut down the number of fancy dishes 
served in fine hotels, but it does get the needed 
food to more mothers and infants for whom it is 
an essential. The international allocations in the 
same way are an effort more nearly to equalize the 
burden of the shortage on the people of the various 
countries, not leaving the distribution solely to 
ability to offer the highest bid or to the appeal of 
political sympathy, obligation, or reward. 

The decision having been made to disregard 
economic bargaining or political discrimination 
and to place allocations on an objective basis, the 
key to this whole process becomes the little-herald- 
ed statisticians — both those who must present the 
case for their countries, and those who must screen 
the competing claims and bring them into a reason- 
able relationship with each other. The day and 
night work and worry is theirs, but they have built 
in large part upon the work of other statisticians 
whose work has gone before. I hesitate to think 
how impossible it would be to handle this problem 
had it not been for the continued collection and 
analysis of agricultural statistics and nutritional 
data in many countries for many years. 

As a second illustration may I speak briefly 
about the European Kecovery Plan ? The last six 
months have seen a most difficult and complex 
statistical undei'taking in Washington — the exam- 
ination of the requirements for European recovery 
and the study of the capacity of the American 
economy and other economies to carry the Euro- 
pean deficit in the meantime. This task has ab- 
sorbed the full energies and capacities of many 
experts in many government agencies. The only 
relief for the central group directing the project 
was temporary when in a lighter moment they 
decided to call themselves the Technical Wizards 
on the European Recovery Program, or the 
Twerps, for short. 

Anyone familiar with Washington during war- 
time can easily visualize the time and energy re- 
quired to develop the details of a plan involving 



January 11, 1948 



55 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

16 countries and a four-and-a-quarter year period. 
I remember in the late twenties being told by a 
Kussian economist about the tremendous efforts 
required and the manpower devoted to drawing 
up the Five-Year Plan. Last summer, I saw 
French economists and statisticians in a state of 
near exhaustion from working on the so-called 
Momiet Plan. No one should regard an under- 
taking of this kind lightly. There have been no 
days, and even at times no nights, of rest. 

This project stems back, of course, to the sug- 
gestion by Secretary Marshall that the countries 
of Europe get together, examine what their re- 
quirements will be over a period of time sufficient 
to permit them to pvit their economies on a self- 
supporting basis, determine how much of these re- 
quirements they can meet separately and col- 
lectively, and thus indicate what additional help 
is needed to accomplish the program. 

Sixteen of the western European nations met in 
Paris last summer and in an incredibly short 
period of weeks drew up a progi-am on which they 
could all agree. Undoubtedly, this agreement was 
possible because the essential elements of European 
recovery are beyond dispute — that production 
must be substantially increased, sound currencies 
must be established, and the restrictions on trade 
must be reduced. Their national requirements 
were presented and assembled. After some slight 
screening and reduction where the requirements 
were clearly beyond the possibility of supply, the 
so-called deficit was calculated. This was all in- 
corporated in the report of the Committee of 
European Economic Co-operation which, together 
with a number of technical annexes, was sent to 
Washington in September. 

Work was already well under way in Washing- 
ton by that time, particularly with reference to 
the capacity of our own economy to meet such 
foreign demands and the effect of such an opera- 
tion upon our own economic operations. But the 
review of the European plan has proved to be a 
most complicated undertaking. Covering a period 
of four-and-one-quarter years, the program for 
each of 16 countries and western Germany had to 
be consistent as between its internal program and 
its export and import programs. For the total of 
all countries, the requirements from abroad and 
the availability of supply had to balance. Simi- 
larly, for the various individual commodities, 

56 



demand and Supply had to balance. For each 
country, its balance of payments had to be in 
equilibrium. And when supplies could not be ob- 
tained in the United States but could be found in 
other supplying countries, these prospective 
sources had to be determined and incorporated 
into the pattern. In other words, the total pat- 
tern had to balance not merely as to an over-all 
figure, but by commodities, by country physical 
requirements, and by country balances of pay- 
ments. Similar patterns had to be prepared for 
each year within the period. And finally, the at- 
tempt to achieve both commodity and the balance- 
of-payments estimates in turn had to be broken 
down by currency areas in order to indicate the 
nature of the deficit with the dollar area. 

The number of arithmetical calculations which 
have gone into these estimates probably total more 
than a million. Five time periods are covered — 
the last quarter of the present fiscal year, April 1 
to June 30, 1948, and the four successive years 
until June 30, 1952. Twenty-three areas were in- 
volved, beginning with the 16 countries which 
participated at Paris, the dependent areas of the 
United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Netherlands, 
Portugal, and western Germany in three parts — 
the Bizonal Area, the French zone excluding the 
Saar, and the Saar itself (since the Saar territory 
may shortly be incorporated economically into 
France). Twenty-six commodity groups were 
selected for particularly intensive treatment, of 
which a number, such as iron and steel, have to be 
built up from a series of separate categories — pig 
iron, scrap steel, iron ore, crude and semifinished 
steel, tin plate, steel sheet and other finished steel — 
and for projections of the volume and value of 
trade covering movements of commodities among 
the participating countries, between the partici- 
pating countries and the United States and other 
Western Hemisphere and other non-participating 
countries in turn. After the volume of this trade 
was derived, it had to be multiplied by prices to 
obtain values. Wliile July 1, 1947, prices were 
used, it was necessary to ascertain prevailing 
prices in the different areas of the world on that 
date, since the prewar assumption that prices for 
internationally traded commodities tend to be 
equal the world over has lost its validity under the 
conditions which prevail today. 

The task of combining the figures provided by 

Department of State Bulletin 



the commodity committees into a coherent system 
from which balance-of-paynients estimates could 
be derived fell, as it happened, to the Department 
of State. An early courageous attempt was made 
to grapple with it by assembling the adding and 
calculation machines of which the Department can 
boast only a sparse and scattered population and 
by amassing at the same time the clerical assistance 
necessary to man or woman these machines. The 
attempt was futile. The traditions of the Depart- 
ment of State and its personnel training are 
oriented more toward the accurate and careful 
phrasing of a memorandum than the well-multi- 
plied, checked, and proven statistical table. Re- 
sort was necessarily had to punch cards and auto- 
matic sorting and addition. It may be that the 
Foreign Office of 10 years hence will boast a full 
line of international business machines with opera- 
tors in 24:-hour attendance. As of today, it was 
necessary to work the calculations in on the grave- 
yard shift at Census, Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, and finally in the Department of National 
Defense. 

One further difficulty was to establish the price 
assumptions to be used for the future period. Here 
the crystal ball was particularly cloudy. The 
Paris conference had used the prices then cur- 
rent, July 1, 1947, as the basis for both exports and 
imports for the first year (1948) and had then as- 
sumed that European export prices would remain 
firm, while import prices would decline by 7i/^ 
percent in 1949, 10 percent in 1950, and 121/2 per- 
cent in 1951. The American reviewers have felt 
that the only way out of this dilemma was to 
present a range. Actually, the basic calculations 
wei'e made in July 1, 1947, prices, but the totals 
have been adjusted globally to meet different sets 
of price assumptions. 

For the first 15 months, all exports from Europe 
and imports to Europe from the Western Hemi- 
sphere, except the United States, are calculated at 
5 percent above July 1, 1947, prices, while 
United States and non-Western Hemisphere ship- 
ments to Europe are 7.5 percent above July 1, 1947. 
In the later years, the calculations on the high- 
price assumption hold the price level constant with 
the level for the initial period, while the calcula- 
tions for the low-price assumption are based on 
a marked decline, particularly for the items im- 
ported to Europe. These different assumptions ex- 

January 71, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

plain the presence of a range in the total require- 
ment for the program of 15.1-17.8 billion dollars. 
The projections are, of course, not blueprints 
which can be followed during operation. Actu- 
ally, this is a sketch rather than a blueprint. Its 
purpose is to provide Congress and the public 
with as accurate an estimate as possible of what 
the program may in fact turn out to be and the 
general magnitude of the requirements from 
abroad, if the European Recovery Program is to 
be accomplished. If some of the items are not 
available in the quantities indicated, there may be 
substitution. If availabilities increase, prices will 
fall, or if they decrease, prices will rise. In either 
event, the dollars involved will tend to be more 
nearly constant than the constituent elements. 
And with so many commodities and countries, we 
can fall back on the protection of all statisticians, 
the hope that the deviations will be somewhat 
compensatory. 

In the original undertaking, five sets of ques- 
tionnaires were drawn up by the European group 
to obtain information on food, fuels, machinery, 
iron and steel, transport, and balance of payments. 
This information has been available to us in Wash- 
ington, and to it has been added further informa- 
tion which we requested, plus the vast reservoir of 
knowledge accumulated in our own Government. 
However, it is unfortunately clear that there are 
some serious gaps in the basic information 
required. 

Even with the most complete information 
possible, there could be no assured results. The 
most that we can do is to achieve consistent and 
logical results from as reasonable assumptions as 
can be made. As I have already pointed out, 
assumptions had to be made as to price levels. An- 
other uncertainty is created by the necessity to 
estimate crops. Should we assume that the 
weather will continue to be as un-cooperative with 
the farmer in Europe as it has been since the end 
of the war ? And there are many other unknowns, 
such as, at what point the processes of commodity 
hoarding will cease and money will be used again 
as a store of value. 

It is clear that the Recovery Program will have 
to be a dynamic and flexible operation. As was 
true during the war, programs will have to be 
changed from time to time as conditions change 
both as to countries and as to commodities. To 



57 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

achieve the most effective use of the available re- 
sources, there will need to be continued and de- 
tailed statistical recording of progress made and 
forecasts of the short- and long-run prospects. The 
injection of statistical methods into foreign policy 
is therefore no temporary expedient but promises 
to be a continuing necessity. 

Certain conclusions are now apparent concern- 
ing our capacity to reduce the problems which I 
have been discussing to exact measurement. The 
first is the common complaint of the statistician — 
that we do not have adequate data. This is, of 
course, particularly true of the countries where the 
effects of the war are still felt so severely. On the 
American side, we know much too little about the 
statistical quality and relevance of much of the 
foreign data. It is clear that these international 
projects require cooperation and understanding 
between the statisticians of all participating na- 
tions. And time can be used up most rapidly if 
one is skipping about among long tons, short tons, 
and metric tons, not to mention bushels, quintals, 
hundredweights, barrels, and imperial gallons. 

On this point, that of the development of statis- 
tical data and the effort to achieve gi'eater uni- 
formity, there is much that the United Nations can 
do, supplemented by the private international 
statistical organizations. The establishment of a 
Statistical Commission by the United Nations and 
the international statistical meetings held in 
Washington last September may give us some 
encouragement. This is a long-time job — it calls 
for continuous support and stimulation. If much 
is to be accomplished, the statisticians in the 
United States must take the lead. We must con- 
tinually be prepared to demonstrate that, in this 
modern world, many problems can be faced prop- 
erly and solved economically only when measure- 
ment is respected as a fundamental characteristic 
of the analysis. 

But beyond these points, there is a continuing 
frustration because too few relationships have 
been reduced to calculable form. It is obvious 
that planning really requires both cost and market 
data, that the requirements in the form of ma- 
terials must be readily related to capacity, that 
labor supply and working capital requirements 
must all be part of such consideration. Here the 
statistician can make endless contributions, substi- 
tuting detailed analysis for the rule of thumb or 



the experimental approach. In these matters, 
too much is at stake to be careless or casual. 
Nevertheless, our answers often contain far too 
much of the "rough estimate" and too little of the 
careful calculation. 

The same problems arise in connection with the 
use of statistics in the foreign-policy field as in 
any other — the struggle to do an honest and ob- 
jective job and the difficulties of convincing others 
that such is the result. There are always those 
who would prefer to be guided by emotion, prej- 
udice, and preference. It is not at all surprising 
that suspicions which continually cross national 
boundaries are not stopped by statistics. 

Nevertheless, the fact remains that problems 
must be handled ; there must be answers ; and stat- 
isticians, both here and abroad, can contribute 
much to finding the best answers. As a profes- 
sional group, we have a clear-cut responsibility. 
First, we must continually strive to improve our 
performance through developing our own capac- 
ities and improving the raw material with which 
we work. But beyond that, we must persistently 
try to persuade others to take an objective view of 
the facts, to use to the full the techniques and 
capacities which we have to offer. We cannot 
promise to solve all the world's problems. Many 
of them are not problems of measurement at all. 
But where possible the utilization of statistics, the 
reference to objective criteria, and the effort to 
measure before committing oneself to a line of 
action — these are all ways in which rational men 
approach problems. And foreign policy should 
be no exception to the rule. 

Unfortunately, foreign policy is an area where 
it is all too easy for emotions and prejudices to 
be aroused, where problems all too often get sub- 
jective treatment. One approach toward inter- 
national luiderstanding is to expose problems to 
the facts whenever possible — and they must be 
accurate and dependable facts. The battle be- 
tween prejudice and analysis is our battle, in 
which we must supply much of the ammunition. 
Our responsibilities and opportunities have 
greatly increased in the international field. We 
not only can help in the development of knowledge 
about the world we live in, but we can actually 
contribute substantially to that international 
understanding which is so greatly needed in the 
world today. 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



Communist Attempt To Overthrow Recognized 
Greek Government 

[Released to the press December 30] 

The claim of certain Communist guerrilla lead- 
ers that they have established at some unknown 
point a "First Provisional Democratic Govern- 
ment of Free Greece" is a transparent device, the 
true purpose of which will be clear to everyone. 
It is only a phase in the familiar effort of certain 
elements to overthrow the' legitimate and recog- 
nized Greek Government and to threaten the terri- 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

torial integrity and political independence of 
Greece. It came as no surprise. In itselfj it 
would not materially change the existing situation. 
But if other countries were to recognize the 
group, this step would have serious implications. 
It would be clearly contrary to the principles of 
the United Nations Charter. And if the country 
concerned were one of Greece's neighbors to the 
north, the act would constitute an open disregard 
of the recent recommendations of the United Na- 
tions Assembly, as set forth in the resolution of last 
October. 



Negotiations for Revision of Schedule I of Trade Agreement Witli Mexico 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF PUBLIC NOTICES 

[Released to the press December 31] 

The Acting Secretary of State on December 31 
issued formal notice of intention to conduct negoti- 
ations for the revision of Schedule I of the trade 
agreement between the United States of America 
and the United Mexican States which was signed 
on December 23, 1942, and entered into force on 
January 30, 1943. Schedule I relates to the cus- 
toms treatment accorded United States products 
upon importation into Mexico. 

The Committee for Eeciprocity Information si- 
multaneously issued a notice fixing the dates for 
submission to it of written information and views 
about the projected negotiations and of applica- 
tions to appear at public hearings before the Com- 
mittee. The notice sets forth tlie time and place 
for the opening of the hearings. Kepresentations 
which interested persons may wish to make to the 
Committee may cover any articles of actual or 
potential interest in the export trade of the United 
States with Mexico. 

On December 13, 1947, the Government of 
Mexico announced the immediate provisional con- 
version of the specific rates of duty on products 
enumerated in Schedule I to ad valorem or com- 
pound rates at levels equivalent to those prevail- 
ing in 1942, as a means of correcting the disequi- 
librium in its balance of international payments 
and of giving a more reasonable measure of pro- 
tection to Mexican industries. The Government 
of the United States consented to this action, 
pending a more definitive revision of Schedule I 
immediately following the termination of the 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Employ- 
ment now in session at Habana. The negotiations 
announced on December 31 are for the purpose 
of considering that definitive revision. They will 
include discussion of an expansion of the list of 
items now included in Schedule I and adjusted 

January 11, 1948 



concessions in the converted Mexican tariff rates 
on United States products presently included in 
Schedule I. Export interests are urged td let the 
trade-agreements organization know at the public 
hearings what concessions they feel should be re- 
quested in these negotiations. 



PUBLIC NOTICE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE 

[Released to the press December 31] 

Pursuant to section 4 of an act of Congress ap- 
proved June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act to amend 
the Tariff Act of 1930", as extended and amended 
by Public Law 130, 79th Congi-ess, approved July 
5, 1945 (48 Stat. 945, 59 Stat. 411 ; 19 U.S.C. Supp. 
V, 1354) , and to Executive Order 6750, of June 
27, 1934, as amended by Executive Order 9647, of 
October 25, 1945 (3 CFK, 1945 Supp., ch. II), I 
hereby give notice of intention to conduct negotia- 
tions for the revision of Schedule I of the trade 
agreement between the United States of America 
and the United Mexican States which was signed 
on December 23, 1942 and entered into force on 
January 30, 1943. 



All presentations of information and views in 
writing and applications for supplemental oral 
presentation of views with respect to such negotia- 
tions should be submitted to the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information in accordance with the 
announcement of this date issued by that Com- 
mittee concerning the manner and dates for the 
submission of briefs and applications, and the time 
and jDlace set for public hearings. 

Robert A. Lovett 
Acting Secretary of State. 
Washington, D.C. 
December 30, 1947. 

59 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

PUBLIC NOTICE OF COMMITTEE FOR RECI- 
PROCITY INFORMATION 

[Released to the press December 31] 

Closing date for submission of briefs, January 30, 

1948 
Closing date for application to be heard, January 

30, 1948 
Public hearings open, February 11, 1948 

Submission of Information to Committee for 
Reciprocity Information 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
hereby gives notice that all information and views 
in writing, and all applications for supplemental 
oral presentation of views, in regard to the nego- 
tiations for the revision of Schedule I of the trade 
agi-eement with Mexico, which relates to the cus- 
toms treatment accorded United States products 
upon importation into Mexico, in respect of which 
notice of intention to negotiate has been issued by 
the Acting Secretary of State on this date, shall be 
submitted to the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation not later than 12 o'clock noon, Friday, 
January 30, 1948. Such communications should 
be addressed to "The Chairman, Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, Tariff Commission 
Building, Eighth and E Streets, Northwest, 
Washington 25, D.C." 

A public hearing will be held, beginning at 10 
a.m. on February 11, 1948, before the Committee 
for Reciprocity Information, in the hearing room 
of the Tariff Commission in the Tariff Commis- 
sion Building, where supplemental oral statements 
will be heard. 

Ten copies of written statements, either type- 
written or printed, shall be submitted, of which 
one copy shall be sworn to. Appearance at hear- 
ings before the Committee may be made only by 
those persons who have filed written statements 
and who have within the time prescribed made 
written application for a hearing, and statements 
made at such hearings shall be under oath. 

Persons interested in items of export may pre- 
sent their views regarding any tariff concessions 
that might be requested of the Government of 
Mexico in the negotiations. 

By direction of the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information this 30th day of December 1947. 

Edward Yardley 

Secretary 

Washington, D.C, 
December 30, 19.'f7 



' The text of Pi-oclaniation 2764, 13 Federal Register 21, 
was issued as Department of State press release 5 of Jan. 
2, 1948. For documents relating to pineapple slips, avo- 
cados, and palm beach cloth also see press release 5. The 
text of the exclusive agreement was printed in the Bulle- 
tin of Jan. 4, 1948, p. 29. 

60 



Presidential Proclamation on Exclusive 
Trade Agreement With Cuba 

The President issued on January 1, 1948, a 
proclamation putting into effect as of January 1, 
1948, the provisions of the exclusive agreement, 
signed by the United States and Cuba on Octo- 
ber 30, 1947, supplementary to the general agree- 
ment on tariffs and trade signed at Geneva on the 
same date.^ 

Under this proclamation, effect is given to the 
preferential rates of duty and tariff treatment set 
forth in part II of schedule XX of the general 
agreement which are applicable exclusively to 
products of Cuba imported into the United States. 
The proclamation also lists the rates of duty for a 
number of products in addition to those in part II 
of schedule XX of the general agi-eement which, 
under the exclusive agreement, receive preferential 
tariff treatment upon importation into the United 
States as products of Cuba. Products of Cuba not 
enumerated or provided for in part II of sched- 
ule XX of the general agreement or in the lists set 
forth in the President's proclamation will be sub- 
ject to the same rates of duty as imports from otherr 
countries. 

The proclamation also gives effect to provisional 
in the exclusive agreement which make inopera- 
tive the provisions of the 1934 trade agreement* 
between the United States and Cuba, as amended 
in 1939 and 1941, and the convention of commer- 
cial reciprocity of 1902 between the United States* 
and Cuba for such time as the United States and 
Cuba are both parties to the general agreement. 

The text of schedule XX may be obtained eithefl 
from the Government Printmg Office (50^) or ir- 
volume 4 of the general agreement on tariffs and 
trade, issued by the International Documents Serv- 
ice, Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway. 
New York 27, N. Y. 



U.S. Deposits Ratification of Inter-American 
Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 

[Released to the press December 30] 

The instrument of ratification by the United 
States of the inter- American treaty of reciprocal 
assistance signed at Rio de Janeiro on September 2, 
1947, was deposited with the Pan American Union 
in Washington on December 30, 1947. The instru- 
ment of ratification was delivered personally to 
Alberto Lleras Camargo, Director General of the 
Pan American Union, by Ambassador William 
Dawson, Representative of the United States on 
the Governing Board of the Pan American Union. 

The treaty, popularly referred to as the inter- 
American defense treaty, was submitted by the 



Department of State Bulletin 



President to the Senate with a message dated De- 
cember 1, 1947. The Senate, by rcsohition dated 
December 8, gave its advice and consent to the 

j ratification of the treaty. The treaty was ratified 

jby the President on behalf of the United States 

I on December 19. 

( Pursuant to articles 22 and 23, the treaty will 
come into effect between the American republics 
which ratify it as soon as the instruments of ratifi- 
cation of two thirds of the signatory countries 
have been deposited with the Pan American Union. 
The treaty, which was formulated at the Inter- 
American Conference for the Maintenance of Con- 
tinental Peace and Security, was signed at Rio 
de Janeiro by the plenipotentiaries of 19 of the 
American republics, including the United States. 
According to information in the possession of 
the Department of State, an instrument of ratifi- 
cation of the treaty has been deposited with the 
Pan American Union by the Dominican Republic. 
The English text of the treaty has been printed 
in the Senate document designated as Executive 
II, 80th Congress, 1st session, which contains also 
the texts of the President's message to the Senate 
vnd the report by the Acting Secretary of State 
o the President.^ The following statements with 
•espect to the treaty are contamed in the Acting 
Secretary's report : 

"This treaty represents a significant advance in 
nternational cooperation for the maintenance of 
5eace and security. Its provisions commit the 
)ther parties promptly to assist the United States 
n the event of an armed attack by any country 
)n our territory or anywhere in the region de- 
ined by the treaty, and the United States simi- 
^ arly pledges its assistance to the other parties in 
'' iase any of them is subjected to such an attack. 
'.n determining collective measures, the parties 
guarantee in advance to observe important de- 
cisions reached by two-thirds of them, reserving 
I, "or their individual consent among the listed 
neasures only the vital decision as to their par- 
icipation in the use of armed force. The obliga- 
ory character of decisions by a two-thirds ma- 
ority assures that the general collective will of 
, he community can be made effective, and avoids 
' he possibility that the operation of the treaty 
night be paralyzed through the non-concurrence 
>f a small minority. 
' "The vital spirit of Pan American solidarity is 
mplicit in the provisions of the treaty and there 
^ every reason to believe that the treaty affords 
n adequate guaranty of the peace and security of 
his hemisphere, thereby assuring so far as possible 
necessary condition to the continued advance- 
nent of the economic, political, and social ideals of 
he peoples of the American states." 

anuary 11, 1948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Establishment of the Union of Burma 

[Released to the press December 30] 

Message from President Truman to Sao Shwe 
Thaike, Saopha of Yawnghwe^ President of the 
Union of Burma, on the occasion of the establish- 
ment of the Union on January 4, lOJfS 

It is fitting that on this day, the day of the birth 
of a new nation, a sovereign independent republic, 
the Union of Burma, I should extend to you, to 
the Prime Minister and to the people of the Union, 
on behalf of the people of the United States of 
America, my sincere best wishes. We welcome 
you into the brotherhood of free and democratic 
nations and assure you of our firm friendship and 
goodwill, anticipating that the Union of Burma 
will take its rightful place among the nations of 
the world and by constructive participation will 
assist in the advancement of the welfare of all 
mankind. We in this country have confidence in 
the people of Burma and in their leaders. I am 
sure that our friendship will continue in the 
future and will be expressed in the same close and 
cordial relations as have existed in the past. 



[Released to the press January 4] 

Robert A. Lovett, Acting Secretary of State, ad- 
dressed ilie following message to the Ambassador 
of Burma on the occasion of the flag-hoisting cere- 
mony at the Embassy of Burma in Washington on 
January 4, 1948 

This is a memorable occasion for the world as 
well as for Burma itself, for on this day the Union 
of Burma, a sovereign independent republic, has 
joined the family of nations. I extend to Your 
Excellency and to the people of Burma the wel- 
come of the people of the United States. May the 
flag first flown today be dedicated to democratic 
principles of freedom, to the cause of peace, and to 
the advancement of all peoples. It is of singular 
pleasure to us here in the United States that you 
have seen fit to use the colors red, white, and blue, 
and to represent your various peoples by white 
stars on a blue field. Needless to say red, white, 
and blue and white stars on a blue field are espe- 
cially dear to all Americans. We are confident that 
this new flag will symbolize the cordial meeting of 
the East and the West for the betterment of the 
entire world. 



' For text of treaty see Bulletin of Sept. 21, 1947, p. 
565, and for an article by Ward Allen on the subject see 
Bulletin of Nov. 23, 1947, p. 983. The report of the Act- 
ing Secretary of State is printed in the Bulletin of Dec. 
14. 1947, p. 1188. 

61 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

U.S. Delegation to 9th Pan American 
Cliiid Congress 

[Beleased to the press December 31] 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 31 that the President has approved the compo- 
sition of the United States Delegation to the Ninth 
Pan American Child Congress, which is scheduled 
to be held at Caracas, Venezuela, Januaiy 5-10, 
1948. The Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Katharine F. Lenroot, Chief, U. S. Children's Bureau, 
Social Security Administration, Federal Security 
Agency 

Delegates 

Dr. William J. French, County Health Officer, Anne Arun- 
del County, Annapolis, Md. 

Hazel Gabbard, Specialist in Extended School Service, 
U.S. Office of Education, Federal Security Agency 

Kathryn D. Goodwin, Assistant Director, Bureau of Public 
Assistance, Social Security Administration, Federal 
Security Agency 

Secretary 

Mrs. Elisabeth Shirley Enochs, Director, International 
Cooperation Service, U.S. Children's Bureau, Social 
Security Administration, Federal Security Agency 

The Child Congress will consider the following 
topics : 

(1) pediatrics; (2) maternal and child health; 
(3) social welfare legislation; (4) education (in 
rural localities, preschool child, progressive educa- 
tion, vocational training and welfare, and recre- 
ation for the child outside of school) ; and (5) 
inter-American cooperation in the protection and 
welfare of children. 

The First Pan American Child Congress was 
held at Buenos Aires in 1916, and the Eighth 
Congress was held at Washington in May 1942. 

Letters of Credence 

Ecuador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador, 
Seiior Augiisto Dillon, presented his credentials 
to the President on December 31, 1947. For trans- 
lation of the Ambassador's remarks and for the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 998 of December 31, 1947. 

Bulgaria 

The newly appointed Minister of Bulgaria, Dr. 
Nissim Judasy Mevorah, presented his credentials 
to the President on December 29, 1947. For trans- 
lation of the Minister's remarks and for the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
991 of December 29, 1947. 

62 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, Mr. Alexander 
Semenovich Panyushkin, presented his credentials 
to the President on December 31, 1947. For trans- 
lation of the Ambassador's remarks and for the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 995 of December 31, 1947. 

Compensation for Finnish Ships Requisitioned 
During the War 

[Released to the press January 2) 

On December 19, 1947, a note was addressed by 
the Department of State to the Finnish Legation 
in Washington stating that the United States 
Government does not propose to invoke the pro- 
visions of article 29 of the treaty of peace with 
Finland, 1947, with respect to claims of Finnish 
shipowners for just compensation under the pro- 
visions of Public Law 101, approved June 6, 1941. 

The pertinent parts of article 29 of the Finnish 
peace treaty read as follows : 

"1. Finland waives all claims of any descrip- 
tion against the Allied and Associated Powers 
on behalf of the Finnish Government or Finnish 
nationals arising directly out of the war or out of 
actions taken because of the existence of a state of 
war in Europe after September 1, 1939, whether 
or not the Allied or Associated Power was 
at war with Finland at the time, including the 
following: .... 

"2. The provisions of this Article shall bar, com- 
pletely and finally, all claims of the nature referred 
to herein, which will be henceforward extin- 
guished, whoever may be the parties in interest. 

"3. Finland likewise waives all claims of the 
nature covered by paragraph 1 of this Article on 
behalf of the Finnish Government or Finnish na- 
tionals against any of the United Nations whose 
diplomatic relations with Finland were broken off 
during the war and which took action in co-opera- 
tion with the Allied and Associated Powers. 

"4. The waiver of claims by Finland under 
paragraph 1 of this Article includes any claims 
arising out of actions taken by any of the Allied 
and Associated Powers with respect to Finnish 
ships between September 1, 1939, and the coming 
into force of the present Treaty, as well as any 
claims and debts arising out of the Convention on 
prisoners of war now in force." 

As the United States is not a signatory of the 
Finnish peace treaty, it occupies the status of a 
third-party beneficiary with respect to article 29, 
and can thus choose whether or not it will claim 
the rights offered. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The action of the American Government (which 
is limited to this particular instance) will enable 
the Finns to claim compensation for Finnish ships 
requisitioned during the war through the same 
channels as are available to American and foreign 
shipowners. Compensation is pending on 17 Fin- 
nish ships, which were requisitioned during the 
war. Such of these ships as were afloat at the end 
of the war were returned early in 1947 to Finland 
pursuant to Presidential order. 



IRO Delegation — Continued from page 49 
Advisers 

Eoswell D. McClellan, Economic Analyst, American Lega- 
tion, Bern, Switzerland 

John Tomlinson, Assistant Chief, Division of Interna- 
tional Organization Affairs, Department of State 

Administrative Assistant 

Eleanor Burnett, Secretary to the Adviser on Refugees 
and Displaced Persons, Department of State 

Among the important items to be considered at 
this meeting of the Preparatory Commission are 
the reports of the Executive Secretai-y on (1) the 
status of organization and finance ; (2) the budget 
for the fiscal year 1948-49; and (3) the establish- 
ment of semi-judicial machinery on the eligibility 
of displaced iiersons.^ 

The Preparatory Coimnission for the Interna- 
tional Refugee Organization was established in 
order to insure continuity of service to displaced 
persons after July 1, 1947, when Unrea and the 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees went 
out of existence, and to take the necessary measures 
to bring the permanent organization into opera- 
tion as soon as possible. 

The constitution of the International Refugee 
Organization was adopted by the General As- 
sembly of the United Nations in December 1946 
and deposited for signatures with the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations. It will come into 
force when 15 states whose contributions amount 
to 75 percent of the operational budget have signed 
it. The United States Congress has approved this 
Government's participation in the International 
Refugee Organization. The President signed the 
legislation authorizing participation on July 1, 
1947, and the instrument of acceptance of member- 
ship was forwarded to the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations on July 3, 1947. 

January 17, 1948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 

THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officers 



Leland Barrows as Deputy Director of the Office of 
Information and Educational Exchange, effective Janu- 
ary 9, 1948. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Consular Offices 



The American Consulate at St. Stephen, N.B., Canada, 
was closed to the public on December 15, 1947. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Oovernment 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Adrress requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which, may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

The London Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers, 
November 25-December 16, 1947, Report by Secretary of 
State Marshall. 10 pp. Free. 

A description of what went on in the meeting and 
why it failed to formulate peace treaties for Germany 
and Austria. 

Relief Assistance: Foreign Relief Program in Italy. 
Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1653. Pub. 
2958. 24 pp. 10<}. 

Agreement and Exchange of Notes Between the United 
States of America and Italy — Agreement Signed at 
Rome July 4, 1947 ; entered into force July 4, 1947. 

Air Transport Services. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1656. Pub. 2967. 7 pp. 5^. 

Agreements Between the United States of America 
and Portugal Amending Agreement of December 6, 
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The Program of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Scientific and Cultural Cooi)eration. Inter-American Se- 
ries 37. Pub. 2994. 42 pp. 20^. 

A series of articles by State Department oflScials 
and others on various aspects of the activities of the 
Interdepartmental Committee. 

National Commission News, January 1, 1948. Pub. 3003. 
12 pp. 10^ a copy ; $1 a year. 

Published monthly for the United States National 
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1 For an article by Mr. Warren on the 4th meeting of 
the Preparatory Commission, see BuLLEmN of Jan. 4, 1947, 
p. 21. 

63 



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Foreign Aid and Reconstruction page 

Interim Aid Agreement Signed With France, 
Italy, and Austria: 
Remarks by American Ambassador to 

France 60 

Remarks by American Ambassador to Italy . 51 
Press Releases Issued by the Italian Govern- 
ment on January 3, 1948 51 

Remarks by United States High Commis- 
sioner in Austria 52 

Economic Affairs 

Habana Meeting of U.N. Conference on Trade 
and Employment. Statement on Quantita- 
tive Restrictions 39 

Meeting of International Meterological Organi- 
zation: Conference of Directors. Article 
by John M. Gates, Jr 43 

Statistics and Foreign Policy. By Assistant 

Secretary Thorp 53 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Expression of Faith in United Nations as Means 
of World Peace. Extemporaneous Re- 
marks by President Truman 47 

Presidential Appointments to U.N. Interim 

Committee 47 

Review of Facts Regarding Accreditation of 
bona fide U.N. Correspondents. Note 
From the United States Mission to the 
United Nations 48 

U.S. Delegation to Iro Preparatory Commis- 
sion 49 



Treaty Information page 

Negotiations for Revision of Schedule I of Trade 
Agreement With Mexico: 

Announcement of Public Notices 59 

Public Notice of the Department of State . . 59 
Public Notice of Conunittee for Reciprocity 

Information 60 

Presidential Proclamation on Exclusive Trade 

Agreement With Cuba 60 

U.S. Deposits Ratification of Inter-American 

Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 60 

Compensation for Finnish Ships Requisitioned 

During the War 62 

General Policy 

Communist Attempt To Overthrow Recognized 

Greek Government 59 

Establishment of the Union of Burma 61 

Letters of Credence: Ecuador, Bulgaria, and 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ... 62 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to 9th Pan American Child 

Congress 62 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 63 

The Department 

Appointment of OflScers 63 

Publications 

The General Assembly and the Problem of 

Greece 49 

Department of State 63 



John M. Gates, author of the article on the International Meteorolog- 
ical Organization, is a:i officer in the Division of International Organi- 
zation Affairs, Office of Special Political Affairs, Department of State. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: l9dB 



^'m&^m^^^m^m^ 



^/t& ^eha')^tmen(/ ^^ tnate^ 





I'NTON . ./ei 
(lent to the Congress 

ASSISTANCE TO EUKOPEAN ECONOMIC RE- 

ECONOMIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS ni WW. 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY • iMre»s by A»»i> 

Secretary Thorp •!••. ..■••■ 

POSTWAR COMMERCIAL POLICY OF Till: 

I'MTED S'l '/r; S . f ' ■, Woodbury Willotighhy . 



71 



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AUG 17 1949 




■at«« «>< 



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tJ/ie z/^eha/yi^e^t 



./sf^^ bulletin 

Vol. XVIII, No. 446 • Publication 3021 
January 18, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OiBce 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 
62 issues, $5; single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tveekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Postwar Commercial Policy of the United States 



ARTICLE BY WOODBURY WILLOUGHBY 



The charter for an International Trade Organi- 
zation, over which the delegates at Habana 
from more than 60 countries have been laboring 
since November 21, 1947, has as its basic objec- 
tive the facilitation of'the flow of international 
commerce. The chief means of accomplishing 
this objective is through the elimination of trade 
discriminations and the reduction of trade bar- 
riers. 

This objective epitomizes the basic principles 
which have underlain treaties, agreements, and 
other international instruments to which the 
United States has been a party since the out- 
break of World War II. They may be found in 
the economic clause of the Atlantic Charter in 
1941 ; in the lend-lease agreements of the follow- 
ing years; in the articles of agi-eement of the 
International Monetary Fund and the Interna- 
tional Bank for Keconstruction and Develop- 
ment in 1944; in the Anglo-American financial 
agreement in 1945 ; and in various other interna- 
tional documents. They are also to be found in 
our treaty of friendship, commerce, and navi- 
gation with China, which is now before the 
United States Senate. They are incorporated in 
other commercial treaties already in effect as well 
as a number in the couree of preparation or 
negotiation. All of these documents spell out 
in clear and unmistakable terms the desire of the 
United States to make international trade as free 
and unhampered and nondiscriminatory as 
possible. 

In some respects, notably our efforts to elimi- 
nate discrimination, the basic principles of our 

January 18, J 948 



commercial policy have changed little through the 
years. As early as 1778 in the treaty with France, 
each nation accorded to the other any privileges 
granted any third nation. Then, there was the 
Jay treaty of 1794 where Great Britain and the 
United States agreed to establish commercial re- 
lations on a nondiscriminatory basis. Washing- 
ton, when he admonished us in his Farewell Ad- 
dress to treat all nations alike in our commercial 
relations, expressed our historical policy. Like 
principles are embodied in the various treaties of 
friendship, commerce, and navigation drawn up 
during the course of the last century. 

The trade agreements act of June 12, 1934, which 
is the statutory basis for all tariff negotiations 
since that date, specifically requires that any tariff 
reduction made under authority of the act be ex- 
tended unconditionally and immediately to all 
countries not discriminating against the United 
States. Agreements have been concluded with 
more than 30 countries under the provisions of this 
act. 

In the light of this history it is clear why the 
United States has taken such an active part in 
sponsoring the formation of the International 
Trade Organization. The basic requirement of the 
principal commercial-policy provisions of the 
charter for an International Trade Organization 
is that all members agree to extend to all other 
members unconditionally "any advantage, favour, 
privilege or immunity" accorded to any other 
member country on any product. Certain pref- 
erences, such as those between territories related 
by a common sovereignty or between specified 

67 



neighboring states, are exempt. However, all 
members agree to carry on negotiations to reduce 
tariffs and eliminate preferences on a mutually ad- 
vantageous basis. In general, no preferences can 
be increased nor can new ones be added. The 
benefits resulting from these reductions in tariffs 
and preferences must not be offset by the imposi- 
tion of internal taxes, regulations, or other hidden 
forms of protection. 

Probably the most important provisions of the 
charter are those which prohibit the imposition of 
quantitative restrictions ^ limiting the volume of 
exports and imports and having the effect of nul- 
lifying the tariff and preference reductions. Since 
such restrictions throttle competition and foster 
economic isolationism, the charter renounces the 
concept and strictly limits the use of such controls. 

There are a number of exceptions to the ban on 
quantitative restrictions, including one authoriz- 
ing their use on agricultural or fisheries products 
when needed to implement governmental measures 
for limiting domestic production and marketing 
or for facilitating surplus disposal programs. The 
most important exception to the basic rule against 
quota restrictions is when a member is faced with 
balance-of-payments difficulties, as evidenced by 
a serious decline in its monetary reserves, or the 
need to increase its already low reserves. Under 
such conditions it may levy import restrictions. 

Members are enjoined from frustrating by 
trade restrictions the exchange provisions of the 
articles of agreement of the International Mone- 
tary Fund, or by exchange actions the provisions 
of the charter relating to quantitative restrictions. 
Members of the Ito must either become members 
of the International Monetary Fund or enter into 
a special exchange agreement with that organi- 
zation. Ito members must also furnish necessary 
information to the Fund if they do not belong to 
the Fund organization. 

The charter as drafted at Geneva last summer 
by the Preparatory Committee provides that if 
any member pays a subsidy to increase exports or 
reduce imports, it must notify the Ito and agree 
to negotiate with any member which believes it- 



' Fur st.'Tteinent on quantitative restrictions by the vice 
chairman of the T^.S. Delegation to the Habana confer- 
ence, see Bulletin of .Tan. 11, 1948, p. 39. 

68 



self to be injured thereby. This matter is still J 
unsettled at Habana. ' 

Another section of the charter deals with state 
trading. Countries carrying on trade through 
state enterprises are required to conduct their 
commerce in a nondiscruninatory fashion similar 
to governments directing the flow of private 
trade. Members must have equal opportunity 
to trade with state trading agencies and those 
state trading agencies are to act according to 
commercial considerations. 

Closely related to the provision on commercial 
policy is the section which provides that mem- 
bers must eliminate, so far as possible, restric- 
tive business practices fostering monopolistic 
control of international markets and trade. It 
is evident that if governments are to be stopped 
from engaging in harmful trade practices, pri- 
vate business should be prevented from accom- 
plishing the same result by different means. 

Members are obligated to take measures con- 
ducive to the achievement of full and productive 
employment within their respective domains, 
which includes action to eliminate substandard 
conditions of labor. The charter does not go 
beyond laying down the goals toward which the 
members should move since the specific measures 
to be undertaken are to be appropriate to the 
political, economic, and social institutions of the 
respective members. 

Members agree to develop their own resources 
and to raise their standards of productivity. 
They also agree to cooperate with other coun- 
tries through the medium of international 
agencies for the purpose of promoting general 
economic development. The charter provides 
that members will not place any unreasonable 
impediments on the exportation of facilities used 
for development purposes and such facilities will 
not be used in a manner injurious to the member 
providing them. Foreign investment must be 
given equitable treatment and adequate protec- 
tion. 

The decision as to the industries to be developed 
will continue to rest with the individual country. 
Subsidies are permitted when needed for new 
industries. Further protection may be accorded 
through the use of tariffs unless the member has 
signed a trade agreement not to raise the duties 
on the products concerned. In the latter case, the 

Department of State Bulletin 



' member must request the Ito to cousult with the 
other members whose trade wouhl be affected by 
iho action and obtain a limited release. The same 
must be done in order to use quotas. The charter 
is replete with statements making it incumbent 
upon all members to deviate as little as possible 
from tlie basic policy of the program it enunciates. 
In most cases, the charter explicitly requires that 
where a member is forced to place restrictions on 
trade it must do so in as nondiscriminatory a man- 
ner as possible. 

In some respects, notably the elimination of 
discrimination, the basic objectives of our foreign 
commercial policy have changed little throughout 
the history of our country. In the matter of 
tariff duties, on the other hand, there has been a 
major reorientation. The changed position of 
the United States from a debtor to an active credi- 
tor country created a strong motive to reverse 
the trend toward higher and higher tariffs in favor 
of a selective reduction through negotiation with 
other countries. Under the reciprocal trade- 
agreements program the rates on a large part of 
"ur dutiable imports have been reduced. 

This process of reducing our tariff rates in ex- 
change for similar or comparable concessions by 
other countries has been carried a long step for- 
ward by recent negotiations at Geneva. While 
the drafting of the charter for an international 
trade organization was in process at Geneva in 
the spring and summer of 1947 more than a score 
of the participating coimtries undertook to give 
concrete evidence of the sincerity of their belief 
in the principles of the charter by undertaking 
simultaneous negotiations on tariffs and other 
trade barriers. 

At this history-making conference the repre- 
sentatives of 23 countries, including, of course, 
those of the United States, were able to negotiate 
reductions in barriers to world trade on the most 
comprehensive scale ever undertaken. There was 
almost six months of continuous negotiating which 
required over 1000 formal meetings and an even 
greater number of less formal discussions. The 
delegates agreed to tariff concessions covering 
products which account for almost half the world 
imports, and at the same time they worked out 
general rules of trade to safeguard and make these 
concessions effective. They dealt with trade con- 
trols of all kinds — not only tariffs, but also prefer- 

January 18, 7948 



ences, quotas, internal controls, customs regula- 
tions, slate trading, and subsidies. 

It was not only the volume of world trade af- 
fected by this conference which made these activi- 
ties of such striking importance, but also the fact 
that such comprehensive trade negotiations were 
conducted on a multilateral basis. The general 
articles on matters affecting international com- 
merce were worked out as a joint effort. The in- 
itial discussions of tariff negotiations were under- 
taken product by product between the princii^al 
supplier and the principal importer, but, once a 
concession was agreed upon, that concession was 
automatically extended to all other negotiating 
countries. By the time the negotiations were com- 
pleted, and as far as the end product was con- 
cerned, the country-by-country and product-by- 
product negotiations had little significance. 

The so-called general provisions of the general 
agreement on tariffs and trade, that is, provisions 
which do not relate to specific duties, constitute a 
sort of code of fair competition for the conduct of 
international trade. They are similar to provi- 
sions in the proposed charter and to the general 
provisions of our own reciprocal trade agreements. 
The general agreement has provisionally replaced 
some of the individual reciprocal trade agreements 
which the United States already had with a num- 
ber of the negotiating countries. 

In addition to developing the charter, the 
United States is also broadening the scope of its 
treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation, 
the basic bilateral instiiiments defining our 
treaty rights in foreign coimtries. The China 
treaty, already referred to, is representative of 
the newer spirit of these treaties of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation. Among the major 
improvements is clearly defined coverage for 
corporations, both the rights of American corpo- 
rations in China and the rights of Americans par- 
ticipating in Chinese corporations. For the most 
part the rights provided in the treaty are mutual. 
There is a new provision specifying the treatment 
that must be accorded in the administration of 
exchange controls. The treaty also limits the use 
of quantitative controls and lays down rules to 
govern state trading. There are provisions de- 
signed to facilitate the settlement of commercial 
disputes by arbitration. 

69 



In the financial field, the United States has 
actively liberalized its approach. Through the 
International Monetary Fund, the United States 
is helping to provide an instrument for the stabi- 
lization of currency and thus reduce monetary 
hazards in the flow of goods across national 
boundaries. Through the International Bank, it 
is participating in, among other things, the pro- 
motion of "the long-range balanced growth of 
international trade" and the encouragement of 
foreign investment. The United States has con- 
sistently sought a multilateral approach to both 
the teclinical and the commercial aspects of civil 
aviation. 

It is particularly encouraging that many coun- 
tries have been willing to go on record against 
freezing into perpetual conditions certain exist- 
ing constrictive and retarding practices in com- 
mercial relations, and with us to set their sights 
toward a broader and brighter horizon. This is 
of special importance as we move forward with 
the Marshall Plan. The principles enunciated 
in the charter of the Ito are complementary to 
the objectives of the program for European eco- 
nomic recovery. Though the emphasis in the 
Kecovery Program is on the immediate crisis, the 
goal is to achieve a measure of equilibrium by 1951 
that will assure for the future a satisfactory de- 
gree of economic stability and an adequate basis 
for continuing economic development. The 
Marshall Plan recognizes that European indus- 
tries must be rehabilitated and that Europe must 
become self-supporting. This does not mean that 
Europe must become self-sufficient. She has not 
been so in the past and will not be so in the future. 
Climate and lack of adequate supplies of raw 
materials make it impossible for her to produce 
everything she needs. Even as Europe moves 
forward toward normalcy she must continue to 
have large imports and sustain herself by multi- 
lateral ti'ade. 

Trade must be a two-way street. In the long 
run, the only way Europe can import is by export- 
ing sufficient goods and services to pay for these 
imports. In other words, it becomes axiomatic 
under the Marshall Plan that international trade 
must be facilitated, and it is instruments like the 
cliarter of the Ito which do just that. Tlie reduc- 
tion of tariff barriers and the expansion of non- 
discriminatory trade relations will assist Europe 

70 



to find the means of balancing her accounts with 



us. 



Since the United States is the richest market, 
both from the standpoint of exports and potential 
imports, it is particularly significant to world 
recovery that the United States has been willing 
to take the lead in reducing barriers to the inter- 
national flow of commerce. The strong sponsor- 
ship by the United States of institutions such as 
the Ito and its willingness to cooperate in the re- 
duction of tariffs are steps which will facilitate 
the fruition of the Marshall Plan. The other 
countries participating in the Recovery Program 
have indicated that they "are prepared to play 
their full part" in the reduction of tariffs on a 
multilateral basis in accordance with Ito prin- 
ciples, and some of these countries participated in 
the negotiations at Geneva for this purpose. 

As we look on every hand — at our participation 
in the drafting of the charter for an International 
Trade Organization, our treaties of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation, our trade agreements, 
our participation in the International Bank and 
the International Fund, and our encouragement 
of the preparation of the European Recovery Pro- 
gram — it is clear that we have laid a good ground- 
work for more liberalized international commerce. 
We have broken away from the narrow economic 
isolationism which confined the world after World 
War I and we have encouraged some of the lead- 
ing trading nations of the world to establish more 
liberal commercial policies. 

The people of the United States, acting through 
Congress, have yet to decide whether they wish 
this country to ratify the charter and join the Ito 
when it comes into existence. Although i^rovi- 
sion has been made for interim aid, we still have to 
reach a decision as to whether we will take positive 
action to implement fully the European Recovery 
Program and make possible the rehabilitation of 
Europe. The trade agreements act expires next 
June and must be renewed if we are to continue our 
program of reducing world trade barriers. 

The United States must not cease its leadership 
toward fuller, freer international trade. If we 
turn back — if we but falter — at this point, the 
great advances in international cooperation will 
be seriously jeopardized, if not completely frus- 
trated. If in our lifetime we are to see a stable 
world, we dare not stop our march of progress. 

Department of State Bulletin 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



Assistance to European Economic Recovery 



STATEMENT BY GEORGE C. MARSHALL' 
Secretary of State 



On December 19 the President placed before 
you the recommendations of the Executive 
branch of the Government for a program of 
United States assistance to European economic 
recovery. 

This program will cost our country billions 
of dollars. It will impose a burden on the Amer- 
ican taxpayer. It will require sacrifices today in 
order that we may enjoy security and peace to- 
morrow. Should the Congress approve the pro- 
gram for European recovery, as I urgently rec- 
ommend, we Americans will have made an his- 
toric decision of our peacetime history. 

A nation in which the voice of its people di- 
rects the conduct of its affairs cannot embark on 
an undertaking of such magnitude and signifi- 
cance for light or purely sentimental reasons. 
Decisions of this importance are dictated by the 
highest considerations of national interest. 
There are none higher, I am sure, than the es- 
tablishment of enduring peace and the mainte- 
nance of true freedom for the individual. In 
the deliberations of the coming weeks I ask that 
the European Recovery Program be judged in 
these terms and on this basis. 

As the Secretary of State and as the initial 
representative of the Executive branch of the 
Government in the presentation of the program 
to your committee, I will first outline my convic- 



tions as to the extent and manner in which Amer- 
ican interests are involved in European recovery. 

Without the reestablishment of economic 
health and vigor in the free countries of Europe, 
without the restoration of their social and polit- 
ical strength necessarily associated with eco- 
nomic recuperation, the prospect for the Ameri- 
can people, and for free people everywhere, to 
find peace with justice and well-being and secu- 
rity for themselves and their children will be 
gravely prejudiced. 

So long as hunger, poverty, desperation, and 
resulting chaos threaten the great concentrations 
of people in western Europe — some 270 millions — 
there will steadily develop social unease and polit- 
ical confusion on every side. Left to their own 
resources there will be, I believe, no escape from 
economic distress so intense, social discontents so 
violent, political confusion so wide-spread, and 
hopes of the future so shattered that the historic 
base of western civilization, of which we are by 
belief and inheritance an integral part, will take 
on a new form in the image of the tyranny that we 
fought to destroy in Germany. The vacuimi 



'Made before the Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions on Jan. 8, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. This statement will be printed in Depart- 
ment of State publication 3022. 



January 18, 1948 



71 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

which the war created in western Europe will be 
filled by the forces of which wars are made. Our 
national security will be seriously threatened. We 
shall in effect live in an armed camp, regulated 
and controlled. But if we furnish effective aid 
to support the now visibly reviving hope of 
Europe, the prospect should speedily change. The 
foundation of political vitality is economic re- 
covery. Durable peace requires the restoration 
of western European vitality. 

We have engaged in a great war. We poured 
out our resources to win that war. We fought it 
to make real peace possible. Though the war has 
ended the peace has not commenced. We must 
not fail to complete that which we commenced. 

The peoples of western Europe have demon- 
strated their will to achieve a genuine recovery 
by entering into a great cooperative effort. Within 
the limits of their resources they formally under- 
take to establish the basis for the peace whicli we 
all seek, but they cannot succeed without American 
assistance. Dollars will not save the world — but 
the world today cannot be saved without dollars. 

The Paris report of the Committee of European 
Economic Co-operation was a notable achieve- 
ment. For the first time in modern history repre- 
sentatives of 16 nations collectively disclosed their 
internal economic conditions and frailties and 
undertook, subject to stated conditions, to do cer- 
tain things for the mutual benefit of all. The 
commitments each made to the other, if faithfully 
observed, will produce in western Europe a far 
more integrated economic system than any in pre- 
vious history. 

The report revealed the measure of outside 
assistance which in their judgment would be 
necessary to effect a lasting recovery of the par- 
ticipating nations. The Executive branch, with 
help and advice from a great many sources, has 
developed from this report a program of Ameri- 
can aid to Europe which gives substantial promise 
of achieving the goal of genuine recovery. The 
program is not one of a series of piecemeal relief 
measures. I ask that you note this difference, and 
keep it in mind throughout our explanations. Tlie 
difference is absolutely vital. 

I believe that this measure has received as con- 
centrated study as has ever gone into the prepara- 
tion of any proposal made to the Congress. The 
best minds in numerous related fields have worked 



for months on this vast and complicated subject. 
In addition, the best economic and political brains 
of 16 European nations have given us in an amaz- 
ingly short time their analyses and conclusions. 

The problem we face is enormously complex. It 
affects not only our country and Europe but al- 
most every other part of the globe. 

We wish to present to you in the simplest pos- 
sible way a full explanation of the Executive 
branch recommendations for aid to Europe. Our 
presentation will entail the appearance of high 
officials from the agencies of the Government in- 
timately concerned. Others will give you more 
detailed information on the many factors to be 
considered. 

I will confine my remarks to the three basic 
questions involved : first, "why does Europe need 
help?"; second, "how much help is needed?"; and 
third, "how should help be given?". 

I. WHY? 

The '■'■why''\ Europe is still emerging from the 
devastation and dislocation of the most destructive 
war in history. Within its own resources Europe 
cannot achieve within a reasonable time economic 
stability. The war more or less destroyed the 
mechanism whereby Europe supported itself in the 
past, and the initial rebuilding of that mechanism 
requires outside assistance under existing circum- 
stances. 

The western European participating countries, 
with a present population almost twice our own, 
constitute an interdependent area containing some 
of the most highly industrialized nations of the 
world. As a group, they are one of the two major 
workshops of the world. Production has become 
more and more specialized and depends in large 
part on the processing of raw materials, largely 
imported from abroad, into finished goods and 
the furnishing of services to other areas. These 
goods and services have been sold throughout the 
world and the proceeds therefrom paid for the nec- 
essary imports. 

The war smashed the vast and delicate mechan- 
ism by which European countries made their liv- 
ing. It was the war which destroyed coal mines 
and deprived the workshop of sufficient mechani- 
cal energy. It was the war which destroyed steel 
mills and thus cut down the workshop's material 
for fabrication. It was the war which destroyed 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



transportation lines and equipment and thus made 
the ability to move goods and people inadequate. 
It was the war which destroyed livestock herds, 
made fertilizers unobtainable, and thus reduced 
soil fertility. It was the war which destroyed 
merchant fleets and thus cut off accustomed income 
from carrying the world's goods. It was the war 
which destroyed or caused the loss of so much of 
foreign investments and the income which it has 
produced. It was the war which bled inventories 
and working capital out of existence. It was the 
war which shattered business relationships and 
markets and the sources of raw materials. The 
war disrupted the flow of vital raw materials from 
southeast Asia, thereby breaking the pattern of 
multilateral trade which formerly provided, di- 
rectly or indirectly, large dollar earnings for west- 
ern Europe. In the postwar period artificial and 
forcible reorientation to the Soviet Union of east- 
ern European trade has deprived western Europe 
of sources of foodstuff and raw material from 
that area. Here and there the present European 
situation has been aggravated by unsound or de- 
structive policies pursued in one or another coun- 
try, but the basic dislocations find their source 
directly in the war. 

The inability of the European workshop to get 
food and raw materials required to produce the 
exports necessary to get the purchasing power for 
food and raw materials is the worst of the many 
vicious circles that beset the European peoples. 
Notwithstanding the fact that industrial output, 
except in western Germany, has almost regained 
its prewar volume, under the changed conditions 
this is not nearly enough. The loss of European 
investments abroad, the destruction of merchant 
fleets, and the disappearance of other sources of in- 
come, together with increases in populations to be 
sustained, make necessary an increase in produc- 
tion far above prewar levels, even sufficient for 
a living standard considerably below prewar 
standards. 

This is the essence of the economic problem 
of Europe. This problem would exist even 
though it were not complicated by the ideologi- 
cal struggles in Europe between those who want 
to live as free men and those small groups who 
aspire to dominate by the method of police states. 
The solution would be much easier, of course, 
if all the nations of Europe were cooperating. 

January 78, 1948 

773020—48 2 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

But they are not. Far from cooperating, the 
Soviet Union and the Communist Parties have 
proclaimed their determined opposition to a plan 
for European economic recovery. Economic dis- 
tress is to be employed to further political ends. 

There are many who accept the picture that 
I have just drawn but who raise a further ques- 
tion: "Why must the United States carry so 
great a load in helping Europe?" The answer 
is simple. The United States is the only country 
in the world today which has the economic 
l^ower and productivity to furnish the needed 
assistance. 

I wish now to turn to the other questions 
which we must answer. These are "how much" 
aid is required and "how" should that aid be 
given. 

il. HOW MUCH? 

Three principles should determine the amount 
and timing of our aid. It must be adequate. 
It must be prompt. It must be effectively 
applied. 

Objective: Recovery 

The objective of the European Kecovery Pro- 
gram submitted for your consideration is to 
achieve lasting economic recovery for western 
Europe : recovery in the sense that, after our aid 
has tenninated, the European countries will be 
able to maintain themselves by their own efforts 
on a sound economic basis. 

Our assistance, if we determine to embark on 
this program to aid western Europe, must be 
adequate to do the job. The initial increment 
of our aid should be fully sufficient to get the 
program under way on a broad, sound basis and 
not in a piecemeal manner. An inadequate pro- 
gram would involve a wastage of our resources 
with an ineffective result. Either undertake to 
meet the requirements of the problem or don't 
undertake it at all. 

Time Is Vital 

I think it must be plain to all that the circum- 
stances which have given birth to this program 
call for promptness in decision and vigor in put- 
ting the project into operation. The sooner this 
program can get under way the greater its 
chances of success. Careful consideration and 
early action are not incompatible. 

73 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCT/ON 

The interim-aid law which the Congress 
enacted last December was designed as a stopgap 
measure to cover the period until April first of 
this year. In the meantime it would be possible 
to consider the long-term recovery measure 
which we are now discussing. Unless the pro- 
gram can be placed in operation on or soon after 
April first, there will undoubtedly be a serious 
deterioration in some of the basic conditions 
upon which the whole project is predicated. 

It is proposed that the Congress now authorize 
the program for its full four-and-one-quarter- 
year duration, although appropriations are being 
requested only for the first 15 months. Annual 
decisions on appropriations will afford full oppor- 
tunity for review and control. But a general 
authorization now for the longer term will pro- 
vide a necessary foundation for the continuing 
effort and cooperation of the European countries 
in a progressive program of recovery. 

Amounts of Required Assistance 

The amounts, form, and conditions of the i"ec- 
ommended program of American aid to European 
recovery have been presented in President Tru- 
man's message to the Congi-ess on December 19, 
1947. They were further explained in the pro- 
posed draft legislation and background material 
furnished to this committee at that time by the 
Department of State. Taking as the basis genuine 
European cooperation — the maximum of self-help 
and mutual help on the part of the participating 
European countries — the program aims to pro- 
vide these countries, until the end of June 1952, 
with those portions of their essential imports from 
the Western Hemisphere which they themselves 
cannot pay for. These essential imports include 
not only the food, fuel, and other supplies but 
also equipment and materials to enable them to 
increase their productive capacity. They must 
produce and export considerably more goods than 
they did in prewar times if they are to become 
self-supporting, even at a lower standard of 
living. 

During the first 15 months, exports from the 
European countries will provide current revenue 
sufficient to cover almost their entire import needs 
from sources outside the "Western Hemisphere 
and also about one third of their requirements 
from the Western Hemisphere. 

74 



It is not proposed that the United States pro- 
vide aid to the full extent of western Europe's 
remaining trade deficit with the Western Hemi- 
sphere. Funds from sources other than the 
United States Treasury are expected to carry part 
of the load. These will be, principally, credits 
and other forms of assistance from other coun- 
tries in our Hemisphere, loans from the Interna- 
tional Bank and private sources, and a further 
slight reduction in European reserves. It is the 
final deficit, after all those other means of financ- 
ing essential imports have been utilized, that it 
is proposed be covered by American aid. 

In each succeeding year of the program, in- 
creased jjroduction and increased trade from 
Europe is expected to reduce the amount of assist- 
ance needed, until after mid-1952, when it is cal- 
culated that the pai'ticipating countries will have 
recovered ability to support themselves. 

The recommended program of 6.8 billion dol- 
lars for the first 15 months reflects a searching and 
comprehensive investigation by the Executive 
branch of European needs and of availabilities in 
the United States and other supplying countries, 
taking full account of the findings of the Harri- 
man, Krug, and Nourse committees. 

The program of 6.8 billion dollars for the first 
15 months has been computed with precision. I 
wish to emphasize that this amount does not rep- 
resent a generous estimate of requirements. It 
is not an "asking figure" based on anticipated re- 
ductions prior to approval. It reflects a rigorous 
screening of the proposals developed by the Ceec 
and a realistic appraisal of availabilities. In our 
judgment, American assistance in this magnitude 
is required to initiate a program of genuine recov- 
ery and to take both Europe and this nation out 
of the blind alley of mere continuing relief. 

The estimated cost of the program is now put at 
somewhere between 15.1 to 17.8 billions. But this 
will depend on developments each year, the prog- 
ress made, and unforeseeable variations in the 
weather as it affects crops. The over-all cost is not 
capable of precise determination so far in ad- 
vance. 

Can We Afford It? 

In developing the program of American assist- 
ance, no question has been more closely examined 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



thiin the ability of the United States to provide as- 
sistance in the magnitudes proposed. Both in 
terms of plijsical resources and in terms of finan- 
cial capacity, our ability to support such a program 
seems clear. Representatives of the Executive 
branch more closely familiar than I with the 
domestic economy will provide further testimony 
on this issue, but I should like to remind you of the 
conclusions of the three special committees which 
explored this matter in detail during the summer 
and fall. 

The proposed program does involve some sac- 
rifice on the part of the American people, but it 
should be kept in mind that the burden of the pro- 
gram diminishes rapidly after the first 15 months. 
Considerations of the cost must be i-elated to the 
momentous objective on the one hand and to the 
probable price of the alternatives. The 6.8 billion 
dollars proposed for the first 15 months is less 
than a single month's charge of the war. A world 
of continuing uneasy half-peace will create de- 
mands for constantly mounting expenditures for 
defense. This program should be viewed as an in- 
vestment in peace. In those terms, the cost is low. 

III. HOW? 

The third main consideration which I feel 
should be borne in mind in comiection with this 
measure is that relating to conditions or terms 
upon which American assistance will be extended. 
It is the obvious duty of this Government to in- 
sure in so far as possible that the aid extended 
should be effectively used to promote recovery and 
not diverted to other purposes, whatever their na- 
ture. This aspect of the program is perhaps the 
most delicate and difficult and one which will re- 
quire the exercise of a mature judgment and intel- 
ligent understanding of the nature of the problem 
faced by the European governments and of our 
particular position of leadership in this matter. 
We must always have in mind that we are dealing 
with democratic govemmients of sovereign na- 
tions. 

We will be working with a group of nations 
each with a long and proud history. The peoples 
of these countries are highly skilled, able and ener- 
getic, and justly proud of their cultures. They 
have ancient traditions of self-reliance and are 
eager to take the lead in working out their own 
salvation. 

We have stated in many ways that American 

January J 8, 7948 



FOREIGN AID AND RBCONSTKUCTION 

aid will not be used to interfere with the sovereign 
rights of these nations and their own responsibil- 
ity to work out their own salvation. I cannot em- 
phasize too much my profound conviction that the 
aid we furnish must not be tied to conditions which 
would, in effect, destroy the whole moral justifica- 
tion for our cooperative assistance toward Euro- 
pean partnership. 

We are dealing with democratic governments. 
One of the major justifications of asking the 
American people to make the sacrifice necessary 
imder this program is the vital stake that the 
United States has in helping to preserve democ- 
racy in Europe. As democratic governments 
they are responsive, like our own, to the peoples 
of their countries — and we would not have it 
otherwise. We cannot expect any democratic 
government to take upon itself obligations or ac- 
cept conditions which run counter to the basic 
national sentiment of its people. This program 
calls for free cooperation among nations mu- 
tually respecting one another's sincerity of pur- 
pose in the common endeavor — a cooperation 
which we hope will long outlive the period of 
American assistance. 

The initial suggestion of June fifth last, the 
concept of American assistance to Europe, has 
been based on the premise that Eui-opean initia- 
tive and cooperation are prerequisite to Euro- 
pean recovery. Only the Europeans themselves 
can finally solve their problem. 

The participating nations have signified their 
intention to retain the initiative in promoting 
their own joint recovery. They have pledged 
themselves to take effective cooperative measures. 
They have established ambitious production 
targets for themselves. They have recognized the 
need for financial and monetary stability and have 
agreed to take necessary steps in this direction. 
They have agreed to establish a continuing organi- 
zation to make most effective their cooperative 
work and the application of American assistance. 
Wlien our program is initiated we may expect that 
the participating European countries will reaffirm 
as an organic part of that program their multi- 
lateral agreements. 

The fulfilment of the mutual pledges of these 
nations would have profound effects in altering 
for the better the future economic condition of 
the European continent. The Paris conference 

75 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

itself was one majoi" step, and the participating 
nations have not waited on American action be- 
fore taking further steps, many of which re- 
quired a high order of political courage. They 
have moved forward toward a practical working 
arrangement for the multilateral clearing of 
trade. France and Italy, whose financial affairs 
suffered greatly by war and occupation, are tak- 
ing energetic measures to establish monetary 
stability — an essential prerequisite to economic 
recovery. British coal production is being in- 
creased, more quickly than even the more hopeful 
forecasts, and there is a prospect of the early 
resumption of exports to the Continent. The 
customs union among Belgium, the Netherlands, 
and Luxembourg is now in operation. Negotia- 
tions for a Franco-Italian customs union are 
proceeding. 

Application of American Aid 

Our aid will not be given merely by turning 
money over to the European governments. The 
European countries will prepare periodic state- 
ments of their needs, taking into account the 
developing programs of mutual aid worked out 
through the Ceec continuing organization. 
After review by the specialist economic-coopera- 
tion officers in each country and by the special 
U.S. Ambassador to the continuing Ceec organi- 
zation, they will be transmitted to the Adminis- 
trator of the American agency carrying out our 
program of assistance. 

The Administrator, in collaboration with other 
appropriate agencies of the Government, will de- 
termine to what extent the European requirements 
are justified and to what extent they can safely 
be met. The Administrator will also decide which 
specific requirements from among the over-all re- 
quirements will be financed by the United States, 
taking into account the ability of the country con- 
cerned to pay for some portion or all of its total 
needs. For those needs which cannot be paid for 
in cash, the Administrator will further decide, in 
consultation with the National Advisory Council, 
whether aid will be provided in loans — where a 
sound capacity to repay in the future exists — or 
in outright grants. When the program has been 
determined in detail, the Administrator will 
either advance requisite funds to the participating 
country concerned to enable the purchase of the 



approved imports, or, more generally, he will re- 
imburse the countries when they have procured 
and received these import items. 

A substantial amount of the essential needs of 
Europe must come from countries of the Western 
Hemisphere other than the United States. In 
some cases the quantities required will not exist 
in the United States ; in others the impact on the 
American economy will be greatly relieved if com- 
modities can be procured elsewhere. A sizable 
proportion of the funds appropriated for the 
European Recovery Program should therefore be 
available for the financing of purchases made out- 
side the United States. 

The application of American assistance will be 
in accord with bilateral agreements to be nego- 
tiated with each of the participating countries. 
The terms of these proposed agreements are out- 
lined fully in the documents submitted to your 
committee on December 19. 

Organization for the Program 

The administration of the program will de- 
mand the best talent and the greatest efficiency 
that our country can muster. Tlie organization 
bearing the central responsibility should be small 
and select. It must hold the full and complete 
confidence of the American people and of the 
Europeans. It should combine efficient, business- 
like administration and operation with the quali- 
ties of judgment and discrimination necessary to 
achieve quick and lasting recovery in Europe at 
the least long term cost to the American people 
and with the least impact on our economy. 

The organization must fit into the complex 
mechanics of our world export picture. American 
food, steel, and other products are being exported 
to many areas other than Europe. In many cate- 
gories American output represents the major 
source of shortage goods in tlie world. Thei-e is 
at present workable machinery in the Government 
for determining total export availabilities in the 
light of domestic needs and for allocating these 
items among the many bidders. We propose that 
this machinery be continued. 

The organization must be granted flexibility in 
its operations. In my judgment this is the most 
vital single factor in effective administration. 
Without flexibility the organization will be un- 
able to take advantage of favorable developments, 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



to meet adverse emergencies, or to cushion the 
impact of the program on the domestic economy. 

It has been suggested in some quarters that the 
administering agency should be establislied in tlie 
form of a Government corporation. It is claimed 
that a corjioration can be vested with broader 
powers and flexibility than an independent Execu- 
tive agency. I do not believe that this is neces- 
sarily so. The legislation establishing an agency 
can clothe it with any or all of the beneficial at- 
tributes of a Government corporation. On the 
other hand an Executive agency under the respon- 
sible direction of one man, and fitted into the ex- 
isting machinery of government, will be better 
able to meet the requirements of the situation than 
a corporation directed by a board. This task of 
administration clearly calls for administration by 
a single responsible individual. 

Finally, the operation of the program must be 
related to the foreign policy of the Nation. The 
importance of the recovery program in our for- 
eign affairs needs no argument. To carry out this 
relationship effectively will require cooperation 
and teamwork, but I know of no other way by 
which the complexities of modern world affairs 
can be met. It should, I think, be constantly kept 
in mind that this great project, which would be 
difficult enough in a normal international political 
climate, must be carried to success against the 
avowed determination of the Soviet Union and the 
Communist Party to oppose and sabotage it at 
every turn. There has been conunent that the 
proposed organization, the Economic Cooperation 
Administration, would be completely under the 
thumb of the Department of State. This is not 
so, should not be so, and need not be so. I have 
personally interested myself to see that it will 
not be so. The activities of the Eca will touch on 
many aspects of our internal American affairs and 
on our economy. In the multitude of activities of 
this nature the Dejiartment of State should have 
no direction. 

But the activities of the Eca will be directly 
related to the affairs of the European nations, 
political as well as economic, and will also affect 
the affairs of other nations throughout the world. 
In this field, the constitutional responsibility of 
the President is paramount. Wliether or not he 
chooses to ignore or eliminate the Secretary of 
State in the conduct of foreign relations is a presi- 

January 18, 1948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

dential decision. I think that in our effort to re- 
store the stability of the governments of western 
Europe it would be unfortunate to create an en- 
tirely new agency of foreign policy for this Gov- 
ernment. There cannot be two Secretaries of 
State. I do not wish to interfere in the proper 
operations of the Eca. The organizational struc- 
ture we have proposed provides a means for giving 
appropriate direction and control in matters of 
foreign policy to the Administrator of tlie Eca 
with least interference in the businesslike conduct 
of his task. In this connection he must coordinate 
his affairs with the legal responsibilities charged 
to the Secretaries of Commerce and Agriculture. 
The man who accepts the challenge of the great 
task of administering the European Recovery 
Program must be a man of great breadth, ability, 
and stature. I have no qualms but that with such 
a man, and the able aides he will choose, I and my 
staff can form a smoothly working team for 
handling the complicated problems in foreign re- 
lationships which will arise in the course of the 
I^rograra. In my judgment, the organizational 
proposals which have been put forward represent 
a sound and practical arrangement of functions 
and a framework for successful administration. 

Conclusion 

Wliat are the prospects of success of such a pro- 
gram for the economic recovery of a continent ? It 
would be absurd to deny the existence of obstacles 
and risks. Weather and the extent of world crops 
are unpredictable. The possible extent of political 
sabotage and the effectiveness with which its true 
intentions are unmasked and thus made suscep- 
tible to control cannot be fully foreseen. All we 
can say is this program does provide the means 
for success and if we maintain the will for suc- 
cess I believe that success will be achieved. 

To be quite clear, this luiprecedented endeavor 
of the new world to help the old is neither sure nor 
easy. It is a calculated risk. But there can be no 
doubts as to the alternatives. The way of life that 
we have known is literally in balance. 

Our country is now faced with a momentous 
decision. If we decide that the United States 
is unable or unwilling effectively to assist in the 
reconstruction of western Europe, we must accejat 
the consequences of its collapse into the dictator- 
ship of police states. 

77 



I 



American Aid in Restoring the European Community 



BY CHARLES E. BOHLEN > 
Counselor 



During the war and since the end of hostilities, 
the United States has taken the lead in almost 
every movement designed to further world co- 
operation and to bring about the substitution 
of the rule of law for anarchy and force in in- 
ternational affairs. The Charter of the United 
Nations, as well as the basic idea on which it 
rests, was in large measure the result of 
United States initiative. The International 
Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Unrra, 
and virtually every other international organiza- 
tion for a constructive purpose bears a strong 
imprint of American leadership and idealism. 
It would be false to pretend that the hopes which 
found expression in these endeavors have as yet 
been fulfilled. But it can be asserted with con- 
fidence that if the world today is still far from 
the realization of these hopes it has not been due 
to a lack of genuine effort on the pait of your 
Government. 

It should be a matter of pride to our people that 
the United States took the lead in these construc- 
tive efforts. It is because of its record in this re- 
spect — notwithstanding the disappointments that 
have been encountered — that the United States 
now enjoys the support and confidence of the free 
peoples of the earth. As a result of that record, 
we can with clear conscience proceed to do what is 
necessary in the present world situation. And in 
doing so, we must face the world as it is — not as we 
would like it to be. 

In the past year and particularly in the last few 
months, the harsh outlines of the present world 
situation have emerged with greater clarity. It 
is a matter of tragic fact that the United States 
and the western democracies, in their efforts to 



' Excei'ists from address made before the centennial cele- 
bration of the State of Wisconsin at Madison, Wis., on 
Jan. 5, 1948, and released to the press on the same date. 

78 



bring about a free and prosperous world commu- 
nity, have encountered at every step opposition 
and obstruction on the part of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. 

The record of the western Allies in earnestly 
attempting to find a secure foundation for such 
common action is convincing testimony to their 
good faith and their sincerity of purpose. It is a 
cause of profound regret that the sentiments that 
motivated their efforts were not reciprocated. 

It is in relation to Europe that the deep cleavage 
between the aims and purposes of the western de- 
mocracies on the one hand and those of the Soviet 
Union on the other find clearest expression. The 
fundamental facts of the European situation and 
the cause of our disagreements with the Soviet 
Union in that area have been clearly outlined on a 
number of occasions by the President and the Sec- 
retary of State as well as other officials of the 
United States Government. A thorough under- 
standing on this point, however, is so vital to an 
understanding of our foreign policy as a whole 
that, at the risk of appearing repetitious to many 
of you, I shall restate these facts. 

The basic cause of the present state of affairs in 
Europe is of course the war itself. This most de- 
structive of all wars quite literally shattered the 
European community. 

It left behind it, as Secretary Marshall stated 
in his report to the nation on December 19th, a 
continent whose economic and political life was 
completely disrupted. The essential question con- 
fronting the major Allies at the close of hostili- 
ties was what policies were to be adopted in rela- 
tion to this shattered continent. Was a helping 
hand to be extended to the European nations to 
assist them in rebuilding an independent commu- 
nity of free nations ? Or was their weakness and 
misery to be exploited for purposes of domination 

Department of State Bulletin 



and control ? The answer was not slow in coming 
and is now, I think, plain to all. 

If the cooperation of all the major Allies could 
have been enlisted in this task of reconstruction, 
it would obviously have been far simpler and less 
costly. To this end, during the war and postwar 
conferences, the western democracies with patience 
and persistence sought the cooperation of the So- 
viet Union in this task. Despite freely negotiated 
agreements at Yalta and Potsdam to further the 
revival of a free and democratic European commu- 
nity, the Soviet Union, at first by devious means 
and later openly, has consistently sought to block 
the realization of that aim. The United States, 
the United Kingdom, and the western democracies 
have sought a revival of Europe, free from outside 
pressure or threat. The Soviet Union on the other 
hand has sought not the revival of the European 
community but the perpetuation of conditions 
there most favorable for the extension of its 
control. 

The issue in regard to Europe is as simple as 
that. It is the cause of the present division which 
tragically stares at us from the map of Europe 
today. It has been the underlying reason for the 
failure to agree on a peace settlement for Ger- 
many and Austria. 

Against this background the European Recov- 
ery Program represents no new departure in 
United States policy towards Europe. It is 
mei-ely the application of that same policy to 
conditions as they exist today. 

Through no fault of the United States, or any 
of the participating countries, only 16 European 
nations plus the area of Germany under western 
occupation have felt free to join in the coopera- 
tive effort for the restoration or, more accurately, 
the continuance of their civilization. The origi- 
nal suggestion of Secretary Marshall on June 
5th of last year for a joint European program 
for recovery contained no geographic or political 
limitations, nor did the original invitation by the 
British and French Governments to the Paris 
conference last summer. The fact that only 16 
and not all of the European nations are involved 
in this great constructive endeavor is the respon- 
sibility of the Soviet Government. Soviet refusal 
and outright opposition, however, must not and 
will not prevent this great effort from going 
forward. 

January 18, 1948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

We know now (hat we cannot count today upon 
any assistance from the Soviet Union or groups 
politically subservient to it in the task of Euro- 
pean reconstruction. On the contrary, we Ivuow 
that the disruption of this program is high on 
the list of immediate Soviet objectives. This is 
not a mere supposition, but a matter of public 
record in the form of a declaration by one of the 
leading officials of the Soviet Union. This oppo- 
sition has been reflected in word and deed by the 
Communist parties of Europe and of the world. 

I think it worthwhile to digress briefly, to point 
out that when we use the term communism, we 
need to know just what we mean. Alertness to 
the threat represented by a highly organized 
group whose loyalties are to a foreign govern- 
ment rather than to their own country does not 
in any sense warrant a witch-hunt. Any loose 
definition of communism which would embrace 
progressive or even radical thought of native ori- 
gin is not only misleading but actually dangerous 
to the foundations of any democratic society. Con- 
fusion on this issue and the suspicion which can 
be sown between Americans of different political 
views but of equally sincere patriotism would be 
of great advantage to the Communist purpose. In 
fact, such confusion and suspicion are a by- 
product of the Conmiunist movement which is 
welcomed by its leaders, who cultivate "muddying 
the waters" as a fine art. 

The economic recovery program now before the 
Congress is the latest concrete manifestation of 
our policy directed towards the restoration of the 
European community. No other step in our for- 
eign relations has received closer analysis or more 
careful study than the measure that the President 
has recommended. During the hearings before 
Congress, every aspect of this proposal and its 
effect upon the United States and its foreign 
policy will unquestionably and quite rightly be 
explored by the Congress. 

It is obviously impossible in one short speech 
to attempt to discuss the multiplicity of detail in- 
volved in this undertaking. Nothing approach- 
ing it in scope and magnitude — affecting the daily 
lives of millions of people and involving the re- 
sources of continents — has ever been attempted for 
peaceful purposes in the world's history. 

To begin with, the representatives of 16 
European countries with different languages, 
institutions, economies, and currencies met to- 

79 



rOKEICN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

gether in Paris and analyzed the needs and poten- 
tials of these countries, in tei'ms of commodities, 
production, manpower, trade, and finances, and 
then projected these estimates four years into the 
future. These estimates were then carefully ap- 
praised in relation to each other and to world sup- 
plies, and were correlated into a comprehensive 
program which was presented to the United States 
Government for its consideration. As a statisti- 
cal feat alone, the Paris report ranks as a major 
accomplishment, but it was much more than that. 
It outlined a course of action calculated to enable 
these 16 countries and western Germany, over a 
four-year period, to achieve a reasonable standard 
of living which could be sustained without further 
abnormal assistance from abroad. 

Even the full achievement of the ambitious 
goals set by the Paris report — most of them calling 
for production surpassing that prevailing before 
the war — would hardly restore the European 
standard of living to prewar levels. The reason 
for this is that the European countries have been 
forced to liquidate most of the foreign investments 
and have lost the shipping fleets that formerly 
helped pay for imports, while their combined 
population has increased almost 10 percent. 
Britain, for example, must surpass its prewar ex- 
ports by an estimated 75 percent in order to sus- 
tain its present population. Evidence like this 
makes it clear that the recovery program envisaged 
by the Paris report represents neither merely an 
appeal for continued relief nor an attempt to en- 
able Europe to enjoy a life of ease. 

The Paris report emphasized that the maximum 
collective effort of the Eui'opean countries could 
not succeed without this additional support and 
that prompt action was essential in order to pre- 
vent a rapid deterioration of Europe's already 
precarious situation. 

When the Paris report reached this Govern- 
ment, the Krug, Nourse, and Harriman commit- 
tees were concluding their studies, at the direction 
of the President, of the probable effect of foreign 
aid on the economy and resources of the United 
States. More than 200 members of Congress had 
visited Europe to obtain first-hand information on 
conditions there. The Executive branch had or- 
ganized a corps of specialists from the various de- 
partments and agencies to carry out the mass of 



detailed technical work in connection with the 
program. 

These exjjerts subjected the Paris report to 
searching analysis. They scrutinized the Paris 
recommendations especially in respect to the abil- 
ity of the Europeans to make full use of their own 
resources and the estimated requirements for im- 
ported goods in relation to availability of specific 
commodities in the United States and other 
sources. 

The American authorities found the Paris re- 
port essentially correct in its appraisal of the 
recovery program and the proposed lines of re- 
medial action. There were numerous imperfec- 
tions of detail, and our working parties in Wash- 
ington made many revisions in the estimates pre- 
sented to them. These defects in detail, however, 
did not invalidate the Paris report as a starting 
point of a genuinely cooperative program of re- 
covery. The point I wish to emphasize is that 
the program submitted to Congress by the Presi- 
dent, while based primarily upon the report of 
the Paris conference, represents independent and 
expert American judgment which took into ac- 
count every scrap of available relevant informa- 
tion. Moreover, the evolution of the program 
to date constitutes a triumph of the democratic 
process in both national and international affairs. 
It is an insjDiring and challenging cooperative 
undertaking that has been worked out on both 
sides of the Atlantic amid open debate and dis- 
cussion, which will continue during considera- 
tion of the President's recommendations by Con- 
gress. 

An essential element in this long-term recov- 
ery program is its aim to terminate as rapidly 
as possible Europe's dei^endence upon the United 
States for assistance. Its purpose is to bring 
about conditions under which Europe's overseas 
needs would be met through the operations of 
normal international trade and not through ex- 
traoidinary help from outside sources. 

This objective, of course, is the exact opposite 
of any imperialistic design. An imperialist 
country aims to keep others dependent upon it. 
This jjrogram aims at assuring Europe's com- 
plete and lasting independence. To American 
ears, it must sound completely unreal to hear 
this program denounced as imperialism when 
the American people know they are being asked 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



to make sacrifices with no immediate prospect of 
return and certainly no possibility for profit. 
In fact, one of the chief obstacles to public un- 
derstanding of the program in this country is 
the difficulty some experience in understanding 
v.\\y we should expend large amounts of our 
substance, in the form of dollars and goods, 
when all that we can expect in return is expressed 
in intangibles. What we must realize is that 
these intangibles — the dividends we will I'eceive 
in terms of peace, security, well-being, and the 
right to live in the kind of world we desire — 
represent values perhaps even more real because 
they cannot be expressed directly in terms of 
money. 

The President has proposed a program esti- 
mated to require a total of about 17 billion dol- 
lars over four and a quarter years, ending in the 
middle of 1952. Of this amount, 6.8 billions 
would be provided in the first 15 months, begin- 
ning next April 1, with a progressively smaller 
expenditure during the next three years. The 
money would be used by the 16 participating 
countries and western Germany to pay for neces- 
sary imports, which would be bought in Latin 
America, Canada, and other parts of the world 
as well as in the United States, in order to lessen 
the drain on this country as much as possible. 
The funds will be made available both as free 
grants and loans, with ability to repay as the 
determining factor in each case. 

The countries receiving our aid will sign an 
agreement among themselves formalizing their 
undertakings set forth in the Paris report, and 
will sign separate bilateral agreements with this 
country reaffirming these commitments and add- 
ing others which will vary in individual cases. 
Among other things, the European coimtries will 
be asked to agree to set aside amounts of their 
own money equal to grants from the United 
States, and use these special funds to stabilize 
their currencies and combat inflation. Those 
countries having exportable supplies of raw mate- 
rials suitable for our stockpiling program will 
agree to make such materials available to us. 

These are some of the prominent features of the 
proposed program. More fundamental, however, 
are two questions with which, I believe, the Ameri- 
can people are primarily concerned. One is : What 
will be the effect of this far-reaching measure on 



FORE/GN A/0 AND RECONSTfiUCnON 

the internal economy of the United States? This 
aspect of the matter has been uppermost in the 
minds of the authors of this proposal from the 
beginning, as evidenced by the President's ap- 
pointment of the three committees to explore that 
subject thoroughly. 

The general conclusion of the Krug, Nourse, and 
Harriman groups, after the most intensive study, 
was that a program of this magnitude could be 
safely undertaken by this country without undue 
strain upon our internal economy or damaging de- 
pletion of our natural resources. These conclu- 
sions will undoubtedly be subjected to the closest 
scrutiny by the Congress. There is one factor in 
this connection, however, that can be stated now : 
That is, that under the first year of the proposed 
program, for which proportionately the largest 
annual approi^riation is being asked, the total ex- 
port of United States products will not exceed 
the level of similar exports in 1947. This in ef- 
fect means that no greater quantity of American 
commodities will be diverted through export from 
the American domestic supply than during the 
l^receding two years, when our people enjoyed the 
highest standard of living in history. Viewed in 
this light, the program will not by itself add to the 
existing pressures on American sources of supply. 

Another basic question is: Will this ^Drogram 
succeed in establishing a genuine recovery of west- 
ern Europe? On this point, Secretary Marshall 
has referred to the program as a calculated risk. 
Even under the best of circumstances, the impon- 
derables of any long-range program of this char- 
acter — such as future agricultural conditions and 
other natural phenomena, to say nothing of the 
political and human factors involved — make it im- 
possible to guarantee automatic success. 

In so far as it is humanly possible to do so, how- 
ever, the program contemplates, with a good 
chance of success, the laying of a solid foundation 
for European recovery which would definitely end 
the dependence of western Europe on the United 
States for extraordinary aid. In this sense, it is 
not only a recovery program but a blueprint for 
European economic independence. 

The opponents of recovery in Europe seem to 
have little doubt of the feasibility of the European 
recovery program. They are indeed fearful of its 
success. Otherwise it would be inconceivable that 
so much time and energy would be devoted to a con- 



January 18, 7948 



81 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCT/ON 

certed assault by word and deed on the cooperative 
proposal to unite the strength of the United States 
with that of the participating countries in order 
to assure the recovery of Europe. 

We are all in agreement, I think, that the con- 
tinuance of piecemeal relief rather than a program 
of genuine recovery would be possibly the worst 
way of dealing with the situation. Secretary Mar- 
shall said at Harvard last June 5th that any such 
measure "should provide a cure rather than a mere 
palliative". The decision now rests with the 
United States — its people and its Congress. 

The war and its aftermath imposed upon this 
country a vast responsibility for the future of the 
world. History has placed us in a position of 
world leadership which, since we have a large 
measure of choice, we can either accept or refuse 
to recognize. 

I do not believe that there is any danger that 
the United States will shrink from this responsi- 
bility and turn its back on the outside world by 
refusing to do anything in the present circum- 
stances. The issue is rather whether or not we will 
take prompt and effective action in meeting this 
responsibility or whether the tragic specter of too 
little and too late will be the judgment of history. 

I do not believe it is necessary here in the State 
of Wisconsin, which has benefited so much by 
the energetic and progressive settlers from the 
continent of Europe, to elaborate on the vital stake 
the United States has in the preservation of a 
free and prosperous Europe or what that means to 
the United States. There is no need to justify 
to you the main objectives of this program or to 
dwell on what its success will mean to the security, 
prosperity, and every day well-being of the citi- 
zens of this country. 

Certainly there are risks, but this country has 
not grown to greatness by the avoidance of risks. 
We must calculate most carefully what we can 
afford to do, but we must calculate even more 
cai'efully what we cannot afford not to do. 

The risks and burdens which this country will 
assume in adopting the European Recovery Pro- 
gram have been calculated. The consequences of 
failure to meet this challenge and to act boldly 
and decisively in our enlightened self-interest 
might well be incalculable. 

If western Europe, as we know it, falters and 
goes under, such a cataclysm would automatically 



bring about a radical change for the worse in the 
position of the United States in the world. The 
cost to our people for the requirements of national 
security alone would in all probability far exceed 
in a single year the full amount now asked for the 
entire European Recovery Progi-am. Even be- 
yond this the pressures, economic and political, to 
which this country would be subjected would 
place an intolerable strain on the American way 
of life as we know it. In elementary self-preser- 
vation in such a situation it is doubtful if we could 
afford the political liberties which have been the 
cornerstone of our democracy and our greatness. 
Our liberty of choice in both foreign and domestic 
affairs which is always the hallmark of a free 
people would at least be seriously curtailed. Our 
development as a country would not proceed as 
in the past by the free response of the American 
people in accordance with our national traditions 
but would in large measure be forced upon us 
not by our own choice but by the pressures 
emanating from a hostile world. 

In the present critical world situation, the pro- 
posed program offers us the best chance for the 
eventual achievement of a stable and peaceful 
world. It is certainly the best chance — and it may 
be the last. 



Expression of Gratitude From Austria 
for interim Aid 

The Secretary of State received on January 3, 
1948, the following message from the Austrian 
Government^ which is being acknowledged hy the 
Secretary of State through the Amencan Lega- 
tion in Vienna 

On the occasion of the signature of the agree- 
ment concerning Interim Aid to Austria, we wish 
to express to you the sincerest gratitude of the 
Federal Government and should be grateful to 
you for conveying the warmest thanks of Austria 
to His Excellency, the President of the United 
States, and to the American people. 

Leopold Figl, Chancellor 
Karl Gruber, Foreign Minister 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Economic Accomplishments of the General Assembly 



BY WILLARD L. THORP > 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



. . . The daily newspapers deal in large meas- 
ure with the spectacular events of today and yes- 
terday. The eruption of a volcano will be de- 
scribed on page one, but you will find no progress 
report on the formation of a coral island. 

. . . There were few headlines about the eco- 
nomic discussions at the Second Session of the 
General Assembly. There was the work of Com- 
mittee II, but, so far as the Assembly itself was 
concerned, economic debates occupied a relatively 
minor portion of its time. This is in no way 
surprising. The economists were rather proud 
not to make the headlines. To achieve interna- 
tional cooperation in solving problems of an eco- 
nomic and social nature is not a matter of per- 
iodic and dazzling leaps. Progress is made 
chiefly as the result of steady, day-to-day ap- 
plication to specific problems. The individual 
problems are often technical and may seem fairly 
limited in their significance, but their cumulative 
importance is fundamental. 

This necessity for intensive work in the eco- 
nomic field has in fact been recognized in the 
evolving structure of the United Nations and 
its agencies. The recent Assembly established in 
the political field four commissions . . . but 
there are already in existence more than a dozen 
U.N. commissions and subcommissions to con- 
sider various problems in the economic and social 
fields under the supervision of the Economic 
and Social Council. To these bodies, and par- 
ticularly to the specialized agencies, which are 
related to the U.N. through the Ecosoc, the job 

January 18, 7948 



of bringing about international cooperation in 
their respective areas has been entrusted. 

The very fact that the volume of debate on eco- 
nomic topics was less at the second General As- 
sembly than at the first is an indication that these 
subsidiary and specialized bodies are moving 
through their organizational phases and them- 
selves coming to grips with the substantive 
international problems with which they are 
charged. . . . 

This whole system of diversified operation was 
severely challenged at the last Assembly. In the 
first round of speeches, there were a number of 
expressions of dissatisfaction with the work of the 
Economic and Social Council, which some speak- 
ers felt had very few concrete accomplishments to 
which it might point. . . . The Council has a 
membership of 18 so that most of the countries 
represented at the General Assembly had no first- 
hand knowledge of its operations. For this reason 
the discussion of whether Ecosoc was doing its 
job jjroperly was valuable as a method of reem- 
phasizing what that job should be. 

The discussions served to make it clear that 
Ecosoc is not itself to be in any sense an operating 
organ of the United Nations; it is rather to super- 
vise the multifarious international activities in the 
economic and social fields In this connection it 
has two main functions: first, to coordinate the 



' Excerpts from au address made before the American 
Association for the United Nations, Inc., at New York, 
N. Y., on Jan. 10, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. William Fowler of the U.S. Mission to U.N. 
read the address for Mr. Thorp. 

83 



THE un;ted nations and specialized agencies 

work of its own commissions and of the specialized 
agencies so that possible conflicts may be resolved 
and duplication of effort, particularly in research 
and staff work, may be avoided ; and secondly, to 
stimulate work by these bodies in fields which may 
seem from time to time to be neglected. 

In reemjohasizing these functions, the Assembly 
discussions pointed the way to the conclusion that 
criticism of Ecosoc for its failure to move moun- 
tains was at least j^i'emature. The specialized 
agencies and the commissions of the Council have 
not gone so far in their own substantive work to 
make overlapping or duplication an urgent prob- 
lem. Moreover, it was pointed out that analysis of 
a problem by two different bodies from two differ- 
ent points of view was likely to be more helpful 
than damaging and that liaison between secre- 
tariats was the j^rimary instrument for guarding 
against inefficient repetition of basic information 
gathering and research. It also became apparent 
that until the commissions and specialized agencies 
had time to launch their own substantive projects 
it was not appropriate for the Economic and Social 
Council to urge specific projects upon them, as this 
would come close to usuri)ing the functions for 
which they were created. 

The effect of the discussion of this subject 
will, I am sure, be a healthy one. As I have 
mentioned, thei'e is now a more wide-spread 
awareness of what the Ecosoc is supposed to do 
and, equally important, of what it is supposed 
to leave in the first instance to other groups. 
But the debate and the resolution also put Ecosoc 
and the sjDecialized agencies on notice that, as 
the formative period comes to an end and the 
various bodies begin to operate on their own 
power, the General Assembly will be looking at 
them closely and critically and will be expecting 
results. This machinery is really an extraordi- 
nary experiment. It must be watched closely 
and will certainly be susceptible of improvement. 
We must find just the right coefficient of impa- 
tience — one which will maintain the feelins of 
urgency, yet will not lead to discouragement. 

The Assembly also recommended that Ecosoc 
should consider at least once a year, and at other 
times if deemed necessary, a survey of world eco- 
nomic conditions and trends, together with a study 
of major dislocations of supply and requirements. 



This report is expected also to include recommen- 
dations for reniedial action by the Assembly, by 
member states, and by specialized agencies. The 
need for a survey of this nature had already been 
considered by the Coimcil, which had assigned the 
task to its Economic and Employment Commission. 
The Assembly resolution increases the importance 
and dignity of this survey, which would seem 
likely to become a major topic on the agenda of at 
least one session of the Council each year. As yet 
the Economic and Social Council has never in- 
dulged in an effort to achieve an agreed analysis of 
any major economic phenomenon. It should be a 
most interesting experience. 

The Assembly also provided for an annual 
report by tlie Secretary-General on the action 
which the various member states may have taken 
to give effect to recommendations of the Ecosoc 
and of the General Assembly in the economic 
and social field. 

The original proposal made by the Polish Dele- 
gation contained provisions requiring the exclu- 
sive use of U.N. machinery in settling funda- 
mental international economic j^roblems, and 
calling on member states to avoid the use for 
such purposes of machinery outside the United 
Nations. These proposed provisions were aimed 
at the work of the Committee of European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation, which had been formed as a 
result of Secretary Marshall's Harvard speech 
and had just completed its report. The address 
of Dr. Lange, the Polish Delegate, was a specific 
and vigorous attack on the Committee of Euro- 
pean Economic Co-operation. His thesis that 
"prosperity is indivisible" was an excellent one 
but seemed to be most appi'opriate when applied 
to the retreat from Paris. 

The response to his position was prompt and 
equally vigorous. In the ensuing discussion, dele- 
gates from various countries represented on the 
Committee of European Economic Co-operation 
argued against a mandatory requirement for ex- 
clusive reliance on U. N. machinery in all inter- 
national economic dealings. It was made clear 
that the creation of the United Nations organiza- 
tion had not been intended to, and should not, 
outlaw direct dealings between countries. More- 
over, so far as concerned the specific case of the 
Committee of European Economic Co-operation, 



84 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



it was pointed out that all European countries ex- 
cept Spain had been asked to participate, that 
only the eastern European countries had refused, 
and that their refusal had not been based on a 
failure to use U. N. machinery but on the alleged 
infringement of national sovereignty by the pro- 
posed international cooperation. 

United States participation in this particular 
debate was limited, because the target of criticism 
was the Committee of European Economic Co-op- 
eration and because defense of this body was more 
appropriately the task of representatives from 
among its members. There can be no question 
but that the European Recovery Program is thor- 
oughly consistent with the purposes of the United 
Nations. It therefore in no way tears down any 
of the principles of the Charter. Wliether or not 
such an operation should be carried on directly 
through the United Nations is a matter of choice 
by the nations concerned. In this instance the 
European nations felt under a great urgency. The 
United Nations had no agency established for this 
type of task, and, it should be remarked, the first 
session of the Economic Commissioif for Europe, 
which was almost contemporaneous, failed even 
to complete its agenda. Furthermore, five of the 
participating countries have not been admitted 
to the United Nations, and certain United Nations 
countries in Europe have refused to cooperate. 

However, the United Nations agencies should 
also carry a most important share in accomplish- 
ing the goal of European recovery. The Economic 
Commission for Europe already has important 
tasks in various fields, notably coal, inland trans- 
port, and certain chemicals. The Fao has a real 
concern with the food and fertilizer problems. 
The International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development and the International Monetary 
Fund must both be closely related to the processes 
of recovery. This is no project outside the United 
Nations. Much of its success will depend upon 
the contributions made by these agencies. And 
the achievement of European recoveiy will in turn 
greatly increase the opportunities and effective- 
ness of the U. N. agencies. 

At the last session the debates indicated once 
again the major concern of many member states 
with the matter of economic development. It be- 
comes increasingly apparent in the meetings of the 
various U. N. economic bodies that this topic will 

January 18, J 948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

command over the next few years a large portion 
of the attention of specialized agencies, of the 
Ecosoc and its commissions, and of the Assembly 
itself. 

The problem of economic development has vari- 
ous aspects, and the emphasis given by different 
countries to different methods of approach and to 
different schedules of relative priorities appeared 
time and again in the opening debate in Com- 
mittee II. This eagerness for industrialization 
and diversification has formed the foundation of 
the proceedings in the Economic Commission for 
Asia and the Far East, has arisen constantly in 
discussion of the formation of a similar commis- 
sion for Latin America, and was of course para- 
mount in the recent session of Ecosoc's Subcom- 
mission on Economic Development. The desire 
of these countries to be permitted free use of in- 
fant industry protection is currently one of the 
most important issues before the Conference on 
Trade and Employment, which is working at 
Habana to create an International Trade Organi- 
zation. 

Today economic blocs tend to form along lines 
of degree of economic development, with the 
largest group those who regard themselves as 
underdeveloped countries. Earlier sessions paid 
particular attention to the countries devastated 
by the war. This was, of course, to be expected. 
From a humanitarian point of view, relief pro- 
grams for these countries was a matter of first 
concern, and this state of mind was reflected in 
the consideration of economic reconstruction as 
well. However, the enormous scope of any re- 
construction program has become apparent, and 
it is now realized that the needs of reconstruction 
alone can absorb huge quantities of materials, 
supplies, and resources for a long time to come. 
It is at this point that some other countries begin 
to raise questions. 

For example, even before the war many of the 
Latin American countries felt that their well- 
being was hampered by a relatively low level of 
economic development. Many had become in- 
creasingly aware of the desirability of expanding 
their activities in this field and had taken steps 
to promote both industrial and agricultural de- 
velopment. During the war great efforts were 
made to expand Latin American production of a 
variety of niaterials, and in that period of emer- 

85 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

gency shortages it was often impossible or undesir- 
able to carry out a balanced development progi'am. 
In this area, therefore, though there was no direct 
war devastation, the war years did not permit 
steady progress in a planned and orderly process 
of economic development, and the countries in- 
volved feel that much remains to be done. They 
wish to move ahead without delay on this unfin- 
ished task, which it is recognized will be substan- 
tially speeded up by assistance from abroad. 

A similar problem exists in Asia. The war re- 
sulted in severe material damage in many areas, 
though by and large the destruction to industrial 
plant did not compare with that in Europe. But, 
more important, the war accelerated the transi- 
tion from colonial to independent status, and the 
new govermnents in that area are rightly eager 
to launch programs for their own economic de- 
velopment and, in support of those programs, to 
draw upon other parts of the world for assistance 
in money and in goods. The same desire exists in 
the Middle East and in other areas that have been 
in the past relatively undeveloped from an eco- 
nomic point of view. 

The cumulative effect of this desire for eco- 
nomic development is an enormous demand for 
money and for goods. The demand is vigor- 
ously pressed because the desire is urgent, and 
no area or country is predisposed to subordinate 
to another what it feels to be its own legitimate 
needs. Much of this is not very realistic. Imag- 
inations reach much further than documented 
projects. And there is little realization of the 
many elements which must be developed more or 
less simultaneously to achieve industrialization 
and diversification. But no one can argue with 
the objectives. It is the course of economic 
progress. 

But let us return to the problem of nations 
like those of western Europe, which before the 
war had high levels of production and economic 
activity but which suffered enormous material 
losses by way of military destruction, exhaus- 
tion, obsolescence, and want of upkeep. It is 
persuasively argued that the world-wide demand 
for goods is so large, so out of proportion to 
present availabilities, that the first stej) in a 
general raising of the economic level should be 
the rehabilitation of existing plant in areas 
(Continued on page 95) 



interim Committee of the General 
Assembly: Tiie Problem of Voting in 
the Security Council ^ 



UNITED STATES DRAFT RESOLUTION 



Whereas the General Assembly, in its resolu- 
tion of 21 November 1947, requested the Interim 
Committee, in accordance with paragraph 2 (a) 
of the resolution of the General Assembly of 13 
November liJ47, establishing the Coimnittee, to: 

"1. Consider the problem of voting in the Se- 
curity Council, taking into account all proposals 
which have been or may be submitted by Mem- 
bers of the United Nations to the second session of 
the General Assembly or to the Interim Commit- 
tee; 

"2. Consult with any committee which the Se- 
curity Council may designate to co-operate with 
the Interim jHommittee in the study of the prob- 
lem ; 

"3. Report, with its conclusions, to the third 
session of the General Assembly, the report to be 
transmitted to the Secretary-General not later 
than 15 July 1948, and by the Secretary-General 
to the Member States and to the General Assem- 
bly." = 

The Interim Committee, to give effect to the re- 
quest of the General Assembly, 

Requests the Members of the United Nations, 
which desire to submit proposals on the problem 
of voting in the Security Council, to transmit 
them to the Secretary-General on or before 15 
March 1948 ; 

Requests the Secretary-General to circulate any 
and all such proposals immediately upon receipt 
thereof to all Members of the United Nations ; 

Bequests the Chairman of the Interim Commit- 
tee to bring up for consideration the problem of 
voting in the Security Council when the Secretary- 
General shall have ascertained that all Members 
desiring to do so have submitted proposals, but in 
any case not later than 15 March 1948. 



' U.N. doc. A/AC 18/3, Jan. 5, 1948, adopted on Jan. 9, 
1948, by a vote of 39 to 1. Keissued as A/AC 18/11, Jan. 
12, 1948. 

' Bulletin of Dec. 7, 1947, p. 1077. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Activities and Developments 



Report on the First ConsuStatlon of the Commission on History 



ARTICLE BY ARTHUR P. VVHITAKER 



Delegations representing 19 American govern- 
ments took part in the First Consultation of the 
Commission on History of the Pan American In- 
stitute of Geography and History at Mexico City 
from October 18 to 26, 19-17. The only American 
republics not represented were Chile and Para- 
guay. There were also observers from other gov- 
erimients and from the United Nations, the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, the Pan American Union, and the Pan 
American Institute of Geography and History; 
and about 50 delegates representing universities 
and learned societies. Only government delegates 
(one for each member state) had the right to vote, 
but all delegates were entitled to participate in the 
discussions. 

Purposes and Program 

The main purposes of the meeting were to or- 
ganize the Commission on History on a permanent 
basis and to plan its future activities. This is one 
of the three conunissions (one each on cartog- 
raphy, geography, and history) through which 
most of the activities of the Pan American Insti- 
tute of Geography and History are now carried on. 
The Commission on History was created by resolu- 
tion XXVTI of the Fourth General Assembly of 
;he Institute at Caracas, August 25-Sei3tember 1, 
1946. This resolution outlined the purposes and 
structure of the Conmiission and entrusted its 
preliminary organization to the Government of 
Mexico through the Institute Nacional de Antro- 
jologia e Historia of that country. 

'ermanent Organization 

The first of the two main purposes of the Mexico 
-ity meeting was accomplished by the adoption 

lanuary 18, 1948 



of a permanent organization and by-laws. Silvio 
Zavala, -Mexican historian and Acting Chairman 
of the Commission, was confirmed as Chairman. 
Provision was made for an executive committee, 
special committees, a secretariat, and periodic con- 
sultative meetings of the full Commission, to be 
held at intervals of one or two years. The next 
meeting was scheduled to be held at Santiago, 
Chile, in 1950 in connection with the Fifth Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Pan American Institute of 
Geography and History. It was felt that on this 
first occasion the interval should be somewhat 
longer than the statutory "one or two years" in 
order to provide adequate time for initial work 
on the numerous projects adopted by the Mexico 
City meeting. 

Permanent Committees 

The second purpose of the Mexico City meet- 
ing — the planning of the program of activities of 
the Commission on History — was carried out 
mainly within the framework of the four perma- 
nent committees of the Commission, which were 
created at the Institute's Caracas assembly of 1946. 
Each of these committees was set up under the 
auspices of a particular country, but all of them 
retain an international character and remain de- 
pendencies of the Commission. The Mexico City 
meeting defined their composition more precisely 
by stipulating that each committee shall have ac- 
tive members in five or six of the American states 
and corresponding members in the rest, so that 
all the American states will be represented on 
the committees. 

The four committees created at Caracas, and 

87 



ACTIVITIBS AND DBVELOPMBNTS 

the countries to which they were assigned, are 
as follows: Committee on the Origins and De- 
velopment of the Independence Movement and the 
Congress of Panama, Venezuela; Committee on 
the History of the Americas and the Revision of 
Text Books, Argentina; Committee on Archives, 
Cuba ; Committee on Folklore, Peru. The meet- 
ing of the History Commission generally followed 
the committee pattern in the conduct of its dis- 
discussions, dividing itself into four sections, each 
of which corresponded to one of the four com- 
mittees. 

Resolutions Adopted 

The new Commission conducted its discussions 
on a professional level, and its decisions were 
marked by moderation, realism, and breadth of 
vision. The results of the meeting are set forth in 
the final act, which consists of three parts, namely, 
resolutions, by-laws, and budget. Of the 34 reso- 
lutions contained in the final act, only the last four 
(nos. XXXI-XXXIV) relate directly to the 
four committees and constitute the core of the 
document. 

Independence Movement 

The resolution (no. XXXI) on the Caracas 
Committee on the Independence Movement rec- 
ommended that the Committee's attention be con- 
centrated on the preparation and publication of 
two bibliographies : one of the origins and devel- 
opment of the independence movement, and the 
other of the Congress of Panama, 1826. In ac- 
cordance with recent trends in historical writ- 
ing, the Committee was also advised to promote 
the study of economic and social factors in the 
independence movement. The purpose of this 
recommendation was to break the quasi-monop- 
oly of historical writing on this subject which 
has been exercised by military campaigns and the 
careers of Bolivar and a few other proceres. 

History of the Americas 

The results are set forth in resolution XXXII. 
This resolution contains two declarations on 
the History of the Americas, the first of which 
states the purposes of the "History" and pro- 
vides, among other things, that the "History" 
shall in no sense be official, that the Commission 

88 



on History shall intervene in the preparation of 
it only as promoter of the project, which shall 
be carried out by scholars, and that the authors 
of the various parts of the work shall enjoy the 
most complete freedom of opinion. 

The second declaration, which deals with pro- 
cedure, reinforces the foregoing stipulations and 
also provides ample time for the preparation of the 
plan of the "History of the Americas" and ample 
opportunity for discussion of the plan before it 
can be approved and carried into effect. Thus, 
the plan is first to be formulated by the Buenos 
Aires Committee on the basis of consultation 
with national members and other scholars 
throughout the Americas. The plan is then to 
be conununicated to the national membei-s at 
least six months in advance of the next meeting 
of the Commission and the Institute at San- 
tiago, Chile, in 1950. At this meeting the plan 
will be considered for adoption, modification, or 
rejection. If it is adopted, steps may then be 
taken to engage contributors; but arrangements 
for publication are not to be made before a report 
on the manuscripts received has been made to the 
next General Assembly of the Institute, which is 
scheduled for 1954. 

Revision of Textbooks I 

No substantive action was taken on the revision 
of textbooks, but the Buenos Aires committee was 
instructed to report to the national members at 
least six months in advance of the Santiago assem- ■ 
bly of 1950 on the existing regulations and agree- " 
ments regarding the revision of textbooks and to 
present both to the national members and to this 
assembly its own suggestions for action. 

A reservation was entered by the Chairman of 
the United States Delegation to the effect that 
the United States Government cannot intervene 
in the revision of textbooks. 

Folklore and Anthropology 

The resolution (no. XXXIII) drafted by the 
third section — the one corresponding to the Peru- 
vian Committee on Folklore — suggested that the 
Commission on History study the question of es- 
tablishing a Committee on General Anthropology. 
This action would bring the number of permanent 
committees to five and would fill a gap left by the 
Caracas assembly of the parent Institute when it 

Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



created the Commission on History and its de- 
pendent committees. 

In addition, the third section recommended that 
the Committee on Folklore study the possibility 
of publishing guides and manuals in that field and 
promote the collection of folk music. 

Archives 

The resolution (no. XXXIV) emanating from 
the fourth section, on archives, falls into two main 
parts: one proposing the establishment of Na- 
tional Councils on Archives, in connection with 
the Commission's Committee on Archives (Cuba), 
and enumerating the activities in which they 
should engage; the other outlining a program of 
activities for the Cuban committee itself. The 
national councils are to concern themselves with 
internal, domestic matters and the Cuban com- 
mittee is to serve as a central coordinating agency 
for the national councils. Both are to study such 
matters as the preservation, organization, and 
publication of archives and the reproduction of 
documents for the use of scholars. 

Other Commission Actions 

There were a number of resolutions which 
encouraged the broadening of the concept of 
history in accordance with current trends, as 
well as resolutions relating to social and eco- 
nomic history. Others related to various aspects 
of cultural history, particularly historiography 
(resolution I), the history of aVmerican universi- 
ties (resolution XII), and the history of "ideas, 
thought, and philosophy" (resolutions XVI, 
XVII, and XVIII). 

Various provisions were made looking toward 
tlie more systematic use of the Revista de 
Hhtoria de America for the dissemination of 
news notes and articles relating to the activities 
of the Commission on History and its com- 
mittees. Formerly published under the general 
authority of the Institute, this journal has been 
placed under the Commission on History since its 
establishment, and the Institute makes a contribu- 
tion to the Commission's budget for support of the 
publication. 

This meeting of the Commission was strongly 
marked by a recognition of the interdependence 
of the American states with the rest of the 
world and by a desire to cooperate with indi- 

January J 8, 1948 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

viduals and agencies outside the immediate re- 
gion, particularly through the United Nations. 
For example, the Commission resolved to cooper- 
ate with Unesco, offered its cooperation to that 
body (resolution XIX), and took steps to estab- 
lish immediate contact with Unesco in the prep- 
aration of the Buenos Aires committee's report on 
the revision of textbooks. Other illustrations are 
the article in resolution XXXI authorizing the 
Caracas Committee on the Independence Move- 
ment to solicit the cooperation of historians in non- 
American countries and resolution XXIII, which 
directs the Executive Committee of the Commis- 
sion to study, in the light of the decisions taken 
by the forthcoming Ninth International Confer- 
ence of American States at Bogota, the relations 
that ought to exist between the Commission on 
History and the non- American nations which are 
interested in the history of the Americas. In 
short, while it was the consensus that inter-Ameri- 
can cooperation can be of great value in promoting 
the study of the history of the Americas, there 
was not the slightest tendency toward an exclu- 
sive regionalism in this matter. 

The budget for 1948 tentatively adopted by 
this meeting was fixed at 123,180 Mexican pesos, 
of which 60,000 pesos were to be contributed by 
the Mexican Government and 45,000 pesos by the 
Institute (for the support of the Revista de His- 
toria de America and other publications) , leaving 
a deficit of 28,180 pesos. It seems reasonable to 
expect that this small deficit would be made up 
either from an increase of quotas as a result of the 
Bogota conference or, failing that, from some 
other source. 

Conclusion 

The new Commission on History made a very 
successful start at its first consultative meeting. 
It adopted a somid program which augurs well 
for the future development of its activities. These 
activities can be of considerable value to the mem- 
ber states and to the intei-national group of schol- 
ars interested in the history of the Americas. 
Government sujoport enables scholars to carry on 
cooperative studies which would otherwise be diffi- 
cult, if not impossible ; and cooperative enterprises 
of this kind among scholars from various coun- 
tries are one of the best means of attaining inter- 
national good-will and understanding. 

89 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



The State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS > 



Mk. President, Mr. Speaker, Members or the 
80th Congress : 

We are here today to consider the state of the 
Union. 

On this occasion, above all others, the Congress 
and the President should concentrate their atten- 
tion not upon party but upon country; not upon 
the things wliich divide us but upon those which 
bind us together — the enduring principles of our 
American system, and our common aspirations 
for tlie future welfare and security of the people of 
the United States. 

The United States has become great because we, 
as a people, have been able to work together for 
great objectives even while differing about details. 

The elements of our strength are many. They 
include our democratic government, our economic 
system, our great natural resources. But these 
are only partial explanations. 

The basic source of our strength is spiritual. 
For we are a people with a faith. We believe in 
the dignity of man. We believe that he was 
created in the image of the Father of us all. 

We do not believe that men exist merely to 
strengthen the state or to be cogs in an economic 
machine. We do believe that governments are 
created to serve the people and that economic sys- 
tems exist to minister to their wants. We have a 
profound devotion to the M-elfare and rights of the 
individual as a human being. 

The faith of our people has particular mean- 
ing at this time in history because of the unsettled 
and changing state of the world. 

The victims of war in many lands are striving 
to rebuild their lives, and are seeking assurance 
that the tragedy of war will not occur again. 
Throughout the world new ideas are challenging 
the old. Men of all nations are re-examining the 
beliefs by which they live. Great scientific and 
industi'ial changes have released new forces which 
will affect the future course of civilization. 

The state of our Union reflects the changing 
nature of the modern world. On all sides there 
is heartening evidence of great energy — of capac- 



' Excerpts from the niessajie delivered by the rresldent 
before a joint session of the Congress on Jan. 7, 1948, and 
released to the press on the same date by the White House. 

90 



ity for economic development — and even more 
important, capacity for spiritual growth. But 
accompanying this great activity there are 
equally great questions — great anxieties — great 
aspirations. They reju'esent the concern of an 
enlightened people that conditions should be so 
arranged as to make life more worthwhile. 

We must devote ourselves to finding answers 
to these anxieties and aspirations. We seek an- 
swers which will embody the moral and spiritual 
elements of tolerance, unselfishness, and brother- 
hood upon which true freedom and opportunity 
must rest. 

As we examine the state of our Union today, 
we can benefit from viewing it on a basis of 
the accomplishments of the last decade and our 
goals for the next. How far have we come dur- 
ing the last ten years and how far can we go 
during the next ten? 

It was ten years ago that the determination of 
dictators to wage war upon mankind became 
apparent. The years that followed brought un- 
told death and destruction. 

We shared in the human suffering of the war, 
but we were fortunate enough to escape most of 
war's destruction. We were able through these 
ten years to expand the productive strength of 
our farms and factories. 

More important, however, is the fact that these 
years brought us new courage and new confi- 
dence in the ideals of our free democracy. Our 
deep belief in freedom and justice was reinforced 
in the crucible of war. 

On the foundations of our greatly strength- 
ened economy and our renewed confidence in 
democratic values, we can continue to move 
forward. 

There are some who look with fear and dis- 
trust upon planning for the future. Yet our 
great national achievements have been attained 
by those with vision. Our Union was formed, 
our frontiers were pushed back, and our great 
industries were built by men who looked ahead. 

I propose that we look ahead today toward 
those goals for the future which have the great- 
est bearing upon the foundations of our democ- 
racy and the hapjnness of our people. 

I' do so, confident in the thought that with 

Department of State Bulletin 



clear objectives and with firm determination, 
we can, in the next ten years, build upon the 
accomplishments of the past decade to achieve 
a glorious future. Year by year, beginning now, 
we must make a substantial part of this progress. 

Our first goal is to secui'e fully the essential 
human rights of our citizens. 

The United States has always had a deep con- 
cern for human rights. Religious freedom, free 
speech, and freedom of thought are cherished 
realities in our land. Any denial of human 
rights is a denial of the basic beliefs of democ- 
racy and of our regard for the worth of each 
individual. 



Our second goal is to protect and develop our 
human resources. 

The safeguarding of the rights of our citizens 
must be accompanied by an equal regard for their 
opportunities for development and their protec- 
tion from economic insecurity. In this Nation 
the ideals of freedom and equality can be given 
specific meaning in terms of health, education, 
social security, and housing. 

Another fundamental aim of our democracy is 
to provide an adequate education for every person. 

Our educational systems face a financial crisis. 
It is deplorable that in a Nation as rich as ours 
there are millions of children who do not have 
adequate schoolhouses or enough teachers for a 
good elementary or secondary education. If there 
are educational inadequacies in any State, the 
whole Nation suffers. The Federal Government 
has a responsibility for providing financial aid to 
meet this crisis. 



The Government's program for health, educa- 
tion, and security are of such great importance to 
our democracy that we should now establish an 
Executive department for their administration. 

Our fourth goal is to lift the standard of living 
for all our people by strengthening our economic 
system and sharing more broadly among our peo- 
ple the goods we produce. 



Our fifth goal is to achieve world peace based on 
principles of freedom and justice and the equality 
of all nations. 

Twice within our generation, world wars have 
taught us that we cannot isolate onrselves from 
the rest of the world. 

We have learned that the loss of freedom in any 
area of the world means a loss of freedom to our- 
selves — that the loss of independence by any na- 

Jonuory 18, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

tion adds directly to the insecurity of the United 
States and all free nations. 

We have learned that a healthy world economy 
is essential to world peace — that economic distress 
is a disease whose evil effects spread far beyond 
the boundaries of the afflicted nation. 

For these reasons tlie United States is vigorously 
following policies designed to achieve a peaceful 
and prosperous world. 

We are giving, and will continue to give, our 
full support to the United Nations. While that 
organization has encountered unforeseen and un- 
welcome difficulties, I am confident of its ultimate 
success. We are also devoting our efforts toward 
world economic recovery and the revival of world 
trade. These actions are closely related and mu- 
tually supporting. 

We believe that the United States can be an 
effective force for world peace only if it is strong. 
We look forward to the day when nations will de- 
crease their armaments. Yet so long as there re- 
mains serious opposition to the ideals of a peace- 
ful world, we must maintain strong armed forces. 

The passage of the National Security Act by 
the Congress at its last session was a notable step 
in providing for the security of this country. A 
further step which I consider of even greater im- 
portance is the early provision for universal train- 
ing. There are many elements in a balanced na- 
tional security program, all inter-related and nec- 
essary, but universal training should be the foun- 
dation for them all. A favorable decision by the 
Congress at an early date is of world importance. 
I am convinced that such action is vital to the se- 
curity of this Nation and to the maintenance of its 
leadership. 

The United States is engaged today in many in- 
ternational activities directed toward the creation 
of lasting peaceful relationships among nations. 

We have been giving substantial aid to Greece 
and Turkey to assist these nations in preserving 
their integrity against foreign pressures. Had it 
not been for our aid, their situation today might 
well be radically different. The continued integ- 
rity of those countries will have a powerful effect 
upon other nations in the Middle East and Europe 
struggling to maintain their independence while 
they repair the damages of war. 

"the United States has special responsibilities 
with respect to the countries in which we have oc- 
cupation forces : Germany, Austria, Japan, and 
Korea. Our efforts to reach agreements on peace 
settlements for these countries have so far been 
blocked. But we shall continue to exert our ut- 
most efforts to obtain satisfactory settlements for 
each of these nations. 

Many thousands of displaced persons, still liv- 
ing in camps overseas, should be allowed entry 
into the United States. I again urge the Congress 
to pass suitable legislation at once so that this 

91 



THE RECORD OF THE IVEEff 

Nation may do its share in caring for homeless 
and suffering refugees of all faiths. I believe that 
the admission of these persons will add to the 
strength and energy of this Nation. 

We are moving toward our goal of world peace 
in many ways. But the most important efforts 
which we are now making are those which support 
world economic reconstruction. We are seeking to 
restore the world trading system which was shat- 
tered by the war and to remedy the economic pa- 
ralysis which grips many countries. 

To restore world trade we have recently taken 
the lead in bringing about the greatest reduction 
of world tariffs that has ever occurred. The ex- 
tension of the provisions of the Reciprocal Trade 
Agreements Act, which made this achievement 
possible, is of extreme importance. We must also 
go on to support the International Trade Organi- 
zation, through which we hope to obtain world- 
wide agreement on a code of fair conduct in inter- 
national trade. 

Our present major effort toward economic re- 
construction is to support the program for recov- 
ery developed by the countries of Europe. In my 
recent message to the Congress, I outlined the rea- 
sons why it is wise and necessary for the United 
States to extend this support. 

I want to reaffii'm my belief in the soundness 
and promise of this proposal. When the Euro- 
pean economy is strengthened, the product of its 
industry will be of benefit to many other areas of 
economic distress. Tlie ability of free men to 
overcome hunger and despair will be a moral stim- 
ulus to the entire world. 

We intend to work also with other nations in 
achieving world economic recovery. We shall 
continue our cooperation with the nations of the 
Western Hemisphere. A special program of 
assistance to China, to provide urgent relief needs 
and to speed reconstruction, will be submitted to 
the Congress. 

Unfortunately, not all governments share the 
hope of the people of the United States that eco- 
nomic reconstruction in many areas of the world 
can be achieved througli cooperative effort among 
nations. In spite of these clifferences we will go 
forward with our efforts to overcome economic 
paralysis. 

No nation by itself can carry these programs to 
success; they depend upon the cooperative and 
honest efforts of all participating countries. Yet 
the leadership is inevitably ours. 

I consider it of the highest importance that the 
Congress should authorize support for the Euro- 
pean Eecovery Program for the period from 
April 1, 1948, to June 30, 1952, with an initial 
amount for the first 1.5 months of $6.8 billion. I 
urge the Congress to act promptly on this vital 
measure of our foreign policy — on this decisive 
contribution to world peace. 

We are following a sound, constructive, and 

92 



practical course in carrying out our determination 
to achieve peace. 

We are fighting poverty, hunger, and suffering. 

This leads to peace — not war. 

We are building toward a world where all na- 
tions, large and small alike, may live free from 
the fear of aggression. 

This leads to peace — not war. 

Above all else, we are striving to achieve a con- 
cord among the peoples of the world based upon 
the dignity of the individual and the brotherhood 
of man. 

This leads to peace — not war. 

We can go forward with confidence that we 
are following sound policies, both at home and 
with other nations, which will lead us toward our 
great goals for economic, social, and moral 
achievement. 



We are determined that the democratic faith 
of our people and the strength of our resources 
shall contribute their full share to the attainment 
of enduring peace in the world. 

It is our faith in human dignity that underlies 
these purposes. It is this faith that keeps us a 
strong and vital people. 

This is a time to remind ourselves of these 
fundamentals. For today the whole world looks 
to us for leadership. 

This is tlie hour to re-dedicate ourselves to the 
faith in mankind that makes us strong. 

This is the hour to re-dedicate ourselves to the 
faith in God that gives us confidence as we face 
the challenge of the years ahead. 



Continuing Examination of Matters Relating 
to Japanese Reparations 

[Released to the press January 5] 

In response to requests for information re- 
garding commitments made to other nations as 
to reparations from Japan, the Department of 
State can state categorically that the United 
States has made no secret agreements or com- 
mitments. 

The question of the division of Japanese in- 
dustrial facilities declared available for repara- 
tions has been under consideration in the Far 
Eastern Commission for nearly two years. Dur- 
ing that jieriod numerous suggestions by many 
members, including the United States, have been 
made in an attempt to arrive at a solution. 
None of these suggestions has been adopted. 

In the hope of helping to reach an agreed in- 
ternational solution, the Department of State 
has proposed several specific schedules of per- 
centage awards for all Fec members, to apply to 

Department of State Bulletin 



ilu' distribution of available industrial assets 
troni within Japan. These schedules have re- 
llected the general political judgments of the 
Department of State as to the over-all contri- 
bution to victory over Japan, and losses suffered 
due to Japan's aggression, by each member coun- 
try. All of these proposals have been rejected 
and therefore do not constitute commitments of 
the United States. 

During 19-16 the Far Eastern Commission de- 
clared certain industrial capacity in Japanese 
nuinitions and war-supporting industries to be 
clearly surplus to the peaceful needs of that coun- 
try and to be available for removal as repara- 
tions. In view of the prolonged delays in reach- 
ing any decision at all on the distribution of 
Japanese reparations and in recognition of the 
urgent need for assistance in relief and rehabili- 
tation in devastated Far Eastern countries, the 
United States Government in April 1947 ' di- 
rected the Supreme Commander for the Allied 
Powers to distribute 30 percent of the initially 
available reparations pool to the four principal 
war-devastated countries as follows: 

China 15 percent 

Philippines 5 " 

United Kingdom (for Malaya Burma) 5 " 

Xotherlands (for Netherlands East 5 " 
Indies) 

This unilateral directive constitutes the only 
United States policy now in force as to the dis- 
tribution of Japanese reparations shares at this 
time. 

Supply of Food for Civilian Consumption 
in Japan ^ 

1. The Far Eastern Commission, having con- 
sidered the question of the supply of food for 
civilian consumption in Japan in the light of — 

a. the measures already taken by the Supreme 
Commander since the beginning of the occupa- 
tion to improve Japan's production and distribu- 
tion of indigenous food ; and 

b. the acute shortage of food which is not con- 
fined to Japan, but is causing serious hardship in 
countries which suffered as a result of Japanese 
aggression ; 

hereby adopts the following policies with respect 
to this matter. 

2. The Supreme Commander should ensure, by 
all practicable means, that the Japanese Govern- 
ment take the necessary measures — 

a. to attain the maximum production of in- 
1 digenous food ; and 

jJonuary 78, 1948 



IHE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

h. to ensure equitable distribution of indige- 
nous food supplies by maintaining and improving 
the system of collection, rationing, and price 
control. 

3. In view of the acute world shortage, imports 
of food for Japan during the present crop jear 
(November 1, 1947-October 31, 1948) should be 
the minimum required to jDrevent such starvation 
and widespread disease and civil unrest as would 
endanger the safety of the occupation forces, and 
no imports exceeding this minimum should be per- 
mitted which would have the effect of giving 
preferential treatment to the Japanese over the 
peoples of any Allied Power or liberated area. 

4. The Far Eastern Commission recommends to 
its member governments that they take all steps 
within their power to assist the implementation of 
this policy. 



Belgium Signs German Enemy 
Assets Agreement 

[Released to the press January 8] 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 8 that the Government of Belgium signed on 
January 5, 1948, the agreement relating to the 
resolution of conflicting claims to German enemy 
assets. 

Belgium is the fourth country to sign, the other 
three countries, Canada, the Netherlands, and the 
United States, having signed the agreement on 
December 5, 1947. The agreement remains open 
for signature by the governments of the 14 other 
countries which are members of the Inter- Allied 
Reparation Agency. The agreement does not be- 
come binding on the United States until it has 
been approved by the Congress. 

The Department made an announcement on 
December 4, 1947, giving details and text of the 
agreement and the earlier signatures.'' 



Norway Extended Time for Renewing 
Trade-Mark Registrations 

The extension until June 30, 1948, of time for 
renewing trade-mark registrations with respect to 
Norway was granted by the President in Procla- 
mation 2765 {12> Federal Register 111.) on January 
6, 1948. 



"BuuuETiN of Apr. 13, 1947, p. 674. 

' Polic.v decision approved Jiy the Far Eastern Com- 
mission on Dec. 11, 1947, and relea.sed to the press by Fec 
on .Jan. 2, 1948. A directive based upon this policy de- 
cision has been forwarded to the Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers for implementation. 

= Bulletin of Dec. 14, 1947, p. 1192. For text of the 
agreement and for an article on tlie subject by Ely Maurer 
and James Simsarian, see Blxletin of Jan. 4, 1948, p. 3. 

93 



U.S.-Canadian Provisional Seal Agreement Signed 



[Released to the press January 6] 

The United States and Canada, by an exchange 
of notes dated December 26, 1947, have provided 
for the continuance of the present provisional 
fur-seal agreement between tlie two countries until 
a permanent convention can be arranged for the 
protection of the fur-seal herd of the North 
Pacific. 

The original sealing convention for the pi"o- 
tection and preservation of the fur-seal herd of 
the North Pacific Ocean was signed in 1911 by the 
United States, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia. 
In October 1941 this convention was abrogated by 
Japan. During the war the Governments of 
Canada and the United States felt it advisable 
that the two countries should continue the pro- 
tection of the herd. They therefore entered into a 
provisional agreement for the duration of the 
emergency and twelve months thereafter in order 
to carry on the fur-seal conservation program dur- 
ing the war. 

The fur-seal conservation program was de- 
signed to rehabilitate the stock of fur seals in the 
North Pacific, which had become seriously de- 
pleted by the practice of ruthless pelagic sealing. 
The original convention was intended to rebuild 
the herd, primarily by the prohibition of pelagic 
sealing. In 1912, the first year that the conven- 
tion was in effect, the size of the Pribilof Islands 
herd was about 216,000; by sound conservation 
and management practices the herd has now in- 
creased to over 3,600,000, according to the annual 
census taken in August 1947. The sealing opera- 
tions in these islands are administered by the Fish 
and Wildlife Service of the Department of the 
Interior. The herd is estimated to be worth in 
excess of $100,000,000, and the fall 1947 semi- 
annual auction of fur-seal skins yielded gross 
proceeds to the Federal Government of over 
$1,470,000. 

The texts of the notes follow : 

December 26, 1947 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to conversations which have 
taken place hetween representatives of the Government 
of the United States of America and representatives of the 
Government of Canada with regard to the possibility of 
amending' the Provisional Pur Seal Agreement between tlie 
United States and Canada effected by excliange of notes 
signed at Washington, December 8 and 19, 1942, with a 
view to assuring continuing protection of the fur seal herd. 

I am glad to inform you that legislation has recently 
been enacted by the Congress of the United States of 
America which provides for the extension for an indefinite 

94 



period of existing laws for the enforcement of the Pro- 
visional Fur Seal Agreement. This Government will, 
therefore, continue to be in position to give full force and 
effect to tlie provisions of that Agreement. 

Accordingly, the Government of the United States of 
America proposes that the final sentence of Article X of 
the Provisional Fur Seal Agreement which relates to the 
duration of the Agreement, shall be amended to read as 
follows : 

"The Agreement shall remain in effect until (a) either 
the Government of the United States of America or the 
Government of Canada enacts legislation contrary to its 
provisions; or (b) the date of entry into force of a new 
agreement for the preservation and protection of fur seals 
to which the United States of America and Canada, and 
possibly other interested countries, shall be parties ; or 
(c) twelve months after either Government shall have 
notified the other Government of an intention of termi- 
nating the Agreement." 

If the foregoing proposal is acceptable to the Govern- 
ment of Canada, the Government of the United States of 
America will regard this note and your reply thereto as 
constituting an agreement between the two Governments 
amending the Provisional Fur Seal Agreement, with effect 
from the date of your note in reply. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State : 

WiLLABD L. Thorp 
His Excellency 
Hume Wkono, 

Ambassador of Canada. 

Canadian Embassy 

Washin'gtox, D. C. 
No. 485 December 26, 19J,1. 

Snj, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
note of December 26th, 1947, proposing that the Provi- 
sional Fur Seal Agreement effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Washington December Sth and 19th, 1942, be 
amended with a view to assuring continuing protection 
of the fur seal herd. 

I have been requested to inform you that the CanadiaE 
Government accepts the proposal of the Government ot 
the United States of America contained in your note 
which, together with this reply, it considers as constitut- 
ing an agreement between the two Governments amend 
ing the Provisional Fur Seal Agreement, with effect 
from the date of this note. 

Accept [etc.] H. H. Wrong 

The Secretary of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

Address on Displaced Persons 

On January 10 Assistant Secretary Saltzman made ai 
address before the United Service for New Americans ii 
New York City- ; for the text of this address on planning 
for the resettlement of displaced persons in the Unite( 
States, see Department of State press release 26 of Januar.\ 
10, 1948. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Deadline Extended for Registration of Foreign 
Capital in Brazil 

I [Released to the press January 8] 

An instruction of the Brazilian Banking Super- 
intendency published on December 19, 1947, ex- 
tended to March 31, 1948, the deadline for the 
• registration of private foreign capital that entered 
Brazil before October 8, 1947. The requirement 
that private capital entering the country after 
October 7, 1947, be registered within 30 days of 
the date of its entrance was not altered by the 
instruction. 

As indicated in the Department's announcement 
of December 2, 1947, foreign capital already in- 
vested in Brazil, or which may be invested in the 
future, will lose the right of exit as well as transfer 
of profits abroad if it is not registered with the 
Banking Fiscalization Department within the 
specified periods.^ 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Albert IVI. Day Appointed to International 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission 

[Released to the press January 5] 

Secretary of State Marshall announced on 
January 5 that the President has designated 
Albert M. Day, Director of the Fish and Wildlife 
Service of the Department of the Interior, as a 
United States member of the International Pacific 
Salmon Fisheries Commission, United States and 
Canada, to fill the position left vacant by the 
death of Fred J. Foster. The other United States 
members of the Commission are Edward W. Allen 
and Milo Moore, both of Seattle, Washington. Mr. 
Day will receive no compensation for his work as- 
a member of the Commission, and he will main- 
tain his position as Director of the Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries 
Commission functions under the convention be- 
tween the United States and Canada signed at 
Washington on May 26, 1930, for the protection, 
preservation, and extension of the sockeye salmon 
fishery of the Fraser Eiver system. 



Economic Accomplishments of the General Assembly- 

ivhere the tradition of i^roduction and high eco- 
lomic activity existed in the past and can be 
■evived more readily. And these countries can 
Drovide the markets for the goods which the 
naterial-supplying countries are presently able 
.0 produce. 

Both lines of argument, those of the under- 
leveloped countries and those of the devastated 
•ountries, are cogent and convincing. They are 
leeply felt and sincerely and vigorously urged 
)y their respective proponents. They are ad- 
Iressed primarily to countries like the United 
States, which are highly productive and which 
lave had the fortune to escape the direct material 
lestruction of the war. 

The sad truth is that there are not enough re- 
ources, financial, material, or human, to do all 
he urgent jobs at once and right away. Under 
hese circumstances the only salvation is to ex- 
mine the various needs critically and continu- 
lusly, so that the maximum can be accomplished 
n an orderly and resolute manner. Those whose 
laims must be deferred must be convinced that 
11 the reasons advanced for various possible 
^ourses have been considered on their merits. 
Those whose needs are first taken care of must 

onuary J8, 1948 



-Continued from page 86 

realize that their opportunity carries a commen- 
surate obligation to advance the general economic 
development to which all nations aspire. 

For these reasons it is important that the vari- 
ous views of the different countries should be 
given the widest currency and should be tested 
against one another as fully as possible in the 
same place and at the same time. At the last 
Assembly, representatives of 38 countries spoke 
in the general debate in Committee II on the 
economic questions raised by the Ecosoc report. 
To the best of my recollection all of them touched 
in one way or another on the problems of recon- 
struction and development. This represents one 
of the great values of the General Assembly. It 
is not the place to solve the detailed problems 
of technical complexity which must be worked 
out before economic programs can be carried 
through. But it is a forum in which every 
country can make known its own basic economic 
concerns and come to a fuller realization of those 
of others. Such knowledge is the essential foun- 
dation for the achievement of international co- 
operation in economic matters. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 14, 1947, p. 1191. 



95 



Foreign Aid and Reconstruction page 

Assistance to European Economic Recovery. 

Statement by the Secretary of State ... 71 

American Aid in Restoring the European Com- 
munity. By Charles E. Bohlen 78 

Expression of Gratitude From Austria for 

Interim Aid 82 

Economic Affairs 

Postwar Commercial Policy of the United 

States. Article by Woodbury Willoughby . 67 

Norway Extended Time for Renewing Trade- 
Mark Registrations 93 

Deadline Extended for Registration of Foreign 

Capital in Brazil 95 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Economic Accomplishments of the General 

Assembly. By Wiilard L. Thorp .... 83 

Interim Committee of the General Assembly: 
The Problem of Voting in the Security 
Council. United States Draft Resolution . 86 



General Policy ^ase 
The State of the Union. Message of the Presi- 
dent to the Congress 90 

Announcement of Address by Assistant Secre- 
tary Saltzman on Displaced Persons ... 94 

Occupation Matters 

Continuing Examination of Matters Relating to 

Japanese Reparations 92 

Supply of Food for Civilian Consumption in 

Japan 93 

Treaty Information 

Belgium Signs German Enemy Assets Agree- 
ment 93 

U.S.-Canadian Provisional Seal Agreement 

Signed 94 

Albert M. Day Appointed to International 

Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission. . . 95 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Report on the First Consultation of the Com- 
mission on History. Article by Arthur P. 
Whitaker 87 



mm^mcdc^ 



Woodbury Willoughby, author of the article on U.S. postwar com- 
mercial policy, is Acting Chief of the Division of Commercial Policy, 
Office of International Trade Policy, Deiiarlnient of State. 

ArOiur P. Whitaker, author of the article on the First Consultation 
of the Couinii.ssion on History, served as Chairman of the United States 
Delegation to that meeting. Dr. Whitaker is Professor of History at 
the University of Pennsylvania. 



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FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION: 

The Stake of the Businessiuan in the European 
Recovery Program • Address by the Secretary of 
State 108 

Relation of European Recovery Program to Amer- 
ican Foreign Policy • Statement by the Secretary of 
StaU 112 

TOWARD A WORLD MARITIME ORGANIZATION: 
Part I. Developments From 1897-1946 • Article 
by Eula McDonaU 99 



For complete ccntenti see back cover 



VoL XVIli, No. Ul 
January 25, 1948 





Me Q)e/ia/i^^m€^ 4)/ y^ie OllllGtin 



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January 25, 1948 



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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depabtment 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



TOWARD A WORLD MARITIME ORGANIZATION 



Part I. Developments From 1897-1946 



ARTICLE BY EULA MCDONALD 



Government officials and private individuals 
concerned with ocean shipping and ocean travel 
are keenly interested in the preparations for the 
international conference scheduled to meet in 
Februaiy 1948 to establish an Intergovernmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization. An even 
half -century of developments in this field has led 
to the creation of this new organization that will 
provide machinery for multinational cooperation 
in merchant shipping. 

Among the problems that have demanded inter- 
national discussions have been : ( 1 ) the rendering 
of assistance to vessels in distress; (2) salvage of 
shipwi'ecked cargoes; (3) determination of legal 
responsibility and civil jurisdiction in collisions; 
(4) settlement of disputes between states on mari- 
time matters; (5) standardization of tonnage 
measurements, rules of the road, and code signals; 
(6) deciding upon the right of inland states to 
possess merchant fleets; (7) treatment of foreign 
vessels in ports and harboi-s; and (8) wartime 
international coordination and allocation of ton- 
nage for troop transport and for shipment of war 
supplies. 

This article deals primarily with the program 
and structure of the significant bilateral and mul- 
tilateral organizations created to deal with inter- 
national shipping problems ; in addition, however, 
to these organization aspects, it presents a consoli- 
dated treatment of one problem of outstanding 
importance which has been dealt with by interna- 
tional conferences and has resulted in the adoption 
of international conventions, namely, the promo- 
tion of human safety at sea. This topic, which 
has a universal, humanitarian appeal and which 
has been the object of international attention for 

January 25, 1948 



over 50 years, is closely integrated with the pro- 
giam to be considered at the February conference, 
and will also be the subject of a special diplomatic 
conference to be held in London in April 1948. 

The agreements adopted and discussions held at 
the various marine conferences, and the several 
maritime organizations themselves^some of wliich 
operated for a time and then vanished or were 
absorbed, others being but transitory outgrowths 
of the exigencies of war — all served a highly useful 
purpose. It has now become clear, however, that 
a partial attack on the complexities of maritime 
activity cannot solve the difficult and pressing 
problems emerging in present-day global ship- 
ping. To those who have studied the subject the 
necessity for a greater degree of continuity than 
was possible under previous arrangements has be- 
come increasingly apparent, and the solution ap- 
pears to be the permanent international maritime 
organization for the creation of which the confer- 
ence in February has been summoned. 

International Maritime Committee 

Among the earliest of the international organi- 
zations established to deal with maritime matters 
was the International Maritime Committee, un- 
official in character, which was foimally created 
in 1897. Nineteen conferences of this interna- 
tional committee, all concerned with legal phases 
of merchant shipping, were held from 1897 to 1937, 
inclusive. Among the subjects dealt with were 
collisions at sea, salvage and assistance at sea, 
limitations of shipowners' liability, maritime 
mortgages and liens on ships, immunity of state- 
owned ships, and exemption clauses in bills of 
lading. 

t 

99 



This committee assisted in the work of several 
diplomatic conferences, including the Third In- 
ternational Conference on Maritime Law, held at 
Brussels, at which were signed the conventions of 
September 23, 1910, for the miification of certain 
rules of law with respect to assistance and salvage 
at sea, and for the unification of certain rules re- 
lating to collisions at sea.^ The first of these is 
still in force with respect to the United States and 
other comitries. The second, which the United 
States did not ratify, is also in force with respect 
to many governments. 

The committee also assisted in the drafting of 
the convention for the safety of life at sea, signed 
at London on January 20, 1914. At its 1937 meet- 
ing, which was held at Paris, the committee 
adopted draft conventions for consideration by 
the interested governments relating to penal and 
civil jurisdiction in matters of collision and the 
attachment of vessels.^ It was contemplated that 
these 1937 draft conventions would be submitted 
to a diplomatic conference, but they have been 
held in abeyance awaiting a suitable opportunity 
for their presentation.^ 

Allied Maritime Transport Council, 1917-1919 

The Allies in the years 1914 to 1917 fully recog- 
nized the importance of shipping as a vital factor 
in waging war, but agreements for emergency 
allocations of tonnage prior to 1917, according to 



' Treaty Series 576, 37 Stat. 1658 ; Treaty Information 
Bulletin, No. 21 of June 1931 (Department of State pub- 
Ucation 213), p. 22. See also Bulletin No. 24 of the 
Comit6 Maritime International, April 1911, p. is. 

' League of Nations Secretariat, Handbook of Interna- 
tional Organlxations (Geneva, 1938), p. 246. 

' It is not believed that the valualile work which has 
been done by the International Maritime Committee on an 
unofficial basis will he carried on by the proposed Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. It 
seems probable, rather, that satisfactory arrangements 
for cooperation will be made by which the proposed organi- 
zation will recommend to its member governments the 
adoption of various proposals of the International Mari- 
time Committee. 

'Foreign Relations of the United States, 1917, sup- 
plement 2, vol. I, pp. 334 ff. and 413-415. In August 
1918 Japan was invited to participate in the deliberations 
of the group (ibid., 1918, supplement 1, vol. I, p. 526). 

" Ibid., 1917, supplement 2, vol. I, p. 422. 

' Ibid., 1918, supplement 1, vol. I, p. 512. 

100 



Sir Arthur Salter in his Allied Shipping Control, 
An Expenment in International Administration^ 
proved to be "piecemeal and incomplete". The 
Inter-Allied Shipping Committee, appointed in 
January 1917 by an Allied naval conference at 
London, also failed to solve the wartime shipping 
needs of Great Britain, France, and Italy. 

In April, when the United States entered the 
war, the problems of shipping increased immeas- 
urably as a consequence of the necessity of trans- 
porting American troops across the Atlantic and 
maintaining the life line of imports to the Euro- 
pean Allies. An American war mission to 
England and France, headed by Colonel Edward 
M. House and including Bainbridge Colby, a mem- 
ber of the United States Shipping Board, arrived 
in London early in November. Several of its 
members met with the British War Cabinet, and 
agreement was reached upon principles for co- 
ordinating the allocation of available tonnage. | 

A memorandum outlining these principles was 
submitted, in Paris, to the subcommittee on im- 
j)ortations and maritime transport of the Inter- 
Allied Conference held from November 29 to De- 
cember 3, 1917. The Paris conference voted, 
through the subcommittee, to establish a standing 
committee which, consisting primarily of repre- 
sentatives of the United States, Great Britain, 
Italy, and France, should collect information for 
the purpose of maintaining at all times a broad 
survey not only of the general material needs of 
the various nations, but also of available shipping 
facilities.* The subcommittee also authorized the 
appropriate representatives of the four countries 
constituting the new committee to take steps to 
secure the necessary exchange of information and 
coordination of policy and effort, and to establish 
a permanent office and staff for the purpose.'* The 
new committee received the name of Allied Mari- 
time Transport Council. 

In order to facilitate the work of the council, 
which met infrequently, a headquarters body 
known as the Allied Maritime Transport Executive 
was created. Broadly, the function of the execu- 
tive was to correlate data continuously on the 
tonnage requirements of the Allied powers." 

The council and its executive were successful in 
fulfilling their basic mission of analyzing in an 
illuminating way the tonnage resources and mate- 
rial requirements of the Allies and of recoimnend- 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



ing the most practical and most productive 
allocation of available vessels. The transocean 
and coastal shipment of troops, food, and equip- 
ment was materially aided and expedited by the 
council's activities. 

With the signing of the Armistice the Allied 
Maritime Transport Council and the Allied Mari- 
time Transport Executive ceased to play important 
roles in the control of shipping. Other organi- 
zations and other methods began gradually to be 
utilized in meeting the postwar seagoing transport 
problems. The council ceased to function on April 
7, 1919, when it became a part of the Supreme 
Economic Council. The executive, with changed 
duties and changed personnel, continued in exist- 
ence until February 7, 1920. 

League of Nations Organization for Communi- 
cations and Transit, 1921-1946 

In article 23 (e) of the Covenant of the League 
of Nations (part I of the Treaty of Versailles) the 
signatories agreed that they would "make pro- 
vision to secure and maintain freedom of com- 
munications and of transit", bearing in mind "the 
special necessities of the regions devastated during 
tlie war of 1914-1918". Part XII of the Treaty 
of Versailles, entitled "Ports, Waterways and Kail- 
ways", provides (1) in article 338 that the regime 
for European inland waterways established by 
article 332-337 "shall be superseded by one to be 
laid down in a General Convention . . . ap- 
proved by the League of Nations", and (2) in 
article 379 that Germany shall "adhere to any 
General Conventions regarding the international 
regime of transit, waterways, ports or railways 
which may be concluded . . . with the ap- 
proval of the League of Nations". 

The Assembly of the League on December 9, 
1920, resolved to call a conference to carry out the 
provisions of the treaty.^ Tlie conference met in 
Barcelona in March and April 1921 and drew up a 
|i number of conventions including those contem- 
plated in part XII of the Treaty of Versailles.^ 
The conference also formulated a set of rules for 
tlie organization of general conferences on com- 
munications and transit and of an advisory and 
technical committee. These rules were revised by 
the Third General Conference on Communications 
and Transit, in the summer of 1927, in the form of 



a Statute for the Organization for Communica- 
tions and Transit and Rules of Procedure for the 
General Conferences." Finally a new statute, giv- 
ing the Organization greater autonomy within the 
League, was approved by the Council of the League 
of Nations on January 29, 1938.^° Under this 
statute the work of the Organization was to be 
carried out by ( 1 ) a committee for communications 
and transit, of an advisory and technical character; 

(2) permanent or temporary special committees; 

(3) a permanent secretariat provided by the Secre- 
tary General of the League; and (4) general con- 
ferences and other meetings. 

The Committee for Communications and Tran- 
sit provided for by the 1938 statute was the suc- 
cessor of the Advisory and Technical Committee 
for Communications and Transit created under 
the earlier organic provisions. This committee 
was in one respect a subsidiary of the Communi- 
cations and Transit Organization, in that it car- 
ried out the Organization's work; in another re- 
spect it was independent of the Organization in 
that its composition was determined by the As- 
sembly of the League." It was empowered to 
study and propose measures for insuring freedom 
of communications and transit; collect from the 
states which had taken part in the conferences 
information regarding the signing and ratifica- 
tion of conventions adopted by the conferences, 
as well as the accessions to such conventions ; con- 
sider questions of conciliation and inquiry, fall- 
ing within its competence, in disputes between 
states ; and exchange information concerning com- 
munications and transit with appropriate tech- 



' League of Nations, Official Journal, Special Supple- 
ment, January 1921, p. 14. 

'The Treaty of Versailles and After; Annotations of 
the Text of the Treaty (Conference Series 92, Department 
of State publication 2724), p. 689. 

" League of Nations, Third General Conference on Conir- 
munications and Transit, Geneva, August 23rd to Septem- 
ber 2nd, 1927 (4 volumes, Geneva, 1927) , IV, 60. Although 
not mentioned in tlie title of tliese rules, an advisory and 
technical committee is provided for in them. 

"League of Nations, Official Journal, January 1938, pp. 

218-226. 

"Articles 3 and 4 of the 1988 statute. Under article 
4, the Assembly was to elect the states whose nationals 
were to form the Committee for Communications and 
Transit. 



January 25, 7948 



101 



nical ministries of the states members of the or- 
ganization and with certain other international 
bodies. It was also to prepare an annual report 
on the activities of the Organization for Com- 
munications and Transit and to forward the re- 
port to the members of the organization and to 
the council and the Assembly of the League, to- 
gether with an indication of the program of the 
organization for the following year.^^ 

This cormnittee and its predecessor, the Ad- 
visoi-y and Technical Committee, carried out their 
purposes during the 1920's and the fateful 1930's 
until the outbreak of war. It met for the last 
time in June 1939, after which its work was car- 
ried on as far as possible by the League Secre- 
tariat.^^ 

The statute made provision, as stated above, for 
special committees in addition to the foregoing 
general committee. Of these special committees, 
one group consisted of seven subconamittees of the 
general conmiittee, which were specifically named 
in the statute. They were to deal with air navi- 
gation, electric power, transport by rail, inland 
navigation, maritime i^orts and navigation, road 
traflSc, and law. The members of these perma- 
nent subcommittees and also their chairmen were 
to be selected by the parent committee. In ad- 
dition to the seven subcommittees mentioned, the 
committee was empowei'ed to ask individual ex- 
perts or temporary committees to undertake stud- 
ies or submit information coming within the scope 
of the Organization." These permanent and tem- 
porary subcommittees or special coiiamittees con- 
ducted studies and prepared drafts for considera- 
tion on the subjects which were assigned them. A 
draft set of international regulations for the ton- 



"Article 7 of the statute. 

" League of Nations, Report on the Work of the League 
During the War (Geneva, 1945), pp. 44-45. 

" Articles 10 and 11 of the statute. 

" Report on the Work of the League, p. 47. 

" League of Nutions, Secretariat, Information Section, 
Essential Facts About the League of Nations (Geneva, 
1938), p. 235. 

" Report on the Work of the League, pp. 54 ff. 

"United Nations, Resolutions Adopted by the General 
Assembly . . . 10 January to H February 19^6 {'London, 
1946), pp. 35-36. 

" League of Nations, Board of Liquidation, First In- 
terim Report (Geneva, 194G), pp. 3, 4, 14, 17, and 18. 

" Articles 17, 19, and 20 of the 1938 Statute. 

102 



nage measurement of ships was, for example, one 
of the concrete productions of a special commit- 
tee appointed to study this problem." 

As envisaged by the statute, the Secretary Gen- 
eral of the League provided a permanent secre- 
tariat for the organization. This permanent sec- 
retariat took the form of the Communications and 
Transit Section of the League Secretariat." The 
Conmiunications and Transit Section not only 
was active in the interbellum period but also 
continued to be active in assembling and pub- 
lishing information during World War II." 

The functions of the League Secretariat, includ- 
ing the responsibilities pertaining to communica- 
tions and transit, were formally turned over by 
the League to the United Nations in 19-1(5 in ac- 
cordance with (1) the resolution adopted by the 
United Nations General Assembly on February 12, 
194G,^* and (2) the resolution adopted on the 
closing day of the last session of the Assembly of 
the League, held at Geneva from April 8 to 18, 
1946.1" 

The three above-mentioned branches of the Or- 
ganization for Communications and Transit — (1) 
the committee, (2) the subcommittees and special 
committees, and (3) the permanent secretariat — 
were in some resj^ects built around the fourth or 
keystone branch : the general conferences. These 
conferences were charged with the conclusion or 
revision of international conventions concerned 
with communications and transit matters. They 
could be called at any time by the Council of the 
League and could also meet at tlie request of at 
least half of the membere of the organization. The 
delegations of the members of the organization 
could take part in all the general conferences "as 
of right". The statute also provided that delega- 
tions of such other governments as might be in- 
vited by the Council of the League could partici- 
pate in all or part of the proceedings of a par- 
ticular general conference. Individuals selected 
by the Committee for Communications and Transit 
could participate in an advisory capacity.^" 

Four General Conferences on Communications 
and Transit were held, as follows : the Barcelona 
conference of 1921, referred to above; the second, 
at Geneva in 1923; the third, also at Geneva, in 
1927, which is likewise mentioned above; and the 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bu/fefin 



fourth, at Geneva, in 1931.=' Regarding these 
meetings, one observer noted in 1931 that the com- 
munications conference, after the labor conference, 
was the most important of those which sat regu- 
larly in direct connection with the League. 

Among the accomplishments of the Organiza- 
tion for Commimications and Transit may be men- 
tioned its adoption at Barcelona of a declaration 
recognizing the right of states having no seacoast 
to possess a merchant fleet; the preparation at 
Geneva in 1923 of a convention on the interna- 
tional regime of mai'itime ports, which established 
the principle of the equality of treatment of vessels 
in maritime ports, irrespective of flag; and the 
pi-eparation of draft international regidations and 
uniform methods covering the tonnage measure- 
ments of ships.=2 -phe Organization also assisted 
in the settlement of disputes concerning communi- 
cations and transit matters, a function not paral- 
leled in the case of any other technical organ of 
the League. 

The residual responsibilities of the Organiza- 
tion for Communications and Transit have been 
chamieled into the United Nations. The activities 
of the appropriate organs of the United Nations 
in this field are outlined on subsequent pages. 

Combined Shipping Adjustment Board, 1942 

On January 26, 1942, the Wliite House an- 
nounced the creation of the Combined Shipping 
Adjustment Board by President Roosevelt and 
Prime Minister Churchill, "to adjust and concert 
in one harmonious policy the work of the British 
Ministry of War Transport and the shipping au- 
thorities of the United States Government".'^ By 
an Executive Order of February 7, 1942 (no. 9054) , 
President Roosevelt established a War Shipping 
Administration in the Executive Office of the 
President, which comprised the American section 
of the board. Although this bilateral board was 
created primarily to coordinate the work of the 
shipping authorities of the two countries, it was 
agreed that its members would confer with rep- 
resentatives of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, China, and such othei-s of the United 
Nations as it might be necessary to consult in order 
to provide for the most effective utilization of the 
joint shipping resources of the United Nations.'* 

During its period of most active operation, in 

January 25, 7948 



1942-45, the board sought not only to obtain the 
fullest possible utilization of the available ship- 
ping but also to increase the available supply, in 
order to achieve the speedy and successful trans- 
portation of goods from raw-material sources to 
industrial centers and from the latter to the fight- 
ing fronts in the form of war essentials. 

The board was able to exploit a vast pool of ves- 
sels. All American and British ships except cer- 
tain coastal vessels were under requisition to their 
respective Governments. Moreover, the majority 
of ships under the flags of other United Nations, 
also under requisition by their governments, had 
been chartered for the duration of the European 
war to the British Ministry of War Transport or 
the War Shipping Administration or had been 
made available in some other way for utilization 
by one or the other of these bodies.'^ 

The board continued in existence after the ter- 
mination of active hostilities, and still maintains 
at least a pro forma existence, although in 1944 
agreement was reached for the subsequent coordi- 
nation of Allied shipping arrangements by a 
multilateral body, known as the United Maritime 
Authority. 

United IVIaritime Authority, 1945-1946 

Representatives of eight Allied countries which 
had agreed to coordinate their available shipping 
in the interests of the war effort met at London 
from July 19 to August 5, 1944. Their purpose 
was to discuss the best methods for insuring the 
continued availability of the tonnage resources 
of the various nations in the light of the changed 
conditions anticipated during the latter phases of 
the war. The countries represented were Belgium, 
Canada, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. Rep- 



" American Delegations to International Conferences 
. . . Fiscal Tear Ended June SO, 1932 (Department of 
State publication 425, Conference Series 13), p. 18. The 
United States was represented at the third and fourth of 
the general conferences. 

"Essential Facts At>out the League of Nations (1939 
edition), p. 247. For text of convention, see League of 
Nations Treaty Series, vol. 58, p. 285. 

" Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1942, p. 88. 

" Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1942, pp. 87-88, and Jan. 16, 1943, 
p. 69. 

=" Bulletin of Oct. 1, 1944, p. 357. 

103 



resentatives of Denmark and of the French Com- 
mittee of National Liberation also participated in 
the session, the Danish delegate being present in 
the capacity of an observer .^° 

In order to bring about the necessary adjust- 
ments in the already existing arrangements, the 
conference drew up, and signed on August 5, an 
agreement on principles having reference to the 
continuance of co-ordinated control of merchant 
shipping.^^ In paragi'aph 1 of the agreement the 
contracting governments declared that they ac- 
cepted as a common responsibility the provision of 
shipping for not only the military tasks but also 
for all other tasks necessary for the completion of 
the war in Europe and the Far East, and for the 
transport of supplies to "the liberated areas as well 
as . . . the United Nations generally and territo- 
ries under their authority." Under the terms of 
paragraph 7(a) of the agreement, a central au- 
thority to exercise control was to come into opera- 
tion upon the general suspension of hostilities 
with Germany. A planning committee was to be- 
gin work in London as soon as possible after the 
signing of the agreement, for the purpose of work- 
ing out, on a basis satisfactory to the contracting 
governments, the details of the machinery required 
to enable the new agency to begin to discharge its 
functions. Paragraph 14 of the annex to the agree- 
ment made the Governments of the United States 
and the United Kingdom responsible, in consulta- 
tion with the other contracting governments, for 
determining the date of the coming into operation 
of the central authority in accordance with para- 
graph 7(a) of the agi"eement. 

Provision was made for the implementation of 
the principles laid down in the agreement by the 
establishment of a United Maritime Council and 
a United Maritime Executive Board, together con- 
stituting the central authority (which became 
known as the United Maritime Authority) .^* The 
annex to the agreement provided that each con- 
tracting government should be represented on the 



"■ Bulletin of Aug. 13, 1944, p. 1.57. 

'' Bulletin of Oct. 1, 1944, pp. 358-361. 

" Bulletin of Oct. 1, 1M4, p. 359, and Dec. 3, 1944, p. 655. 

"BuLijsTiN of Feb. 3, 1946, p. 171, and Mar. 24, 1946, 
pp. 487-^88. This meeting was also considered to be a 
session of tiie full Council of the United Maritime Au- 
thority, as all the member governments were represented. 



council, which would meet when deemed necessary 
and at least twice a year. 

The annex provided further that the executive 
board should be established with branches in 
Washington and London under the chairmanship, 
respectively, of the War Shipping Administration 
and the Ministry of War Transport, and that it 
should exercise through its branches the executive 
functions of the central authority. Under para- 
graph 9 of the agreement, the authority would 
remain in operation for a period not extending 
beyond six months after the general suspension of 
hostilities in Europe or the Far East, whichever 
might be later. 

The United Maritime Authority came into 
operation, pursuant to the terms of the agreement, 
upon the suspension of hostilities in the Atlantic ' 
theater. Since many of the prior agreements for ' 
coordinated allocation of tonnage lapsed with the 
termination of hostilities in Europe, a chaotic con- 
dition in transportation might have arisen between 
the end of hostilities with Germany and the victory 
over Japan in the Pacific. The United Maritime 
Authority was successful in avoiding such a condi- 
tion and in continuing the orderly and efficient 
utilization of ship tonnage in the common effort. 
During the period of its operation its membership 
was increased from eight to eighteen governments, 
and it finally controlled more than 90 percent of 
merchant-ship tonnage under Allied and some neu- 
tral registries, regulating the routes, cargoes, sail- 
ings, and freight and charter rates of these ships. 

The final meeting of the United Maritime Execu- 
tive Board was held in London from February 4 
to 11, 1946.-" It included official delegates of 
France and Denmark as well as eight additional 
countries which had become associated with the 
organization since the signing of the agreement of 
August 5, 1944; namely, Australia, Brazil, Chile, 
India, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, 
Sweden, and Yugoslavia. The delegates consid- 
ered plans which they felt should be made, in 
view of the imminent termination of the controlled 
shipping pools of 17 million tons, to take care of 
various national shipping programs and to insure 
as smooth a transition as possible from wartime 
to peacetime operation of shipping. The most 
pressing point at issue was the question of prompt 
and efficient ocean transportation of Unrra and 
other relief and rehabilitation cargoes to their 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



destinations. The board decided unanimously 
that further coordination was necessary until nor- 
mal international shipping could be resumed. 
The result was a recommendation that govern- 
ments represented on the United Maritime Au- 
thority should enter into a new but temporary 
agreement under which there would be established 

(1) a voluntary pool of shipping for the trans- 
portation of relief and rehabilitation cargoes, and 

(2) a consultative council to serve as a forum for 
the discussion of the shipping problems which 
might arise prior to the return to normal peace- 
time shipping activities. 

The United Maritime Authority was terminated 
on March 2, 1946, in accordance with its decision 
to set September 2, 1945, as the date on which "the 
general suspension of hostilities" took place, such 
date beginning the last six months of its control 
over world merchant shipping.^ 

United Maritime Consultative Council 
and the United Nations 

Prior to the termination of the United Maritime 
Authority and its recommendation for the estab- 
lishment of an interim consultative council to suc- 
ceed it, the United Nations had already come into 
being and had begun to consider plans for promot- 
ing international maritime cooperation. Since the 
actions of the United Nations in this field in the 
year 1946 not only occurred simultaneously with 
the setting up and operation of the recommended 
consultative council, but also bore in part directly 
upon it, the two sets of parallel developments are 
treated together, in chronological sequence, in this 
section. 

The Charter of the United Nations, signed at 
San Francisco June 26, 1945, provided, among 
other things, for the promotion of conditions of 
economic progress and development (article 55), 
and to that end it made provision for an Economic 
and Social Council and "such subsidiary organs as 
may be found necessary" (article 7). The Pre- 
paratory Commission which met at London in De- 
cember 1945 to bring the United Nations into full 

j operation suggested the establishment of a tem- 
porary or nuclear Transport and Communications 

; Commission to review "the general field of inter- 
national transport and communications in order to 
advise the Council on any machinery which it will 
be necessary to establish either as part of the 
United Nations or as a new specialized agency." ^^ 

January 25, 1948 

773S83— 48 2 



February 1946 

As stated above, the Council of the United Mari- 
time Authority met in London from February 4 
to 11, 1946, and decided to recommend the estab- 
lishment of a temporary successor agency. Five 
days later, on February 16, 1946, the Economic and 
Social Council of the United Nations, also meeting 
at London, adopted a resolution creating a Tem- 
porary Transport and Communications Commis- 
sion, as recommended by the Preparatory Com- 
mission in December 1945. The Economic and 
Social Council, in its resolution, expressed the 
opinion that establishment of formal relationships 
with existing intergovernmental agencies in the 
field of transport and communications would be 
premature, but it took into account the need for 
some form of preliminary contact with such or- 
ganizations. It also recognized the need for ad- 
vice on the practical problems involved and on the 
adequacy of the international structure in those 
fields. The functions of the Temporary Trans- 
port and Communications Commission were de- 
limited to implementing these understandings.^^ 
By further action of the council on February 18, 
1946, the initial membership of the Temporary 
Commission was determined. 

March 1946 

On March 2 the United Maritime Authority ex- 
pired, and on March 3 the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council came provisionally into being. 
Part "A" of the relevant agreement provided that 
all the nations which had made a regular contri- 
bution of tonnage to the common tasks under the 
United Maritime Authority should continue to 
provide shipping on a voluntary basis for the im- 
perative needs of Unrra and the liberated areas. 
Part "B" of the agreement provided for the estab- 
lishment of the United Maritime Consultative 
Council as a forum for the exchange of informa- 
tion and the discussion of mutual problems with 
the hope that the knowledge thus gained of the 
methods by which other governments met current 
shipping problems would be valuable to the in- 
dividual governments in forming their own 
policies. The agreement also provided for a Ship- 

" Bulletin of Dec. 10, 1945, pp. 965-966. 
" U.N. press release B-7, Apr. 26, 1946. 
"^ U.N. doc. E/42, May 20, 1946, p. 38. 

105 



ping Coordinating and Review Committee to con- 
sider and review Unera's shipping requirements, 
and a Contributory Nations Committee, which was 
assigned the task of actually meeting the ocean- 
transportation requirements of Unrra and of 
the liberated areas in an orderly and effective man- 
ner by adjusting ship space and cargoes.^^ 

May 1946 

The newly created Temporary Transport and 
Communications Commission met in New York 
in May and made its first report to the Economic 
and Social Council of the United Nations on May 
25, 1946. In connection with a general survey of 
intergovernmental organization in the field of 
transport and communications, the report pointed 
out that aside from the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council, which was temporary in char- 
acter, the only standing intergovernmental bodies 
in the shippmg field were the International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau and the International Commission 
for the Maintenance of the Lighthouse at Cape 
Spartel. The commission believed that in view of 
the lack of an over-all international organization 
in the field of shipping, an intergovernmental 
body should be set up to deal with technical matters 
in that field. The report outlined the general re- 
sponsibilities v?hich such a body should have.'* 

The commission also engaged in considerable 
discussion concerning the desirability of establish- 
ing a permanent Transport and Communications 
Commission of the Economic and Social Council 
of the United Nations. It was argued that such a 
commission could serve as a conciliatory body when 
disputes arose and would be in a position to in- 
dicate to the council when new agencies or agree- 
ments were needed. The temporary commission 
finally agreed unanimously to recommend the es- 
tablishment of a permanent Transport and Com- 
munications Commission which should not act as 
an intermediary between the council and spe- 
cialized agencies, but should serve in an advisory 
capacity, particularly with respect to coordina- 

'" Bm-LETiN of Mar. 24, 1946, pp. 488-48;). 
"U.N. doc. E/42, May 20, 1946 (report submitted May 
25), pp. 5-13. 
" lUd., pp. 7, 8, and 9. 
» Bulletin of July 14, 1946, pp. 64-65. 

106 



tion of specialized agencies. It was made clear in 
the report that specialized agencies were to report 
direct ly to the council and that the permanent com- 
mission would in no sense be "over" them.^^ 

June 1946 

Following the receipt of the above-mentioned 
report dated May 25, 1946, a committee of the 
Economic and Social Council requested the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations to seek the 
views of the United Maritime Consultative Coun- 
cil on the proposal for the establishment of an 
organization in this field. Accordingly, the 
Secretary-General, on June 13, 1946, sent a tele- 
gram to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the 
Netherlands recounting the i-esolution of the Tem- 
porary Transport and Communications Commis- 
sion and stating that the message was sent for the 
preliminary information of the United Maritime 
Consultative Council, to enable it to consider put- 
ting the question on its agenda. 

The United Maritime Consultative Council duly 
convened for its fii"st session at Amsterdam on 
June 18, 1946. Although the various delegations 
made significant reports on the shipping policies 
of their governments,^* the most important item 
on the agenda was the possible establishment of 
an intergovernmental body which would provide 
the means for a permanent forum on shipping. 
Before the meeting had taken action on the tele- 
gram of June 13 from the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations, it received a further telegram 
from that official, dated June 21, in which it was 
stated that the Economic and Social Council had 
on that day adopted the recommendation of the 
temporary commission for the establishment of a 
permanent transport and communications com- 
mission. 

The June 21 resolution of the Economic and 
Social Council provided that the temporary com- 
mission should continue to function until the per- 
manent body was set up, during which period 
the temporary body was to assume the functions 
prescribed for the permanent commission. The 
resolution also provided that the new commission 
should examine fully the question of the estab- 
lishment of a world-wide intergovernmental or- 
ganization in the shipjiing field to deal with tech- 
nical matters. The duties of the permanent Trans- 
port and Communications Commission included 

Department of State Bulletin 



the responsibility of advising the Economic and 
Social Council in general matters concerning 
transport and communications; of receiving spe- 
cial delegations of authority from the Council on 
certain questions, particularly those for which no 
specialized agency exists; and of dealing with 
specific problems with respect to specialized 
agencies, on the request of the Council.^^ 

On June 23, 1946, the Chairman of the first ses- 
sion of the United Maritime Consultative Coun- 
cil informed the Secretary-Genei-al of the United 
Nations by telegram, in response to his cable of 
June 21, that the question of a world-wide ship- 
phig organization was already included in the 
agenda of the meeting and that the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council had discussed the ques- 
tion with the result that a resolution had been 
adopted to the effect that (1) the council took 
note of the view generally expressed that an in- 
tergovernmental body was likely to be required, 
and (2) the council would appoint a committee 
to consider in greater detail the possible con- 
stitution, scope, and procedure of such a body. 
The chairman added that the committee was to 
report its findings to the second session of the 
United Maritime Consultative Council, which 
would be convened prior to October 31, 1946, to 
consider the report and to make recommendations 
to the member governments.^^ 

September 1946 

The Department of State amiounced on Sep- 
tember 26, 1946, that pursuant to the wishes ex- 
pressed by the member nations of the United 
Maritime Consultative Council at their June 
meeting it had invited those nations to the second 
and final session of the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council at Washington from October 24 
to 30, 1946. In addition to the consideration of 
the working committee's report and the resultant 
recommendations, the United Maritime Consul- 
tative Council had on its agenda the preparation 
of a reply to the United Nations concerning its 
request for the views of the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council on the establishment of an inter- 



" U.N. doc. E/oS/Rev. 2, July 1, 1946, pp. 2-4. 
" U.N. doc. E/CN. 2/4, Jan. 10, 1947, pp. 4-7. 
" Bulletin of Oct. 6, 1946, p. 631. 
*" Bulletin of Dec. 1.5, 1946, pp. 1092-1098. 

January 25, 1948 



governmental maritime organization ; a review of 
the working of the machinery set up by the 
former United Maritime Executive Board for the 
orderly transportation of certain cargoes after the 
termination of the United Maritime Authority; 
and a review of the progress made in the restora- 
tion of normal processes of international merchant 
shipping.^^ 

October 1946 

The United Maritime Consultative Council met 
at Washington according to schedule for its final 
session and agi'eed to recommend to its 18 member 
governments the establishment through the ma- 
chinery of the United Nations of a permanent 
shipping organization. It also agreed, as a tem- 
porary measure pending the creation of the per- 
manent body, on the desirability of forming a 
further interim body designed particularly to 
handle such problems as might arise during the 
period of transition to the permanent organiza- 
tion. The interim body was denominated a Pro- 
visional Maritime Consultative Council.'"' The 
four recommendations adopted on October 30, 
1946, provided that — 

" ( 1 ) an Inter-Governmental Maritime Consult- 
ative Organization should be established as a 
specialized agency of the United Nations, as set 
forth in the draft convention for an Inter-Govern- 
mental Maritime Consultative Organization an- 
nexed hereto; 

"(2) each Member Government take appropri- 
ate action in requesting the Economic and Social 
Council to convene a conference of all interested 
governments for the purpose of adopting a con- 
stitution for an Inter-Governmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization as set forth in the an- 
nexed draft convention; 

"(3) in view of the fact that the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council will cease to exist on Oc- 
tober 31, 1946, a Provisional Maritime Consulta- 
tive Council should be set up forthwith in accord- 
ance with the annexed Agreement for the estab- 
lishment of a Provisional Maritime Consultative 
Council ; 

"(4) government members of the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council should accept as soon 
as possible the Agreement for a Provisional Mari- 

(Oontinued on page 115) 

107 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



The Stake of the Businessman in the European Recovery Program 



ADDRESS BY GEORGE C. MARSHALL 
Secretary of State 



During the past week I have appeared before 
Congressional committees of the Senate and the 
House to discuss the European Eecovery Program 
recently recommended by the President. Other 
officials of the Executive branch are now testify- 
ing before the same committees as to the details 
of the program. It has been widely publicized 
and discussed. Its purpose and principal fea- 
tures are now well known. Therefore, I am re- 
luctant to add another statement to the mass of 
material on the subject. But this issue is of such 
great national importance that I feel justified in 
referring tonight to some aspects that may be of 
especial interest to the leaders in business. 

Businessmen quite naturally are concerned about 
the possible effects on their own position — about 
how this program will affect the supply of raw 
materials, prices, sales, profits, and the conditions 
of doing business. Measures affecting the national 
economic interest in the long run will influence 
the private affairs of all of us. In considering the 
effect of this particular measure upon our indi- 
vidual or collective lives and fortunes, it seems 
logical first to appraise the present position of the 
United States in world affairs. 

In order to put current events in proper perspec- 
tive, it is necessary to go back at least to the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers at Moscow last spring. 
We met there, as you know, to consider peace 
treaties for Germany and Austria. That effort to 
reach agreement failed utterly because the Soviet 
Union insisted upon conditions which the three 
western powers could not in good conscience ac- 
cept. The reasons for the Soviet attitude have 
now become clearer and were well defined at the 
recent London conference, where resort to similar 
obstructive tactics and propaganda appeals led 
again to failure. 

Our experience at Moscow was productive in 

' Delivered before the Chamber of Commerce at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., on Jan. 15, 1948, and released to the press on 
the same date. 

108 



one sense at least. It necessitated a complete re- 
appraisement of the situation in Europe which was 
steadily deteriorating, and brought us to the im- 
portant conclusion that we faced the choice of quit- 
ting Europe altogether or of completing the task 
of European recovery. We had no intention of 
quitting. 

Once the basic decision was taken, the United 
States put into effect certain measures susceptible 
of immediate application. These concerned Ger- 
many, where we have major responsibilities as an 
occupying power. It was apparent that there was 
no immediate prospect of a German peace treaty 
nor any likelihood that the Soviet Union would 
cooperate in establishing a balanced economy for 
all of Germany as provided in the Potsdam agree- 
ment. Therefore, we had to take what steps we 
could to enable the Germans to pull their own 
weight in Europe and at an early date to terminate 
reliance upon Britain and the United States for 
the essentials of existence now lacking in western 
Germany. 

The British and American zones were then being 
integrated economically in the interest of efficiency 
and economy. This process was accelerated, la. 
addition, the two Governments decided upon ani 
appreciable increase in the level of industry. Thisi 
is a rather technical matter which is not readily 
understood. It should be remembered that thei 
Potsdam agreement called for the economic inte- 
gration of all four zones of Germany. To enable 
Germany to be self-supporting, a stipulated por- 
tion of the German industrial capacity, factories, 
machinery, etc., was to be retained in Germany. 
Industrial capacity in excess of this requirement 
was to be destroyed or distributed among the Al- 
lied nations as reparations. 

But the refusal of the Soviets to cooperate in 
establishing a unified economy for Germany in- 
validated the level of industry and reparation cal- 
culations made at Potsdam. It soon became aj)- 
parent that the plants and equipment originally 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



selected for retention in the western zones could 
not — with that area sealed oflf from the Soviet 
zone — produce enough to support the increased 
population of the bizonal area. This left the 
people in the bizonal area heavily dependent on 
Britain and the United States, especially for food- 
stuffs. The only feasible solution was to increase 
the industrial capacity to be retained in western 
Germany at the exj^jense of reparations. This was 
done. 

Incidentally, these measures which we have un- 
dertaken together with the British for the revival 
of economic life in our two zones have all been 
on the basis of a continuing invitation to the other 
occupying powers to join us in these necessary and 
constructive steps. 

Such measures as these, which we could under- 
take singlehandedly or in cooperation with other 
governments, yielded some results. But they 
did not get to the heart of the problem — which 
was the general economic recovery of western 
Europe — which, after a promising start, had 
plainly begun to falter. It became unmistakably 
clear that if Europe was to I'ecover, rather than 
suffer a perhaps fatal relapse, vigorous action 
would be required. The United States was the 
only nation in the i^osition of economic power and 
leadership to take the initiative in the matter. 
The alternatives to such action were so repugnant 
that for our own self-interest, if for no other 
reason, we could make only one choice. 

These then were the considerations that led to 
the suggestion of last June 5. It was stated that 
a continuation of the procedure of intermittent 
relief measures was no longer possible. It was 
also stated that recovery must depend primarily 
on their own exertions. The suggestion was made 
that if they would take the initiative and unite in 
developing a soimd and workable cooperative pro- 
gram to restore their economic system to a self- 
supporting status, we should do whatever we were 
able to do, consistent with our own capacities and 
needs. 

The response was instantaneous. In the coun- 
tries where freedom of opinion and action still 
prevailed, the idea quickly caught hold and served 
as a strong stimulus to morale as well as a spur to 
action in a material way. It focused attention on 
the necessity of treating economic recovery as a 
continental and cooperative matter, rather than a 

January 25, 1948 



rOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

problem confined to the narrow purview of each 
nation. 

The response of the Soviet Union and the states 
under its domination was revealing. Their reac- 
tion was immediate, sharp, and defensive. Our 
proposal to Europe contained no geographical or 
ideological qualifications of any kind. Any gov- 
ernment sincerely desirous of entering into a com- 
bined effort to promote the rehabilitation of 
Europe was free to participate. It was made clear, 
however, that we would not aid — in fact, we would 
vigorously oppose — any nation or group which 
sought to delay or impede recovery. 

This was the suggestion : the nations of Europe 
were left to their own choice — so far as they were 
free to do so. Sixteen countries, led by Britain 
and France, rallied together at Paris to work out 
a joint program to which each pledged itself to 
contribute what it could. The Soviet Union, 
though invited to serve as a co-sponsor of the con- 
ference, spurned this invitation and refused to 
participate. Moreover, the Soviet Government 
evidently directed the eastern European countries 
subject to its influence or control to refrain from 
attending, even after some of these had indicated 
a desire to participate and one had actually ac- 
cepted. Subsequently, a high Soviet official, a 
member of the ruling Politburo, made a public 
statement that it would be the policy of his Gov- 
ernment to oppose and attempt to defeat the Eu- 
ropean Eecovery Program by every possible means. 
That statement has been confirmed by the actions 
of the Communist parties in several European 
countries, notably France and Italy. 

The 16 western nations set up the Committee of 
European Economic Co-operation and proceeded 
to draft a program for achieving recovery to a self- 
sustaining ba«is in a four-year period. Far from 
interfering with the sovereign rights of the coun- 
tries involved, as hostile propagandists have al- 
leged, the United States refrained throughout the 
sunnner from any suggestion or advice to the 
European representatives at Paris, despite the fact 
that repeated and urgent appeals for such counsel 
were made. We were determined that the initia- 
tive in this phase of the procedure should be con- 
fined entirely to the European countries involved. 
Only at the conclusion, and then at the insistence 
of the participants, did we express our views on 
some aspects of the preliminary draft of the Paris 

109 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

program as they might relate to the prospect of 
AiBericaii support or aid. 

After the Paris program was submitted to our 
Government, it was given an intensive and critical 
examination. No peacetime project in Govern- 
ment history lias received more careful attention 
and study from a large number of highly qualified 
individuals both in and out of Government. 
Numerous modifications were made in the Paris 
program, as the result of studies made by various 
groups from the Executive branch and by the 
Krug, Nourse, and Harriman committees. As a 
result, the measure recommended to the Congress 
represents the combined judgment of a large num- 
ber of the nation's best talent. It is the plan, we 
believe, best adapted to serve the interests both of 
the United States and the European countries we 
wish to help. 

There may be flaws of omission or phrasing 
and no doubt the proposal will be improved in 
some particulars in the light of Congressional 
hearings and debate, but the principal features 
have been shaped with utmost care to meet many 
vital considerations affecting the national interest. 
Radical alteration of the basic structure would, I 
fear, jeopardize the prospect that the measure will 
successfully accomplish the purpose for which it 
is designed. There is a general determination to 
secure the most efficient administration of this 
program that is humanly possible, taking into full 
account the unavoidable factors of governmental 
legal requirements and diplomatic relationships. 

The i:)roi30sal is now under close scrutiny in 
Congress and the resulting publicity should keep 
the nation well informed as to the issues. This is 
especially desirable because we are dealing with a 
matter which may largely determine the course 
of history — certainly the character of western 
civilization — in our time and for many years to 
come. 

The American people frequently hear asser- 
tions that events have thrust our nation into a 
Ijosition of world leadership which imposes on 
us unprecedented responsibilities. There is truth 
in these assertions. The practical question is: 
Shall we acknowledge and accept the obligations 
and exactions of leadership and, if so, in what 
manner shall we exert that leadership? 

I dare say no group is more determined to assert 
its leadership in vigorous and decisive fashion 

110 



than the business element. Your traditions and 
instincts, your business experience, tell you that to 
be a leader you must act like one. But, of course, 
the great problem of the leader is the responsi- 
bility for what follows as the result of his de- 
cisions and actions. If we agree that the United 
States has become a world leader and in view of 
the critical state of the world perforce must assert 
its leadership, then we must examine all aspects of 
the problem. 

Our contribution to the European Recovery 
Program will cost the businessman of America 
money; it will cost all Americans money. But 
on this occasion I refer to the situation of the 
businessman of America — the great and small in- 
dustrialist — what are his reluctances in the matter 
of the foreign-aid program? 

Expenditures of the magnitude required to set 
in motion a constructive rehabilitation program 
in Europe — that is, a cure and not a palliative — 
will be an evident factor in the matter of Federal 
taxes. The appropriations necessary to carry out 
this 251'Ogram effectively, particularly in the in- 
itial 15-month period, must be considered in con- 
nection with tax rates. 

There are subtle distinctions among the incon- 
veniences and sacrifices that may be expected to 
residt. Waiting for delivery of a new-model 
car while continuing to drive an old one is an in- 
convenience. Paying higher taxes than we would 
wish entails definite sacrifice, as does doing with- 
out some scarce goods or articles until there are 
enough to go around. 

These are some of the realities to be faced in 
our daily private lives. These are some of the 
exactions of leadership. But each of the com- 
prehensive analyses of the problem yet made, and 
there have been a number, resulted in the same 
general conclusion that the United States can 
successfully carry out the proj^osed program. 

The fact is that the largest part of the job of 
assisting Europe, as measured by the rate of ex- 
ports from this counti-y, is behind us. The 
volume of commodities planned for shipment from 
the United States during the first 15 months of 
the program is less than the volume of our ex- 
jjorts during the past 15 months. Moreover the 
program contemplates a steadily decreasing vol- 
ume of exports in succeeding years. 

The goods and services to be financed with 

Department of State Bulletin 



Ainerican dollars actuall)' will constitute but a 
small proportion of Europe's total requirements — 
perhaps on the order of 5 percent. Our aids will 
be marginal, but that margin is absolutely neces- 
sary to enable the European economy to gain suffi- 
cient momentum to make real progress towards a 
pay-as-you-go basis. It is, in effect, the proverbial 
nail for lack of which the battle of European re- 
covery may be lost. 

The fatal deterioration and collapse of Europe 
economically and therefore politically would re- 
sult in consequences of a most serious nature for 
this country. The situation we then would face 
would necessarily impose on us such burdens in 
the way of taxes, discomforts, sacrifices, and im- 
pairments of the rights and privileges we now en- 
joy as to make those that now confront us seem 
trivial by comparison. 

In the field of foreign trade, for example, this 
Government is pressing for international agree- 
ments to remove or minimize arbitrary restraints 
on business between nations and to eliminate harm- 
ful discriminations. Many of the restrictive prac- 
tices we oppose appear in the system known as 
state trading, where the foreign commerce of a 
country is conducted by the government as the 
sole or dominant buyer and seller. We recognize 
that many of the present state-imposed restraints 
are defense mechanisms, resorted to as a result of 
abnormal conditions caused by the war, and sus- 
ceptible of correction when stability is assured. 

The long-term significance of state control of 
foreign trade, however, is a matter for serious con- 
cern. Thus, business has a special stake in Euro- 
pean recovery by virtue of what this recovery may 
mean for the practices and atmosphere of world 
trade. There is no doubt that if the countries of 
Europe should be forced to meet their present 
problems without further assistance from this 
country, the result could only be a radical increase 
in the restrictions and controls in force through- 
out that area affecting international trade and in- 
vestment. And more important, perhaps, than the 
actual restrictions themselves would be the deteri- 
oration in the atmosphere in which international 
1 .'usiness would have to be conducted. If the busi- 
nessmen of this country are again to enjoy the 
former facilities for residing, traveling, and doing 
business among the European peoples, then it is 
essential that the Europeans retain their confi- 

January 25, 1948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

dence in this country and in the soundness of lib- 
eral institutions in general. It is idle to think 
that a Europe left to its own efforts in these seri- 
ous problems of recovery would remain open to 
Ajnerican business in the same way that we have 
known it in the past. 

I have been talking about Europe, but the situa- 
tioTi is even more serious than that. Europe was 
at the heart of a great world trading and financial 
organization. Her failure to recover would have 
disastrous effects in many other areas. The econo- 
mies of Latin America and Canada, for example, 
are organized on the basis of having markets in 
Europe. If Europe fails to recover, and she cer- 
tainly cannot do so without our aid, the repercus- 
sions will be felt throughout the entire world. 

The cumulative loss of foreign markets and 
sources of supply would unquestionably have a 
depressing influence on our domestic economy and 
would drive us to increased measures of govern- 
ment control. 

By contrast with these possibilities, the cost and 
temporary adjustments required by the European 
Recovery Program appear reasonable, as I think 
they are. I have attempted only to present an 
estimate of the stakes the businessmen of America 
have at issue in this matter. 

We are all stockholders in the same company — 
the United States of America. The paramount 
question before us, I think, can be stated in busi- 
ness terms. We are required to make a decision 
as to which is the wiser course : Wliether to make 
a capital investment in European recovery in- 
volving a sum that though large is well within our 
means, with a good prospect of realizing long- 
term gains; or whether to spend our abundant 
capital for the satisfaction of our immediate 
wants, in the hope that the day of reckoning can 
be indefinitely deferred. 

I am not a businessman, but I have some knowl- 
edge out of my experience of what has been re- 
quired in the past to preserve certain of our na- 
tional assets in security, peace, and freedom. I 
consider the prudent course in this situation is 
prompt and effective action to assure solvency and 
stability in Europe. I think that is our role as a 
leader in a distressed world. I think we must 
judge ourselves in our present security and abun- 
dance in comparison with distressed people, sick 
and suffering, but already inspired by a great hope 
that the New World will help redeem the Old. 

Ill 



Relation of European Recovery Program to American Foreign Policy 



STATEMENT BY GEORGE C. MARSHALL' 
Secretary of State 



The President on December 19 jjresented to the 
Congress a proposal for a European Recovery 
Program. Subsequent documents submitted to 
the Committee from the Executive branch provide 
amplification and detail. Further explanation 
will follow. 

For my part, this morning I wish to place this 
projjosal for economic assistance to the free coun- 
tries of Europe in what I believe is its broad 
perspective. 

The European Recovery Program necessarily 
must be considered in relation to the foreign policy 
of the United States, which in its simplest form is 
concerned with those conditions abroad which 
affect or could later affect the future security and 
the well-being of our nation. What we desire, I 
think, is a stable, cooperative, and confident world. 
But such a world does not exist today. We must 
deal with the existing situation in our effort to 
promote peace and security. The situation in 
Europe has not yet developed to the point where 
the grim progression from economic uncertainty 
to tyramiy is probable. But without United 
States support of European self-help this progres- 
sion may well become inevitable. Therefore, it 
is proposed that our Nation take vigorous action 
now to assist in setting in motion the processes of 
recovery in the second most productive area in the 
world. 

The aid suggested is designed to prevent the eco- 
nomic strangulation which now tlireatens western 
Europe and through that vital area endangers the 
free people of the world. This aid must cure the 
illness without impairing the integrity of the na- 
tions we wish to support. The challenge of our 
task is great. 



' Made before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs 
on Jan. 12, 1948, and released to the press on the same 
date. 



We are faced with the necessity of making an 
historic decision. The proposed program will im- 
pose burdens upon the American people, but the 
quantity of exports contemplated is less than those 
of the past 15 months. The decision should be 
made on the basis of our most fimdamental inter- 
ests, and I submit that none of these are more com- 
pelling than enduring peace and individual 
freedom. 

Europe must be restored if a durable peace is 
to be attained. The United States has expended 
vast resources in the quest for peace. If by the 
expenditure of an additional amount, small in 
proportion to the investment already made, we can 
finish the job, certainly we should do so in our 
own interest as well as that of the world at large. 

To a far greater extent than, I believe, is now 
recognized, the western European countries, by 
their own efforts, have made a well-organized start 
towards recovery. We have witnessed the un- 
precedented sight of 16 sovereign nations sub- 
ordinating their diverse individual interests to a 
broader objective. The work of the Committee 
of European Economic Co-operation is a demon- 
stration of the will of those European nations 
to work out with our help their own salvation. 
The recent actions taken by several of the partic- 
ipating nations without awaiting hoped-for as- 
sistance from us is heartening. The pledges of 
this European group promise a far more co- 
operative system than has ever before existed on 
that continent. 

The European Recovery Program is designed to 
i-einforce the joint efforts of the free peoples of 
Europe. It is not a series of piecemeal relief 
measures. I ask you and the whole Congress to 
keep in mind the great difference between recov- 
ery and mere relief. 

To be effective, our action should meet four 
tests. It must be prompt. It must be adequate 



112 



Department of State Bulletin 



in amount. It must be efficient and flexible iu 
operation. It must be cooperative in relation to 
the other jiarticipating countries. 

The objective of this program is economic re- 
covery. The time for relief programs is past. 
Relief assistance provided during the past two 
j^ears has played a vital role. It has prevented 
starvation and pestilence. It has helped the 
people of western Europe to survive in freedom. 
But the concept of relief no longer meets the re- 
quirements of the situation. A constructive pro- 
gram for recovery is necessary. It should be ade- 
quate to its purpose of genuine recovery. If we 
do not move out to meet the problem in Europe 
today, it will certainly come to us here in the 
United States under conditions far more un- 
favorable to us. 

Obviously an adequate j^rogram must be within 
American capacity to support, or it would be 
dangerous both to ourselves and to the free world. 
For that reason the Harriman, Krug, and Nourse 
Committees and all the related departments of 
the Executive branch have studied the impact 
of proposed foreign aid upon the American econ- 
omy. They have concluded that a program of 
this magnitude can be safely and wisely imder 
taken. 

The progi-am developed at Paris by the Com- 
mittee of European Economic Co-operation has 
been extensively examined, both to obtain Ameri- 
can appraisal of tlie requirements for recovery 
and to assure that proposed aid would not unduly 
burden our own economy. From these examina- 
tions has emerged the proposed program which 
calls for assistance to European recovery from the 
United States in the amount of $6,800,000,000, for 
the period April 1, 1948, through June 30, 1949. 
On a comparable basis, the proposed program 
repi-esents a reduction of about 20 percent in the 
Paris estimates. These reductions have been 
made, for the most part, because of scarcities and 
in order to minimize the impacts in the United 
States, recognizing in particular the other bur- 
dens on the economy and the present existing in- 
flationary conditions. 

In my judgment the proposed program, be- 
ginning with $6,800,000,000 and carried through 
in decreasing amounts for each of the following 
three years, should make possible sustained eco- 
nomic recovery in western Europe. This figure 

January 25, 1948 



rORE/GN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

results from complex calculations. It takes into 
account the anticipated production, exports, and 
imports of the participating countries in their re- 
lation to all parts of the world and the availability 
of supplies both in the United States and elsewhere. 

I have so far stressed that the size of the program 
must be adequate to its purpose of supporting 
genuine recovery. It is equally important that the 
program be administered in a businesslike way 
that commands the confidence of the American 
people and the peoples and governments of Europe. 

In its operations it must be primarily a business, 
technical, and engineering job. The requirements 
of the European participants must be continuously 
screened as to need and availability. The efficient 
use of available funds must be assured. The utili- 
zation of the aid provided must be reviewed. 
These functions of business management we pro- 
pose be assigned to an Economic Cooperation Ad- 
ministration. In exercising these functions we 
should expect the Eca to consult with other agen- 
cies of Government where appropriate. 

The European Recovery Program is intimately 
related to the foreign policy of the United States 
and to our relationship with the participating 
countries. It will become the most important 
single expression of American foreign relation- 
ships in this part of the world. Its efficient admin- 
istration will have far-reaching influence on our 
foreign policy. For this reason, as Secretary of 
State I am vitally interested in finding the best 
possible organization and management for the 
program. 

It has never been my intention that the admin- 
istration of the program be hampered by unneces- 
sary controls or interference from the Department 
of State. I have said before that I have an open 
mind, both on the specific machinery of adminis- 
tration and on the wording of legislation. I be- 
lieve, however, that the authority for the adminis- 
tration of the program should be vested in a single 
individual and not in a commission or board and 
that matters of foreign policy must be subject to 
control and direction of the Secretary of State. 

Finally I turn to the inevitable questions: 
"What does the United States get out of this? 
Why should the people of the United States accept 
European burdens in this manner?" 

Euroi^ean economic recovery, we feel sure, is 

113 



fOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

essential to the preservation of basic freedom in the 
most critical area in the world today. 

European economic recovery is essential to a 
return of normal trade and commerce throughout 
the world. 

The United States is the only nation today with 
the strength to lend vital support to such a move- 
ment. 

We want peace. We want security. We want 
to see the world return to normal as quickly as 
possible. We are in a position of leadership by 
force of circumstance. A great crisis has to be met. 
Do we meet the situation with action or do we step 
aside and allow other forces to settle the pattern of 
future European civilization? 



Country Studies on ERP Released 

[Released to the press January 14] 

A report comprising country studies has been 
prepared by the Executive branch for use in con- 
nection with the consideration of the European 
Recovery Program.^ These studies deal in the first 
instance with the economic and political back- 
grounds of the 16 countries represented at the Paris 
conference as well as western Germany. Atten- 
tion has been focused particularly on those back- 
ground elements which seem most pertinent to the 
recovery program. 

The backgiound statements are accompanied by 
separate analyses of the prospective part of each 
country in the recovery program. Since increased 
production is the keystone to European economic 
recovery, particular attention is given in the 
studies to the production programs contained in 
the report of the Committee of European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation. These programs have been 
analyzed and evaluated by United States technical 
working groups, after further explanations of the 
Paris report by Ceec representatives who came to 
Washington early in October for this purpose. 



' These studies include chapter I, Introduction ; chapter 
II, Austria; chapter III, Belgium and Luxembourg; chap- 
ter IV, Denmark; chapter V, France; chapter VI, Greece; 
chapter VII, Iceland; chapter VIll, Ireland; chapter IX, 
Italy; chapter X, The Netherlands; chai>ter XI, Norway; 
chapter XII, Portugal ; chapter XIII, Sweden ; chapter 
XIV, Switzerland; chapter XV, Turkey ; chapter XVI, The 
United Kingdom; chapter XVII, Western Germany. 

114 



American technical groups have also sought to 
estimate the probable scope and direction of the 
trade of the participating countries, particularly 
during the first 15 months of the program. 

With respect to the components of such trade, 
the United States technicians treated imports and 
exports in two broad categories. The first cate- 
gory includes a list of selected items which, with 
certain minor exceptions, were those intensively 
studied by the Ceec technical committees. This 
category also includes certain other major com- 
modities exported from the United States in which 
supply i^roblems are likely to arise. The second 
category includes all other imports and exports. 

The estimates in the first category for each coun- 
try should be recognized as probably more accurate 
as to each commodity than the estimates in the 
second category. This is particularly the case on 
the import side. Special United States commod- 
ity conmiittees were established to study produc- 
tion, import and export potentialities of items on 
the selected list. Moreover, these items are those 
in which, by and large, there has been wide ex- 
perience in forecasting international supply and 
requirements. 

On the basis of the analyses mentioned above, 
estimates of the balance-of-payments positions of 
the respective countries were prepared. The bal- 
ance-of-payments estimates as ^Yell as the esti- 
mates of production, exports, and imports must 
be understood as illustrative of what might be 
expected. They are not accurate forecasts. In 
setting forth estimates of imports there is no 
intention to suggest specific allocations or to at- 
tempt to direct patterns of trade. 

These estimates relate, in large part, to actions 
which are to be taken by the European countries 
themselves. The difficulty of forecasting the eco- 
nomic and political conditions in those countries in 
the future is patent. The Executive departments, 
in arriving at their estimates had, of course, to 
base them on assumptions as to future events, to 
make decisions based on judgment, and to try to 
weigh imponderables. These estimates contain 
those departures from full accuracy which are 
necessarily inherent in all forecasts of so complex 
a {problem. Nevertheless, it is believed that care- 
ful consideration has been given to relevant fac- 
tors and that the estimates taken as a whole rep- 
resent correct orders of magnitude. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



No Provision for Military Bases in 
European Recovery Program 

[Released to the press January 17] 

In view of the misquotations of Secretary For- 
restal's testimony before the Senate Foreign Re- 
lations Conunittee on January 15 in relation to a 
possible connection between the European Re- 
covery Progi'am and overseas bases, the Secretary 
of State issued the following statement on Janu- 
ary 17: 

"The program of United States assistance to 
European recovery which is now being considered 
by the Congress does not provide for nor contem- 
plate the acquisition of military bases for the 
United States in return for economic assistance 
to the European countries. The intent of the 
American aid is only to enable the European na- 
tions participating in the recovei-y progi'am to 
re-establish their economic health and vigor." 

There is no contradiction between the purpose 
outlined above and the statements of Secretary 
Forrestal. In reply to a question concerning the 
importance of overseas bases, Mr. Fon-estal, as 
Secretary of National Defense, stated he would 
not quarrel with this thesis and added : 

"I am sure that the Secretary of State will have 
it in mind. I simply want to underline my own 
belief that in order of priority I would place the 
fundamental recovery of national confidence and 
the belief in survival on the part of these nations 
that we are trying to help." 



Charles E. Moore Consultant to AMAG 

The Department of State announced on January 
8 the appointment of Charles E. Moore, an author- 
ity on machine-tool techniques, as a consultant 
to the American Mission for Aid to Greece. 

Mr. Moore, who recently joined the Mission in 
Athens, will make a study of the utilization of 
macliine tools in the Greek-aid program, including 
the approximately one million dollars of machine 
tools brought by Unrra into Greece. He will su- 
pervise distribution of machine tools and deter- 
mine Greece's additional machine-tool require- 
ments for aiding reconstruction and rehabilitation. 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

Burton Y. Berry Assigned to AMAG 

The Department of State announced on January 
13 the assigmnent of Burton Y. Berry, a veteran 
Foreign Service Officer, as special assistant to 
D wight P. Griswold, Chief of the American Mis- 
sion for Aid to Greece. Mr. Berry sailed on 
January 9 and is scheduled to arrive in Athens on 
January 26. 



China To Send Mission to U.S. 
on Aid Program 

[Released to the press January 15] 

The Chinese Government recently informed the 
Department of State that it was prepared to send 
a small technical mission to the United States in 
connection with the aid program for China. The 
Department of State I'eplied that it would welcome 
such a mission. It is expected that the mission 
will be of assistance to the Department of State 
and other concerned Government agencies and 
that it will be prepared to discuss the present 
economic situation in China and measures that the 
Chinese Government is undertaking. 

It is understood that Mr. Pei Tsu-i, former 
Governor of the Central Bank of China, who will 
head the technical mission, is scheduled to arrive 
in Washington on January 16. 

World Maritime Organization — Continuedfrom page 107 

time Consultative Council by notification to the 
government of the United Kingdom in accordance 
with Article V (1) thereof."" 

Annexed to the recommendations were a draft 
convention for an intergovernmental maritime 
consultative organization and a document headed 
"Airreement for Provisional Maritime Consulta- 
tive Council". 

In a telegram of October 30, 1946, the chairman 
of the second session of the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council informed the Secretary-General 
of the United Nations of the action taken.*^ 



" BurxBTiN of Dec. 15, l&i6, p. 1094. 
*'■ U.N. doc. E/CN.2/4, Jau. 10, 1»17, p. 7. 



January 25, 1948 



115 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Necessity for International Cooperation in Aviation Matters 



STATEMENT BY LAURENCE S. KUTER< 
U.S. Representative to ICAO 



[Released to the press January 13] 

The report of the President's Air Policy Com- 
mission is a remarkable American document. The 
five members of the Commission should be con- 
gratulated for a demonstration of vision, realism, 
and foresight which matches that of the Morrow 
board a quarter of a century ago. 

Most of the report is addressed to the domestic 
aviation problems of the United States, military 
and civil. In oi'der properly to approach those 
problems, the Commission naturally found it es- 
sential to consider fundamental questions of the 
national security. 

I heartily agree with the Commission that the 
United States must work to achieve world peace 
through support and development of the United 
Nations and the specialized agencies such as Icao. 
Meanwhile, as the Commission says, unilateral 
disarmament by the United States is out of the 
question. 

This viewpoint is related to the committee's 
recognition and endorsement of a "double- 
barreled" policy and is also singularly appro- 
priate to the position of the United States in Icao. 
In this organization we take a leading position in 
whole-hearted support to the basic premise in the 
convention "whereas the future development of 
international civil aviation can greatly help to 
create and preserve friendship and understanding 
among the nations and peoples of the world", 
meanwhile honestly acknowledging that civil com- 
mercial air strength is an important element in the 
air power of the nation. 



' Mtule in Montreal, Canada, on Jan. 13, 191S, upon 
release of Survival in the Air Age, A Report by the 
President's Air Policy Commission. 



In its recommendations dealing with civil com- 
mercial air transport, the Commission lays prime 
emphasis upon the need for greater safety and reg- 
ularity of airline operations. I agree with the 
Commission that even though airline travel is 
much safer than is generally realized, the record 
must be improved. Such improvement is a matter 
of the greatest urgency. 

The figures as to the typical experience of regu- 
lar air travelers with respect to late departures and 
late arrivals as published by the Commission can 
only be described as shocking. It is obvious that 
this problem must continue to receive an increas- 
ing amount of attention by the airlines. 

As the Commission says, however, the basic re- 
quirement for substantial improvement in safety 
and regularity of the airlines is an adequate sys- 
tem of air-traffic control navigation and landing 
aids. I agree with the Commission that the de- 
velopment and financing of such a system of aids 
should be given top priority. 

This problem must be met and solved not only 
within the United States. It is equally acute on all 
of our international air routes. While few inter- 
national routes carry as much traffic as certain of 
our domestic routes, the technical facilities to as- 
sist air navigation on most of the world routes are 
far from adequate even for present traffic levels. 

It was my privilege to bring this problem to the 
attention of the Commission when I appeared be- 
fore it. I am naturally delighted that the Com- 
mission has given so strong an endorsement to the 
Icao program for the joint international financing, 
where it is trulj' necessary, of air-navigation fa- 
cilities along world air routes. This is a program 
which, in my opinion, is a good investment for 
the United States. 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S. Rejects Yugoslav Demand for Immediate Release of Frozen Assets 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE SECRETARY OF STATE AND THE YUGOSLAV AMBASSADOR 



[Released to the press January 14] 

Text of note froin Secretary Marshall to the Am- 
hassador of the Federal PcopWs Republic of 
Yugoslavia delivered on January H 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His Excellency the Ambassador of the Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia and has the honor 
to acknowledge the receipt of tlie Ambassador's 
note Pov. Br. No. 1 of January 2, 1948 concerning 
Yugoslav assets frozen in the United States and 
claims of the United States and its nationals 
against Yugoslavia. 

Claims of United States nationals against Yugo- 
slavia for compensation for properties expro- 
priated by the Yugoslav authorities through na- 
tionalization or on other bases exceed 42 million 
dollars. In addition the United States claims com- 
pensation for two United States airplanes shot 
down by Yugoslav forces in August 1946. United 
States accounts with Yugoslavia in regard to lend- 
lease, pre-UNRRA civilian relief etc. are also still 
outstanding. Several fuilher minor matters are 
likewise unsettled. 

The Ambassador will recall that, following var- 
ious previous informal approaches, the Yugoslav 
Govermnent in March 1947 indicated its desire to 
negotiate with a view to the settlement of outstand- 
ing problems relating to the expropriation of 
American interests in Yugoslavia and to Yugoslav 
blocked assets in the United States. In its reply 
the United States Government stated that it would 
welcome the early initiation of such negotiations 
and added that in its view such negotiations should 
simultaneously also cover the settlement of lend- 
lease accounts between Yugoslavia and the United 
States and any other financial claims of one Gov- 
ermnent against the other which had arisen sub- 
sequent to the outbreak of war. On that basis 
negotiations were undertaken on May 19. During 
these negotiations the United States has consist- 
ently sought a general settlement of this nature. 

In an effort to achieve a satisfactory compromise 
solution the United States offered to accept a lump 

January 25, 1948 



sum of 20 million dollars as settlement for expro- 
priated American property in Yugoslavia and in 
compensation for other outstanding United States 
claims except for the lend-lease and civilian relief 
accounts with respect to which it also offered to 
accept a reasonable amount in Yugoslav currency. 
This offer constituted an earnest effort to expedite 
a settlement of the matters at issue with Yugo- 
slavia in this regard. The Yugoslav Government 
summarily dismissed this effort. The Ambassador 
will recognize that in so doing the Yugoslav Gov- 
ernment manifestly relieved the United States of 
any further obligation with regard to such offer. 

The Yugoslav Government for its part made an 
obviously unrealistic counter offer of 5,187,000 dol- 
lars in reimbursement for losses suffered through 
expropriation by a strictly limited category of 
claimants. It excluded from this offer the claims, 
among others, of United States citizens natural- 
ized during and since the war even though such 
claimants were United States citizens at the time 
their properties were expropriated. With respect 
to these excluded claims the Yugoslav Government 
proposed to postpone consideration until some 
later time, leaving the sum of 2,500,000 dollars of 
its assets in this country pending a final agreement. 

The Yugoslav Government also expressed will- 
ingness to settle the lend-lease and pre-UNRRA ci- 
vilian relief accounts in local Yugoslav currency 
but has offered only 300,000 Yugoslav dinars for 
that purpose. The United States lend-lease ex- 
penditures on account of Yugoslavia amounted to 
32 million dollare and its share in pre-UNRRA ci- 
vilian relief over 6 million dollars. 

The Yugoslav Government bases its figure of 
5,187,000 dollars on a publication regarding 
American interests in Yugoslavia issued by the 
United States Department of Commerce in 1942. 
As the Ambassador has been previously in- 
formed, the Department of Commerce considers 
that figure as constituting only an unsupported 
estimate concerning a limited category of such 
investments. In the view of the Department of 



THB RECORD Of THE WEEK 

Commerce any reliance which might have been 
placed upon that figure becomes unrealistic by 
comparison with the subsequent survey published 
by the United States Treasury in 10-17 which 
lists American-owned assets in Yugoslavia as of 
May 31, 1943 at 50,300,000 dollars. The latter 
figure includes certain assets registered in the 
United States which were not at the time the 
property of American citizens and is subject to 
revision' in the light of developments since May 
31, 19-13. That it is more accurate than the 
earlier Department of Commerce figure is con- 
firmed, however, by the total of 42,300,000 dollars 
which the Department of State's records indicate 
as the total claims of United States nationals for 
expropriated property in Yugoslavia as set forth 
above. 

The Ambassador's note under acknowledgment 
contains a number of allegations concerning 
United States motives in these negotiations. All 
of these allegations have previously been dealt 
with in oral discussions with the Ambassador and 
it should not be necessary to refute them once 
again. It may be noted, however, that the Am- 
bassador charges that the United States by con- 
tinuing to freeze Yugoslav monetary reserves in- 
tends to obstruct the economic reconstruction of 
Yugoslavia and to hinder Yugoslavia's partici- 
pation in the general reconstruction of Europe. 
In this connection, it will be recalled that the 
United States has already freely contributed to 
the economic reconstruction of Yugoslavia some 
288 million dollars as its share (72 percent) of 
Unrra's expenditures in that country, advanced 
approximately 6 million dollars to Yugoslavia in 
pre-UNRRA civilian relief and is now further 
sharing substantially in the progi-am of the In- 
ternational Children's Emergency Fund which 
has established a major allocation for Yugoslavia. 
In addition, material charitable donations have 
been made to Yugoslavia by various relief organi- 
zations in the United States. As for Yugoslavia's 
part in the economic reconstruction of Europe, 
the Yugoslav Government has not only declined 
to participate in, but has even actively attacked, 
the common European recovery program. 

The Ambassador also charges that the United 
States is violating the Bretton Woods Agree- 
ment. The Secretary of State is unable to com- 
prehend the applicability of the Bretton Woods 
Agreement to this situation. 

The Secretary of State notes that the Yugoslav 
Government is prepared to continue the negotia- 
tions with regard to compensation for ^Vjiierican 
enterprises in Yugoslavia. In assuring the Am- 
bassador that the United States, on its part, is 
equally anxious to attain an expeditious solution 
of all the various matters at issue between the two 
Governments in this connection, the Secretary of 
State expresses his confidence that, if the Yugoslav 

118 



Government is disposed to provide the United 
States Government and its nationals the adequate 
and effective compensation for losses and expendi- 
tures to which they are justly entitled, it will be 
possible to achieve at an early date a satisfactory 
general settlement, to include arrangements con- 
cerning Yugoslavia's assets in this country, as orig- 
inally contemplated. 

Department of State, 

Washington, January i^, 19J!^8. 



Text of the Yugoslav note of January 2, 19'i8, to 
Secretary Marshall 

The Ambassador of the Federal Peoples Ke- 
public of Yugoslavia presents his compliments to 
the Honorable the Secretary of State and on be- 
half of the Government of the Federal Peoples 
Republic of Yugoslavia has the honor to draw the 
attention of the Government of the United States 
of America once again to the following : 

Before the German attack on and occupation of 
Yugoslavia, the National Bank of Yugoslavia 
transferred the major part of its monetary re- 
serves to the United States and entrusted them 
to the Federal Reserve Bank in New York. This 
place of security was chosen because it was 
deemed that there the monetary reserves would 
be safest from Nazi plunder and best protected 
from use for Hitler's war purposes; it was ex- 
pected that immediately after the end of the war 
they would be returned to the National Bank of 
Yugoslavia, for use for their proper and original 
purposes. 

As is known, the Government of the United 
States during the war, under the Trading with 
the Enemy Act, froze all assets of enemy and neu- 
tral states, as well as of allied countries which 
were under or threatened with enemy occupation, 
because of the danger that these assets might be 
seized by the quisling governments and used for 
war purposes. 

As early as May, 1941, the Government of the 
United States itself had suggested that the Yugo- 
slav reserves be transferred to the Yugoslav Gov- 
ernment-in-exile. Moreover, the Government of 
the United States permitted unlimited use of these 
reserves by the Yugoslav Government-in-exile, 
which disposed of a large amount. The Govern- 
ment of the United States did not interfere with 
this spending even when it became obvious that the 
Government-in-exile was using these resources 
against the common war effort of the allied na- 
tions. 

\^^len, on March 5, 1945, the Government, 
recognized by all the Great Allies, was formed in 
Yugoslavia, it was the natural expectation that 
full right to dispose of all Yugoslav assets in the 

Department of State Buitetin 



United States would he granted to that Govern- 
ment, or to the National Bank of Yugoslavia. 

The Yugoslav Government and the National 
Bank ^Yere told at that time that it was necessary 
only to authorize the responsible Yugoslav repre- 
sentative in AVashington to obtain the assets. 
However, when this suggestion was put into effect, 
the Department of State declined to authenticate 
the signature of the authoi'ized representative, 
making presentation of the authorization to the 
Federal Reserve Bank impossible. All requests 
for the performance of this formality were fruit- 
less. The Department of State would not even 
explain its attitude, and so completely prevented 
discussion of this question. 

Finally, in May, 1947, negotiations were started 
in Washington on tlie initiative of the Yugoslav 
Government. During these negotiations the rep- 
resentatives of the United States requested that 
various American claims for nationalized and 
other properties, many of which originated con- 
siderably after the transfer of the Yugoslav assets 
to the United States, be first paid from the Yugo- 
slav monetary reserves, to a total amount of $42,- 
300.000. of which $41,300,000 was for industrial 
enterprises, $700,000 for real estate and $300,000 
for agricultural property. The Anierican dele- 
gation reached these sums through exaggerated 
evaluation of prewar American investments, as 
well as by adding chiims for investments which 
were neither of American origin nor made in 
American ciu-rency, and whose owners became 
naturalized American citizens only during or after 
the war. Moreover, the American delegation in- 
cluded claims of certain Yugoslav Volks-Deutch- 
ers — claims groundlessly labeled as American. 
Later, these claims were reduced by the United 
States Government from $42,300,000 to $20,000,- 
000, which amount still is four times the official 
American evaluation. According to the official 
Ajiierican statistics of the Department of Com- 
merce, published in 1942, total American invest- 
ments in Yugoslavia at the end of 1940 amounted 
to $5,187,000, of which $1,300,000 represented 
commercial enterprises which have not been na- 
tionalized at all. It must be stated also that 
nationalized enterprises had been damaged during 
the war, especially the largest two American- 
owned industrial enterprises, which suffered 
heavy damages through bombing by the Allied 
Air Forces. 

When all this is considered, the inacceptability 
and incongi-uity of the claims of the American 
Government are obvious. The surprise of the 
Yugoslav delegation was the gi-eater because the 
request of the American Government, placing 
monetary reserves on the same level with various 
claims, among them even some originating from 
long-term investments, was without precedent in 
international relations. Moreover, this request 

January 25, 7948 



THE RECORD Of THB WEBK 

represented an unquestionable violation of the 
Bretton Woods Agreement, signed in Washington 
by forty-three (43) Allied nations, including the 
United States and Yugoslavia. 

Nevertheless, at the beginning of November, 
1947, the Government of Yugoslavia made an- 
other effort, prepared for a great sacrifice in order 
to reach an agreement. The representatives of 
the Yugoslav Government offered the immediate 
payment of $5j000,000 for the prewar American 
investments, with a substantial guaranty for the 
remaining claims. When this offer too was re- 
jected, it was asked how it was that the Ameri- 
can Government did not unfreeze and put at the 
disposal of the National Bank at least that part 
of the monetary reserve which exceeded the 
amount of the American claims. This question 
remained unanswered. 

From the end of the war up to this date the 
Government of the United States has unfrozen 
the monetary reserves of all the Allied and neu- 
tral countries. Yugoslavia is the only country 
which so far has been unable to recover the prop- 
erty which it entrusted to the United States to 
save from the fascist plunderers. Recently a 
decision was reached, with the Government of the 
United States participating, that the gold which 
Hitler had seized throughout Europe be returned 
to its former owners. Under this decision, not 
only Italy is receiving back its gold, but also the 
former enemy nation, Austria, with which a peace 
treaty still has not been signed. 

For all these reasons, the Government of the 
Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia considers 
it necessary once again to draw the attention of 
the Government of the United States to this ques- 
tion, and, before undertaking other means for the 
settlement of this problem, wishes to stress the 
following : 

(1) The Government of the Federal Peoples 
Republic of Yugoslavia again asserts its readiness 
to continue negotiations on compensation for 
American enterprises nationalized in Yugoslavia, 
such compensation being guaranteed by the Law 
of Nationalization. But the Government of the 
Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia firmly re- 
fuses to concede that the question of the unfreezing 
of the monetary reserves and the other assets of the 
National Bank be contingent ujaon previous agree- 
ment on the other questions. 

(2) Further delay in the unfreezing of these 
reserves, under whatever pretext, can be inter- 
preted only as an intention to obstruct the eco- 
nomic reconstruction of Yugoslavia and to hinder 
her participation in the reconstruction of Euro- 
pean economy, thus hampering the reconstruction 
of Europe in general. 

Washington, D.C, 
January 2, 1948. 

119 



status of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 



[Released to the press January 15] 

The general agreement on tariffs and trade 
negotiated at Geneva has been brought into force 
provisionally by the United States and eight other 
countries. These countries are: Australia, the 
Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg Customs Un- 
ion, Canada, Cuba, France, and the United 
Kingdom. 

On the part of the United States, the agreement 
became provisionally effective to the extent speci- 
fied in the President's proclamations dated Decem- 
ber 16, 1947 ^ and January 2, 1948 ^ (Department's 
press releases 973 and 5, respectively). 

According to the latest available information, 
the present status of the general agreement in each 
of the other countries named above is as follows : 

Australia 

The Australian Government gave provisional 
effect to the general agreement on November 18, 
1947, including all of the tariff concessions pro- 
vided for in schedule I of the agreement. These 
agreement rates apply to all countries to which 
Australia extends most-favored-nation treatment, 
irrespective of whether or not they are parties to 
the agreement. 

Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg Customs Union 

The Customs Union of Belgium, Luxembourg, 
and the Netherlands (Benelux) gave provisional 
effect to the general agreement on January 1, 1948, 
including the rates of duty appearing in schedule 
II, section A, of the general agreement, covering 
Luxembourg and the metropolitan territories of 
Belgium and the Netherlands. At the same time, 
for a temporary period, certain of these rates ap- 
plicable to a number of highly essential products 
are being suspended in whole or in part. The new 
rates of duty are applicable to imports from the 
countries which participated in the Geneva ne- 
gotiations and to imports from such other coun- 
tries as enjoy most-favored-nation treatment. At 
present most-favored-nation treatment is granted 
to all other countries. 

With respect to the rates of duty in sections B to 
E inclusive of schedule II, covering the Belgian 
Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, the Netherlands East 
Indies, Curagao^ and Surinam, respectively, the 
Governments of Belgium and the Netherlands 
have indicated that they expect it will be ad- 
ministratively possible to put these rates into ef- 
fect by June 30, 1948, and possibly sooner. 



» Pi-oolamation 2761A (12 Federal Register 8863). 
'Proclamation 27&4 (13 Federal Register 21). 



120 



Canada 

The Canadian Government gave provisional 
effect to the general agreement as from January 
1, 1948. All of the tariff concessions granted by 
Canada in schedule V of the agreement were made 
effective on that date with the exception of (1) 
rates of duty which are applicable to products of 
jirimary interest to countries represented at Ge- 
neva but which did not put their schedules of tar- 
iff concessions into effect on that date ; (2) the new 
seasonal specific duties on certain fresh fruits and 
vegetables, the change to which from the present 
ad valorem duties with specific advanced seasonal 
valuations requires new legislation; and (3) the 
new duty of 15 percent ad valorem on tinplate im- 
ported from British countries eliminating the 
preferential margin, which likewise requires new 
legislation. 

The most-favored-nation rates of duty provided 
for in part I of schedule V are applicable to im- 
ports from all countries entitled to most-favored- 
nation treatment in Canada. 

Cuba 

The Cuban Government gave provisional effect 
as of January 1, 1948, to the exclusive agreement 
between Cuba and the United States supplemen- 
tary to the general agreement and to the general 
agreement itself so far as the United States and 
Canada are concerned. On January 17, 1948, it 
will make effective the provisions of the general 
agreement so far as the following countries are 
concerned : Australia, Belgium, France, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. 
In the case of some of these countries the Cuban 
rates of duty will apparently be applicable only to 
the metropolitan areas. 

France 

The French Government gave provisional effect 
as of January 1, 1948, to the tariff concessions 
granted by France in section A of schedule XI of ' 
the general agreement. These concessions apply 
to imports into metropolitan France and Algeria, 
and to imports into Guadeloupe, Martinique, 
French Guiana, and Reunion to the extent that 
the French tariff applies in these colonies. The 
benefit of these concessions is extended to imports 
from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Luxembourg, 
the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



The rates of duty provided for in section A of 
section XI have been made an integral part of the 
new French import tariff, which became effective 
on the same date. Tlie rates specified in this new 
tariff represent the minimum, or most-favored- 
nation, tariff. General (or maximum) tariff rates 
have been established at three times tlie minimum 
rates. For the time being, however, the collec- 
tion of both minimum and general import duties 
has been suspended, except for a specified list of 
commodities. With respect to this list of com- 
modities, the minimum rates of duty are at present 
applied to imports from the countries named 
above, while the general rates of duty are appli- 
cable to imports from all other countries. 

The tariff concessions applicable to imports into 
the French overseas territories, provided for in 
sections B to N inclusive of schedule XI, will be 
made effective at a later date to be announced by 
the French Government. The concessions in these 
sections are applicable to imports of the products 
specified into the following French territories, re- 
spectively: (B) French Equatorial Africa (Gabon 
area outside the conventional Congo Basin) ; (C) 
French West Africa; (D) French Somaliland; 
(E) French Oceania; (F) Guadeloupe; (G) 
French Guiana; (H) Indochina; (I) Madagas- 
car; (J) Martinique; (K) New Caledonia; (L) 
Reunion; (M) St. Pierre and Miquelon; (N) 
Tunisia. 

United Kingdom 

The Government of the United Kingdom gave 
provisional effect on January 1, 1948, to the tariff 
and preference concessions granted in schedule 
XIX, section A, of the general agreement, appli- 
cable to imports into the metropolitan territory, 
with the exception of the following items on which 
Parliamentary action is required and on which the 
United Kingdom is free to maintain the existing 
rates until September 1, 1948 : prunes, artificial 
silk, silk and nylon stockings, sparkling and still 
wines, motorcycles, agricultural tractors, per- 
fumed spirits, and silk garments. Provisional 
effect was also given on January 1, 1948, to schedule 
XlX, section B, applicable to imports into New- 
foundland. The provisions of schedule XIX, 
section C, applicable to the dependent territories of 
the United Kingdom, have been suspended pending 
renegotiation, as announced in the Department's 
press release no. 978, dated December 19, 1947; 
however, the general provisions of the agreement 
will be applied in these territories. The date on 
which the provisions of schedule XIX, section D, 
applicable to the Malayan Union, are to become 
applicable will be announced by the Government 
of the United Kingdom. The tariff concessions 
on imports into Palestine, provided for in schedule 
XIX, section E, became effective January 1, 1948. 

January 25, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 

More detailed information may be obtained 
fi'om the Office of International Trade, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, including the following: 

(1) products on which the Benelux and French 
rates of duty are for the time being suspended; 

(2) Canadian tariff concessions included in sched- 
ule V not yet made effective. 

The remaining countries represented at Geneva 
have until June 30, 1948, to give provisional effect 
to the general agreement. These countries are: 
Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, Chile, China, Czecho- 
slovakia, India, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, 
Southern Rhodesia, Syro-Lebanese Customs 
Union, and the Union of South Africa. As each 
of them signifies its intention to put its tariff con- 
cessions into effect a further proclamation will be 
issued by the President giving effect to United 
States rates of duty in schedule XX now with- 
held on items of primary interest to such countries. 

Nonenemy Status of Italy, Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Rumania 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF THE 
TREASURY 

[Released to the press by the Treasury Department January 16] 

The Secretary of the Treasury annoimced on 
January 16 that the Governments of Italy, Bid- 
garia, Hungai'y, and Rumania, and nationals 
thereof, are no longer deemed to be "enemy na- 
tionals" within the meaning of general ruling no. 
11.1 

Treasuiy officials pointed out that this action, 
which is in the foi-m of an amendment to public 
circidar no. 25, was taken in view of the ratification 
of the treaties of peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania. The amendment does not au- 
thorize transactions under certain Treasury li- 
censes, nor does it in any way affect the definitions 
appearing in Executive Order 9193, which estab- 
lished the Office of Alien Property. 

It was also announced that the Treasury De- 
partment is prepared, in appropriate cases, to 
grant licenses for payments to creditors resident in 
the United States of business organizations and 
individuals in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 
from blocked accoimts in this country in which the 
debtors have an interest. It was recalled that on 
May 20, 1947, a similar announcement was made 
concerning payments to creditors of persons in 
Italy. 

Treasury officials explained that the step with 
respect to Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rmnania is 



^ General ruling no. 11 was issued under Ex. Or. 8389 
(7 Federal Register 2168). 

121 



THB RECORD Of THE WEEK 

being taken even though the final disposition of 
the blocked assets of these countries has not been 
determined. They pointed out, however, that in 
taking this step the Treasury Department is in 
substance applying to its unblocking procedures 
the principles of Public Law 671, 79th Congress, 
which authorizes the Office of Alien Property to 
pay debt claims of American citizens out of vested 
assets of their Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Ru- 
manian debtors. 

It was stated that, in general, licenses will be 
issued only in those instances where the debt was 
incurred either prior to the date of the blocking of 
the country involved or as a result of a transaction 
entered into subsequent to that date pursuant to a 
license specifically authorizing the use of blocked 
funds. 

U. S. Representative and Advisers 
to ITU Council 

[Released to tbe press January 8] 

The Department of State announced on January 
8 that the President had appointed the United 
States Representative and Advisers to the Admin- 
istrative Council of the International Telecom- 
munication Union (Itu). The Council is sched- 
uled to meet at Geneva on January 20, 1948. 



Francis Colt de Wolf, Chief of the Telecommu- 
nications Division, Department of State, will serve 
as the United States Representative. Helen G. 
Kelly, Telecommunications Division, and John 
D. Tomlinson, Assistant Chief of the Division of 
International Organization Affairs, both of the 
Department of State, will sei've as Advisers. 

The Administrative Council was provided for 
by the new international telecommunication con- 
vention drawn up at Atlantic City this past sum- 
mer, which revised the structure of the Itu. The 
Council is charged with implementing the pro- 
visions of the Atlantic City convention and regu- 
lations, coordinating the work of the Union, and 
considering and solving problems arising in the 
interim between plenipotentiary conferences, 
which meet every five years. There are 18 gov- 
ernments, elected by the conference, represented 
on the Council. 

Although the convention setting forth the reor- 
ganization of the Union does not go into effect un- 
til January 1, 1949, a protocol to the convention 
was signed at Atlantic City providing for the im- 
mediate establishment of the Administrative 
Council on a provisional basis. It is expected that 
the Council will normally meet at least once a year 
at Geneva, the seat of the International Tele- 
commmiication Union. 



Transfer of Nondemilitarized Combat Materiel 



[Released to the press January 5] 



The following is a list of authorizations and 
transfers of surplus nondemilitarized combat ma- 
teriel, effected by the Department of State in its 



capacity as foreign surplus and lend-lease disposal 
agent, during the months of February, May, June, 
August, September, October, and November 1947 
and not previously reported to the Munitions Di- 
visions. 



AUTHORIZATIONS AND TRANSFERS OF SURPLUS NONDEMILITARIZED COMBAT MATERIEL 



Country 



Brazil . 

Canada . 

Chile. . 

Cuba. . 
Denmark 

Ecuador. 
Egypt . 

122 



Description of materiel 



Spare parts for armored light car M8, and 
half-track car M2. 

Spare parts for light tank M3A1 

VT fuzes (time fuze) 

Spare parts for tanks 

Eight AT-ll aircraft (trainers) 

Drill cartridges, miscellaneous equipment . 

One patrol craft, escort 

10 German "E" (motor torpedo boats) 
(awarded to the United States by the 
Tripartite Naval Conmiission). 

12 P-47D, one AT-7 or AT-ll aircraft . . 

9 minesweepers 



Procurement cost 



$16, 227. 81 

387, 205. 07 

4, 149, 936. 00 
935, 491. 65 
667, 208. 00 

37, 629. 88 
1,786,700.00 
Captured enemy 
equipment 

1, 275, 654. 00 

5, 240, 250. 00 



Sales price 



$8, 113. 91 

19, 860. 25 
5, 000. 00 

99, 274. 58 

160, 000. 00 

3, 640. 45 

33, 500. 00 

42, 500. 00 



98, 000. 00 
540, 000. 00 



Date of transfer 



1947 
Nov. 4 

" 5 
" 19 
" 5 
Sept. 29 
Nov. 3 
" 18 
June 25, 30 



May 7 
Sept. 



Department of State Bulletin 



SURPLUS NONDEMILITARIZED COMBAT MATERIEL— Continued 



Country 



Description of matf riel 



Procurement cost 



Sales price 



Date of transfer 



EI Salvador 

Greece . . 
Mexico . . 

Norwa3'. . 

Turkey . . 
Uruguay . 



One AT- 11 aircraft (advanced trainer). . . 

Spare parts for tanks 

Metallic belt link and miscellaneous car- 
tridges. 

Miscellaneous cartridges, metallic belt link, 
shells, shot, rifle grenades, signals. 

11 minesweepers 

4 patrol frigates 

5 patrol crafts, escort 

10 German "E" motor torpedo boats 

(awarded to the United States by the 
Tripartite Naval Commission). 

7 minesweepers 

One AT-6D aircraft (advanced trainer) . . 



$83, 401. 00 

11, 609. 76 

3, 576. 98 

58, 892. 16 

6, 404, 750. 00 

9, 408, 000. 00 

8, 933, 500. CO 

Captured enemy 

equipment 

1, 590, 000. 00 
25, 029. 00 



$20, 000. 00 
580. 56 
358. 18 

5, 075. 1 1 

660, 000. 00 
50, 000. 00 

150, 000. 00 
42, 500. 00 



1, 078, 000 00 
5, 000. 00 



1947 

Oct. 7 
Nov. 13 
" 24 

Oct. 28 

Sept. 
Nov. 5 

" 5 
June 17, 

Aug. 4 

Feb. 
Oct. 2 



AUTHORIZATIONS FOR RETRANSFER OF LEND-LEASE ARTICLES IN BRITISH MILITARY 
INVENTORY, APRIL 1 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1947 



Retransferee government 



Item 



Quantity 



Belgium . . . 

China .... 
Czechoslovakia 

Denmark . . 

France . . . 
Greece . . . 



New Zealand 

Sweden . . 
Turkey . . 



Engines, aircraft, Packard Merlin 266 (installed in British fighters on 
loan to Belgium, equipment for two squadrons). 

Gunsights, gyro, Mark XIV 

Propellors, Hamilton 

Spare blades for Hamilton propellors 

Ammunition, .5-inch 

Guns, .5-inch Browning 

Spare barrels for .5-inch Browning guns 

Spare parts for the above guns, three years' requirements 

Ammunition, 3-inch .50 cal. low-angle practice cartridges 

Ammunition: 

.5-inch AP incendiary 

.5-inch ball 

.5-inch incendiary and tracer 

9 mm. ball 

.45-inch ball 

.30-inch ball 

Equipment surplus to British needs located in Greece, blanket author- 
ity, details of items and quantities not yet determined. 

Machine guns, Colt .5-inch (exact number undetermined, small quan- 
tity). 

Explosive composition, RDX A and A2 

Ammunition, .5-inch 



18 

4' 

4 1 

68,000 rds.' 

18' 

36' 

451 ' 

500,000 rds. 
500,000 rds. 
150,500 rds. 
210,400 rds. 
91,882 rds. 
20,000 rds. 



(■) 

1,000 tons I 
2,100,000 rds. 



' Eetransfer approved as outright sale; other retransfers approved subject to continuing U. S. right of recapture. 



THE CONGRESS 



Third Supplemental Appropriation Bill for 1948 : Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Ap- 
propriations, House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st 
SPSS., on the Third Supplemental Appropriation Bill for 
1948. ii, 415 pp. [Department of State, pp. 223-336.] 

Third Supplemental Appropriation Bill for 1948 : Hear- 
ings Before the Committee on Appropriations, United 
States Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on H. R. 4748, a bill 



making supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1948, and for other purposes, ii, 289 pp. 
[Department of State, pp. 119-153, 170-187, 272-3.] 

Investigation of the National Defense Program: Hear- 
ings Before a Special Committee Investigating the Na- 
tional Defense Program, United States Senate, 79th Cong., 
2nd sess. . . . Part 36, Surplus Property Abroad, and 
Part 39, Return of Overseas Surpluses, Maintenance of 



January 25, 7948 



123 



THB RECORD Of THE WBBK 

Naval Establisliments, Canol Project, Emergency Housing 
Program, Renegotiation of War Contracts . . . 
[Both parts indexed.] 

Hearings Regarding the Communist Infiltration of the 
Motion Picture Industry : Hearings before the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, 
80th Cong., 1st sess., Public Law 601. October 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, and 30, 1947. iv, 549 pp. 

Consolidation of International Air Carriers (Chosen 
Instrument) : Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, United 
States Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on S. 987, a bill to 
amend the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, as amended, to 
provide for the creation of a consolidated international 
air carrier for the United States, and for other purposes. 
May 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, June 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1947. 
iv, 821 pp. [Department of State, pp. 70S-729, 804.] 



Transfer of Property to the Philippines 

By Executive, Order 9921 ( 13 Federal Register 
171), the President on January 12 authorized the 
Philippine Alien Property Administrator to trans- 
fer certain property to the Republic of the Philip- 
pines. The provisions of Executive Order 9921 
are as follows : 

1. The Philippine Alien Property Administra- 
tor is authorized to transfer to the Republic of the 
Philippines in accordance with the provisions of 
section 3 of the Philippine Property Act of 1946, 
as soon as practicable after final payment of claims, 
costs, and expenses of administration, any prop- 
erty, or proceeds thereof, vested in or transferred 
to him pursuant to the Trading with the Enemy 
Act, as amended, and the Philippine Property Act 
of 1946. 

2. The Philippine Alien Property Administra- 
tor is authorized to transfer to the Republic of the 
Philippines in accordance with the provisions of 
section 3 of the Philippine F'roperty Act of 1946, 
prior to final adjudication of claims, costs, and 
expenses of administration when he deems it to be 
administratively feasible, and without further con- 
sideration for such transfer, property, or proceeds 
thereof, vested in or transferred to him pursuant to 
the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended, 
and the Philippine Property Act of 1946, against 
which, in the judgment of the Administrator, no 
substantial claims, expenses, or costs of adminis- 
tration are likely to be chargeable. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Consular Offices 



The American Consulate at Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 
British West Indies, was raised to the rank of Consulate 
General, effective January 1, 1948. 



Appointments to Foreign Service 
Selection Boards 

[Released to the press January 9] 

Members of the two selection boards of the 
Foreign Service of the United States were an- 
nounced January 9 by the Department of State. 
These boards, which are composed of four repre- 
sentatives of the Foreign Service and one public 
member, will prepare the list of officers recom- 
mended for promotion in 1948 under the promo- 
tion-up or selection-out system authorized by the 
Foreign Service Act of 1946. Similar boards were 
created for this jDurpose last year and were dis- 
banded after submitting their lists. Members of- 
the two new selection boards will be sworn in on 
January 12 in the office of Christian M. Ravndal, 
Director General of the Foreign Service, and will- 
begin their work immediately. The boards will 
require from six to eight weeks to submit their 
lists. 

Board A, which will consider Foreign Service 
officers in classes 2 and 3, is made up of — 

Harold H. Tittmann, Jr., Ambassador to Haiti 

Monnett B. Davis, Consul General and Counselor of 
Embassy at Shanghai, with the personal rank of 
Minister 

Hugh S. Fullerton, Consul General and Counselor of 
Embassy at Paris 

Merwin L. Bohan, Counselor for Economic Affairs at 
Mexico City 

Clark Haynes Minor, public member, official of the Inter- 
national General Electric Company, New York City 

Board B, which will consider Foreign Service 
officers in classes 4, 5, and 6, is made up of — 

Joseph Flack, Ambassador to Bolivia 
James Hugh Keeley, Jr., Minister to Syria 
Howard K. Travers, Consul General at Vancouver 
H. Merrell Benninglioff, Consul General at Dairen 
James Henry Rowe, public member, official of the Com- 
mission on Organization of the Executive Branch of 
the Government, Washington 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 



The American Vice Consulate at Arubn, West Indies, 
was raised to the rank of Consulate on January 1, 1948. 

124 



For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, Oovemment 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
ease of free publications, which may he ot>taincd from the 
Department of State. 

Trade. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1588. 
Pub. 2781. 31 pp. 100. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
the Republic of the Pliilippines — Signed at Manila 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



July 4, 1946; amended by exchange of notes signed 
October 22, 1946 ; proclaimed by the President of the 
United States of America December 17, 1940; supple- 
mentary proclamation issued by the President January 
8, 1947 ; entered into force January 2, 1947. 

Air Transport Services: Routes to and from Fiji Island. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1640. Pub. 
2942. 4 pp. 5f. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland Amending Agreement of February 11, 1946 — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
December 20, 1&46 and January 27, 1947; entered 
into furce January 27, 1947. 

Commercial Relations. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1042. Pub. 2944. 3 pp. 54. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Chile Extending Agreement of July 30, 1946 — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Santiago July 30, 1947 ; 
entered into force July 30, 1947. 

Exchange of OfiBcial Publications. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1654. Pub. 2962. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement Between tile United States of America and 
Slam — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Bangkok September 5, 1947; entered into force 
September 5, 1947. 

Germany: Distribution of Reparation, Establishment of 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, Restitution of Monetary 
Gold. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1655. Pub. 2966. 31 pp. 100. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Other Governments — Opened for signature at Paris 
January 14, 1946; signed for the United States of 
America January 14, 1946 ; entered into force January 
24, 1946. 

The World Talks Over Its Food and Agricultural Prob- 
lems. By N. E. Dodd. Conference Series 105. Pub. 3002. 
7 pp. 100. 

An article by the Chairman of the U.S. Delegation to 
the Geneva conference of the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of last August and September, describ- 
ing the steps taken by that conference with regard to 
the world's curi-ent and long-range food problems. 

iRice. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1627. 
■Pub. 2905. 7 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States, Brazil, and 
the United Kingdom, Modifying Agreement of Decem- 
ber 21, 1943 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Rio de Janeiro December 23, 1946; entered into force 
December 23, 1946. 

Health and Sanitation : Cooperative Program in Ecuador. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1645. Pub. 
2947. 13 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Ecuador, 
Further Extending and Modifying Agreement of Feb- 
ruary 24, 1942 — Effected by exchange of notes signed 
at Quito June 21, 1947; entered into force June 21, 
1947. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Hon- 
iuras. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1646. 
Pub. 2953. 10 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Honduras, 
Amending and Extending Agreement of May 8, 1942 — 

lanuary 25, 1948 



Effected by exchange of notes signed at Tegucigalpa 
May 13, 1947 ; entered into force May 13, 1947 ; effec- 
tive from May 1, 1947. 

Treaty of Peace With Italy. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 1648. Pub. 2960. 511 pp. $1.25. 

Dated at Paris February 10, 1947; ratified by the 
President of the United States June 14, 1947; pro- 
claimed by the President September 15, 1947 ; entered 
into force September 15, 1947. 



Paris Peace Conference 1946: 
Selected Documents 

[Released to the press January 17] 

The Department of State released on January 17 
a volume which contains a selection of documents 
setting forth the deliberations and recommenda- 
tions of the Paris peace conference of 1946 at- 
tended by 21 nations. The conference was held 
for the purpose of considering the draft treaties 
of peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Finland which had been prepared by the 
Council of Foreign Ministers. Although the pro- 
ceedings of the Paris conference have not been 
restricted they were prepared only in a few copies 
for official use and have therefore not previously 
been available to the general public. 

Photographic reproduction has been employed 
in producing this volume, thus making available 
to the public facsimile copies of the documents in 
their mimeographed form as distributed at the 
conference. The compilation is divided into two 
main categories, dealing with (1) the participants, 
organization, and procedures of the conference, 
and (2) consideration of each of the five draft 
treaties in the primary coinmissions and in plenary 
sessions. There is also included an appendix of 
three supplementary documents concerning the 
statute of the Free Territory of Trieste. 

This volume is for sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, United States Government Printing 
Office, Wasliington 25, D.C., for $6 a copy. 

Foreign Agriculture 

The Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, De- 
partment of Agriculture, has consolidated its two 
monthly periodicals. Agriculture in the Americas 
and Foreign Agriculture, effective in January 1948. 
The combined publication is entitled Foreign Agri- 
culture. Paid subscriptions are obtainable from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. For a sample 
copy write to the Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations, Department of Agriculture, Washington 
25, D.C. 



Erratum: Habana Meeting of U. N. Conference on 
Trade and Employment 

Bulletin of January 11, 1948, page 39, first column, first 
paragraph, second line : Delete "will be forthcoming if 
trade is rigorously re-". 

125 



THE DEPARTMENT 



President's Budget on International Affairs and Finance^ 



Our new international programs for European 
aid liave been fully presented to the Congress in 
recent messages. The appropriation already en- 
acted will provide "stopgap" assistance through 
next March to the European countries in most ur- 
gent need — France, Italy, and Austria — as well as 
aid to China. It is essential that we move as soon 
as possible to a positive program for promotion of 
European recovery. 

In addition to the European Recovery Program, 
other international-aid programs for several coun- 
tries, including China, are provided for under pro- 
posed legislation. Definite recommendations on 
these programs will be transmitted shortly. Also, 
I urge again enactment of the inter- American mili- 
tary cooperation bill proposed last May. Esti- 
mates of appropriations and expenditures for this 
group of progi'ams have been included in the 
budget. 

Expenditures. By far the largest international 
expenditures in the fiscal year 1949 will be under 
the European Recovery Program — 4 billion dol- 
lars, in addition to 500 million dollars in the fiscal 
year 19-48. Expenditui'es under other proposed 
legislation for aid are estimated at 60 million dol- 
lars in the fiscal year 1948 and 440 million dollars 
in the fiscal year 1949. 

The Export-Import Bank will continue in the 
fiscal year 1949 to make loans to expand interna- 
tional trade and promote economic development, 
particularly in tlie Western Hemisphere. The 
need for such loans will decline, however, when the 
dollar problem of Western Hemisphere countries 
is eased as a result of purchases in these countries 
under the European Recovery Program. Dis- 
bursements of the Bank's fimds will also decline 
because its large loan authorizations to several 
European countries are rapidly being exhausted 
during the current fiscal year. Plans for the 
European Recovery Program call for use of the 
Bank s facilities to administer loans made under 
the new pi'ogi'am. 

Tlie largest expenditures for foreign relief now 
fall under the occupied-areas program. These ex- 
penditures are handled by the Army and are 



'Excerpts from The President's Budget Message for 
1949 and Selected Budget Statements which was released 
to the press by the White House on Jan. 10, 1948. See also 
S. Doc. 106, 80th Cong., 1st Sess. 



126 



chiefly for shipments of goods to prevent disease 
and unrest. They will increase in both the 1948 
and 1949 fiscal years. The increase in 1948 will be 
caused largely by sharply higher prices, a severe 
German crop failure, extensive storm damage to 
Japanese crops, and the British dollar shortage. 
Since the United Kingdom is no longer able to meet 
dollar costs for essential supplies for the bizonal 
area of Germany, the United States is now assum- 
ing this expense. The British will continue to 
finance purchases from sterling areas. Expendi- 
tures under this program will increase still fur- 
ther in the fiscal year 1949 because all dollar costs 
of imports for relief in the bizonal area must be 
paid by the United States for the entire fiscal year. 

Expenditures under the interim-aid and post- 
Unrra programs will be completed in the fiscal 
year 1949. Most of the shipments under these 
programs will be made in the current fiscal year, 
but expenditures lag behind shipments. 

Payments to the Philippine Republic to make 
partial compensation for war damage and to aid 
in its rehabilitation are now increasing. I renew 
tlie recommendation that the Congress enact legis- 
lation to carry out our pledge to provide certain 
benefits to Philippine vetei'ans. 

Estimates for the fiscal years 1948 and 1949 for 
membership in international organizations include 
disbursement of part of a proposed loan to the 
United Nations for construction of permanent 
headquarters. 

The budget for the Department of State includes 
amounts needed under proposed legislation to 
carry out an effective foreign informational and 
cultural program. This program is essential in 
order to present to the world an accurate picture 
of United States policies and to counter misleading 
propaganda. An adequate information program 
will greatly increase the effectiveness of our inter- 
national political and economic policies, especially 
in P^urope. 

Appropriations. A supplemental 1948 appro- 
priation of 6.8 billion dollars is included in this 
budget for the first 15 months of the European 
Recovery Program. This appropriation would be 
available for obligation through the fiscal year 
1949 and would be used mainly in that year. Ex- 
perience with programs involving similar procure- 



Department of Stafe Bulletin 



nient problems indicates that the margin between 
the recommended appropriation and the 4.5-bil- 
lion-dollar expenditure estimate during the same 
period is reasonable. To permit systematic and 
economical placement of orders for later delivery, 
appropriations must be substantially greater than 
expenditures in the initial phase of the program. 
In addition, bills for a portion of the goods 
shipped in one fiscal year are not paid until the 
following year, and this lag of expenditures is 
particularly significant in a large new program. 
Other recommended 1948 supplemental appro- 
priations, to be spent mainly in 1949 and later 
years, include 300 million dollars for other foreign- 
aid programs, 65 million dollars for the loan to 



THE DEPARTMENT 

the United Nations for headquarters construction, 
and smaller amounts for Department of State pro- 
grams. 

Because of the large supplemental appropria- 
tions for international activities recommended for 
the fiscal year 1948, appropriations for 1949 total 
only 2.1 billion dollars. The two main items are 
1,250 million dollars for the Army programs in oc- 
cupied areas and an estimate of 450 million dollars 
for aid programs under proposed legislation. 
Recommended appropriations totaling 133 million 
dollars for Philippine programs are below 
estimated expenditures because a portion of the 
appropriations for the current year will remain 
available for expenditure next year. 



INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND FINANCE 



[Fiscal yeats. Id millions] 



Program or agency 



Expenditures 



Actual, 
1947 



Estimate, 
1948 



Estimate, 
1949 



Appropria- 
tions, 1949 



Reconstruction and stabilization: 

European Recovery Program (proposed legislation) 

Other proposed aid legislation 

Export-Import Bank loans 

Treasury loan to United Kingdom 

Subscriptions to International Bank and Fund 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation loans to United Kingdom 

U.S. Commercial Company 

Greek-Turkish aid (act of 1947) 

Foreign relief: 

Foreign (interim) aid (Foreign Aid Act of 1947) 

Army (occupied countries) 

Relief assistance to war-devastated areas (post-UNRRA) .... 

Unrra 

International Refugee Organization 

Other 

(Philippine war damage and rehabilitation: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation for veterans' benefits 

Membership in international organizations: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 

Foreign relations: 

Department of State: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 

Other 



Total 



$937 
2,050 
1,426 

-38 

-47 



514 
l', 489 



3 
73 



17 



111 

'e' 



6,540 



$500 

60 

736 

1,700 



-40 

63 

275 

375 

998 

272 

201 

71 



P) 



95 



25 
15 



160 
20 

7 



5,533 



$4, 000 
440 
500 



-40 



119 

165 

1,250 

60 

1 

71 



180 
16 

24 
34 



164 
16 

7 



7,009 



(') 
2 $450 



1,250 
'71 



116 
16 

24 
4 



151 

20 

1 



2,104 



1949. 



A 1948 supplemental appropriation of 6.8 billion dollars is anticipated for the period from Apr. 1, 1948, to June 30, 



2 A 1948 supplemental appropriation of 300 million dollars is also included in this budget. 
' Less than one-half million dollars. 



tanuary25, 1948 



127 



rxi^tle/r/:, 



Foreign Aid and Reconstruction page 

The Stake of the Businessman in the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program. Address by 

the Secretary of State 108 

Relation of European Recovery Program to 
American Foreign Policy. Statement 

by the Secretary of State 112 

Country Studies on Erp Released 114 

No Provision for Military Bases in Euro- 
pean Recovery Program 115 

Charles E. Moore Consultant to Amag ... 115 
Burton Y. Berry Assigned to Amag .... 115 

Economic Affairs 

Toward a World Maritime Organization: 
Part I. Developments from 1897-1946. 
Article by Eula McDonald 99 

China To Send Mission to U.S. on Aid 

Program 115 

Nonenemy Status of Italy, Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania. Statement by the 
Secretary of the Treasury 121 

U.S. Representative and Advisers to Itu 

Council 122 

Transfer of Nondemilitarized Combat 
Materiel : 
Authorizations and Transfers of Surplus 

Nondemilitarized Combat Materiel . . 122 
Authorizations for Retransfer of Lend- 
Lease Articles in British Military In- 
ventory, April 1 Through September 

30, 1947 123 

Transfer of Property to the Philippines . . 124 



The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

Necessity for International Cooperation in 
Aviation Matters. Statement by 
Laurence S. Kuter 116 

General Policy 

U.S. Rejects Yugoslav Demand for Im- 
mediate Release of Frozen Assets. 
Exchange of Notes Between the Secre- 
tary of State and the Yugoslav Am- 
bassador 117 

Treaty Information 

Status of General Agreement on Tariffs and 

Trade 120 

Tlie Department 

President's Budget on International Affairs 

and Finance 126 

The Congress . 123 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 124 

Appointments to Foreign Service Selection 

Boards 124 

Publications 

Department of State 124 

Paris Peace Conference 1946: Selected 

Documents 125 

Foreign Agriculture 125 



myyi{/i^mwt<y)f6, 



Eula McDonald, author of the article on a world maritime organ- 
ization, Is a foreign-affairs analyst In the Division of Historical Policy 
Research, Office of Public Affairs, Department of State. 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1946 






m^ 



tj/i€/ ^eha^tT^ient/ ,{^ t/tate^ 




THt IMTtKIMATlOrsAL LABOR UUG.VINIZATIO.N 
REGIONAL MEETING FOR THE NEAR AND 
MIDDLE EAST • 'r- v >■ f-nr- n Tr^'.fr, ... 139 

FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CANCER RFSFARriT 
CONGRESS • Article hy Leonard A, Scheelv 




Par complete contents see hack c/uvr 



0. S. SUPERINTENDENT C? DOCliytKIS 

FEB 201948 




'♦T^O* 



^.a^.^y*. bulletin 



Vol. XVIII, No. 448 • Publication 3036 
February 1,1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

SnBaoEiPTiON: 
62 issues, $5; single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depaetment 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with infornuition on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
terruitional agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
natioruil interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



TOWARD A WORLD MARITIME ORGANIZATION 



Part II 



ARTICLE BY EULA MCDONALD 



Part I of this article, which appeared in the 
Bulletin of January 25, gave a resvmie of the 
antecedents and accomplishments of some of the 
significant organizations concerned with ocean 
shipping from 1897 to 1946, inclusive. Part II 
of the narrative continues with an account of 
major activities in this field since the end of 19If6, 
the plans for the proposed Intergovernmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization, and a spe- 
cial section on the prohlem of safety of life at sea. 

Provisional Maritime Consultative Council 
and the United Nations 

As in the case of the concurrent activities in 
1946 of the United Maritime Consultative Council 
and the Temporary Transport and Communica- 
tions Commission of the Economic and Social 
Council, likewise in 1947 both the Provisional 
Maritime Consultative Council and the permanent 
Transport aaid Communications Commission of the 
Economic and Social Council met independently 
but aware of each other's functioning. 

The Government of the United States had noti- 
fied the Government of the United Kingdom of 
its acceptance of membership in the Provisional 
Maritime Consultative Council in November 
1946.^^ The Economic and Social Council, at its 
session of December 10, 1946, in New York, had 
appointed the representatives of 12 countries who 
had been duly nominated by their respective gov- 
ernments to the permanent Transport and Com- 
munications Commission.*^ 

The permanent Commission began its first 
session on February 6, 1947, in New York. The 
provisional agenda, which had been prepared by 

^ebtxtaty I, J 948 



the Secretariat of the United Nations, contained a 
proposal for the establishment of a world-wide 
intergovernmental shipping organization. This 
proposal was included in the agenda pursuant to 
the resolution adopted by the Economic and Social 
Council on June 21, 1946.''=* In connection with 
this item of the agenda, the permanent Commis- 
sion took note of (1) the comprehensive report 
of May 25, 1946, submitted by the Temporary 
Transport and Communications Commission in 
favor of an intergovernmental shipping organi- 
zation, and (2) the similar recommendations of 
the United Maritime Consultative Council. The 
permanent Commission did not consider a more 
detailed study necessary. Accordingly it decided, 
in compliance with its terms of reference, to 
recommend to the Economic and Social Council 
the establishment of a world-wide intergovern- 
mental organization to deal with technical matters 
in the realm of shipping. Since, however, the 
draft recommendations of the United Maritime 
Consultative Council were not limited to the tech- 
nical field, the Commission proceeded to adopt a 
draft resolution which contemplated a range of 
activities broader in scope than those confined to 
technical aspects alone. 



" Bulletin of Dec. 1, 1946, p. 1002 ; United States mem- 
bership was effective Nov. 20, 1946. Of tlie other countries 
which had participated in the Washington meeting of 
October 1946, a sufficient number to bring the new Council 
into existence informed the Government of the United 
Kingdom of their acceptance of the "Agreement for Pro- 
visional Maritime Consultative Council". 

" U.N. doc. E/CN.2/SR.1, Feb. 6, 1947, p. 2. 

« Bulletin of Jan. 25, 1948, p. 106. 

131 



This resolution requested the Economic and 
Social Council to take action to the effect that the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations be in- 
structed to call a conference for the purpose of 
establishing an intergovernmental shipping or- 
ganization and to circulate with the invitations 
to the conference the draft convention prepared 
by the United Maritime Consultative Council, 
which should form the basis for discussion at the 
conference.^" The resolution specified that the 
conference should be held in Europe, preferably 
in the fall of 1947." 

The Economic and Social Council, meeting on 
March 28, 1947, took note of the report of the first 
session of the Transport and Communications 
Commission and adopted a resolution requesting 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
among other things to convene a conference for 
the purpose mentioned; to circulate the draft con- 
vention prepared by the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council to all of the invited governments 
with the notation that any comments or amend- 
ments which they might wish to offer in advance 
of the meeting should be sent to the Secretary- 
General for submission to the other goverimients 
and for later consideration at the conference ; and 
to draw up a provisional agenda for the confer- 
ence. The resolution also expressed the hope that 
the invited governments would give their delega- 
tions full powers to sign the convention.** 

At this juncture the newly created Provisional 
Maritime Consultative Council, replacing the de- 
funct United Martime Consultative Council, be- 
gan its activities. Its first meeting was held at 
Paris from May 16 to 20, 1947, at the invitation 
of the French Govermnent. 

Under the terms of the agreement annexed to 
the recommendations adopted by the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council at its Washington 
meeting in October 1946, the Provisional Mari- 
time Consultative Council was designed to func- 
tion temporarily, pending the establishment of 
the proposed world-wide organization, and in 
particular "to provide machinery for cooperation 
among Goverimients in the field of Governmental 



" U.N. doc. E/270, Feb. 24, 1947, pp. 13-15, 30. 
"U.N. doc. E/270/ Add. 1, Mar. 7, 1W7, p. 2. 
" U.N. doc. E/408, Apr. 9, 1947, pp. 2-3. 
" Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1946, p. 1098. 



132 



regulation and practices relating to technical 
matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in 
international trade, and to encourage the general 
adoption of the highest practicable standards in 
matters concerning maritime safety and efficiency 
of navigation"; to "encourage the removal of all 
forms of discriminatory action and unnecessary 
restrictions by Governments affecting shipping 
engaged in international trade"; to provide for 
consideration of the shipping problems which may 
be referred to the Council by the United Nations ; 
and to arrange for information on matters before 
the Council to be disseminated among the member 
governments.** Included in the functions of the 
Provisional Maritime Consultative Council was 
the responsibility for advising on questions relat- 
ing to the draft constitution of the proposed per- 
manent maritime organization. 

The agreement provided further that the mem- 
bership of the Provisional Maritime Consultative 
Council should consist of those governments which 
notified the United Kingdom of their acceptance 
of the agreement from among the members of the 
former United Maritime Consultative Council or 
members of the United Nations ; that an Executive 
Committee consisting of 12 member governments 
should be established after 20 governments had 
accepted the agreement; that the Council should 
determine at each meeting the place and time for 
its next session, the first meeting to be held at any 
time after March 1, 1947; that the agreement 
should enter into force when 12 governments, of 
which 5 shall each have a total tonnage of not 
less than 1,000,000 gross tons of shipping, had 
accepted it; and that the agreement should termi- 
nate upon the entry into force of a Constitution 
for a i^ermanent intergovernmental organization 
or when membership falls below 12 members. 

The following topics were discussed at the May 
1947 meeting of the Provisional Council: (1) co- 
ordination of activities in the fields of aviation, 
shipping, and telecommunications affecting safety 
at sea and in the air; (2) economic discrimina- 
tions in shipping; (3) the progress which had 
been made in restoring normal processes of inter- 
national shipping business; and (4) uniformity 
of merchant-vessel statistics. It was decided to 
refrain from any discussion of the 1946 draft con- 
vention for a permanent organization in view of 
the full procedure adopted by the United Nations 

Department of State BuHetin 



for the collection and distribution of comments 
and suggestions for amendments by the interested 
governments. 

An important part of the work of the May 
1947 meeting was concerned with item 1, which 
resulted in the appointment of a committee of 
three to serve on an inter-organization committee 
on coordination of activities in the field of safety. 

The United Kingdom Government was re- 
quested to undertake the secretarial duties of the 
Council and to make arrangements for the calling 
of the next meeting of the Covmcil in the event 
that another meeting might be deemed necessary 
before the establishment of the proposed world- 
wide organization. 

Safety of Life at Sea as a Major Problem 

One of the major problems in the field of inter- 
national nautical affairs is the prevention of loss 
of life at sea. This subject has been dealt with 
not only by some of the maritime organizations 
mentioned in the preceding sections of this article 
but also by special international conferences on 
the subject. This problem is of such importance 
in the evolution of international maritime collabo- 
ration as to warrant more detailed treatment at 
this point. 

The International Marine Conference, held at 
Washington from October 16 to December 31, 
1889, was the first "full-dress" international meet- 
ing to consider maritime problems. It dealt ex- 
clusively with questions of "safety for life and 
property at sea",®° and its deliberations might be 
described as one of the initial efforts on the tech- 
nical side of international collaboration in the 
field of shipping. The plans for holding such a 
meeting originated in the United States, the host 
country. The agenda, even in the light of prog- 
ress and experience gained throughout the years 
since 1889, is noteworthy. 

The conference adopted resolutions or recom- 
mendations pertaining to : 

Eegulations for preventing collisions at sea, in- 
cluding rules concerning lights, sound signals 
for fog, speed of ships in fog, steering and 
sailing, and distress signals;" 

Regulations for the designation and marking 
of vessels ; 

Saving of life and property from shipwreck ; 

Qualifications for officers and seamen, including 
tests for sight and colorblinchiess ; 



Lanes for steamers on frequented routes, with 
special regard to the avoidance of steamer 
collisions and the safety of fishermen ; 

Night signals for communicating information 
at sea; 

Reporting, marking, and removing dangerous 
wrecks or other obstructions to navigation; 

Notices of changes in lights, buoys, and other 
day-and-night danger marks; 

Uniform system of coloring and numbering 
buoys; and 

Establishment of a permanent international 

maritime commission. 

The last-named topic represents perhaps the 
earliest suggestion considered at a formal inter- 
national meeting for a permanent multilateral 
maritime body. However, the conference resolved 
"That for the present the establishment of a per- 
manent international maritime commission is not 
considered expedient".'^ 

The maritime nations were made acutely aware 
of the urgent need for closer international cooper- 
ation in the field of safety at sea by the Titanic 
disaster of 1912. This tragedy was the immediate 
cause for the convening of a diplomatic conference 
in London in the latter part of 1914 to consider 
measures to prevent the future occurrence of such 
calamities.^' The conference drew up the conven- 
tion of January 20, 1914, for the safety of life 
at sea. The intervention of World War I as well 
as other less influential factors prevented the con- 
vention from coming into force completely, al- 
though several of the signatory countries adopted 
portions of it.^* 



^Protocol of Proceedings of the International Marine 
Conference Held in Washington, D.C., . . . October 16 
to December 31, 1SS9 (3 vols., Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1890), vol. I, p. 1. 

"These regulations, which are a modification of the 
International Rules of the Road as adopted in 1884 by 
England and of those adopted by the United States in 
1885 (23 Stat. 438), were enacted into law by the Congress 
of the United States in 1890 (26 Stat. 320) and, with 
some changes throughout the years, are still in force 
(33 U.S.C. 61 ff.). 

" Protocol of Proceedings of the International Marine 
Conference, vol. II, pp. 1365 ff. 

°^S. Doe. 463, 63d Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1914). See also Bitlletin of Nov. 
3, 1946, p. 816. 

'^ Foreign Relations of the United States, 1929, vol. I, 
p. 368. 



febtuary I, 1948 



133 



The Government of the United States did not 
ratify the convention of 1914, but it did undertake 
the direction of the services of derelict destruction, 
study and observation of ice conditions, and the 
conduct of the international ice patrol in the North 
Atlantic, which it was invited to do by article 7 
of the convention. Pursuant to an Executive 
order these services were performed by the vessels 
of the United States Coast Guard. Foreign na- 
tions contributed ^rro rata shares for the mainte- 
nance of the services.''^ 

The years brought added laiowledge in the tech- 
nical matters covered by the convention of 1914 
as well as marked advancements in ship construc- 
tion. These changed conditions prompted the 
British Government to make proposals for the 
convening of a conference to revise and amend 
the convention of 1914.^" The proposals were 
made in the autumn of 1927 to the Government 
of the United States, which replied in January 
1928 agreeing that consideration should be given 
to the revision of the convention and suggesting 
that the conference be held in the spring of 1929.^' 

Before the conference met, another tragedy at 
sea focused the attention of the world on the im- 
portance of immediate safety measures. On No- 
vember 12, 1928, the steamship Vestris sank off 
the Virginia Capes with the consequent loss of 
110 lives. 

The conference was held in London from April 
16 to May 31, 1929. Out of its deliberations grew 
the existing convention for promoting sa'fety of 
life at sea, which was signed on the last day of 
the meeting by the delegations of 18 governments. 
The United States became a party to this conven- 
tion on August 7, 1936 (effective November 7), 
subject to three understandings bearing on Ameri- 
can standards of safety.'^ 

Another international conference concerned 



^International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, 
London, April IG-Maij SI, 1929; Report of the Delegation 
of the United States of America and Appended Documents 
(Department of State publication 14), p. 16. See also 
Executive Order 2458, Sept. 20, 1916. 

" Foreign Relations, 1929, vol. I, p. 379. 

"' International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, pp. 
16-17. 

" Treaty Series 910, 50 Stat. 1121. 

"Department of State, Press Releases, May 10, 1930, 
pp. 224-225 ; ibid., Sept. 6, 1930, pp. 155-158. Treaty Series 
858, 47 Stat. 2228. 

°° U.N. doc. E/270, Feb. 24, 1917, p. 16. 



with safety at sea met in London on May 20, 1930, 
for the purpose of formulating international rules 
and regulations for determining the load lines of 
merchant vessels engaged in international trade. 
The 1929 conference had dealt with safety in re- 
spect to passenger ships. The British Govern- 
ment called the 1930 conference to consider the 
question of the seaworthiness of cargo ships. The 
conference closed its sessions on July 5, 1930, on 
which day the international load line convention 
and an accompanying final protocol were signed 
unanimously by the representatives of 27 govern- 
ments participating in the conference.^'* 

The question of the coordination of activities in 
the fields of aviation, shipping, and telecommuni- 
cations, with respect to safety and rescue at sea 
and in the air, was brought to the notice of the 
Temporary Transport and Communications Com- 
mission of the Economic and Social Council of 
the United Nations in 1946 as one of the substan- 
tive problems requiring early attention. The 
Temporary Commission requested the Economic 
and Social Council to give formal authorization 
for the examination of this problem.™ The i-e- 
quested authorization was given by the Economic 
and Social Council at its second session, later in 
1946. 

The permanent Transport and Communications 
Commission, having replaced the Temporary Com- 
mission, took note of this action at its first session 
in February 1947. The permanent Commission 
also took cognizance of a note from the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom concerning the invi- 
tation of that Government for an international 
conference to revise the 1929 convention for pro- 
moting safety of life at sea, and recommended 
that the conference should be requested to invite 
the Provisional International Civil Aviation 
Organization, the Provisional Maritime Consul- 
tative Council, the International Telecommunica- 
tion Union, and the International Meteorological 
Organization to appoint representatives to par- 
ticipate in a joint study of the means for coordi- 
nation of the activities of the four organizations 
relating to air-sea rescue. 

The Commission further proposed that a small 
interim committee consisting of representatives 
from the four organizations be set up, on the 
invitation of the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations, to prepare a factual report on the existing 
measures for coordination of safety and rescue 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



arrangements and if possible to make recommen- 
dations for further measures based on the con- 
sidered views of the four organizations. It was 
proposed that the report be sent to the Secretary- 
General for the information of the Transport and 
Communications Commission and that a copy be 
forwarded for the consideration of the Conference 
on Safety of Life at Sea.^ 

The Economic and Social Council on March 28, 
1947, adopted a resolution based on the recom- 
mendations of the Transport and Communications 
Conunission. The resolution took note of the fact 
that the Government of the United Kingdom was 
prepared not only to invite the interested govern- 
ments to participate in the conference but also to 
convene a preparatory committee of experts to 
consider preliminaries to the conference. The 
resolution instructed the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations to pursue his study of this pi'ob- 
lem, to keep in touch with the work of the pre- 
paratory committee and the conference itself, and 
to advise the Transport and Communications 
Commission of developments in this connection.*^^ 

The resolution of the Economic and Social 
Council was considered fully by the delegates to the 
Paris meeting, in May 1947, of the Provisional 
Maritime Consultative Council, who decided that 
they should appoint three representatives of their 
organization to serve on the proposed preparatory 
committee for the conference. The Governments 
of Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States were elected to furnish one shipping repre- 
sentative each, whereupon the delegations of each 
of the three countries put forward the names of 
individual experts. The first meeting of the pre- 
paratory committee was planned to be held in 
London in October 1947 "^ but was postponed until 
January 27, 1948. The Conference on Safety of 
Life at Sea is itself scheduled to meet in London 
on April 16, 1948. 

Proposed Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization 

Tlie Washington meeting of the United Mari- 
time Consultative Council held in October 1946 *** 
agreed to recommend to the member governments 
the text of a draft convention for an intergovern- 
mental maritime consultative organization. At 
this meeting the Council also proposed, as an in- 
terim measure pending the establishment of a per- 



manent organization, that a Provisional Maritime 
Consultative Council be established. 

The "scope and purposes" of the permanent 
organization, as set forth in article I of the draft 
convention, are identical with the purposes of the 
Provisional Maritime Consultative Coimcil as set 
forth in the interim agreement and digested here- 
inabove. In full, they are as follows : °^ 

"i. to provide machinery for cooperation among 
Governments in the field of Governmental regu- 
lation and practices relating to technical matters 
of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in inter- 
national trade, and to encourage the general adop- 
tion of the highest practicable standards in matters 
concerning maritime safety and efficiency of navi- 
gation ; 

"ii. to encourage the removal of all forms of 
discriminatory action and unnecessary restrictions 
by Goverimaents affecting shipping engaged in 
international trade so as to promote the avail- 
ability of shipping services to the commerce of the 
world without discrimination; 

"iii. to provide for the consideration by the 
Organization of any shipping problems of an 
international character involving matters of gen- 
eral principle that may be referred to the Organi- 
zation by the United Nations. Matters which are 
suitable for settlement thi'ough the normal proc- 
esses of international shipping business are not 
within the scope of the Organization; 

"iv. to provide for the exchange of information 
among Governments on matters under considera- 
tion by the Organization." 

In article II the draft convention prescribes 
the functions of the organization as follows : 

"Section 1. The fimctions of the Organization 
shall be consultative and advisory. 

"Section 2. In order to achieve the objectives 
set out in Article I, the functions of the Organi- 
zation in relation to matters within its scope 
shall be — 

"(a) to consider and make recommendations 
upon matters arising under Subsections i and ii 
of Article I that may be remitted to it by Mem- 



" Ibid., pp. 16-17. 

°= U.N. doc. E/408, Apr. 9, 1947, p. 3. 

°" Bulletin of Oct. 5, 1947, p. 676. 

" BuLLKTiN of Dec. 15, 1946, pp. 1092 ff. 

'^ Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1946, p. 1094. 



February I, 1948 



13S 



ber Governments, by organs of the United 
Nations, or by other intergovernmental organi- 
zations, or upon matters referred to it under 
Subsection iii of Article I; 

"(b) to draft conventions, agreements, or 
other suitable instruments, and to recommend 
these to Governments and to intergovernmental 
organizations, and to convene such conferences 
as may be necessary ; 

"(c) to provide machinery for consultation 
and exchange of information among Member 
Governments. 

"Section 3. In those matters which appear to 
the Organization suitable for settlement through 
the normal processes of international shipping 
business, the Organization shall so recommend." 

The draft convention provides that the organi- 
zation shall consist of an Assembly ; a Council ; a 
Maritime Safety Committee and such other sub- 
sidiary organs as may be established by the organi- 
zation from time to time ; and a secretariat. 

The Assembly is to consist of delegates of all 
the member governments, each member govern- 
ment being entitled to one vote. Regular meet- 
ings of the Assembly are to be held at least every 
two years. Extraordinary meetings may be con- 
voked when one third of the member governments 
notify the Secretary-General that such a meeting 
is desired, or at any other time if considered neces- 
sary by the Council. 

The functions of the Assembly will include the 
establishment of any temporary or, upon recom- 
mendation of the Council, permanent subsidiary 
bodies it may deem necessary ; election of the mem- 
ber governments to be represented on the Council ; 
deciding ujDon questions referred to it by the 
Council; consideration of the Council's reports; 
determination of the financial arrangements of 
the organization after studying the budget esti- 
mates and financial statements; referral to the 
Council of appropriate matters within the organi- 
zation's scope; providing opportunity for ex- 
change of information and of views among the 
member governments; and exercise of certain 
powers in connection with the establishment of 
the Maritime Safety Committee. 

The Council of the organization will consist of 



' Ibid.. 



p. 1096. 



136 



sixteen member governments elected by the As- 
sembly, eight to be governments of nations with 
the largest interest in the provision of shipping 
services, four to be governments of other maritime 
nations which have the largest interest in inter- 
national trade, and the four remaining members 
to be elected with a view to adequate geographical 
representation. The Council will meet as often 
as may be deemed necessary, either on the call of 
the chairman or on the request of at least four 
of its members. 

The Council is to inform any member govern- 
ment not represented on the Council of items on 
the agenda with which that government is directly 
concerned. In that event the government so con- 
cerned may take part in the discussions of that 
particular subject but will not be permitted to 
vote. The Council will also conclude an-ange- 
ments covering the organization's relationship 
with other international bodies, subject to confir- 
mation by the Assembly. 

The provisions of the draft convention which 
concern the Maritime Safety Committee are tenta- 
tive, and are intended to be developed in detail 
at contemplated technical conferences.*^ The 
Maritime Safety Committee, under the tentative 
provisions, is to be comprised of fourteen member 
governments which the Assembly will select from 
nations having the greatest interest in maritime 
safety, eight of which are to be from the largest 
shipowning nations and six to be selected with a 
view to adequate representation of other nations 
having important interests in maritime safety and 
of major geographical areas. The Committee is 
to consider all matters concerning maritime safety 
which come within the scope of the organization, 
not only from the standpoint of preventive mea- 
sures, such as standards of construction and equip- 
ment and rules for prevention of collisions, but 
also regarding the saving of life after casualties. 
Reports on its work and recommendations grow- 
ing out of its studies will be submitted regularly 
to the Council for transmittal to the Assembly or 
to governments (when the Assembly is not in ses- 
sion), together with the Council's comments and 
reconunendations. 

The secretariat of the organization is to be com- 
posed of the Secretary-General to be appointed by 
the Council with the approval of the Assembly 
and such other staff members as may be considered 

Department of State Bullnlin 



necessary, the latter to be appointed by the Secre- 
tary-General with a view to efficiency and repre- 
sentation of a diversity of nations. All records 
considered necessary for the efficient functioning 
of all branches of the organization will be kept 
by the secretariat, which will also prepare, collect, 
and circulate the various documents of the Assem- 
bly, the Council, and the subsidiary organs. The 
Secretary-General and the other members of the 
secretariat will maintain their position as inter- 
national officers and may not seek or receive in- 
structions from any authority except the organiza- 
tion. The members of the organization undertake 
to respect this position by making no effort to 
exert influence over the secretariat. 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations, 
in consonance with the resolution of the Economic 
and Social Council adopted on March 28, 1947,*^ 
issued invitations on April 10, 1947, to the inter- 
ested governments to attend the conference for 
the purpose of establisliing an mtergovemmental 
slaipping organization."* The dates of the meet- 
ing have now been set for February 19 through 
aiarch 17, 1948.«» 

Conclusion 

At long last the trend toward establishing a 
permanent world organization to deal with mari- 
time questions is crystallizing. It is believed that 
the plans for such an international body will come 
to fruition at the forthcoming conference. If 
these plans are successful the organization will 
provide a greater continuity than was possible 
under the sporadic maritime conferences of the 
past, with their diversity of membership, or under 
the previous international bodies concerned with 
aspects of shipping. The benefits to be derived 
from this more closely integrated co-partnership 
will be partly economic, through the standardiza- 
tion of teclinical phases of shipping administra- 
tion and the elimination of economic restrictions 
upon merchant shipping ; partly humanitarian, in 
reducing loss of life from storms and accidents 
at sea; and partly political, in that every success 
in international cooperation on the technical level 
is a spur and a means of encouragement to inter- 
national cooperation on the political level. 

February 1, 1948 

774701 — 18 S 



The new organization, it may be pointed out, is 
expected to cooperate with the International Civil 
Aviation Organization in some phases (especially 
safety phases) of air transport across the world's 
seas. In discussing the transocean carriage of 
goods and passengers both by surface vessel and 
by air William L. Clayton, then Under Secretary 
of State for economic affairs, spoke as follows at 
the October 1946 session of the United Maritime 
Consultative Council: 

"The power-driven vessel plying the free seas 
is the cheapest form of transportation in the 
world. For many years we shipped cotton from 
Houston to Shanghai at less cost than it took to 
bring it from Oklahoma to Houston. Man him- 
self can now fly over the seas quicker than he can 
travel on the surface, but it seems safe to say that 
his goods will for the most part always travel on 
and not above the water." " 

In a domain of such paramount importance to 
the welfare of mankind, the economic, humani- 
tarian, and political benefits derived from inter- 
national cooperation may well comprise a 
significant part of the mosaic of friendly inter- 
relationship which the United Nations is steadily 
forming. 

Addresses on European Re- 
covery Program 

On January 22 the Secretary of State made an 
address before the National Cotton Council in 
Atlanta, Ga. ; for the text of this address on Euro- 
pean aid, see Department of State press release 52 
of January 22, 1948. 

On January 22 Assistant Secretary Thorp made 
an address before the National Industrial Confer- 
ence Board in New York City; for the text of this 
address on European aid, see Department of State 
press release 51 of January 22, 1948. 



" BuiiETiN of Jan. 25, 1948, p. 107. 
' See U Jf. doc. B/Conf. 4/2, Oct. 2, 1647, p. 1. 
•UJV. doc. E/C. 4/3, Sept 16, 1947, p. S. 
" BcnxBTOf at Nov. S, IMfl, p. 817. 



137 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



British Foreign Secretary Asks for 
Union of Western Europe 

STATEMENT BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

[Released to the press January 23] 

Mr. Bevin has proposed measures which will 
enable the free countries of western Europe fur- 
ther to concert with one another for their common 
safety and good.^ As in the case of the recovery 
program the United States heartily welcomes 
European initiative in this respect and any pro- 
posal looking to a closer material and spiritual link 
between the western European nations will serve 
to reinforce the efforts which our two countries 
have been making to lay the foundation for a firm 
peace. 

New Interim Aid Allocation to France, 
Italy, and Austria 

[Released to the press January 23] 

The Department of State announced on January 
23 an additional allocation of $97,121,000 to 
France, Italy, and Austria under the $522,000,000 
Interim Aid Program. The new allocation will 
be used, in large part, to cover February procure- 
ment of vitally needed cereals and coal. France 
will receive $49,539,000; Italy, $35,477,000; and 
Austria, $12,105,000. 

A breakdown of the new allocation, on which 
procurement has already started, is as follows : 

Estitnnted cost 
. ^ . Quantity and freight 

Austrian program : (long tons) value {$ooo) 

Cereals 39, 000 5, 478 

Coal (offshore) 240,000 3,800 

Peanuts 7,000 2,827 

12, 105 
French program : 

Cereals 165, 000 ' 22, 789 

Coal (U.S.)' 1,300,000 26,750 

49, 539 

^ In address before the House of Commons in London on 
Jan. 22, 1948. 

'Includes $1,000,000 additional for transportation 
against the January allocation of cereals from the United 
States. 

' January allocation. 

' See Department of State press releases 3, 6, and 9 of 
Jan. 2 and 3, 1948. 

138 



Italian program : 

Cereals 177, 000 23, 477 

Coal (U.S.) 600,000 12,000 

35, 477 

The total amount programmed to date under the 
Interim Aid Program is $244,437,000, or approxi- 
mately 47 percent of the $522,000,000 appropriated 
under Public Law 393. Of this total, $118,839,000 
has been committed for France, $92,199,999 for 
Italy, and $33,399,000 for Austria.^ 



U.S. To Send Observers to Rome — 
CEEC Manpower Conference 

[Released to the press January 23] 

The Department of State announced on January 
23 that the United States was sending two ob- 
servers to the conference on manpower problems 
relating to the European Kecovery Program called 
by the Italian Government and opening in Rome 
on January 26. 

The Italian Government has invited all coun- 
tries which participated in the Paris conference 
of the Committee of European Economic Co-op- 
eration, as well as the Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization, the International Labor Organization, 
and the International Refugee Organization, to 
send representatives. 

It is particularly gratifying that the Italian 
Government has taken this initiative in view of 
the surplus of labor available in Italy and in the 
various displaced-persons camps which could be 
utilized in the labor-shortage areas of Europe. It 
is another example of the attitude of self-help and 
mutual help prevailing among the Erp countries. 

The United States will stand ready, if called 
upon, to provide technical assistance in the solution 
of manpower problems either directly or through 
the International Labor Organization, Food and 
Agriculture Organization, and International 
Refugee Organization. 

The United States observers attending the con- 
ference will be Val R. Lorwin of the Division of 
International Labor, Social, and Health Affairs, 
Department of State, and AVilliam Shaughnessy 
of the Technical Service Division, Department of 
Labor. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



The International Labor Organization Regional Meeting 
for the Near and Middle East 



ARTICLE BY IRWIN M. TOBIN 



introduction 

The International Labor Organization Regional 
Meeting for the Near and Middle East, held at 
Istanbul, November 24-29, 1947, represented a 
significant extension of the work of the Inter- 
national Labor Organization. Taken together 
with the regional meetings held at Mexico City 
(April 1-16, 1946) and New Delhi (October 27- 
November 8, 1947), Istanbul demonstrated the in- 
tention of the Ilo to extend the frontiers of its 
activity along regional lines and take fuller ac- 
count than hitherto of the special problems in- 
volved in raising living standards in areas still 
in the early stages of industrial development. 

The Istanbul meeting, modest as it was in com- 
position and objectives, also marked a new de- 
parture in the approach of the governments of 
the Near and Middle East toward the solution of 
their economic and social problems. It provided 
for the first time an opportunity for officials of the 
states of the area to exchange experiences and 
information about social problems and progi-ess 
in their countries and to examine from a regional 
viewpoint the standards to which the peoples of 
the area should aspire. 

Originally invited by the Egyptian Govern- 
ment to meet in Cairo, the Ilo was obliged either 
to transfer the site elsewhere owing to the cholera 
epidemic or to postpone the meeting indefinitely 
because of other Ilo commitments. The Ilo, with 
the full cooperation of the Egyptian Government, 
decided upon the former course. By its readiness 
to make arrangements for holding the meeting at 
Istanbul on very short notice, the Turkish Gov- 
ernment made it possible to proceed on the orig- 
inal schedule. 



Attendance 

The independent states of the Near and Middle 
East rejiiresented at the conference were: Egypt, 
Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey. Un- 
like the full-scale conferences of the International 
Labor Organization, in which representatives of 
industry and labor take part together with repre- 
sentatives of govermnents, the Istanbul meeting, 
because of its preliminary character, consisted only 
of government delegates. The wish was widely 
expressed among tl^ose present that future re- 
gional meetings of the Near and Middle East area 
should also include representatives of industry and 
labor in line with the classic Ilo pattern. 

In addition to the participating governments, 
a number of other governments and international 
organizations were represented by observers. 
The United States was represented in this capac- 
ity by William S. Tyson, Solicitor of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, and William J. Handley, Labor 
Attache at the American Legation, Cairo. Other 
Governments similarly represented were Afghani- 
stan, France, Greece, India, Pakistan, and the 
Union of South Africa. Observers were also pres- 
ent from the United Nations and the United Na 
tions Food and Agriculture Organization. 

In addition, an influential role was played at 
the meeting by the tripartite delegation — repre- 
senting government, employers, and workers — 
appointed by the Governing Body of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office. Sir Guildhaume Myrddin- 
Evans, Chairman of the Governing Body, headed 
the Ilo grouj) and delivered one of the principal 
opening addresses. F. L. YUanes Ramos of Mexi- 
co, of the employers' group, and O. Lizzadri of 
Italy, of the workers' group, took part in com- 



Fefaruory J, 1948 



139 



THB UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

mittee discussions and were able, as a result of 
their industrial experience, to make a number of 
practical suggestions in the course of the formu- 
lation of resolutions. The meeting elected Tah- 
sin B. Balta, Minister of Labor of Turkey, as its 
President and Ibrahim Istuany, Syrian Delegate, 
as its Vice President. N. Sadak, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Turkey, addressed the opening 
session of the meeting on behalf of the Turkish 
Government. Jef Rens, Assistant Director Gen- 
eral of the Ilo, served as Secretary General. 

Objectives 

The Istanbul meeting was by its very nature a 
preliminary gathering intended to pave the way 
for full-scale regional conferences in the future 
and lay the groundwork for more intensive activ- 
ity by the Ilo in the region of the Near and Middle 
East. Although the essence of the meeting was 
an exchange of views and information, there was 
in fact adopted an elaborate set of resolutions 
which, while having no binding effect, were to be 
transmitted to the member governments as pro- 
posals for action in the social and economic field 
within the shortest possible time. Furthermore, 
the meeting proposed to the Governing Body of 
the Ilo a considerable number of practical steps 
designed to expand the interests and activities of 
the Ilo in the Near and Middle East. 

Resolutions 

The Istanbul meeting unanimously adopted 
five principal resolutions on the following sub- 
jects : 

(1) the development of the work of the Ilo in 
the Near and Middle East; (2) labor policy; (3) 
social security; (4) conditions of life and work 
of agricultural workers; (5) economic policies 
designed to further in the Near and Middle East 
the social objectives of the Ilo. 

1. Development of the Work of the Ilo in the 
Near and Middle East 
Recognizing the need for concerted effort to 
improve living and working conditions of the 
peoples of the Near and Middle East and to in- 
stitute vigorous Ilo action in that region, the 
Istanbul meeting proposed to the Ilo that it con- 
vene at an appropriate time a regional conference 
to review the progress made in the fields covered 
by the policy resolutions summarized below ; send 
an Ilo mission to the Middle East in preparation 



for such a conference ; extend the network of "cor- 
respondents" of the Ilo in the region ; encourage 
the recruitment as members of the Ilo staff of an 
adequate number of experienced nationals of the 
countries of the region ; extend the practice of in- 
viting junior officials from the Near and Middle 
East to spend periods of study and training in 
the headquarters of the Ilo ; arrange that general 
Ilo meetings be held in the region from time to 
time; arrange for publication of the decisions of 
the Istanbul meeting and other Ilo documents in 
the appropriate Near and Middle East languages, 
namely Arabic, Turkish, and Persian ; and facili- 
tate the provision to the governments of Near and 
Middle Eastern countries of appropriate assist- 
ance in connection with the framing of laws and 
regulations for the improvement of administra- 
tive practices, systems of inspection, and research 
and information services. 

The conferees also took note of Syria's accept- 
ance, during the course of the conference, of mem- 
bership in the Ilo. Welcoming the participation 
of Lebanon in their deliberations, they also ex- 
pressed the hope that Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and 
the Yemen would take advantage of their preroga- 
tive, as United Nations Members, of joining the 
Ilo by simple notification to the Director Gen- 
eral. The Governing Body was requested to com- 
municate the conclusions of the meeting to Saudi 
Arabia and the Yemen and to invite all the states 
of the Near and Middle Eastern region to be rep- 
resented at future meetings and conferences. The 
meeting also stressed the importance of adequate 
representation of Near and Middle Eastern coun- 
tries on the Ilo's Permanent Agricultural Com- 
mittee and Petroleum Industrial Committee; the 
Governing Body was in this connection requested 
to examine the possibility of convening an early 
session of the Petroleum Committee in one of the 
petroleum-producing countries of the area. Mem- 
bers also urged close cooperation between the Ilo 
and any economic commission for the Near and 
Middle East, or similar body which might be set 
up by the United Nations, and similar collabora- 
tion in all appropriate fields between the Ilo and 
the League of Arab States and any other regional 
bodies which might be established. 

2. Labor Policy 

"Considering it desirable to formulate certain 
directives concerning the immediate objectives of 



140 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



labor policy under the special conditions exist- 
ing in the countries of the Near and Middle East as 
a first step towards the application in these 
countries of the conventions and recommendations 
adopted by the International Labor Conference 
as rapidly and fully as national conditions allow", 
the meeting adopted for communication to the 
governments concerned a number of proposals 
on labor policy. The more important of these 
proposals recommended the establishment in each 
country of "a national labor department ade- 
quately staifed and equipped to administer the 
existing labor legislation, promote good indus- 
trial relations and close cooperation between 
employers' and workers' organizations, encourage 
the development of such organizations where they 
do not already exist, investigate and report upon 
labor problems and formulate proposals for such 
further legislation as may be desirable" ; mainte- 
nance of an adequate system of labor inspection; 
development of employment services in order to 
insure, in cooperation with other public and pri- 
vate bodies concerned, the best possible organiza- 
tion of employment as an integral part of 
programs for the full use of industrial resources ; 
and adoption of guaranties for the ]Drotection 
of children by the elimination as rapidly as pos- 
sible of child labor and the extension of free 
compulsory education. In this connection gov- 

I ermnents were urged to extend the network of free 
teclinical and vocational courses in the schools 
and to provide regulations for adequate control 
of the conditions of apprenticeship of children 

1 and young persons. It was recommended in par- 
ticular that the pledging of children to an em- 
ployer should be eliminated as rapidly as possible 
and that the training of teclinical experts and 
teachers should be intensified. 

Other points of importance in connection with 
labor policy called for special protection for young 
workers and women workers ; the fixing of mini- 
mum wages by collective agreements; guaranties 
of freedom of association and the right to enter 
into collective agreements and to settle disputes 
through conciliation and arbitration; collabora- 
tion of employers' and workers' organizations 

' with the public authorities; and the promotion 
of cooperatives for the promotion of housing and 
other workers' interests. In an attempt to stimu- 
late some immediate action toward the achieve- 
ment of these goals, the meeting also proposed that 

February I, 1948 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

each of the Near and Middle Eastern countries 
should prepare a national program of action for 
the progressive application of the standards out- 
lined over a given number of years and submit 
periodically reports on the action taken by them 
to the International Labor Office for consideration 
at a future regional meeting. 

3. Social Security 

Acknowledging, as did all the policy resolutions, 
the "special conditions" existing in the countries 
of the Near and Middle East, the proposals on 
social security called for the progressive expan- 
sion and systematic application of legislation for 
the promotion of health and nutrition, income 
security, and benefits covering employment in- 
juries, sickness, invalidity, old age, and death. 
Special attention was given to the position of i-ural 
workers, with the suggestion that crop insurance 
might be developed together with organized 
schemes of relief to prevent famine in times of 
scarcity. With regard to medical care it was pro- 
posed that the aim of national health policies 
should be to make adequate medical care avail- 
able to the whole population as a public service 
without contribution or means test and that steps 
should be taken to provide for preventive medicine 
and environmental hygiene. 

4. Conditions of Life and Work of Agricultural 

Workers 
In view of the fact that some 70 percent of the 
population of the countries of the Near and Middle 
East are engaged in agriculture and that marked 
differences exist between conditions of life and 
work in industry and those prevailing in agricul- 
ture, special attention was given to means of im- 
proving the conditions of life and work of agri- 
cultural workers. It was urged that studies 
should be made on particular aspects of raising 
the standards of living of the agricultural popu- 
lation and that further consideration be given to 
that subject by the Ilo Permanent Agricultural 
Committee and future regional meetings. The 
Food and Agiiculture Organization of the United 
Nations and other specialized agencies concerned 
with such problems were also encouraged to engage 
in further studies. Recognizing that the present 
condition of the agricultural population of the 
area does not correspond to the great potentialities 
of the region and to the general desire for higher 
standards of living, it was suggested that "care- 

141 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

fully planned intervention by the State" would 
alone be able "to devise, coordinate, and enforce 
the necessary measures for the best utilization of 
the human and material resources of the countries 
concerned in the interests of the welfare of the 
people". It was further proposed that in order 
to meet the needs of the agi'icultural population 
"it is necessary that the national economy as a 
whole should find possibilities of expansion 
through development works, increase in produc- 
tion, initiation of new lines of output, and a paral- 
lel planning of industrial and agi'icultural 
developments". 

Specific suggestions were also put forward for 
the use of modern methods to increase the produc- 
tivity of the soil, the improvement of systems of 
land tenure and relationship, the organization of 
agricultural credit, the stimulation of cooperative 
organizations, the protection of wage-paid labor, 
the expansion of health and education, and the 
development of small-scale rural industries to 
supplement income from agriculture. 

5. Economic Policies Designed To Further in the 
Near and Middle East the Social Objectives 
of the Ilo 

Perhaps the most significant of the resolutions 
adopted at Istanbul was that concerned with eco- 
nomic policies, since only economic development 
will enable the nations of the Near and Middle 
East to make any appreciable social progress. 
Recognizing that "improvements in the standards 
of living, means of production and the health of 
the population of the countries of the Near and 
Middle East are urgently required and are a 
matter of concern to the whole world", the meeting 
made a number of proposals desigiied to encourage 
governments to increase their productivity and 
develop their natural resources. The delegates at 
Istanbul hope to enlist the cooperation of the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Na- 
tions, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and 
the World Health Organization in achieving these 
goals. 

Concrete proposals were made with regard to 
improvement in nutrition and agricultural output 
and distribution; price policy for agricultural 
products and the maintenance of reserves; im- 
provement in the methods of agricultural produc- 
tion; and the encouragement of additional 
imports of agricultural equipment. The govern- 



ments of the region were urged in planning for 
expansion to take into account consumers' needs, 
including foodstuffs, and the necessary improve- 
ments in health and housing. They were urged 
in particular to establish adequate statistical serv- 
ices which would make possible the basic surveys 
upon which planning is dependent. 

The economic-policy resolution also suggested 
new developments especially in the fields of irri- 
gation, power, transport, and the exploitation of 
mineral resources on an international basis wher- 
ever appropriate. The governments concernetl 
were urged to draw up plans for industrial de- 
velopment under a government authority. They 
were also advised to take into account the benefits 
accruing from international trade, so that they 
would not stimulate within their own boundaries 
projects which could be more economically de- 
veloped elsewhere. Proposals were also made 
with respect to the control of inflation and the 
international financing of import requirements. 

Conclusion 

Many of the resolutions adopted at Istanbul 
must, given the present state of social and economic 
development in most of the Near and Middle East- 
ern countries, be regarded as ultimate aspirations 
rather than immediately attainable objectives. 
The delegates, not unconscious of the contrast be- 
tween their breadth of vision and the realities with 
which they have to deal as officials of the govern- 
ments of the region, emphasized repeatedly that 
the applicability of their proposals must necessar- 
ily depend upon the circumstances now prevailing. 
In fact some of the goals of social policy formu- 
lated at Istanbul remain, as yet, unrealized in many 
of the western countries which regard themselves 
as the most advanced nations in tei'ms of industrial 
and social development. 

Yet despite the air of abstract idealism which 
pervaded many of its policy resolutions, the Istan- 
bul meeting dealt in practical fashion with prob- 
lems of vital and immediate interest to the peoples 
and governments of the Near and Middle East. 
At a time when there is throughout the area a 
rising demand for social and economic progress, 
it drew up a set of standards to which the idealist 
and the practical reformer could alike repair. It 
pointed out the possibility of social reform through 
the cooperation of responsible elements in the 
community, rather than through class division and 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



strife. It recognized that the development of re- 
sponsible organizations of enaployers and workers 
is more important in the attainment of social 
progress tlian formal adherence to even the most 
elaborately phrased conventions. And it recog- 
nized that however much international organiza- 
tions and friendly neighboi"S might contribute, the 
primary responsibility for concrete progi-ess must 
rest upon the states of the region. 

Istanbul therefore represents a first stage in a 
venture which may, if it prospers, contribute sig- 
nificantly to the welfare of peoples and stability 
of governments in an area important to the main- 
tenance of world peace and stability. The Gov- 
erning Body of the Ilo, at its 103d session held 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

in Geneva in December 1947, has already adopted 
the Istanbul recommendations for the extension 
of Ilo activity in the region. There is every 
likelihood that in the long run the activities of the 
Ilo, thus inaugurated at Istanbul, will have a 
measurable impact on the economic and social evo- 
lution which is, given all the circumstances, inevi- 
table in the Near and Middle East. Yet as the 
immediate future of social and economic progress 
in the area is contemplated, it would be well to 
keep in mind the warning of one of the delegates 
who, at the final Istanbul session, emphasized that 
political stability is a necessary prerequisite for 
any substantial achievement in the direction of 
social progress. 



Resolution Relating to Kashmir Situation ^ 



The Security Council 

Having heard statements on the situation in 
Kashmir from representatives of the Governments 
of India and Pakistan ; 

Recognizing the urgency of the situation ; 

Taking note of the telegram addressed on Janu- 
ary 6 by its President to each of the parties and 
of their replies thereto and in which they affirm 
their intention to conform with the Charter : 

Calls upon both the Government of India and 
ithe Government of Pakistan to take immediately 



all measures within their power (including public 
appeals to their people) calculated to improve the 
situation and to refrain from making any state- 
ments and from doing or causing to be done or 
permitting any acts which might aggravate the 
situation 

And further requests each of those Governments 
to inform the Council immediately of any material 
change in the situation which occurs or appears to 
either of them to be about to occur while the matter 
is under consideration by the Council and consult 
with the Council thereon. 



American Interest in Settlement of Netherland-lndonesian Dispute 
Through Security Council's Proposals 



[Released to the press January 20] 

The United States Govenmient has received 
with much gratification the news that Netherland 
and Indonesian delegations have accepted the 
[proposals of the Security Council's Committee of 
Good Offices as a basis for the settlement of the 
Dutch-Indonesian dispute. 

The United States Government regards these 
proposals as eminently just and practical, and 
believes that they will provide a sound basis for 
political and economic development of the Indies, 
beneficial not only to the Indonesians and Dutch, 
but also to the rest of the world. 



The United States Government wishes to con- 
gratulate the Committee of Good Offices on its 
excellent work and to congi'atulate both Nether- 
landers and Indonesians on the spirit of high 
statesmanship with which they have concluded 
the negotiations before the Committee. 

The United States Government will continue to 
follow with deepest interest the progress of recon- 
struction in the Netherlands East Indies and is 
exploring ways and means of extending economic 
and financial assistance to this reconstruction. 



'U.N. doc. S/651, Jan. 17, 1948. Adopted on Jan. 17, 
194& 



February I, 7948 



143 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned During Month of January 

Third Pan American Congress of Ophthalmology 



United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : Commission on the Status of 
Women. 



Ninth Pan American Child Congress 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: Meet- 
ing of International Council. 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): Statistics Division: 
First Session. 

Who (World Health Organization): Committee on Administration and 
Finance. 

In Session as of January 31, 1948 

Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee . . 
Committee on Atomic Energy 



Commission on Conventional Armaments 

Security Council's Good OflSces Committee on Indonesia , 

Trade and Employment Conference 

General Assembly's Special Balkan Committee 



Interim Committee of the General Assembly 
Commission for Palestine 



German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven): 

With Portugal 

With Spain 



Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 



CFM (Council of Foreign Ministers): Commission to Investigate Former 
Italian Colonies. 



PFB (Provisional Frequency Board) 

lEO (International Refugee Organization): Fifth Part of First Session of 
Preparatory Commission. 

IT0 (International Telecommunication Union) : Meeting of Administrative 
Council. 

WHO (World Health Organization): Fifth Session of Interim Commission . 



' Prepared in the Division of Inbernational Conferences, Department of 



Habana 

Lake Success 

Caracas 

Caracas 

Montreal 

Geneva 

Washington 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Indonesian Territory . 

Habana 

Salonika 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lisbon 

Madrid 

Washington 

Former Italian Colonies 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

State. 



1948 

Jan. 4-10 

Jan. 5-16 

Jan. 5-10 
Jan. 5-10 

Jan. 13- 

Jan. 19-21 

1946 

Feb. 26- 

Mar. 25- 
Mar. 25- 
June 14- 

1947 

Mar. 24- 
Oct. 20- 
Nov. 21- 
Nov. 21- 

1948 

Jan. 5- 
Jan. 9- 

1946 

Sept. 3- 
Nov. 12- 

Oct. 24- 

1947 

Nov. 8- 

1948 

Jan. 15- 

Jan. 20- 
Jan. 20- 
Jan. 22- 



144 



Department of State BuUet'i 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



CEEC (Committee on European Economic Co-operation) : European Man- 
power Conference. 

Meeting of Special Committee to Make Recommendations for the Coordi- 
nation of Safety Activities in Fields of Aviation, Meteorology, Ship- 
ping and Telecommunications. 

Tripartite Discussions on Western Germany 

Scheduled for February-April 1948 

United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Sixth Session 

Subcommission on Economic Development 

Subcommission on Employment and Economic Stability 

World Conference on Freedom of Information 

Social Commission: Third Session 

EcE ( Economic Commission for Europe) : Third Session 

Transport and Communications Commission: Second Session . . . 

Subcommission on Statistical Sampling 

Economic and Employment Commission: Third Session 

Statistical Commission: Third Session 

Permanent Central Opium Board 

luBS (International Union of Biological Sciences) : Executive Committee . 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion) : Sixth Session of Executive Board. 

Who (World Health Organization) : Expert Committee on Tuberculosis . 

Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Permanent Committee on Migration 

104th Session of Governing Body 

Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Regional Meeting to Consider Creation of Councils for Study of the Sea 

Regional Meeting of Technical Nutritionists 

Rice Meeting 

Second Meeting of Council 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division 

Personnel Licensing Division 

Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Practices Division 

Facilitation Division 

Prague International Spring Fair 

First Meeting of Planning Committee on High-Frequency Broadcasting , 

Sixth Pan American Railway Congress 

Ninth International Conference of American States 

Conference to Plan for an International Institute of Hylean Amazon . . 

IcAc (International Cotton Advisory Committee) : Seventh Meeting . . . 

Fifth International Leprosy Conference 

Lyon International Fair 

^ Tentative. 



Rome 

London 

London 

Lake Success . . 
Lake Success . . 
Lake Success . . . 

Geneva 

Lake Success . . . 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Lake Success . . . 
Lake Success . . . 
Lake Success . . . 
Geneva 

Geneva 

Paris 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Baguio, Philippines 
Baguio, Philippines 
Baguio, Philippines 
Washington . . . 

Brussels 

Montreal .... 
Montreal .... 
Europe 

Prague 

Geneva 

Habana 

Bogotd. 

Tingo Maria, Peru 

Cairo 

Habana 

Lyon 



1948 

Jan. 26- 

Jan. 27- 



Jan. 28- 





1948 


Feb. 


2- 


Mar 


8- 


Mar 


8- 


Mar 


23- 


Mar 


30- 


Mar 


31- 


Apr. 


5- 


Apr. 


12- 


Apr. 


19- 


Apr. 


2&- 


Apr. 


19- 


Feb. 


2-3 



Feb. 12- 



Feb. 


17- 


Feb. 


19- 


Feb. 


23-28 


Mar 


16-20 


Feb. 


23-28 


Feb. 


23-29 


Mar 


1-14 


Mar 


18-31 


Mar 


8- 


Mar 


30- 


Apr. 


20- 


Apr. 


272- 


Mar 


12-21 


Mar 


22- 


Mar 


27- 


Mar. 


30- 


March 2 


Apr. 


1- 


Apr. 


3-11 


Apr. 


3-12 



February I, 1948 



145 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Royal Netherlands Industries Fair 

26th Milan Fair 

International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea 

22d International Brussels Fair 

Third Inter-American Travel Congress 

Rubber Study Group: Fifth Session 

International Conference on Social Work 

Arts and Handicrafts Exhibition of American Elementary School Children . 

CciF (International Telephone Consulting Committee) : Technical 

Meeting. 

Fifth Pan American Highway Congress 

Tripartite Discussions on Western Germany 

Fourth Pan American Consultation on Cartography 

Pan American Institute of Geography and History: General Assembly . . 



Utrecht . . 
Milan . . . 
I/ondon . . 
Brussels . . 
Buenos Aires 
Washington 
Atlantic City 
Montevideo 
The Hague. 

Lima . . . 
Paris . . . 
Buenos Aires 
Buenos Aires 



Apr. 6-15 
Apr. 12-27 
Apr. 16- 
Apr. 17-28 
Apr. 18-28 
Apr. 26- 
April 
April 
April 

April 2 
April 

April-May 
April-May 



2 Tentative. 



First Inter- American Conference on the Conservation 
of Renewable Natural Resources 



[Released to the press January 20] 

The Department of State announced on January 
20 that the First Inter-American Conference on the 
Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources is 
scheduled to be held at Denver, Colorado, from 
September 7 to 20, 1948. After many other sites 
had been considered, the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union and the Department of State 
decided to hold the conference at Denver. The 
presence of many conservation projects in the sur- 
rounding territory was one of the factors contribut- 
ing to the selection of Denver as the site. The con- 
ference is being held pursuant to a resolution 
adopted at the Third Inter-American Conference 
on Agriculture held at Caracas, Venezuela, from 
July 24-August 7, 1945. 

The conservation conference, the first interna- 
tional meeting of its kind, will bring together dele- 
gates from the American republics to consider the 
development and use, on a sound scientific basis, 
of the renewable natural resources of the Hemi- 
sphere. It is anticipated that leading government 
officials, scientists, and other interested groups 
from the entire Hemisphere will attend. 

Among the problems to be discussed will be 
those arising out of deforestation, soil erosion, 
overgrazing, wildlife destruction, floods, and fail- 



ing water supplies. These problems are yearly 
growing more serious throughout the Hemisphere 
because of inadequate conservation practices, 
mounting popidations, and attempts to raise living 
standards. They are of world-wide significance 
because of the increasing needs of Europe and 
Asia. 

The conference will consist of a series of 
meetings to discuss conservation problems to- 
gether with field trips to study land-management 
practices. The delegates will have an opportunity 
to view at first hand soil-conservation districts, 
forest and range experiment stations, the Rocky 
Mountain National Park, and other places of in- 
terest. Irrigation projects will be studied, along 
with their relationship to agriculture, grazing, and 
forestry practices on the land from which imga- 
tion waters are derived. 

Warren Kelchner, Chief of the Division of In- 
ternational Conferences, Department of State, has 
been appointed executive vice president of the 
conference, and William Vogt, Chief of the Con- 
servation Section of the Pan American Union, 
secretary general. An organizing committee com- 
posed of representatives of inteiested Government 
agencies has been established to formulate plans 
and coordinate arrangements for the conference. 



146 



Depattment of State Bulletin 



Fourth International Cancer Research Congress 



ARTICLE BY LEONARD A. SCHEELE 



The Fourth International Cancer Research 
Congress, siJonsored by the Union Internationale 
contre le Cancer and the American Association for 
Cancer Eesearch, was held at St. Louis, Mo., from 
September 2 to 7, 1947.^ It was attended by offi- 
cial country delegates, members of both sponsor- 
ing organizations, and individual scientists who 
came to present reports of significant research. 
Thirty-nine countries were represented.^ 

Tlie general purpose of the Congi-ess was to 
present, as inclusively as possible, the most recent 
achievements in cancer research, including both 
clinical and laboratory phases. To all those who 
planned and attended this convention, a further 
purpose was clearly recognized: the renewal of 
international participation and cooperation in 
cancer research, which had been seriously retarded 
by the war, and the stimulation of efforts more 
intensive than had ever before been applied in the 
fight against this disease. 

During the Congress President Truman sent a 
telegram to the assembled scientists which con- 
veyed an announcement of special interest to 
them. The President's telegram stated: 

"It is now possible for the United States to take 
an important forward step toward greater inter- 
national cooperation in the field of medical and 
biological research. On behalf of the people of 
the United States, I am pleased to announce to 
the Fourth International Cancer Research Con- 
gress that progress in the production of radioiso- 
topes by the United States Atomic Energy Com- 
mission now permits limited distribution to quali- 



fied research workers in other countries. . . . 
I know that the representatives of the United 
States attending the Cancer Research Congress 
share my hope that the open, impartial and truly 
international character of medical research will 
carry over into the realm of other problems of 
world concern. The sharing by and among all 
nations of both the means and the results of can- 
cer research will reduce the loss of life and human 
suffering from disease throughout the world." 

History and Organization of tlie 
Cancer Research Congress 

Three international cancer research congresses 
have been held in past years under the auspices of 
the Union Internationale contre le Cancer. The 
first congi-ess was held at Madrid in 1933, the 
second at Brussels in 1936, and the third at At- 
lantic City in 1939. World War II was costly in 
equipment and trained research workers and im- 
posed such barriers to travel and communication 
that it disrupted the work of the Union Inter- 
nationale and of other agencies and persons en- 
gaged in cancer research. As a result activity in 



' For members of the U. S. Delegation, see Bulletin of 
Sept. 7, 1947, p. 472. 

^ The countries represented were : Argentina, Australia, 
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colom- 
bia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, France, 
Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg, 
Mexico, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Palestine, 
Peru, the Republic of the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, the Union of South 
Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States (and Ha- 
waii), Uruguay, and Venezuela. 



February h 1948 



147 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

this field was slowed in some countries and halted 
in others. Scientists the world over, however, were 
fully aware that the lack of international corres- 
pondence was a serious deterrent to their investi- 
gations and the exchange of information. As 
soon as it was possible, the American Association 
for Cancer Research, a scientific society which 
numbers in its membership most of the cancer 
research workers in the United States and Canada, 
assumed the leadership in providing for an 
assembly of scientists to review progress made in 
the study of cancer during the war and to arrange 
for future cooperative investigation. 

The Association met in April 1946 and ap- 
pointed a committee to formulate preliminary 
plans for a Fourth International Cancer Research 
Congress to be held in the United States in 1947. 
This committee advised the Department of State 
of its intention to hold such a meeting and of the 
world-wide interest in the project. The Depart- 
ment agreed that in behalf of the Congress it 
would extend invitations to the various countries 
through diplomatic channels. 

On October 13, 1946, at New Haven, Conn., the 
Board of Directors of the American Association 
for Cancer Research, acting upon the recom- 
mendations of the committee, voted to invite the' 
Union Internationale contre le Cancer to cooperate 
in sponsoring the Congress. At this time it was 
decided to hold the meeting at St. Loviis in Sep- 
tember 1947. Dr. E. V. Cowdry, professor of 
anatomy at Washington University and director 
of research at Barnard Free Skin and Cancer 
Hospital, St. Louis, was elected president of the 
Congress. 

The International Cancer Research Commission 

One of the most significant results of the Fourth 
International Cancer Research Congress was tlie 
creation of a permanent international agency for 
cancer research, the International Cancer Research 
Commission. 

At an organization meeting of the Congress on 
September 2, 1947, attended by representatives 
from the various countries, it was unanimously 
decided, after full discussion, that the duty of 
making recommendations be assigned to a smaller 



' The Union Internationale contre le Cancer will pub- 
lish the reports and proceedings of the Congress in a 
special edition of Acta, the Union's cancer journal. 

148 



group consisting of only one representative of each 
nation. This group was called the Executive 
Committee of National Representatives. 

On September 6 the recommendations of the 
Executive Committee were presented to the larger 
party of national representatives for approval. 
These recommendations provided that certain 
principles be accepted and that an International 
Cancer Research Commission be established. It 
was proposed that the Commission consist of one 
member from each of the nations at the Con- 
gress and that these members have equal voting 
power irrespective of the size of the nation repre- 
sented. In order to draw regularly new person- 
nel into the Commission, it was proposed that no 
member should serve for more than three years. 
To decentralize the Commission it was proposed 
that annual meetings never be held consecutively 
in the same country. Since the need was felt to 
build within the framework of an existing inter- 
national organization in the field of cancer, it was 
proposed that the Commission be constituted as an 
almost autonomous division of the Union Inter- 
nationale contre le Cancer. The members of the 
Executive Committee of the Union were present 
at the Congress and formally accepted the Com- 
mission on the basis which was specified. 

In regard to the scope of the Commission's 
work, it was agreed that cancer research is to be 
interpreted to include all efforts to advance our 
knowledge of cancer by clinical, experimental, or 
other means. It was recommended that single 
representatives of still other nations be welcomed 
in the Commission, and that an Executive Com- 
mittee of the Commission, composed of five mem- 
bers, be appointed and later expanded to not more 
than seven. To make the Committee thoroughly 
representative it was proposed that it be com- 
posed of one member from Latin America, one 
from Asia, one from the United States, and two 
from Europe, supplemented by alternates. 

The proposals of the Executive Committee of 
National Representatives were enthusiastically 
and unanimously approved when pi'esented to the 
entire Congress on September 6.' 

Summary of Sessions 

The scientific session began on the morning of 
September 3. Papers of two types were pre- 
sented at the scientific sessions: long papers on 

Department of State Bulletin 



selected subjects, by invitation of the Executive 
Committee; and short papers, by those who de- 
sii"ed to participate. The papers presented by 
special invitation were given in general sessions 
according to the following program: (1) general 
aspects of cancer research, cancer surgery, and 
radiation therapy of cancer; (2) etiology of can- 
cer; (3) etiology of cancer (carcinogens) ; (4) 
chemistry in relation to cancer; (5) hormones in 
cancer; (0) biology of cancer; (7) nuclear phy- 
sics in relation to cancer; and (8) cancer and the 
host. 

Special sessions were conducted by the various 
delegates on the following topics; carcinogenic 
hydrocarbons, biology, genetics, the chemistry of 
cancer, chemotherapy, pathology and diagnosis, 
nutrition, radiation therapy, comiDarative oncol- 
ogy, etiology of cancer, transplantation and tis- 
sue culture, hormones and cancer, treatment of 
cancer, carcinogenic radiation, cytology, isotopes, 
I'adiation biology, the milk factor, and general 
topics pertaining to the treatment of cancer. 

The Congress held an interesting symposium on 
problems of growth. Four speakers, representing 
different fields of biological science, discussed the 
question, "Wliat are the opportunities and limita- 
tions of different technics when focused on the 
problem of growth?" The speakers directed their 
discussion toward an indication of the directions 
in which cancer research is progressing and at- 
tempted to determine what their particular meth- 
ods and findings might offer in future studies. 

Conclusions 

The aims that guided the Congress and the spirit 
that animated its contributions assured all who 
were present that future efforts to discuss cancer 
research on an international plane will be suc- 
cessful. The establishment of the International 
Cancer Research Commission is further assurance 
that subsequent cooperative work, not only in com- 
munication but in active research, will have the 
stimulation and guidance necessary to a concen- 
trated attack on the cancer problem. Although 
no plans have been formulated as yet which have 
official United States acceptance, Dr. Cowdry and 
many others of the Congress have set even higher 
hopes. They envision an international official pro- 
gram, financed by governments and dedicated to 
world-wide, concentrated efforts to combat cancer 
through research and measures for control. 

February 7, J 948 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Until such a program is established, the work 
of the newly created Commission is well defined 
by the recommendations of the Fourth Congress. 
The Commission wishes, of course, to cooperate 
closely with the World Health Organization 
(Who). As of December 1947 no definite co- 
operative program had been established with 
Who, although officials of the Union Interna- 
tionale contre le Cancer have been in touch with 
the medical staff of the Interim Commission at 
Geneva. 

Today the sum of information is so large and 
cancer research involves studies in so many fields 
of science that no one investigator can compre- 
hend it all. We need, therefore, not only brilliant 
researchers with analytical minds, but also investi- 
gators who can sympathize and interpret the prod- 
ucts of that research. The process of synthesis, 
however, requires that information be first assem- 
bled and presented to the investigator in compre- 
hensive form. It was apparent to all who attended 
the Fourth International Cancer Research Con- 
gress that this had been accomplished. The find- 
ings from years of research in many lands were so 
collected and presented that the process of syn- 
thesis was certainly advanced. For the future, 
extensive collaborative research, firmly directed, 
adequately financed, and carried forward by the 
teamwork of many men, must be initiated in even 
larger measure than before, if better ways to pre- 
vent, detect, and cui-e cancer are to be found. 



Ambassador Pawley To Assist in Pre- 
paratory Work for Inter-American 
Conference at Bogota 

[Released to the press January 20] 

The Secretary of State announced on January 
20 that William D. Pawley, American Ambassador 
to Brazil, who has recently been in the United 
States, will remain in Washington for the time 
being to assist the Secretary in the work now going 
on in preparation for the forthcoming Ninth 
International Conference of American States at 
Bogota. Ambassador Pawley's wide experience 
in inter-American relations as well as his practical 
knowledge of economic problems will, the Secre- 
tary said, contribute in an important way to the 
progress of this preparatory work. 

149 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



German War Documents Released Bearing on Soviet-German 

Relations From 1939 to 1941 



[Released to the press January 21] 

The Department of State announced on January 
21 the publication of a volume of German war 
documents bearing on Soviet-German relations 
during the period 1939-1941. These documents 
are part of the great mass of materials from the 
German Foreign Office which were captured by 
British and American arms toward the end of 
hostilities. 

As has previously been announced, the Depart- 
ment of State, along with the British and French 
Foreign Office, is sponsoring the publication of a 
series of volumes of documents from the archives 
of the German Foi'eign Office with a view to 
giving a complete and accurate account of Ger- 
man diplomacy relating to World War II for the 
enlightenment of American and world opinion. 
Staffs of eminent American, British, and French 
scholars have been working on these archives for 
a number of months, and it is expected that the 
first two volumes of the series, beginning with 
1937, will be published within the next year. 

The series of volumes is planned as a tripartite 



enterjDrise under the joint auspices of the Ameri- 
can, British, and French Governments. How- 
ever, the individual participating powers are free 
to publish separately any portion of the 
documents. 

Some of the documents on Soviet-German rela- 
tions have already become public. To complete 
the record, the Department has decided to publish 
at this time in a single volume the material bearing 
on this subject. The documents contained in this 
series will eventually reappear in various volumes 
of the regular tripartite publication. 

The papers in the present volume have been 
selected by the American editors of the German 
war documents project, Raymond J. Sontag and 
James S. Beddie, who have had complete inde- 
pendence in their work and final responsibility 
for the selection of the documents. 

Copies of the vohnne Nazi-Soviet Relations, 
1939-1941, Department of State publication 3023, 
may be ijurchased from the Superintendent of 
Document^, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C., for $1 each. 



Agreement Signed With Canada Relating to Boundary Waters 



[Released to the press January 12] 

Various problems have arisen with respect to 
the division of waters which are of common inter- 
est along, across or in the vicinity of the interna- 
tional boundary between Canada and the United 
States in Montana and North Dakota in the 
United States and in the Provinces of Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada. 

A conference of representatives of the two Gov- 
ernments was held at Ottawa on August 25-26, 
1947. Draft terms of reference to the Interna- 
tional Joint Commission — United States and 
Canada — under article IX of the boundary waters 
treaty signed at Washington on January 11, 1909, 
were prepared for consideration by both Govern- 
ments. 

Agreement has now been reached on the text of 
the terms of two references, one of which covers 
"waters which are of common interest along, 
across or in the vicinity of the international bound- 
ary from the Continental Divide on the west 

150 



up to and as far as the western limit of the St. 
Mary River drainage basin on the east", and the 
other relates to similar waters "from the eastern 
boundary of the Milk River drainage basin on the 
west up to and including the drainage basin of 
the Red River of the North on the east". 

January 12, 19i8 

International Joint Commission — 
United States and Canada, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Sirs : In accordance with Article IX of the Boundary 
Waters Treaty of January 11, 1900, the Governments of 
Canada and the United States have agreed to refer to the 
International Joint Commission the following matters for 
joint examination and advisory report, including recom- 
mendations and conclusions : 

1. To investigate and report on the water requirements 
arising out of the existing dams and other works or proj- 
ects located in the waters which are of common interest 
along, across, or in the vicinity of the international 
boundary from the Continental Divide on the west up to 

Department of State Bulletin 



and as far as the western limit of the St. Maiy River 
drainage basin on tlie east. 

2. To report whether in the judgment of the Commis- 
sion further uses of these waters within their respective 
boundaries by Canada and the United States would be 
practicable in the public Interest from' the points of view 
of the two Governments. 

3. Having regard to the reports made under paragraphs 
1 and 2, to make advisory recommendations concerning 
the apportionment which should be made between Canada 
and the United States of such of the waters under refer- 
ence as cross the international boundary. 

4. To conduct necessary investigations and to pre- 
pare a comprehensive plan or plans of mutual advantage 
to the two countries for the conservation, control, and 
utilization of the waters under reference in accordance 
with the recommended apportionment thereof. 

In the conduct of its investigations, and otherwise in 
the performance of its duties under this Reference, the 
International Joint Commission may utilize the services 
of engineers and other specially qualified personnel of 
technical agencies of Canada and the United States, and 
will, so far as possible, make u.se of information and 
technical data which has been acquired by such techni- 
cal agencies or which may become available during the 
course of the investigation, thus avoiding duplication of 
effort and unnecessary expense. 
Very truly yours. 




s:^^' 



January 12, 19 iS 

Internation.^l Joint Commission — 
United States and Canada, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Sirs : In accordance with Article IX of the Boundary 
Waters Treaty of January 11, 1909, the Governments of 
Canada and the United States have agreed to refer to 
the International Joint Commission the following matters 
for joint examination and advisory report, including 
recommendations and conclusions: 

1. To investigate and report on the water requirements 
arising out of the existing dams and other works or 
projects located in the waters which are of common in- 
terest along, across, or in tlie vicinity of the international 
boundary from the eastern boundary of the Milk River 
drainage basin on the west up to and including the drain- 
age basin of the Red River of the North on the east. 

2. To report whether in the judgment of the Commis- 
sion further uses of these waters within their respective 
boundaries by Canada and the United States would be 
practicable in the public interest from the points of view 
of the two Governments. 

3. Having regard to the reports made under paragraphs 
1 and 2, and for those streams where in the judgment 
of the International .Joint Commission apportionment 
of the waters is advisable, to make advisory recommenda- 
tions concerning the apportionment which should be made 
between Canada and the United States of such of the 
waters under reference as cross the international bound- 
ary, and with respect to each such crossing of the inter- 
national boundary. 

4. To conduct necessary investigations and to prepare 
a comprehensive plan or plans of mutual advantage to 
the two countries for the conservation, control, and 
utilization of the waters under reference in accordance 
with the recommended apportionment thereof. 

February 1, 1948 



PUBLICATIONS 

In the conduct of its investigations, and otherwise in 
the performance of its duties under this Reference, the 
International Joint Commission may utilize the services 
of engineers and other specially qualified personnel of 
technical agencies of Canada and the United States, and 
will, so far as possible, make use of information and tech- 
nical data which has been acquired by such technical 
agencies or which may become available during the 
course of the investigation, thus avoiding duplication of 
effort and unnecessary expense. 
Very truly yours, 




i^^-M 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 



For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, Oovernment 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Paris Peace Conference, 1946 — Selected Documents. 
Conference Series 103. Pub. 2868. 1442 pp. $6. 

A selection from the documents of the Paris Peace 
Conference of 1946, reproduced by offset lithography. 

Armistice with Italy, 1943. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 1604. Pub. 2963. 34 pp. 15^. 

Italian military armistice, together with other per- 
tinent documents. 

Treaty of Peace With Roumania. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 1649. Pub. 2969. 157 pp. 350. 

Dated at Paris February 10, 1947; ratified by the 
President of the United States June 14, 1947; pro- 
claimed by the President September 15, 1947 ; entered 
into force September 15, 1947. 

Treaty of Peace With Bulgaria. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 1650. Pub. 2973. 150 pp. 35^. 

Dated at Paris February 10, 1947; ratified by the 
President of the United States June 14, 1947 ; pro- 
claimed by the President September 15, 1947 ; entered 
into force September 15, 1947. 

Treaty of Peace With Hungary. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 1651. Pub. 2974. 165 pp. 35^. 

Dated at Paris February 10, 1947; ratified by the 
President of the United States June 14, 1947; pro- 
claimed by the President September 15, 1947 ; entered 
into force September 15, 1947. 

Diplomatic List, January 1948. Pub. 3018. 192 pp. 20^. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

151 



. vV, 



vxyrh^emi^ 



vvnisr^r/. 



^ii^ 



irai'^ffWiFaTiiwtfr'' 



•,f.r^;,v«!.-'-i 



Foreign Aid and Reconstruction page 
Addresses on European Recovery Program . . 137 
British Foreign Secretary Asks for Union of 
Western Europe. Statement by the De- 
partment of State 138 

New Interim Aid Allocation to France, Italy, 

and Austria 138 

U.S. To Send Observers to Rome — Ceec Man- 
power Conference 138 

Economic Affairs 

Toward a World Maritime Organization: Part 

II. Article by Eula McDonald 131 

First Inter-American Conference on the Con- 
servation of Renewable Natural Resources 146 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

International Labor Organization Regional 
Meeting for the Near and Middle East. 

Article by Irwin M. Tobin 139 

Resolution Relating to Kashmir Situation . . 143 
American Interest in Settlement of Nether- 
land-Indonesian Dispute Through Security 
Council's Proposals 143 



General Policy page 

Ambassador Pawley To Assist in Preparatory 
Work for Inter-American Conference at 
Bogotd 149 

Internationa! Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Fourth International Cancer Research Con- 
gress. Ajticle by Leonard A. Scheele . . 147 

Treaty Information 

Agreement Signed With Canada Relating to 

Boundary Waters .... 150 

Calendar of international Meetings . . . 144 

Publications 

German War Documents Released Bearing on 
Soviet-German Relations From 1939 to 
1941 150 

Department of State 151 



Eula McDonald, author of the article on a world maritime organiza- 
tion, is a foreign-affairs analyst in the Division of Historical Policy 
Research, Office of Public Affairs, Department of State. 

Leonard A. Scheele, author of the article on the Fourth Interna- 
tional Cancer Research Congress, served as Chairman of the United 
States Delegation to the Congress. Dr. Scheele is Director of the 
National Cancer Institute, United States Public Health Service, at 
Bethesda, Maryland. 

Irwin M. Tobin, author of the article on the International Labor 
Organization Regional Meeting for the Near and Middle East, is a 
member of the staff on foreign labor problems in the Division of 
International Labor, Social and Health Affairs, Department of State. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1948 



mmy^w^-^imBMKj'j^mm^^ 



^Ae/ z/)ehci')^t}7ien(/ ^^ tjictte^ 




■ ..- ■ J- 




REMOVAL OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS FROM 
GERMANY BY REPARATION • 

Speaker of the House of /'. iitativca 

SOVEREIGNTY AND INTERDEPENDENCE IN 
THE NEW WORLD: COMMENTS ON THE 
INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM • Oniric bv 
William Sander 



■plme contentt see back cover 



February 8. 1948 



^ENT Ofr 




■*tes o* 




•»-.T«, d> ' 



tjne z!^e/i€t/it^ment ^^ Cnute JL^ VA. X \. vl/ L X i A 



Vol. XVIII, No. 449 • Publication 3047 
February 8, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Wasliington 25, D.O. 

Subsceiption: 
S2 issues, $6; single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

I^ote: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department, Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



iU 



SOVEREIGNTY AND INTERDEPENDENCE IN THE NEW WORLD 



Comments on the inter-American System 



ARTICLE BY WILLIAM SANDERS 



Like so many institutions shaped by the prag- 
matic interplay of stability and change, the Inter- 
American System defies adequate definition. It 
has the substance but in many respects lacks the 
form of the closest union of sovereign and inde- 
pendent states known to history. 

Within its present stage of development, it re- 
tains forms and methods it has outgrown but not 
completely discarded, as well as incipient muta- 
tions of a more vigorous and promising life. It is 
not always possible to distinguish clearly in the 
evolving and complex structure of the System be- 
tween the deadwood of evolutionary or experi- 
mental phases of development and new growth, 
which may deceptively lie dormant for long pe- 
riods awaiting the right moment for full activity. 

The ever present problem of semantics also 
creates its own peculiar hazards to understanding. 
The title itself, for example, is still in debate. 
Some say it should not be called a system because 
it is not an astronomical phenomenon, and should 
therefore not be associated with solar or galactic 
systems. Others claim that the System is in fact 
a union of states, and should therefore be called 
that. Again, the prophets of glory and of doom, 
the PoUyannas and the Cassandras, work at cross 
purposes and distort perspective by claiming for 
the System more or less than it deserves. 

The present is an especially promising moment 
for an over-all appraisal of the System. After 
almost sixty years of Topsylike growth, plans are 
now underway for its complete overhauling at the 
ninth general conference of the System, to be held 
at Bogota this coming March, and for the deter- 
mination of its relations with the United Nations. 
The latter circumstance, in particular, slwuld help 
in reaching a broad perspective, since it will com- 

Febrvary 8, 1948 



pel an examination of the role of this regional 
system within the world system. 

This is not to say that only with the establish- 
ment of the United Nations has the System 
acquired extra-regional significance. In fact, the 
historical and political background of the System 
is world-wide, and its context is nothmg less than 
mankind's persevering search for permanent peace 
and security. In a world of independent national 
states in which, until recently, balance of power 
was the only challenge to the more ancient but 
still endemic idea of peace through universal 
domination, the Inter-American System bespoke 
with growing conviction and confidence through 
the years the concept of collective security 
crystallized in the United Nations. The Western 
Hemisphere began to test in an organized and 
purposeful mamier the theory and practice of this 
approach to international relations during a period 
still dominated by the old Realpolitik of alliances, 
ententes, and spheres of influence. 

Many factors contributed to the creation in the 
new world of virtually ideal laboratory condi- 
tions for the initial experiments and for the testing 
and gradual development of the institutional and 
ideological foundations of collective security. 

Somewhat similar experiences in occupying the 
new world ; relative freedom from involvement in 
local conflicts of the old ; similar theories, if not 
always practices, of republican and democratic 
government ; analogous national beginnings in the 
violent dissolution of colonial status through revo- 
lution, as well as a persistent sense of geographical 
propinquity — all these factors tended to give the 
peoples of the Western Hemisphere a sense of 
community of interest and of a new beginning, 
which was translated into a more optimistic belief 

155 






in man's ability to break the pattern of the past. 

In international affairs this fresh approach took 
the form of an attempt to apply new political and 
legal theoi-ies regarding the problem of peace and 
security. 

In the south these were worked out at a series 
of five political conferences held by the Latin 
American states from 1826 to 1865. Although 
none of the treaties signed at these conferences 
entered into effect, most of the principles and 
many of the organizational characteristics of the 
Inter-American System of today are found in 
them. These include the establishment of an 
international organization, in the form of an 
assembly, for consultation and agreement on mat- 
ters of common interest, and the midertaking of 
mutual obligations for defense against aggression ; 
for the renunciation of war; for the peaceful set- 
tlement of disputes through mediation, investiga- 
tion, conciliation, arbitration, and consultation; 
for the adoption of sanctions against a law-break- 
ing member of the community ; for reciprocal re- 
spect of territorial integrity and political inde- 
pendence, and for observance of the principle of 
nonintervention. 

In the north the United States sought security 
through a self-denying injunction to stay out of 
conflicts in other parts of the world and through 
a demand that non-American powers seek no poli- 
tical or territorial gains or advantages in the 
Western Hemisphere. These were the two sides 
of our national security shield, each complemen- 
tary to the other, both nonaggressive in spirit and 
intent. Time soon demonstrated that, as inter- 
preted and applied, these policies were not ade- 
quate of themselves to achieve the purposes they 
were designed to serve. 

Thus the United States soon found it difficult, 
and indeed was not permitted, to abide by the first 
self -restraining injunction and to live according 
to St. Paul's admonition to be in the world but not 
of it. It discovered that isolationism ignored the 
fundamental historical and political reality that 
the world was not yet free of the danger of a mad- 
dog drive for universal domination by one or more 
states. For compelling reasons of national secu- 
rity the United States repeatedly discarded isola- 
tionism when the world was threatened by domi- 
nation. It now seeks security through collective 
action by the United Nations in conjunction with 



156 



a policy of national strength adequate to cope with 
any eventualities the present transition period may 
bring. 

It is not perhaps farfetched to say that our Latin 
American experience with the Monroe Doctrine, 
the other side of our traditional security shield, 
had much to do in preparing us for the shift to the 
policy of seeking national security through col- 
lective international action. The Doctrine is a uni- 
lateral declaration of a policy of self-defense, made 
to prevent aggression against the Western Hemi- 
sphere and also to prevent any attempt from the 
outside to impose any non-American system of 
government on any American nation. The Doc- 
trine is in fact a statement of United States policy 
vis-a-vis non-American states, and does not pur- 
port to state its policy vis-a-vis the American re- 
publics. However, during a period beginning with 
the advent of the twentieth century, the United 
States considered that it had to assume, as a corol- 
lary of the Doctrine, a special unilateral police 
responsibility for order and stability in the 
Western Hemisphere to forestall intervention 
by non-American powers. To this end it began 
to apply some of the "big stick" methods typical of 
"sphere of influence" politics. It attempted to 
meet external threats to the security of the Conti- 
nent by using in the Western Hemisphere some of 
the techniques of control and im2)osition of the 
very evil from which it wished to insulate the 
Continent. 

Our interventions not only aroused strong senti- 
ment against the United States in Latin America, 
which it was not in the nature of our people to 
ignore, but they also violated a fundamental and 
ingrained American conviction that a people have 
a right to govern themselves without interference 
from outside. The so-called interventionist cor- 
ollaries of the Monroe Doctrine were thus without 
a firm national foundation. 

The first steps toward a different policy were 
taken almost simultaneously with the assumption 
of the interventionist role. This policy was more 
suited to our national characteristic and to our 
traditional attitude of friendship toward Latin 
America, which had persisted despite the frictions 
engendered by our "manifest destiny" expansion 
to the Pacific and acquisition of Texas and Cali- 
fornia. On the initiative of Secretary of State 
Blaine, the first general or constituent Conference 

Depar/menf of S/ofe Bo//efin 



of the Inter- American System met at Wasliington 
in 1890. The moment was right for this move. 
During the immediately preceding period, from 
1865 to the date of the Conference, the extraor- 
dinarily creative political effort of the Latin 
American republics to build a strong international 
organization for peace and security had subsided 
into lower-key activity, directed principally to- 
ward unification and uniformity in technical and 
legal mattei's of common convenience and interest. 
This development was fortunate since it was more 
akin to the pragmatic spirit with which the United 
States began to seek an alternative approach, based 
on voluntary cooperation, to the peace and security 
objectives of its foreign policy. 

Although there were overtones and portents at 
the Washington conference of larger political pur- 
poses, such as the outlines of a plan for the peace- 
ful settlement of international disputes, the 
conclusions of the meeting related chiefly to 
cooperation and exchange of information in tech- 
nical and commercial matters. A principal ac- 
complishment of the Conference was the creation 
of the Commercial Bureau of the American Ke- 
publics, charged with compiling and distributing 
information and statistics on commercial matters. 
But even in this modest technical beginning there 
was an instinctive prevision of what was to come 
after. The Bureau was to be the central office of 
an "association" of the countries represented at the 
Conference, to be known as the International 
Union of the American Republics, for the pi'ompt 
collection and distribution of commercial informa- 
tion. Though this title reflects the nomenclature 
of the times, when international unions, such as 
the Universal Postal Union, were being established 
in technical fields, the discussion at the Conference 
of issues more immediately related to peace and 
security gave substance to the feeling that only the 
scaffolding of the building had been erected. It 
was around the scaffolding inherent in the pre- 
scient concept of association or union of the Amer- 
ican republics that the Inter-American System 
was built. 

The stated minimum purpose of the Union 
established at Washington set the tone for the first 
essentially nonpolitical 45 years of Pan American- 
ism. Although the system evolved in a leisurely 
manner during this early period, it laid a sound 
foundation of organization and "know-how" of 
international cooperation for the modern super- 

February 8, 1948 



structure of the system built during the last 15 
years and developed three principal organizational 
features: the conferences, the Pan American 
Union, and other permanent or special-purpose or 
temporary organizations. Developments in the 
last 15 years have simply brought those organiza- 
tions to rapid maturity under the forcing processes 
of the age in which we live. 

The end of World War II and the proposed 
establishment of a new world organization led the 
American republics to agree on a broad pro- 
gram for the "reorganization, consolidation and 
strengthening of the inter-American system", in 
order that it might become more effective in solving 
inter-American problems and in assuming its ap- 
propriate responsibilities in harmony with the 
principles and purposes of the United Nations. 
Under this plan, approved at the Inter- American 
Conference on Problems of War and Peace held in 
Mexico City a few months prior to the meeting of 
the United Nations conference in San Francisco, 
the System is to have three basic "chaiter" docu- 
ments : a treaty on reciprocal assistance in the event 
of an attack or threat of aggression from within 
or without the Continent against an American 
republic; an over-all charter or organic pact of the 
Inter-Ajnerican System, which will establish the 
organizational elements of the system and state its 
basic principles and purposes (including as an- 
nexed documents two declarations on the rights 
and duties of states and of man) ; a treaty which 
will coordinate, integrate, and bring up to date the 
inter-American procedures of pacific settlement. 
The first basic instrument, the treaty on re- 
ciprocal assistance, was concluded at the recent 
conference at Petropolis, Brazil. The other two 
treaties and their supplementary and complemen- 
tary declarations and resolutions are to be nego- 
tiated at the Ninth International Conference of 
American States to be held at Bogota this coming 
year. Drafts of these documents have been pre- 
pared by committees of the Governing Board of 
the Pan American Union and by the Inter- Ameri- 
can Juridical Committee at Eio de Janeiro. 

These three fundamental organizational fea- 
tures of the Inter-American System are examined 
here in the light of the decisions reached at Mexico 
City, of the proposals made by the govern- 
ments for consideration at the Bogota conference, 
and of the probable impact on them of the new 
functions and responsibilities of the System. The 

157 



section on the institutions of the System is followed 
by a discussion of inter-American cooperation in 
the political and nonpolitical fields and of the re- 
lations of the System with the United Nations. 
The article concludes witli a summary of the prin- 
cipal issues at the conference. 

This analysis of the System will be made against 
the background of the historical development of 
its institutions, principles, and purposes. This 
method has been chosen over a less pedestrian ap- 
proach on the theory that it will bring out more 
adequately how deep the roots of the System reach 
back into the past and how the plans for Bogota 
reflect and are the product of the process of growth 
in mutual understanding and confidence which 
has made this regional association possible. 

The Organs of the System 

The draft organic pact prepared by committees 
of the Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union for the conference provides that "The inter- 
American system carries out its objectives through 
the following organs : a. The Inter- American As- 
semblies (Conferences) ; 6. The Pan American 
Union ; c. The specialized inter- American organ- 
izations". 
The Conferences 

The conference method is a fundamental and 
essential characteristic of the Inter-American 
System. Through this technique the member 
states have agreed upon basic policies and worked 
out ways and means of carrying them into efi^ect. 
Until recently there were two main types of con- 
ferences: the International Conference of Ameri- 
can States and the special and technical conference. 
A third type, the Meetings of Consultation of tlie 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs, was added in the 
late 1930's. 

The International Conferences of American 
States are the over-all policy-making or constituent 
body of the System, and they in fact legislate on 
the organs of the System and their functions. 
Eight of these conferences were held in the first 
half century of the Pan American movement. The 
last one was held in Lima, Peru, in 1938, and the 
next will be held at Bogota early in 1948. The con- 
clusions of these conferences have taken the form 
of 40 treaties and several hundred recommenda- 
tions, resolutions, and declarations. These docu- 
ments have defined the basic principles and poli- 
cies of the System, as well as objectives to be 
achieved through individual or collective action 



of the member states in the political, social, cul- 
tural, legal, and technical fields. Contrary to what 
may be a popular impression, the record of ratifi- 
cations of these inter- American treaties compares 
most favorably with that achieved in general by 
the signatories of world multilateral treaties. 

The special and technical conferences are in 
fact two distinct types of meetings. The special 
conferences are actually, though not in form, spe- 
cial or extraordinary meetings of the International 
Conferences of American States. They deal with 
aspects of inter-American cooperation which can- 
not be treated at one of the regular meetings be- 
cause of their fundamentally technical character 
or because of an emergency situation which does 
not permit delay before the scheduled date for the 
next general conference. The chief examples of 
these conferences are the Washington conference 
of 1929, called to conclude the inter-American 
treaties on conciliation and arbitration; the 
Buenos Aires conference of 1936, called on the 
initiative of President Roosevelt to devise means by 
which the peace of the Continent could be main- 
tained in view of ominous developments in other 
parts of the world ; the Mexico City conference of 
1945 on "Problems of War and Peace"; and the 
conference of Petropolis, held in 1947 to conclude 
the inter-American treaty on reciprocal assistance. 

The technical conferences in the main are, as the 
name indicates, meetings of experts called to work 
out technical problems and to agree upon the 
means by which broad policies established at the 
general conferences can be implemented by action 
through the governments, official inter- American 
organizations, or by private individuals or organ- 
izations. More than 200 of these conferences have 
been held and they, together with the special con- 
ferences, have been responsible for 67 inter- 
American treaties. 

The last type of conference was developed as a 
device by which the principle of consultation on 
matters of peace and security, as well as on other 
important matters of common concern requiring 
urgent action, could be effected expeditiously. The 
principle itself was agreed upon at the special 
Buenos Aires conference of 1936, but it was not 
before the eighth general conference at Lima in 
1938 that agreement was reached that the consulta- 
tions could be effected by means of meetings of the 
Foreign Ministers. They are designed to bring 
together on short notice the top spokesmen on 



158 



liepar\mGn\ of State Bulletin 



foreign affairs of the executive branches of the 21 
governments for rapid discussion and resolution of 
emergency issues. In distinction from the general 
and special conferences, their agenda are, in theory 
though not always in practice, limited to a specific 
issue and each government is entitled to only one 
delegate. 

Shortly after the Lima conference war broke out 
in Europe and the threat to the peace and security 
of the American Continent led to the calling of 
three meetings of consultation at the three crisis 
stages of the war for the Americas. The first 
meeting was held at Panama in 1939, shortly after 
Germany invaded Poland ; the second was held at 
Habana in 1940, almost immediately after the fall 
of France, and the third meeting at Kio de Janeiro, 
a few weeks after Pearl Harbor. 

From proposals made for consideration at the 
Conference at Bogota this year, it is evident that 
the conference system will remain in its essentials. 
The stress will be on integration, coordination, and 
systematization. Thus, for example, all the con- 
ferences will probably be grouped under the cate- 
gory of "assemblies", as one of the three main 
organs of the System. The draft organic pact to 
be considered at Bogota provides that "all the 
American States have the right to be represented 
in the Inter-American Assemblies". The assem- 
blies will comprise the International Conferences 
of American States : the special conferences will 
become, in name as well as in fact, extraordinary 
meetings of the general conferences ; the Meetings 
of Consultation of Foreign Ministers; the spe- 
cialized conferences, at present the technical con- 
ferences. (See chart II.) 

Although the rule that the general conferences 
should be held at five-year intervals has not always 
been honored because of varying circumstances, it 
will probably be continued as a target. The con- 
ferences will also evidently have the same role as in 
the past, although the extraordinary meetings, the 
meetings of Foreign Ministers, and better or- 
ganized and managed specialized conferences 
should tend to limit their agenda to essential 
broad-gauge policy-making issues. The meetings 
of Foreign Ministers will retain their present 
function, but there will be greater stress on their 
limited emergency character and on policy-exe- 
cuting as against policy-formulating respon- 
sibilities. Thus they will be the "organ of con- 
sultation" on matters of peace and security 

February 8, 1948 



under the inter-American treaties on collective de- 
fense and pacific settlement. The specialized con- 
ferences will continue their present role. They will 
be held, as provided in the draft organic pact, "to 
consider special technical questions or to further 
specific aspects of inter-American cooperation". 
Probably the recent trend toward greater coordi- 
nation of technical activities will be crystallized, 
in the form, perhaps, of a provision calling for a 
decision either of a general conference, a meeting 
of Foreign Ministers, or the Governing Board of 
the Pan American Union, before a specialized con- 
ference can be held. 

The Pan American Union 

Between 1890 and 1910 the name of the interna- 
tional association established at the first confer- 
ence was contracted to Union of the American 
Kepublics, and the Commercial Bureau first be- 
came the International Bureau of the American 
Kepublics and finally the Pan American Union, 
and as such became the permanent organ of the 
Association, that is, of the System. 

The Bureau created at the conference of 1890 
was under the stipervision of the Secretary of 
State of the United States. This arrangement, 
under which the host government supplied the 
secretariat and managed the affairs of the organi- 
zation, was typical of the unions of this initial 
period of international organization. The second 
general conference in 1902, however, decided that 
the "management" should be in the hands of a 
governing board composed of the diplomatic rep- 
resentatives in Washington of the member states, 
under the chairmanship of the United States Sec- 
retary of State. At Habana in 1928 the formula 
was changed to provide that each government 
would appoint a special representative, but could 
at its option designate its diplomatic representa- 
tives in "Washington. This arrangement con- 
tinued until 1945, when the Mexico City conference 
resolved that the Governing Board should there- 
after be composed of delegates especially desig- 
nated by the member states rather than composed 
of their diplomatic representatives in Washing- 
ton.^ The same Conference agreed on the prin- 



1 Only approximately six governments have given effect 
to this resolution and on the insistence of certain member 
states, final decision has been deferred until the Bogotd 
conference. 

159 



ciple that the Chairman of the Board should not 
be eligible for reelection. It likewise agreed that 
the Director General and Assistant Director of 
the Pan American Union should be chosen for a 
term of 10 years and be ineligible for reelection, 
and also that neither could be succeeded by a per- 
son of the same nationality. These provisions 
foreshadowed for the first time a Chairman of the 
Board and a Director General of the Union not a 
citizen of the United States. 

These changes in structure and internal or- 
ganization parallelled simultaneous and expanding 
changes in functions. From being a center for 
the collection and distribution of information on 
commercial matters the Bureau was transformed 
gradually into a center for similar activities in 
other fields, including economic, social, cultural, 
legal, and technical. It also evolved from being 
simply the custodian of the records of the general 
conferences into the permanent commission of the 
conferences, with greatly enlarged secretariat 
functions. As a result of this evolution it acquired 
broad informational, promotional, research, and 
secretariat responsibilities and passed from being 
simply a technical agency representing the 
Association or Union into its permanent organ. 

During this process the Pan American Union 
became more representative and more interna- 
tional. It became moi"e representative because the 
control of the institution soon passed from being 
the sole responsibility of the host country to a 
governing body on which all the member states 
were represented. It became more international 
in that as this transformation in control occurred 
and as its functions expanded, it became more and 
more the instrument of the collective will of the 
association as expressed in the international agree- 
ments reached at the general conferences. Al- 
though there has been a tendency to disassociate 
the Governing Board and the Pan American 
Union, identifying the latter only with the admin- 
istrative offices headed by the executive officer or 
Director General, the Union has been in fact the 
composite of these two organs. 

In theory the Pan American Union has been the 
executive body of the System, but in reality it has 
had few operational responsibilities and has served 
principally in two capacities : as an international 
secretariat and as a center for the exchange of in- 
formation and the promotion of inter-American 
cooperation in nonpolitical matters. 



(a) Secretariat and nonpoutical functions 

In the role of secretariat the Governing Board 
and executive offices of the Union comprise the 
permanent bureau of the general conferences and, 
increasingly, of the System as a whole. In this 
respect the Pan American Union has been unique 
as an international secretariat in that its responsi- 
bilities as such have been discharged through the 
interaction in one organization of a governing 
body composed of representatives of the member 
governments and of a technical and administrative 
group of experts entirely international in char- 
acter. 

One of the principal secretariat functions of the 
Union is that of preparing the programs and regu- 
lations of the general conferences and meetings of 
Foreign Ministers. Moreover, although the old 
custom is still maintained under which the host 
country supplies the ad hoc secretariat of the con- 
ferences, the Union has, to an increasing extent, 
supplied technical assistance and some personnel. 
It also undertakes or directs the preparation of 
draft projects and background material on topics 
of the agenda of the conferences and serve as 
custodian of conference documents and proceed- 
ings and as depository of instruments of ratifica- 
tion of treaties and conventions. 

The nonsecretariat aspect of the Pan American 
Union, namely, its informational, advisory, and 
promotional activities in economic, cultural, social, 
legal, and technical matters will apparently be 
greatly expanded at Bogota. The direct execution 
of the policies and decisions of the conferences in 
these fields has been largely a matter of individual 
or ad hoc collective action by the governments 
themselves. Although the Pan American Union 
has had an important role in furthering this action 
through its secretariat and other functions, the 
need for permanent and adequate machinery be- 
came increasingly evident as inter-American rela- 
tions expanded and became more organized and as 
certain limited operational activities were assumed 
by the organs of the System. The gradual but 
haphazard creation of special and permanent tech- 
nical organizations independent of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union is evidence of a slow groping for a 
solution. The beginnings of an alternative ap- 
proach to the same problem is seen in the resolu- 
tion on the Pan American Union at the fifth con- 
ference in 1923, in which provision is made for 
four permanent commissions to cooperate with the 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



Union in promoting economic, commercial, labor, 
social, and cultural relations. This provision was 
.construed as calling for the appointment of such 
commissions from the membership of the Govern- 
ing Board itself, that is, for the appointment of 
standing committees of the Board, rather than of 
commissions composed of technically qualified per- 
sons acting either as experts or representatives of 
the governments. 

The war highlighted the lack of adequate sup- 
plementary machinery and led to the creation of 
special emergency bodies for economic and finan- 
cial cooperation, for military and political de- 
fense, and for legal and technical assistance. 
These emergency organizations were created by 
the consultative meetings and organized by the 
Governing Board of the Pan American Union. 
In the postwar period the two approaches, of 
establishing commissions of the Governing Board 
as against setting up separate agencies, convei-ged 
in a compromise formula which grew out of the 
war experience. The Mexico City conference 
transformed the emergency body for economic 
and financial cooperation into the permanent 
Inter- American Social and Economic Council as 
a dependent organ of the Governing Board. Un- 
der present plans for Bogota there will be three 
additional councils dependent on the Governing 
Board — a military, a cultural, and a juridical 
agency. The four organs will be representative 
bodies, that is, they will be composed of techni- 
cally qualified persons appointed by and repre- 
senting the governments. 

This formula will not, however, yield a uniform 
organizational pattern. It is now clear that prob- 
ably wide variations between the councils will 
exist. The one constant will be that the Govern- 
ing Board will have over-all policy or political 
responsibility, which must be exercised with due 
regai'd for the principle of technical autonomy. 
That is, the Govei-ning Board will not be author- 
ized to impede them from making recommenda- 
tions to the governments or undertaking other 
activities within their respective technical fields. 
Another general though not constant feature will 
be that the organs will be linked organically infer 
se and with the Board through the secretariat of 
the Pan American Union, which will serve in that 
capacity for the entire Union, with the exception 
of the Military Defense Council. There will 
be other departures from uniformity. 

February 8, 1948 

775570 — 48 2 



Under a pre-Bogota agreement reached recently 
by the governments through the Pan American 
Union, it is contemplated that the Conference 
will create these organs and outline their func- 
tions, and that the Governing Board will organ- 
ize them after the Conference on the basis of the 
decisions at Bogota. 

Should the plans for these councils be approved, 
the Pan American Union, after Bogota, will be the 
composite of the Governing Board, the four organs 
or councils, and the secretariat. As such the 
Union would be in fact as well as theory the cen- 
tral and permanent organ of the entire System 
and its general secretariat, with broad advisory 
and promotional responsibilities for inter-Amer- 
ican cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, 
and technical fields. 

(b) Political functions 

In one important respect the Pan American 
Union became a case of arrested development: it 
was not permitted to discharge political functions. 
This apolitical, or more strictly speaking non- 
political, character was inherent in its technical 
beginnings, but with its expansion into the per- 
manent organ of the system it might have been 
expected that it would acquire such functions. 
The reason often taken for granted that this did 
not occur was because of its location in Washing- 
ton and consequently, the suspicion of being under 
the shadow if not actually a branch of the De- 
partment of State. Its location had its inhibiting 
effect and was unquestionably i-esjionsible for the 
expi-ess stipulation prohibiting the organization 
from undertaking political functions. This was 
introduced into the statutes of the Pan American 
Union at the sixth conference in 1928, during 
the high tide of Latin American reaction to 
United States interventions in the Caribbean 
area. Another explanation offered has been that 
the bar to the exercise of political functions was a 
deliberate method used to protect the Pan Ameri- 
can Union from the stresses and strains of politi- 
cal and therefore controversial issues which might 
destroy it. The logic of this was that these stresses 
and strains should be borne by ad hoc or especially 
created organizations which could disappear 
without doing permanent damage to the System. 

An additional and perhaps more fundamental 
explanation may be found in the fact that the 

161 



System as a whole, and this means specifically 
the general conferences, assumed executive polit- 
ical responsibilities only very recently. Tlie 
two major aspects of international political activ- 
ity with which the Inter-American System has 
been concerned relate to peace and security and 
to the formulation of principles of international 
conduct. In the first categoi-y are the treaties 
and conventions on pacific settlement such as those 
concluded at the fifth and seventh general con- 
ferences and at the special conciliation and arbi- 
tration conference of 1929 ; in the second are found 
the resolutions and declarations which deal with 
such problems as nonintervention and inter- Amer- 
ican solidarity. With respect to both of these 
matters the general conferences, so far as they 
discussed these issues, limited themselves to the 
formulation of principles and policies, and of pi'O- 
cedures by which the states could give them effect. 
The application of these principles and policies 
and the use of the procedures was left in the 
hands of the member goverinnents acting in- 
dividually or through special implementing agree- 
ments. There was no international compliance 
machinery. Thus the procedures of pacific settle- 
ment contained in the treaties referred to are es- 
sentially bilateral in character, and the general 
conferences themselves had no continuing or gen- 
eral responsibility for initiating them, for assur- 
ing their application, or for taking over when 
they failed.^ The functions of the System on these 
matters were therefore considered to have been 
discharged when it achieved multilateral agree- 
ment on a principle or a procedure. From then 
on the success or failure of the principle or proce- 
dure depended on the good will and the good faith 
of the parties. If this was absent in a given case, 
through failure of a state to abide by an agreed 
standard of international conduct or through 
failure to utilize pacific settlement procedures, 
the problem had to be handled on an ad hoc basis. 
The Pan American Union, as the executive- 



2 The permanent diplomatic commissions provided for 
in the Gondra treaty of 1923 and the conciliation con- 
vention of rji;9, composed of the three longest accredited 
diplomatic representatives of the parties to these in- 
struments in Washington and Montevideo, have certain 
rudimentary conciliation functions pending the setting 
up of the ad hoc bilateral commissions. This is, hovrever, 
an essential part of the bilateral mechanism, there being 
no tie-back to the conferences. 

162 



secretariat branch of the System, evidently could 
not participate in this "legislative" or policy- 
formulating activity. From this point of view 
there was no discrepancy or inconsistency there- 
fore between the Union's role as permanent organ 
of the System and the prohibition placed on it 
against the discharge of political functions. With 
the assumption of collective responsibility for 
peace and security through the adoption of the 
principle and procedure of consultation, the Inter- 
American System acquired certain "executive" or 
compliance functions in political matters. With 
this development the Pan American Union be- 
came eligible to carry out political activities pur- 
suant to directives given it by the conferences. 
The first step in this direction was the provision 
of resolution IX of the Mexico City conference 
of 1945, stipulating that the Governing Board : 

"Shall take action, within the limitations im- 
Ijosed upon it by the International Conferences 
of American States or pursuant to the specific 
direction of the Meetings of the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs, on every matter that affects the ef- 
fective functioning of the inter-American system 
and the solidarity and general welfare of the 
American Eepublics". 

This formula was sufficiently ambiguous to leave 
the issue up in the air. Vestiges of the old ra- 
tionale for keeping the Union out of the political 
field were still in evidence at the Mexico City con- 
ference and again at the recent Rio conference. 
The broad latitude for political activities given 
the Union under the above formula was considered 
by some as being conditioned on the full accept- 
ance of the principle of ad hoc or special repre- 
sentation on the Governing Board. This prin- 
ciple, which supposedly was designed to remove 
the Pan American Union from the rumored 
shadow of the Department of State, was given ef- 
fect by only a few of the member governments, 
and its application was finally held in abeyance 
pending a decision at Bogota. Similarly, subse- 
quent to the Mexico City conference, proposals 
were made which would remove the Governing 
Board from Washington, or which envisage the 
creation of a new permanent political organ in 
some other capital of America. 

The treaty on reciprocal assistance signed at 
Rio has apparently definitely closed the issue since 
it gives the Governing Board the power to act pro- 

Department of State Bulletin 



visionally, pending a meeting of the Foreign Min- 
isters, as the organ through which the governments 
eifect consuUations and talie decisions under the 
treaty. It can thus discharge the maximum politi- 
cal responsibilities assumed by the Inter- American 
System. This provision of the Rio treaty will un- 
questionably be incorporated in the organic pact 
at Bogota. In all probability a similar provision 
will also be included with respect to any collective 
responsibility assumed by the System for pacific 
settlement. 

The Specialized Organizations 

The Mexico City conference in resolution IX 
stipulated that the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union : 

"Shall supervise the inter-American agencies 
which are or may become related to the Pan Ameri- 
can Union, and shall receive and approve annual 
or special reports from these agencies." 

It also stipulated that : 

"The draft charter [of the reorganized Inter- 
American System] shall provide for the strength- 
ening of tlie inter- American system on the bases 
of this resolution and by the creation of new agen- 
cies or the elimination or adaptation of existing 
agencies, specifying and coordinating their func- 
tions as among themselves and with the world 
organization." 

These provisions concern the permanent or spe- 
cial-purpose organizations created by the inter- 
American conferences primarily to promote coop- 
eration in certain technical fields through studies, 
exchange of information, and recommendations to 
the governments and the conferences. ( See chart I 
for list.) 

The draft organic jDact of the Inter-American 
System provides that these organizations shall 
constitute the third main organ of the System, to 
be known as "the Specialized Organizations." 

In this area developments have been primarily 
on an ad hoc basis, largely without a planned pat- 
tern or over-all direction or supervision, and with- 
out adequate funds for effective secretariat or 
operational activities. The results of the activi- 
ties of these organizations have been excellent in 
some areas but definitely negligible in others. 
The Bogota conference will undoubtedly give 
serious consideration to the problem in terms of 
the Mexico City resolution. Its conclusions will 



probably entail a reduction in the number of these 
organizations and the establishment of coordi- 
nated relations among those that remain and be- 
tween these and the Pan American Union. 

The specialized organizations differ from the 
councils of the Pan American Union in three 
aspects. As a general rule they are separate and 
autonomous bodies forming a distinct organiza- 
tional group in the system; they will have their 
own secretariats, and they will have narrower sub- 
ject and functional assignments than the councils. 
There will probably be such variation and de- 
parture from the norm, however, that in some 
cases the distinction may be somewhat meaning- 
less. It is quite likely, for example, that the mili- 
tai'y defense agency, a dependent organ, will have 
its own secretariat; whereas the Inter- American 
Commission of Women, a specialized agency, may 
rely on the Pan American Union secretariat. 

It is evident that an important issue is involved 
in these apparent contradictions in which a basic 
princijDle of structure and function is qualified in 
many ways. In the United Nations this issue is 
dealt with in articles 57 and 63 of the Charter, 
which recognize the principle of autonomy in the 
specialized field but contain a flexible formula 
which permits agreements for a lesser or greater 
relationship between the specialized organizations 
and the United Nations. The factors responsible 
for certain contradictions in the inter-American 
problem of devising a coherent and workable 
organizational pattern are already operating to 
produce a similar situation in the United Nations. 
These factors are the need for economy and the 
need to avoid duplication and overlapping of 
effort. These problems arise from multii^licity of 
secretariats and the impossibility of rigidly com- 
partmentalizing the different specialized fields. 

An added factor in the inter-American situation 
is the feeling that some of these roving satellites of 
the System either have occasionally dissipated their 
energies because of the lack of an over-all perspec- 
tive or objective or have simply occupied a "paper" 
position in the System, creating a false appearance 
of planning and activity which tended to inhibit 
by preemption constructive thought on the prob- 
lems which they were supposedly handling. If 
these regional organizations are to perform effec- 
tively the responsibilities which may devolve upon 
them as regional agencies or offices of, or under 



February 8, 7948 



163 



CHART I 



PRESENT INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM 



SPECIAL 
CONFERENCES 



E^a 



TECHNICAL 
CONFERENCES 



INTERNATIONAL 
CONFERENCES OF 
AMERICAN STATES 




PAN AMERICAN UNION 



GOVERNING BOARD n 



SECRETARIAT 



MEETINGS 

OF CONSULTATION 

OF THE MINISTERS 

OF FOREIGN 

AFFAIRS 



INTER-AMERICAN ECONOMIC 
AND SOCIAl COUNCIL 




PAN AMERICAN H ORGANIZATIONS 



OFFICIAL 




INTEB-AMERICAN COMMISSION OF WOMEN 

INTER-AMERICAN DEFENSE BOARD 

INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

EMERGENCY ADVISORY COMMinEE FOR POLITICAL DEFENSE 

INTER.AMERICAN JURIDICAL COMMITTEE 

PAN AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU 



COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON CODIFICATION 
OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 

PERMANENT COMMinEE ON PUBLIC 
INTERNATIONAL LAW (RIO DE JANEIRO) 

PERMANENT COMMITTEE ON PRIVATE 
INTERNATIONAL LAW (MONTEVIDEO) 
PERMANENT COMMITTEE ON COMPARATIVE 
LEGISLATION AND THE UNIFICATION 
OF LEGISLATION (HAVANA) 

PERMANENT COMMITTEE OF JURISTS FOR THE 
UNIFICATION OF CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL 
LAW OF AMERICA 









' ' — 






INTER-AMERICAN COfFEE BOARD 

INTER-AMERICAN INDIAN INSTITUTE 

AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE 
PROTECTION OF CHILDHOOD 

INTER-AMERICAN TRADE MARK BUREAU 

PAN AMERICAN HIGHWAY CONGRESSES 

INTERNATIONAL OFFICE OF THE POSTAL UNION OF 
THE AMERICAS AND SPAIN 


E 


PERMANENT INTER-AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF 
SOCIAL SECURITY 

INTER-AMERICAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS OFFICE 

PAN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY AND 
HISTORY 

[■] THE PAN AMERICAN RAILWAY COMMISSION 

1 — 1 THE CENTRAL PAN AMERICAN BUREAU OF EUGENICS 
1 — 1 AND HOMICULTURE 

1—1 THE PERMANENT AMERICAN AERONAUTICAL 
XZJ COMMISSION 












iv-v:::->:"il 



INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION 
INTER-AMERICAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE 
PAN AMERICAN COFFEE BUREAU 



INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION OF INTER-MUNICIPAL 
COOPERATION 

PERMANENT COMMISSION OF PAN AMERICAN 
RAILWAY CONGRESSES 



164 



UNOFFICIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS 



CS/G 2618 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



cooperative agreements with, world organizations, 
a greater over-all integration must be planned 
within the region as a whole. 

Should certain ideas now current prevail at 
Bogota, there will be a considerable degree of 
supervision and control by the Governing Board 
over the specialized organizations. Tlie draft or- 
ganic pact contains provisions that these organi- 
zations shall be registered in the Pan American 
Union, that they shall make reports to the 
Governing Board and that the Board shall have 
general sui^ervision over their activities, with due 
regard for the principle of technical autonomy. 
A uniform or common fiscal system administered 
by the Union for all inter- American organizations 
is also being considered. A strong tendency 
toward centralization with respect to the special- 
ized conferences, the conference counterpart, and 
indeed in many cases the conference aspect of 
sjDecialized organization activity is apparent. 

It is not anticipated that Bogota will take de- 
cisions regarding the details of the reorganization 
of individual specialized organizations, with the 
exception of the Inter-American Commission of 
Women.^ The Bogota conference will probably 
nevertheless reach general conclusions regarding 
the elimination or integration of certain organiza- 
tions, including specifically the large number of 
relatively inactive agencies in the legal field, which 
will be combined in the Juridical Council. 

Principles and Purposes of the System 

In the preceding discussion of the three basic 
organizational characteristics of the Inter- 
American Sj'stem the emerging outline of the re- 
organized system can be seen. This outline is a 
rough composite of proposals made by the gov- 
ernments for consideration at Bogota. (See 
chart II.) 

Political Cooperation 

The political activities of the Inter-American 
System culminated in the treaties on pacific settle- 
ment, the agreements on consultation and obliga- 
tions for the maintenance of peace and security, 
the protocol of nonintervention of 1936, and the 
declarations on principles of inter- American soli- 
darity and cooperation and of rights and duties 
of states. 

The process by which these results were achieved 
usually began in an initial statement by a confer- 
ence of a desirable rule of international conduct 



in the form of a declaration of a self-evident 
truth or categorical imperative, or of a recom- 
mended course of practical action. This initiative 
was followed by a series of formulations and re- 
formulations, of affirmations and reaffirmations of 
the initial statement in the form of conference 
recommendations and resolutions. Through this 
seemingly highly redundant process, new forms 
of law and policy were evolved, and refinement of 
language and basic accommodation of divergent 
views were achieved for eventual incorporation 
in a treaty or convention. This process still 
continues. 

(a) SECtmiTY AND PACIFIC SETTLEMENT 

In the field of security and pacific settlement 
the initiative was taken originally by the first 
general conference in Washington in 1890, in its 
recommendations that the participating govern- 
ments denounce the principle of conquest and 
agree upon a imiform treaty for compulsory ar- 
bitration subject only to the i-estriction then cur- 
rent on matters affecting independence. The 
trends which these recommendations set in motion 
finally resulted in a series of treaties, concluded 
between 1923 and 1936, on good offices and media- 
tion, prevention of controversies, inquiry, con- 
ciliation, and arbitration. As indicated previ- 
ously, these treaties provided for ad hoc machin- 
ery for the bilateral settlement of disputes but 
gave the System itself no continuing responsi- 
bility. A hesitant step toward collective action 
was taken in 1933 when the seventh general con- 
ference recommended that the participating gov- 
ernments adliere to the anti-war treaty of non- 
aggression and conciliation, which had been signed 
the same year at Kio de Janeiro by six Ameri- 
can republics. This treaty condemns wars of ag- 
gression, stipulates the principles of pacific settle- 
ment of disputes and of non-recognition of 
territory acquired by force, and binds the parties, 
in the event of a violation of these principles, to 
"adopt in their character as neutrals a common 
and solidary attitude", to "exercise the political, 
juridical, or economic means authorized by inter- 
national law," and to "bring the influence of public 
opinion to bear" without resorting to intervention, 



'Approval of the statutes of this organization is specifi- 
cally on the agenda by reference from the Mexico City 
conference of 1945. 



February 8, 1948 



165 



CHART II 



SUGGESTED REVISION OF INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM 



(TO BE CONSIDERED AT BOGOTA CONFERENCE, 1948) 







ASSEMBLIES 










INTERNATIONAL 

CONFERENCES OF 

AMERICAN STATES 

REGULAR 
EXTRAORDINARY 








MEETINGS 

OF CONSULTATION 

OF THE MINISTERS 

OF FOREIGN 

AFFAIRS 


SPECIALIZED 
CONFERENCES 








_ 




SPECIALIZED 



ORGANIZATIONS 



OFFICIAL 



SEMIOFFICIAL 



UNOFFICIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS 



166 



CS/G 24161 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



either diplomatic or armed. There was no provi- 
sion for means by which the "solidary attitude" 
could be crystallized. This suggestion of a mild 
form of collective action was therefore a step for- 
ward within the framework of the bilateral pacific 
settlement structure. 

The definite step forward toward meshing the 
machinery for pacific settlement with the System 
took place three years later at the special confer- 
ence of Buenos Aires of 1936, when agreement was 
reached on the principle of consultation. The pri- 
mary objective of consultation was to assist, 
tlirough the tender of good offices and mediation, 
in the fulfilment by the parties to the dispute of 
the obligations they had assumed in the treaties 
on pacific settlement. In the event this collective 
mediation failed and hostilities broke out, the other 
states were not only to adopt the solidary atti- 
tude called for in the antiwar treaty, but they also 
were individually to impose such embargoes on 
arms, munitions, and implements of war and on 
loans and financial help "to the states in conflict" 
as was authorized by the domestic legislation of 
each state. No distinction between aggressor and 
victim was to be drawn and no sanctions were to 
be applied; the objective of the consultation was 
simply to "seek methods of peaceful collaboration" 
to induce the parties to settle their differences. 

With this undertaking, consultation became the 
collective capstone of the bilateral pacific-settle- 
ment structure. This development had solid foun- 
dation in the cooperative techniques and organi- 
zation forged during the previous fifty years and 
in the formulation and gradual secularization of 
the principle of common responsibility for the in- 
ternal peace of the Continent. 

The political coming of age of the System made 
possible another innovation, also introduced at the 
conference of Buenos Aires : the acceptance of col- 
lective responsibility for the security of the Ameri- 
cas against external dangers. It was agreed that 
in the event of a war outside America which might 
threaten the peace of the Continent, consultation 
would take place "to determine cooperation in ac- 
tion tending to preserve the peace of the American 
Continent." When war broke out in Europe in 
1939, this provision was invoked for the purpose 
of agreeing on means by which the Americas could 
be insulated from its effects. Between that date 
and the attack on Pearl Harbor, the formula was 
developed in the Declaration of Habana adopted 

February 8, 1948 



by the Second Consultative Meeting in 1940. In 
this document it was agreed : 

"that any attempt on the part of a non-American 
state against the integrity or inviolability of the 
territory, the sovereignty or the political inde- 
pendence of an American state shall be considered 
as an act of aggression against the states which 
sign this declaration." 

It was further agi'eed that the signatory states 
would consult among themselves in order to agree 
upon advisable measures to take in the event an 
act of aggression was committed, or if there was 
reason to believe that an act of aggression was 
being prepared by a non-American nation against 
an American nation. Immediately upon the at- 
tack on Pearl Harbor this undertaking was in- 
voked and the Third Meeting of Consultation was 
thereupon held at Rio de Janeiro in January of 
1942, at which agreement was reached on the bases 
for cooperation in the war against the Axis. 

In this development of the principle and pro- 
cedures of consultation for peace and security, a 
distinction emerged between an intra- and an 
extra-continental situation. In an intra- American 
situation, consultation was a vehicle for collective 
mediation for pacific settlement purposes and for 
reaching a collective understanding to take indi- 
vidual action to deprive the parties engaged in hos- 
tilities of the means by which they could continue 
the war. Inter- American action in such a situa- 
tion stopped short of an identification of the ag- 
gressor and application of sanctions, that is, of 
collective enforcement action. In the case of an 
extra-continental situation, the principle of one 
for all and all for one had developed during the 
war and had become the basis of collective and 
individual political, economic, and military action 
against aggression. 

This distinction may be explained as the prod- 
uct of two factors : first, a lag in the transition from 
the principle of maintaining the internal peace of 
the Continent by mediation and moral suasion to 
the concept that aggression, from whatever source, 
can and should in fact and in principle be met by 
coercive action; secondly, the fact that external 
aggression would directly engage the vital security 
interests of the entire Continent and that attempt- 
ing to meet it by an appeal to pacific settlement or 
by an impartial embargo on the aggressor and 
victim was patently unrealistic. 

167 



The special conference of Mexico City of 1945 
eliminated the distinction between the two situa- 
tions, by the Act of Chapultepec in which it was 
agreed that for the duration of the war any at- 
tack, regardless of the place in which it originated, 
would be considered an attack against all the 
American republics. The principle of the Dec- 
laration of Habana therefore would apply regard- 
less of the source of the attack, whether by an 
American state or by a non-American state. 

This basic principle was given permanent form 
in the treaty of reciprocal assistance signed at 
the special conference at Rio de Janeiro this year.* 
The Rio treaty constitutes a regional arrangement 
for the maintenance of peace and security under 
articles 52 through 54 of the United Nations 
Charter. It also invokes the right of individual 
and collective self-defense under article 51 in the 
case of an armed attack, pending the taking of 
the necessary measures by the Security Council 
to maintain international peace and security. Be- 
sides incorporating the principle of the Act of 
Chajjulteiiec tliat an attack against one is an at- 
tack against all, the treaty provides for consulta- 
tion in the event of an act or threat of aggression 
against an American state or of any fact or situa- 
tion which might endanger the peace of the Amer- 
icas. Under the terms of the treaty, decisions may 
be taken to recall chiefs of diplomatic missions, 
break diplomatic relations, break consular rela- 
tions, internipt in partial or complete form eco- 
nomic and communications relations, and to use 
armed force. These decisions are binding on all 
parties, including those not concurring, when 
taken by a two-thirds vote, except that no state 
is required to use armed force without its consent. 
The decisions are to be taken by tlie organ of con- 
sultation, which is either the meeting of Foreign 
Ministers of the signatory states that ratified the 
treaty or, provisionally, pending such a meet- 
ing, the Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union. 

In the case of an armed attack from any source 
made within a Western Hemisphere area delim- 
ited in the treaty or within the territory of an 
American state outside the area, an obligation is 
placed upon the parties to assist in meeting the 



' For an analysis of this treaty see report by the Sen- 
ate Committee on Foreign Relations, Dec. 5, 1947, 80th 
Cong., 1st sess. See also article by Ward P. Allen, Bulle- 
tin of Nov. 23, 1947, p. 983. 



attack. This obligation may be fulfilled immedi- 
ately by each state acting individually or on the 
basis of the decisions reached through consulta- 
tion. By this provision the treaty converts the 
right of collective self-defense in article 51 of the 
United Nations Charter into an obligation. 

The Rio treaty brings to a close an extraordi- 
narily creative phase in the political evolution 
of the Inter-American System. The significant 
innovations which it introduces into the System 
are: 

1. The obligations to assist in meeting an armed 
attack and to assist the victim of any other act of 
aggression ; 

2. The binding character of a consultative de- 
cision reached by two-thirds vote; 

3. The elimination of the distinction in the 
treatment of aggression depending on whether it 
is from inside or from outside the Continent and 
the corollary undertaking to apply coercive meas- 
ures against an aggressor member of the System; 

4. The granting of political responsibilities to 
the Pan American Union ; 

5. The meshing of the System into the United 
Nations as a regional arrangement for the main- 
tenance of peac« and security. This arrange- 
ment establishes for the first time a legal and func- 
tional relationship between the Inter-American 
System and world organization in such a way as 
to make the former an integi'al part of the uni- 
versal system for collective security. 

The agreement on voting alone points up the 
extraordinary nature of these developments. The 
voting procedure governing decisions in the inter- 
American conferences and in the organizations of 
the Inter-American System has been that of ma- 
jority rule, each American republic having one 
vote. These decisions were not binding on the 
non-concurring states and, except in the case of 
ratified treaties, were binding on the concurring 
states in the sense of representing recommenda- 
tions to which they had given their assent. This 
majority rule, however, has been generally quali- 
fied by a striving for unanimity on controversial 
and political issues. The primary motivation for 
this has been the desire to take important de- 
cisions only with the concurrence of all the mem- 
bers of the System. 

The fact that most collective decisions in the 
System were in the form of recommendations, 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



resolutions, or of treaties signed ad referendum 
and tliat, generally speaking, the System as such 
did not attempt to cope with controversial issues of 
great moment, prevented the unwritten rule of 
unanimity from becoming an obstacle to progress. 
This characteristic of the System was described by 
Secretary of State Root in his instructions to the 
U.S. Delegation at the third general conference 
in 1906, when he said that the purpose of these con- 
ferences was "to deal with matters of common 
interest which are not really subjects of contro- 
versy, but upon which comparison of views and 
friendly discussion may smooth away differences 
of detail, develop substantial agreement, and lead 
to cooperation along common lines for the attain- 
ment of objects which all really desire"'. 

With the Act of Chapultepec the System en- 
tered a phase of its development in which this 
state of affairs was altered. It now has "execu- 
tive" or compliance responsibilities for the main- 
tenance of peace and security. Under the act 
and more recently under the permanent treaty 
of Rio which succeeded it, decisions of major po- 
litical and security importance are contemplated; 
moreover, under the Rio treaty the members of 
the System have not only undertaken to deal with 
these major issues but have also agreed to be bound 
to take specified action on a two-thirds vote of 
their fellow members. 

The problem of relating the Rio treaty to the 
United Nations Charter in connection with armed 
attack has its counterpart on the other extreme in 
the problem of synchronizing the treaty with the 
pacific-settlement structure of the Inter-American 
System. Article 7 of the treaty stipulates: 

"In the case of a conflict between two or more 
American States, without prejudice to the right 
of self-defense in conformity with Article 51 of 
the Charter of the United Nations, the High Con- 
tracting Parties, meeting in consultation shall 
call upon the contending States to suspend hos- 
tilities and restore matters to the status quo ante 
helium, and shall take in addition all other neces- 
sary measures to reestablish or maintain inter- 
American peace and security and for the solution 
of the conflict by peaceful means. The rejection 
of the pacifying action will be considered in the 
determination of the aggressor and in the appli- 
cation of the measures which the consultative 
meeting may agi-ee upon". 

^ehtvaty/ 8, J 948 

775670 — 18 3 



This provision does not violate the principle 
that there shall be no difference in the treatment 
to be accorded aggression, regardless of its origin, 
nor does it mean that individual assistance prior 
to consultation may not be given. Its essential 
feature is that the first objective of consultative 
action will be to separate the contending parties 
and to bring them together in peace. In this latter 
respect, the Rio treaty carries the issue to the 
threshhold of pacific settlement, where the pro- 
cedures for the peaceful solution of controversies 
will take over. These will be of two interrelated 
categories : the bilateral and the collective. 

The first raises for Bogota the problem of co- 
ordinating and improving the existing bilateral 
procedures of good offices and mediation, investi- 
gation, conciliation and arbitration, and of re- 
lating these to judicial settlement by reference to 
the International Court of Justice. There ap- 
pears to be substantial agreement on the problem 
of coordination, which arises primarily from the 
fact that the existing procedures are unrelated to 
each other and are included in a variety of treaties. 
The problem of "improving" the procedures, on the 
other hand, will probably give rise to differences 
of view, particularly on the role of arbitration 
and its relation to judicial settlement. Perhaps 
the principal issue to come up at the conference 
in this connection is raised by proposals that in 
the event other means of pacific settlement fail, 
the parties to the dispute shall be bound to arbi- 
trate, regardless of whether the controversy is 
political or legal in character. Matters of domes- 
tic jurisdiction are excluded in these proposals, 
but some of them provide for adjudication of the 
domestic or international character of a case. In 
advancing the thesis of unlimited compulsory ar- 
bitration of all disputes, these proposals go con- 
siderably beyond the principle of compulsoi-y ar- 
bitration of legal disputes agreed upon in the 
inter- American treaty of 1929. The Bogota con- 
ference must also decide, in view of the existence 
of the International Court of Justice, of which 
all the American states are parties, and of provi- 
sions in its statutes for chambers of the Court to 
meet elsewhere than at The Hague, whether 
elaborate bilateral arbitration machinery is 
necessary. 

The collective aspect raises the problem of de- 
tennining the procedure, scope, and objective of 
consultation, in other words, the organ of consul- 

169 



tation, and its functions and powers in the field of 
pacific settlement. It is not unlikely that the or- 
ganizational pattern of the Rio treaty will be fol- 
lowed and that the organ will be the meetings of 
Foreign Ministers, with the Governing Board of 
the Pan American Union empowered to act pro- 
yisionally in that capacity. The powers of the 
organ of consultation will include, in all probabil- 
ity, the type of good offices and mediation agreed 
upon in the Buenos Aires conventions of 1936. 
This method will involve not only the attempt to 
bring the parties together but also recommenda- 
tions of procedures of pacific settlement which 
they may use, and perhaps encompass fost of- 
fice and interim conciliation functions similar to 
those granted the permanent diplomatic commis- 
sions created by tlie conciliation convention of 
1929. 

The emphasis throughout will unquestionably 
be on encouraging the parties to settle by means of 
their own choice. The question immediately will 
be raised regarding the circumstances under which 
consultation will be invoked. Perhaps the formula 
will be that consultation shall apply, either on re- 
quest of one of the parties or on the initiative of 
the organ of consultation, to disputes susceptible of 
endangering the maintenance of peace and secu- 
rity. Another point will be whether collective 
action should be limited to moral suasion or 
should include such functions as investigation and 
recommendation of terms of settlement, on the 
analogy of those given the Security Council of the 
United Nations. This action would in effect em- 
power the organ of consultation to act as a concilia- 
tion body. The transition from consultation for 
pacific-settlement purposes to consultation for 
coercive action will also be considered. No diffi- 
culty should be met here since the criterion has al- 
ready been established in the Rio treaty that con- 
sultation shall apply in all cases of armed attack 
or threats or other acts of aggression or any fact 
or situation that might endanger the peace of 
America. 

This entire structure must be designed to satisfy 
a long-felt need in the System for the improve- 
ment and coordination of the ti-eaties on pacific 
settlement,^ and to give full effect to the provisions 



" See Resolution XV on "Perfection, Coordination of the 
Inter-American Peace Instruments", approved by the 
Eighth International Conference of American States at 
Lima in 1938. 

170 



of the United Nations Charter, in articles 33 and 
52, which enjoin the member states to make every 
effort to settle their international differences by 
peaceful procedures and by reference to regional 
agencies or arrangements before taking them to 
the United Nations. 

( h ) Basic principles of the inter- American 

STSTEM 

The development of procedures of pacific settle- 
ment and of consultation for the maintenance of 
peace and security was inseparably connected with 
the gradual evolution of principles of solidarity 
and cooperation designed to establish common val- 
ues of international conduct. These principles 
are an integral part of the political frame of ref- 
erence of the System. 

The process by which these principles were 
evolved began with the recommendation of the 
first general conference in 1890, calling for the 
denunciation of the principle of conquest. Subse- 
quent conferences formulated other principles by 
which a continuing effort was made to broaden the 
area of agreement, in terms of rules of policy or 
law, with respect to standing or recurring issues 
between the member states as well as the definition 
of the objectives of their cooperative efforts to 
create conditions favorable to peace. 

Thus the denunciation of the principle of con- 
quest was followed by a series of declarations de- 
nouncing war, the use of force as a national policy, 
and the forcible acquisition of territory and estab- 
lishing the principle of peaceful settlement of dis- 
putes and of non-recognition of territory or spe- 
cial advantages acquired by force. Supporting 
these declarations but with broader implications, 
the basic principle that states are juridically equal, 
enjoy the same rights, and have equal capacity to 
exercise them, became an unquestioned postulate 
of inter-American relations. In the same way, 
good faith and respect for and the peaceful observ- 
ance of treaties was established as "the indispensa- 
ble rule for the development of relations between 
states." 

By laying the basis for a code of enlightened 
rules of conduct and law, these principles contrib- 
uted significantly to the development of an en- 
viroinnent of mutual confidence and made possible 
the progressive release of the power for construc- 
tive action latent in the expanding idea of interna- 
tional cooperation for the promotion of common 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



interests. It also cleared the ground for the adop- 
tion of the principle that an attack against one is 
an attack against all and for the assumption of 
collective responsibility for the internal and exter- 
nal peace and secuiity of the Continent. 

While these basic principles were processed 
through insistent formulation and affirmation at 
the succeeding conferences, their specific applica- 
tion in the case of intervention became the decisive 
test of their transition into rules of conduct in the 
day-to-day jurisprudence of the nations. 

Although international law does not provide a 
complete answer to the question of the exact scope 
of intervention, there appears to be general agree- 
ment among publicists that intervention is dic- 
tatorial or arbitrary interference of a state, acting 
on its own individual judgment, in the affairs of 
another for the purpose of maintaining or altering 
the actual condition of things in the latter state. 

This problem had in the Americas certain well- 
defined aspects. The fii'st related to the so-called 
preventive intervention, or the "Theodore Roose- 
velt corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine, under 
which the United States assumed a unilateral re- 
sponsibility for guaranteeing internal order in 
certain American republics, particularly in the 
Caribbean area, to forestall action by non-Ameri- 
can states to enforce claims in a manner which 
might lead to political domination or permanent 
occupation of American territory by such states. 
Another aspect was the right claimed by the 
United States under international law to inter- 
vene by force, if necessary, when governments in 
these republics broke down and American citizens 
were in danger. A third phase of the problem con- 
cerned the use of force to collect public or contrac- 
tual debts. 

These issues were reducible, generally speaking, 
to the basic question of whether one state may uni- 
laterally use force or other coercive measures 
against another state to protect its interests or 
those of its citizens. 

The first facet of the question that the Ameri- 
can states took up at the inter- American confer- 
ences concerned the use of force for the recovery 
of public debt. An effort was made initially to 
agree on the general principle called the Drago 
Doctrine — after its Argentine initiator — that 
force could not be used for this purpose. The 
thesis proved unacceptable without the qualifica- 
tion that it would not apply if a debtor state re- 



fused or otherwise frustrated recourse to arbi- 
tration. The so-called Porter amendment to the 
Drago Doctrine was included in the Hague con- 
vention of 1907 on the subject. This exception 
was countered by the condition formulated by sev- 
eral Latin American states that arbitration would 
apply only if the remedies offered by local law 
and tribunals had been exhausted, and a denial 
of justice had been established. This series of 
moves showed that a firm meeting of minds even 
on this narrow issue had not been reached. 

A broader approach designed to establish a 
new frame of reference for the major issue of uni- 
lateral use of force or coercion was meanwhile 
being developed through the inter- American codi- 
fication techniques, taking the form of a draft 
resolution on the rights and duties of states sub- 
mitted initially at the sixth general conference in 
1928. This draft contained the proposition that 
"no state has the right to intervene in the inter- 
nal affairs of another." The immediate ques- 
tion was whether this language correctly stated 
the applicable rule of international law. The 
United States maintained that it contravened a 
generally accepted rule which permitted inter- 
vention under certain circumstances. No agree- 
ment was possible at that conference. 

However, the progressive acceptance in theory 
and in practice of the principles of sovereign ju- 
ridical equality, of repudiation of force, of pacific 
settlement, of good faith and of cooperation for 
the promotion of common interests, which are all 
standards of a highly developed and responsible 
community of nations, made possible the eventual 
adoption of the nonintervention rule. The crystal- 
lization of these principles in the good-neighbor 
policy and the assumption of common respon- 
sibility for the maintenance of peace and the ter- 
ritorial integi-ity and political independence of 
the American states further established conditions 
favorable to the adoption of that principle. 

Only five years after the sixth conference, 
agreement was reached at the seventh conference 
at Montevideo in 1933 on the principle, incorpo- 
rated in the Convention on Rights and Duties of 
States, that "No state has a right to intervene in 
the internal or external affairs of another." Three 
years later, at the special conference at Buenos 
Aires for the maintenance of peace, the principle 
of nonintervention was accepted as a treaty obli- 
gation in the following unequivocal and sweep- 



February 8, 1948 



171 



ing teiTOs: "The High Contracting Parties de- 
clare inadmissible the intervention of any one of 
them, directly or indirectly, and for whatever rea- 
son, in the internal or external affairs of any other 
of the Parties." 

There was nevertheless a general realization 
that the dynamics of a developing peaceful order 
require not only rejection of the old but also con- 
struction of the new. The question remained: 
With the rejection of the use of force or coercion 
as final arbiters in these matters, what collective 
responsibility and what rules of law should take 
their place? Awareness of this problem was 
shown by the rapid assumption, as described pre- 
viously, of collective responsibility for the secu- 
rity and peace of the Western Hemisphere in the 
event of any fact or situation which might affect 
them. Under the Rio treaty on mutual assistance 
and the proposed organic pact, members of the 
Inter-American System will be able to act on the 
basis of predetermined principles, obligations, 
and procedures agreed upon and to be executed in 
the exercise of the sovereignty and independence 
of each state as a member of an interdependent 
community of nations. Action under these ar- 
rangements will consequently not constitute in- 
tervention since arbitrary action of any kind is 
precluded. This principle is stated in the draft 
organic pact as follows: "Collective action pro- 
vided for in this Pact and in the Charter of the 
UN does not constitute intervention." 

There still remains, moreover, the need to reach 
full agreement on whether certain existing inter- 
national principles or practices fall or should fall 
■within the general prohibition of the principle of 
nonintervention. Two specific issues relate to the 
diplomatic protection of citizens and the recog- 
nition of governments. 

With respect to the first, treaty agreements of 
limited duration for the reference to arbitration 
of pecuniary claims of citizens of one state against 



' These questions include : What recourse has the credi- 
tor state in the case of public debts when there is inability 
to pay, and how is the bona fides of this to be determined? 
What constitutes denial of justice, and under what cir- 
cumstances is diplomatic interposition justified? Does 
the Calvo clause — under which the citizens of one coun- 
try doing business in another are required to agree not to 
Invoke diplomatic assistance for the recovery of con- 
tractual debts or of claims for loss or damage to property 
or life — validly foreclose diplomatic interposition of any 
Isind? 



172 



the government of another were signed at the 
second and third general inter-American con- 
ferences, and a definitive treaty on the subject 
was concluded at the fourth conference. This 
treaty is still in effect between 11 American states, 
including the United States. 

A more comprehensive approach to the problem 
of diplomatic protection was the attempt at sev- 
eral inter-American conferences to reach agree- 
ment on the blanket principle that the alien is not 
entitled to any different treatment from that ac- 
corded the citizen. As usual in efforts to settle 
complex problems of this character by way of 
general principles alone, this approach left im- 
settled the basic issues and simply tended to shift 
the center of gravity of the discussion. It was 
contended, on the one hand, that the principle 
carried the implication that a state could not inter- 
vene diplomatically on behalf of its citizens, re- 
gardless of the treatment accorded them, when 
that treatment was the same for the alien and 
citizen. Indeed, in some quarters the extreme 
conclusion was drawn that since the citizen could 
not invoke diplomatic protection, neither could the 
alien. It was held, on the other hand, that a state, 
as a member of the civilized community of nations, 
is required by international law to maintain a min- 
imum standard in its treatment of aliens in its 
territory and that therefore the state of their 
origin is entitled to intercede diplomatically on 
their behalf when that treatment falls below that 
standard. 

The issue thus joined raised a series of questions 
revolving around the broad subject of the inter- 
national responsibility of the state and the rela- 
tionship of international law to national law. 
These questions were discussed most recently at 
the Buenos Aires conference of 1936 and at the 
eighth general conference at Lima in 1938 and 
are still awaiting agreement." 

Under a resolution of the latter conference, these 
questions were referred to the inter-American codi- 
fication agencies for further consideration and the 
formulation of appropriate recommendations to 
the governments and the conferences. This topic, 
however, is not on the agenda of the Bogota con- 
ference, except so far as it may arise in general 
terms in connection with the declaration on the 
rights and duties of states. With the elimination 
of recourse to force or coercion, the entire subject 
of the international responsibility of the state is 

DeparfmenI of Sfafe Bu/fefin 



being considered on an entirely different plane. 
It is evident that a solution based on acceptable 
peaceful alternatives can be found. Moreover, the 
development of effective procedures of pacific set- 
tlement should facilitate this task greatly. 

The second main issue mentioned above, the rec- 
ognition of de facto governments, is an old issue of 
principle and practice which has become identified 
with the names of two Latin American statesmen, 
the Mexican Estrada and the Ecuadoran Tobar. 
The Estrada Doctrine is historically a reaction to 
the policy of the United States prevailing at the 
time the doctrine was enunciated, under which this 
country refused to recognize governments of other 
American republics which were not in its opinion 
legally constituted. Estrada contended that rec- 
ognition, in placing the recognizing government 
in a position of passing judgment on the legal ca- 
pacity of another government, is derogatory of the 
dignity and sovereignty of the country whose 
government is recognized or not recognized and 
involves an interference in its internal affairs. For 
this reason he held that a government should sim- 
ply maintain or recall, when it deemed it appro- 
priate, its diplomatic representatives in other coun- 
tries and accept, also at its sole discretion, those 
accredited to it. He considered that this proce- 
dure avoided the necessity for expressing either 
acceptance or rejection of a new regime. The 
Tobar doctrine, on the other hand, was a reaction 
to the frequency with which governments in cer- 
tain Latin American republics were overthrown 
by force. He contended that, by confirming the 
existence of governments established by force, rec- 
ognition tended to foment revolutions. He pro- 
posed, for that reason, that governments estab- 
lished in a manner contrary to the constitution of 
the coimtry should not be recognized. 

The American republics have adopted no uni- 
form rules on the recognition of de facto govern- 
ments. In fact, individual governments have 
sometimes wide variations in practice. Neverthe- 
less, under existing practices states normally set 
the two following conditions for granting recogni- 
tion: (1) that the new government is in control 
of the administrative machinery of the state; (2) 
that it is willing and apparently able to fulfil its 
international obligations. A third condition is 
sometimes added, namely, that there is no active 
resistance to the rule of the new government. Re- 
cent developments indicate a strong trend for con- 



sultation for the purpose of exchanging views and 
reaching a common understanding prior to indi- 
vidual decision on recognition of de facto govern- 
ments. This appears to be a generalization of the 
established custom under which the governments 
of neighboring countries and those most directly 
interested ordinarily consult informally among 
themselves before granting recognition. 

Under a specific topic on the agenda of the 
Bogota conference, the problem of de facto govern- 
ments is to be examined in the light of two con- 
crete projDosals which were referred for considera- 
tion to the ninth conference by the Mexico City 
conference. One of these projects, formulated by 
the Ecuadoran Delegation at the latter confer- 
ence, provided for the "abolition of the practice 
of recognizing de facto governments," on the 
ground that this practice violates "the autonomy 
or domestic sovereignty of the states and consti- 
tutes arbitrary interference or intervention in their 
affairs." The other project, submitted by the 
Guatemalan Delegation, recommended that the 
American republics "refrain from granting recog- 
nition to and maintaining relations with anti- 
democratic regimes," particularly those i-esulting 
from a coup d''etat against legitimately established 
govermnents of a democratic character. This pro- 
posal was justified on the ground that antidemo- 
cratic regimes constitute "a serious danger to 
the unity, solidarity, peace and defense of the 
continent." 

In these two proposals the conference will have 
before it the specific issues of whether the practice 
of recognition is per se arbitrary interference in 
the domestic affairs of the state as maintained by 
Estrada ; whether uniform rules can be elaborated 
which will mitigate the possibility that recognition 
may be used in individual cases unduly and im- 
properly to influence changes of government in 
other states; and whether nonrecognition should 
be used as a collective means by which the estab- 
lishment of antidemocratic governments in the 
Americas may be discouraged. The latter point 
will not of course raise the specific question of 
whether nonrecognition or withdrawal of diplo- 
matic representatives is an appropriate collective 
measure against a state which threatens or breaks 
the peace or commits an act of aggression. This 
question has already been settled in the affirmative 
in the Charter of the United Nations and in the 
Rio treaty of mutual assistance. 



February 8, 1948 



173 



Social, Economic, Cutturat, and Legal Cooperation 

Inter-American cooperation in non-political 
matters has been characterized by a gradual but 
certain expansion and intensification in all fields. 
It has been like a mountain stream which broadens 
and deepens into a great river as it is fed by tribu- 
taries in its course toward the sea. 

As indicated in the introduction to this article, 
the conclusions of the first conference in 1890 
related chiefly to interchange of information and 
technical cooperation, particularly in commercial 
and economic mattei-s. Its principal recommen- 
dations dealt with such matters as the adoption of 
a uniform system of weights and measures, nomen- 
clature of merchandise, improvement of transpor- 
tation and communication, patents and trade- 
marks, consular fees, and custom and sanitary 
regulations. However, the outlines of more am- 
bitious ideas were sketched. These were so far- 
reaching that they still remain, after more than 
half a century, in the realm of ideals. They in- 
cluded an intercontinental railway, an inter- 
American bank, an inter- American customs union, 
and an iuter-Amei'ican monetary luiion.' 

Cultural cooperation was mentioned only in a 
resolution creating a Latin American library to 
commemorate the conference in which should be 
deposited all documents relating to the history 
and civilization of the Americas. Legal coopera- 
tion was limited to reconmiendations for the con- 
clusion of treaties on the extradition of criminals 
and for adherence to the South American treaties 
of 18S8 on private international law and civil, 
commercial, and procedural law. 

To this frame of reference succeeding confer- 
ences kept adding specific subjects in the economic, 
social, cultural, aijd legal fields until comprehen- 
sive programs and suitable techniques were 
evolved. The underlying purpose has been to ob- 
tain not only the material advantages of this co- 
operation but also the international understand- 
ing and cooj^eration which is basic to increased 
friendly relations among nations. 

(a) Economic and social 

While continuing to study and make recommen- 
dations on the technical subjects considered by the 



' Tlie last two topics were on the agenda of the con- 
ference by specific direction of the act of Congress of tlie 
United States which authorized the calling of the con- 
ference. 

174 



first conference of 1890, later conferences laid 
increasing stress on more fundamental economic 
and social problems. This took the form of con- 
ference conclusions dealing with the promotion of 
economic, financial, commercial, and agricultural 
cooperation, including the adoption of common 
policies, uniformity of legislation, and standardi- 
zation of regulations and practices, commercial ar- 
bitration, and exchange of information. Increas- 
ing attention was given to development of natural 
resources, industrialization, liberal commercial 
policies, and removal of unnecessary or artificial 
restrictions upon international trade. More and 
more emphasis was i')laced on the solution of social 
problems, including sanitation, public health, im- 
provement of the material conditions of workers, 
malnutrition, child welfare, and housing problems. 
The most inclusive and comprehensive statement 
of these objectives is contained in the Economic 
Charter of the Americas and the Declaration of 
the Social Principles of America, signed at the 
special conference at Mexico City in 1945. 

These developments are reflected in the organi- 
zations created in the economic and social fields. 
The Pan American Union itself was created, as 
previously indicated, for the sole purpose of com- 
piling and distributing information and statistics 
on commercial matters. The fifth conference in 
1923 requested the Governing Board to designate 
permanent commissions for the development of 
economic and commercial relations, for the study 
of all matters relating to the international organi- 
zation of labor in the Americas, and for the study 
of problems of public health. These commissions 
were established but were relatively inactive since 
the Governing Board usually created ad hoc com- 
mittees to study and formulate recommendations 
on these matters as they came before the Union. 
The Pan American Union, moreover, gradually 
added divisions to its secretariat on foreign trade, 
economic cooperation, statistics, travel, labor and 
social matters, and agricultural cooperation. 

The specialized organizations in the social field 
ai'e the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, estab- 
lished in 1902 ; the American International Insti- 
tute for the Protection of Childhood, which began 
' in 1927 ; the Inter- American Commission of Wo- 
men, created in 1928; and the Inter-American 
Committee of Social Security, established in 1942. 
In economic matters an organization known as 
the Inter- American High Commission was estab- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



lished in 1915 to study the economic problems cre- 
ated by World War I, but disappeared in the early 
1030's. With the advent of World War II cer- 
tain emergency and permanent agencies were cre- 
ated. Chief of these was the Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee. 
This has become the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, which, as an organ of the Ooverning Board of 
the Pan American Union, will function as a per- 
manent over-all body for economic and social coop- 
eration. Another wartime agency, the Inter- 
American Development Committee, will probably 
be absorbed by the Council. The Inter- American 
Institute of Agricultural Sciences was also estab- 
lished during the war as a permanent agency, with 
a comprehensive technical program of research and 
education in its important field. 

Under the draft organic pact to be considered 
at Bogota, the Council will "promote the economic 
and social well-being of the American nations 
through effective cooperation among them for 
the better utilization of their natural resources, 
their agricultural and industrial development and 
the elevation of the standards of living of the 
peoples". 

The Council has in fact begun to exercise these 
responsibilities. By request of the special con- 
ference for the maintenance of peace and security 
held in Rio de Janeiro, it is drafting the basic eco- 
nomic agreement to be considered at Bogota. This 
draft will establish the principles which will guide 
inter- American economic cooperation. Under the 
terms of the resolution of Rio de Janeiro, an eco- 
nomic conference will be held the latter part of 
1948 to consider specific methods by which these 
principles may be given effect through individual 
and collective action by the governments. 

An important question at Bogota will concern 
the respective roles of private investment and 
intergovernmental financial assistance in the de- 
velopment of the natural resources and the pro- 
gressive industrialization of the countries of Latin 
America. Another related problem will concern 
the broad objective of facilitating international 
commerce. This will entail agreement on prin- 
ciples by which trade discrimination can be elimi- 
nated and trade barriers reduced.* 

The most important question in the social field 
for the Bogota conference will be the Declaration 
on the Rights and Duties of Man. It will also con- 
sider a number of other questions, such as im- 

February 8, 1948 



provement of public health, social security and 
insurance, and a charter of social guaranties. 

(h) Cultural 

The only direct concern expressed by the Fii-st 
Conference with cultural cooperation was the 
recommendation for the establishment of the 
Latin American library, previously mentioned. 
From this almost total neglect, interest in this 
subject progressed steadily. The Buenos Aires 
conference of 1936, which was a special conference 
for the maintenance of peace, agreed on a large 
number of resolutions on the subject and five of 
the eleven treaties which it concluded dealt with 
cultural cooperation. At the last general confer- 
ence at Lima in 1938, on the eve of the war, almost 
a third of the 112 resolutions dealt with cultural 
matters. The same conference also included cul- 
tural exchange among the fundamental principles 
of the System, considering it basic to the creation 
of mutual understanding and of conditions neces- 
sary to peaceful relations among nations. 

As in the case of economic cooperation, the main 
stress at first was on the removal of restrictions 
and obstacles to interchange. This explains the 
concern with coi^yright protection, which has been 
on the agenda of all the general conferences since 
1902. Although preoccupation with the removal 
of restrictions to interchange has continued, a 
growing interest has developed in the promotion of 
exchange of skills or "know-how," students, teach- 
ers, and professional and scientific personnel in 
all fields.^ 

The chief means by which the general policies 
agreed upon at the general conferences have been 
carried into effect have been the Pan American 
Scientific Congresses, of which the first was held 
in 1915 and the eighth in 1910; the Division of In- 
tellectual Cooperation of the Pan American Union, 
which has effectively functioned as the central, 
permanent body in this field; and the Pan Ameri- 
can Institute of Geography and History, created 
in 1929 as an organ of cooperation between 
geographic and historical societies. Moreover, in 



'For an address by Assistant Secretary Armour on the 
economic aspects of the BogotS. conference, see BtnxETiN 
of Dec. 21, 1947, p. 1214. 

'See Cooperation in the Americas, Report of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural Co- 
operation, July 1946-June 1947, Department of State 
publication 2971. 

175 



1939 and 1940, the first and second Inter- American 
Conferences of National Committees of Intellec- 
tual Cooperation of the League of Nations were 
held in Chile and Cuba under the auspices of the 
host country in each instance and the Paris Insti- 
tute of Intellectual Cooperation. By this means a 
link was established in these endeavors with the 
work of the League of Nations in the same field. 

Chief interest at Bogota in cultural matters will 
relate to the creation of the Inter-Ajiierican Cul- 
tural Council, as an organ of the Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union. The draft organic 
pact provides that the Council is "to promote the 
development of teaching, education, and culture 
of the American peoples and to stimulate coop- 
eration among them in these fields". The Coun- 
cil will meet every two years and will be, in effect, 
a type of specialized conference. The appropri- 
ate divisions of the Pan American Union will act 
as its permanent secretariat. There is also some 
support for the establishment of a permanent com- 
mission of the Council in the Pan American Union 
composed of persons desigiaated by countries se- 
lected by the Governing Board of the Union. 

Coordination of activities in this field will re- 
late specifically to the relations of the Council 
with the Scientific Congresses and the Institute 
of Geography and History, on the one hand, and 
to UNESCO on the other. A contemplated agree- 
ment between the Institute and the Union should 
avoid the possibility of duplicating activities, so 
far as the former organization is concerned. A 
different type of problem will arise in connec- 
tion with the relations of the Scientific Con- 
gresses to the Council. Two conferences in the 
same field would appear to be redundant. How- 
ever, any plan to integi'ate or coordinate the two 
should take into account the fact that the former 
are conferences which include not only govern- 
ments, but private organizations and individuals 
as well. The active and direct participation of 
private organizations and individuals should be 
maintained to avoid giving a purely official char- 
acter to these activities. 

Coordinated relations will be established be- 
tween the activities of the Cultural Council and 
UNESCO. A directive to this effect is included in 
the draft organic pact, which requires the or- 
gans of the Governing Board to "establish close 
relations of cooperation with appropriate organs 
of the United Nations and with national and in- 



ternational organizations which operate in their 
respective fields". 

There perhaps could be nothing more reveal- 
ing of the basic motivation of the Inter- American 
System than the stress placed on cultural ex- 
change. This emphasis makes sense only in the 
context of the premise that culture is a true re- 
flection of a people and that exchange of cultural 
values will result in mutual understanding and 
confidence. This is not a point of view which 
permits ulterior motives or hidden designs based 
on fear, hatred, or distrust. 

(c) Legal 

Whether there exists an American international 
law, or merely a Pan American school of inter- 
national law which takes its place along with the 
"continental" and the "Anglo-Saxon" schools, is 
a question that has given rise to differences of 
opinion. This much is true, however; inter- 
American legal princiijles, whether they be con- 
sidered policy, or law, or a mixture of both at this 
stage of their development, constitute, as already 
indicated, a new basis of international relations 
within a system of sovereign national states. The 
idea of a closer integration of international life 
does not conflict with the concepts of sovereignty 
and independence, but rather guarantees their 
continued existence within a more rational system 
of peace and order. The same ideas are incorpo- 
rated in the Charter of the United Nations. 

Inter- American cooperation in legal matters has 
been extraordinarily comprehensive in all fields 
previously described. The procedures utilized in 
this program have been extremely diverse. They 
include codification of public and private inter- 
national law, unification of private law, simplifica- 
tion and uniformity of administrative procedures, 
comparative studies of law and legislation, and 
cooperation between public and private organiza- 
tions in the legal field. 

In the codification of public international law 
the objective has been to give greater coherence, 
imity, and clarity to the system of principles, rules, 
and practices which governs relations between 
states. However, as stated in a resolution of the 
Lima conference of 1938, the aim has been to 
codify the principles of international law "gradu- 
ally and progressively". This has meant in prac- 
tice not only the codification of existing or ac- 
cepted rules but also the development of new 



176 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



principles. In the codification of private inter- 
national law, or, as it is known in the United 
States, conflict of laws, the object has been to 
introduce order, stability, and uniformity into the 
uncertainties whicli now exist with reference to 
cases of private rights and interests in which an 
international element is present, because there 
exists a conflict between diffei'ent territorial jur- 
isdictions or national or state systems of law. In 
the case of the unification of private law, the task 
has been in part to facilitate international inter- 
change among private persons and interests, and 
in part to realize the same objective pursued by 
the codification of private international law. 
The method has been the preparation of uniform 
model laws for unilateral enactment by states or 
of international agreements incorporating uni- 
form principles of civil and commercial law. To 
facilitate interchange, particularly in commercial 
and economic matters, an effort has been made 
to simplify and promote uniformity of adminis- 
trative law and procedures, including sanitary 
regulations, uniformity of specifications, statis- 
tics, consular procedures, postal regulations, and 
custom procedures and port formalities. Finally, 
legal unification and uniformity have been ad- 
vanced through the encouragements given to com- 
parative law studies and investigations, which 
are an indispensable part of the entire iJrogram of 
legal cooperation.^" 

A number of organizations have been created 
for the foregoing purposes. (See chart I.) 
The most active of these in recent years has been 
the Inter-American Juridical Committee, created 
by the meetings of Foreign Ministers during the 
war. The Pan American Union itself exercises 
a variety of functions in the work of codification 
and unification. It is the permanent secretariat 
of the various entities of codification. Under 
special resolutions of various conferences, it has 
discharged duties of a research and technical 
character and undertaken specific tasks relative 
to problems of unification and simplification of 
private law and administrative procedures. 

Under present jDlans for Bogota, the multiplicity 
of agencies engaged in this work will be replaced 
by the Juridical Council, as an organ of the Gov- 
erning Board of the Pan American Union. Un- 
der the terms of the draft organic pact the Council 
is "to serve as consultative body on juridical mat- 
ters ; to promote the codification of public interna- 

February 8, 1948 



tional law and of private international law; and, 
insofar as possible, to promote uniformity of legis- 
lation among the different American countries." 
It is to meet whenever convoked by the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union. 

Among the tenets of the codification movement 
in the Americas is the idea that the work should be 
the result of a gradual and progressive process in- 
volving the conclusion of special agreements or 
declarations in the various fields of international 
law ; that the work should be coordinated with the 
labor in the same field undertaken in other parts 
of the world; that private agencies interested in 
this subject should be asked to coojaerate; that the 
agencies of codification should not modify the 
principles of inter-American conventional law; 
and that, whenever the nature of the subject makes 
it iDossible and expedient, inter- American conven- 
tions should be generalized by inviting the adher- 
ence of non-American states. 

There are profound implications for both na- 
tional and international law in the present period 
of unrest and upheaval in the world. New forces, 
new political, social, and economic ideas, are press- 
ing against established legal principles and con- 
cepts. Any activity of codification and unification 
in the international sphere, as in the national, must 
necessarily take this situation into consideration. 
In the Americas it is recognized that law cannot 
remain static, but the point of departure is that 
the change in the law must come about by agree- 
ment and not through unilateral action. 

Relations With tlie United Nations 

Support of the United Nations is a cornerstone 
of the foreign policy of the United States. Sup- 
port of the Inter- American System is likewise a 
fundamental principle of American foreign policy. 
There would be contradiction in these two objec- 
tives if the regional system pursued purposes or 
rested on principles incompatible with the world 
system, or if it in fact tended to qualify support 
of the latter. 

The objective of peace and international cooper- 
ation through the application of principles and 
purposes such as those incorporated in the United 
Nations Charter is not novel to the members of 
the Inter-American System. In their own experi- 

" For a more detailed treatment of this subject, see Wil- 
liam Sanders, "The Pan American Program for Juridical 
Unity", the Inter-American Quarterly, April 1940. 

177 



ence of cooperative endeavor through the last half 
century they have reason to attach validity to and 
to recognize the practical effectiveness of such 
principles and purposes. It is therefore under- 
standable that the American states see in the Inter- 
American System not only a means by which their 
traditional close ties of friendly cooperation can 
be strengthened but also a constructive factor in 
the world effort through the United Nations to 
maintain peace and promote human welfare. 

The recently signed Rio treaty is a concrete 
example of the position of the American republics 
on the vital problem of the relations between the 
System and the United Nations in security matters. 
In this area, where there are concrete signposts 
and directives in the articles on regional arrange- 
ments of the Charter of the United Nations, every 
effort was made to insure the closest possible legal 
and functional relation between the regional secur- 
ity treaty and the world system. As indicated 
previously, this was done by specific and general 
linking of the principles, purposes, and obligations 
of the treaty to those of the Charter. This 
regional arrangement did not in any manner 
localize or regionalize the responsibility for world 
peace assumed by the parties to the treaty under 
the Charter of the United Nations. 

In the nonsecurity field, the San Francisco con- 
ference refrained from providing for regional ar- 
rangements, on the ground that such a reference 
was unnecessary. This decision did not of course 
imply that regional cooperation in economic and 
social matters was considered undesirable. In fact, 
among the chief proponents of the strongest pos- 
sible role for the Economic and Social Council 
were members of the Inter- American System, who 
would have opposed any such interpretation. 
The decision at San Francisco, however, did not 
imply indifference. Though the Charter gives no 
specific guidance on this important question, it is 
clear from the discussions at San Francisco and 
from the Charter itself that no dualism exists be- 
tween security and nonsecurity matters in the 
basic world approach to peace through the United 
Nations. The interdependence of the two factors 
is clearly recognized, as is the consequent corollary 
that only through the interaction of the two can 
the objectives of the United Nations, of promot- 
ing human welfare and maintaining peace, be 
achieved. 

Implicit in the Charter premise that peace is in- 



divisible is the companion premise of the eco- 
nomic and social foundation of collective security. 
This means that regional arrangements in security 
as well as in economic and social matters cannot 
be substituted for the world system. This conclu- 
sion is moreover supported by the facts of past 
experience and by the evidence of the world today. 

In the report to the President submitted by the 
United States Delegation to the San Francisco 
conference the foregoing view is stated as follows : 

"The battle of peace has to be fought on two 
fronts. The first is the security front where vic- 
tory spells freedom from fear. The second is the 
economic and social front where victory means 
freedom from want. Only victory on both fronts 
can assure the world of an enduring peace." 

More recently President Truman expressed the 
same view when he said that one of the requisites 
of peace "is that nations shall devise their economic 
and financial policies to support a world economy 
rather than separate nationalistic economies". 
The same underlying thesis was stated by Roosevelt 
in 1933 when he said that "no nation or group of 
nations can enjoy prosperity and plenty when a 
large part of the world is in economic distress". 
The European Recoveiy Program bespeaks the 
same convictions. In Secretary Marshall's words: 
"The foundation of political vitality is economic 
recovery. Durable peace requires the restoration 
of western European vitalitj'". 

The foregoing is not opposed, of course, to the 
view that regional cooperation in economic and so- 
cial matters can supplement and complement 
rather than contradict the overriding objective of 
the United Nations to establish a secure woi-ld 
foundation for peace, if inspired by the same 
principles and purposes. 

Developments since San Francisco substantiate 
this. Three main kinds of regional machinery in 
the nonsecurity field are being used. The first is 
the regional organization of the United Nations 
itself, created for a special or emergency purpose 
and not necessarily designed to be permanent. 
The United Nations economic commissions for 
Europe and for the Far East and Asia illustrate ' 
this trend. A special committee of the United 
Nations Economic and Social Council appointed 
to consider the desirability and feasibility of such 
a commission for Latin America is consulting with 
the Pan American Union on the question. A pro- 
posal for a similar commission for the Middle East 



178 



Department of State Bulletin 



nas also been made. The second type of regional 
organization is represented by provisions in the 
charters of several specialized agencies of the 
United Nations for regional offices or regional 
activities. 

The third type of regional arrangement in the 
nonseciirity field is exemplified by the specialized 
organizations of the Inter-American System and 
bj' the organs of the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union in the economic, social, cultural, 
and legal fields. It is in connection with this type 
of arrangement, independent of the United Na- 
tions and its specialized agencies, that care must 
be taken to insure that in serving the special 
regional needs of their members, there shall be no 
duplication of effort and no inconsistency with 
the ultimate objective of peace and human wel- 
fare throughout the world. This concern has 
been expressed in a number of ways. 

The United Nations Economic and Social Coun- 
cil from the beginning has planned to establish 
relations with regional organizations, which it 
groups with "other intergovernmental agencies", 
to distinguish them from the United Nations spe- 
cialized agencies referred to in articles 57 and 63 
of the Charter. Agreements for bringing such 
agencies into relation with the United Nations 
Economic and Social Council are contemplated. 
Moreover, many of the United Nations specialized 
agencies have themselves made provision for simi- 
lar arrangements for cooperative relations with 
independent regional organizations. In fact, for 
special and perhaps unusual technical reasons, the 
constitution of the World Health Organization 
contemplates the integration of existing regional 
agencies in its field. The absorption of the Paris 
Health Office has ah'eady been consummated, and 
under present plans activities of the Pan Amer- 
ican Sanitary Bureau will be integrated with 
those of the World Healtli Organization under an 
agreement in which the former will become a "two- 
hat" agency, serving as a regional office of the 
latter without losing its identity as an inter- Amer- 
ican specialized organization. 

Similarly, the draft organic pact for the Inter- 
American System to be considered at Bogota 
states that it shall be one of the basic purposes of 
the System "to assume the regional obligations 
which are incumbent upon it (the System) under 
the Charter of the United Nations". It also stipu- 
lates in various articles that the organizations of 



the System shall maintain cooperation with the 
United Nations and appropriate international or- 
ganizations. It imposes on the Governing Board 
the duty to "promote and facilitate collaboration 
between the Pan American Union and the United 
Nations, as well as between the specialized inter- 
American organizations and similar international 
organizations". It specifically provides in con- 
nection with the inter-American specialized or- 
ganizations that this cooperation shall be for the 
purpose of effectively coordinating and harmon- 
izing their activities with those of their world 
counterparts. 

The manner in which these provisions are given 
effect will determine the extent to which inter- 
American economic, social, and cultural activities 
will in fact "supplement and complement rather 
than contradict" those of the United Nations and 
its specialized agencies. The intent to avoid over- 
lapping and duplication and to do nothing which 
will detract from the prestige and effectiveness of 
the world approach to the interrelated problem 
of human welfare and maintenance of peace will 
not be enough. This intention must and surely 
will be given practical expression in the develop- 
ment of formal and informal relations between 
the component elements of the Inter-American 
System and their global counterparts. The re- 
sponsibility for avoiding duplication rests both on 
world agencies and regional organizations — it 
must be a two-way concern. Unquestionably in- 
creasingly effective relations must be established 
on the basis of experience and in the light of needs. 
This will no doubt entail variations in degree and 
kind of relationship, depending on the organiza- 
tions and problems involved. ( See chart III. ) 

In the development of these relations in the 
nonsecurity field, the following general considera- 
tions will apply : 

1. The indivisibility of peace and its indispen- 
sable economic and social foundation mean that 
regional arrangements cannot take the jolace of 
the United Nations in promoting human welfare 
and enduring peace. 

2. Regional arrangements for dealing with eco- 
nomic and social matters are appropriate for re- 
gional action provided they are compatible with 
and recognize the foregoing principle. 

3. The maintenance of consistency between these 
two principles requires continuing good faith, 
constant vigilance, and the application of working 



February 8, 1948 



179 



CHART III 



INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM AND THE UNITED NATIONS 



(TO BE CONSIDERED AT BOGOTA CONFERENCE, 1948) 




UNOFFICIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS 



CS/G 26181 



180 



Department of State Bulletin 



criteria which will preserve the necessary relation- 
ship between the two in practice. 

4. Such criteria include the following : 

(a) The interdependence of the world makes 
regional isolationism as dangerous as national iso- 
lationism ; 

(b) Obligations assumed by members of re- 
gional arrangements must be consistent with those 
they have assumed in the Charter of the United 
Nations (article 103) ; 

(c) Eegional arrangements consistent with the 
principles and purposes of the United Nations 
may helpfully supplement and complement world 
organization when not used or permitted to de- 
tract from the prestige and effectiveness of the 
United Nations and related agencies ; 

(d) Duplication in organization and activi- 
ties, by increasing cost and inviting conflict, will 
detract from the prestige and effectiveness of 
both world and regional organization; 

(e) Agreement on principles of relationship 
and the establishment of close working and, where 
necessary, of integrated relations in the light of 
experience and needs, including constant recipro- 
cal exchange of information between world and 
regional organizations in the same field, will help 
in avoiding duiDlication and conflict ; 

(/) Members of regional arrangements can, 
through collective consideration and action under 
such arrangements, usefully supplement, com- 
plement, and coordinate individual action to give 
effect to recommendations of the United Nations 
and related agencies dealing with matters suscept- 
ible of such regional treatment; 

iff) Regional organization can be useful in the 
preparation of studies and recommendations on 
technical matters of a regional character being 
considered bj' the United Nations and related 
agencies. 

Summary of Principal Problems at the 
Bogota Conference 

One of the chief characteristics of the proposed 
revision of the Inter- American System is its com- 
paratively high degree of organizational and func- 
tional centralization. This trend is focused in 
the Pan American Union, which emerges in fact 
as well as in theory the permanent, central organ 
of the entire System with broad political and non- 
political responsibilities. 

Under the Rio treaty the Union has acquired 

February 8, 1948 



extensive powers, as a provisional organ of con- 
sultation, for the maintenance of peace and secur- 
ity, which gives the System for the first time a 
permanent or continuing political agency. More- 
over, it is quite likely that at Bogota the Union 
will be given a similar role in the field of pacific 
settlement. In addition, it is presently contem- 
plated that the Union will be given a broad grant 
of power along the lines of the formula in resolu- 
tion IX of the Mexico City conference, under 
which it would deal, within the limitations set 
forth in the organic pact and other inter-Ameri- 
can treaties, with any matter affecting the func- 
tioning or the purposes of the Inter-American 
System. 

However, it is not unlikely that the question 
of the exercise of political functions by the Pan 
.American Union, apparently settled by the deci- 
sion of the Mexico City conference and the provi- 
sions incorporated in the treaty at Rio, will be 
brought up at Bogota in tei'ms of a proposal by 
one of the governments that all political and secur- 
ity responsibilities be lodged in a "council of soli- 
darity" of the System located elsewhere than in 
Washington. 

In the nonpolitical field the Pan American 
Union will also have greatly increased authority 
and responsibility. Through the addition of the 
new organs of the Governing Board, the Union 
will have broad responsibilities for implementing 
conference decisions and for taking action on its 
own initiative within the terms of the organic pact 
in the economic, social, cultural, and legal fields. 
Also its Defense Council will act in an advisory 
capacity to the governments and to the organ of 
consultation on military cooperation for the de- 
fense of the Western Hemisphere. Still unre- 
solved, however, is an issue raised by one of the 
governments who holds the view that the Defense 
Council should not be an organ of the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union but an autono- 
mous specialized organization. Should this view 
prevail, it would constitute a significant departure 
from the trend toward centralization. 

The relations of the Union with the other two 
principal organs of the System, the assemblies or 
conferences and the specialized organizations, will 
be drawn tighter. To an even greater extent than 
in the past it will serve as the permanent secretariat 
of the general conferences and meetings of Foreign 
Ministers and, as indicated, will have an expanded 

181 



role in proposing means by which their conclusions 
may be applied. This should avoid the need for 
the creation of new permanent or ad hoc agencies. 
Within the same tenor of ideas the Pan American 
Union will probably be given a greater degree of 
over-all supervision over the specialized confer- 
ences, formerly the technical conferences. Should 
this tendency be crystallized at Bogota, it will be 
important that the Union not become a bottleneck 
inhibiting desirable activities in the specialized 
fields. The objective is a degree of over-all super- 
vision which will prevent duplication of effort and 
unnecessary activity without curtailment of tech- 
nical autonomy. 

The same objective will hold with respect to the 
specialized organizations. The Pan American 
Union apparently will have closer relations with 
them than in the past and a degree of over-all 
supervision, the details of which will be worked 
out in agreements between the Union and such 
agencies. The objective of this supervision will 
be avoidance of overlapping activities either in 
the form of duplicating or competing organiza- 
tions or functions. 

The basic motivation for the trend toward cen- 
tralization has been the desire to create a more 
effective and efficient System. As always in an 
endeavor of this kind, a good idea can be run into 
the ground. With this in mind the architects of 
the plans for reorganization have stressed as one 
way in which rigidity may be avoided the principle 
already alluded to of technical autonomy for the 
new organs of the Board and for the specialized 
conferences and organizations. In this same con- 
nection, but with wider implications applicable to 
the entire problem of reorganization at Bogota, 
there has been an ever-present concern lest the 
flexibility which has been so constructive a factor 
in the development of the System to date be 
completely lost. 

Bogota should allow for elbow room in which 
the System can operate freely and grow in the light 
of experience and needs. This will be particularly 
important since it is planned to formalize in a 
treaty at Bogota the organs, principles, and pur- 
poses of the System, which will mean that modifi- 
cations cannot subsequently be introduced except 
through an international instrument of the same 
category. The wisest formula, therefore, will be 
one which achieves a desirable degree of centrali- 
zation and integration but leaves an open door for 



initiative to introduce innovations and modifica 
tions, to create and re-create. It is said that per- 
fection is the enemy of the good. Past experience 
in the System would seem to indicate that this may 
be wise counsel to follow at the conference. 

In addition to the foregoing general pi'oblem 
related to the organizational aspects of the 
Bogota agenda, stress of interest will of course 
focus on the subject of economic cooperation. As 
indicated, the basic question will be between the 
view that the economic development of Latin 
America is a long-range problem in which private 
enterprise should play an important role and the 
view that underdeveloped economic areas, such as 
Latin America, require the same urgent and 
extraordinary governmental assistance as is in- 
volved in the apiDroach to the problem of the re- 
covery of war-devastated areas of high economic 
advancement. 

There is every reason to expect, notwithstand- 
ing this fundamental issue on method and timing, 
that the conference will reach important conclu- 
sions calling for an intensified and strengthened 
program of economic cooperation among the 
American republics. Among the important ques- 
tions which the conference may consider are: 
ways and means by which economic development 
and industrialization can be advanced as rapidly 
as possible; the treatment to be accorded foreign 
capital and skills, perhaps involving a restatement 
of rights and obligations entailed in international 
investments ; improvement of the standard of liv- 
ing in the American republics, including programs 
in the fields of health, sanitation, agriculture, and 
education; undertakings to reduce trade barriere 
to mutual advantage and to place trade on a non- 
discriminatory and multilateral basis, generally 
the principles and practices in the field covered by 
the Ito charter; the availability of materials in 
short supply, particularly in capital goods such 
as equipment, machinery, tools, and engineering 
services, all of which are necessary for develop- 
ment and industrialization purposes; balance-of- 
payment problems which arise in connection with 
the foregoing needs ; and the contributions which 
the Latin American republics can make in con- 
nection with the economic recovery of Europe. 
In this last connection. President Truman stated 
the following in his message to Congress on the 
European Recovery Program : 

"I wish to make especially clear that our con- 



182 



Deparimenf of Sfate Bulletin 



centration on the task in Western Europe at this 
time will not lessen our long-established interest in 
economic cooperation with our neighbors in the 
Western Hemisphere. We are Hrst of all a mem- 
ber of an American community of nations, in which 
cooperative action, similar to that which the Euro- 
pean nations are now undertaking, is required to 
increase production, to promote financial stability, 
and to remove barriers to trade. Fortunately we 
in the Americas are further advanced along this 
road, but we must not overlook any opportunity to 
make additional progress. The European recov- 
er}' program will require procurement of supplies 
in many nations of this hemisphere. This will act 
as a stimulant to production and business activity 
and promote the re-establislunent of world trade 
upon which the i^rosperity of all of us depends." 

In the social chapter, attention will probably 
concentrate on the Declaration of the Eights and 
Duties of Man. Under resolution IX of the Mex- 
ico City conference of 1945, this declaration, along 
with the one on the Rights and Duties of States, 
is a companion document to the organic pact. 
Other matters for consideration in this chapter 
may include public hygiene, organization of labor, 
social security and insurance, inter-American 
charter of social guaranties (in reality a labor 
code), and the inter- American educational char- 
ter referred to in resolution XIII of the Rio de 
Janeiro conference last August. Agreement on a 
realistic and practical program of technical co- 
operation in economic, social, scientific, and edu- 
cational matters unquestionably will receive pref- 
erential attention, both under this chapter and 
the one on economic cooperation. 

In the chapter on political and juridical prob- 
lems, the Declaration on the Rights and Duties of 
States is important. Many of its provisions may 
be incorporated in the organic pact in the form of 
principles or purposes of the Inter-American Sys- 
tem. In this event it may not be necessary to 
have a separate document on the subject. Its 
articles on nonintervention and proposals for the 
inclusion of an article on recognition of govern- 
ments will evoke special interest. The latter ques- 
tion, moreover, is specifically on the agenda of the 
conference under the terms of a resolution of the 
Mexico City conference. In addition to the lat- 
ter question, this chapter contains an item on 
European colonies in the Western Hemisphere 
and also one on the defense of democracy in Amer- 



ica. The item on European colonies is on the 
agenda in terms of a proposal by the Guatemalan 
Government that the American Governments de- 
clare that the continued existence of European col- 
onies in America constitutes a danger to hemi- 
spheric security. The topic relative to defense of 
democi'acy in the Americas concerns the proposal 
by Guatemala that the American republics agree 
not to enter into diplomatic relations with anti- 
democratic regimes. 

Although listed under the first chapter, the 
proposed treaty on pacific settlement properly be- 
longs in the chapter on political and juridical 
problems and will probably be considered by the 
conference committee on this chapter or by a 
special committee. As indicated previously, the 
chief questions here will concern the problem of 
compulsory arbitration, the relation of this pro- 
cedure to juridical settlement under the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice, and the role of inter- 
American consultation for pacific settlement pur- 
poses. 

On the vital question of the relations of the 
System and its component organs to the United 
Nations and world specialized agencies, the 
conference will in all probability not attempt to 
supply in detail the answer to what these rela- 
tions should be. If the articles already alluded 
to of the draft organic pact are accepted, the prob- 
lem of working out satisfactory relationships will 
be a post-Bogota problem that will be processed 
in the light of those articles and of experience and 
needs in each case. 

Conclusion 

The emijiricism which characterized the begin- 
nings of the System in 1890 continues, but the 
ideals and larger purposes which were then seen 
as "through a glass darkly" have given dynamic 
meaning and direction to the Pan American move- 
ment. They have increasingly become the warp 
and the woof of inter- American relations. 

It is perhaiDS difficult for those brought up in 
the tradition which regards war as inevitable to 
believe in the sincerity with which the peoples of 
the New World hold to the cardinal principles and 
purposes of the Inter-American System. Meas- 
ured against the stark background of rules of the 
game based upon conflict and domination and bal- 
ance of power, these principles and purposes ap- 
pear naive and unrealistic. They would indeed be 
so in the absence of a common determination that 



February 8, J 948 



183 



they shall in fact control the relations of the mem- 
bers of the System. They have produced results 
because, beneath the rhetoric and exaltation which 
seems always to accompany these endeavors, there 
has been a hard-headed conviction that these prin- 
ciples and purposes would best advance the en- 
lightened self-interest of each American nation. 

This approach to international afl'airs is the 
very substance of the search for peace and human 
welfare through the United Nations. Impatience 
with the slow progress being made through these 
methods in the wider arena of the world, where 
the obstacles loom almost insurmountable from 
today's perspective, could lead to a pessimistic 
denial of the universal validity of such methods. 

The major conclusions to be drawn from the 
experience in inter-American relations described 
in this article may be useful in assessing the ad- 
vantages and limitations of such methods in over- 
coming these apparently greater obstacles. These 
conclusions are that machinery and procedures are 



secondary to the willingness and decision to use 
them; that the "know-how" of working out diffi- 
cult and sometimes apparently insuperable prob- 
lems can be acquired, but not overnight ; that con- 
structive international cooperation is the product 
of many years of patient effort, of a spirit of give 
and take, and of unwavering determination to 
break with the defeatism of the past which holds 
that man is doomed by his nature and environment 
to perpetual strife. 

A belief in the final triumph of the moral order 
is a helpful handmaiden of the policies which seek 
the objectives of the United Nations and the Inter- 
American System. This belief must be based, 
however, on something more than wishful think- 
ing. It must take into account that peace, like 
liberty, can be achieved and maintained only 
through the labor and struggles and eternal vigi- 
lance of many generations. Man has the ingenuity 
and the resourcefulness to create peace, provided 
he so wills it and is not dismayed. 



ERP To Aid in Industrial Development in Latin America 



[Released to the press January 30] 

The American Delegate before the Economic and 
Social Council of the Pan American Union made 
the following statement on January 30 

European recovery requires fundamentally an 
increase in jDroduction levels to a point where basic 
economic needs can be met and still leave a sur- 
plus for export to cover essential imports. AVith- 
out European recovery there can be no general 
world prosperity. The restoration of Europe 
will be of particular assistance to Latin America 
where foreign trade comprises a relatively large 
proportion of the national income and where 
strong European markets for exports are essential 
to continuing prosperity. The resumption of 
European exports particularly in the field of capi- 
tal equipment will also facilitate industrial de- 
velopment in Latin America by easing present 
shortages of these items which will continue as 
long as the United States is the only important 
source. 



In the first year or two of Erp, before increases 
in European production make possible a consider- 
able expansion of exports, available supplies of the 
tools of production will continue to be inadequate 
to meet in full the requirements of all countries. 
The difficult problem of determining the most ef- 
fective distribution of these shoi-t supplies must 
be faced. The objectives of European recovery 
and of Latin American development often will 
coincide. Goods and equipment which will make 
possible a prompt and efficient increase in Latin 
American production and export of items essen- 
tial to European recovery should be supplied to 
the greatest extent possible. It is essential, more- 
over, that such export controls as are required 
should be administered in an equitable manner 
with a view to maintaining, in so far as possible, 
the continuity of industrial development in the 
other American Republics. 



184 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Removal of Industrial Plants From Germany by Reparation 

LETTER TO THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
FROM UNDER SECRETARY LOVETT 



January £i, 1948 

Mt de.ve Mr. Speaker : 

By his letter of December 19, 1947, the Honor- 
able John Andrews, Clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, forwarded an attested copy of House 
Resolution 3G5 of the Eightieth Congress, adopted 
by the House of Representatives on December 18, 
1947. The Resolution requests the Secretaries of 
State and of Defense to transmit to the House of 
Representatives at the earliest practical moment 
certain information, specified in eleven questions 
set out in the text of the Resolution, regarding the 
removal of industrial plants from Germany by 
way of reparation. 

The Department of State, for itself and the De- 
partment of Defense, herewith respectfully sub- 
mits a basic reply to the questions asked by the 
House of Representatives. Every effort has been 
made to obtain to the fullest extent and as rapidly 
as possible the information requested by House 
Resolution 365. Because of the urgency of put- 
ting the requested information before the House, 
the submission has not been cleared with the Bu- 
reau of the Budget, to which, however, copies are 
being sent. 

It will be observed that much of the detailed 
information requested is lacking regarding the 
British, French and Soviet Zones of Occupation 
in Germany. Through both diplomatic channels 
and through the Office of Military Government 
(US), the British and French Governments have 



been asked to supply the additional information 
needed. These Governments have not been able 
to comply qiiickly with this request, because their 
occupation authorities have not maintained such 
data in the form in which it is desired by the 
House of Representatives. The representatives 
of these Governments have given assurances, how- 
ever, that they will make evei-y effort to obtain the 
information which is presently lacking. This ad- 
ditional information and the checking of the in- 
formation herewith submitted will probably re- 
quire further communications to the House of Rep- 
resentatives from the Department of State and 
the Department of Defense. 

No official information on reparation removals 
is available for the Soviet Zone of Occupation in 
Germany, nor has there been in response to the 
Resolution a i-equest to the Government of the 
Soviet Union for such information. Since the 
Soviet Government has repeatedly, the most re- 
cently at the meeting of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers at London in December, 1947, refused 
to comply with requests of this nature, it was not 
considered that a reiteration would be effective. 
Sincerely yours, 

Robert A. Lovett 
Under Secretary 
The Honorable 

Joseph W. Martin, Jr., ^ 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



R: 



INFORMATION REQUESTED BY HOUSE RESOLUTION 365, DECEMBER 18, 1947 



Question 1. How many of the six hundred and 
eighty-two plants in Germany recently announced 
as surplus and available for reparations have ac- 
tually been dismantled and removed from Ger- 
many? How many from the British Zone ? How 
many from the Russian Zone? How many from 
the French Zone? 

Answer 

The list of 682 plants and parts of plants, an- 
nounced on October 16, 1947, as representing ca- 
pacity surplus to the needs of the German econ- 
omy, applied only to the Bizonal Area of Ger- 
many. Of these, 186 are in the U.S. Zone and 496 
in the British Zone. The French on October 10, 



1947, announced a provisional list of 176 surplus 
plants in their Zone. No equivalent list is avail- 
able for the Soviet Zone. Copies of the Bizonal 
and French lists are attached. (Attachments 1 
and 2.1) 

Forty plants have been completely dismantled 
and removed from the American Zone, and the 
same number from the British Zone. In addition 
other plants have been dismantled and partially 
removed. This information is given in answer to 
question 3 below. No information is presently 
available for either the French or Soviet Zones. 

Question 2. What was the character and capacity 



' Attachments not printed. 



febmatY 8, 7948 



185 



THE RECORD Of THB WEEK 

of the removed plants in each zone ? Which ones 
could have contributed to the economic recon- 
struction of Germany and Europe within the scope 
of the so-called Marshall Plan ? 

Answer 

Character and Capacity of the Removed Plants 

Of the 40 plants removed from the American 
Zone, 32 were war plants, i.e., plants designed ex- 
clusively for the manufacture of war materials. 
Only general pui'pose equipment from them, read- 
ily convertible to civilian production, was shipped 
out as reparation. Equipment usable only for the 
manufacture of war materials was destroyed. 

No information on the capacity output of war 
materials of these war plants is available, nor is it 
believed that such infoiTnation would be relevant 
to the purpose of House Eesolution 365. Since the 
plants were not designed for civilian use, and since 
important elements of them were destroyed prior 
to shipment of the general purpose equipment as 
reparation, no information is available concerning 
their capacity for production of civilian goods. 

Of the 8 non-war plants already removed from 
the American Zone, 3 produced machinery ; 2 were 
power plants ; and there were 1 each in the fields of 
optical goods, diesel engine production, and ship- 
building. All of these 8 non-war plants were on 
the so-called "advance list" of plants to be removed 
as reparation. This list was drawn up in 1945, 
prior to the preparation of the original Level of 
Industry Plan of March, 1946, in order to permit 
an immediate start on the reparation program 
established by the Potsdam Agreement of August 
2, 1945. Capacities of the non-war plants removed 
from the U.S. Zone are shown in Table "A" 
attached. 

No detailed information on the types and capac- 
ities of plants already removed from Zones other 
than the American has as yet been received. It 
is believed, however, that removals from the Brit- 
ish Zone, as from the American, have consisted 
chiefly of war plants. Since it is Imown that only 
a very small tonnage of material has been shipped 
from the French Zone, it is believed that but few 
plants have been completely removed. 

Possible Contribution of Removed Plants to Ger- 
man and European Reconstruction 

Wliile full information is not available, it is 
known that a large proportion of the plants and 
equipment already removed from Germany are 
now in operation in the recipient countries, and 
are contributing to their reconstruction. Of par- 
ticular importance has been the receipt from Ger- 
many of critical types of machines, not procurable 
elsewhere within less than two or three years, 
which have served to break industrial bottlenecks, 

186 



and have thus resulted in increases in output 
throughout an entire segment of industry. 

French De la Haye automobiles shown in 1947, 
for example, were equipped with crankshafts pro- 
duced with German reparation equipment, pro- 
curement of which through commercial channels 
would have required at least two years. German 
equipment has permitted a significant increase in 
output of heavy steel castings for shipbuilding in 
the United Kingdom, and has helped to break 
bottlenecks throughout the entire British steel in- 
dustry. 

The Netherlands Government has estimated 
that one group of 320 machines from Germany 
will result in increased industrial production dur- 
ing 1948 worth about $400,000 ; and that optical 
machinery from the German Hensoldt plant, used 
to replace equipment looted by the Germans, will 
afford the basis for an increase in production of 
about $100,000 during 1948. A number of similar 
examples could be cited. 

Even where the equipment secured through rep- 
aration could have been purchased through com- 
mercial channels within a reasonable period, such 
jjurchase would have required hard currency. In 
the case of France, for example, the value of in- 
dustrial equipment obtained as reparation up to 
November 1, 1947, represented the following per- 
centages of the official import plan from the date 
of liberation uaitil that date : electrical equipment, 
9 percent; mechanical equipment, 43 percent; 
chemical equipment, 500 percent. The United 
Kingdom has reported that reparation items will 
constitute some 20 percent of a total program of 
chemical plant construction designed to manufac- 
ture products presently purchased from the West- 
ern Hemisphere at an annual cost of $2.5 mil- 
lion. Savings in foreign exchange attributable 
to the reparation progi'am has already been great, 
and continuance of tlie program could be expected 
to result in large additional savings. 

In general, the plants and equipment removed 
from Germany could not have been fully utilized 
in Germany if retained because of shortages of 
fuel, manpower and raw materials. They were 
removed from industries enormously expanded 
to meet the needs of the German war machine, 
existing capacity in which is greater tlian re- 
quired under any reasonable peacetime economy. 
Their retention, therefore, would have resulted 
in no increase in German production or exports, 
and the capacity which they represent would 
merely have lain idle and deteriorated. 

A few of the plants removed, which before the 
war were world-famous exporters in their special 
fields, such as the Hahn-Tessky machine-tool 
plant, might have made a special contribution to 
the present German export progi-am. This con- 
tribution, however, would have to be weighed 
against the contribution which these plants are 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



now making to the reconstruction of tlie economies 
of Germany's victims. 

Question 3. Wliat is the character and capacity 
of those remaining to be dismantled or removed 
by zones ? 

Answek 

Plants remaining to be dismantled or removed 
fall into the following categories : 

a) Plants already 100 percent dismantled, ac- 
tual shipment of which to recipient countries is 
now in process or about to begin. 

b) Plants on which dismantling is now in proc- 
ess; and 

c) Plants on which dismantling has not yet 
begun. 

The following summary data are available for 
the American and British Zones : 



Number plants in Category A 
Number plants in Category B 
Number plants in Category C 

Sub-total 
Number plants removed 

Total 



U.S. 
Zone 

61 
46 
39 

146 
40 



U.K. 

Zone 

30 
123 
303 

456 
40 



186 496 



Tola 

91 
169 
342 

602 
80 

682 



Thus, in the Bizonal Area, there are 342 plants 
out of the total list of 682 on which dismantling 
has not been started, of which only 39 are in the 
U.S. Zone. Of the remaining 340 plants, 80 have 
been completely removed, an additional 91 have 
been completely dismantled, and dismantling is 
in process on 169. 

Similar information for the French Zone has 
been requested but not yet received. The general 
character of each individual plant listed for rep- 
aration from the three Western Zones is indicated 
on the attached lists. In the case of the British 
and French Zones, the list does not distinguish 
plants already removed from those to be removed ; 
this information has been requested and will be 
submitted later. The general character of all 
plants listed for reparation, regardless of whether 
or not removed, from the three Western Zones may 
be summarized as follows : 



Number of Plants Listed for Reparation 



War plants 
Ferrous metals 
Non-ferrous metals 
Chemicals 
Mech. Engineering 
Elec. Engineering 
Shipbuilding 
Power plants 
Cement plants 

Total 



February 8, 1948 



U.S. 


UK. 


French 




Zone 


Zone 


Zone 


Total 


104 


198 


33 


335 


5 


87 


2 


94 


5 


6 


10 


21 


18 


24 


26 


68 


49 
.... 


175 

4 


104 


332 




2 





3 


4 





._._ 


4 

1 


186 


496 


176 


868 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

The capacity of the plants listed for reparation 
from the Bizonal Area, other than war plants, is 
summarized by types of industry in a table in- 
cluded in the attached list of "Plants and Part 
Plants Listed for Reparations from the U.S. and 
U.K. Zones." No capacity data have been received 
from the French Zone. 

Detailed capacity data for individual plants are 
presently available only for the U.S. Zone. Fig- 
ures for the capacity of each plant, except war 
plants, yet to be removed from the U.S. Zone are 
shown in Table "B" attached. 

Question 4. How many of those remaining to be 
dismantled or removed could be converted to peace- 
time production? For example, from making ni- 
trogen explosives to making nitrogen fertilizers? 

Answer 

All of the plants and equipment remaining to be 
removed are either capable of peacetime produc- 
tion in their present condition, or can be converted 
thereto. Such use or conversion is, of course, a 
basic objective of the reparation program, which 
envisages the transfer of German plants and equip- 
ment useful for civilian production from Germany 
to the countries whose industries Germany looted, 
damaged and destroyed. Equipment useful only 
for military production is destroyed in Germany. 

As has been pointed out above, a number of 
transfers have already taken place, and former 
German plants and equipment are now producing 
civilian products in the recipient coimtries. 

On the particular question of nitrogen explosive 
plants, all plants in the Bizonal Area capable of 
making synthetic nitrogen for fertilizers are being 
utilized for that purpose, and no such plant is on 
the Bizonal reparation list. 

Question 5. How many of these plants remaining 
to be dismantled and removed are capable of mak- 
ing a substantial contribution to the export trade 
envisioned as necessary if Germany, or the bizonal 
area of Germany, is to balance her imports of food 
by export of goods in the year 1952 ? 

Answer 

As was noted in the Revised Plan for Level of 
Industry in the US/UK Zones of Germany, pub- 
lished on August 29, 1947, a copy of which is at- 
tached (Attachment 5), "the over-riding require- 
ments" in developing the Plan were "to provide 
the level of industry necessary to make the area 
self-supporting". Full allowance was made for 
the necessity of retaining in Germany sufficient 
industrial capacity to permit development of an 
export trade sufficient to balance essential imports, 
not only of food but of raw materials and other 
commodities. General Clay has said, in a state- 
ment the full text of which is attached, that: 

187 



THB RECORD Of THE WEEK 

". . . it is doubtful if the industrial capacity 
left in Germany (under the Revised Plan) can be 
put fully to use in less than 5 years, and it would 
be indeed many years before the full capacity, in- 
cluding that made available for reparations, could 
be put to use. ... It is my sincere conviction 
that ... we have left to Western Germany 
all the industrial capacity it can use". (Attach- 
ment 6.^) 

The Revised Plan, therefore, leaves in the Bi- 
zonal Area sufficient industrial capacity to pay for 
needed imports. In view, however, of shortages 
of fuel, raw materials, manpower and other factors 
of production, it will require the utmost efforts 
of the Germans to achieve by 1952 full utilization 
of even this capacity. 

The list of plants remaining to be dismantled or 
removed was drawn up in accordance with the 
Revised Plan, and their capacity as a whole is, 
therefore, surplus to that required by Geimany 
to pay for needed imports. Many individual 
plants on the reparation list, other than war plants, 
are, of course, similar or identical in character to 
plants to be retained in Germany under the Re- 
vised Plan for the purpose of meeting German 
needs, whether through production for domestic 
use or through production for export. Thus a 
number of individual plants listed for reparation 
could, if retained in Germany and if given neces- 
sary supplies of coal, raw materials, etc., contribute 
to German domestic or export needs. 

While this holds true for individual plants, 
however, it cannot be applied to all plants listed 
for reparation as a group. To retain and put into 
production any substantial number of the plants 
now listed for reparation would simply mean that 
other plants scheduled to be retained in Germany 
would fall idle, or be run far below capacity, be- 
cause of shortages of the essential factors of 
production. 

QcTESTioN 6. On what basis was the determination 
made that a particular plant was surplus? That 
is, was the surplus character of the plant deter- 
mined in relation to German domestic products 
or in relation to aViiilable raw materials, or in 
relation to manpower? Or in relation to exports 
readily salable abroad? 

Answer 

As stated in answer to question 5, the Revised 
Plan for Level of Industry in the US/UK Zones 
of Germany was drawn up to provide for the 
retention in Germany of sufficient industrial 
capacity, including that required for exports, to 
permit self-support and the development of a 
reasonable standard of living. The difference be- 
tween the retained capacity provided for under 
the Revised Level and the total capacity actually 



' Not printed. 



188 



existing in Germany represents the amount of 
capacity surplus to German needs. 

After the Revi.sed Level of Industry and total 
capacity actually existing had been determined, 
the next step was to select, industry by industry, 
individual plants up to the total amount of surplus 
capacity. It is apparent that, in this process of 
selection, no individual plant could be considered 
as any more "surplus" than any other individual 
plant. It was necessary to base the plant selection 
on more detailed criteria, confining the selection, 
of course, to industries having a substantial sur- 
plus capacity. 

These criteria of selection were as follows : 

a) Ownership : Other things being equal, plants 
were selected in the following order: (i) those 
owned by the German Government or by Nazi 
organizations; (ii) those owned by German or 
Axis nationals; and (iii) those in which nationals 
of Allied or neutral countries had an ownership 
interest. 

b) Effect of Removal on Local Conditions: An 
attempt was made to select plants in such a way as 
to minimize the disruptive effect of their removal 
on the local community and labor supply. In gen- 
eral, for example, a plant which constituted the 
only source of employment in a given town was 
not selected for removal. Efforts were made to 
ensure the existence of alternative sources of po- 
tential employment for labor formerly employed 
in a plant selected for removal. 

c) Proximity to Rata Materials: Every effort 
was made to retain in Germany those plants most 
economically located from the standpoint of trans- 
port and supplies of raw materials; and to select 
for removal those which were uneconomically 
located. 

d) Importance of Specific Products in Export 
Trades: Where individual plants produced prod- 
ucts more readily saleable as exports in world 
markets than the products manufactured by other 
plants in the same industry, this was generally 
considered grounds for the retention of such plants 
in Germany. 

e) Size of Plant: In general, a large plant 
rather than several small ones of equivalent ca- 
pacity was selected for removal. This was done in 
accordance with the policy of breaking down large 
concentrations of German industry, and in addi- 
tion served to minimize economic dislocations. 

Within each industry the actual selection of in- 
dividual plants for removal as reparations was car- 
ried out, on the basis of the above criteria, by 
technical committees thoroughly conversant with 
the problems of tlie industries with which they 
were working. Full opportunity was given to the 
German economic authorities to examine the list 
and to suggest amendments and substitutes, and a 
number of their suggestions were in fact accepted. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Question 7. How much material and goods and 
how much cost in dollars will be required to be 
sent from the United States to make up for the 
production of the plants heretofore removed and 
proi:)osed for dismantling and removal? 

Answer 

Representatives of U.S. Military Government in 
Germany have stated unequivocally that no ma- 
terial and goods will be required to be sent from 
the United States to make up for the production 
of the plants heretofore removed and proposed 
for dismantling and removal, and that therefore 
there will be no dollar cost on this account. This 
follows from the fact that the Revised Level of 
Industry provides for the retention in Germany 
of ample industrial capacity for the achievement 
of self-sui^port at a reasonable standard of living. 

Question 8. Have plants been removed from any 
of the zones in Germany beyond the limits pre- 
scribed or contemplated in the Yalta and Potsdam 
Agreements? If so, by whom, from what zone, 
and to whom have they been allocated ? 

Answer 

The Yalta Agreement did not purport to fix 
the limits for reparation removals from Germany. 
The Potsdam Agreement laid down the general 
principle that sufficient industrial capacity should 
be left in Germany to enable Germany to be self- 
sufficient. As has been pointed out above, the Bi- 
zonal Level of Industi-y Plan follows this prin- 
ciple. No plants have been, or are planned to be, 
removed from the Bizonal Area other than those 
on the list drawn up in accordance with the plan. 

Detailed information on industrial capacity in 
the French Zone is not presently available. 

No official information concerning plants al- 
ready removed or scheduled for removal from the 
Soviet Zone is available. It is considered prob- 
able, however, that industrial capacity in excess 
of that contemplated under the Potsdam Agree- 
ment has been removed, and it is known that equip- 
ment from industries not contemplated for re- 
moval under Potsdam have been taken out by the 
Soviet authorities. 

Question 9. Has agricultural produce been re- 
moved from any zone for delivery into countries 
outside of Germany which would be important in 
feeding the civilian populations inside Germany 
and thereby contribute to the lessemng of the fi- 
nancial demands upon the United States? If so, 
by whom and in what amounts ? 

Answer 

No agricultural produce of any kind has been 
removed from the Bizonal Area of Germany to 
other countries. No official information is avail- 
able concerning the French Zone, but any ship- 
February 8, 1948 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

ments of foodstuffs that may have occurred are 
believed to have been negligible in quantity. 

It is known that considerable quantities of food- 
stuffs have been, and are now being, removed from 
the Soviet Zone. No comprehensive data con- 
cerning such shipments are, however, available. 

Question 10. To what extent have harbor facili- 
ties and transportation equipment been removed 
from Germany and is any replacement of these 
facilities or equipment contemplated in the pro- 
posals for sujDplying by the United States as a part 
of economic recovery for Europe ? 

Answer 

Railway Transport Equipment 

Locomotives and freight cars must of necessity 
continually cross international boundaries in the 
ordinary course of operations, and, at any given 
time, substantial quantities of German rolling 
stock would be outside Germany and correspond- 
ing quantities of rolling stock of foreign owner- 
ship would be inside Germany. This situation 
prevailed at the end of the war. 

Several countries which, as the Germany army 
was driven from their territories, found them- 
selves in possession of large numbers of German 
locomotives and railway wagons have retained 
them; and have insisted that under the terms of 
existing international agreements they were en- 
titled to do so. American and British military 
authorities in Germany have been attempting to 
negotiate the return of these cars to Germany, in 
exchange for the foreign rolling stock now held in 
the Bizonal Area. These negotiations have so far 
been only partially successful. No German rail- 
way rolling stock has been removed from the Bi- 
zonal Area since the end of the war, except such 
as has crossed the German borders in the course 
of normal operations. 

The situation is further complicated by the 
severe shortage of railway repair facilities in the 
Bizonal Area, a shortage largely due to concen- 
trated Allied bombing. Despite utmost efforts, 
it has been impossible to prevent deterioration in 
the German transport situation because of the in- 
ability to maintain and repair available rolling 
stock properly. 

It is possible that imports of new rolling stock 
into the Bizonal Area will be necessary. The 
necessity for such imports, however, derives to a 
considerable degree from the shortage of repair 
facilities. 

Ocean-Going Shipping 

In accordance with the Potsdam decision made 
on grounds of military security, Germany has 
been prohibited from building or maintaining an 
ocean-going fleet. The entire German merchant 
fleet has, therefore, been distributed among Allied 

189 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 

nations as reparation by the Tripartite Merchant 
Marine Commission and the Inter- Allied Repara- 
tion Agency. The great majority of ships dis- 
tributed are now in operation under Allied flags. 
The remainder are being repaired. 

No replacement of these ships is contemplated 
in the proposals for European recovery. 

Coastal Shipping 

A proportion of the German coastal fleet, deter- 
mined at the time to be in excess of German mini- 
mum needs, has been distributed among Allied 
nations as reparation. A re-examination of re- 
quirements has led to the conclusion that it may 
be necessary to replace some of this tonnage. No 
firm figures, however, are yet available. 

Inland Water Transport 

Inland water transport equipment is similar in 
character to rolling stock, in that it fi'equently 
crosses international boundaries in the course of 
normal operations. A number of foreign owned 
barges which have been removed from the 
Danubian Basin have been delivered from Ger- 
many not as reparations but under restitution pro- 
cedures. Negotiations have been in progress for 
some time for the purpose of arranging exchange 
of certain other German inland waterway craft 
now held by libei-ated countries for foreign craft 
now held in Germany. No replacements of Ger- 
man craft are contemplated under the proposals 
for aid to European recovery. 

Harbor Facilities 

No major fixed harbor facilities have been re- 
moved from the Western Zones of Germany, nor 
are any removals planned. Approximately 60 per- 
cent of such facilities have, however, been de- 
stroyed, in accordance with decisions of military 
security. No replacement is contemplated as part 
of aid to European recovery. No information is 
available concerning the Soviet Zone. 

Question 11. Has the Government of the United 
States taken appropriate steps to delay temporar- 
ily the further dismantling of plants in western 
Germany so as to permit further study by the ap- 
propriate committees of Congress in order to de- 
termine whether such transfei's are prejudicial to 
any general recovery program for western 
Europe ? 

Answer 

The U.S. Government has taken no steps to halt 
the general dismantling program pending Con- 
gressional study of its economic effects, but is now 
engaged in discussions with the British regarding 
the question of further reparation deliveries to 
the east. It will be recalled that General Clay 
stopped deliveries of additional reparations plants 

190 



and equipment in May 1946 because no agreement 
could be reached to implement the Potsdam Agree- 
ment for the economic unification of Germany. 
Since that time only the various reparations 
plants originally allocated and equipment from 
war plants which would not have been retained in 
Germany in any case have been delivered as 
reparations. Only the tag ends of one industrial 
plant and equipment from two war plants are in 
process of delivery to Russia. It is the U.S. posi- 
tion that no further deliveries to Russia should be 
made from the U.S. Zone until and unless agree- 
ment can be reached on other economic issues. As 
has been stated discussions at the governmental 
level are in progress with the British in an en- 
deavor to develop a common policy. 

The decision to continue the dismantling pro- 
gram was reached only after very thorough re- 
examination of the entire situation, with respect 
not only to the position in Germany but also to the 
international relations of the United States 
generally. 

Since the publication on October 16, 1947, of the 
revised list of plants to be removed from the 
Bizonal Area, the German people have been told 
repeatedly that the list is a final one ; that it repre- 
sents a definitive settlement of the reparation 
problem; and that from here on they can plan 
their economic reconstruction on the basis of cer- 
tain knowledge of the resources which will be left 
to them. General Clay is strongly of the opinion 
that even a temporary suspension of the dis- 
mantling program at this time would have very 
serious political repercussions, and would make 
any future resumption of the program extremely 
difficult. 

With respect to our international relations gen- 
erally, the dismantling program represents the 
fulfillment of commitments undertaken by the 
three Western Occupying Powers when they 
signed the Paris Agreement on Reparation of 
January 24, 1946. It will be recalled that, on the 
initiative of General Clay, the program was sus- 
pended in May, 1946, in order to permit re-exam- 
ination of the needs of Western Germany in the 
light of the Soviet refusal to agree to economic 
unity; and that the October, 1947, list of plants 
was drawn up in accordance with a Revised Level 
of Industry prepared for the specific purpose of 
allowing for the lack of such unity. The signa- 
tories of the Paris Reparation Agreement have, 
therefore, already been subjected to a very lengthy 
delay in the fulfillment of their original expec- 
tations, and have now been told that the new plant 
list represents a definitive settlement which will , 
be carried out promptly. These countries need the 
equipment now. To postpone further the dis- 
mantling program would cause them the most seri- 
ous concern, and would give propaganda mate- 
rial to the critics of the United States. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Attachments ' 

1. Plant and Part Plants Listed for Reparations from 
U.S. and U.K. Zones. 

2. List of Plants Disposable as Reparations in the French 
Zone of Occupation. 

3. Table "A". Character and Capacity of Non-War 
Plants Already Removed from U.S. Zone as of 1 Jan- 
uary 1948. 

4. Table "B". Character and Capacity of Non-War 
Plants Scheduled for Removal from the U.S. Zone, 
as of 1 January 1948. 

5. Revised Plan for Level of Industry in the US/UK 
Zones of Germany. [ Bulletin of Sept. 7, 1947, p. 468. ] 

6. Statement by General Clay concerning the Dis- 
mantling Program. 



Soviet Proposals on German Assets 

[Released to the press January 28] 

The Soviet proposals on German assets have 
been received from the secretariat of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers. They include Soviet claims 
for concession rights to oil-production areas in 
Austria equivalent to two thirds of the total pro- 
duction of oil; concession rights for oil prospect- 
ing equal to two thirds of all undeveloped areas 
in eastern Austria; refining capacity, capable of 
producing 450,000 tons of crude oil a year; and all 
undertakings in the distribution of oil products 
now controlled by the Soviets. The concession 
rights are to run for 50 years. 

In addition, the Soviets claim assets of the Dan- 
ube Shipping Company, located in Hungary, Bul- 
garia, and Rumania, and a 25-percent share of 
the assets of the company located in Austria. In 
lieu of all other claims — or former claims to assets 
located in Austria — the Soviets propose a lump- 
sum payment of"200 million United States dollars 
payable within two years in freely convertible 
currency. 

With regard to the property transfers made 
to the Soviet Union, the Soviets propose that 
property rights shall not be subject to alienation, 
and that economic enterprises under their control 
shall be permitted to export profits or other in- 
come either in the form of products or freely con- 
vertible currency. The property transferred to 
the Soviet Union shall be free of all obligations, 
and any disputes arising from the operation of 
the enterprises shall be settled bilaterally between 
the Soviet Union and Austria. 
, _ These proposals are now under consideration 
Ilin the Department of State. 

No date has been set for the meeting of the 
Deputies to discuss these proposals and to con- 
., elude the Austrian treaty. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

U.S.-U.K. Begin Consular Treaty Negotiations 

[Released to the press January 30] 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 30 that representatives of the United King- 
dom have begun direct negotiations with repre- 
sentatives of the United States for the preparation 
of a consular treaty between the two countries. 
The treaty will define and clarify for the first 
time the rights and privileges mutually extended 
to consular representatives of the United States 
and the United Kingdom and will enable them 
in a more satisfactory manner to perform their 
official functions while serving abroad. 

The proposed treaty, when ratified, will be the 
first consular convention concluded by the United 
Kingdom. It is expected to follow the same gen- 
eral lines as the recently announced consular 
treaty with Costa Rica.^ The importance of the 
convention now under negotiation is also evi- 
denced in the fact that it will apply to the United 
States and all its territories and possessions, and 
to the United Kingdom and all British colonies 
and other dependent territories, and it will there- 
fore cover a wider area and include more consu- 
lar posts than any other similar consular conven- 
tion. The current negotiations are the outgrowth 
of written exchanges which have been carried on 
between the two Governments for some time. 

The United Kingdom representatives and the 
key United States representatives are as follows : 

United Kingdom Representatives 

(Chairman) W. E. Becliett, C.M.G., K.C., Legal Adviser to 

the Foreign Office 
R. W. Urquhart, C.M.G., O.B.E., Minister at the British 

Embassy 
R. S. B. Best, Legal Counselor at the British Embassy 
D. J. Mill Irving, Consular Department, Foreign Office 

United States Repeesentatives 
Department of State 

(Chairman) Herbert P. Fales, Assistant Chief, Division 
of British Commonwealth AfEairs 

Department of Justice 

D. E. Feller, Attorney, Office of Alien Property 

Maritime Commission 

Charles E. Moody, Chief Agency and Port Service 
Section 

Treasury Department 
Raphael Sherfy, Attorney, Tax Legislative Council 



* Not printed. 

' For text of convention with Costa Rica, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 33 of Jan. 13, 1948. 



Februar/ 8, 1948 



191 



General Policy 

Sovereignty and Interdependence in the New- 
World: Comments on the Inter-Ameri- 
can System. Article by William San- 
ders 

Foreign Aid and Reconstruction 

Erp To Aid in Industrial Development in 
Latin America 

Occupation Matters 

Removal of Industrial Plants From Germany 
by Reparation: 
Letter to the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives From Under Secretary 

Lovett 

Information Requested by House Resolu- 
tion 365, December 18, 1947 .... 
Soviet Proposals on German Assets .... 

Treaty Information 

U.S.-U.K. Begin Consular Treaty Negotia- 
tions 



Page 



155 



184 



185 

185 
191 



191 



William Sanders, author of the article on the Inter- American 
System, is directing and coordinating the preparatory work on the 
Bogota conference for the Assistant Secretary of State for political 
affairs. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1943 



^Ae/ ^eha^Cmenl/ £i^ t/taie^ 





AN INTERNATIONAL BILL OF HUMAN RIGHTS • AnicU 

by Jame* P. Hendrick 195 

VIOLATIONS OF THE TREATY OF PEACE BY 

RUMANIA • Text of Note from U.S. Minister to Rumania 
to Rumanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs ... 216 

AMERICAN POSITION IN IRAN • Remarks by American 

Ambassador to Iran , . . . ■ > . 223 



For complete contents see bade coivr 



vr///,J 

February 15, 15 



^BNT o«. 




"■*TE3 *** 



:' T OF CCnUf.iEKTS 

3 iij4S 




Me Qje/vwichne^ A)/ y^ie 1)111161111 



Vol. XVIII, No. 450 • Publication 3052 
February 15, 1948 



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U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Subscription: 
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Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



AN INTERNATIONAL BILL OF HUMAN RIGHTS 



Article by James P. Hendrick 



The United Nations Commission on Human 
Rights is charged with the task of preparing an 
international bill of rights. The task is complex. 
Its goal is definite — the preparation of a docu- 
ment. Its concept is original — no such work has 
heretofore been undertaken. 

Background Work on an International Bill 

In 1929 the Institute of International Law met 
at Briarcliff, New York, to formulate what is gen- 
erally believed to be the first draft of such a biU. 
It contained six short articles and covered the fol- 
lowing rights: right to life, liberty, property; 
right to religious practice; right to use of any lan- 
guage; freedom from discrimination on grounds 
of race, sex, language, or religion ; right to nation- 
ality. No effort was made to piu-sue the matter 
and the subject Jay dormant for over a decade. 
In 1941 the President of the United States an- 
nounced the four freedoms as objectives of inter- 
national importance. A few days after the United 
States had declared war, the words "human 
rights" were used for the first time in a United 
Nations document.^ At Dumbarton Oaks provi- 

^ See the U.N. declaration of Jan. 1, 1942, which stated 
that the signatory governments were "convinced that 
complete victory over their enemies is essential to 
. . . preserve human rights . . ." 

■ See Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for a General Interna- 
tional Organization (1944) chap. 9, sec. A, par. 1; and 
resolution XL of Inter-American Conference on Problems 
of War and Peace. 

* U.N. Charter: preamble (2d par.) ; art. 1, par. 3; art. 
13, par. 1 (b) ; art. 55 (c) ; art. 62, par. 2; art. 68; art. 76 
(c). The background on this subject, with particular ref- 
erence to the responsibilities of nongovernmental organi- 

February IS, 1948 



sion was made for promoting respect for human 
rights and fundamental freedoms, and later at 
the Inter-American Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace, held at Mexico City in 1945, reso- 
lutions were passed recognizing the essential im- 
portance of human rights in the Inter- American 
System.^ Plans were made for an inter-American 
declaration, which is to be considered at the forth- 
coming Ninth International Conference of Ameri- 
can States, scheduled to convene in Bogota, Co- 
lombia. Finally, in the United Nations Charter as 
drafted at San Francisco, reference was made no 
less than seven times to human rights, and provi- 
sion was specifically made for the setting up of a 
Commission on Human Rights.^ 

First Session of the Economic and Social Council 

When the Economic and Social Council assem- 
bled for its first meeting, in London in January 
1946, for the purpose, among others, of constitut- 
ing a Commission on Human Rights, two draft 
declarations of rights were presented to it, one 
by Panama ^ and the other by Cuba.^ Later Chile 
presented a draft declaration to the Commission 
on Human Rights" and since then a substantial 

zations and individuals in the United States for the crea- 
tion of the Commission on Human Rights and work on an 
International bill, is given In an article on "The Charter 
and the Promotion of Human Rights" by Alice M. Mc- 
Diarmid, Buixetin of Feb. 10, 1946, p. 210. See also Year- 
book of the United Nations, 1946-47, p. 523. 

' U.N. docs. E/HR/3, Apr. 26, 1946, or A/148, Oct. 24, 
1946. The declaration was written under the auspices of 
the American Law Institute. 

' U.N. doe. E/HR/1, Apr. 22, 1946. 

" U.N. doc. E/CN.4/2, Jan. 8, 1947, prepared by the Inter- 
American Juridical Committee, working under the man- 
date of the Mexico City resolution. 



195 



number of other bills have been presented formally 
or informally.' 

The Economic and Social Council set up the 
Human Eights Commission on February 16, 1946. 
Nine members were elected to serve as a nuclear 
group.^ The Commission's terms of reference, 
as approved by the Economic and Social Council, 
included "work . . . directed towards submitting 
proposals, recommendations and reports to the 
Council regarding ... an international bill of 
rights"." 

Nuclear Commission Session 

The nuclear commission met at Hunter College, 
New York, from April 29 to May 20, 1946. Be- 
set by many difficulties,'" the nuclear commission 

'Included among the bills which have been prepared 
are the following: International Bill of Eights, proposal 
submitted by the American Federation of Labor 
(B/Ct. 2/2, Aug. 20, 1946) ; draft General Assembly resolu- 
tion submitted by India (U.N. doc. E/CN 4/11, Jan. 31, 
1947) ; Draft Charter of International Human Rights and 
Duties submitted by Ecuador (U.N. doc. A/341, Aug. 
21, 1947) ; Report of the Unesco Committee on the Philo- 
sophic Principles of the Rights of Man (UNESco/Phil/10, 
Paris, July 31, 1947) ; Draft International Bill of Human 
Rights, prepared by the Committee on Human Rights, 
Commission to Study the Organization of Peace ; National 
Catholic Welfare Conference — A Declaration of Rights; 
Declaration of Human Rights, submitted by the American 
Jewish Committee, January 1945; Draft of the Interna- 
tional Bill of Rights, by the American Association for the 
United Nations and the American Jewish Conference; 
Declaration of the Rights of Man, London Daily Herald, 
Apr. 20, 1940 ; Enumeration of Subjects for Consideration 
as to an International Bill of Rights, by the American Bar 
Association; A charter for the United Nations — The 
Rights of Every Man, recommended by Free World; 
Declaration of the International Rights and Duties of the 
Individual, by Gustavo Gutierrez: An International Bill 
of the Rights of Man, b.v H. Lauterpacht, Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, New York ; International Bill of Rights ; Prin- 
ciples of the Rights and Duties of Individuals, by Irving A. 
Isaacs; International Bill of Rights, suggested by Rollin 
McNitt ; An International Bill of Rights, by Rev. Wilfred 
Parsons, S.J. ; Declaration of the Rights of Man by H. G. 
Wells; National Resources Planning Board: A New Bill 
of Rights. See also U.N. doc. E/(K)0, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 8, par. 
28, referring to communications concerning human rights 
from writers whose identity may not (under Economic 
and Social Council ruling) be divulged. 

"The members of the nuclear commission were chosen 
to serve as individuals rather than as government repre- 
sentatives. Except for the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslav mem- 
bers, they were elected by name by the Economic and 
Social Council at its first session. The membership of 

196 



nonetheless produced a report which laid the 
foundation for the work of the permanent Com- 
mission on Hiunan Rights." In addition it rec- 
ommended provisions for implementation which 
prompted the Economic and Social Council to 
consider that "the purpose of the United Nations 
with regard to the promotion and observance of 
human rights, as defined in the Charter of the 
United Nations, can only be fulfilled if provisions 
are made for implementation of human rights 
and of an international bill of rights", and to re- 
quest the Commission to submit suggestions re- 
garding implementation.^^ 

First Session of the Full Commission 

The full Commission on Hmnan Eights was 
elected by the Economic and Social Council at its 



the Commission at its fii'st and only session was as fol- 
lows: chairman, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.); 
vice chairman, Ren6 Cassin (France) ; rapporteur, K. C. 
Neogi (India). Other members were: Paal Borg (Nor- 
way), Alexander Borisov (U.S.S.R.), Dusan Brkish (Yugo- 
slavia), Fernand Dehousse (Belgium), Victor Haya de 
la Torre (Peru), C. L. Hsia (China). 

' n.N. Journal of the Economic and Social Council, no. 
12, p. 124 

'° The meetings were held in a reading room in Hunter 
College. Three tables were joined in U-shape around 
which the delegates sat. The public sat on wooden benches 
which had been moved in for the occasion. There was 
no amplifying system. Three members were imable to 
attend — Messrs. Borg, Dehousse, and Haya de la Torre. 
One of the six persons present was replaced a week be- 
fore adjournment by a substitute who explained that his 
predecessor had actually had no authority to act and 
who refused to be bound by his predecessor's votes. At 
one time a new interpreter broke down completely after 
the first few words of translating a rather lengthy speech 
delivered by the French member, and the situation was 
saved by the Chairman (Mrs. Roosevelt) completing the 
translation and acting as intei-preter until a substitute 
could be found. 

" The nuclear commission recommended that the full 
Commission should draft an international bill of rights 
"as soon as possible". (U.N. doc. E/38 Rev. 1, May 21, 
1946, p. 6, resolution B, 1.) This recommendation was 
neither approved nor disapproved by the Economic and 
Social Council. However, at the first session, second 
part, of the General Assembly a resolution was passed 
transmitting the draft declaration presented by Panama 
to the Economic and Social Council for reference to the 
Commission on Human Rights "for consideration by the 
Commission in its preparation of an international bill 
of rights" (General Assembly resolution 43 (1), first 
session, second part). 

"U.N. docs. E/56/Rev. 2, July 1, 1946, p. 3, and 
E/38/Rev. 1, May 21, 1946, p. 7. 

Department of State Bulletin 



second session in June 1946.^^ The full Com- 
mission's first session was held from January 27 
to February 8, 1947, at Lake Success. Its task 
was clearly recognized — to prepare an Interna- 
tional Bill of Rights. Nonetheless the approach 
of the members was cautious. General statements 
were made on the importance of setting forth hu- 
man rights in an international document. The 
only indication of a fundamental difference of 
opinion arose in connection with a speech delivered 
by the Yugoslav member, Dr. Ribnikar, stating 
that new economic conditions in the twentieth 
century had given birth to a collective spirit ; that 
personal freedom could be obtained only through 
perfect harmony between the individual and the 
community, and that the social ideal lay in the 
interests of society and of the individual being 
identical.^* The speech was criticized by another 
member who stated that today man had no need 
for protection against kings or dictators, but 
rather against a new form of tyranny : that exer- 
cised by the masses and by the state.^^ 

Following the general discussion the secretariat 
prepared a list of human rights based on various 
bills which had been prepared and considered. It 
soon became obvious that effective drafting could 
not be accomplished at this meeting by the full 
Commission. The United States member there- 



" Its membership was as follows for the first session : 
chairman, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.) ; vice chair- 
man, P. C. Chang (China) ; rapporteur. Charles Malik 
(Lebanon) ; other members present at the session were 
William R. Hodgson (Australia) ; T. Kamlnsky (Byelo- 
russian Soviet Socialist Republic) ; F. Nieto del Rio 
(Chile) ; Osman Ebeid (Egypt) ; Mrs. Hansa Mehta 
(India) ; Ghassame Ghani (Iran) ; Carlos P. Romulo 
(Philippine Republic) ; Charles Dukes (United King- 
dom) ; V. F. Tepliakov (U.S.S.R.) ; Jose A. Mora 
(Uruguay); V. Ribnikar (Yugoslavia). The following 
members were unable to attend: Fernand Dehousse (Bel- 
gium) ; Ricardo J. Alfaro (Panama) ; G. D. Stadnik 
(Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic) ; the first two 
were represented respectively by Roland Lebeau and Ger- 
man Gil Guardia, both of whom participated without 
vote. In keeping with a compromise worked out ty the 
Economic and Social Council for all commissions, the 
individuals serving on the Commission were chosen in 
consultation with the U.N. Secretary-General so that a 
well-balanced group could be assured ; the members served, 
however, as government representatives in that they were 
(unlike the case of nuclear commission members) sub- 
ject to instructions from their governments. 



upon pressed strongly for the adoption of her sug- 
gestion ^® that a working group should prepare an 
initial draft, to be submitted to the second session 
of the Commission. This suggestion was accepted 
and the Commission adjourned, having, in addi- 
tion to the work on the bill, established a Sub- 
commission on Freedom of Information and of the 
Press and a Subcommission on Prevention of Dis- 
crimination and Protection of Minorities. 

Definitive Plan for Drafting of tlie Bill 

The Economic and Social Council considered 
the Commission's report and an eight-point pro- 
gram was adopted for the drafting of a bill en- 
visaging (1) secretariat preparations; (2) con- 
sideration by the Human Rights Drafting Com- 
mittee; (3) consideration by the Human Rights 
Commission; (4) submission for comment to all 
member nations ; (5) reconsideration by the Draft- 
ing Committee; (6) reconsideration by the Com- 
mission; (7) consideration by the Economic and 
Social Council; and (8) consideration by the Gen- 
eral Assembly.^' The first four steps of this pro- 
gi'am have now been taken. 

First Session of the Drafting Committee 

The Human Rights Drafting Committee con- 
vened on June 9, 1947.^* Before it was a secre- 



" U.N. doc. B/CN.4/SR8, Jan. 13, 1947, p. 4. 

"Dr. Malik of Lebanon (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/SR9, Feb. 1, 
1947, p. 3). Miss Sender, Representative of the American 
Federation of Labor, whose draft declaration had been 
specifically criticized by Dr. Ribnikar, stated that Dr. 
Ribnikar had placed greater importance upon common 
interest than that of the individual, and had considered 
the idea of individual liberty obsolete. The American 
Federation of Labor considered that individual liberty was 
perfectly compatil>le with the interests of the community. 
(U.N. doc. E/CN.4/SR8, Jan. 31, 1947, p. 5). 

" U.N' doc. B/CN.4/4, Jan. 28, 1947. 

"Resolution 46 (IV), fourth session of the Economic 
and Social Council. The first session of the eight-member 
Human Rights Drafting Committee was held in June 1947 ; 
the second session of the Human Rights Commission, in 
December 1947. The Commission's report was submitted 
to member nations for comment in January 1948. The 
second session of the Human Rights Drafting Committee 
is scheduled for May 1948 ; the third session of the Com- 
mission for May 1948 ; the seventh session of the Economic 
and Social Council, for July 1948; and the third session 
of the General Assembly for September 1948. 



February 15, 1948 



197 



tariat. outline of a bill with annotation to consti- 
tutions of member states — a document of over 400 
pages." The secretariat outline contained 48 
articles. It was designed to cover most of the 
rights commonly contained in constitutions of 
member states or in drafts of international bills 
of rights. The United States, accepting the sec- 
retariat outline as a basis for discussion, filed a 
memorandum suggesting amendments.^ Other 
members made suggestions from the floor. The 
difficulty of handling a detailed task of drafting 
with eight members in formal session became evi- 
dent. A subcommittee was appointed ; thereafter 
the subcommittee designated one individual — ^Pro- 
fessor Cassin of France — to prepare the initial 
redraft. Professor Cassin's redraft contained 46 
articles.^i Subsequent redrafting reduced the Dec- 
laration to 36 articles.^^ The Declaration did not 
purport to be legally binding. 

The United Kingdom, however, had filed with 
the Drafting Committee a proposed covenant (con- 
vention)^^ on human rights which set forth in the 
form of a treaty obligation certain of those civil 
rights which are presently recognized in the local 
laws of "civilized nations".^* 

This document, when formally ratified by states, 
would impose a definite legal obligation. It would, 



"Membership of the Human Rights Drafting Com- 
mittee was as follows : chairman, Mrs. Franklin D. 
Roosevelt ; vice chairman, P. C. Chang ; rapporteur, Charles 
Malik; other members were W. R. Hodgson (Australia) ; 
H. Santa Cruz (Chile) ; Reng Cassin (France) ; V. Ko- 
retsky (U.S.S.R.) ; Geoffrey Wilson (IF.K.). 

" U.N. doc. E/CN.4/AC.l/3/Add.l, .Tune 2, 1947. 

" U.N. doe. E/CN.4/AC.1/S, June 11, 1947. 

" U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, annex D, July 1, 1947. 

°^ Ibid., annex F. The substance of these articles is sum- 
marized in Concerning Freedom of Information, Depart- 
ment of State publication 2977, p. 12. 

^ The term "covenant" is used in this article in lieu of 
the more ordinary terms "convention" or "treaty", in 
view of a decision to this effect readied by the Human 
Rights Commission at its second session (U.N. doc. E/COO, 
Dec. 17, 1947, p. 6, par. 18). No distinction has been made 
by the Commission l)etween the three terms, which have 
been used by its members to designate a legally binding 
document, to be ratified by states in accordance with their 
constitutional processes. The United Kingdom wished to 
use the term "bill". Other members objected to its use 
in lieu of "covenant" on the ground that the word could 
not be adequately translated into any other working 
language. (The French translation is charte, which also 
means "charter".) They were, however, willing to use 
the word "bill" to cover both the Declaration and Covenant. 
Since the decision on terminology was not reached until 



therefore, be an entirely diflFerent type of document 
from a declaration, which would merely require a 
General Assembly vote and would impose only a 
moral obligation. 

The Committee discussed at some length the ad- 
visability of drafting a covenant in lieu of or in 
addition to a declaration at this time. It was 
eventually decided to draft substantive articles of 
the covenant; but since little time was available 
for detailed consideration, the articles proposed by 
the United Kingdom were tentatively accepted by 
the Committee virtually without change.^^ At the 
same time it was decided that the final two articles 
of the secretariat declaration, which in effect pur- 
ported to make the declaration a legally binding 
document, should not be included in the Drafting 
Committee's declaration.^ 

Tlie Drafting Committee, therefore, completed 
a declaration (without preamble) and substantive 
articles of a covenant, which were submitted to 
the second session of the Commission, held in Ge- 
neva, December 1, 1947. 

Second Session of the Human Rights Commission 

The second session ^' of the Human Rights Com- 
mission started with a procedural question : should 



close to the end of the Commission's second session, the 
report of the second session is not consistent in using 
"covenant" in place of "convention". 

"" U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, annex B, July 1, 1947. Reference 
to "civilized nations" is made ibid., p. 29, annex B, 1. 

" Ibid., annex G. The substance of those articles is sum- 
marized in Concerning Freedom of Information, Depart- 
ment of State publication 2977, p. 12. 

'"Arts. 47 and 48 of the secretariat declaration (ibid., 
annex A), provided that it was the duty of each member 
to respect the rights enumerated ; that these rights should 
be deemed fundamental principles of international law 
and of national law of eacli member state, and their viola- 
tion deemed a matter of international concern. 

" Eight members wlio had attended the first session 
attended the second as well. The representatives or al- 
ternates who attended the second session and had not 
attended the first session were as follows : Fernand De- 
housse, Belgium (representative) ; A. S. Stei)anenko, 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (representative 
replacing T. Kaminsky) ; E. Cruz-Coke, Chile (alternate) ; 
C. H. Wu, China (alternate) ; Omar Loutfi, Egypt (alter- 
nate) ; A. G. Pourevaly, Iran (alternate) ; M. Amado, 
Panama (alternate) ; M. Klekovkin, Ukrainian Soviet 
Socialist Republic (representative replacing G. D. Svad- 
nik) ; A. B. Bogomolov, U.S.S.R. (representative re- 
placing V. F. Tepliakov) ; J. J. Carbajal Victorica, 
Uruguay (alternate). 



198 



Department of State Bulletin 



priority be given to the preparation of (1) a dec- 
laration, (2) substantive articles for a covenant, 
or (3) measures of implementation?^' The ob- 
vious compromise, -which the Commission in due 
course decided to make, was to produce at the same 
time papers on all three points. The Commission 
was split into working groups of substantially 
equal size -' which were to report to the full 
Commission in time for the equivalent of one full 
day to be spent on each topic. 

DECLARATION 

The Declaration as approved by the Commission 
contains 33 articles.™ 

Substantive Rights 

The substantive rights set forth in the Declara- 
tion may be divided into three classes — civil, social 
and economic, and miscellaneous. 



^ Several members felt that a covenant, being a docu- 
ment of the most intricate and technical nature, could 
not possibly be worked out in satisfactory form in a series 
of meetings lasting less than three weeks ; that this time 
would be best spent in completing a well drafted, thor- 
oughly thought-througli declaration. This was the po- 
sition taken by both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. at the 
start of the session. Others expressed tlie view that the 
definite mandate of the Commission was to produce a 
"bill" ; that a declaration, which would have at most a 
morally binding force, could under no possible interpreta- 
tion be considered a "bill", and that to finish the second 
session of the Commission without a covenant would be 
to "bury" the Commission on Human Rights. This was 
the attitude taken by the U.K. and by Belgium and almost 
all other smaller countries represented on the Commis- 
sion. In addition, certain members drew attention to the 
resolution of the Economic and Social Council that the 
Commission must make suggestions regarding ways and 
means for effective implementation of human rights.- 
(U. N. doc. E/38 Rev. 1, May 21, 1946, p. 7. See supra, 
discussion of nuclear commission session.) 

" Working group on the Declaration : Stepanenko 
(Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republics) ; Cassin 
(France, rapporteur) ; Amado (Panama) ; Romulo (the 
Philippines) ; Bogomolov (U.S.S.R.) ; Mrs. Roosevelt 
(U.S., chairman). Working group on the covenant: Wu. 
Nen-Ju (China) ; Loutfl (Egypt) ; Malik (Lebanon, rap- 
porteur) ; Lord Dukeston (U.K., chairman) ; Ribnikar 
(Yugoslavia). Cruz-Coke (Chile) was apix)inted but was 
unable to attend. Working group on implementation : 
Hodgson (Australia) ; Dehousse (Belgium, raiDporteur) ; 
Mehta (India, chairman) ; Pourevaly (Iran) ; Klekovkin 
(Ukrainian S.S.R.). Carbajal Victorica (Uruguay) was 
appointed but was unable to attend. 



I. Civil Rights 

Eighteen articles deal with civil rights, which 
may be siunmarized as follows : 

Personal Liberty: Eight to life, liberty, and 
security of the person (article 4) ; freedom from 
slavery (article 8) ; freedom from torture, cruel 
or inhuman punishment, or indignity (article 7) ; 
freedom from interference with reputation, pri- 
vacy, family, home, correspondence (article 9) ; 
liberty of movement and free choice of residence 
within states; right to leave country (article 10). 

Legal Status: Right to recognition as a person 
before the law (article 12) ; equality before the 
law (article 3). 

Provisions Applying to Civil and Criminal 
Cases: Access to independent and impartial tri- 
bunals ; fair hearing ; aid of qualified representa- 
tive ; ^^ use of foreign language when necessary 
(article 6);^^ freedom from wrongful arrest; 



'° In general the Declaration follows the form of the 
Human Rights Drafting Committee's declaration — it is a 
rather lengthy document with a certain amount of techni- 
cal detail included. The advantages of a short declara- 
tion (which could be easily memorized by any school child) 
were apparently considered to be outweighed by the ad- 
vantages of a statement which, in the event that govern- 
ments refused to become parties to the convenant in any 
substantial numbers, would furnish a guidepost for 
United Nations action. In addition, special interest in 
individual articles and the shortness of time at thte 
declaration working groups' disposal made for length 
rather than brevity in drafting (a common enough experi- 
ence in the United Nations and other fields). The U.S. 
submitted to the Commission a "short form" declaration 
consisting of 10 brief articles, describing in 350 words 
the rights sought to be covered (U.N. doc. E/600, Dec. 
17, 1947, p. 25 ; BtniEmN of Dec. 7, 1947, p. 1076). While 
the decision of the working group was to produce a sub- 
stantially longer draft, the Commission toward the close 
of its session recognized that the definitive declaration 
must be as short as possible (iMd., p. 16, par. 50) . 

^' Originally provision was made for "aid of counsel". 
This provision was changed however in view of the fact 
that in certain administrative eases lawyers are not avail- 
able as of right to tlie parties concerned. 

^' Provision is made for having procedure explained in 
a manner which the party can understand, and the party 
is given the privilege of using a language which he can 
speak. This provision was warmly advocated by the Phil- 
ippine member. The U.S.S.R. member would have pre- 
ferred an even stronger provision. Certain of the civil 
law countries opposed the provision adopted regarding ex- 
planation of procedure, since it was not provided for under 
their laws and regarded as undesirable. 



February 75, J948 



199 



right to immediate judicial determination of le- 
gality of detention (habeas corpus) and to trial 
within reasonable time (article 5).^' 

Additional Provisions Applying to Criminal 
Cases: Presumption of innocence ; fair public trial ; 
freedom from ex post facto laws (article 7) .^ 

Freedom from Discnmination: Freedom from 
discrimination in relation to the rights set forth 
in the Declaration "without distinction of any 
kind, such as race, (which includes colour), sex, 
language, religion, political or other opinion, 
property status, or national or social origin" ;^'^ 
equal protection against "any arbitiary discrimi- 
nation, or against incitement to such discrimina- 
tion" (article 3).^ Provision is also made that 
men and women "have the same freedom to con- 
tract marriage" (article 13) ; that women shall 
work "with the same advantages as men" and "re- 
ceive equal pay for equal work" (article 24).^' 

"^ It will be noted that a distinction is made between a 
"fair hearing" for civil and criminal cases, and a "fair 
public trial" for criminal cases. 

" Special explanation is made covering cases of war 
criminals. 

'^ The quoted provision departs from the language em- 
ployed in arts. 1 (3), 13 (1, b). 55 (c), 76 (c) of the Char- 
ter — "without distinction as to race, sex, language, or 
religion". The view expressed by the United States was 
that the four categories described in the Charter were not 
meant to be exclusive, since the Charter refers to "human 
rights . . . for all". 

" Cf. art. 17, Draft Declaration proposed by Panama, 
U. N. docs. E/HK/3, Apr. 26, 1946, or A/148, Oct. 24, 1946. 

" In the Declaration working groups' article, provision 
was made that "women shall have the right to work under 
the same conditions as men", but an official comment was 
Inserted that legislation providing protection for women, 
particularly in regard to heavy or harmful work, may be 
necessary. (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/57, Dec. 10, 1947, art. 30.) 
The change in the article as approved by the full com- 
mission was made on the suggestion of the Uruguayan 
member. Dr. Juan J. Carbajal Victorica. 

"Art. 21 — Everyone "without discrimination" has the 
right to participate in government; art. 25 — Everyone 
"without distinction as to economic and social conditions" 
has the right to preservation of health ; art. 27 — There 
shall be access for higher education "without distinction 
as to race, sex, language, religion, social standing, financial 
means, or political affiliation." 

^'The article on religion makes it clear that this right 
is not limited to the act of worship, but extends to teach- 
ing and observance. The freedom of information articles 
were adopted from the Human Rights Drafting Commit- 
tee's declaration without change and without discussion 
with the understanding that they would be referred to 



In addition certain articles provide specifically 
that the right therein described is granted with- 
out discrimination, where such emphasis is con- 
sidered desirable.^^ 

Right to Property: (Article 14) 

Freedom of religion, information, assembly, and 
association: (Article 16, 17, 18, 19)'^ 

Right of Petition: Eight is granted to petition 
one's state or the United Nations (article 20)*° 

Right to Participation in Government: (Article 
21)" 

II. Social and Economic Rights 

Nine articles deal with social and economic 
riglits. These may be summarized as follows : 

Substantive Rights: Right to engage in public 
employment (article 22) ; right to work (article 
23) ; *^ right to pay commensurate with ability, 



the Freedom of Information Conference to be held in 
Geneva, Mar. 23, 1948, as well as the Subcommission on 
Freedom of Information and of the Press. The article on 
assembly and as.sociation enumerates the various purposes 
for which such activity is justified — purposes of a polit- 
ical, economic, religious, social, cultural, trade-union, or 
any other character, not inconsistent with the Declara- 
tion. Participation in International associations is per- 
mitted, but an official comment of the Commission pro- 
vides that the right is not intended to extend to interna- 
tional political associations forbidden by law (U.N. doc. 
E/600, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 28). 

'° The right to petition the United Nations was objected 
to by certain members in previous sessions of the Com- 
mission and the Drafting Committee on the ground that 
no machinery had yet been worked out for its implementa- 
tion. In the second session of the Commission, detailed 
machinery for dealing with petitions was discussed in the 
Covenant Working Group and was provided for by the 
Implementation Working Group. 

" Tlie right is granted everyone to take an effective part 
in the government of his country and provision is made 
for periodic elections. The elections are to be "free, fair 
and by secret ballot". An official comment of the Commis- 
sion provides that exceptions can be made in cases of non- 
metropolitan territories. It was pointed out that in cer- 
tain primitive, illiterate communities the only way to 
obtain a fair election is by counting noses. The French 
member contended that the article should not be construed 
to require a specific form of ballot, and referred to the 
"Family Vote", which confers on adults voting rights 
which would belong to minors (U.N. doe. E/CN. 4/57, Dec. 
10, 1947, p. 13). 

" The Human Rights Drafting Committee's provision 
on tliis point was the right to "perform socially useful 
work" (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, July 1, 1947, p. 79, art. 29). 



200 



Department of State Bulletin 



to just and favorable working conditions, to join 
trade unions (article 24) ; right to preservation 
of health through highest standard of food, cloth- 
ing, housing and medical care (article 25) ; right 
to social securit)', with special care and assistance 
for motherhood and children (article 26) ; right 
to education (which is to be directed to strength- 
ening respect for human rights) (articles 27, 28) ; 
right to rest and leisure and vacations with pay 
(article 29) ; right to participate in cultural life 
(article 30). 

R£spo7isibiUty of the State Regarding Social 
and Economic Rights: The description of the 
social and economic rights refers frequently to 
the responsibility of the state, at various times 
expressed in terms of what it can do or what it 
must do.^^ On the other hand no reference is 



" Thus the state must take all necessary steps to pre- 
vent unemployment (art. 23) and must maintain or insure 
the maintenance of social security measures (art. 26). 
It is to take such measures as are "within its power" 
to insure opportunity for useful work (art. 23) ; access 
to higher education shall be such "as can be provided 
by the state or community" (art. 27) and the responsibil- 
ity of the state or community for health and safety can 
be fulfilled only by provision of adequate measures (art. 
25) ; marriage and the family shall be protected by the 
state and society (art. 13). There is, however, no ref- 
erence to state responsibility in connection with pay or 
working conditions (art. 30) or fundamental education 
(art. 27). 

*' Provision that the state shall conform to the will of 
the people (art. 21). Although freedom from discrimina- 
tion in contracting marriage is here classified as a civil 
right, the protection of marriage would appear more 
properly to be a social right. 

"The reason for this discrepancy lies partly in the fact 
that persons are so used to the state providing fair trial, 
et cetera, that nothing appeai-s necessary to be said in 
this connection. On the other hand the social and economic 
rights are of recent origin, and mention of the state's 
duty to insure the right appeared to some desirable. In 
this connection note must be made of the respective in- 
fluences of two differing schools of thought in the Com- 
mission. The members who were most interested in the 
definition of civil rights approached the Declaration as a 
statement of principles, setting forth in general terms 
the positive rights to be given the individual in the tradi- 
tion of the great bills of rights of the past. They stated 
that the proper place for expressing duties of states with 
respect to these rights would be in a covenant or cove- 
nants. Certain other members, however, participated 
little in the drafting of the civil rights provisions, but were 

febtuary 15, 1948 

776411 — 48 2 



made to state responsibility in connection with the 
enumeration of civil rights, except in the article 
dealing with participation in government.^^ Thus 
everyone is entitled to personal liberty, to a fair 
trial, and to other rights of this character, but 
nothing is said about the duty of the state to insure 
these rights.*" 

As presently drafted, therefore, the Declaration 
shows a curious lack of balance, superficially indi- 
cating that the state must be more concerned with 
social and economic rights than with civil rights. 

III. Miscellaneous Rights 

Included under the category of miscellaneous 
rights are the two rights in the declaration which 
are of a purely international character and rights 
of minorities. The international rights deal with 

actively interested in social and economic rights. These 
members laid stress upon the importance of state action 
with respect to social and economic rights ; and they were 
unwilling to conceive of the present need for a covenant 
or covenants. It was the pressure of their arguments 
which gave impetus to specific wording relating to state 
responsibility in the social and economic field. 

For example, the proposal that marriage be protected 
by the state was made by the Byelorussian member (addi- 
tion of the responsibility of society — which would include 
the church — was not suggested by him) ; the proposal that 
the state take all necessary steps to prevent unemploy- 
ment was also made by the Byelorussian member; on the 
other hand ttie change from a requirement that the state 
insure higher education to a statement referring to higher 
education "as can be provided by the state or com- 
munity" was made by the United Kingdom member. The 
U.S.S.R. member evinced great interest in one civil right — 
freedom from discrimination. He proposed the following 
article (which was not accepted) : 

"All people are equal before the law and shall enjoy 
equal rights in the economic, cultural, social and political 
life, irrespective of their race, sex, language, religion, 
property status, national or social origin. 

"Any advocacy of national, racial and religious hostility 
or of national exclusiveness or hatred and contempt, as 
well as any action establishing a privilege or a discrimina- 
tion based on distinctions of race, nationality or religion 
shall constitute a crime and shall be punishable under the 
law of the State." 

This article had originally been proposed by Mr. Borisov 
(U.S.S.R.) in the first session of the Sub-commission on 
the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of 
Minorities (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/Sub. 2/21, Nov. 26, 1947). 

201 



asylum and nationality (articles 11 and 15).^ The 
provision on minority rights (article 31) presented 
an extremely difficult problem ; the Commission re- 
frained from approving or disapproving a pro- 
vision for them.^^ 

A further right, the right to resist tyranny and 
oppression, is to be considered for inclusion in the 
preamble.'** 

Articles of Limitation 

Although there was detailed discussion of what 
rights could to some extent be abridged in con- 
nection with the covenant and mention was made 
of freedom from torture as being one which could 
not be abridged in any way^** the Commission 
made no effort to affirm in the Declaration any 
"absolute" rights other than individual freedom 
of thought and conscience.^" It was recognized 
in article 2 that rights are limited, first, by the 
"rights of others" and, second, by the "just re- 
quirements of the democratic state".^^ 

The provision for rights of others is designed 
to take care of what might be described as con- 



" In each case a change was made from the Human 
Rights Drafting Committee's wording. The right of 
asylum, formerly limited to seeking asylum from persecu- 
tion, is now extended to the right to "seek and be granted" 
asylum. One of the strongest proponents of this change 
was the French member, who cited the ca.se of Spanish 
loyalists finding refuge on French soil. In the case of 
nationality a provision is added to the assertion of every- 
one's right to a nationality, to the effect that the United 
Nations shall protect those who do not enjoy the protec- 
tion of any government. These rights may be noted as 
particularly vivid examples of the distinction between a 
declaration and a covenant. While the principle of grant- 
ing asylum and granting nationality is recognized, it Is 
obvious that a very clear definition of how these rights 
are to be construed must be worked out before any state 
will be willing legally to enforce them within its own 
jurisdiction. 

*' In the Human Rights Drafting Committee, a redraft 
of the original secretariat provision (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, 
July 1, 1947, p. 23, art. 46) was made by Professor Cassin 
{ibid., p. 65, art. 44) and approved with minor changes 
without any prolonged attempt on the Committee's part 
to agree on a definitive version (ibid., p. 81, art. 36). The 
Committee referred this draft to the Sub-commission on 
the I'revention of Discrimination and the Protection of 
Minorities. In the Declaration as submitted by the Com- 
mission, both the Drafting Committee's version and the 



flicting rights. One man's right to freedom of 
speech (article 17) does not authorize him to 
slander another's reputation, since under article 
9 the other has the right to protection of his 
I'eputation.'^- 

The existence of conflicting rights is ordinarily 
evident from the context of the Declaration. 

The Declaration contains no guide as to what is 
meant by the "just requirements of the democratic 
state"; nor does it give any indication of what 
these requirements may be except that all laws 
shall be "in conformity with the purposes and 
principles" of the Charter (article 32) and that 
no state (or person) may engage in any activity 
aimed at the destruction of rights prescribed in 
the declaration (article 33). Eeference to the 
covenant, however, indicates the type of state ac- 
tion which may be contemplated: deprivation by 
the state of life^^ for crime legally warranting 
such penalty ; ^ imposition of obligation of emer- 
gency service in case of fire or flood ^^ despite dec- 
laration of fi-eedom from slavery ; '-^ prohibition 
of assembly,^' if it obstructs traffic.^' 

Specific limitations are occasionally detailed in 



subcommission's version are included (U.N. doc. E/600, 
Dec. 17, 1947, p. 21, art. 31). Each of these versions 
grants the right to groups to establish and maintain 
schools and cultural or religious institutions and use their 
own language in the press, public assembly, and courts. 
No specific right is given to share in public funds for this 
purpose ; such a right was provided in the original secre- 
tariat proposal (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, July 1, 1947, p. 23, 
art. 46). 

" U.N. doc. E/600, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 23, par. 2. 

"Discussion by Lord Dukeston (U.K.) in the full 
Commission in connection with art. 4 of the covenant. 

"Art. 16. 

" Cf . draft declaration presented by Panama, art. 18; 
draft bill prepared by the Commission to Study the Or- 
ganization of Peace, art. 3, both of which use the quoted 
wording. 

'^ Nor does one man's riglit to manifest his beliefs in 
observance (art. 16) allow him to kill another in the rite 
of human sacrifice, since under art. 4 the other has the 
right to life. 

" Declaration art. 4 provides for right to life. 

" Covenant art. 5. 

" Covenant art. 8. 

" Declaration art. 8. 

" Declaration art. 19 provides for the right of assembly. 

"Covenant art. 18. 



202 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



individual articles "' for purposes of emphasis : the 
over-all limitation clause (article 2) could easily 
be construed to authorize their imposition without 
detailed enumeration. 

COVENANT 

The Covenant differs from the Declaration in 



that it is clearly inteiided to constitute a legally 
binding obligation and in that it covers a rela- 
tively small number of rights. In addition, in its 
present form it spells out, where appropriate, spe- 
cific limitations to each right."" 



" Freedom of movement and choice of residence may 
be limited by laws adopted for security or in general in- 
terest (art. 10) ; the right of asylum is not to be granted 
criminals or those acting against the aims of the United 
Nations (art. 11) ; a similar limitation is placed on United 
Nations protection of stateless persons (art. 15). 

""The United States stated its preference for having 
the substantive articles of the covenant expressed without 
any limitations but to have a single limiting clause ex- 
pressed as follows : 



of the rights of otlier.s and protection by law of the free- 
dom, general welfare and security of all". 

This view was agreed to by certain other members 
(U.N. doc. E/600, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 37, par. 4) . The United 
Kingdom, although strenuou.sly opposing a general over-all 
limitation clause on the ground that it would render the 
covenant "innocuous" and bring the United Nations as 
well as the covenant into discredit (iUd,., p. 37, par. 5), 
sponsored successfully the insertion of an article allow- 
ing a state in time of "war or other public emergency'' to 
take measures derogating from its obligations under the 
covenant "to the extent strictly limited by the exigencies 
of the situation" (iUd., p. 30, covenant art. 4). 



"The full exei-cise of these rights requires recognition 

Substantive Rights 

The specific rights contained in the Covenant and their limitations 
may be summarized as follows with cross references to the Declaration 
articles in parentheses : 

Summary of Covenant Articles 



AHtcle 


Right 


Right not applicable in case of— 


5 


Right to life (declaration article 4). . . 


Proper criminal conviction. 


6 


Freedom from mutilation or scientific 
experimentation (no corresponding 
declaration article) . 


No exception. 


7 


Freedom from torture, cruel or inhu- 
man punishment, or indignity (dec- 
laration article?). 


No exception. 


8 


Freedom from slavery or forced labor 


Proper criminal conviction, 




(declaration article 8, referring to 


military service," emergency 




slavery only). 


service, communal service. 


9 


Right to personal liberty (declara- 


Arrest in proper court proceed- 




tion articles 4 and 5; right to "lib- 


ings, retention of insane, cus- 




erty and security of the person"; 


tody of minors. 




freedom from wrongful arrest) . 






Prompt information of charges in 


No exception. 




case of arrest (no corresponding 






declaration provision) . 






Trial within reasonable time (decla- 


No exception. 




ration article 5) . 






Habeas corpus (declaration article 5). 


No exception. 




Compensation for false arrest (no 


No exception. 




corresponding declaration provi- 




10 


sion) . 
Freedom from imprisonment for debt 
(no corresponding declaration arti- 
cle). 


No exception. 



" Provision is made for conscientious objectors performing service of a nonmili- 
tary character. A provision that conscientious objectors should be "compensated 
with adequate maintenance and pay" was defeated {ibid., p. 39). 



February 15, 1948 



203 



Summary of Covenant Articles — Continued 



Article 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



Eight 



Liberty of movement and free choice 
of residence within state (declara- 
tion article 10). 

Right to leave country (declaration 
article 10). 

Freedom of alien from arbitrary ex- 
pulsion (no corresponding declara- 
tion article). 

Fair hearing in all cases (declaration 
article 6). 

Public trial in criminal cases (decla- 
ration article 7) . 

Freedom from ex post facto laws 
(with special explanation in regard 
to war criminals) (declaration arti- 
cle 7). 

Right to juridical personality (decla- 
ration article 12, "recognition as a 
person before the law"). 

Freedom of religion (declaration arti- 
cle 16). 

Freedom of information and expres- 
sion '^ (declaration articles 17, 18.) 



Right of assembly (declaration arti- 
cle 19). 



Right not applicable in case of— 



Right of association (declaration arti- 
cle 19). 

Freedom from discrimination in rela- 
tion to rights set forth in the Cov- 
enant, equal protection against 
arbitrary discrimination or incite- 
ment thereto (declaration article 
3). 



Laws adopted for security or 
general interest. 

Lawful deprivation of liberty; 
obligation of military service. 
Illegal entry. 



No exception. 
No exception. 
No exception. 

No exception. 



Laws protecting public order, 
welfare, morals, rights of 
others. 

Publications inciting to alter 
government by violence, to 
promote disorder or crime; 
obscenity; suppression of hu- 
man rights; publications in- 
jurious to fair conduct of 
legal proceedings; libel; slan- 
der; advocacy of national, 
racial, or religious hostilities 
inciting to violence.*' 

Assembly which is not peace- 
able. Restrictions may also 
be imposed to protect life or 
property; to prevent dis- 
orders or obstruction of traf- 
fic and free movement of 
others. 

Promotion of interests which 
are not legitimate or lawful 
objects. 

No exception. 



" As in the case of Declaration arts. 17 and 18, the Covenant article on freedom 
of information and expression was taken from the Human Rights Drafting Com- 
mittee's draft and was not specifically passed on by the Commission. An alternate 
version suggested by the United States is also printed. The United States version 
does not contain specific limitations but relies on an over-all limitation clause. 

•3 This last limitation is not contained in art. 17; it is set forth separately in 
art. 21. 



204 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



In addition to the above, the Covenant provides 
in article 21 that advocacy of national, racial, or 
religious hostility inciting to violence shall be pro- 
hibited; ^* and in article 22 that no state (or per- 
son) may engage in any activity aimed at the 
destruction of rights prescribed in the Covenant.*" 

Comparison Between Declaration and Covenant 

It will be seen that the following rights are con- 
tained in the Covenant which are not contained in 
the Declaration : 

Freedom from mutilation or scientific experi- 
mentation (article 6) ; prompt information of 
charges in case of arrest (article 9) ; compensation 
for false arrest (article 9) ; freedom from im- 
prisonment for debt (article 10) ; freedom of alien 
from arbitrary expulsion (article 12) ; prohibition 
of advocacy of national or religious hostility 
(article 21). 

The following rights are contained in the Dec- 
laration which are not contained in the Covenant : 

Freedom from interference with reputation, 
privacy, family, home, correspondence (article 9) ; 
right of asylum (article 11) ; equal freedom to 
contract marriage (article 13) ; right to property 
(article 14) ; right to a nationality (article 15) ; 
right of petition (article 20) ; right to participate 
in government (article 21) ; all social and economic 
rights (articles 22-30) ; rights of minorities 



" No corresponding Declaration article. 

"° Since this right involves implementation, it is con- 
sidered in the report on Implementation ; the Commission 
reached no definite conclusion as to whether it should or 
should not later be included in the Covenant. 

"The distinction is justified by those supporting the 
two drafts on the assumption that the Covenant is a le- 
gally binding agreement whereas the Declaration is a 
statement of aspirations, certain of which can be placed 
in a covenant forthwith, others placed in covenants at a 
later time, and still others left for an indefinite period as 
moral rather than legal obligations. Under this assump- 
tion it is necessary to seek something approaching a least 
common denominator of rights presently contained, or 
contemplated for adoption, in the laws of a substantial 
number of member nations to constitute the material for 
the first convention. It so happens that rights of this 
character are the long-established civil rights. Social 
and economic rights, unknown until recently, are not 
generally or consistently contained in or projected for 
enough member nations' laws to make a proposal for a 
covenant on the subject worthy of immediate considera- 



(article 31) ; right to nationality (article 15) ; 
right of petition (article 20).*^ 

In other words, the Covenant deals exclusively 
with civil rights whereas the Declaration deals 
with civil, social and economic, and miscellaneous 
rights.** 

It is worthy of note also that the Covenant does 
not include all civil rights. Even such elementary 
rights as ownership of property and participation 
in government have not been included. The rea- 
son given for this was that the beginning must be 
relatively modest ; that nations will not be willing 
to enter into a covenant which contains rights 
whose definitions vary considerably in different 
countries. Under the circumstances it is surpris- 
ing that a majority of the Commission was able to 
agree on as many rights as are contained in the 
Covenant; and the possibility must be envisaged 
that in subsequent re-examination the Covenant 
may be narrowed rather than broadened in scope.*' 

Responsibilities of States 

The imdertaking of each state which becomes a 
party to the Covenant is expressed in article 2: 
that its laws should secure the enjoyment of the 
rights set forth in the Covenant; that it should 
insure that any person whose rights are violated 
has an effective remedy, enforceable by indepen- 
dent judiciary and supported by police and ex- 
ecutive oiiicers. As an instrument ratified by na- 



tion. Analysis of the constitutions of member states com- 
piled by the U.N. secretariat at the time of the first meet- 
ing of the Human Rights Drafting Committee (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/AC. 1/3/Add. 1, June 11, 1047) makes this point 
clear. In the case of certain Commission members who 
expressed more interest in the social and economic rights 
than in the civil rights, this was one reason for their voting 
against the proposed Covenant; but these members made 
no counter-proposal for a covenant dealing with social 
and economic rights. 

"' The Covenant is to be open to accession by all states 
(article 23). Provision is made for General Assembly 
approval in the case of states not members of the U.N. or 
parties to the International Court of Justice. A U.S. 
alternative article in the body of the text contains no such 
limiting provision. It will come into force as soon as two 
thirds of the U.N. members have acceded to it. The dis- 
ability of federal-state governments to bind states, prov- 
inces, or cantons is recognized in article 24, the wording of 
which is derived from that successfully worked out in 
international labor conventions. A special provision is 
also inserted with respect to colonies and territories 
(article 25). 



February 15, 1948 



205 



tions in accordance with their constitutional proc- 
esses and containing detailed provisions rather 
than statements of general principles, it would 
constitute a legally binding obligation. This ob- 
ligation extends not only to the passage of laws 
but to the insurance of their enforcement. 

IMPLEMENTATION 

Witliin the lapse of less than two years, the 
United Nations has made considerable strides 
in working out the details of a declaration and the 
substantive articles of a covenant. Wlien it comes 
to the all-important question of what the United 
Nations can or should do when a right is violated, 
a majority of the Human Rights Commission 
members have been quite unwilling to commit 
themselves. At the first session of the nuclear 
commission, the significance of this problem was 
recognized.*^ At the first session of the full Com- 
mission, only three members made formal, specific 
suggestions for implementation.'^^ At the first 
session of the Human Rights Drafting Committee, 
these suggestions and two additional suggestions '" 
were set fortli in an information memorandum 
produced by the secretariat on request,'^* but no 
committee action was taken with respect to them. 

At the second session of the Human Rights Com- 

** See discussion of nuclear cumniission session, supra. 

*The U.S. originated the proposal that implementation 
be accomplished by one or more treaties or conventions 
(U.N. doc. E/CN.4/4, Jan. 28, 1947). But it did not offer 
specific suggestions as to what means of implementation 
should be contained in the conventions. Australia pro- 
posed an International Court of Human Rights (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/15, Feb. 5, 1947). India proposed investigation 
and enforced redress by the Security Council in the case 
of all violations of human rights (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/11, 
Jan. 31, 1947, par. V). 

'" Proposals made in the Covenant for consideration of 
violations by the General Assembly, and obtaining of ad- 
visory opinions by the International Court of Justice, 
suggested by tlie U.K. (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/21, July 1, 1947, 
art. 6, p. 32) ; general proposals for protection of rights 
"by the commonwealth of nations" and the constitution 
of "an appropriate International organ with a view to 
ensuring effective observance of those rights" made by 
France (ibid., annex H, p. 95). 

" Ihid.. annex H. 

"Of the six members assigned to work on this group, 
one (the member from Uruguay) was unavoidably de- 
tained and did not arrive in time to participate. Another 
(the Ukrainian member) refused to participate in any 



mission a report was made by a four-member work- 
ing group on implementation,'^ but this report 
was not approved by the Commission. The report 
was, however, sent to all member governments for 
comment, together with the approved drafts of the 
Declaration and Covenant, since it is necessary 
before further consideration is given to the Dec- 
laration and the Covenant to know whether they 
are to contain measures of implementation and, if 
so, what these measures should be. 

Implementation of the Covenant 

The principal conclusions reached by the four- 
member Implementation Working Group relative 
to the Covenant are as follows : 

1. The Covenant should become part of the laws 
of states accepting it." 

2. The General Assembly, the Economic and 
Social Council, and the Human Rights Commis- 
sion should have the right to make recommenda- 
tions regarding violations of the Covenant.'* 

3. The right of petition (alleging violations of 
the Covenant) should be open to individuals and 
groups as well as to states." 

4. Machinery for petitions, should be as follows : 
A standing committee of five or more independent 
persons should be appointed, to be aided by an 



but the first two meetings (seven in all were held) on 
the ground that discussion of implementation should be 
postponed. 

''U.N. doc. E/600, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 44. The report of 
the Working Group states that measures should preferably 
be taken by states within their local jurisdictions bringing 
their laws into line with the Covenant before they ratify 
the Covenant ; otherwise, such measures should be taken 
within the shortest possible time thereafter. 

" Ibid., p. 48. The Working Group felt tliat the Economic 
and Social Council should delegate its authority to the 
Commission in this respect. 

'"Ibid., pp. 50 ff. This right should not be granted in the 
case of petitions from nationals of nonsisnatory states, or 
from nongovernmental organizations which do not origi- 
nate in a signatory state. In connection with this point, 
and also in connection with article 2 of the Covenant, the 
question was raised as to whether nonparticipating states 
or their nationals could allege a violation. As drafted by 
the Covenant Working Group, the Covenant would have 
given the right to nonparticipating states to allege viola- 
tions, since tlie obligations of the Covenant were stated 
to be "international law". This provision was deleted in 
the full Commission on motion of the Egyptian member, 
in effect, on the ground that nonparticipating states should 
not be given benefits without expressly assuming burdens. 



206 



Department of State Bulletin 



enlarged secretariat staff and by subcommittees. 
Tlie committee should screen petitions and nego- 
tiate in private session.™ 

5. Supervision and enforcement by the United 
Nations is legall}^ possible " and advisable ; this 
should be done at a later stage by an organ of the 
United Nations or a specialized agency.'* An in- 
ternational court on human rights is advisable.'^ 
The General Assembly, rather than the Security 
Council, should "ensure . . . implementation 
of decisions of the . . . Court".^" 

Implementation of the Declaration 

There was some indication of a desire to provide 
for implementation in the Declaration.*^ Actually, 
however, the Commission approved no provision 
for implementation of the Declaration, and the Im- 
plementation Working Group indicated that the 
problem of implementation did not arise with re- 
gard to the Declaration in view of its "non-binding 
nature"'.*' 



""Ibid., pp. 53-56. 

" Ibid., pp. 52, .53. The legal question here considered is 
whether the United Nations can perform a function not 
specifically referred to in the Charter. The Working Group 
concluded that the brief Charter provisions relating to 
human rights called for specification, and referred to 
United Nations responsibility for administration of 
Trieste, based on the peace treaty with Italy, as a prece- 
dent for action not specified in the Charter. 

" Ibid., pp. 56-62. 

'"Ibid., p. 61. 

'^ Ibid., p. 63. The Working Group recognized that the 
General Assembly has powers of recommendation only. 

"A proposal was made (rejected by both the Declara- 
tion Working Group and the full Commission) that the 
Declaration contain a provision that all United Nations 
members shall assure that their law is brought into and 
maintained in conformity with the principles of the 
Declaration, and that a system of effective judicial appeal 
be organized by the state to penalize violations of these 
principles (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/57, Dec. 10, 1947, report of 
the Declaration Working Group, p. 17). Taken in con- 
junction with the Implementation Working Group's dictum 
that rights expressed in the Declaration were outside the 
domestic jurisdiction of member states (U.N. doc. E/600, 
Dec. 17, 1947, p. 43, question B), the proposal could in 
effect have provided to a considerable extent the same 
implementation for Declaration violations as is provided 
in the Covenant. Although the Implementation Working 
Group's proposals for an expert committee or for an 
international court of human rights would not apply to 
violations of the Declaration, it would seem that the right 



As at present drafted, even without the inclusion 
of specific articles on implementation along the 
lines suggested by the Implementation Working 
Group, it is possible that the Covenant would be 
considered to have removed the barrier imposed 
by the Charter's domestic jurisdiction clause.*' 
At the very least, one country which has ratified 
the Covenant might complain, outside of the 
United Nations, of violations by another country 
which has ratified the Covenant; and in view of 
the essentially domestic nature of the Covenant's 
obligations, this could concern matters within the 
offending country's domestic jurisdiction. Ac- 
cording to the opinion of the Working Group, 
such complaint could be made in the forum of the 
United Nations.** 

It would not seem, however, that any such re- 
moval of the barrier would apply to the Declara- 
tion.*^ Indeed, the project of having recommen- 
dations made as to specific violations of an instru- 
ment which is an expression of aspirations and is 
not binding could present considerable diffi- 
culties.** 



of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, 
and the Commission on Human Rights to make inquiry and 
recommendation could in such event apply. 

^ U.N. doc. E/600, Dec. 17, 1947, p. 44. 

"' Art. 2, par. 7 of the U.N. Charter provides : "Nothing 
contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United 
Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially 
within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall re- 
quire the Members to submit such matters to settlement 
under the present Charter; but this principle shall not 
prejudice the application of enforcement measures under 
Chapter VII." (Chapter VII deals with Security Council 
action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches 
of the peace, and acts of aggression.) 

" Ibid., pp. 47-53. 

"'See letter of Ernest A. Gross, Legal Adviser to the 
Secretary of State, to the Attorney General, dated Nov. 
4, 1947, regarding Shelley v. Kraemer (no. 72, U.S. Su- 
preme Court), submitted as an exhibit in the brief of the 
United States as amicus curiae; see also Secretary of 
State's Report to the President on the Results of the San 
Francisco Conference, Department of State publication 
2349, p. 115. 

™ In this connection the question must be considered 
whether the complaint against South Africa because of its 
treatment of Indians would have been the proper subject 
of U.N recommendation had it not been for treaties and 
clearly international subject matter involved. See pro- 
ceedings of the General Assembly, first session, second 
part. 



February 15, 1948 



207 



Work Accomplished; Work To Be Done 

The Commission on Human Rights has produced 
a Declaration, designed to be a statement of aspi- 
rations, that summarizes the civil, social and 
economic, and other rights which the Commission 
members felt to be most important. It could be 
regarded as complete except for a preamble. 
Whether it will be further expanded, or con- 
tracted, whether its emphasis should be on the 
right of the individual or the right of the state, 
are among the principal questions facing the Com- 
mission and other bodies which will recast it in 
shape for presentation to the General Assembly.^' 

The Commission has also produced a partial 
draft of covenant, which is designed to set forth 
individual rights which member states would be 
legally bound to observe. The Covenant contains 
a limited number of civil rights. A principal 
question to be decided in connection with the 
Covenant is (as in the case of the Declaration) 
whether it is to be expanded or contracted.'' 
Another question is to what extent failures to 
comply with the Covenant's provisions shall war- 
rant international action. 

In addition the Commission has authorized the 
circulation of a working paper on imjjlementa- 
tion, approved by four of its members. 

The work on the international bill of human 
rights'" has reached the half-way mark. Mem- 

" See discussion of definitive plan for drafting of bill, 
supra. 

" In this connection attention may be given to the pro- 
posal originally made by the United States (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/4) for a series of covenants, which was favor- 
ably discussed at the Commission's second session. 



ber nations have by now received the Commis- 
sion's drafts. Their comments must be formu- 
lated. There remains consideration at sessions 
of the Human Rights Drafting Committee, the 
Human Rights Commission, the Economic and 
Social Council, and the General Assembly, all 
to be held this year. 

The work on the bill of rights to date (Febru- 
ary 1948) has been more rapid and more ambi- 
tious than many commentators had believed pos- 
sible. The results of the Commission's second 
session cannot be considered in any way final so 
far as the United Nations or any individual mem- 
ber state is concerned. The eighteen members 
of the Commission are not necessarily a cross sec- 
tion of the United Nations as a whole; and even 
the governments whose members served on the 
Commission are not bound by the admittedly 
tentative conclusions which the Commission 
reached. 

What the Commission sincerely strove to do 
was to create an atmosphere and the framework 
of a system in which human rights can be recog- 
nized to a fuller extent than hitherto dreamed of. 
The terrain over which the Commission traveled 
was absolutely new. Whether or not member 
nations will feel that the trail blazed by the Com- 
mission leads in the right direction will become 
evident over the course of the next few months. 



" The three documents — Declaration, Covenant, and re- 
port on implementation^are for the time being referred 
to by the Commission on Human Rights as the "Inter- 
national Bill of Human Rights" (U.N. doc. E/600, p. 6, 
par. 38). 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



Economic and Social Council 

Report of the Activities of tlie Interim Commission of the 
World Health Organization in 1947. E/593, January 
14, 1948. 26 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 29C0 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

208 



Report of the Commission on Human Rights. Second 
Session. E/600, December 17, 1947. 71 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Agreement Between the International Labour Or- 
ganization and the United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization. E/COl, December 22, 
1947. 6 pp. miiTieo. 

Co-ordination of the Activities of the United Nations and 
of the Specialized Agencies in the Economic and So- 
cial Fields. E/G02, January 20, 1948. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Interim Report of the Economic Commission for Europe 
to tlie Economic and Social Council. E/603, January 
13, 1948. 37 pp. mimeo. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Sixth Session of the Economic and Social Council 

STATEMENT BY WILLARD L. THORP ' 
U.S. Representative to ECOSOC 



Me. Chairman: As you all unhappily know, 
we have an agenda before us of 45 items, and it is 
rather difficult to anticipate adequate considera- 
tion of all these items in the length of time we will 
have in the next several weeks. 

I think before I discuss particular items I would 
merely want to make one general observation. On 
the document each one of these items looks to be 
of equal importance. I think we should remember 
that there are some items here which do indicate 
a rather new opportunity for our work. For the 
first time we will have an opportunity to discuss 
together a careful analysis of general economic 
conditions and trends. Unfortunately, for reasons 
which we all understand, we have not had a chance 
to study these documents in advance, but I know 
as soon as we have them we will all be very much 
concerned and interested in them. At the same 
time we have a series of subjects relating to co- 
ordination, and we also have the reports of a num- 
ber of specialized agencies and of commissions 
and subcommissions. Now these things together 
mean that we at last have the opportunity which 
all of us have been anticipating ever since the 
Council started to undertake the task of reviewing 
the economic problems, the social problems of the 
world, reviewing the work of the United Nations 
and its related agencies, and seeking as best we 
can to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of 
the United Nations with respect to these problems. 
I think the exciting thing about the agenda is 
hidden away in these small items — small in the 
number of words on the agenda — and the oppor- 
tunity to do this task. At the last meeting we were 
looking forward to the time when we could move 
toward a consideration of the basic economic con- 



ditions in the world and the effectiveness of our 
own agencies. Apparently that time has come. 

With respect to the individual items on the 
agenda, I should like to divide my remarks into 
two general groups: first, with respect to the 
matter of whether certain items should or should 
not be on the agenda and, secondly, with respect 
to the sequence of items on the agenda. 

With respect to the items that are on the agenda, 
we see very little that can be done to change the 
grouping. I would like to comment on item 8. 
Item 8 is the one entitled "Damage Caused to the 
Federal People's Kepublic of Yugoslavia by the 
Withholding of its Gold Reserves by the United 
States of America". This is an item which im- 
plies that the Economic and Social Council is an 
agency for resolving disputes between two nations. 
I shall not discuss in any way the content of this 
matter, but I should like to say that it is a matter 
on which negotiation has been taking place be- 
tween ourselves and Yugoslavia. No resolution 
has yet been reached of the group of problems of 
which the item on the agenda is one. The Eco- 
nomic and Social Council has certain functions 
and powers which are defined in the Charter. 
There is nothing in the Charter which authorizes 
the Council to act in an arbitration or a concilia- 
tion or a judicial determination. In the Charter 
you will find all references to the settlement of 
disputes and situations relating to the work of 
the Security Council, not relating to the work of 
the Economic and Social Council. The notion that 



' Made at the opening session on Feb. 2, 1948, and re- 
leased to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the 
same date. Mr. Thorp is Assistant Secretary of State for 
economic affairs. 



February 15, 1948 



209 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

this agency should become an agency for resolving 
bilateral economic disputes was certainly not con- 
templated at San Francisco, and one can find no 
such indication of a function for us in the Charter. 
So, for technical gi'ounds, I carefully question the 
propriety of items of this type appearing on our 
agenda. 

I just should like to speak in a sense for more 
practical reasons as to why it is somewhat un- 
fortunate to have such items on the agenda. Those 
of you who have engaged in negotiations are well 
aware of the fact that your negotiations are made 
increasingly difficult by the degree to which posi- 
tions are taken by either Government publicly. In 
a full discussion of a problem of this sort in public, 
both Governments involved, I think, will find 
themselves in a greater difficulty when it comes 
to ultimately resolving the issue. So, for technical 
grounds and practical grounds, I regret that this 
item is on the agenda. However, the United States 
is a party with respect to this matter. The United 
States does not wish to take any position which 
would indicate that it is unwilling to have its 
acts discussed. We are prepared to discuss the 
merits of positions taken by our Government, and, 
therefore, with respect to this item, I shall not 
oppose its inclusion on the agenda although I do 
believe that it is most unfortunate to find it there. 
I cannot take the position of approving it being 
on the agenda, and, therefore, when we ultimately 
approve the agenda, Mr. Chaii'man, I shall ask 
to be recorded as abstaining with respect to this 
particular item. 

The question has been raised with respect to two 
items having to do with the specialized agency of 
IcAO. Nothing that I say on this matter should 
be regarded as indicating the position of the 
United States Government with respect to these 
items. But I should like to support the position 
taken by the representative of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral before the Agenda Committee. That posi- 
tion is reported in full on page 7 of the Agenda 
Committee's report, and it indicates that the Secre- 
tary-General holds that the agreement came into 
force in May 1947 on action taken by the First As- 
sembly of IcAo to amend its constitution so as to de- 
bar Franco Spain from membership and on the 
withdrawal of the Spanish Delegation from that 
Assembly ; that the coming into force of the agree- 
ment had been reported to the General Assembly 
at its second regular session, to which no objection 



had been made; and that the General Assembly 
had taken a number of actions under the terms of 
the agreement, including the approval of the ad- 
mission of Italy and Austria to membership of 
IcAO. And if, Mr. Chairman, action of the Gen- 
eral Assembly with regard to the budget and the 
allocation of money is to be cited, it seems to me 
the fact that the General Assembly has taken 
action with respect to Icao is an indication that 
it would be rather snobbish of us to decide that we 
could not be on friendly relations with the agency 
which the General Assembly was quite prepared 
to deal with. On this particidar matter I think we 
have to accept the ruling of the Secretary-General 
as to whether the requirements of the General As- 
sembly have or have not been made. 

There has been some discussion of item 28, the 
item relating to slave labor. Apparently in gen- 
eral it is recognized that there is a problem of con- 
siderable importance but that it is brought before 
the Economic and Social Council in a question- 
able setting. I wonder whether that is a legiti- 
mate reason for eliminating something from the 
agenda, Mr. Chairman. The agenda is intended 
to direct our attention to a problem. In consid- 
ering the problem I would assume that our duty 
is to redefine the setting, if we have question about 
it; to put the problem in its proper context; to 
determine, if we cannot deal with it, the proper 
agency to deal with the jDroblem. I was quite im- 
pressed with the suggestion made by the Delegate 
of Poland as to a possible solution of this problem. 
The fact is that the problem exists, and the 
speeches with reference to it have justified its 
inclusion on the agenda. 

Now I should like to speak of several points with 
respect to the order in which things are included 
on the agenda. Again, Mr. Chairman, I am try- 
ing not to discuss the substance but only the prob- 
lem of setting up a series of topics for our consid- 
eration. 

The first item about which I have some ques- 
tion is item numbered 5 on the new agenda having 
to do with the election of three members of the 
Joint Economic Board for Palestine. The only 
question on that is that by putting this so early on 
the agenda it is clear that no action can be taken 
by the Economic and Social Council, because be- 
fore any such action could be taken we need a 
much more exact definition of the requirements, 
salary, the status, and such things for these indi- 



210 



Department of State Bulletin 



vidiwls. I have no reason for believing that we 
will have such information before the end of our 
session. But it would seem to me that if we do 
place this item early on our agenda, we should be 
at least willing to reestablish it on the agenda in 
the latter daj's of our session if by chance circum- 
stances develop in such a way that we could prop- 
erly deal with it in this session. 

With respect to item 8 — that is the item which 
I have already discussed as relating to the gold 
reserve problem — it came as quite a surprise to me 
to discover its being placed so early on the agenda. 
It is an item which is not a standing item. It is 
a new and si^ecial and very limited problem. It 
had originally been item 31 and I would have to 
state. Mr. Chairman, that if the agenda were fol- 
lowed in this order, which would bring this item 
up before the Council in a day or two, I should 
have to ask for some postponement because I shall 
not be able to take the matter up before next week. 

As to item 23, this is an item proposed by the 
Food and Agriculture Organization concerning 
coordinated action to meet the continuing world 
food crisis. On this item the documentation is, to 
say the least, obscure. This may be a substantive 
item having to do with food problems. It may be 
a coordinating item having to do with various 
agencies in the field of food and agriculture. I 
would hope that its being placed as a problem in 
the economic group would not prevent our con- 
sidering it as one of our coordination problems if 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

later documentation proves that that is the more 
appropriate place where it should be included. 

Finally, I should like to talk about coordinating 
items in general. As the agenda comes before us, 
the fourth group of items from 32 on are grouped 
together as coordination problems. This agenda is 
set up this way on the assumption, I believe, that 
we are virtually going through the entire agenda 
rather quickly gi'oup by group, getting the items 
into committees for more detailed work. In that 
case I have no difficulty with this structure. If, 
on the other hand, we follow the practice which we 
have had in the past of going on down through 
the agenda more carefully, I would be inclined to 
feel that we ought not to leave coordination and 
its problems to the very end. I agree with the 
Representative from Australia that emphasis 
should be put on this point. It should not be in- 
cidental; it should be one of our major responsi- 
bilities. I am not sure that we ought not to give 
consideration to coordination problems before we 
move into the problems of the individual agencies. 
At any rate, we should have it in mind at that time. 
Wliile I am not suggesting a change in the agenda 
with respect to these items, I do suggest that we 
all keep in mind the fact that we are most con- 
cerned ourselves with the problem of coordination 
and not have it the tail end of our consideration 
here at our meetings, but have it something that is 
going along with the substantive consideration of 
the particular matters before us. 



AGENDA FOR THE SIXTH SESSION OF ECOSOC' 



1. (1)* Election of President and Vice-Presidents for 

1948 

2. (2) Report of the Agenda Committee and adoption 

of Agenda 

3. (9) United Nations Maritime Conference: Question 

of Voting Rights 

4. (21) Admission of IMonaco to Unesco 

5. (36) Consideration of arrangements in connection 

with the election by the Economic and Social 
Council of three members of the Joint Eco- 
nomic Board for Palestine 

6. (38) Draft Rules for the calling of International Con- 

ferences 

7. (32) Proposal to hold the seventh session of the 

Economic and Social Council at the United 



Nations Headquarters, Lake Success. Item 
proposed by the representative of the United 
Kingdom 
8. (31) Damage caused to the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia by the withholding of its gold 
reserves by the United States of America. 
Item proposed by Yugoslavia 



■ Recommendations of the Agenda Committee to the 
Council subject to reservations and comments contained 
in section I of the report of the Agenda Committee, U.N. 
doc. E/631, Jan. 31, 1948. 

* Numbers in parentheses represent numbers of items as 
in U.N. doc. E/607. 



February IS, 1948 



211 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Agenda for the Sixth Session of ECOSOC — Continued 

9. (new Addition to Article concerning the use of the 
item) United Nations "laissez-passer" to the agree- 
ment between the United Nations and the 

ICAO 

10. (15) Report of the second session of the Social Com- 

mission 

11. (16) Report of the second session of the Population 

Commission 

12. (17) Report of the second session of the Commission 

on Narcotic Drugs 

13. (18) Report of the Permanent Central Opium Board 

14. (19) Report of the Executive Board of the Interna- 

tional Children's Emergency Fund 

15. (20) United Nations Appeal for Children 

16. (28) Report by the Secretary-General on the ques- 

tion of the establishment of Research Labora- 
tories of the United Nations 

17. (6) Report of the ad hoc Committee on the proposal 

for an Economic Commission for Latin 
America 

Question of the establishment of an Economic 
Commission for the Middle East 

Report of the Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East 

Interim report of the Economic Commission for 
Europe 

United Nations Scientific Conference on Conser- 
vation and Utilization of Resources 

Surveys of World Economic Conditions and 
Trends 

Co-ordinated action to meet the continuing 
world food crisis. Item proposed by the Fao 

Report of the second session of the Statistical 
Commission 

Resolution of the United Nations Trade and 
Employment Conference at Havana on em- 
ployment (if accepted and passed by the 
plenary conference at Havana in time) 

Report of the second session of the Commission 
on Human Rights 

Report of the second session of the Sub- 
Commission on Freedom of Information and 
of the Press 

28. (34) Survey of forced labour and measures for its 

abolition. Item proposed by the American 
Federation of Labor 

29. (new Report of the second session of the Commission 
item) on the Status of Women 

30. (35) Principle of equal pay for equal work for men 

and women workers. Item proposed by the 
Wftu 

31. (13) Genocide 

32. (22) Relations with and co-ordination of specialized 

agenc