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[VOLUME XIX: Numbers 470-495 

July 4-December 26, 1948 







INDEX 



^CNT o^ 




U. S. SueERlNIENDENT OF UUUUtaLhUi 

JUN . 7 1949 
Corrections in Volume XIX 



The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call attention 
to the following discrepancies that occurred In print- 
ing telegraphic items from the General Assembly in 
Paris : 

In the issue of December 12, 19^8, page 728, third 
paragraph: 

In "The United States in the United Nations", it is 
stated that the United Nations Temporary Commis- 
sion on Korea "will continue to seek means for bring- 
ing about the unification of Korea and the integration 
of all Korean security forces." The text of the resolu- 
tion establishing a new Commission states that this 
Commission will "continue the work of the Temporary 
Commission" but further that the new Commission 
"Shall be regarded as having superseded the Temporary 
Commission." (See Bulletin of December 10, 1948, 
page 760. ) 

In the issue of Decemlier 19, 191iS, page 760: 

A text of the joint resolution for the new Commission 
on Korea is here printed. That text was amended to 
include the Canadian amendment (U. N. doc. A/806, 
December 12, 1948), a paragraph of which reads as 
follows : 

"In paragraph 4, delete the words 'consisting of the 
same Member States which composed the United Na- 
tions Temporary Commission on Korea' and substitute 
therefor the words 'consisting of the following States : 
Australia, China, El Salvador, France, India, the Phil- 
ippines, Syria.' " 

The footnote on the same page should read as fol- 
lows: 



" Introduced by the U. S., China, and Australia in 
Committee I on Dec. 6, 1948, and adopted by the Gen- 
eral Assembly on Dec. 12, 1948, after amendment. The 
text of the documents is contained in U. N. docs. A/788 
and A/806. 

In the same issue, page 752: 

The footnote relating to the Universal Declaration 
of Human Rights should read : 

' Approved by Committee III on Dec. 7, 1948, and by 
the General Assembly on Dec. 10, 1948. 

In the same issue, page 763: 

It is stated in "The United States In the United 
Nations", fifth paragraph, left-hand colunm, that the 
Conciliation Commission "will take over the work of 
acting Palestine mediator Bunche". The resolution 
states precisely that the Conciliation Commission shall 
". . . assume insofar as it considers necessary in 
existing circumstances, the functions given to the U. N. 
Mediator on Palestine by the resolution of tlie General 
Assembly of 14 May 1948". (See the issue of De- 
cember 12, 1948, page 726, and General Assembly modi- 
fications printed in the issue of December 26, 1948, page 
793. See also U. N. doc. A/807, December 20, 1948.) 

Two other corrections in this volume should be noted 
In the issue of November H, 19^8, page 613, footnote 3: 

The date of the document (U. N. doc. S/1045) should 
read Oct. 19, 1948, rather than Oct. 19, 1945. 

In the issue of December 19, 1948, page 767: 

The heading "lEO Preparatory Commission : Seventh 
Session" should read "IRO Preparatory Commission : 
Seventh Part of First Session". 



^^ 36-3. I A <^0 

index"' "^^ 

Volume XIX: Numbers 470-495, July 4-December 26, 1948 



Publication 3461 



Abbink, John, appointment as chairman of U. S. section 

of joint Brazil-U. S. Technical Commission, 136. 
Abdul Rahim. Mohamed Kamil, credentials as Egyptian 

Ambassador to U. S., 449. 
Adams, Col. Edward F., impartial in Venezuelan revolt, 777. 
Administrative and budgetary implications of program 
legislation, development, State Department regula- 
tions, 682. 
Advisory Defense Committee (of American States), 596. 
Afghanistan: 
Ambassador to U. S., Nairn, credentials, 746. 
U. S. Legation at Kabul, elevation to rank of em- 
bassy, 746. 
Agriculture : 
European, aid from U. S., 616. 

Mexican farm labor, illegal entry into Texas charged 
by Mexico, exchange of notes, U. S. and Mexico, 
562, 585. 
Potato crop agreement, with Canada, 744. 
Agriculture Organization of U. N., Food and, 4th session. 

See Food. 
Agua Prieta, Mexico, closing of U. S. consulate recon- 
sidered, 451. 
Aid to foreign countries {see also individual countries): 
Article on the 1947 foreign relief program, 95. 
Austria, 243. 
China : 
Exchange of notes establishing a joint commission on 
Rural Reconstruction in accordance with China 
Aid Act of 1948, 207, 208. 
Interim Aid, 243. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. See Economic. 
Economic Cooperation Administration. See Economic 
European Recovery Program. See European. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act (1947), agreetnents, 

U. S. with Austria, China, Greece, and Italy, 99. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act (1949), statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
France, 243. 
German Bizone, 243. 
Italy, 243. 

Palestine refugees, 180, 237, 293, 447, 575, 615, 636, 778. 
Palestine refugees, relief recommended by President 

Truman to U. S. Congress, 778. 
President's budget, excerpts, 342. 
Vessels transferred to European countries, 283. 
Aid to Near East by American Red Cross, 586. 
Air transport agreement, U. S. with — 
Bolivia, signature, 470. 
Mexico, discussed, 300. 
Air lift in Berlin. See Berlin crisis. 
Albania : 
Conciliators appointed. General Assembly resolution 

(Nov. 27), 696. 
Greco-Albanian border violatlon.s, text of reply from 
Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister, to tripartite 
appeal, 461. 
Greek guerrillas, aid to, 238. 

Greek guerrillas aided, UNSCOB charges, draft resolu- 
tion, 635. 
V. N. membership, qualifications, 695, 729. 
UNSCOB, attitude toward Committee and report, 608. 
I 611, 635. • 

Uexander, Robert C, Senate subcommittee on immigra- 
tion and naturalization, testimony, 335. 
Uesandria, Eg.\T3t, U. S. Consulate, elevation to rank of 
, consulate general, 123. 

ndex, July to December J 948 



Aliens, admission to U. S. : 

Displaced Persons Act of 1948, procedure, 411. 
Germany, western, and Austria, registration under Im- 
migration Act of 1924, 412. 
Illegal entry of Mexican farm workers charged to U. S., 

562 ; exchange of notes, U. S. and Mexico, 585. 
Personnel of international organizations, report of Sec- 
retary of State's committee, 335. 
Allen, George V. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Science, victim to Communism's strait jacket, 409. 
UNESCO, 661. 
United Nations Day, 549. 
U. S. information program, 88. 
Voice of America : 
DLscussed, 567. 

Hungarian campaign against, 91, 145. 
Allison, John M., designation in State Department, 682. 
American Association for the Advancement of Science: /!_ 
Incident involving Ethiopian Minister, 413, 448. 
Speech on Communism's restraint of science by Mr. 
Allen, 409. 
American Middle East ReUef Incorporated, aid to Near 

East, 299. 
American Mission for Aid to Greece : 
Griswold resignation, 501. 
Supplies released to Near East refugees, 447. 
American republics : 

Cultural relations, Buenos Aires convention (1936), fel- 
lowships for U. S. students in certain American 
countries, 742. 
Inter-American declaration of solidarity (1940), 592. 
Inter- American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947), 

592. 
Organization of American States, 594 ; chart, 595. 
Publications listed, 597. 

Treaties, agreements, organizations, history of, article 
by Mr. Monsma, 591. 
American Republics, International Union of (1889), 594. 
American states, 9th international conference, Bogota, 594. 
Anderson, Andrew W., article on Indo-Pacific Fisheries 

Council, 12. 
Antarctica, internationalization, U. S. attitude, 301. 
Anthropological and ethnological sciences, international 

congress, 3d session, U. S. delegation, agenda, 135. 
Antigua, British West Indies, closing of U. S. Consulate, 

477. 
Arab States. See Palestine situation. 
Arabian-American Oil Company, aid to Near East, 293. 
Arctic expeditions, notes of Peary and Nares found by 

U. S.-Canada supply mission, texts, 471. 
Argentina : 
Ambassador to U. S. (Remorino) credentials, 59. 
Antarctica, U. S. asks discussion, 301. 
IRO, adherence to, 83. 

Military mission, advisory, from U. S., agreement signed 
494. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for: 
Continuance of, 180. 
Publication of armed strength report. General Assembly 

draft resolution, 696. 
Report to Security Council, 194, 196. 
Resolutions : 

Defining of conventional armaments, 268. 
Principles basic to arms reduction, 196. 
Regulation and reduction of armaments and armed 
forces, 267. 

813 



Armaments, Conventional, Commission for— Continued 
Statement by Mr. Osborn in General Assembly, 630. 
U. S. S. R., participation in, 511, 556. 
Armour, Norman, resigned as Assistant Secretary of State, 

213. 
Arms and armed forces: 

Atomic energy control. See atomic energy. 
Greek guerrillas receiving war material, 238. 
Korea, withdrawal of occupying forces; 

Exchange of notes between U. S. and V. S. S. R., 456. 
U. S. policy, 440. 
Over-all strength of U. N. Members' armed forces, status 

of report on, 195, 263. 
Palestine, armed guard, discussed by President Truman 

and Mediator, 237, 439. 
Palestine, arms from U. S., 293. 

Palestine immigrants of military age from V. S. zones in 
Austria and Germany, 386. 
Arms and armed forces, reduction of: 
Belgian resolution passed by U. N. subcommittee, 55b. 
Commission for Conventional Armaments, resolution on 

principles basic to reduction of, 196. 
General Assembly, draft resolution, 696. 
Polish proposal rejected by U. N. subcommittee, 556. 
Publication of military strength, 195, 263, 635, 696. 
tJ. S. position: 

Mr. Austin, 463, 511. 
Mr. Dulles, 609. 

Secretary Marshall, in General Assembly, 434. 
Mr. Osborn, 194, 630. 
U. S. S. R. proposal in General Assembly to reduce arms 
by one third, 441 ; rejection by V. N. subcommittee, 
556 ; U. S. attitude, 463. 

Address by Mr. Butterworth, 492. 
Communist strategy in southeast Asia, 410. 
Atherton, Ray: 
Appointed alternate U. S. representative to General 

Assembly, 236, 330. 
Resignation as Ambassador to Canada, 236. 
Atomic energy, International Control of, Policy at the 

Crossroads, released, 123. 
Atomic Energy Commission of U. N. : 
Addresses, statements, etc.: 

Mr. Austin, 441, 463, 511, 535, 539, 602. 
Secretary Marshall, 434. 
Mr. Osborn, 14, 490. 
Armed forces, relation to reduction of, 511, 556, 696. 
Canadian amended proposal, text, 521. 
General Assembly approval, 490, 576. 
General Assembly resolutions, 576, (text) 606, 696. 
Reports to U. N. ( 1st, 2d, 3d) , action on in Security Coun- 
cil, with statement by Mr. Osborn, 14, 236. 
Security Council resolution, text, 27, 236. 
U.S. policy, summarized by Secretary Marshall in 3d 

session, General Assembly, 434. 
U.S. supports Canadian proposal, statement by Mr. 

Austin in General Assembly, 535, 539. 
U.S.S.R. attitude, 463, 499, 511. 
U.S.S.R. sincerity questioned by Mr. Osborn, 490. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S.: 

Eniwetok proving ground, danger area, 811. 
Fourth semiannual report, statement of President Tru- 
man on release of, 151. 
Atrato-Truand6 canal route, Colombia-U. S. study, 212. 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Atomic energy control, in General Assembly, 441, 463, 

535 539 602. 
General' Assembly evaluated, excerpts, 754. 
U.N. headquarters construction progress, 237. 
United Nations Day, 551. 
U.S.S.R. proposal to reduce armed forces, 511. 
Ceylon membership in U.N. favored, 238. 
Correspondence : 

U.N. Secretary-General (Lie), charging U.S.S.R. with 
threat to peace in Berlin, 455. 



Austin, Warren R. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 
U.N. Secretary-General (Lie), on Jewish and Arab 
displaced persons, 265. 
U.S. representative to General Assembly, 330. 
U.S.S.R. charged in General Assembly with threat to 
peace, 441. 
Australia : 

Antarctica, U.S. asks discussion, 301. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: .,,_„„ .. 

Mar6ohal Joffre claims settlement, with U.S. and 

France, 561. . 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provision- 
ally effective, 642. . ' 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of ; 
(1946), ratification, 714. 

Aid under 1947 U.S. foreign reUef program, 101. 
Displaced persons, admission to U.S. from, 411, 412. 
Displaced persons, aid by U.S. Foreign Service person- 
nel, 501. , ^ I 

Emigration from U.S. zone to Palestine, regulations, 

exchange of notes with U.S., 386. 
Immigration to U.S. opened, 735. 
Murder of Irving Ross in Soviet zone, 646. 
Peace settlement, U.S. policy summarized by Secretary 
Marshall in 3d session, General Assembly, 433. i 
Peace treaty negotiations requested, 777. 
Steel production, 553. , ^ ™- ' 

Trade-mark registration, time extended, 527. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: i 

Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed with 
U.S., 104. ^. , 

Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
U N membership, reconsideration of application, 693, 
'729, 754, 801. 
Aviation. See International Civil Aviation Organization ; 
Treaties. 

Balkan Commission of Security Council (Security Coun- 
cil Commission of Investigation Concerning Greek 
Frontier Incidents), attitude of Bulgaria on, 447. 

Balkan situation: ,. , „o,r 

Balkan states meet with U.N. mediators, 637. 
General Assembly resolution (Nov. 27), appointing 

conciliators, 696. 
General Assembly resolution (Nov. 27) recommendmg 
"establishment of good neighbour relations" and 
return of Greek children, text, 722. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB) : 
Aid to Greek guerrillas condemned and Speaal Com- 
mittee continued, 635, 697. 
Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia charged with threat 

to peace, 608. 
Attitude of Balkan States on, 447, 461, 608, 611. 
Continuation approved, 615, 635, 697. 
General Assembly approves 3d interim report, 576. 
Greek children, deportation of, reported, 25. 
Greek guerrillas aided by Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugo- 
slavia, report, 238. 
Members, U.S. representatives, 238. 
Report completed, 16. 
Bank and Fund. See International Bank; International 

Monetary Fund. 
Bannantine, George, detained by Hungary, 469, 494, p7, 
Barber Willard F., designation in State Department, DOrf. 
Bechhoefer, Bernhard G., article on voting in the Security 

Council of U.N., 3. 
Belgian Congo : . 

U. S. Consulate at ElisabethviUe, opening, 477. 

Ams reduction resolution passed by U. N. subcommit- 
tee, 556. ^ . , 
Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communique, 

583. 



814 



Department of State Bulletin 



BelKium— Continued 
IRO, adherence to, S3. 
Palestine, Security Council subcommittee to consider 

sanctions, 555. 
Public-liealtli attach^ to U. S. Embassy in Brussels, 476. 
Steel production, 553. 

Surplus war property, payment on account, 148. 
Trade-mark registration, renewal, proclamation, 212. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation with U. S., signature, 5S5, 680. 
Educational-exchange program, with U. S., 528, 681. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed with 

U. S., 104. 
Tariff's and trade, general agreement on, provisionally 

effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
D. S. Sen. res. 239, exchange of views with U. S., U. K., 

France, Canada, and other Benelux countries, 80. 
Visa requirements changed, 520. 
Belgrade conference. See Danube, conference to consider 
i free navigation of the. 
Benelux countries, exchange of views on U. S. Sen. res. 

239, with U. S., U. K., France, and Canada, 80. 
Benninghoff, H. Merrell, address on Indonesian situa- 
' tion, 9. 
Benton, William, on proposed gift of Encyclopaedia Britan- 

nica to newspapers in U. S. zone of Germany, 144. 
Berendsen, Sir Carl, K.C.M.G., credentials as New Zea- 
land Ambassador to U. S., 744. 
Bergen, Norway, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Berlin Crisis: A Report on the Moscow Discussions, 1948, 

published, 431. 
Berlin crisis : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Mr. Jessup. 4S4, 541, 574. 
Secretary Marshall, 54, 141. 
Mr. Saltzman, 495. 
Ambassador Smith, 544. 
. Air lift, statements by : 

I Mr. Jessup in Security Council, 484, 541, 574. 
Secretary Marshall, 54. 
Mr. Saltzman, 497. 
Air traffic, restrictions proposed by U.S.S.R., 423, 426, 
I 427, 429, 430, 485, 487. 498, 545. 

; Bank of emission, German, 423, 426, 427. 

Blockade, denied by U.S.S.R. in Security Council, 463. 
Blockade, di.scussed in statements, communiques and 

notes, 85, 423, 426. 427, 431, 484, 487, 541, 572. 
Blockade, history of, 497. 
Blockade, removal requested in resolution proposed by 

six neutral nations of Security Council, 521, 555. 
Committee of Neutral Experts: 
Proposal by President of Security Council, text, 719. 
Tripartite communique, text, 720. 
U. S., U. K., and France, joint reply to President of 
Security Council on proposal, text, 719. 
Communique (Sept. 26) by U. S., IJ. K., and France, 

text, 423. 
Currencv and trade, regulation of, 423, 426, 427, 486, 

497. 521, 556, 543, .572, 616, 636, 666, 697, 719. 
Currency and trade, regulation of, third currency re- 
form law, summary, 141. 
Documents submitted to U.N. Secretary-General, listed, 

456. 
Elections, exchange of letters between General Clay 

and Marshal Sokolovsky, 734. 
Four-Power Financial Commission, 423, 426, 427, 521, 

666. 
Identic notes from U. S., U. K, and France to Soviet 
Embassies in Washington, London, and Paris 
(Sept. 22), text, 430. 
Neutral nations, resolution in Security Council, (text) 

520, 552, 556, 572. 
Bights of occupying powers, 85, 423, 427, 485, 496, 541, 
572. 



Index, July to December J 948 



Berlin crisis — Continued 
Security Council : 
Competency in, debated, 463. 

Currency control, study of questionnaire replies sum- 
marized, 666, 697. 
Proceedings, 484, 490. 
Referral to, 423, 426, 455, 484, 498. 
Resolution by six neutral nations, (text) 520, 552, 

556, 572. 
U. S. delegation aided by financial experts from Wash- 
ington, 636. 
Votes to hear U. S., U. K., and French complaint, 
463. 
Soviet note (Sept. 25), text, 426. 
Tri-partite aide-memoire to Soviet Government (Sept. 

14), text, 427. 
U. S. note to Soviet Ambassador (Sept. 26), text 423. 
U. S. reply to joint note from Secretary-General of U. N. 

and President of General Assembly, 656. 
U. S., U. K., and France, joint statement (Oct. 27), 555. 
U. S., U. K., France, and U.S.S.R. urged to resolve 
Berlin question, joint note from President of Gen- 
eral Assembly and Secretary-General of U. N., 655. 
U.S.S.R. aide-mimoire (Sept. 18), text, 429. 
U.S.S.R. charged with threat to peace: 
Mr. Austin, statement, 511. 
Mr. Jessup, statement, 484, 573. 
U. S. note to Secretary-General of U. N., 455. 
U. S., U. K., and France, identic statements by, 441. 
Berlin elections, significance, 776. 

Bern, Switzerland, conversion of U. S. Legation and Con- 
sulate to combined office, 187. 
Bernadotte, Count Folke (U. N. mediator in Palestine) : 
Assassination : 
Message from Representative (Bunche) of Secretary- 
General to Israeli Foreign Minister, 399. 
Report from American Consul General (Macdonald) 

at Jerusalem, 399. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 399. 
Correspondence with Secretary Marshall regarding 

U. S. aid for Jewish and Arab refugees, 266. 
Palestine negotiations : 
Cease-fire for ten days, proposal (July 9), 112. 
Messages to Secretary-General, 105, 108, 111, 
Progress report on, excerpts, 436. 
Security Council, conclusions from report to, 112. 
Suggestions to Israel and Arab States, texts of three 

documents (June 27), 105. 
Truce supervision, organization of and instructions 
to U. S. observers, 175. 
Berthold, Arthur B., designation in State Department, 451. 
Bevin, Ernest. P. C, M. P., Berlin crisis, joint com- 
munique issued at Paris (Sept. 26), 423. 
Bishop, Max W., designation in State Department, 682. 
Blackwekler, Eliot, article on 18th International Geolog- 
ical Congress, 668. 
Boheman, Erik C, credentials as Swedish Ambassador 

to U. S., 561. 
Bolivia : 

Air transport agreement with U. S., signature, 470. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 302. 
Defaulted bonds, proposal on, 52. 
U. S. Consulate at Cochabamba, closing, 476, 746. 
U. S. to participate in international fair, 559. 
Boonstra, Clarence A., article on the Institute of the 

Hylean Amazon, 183. 
Boundary waters, International Joint Commission, U. S.- 
Canada, hearings on pollution of, 558, 732. 
Boykin, Samuel D., designation in State Department, 154. 
Bradley, Lt. Lawrence D., Jr., article on international 

maritime safety measures, 119. 
Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, opening of U. S. Consulate, 

477. 
Brazil : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 28, 

529. 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 



815 



Brazil — Continued 

Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 212, 474. 

Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U. S., functions and 

U. S. delegates, 136, 277. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Lend-lease settlement, payment, 52. 
Mineralogical-geological survey program with U. S., 

extended, 743. 
Tariffs and trade (1947), general agreement on: 
Concessions, 149. 

Protocol of provisional application, signature, 55, 149. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Renegotiation, 445, 527. 
Trade agreement (1935) inoperative, 211. 
U. S. advisory military mission, 211. 
U. S. Consular Agency at Curitiba, opening, 477. 
Visiting professor from U. S., 212. 
Bristol, England, closing of U. S. Consulate, 563, 811. 
British Parliamentary Association, British delegates and 

U. S. delegation, 638. 
British West Indies : 

U. S. Consulate at Antigua, closing, 476. 
U. S. Consulate at Grenada, closing, 91, 477. 
Brown, Winthrop G. : 

Designation in State Department, 154. 
Economic factors in U. S. foreign policy, address, 203. 
Brownell, George A., represents U. S. in air-transport dis- 
cussions with Mexico, 3(X). 
Brucellosis, 2d inter-American congress, 641. 
Brussels, public-health attach^ to U. S. Embassy, 476. 
Budgetary and administrative implications of program 
legislation, development, State Department regula- 
tions, 682. 
Bulgaria : 

Conciliators appointed. General Assembly resolution 

(Nov. 27), 696. 
Greco-Bulgarian border violations, exchange of notes 
between U. S. Legation and Bulgarian Foreign Min- 
ister, text, 461. 
Greek guerrillas aided, UNSCOB charges: 
Conclusions of report, 238. 
Draft resolution, 635. 
Lulchev, Kosta, imprisonment, 796. 
Non-fulfilment of peace treaty obligations, aide-memoire 
from U. S. Minister (Heath) to Foreign Minister 
(Kolarov), text, 447. 
Petkov, Nicola, execution, 796. 
U. N. membership, 447, 695, 729. 
UNSCOB, attitude toward, 608, 611. 
U. S. charges violation of peace treaty in Kosta Lulchev 
trial, U. S. Minister's note to Bulgarian Foreign 
Minister, 710. 
U. S. vice consul (Ewing) accused as spy, 451. 
Bunche, Ralph J., reports on Palestine situation : 

General Assembly, review of events at the time of the 

death of Count Bernadotte, 517. 
Refugee aid in Near East, report to U. N., 634. 
Security Council asked to require peace negotiations, 
555, 615. 
Burma : 

Scholarships under Fulbright Act, 302. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Concessions, 150. 

Protocol of provisional application, signature, 55, 149. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Burns, Norman, U. N. economic cooperation, article on, 

508. 
Butler, George H., designation in State Department, 154. 
Butler, Robert, appointed representative of President Tru- 
man at Prfo Socarnis inaugural, 470. 
Butterworth, W. Walton, address on Asia, 492. 
Byelorussia, attitude on UNSCOB report, 611. 

Canada (see also International Joint Commission, U. S.- 
Canada) : 
Atomic energy control, amended proposed text, 527. 



Canada — Continued 

Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

26. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Potato export agreement, 744. 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947), 
provisionally effective, 642. 
U. S. Ambassador (Atherton), resignation, 236. 
U. S. Consulate at Fort William-Port Arthur, closing, 

476. 
U. S. Consulate at Fredericton, N. B., closing, 477. 
U. S. Consulate at St. Stephen, closing, 477. 
U. S. Consulate at Sarnia, Ontario, closing, 477. 
U. S. Sen. res. 239, exchange of views with U. K., France, 
and Benelux countries, 80. 
Canaday, Ward M., appointed Caribbean Commissioner, 

617. 
Canadian Arctic weather stations, supply mission to, finds 

records of Peary and Nares, texts, 471. 
Canal route, Interoceanic, through Colombia, proposed, 

212. 
Cannon, Cavendish W., addresses and statements on free 
navigation of Danube, 197, 200, 219, 283, 284, 290, 
291. 
Caribbean Commission : ^ 

Agreement enters into force, 245. 
Mr. Canaday appointed U. S. Commissioner, 617. 
Legislation on, 308, (text) 375. 
Publications, 745. 
Sixth meeting, report on, 19. 
Taussig, Mr., resolution of appreciation, 20. 
West Indian Conference, 3d ses.sion, 299, 617. 
Cartagena, Colombia, closing of U. S. Consulate, 476. 
Cartography, 4th Pan American consultation on, U. S. 

delegation, 443. 
Castaneda Castro, Salvador, government of, overthrown 

in El Salvador, 810. 
Cebu, Philippines, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Ceylon : 
Ambassador to U. S. (Corea), 449, 714. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Concessions, 150. 

Protocol of provisional application, signature, 55, 149. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Renegotiation, 445, 527. 
U. N. membership denied, 238, 434, 729, 763. 
U. S. Ambassador (Cole), 449, 714. 
U. S. Consulate at Colombo raised to rank of embassy, 
213. 
Changchun, China, closing of U. S. Consulate General, 

476. 
Chiang Kai-shek, Madame, arrives in U. S., 745. 
Children, Greek, deportation of: 
General Assemblv resolution on return, test, 722. 
U. S. attitude, 25. 
Children, U. N. Appeal for (UNAC), extended by General 

Assembly and relation to UNICEP, 730. 
Children's Emei'gency Fund, U. N. International 
(UNICEF) : 
Commended by Secretary Marshall in 3d session. Gen- 
eral Assembly, 432. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Palestine refugee aid, 237, 575, 615. 
Plans, 47, 116. 
Relationship to WHO, 395. 
UNAC to raise funds for, 730. 
U. S. appropriation (Public Law 472, 80th Cong.), 

text, 374. 
Work reviewed by Mrs. Roosevelt, 802. 
Chile: 

Antarctica, U.S. a.sks discussion, 301. 

Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

26. 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 153, 474. 



816 



Department of State Bulletin 



Chile — Continued 
Reconstruction loans from International Bank, 599. 
Soviet wives of foreigners, proposal regarding, 798. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947), re- 
quest of extension of time for signing, 55, 149. 
Tuberculosis liospital opened, 681. 
Visiting professor from U. S., 681. 
China : 
Aid under 1947 U. S. foreign relief prosTam, 102. 
Chiang Kai-shek, Madame, arrives in U. S., 745. 
Combat mat&-lel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

26, 529. 
ECA discussed by Mr. Butterworth, 492. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement of 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Scholarships in, under Fulbright Act, 302. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U.S., 104. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1946), rati- 
fication, 745. 
Lend-lease settlement, payment, 527. 
Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Recon- 
struction in accordance with China Aid Act of 
1948. exchange of notes establishing, 207, 208. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provisionally 
effective, 642. 
U. S. aid expenditures estimated, 342. 
U. S. Consulate General at Changchun, closing, 476. 
C^ina Aid Act of 1948, exchange of notes establishing a 

joint commission in accordance with, 207, 208. 
Christian Rural Overseas Program, aid to Near East, 

209, 448. 
Cinematographic art, 9th international exhibition of, 

C S. representative and awards, 671. 
(ISvil Service status to U. S. Government employees trans- 
ferred to international organizations, 366. 
' Civilians, treatment of, in war, treaty discussed, 4(54. 
Claims (see also Property; Protection of U. S. nationals 
and property) : 
Convention with Norway, claims of Hannevig and Jones, 

ratification, 646. 
Settlement with France (1946), supplemented, 561. 
Settlement with Yugoslavia for U.S. property national- 
ized, 137, 139. 
Clay, Lucius D., letter to Marshal Sokolovsky on illegal 

elections in Berlin, 734. 
Coal and steel industries of Ruhr, reorganization, 703, 

704, 708. 
Coehabamba, Bolivia, U. S. Consulate closing, 476, 746. 
Cochran, H. Merle, appointed U. S. Representative on Se- 
curity Council's Committee of Good Oflices in In- 
, donesia, 82. 

i Cohen, Benjamin V. : 

Addresses, statements, etc : 
Political cooperation, promotion of international, 

796. 
U.N., admission of members to, 693, 729, 794. 
U. N. Charter, unanimity principle of, 761. 
Appointed alternate U. S. Representative to General As- 
sembly, 330. 
j Coffee Board, Inter-American, entitled by law to certain 
■ privileges, 349, 352. 

Cole, Felix, U. S. Ambassador to Ceylon, 449, 714. 
, Colombia : 

Atrato-Truand6 canal route, reconnaissance, 212. 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 650. 
Economic mission to U. S., 58. 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947), nego- 
tiations for accession, 807. 
V. S. Consulate at Cartagena, closing, 476. 
Visiting professor from U. S., 25. 
Columbia River Engineering Board, International, studies 
of, available to International Joint Commission, U. S.- 
Canada, 49, 5.58. 
Combat materiel : 
Agreement with Iran, 211. 

'■ Index, July to December 1948 



Combat materiel — Continued 

Transfer, tables showing, 26, 529. 
Cominform opposes ERP, 240. 

Commercial agreement, provisional (1938), U.S. with 
Greece, application to occupied territories, exchange 
of notes, 45. 
Commercial foreign policy of the U. S., article by Mr. 

Willoughby, 325. 
Commissions, committees, conferences, etc., international : 
Anthropological and ethnological sciences, 3d session, 

135. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for. See 

Armaments. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U. N. See Atomic Energy. 
Balkan Commission of Security Council (Security Coun- 
cil Commission of Investigation Concerning Greek 

Frontier Incidents), 447. 
Balkans, U. N. Special Commission (Committee) on, 461. 
Balkans, U. N. Special Committee on, 16, 25, 238, 447, 

461, 576, 608, 611, 615, 635, 697. 
Caribbean Commission, 19, 245, 308, 375, 617. 
Cartography, 4th Pan American consultation on, 44J 
Children's Emergency Fund, U. N. International, 45 

47, 116, 237, 374, 395, 432, 575, 615, 730, 802. 
Committee of Neutral Experts. See Berlin crisis. 
Conservation of renewable natural resources, inter- 
American conference on, 334. 
Crippled and disabled, 1st inter-American conference 

on rehabilitation of. 122, 804. 
Danubian conference, 23, 134, 197, 200, 219, 223, 283, 

284, 288, 290, 291, 333, 384, 616. 
Economic and Social Council of U. N. See Economic 

and Social Council. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (of 

ECOSOC), 238, 701. 
Economic Commission for Europe (of ECOSOC), 118, 

133, 180. 
ERP Trade Union Advisory Committee, 240. 
Far Eastern Commission, 5SG, 645, 768, 770, 771, 806. 
Fishery resources conservation conference, 669. 
Fisheries, U. S. and Mexico, 524. 
Food and Agriculture Organization, 12, 268, 349, 352, 

370, 432, 639, 700. 
Freedom of information, U.N. conference on, 127, 378, 

433, 698. 
Geological Congress, 18th International, 136, 668. 
Human Rights Commission (see also Human Rights, 

Universal Declaration of), 1.59, 432, 457. 
Icelandic air conference (of ICAO), 16. 
Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, conference on estairtish- 

ing, 12. 
International Civil Aviation Organization, 16, 20, 84, 

271, 274, 353, 523, 639. 
International Joint Commission, U. S.-Canada, 26, 49, 

202, 349, 354, 527, 558, 648, 732, 810. 
International Labor Organization, 47, 82, 238, 313, 352, 

373, 472, 617, 638, 764. 
International union of geodesy and geophysics, 8th gen- 
eral assembly, 135. 
Joint Brazil-U. S. Technical Commission, 136, 277. 
Korea, U. N. Temporary Commission on, 16, 191, 242, 

576, 728, 758, 760. 
Labor attaches conference with European Recovery 

Program ofBcials, 213. 
Limnology, international society of, 201. 
Linguists, 6th international congress, 134. 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

671. 
Mental health. International Congress on, 201. 
Meteorological Organization, International, Regional 

Commission for Asia, 558. 
Military StafC Committee of U. N. See Military Staff 

Committee. 
Nature, conference for the establishment of the inter- 
national union for the protection of, 443. 
North Pacific regional air navigation meeting, 20, 84. 
Palestine, Conciliation Commission, 667, 687, 689, 726, 
763, 793. 

817 



Commissions, committees, conferences, etc. — Continued 

Pharmacy, 1st Pan American Congress of, 701. 

Photogrammetry congress and exhibition, 6th interna- 
tional, 244. 

Physical education, recreation and rehabilitation, in- 
ternational congress of, 134. 

Poliomyelitis conference, 1st international, 121. 

Poultry Congress, 8th World's, 731. 

Psychology, 12th International congress of, 122. 

Bed Cross conference, 17th international, 201, 464. 

Refugee Organization, International, 45, 83, 237, 333, 
353, 372, 432, 763, 765, 767. 

Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 353. 

Safety of life at sea conference, 119. 

Sino-American joint commission on rural reconstruc- 
tion, 207. 

South Pacific Commission, 307, 375, 446. 

Telecommunication Union, International, 47, 315, 849. 
353, 557. 

Theatre congress, 1st International, 48, 4S8. 

Tin Study Group, 3d meeting, 524, 617. 

Trade Organization, International (ITO), 204, 298. 
325, 433, 444, 578, 581, 600. 

Tropical medicine and malaria, 4th International con- 
gresses on, article by Dr. Sawyer, 294. 

U. N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion, 48, 183, 184, 278, 353, 370, 488, 661, 640, 702. 

United Kingdom and Dominions official medical his- 
tories liaison committee, 135. 

UnlTersities, preparatory conference of representa- 
tives of, 184. 

Weights and measures, 9th general conference of the 
international bureau of, 466. 

West Indian Conference, 3d, 299, 617. 

Wheat Advisory Committee, International, 353, 744. 

Wool study group, international, 443, 491. 

World Health Assembly, 1st, 16, 82, 117, 313, 391. 

World Health Organization, 16, SO, 82, 810, 373. 893. 
433. 4T6, 559. .... 

Commissions, committees, etc. : national : 
Atomic Energy Commission, U. S., 151, Sll. 
Displaced Persons Commission, 246, 411, 412, 501. 
Educational Exchange, U. S. Advisory Commission on, 

91, 528, 560, 680, SOS. 
Information, U. S. Advisory Commission on, 242. 
Occupied Area Affairs, Advisory Committee, Sll. 
Prisoners of War Committee, Interdepartmental, 464. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 502, 527, 642 
643, 807. .... 

Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 
502, 642, 644, 807. 
Committee of Neutral Experts. See Berlin crisis. 
Communist strategy in southeast Asia and attitude on 

nationalism, 410. 
Conciliation Commission on Palestine voted by General 

Assembly, 607, 687, 689, 726, 763, 793. 
Conflicts between American states (Gondra treaty, 1923), 

oyo. 
Congress, U. S. : 

Aid, Foreign, Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Aid, Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, 243. 
Caribbean Commission, providing for U. S. membership 

in (Public Law 431, SOth Cong.), text, 375. 
Displaced Persons Act of 1948 : 

Amendments proposed by President Truman, 15a 
Funds requested for, 246. 
Procedure under, 411. 
Eightieth Congress, 2d session, and the U. N., article by 
Mr. Kaplan on legislation on ILO, ITU, South Pa- 
cific Commission, U. N. headquarters' loan, Vanden- 
berg resolution, WHO, 307, 308, 310, 313, 315, 317, 
347. 
Immigration and Naturalization, Senate Subcommittee 
To Investigate: 
Request for visa flies refused, 235. 

BIS 



Congress, U. S. — Continued 

Immigration and Naturalization — Continued 

Secretary of State's committee reports on employees' 

testimony before, 335. 
U. N. personnel, application of U. S. Immigration laws, 
116. 
Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948), 242. 
International organizations : 

Entitled to certain privileges (Public Law 291, 79th 

Cong.), text, 349. 
Furnishing of supplies to (Public Law 354, SOth 

Cong.), text, 334. 
Legislation on U. S. participation in, texts, 367, 370, 
372. 373, 374, 375, 376, 403, 431, 472, 643, 843. 
Legislation listed (SOth Cong.), 415. 
Message from President Truman transmitting rejwrt of 
the National Advisory Council on monetary and 
financial problems, with summary of report, 243. 
Pacific Islands, joint congressional committee to inves- 
tigate (H. Con. Res. 129, SOth Cong.), text, 376. 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, authorizing the 
President to approve the trusteeship agreement for 
(Public Law 204, SOth Cong.), text, 376. 
South Pacific Commission, providing for U. S. member- 
ship In (Public Law 403, SOth Cong.), text, 375. 
Special session (SOth Cong.), excerpts from message of 

President Truman to, 185. 
Trust territories and non-self-governing territories, re- 
sponsibilities over, 375. 
United Nations, appointment of U. S. representatives, 

(Public Law 264, 79th Cong.), text, 364. 
United Nations, passage of S. Res. 239 (SOth Cong.), 
seeking more effective use of the U. N., 79 (text), 
SO, 347, 366. 
U. N. headquarters : 

Establishing U. N. headquarters in U. S. (Public Law 
357, SOth Cong. ) , text of agreement and exchange 
of notes, 355, 361. 
Granting tax deductions for contributions to U. N. 

site (Public Law 7, SOth Cong.), text, 354. 
Inviting U. N. to locate in U. S. (H. Con. Res. 75, 79th 

Cong.), text, 349. 
Loan for (Public Law 903, SOth Cong.), text, 362. 
Conservation, tuna resources Investigation recommended 

by U. S. and Mexico, 647. 
Conservation of fishery resources, conference, 669. 
Conservation of renewable natural resources, inter-Amer- 
ican conference on, 334. 
Constitution Hall incident involving Ethiopian Minista-, 

413, 448. 
Consular convention, U. S., PhilUpplnes (1947), proclama- 
tion, 779. 
Consular offices, U. S. See Foreign Service. 
Consultative Council of signatory powers of the treaty of 
Brussels for economic, social and cultural collabora- 
tion and collective self-defense, 3d session, text of 
communique, 583. 
Cooperation to conclude peace treaties, General Assembly 

resolution, 522, 552, 614. 
Copyright agreement with Philippines, 562. 
C6rdova, Lieutenant Colonel Manuel, revolt In El Salva- 
dor, 810. 
Corea, George C. S., first Ceylon Ambassador to U. S., 

449, 714. 
Costa Rica: 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
U. S. consular agency at Port Lim6n, establishment, 129 ; 

U. S. Consulate, closing, 476. 
Visiting professor from U. S.. 25. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, entitled by law 

to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Council of the Organization of American States: 
Appointment of U. S. representative, 154. 
Functions, 594. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U. S. 
Crippled and disabled, 1st inter-American conference on 
rehabilitation of, 122, 804. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Cuba : 
Combat materiel, transfer by D. S. to, table showing, 

28. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 153. 
President Carlo* Prio Socarrfts visits U. S., 245, 743, 

778. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Renegotiation, 445, 446, 527. 
U. S. Ambassador to represent President Truman at 

presidential Inauguration, 470. 
Visiting professors from U. S., 58. 
Cultural cooperation {see also Educational exchange pro- 
gram) : 
Fellowships (1936), countries participating, 742. 
Visitors from U. 8. to : American republics, 245 ; Bo- 
livia, 153; Brazil, 212; Colombia, 25; Costa Rica, 
25: Cuba, 58; El Salvador, 153; Haiti, 474; Para- 
guay, 153 ; Peru, 153 ; Uruguay, 153 ; Venezuela, 153. 
Visitors to U. S. from: Bolivia, 302; Brazil, 212, 474; 
Chile, 153, 474; Colombia, 650; Cuba, 153; Ecuador, 
212 ; Haiti, 58, 212 ; Mexico, 153, 619, 744 ; Panama, 
680; Peru, 212; Uruguay, 58, 153. 
Curitlba, Brazil, opening of U. S. consular agency, 477. 
Currency and credit assets, foreign. State Department 

regulations on, 530. 
Customs (see also Tariffs), gasoline, annulment of duties 

In Europe, 715. 
Cyprus, U. S. Consulate at Nicosia, opening, 477. 
Chechoslovakia : 
Ambassador to U. S. (Outrata), credentials, 87. 
Surplus war property payment on account, 148. 
Trade-marks, extension of time for renewal, proclama- 

Uon, 302. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Lend-lease settlement with U. S., 413. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provision- 
ally effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, 
adhered to and extended, 702. 
UNSCOB report, attitude, 611. 
U. S. Consulate at Bratislava, opening, 477. 

Daniels, Paul, appointed U. S. representative on the Coun- 
cil of the Organization of American States, 154. 
Danube, conference to consider free navigation of the : 
Austria, full participation denied, 200. 
Cannon, Cavendish W., chairman of V. S. delegation, 
addresses and statements on free navigation of the 
Danube, 219, 283, 284, 290, 291. 
Danube convention (1921), 289. 
European Commission, 283, 289. 
Hungary requests free navigation, 283. 
International Commission of the Danube, 283. 
Official languages, 200. 
Selection of site of negotiations and U.S. note to U.S.S.B. 

re, 23. 
Soviet-controlled joint companies, 292. 
Soviet draft convention, amendments to, 284, 288. 
Soviet draft convention rejected by U.S., U.S. objectives 

stated, 291, 333, 384. 
U.S. and Soviet draft conventions, 219, 223. 
U.S. declines to serve on drafting committee, 290. 
U.S. delegation, 134. 

U.S. policy, 197, 219, 223, 283, 284, 288, 291, 333, 384. 
Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, opening of U.S. Consulate. 

129, 477. 
DeCourcy, William E., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Haiti, 25. 
Denmark : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 

529. 
Reconstruction loans from International Bank, 599. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation with U.S., signature, and ratification, 

680, 738. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 
with U.S., 104. 



Denmark — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
Dependent areas, resolutions by General Assembly, 637. 
Diplomatic immunity, violation of in detention of U.S. 
Legation personnel by Rumanian police, exchange of 
notes between U.S. Minister (Schoenfeld) and Ru- 
manian Foreign Office, 403, 404. 
Diplomatic officers: 

Bulgaria, U.S. con.sular officer, recall demanded, 451. 
Rumania, U.S. diplomatic personnel, detained, 403. 
Rumania, U.S. diplomatic personnel, recall demanded, 

809. 
U.S.S.R., foreign diplomatic personnel, travel circum- 
scribed, 525. 
Diplomatic relations with— 
Israel, 22. 
Korea, 242, 300. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 59, 87, 

193, 301, 449. 561, 714, 744, 746, 810. 
Displaced persons and refugees. See Refugees in Pales- 
tine. 
Displaced Persons Act of 1948 : 
President Truman, attitude, 21, 152. 
Steps of admission under, 411. 
Displaced Persons Commission : 
Chairman (Carusi) to Germany to supervise program, 

412. 
Foreign Service personnel in Europe to aid, 501. 
Funds for, 246. 
Status, 411. 
Distribution, Twentieth Boston Conference on, address by 

Mr. Nitze, 578. 
Domlnguez-Cimpora, Dr. Alberto, credentials as Uru- 
guayan Ambassador to U.S., 810. 
Dominican Republic, cultural-cooperation fellowships 

available, 742. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 
Belgium, signature, 585, 680. 
Denmark, signature and ratification, 680, 738. 
France, approved by U.S. Senate, 680. 
Greece, discussions, 527. 
Ireland, discussions, 714. 

Netherlands, signature and ratification, 679, 738. 
New Zealand, ratification pending, 680. 
Union of South Africa, ratification pending, 680. 
Drew, Gerald A., deputy U.S. representative on U.N. 

Special Committee on the Balkans, 238. 
Dudley, Edward R., appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Liberia, 303. 
Dulles, John Foster: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

General Assembly, adjournment, 801. 
Greek situation, 607, 609. 
Korea, U.S. attitude, 728, 758. 
Palestine, conciliation commission, 793. 
Peace treaties, statement in General Assembly, 522. 
U.S.S.R., use of violence, 607, 609. 
Appointed U.S. representative to (Jeneral Assembly, 330. 

Economic and Social Council of U.N. (ECOSOC) : 
Agenda for 7th session, 117. 
Commends establishment of ITO, 196. 
Commissions: 
Asia and the Far East, Economic Commission for, 

238, 701. 
Economic Commission for Europe, 118, 133, 180. 
Described by Mr. Burns, 599. 

Freedom of information. See Information, freedom of. 
Genocide. See Genocide. 

Human Rights, Universal Declaration of. iSfee Hu- 
man Rights. 
Seventh session, 82, 122, 133. 

Soviet attack in 7th session on ERP and U. S. reply, 133. 
U. S. delegation to 7th session, 122. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(ECAFE), 238, 701. 



Index, July to December J 948 



819 



Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) : 
Appointment of U. S. representative to and statement 

of relation to BRP, 118. 
Report, 133, 180. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948: 
Adherence to purposes of, by : 
Ireland, 37. 
Italy, 37, 38. 
Korea, 778. 
Portugal, 470. 

U. S.-U. K. zone of Trieste, 559. 
Agreements with U. S. : 
Address by Mr. Gross, 35. 
Effective for certain countries, 104. 
Statement concerning, by Secretary Marshall, 43. 
Text of agreement with Italy, 38. 
Draft agreements with U. S. as basis of discussion 

with European governments, 25. 
Italian thanks, 450. 
President's budget, excerpts, 342. 
Economic Cooperation Administration (EGA) : 
China program discussed, 492. 
Korean aid, 301. 

Murder of ECA administrator's assistant in Austria, 646. 
Transfer to of Division of Procurement Control, 154. 
Western zones of Germany, removal of plants under 
reparation program to be reviewed, 584. 
Economic factors in U. S. foreign policy, address by Mr. 

Brown, 20.3. 
Economic mission from Colombia to U. S., 58. 
Economic recovery in Western Europe, address by Mr. 

Thorp to Rotary Club in Brussels, 711. 
Ecuador, cultural leader, visit to U. S., 212. 
Education (see also Commissions; United Nations Educa- 
tional, etc.) : 
Cooperative programs of Institute of Inter-American 

Affairs, 31. 
Expanded program for trust territories urged by Mr. 

Sayre in Trusteeship Council, 81. 
Regional Conference on Higher Education, New York 
City, address by Mr. Johnstone on educational- 
exchange program, 7.39. 
Scholarships awarded (Fulbright Act), China, Burma, 
Philippines, and U. S., 302. 
Education Association, National, Regional Conference on 
Higher Education, New Tork City, address by Mr. 
Johnstone on educational-exchange program, 739. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of U. N. 

See United Nations Educational, etc. 
Educational exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 91, 

528, 560, 808. 
Educational-exchange program : 
Address by Mr. Sargeant, 672. 
Agreements with : 
Belgium, 528, 681. 
France, 52, 650. 
Italy, 809. 

Luxembourg, 528, 681. 
New Zealand, 473. 
U. K., 473. 
Fellowships available in American Republics, 742. 
Grants for : 
Greece, 649. 
Philippines, 649. 
Program for 1950 reviewed by U. S. Advisory Com- 
mission, CommIs.slon personnel, 680. 
U. S. Advisory Commission, 2d meeting and report 

on Eastern European countries, 91, 528, 560. 
U. S. Advisory Commission report on Eastern European 
countries. State Department reply to, 808. 
Egypt: 

Ambassador to U. S. (Adbul Rahim), credentials, 449. 
Haas, Stephen: 

Attackers apprehended, 449. 

Investigation of death, note from Charge Patterson 
to Egyptian Foreign Office, 211. 
Negeb fighting. See Palestine situation. 



Egypt — Continued 

Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
U. S. Consulate at Alexandria, elevation to rank of 
Consulate General, 123. 
Election, presidential, functions of Secretary of State, 

587, 618, 677. 
Electric power, distribution to South Korea, correspond- 
ence between U. S. and U. S. S. R., 50, 147. 
Elisabethville, Belgian Congo, opening of U. S. Consulate, 

477. 
Elliot, John, article on German Parliamentary Council 

at Bonn, 507. 
El Salvador: 

Revolt overthrows President Castaneda Castro, 810. 
Visiting professor from U. S., 153. 
Embassies, U. S. See Foreign Service. 
Emigration, regulation of, from U. S. zones in Austria and 

Germany to Palestine, 386. 
Enemy assets in U. S., removal of controls and transfer 

of program to Department of Justice, 472, 616. 
Bniwetok Atoll, danger area, 811. 
Epstein, Eliahu, appointment as Israeli representative to 

U. S., 22. 
Eritrea, disposition, U. S. position in Council of Foreign 

Ministers, 402. 
Erkin, Feridun Cemal, credentials as Turkish Ambassador 

to U.S., 301. 
Ethiopia, incident of seating of Minister (Imru) at science 

meeting, exchange of memoranda, 413, 448. 
Europe, Economic Commission for, 118, 133, 180. 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for, 
Trieste, U. S.-U. K. zone, admitted to membership, 
559. 
European-Mediterranean regional air-navigation meeting, 

2d, 271. 
European Recovery Program (ERP) : 
Addresses and statements by — 
Mr. Gross, 35. 
Mr. Thorp, 711. 
Aid extended to participants, 243. 

Cominform opposes, 239. % 

Exports of participating countries, 598. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Labor's role in, address by Mr. Nitze, 239. 
Netherlands and Norway defend, in U. N., 490. 
Resolution attacking, as trade discrimination, defeated 

in General Assembly, 666. 
Steel production quotas exceeded, 553. 
U.S.S.R. attacks, in U. N., 133, 490, 666. 
European Recovery Program Trade Union Advisory Com- 
mittee, 240. 
European Union, defense policy approved by Consultative 

Council, text of communique, 583. 
Evatt, Herbert V., president of General Assembly, 441 ; 

signs joint note to Four Powers, 655. 
Ewing, Donald F., persona non grata, to Bulgaria, facts 

concerning, 451. 
Executive Orders : 

International Joint Commission, U. S.-Canada, entitled 

to certain privileges (Ex. Or. 9972), 26, 354. 
International organizations, privileges and immunities, i 

352, 353, 354. 
International organizations, transfer of U. S. person- 
nel to (Ex. Or. 9721), 366. 
Precedence among Foreign Service and other govern- 
ment officers (Ex. Or. 9998), text, 475. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948, adminis- 
tration of (Ex. Or. 10004), 502. 
U. N., U. S. mission to (Ex. Or. 9844), administration of, 
text, 365. 
Exemption from territorial jurisdiction (see also Diplo- 
matic officers) : 
U. N. and certain other international organizations, 
including their personnel, exemptions and immuni- 
ties, 349. 
U. N. personnel, question of U. S. security, 116. 



i 



820 



Department of State Bulletin 



Export-Import Bank of Washinston, 243. 

Export of natural resources, discussed by Mr. Nitze, 623. 

Exports from ERP countries, 598. 

i raise or distorted reports, U. S. attitude toward General 
1 Assembly resolution, 116, 127. 

Far East and India Trade Conference of Far East- 
America Council of Commerce and Industry, Inc., New 
York, N. Y., address by Mr. Butterwortli, 492. 
Far Eastern Commission : 
Japan, policy decisions on : 
Trade, conduct of, text, 770. 

Travel abroad of Japanese commercial representa- 
tives, text, 771. 
Japanese finances and industry, proposal to deconcen- 

trate (FEC 230), 768. 
Japanese industries, U. S. attitude on U. S. S. B. pro- 
posals, 645. 
Japanese industry, majority attitude on Soviet proposal, 

statement by General McCoy, 806. 
Policy in Japan, Soviet charges answered by U. S., 
586. 
|j Press policy of U.S.S.R. v. other members, 806. 
" Farm-labor migration agreement : 
Mexico charges U. S. violation, 562. 
U. S. and Mexico, exchange of notes, 585. 
Federal Bar Association, meeting in Washington, D. C, 
address to, by Secretary Marshall, on U.N. Charter, 
400. 
Federal Council of Churches, aid to Near East, 293. 
Fees for notarial services in Germany, 477. 
Ferrous scrap, agreement with U. K. proposing committee 

to allocate from ERP countries, text, 467. 
Fiji Islands, U.S. Consulate at Suva closing, 715. 
Files of State Department relating to representatives of 
international organizations, refusal to disclose, 235. 
Finance : 
Bolivia, proposal on defaulted bonds, 52. 
Control of foreign assets in U. S., Treasury program 

transferred to Justice Department, 472, 616. 
Currency regulation in Berlin. See Berlin crisis. 
Foreign-aid program, expenditures estimated, 342. 
Foreign currency and credit assets. State Department 

regulations on, 530. 
Gold and dollar exchange, loss of, to Sweden, 53. 
Gold transactions, publication of, resumed, 243. 
International Bank and Fund, 243, 349, 352, 367, .599. 
Lend-lease settlements, 51, 52, 137, 139, 143, 413, 527, 561. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 

and Financial Problems, report, 243. 
Yugoslav dollar bonds acknowledged by Yugoslavia, 301. 
Finance and industry in Japan, deconcentration of, 768. 
Finland : 
Claims for property transferred to U.S.S.R., procedure 

for filing and time extended, 647. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

529. 
Property of U. S. nationals in, procedure for filing 

claims, 148. 
U. N. membership, qualifications, 693, 729. 
Fisher, Wayne, detained by Security Police in Rumania, 

403. 
Fisheries Council, Indo-Pacific, 12. 

Fishery conservation, conference on, U. S. and Mexico 

recommend investigation of tuna resources, 524, 647. 

Fishery resources in northwest Atlantic, conservation 

conference, 669. 
Fishing in Territory of the Pacific Islands, U. S. policy, 

text, 468. 
Flood control, discussed by International Joint Commis- 
sion, U. S.-Canada, 49, 202, 558. 
Flood control to be discussed at conference for conser- 
vation of renewable natural resources, 334. 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 
Commended by Secretary Marshall in General Assembly, 
432. 



Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) — Continued 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Fourth session, agenda and U. S. delegation, 639. 
Headquarters, permanent, site of, correspondence be- 
tween Secretary Marshall and Acting Director Gen- 
eral (Clark), 268. 
Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, conference on establish- 
ing, 12. 
President Truman addresses 4th meeting, 700. 
U. S. membership in (Public Law 174, 79th Cong ) 
text, 370. 
Foreign assets in U. S., removal of controls and transfer 

of program to Department of Justice, 472, 616. 
Foreign currency and credit assets, use of. State De- 
partment regulations (270.1), 530. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner (see also Surplus war 

property), Iran, agreement for credit to, 211. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM) : 

Austria requests peace treaty negotiations, 777. 
Italian Colonies, disposition : 

Exchange of notes between U. S. and Soviet Union, 

382. 
U. S. position, 402. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, vols. I, III, 

IV, and V, released, 418, 477, 503. 
Foreign Service, U. S. (see also Diplomatic representa- 
tives) : 
Ambassadors, appointment : 
Ceylon (Cole), 449, 714; Guatemala (Patterson), 501 ; 
Haiti (DeCourcy), 25. 
Ambassador, resignation : 

Canada (Atherton), 236. 
Bern, Switzerland, conversion of Legation and Consulate 

to combined office, 187. 
Consular offices : Agua Prieta, Mexico, not to close, 451 ; 
Alexandria, Egypt, elevation to rank of Consulate 
General, 123 ; Antigua, British West Indies, closing, 
477 ; Bergen, Norway, opening, 477 ; Bratislava, 
Czechoslovakia, opening, 477 ; Bristol, England, clos- 
ing, 563, 811; Cartagena, Colombia, closing, 476; 
Cebu, Philippines, opening, 477 ; Changchun, China, 
closing, 476 ; Cochabamba, Bolivia, closing, 476, 746 ; 
Colombo, Ceylon, elevated to rank of embassy, 213 ; 
Curitiba, Brazil, opening, 477 ; Dar-es-Salaam, Tan- 
ganyika, opening, 129, 477; Elisabethville, Belgian 
Congo, opening, 477; Fort William-Port Arthur, 
Canada, closing, 476; Fredericton, N. B., Canada, 
closing, 477 ; Grenada, British West Indies, closing, 
91, 477; Haifi, Palestine, opening, 477; Hull, Eng- 
land, closing, 58, 477 ; Kobe, Japan, opening, 477 ; 
Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Union, opening, 477; La 
Ceiba, Honduras, closing, 477 ; La Guaira, Vene- 
zuela, closing, 476, 746; Lahore, Pakistan, opening, 
477 ; Limerick, Ireland, closing, 563 ; Mar- 
seille, France, elevation to rank of consulate gen- 
eral, 244 ; Martinique, French West Indies, closing, 
476, reopening, .563 ; Matamoros, Mexico, not to 
close, 451 ; Nicosia, Cyprus, opening, 477 ; Plymouth, 
England, closing, 477, 501 ; Port Lim6n, Costa Rica, 
consular agency, 129, 477 ; Puerto Cortes, Hon- 
duras, opening, 477 ; St. Stephen, N. B., Canada, 
closing, 477 ; Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, closing, 477 ; 
Seoul, Korea, opening, 477 ; Suva, Fiji Islands, clos- 
ing, 715 ; Tahiti, Society Islands, closing, 476 ; Tel 
Aviv, Israel, limited consular services performed, 
123, opening, 477; Tripoli, Libya, opening, 477; 
Venice, Italy, opening, 303, 477 ; Vladivostok, 
U.S.S.R., closing, 476. 
Consulate general, elevation to rank of: 
Alexandria, Egypt, 123. 
Marseille, France, 244. 
Diplomatic relations with Peru continued, 743. 
Embassy, elevation to rank of : 
Colombo, Ceylon, 213. 
Kabul, Afghanistan, 746. 
Examination, 475. 



Index, July to December 7948 

828923 — 49 2 



821 



Foreign Service, U. S. — Continued 

Fees for notarial and other services, 477. 
Foreign Service Institute, Advisory Committee, mem- 
bers of, 779. 
Jerusalem, Palestine, consular ofBce to be guarded by 

marines, 115. 
Labor attaches meet in Paris, 213. 
Legation, Kabul, Afghanistan, elevation to rank of 

embassy, 746. 
Leningrad consulate general not to open, 409. 
Minister, appointment, Liberia (Dudley), 303. 
Precedence among Foreign Service and other govern- 
ment officers (Ex. Or. 9998), text, 475. 
Processing of displaced persons, by consular officers, 

411, 412, 501. 
Public-health attach^, assignment, objectives, 476. 
Representatives, appointment : 
Israel (McDonald), 22. 
Korea (Muccio), 242. 
Rumania demands recall of U. S. officers, 809. 
Rumania detains U. S. diplomatic and consular per- 
sonnel, 403. 
Social-welfare attaches, assignment, objectives, 619. 
U. S. Vice Consul (Ewing) withdrawn from Sofia, 

facts concerning, 451. 
U.S.S.R. restricts travel of diplomatic personnel, 525. 
Visa officers and clerks sent to Europe for dlsplaced- 

persons program, 501. 
Visa requirements eased with Belgium, 526 ; Italy, 526 : 
U. K., 648. 
Fort William-Port Arthur, Canada, closing of U. S. Con- 
sulate, 476. 
France : 
Antarctica, U.S. asks discussion, 301. 
Berlin crisis. See Berlin crisis. 
Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communion^, 

583. 
German reparations, plant removal from Western zones, 

joint statement, 584. 
International Refugee Organization, adherence to, 83. 
Lend-lease and surplus property payment, 52. 
Public-health attach^ to V. S. Embassy In Paris, 476. 
Reconstruction loans from International Bank, 599. 
Social-welfare attach^ to U. S. Embassy In Paris, 619. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Caribbean Commission agreement, 245. 

Double taxation (1939), revi.sed and supplemented, 

approved by U. S. Senate, 680. 
Educational-exchange agreement, with U. S., 52, 650. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U. S., 104. 
Lend-lease and claims, settlement, 52, 561. 
Marichal Joffre claims settlement, with U. S. and 

Australia, 561. 
Motion pictures, joint declaration with U. S. signed, 

text, 500. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provi- 
sionally elt'ective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
D. S. Consulate at Marseille elevated to rank of con- 
sulate general, 244. 
U. S. Sen. res. 239, exchange of views with U. S., U. K., 

Canada, and Benelux countries, 80. 
U.S.S.R. charged in General Assembly with threat to 
peace, 441. 
Fredericton, N. B., Canada, closing of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Freedom of information. See Information. 
Freedom of the press, Netosiceek article, U. S. attitude, 51. 
French West Indies, U. S. Consulate at Martinique, clos- 
ing, 476, reopening, 563. 
Friendship, commerce and navigation treaty, U. S. with: 
China (1946), 745. 
Ireland, discussed, 526. 

Italy, extended to occupied territories, exchange of 
notes, 44. 



822 



Fulbright act (see also Educational exchange program), 
scholarship awards, 302. 

Garr, Ruth Virginia, detained by Security Police in 

Rumania, 403. 
General Assembly of U. N. (3d session) : 
Adjournment, statement by Mr. Dulles, 801. 
Agenda, 173, 329. 

Atomic energy control. See Atomic energy. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on. See Balkans, 

U.N. Special Committee on the. 
Berlin crisis. See Berlin crisis. 

Children's Emergency Fund, International. See Chil- 
dren's Emergency Fund. 
Evaluation, excerpts from statement by Mr. Austin, 754. 
Evatt, Dr. Herbert V. (Australia), elected president of 

Assembly, 441. 
False or distorted reports, U.S. report to U.N. on, 116, 

127. 
Genocide. See Genocide. 

Human Rights Declaration. See Human Rights. 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee. 
Italian colonies, disposition, 698, 730. 
Korea. See Korea. 

Membership in U.N. See United Nations. 
Palestine. See Palestine. 
Reduction of arms. See Arms ; Armaments. 
Resolutions : 

Atomic energy control, 606. 

Balkans, 635, 697. 

Balkans, conciliators appointed, 696. 

Balkans, "establishment of good neighbour relations" 

and return of Greek children (Nov. 27), 722. 
Disarmament, 635, 696. 
False or distorted reports, to combat (Nov. 15, 1947), 

127. 
Genocide, convention on the prevention and punish- 
ment of the crime of, 756. 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of, 752. 
Interim Committee extended, 697. 
Membership In U.N., 729, 754. 
Palestine (May 14), 11. 
Palestine, Conciliation Commission (Dec. 11), 667, 

687, 689, 726, 763, 793. 
Palestine, refugee aid (Nov. 19), 636. 
Palestine, working group (Nov. 16), 667. 
Peace treaties, cooperation to conclude, 614. 
Spanish adopted as a working language, 730. 
Trusteeship, 637. 

Underdeveloped nations (Dec. 4), assistance to, 730. 
Spaak, Paul-Henri (Belgium), elected chairman of Po- 
litical and Security Committee, 441. 
Status of work (Dec. 12, 1948), tables, 783. 
Trade discrimination resolution attacking KRP pro- 
posed by Poland, 666. 
U. S. alternate delegate (Atherton), appointed, 236. 
U. S. delegation to, 330. 
U. S. policy, address by Secretary Marshall at opening 

session (text), 432, 411. 
U.S.S.R. charged with threat to peace by U.S., U.K., and 
France, 441. 
Geneva conventions, revision of, article by Mr. McCahon, 

464. 
Genocide : 
General Assembly resolution outlawing, 729, (text) 756. 
Legal Committee votes to include in convention protec- 
tion for political groups, 490. 
U.S. attitude, statement in General Assembly by Mr. 
Gross, 755. 
Geodesy and geophysics, International union of, 8th 
general assembly, U.S. delegation and agenda, 135. 
Geological Congress, 18th International: 
Article by Eliot Blackwelder, 668. 
U.S. delegation, agenda, 136. 
Geologlcal-mineralogical survey program, U.S. with Bra- 
zil, extended, 743. 
Gerig, Benjamin, designation in U.N. committee, 180. 



Department of State Bulletin 



i 



German Affairs, Interim Office for, established In State 

Department, 279, 477. 
Germany : 
Berlin crisis. Bee Berlin crisis. 
Berlin elections, exchange of letters, General Clay and 

Marshal Sokolovsky, 734. 
Berlin elections, significance, 776. 
Bonn Parliamentary Council, 507. 
Chiemsee conference, 509. 
Currency reform. See Berlin crisis. 
Displaced persons, admission to U. S. from western 

zones, 411, 412. 
Displaced persons, aid by U. S. Foreign Service person- 
nel, 501. 
Emigration from U. S. zone to Palestine, regulations, 

exchange of notes, 386. 
Enemy assets, agreement on resolution of conflicting 

claims to, signature by Luxembourg, 25. 
Immigration to U. S. opened, 735. 
Industrial production, 598. 
Industries, coal, iron, and steel, reorganization, 703, 

704, 708. 
Peace settlement, U. S. policy summarized by Secretary 

Marshall In General Assembly, 433. 
Reparations, plant removal, joint statement, 584. 
Ruhr. See Ruhr. 
Six Power talks on, U. S. reply to Poland's protest re, 

80. 
Soviet blockade. See Berlin crisis. 
Soviet Union, Turkey, and Germany during World War 

II, article by Mr. Howard, 63. 
Steel production In bizonal area, 553. 
Trade, most-favored-nation treatment provisions of cer- 
tain treaties, application to western Germany, 43, 

44, 45, 104, 445. 
U. S. zone : 

Licensed newspapers, list of and gift to, 144. 
War claims, procedure for filing, 646. 
Western zones, transport agreements, road, with other 

European countries, 702. 
Gilder, Miss Rosamond, article on International Theatre 

Institute, 488. 
Gold and dollar exchange, loss of, to Sweden, exchange of 

memoranda with V. S., 53. 
Gold transactions, publication of, resumed, 243. 
Grady, Henry F. : 
Ambassador to Greece, 129. 
Greece, struggle for freedom, statement, 584. 
Greece: 
Aid under 1947 U. S. foreign relief program, 101. 
American Mission for aid to Greece, supplies released 

to Near East refugees, 447, 501. 
Balkan states meet with U. N. mediators, 637. 
Bulgarian border violations, charged, 461. 
Children, return of, General Assembly resolution (Nov. 

27), 722. 
Children, U. S. attitude on deportation of, 25. 
Conciliators appointed. General Assembly resolution 

(Nov. 27), 696. 
Educational-exchange program with U. S. under Ful- 

bright act, grants under, 649. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Freedom, struggle for, statement by Mr. Grady, 584. 
Greek-Turkish aid, expenditures estimated, 342. 
Guerrillas aided by Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, 

238, 447, 461. 
Guerrillas aided by Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia, 

UNSCOB conclusions noted in draft resolution, 

635. 
Secretary Marshall visits, 561. 
Territorial integrity threatened by Albania, Bulgaria, 

and Yugoslavia, 238, 608. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Double-taxation, with U. S., discussions, 527. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 
with D. S., 104. 

Index, July to December 1948 



Greece — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Provisional commercial agreement (1938) and gen- 
eral agreement on tariffs and trade (1947), appli- 
cation to occupied territories, exchange of notes 
with D .S., 45. 
U. N. Special Committee on Balkans, 3d interim report 

approved by General Assembly, 576. 
tJ. S. Ambassador (Grady), departure for, 129. 
U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Marshall in 3d 
session. General Asembly, 434. 
Green, Paul, detained by Security Police in Rumania, 

403. 
Grenada, British West Indies, U. S. Consulate, closing, 

91, 477. 
GriflSs, Stanton, appointed Director of U. N. ReUef for 

Palestine, 730. 
Griswold, Dwight, resignation as Chief of American Mis- 
sion for Aid to Greece, 501. 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Agreements under Economic Cooi)eration Act, 35. 
Genocide convention, statement in General Assembly, 

755. 
Soviet wives of foreigners, Chilean proposal, 798. 
Correspondence with New York Supreme Court Justice 
(Dickstein) regarding Kasenkina case, 261. 
Guatemala : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 26. 
U. S. Ambassador (Patterson), appointment, 501. 

Haas, Stephen : 
Attackers apprehended, 449. 
Investigation of his murder in Egypt, 21L 
Hagannah, U.S. code clerk held at headquarters, 301. 
Hague, The, public-health attach^ to U. S. Embassy, 476. 
Hague convention (1907) on maritime warfare, 464. 
Haifa, Palestine: 

Opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Refugees aided by UNICEF, 615. 
Haiti : 

Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 58, 212. 
U. S. Ambassador (DeCourcy), appointment, 25. 
Visiting professor from U. S., 474. 
Halle, Louis J., Jr., article on education programs under 

Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 31. 
Hare, Raymond A., designation in State Department, 154. 
Harrlman. W. Averell, appointment as U. S. representative 

to the Economic Commission for Europe, 118. 
Health : 
Brucellosis, 2d Inter-American congress, 641. 
Information, exchange program, 476. 
Mental, U. S. delegates to London meeting on, 201. 
Tropical medicine and malaria, congresses, 294. 
Health Assembly, World, of WHO, progi-ams, 82, 117. 
Health Organization, World. See World. 
Heath, Donald K., aide-memoire to Bulgarian Foreign 
Minister (Kolarov) on non-fulfilment of peace treaty 
obligations, 447. 
Hendrick, James Pomeroy, article on progress report of 

U. S. Commission on Human Rights, 159. 
Herald-Tribune Forum, New York, N. Y., address by 

Mr. Kennan, 520. 
Hoffman, Michael L., New York Times article on dis- 
placed persons program, 411. 
Honduras : 

Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
U. S. Consulate at La Ceiba, closing, 477. 
U. S. consular agency at Puerto Cortes, opening, 477. 
Howard, Harry N., article on Germany, the Soviet Union, 

and Turkey during World War II, 63. 
Hull, England, closing of U. S. Consulate, 58, 477. 
HuUey, Benjamin M., designation in State Department, 

503. 
Human Rights, Covenant of, proceedings of drafting 

committee, 161. 
Human Rights, U. N. Commission on, proceedings, 159,238. 

823 



Human Rights, Universal Declaration of: 
Approval urged before General Assembly by Secretary 

Marshall, 432. 
Discussed by Mrs. Roosevelt, 457, 751. 
Drafting of, 159. 
General Assembly approves, 729. 

Texts as approved at second and third sessions com- 
pared, 167. 
UNESCO to publicize, 763. 

^Bank^shares, presentation by foreign owners required. 

Broadcasts; freedom to listen to, exchange of notes with 

U S 145. 
Danube, free navigation on the, attitude, 283. 
Minister to U. S. (Sili), credentials, 193. 
Standard Oil's MAORT company seized 469. 
U. N. membership, qualifications, 695, 7^9. 
U. S. citizens detained, 469, 494, 737. 
U. S. oil property seizure, proteste^, (36. 
Voice of America, campaign against, 91. 

^ Appototid" U.^^S. representative to WHO executive 
board, 559. 
Article on World Health Assembly, 391. 
Hyderabad? U.S. nationals in, evacuation to Madras, 

Hydroelectric power project, Passamaquoddy to Inter- 
national Joint Commission, U. S.-Canada, for review, 
terms of reference, 648. ... x- „ 

Hylean Amazon, International Institute of, objectives 
described by Mr. Boonstra, 183. 

^''Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed with 

WhaUng," mternational convention for regulation of 
(1946), adherence, 714. 
Icelandic air conference plans facilities for North At- 
lantic routes, 16. 

^TiSlaceT Persons Act of 1948. procedure under, 411 
412. 
Farm-labor migration agreement: _ 

Exchange of notes, U. S. and Mexico, 585. 
Mexico charges U.S. with violation, 562. 
German and Austrian to U. S., opened, article by Mr. 

Sutterim, 735. 
German (Western) and Austrian, registration under 

Immigration Act of 1924, 412. 
Visa requirements eased, U. S. with : 
Belgium, 526. 
Italy, 526. 
U. K., 648. 
Immigration and Naturalization, Senate Subcommittee 
To Investigate: 
Request for visa files refused, 235. 

Secretary of State's committee reports on employees tes- 
timony before, 335. 
U. N. personnel, application of U. S. immigration laws 
to, 116. 
Immunities. .See Diplomatic officers; Exemption from 

territorial jurisdiction. 
Income tax. See Double taxation. 

Ambassador to U. S. (Rama Rau), credentials, 193. 
Kashmir, dispute with Pakistan over, 16. 
Kashmir, U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Mar- 
shall In 3d session, General Assembly, 434. 
Social-welfare attach^ to U. S. Embassy in New Delhi, 

619. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Protocol of provisional application, signature, U. S. 

proclamation, 55. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
U. S. nationals, evacuation from Hyderabad to Madras, 
'414. 

824 



♦ i 



India and Pakistan, U. N. Commission on, arrival in 

Karachi, 16, 82. 

Indonesia : „ ^ j- n'^u 

Name changed from Netherlands East Indies, 745. 

Indonesian situation : 
Committee of Good Offices: 
Reports, 133, 698, 764. 

U S. Representative Cochran, appointment, 82. 
Renville agreement, negotiations under, by Oonmut- 
tee of Good Offices, address by Mr. Bennmghott, 9. 
Renville agreement. Security Council resolution on ob- 
servance of, 133. 
Trade restrictions investigation asked by Security 

Council, 47. 
United States of Indonesia, U. N. attitude, 133. 
U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Marshall in 3d 
session. General Assembly, 434. 
Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, article by Mr. Anderson, 

12. 
Industrial Advisory Committee of ECA, German repara- 
tions, plant removal from Western zones to be re- 
viewed, 584. 
Industrial Development of Puerto Rico and the Virgvn 
IslandSi of the United States, released by Caribbean 
Commission, 745. 
Industrial production, European, including Western Ger- 
many, 598. 
Industrial property : 
Trade-mark registration, extension of time for renewal 
of, proclamations with respect to — 
Austria, 527. 
Belgium, 212. 
Czechoslovakia, 302. 
Industry: 

Coal and steel in Ruhr, reorganization, 703, 704, 708. 
Fishing, in Northwest Atlantic, depletion threatened, 

699. 
Steel production in ERP countries, 553. 
Tuua resources investigation recommended by U. S. 
and Mexico, 647. 
Industry and finance in Japan, deconcentration of, 768. 
Information (see also Radio) : 
False or distorted reports, U. S. report to U. N. on meas- 
ures to combat, 127. 
Free press in Germany, need of reference materials for, 

144. 
U S. Advisory Commission on Information, members, 

242. 
U. S. program, addresses: 
Mr. Allen, 88. 
Mr. Schneider, 772. 
Voice of America : 

Article by Mr. Allen, 567. 

Broadcasts to originate in State Department, 4(0. 

Information, freedom of: 
Addresses, statements, etc.: ^ 

Secretary Marshall, 51, 433, 473. ^ 

General Assembly resolution on false or distorted re- 
ports, U. S. attitude, 116. „ . ^ ^ <- ri 

Newsweek article, U. S. reply to Soviet protest, 51. 
Information, Freedom of, U. N. Conference on: 

Commended by Secretary Marshall, 433. 

Obstructionist attitude of certain governments, 378. 

Resolutions supported by U. S. delegation, 127, 128, 129. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of: ^ ^. „4. 

Chilean tuberculosis hospital, joint construction of, 

6S1 
Education programs, cooperative, article by Mr. Halle, 

31 
Inter-American Coffee Board, entitled by law to certain 

privileges, 349, 352. ^ ^,, r^ „„„ 

Inter-American Conference, supreme organ of the Organ- 
ization of American States, 594. _ 
Inter-American conference for the rehabiUtation of crip- 
ples, 1st, 122. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Intor-American conference on conservation of renewable 

natural resources, 33-J. 
Inter-American Council of Jurists, 596. 
Inter-American Cultural Council, 596. 
Intcr-American Economic and Social Council, appointment 

of U. S. representative, 1.54, 593. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, entitled 

by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Inter-American Statistical Institute, entitled by law to 

certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Inter- American treat.v of reciprocal assistance (1947), 592. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, entitled by law 

to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 
preparatory committee, D. S. delegates and agenda, 
671. 
Interim Committee of General Assembly: 
Charter review by General Assembly, 82. 
(^mtinuation of, discussion, 16, 637. 
Extended (through 1949), 697. 

Jlembership in U. N., proposal (see also United Na- 
tions), 69.5. 
Progress reviewed by Mr. Johnson, 191. 
Report on methods of promoting international political 

cooperation, 796. 
U. S. policy on, summarized by Secretary Marshall in 

3d session, General Assembly, 434. 
Veto under Chapter VI, U. S. proposals (see also Veto), 
6. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : 
Described by Mr. Burns, 599. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
President's report to Congress, summary, 243. 
U. S. participation in (Public Law 171, 79th Cong.), text, 
367. 
International Beehtel, Incorporated, aid to Near East, 293. 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
European-Mediterranean air-navigation meetings, 2d, 

271. 
Icelandic air conference plans facilities for North At- 
lantic routes, 16. 
North Pacific regional air-navigation meeting, 20, 84, 

274, 523. 
Southeast Asia Region, U. S. delegation, 6.39. 
International congress on mental health, U. S. delegates to 

London meeting, 201. 
International congresses on tropical medicine and malaria, 

4th international, 294. 
International Control of Atomic Energy: Policy at the 

Crossroads, released, 123. 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, 349, 353. 
International Court of Justice of U. N. : 
Membership in U. N., opinion, 729. 754. 
Syrian proposal for opinion on Palestine situation, re- 
jection by Security Council, 132. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada : 
Appointment of Mr. Weber, 527. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 26, 349, 354. 
Flood control, 49, 202, 558. 
Kootenay River flood control, 49, 202. 
Passamaquoddy tidal power project to be reviewed, 

terms of reference, 648. 
Pollution of boundary waters, hearings and represent- 
atives, 558, 732. 
St. Lawrence seaway project, 810. 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Conference, 31st, 47, 82. 

Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Final articles revision convention (1946), proclaimed, 

472. 
Governing Body, 107tli session, 764. 
Legislation on, 313. 

Petroleum Committee, 2d session, agenda and ir.S. dele- 
gation, 638. 
Soviet delegate attacks record of, 238. 
Textiles Committee, 2d session, agenda and U.S. dele- 
gation, 617. 



International Labor Organization (ILO) — Continued 
U.S. accepts constitution (Public Law 843, 80th Cong.), 
text, 373. 
International Monetary Fund, 243. 
Described by Mr. Burns, 599. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
U.S. participation in (Public Law 171, 79th Cong.), text, 
367. 
International organizations, U. S. laws re : 
Immunities act (1945), text, 349. 
Personnel of U.S. Government, transfer to (Ex. Or. 

9721), text, 366. 
Procurement act (1947), 354. 
International Refugee Organization. See Refugee Or- 
ganization, International. 
International Society for the Welfare of Cripples, spon- 
sors 1st inter-American conference on rehabilitation 
of crippled and disabled, 804. 
International Trade Organization. See Trade Organi- 
zation, International. 
International wheat agreement. See Wheat agreement, 

international. 
International Wheat Advisory Committee, entitled by law 

to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
Iran, credit for purchase of surplus military equipment, 

211. 
Iraq, communication on cease-fire order in Palestine, 130. 
Ireland : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, discussions, 714. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, signature, 37. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U.S., 104. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation with U.S. 

discussed, 526. 
Most-favored-nation treatment, application to occu- 
pied territories, exchange of notes with U.S., 44. 
U.N. membership, qualifications, 693, 729. 
U.S. Consulate at Limerick, closing, 563. 
Israel (.see also Palestine situation) : 
Consular section of U.S. mission at Tel Aviv open for 

limited consular business, 123. 
Democratic Party platform, attitude, 582. 
Membership in U.N., 698, 723, 763. 
Membership in U.N., statement in Security Council by 

Mr. Jessup, 723. 
Representative to U.S. (Epstein), appointment, 22. 
U.S. Con.sulate at Haifa, opening, 477. 
U.S. Consulate at Tel Aviv, opening, 477. 
U.S. policy, statement by President Truman, 582. 
U.S. Representative (McDonald), appointment, 22. 
Italy : 
Aid under 1947 U.S. foreign relief program, 101. 
Chief of Staff, General Efisio Marras, visit to U.S., 680. 
Claims, no time limit on filing, 450. 
Colonies, disposition of: 
Council of Foreign Ministers to discuss, exchange of 

notes between U. S. and U.S.S.R., 382. 
General Assembly to consider at next session, 698, 

730. 
U. S. attitude in CFM, 402. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

529. 
Displaced persons, admission to U. S. from, 411, 412. 
Displaced persons, aid by U. S. Foreign Service person- 
nel, 501. 
Double taxation, discussions, scheduled, 679. 
EGA, gratitude for, 450. 
Steel production, 553. 
Taxes, procedure for postponement of payment by U. N. 

nationals, 24. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, signature, 37. 
Educational-exchange program, with U. S., signature, 
809. 



Index, July to December 7948 



825 



Italy — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U. S., 104. 
Most-favored-nation provisions in treaty of friend- 
ship, commerce, and navigation and in general 
agreement on tariffs and trade (1947), applica- 
tion to occupied territories, exchange of notes 
with U. S., 44. 
Peace treaty (1047), renunciation in art. 23 of posses- 
sions In Africa, 402. 
Peace treaty (1947), Yugoslavia charges violations in 

Trieste, 179. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
Trieste situation. See Trieste. 
U. N. membership, qualifications, 693, 729. 
U. S. Consulate at Venice, opening, 303, 477. 
Visa requirements changed, 526. 

Japan : 

Finances and Industry, deconcentration of, 768. 
Industrial revival, U. S. attitude stated by General 

McCoy in Far Eastern Commission, 645. 
Industry, majority attitude on Soviet proposal in Far 

Eastern Commission, 806. 
Peace settlement, U. S. policy summarized by Secretary 

Marshall in 3d session, General Assembly, 433. 
Trade, conduct of, FEC policy decision, text, 770. 
Trade, most-favored-nation treatment provisions of 

certain treaties, application to, 44, 45, 104. 
Travel abroad of Japanese commercial representatives, 

FEC policy decision, text, 771. 
TJ. S. Consulate at Kobe, opening, 477. 
TJ.S.S.R. suspends repatriation of Japanese in Siberia, 

810. 
Yokosulsa naval base, Soviet charges answered by U. S., 
586. 
Japanese mandated Islands. See Pacific Islands, Territory 

of the. 
Japanese-occupied areas, property of U. S. nationals In, 

procedure for filing claims, 245. 
Jerusalem {see also Palestine situation) : 
Statute for, Soviet charges against U. S., 179. 
U. S. code clerk kidnaped, 301. 

U. S. Consulate General, D. S. marine guard for, 115. 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Armaments, Commission for Conventional, comment 

on Soviet attitude, 180. 
Berlin crisis, 463, 484, 541, 572. 
Israeli membership in U. N., 723. 
Palestine situation, 114, 611, 657, 660. 
Palestine situation. Conciliation Commission, 687. 
Syrian proposal for International Court of Justice 

opinion on status of Palestine, 132. 
U. S. loan to U. N. for permanent building, 179. 
Yugoslav charges against U. S.-U. K. administration 
of Trieste, 106, 225. 
Appointed deputy U. S. representative to General As- 
sembly, 330. 
Letter to Secretary-General Lie on U. S. implementa- 
tion of Palestine resolution, 11. 
Johnson, Joseph E., review of six months in Interim Com- 
mittee, 191. 
Johnstone, William C, Jr. : 

Address on educational exchange program, 739. 
Designation in State Department, 59, 563. 
Justice, Department of, control of enemy assets transferred 
from Treasury Department, 472, 616. 

Kabul, Afghanistan, elevation of U. S. Legation to rank 

of embassy, 746. 
Kaplan, Sheldon Z., article on 80th Congress, 2d session, 

and the U. N., 307, 347. 
Kasenkina, Mrs. Oksana S., refusal to return to U.S.S.R. : 
Not liable to restraint or compulsion, note from Secre- 
tary Marshall to Soviet Ambassador, 408. 



826 



Kasenkina, Mrs. Oksana S., refusal to return to U.S.S.B.— 

Continued 
Status of, letter from Legal Adviser of the State De- 
partment (Gross) to N. Y. Supreme Court Justice 
(Dlckstein), 261. 
Kashmir, U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Marshall 

in 3d session. General Assembly, 434. 
Kashmir Commission of Security Council of U. N. See 

India and Pakistan Commission. 
Kennan, George F., address on United Nations, 520. 
Kennedy, Donald D., appointed chairman, U.S. delegation, 

international wool-study group, 443. 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., U. S. representative on U. N. 

Special Committee on the Balkans, 238. 
Kobe, Japan, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Kootenay River flood control, U. S.-Canada, joint com- 
mission, 49, 202. 
Korea : 

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, signature, 778. 
Economic Cooperation Administration to administer 

aid, 301. 
Elections : 
Declared valid by Temporary Commission on Korea, 

16. 
Supervised by UNTCOK, 191. 
U. S. attitude, 242. 
Electric power : 
Resumption of distribution to South Korea, corre- 
spondence between U. S. and U. S. S. R., 50. 
Supply to South Korea, exchange of notes between 
U. S. Army Commander and Soviet Army Com- 
mander, 147. 
Government (South Korean) recognized by General 
Assembly, 728. 
Statement by Mr. Dulles, 758. 
Text of resolution, 760. 
Nortli Korea People's Government rejected by U. N., 

637. 
Occupying forces, withdrawal of: 

Commission to observe withdrawal, 728, 760. 
Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 456. 
U. S. policy, 440. 
Recognition of new government, 242, 800. 
Trade, most-favored-natlon treatment provisions of cer- 
tain treaties, application to southern Korea, 44, 45, 
104. 
Uprising in Yosu reported, 562. 
U. S. Consulate at Seoul, opening, 477. 
U. S. policy : 
Mr. Dulles, statements, 728, 758. 
Secretary Marshall, statement in General Assembly, 

434. 
Recognition, 242, 300. 

Special Representative (Muccio) appointed, 242. 
Korea, 19^5 to 1948, released, 529. 
Korea, U. N. Temporary Commission on (UNTCOK) : 
Continuation urged by Mr. Dulles, 758. 
Elections (May 10) held valid, 16. 
Observation of elections, 242. 
Report to General Assembly, excerpte, 576. 
Work of, continued by General Assembly, 728, 760. 
Work with Interim Committee, 191. 
Kuala Lumpur, Malayan Union, opening of U. S. Consu- 
late, 477. 

Labor : 

European Recovery Program, role In, address by Mr. 

Nitze, 239. 
Farm-labor migration agreement, Mexico charges U. S. 
violation, exchange of notes, U. S. and Mexico, 
562, 585. 
Labor attaches confer with Economic Cooperation Ad- 
ministration advisers in Paris, 213. 
Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization. 
La Ceiba, Honduras, closing of U. S. Consulate, 477. 

Department of State Bulletin 



i-n Guaira, Venezuela, U. S. Vice Consulate closing, 476, 

746. 
Lahore, Pakistan, opening of V. S. Consulate, 477. 
Lebanon : 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (1947) : 
Concessions, 151. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 55, 
149. 
I Palestine, cease-fire orders, confirmation of issuance, 131. 
n Refugee aid, 575. 

I Legislation, development of program. State Department 
regulations {see also Congress), 682. 
Lend-lease, agreement with Liberia (1943), construction 

of free port of Monrovia, 58, 210. 
Lend-lease, settlement, U. S. and : 
Brazil, 52. 
China. 527. 
Czechoslovakia, 413. 
France, 52, 561. 
Netherlands, 52. 
United Kingdom, 143. 
U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary Marshall on U. S. 

proposals to, 51. 
Yugoslavia, 137, 139. 
Lend-lease and claims settlement veith France (1946), 

supplemented by new agreement, 561. 
Leningrad, U.S.S.R., proposed U. S. Consulate General, 

not to open, 409. 
Leverich, Henry P., Rumania demands recall of, ex- 
change of notes between Rumanian Minister of For- 
eign Affairs and D. S. Minister (Schoenfeld), 809. 
Liberia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Lend-lease agreement (1943), construction of free 

port of Monrovia with funds from, 58, 210. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947), nego- 
tiations for accession, 807. 
U. S. Minister (Dudley), appointment, 303. 
Libya : 

U. S. Consulate at Tripoli, opening, 477. 
U. S. position in Council of Foreign Ministers on dis- 
position of, 402. 
Lie, Trygve ( Secretary-General of U. N. ) , 293, 655. 
Limerick, Ireland, closing of U. S. Consulate, 563. 
Limnology, International society of, program of 10th con- 
gress meeting In ZUrlch, 201. 
Linguists, 6th International congress of, 134. 
Lltvinov, Maxim, exchange of correspondence with Frank- 
lin D. Roosevelt (1933), reprinted, 257. 
Lomakln, Y. M., Soviet Consul General at New York, 

exequatur revoked, 253. 
L(5pez, Garcia, represents Mexico In air transport dis- 
cussions, 300. 
Lovell, Colonel John R., Rumania demands recall of, 
exchange of notes between Rumanian Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and U. S. Minister (Schoenfeld), 809. 
Lovett, Robert A. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Near East refugees, aid to, 447. 
President Prlo's return to Cuba, 778. 
Correspondence : 
Governors, on transmittal of electors' certificates, 618. 
Polish Ambassador, replying to protest re Six Power 

talks on Germany, 86. 
Soviet Embassy, on Kasenklna and Samarin cases, 

251. 
U.S.S.R. Ambassador (Panyushkin), on Berlin crisis, 
423. 
Lulchev, Kosta, trial and Imprisonment in Bulgaria, note 
from U. S. Minister to Bulgarian Foreign Minister, 
710, 796. 
Lutheran World Relief, Inc., aid to Near East, 299. 
Luxembourg : 

Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communique, 

583. 
Reconstruction loans from International Bank, 599. 



Luxembourg — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational-exchange program with U. 8., signed. 

528, 681. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U. S., 104. 
German enemy assets, agreement on resolution of 

conflicting claims to, signature, 25. 
TarilTs and trade, general agreement on, provision- 
ally effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
U. S. Sen. res. 239, exchange of views with U. S., U. K., 
France, Canada, and other Benelux countries, So! 

Maggard, Peggy, detained by Security Police in Rumania 

403. 
Malaria, congresses on tropical medicine and, 294. 
Malayan Union, U. S. Consulate at Kuala Lumpur, open- 
ing, 477. ^ 
MAORT of Standard Oil seized by Hungary, 469, 736. 
Marechal Joffre claims agreement, U. S. with France aiid 

Australia, 561. 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental 
(IMCO), preparatory committee, U. S. delegates and 
agenda, 671. 
Maritime safety measures, international, article by Lt 

Bradley, Jr., 119. 
Maritime warfare (1907), Hague convention, revision dis- 
cussed, 464. 
Marseille, France, elevation of U. S. Consulate to rank 

of consulate general, 244. 
Marshall, George C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Assassination of Count Bernadotte, 899. 

Berlin crisis, air transport, 54. 

Berlin crisis, joint communiquS issued in Paris 

(Sept. 26), 423. 
Berlin situation, 141. 
Bolivia, proposal on defaulted bonds, 52. 
Freedom of information, 473. 
German Industry In the Ruhr, trustee plan, 703 
Lend-lease settlement with U.S.S.R., U. S. proposals, 

61. 
Palestine, U. S. policy on Bernadotte report. 436 
U. N. Charter, 40O. 
U. N. Day, 329, 548. 

U. N. personnel, effect on U. S. security, 116. 
U. S. policy on problems before the U. N., 3d session 
of General Assembly, text, 432, summarized, 441. 
Vinson, Chief Justice, projected mission to Moscow! 
483. 
Committee appointed to study provisions of U.N. head- 
quarters agreement affecting national security, 132. 
Correspondence : 

American Minister at Jidda (Childs), on opening of 

radiotelegraph to Saudi Arabia, 449. 
Chairman of Senate Subcommittee To Investigate Im- 
migration and Naturalization (Revercomb), on 
disclosing visa files, 235. 
PAO Acting Director General (Clark), on establish- 
ment of permanent FAO headquarters, 268. 
Hungarian Charge, on freedom of Hungarian citizens 

to listen to U. S. broadcasts, 145. 
Palestine Mediator (Bernadotte) on aid from U. S. 

organizations, 267, 203. 
Secretary-General of U. N. and President of General 

Assembly on Berlin situation, 656. 
Soviet Ambassador (Panyushkin), on blockade of 

Berlin, 85. 
Soviet Ambassador, on Danubian conference, 23. 
Soviet Ambassador, on proposed discussion of Italian 

Colonies by CFM, 382. 
Soviet Ambassador, replying to protest over Newsweek 
article, 51. 
Greece visited, 561. 
U. S. senior representative to General Assembly, 330. 



Index, July to December 1948 



827 



Martin, Edwin M., designation in State Department, 154. 
Martinique, French West Indies, closing and opening of 

U. S. Consulate, 476, 563. 
Matamoros, Mexico, closing of U. S. Consulate recon- 
sidered, 451 
Mathews, Elbert G., designation in State Department, 6o(J. 
McCahon, William H., article on International Committee 

of the Red Cross, 464. 
McCluney, Forrest F., designation in State Department, 

213. 
McCoy, Major General Frank R. : 

Far Eastern Commission, Soviet proposal on Japanese 

industry, majority attitude, 806. 
Japanese industry, statements in Far Eastern Commis- 
sion on U. S. attitude, 645, 768. 
McDermott, Jack C, designation in State Department, 

503. 
McDonald, James Grover, appointment as U. S. Represent- 
ative to Israel, 22. 
Medicine, tropi'cal, congresses on, 294. 
Membership in U. N. See United Nations. 
Meteorological facilities, discussion of, in regional air- 
navigation meetings, 273, 275. 
Meteorological Organization, International (IMO), Re- 
gional Commission for Asia, meeting, U. S. delegate 
and agenda, 558. 
Metrology, ninth general conference of international bu- 
reau of weights and measures, 466. 
Mexico : 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

529 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U. S., 153, 619, 744. 
Foreign Minister Torres Bodet elected Director General 

of UNESCO, 702. 
General Assembly resolution urging cooperation to con- 
clude peace treaties, 522, 552, 614. 
L6pez, Garcra, discusses air transport agreement with 

U. S., 300. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, discussions with U. S., 300. 
Farm-labor migration agreement, charge of U. S. vio- 
lation and exchange of notes, 562, 585. 
Tuna resources investigation, joint recommendation, 647. 
U. S. Consulates at Agua Prieta and Matamoros not to 
close, 451. 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act, closed areas proclaimed, 744. 
Military mission. See Missions. 
Militar.v Staff Committee: 

Chairman Vasiliev's statement on report on armed 

strength, 195. 
Letter to Security Council president from Soviet Dele- 
gation, 264. 
Letter to Security Council president from U. S., U. K., 
Chinese, and French delegations, submitting state- 
ment of stalemate, 263. 
Miller, Dr. Hunter, editor of treaty volume, 214. 
Mineralogical-geologieal survey program, U. S. with Bra- 
zil, extended, 743. 
Minerals, strategic. See Natural resources. 
Ministers (American) of Foreign Affairs, Meeting of Con- 
sultation of, 596. 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, 
Habana declaration of inter-American solidarity 
(1940), 592. 
Missions, Colombian economic mission to U. S., 58. 
Missions, U. S. : 
Argentina, military advisory, agreement signed, 494. 
Brazil, military, 211. 

Greece, relief, supplies released to Near Bast refugees, 
447. 
Monetary and Financial Problems, National Advisory 

Council on International, summary of report, 243. 
Mongolian People's Republic, U. N. membership, qualifica- 
tions, 695, 729. 
Monrovia, free port of, 58, 210. 

Monsma, George N., article on the Organization of Ameri- 
can States, 591. 

828 



Morocco, war claims, procedure for filing, 211. 

Moscow discussions. See Berlin crisis. 

Most-favored-nation treatment, application to occupied 
territories, exchange of notes, U.S. with Greece, Ire- 
land, Italy, Turkey, and U.K., 43, 104. 

Motion pictures, joint declaration by U.S. and France, 
text, 500. 

Mount Holyoke College Institute of U.N., address by Mr. 
Allen on U. S. information program, 88. 

Muccio, John J., appointed special representative to Ko- 
rean Government, 242. 

Nairn, Sardar Mohamed, Khan, credentials as Afghan 

Ambassador to U. S., 746. 
Nares, Sir George, Arctic expedition, record found by 

U.S.-Canada supply mission, text, 471. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 

and Financial Problems, 243. 
National Association for Mental Health of England, 201. 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, aid to Near East, 

299. 

National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, N. Y., 

address by Mr. Sargeant on Government-sponsored 

information and educational-exchange programs, 672. 

Nationalism, Communist attitude re, 410. 

Natural resources, renewable, inter-American conference 

on the conservation of, 334. 
Natural resources in a world of conflict, article by Mr. 

Nitze, 623. 
Nature, conference for the establishment of the inter- 
national union for the protection of, U. S. delegation 
to, 443. 
Navigation, freedom of. See Danube conference. 
Navigation, St. Lawrence seaway project, 810. 
Nazareth, refugees aided by UNICEF, 615. 
Naei Conspiracy and Aggression, supplement B, released, 

650. 
Near East: 
Aid from American Red Cross, 586. 
Aid from U.S., 203. 

Refugees in. See Refugees in Palestine. 
Near East Foundation, aid to Near East refugees, 293, 448. 
Negeb desert. See Palestine situation. 
Netherlands : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 529. 
Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communique, 

.583. 
ERP defended in U.N., 490. 
Indonesian conflict, report by Security Council Good 

Offices Committee, 133, 698, 764. 
Indonesian situation, U.S. policy, 9, 434. 
Indonesian trade restrictions, 47, 133. 
Public-health attach^ to U.S. Embassy in The Hague, 

476. 
Reconstruction loans from International Bank, 599. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Caribbean Commission agreement, 245. 

Double taxation with U.S., signature and ratiflcation, 

679, 738. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U.S., 104. 
Lend-lease settlement, payment, 52. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provisionally 

effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1946), ratification, 714. 
Universities, Preparatory Conference of Representa- 
tives of, to be convened in cooperation with 
UNESCO, 184. 
US Sen res. 239, exchange of views with U.^., V.t^., 
'France, Canada, and other Benelux countries, 80. 
Netherlands East Indies. See Indonesia. 
New Delhi, social-welfare attach^ to U.S. Embassy, 619. 
New England fishing industry threatened by depletion. 
669. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Niw Guinea, trust territory of. See Trusteeship Council. 
New Haiupsliire, University of, Durham, N.H., address by 

Mr. Saltzman, 495. 
Ncwswce): article, note from Secretary Marshall to Soviet 

Ambassador, 51. 
New York, N. Y., Soviet Consulate General to close over 

Kaseukina-Samarin incident, 409. 
New York State Bar Association, Lake Placid, N. Y., ad- 
dress on ERP by Mr. Gross, 35. 
New York Times, article on displaced-persous program 

by Mr. Hoffman, 411. 
New Zealand: 

Ambassador to U. S. (Berendsen), credentials, 744. 
Antarctica, U.S. asks di-scussion, 301. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation with U. S., ratification pending, 680. 
Educational-exchange program with U. S., signed, 473. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (1947) : 
Concessions, 150. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 55, 
149. 
Nicosia, Cyprus, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Nitze, Paul H. : 
Addresses : 

Labor's role in ERP, 239. 
Trade program, international, 578. 
Natural resources in a world of conflict, article, 623. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
North Atlantic air routes, Icelandic conference plans 

facilities for, 16. 
North Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting of ICAO, 

2d, 274. 
North Atlantic security proposals: 

Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communique, 

583. 
Conversations, 778. 
Statement by Mr. Lovett, 583. 
North Pacific regional air navigation meeting, 20, 84. 
Northwest Atlantic fishing banks depleted, 669. 
Norway : 
Antarctica, U.S. asks discussion, 301. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table show- 
ing. 529. 
ERP defended in U. N., 490. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims convention, claims of Hannevig and Jones, 

ratification, 646. 
Double taxation, talks with U. S. scheduled, 679. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 

with U. S., 104. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Protocol of provisional application, signature, U. S. 

proclamation, 55. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1946), ratification, 714. 
U. S. Consulate at Bergen, opened, 477. 

Occupied Area Affairs, Advisory Committee abolished, 
811. 

Occupied areas (see also Ruhr), application to, most- 
favored-nation treatment provisions of certain 
treaties, exchange of notes, U. S. with : Greece, Ire- 
land, Italy, Turkey, and U. K., 43, 104. 

Oil companies, MAORT of Standard Oil seized by Hun- 
gary, 469, 736. 

Oil companies. U. S., denial of interference in Venezue- 
lan affairs, 777. 

Organization of American States: 

Appointment of U. S. representative on Council, 154. 
Establishment of, 594. 

Organizations, international, texts of U. S. laws re, 349, 
3r)4, 366. 

Index, July to December 1948 



Osborn, Frederick H. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Armaments, regulation of, 194, 6.30. 
Atomic Energy Commission, reports, 14. 
Commission for Conventional Armaments, 180. 

Outrata, Vladimir, credentials as Czechoslovak Ambassa- 
dor to U. S., 87. 

Pacific Islands, Territory of: 

Commercial fishing, U. S. policy, 468. 
Trade preferences with U. S., 446. 

U. S. President authorized to approve trusteeship 
agreement (Public Law 204, 80th Cong.), text, 376. 
Pakistan : 

General agreement on tariffs and trade (1947) : 
Concessions, 150. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Renegotiations, 445, 527. 

Signature of protocol of provisional application, 55, 
149. 
Kashmir, dispute with India over, 16, 82. 
Kashmir, U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Mar- 
shall in 3d session. General Assembly, 434. 
U. S. Consulate at Lahore, opening, 477. 
Palestine situation : 

Acting Mediator Bunche, reports and recommenda- 
tions to United Nations, 517, 555, 615, 634. 
Arab States, attitude as expressed in telegram of Sec- 

retary-fjeneral of Arab League, 131 n. 
Armed guards needed, excerpts from Mediator's re- 
port, 439. 
Cease-fire for ten days, proposal by Mediator (Jjily 9) 

and Israeli reply, 112. 
Cease-fire resolution by Security Council (July 15), text, 

114 ; confirmation of effective date, 130. 
Conciliation Commission, General Assembly resolution 

(Dec. 11), 667, 687, 689, 726, 763, 793. 
Egypt charges Israeli violations of truce (Oct. 19), 555. 
Egyptian and Israeli forces, withdrawal in Negeb, 521, 

552, 555, 575, 667. 
Emigration regulations for men of military age from 
U. S. zones in Austria and Germany, exchange of 
notes, 386. 
Expiration of truce, Israeli letter (July 11) to Security 

Council, 113. 
General Assembly resolutions, creating working group 
(Nov. 16), 667; aid to refugees (Nov. 19), 636; 
creating Conciliation Commission (Dec. 11), 667, 
687, 689, 726, 763, 793. 
Israel accused of truce violation by Lebanon and Syria, 

555. 
Israeli membership in U. N., statement in Security Coun- 
cil by Mr. Jessup, 723. 
Jerusalem, U. S. Consulate General to be guarded by 

marines, 115. 
Kidnaping of U.S. code clerk at Jerusalem (Paro), pro- 
tested, 301. 
Mediator in Palestine (Bernadotte), assassination, 399. 
Mediator's messages to U. N. Secretary-General, 105, 

108, 111. 
Mediator's reports, 112, 436, 440. 

Mediator's suggestions to Israeli and Arab States, texts 
of three documents (June 27), 105; Israeli reply, 
107. 
Observers, additional U. S., 180. 

Prolongation of truce, Security Council resolution (July 
7), 108. 
Israeli and Arab replies to Mediator, 109, 110. 
Mediator's messages to Secretary-General of U. N., 
108, 111. 
Refugees, Arab and Jewish : 

Aid to, 180, 237, 293, 447, 575, 615, 636, 778. 
Exchange of letters between Count Bernadotte and 

Secretary Marshall, 266. 
Letter from Mr. Austin to U. N. Secretary-General, 

2f;5. 
Report by U. N. Mediator, Count Bernadotte, sum- 
mary, 440. 

829 



Palestine situation — Continued 

Refugees, Arab and Jewisli — Continued 
Beport to U. N. by Acting Mediator, 634. 
D.N. action, 180, 636, 778. 
U. N. director of relief, Mr. Grlffls, 730. 
U. S. Congress, appropriation of funds requested by 

President Truman, 778. 
U. S. organizations' contributions, telegram from 
Secretary Marshall to U. N. Mediator, 293. 
Sanctions against Israel, and/or Egypt proposed, 555. 
Secretary Marshall's statement on Mediator's report, 

436. 
Security Council : 
Emergency meeting on Palestine, 46. 
Resolutions: truce (May 29), Implementation, 11, 293, 
386; truce, prolongation (July 7), 108; truce 
(July 15), 81, 114, 237, 293, 386, 517; control of 
dissidents among Jews and Arabs (Aug. 19), 267; 
truce violators (Aug. 20), 237; truce, Negeb (Oct. 
19), 521, 552, 555; truce supervision (Oct. 19), 
613; appointing seven-nation committee (Nov. 4), 
555, 611, 615 ; armistice (Nov. 16), 637, 660, 692. 
Statements by Mr. Jessup, 114, 657, 723. 
Supervision of truce, U. N. Mediator's organization of 

and instructions to observers, 175, 438. 
V. S. cooperation praised by U. N. Secretary-General 

(Lie), 293. 
U. S. implementation of Security Council resolution 
(May 29), letter from Mr. Jessup to Secretary-Gen- 
eral (Lie), 11. 
U. S. policy on supplying troops, statement by President 

Truman, 237. 
U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Marsliall in 3d 

session, General Assembly, 434. 
U. S. to supply additional observers, 287, 293. 
Water pumps destroyed, 237, 439. 
Panama : 

Ambassador to U. S. (Vallarino), credentials, 87. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 680. 
Whaling, International convention for regulation of 
(1946), provisional application, 714. 
Pan American Congress of Pharmacy, 1st, objectives and 

U.S. delegation, 701. 
Pan American consultation on cartography, 4th, V.S. 

delegation, 443. 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau : 

Brucellosis, 2d inter-American congress on, 641. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
U. S. cooperation, 593. 
Pan American Union : 
Conservation conference, sponsored by, 334. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Functions, 593. 
Paraguay : 

Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Gonzalez, Natalicio J., Inauguration, U. S. representa- 
tives and aides announced, 245. 
U. S. Ambassador to represent President Truman at 
presidential inauguration, 245. 
Paris, U. S. Embassy, public-health and social-welfare 

attaches, 476, 619. 
Paro, George, kidnaping in Jerusalem protested by U.S., 

301. 
Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project to International 

Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, for review, 648. 
Passports. See Visas. 
Patterson, Jefferson, note to Egyptian Foreign Office on 

killing of Stephen Haas, 211. 
Patterson, Rlcliard C, Jr., appointed as U. S. Ambassador 

to Guatemala, 501. 
Peace treaties, General Assembly resolution urging cooper- 
ation to conclude, 522, 552, 614. 
Peary, Admiral Robert B., Arctic expedition, record found 

by U.S.-Canada supply mission, text, 471. 
Personnel, transfer of U. S. Government employees to in- 
ternational organizations (Ex. Or. 9721), text, 366. 



Peru : 

Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 212. 
U. S. continues diplomatic relations, 743. 
Petkov, Nicola, execution by Bulgaria, 796. 
Petroleum Committee of ILO, 2d session, agenda and 

U. S. delegation, 638. 
Petroleum companies, U. S., deny interference in "Vene- 
zuela, 777. 
Pharmacy, 1st Pan American Congress of, objectives and 

U.S. delegation, 701. 
Philadelphia Labor Education Association, Pendle Hill, 

Pa., address by Mr. Nltze, 239. 
Philippines, Republic of the: 
Consular convenUon (1947), proclamation, 779. 
Copyright agreement proclaimed, 562. 
Educational-exchange progi'am with U.S., grants under/ 

Fulbright Act, 649. 
Rehabilitation program, William D. Wright, Jr., ap- 

iwlnted coordinator, 213. 
Scholarships to, under Fulbright Act, 302. 
U.S. Consulate at Cebu, opening, 477. 
Photogrammetry congress and exhibition, 6th internation- 
al, agenda and U.S. delegates, 244. 
Physical education, recreation and rehabilitation, interna- 
tional congress of, 134. 
Plymouth, England, closing of U. S. Consulate, 477, 501. 
Poland : 
Arms reduction proposal rejected by U.N. subcommittee, 

556. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee, refuses seat on, 238. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee report, attitude, 611. 
Germany, Six Power talks on, U.S. reply to protest, 86. 
Securities, registration, requirements, 679. 
Trade discrimination resolution attacking ERP in Gen- 
eral Assembly, 666. 
Poliomyelitis conference, 1st international, 121. 
Political cooperation, promotion of international, state- 
ment by Mr. Cohen, 796. 
Port Llm6n, Costa Rica, U. S. consular agency, opening, 

129 ; consulate, closing, 477. 
Portugal : 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, adherence to pur- 
poses of, 470. 
U. N. membership, qualifications, 693, 729. 
Potato export agreement with Canada, 744. 
Poultry Congress, 8th World, article by Mr. Termohlen, 

731. 
Precedence among Foreign Service and other government 

officers (Ex. Or. 9998), text, 475. 
Prio Socarras, Dr. Carlos (President of Cuba), visit to 

U.S., 245, 743. 778. 
Prisoners of war, treatment (1929), treaty discussed, 464. 
Prisoners of war committee, interdepartmental (U.S.), 

464. 
Proclamations : 
Brazilian trade agreement (1935), Inoperative, 211. 
Copyright agreement with Philippines, 562. 
ILO final articles revision convention (1946), entered 

into force, 472. 
Reconvening 80th Congress, text, 377. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 
Effective for certain countries, 55, 149. 
Supplementary proclamations, 414. 
Trade-mark registrations, extension of time for renewal 
of: 
Austria, 527. 
Belgium, 212. 
Czechoslovakia, 302. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1946), 714. 
Procurement Act (1947), International Organizations, 

354. 
Procurement Control Division, abolishment and transfer 

of functions, 154. 
Program legislation, development. State Department regu- 
lations, 682. 






830 



Department of State Bulletin 



Property : 
Finland, property transferred to TJ.S.S.R., claims, pro- 
cedure for tiling and time extended, G47. 
Germany, U.S. zone, war claims, procedure for filing, 

646. 
Yugoslav assets In U.S. unfrozen, 137. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property: 
Bulgarian allegations against Americans answered by 
note from U.S. Minister to Bulgarian Foreign Minis- 
ter, 710. 
, Claims agreement for U.S. property nationalized In 
Yugoslavia, 137, 139 ; Yugoslav payment, 413. 
Claims of Hannevig and Jones, 646. 
Copyright agreement with Philippines, 562. 
Finland, procedure for filing claims, 148, 647. 
Germany, U.S. zone, procedure for filing war claims, 

646. 
Hungary: 
Bank shares, presentation of, 186. 
Detention of Mr. Ruedeman and Mr. Bannantine, 

469, 494. 
Seizure of Standard Oil Interests protested by U.S. 
Legation note, 469, 736. 
Hyderabad, evacuation of U.S. nationals in, to Madras, 

India, 414. 
Italy, no time limit on filing war claims, 450. 
Japanese-occupied areas, procedure for filing claims, 

245 . 
Jerusalem, U.S. Consulate General to be guarded by 

marines, 115. 
Jerusalem kidnaping of U.S. code clerk, 301. 
Morocco, procedure for filing war claims, 211. 
Murder of Irving Ross in Soviet zone of Austria, 646. 
Murder of Stephen Haas in Cairo: 
Attackers apprehended, 449. 

Charge Patterson, note to Egs^tian Foreign Office, 
211. 
Polish securities, registration regulations, 679. 
Rumania, detention of U.S. diplomatic personnel in, 403. 
Rumanian nationalization legislation protested by U.S. 
note, 408. 
Protocol. See Precedence. 

Provisional commercial agreement (1938), U.S. with 
Greece, application to occupied territories, exchange 
of notes, 45. 
Psychology, 12th international congress of, 122. 
Publications : 
Berlin Crisis : A Report on the Moscow Discussions, 431. 
Caribbean Commission studies : 

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, industrial de- 
velopment, 745. 
Sugar trade of the Caribbean, 745. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1932, vols. I, 

III, IV, and V, 418, 477, 503. 
International Control of Atomic Energy : Policy at the 

Crossroads, 123. 
Korea, 1945 to 1948 : 529. 
Lists : 
American republics, 597. 
Congress, U.S., 27, 479, 491, 494, 524, 563. 
State Department, 27, 59, 155, 187, 215, 246, 279, 343, 
419, 478, 503, 529, 563, 587, 597, 651, 682, 747, 
779, 811. 
United Nations, 59, 78, 178, 195, 236, 270, 332, 401, 
547, 574, 606, 665, 747. 
Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, supplement B, 650. 
Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIII (La.- 

Mo.), released, 1.54. 
Treaties and Other International Acts, vol. VIII, re- 
leased, 214. 
Treaty Developments, 155. 
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, opening of U.S. consular agency, 
477. 

Badio : 
Greek guerrillas aided by Yugoslav broadcasts, 238. 
U.N. telecommunications system, 578. 



Radio — Continued 
Voice of America : 

Article by Mr. Allen, 667. 

Broadcasts to originate in State Department, 470. 
BBC relays, increase, 147. 
Congressional investigation of, 89. 
Hungary, campaign against listening to: 
Mr. Allen, statement, 91. 
Exchange of notes, U. S. and Hungary, 145. 
Programing by networks, interim agreements with 
broadcasting companies, 57. 
Radio regulations, annexed to telecommunciation con- 
vention (1947), signed by President Truman, 47. 
Radiotelegraph service with Saudi Ai-abla, 449. 
Radius, Walter A., addresses and statements on Danube, 

free navigation of, 223, 288, 384. 
Rama Rau, Sir Benegal, C.I.B., credentials as (Indian) 

Ambassador to U. S., 193. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend-lease. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for: 

Trade-agreements negotiations, notice of, 643. 
Trade-agreements organization, functions (under the 
act of 1948). 502, 527, 642, 807. 
Red Cross : 

American aid to Near East, 293, 448, 586. 
Conference, 17th International, 201, 464. 
Red Cross conventions (1929), revision discussed, 464. 
Refugee Organization, International (IRO) : 
Commended by Secretary Marshall in 3d session, Gen- 
eral Assembly, 432. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Preparatory Commission, meetings, 83, 767. 
Progress summarized, 763. 
lieports by Mr. Warren, 83, 765. 
U. S. contribution and delegates to, 237, 333. 
U. S. membership in (Public Law 146, 80th Cong.), text, 
372. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, entitled by- 
law to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
Refugees in Palestine : 

Aid to, 180, 237, 293. 447, 575, 615, 636, 778. 

Appeal for U. S. aid, correspondence between Count 

Bernadotte and Secretary Marshall, 266. 
Mr. Austin, letter to U. N. Secretary-General, 265. 
General Assembly resolution on aid, 636, 778. 
Mr. Grlflis to direct relief, 730. 

President Truman recommends that Congress appropri- 
ate funds, 778. 
'Report to U. N. by Acting Mediator, Mr. Bunche, 634. 
Report to U. N. by Count Bernadotte, summary, 440. 
Security Council proceedings, 180. 
Rehabilitation of cripples, 1st inter-American conference 

for, U. S. delegation, 122. 
Relnhardt, Frederick G., designation In State Department, 

503. 
Remorino, Jer6nimo, credentials as Argentine Ambassa- 
dor to U. S., 59. 
Renville agreements. See Indonesian situation. 
Reparation, removal of German plants to be reviewed 
by Industrial Advisory Committee of EGA, joint 
statement by U. S., U. K., and France, 584. 
Resources, renewable natural, inter-American conference 

on conservation of, 334. 
Riley, RusseU L., designation In Department of State, 

563. 
River pollution, U. S.-Canada Joint Commission, 558, 

732. 
Rivers, fiood control. International Joint Commission, 

U. S.-Canada, meetings on, 49, 202, 558. 
Rivers, freedom of navigation on. See Danube conference. 
Road transport agreements, adhered to and extended by 

certain European countries, 702. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., exchange of correspondence with 
Soviet Commissar Lltvinov (1933) reprinted, 257. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., Hospital opens in Chile, 681. 



Index, July to December 7948 



831 



Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Children's Emergency Fund, U. N. International, 802. 
Human rights, 457. 

Pluman Rights Declaration, U. S. attitude, 751. 
Palestine refugee aid, 575. 
Appointed U. S. representative to General Assembly, 

330. 
Human Rights Commission chairmanship, 161. 
Ross, Irving, murdered in Soviet Zone of Austria, 646. 
Rotary Club, Brussels, Belgium, address by Mr. Thorp, 

Ruanda-Urundi, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council. _ 

Ruedemann, Paul, detained by Hungary, 469, 494, 737. 

Ruhr industries, reorganization of coal, iron, and steel : 

OMGUS summary of decisions, 708. 

Secretary Marshall, statement, 703. 

U. S. Zone Law (75), text, 704. 
Rumania : 

Peace treaty (1947), violation by nationalization leg- 
islation, U. S. note protesting, 408. 

Recall of U. S. officers demanded, 809. 

U. N. membership, qualifications, 695, 729. 

U. S. diplomatic personnel detained, 403. 
Rural reconstruction, Sino-American commission on, 207. 

Safety of Life at Sea Conference, report on, 119. 

St. Lawrence seaway project, funds to be requested from 

Congress, 810. „ „ „ ^ 

St. Stephen, N. B., Canada, closing of tJ. S. Consulate, 

477. 
Saltzman, Charles E. : 
Address on U. S. S. R. in the international scene, 495. 
Correspondence with Special Representative of Provi- 
sional Government of Israel, 386. 
Samarin, Mikhail I. : 
■ Refusal to return to U.S.S.R., 251, 408. 

Restraint or compulsion, not liable to, note from Sec- 
retary of State to Soviet Ambassador, 408. 
Statement to New York Titnes, 2.51 n. 
Sanctions, in Palestine situation, proposed, 555. 
San Francisco, Calif., Soviet Consulate General to close 

over Kaseukina-Samarin incident, 409. 
Sargeant, Howland H. : 

Address on helping the world to know the U. S., 672. 
Correspondence with Dr. Branscomb of U. S. Advisory 
Commission on Educational Exchange re Eastern 
European countries, 808. 
Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, closing of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Satterthwaite, Joseph D., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 154. 
Saudi Arabia : 

Palestine situation, cease-fire orders, communication 

on, 131. 
Radiotelegraph service to V. S. established, text of 
telegram from Secretary Jlarshall, 449. 
Sawyer, Dr. Wilbur A., article on tropical medicine and 

malaria congresses, 294. 
Sayre, Francis B. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Non-self-governing territories, 522. 
Trusteeship Council, 15, 179. 
Scammon, Richard M., designation in State Department, 

503. 
Scheele, Dr. Leonard A., chairman of congresses on trop- 
ical medicine and malaria, 294. 
Schneider, Douglas, address on America's answer to Com- 
munist propaganda program abroad. 772. 
Schoenfeld, Rudolf E., Minister to Rumania, notes to Ru- 
manian Foreign Office on detention of U. S. diplo- 
matic personnel, 403, 404. 
Schuman, Robert, Berlin crisis, joint communique issued 

at Paris (Sept. 26), 423. 
Science, restrained by Communism, speech by Mr. Allen, 

409. 
Search and rescne facilities, discussed in air-navigation 
conferences, 273, 276. 

832 



Securities, Polish, registration requirements, 679. 
Security, national: 
Alien admittance under U. N., report of Secretary of 

State's Committee, 132, 335. 
Visa files, refusal of Secretary Marshall to disclose, 
235. 
Security Council of TJ. N. : 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for. See Arm- 
aments. 
Atomic energy. See Atomic energy. 
Berlin crisis. See Berlin crisis. 
Committee of Neutral Experts to solve Berlin currency 

problems, 719, 720. 
Indonesian situation. See Indonesian situation. 
Membership in the U. N. See United Nations, Mem- 
bership. 
Military Staff Committee. See Military Staff Com- 
mittee. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
Resolutions : 
Atomic energy control (June 22), 27. 
Control of dissidents among Jews and Arabs (Aug. 

19), 267. 
Palestine, armistice (Nov. 16), 637, 660, 692. 
Palestine, cease-fire (July 15), 81, 114, 237, 293, 386, 

517. 
Palestine, prolongation of truce (July 7), 108. 
Palestine, seven-nation committee (Nov. 4), 555, 611, 

615. 
Palestine, truce (Oct. 19), .521, 552, 555. 
Palestine, truce implementation ( May 29 ), 11, 293, 386. 
Palestine, truce supervision (Oct. 19), 613. 
Palestine, truce violators (Aug. 20), 237. 
Soviet position on strategic trusteeships and ERP, 132, 

133, 490, 666. 
Strategic trust areas, proposal on relationship of Trus- 
teeship Council to, 15, 132. 
Trieste. See Trieste, Free Territory of. 
Veto. See Veto. 
Security proposals for North Atlantic nations, 583, 778. 
Seoul, Korea, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Shipping: 

Dauuliian conference, 23, 197, 219, 223, 283, 284, 2S8, 290, 

291, 333, 384, 616. 
Monrovia port opened, 58, 210. 
Turkish Straits, tables, 73. 
Shipping Division, State Department, abolishment and 

transfer of functions, 154. 
Shortley, Michael J., article on crippled and disabled, 1st 

inter-American conference on rehabilitation of, 804. 
Siberia, Japanese in, suspension of repatriation by 

U.S.S.R., 810. 
Sibley, Harper, chairman, National Citizens' Committee 

for U. N. Day, 193. 
Sik, Andrew, credentials as (Hungarian) Minister to U. S., 

193. 
Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruc- 
tion, established, 207, 208. 
Smith-Mundt Act (.see also Educational exchange pro- 
gram and Cultural cooperation) : 
Address by Mr. Johnstone, 739. 
Information commission appointed, 242. 
Smith, Walter Bedell (Ambassador to U.S.S.R.), state- 
ment on Berlin crisis, 544. 
Social-welfare information, exchange program, 619. 
Society Islands, U. S. Consulate at Tahiti, closing, 476. 
Sofia, U. S. vice consul (Ewing) accused as spy, facts 

concerning, 451. 
Somaliland, Italian, disposition, U. S. position in Council 

of Foreign Ministers, 402. 
Sorbonne, Paris, address by Mrs. Roosevelt, 457. 
South Pacific Commission: 
Legislation on, 307. 
U. S. Commissioners, 446. 

U. S. membership in. Public Law 403 (80th Cong.), text, 
375. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Southeast Asia regional air-navigation meeting of ICAO, 

1st. U. S. delesation, 639. 
Southern Rhodesia : 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 

Protocol of provisional application, signature, U. S. 

proclamation, 55. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
South-West Africa, former mandated territory of. See 

Trusteesliip Council. 
Spain : 

Elisibility for international convention on economic 

statistics, 576. 
U. N. resolution debarring Franco Government from 
memlierstiip in U. N. international agencies, 324 n. 
Spani.sh adopted by General Assembly as a working lan- 
guage, 730. 
Sprouse, Philip D., designation in State Department, 154. 
Standard Oil employees and company: 
Seizure by Hungary, 469, 494. 
U. S. Legation note in protest, 736. 
State Department: 

Election, presidential, duties, 587, 618. 

Foreign .Service, U. S. See Foreign Service. 

German Affairs, Interim Ofl5ce for, establishment, 279, 

477. 
International organizations apply for privileges to, text 

of lavr, 349, 352. 
Occupied Area Affairs, Advisory Committee, abolished, 

811. 
Procurement Control Division, abolishment and transfer 

of functions, 154. 
Regulations: 

Foreign currency and credit (270.1), 530. 
Program legislation development (205.1 and 205.2), 
6S2. 
Resignations : 

Armour, Norman, as Assistant Secretary, 213. 
Griswold as Chief of American Mission for Aid to 
Greece, 501. 
Shipping Division, abolishment and transfer of func- 
tions, 154. 
Voice of America broadcasts to originate in Department, 
470. 
Steel and coal industries of Ruhr, reorganization, 703, 

704, 70S. 
Stinebower, Leroy D., appointment to, Interim Commis- 
sion, ITO, 444. 
Strategic minerals. See Natural resources. 
Strategic trust areas, agreement on procedures between 

Security Council and Trusteeship Council, 15, 132. 
Stuart, J. Leighton, exchange of notes with Chinese For- 
eign Minister on establishment of rural reconstruc- 
tion commission for China, 207, 208. 
Sugar Trade of the Caiihbean, released by Caribbean 

Commission, 745. 
Surplus war property, disposal : 
Agreements, U. S. and — 
France, 52, 650. 
Iran, 211. 
Italy, 809. 
New Zealand, 473. 
U. K., 473. 
Combat materiel, nondemilitarlzed, transfer of, tables 

showing, 26, 529. 
Payment on accounts, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, 148. 
Scholarships awarded in China, Burma, and U. S. 
(E^ilbright Act), 302. 
Sutterlin, James S., article on opening of German and 

Austrian immigration to U. S., 735. 
Suva, Fiji Islands, closing of U. S. Consulate, 715. 
Sweden : 
Ambassador to U. S. (Boheman), credentials, 561. 
Gold and dollar exchange, loss of, 53. 
Steel production, 5.53. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed 
with U. S., 104. 

Index, July fo December 7948 



Sweden — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Trade (1935), with U. S., modifications by exchange 

of notes, 53. 
Transport, road, with other European countries, ad- 
hered to and extended, 702. 
Switzerland : 

Transport agreement, road, with other European coun- 
tries, adhered to and extended, 702. 
tJ. S. Consulate and Legation at Bern combined, 187. 
Syria: 
International Court of Justice, proposal for opinion on 

status of Palestine, 132. 
Palestine situation, cease-fire order, confirmation of 

issuance, 130. 
Palestine truce resolution (Oct. 19) by Security Council, 

521, 552, 555. 
Refugee aid, 575. 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Concessions, 151. 
Protocol of provisional application, signature, 55, 

149. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 

Tahiti, Society Islands, closing of U. S. Consulate, 476. 
Tanganyika, trust territory of (see also Trusteeship 
Council), U. S. Consulate at Dar-es-Salaam, opening, 
129, 477. 
Tariff Commission, U. S., Trade Agreements Act, relation 

to, 502, 642, 807. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) : 

Application to occupied territories, exchanges of notes, 
U. S. with: Greece, Ireland, Italy, Turkey, and 
U. K., 43, 44, 45, 104. 
Contracting parties to, 2d session, 278, 445. 
Discussed by — 
Mr. Burns, 600. 
Mr. Willoughby, 327. 
Blodifications, 445, 527, 807. 

Most-favored-nation treatment, application to occupied 
territories, exchanges of notes, U. S. with : Greece, 
Ireland, Italy, Turkey, and U. K., 43, 44, 45, 104. 
New countries to negotiate, 445, 642. 
Pacific I.slands, Territory of the, trade preference with 

U. S., 446. 
Proclamations putting into effect for — 
Brazil, 149, 211. 
Ceylon, 149. 
India, 55. 
Lebanon, 149. 
New Zealand, 149. 
Norway, 55. 
Southern Rhodesia, 55. 
Protocol of provisional application : 

Chile, request for extension of time for signing, 55, 

149. 
Signature by Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, India, Lebanon, 
New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Southern Rho- 
desia, Syria, and prior signatories, 55, 149. 
Supplementary proclamations, 55, 149, 211, 414. 
Taussig, Charles W., resolution in appreciation, 20. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Taxation of U. N. nationals in Italy, postponement, pro- 
cedure, 24. 
Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U.S., organization 

of, and list of U.S. personnel, 136, 277. 
Tel Aviv, Israel : 

Opening of U.S. Consulate, 123, 477. 
Refugees aided by UNICEF, 615. 
Telecommunication convention (1947) signed by Presi- 
dent Truman, 47. 
Telecommunication Union, International (ITU) : 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference, 

U.S. delegation, 557. 
Legislation on, 315. 

833 



Telecommunications : 

Discussions of, In regional air-navigation conferences, 

272, 276. 
U.N. system, plans, 576. 
Termoblen, W. D., article on 8th World's Poultry Con- 
gress, 731. 
Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIII (La.- 

Mo.), released, 154. 
Territory of the Pacific Islands. See Pacific Islands. 
Textiles Committee of ILO, 2d session, 617. 
Theatre Institute, International, 1st congress : 
Article by Miss Gilder, 488. 
U.S. observer delegates, 48. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : n<Tfa 

Economic Commission for Europe, relation to BRP 

and EGA, 118. 
Economic Cooperation Act, tentative drafts of bi- 
lateral agreements under, 25. 
Economic Recovery Program to Rotary Club in Brus- 
sels, 711. 
ERP defended in General Assembly against charge 

of trade discrimination, 666. 
Freedom of information at ECOSOC Plenary Session, 
378. 
Appointment as U.S. representative on Inter-American 

Economic and Social Council, 154. 
Marxist theories on labor attacked in ECOSOC, 238. 
Tin Study Group, International : 

Agreement proposed at 3d meeting, 617. 
U.S. delegation to 3d meeting, 524. 
Tolstoy Foundation, discussed in Kasenkina incident, 252, 

253, 254, 255, 256, 408. 
Torres Bodet, Jaime, elected Director General of 

UNESCO, 702. 
Trade: 

ERP attaclied as discriminatory in General Assembly 

resolution, 666. 
Far East and India Trade Conference, 492. 
Japan, PEC policy decision on, text, 770. 
Regulation of, in Berlin. See Berlin crisis. 
Turkish Straits, shipping in, tables, 73. 
U.S. policies defended in U.N. by Mr. Thorp, 616. 
U.S. policy, article by Mr. Willoughby, 325. 
U.S. program, address by Mr. Nitze, 578. 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 502, 

642, 644, 807. 
Trade agreements, proclamation rendering certain in- 
operative for contracting parties to general agree- 
ment on tariffs and trade, 211. 
Trade agreements, U.S. and — 

Sweden (1935), modified by exchange of memoranda, 53. 
Turkey (1939), application to occupied territories, ex- 
change of notes, 104. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948 : 
Executive order prescribing procedures, 502. 
Statement of President Truman on signing, 54. 
Trade-marks. See Industrial property. 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 
Discussed by: 
Mr. Brown, 204. 
Mr. Burns, 600. 
Secretary Marshall, 433. 
Mr. Nitze, 578. 
Mr. Willoughby, 325. 
Interim Commission, 298, 444. 
U.S.S.R. attitude, 581, 600. 
Trade Union Advisory Committee of the European Re- 
covery Program, 240. 
Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company, aid to Near East, 293. 
Transjordan : 

Accepts cease-fire order in Palestine situation, 130. 
Refugee aid, 575. 

U.N. membership, qualifications, 693, 729. 
Transport, road, agreements adhered to and extended by 

certain European countries, 702. 
Transport and Communications, Oflice of, transfer of cer- 
tain functions of Shipping Division to, 154. 



Travel-grant program. See Cultural cooperation. 
Treasury Department, control of enemy assets transferred 

to Department of Justice, 472, 616. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid, supplies from U. S. (1947), agreements on distri- 
bution and use, with Austria, China, Greece, Italy, 
99. 
Air transport agreement, U. S. with : 
Bolivia, signature, 470. 
Mexico, discussed, 300. 
American States, conflicts between (1923), 593. 
American States, Organization of, established by charter 
signed at 9th international conference at Bogotfi, 
594. 
Caribbean Commission agreement, entry into force, 245. 
China Aid Act of 1948, exchange of notes establishing 
Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Recon- 
struction in accordance with, 207, 208. 
Claims, settlement, for American property nationalized 
and other pecuniary claims, with Yugoslavia, 137, 
139. 
Claims, settlement, with France (1946), supplemented, 

561. 
Claims convention with Norway, claims of Hannevlg 

and Jones, ratification, 646. 
Consular convention, with Philippines (1947), proc- 
lamation, 779. 
Copyright, with Philippines, 562. 

Cultural relations, inter-American convention for pro- 
motion of (1936), fellowships under, 742. 
Double taxation, U. S. and — 
Belgium, signature, 585, 680. 
Denmark, signature and ratification, 680, 738. 
France (1939), revised, approved by U. S. Senate, 

680. 
Greece, discussions, 527. 
Ireland, discussions, 714. 

Netherlands, signature and ratification, 679, 738. 
New Zealand, ratification pending, 680. 
Union of South Africa, ratification pending, 680. 
Economic, social and cultural collaboration and col- 
lective self-defence, between five Western European 
Powers, Consultative Council, communique of 3d 
session, 583. 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, agreements with 
U. S., signature — 
Ireland, 37. 
Italy, 37. 
Korea, 778. 
Portugal, 470. 

Signatory countries listed, 104. 
U. S.-U. K. zone of Trieste, 559. 
Educational-exchange program, signature with — 
Belgium, 528, 681. 
France, 52, 650. 
Italy, 809. 

Luxembourg, 528, 681. 
New Zealand, 473. 
U. K., 473. 
Farm-labor migration agreement with Mexico, U. S. 
violation charged, exchange of notes, U. S. with 
Mexico, 562, 585. 
Ferrous scrap, with U. K., proposing committee to al- 
locate from ERP countries, text, 467. 
Friendship, commerce and navigation : 

Occupied territories, application to, exchange of notes 
between U. S. and Italy, 44. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, U. S. and — 
China (1946), ratification, 745. 
Ireland, discussed, 526. 
Geneva conventions (1929), discussed, 464. 
Genocide convention, approved by General Assembly, 

490, 756 (text), 729. 
German enemy assets, agreement on resolution of con- 
flicting claims to, signature by Luxembourg, 25. 
Hague convention (1907) on maritime warfare, revi- 
sion discussed, 464. 



834 



Department of State Bulletin 



Troatics, agreements, etc. — Continued 

ILO final articles revision convention (1946), pro- 
claimed, 472. 
Inter-American declaration of solidarity (1940), 592. 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947), 

092. 
Lend-lease, agreement with Liberia (1943), construc- 
tion of port at Monrovia, 58, 210. 
Lend-lease, settlement of, U. S. with — 
Brazil, 52. 
China, 527. 
Ciechoslovakla, 413. 
France, 52, 561. 
Netherlands, 52. 
United Kingdom, 143. 
U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary Marshall on U. S. 

proposals to, 51. 
Yugoslavia, 137, 139. 
Mardchal Jojfre claims, U. S., France, and Australia, 

561. 
Maritime warfare (1907), revision discussed, 464. 
Military mission, D. S. and: 
Argentina, signature, 494. 
Brazil, signature, 211. 
Mineralogical-geological survey program, with BrazU, 

extended, 743. 
Most-favored-natlon treatment, application to occupied 
territories, exchange of notes, U. S. with: 
Greece, 45. 
Ireland, 44. 
Italy, 44. 
Turkey, 104. 
U. K., 43. 
Motion pictures, joint declaration, U. S. and France, 

text, 500. 
North Atlantic pact, discussions, 583, 778. 
Peace treaties (1947) : 

Bulgaria, violations, communications from D. S. Min- 
ister (Heath) to Bulgarian Foreign Minister, 
447, 710. 
Italy : 
Renunciation in art. 23 of African possessions, 402. 
U.S.-U.K. violations charged by Yugo-slavia, 179. 
Rumania, violation, U.S. note protesting 408. 
Peace treaty, Austria requests negotiations, 777. 
Potato program agreement, with Canada, 744. 
Prisoners of war (1929), revision discussed, 464. 
Provisional commercial agreement (1938) application 
of most-favored-natlon provisions to occupied terri- 
tories, exchange of notes, U. S. with Greece, 45. 
Red Cross conventions (1929), revision discussed, 464. 
Safety of life at sea (1929), proposed revision, 119. 
Surplus war property agreements, U. S. and — 
France (1946), interest payment, 52, 650. 
Iran (1947), superseded, 211. 
Italy, 809. 
New Zealand, 473. 
U. K., 47.3. 
Tarlff.s and trade, general agreement on. See Tariffs 

and trade. 
Trade, reciprocal, agreement (1935), with Sweden, 
modifications extended, exchange of memoranda, 
53. 
Trade agreement, U. S. with Turkey (1939), applica- 
tion to occupied territories, exchange of notes, 104. 
Trade agreements, proclamation rendering certain In- 
operative for contracting parties to general agree- 
ment on tariffs and trade, 211. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948 : 

Executive order prescribing procedures, 502. 
Statement by President Truman on signing, 54. 
Transport, road, adhered to and extended by certain 

European countries, 702. 
Visa requirements, U. S. with — 
Belgium, 526. 
Italy, 526. 
U. K., 648. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Whaling, International convention for regulation of 

(1946), proclamation, 714. 
Wheat agreement, international, conference to nego- 
tiate, 744. 
Wounded, amelioration of condition of, in war (1929), 
revision discussed, 464. 
Treaties and Other International Acts of the V. S. (Miller, 

eil.), vol. VIII, released, 214. 
Treaty Developments, a loose-leaf service begun by State 

Department, 155. 
Trieste, Free Territory of : 
Aid under 1947 U. S. foreign-relief program, 101. 
Trade, most-favored-natlon treatment provision of cer- 
tain treaties, application to, 43, 44, 45, 104. 
Violation of Italian peace treaty charged against U. K.- 

U. S. administration by Yugoslavia, 179. 
Yugoslav charges against U. S.-U. K. : 
Answered by Mr. Jessup, 196. 
Security Council, attitude, 196, 225, 237. 
Text, 233. 
Zone of occupation, U. S.-U. K., adherence to pur- 
poses of ECA, 559. 
Tripoli, Libya, opening of U. S. Consulate, 477. 
Tropical medicine and malaria, 4th international con- 
gresses on, article by Dr. Sawyer on accomplishments 
of sessions, 294. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Commission report, statement on re- 
lease of, 151. 
FAO, 4th meeting, 700. 

Foreign Aid Appropriation Act (1949), 45. 
Israel, establishment of missions and exchange of 

special representatives, 22. 
Israel, position on, 582. 
Palestine, police force for, 237. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act, on signing, 54, 
United Nations, loan for headquarters building, 185, 

196, 235. 
Chief Justice Vinson's projected mission to Mos- 
cow, 483. 
Wheat agreement, 185. 
WHO, U. S. membership in, 80. 
Budget, aid to foreign countries, excerpts, 342. 
Correspondence : 
Heads of U. S. departments and agencies requesting 

legislative programs, 678. 
Italian President of Council of Ministers (De Gas- 

parl), replying to thanks for ECA, 450. 
Llberian President (Tubman), on opening of Mon- 
rovia port, 210. 
Cuban President entertained, 743, 778. 
Displaced persons act of 1948, proposed amendments 

to, 21, 152, 185. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress : 

Calling special session, 18.5. 

Transmitting National Advisory Council report, sum- 
mary, 243. 
Trusteeship : 

General Assembly resolutions, 637. 
Non-Self-Governing Territories, General Assembly's Spe- 
cial Committee on Information on, appointment of 
U. S. representative, 180. 
U. S. policy summarized by Secretary Marshall in 3d 
session. General Assembly, 434. 
Trusteeship Council of U. N. : 
Education, increase of in trust territories, urged by Mr. 

Sayre, 81. 
Jerusalem, statute of, draft discussed, 132, 133. 
Reports on trust territories of New Guinea, Ruanda- 
Urundl, South West Africa, and Tanganyika, 81, 
131, 179. 
Resolution (Oct. 18) on notification of change in status, 

adopted, .522. 
Resolution (July 13) on visiting mission to Ruanda- 
Urundi and Tanganyika, 131. 



Index, July to December 1948 



835 



Trusteeship Council of U. N. — Continued 

Strategic trust areas, relationship between Trusteeship 

Council and Security Council, 15, 132. 
U. S. position on federations affecting trust territories, 
15. 
Tuberculosis eradication campaign, UNICEF sponsoring, 

802. 
Tuna resources, investigation recommended by U. S. and 

Mexico, 647. 
Turkey : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Erkin), credentials, 301. 
Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 

26. 
Foreign Aid Appropriation Act of 1949, statement by 

President Truman on signing, 45. 
Germany, the Soviet Union, and Turkey during World 

War II, article by Mr. Howard, 63. 
Greek-Turkish aid expenditures estimated, 342. 
Shipping in the Turkish Straits, tables, 73. 
Trade agreement (19.39) and general agreement on trade 
(1947), application to occupied territories, exchange 
of notes with U. S., 104. 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic : 

Berlin blockade, six neutral nations' proposal to Secur- 
ity Council, vetoed, 55.5, 616. 
Palestine, Security Council subcommittee to consider 

sanctions, 555. 
Trieste, Yugoslav charges against U.S.-U.K. supported 

by Ukraine, 237. 
UNSCOB report, attitude, 611. 
Underdeveloped nations. General Assembly resolutions to 

assist, 730. 
Undulant fever, 2d Inter-American congress on brucellosis, 

461. 
Union of South Africa : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Double taxation with U. S., ratification pending, 680. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, provisionally 

effective, 642. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1946), ratification, 714. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) : 
Armament reduction, attitude, 630, 636. 
Armament reduction and prohibition of atomic weapons, 
introduces resolution in General Assembly, 441; 
rejection by U. N. subcommittee, 556. 
Armaments, Commission for Conventional, attitude, 180. 
Armed forces, U. N. Members' report on overall strength 

of, attitude, 264, 636. 
Atomic energy control, attitude, 14, 463, 499, 511. 
Atomic energy control, sincerity regarding, questioned 

In U. N. by Mr. Osborn, 490. 
Balkans, U. N. Special Committee, refuses seat on, 238. 
Balkans, U. N. Special Committee report, attitude, 611, 

615. 
Berlin, government of, attitude, 720. 
Berlin blockade, 85, 423, 426, 427, 429, 430, 431, 463, 484, 
487, 495, 521, 541, 555, 572. 
Neutral nations' proposal to Security Council, vetoed, 

555, 616. 
Reference to Security Council, by U. S., U. K., and 

France, 423 (text), 441, 463, 484, 490. 
Reference to Security Council, text of U.S. note to 

Secretary-General of U.N., 455. 
Security Council President's questionnaire on cur- 
rency control, reply, 666. 
Berlin crisis : 

Aide-mimoire (Sept. 18), text, 429. 
Great Powers urged to resolve, joint note from Presi- 
dent of General Assembly and Secretary-General 
of U.N., 655. 
Note delivered Sept. 25 to Acting Secretary of State 
(Lovett), text, 426. 
Berlin elections (Dec. 5), attitude, 734. 
Ceylon membership in U.N. vetoed, 238. 
Cominform opposes ERP, 240. 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 
Consulates General at New York and San Francisco to 

close over Kasenklna-Samarin incident, 409. 
Danube navigation, attitude, 23, 198, 219, 223, 283, 284, 

289, 290, 291, 333, 384, 616. 
Danube navigation, Soviet draft convention, discussed, 

219, 223, 284, 288, 291, 333, 384. 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., establishment of, corre- 
spondence between Roosevelt and Litvinov (1933) 

reprinted, 257. 
European Recovery Program, attitude, 133, 240, 490, 666. 
Far Eastern Commission, proposal on Japanese industry, 

806. 
Finland, property transferred from, procedure for filing 

claims, time extended, 647. 
Germany, the Soviet Union, and Turkey during World 

War II, article, by Mr. Howard, 63. 
ILO report attacked in ECOSOC, 238. 
Italian colonies to be discussed by CFM, exchange of 

notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 382. 
Japan, U.S. policy criticized, 586, 645. 
Japanese in Siberia, repatriation suspended, 810. 
Jerusalem, statute for, Soviet charges against U.S., 179. 
Korea : 
Electric power, delivery to South Korea, exchange of 

notes with U.S., 50, 147. 
Independence and U.N. (Commission, attitude, 242, 637, 

758. 
Troop withdrawal, attitude, 440 ; exchange of notes 
with U.S., 456. 
Lend-lease settlement, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

51. 
Lomakin, Consul General, exequatur revoked, 253. 
Membership in U.N., attitude, 693, 729. 
Murder of Irving Ross in Soviet zone of Austria, 646. 
Nationalism, attitude on, and strategy in southeast Asia, 

410. 
Newsweek article, U.S. reply to, protest re, 51. 
Reduction of armed forces, proposal, U.S. attitude, 511. 
Scientists, dictation to, speech by Mr. Allen, 409. 
Teachers, Kasenkina and Samarin, refusal to return to, 

251, 254, 255, 256, 408. 
Threat to peace, charges by U.S., U.K., and France, 441, 

484, 511 ; texts of U.S. notes to Soviet Government 

and to U.N. Secretary-General, 423, 455. 
Trade Organization, International, attitude, 581, 600. 
Travel restrictions for diplomatic personnel, text of 

Soviet notes, 525. 
Trieste, support of Yugoslav charges against U.S.-U.K., 

237. 
Trusteeship Council, 16 ; first participation in, 179. 
U.S. Consulate General at Leningrad, not to open, 409. 
U.S. Consulate General at Vladivostok, closed, 409, 476. 
Vasiliev, chairman of Military Staff Committee reports 

to Security Council on arms report, 195. 
Veto, use of in Security Council. See Veto. 
Violence as means to political ambitions, charged by Mr. 

Dulles, 607, 609. 
Vyshinsky resolution in General Assembly on armament 

reduction, 441. 
War, attitude on, 511. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

(1946), ratification, 714. 
Wives of foreigners, attitude on departure from U.S.S.R., 

798. 
World domination, aim, discussed by Mr. Saltzman, 499. 
United Kingdom : 

Antarctica, U.S. asks discussion, 301. 

BBC relays of Voice of America, 147. 

Berlin crisis. See Berlin crisis. 

Combat materiel, transfer by U.S. to, table showing, 529. 

Consultative Council, 3d session, text of communique, 

583. 
German reparations, plant removal from western zones 

to be reviewed, joint statement, 584. 



836 



Department of State Bulletin 



Uniteil Kinsdoin — Continued 

Military Staff Committee of U.N., overall strength of 
U.N. Members' armed forces, chairman reports 
stalemate, 203. 
Palestine, Conciliation Commission proposed in draft 

resolution (Nov. 18), 667, 689. 
Steel production, 553. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Caribbean Commission agreement, 245. 
Educational-eschange program with U.S., signature, 

473. 
Ferrous scrap, witli U.S., proposing committee to allo- 
cate from EltP countries, text, 407. 
Foreisn Assistance Act of 1948, agreement signed with 

U.S., 104. 
Lend-lease and reciprocal-aid accounts, settlement, 

with V.S., 143. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Application to occupied territories, exchange of notes 

with U.S., 43. 
Provisionally effective, 642. 
Transport, road, with certain European countries, 

adhered to and extended, 702. 
Visa requirements with U.S., 648. 
Whalins, international convention for regulation of 
(1046), ratification, 714. 
U.S. Consulate at Bristol, closing, 563, 811. 
U.S. Consulate at Hull, closing, 58, 477. 
U.S. Consulate at Plymouth, closing, 477, 501. 
U.S. Sen. res. 2.39, exchange of views with U.S., France, 

Canada, and Benelux countries, 80. 
U.S.S.R. charged in General Assembly with threat to 

peace, 441. 
Visa requirements with U.S., eased, 648. 
United Kingdom and Dominions ofiicial medical histories 

liaison committee, U.S. observer delegation, 135. 
United Nations (U. N.) : 
Admission of aliens attached to, report of Secretary of 

State's committee, 335. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for. See Arma- 
ments. 
Arms and armed forces. See Arms. 
Atomic energy. See Atomic energy. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on. See Balkans. 
Berlin crisis. See Berlin crisis. 
Budget for 1948, U.S. contribution to, 115. 
Charter, address by Secretary Marshall, 400. 
Charter review by General Assembly asked in Interim 

Committee resolution, 82. 
Children's Emergencv Fund, International (UNICEF), 

45, 47, 116, 237, 374, 395, 432, 575, 615, 730, 802. 
Court. See International Court of Justice. 
Cooperation, methods for promotion of international 

political, report by Interim Committee, 796. 
Documents, listed, 59. 78, 178, 195, 236, 270, 332, 401, 547, 

574, 606, 665; 747. 
Economic and Social Council of U.N. See Economic and 

Social Council. 
Economic cooperation discussed by Mr. Burns, 598. 
Eightieth Congress, 2d sess., and the U.N., article by Mr. 
Kaplan on legislation re: ILO, ITU, South Pacific 
Commission, U.N. headquarters loan, WHO. Van- 
denberg resolution, 307, SOS, 310, 313, 315, 317, 347. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges in U.S., 349, 3.52. 
Franco Government of Spain debarred from membership 

in U.N. agencies, resolution, 324 n. 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
Guard, U.S. policy on, summarized by Secretary Marshall 

in 3d session. General Assembly, 434. 
Headquarters : 
Agreement, U.S. committee to study provisions affect- 
ing national security, 132. 
Established, test of Public Law 357 (80th Cong.), 355. 
Invitation to locate in U.S., text of H. Con. Res. 75 

(79th Cong.), 349. 
Legislation on loan for, 179, 196, 317, 355, 362. 

Index, July to December 7948 



United Nations (U. N.)— Continued 
Headquarters — Continued 

Loan for, statement by President Truman, 235. 

Report approved by General Assembly, 637. 

Site cleared, 237. 

Tax deductions for contributions to site, text of Public 

Law 7 (80th Cong.), 354. 
U.N. Headquarters Advisory Committee, 237. 
Human Rights, Commission on. See Human Rights. 
India and Pakistan, U.N. Commission on, 16, 82. 
Indonesian situation. See Indonesian situation. 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee. 
International Law Commission, candidates for, 133. 
Korea, Temporary Commission on and Korean situation. 

See Korea. 
Membership applications: Austria, 693, 729, 754, 801; 
Bulgaria, 447, 695, 729; Ceylon, 238, 434, 729, 763; 
Finland, 693, 729 ; Hungary, 695, 729 ; Ireland, 693, 
729 ; Israel, 698, 723, 763 ; Italy, 693, 729 ; Mongolian 
People's Republic, 695, 729; Portugal, 693, 729; 
Rumania, 695, 729 ; Transjordan, 693, 729. 
Membership problem : 

General Assembly asks Security Council to reconsider 

applications, 729, 754. 
Interim Committee proposal, 695. 
Statements by Mr. Cohen, 693, 729, 794. 
U.S. policy summarized by Secretary Marshall in 3d 
session, General Assembly, 434. 
Military Staff Committee. See Military Staff Committee. 
Observers supervising Palestine truce. Count Berna- 
dotte's instructions to and organization of system, 
175, 438. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
Personnel, application of U.S. immigration laws to, 116. 
Publications. See Documents supra. 
Report, 3d annual, on work of U.N., issuance, 269. 
S. Res. 239 (U.S., SOth Cong.), seeking more effective use 
of the U.N., discussed, 79, 80, 347 ; text, with report, 
79, 366. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Specialized agencies. See name of agency. 
Taxes in Italy, postponement of payment by U.N. na- 
tionals, 24. 
Telecomunications system, 576. 
Trieste. See Trieste, Free Territory of. 
Unanimity principle of the Charter, statement by Mr. 

Cohen, 761. 
United Nations Day, 193, 262. 
Addresses and statements by : 
Mr. Allen, 549. 
Mr. Austin, 551. 
Secretary Marshall, 329, 548. 
U.S. mission to, administration (Ex. Or. 9844), text, 365. 
U.S. representatives' appointment provided. Public Law 

264 (79th Cong.), text, 364. 
U.S. task in international collaboration, address by Mr. 
Kennan, excerpts, 520. 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 
Mr. Allen, statement by, 661. 
Director General, Jaime Torres Bodet of Mexico, elected, 

702. 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 353. 
General Conference, 3d session, 48, 278, 640. 
Hylean Amazon, International Institute, objectives, 183. 
Preparatory Conference of Representatives of Univer- 
sities to be convened by, 184. 
Theatre congress, 1st international, 48, 488. 
U.S. membership in. Public Law 565 (79th Cong.), text, 
370. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
(UNRRA) : 
Entitled by law to certain privileges, 349, 352. 
Grants, 243. 

Reports submitted to Congress, 245. 
Summary of activities, 95. 
United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans. See 
Balkans. 

837 



Universities, Preparatory Conference of Kepresentatlves 
of, to be convened in cooperation with the Netherlands 
and UNESCO, 184. 
University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo., address by Mr. 

Brown, 203. 
Uruguay : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Domlnguez-C&mpora), credentials, 

810. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 153. 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, 91, 
528, 560, 808. 

Vallarino, Octavio A., credentials as Panamanian ambas- 
sador to U.S., 87. 
Vandenberg resolution seeking more effective use of the 

U.N., 79 (text), 80, 347, 368. 
Venezuela : 

Combat materiel, transfer by U. S. to, table showing, 529. 
Cultural-cooperation fellowships available, 742. 
U.S. Consulate at La Guaira, closing, 476, 746. 
U.S. military attach^ impartial in military revolt, 777. 
U.S. petroleum companies deny interference charges, 777. 
Visiting professor, from U.S., 153. 
Venice, Italy, U.S. Consulate opened, 303, 477. 
Veto in Security Council: 
Articles and statements: 
Mr. Austin, 512. 
Mr. Bechhoefer, 3. 
Mr. Cohen, 693, 729, 761. 
Berlin crisis, settlement proposal vetoed by U.S.S.R., 

and Ukraine, 555, 616. 
Ceylon membership in U.N,., vetoed by Soviet Union, 238. 
Interim Committee, report by, 46, 192. 
Limitation of voting proposed by General Assembly Com- 
mittee, 729. 
Membership in U.N. {see also United Nations), General 
Assembly resolutions, 729, 754. 
Vinson, Frederick Moore, projected trip to Moscow, state- 
ments by President Truman and Secretary Marshall, 
483. 
Visa Division of State Department, employees' testimony 
on application of U.S. immigration laws to U.N. per- 
sonnel, 116, 335. 
Visas : 

Files, disclosure refused by Secretary Marshall, 235. 
Immigrants from Austria, Italy, and western Germany, 

411, 412. 
Requirements changed, U.S. with — 
Belgium, 526. 
Italy, 526. 

United Kingdom, 648. 
Requirements for personnel attached to international 
organizations, 340. 
Vladivostok, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, closing of 

U.S. Consulate, 409, 476. 
Voice of America : 

Article by Mr. Allen, 567. 
BBC relays of, 147. 
Congressional investigation of, 89. 
Hungary, campaign against listening to: 
Mr. Allen, statement, 91. 
Exchange of notes, U.S. and Hungary, 145. 
Programming by networks. Interim agreements with 

broadcasting companies, 57. 
Programs to originate in State Department, 470. 
Voting in Security Council. See Veto. 



War-damage claims. See Property; Protection of U. S. 

nationals. 
Warren, Fletcher, appointed representative of President 

Truman at Gonzalez inaugural, 245. 
Warren, George L., reports on IRQ, 83, 765. 
Water, physics of. See Limnology. 
Weather stations in Canadian Arctic, records of Peary and 

Nares expeditions found by U.S. supply mission, 471. 
Weber, Eugene W., appointed to U.S. Section of Interna- 
tional Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 527. 
Weights and measures, 9th general conference of the inter- 
national bureau of, U.S. delegates, 466. 
West Indian Conference, 3d session, 299, 617. 
Western Union. See European Union. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of (1946) , 

proclamation, 714. 
Wheat agreement, international: 
Conference to negotiate, 744. 
President Truman advocates, 185, 700. 
Wheat, Advisory Committee, International, and Wheat 
Council, International, entitled by law to certain priv- 
ileges, 349, 353. 
Wilds, Walter, designation in State Department, 503. 
Willoughby, Woodbury : 

Article on U.S. commercial foreign policy, 325. 
Designation in State Department, 213. 
Wool study group, international, 2d meeting of, 443, 491. 
World Affairs, Institute on. Riverside, Calif., address on 

U.S. information program by Mr. Schneider, 772. 
World Health Assembly: 
Article by Mr. Hyde, 391. 

Recommendations of 1st meeting, 16, 82, 117, 313. 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 
Commended by Secretary Marshall, 433. 
Dr. Hyde appointed U.S. representative, 559. 
Members, listed, 393. 
U.S. Foreign Service public-health attach^, relationship 

to work of, 476. 
U.S. membership : 
Accepted by WHO, 16. 
Legislation by U.S., 310, (text) 373. 
President Truman, statement, 80. 
U.S. membership on executive board, 82. 
Wounded, amelioration of condition of, in war (1929), 

treaty discussed, 464. 
Wright, William D., Jr., designation as coordinator of 
Philippine rehabilitation, 213. 

Yugoslavia : 

Assets in U.S. unfrozen, 137. 

Conciliators appointed. General Assembly resolution 

(Nov. 27), 696. 
Danube navigation conference, Belgrade as site, 23. 
Dollar bonds recognized as international obligation, 301. 
Greek guerrillas, aid to, 238, 635. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims settlement, with U.S., text, 137. 

Lend-lease settlement, with U.S., text, 139. 
Trieste, charges against U.S.-U.K. : 

Security Council rejects charges, 237. 

Text of note to Security Council, 233. 

U.S. reply, 179, 196, 225. 
UNSCOB charges aid to Greek guerrillas : 

Attitude of Yugoslavia, 608, 611. 

General assembly resolutions, texts, 635, 696, 697. 
U.S. property nationalized, payment for, 413. 
Violation of Italian peace treaty cliarged in Security 
Council against U.K.-U.S. administration in Trieste, 
179. 



838 



Department of State Bulletin 

a. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTIBG OFFICE; 194* 



jAe/ ^eha/}^twien{/ jC^ t/tate/ 




SIGNING OF THE DISPLACED PERSONS ACT 

OF 1948 • Statement by the President 21 

U.S. STEPS TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT PALESTINE 
TRUCE RESOLUTION • Letter From Philip C. Jessup 
to Secretary-General Trygve Lie •• 11 

VOTING IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL • Article by 

Bernhard G. Bechhoefer ......•••.. 3 



For complete contents see back cover 



July 4, 1948 



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o/sTtate buliGtin 



Vol. XIX, No. 470 • Publication;3207 
July 4, 1948 



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Ci^>^^ 



VOTING IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL 






by Bernhard G. Bechhoefer 



I. Meaning of the term "Veto" 

The term ''veto" is not found in the Charter. It 
n.'fers to the requirement of unanimity among the 
permanent members of the Security Council in 
decisions on questions not pi'ocedural in character. 
Voting provisions permitting a veto appear in 
one, and only one, of the organs of the United Na- 
, tions — tlie Securitj^ Council. 

The veto, in other words, does not apply to de- 
cisions of any other organ of the United Nations : 
the General Assembly, tlie Economic and Social 
Council, the Trusteeship Council, or the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice. It does not apply to de- 
cisions of the numerous subsidiary organs of the 
United Nations. 

Article 27 of the Charter reads as follows: 

"1. Each member of the Security Council shall 
have one vote. 

"2. Decisions of the Security Council on pro- 
cedural matters shall be made by an affirmative 
vote of seven members. 

"3. Decisions of the Security Council on aU 
other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote 
of seven members including the concurring votes 
of the permanent members; provided that, in de- 
cisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 
of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain 
from voting." 

That is, under paragraph 3 of article 27 of the 
Charter, the concurrence of the United States, the 
I: United Kingdom, the U.S.S.K., France, and 
Cliina is retiuired for nonprocedural decisions. 
Thus, any of these states may veto a decision of 
this nature by voting against it. 

In the Security Council itself, the veto does not 
apply to every decision. Procedural decisions are 
taken by a vote of any seven members. Further- 
more, in a Security Council decision in connection 

July 4, 1948 



with the pacific settlement of a dispute, a member 
of the Security Council which is a party to a dis- 
pute is required to abstain from voting. Finally 
a Security Council practice has developed under 
which, if a permanent member of the Security 
Council abstains from voting on a nonprocedural 
decision of the Council, such abstention is not con- 
sidered to be a veto. 

At the same time, it should be noted that non- 
procedural decisions require seven votes, two of 
which, obviously, must be cast by nonpermanent 
members. There are six such members. Accord- 
ingly, if as many as five of these vote no on a non- 
procedural decision, they can exercise a veto in fact 
as effective as a veto cast by a permanent member. 

II. Origin of the Veto 

At the Dumbarton Oaks conference in 1944, 
whicli originated the proposals which became the 
basis of the Charter of the United Nations, there 
was considerable discussion on the problem of 
voting in the Security Council. No agreement 
was reached. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals 
contained the following note on this subject: 

"The question of voting procedure in the Se- 
curity Council ... is still under consid- 
eration." ' 

In December 1944, and January 1945, in order 
to resolve the voting question undecided at Dum- 
barton Oaks, the United States made certain pro- 
posals which were agreed to at the Yalta confer- 
ence in February 1945 by Prime Minister Churchill 
and Marshal Stalin. They were then incorporated 
into the Charter of the United Nations as article 
27. Although it is true that the United States 
offered the Yalta formula, this proposal was sub- 
mitted as a compromise and the veto, as provided 



' Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1944, p. 370. 



therein, was less stringent than originally desired 
by the U.S.S.R. which would have extended even 
to voting by a permanent member in a dispute to 
which it was a party. 

At the San Francisco conference in May and 
June 1945, which adopted the Charter of the 
United Nations, the proposed voting formula was 
sharply criticized by many of the smaller states. 
Such criticisms were of two types. In the first 
place, the smaller states contended that the for- 
mula was ambiguous. They therefore submitted 
to the Great Powers a questionnaire intended to 
clarify the ambiguities. In response to this ques- 
tionaire the United States, the U.S.S.R., the 
United Kingdom, and China prepared the so-called 
Four Power Statement of June 7, 1945,^ which was 
a "statement" by these countries "of their general 
attitude towards the whole question of unanimity 
of the permanent members in the decisions of the 
Security Council". The United States believed 
that the Four Power Statement, in fact, would 
clarify the voting formula and that as a result of 
the attitudes expressed in that statement, the veto 
would not, in fact, present a serious problem once 
the Security Council commenced its operations. 
However, as will be pointed out subsequently, the 
U.S.S.R. has interpreted the Four Power State- 
ment in a manner which has resulted in seriously 
diminishing the effectiveness of the Security 
Council. 

The second objection raised by the smaller states 
to the Yalta proposals concerned the existence of 
a veto in connection with Security Council deci- 
sions under chapter VI of the Charter (pacific 
settlement of disputes) . At San Francisco, it was 
conceded by substantially all states, large and 
small, that a veto was essential under chapter VII 
of the Charter. The following statement of the 
Secretary of State, in his report to the President 
on the San Francisco conference as to the basis of 
the veto was, in fact, the view of practically all 
states in the conference as well as the United 
States : 

"This war was won not by any one country but 
by the combined efforts of the United Nations, and 
particularly by the brilliantly coordinated strat- 
egy of the Great Powers. So striking has been the 



' For the statement by the delegations of the four spon- 
soring goveruiueuts, subsequently adhered to by France, 
see Bulletin of June 10, 1945, p. 1047. 

'Department of State publication 2349. p. 66. Italics 
are the present author's. 



lesson taught by this unity that the people and 
Government of the United States have altered 
their conception of national security. We under- 
stand that in the world of today a unilateral na- 
tional policy of security is as outmoded as the 
Spads of 1918 in comparison with the B-29 of 1945 
or the rocket planes of 1970. We know that for 
the United States — and for other great powers — 
there can be no humanly devised method of defin- 
ing precisely the geographic areas in which their 
security interests begin or cease to exist. We 
realize, in short, that peace is a world-wide prob- 
lem and the maintenance of peace, and not merely 
its restoration, depends primarily upon the unity 
of the great powers." ^ 

However, a substantial number of states felt 
that the veto should not be extended to chapter VI 
where the Security Council was not using enforce- 
ment measures but was acting rather in a mediat- 
ing capacity. Australia proposed an amendment 
to the voting formula which would have elimi- 
nated the veto under chapter VI. Despite the op- 
position of all the gi'eat powers, the Australian 
amendment received 10 affirmative votes — Aus- 
tralia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, 
the Netherlands, New Zeland, and Panama, mak- 
ing it apparent that even at San Francisco there 
was strong opposition to the veto under chapter VI. 
However, it must be emphasized that there was no 
support at San Francisco for the elimination or 
restriction of the veto under chapter VII of the 
Charter. 

In the Four Power Statement of June 7, 1945, 
the United States, the U.S.S.R., the United King- 
dom, and China stated (part 1, jjaragraph 8) : 

"In other words, it would be possible for five 
non-permanent members as a group to exercise a 
'veto'. It is not to be assumed, however, that the 
permanent members, any more than the non-per- 
manent members, would use their 'veto' power wil- 
fully to obstruct the operation of the Council." 

It thus was understood that the veto would be 
used sparingly and only in connection with the 
most important of issues. Unfortunately, this ex- 
pectation has not come to pass. 

III. Experience of the Veto in tlie Security Council 

The veto has been used in the Security Council 
on at least 24 occasions (as of June 25, 1948), at 
least 23 times by the U.S.S.R., with France join- 
ing with the U.S.S.R. in connection with one of * 

Department of State Bulletin 



tlie vetoes, and once by France alone. In comput- 
ing the number of votes, a negative vote of a per- 
manent member is deemed a veto only -when the 
resolution receives at least seven aflirmative votes 
and fails solely because of such negative vote. 
Furthermore each of the so-called "double vetoes" 
is counted as one rather than as two vetoes. Eleven 
of these vetoes have been in connection with ap- 
plications of states for membership in the United 
Nations. At least nine have been in connection 
with decisions relating to pacific settlements of 
disputes (chapter VI) and four, including the 
French veto, have been taken under chapter VII. 
The significance of the vetoes lies less in their 
number than in their nature. 

In connection with most of the U.S.S.R. vetoes 
on membership applications, the U.S.S.R. did not 
even claim that the states lacked the qualifications 
of membership as set forth in article 4 of the Char- 
ter, but based its opposition on purely political 
grounds. 

In connection with three of the vetoes dealing 
with pacific settlement of disputes (two in the 
Spanish case and one in the Syria-Lebanon case) , 
the U.S.S.R. actually agreed with the proposed 
Security Council action as far as it went but vetoed 
the proposals because the U.S.S.R. felt that they 
should go farther. 

Three of the vetoes were exercised in decisions 
as to whether a question required only a procedural 
vote,* thus broadening the scope of the veto in the 
Security Council to include decisions which the 
majority of the Security Council considered pro- 
cedural and not subject to the veto. In this con- 
nection, the U.S.S.R. has attempted, by its inter- 
pretation of certain language in the Four Power 
Statement, to make virtually any decisions of the 
Security Council subject to the veto despite the 
express language of article 27, paragraph 2. 

It should be noted that none of these abuses of 
the veto relate to chapter VII of the Charter. 
They concern (a) applications for membership 
under chapter II, article 4, (b) chapter VI of the 
Charter, and (c) the method of determining 
whether the voting procedure permitting a 
veto is applicable to a given decision. The ex- 
istence of a veto under chapter VII has not to date 
materially interfered with the functioning of the 
Security Council. However, the abuse of the veto 
in membership matters and under chapter VI has 
been serious. 

July 4, 1948 



IV. Basic Differences Between Veto Under 
Chapter VI and Chapter VII 

It may be asked why the United States is pre- 
pared to give up the veto under chapter VI and 
not under chapter VII. There are a number of 
answers : First, as set forth above, the veto under 
chapter VI has proved to be harmful to the Secu- 
rity Council, but such has not so far been the case 
in connection with chapter Vil. Second, there is 
great support in the United Nations for the elimi- 
nation or the restriction of the veto under chapter 
VI, and also in membership matters, but very little 
support for changes in voting under chapter VII. 

Likewise, there was substantial sentiment at 
the San Francisco conference for elimination of 
the veto under chapter VI. Since San Fran- 
cisco, there have been three extensive discussions 
in the United Nations on the problem of the veto. 
The first two of these took place in the second 
part of the first session and the second session 
of the General Assembly. The third discussion is 
now in progress before the Interim Committee of 
the General Assembly.^ It is a noteworthy fact 
that no proposals have been made in any of these 
discussions which would have the effect of elimi- 
nating the veto in connection with enforcement 
measures — that is, sanctions, military or nonmili- 
tary, under chapter VII of the Charter. A few 
proposals have been made which affect compara- 
tively minor phases of the veto in connection with 
certain chapter VII decisions, but these proposals 
have developed no substantial support. During 
the thorough discussions of all phases of the veto 



*Part II of the Four Power Statement at San Fran- 
cisco reads : 

"In the light of the coni3ideratIons set forth in part 1 
of this statement it is clear what the answers to the ques- 
tions submitted by the subcommittee should be, with the 
exception of question 19. The answer to that question is 
as follows : 

1. In the opinion of the delegations of the sponsoring 
governments, the draft Charter itself contains an indica- 
tion of the application of the voting procedures to the 
various functions of the Council. 

2. In this case, it will be unlikely that there will arise 
in the future any matters of great importance on which a 
decision will have to be made as to whether a procedural 
vote would apply. Should, however, such a matter arise, 
the decision regarding the preliminary question as to 
whether or not such a matter is procedural must be taken 
by a vote of seven members of the Security Council, in- 
cluding the concurring votes of the permanent members." 

° For a discussion of this Committee see Documents and 
State Papers of June 1948, p. 159. 



problem that have recently taken place in a work- 
ing group of a subcommittee of the Interim Com- 
mittee, consisting of representatives of 10 states, 
including the most violent critics of the veto, it was 
almost unanimously agreed that there should be 
no change in the voting procedure in comiection 
with chapter VII. 

The third and most important reason for dif- 
ferentiating between the veto under chapter VI 
and under chapter VII is based upon principle. It 
is because of this distinction in principle that, as 
outlined above, great support has developed in the 
United Nations for elimination of the veto under 
chapter VI, and no substantial support has de- 
veloped for its elimination or modification under 
chapter VII. The distinction in principle was 
clearly expressed to the First Conmiittee of the 
General Assembly on November 18, 1947, by John 
Foster Dulles as representative of the United 
States : 

"Let us now look at the Charter, to see the area 
within which Security Council decisions, as a mat- 
ter of principle, ought not to be taken except witli 
a large degi-ee of unanimity. Broadly speaking, it 
would seem that Security Council action under 
chapter VII, action with respect to threats to the 
peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggres- 
sion, should, as a matter of principle, be subject to 
stringent voting requirements. The power of ac- 
tion is so vast, so unrelated to any defined law, so 
subject to considerations of national policy and 
expediency, as to create a danger of despotism 
unless there is such unanimity that the action can 
fairly be said to reflect the judgment of the over- 
whelming majority of the world community. The 
present voting procedure is calculated to assure 
that, and is thus a protection of a minority against 
possible arbitrary majorities. 

"The situation is different as regards chapter 
VI, dealing with the pacific settlement of disputes. 
There, in the main. Security Council action is not 
so much substantive as procedural, using the word 
'procedural' in a liberal sense. Within this chap- 
ter there lurks little risk of despotism. The Secu- 
rity Council may call upon the parties to a dispute 
to settle it by pacific means of their own choice, 
under article 33. The Security Council may in- 
vestigate the facts of any dispute, under article 34. 
It may recommend measures of adjustment, taking 
into account the fact that legal disputes should, as 

' Bulletin of Mar. 28, 19-18, p. 412. 



a general rule, be referred by the parties to the In- 
ternational Court of Justice, as provided under 
article 36. The Security Council may, if all the 
pai'ties so request, make I'ecommendations with a 
view to the pacific settlement of a dispute, under 
article 38. 

"It would not seem that, as a matter of prin- 
ciple, stringent voting procedure should be re- 
quired as a condition to the Security Council's act- 
ing on such matters. There is perhaps one provi- 
sion of chapter VI as to which special voting pro- 
cedure could reasonably be urged. That is the 
provision of article 37, paragraph 2, which au- 
thorizes the Security Council, irrespective of the 
consent of the parties, to recommend such terms of 
settlement as it may consider appropriate. This 
provision is much like the provision in article 39 
of chapter VII, requiring the Security Council to 
make recommendations with a view to maintain- 
ing international peace and security. 

"Should these two powers of recommendation 
be subjected to identical voting procedure, and if 
so, what voting procedure? Should a distinction 
be made between chapter VI and chapter VII i'ec- 
ommendations? This point and others which 
could be mentioned illustrate the complexity of 
the problem. In the main, however, it seems that 
reasons of principle do not require special voting 
procedures in the case of chapter VI action, or as 
i-egards organizational matters, including the elec- 
tion of new members." 

V. The United States Proposals 

The United States on March 19, 1948, submitted 
to the Interim Committee certain proposals con- 
cerning the veto.* During the technical discus- 
sions in the Interim Committee and its subcom- 
mittees, the United States has modified and some- 
what expanded certain details of its proposals, but 
the most important features remain unchanged. 

These proposals would result in the elimination 
of the veto in connection with applications for 
membership in the United Nations, and in connec- 
tion with decisions under chapter VI of the Char- 
ter. They would further result in complete clari- 
fication of just where the veto was applicable and 
where it was not applicable in connection with 
many miscellaneous decisions of the Security 
Coimcil, and would make it impossible for any 
state to enlarge the scope of the veto by claiming 
that a procedural matter is in fact substantive and 



Department of State Bulletin 



using the veto to enforce that claim. The United 
States proposals, however, would not in any way 
affect the veto under chapter VII or under deci- 
sions in certain other sections of the Charter which 
are analogous to chapter VII decisions. 

The United States has proposed two steps to 
implement these changes: first, that tlie General 
Assembly adopt a resolution recommending the 
change; and, second, requesting that the perma- 
nent members of the Security Council agree on the 
changes. If the General Assembly makes these 
recommendations, what are the prospects that such 
agreement will be obtained? 

Before attenqjting to answer that question it 
should be noted that very little progress can be 
made without such agreement. It is not possible 
to amend the Charter without the consent of all 
of the permanent members of the Security Council 
(articles 108 and 109). 

Most of the changes which the United States is 
advocating are in reality interpretations or clari- 
fications rather than alterations of Charter pro- 
visions, and therefore can be achieved without 
formally amending the Charter. It should be 
noted however that certain of the most important 
of the United States proposals, including those re- 
lating to applications for membership and at least 
one proposal relating to the veto under cha])ter VI. 
may in fact require a Charter amendment. 
Whether with or without Charter amendment, 
only limited progress can be made without agree- 
ment among the permanent members. 

Eegardless of whether a Charter amendment is 
required, the first and most important task is to 
attempt to secure agreement among the permanent 
members and one of the primary purposes of the 
United States has been to build the firmest possible 
foundation for such an agreement. We believe 
that the best possibility of securing agreement of 
the U.S.S.R. to a liberalization of voting procedure 
is through first securing overwhelming support 
among the remaining membei's of the United Na- 
tions for any suggested changes. Past discussions 
in the United Nations of the veto problem have dis- 
closed no such agreement. 

In the first place a considerable number of states 
objected to the veto because it was the privilege of 
only five states. They preferred the League of 
Nations situation where the Council must act 
unanimously — in other words, where all states 
possessed a veto. 

Second, a substantial number of small states 



considered the veto as a protection to them even 
though they did not possess it. These states felt 
that their relations to one or more of the permanent 
members were so close that their interests were sure 
to be protected. 

Third, a number of states, particularly those in 
close geographic proximity to the U.S.S.R., feel 
strongly that no important action should be taken 
in the United Nations without agreement among 
all the permanent members and, therefore, support 
the veto in its entirety. 

Finally, even among the strongest critics of the 
veto, there has been a great difference of opinion 
as to a substitute voting formula in case of its 
elimination. 

With this complete absence of agreement among 
critics of the veto, it is small wonder that the 
U. S. S. R. has up to this time refused to consider 
seriously proposals for its modification. 

The great purpose that is being served by the 
current discussions in the Interim Committee is to 
clarify the problems. As a result today the differ- 
ences of viewpoint concerning the veto are much 
less than formerly. 

There is almost unanimous agreement that the 
veto should be eliminated in connection with ap- 
plications for membership and, likewise, that the 
various ambiguities in the voting formula should 
be clarified. There is strong support for relaxing 
the veto under chapter VI to the extent that this 
can be accomplished without amending the Char- 
ter. It seems probable that the veto can in fact be 
eliminated in connection with the vast majority of 
decisions under chapter VI through interpretation 
agreed to by the permanent members and without 
Charter amendment. Such a development would 
correspond to the approach which led to the 
growth, through interpretation, and use, of the 
United States Constitution. 

On the other hand, the United States is the only 
permanent member of the Security Council that 
has expressed its willingness at this time to advo- 
cate an amendment to the Charter to eliminate the 
veto under chapter VI. Although the United 
States may be supported in such a move by the 
majority of the smaller states, there is no substan- 
tial support by any states— large or small— for 
changes under chapter VII. 

It is believed, therefore, that the General As- 
sembly will be in a position to make recommenda- 
tions along the general lines of United States pro- 



July 4, 1948 



posals that will have overwhelming support. Such 
recommendations, it is hoped, will result in agree- 
ment among all the permanent members to carry 
them into effect through establishment of rules, 
procedures, and practices, and where necessary 
through amendment of the Charter. The General 
Assembly is entitled to recommend Charter amend- 
ments which can come into effect through ratifica- 
tion pursuant to ai'ticle 108 of the Charter without 
any general conference to review the Charter. 

A general conference under article 109 would, 
from the practical standpoint of international ne- 
gotiation, be premature until the overwhelming 
majority of the members of the United Nations 
have agreed upon Charter changes and until ef- 
forts have been exhausted to secure the agreement 
of all of the permanent members of the Security 
Council to such changes. Such general conference 
is inherently a consummating or last step, not the 
first step. For the present, therefore, we believe 
that the United States proposals in the Interim 
Committee and General Assembly furnish the best 
opportunity for improving the functioning of the 
Security Council. It should be borne in mind, in 
this regard, that in the Security Council itself at- 
tention is being given to such improvements, 
though the most thoroughgoing effort is being 
made by the Assembly and its Interim Committee. 

This article has mainly stressed the practical 
question of just what changes in the veto furnish 
a real promise of improvement. There is another 
and even more important side of the problem : the 
security of the United States. It is recognized 
that we cannot base our national policy solely on 
our own independent action. However, at the same 



' Bulletin of May 16, 1948, p. 625. See also Strengthen- 
ing the United Nations, Department of State publication 
3159. 



time, we cannot place our vast resources of man- 
power, skill, and materials at the disposal of any 
numerical majority of the nations of the world 
without our consent. The veto under chapter VII 
was our protection and is certainly no less neces- 
sary in the conditions of today than in those pre- 
vailing two years ago. 

VI. Conclusion 

It is not enough to consider this problem solely 
from a standjjoint of procedures of United Nations 
and voting teclmiques. The uses made of the veto 
are merely a symptom of the underlying disagree- 
ments among the great powers of the world. This 
was expressed by the Secretary of State in his 
situation statement before the House Foreign Af- 
fairs Committee on May 5. 

"The problems today presented to those who 
desire peace are not questions of structure. Nor 
are they problems solvable merely by new forms 
of organization. They require performance of 
obligations already imdertaken, fidelity to pledges 
already given. Basic human frailties cannot be 
overcome by Charter provisions alone, for they 
exist in the behavior of men and governments. 

"It is not changes in the fo?'77i of international 
intercourse which we now require. It is to changes 
of substance that we must look for an improvement 
of the world situation. And it is to those changes 
of substance that our policy has been directed. 
Wlien the substance of the world situation im- 
proves, the United Nations will be able to function 
with full effectiveness. Meanwhile we will con- 
tinue our efforts in cooperation with other govern- 
ments to improve the working of the United 
Nations under the Charter." ' 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Progress in Indonesia 



BY H. MERRELL BENNINGHOFF > 
Deputy Director for Far Eastern AKairs 



As Americans you should be particularly inter- 
ested in the Indonesian problem because you have 
a special representative contributing to its solu- 
tion on the spot at this moment. His name is Coert 
duBois and lie is the United States Representative 
on a three-power United Nations Good Offices 
Committee which is assisting the Dutch and the 
Indonesians in their eflforts to negotiate a peace- 
ful, mutually satisfactory settlement of their 
differences. 

Wliat differences separate the Dutch and the 
Indonesians? I suppose the easiest way to tell 
j"ou is to recount briefly the events which have led 
to the present negotiations in Java. For 300 years 
Indonesia has been a Dutch colony. Both the 
Dutch and Indonesian people derived great ben- 
efit from this relationship. Nonetheless the Indo- 
nesian people, liite people elsewhere in the world, 
have expressed during the last generation their 
desire for independence. The Dutch, who have 
demonstrated throughout the centuries their re- 
spect for freedom and independence, have an- 
nounced on several occasions, notably in 1942, and 
again this year, their desire to give the Indonesian 
people the democratic self-government they 
wished. The development of plans to work out 
Indonesian self-government was tragically inter- 
rupted by the Japanese invasion of the Indonesian 
arcliipelago early in 1942. When the Japanese 
surrendered, an Indonesian Republic was pro- 
claimed wliich declared complete independence 
and sovereignty. The Dutch, emerging from Nazi 
occupation, regarded their sovereignty over Indo- 
nesia as unimpaired. So did the United States and 
other nations. The Dutch naturally regarded the 
Indonesian Republic as an experiment in reliellion. 
We must remember that many thousand Dutch- 
men regarded Indonesia as their home and had 
over some 300 years built for themselves a large 
stake in the area. Dutch attempts to restore their 
control over the archipelago were resisted by force 
in the Ishmds of Java, Sumatra, and Madura. 

July 4, 1948 



The other parts of the Indonesian archipelago ac- 
cepted Dutch administration and are not subject 
to the disi^ute. During 1946 and early 1947 the 
Dutch and the Indonesians made many attempts 
to resolve the essential conflict between their posi- 
tions by direct negotiations — part of the time, with 
the assistance of a neutral third party. These at- 
tempts which continued against a background of 
sporadic warfare culminated in an agreement 
signed at a Javanese town called Linggajati. In 
spite of the acceptance of the Linggajati agree- 
ment, relations between the Dutch and Indone- 
sians deteriorated steadily, each charging the other 
with violations. In July of 1947, the Netherlands 
embarked on what it called police action designed 
to restore peace and order in Java, Sumatra, and 
Madura. Tlie Indonesian Republic regarded this 
as an attempt to destroy it by force and offered 
armed resistance. Large-scale fighting broke out 
which resulted in the deaths of many Dutch and 
Indonesian nationals and much destruction of 
property. 

At this moment this situation was brought be- 
fore the United Nations Security Council.^ In 
August the Council ordered both parties to cease 
fire. This order was not observed. At length, 
as a final effort, the Security Council sent a Com- 
mittee of Good Offices directly to the scene of the 
struggle to bring about a truce and if possible to 
assist the Netherlands and the Indonesian Repub- 
lic in finding a basis for a final settlement of the 
differences which separated them. The Commit- 
tee of Good Offices was made up of three members. 
The Netherlands chose Belgium as its Representa- 
tive, the Indonesian Republic chose Austra.lia, and 
Australia and Belgium chose the United States as 
the third member. 



' Address delivered over the Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem on June 26, 1948, and released to the press on the 
same date. 

' For an article on the work of the committee and docu- 
ments relating to the dispute see Bulletin of Mar. 14, 
194S, p. 323, which is also published as Department of 
State publication 3108. 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

At the request of the Committee of Good Offices, 
the United States pit)vided the naval transport 
U.S.S. Renville as a neutral place where the 
negotiations between the Dutch and the Indonesian 
Eepresentatives might proceed. 

After weeks of difficult negotiation aboard the 
Renville, anchored off the coast of Java, a plan 
was worked out which both the Netherlands and 
Indonesian Eepublic voluntarily accepted. 
Speaking generally, this plan had two pai'ts : first, 
a truce — the first successful truce in tlie struggle 
and one which is still observed by both sides. The 
first objective of the United Nations — and of the 
United States Government — was thus met. Sec- 
ondly, a brief, simple statement of principles, 
known as the Renville agreements, which are to 
form an agreed basis for negotiating a final politi- 
cal settlement of the differences which have 
separated the Netherlands and the Indonesian 
Republic. Since the acceptance of these prin- 
ciples in January of this year on board the U.S.S. 
Renville, the Netherlands and the Indonesian 
Republicans have been negotiating before the 
Security Coixncil's Good Offices Committee to 
achieve the final political agi-eement outlined in 
those principles. 

I have just referred to the differences which 
separated the Netherlands and the Indonesian 
Republic. Fortunately, the diffei'ences are those 
of means and not of ends. The Government of the 
Netherlands has announced to the world its desire 
to give the Indonesian people the privileges and 
responsibilities of self-government. The Indo- 
nesian people have, during the past three years, 
demonstrated their determination to secure self- 
government. Both the Netherlands and the Indo- 
nesian Republic, in accepting the Renville 
agreements, have agreed to the grand design which 
shall embody the purposes of these two great 
peoples. All that remains is to negotiate the de- 
tails of that design. As all of you know, it is easier 
to draw a picture of a house than to make a detailed 
blueprint which the builders can use. The Good 
Offices Committee has found it tough going in late 
months to assist the Netherlands and the Indo- 
nesians in continuing wholeheartedly to complete 
their blueprint and begin the building of their new 
house without disagreeing at the beginning of each 
day's work on where each window will go when 
construction begins. 

Just what do the Renville agreements provide? 
These agreements affirm Netherlands sovereignty 
in Indonesia for a brief interim period during 
which preparations for an independent govern- 
ment in Indonesia can be undertaken through 
the cooperation of the Dutch and Indonesian 
people. After this interim period, the Govern- 
ment of the Netherlands undertakes to transfer 
full sovereignty to a new nation which shall be 
called the United States of Indonesia. It is to be 

10 



composed of a number of states, comprising the 
entire archipelago, of which one is to be the Re- 
public of Indonesia. The boundaries of the states 
which are to make up this United States of Indo- 
nesia are to be determined through democratic 
procedures. After the United States of Indo- 
nesia has a constitution, to be written by the demo- 
cratically elected representatives of the states 
making up the U.S.I., that new nation, the United 
States of Indonesia, and the old nation, the King- 
dom of the Netherlands, shall join together volun- 
tarily as equal partners in the Netherlands Indo- 
nesian Union. Thus, the old empire will be trans- 
formed into a union of friends, mutually de- 
pendent on each other and mutually helpful to 
each other and to the world. This should be a 
satisfaction to all Americans, since your repre- 
sentative is helping to work out the first solution 
of its kind to one of the most difficult problems 
with which the world is faced. 

I have remarked that the Indonesian people and 
the Netherlands people are earnestly seeking to 
resolve their difficvdties and that they have been 
assisted in this difficult task by three powers — 
Australia, Belgium, and the United States — acting 
on behalf of the United Nations. There are, of 
course, normal difficulties in negotiations and 
and honest doubts on both sides. These are yet to 
be overcome. I am sorry to tell you that in addi- 
tion to these difficulties there are those who are 
conniving to subvert the ends sought in the Ren- 
ville agreements. They are those same people 
whose policies require the pi'eservation and the 
intensification of chaos and hatred everywhere in 
the world. Those people viewed the acceptance 
of the Renville agreements in January with gen- 
uine alarm and they have tried ever since to de- 
stroy the faith of the Netherlands people and the 
Indonesian people in the just and practical 
character of the proposed settlement. Their ways 
are devious and ruthless. You know of whom I 
speak — the Communists, who even at this hour 
are at work in the Netherlands, in Indonesia, 
throughout Asia, and even in the United States 
to call the good faith of the Good Offices Com- 
mittee and its work into question. I must put you 
on your guard against these efforts, which take 
the form of trying to identify Communism, a doc- 
trine of enslavement, with the natural aspirations 
of peoples throughout the world for independence. 

If you could ask me questions now, you would 
ask what United States policy toward Indonesia 
is. I will tell you. First and foremost, your Gov- 
ernment is determined to do everything it can to 
bring peace, prosperity, and the freedoms of a 
democratic system to the peoples of Indonesia as 
to peoples everywhere in the world. Secondly, 
your Government, in this particular instance, seeks 
to assist the Indonesians and Dutch people to re- 
discover their dependence on each other and learn 
anew the great cojitribution that each can make to 

Department of State Bulletin 



tlie welfare and securitj' of the other. Thirdly, 
your Ciovernment realizes, as do the peoples of 
the Netherlands and Indonesia, that the rest of 
the world desperately needs what the two of them, 
working together, can provide. Finally, your 
Government is determined that the efforts of total- 
itarianism to defeat these purposes shall not 
succeed. 

Pronfress has been made toward tlie solution of 
the Indonesian problem which should be hearten- 
ing to jou and to everyone, anywhere in the world, 
who genuinely hopes for a peaceful settlement of 
the world's problems. The Indonesian Republi- 
cans and the Netherlands have agreed to a truce 
which halted a bloody war. This truce has been 
successful for over five months. The two parties 
have voluntarily accepted the Renville agreements, 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGBNCIES 

which provide an agreed basis for negotiating a 
final settlement of their differences. In other 
w-ords, and in the most important sense, a revolu- 
tionary situation has been transformed into one 
in which the legitimate desires of both Dutch and 
Indonesian peoples can be achieved through evo- 
lutionary processes. 

We recognize that there are still difficulties of 
give and take to be overcome, but given the good 
will of both parties and the will to work with pa- 
tience and restraint, they can and must be resolved. 
I assure you that the Government of the United 
States will continue with resolution and patience 
to contribute in every way it can to the solution 
of the Indonesian problem to the end that Dutch 
and Indonesian peoples will march together in 
dignity in a world of peace and freedom. 



U.S. steps Taken To Implement Palestine Truce Resolution 

LETTER FROM PHILIP C. JESSUP, ACTING U.S. REPRESENTATIVE AT THE SEAT OF THE 
UNITED NATIONS, TO SECRETARY-GENERAL TRYGVE LIE 



(Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. June 22] 

Excellency : 

Reference is made to your telegram dated June 
16, 1948 stating that the Security Council on June 
15, at the request of the United Nations Mediator 
for Palestine, had decided to ask all States Mem- 
bers to report on steps taken to implement the 
Security Council Palestine Resolution of May 29, 
and also to request all State Membei-s to extend 
their cooperation and assistance to the United 
Nations Mediator in implementation of his truce 
proposals. 

I am instructed to communicate to you for the 
information of the Security Council the following 
information concerning the steps which have been 
taken by my Government to implement the Reso- 
lution of May 29. 

1. Instructions have been issued to the appropri- 
ate authorities of the Government of the United 
States to take the necessary steps to prevent the 
departure of ''fighting personnel" from the United 
States to the countries named in Paragraph 3 of 
the Resolution. 

2. Instructions have been issued to the appro- 
priate authorities of the Government of the United 
States, including the Chairman of the United 
States Maritime Commission, drawing attention to 



statements concerning "men of military age" set 
forth in Paragraph 6, Subparagraphs 
(4) of the Mediator's truce proposals. 



age" E 
, fs) a: 



3. With respect to Paragraph 5 of the Resolu- 
tion of May 29, the Government of the United 
States since November 14, 1947 has applied a 
rigorous arms embargo covering the shipment of 
all war material from the United States and its 
possessions to Palestine and the countries of the 
Near East. 

4. The Government of the United States, as a 
Member of the Security Council Truce Commis- 
sion in Palestine, is actively cooperating with the 
United Nations Mediator and has supplied him, at 
his request, with military observers, aircraft and 
communications equipment, and three naval patrol 
vessels. 

It is the profound hope of my Government that 
the measures thus far adopted by the United Na- 
tions Mediator will prove fruitful in leading to 
the successful accomplishment of his broader task 
under the terms of the General Assembly Resolu- 
tion of May 14, 1948 ; namely to "promote a peace- 
ful adjustment of the future situation of Pales- 
tine". 

Accept [etc.] Philii' C. Jessup 

Acting United States Representative 
to the United Nations 



July 4, 1948 



II 



The Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council 



by Andrew W. Anderson 



The need for cooperation and coordination in 
research concerned with fisheries and otiier re- 
sources of the sea has been recognized for years. 
A number of European nations have long par- 
ticipated in an association, active particularly in 
the North Atlantic, which is known as the Inter- 
national Council for the Exploration of the Sea. 
Canada and the United States have cooperated 
somewhat similarly on a bilateral basis with re- 
gard to fisheries of mutual interest. 

Proposals to establish fisheries councils pat- 
terned in a general way after the Council for the 
Exploration of the Sea were discussed at the first 
session of tlie Conference of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization (Fao) at Quebec in 1945. 
In 1946 at the second session at Copenhagen a re- 
port of the Standing Advisory Committee on 
Fisheries recommending the establishment of such 
councils was approved. Early in 1947 the South 
East Asia Fisheries Conference, which was held 
at Singapore under the auspices of the United 
Kingdom Special Commissioner in South East 
Asia, resolved that Fao be requested to establish 
a fisheries council in that area. Later in 1947 the 
Director General of Fao notified member nations 
of his intention to place the matter of initiating 
fisheries councils on the agenda for the third ses- 
sion of the Conference of Fao at Geneva. A sug- 
gested draft of a constitution for a regional council 
was circulated, and in September 1947 the Confer- 
ence resolved — 

"that Fao should take action to initiate the for- 
mation of Regional Councils for the scientific 
exploration of the sea in the parts of the world 
not now actively served by similar bodies, giving 
primary consideration to the following areas : 

North Western Atlantic 

South Western Pacific and Indian Ocean 

Mediterranean Sea and contiguous waters 

North Eastern Pacific 

South Eastern Pacific 

Western South Atlantic 

Eastern South Atlantic and Indian Ocean 

"This Commission is of the opinion that the 
boundaries of these areas, and the constitutions of 

12 



the councils, should be left open for discussion and 
determination by the nations concerned." 

In November 1947 Fao notified its members of 
a proposal to establish a regional council for the 
study of the sea in the general area of the south- 
west Pacific and Indian Oceans and the following 
January invited the Governments of Australia, 
Burma, China, France, India, the Netherlands, 
Pakistan, the Republic of the Philippines, Siam, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States to 
send representatives to a conference to consider 
this proposal. In addition, the Supreme Com- 
mander for the Allied Powers in Japan and cer- 
tain international organizations were invited to 
send observers. 

From February 23 to 28, 1948, official delegates 
from the following countries met at Baguio, Re- 
public of the Philippines : Burma, China, France, 
India, the Netherlands, the Republic of the Philip- 
l^ines, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 
Observers from Italy, Scap, and Unesco were 
present. Fao was represented by the Regional 
Special Adviser, the Director, and the Chief Biolo- 
gist of the Fisheries Division, and the Regional 
Representative (Fisheries) from Fag's office at 
Singapore. Nearly all the delegates, advisers, and 
observers were technical fisheries' representatives 
of their governments. 

The conference was organized under the chair- 
manship of D. V. Villadolid of the Bureau of 
Fisheries of the Republic of the Philippines. 
Technical working committees were established on 
biology, hydrology, taxonomy, and technology. 
The formal agenda was limited, after consider- 
able discussion, to the establishment of a fisheries 
council for the Indo-Pacific area and the develop- 
ment of the scientific progi'am to be carried on by 
that council. Consequently, the conference was 
able to concentrate upon these objectives and, 
within the relatively brief time allotted for its 
deliberations, to formulate an agreement for the 
establishment of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Coun- 
cil and to evolve a comprehensive program of in- 
vestigations to be imdertaken by the Council 
during the next several years. 

The agreement is based upon the draft con- 
stitution proposed by Fao as revised in the light of 
comments and suggestions made by various dele- 

Deparfment of Stafe Bulletin 



gations in their opening statements to the con- 
ference iuul in the light of the modified draft 
constitution presented to the conference by the 
United States. The agreement recognizes that the 
countries represented at tlie conference possess a 
"mutual interest in the development and i^roper 
utilization of the living aquatic resources of the 
Indo-Pacilic areas" and provides for the establish- 
ment of a council with certain functions and 
duties in the Indo-Pacific areas. These functions 
and duties are — 

1. To formulate the oceanographical, biological, 
and other technical aspects of the problems of 
development and proper utilization of living 
aquatic resources; 

2. To encourage and coordinate research and 
the application of improved methods in everyday 
practice; 

3. To assemble, publish, or otherwise dis- 
seminate oceanographical, biological, and other 
technical information relating to living aquatic 
resources ; 

■i. To recommend to member governments such 
national or cooperative research and development 
projects as may appear necessary or desirable to 
fill gaps in such knowledge; 

5. To undertake, where appropriate, coopera- 
tive research and development projects directed to 
this end ; 

6. To propose, and where necessary to adopt, 
measures to bring about the standardization 
of scientific equipment, techniques, and no- 
menclature ; 

7. To extend its good oiEces in assisting member 
governments to secure essential materials and 
equijiment ; 

8. To rei>ort upon such questions relating to 
oceanographical, biological, and other technical 
problems as may be recommended to it by member 
governments or by the Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization of the United Nations and other 
international, national, or private organizations 
with related interests; 

[). To report annually to the Conference of the 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations upon its activities, for the information of 
the Conference; and to make such other reports 
to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations on matters falling within the com- 
petence of the Coimcil as may seem to it necessary 
and desirable. 

The agreement is open to acceptance by the gov- 
ernments represented at the Baguio conference, 
by other governments which are members of Fao, 
and by those governments not members of Fao 
which meet certain conditions including approval 
by the Fao Conference and by two thirds of the 
members of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council. 
The agreement is to enter into force upon accept- 
ance by five member governments. 

July 4, 1948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECUIIZEO AGENCIES 

In order that the scientific cooperation begim at 
Baguio might be continued without interruption, 
the conference directed by a resolution adopted at 
the final plenary session that the technical work- 
ing committees on biology, hydrology, taxonomy, 
and technology continue to function informally, 
with the assistance of the Fisheries Division of Fao, 
pending the entry into force of the agi'eement. 

The Committee on Biology recommended that 
the mode of approach to a program must be to 
determine the present status of knowledge and 
the programs under way in the area. It proposed 
as a first step the circulation of a questionnaire on 
these matters and an analysis of the replies. 

The Committee on Hydrology envisaged a five- 
year program, involving, in the first year, the com- 
pilation of oceanographic data, drafting of a map 
of the principal producing regions, and agreement 
on methods and procedures. 

The Committee on Taxonomy suggested an ex- 
ploratory program during the first year. It rec- 
ommended definition of the limits of the region; 
examination of existing facilities; expansion of 
an existing institution to house standard inter- 
national collections of regional aquatic organisms ; 
development of ways and means of completing 
national collections in each taxonomic subregion; 
preparation of a bibliography of the most im- 
portant taxonomic works published about the 
region during the last 25 years; development of 
coordination between existing taxonomic labora- 
tories and research laboratories; and establish- 
ment of coordination in taxonomic studies between 
the proposed Council and international bodies 
such as the International Commission for Zoologi- 
cal Nomenclature and Unesco. 

The Committee on Technology reported that a 
final jn-ogram could be developed only after a spe- 
cific program had been submitted to government 
representatives for their comments and for inclu- 
sion of their special technological requirements. 
The value of an Indo-Pacific Fisheries Teclinologi- 
cal Institute was acknowledged, but it was not 
assigned a definite position in the program because 
it was not apparent that one central institute was 
]:)referable to a number of smaller centers, nor was 
it certain that its importance was greater than 
that of several other suggested projects. 

At the second session of the Council of Fao, held 
at Washington from April 5 to 17, 1948, the report 
of the Baguio fisheries conference was approved, 
and the Director General by a circular letter di- 
rected the attention of the member governments 
to the results of that conference and urged ac- 
ceptance of the agreement in order that it might 
enter into force at an early date and in order that 
Fao might thereupon proceed with the organiza- 
tion of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council and the 
convening of its first meeting. 

13 



Soviet Opposition to Atomic Energy Issues 



STATEMENT BY FREDERICK OSBORN 
Deputy U.S. Representative on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission 



[Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. June 28] 

On Tuesday, June 22, 1948, nine members of the 
Security Council voted to approve the general find- 
ings and recommendations of the First Report of 
the Atomic Energy Commission of the United Na- 
tions, the specific proposals of the Second Report, 
and the recommendations of the Third Report.^ 
The Ukrainian Delegate voted against and the 
U.S.S.R., exercising its power to veto, prevented 
the passage of the resolution. The same nine mem- 
bers then voted for a simple resolution transmit- 
ting the three reports to the General Assembly, as 
a matter of special concern, together with the rec- 
ord of the discussion in the Security Council. The 
Soviet Union and the Ukraine abstained on this 
motion and the majority proposals for interna- 
tional control of atomic energy now go to the Gen- 
eral Assembly for consideration. 

The debate in the Security Council was brief and 
reflected the feeling on the part of the delegates 
that almost everything possible had been said dur- 
ing the two years of discussion and over 200 meet- 
ings of the Atomic Energy Commission. In the 
words of the United States Representative, Philip 
Jessup, in his opening statement : 

"Sincere efforts, prolonged study and many de- 
bates have not enabled the majority to secure Soviet 
agreement to 'even those elements of effective con- 
trol considered essential from the technical point 
of view, let alone their acceptance of the nature 
and extent of participation in the world commu- 
nity required of all nations in this field by the 
First and Second Reports of the Atomic Energy 
Commission.' " 

Only the Soviet and the Ukrainian Delegates 
spoke at any length and in each case they merely 
repeated the position which the Soviet Union has 
held from the start in this matter. Their view- 
point was : 

First, that there must be a treaty prohibiting 
atomic weapons and the means of making them, 
and that this treaty must be signed and put into 
effect before a treaty for control can be discussed. 
This proposal is tantamount to unilateral disarma- 
ment and is wholly unacceptable to any of the na- 
tions outside the Soviet sphere. 



• Bulletin of .June 20, 1948, p. 798. 



14 



Second, that the proposal of (ho majority would 
extend the United States monopoly throughout the 
whole world. It is hard to understand how any- | 
one can make this statement unless he has failed 
to read the First Report and, particularly, the 
Second Report of the Commission. 

Third, that the international agency would con- 
trol the economic life of each nation. This posi- 
tion is absolutely groundless, especially since agree- 
ment was reached on the inclusion in the treaty 
itself of a quota system which would provide in 
advance the proportion of atomic power that would 
be available to each nation. 

Fourth, and finally, that the plan of the majority 
would interfere with national sovereignty. This 
argument is correct, but as is clearly stated in the 
Third Report, the question is not whether "the 
functions and powers of the international control 
agency as elaborated by the majority, are politi- 
cally acceptable or not . . . but whether govern- 
ments now want effective international control." 

The summary made by Gen. A. G. L. ISIcNaugh- 
ton, the Canadian Representative, on May 17, 1948, 
at the final meeting of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, clearly expresses the feeling of the ma- 
jority of the delegates. General McNaughton said 
in part : 

"I am sure I reflect the views of the majority 
. . . when I express disappointment in the fact 
tliat the aflFairs of the Atomic Energy Commission 
have reached an impasse which is lieyond the ca- 
pacity of the Commission itself to resolve at this 
time. It has become evident . . . that the 
issues which have been raised now require debate 
in a wider forum, and it is for this reason that the 
conclusion has been reached that the situation 
should be frankly and fully reported, first to the 
Security Council and then to the General Assembly 
. . . so that the grave questions at issue may 
be taken up at the forthcoming session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly ... in Paris . . . Sep- 
tember next. 

'•I should like to make it quite clear that this pro- 
posal on the part, of the majority of the Atomic 
Energy Commission does not represent any accept- 
ance of defeat or confession of failure in its efforts 
to achieve a proper system for the international 
("ontrol of atomic energy. 

"Quite the contrary. The majority of the mem- 
(Continiicd on pinje ^1) 

Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



Trusteeship Administration 

The view that notice to the Trusteeship Coimcil 
should precede the initiation of an administrative 
union or federation affecting trust territories was 
urged by the United States at the Council's June 

29 meeting. tt c -o 

Ambassador Francis B. Sayre, the U.b. Kepre- 
sentative, asserted in a formal statement ^ that the 
United States for its part will give the United 
Nations advance notice of any measure "which 
might affect the separate administration of the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands" and ex- 
pressed the hope that other powers admmistermg 
U.N. trust territories would do likewise. 

Mr. Sayre's statement, which he said was "with- 
out reference to any specific territory and certainly 
without implying criticism of any administering 
authority", was made as the Council began its 
consideration of the United Kingdom's annual re- 
port on its administration of the Trust Territory 
of Tanganyika in East Africa. The report in- 
cludes references to administrative measures look- 
ing toward joint operation of a number of com- 
mon services for Tanganyika and the adjoining 
territories of Kenya and Uganda, which the United 
Kingdom administers in its own right. 

Noting that "under most of the existing trustee- 
ship agreements the administering authority is 
authorized to constitute the trust territory into an 
administrative union or federation with adjacent 
territories under the sovereignty or control of the 
administering authority," Mr. Sayi'e added that 
the United States nevertheless believed "that it 
would not only be a courtesy but would also facili- 
tate the practical work of the Council if an admin- 
istering authority should inform the Trusteeship 
Council before implementing any plan it has 
formed for establishing such a union or federa- 
tion." 

"\Mien the General Assembly in 1946 reviewed 
the first trusteeship agreements, Mr. Sayre re- 
called, the administering powers gave assurances 
that the right to establish administrative unions 
would not be construed to sanction "any form of 
political association between the trust territory 
and adjacent territories which would involve an- 
nexation of the trust territory in any sense, or 
would have the effect of extinguishing its status 
as a trust territory." 

Among criteria by which the Council might ap- 
l-raise afininistrative miions, Mr. Sayre suggested 

J\j\y 4, 1948 



that such arrangements should not subordinate the 
rights and interests of the trust territories to the 
interests of other territories and that they should 
not make it impossible to supply the Trusteeship 
Council with statistics and other information bear- 
ing specifically on the trust territories. 

Indonesia 

Regret that illness compels Coert duBois, U.S. 
member of the Security Council's Committee of 
Good Offices in Indonesia, to return to the United 
States was expressed at a July 1 meeting which the 
Council devoted to the status of negotiations be- 
tween the Netherlands and the Republic of In- 
donesia. Philip C. Jessup, U.S. Deputy Repre- 
sentative, told the Council that "this is no question 
of a diplomatic illness" and made it clear that Mr. 
duBois' return had no connection with the con- 
troversy over proposals recently put forward by 
Mr. duBois and his Australian colleague, T. K. 
Critchley. 

Press disclosures of the tenor of the U.S.-Aus- 
tralian compromise suggestions had been given by 
the Dutch as their reason for breaking off nego- 
tiations for a short time in mid-June. The Com- 
mittee advised the Security Council on June 23 
that negotiations under its auspices had been re- 
newed but had at once been stalemated by the Neth- 
erlands' refusal to discuss the U.S.-Australian 
proposals, with which the Committee's third mem- 
ber. R. Herremans of Belgium, did not associate 
himself. 

Security Council discussion centered around a 
Chinese motion that the Council ask the Commit- 
tee for the text of the proposals in question. The 
motion was lost when votes for it fell one short of 
the required seven. Canada, China, Colombia, 
Syria, the Ukraine, and the U.S.S.R. voted for it; 
Argentina, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom 
and the United States abstained. 

Before the vote Dr. Jessup said that the Com- 
mittee of Good Offices was in the best position to 
judwe whether sending the document to the Se- 
curfty Council would serve to advance the negoti- 
ations, a purpose which should be the sole test ot 
the Council's action in this respect. 

Strategic Trusteeships 

Debates in the Trusteeship Council on June 25 
and 28 regarding the relationship of the Trustee- 



■ U S. Mission 



to the United Nations press release 480. 



15 



TH£ UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

ship Council and the Security Council with respect 
to strategic trusteeships followed the same general 
lines as earlier debate in the Security Council.^ 
S. K. Tsarapkin, Soviet Representative, echoed 
what Mr. Gromyko had said in the Security Coun- 
cil, i.e. that all U.N. functions for strategic trustee- 
ships were vested in the Security Council and were 
in no way the concern of the Trusteeship Council 
unless and until the Security Council asked its 
help or advice on particular problems. 

The representatives of Australia, China, Mexico, 
New Zealand, and the Philippines said that in their 
view the language of article 83 of tlie Charter 
obliged the Security Council to entrust to the Trus- 
teeship Council U.N. functions having to do with 
political, economic, social, and educational matters 
in the strategic trust areas. 

The only strategic trusteeship now in effect is 
that under which the United States administers 
the Pacific islands formerly mandated to Japan, 
and the discussion, in which Ambassador Sayre 
of the United States took no part, often adverted 
to this particular arrangement. After "William 
D. Forsyth of Australia had said that the Trustee- 
ship Council could not act before the Security 
Council asked its help, as it was obliged to do, Luis 
Padilla Nervo of Mexico argued that in effect the 
Security Council had already done so with respect 
to the Pacific islands by ratifying the trust agree- 
ment, which applies articles 87 and 88 of the Char- 
ter, subject to the right of the United States to 
close any area for security reasons. These articles 
authorize the Trusteeship Council to inspect trust 
territories, to receive petitions from their inhabit- 
ants, and to obtain public-welfare data from ad- 
ministering authorities. 

Future of "Little Assembly" 

A recommendation that the Interim Committee 
of the General Assembly should be continued for 
another experimental year was agreed to on June 
25 by Subcommittee 4, to which was assigned pre- 
liminary consideration of a report to the General 
Assembly on this point. 

Extension of the Interim Committee had been 
advocated in the Subcommittee by Joseph E. Jolm- 
son. Deputy U.S. Representative.^ The Subcom- 
mittee's members include representatives of 14 
nations. On July 9 the Subcommittee will meet 
to take the final action on its report. 

Air Agreement 

The United States is one of the 10 nations which 
signed the final act of the Icelandic air conference 
held in Geneva from June 21 to 26 under the aus- 
pices of the International Civil Aviation Organi- 
zation. By the act, nine nations whose aircraft 



' Bulletin of June 27, 1948, p. 830. 
" Bulletin of June 30, 1948, p. 801. 



16 



fly North Atlantic routes agree to joint support i 
in Iceland of the air navigation, communication, i 
and meteorological facilities without which such j 
flights would be unsafe. The agreement is the i 
largest financial project connected with aviation ] 
ever concluded by a permanent international body. ■ 

Korean Commission | 

The Temporary Commission on Korea an- i 
nounced on the occasion of its visit to the Korean \ 
National Assembly on June 30 that by a resolution I 
of June 25 it resolved unanimously that the elec- 
tions held on May 10 were "a valid expression of 
the free will of the electorate in those parts of 
Korea wliich were accessible to the Conunission.'^ 
To carry out further the recommendations of the 
General Assembly resolution under which it was 
established, the Commission announced that it was 
available for consultations with representatives of 
the Korean National Assembly "regarding the 
freedom and independence of the Korean people." 

India-Pakistan Dispute 

The Commission on India and Pakistan estab- 
lished to work toward the settlement of differences 
between these two nations over Kashmir and other 
matters announced that it plans to arrive in 
Karachi on July 7. 

Health Assembly 

In one of the opening addresses at the first World 
Health Assembly, the continuing interest of the 
United States in the work of the World Health 
Organization was expressed by Dr. Martha Eliot, 
acting chairman of the U.S. Delegation, pending 
the arrival of Dr. Thomas Parran, Chairman of the 
Delegation and Medical Director of the U.S. Pub- 
lic Health Service. The Assembly opened its first 
session on June 24 in Geneva, thus marking the 
beginning of full-scale activity of the World 
Health Organization. The U.S. was unanimously 
accepted as a member of Who on July 2, the Assem- 
bly deciding that the U.S. reservation concerning 
the right of withdrawal upon one year's notifica- 
tion did not affect the validity of the U.S. ratifi- 
cation. 

Balkan Committee 

The Special Committee on the Balkans signed 
its report for submission to the General Assembly 
in Geneva on June 30. The only finding made 
public states that "although the Albanian, Bul- 
garian and Yugoslav Governments have not so far 
cooperated" with the Committee, it is possible to 
liel^j these governments and Greece "i-ealize their 
common interest in a peaceful settlement of their 
differences", if they would act in the spirit of the 
Charter and the Assembly resolution. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings 



Adjourned during June 

International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Legal Committee: Annual Meeting 

General Assembly : Second Session 

I Conference of North Atlantic States Concerned in Joint Support 
i of Iceland Air Navigation Services. 

United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council): 

Human Rights Commission: Third Session 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 

Economic Commission for Latin America 

Subcommission on Economic Development 

Permanent Central Opium Board: 50th Session 



Diplomatic Conference on Revision of Convention for Protection of 
Literary and Artistic Works. 

Association for Hydraulic Structures Research 

International Conference on Textiles 



Third International Conference on Large Dams 

Specialist Conference on Tropical and Subtropical SoUs 

Who (World Health Organization): Interim Commission: Sixth 

Session. 

XIX Congress of the International Federation for Housing and 
Town Planning. 

Second International Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 
Conference. 

In session as of July 1, 1948 

Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 
Security Council . . . . 
Militarv Staff Committee 



Commission on Conventional Armaments 

Security Council: Committee of Good Offices on the Indonesian 

Question. 
General Assembly: Special Committee on the Greek Question . . 



Temporary Commission on Korea 

Interim Committee of the General Assembly 
Security Council's Kashmir Commission . . 
Trusteeship Council: Third Session .... 



German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 



Inter-.Allied Trade Board for Japan 



Council of Foreign Ministers: 

Deputies for Italian Colonial Problems 

Commission of Investigation to Former Italian Colonies 



London 



Geneva . 
Geneva . 
Geneva. 



Lake Success . . . 
Oootacamund, India 

Santiago 

Lake Success . . . 
Geneva 



Brussels 

Stockholm 

Buxton, England . . . 

Stockholm 

Hertfordshire, England . 
Geneva 



Ziirich . . . 
Rotterdam , 

Washington . 



Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 



Salonika and Geneva 



Seoul 

Lake Success . . . . 
Geneva and Kashmir 
Lake Success . . . . 



Lisbon . 
Madrid 



Washington . 



London 

Former Italian Colonies 



1948 

Apr. 23- June 10 

May 28- 
June 1- 
June 21- 



May 20-June 16 
June 1- 
June 7- 
June 14-25 
June 14- 

June 5-19 



June 6-9 
June 7-12 
June 10-17 
June 14-28 
June 18-23 

June 20-26 

June 21-30 



Feb. 



Mar, 
Mar, 

Mar, 
Oct. 



1946 

26- 

25- 
25- 
1947 

24- 
20- 



Nov. 21- 

1948 
12- 
23- 
15- 
16- 



Jan. 
Feb. 
June 
June 



Sept. 
Nov. 



1946 



3- 
12- 



Oct. 24- 



1947 



Oct. : 
Nov. 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 



July 4, 1948 



17 



Caloidar of Meetings — Continued 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Provisional Frequency Board 

International Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference . . 
European Regional Broadcasting Conference 

U.S.-Swedish Inter-Custodial Discussions 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 105th and 106th Sessions of 
Governing Body Conference: 31st General Session. 

Royal Society Information Conference 

Who (World Health Organization) : First Session of World Health 

Assembly. 

International Conference on Large High Tension Electric Systems: 
Twelfth Biennial Session. 

Eleventh International Conference on Public Education 

International Council of Museums: First General Biennial Con- 
ference. 

Scheduled for July 1-31, 1948 

Meeting of International Union of Family Organizations 

IcEF (International Children's Emergencj' Fund) : 

Program Committee 

Executive Board 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization): Executive Board: Eighth Session. 

First International Poliomyelitis Conference 

Seventh International Congress of Agricultural Industries 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) ; Fifth Plenary Meet- 
ing of Radio Consultative Committee. 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : North Pacific 
Regional Air Navigation Meeting 

First Inter- American Conference for the Rehabilitation of Cripples. 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : Technical Conference of 
Latin American Nutrition Experts 

Sixth International Congress of Linguists 

United Nations: Economic and Social Council: Seventh Session . . 

International Office of Wine: 27th Session of Committee 

Thirteenth International Congress of Zoology 

21st International Congress of Orientalists 

Third Inter-American Travel Congress 

International Union of Scientific Radio: General Assembly . . . . 

2 Tentative. 



Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 
Copenhagen 

Washington . 

San Francisco 

London . . 
Geneva . . 

Paris .... 

Geneva . . 
Paris .... 

Geneva . . 

Paris .... 
Geneva . . 

Paris .... 

New York. . 
Paris .... 
Stockholm . 

Seattle . . . 

Mexico City. 
Montevideo . 

Paris .... 
Geneva . . . 
Paris .... 
Paris .... 
Paris .... 
Buenos Aires 
Stockholm 



1948 

Jan. 1.5- 
May 15- 
June 24- 

June 15- 

June 9- 

June 21- 
June 24- 

June:24^ 



June 28- 
June'28- 



July 1-3 

July 3- 
July 16- 

July 12-17 



July 12-17 
July 12-18 
July 12- 

July 13-August 2 

July 18-24 
July 18-28 

July 19-24 
July 19- 
July 20- 
July 21-27 
July 23-31 
Late July * 
July-Auguat 



IB 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Scientific and Economic Development in the Caribbean 



The Sixth Meetino; of the Caribbean Commis- 
sion was held at San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 24 to 
29, 1948. This was the first time that a regular 
semiannual meeting of the four-nation Caribbean 
Connnission had convened in Puerto Rico. 

The Commission took action on many items of 
importance designed to strengthen its functions in 
the social and economic fields. Foremost among 
the recommendations were those dealing with in- 
dustrial development, transportation and com- 
munications, the movement of population, and the 
establishment of a research-information unit to 
service the Caribbean area. 

The emphasis of this meeting was on the Com- 
mission's primary task as an advisory body in 
promoting scientific, technological, and economic 
development in the Caribbean. It was recognized 
that the Commission's program for regional action 
in achieving such development depended upon a 
thorough knowledge of what research and research 
facilities exist in the individual territories. With 
this in view, the Commission decitled to proceed 
with the completion of a survey of all existing 
research institutions, projects, and personnel in 
the area. The results of this survey will form 
the nucleus of a permanent and active research- 
information service to be maintained within 
the organization of the central secretariat, 
vvliose headquarters are located at Port-of-Spain. 
Trinidad, B.W.I. The research staff of the sec- 
retariat will concentrate on a limited number 
of particular fields of activity which have 
everj'day application in tlie lives of the peoples 
of the Caribbean, such as soil-erosion control 
methods, plant and animal quarantine, govern- 
mental action in respect to nutrition, health 
education, and the livestock industry. The work 
will not be confined merely to the collection and 
dissemination of information on research activities 
already being carried on by other agencies but 
will include specialized studies by the research staflf 
in its own particular fields of expert knowledge. 
Such information will be widely distributed in 
order to make known what resources, research, and 
research facilities exist, what research is in prog- 
ress, how work can be coordinated to avoid dupli- 
cation of effort, and how I'esearch can best be 
developed on a cooperative basis. 

In addition, the Commission authorized the 
establishment of a statistical unit to collect, col- 
late, analyze, and distribute data on such matters 
as trade, population trends, and other topics of 
general utility to the area as a whole. It recon- 

Ju/y 4, 1948 



stituted the technical research committees, and 
inaugurated the device of convening from time to 
time meetings of experts to advise the Commission 
on specific proposals for research-information 
services in their various fields of specialization. 

Altliough it has been recognized for some time 
that the pressure of rapidly growing population 
on limited agricultui'al resources is one of the 
basic economic problems of the Caribbean area, 
little intensive study has been given to this subject 
except in Puerto Rico. With this in mind, the 
Commission authorized a study of population 
movements in the Caribbean to serve as a basis 
for coordinated governmental action through the 
agency of the Commission. The study will deal 
with population growth and pressure, major 
migratory movements affecting the Caribbean, 
and the present outlook for migration. The Com- 
mission is expected to complete the study within 
a period of six months. 

Progress was reported on the survey of existing 
and potential industries which was recommended 
by the second session of the West Indian Con- 
ference. A panel of four experts, one representing 
each of the national sections of the Commission, is 
rapidly completing the four sectional reports. 
This material will be collated into an over-all re- 
port which will not only be a factual study of the 
state of industrial development, existing and pro- 
jected, but will indicate the possibilities of a gen- 
eral plan for the coordinated development of in- 
dustries in the area, and the machinei-y that mi^ht 
be set up to carry forward such regional industrial 
development. This survey will be completed by 
September 1, 1948, and will be circulated to dele- 
gates in advance of the third session of the West 
Indian Conference. 

It was decided that the third biennial session of 
the West Indian Conference will be held in Guade- 
loupe beginning December 1, 1948. In addition to 
inviting two delegates representing each of the 15 
Caribbean territories, the Commission will invite 
observers from Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Re- 
public, and Canada, and from the United Nations 
and its specialized agencies. The central theme 
of the conference will be industrial development 
and related matters, such as transportation and 
communication. 

The Sixth Meeting was held under the chair- 
manship of Pierre Pelieu, of France, who pre- 
sided in accordance with the principle of rota- 
tion of chairmanship provided for in the agree- 
ment for the establishment of the Caribbean Com- 

19 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

mission. Tribute was paid to the contribution 
made by the late chairman of the United States 
Section of the Commission, Charles W. Taussig, 
and the following resolution was adopted : 

"Be it Resolved: That the Caribbean Commis- 
sion at its Sixth Meeting is conscious of a deep 
sense of loss due to the untimely death of Charles 
Taussig, United States Co-Chairman, and desires 
to place on record its profound appreciation of his 
sincere interest and confidence in the peoples of 
the Caribbean, his untiring efforts on their behalf, 
and his abounding faith in the potentialities of 
the Commission, all of which made his contribu- 
tion to the work of the Commission of inestimable 
value." 

Attending the meeting were the following Com- 
missioners: 



France: M. Pierre Pelieu (Co-Chair-! 

man) ; 

M. Henri Claudel (Alternate) 

Netherlands: Dr. J. C. Kielstra (Co-Chair- 

man) ; 

Dr. W. C. de la Try Ellis ! 

Mr. C. H. H. Jongbaw 
Mr. L. A. H. Peters 

United Kingdom: Mr. S. A. Hammond (Actingi 
Co-Chairman) 
Mr. Garnet Gordon 
Mr. N. W. Hanley 
Mr. E. E. Sabben-Clare 

United States: Gov. Jesiis T. Pinero (Acting 
Co-Chairman) 
Gov. W. H. Hastie 
Dr. Eafael Pico 



Plans for North Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting of ICAO 



[Released to the press June 22] 

The Department of State announced on June 22 
preliminary plans for the North Pacific Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization (Icao), sclieduled to con- 
vene at Seattle on July 13, 19i8. 

This will be the eighth in a series of ten regional 
meetings originally scheduled by the Provisional 
International Civil Aviation Organization to 
cover the ten air regions into which the world has 
been divided by the Organization. The purpose 
of the meeting is to examine the problems of air 
navigation in the North Pacific region. The dele- 
gates will prepare a regional plan of the aids to 
navigation and the usages needed in the region to 
permit the observance of or to supplement the 
standards and recommended practices currently 
approved by the Icao Council. The meeting will 
last from two to three weeks. 

The United States, as host Government, will pro- 
vide the international secretariat. This secre- 
tariat will be assisted by technical experts from 
the secretariat of Icao at Montreal. Richard S. 
Wlieeler, Assistant Chief, Division of Interna- 
tional Conferences, Department of State, has been 
designated secretary general of the meeting. All 
technical aspects will be under the supervision of 
Robert W. Craig, Adviser on Meteorology to the 
Administrator of the Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, and Chief, International Aviation Sec- 
tion, U.S. Weather Bureau. 

It is expected that the meeting will follow the 
usual pattern of regional meetings of Icao and 

20 



that the principal committees formed will include 
aerodromes and gi'ound aids, air traffic control, 
comnnmications, meteorology, and search and 
rescue. The practices and procedures i-ecom- \\ 
mended by the meeting in these fields will be ' 
forwarded to the Council of Icao at Montreal for 
consideration and approval. 

In accordance with the recommendations of the 
Icao Council, invitations to participate in the con- 
ference have been sent to the Governments of Aus- 
tralia, Canada, China, France, India, the Nether- 
lands, New Zealand, the Philippines, Siam, and 
the United Kingdom. Invitations to send ob- 
servers have likewise been extended to 36 member 
states of Icao and to the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and Burma, which are not 
member states of Icao. International organi- 
zations which liave been invited to attend include 
the United Nations, the International Air Trans- 
port Association, the International Meteorological 
Organization, the International Telecommunica- 
tion Union, and the Federation Aeronautique 
Internationale. 

Dr. Raymond Allen, i)resi(lent of the University 
of Washington, has made available to this Govern- 
ment facilities on the University's campus where 
the meeting may be held. William F. Devin, 
mayor of Seattle, has appointed a civic committee I 
for the purpose of providing appropriate hos- 
pitalit}- for the visiting delegations. 

The United States Delegation to this meeting 
is now being formed and the names of the repre- 
sentatives will be announced later. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Signing of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press June 25] 

It is with very great reluctance that I have 
signed S. 2242. the Displaced Persons Act of 1948.' 

If the Congress were still in session, I would re- 
turn this bill without my approval and urge that 
a fairer, more humane bill be passed. In its pres- 
ent form this bill is flagrantly discriminatory. It 
mocks the American tradition of fair play. Un- 
fortunately, it was not passed until the last day of 
the session. If I refused to sign this bill now, 
there would be no legislation on behalf of dis- 
placed persons until the next session of the 
Congress. 

It is a close question whether this bill is better 
or worse than no bill at all. After careful con- 
sideration I have decided, however, that it would 
not be right to penalize the beneficiaries of this 
bill on account of the injustices perpetrated 
against others who should have been included 
within its provisions. I have therefore signed the 
bill in the hope that its injustices will be rectified 
by the Congress at the first opportunity. 

Americans of all religious faiths and political 
beliefs will find it hard to understand, as I do, why 
the 80th Congress delayed action on this subject 
until the end of this session, with the result 
that most attempts to imjarove the bill were 
frustrated. . . . 

The 80tli Congress certainly had ample time to 
produce a satisfactory bill. Eighteen months ago, 
in my state-of-the-Union message,^ I stated that 
I did not feel that tiie United States had done its 
part in the admission of displaced persons. I 
pointed out that Congressional assistance in the 
form of new legislation was needed. 

Si.x months later, on July 7, 1947, because the 
Congress had not yet acted, I sent a special message 
on the subject. I reminded the Congress : "We are 
dealing with a human problem, a world tragedy. 
. . . I urge tlie Congress to press forward with 
its consideration of this subject and to pass suitable 
legislation as speedily as possible." To my regret, 
the Congress adjourned last summer without pass- 
ing any displaced-persons legislation. 

Again, on January 7, 1948, 1 urged the Congress 
"to pass suitable legislation at once so that this 
Nation may do its share in caring for homeless and 

July 4, 1948 



siiffering refugees of all faiths. I believe that the 
admission of tnese persons will add to the strength 
and energy of the Nation."' 

The Congress did not act "at once". The Senate 
committee charged with the responsibility of 
rendering a report on January 10, 1948, asked for, 
and received, an extension to report on February 
10. Instead of reporting on February 10 it re- 
ported on March 2. The bill which it finally re- 
ported, without a single public hearing, was 
roundly and deservedly criticized liy all who were 
interested in achieving a fair solution of this prob- 
lem. Through one device or another, debate on 
the bill by the Senate was postponed from the be- 
ginning of March until tlie end of Maj'. The 
Senate bill was not passed until June 2. The 
House of Kepresentatives in the meantime had de- 
layed action and did not pass its bill until June 11. 
It was not until the last days of the session that 
the Senate and the House conferees met to put 
together a compromise. 

The compromise resulting from this hasty, last- 
minute action consisted largely of combining the 
worst features of both the Senate and House bills. 

I have analyzed closely the bill which was sent to 
me for signature. Its good points can be stated all 
too briefly: At long last, the principle is recog- 
nized that displaced persons should be admitted to 
the United States. Two bundled thousand dis- 
placed persons may be admitted in the next two 
years, as well as 2,000 recent Czech refugees and 
3,000 orphans. 

The bad points of the bill are numerous. To- 
gether they form a pattern of discrimination and 
intolerance wholly inconsistent with the iVmericsin 
sense of justice. 

The bill discriminates in callous fashion against 
displaced persons of the Jewish faith. This brutal 
fact cannot be obscured by the maze of technical- 
ities in the bill or by the protestations of some of 
its sponsors. 

The primary device used to discriminate against 
Jewish displaced persons is the provision restrict- 
ing eligibility to those displaced persons who en- 
tered Germany, Austria, or Italy on or before 
December 22, 1945. Most of the Jewish displaced 

' I'ublic Ljiw 774. 80th Cong., 2d sess. 
' Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1947, p. 124. 

'I 



THE RECORD Of THE WBEK 

persons who had entered Germany, Austria, or 
Italy by that time have already left ; and most of 
the Jewish displaced persons now in those areas 
arrived there after December 22, 1045, and hence 
are denied a chance to come to the United States 
under this bill. By this device more than 90 per- 
cent of the remaining Jewish displaced persons 
are definitely excluded. Even the eligible 10 per- 
cent are beset by numerous additional i-estrictions 
written into the bill. 

For all practical purposes, it must bo frankly 
recognized, therefore, that this bill excludes Jew- 
ish displaced persons, rather than accepting a fair 
proportion of them along with other faiths. 

The bill also excludes many displaced persons 
of the Catholic faith who deserve admission. 
Many anti-Communist refugees of Catholic faith 
fled into the American zones after December 22, 
1945, in order to escape persecution in countries 
dominated by a Communist form of government. 
These too are barred by the December 22, 1945, 
date line. 

It is inexplicable, except upon the abhorrent 
ground of intolerance, that this date should have 
been chosen instead of April 21, 1947, the date on 
which General Clay closed the displaced-persons 
camps to further admissions. 

The Jewish and Catholic displaced persons who 
found asylum in our zones between December 22, 
1945, and April 21, 1047, who are wrongly ex- 
cluded by this bill, fled their native countries for 
the same basic reasons as Baits who came before 
December 22, 1945, and Czechs who came after 
January 1948, who are rightly included. I sin- 
cerely hope that the Congress will remedy this 
gross discrimination at its earliest opportunity. 

There are many other seriously objectionable 
features in the bill. Some of these are as follows. 

Except for orphans, the bill charges the dis- 
placed persons admitted under its provisions to 
future immigration quotas of their countries of 
birth, up to 50 percent of the quota per year. Un- 
der this system, 50 percent of some quotas will be 
"mortgaged" for generations. This is a most be- 
grudging method of accepting useful and worthy 
people and will necessarily deprive many other 
worthy people of an opportunity to come to the 
United States in future years. Considering how 
few pei'manent immigrants were able to enter this 
country during the war, it would have been more 
equitable to admit the displaced persons as non- 
quota immigrants. 

The bill requires that at least 40 percent of the 
displaced persons allowed to enter this country 
must come from areas which have been "c?e facto 
annexed b^ a foreign power". This guarantees a 
disproportionately high percentage of persons 
from particular areas. It would have been fairer 
to provide instead for the admission of persons 
in proportion to the numbers of each gi'oup in 
the displaced-persons camps. 

22 



The bill reflects a singular lack of confidence 
by the Congress in the capacity and willingness of 
the people of the United States to extend a wel- 
coming hand to the prospective immigrants. It 
contains many i-estrictive requirements, such as 
prior assurances of suitable employment and "safe 
and sanitary housing", unnecessarily complicated 
investigation of each applicant, and burdensome 
reports from individual immigrants. I regret 
that the Congress saw fit to impose such niggardly 
conditions. 

The bill submitted to me also emasculates the 
salutary provision of the House bill which pro- 
vided for the granting of permanent residence 
status to a maximum of 15,000 displaced persons 
who are already lawfully in this country. The 
bill now requires a concurrent resolution of the 
Congress in favor of each individual after his 
application has been approved by the Attorney 
General. This requirement has the efl'ect of per- 
petuating the cumbersome practice of special 
action by the Congress to adjust the status of 
individual aliens. 

I know what a bitter disappointment this bill 
is — to the many displaced victims of persecution 
who looked to the United States for hope ; to the 
millions of our citizens who wanted to help them 
in the finest American spirit ; to the many members 
of the Congress who fought hard but unsuccess- 
fully for a decent displaced-persons bill. I hope 
that this bitter disappointment will not turn to 
despair. 

I have signed this bill, in spite of its many de- 
fects, in order not to delay further the beginning- 
of a resettlement program and in the expectation 
that the necessary remedial action will follow 
when the Congress reconvenes. 



Establishment of fVSissions by the U. S. 
and the Provisional Government of IsraeS 

Statement by the President 

[Released to the press by tUe White House June 22) 

Agreement has been reached between the 
Government of the United States and the Provi- 
sional Government of Israel on the establishment 
of a Mission of the United States in Israel and a 
Mission of the Provisional Government of Israel 
in the United States. Agreement has also been 
reached on the exchange of special representatives. 

Mr. Eliahu Epstein has been designated by the 
Provisional Government of Israel as its Special 
Representative in the United States heading the 
Mission of the Provisional Government of Israel 
in this country. 

I have today appointed the Honorable James 
Grover McDonald, of New York, to serve as the 
Special Eepresentative of the United States to 
head the Mission of the United States in Israel. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Convocation of Conference Concerning Navigation on Danube River 



SUMMARY OF NEGOTIATIONS 



(Rcleaseil to the press June 211 

A note dated June 12 from the Embassy of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - concerning 
tlie proposed convocation of a conference to work 
out a new convention for the I'egime of navigation 
on tiie Danube expressed Soviet concurrence that 
the conference be held on July 30; that Austria 
participate in a consultative capacity; and that 
an appropriate communication be sent by the 
Governments of the U.S.S.R., the U.K., France, 
and the U.S. to the host government requesting the 
latter to invite participants to the conference. At 
the same time tlie Soviet Embassy stated that it 
had been informed by the Yugoslav Government 
that it would be difficult to provide the necessary 
facilities for holding the conference in Belgrade 
on July 30 and suggested in the circumstances that 
the conference be held in the capital of one of the 
other Danubian states participating in the con- 
ference on a voting basis. 

On June IG the Minister for Foreign Affairs of 



Yugoslavia informed the U.S. Charge d'Affaires 
in Belgrade that the information given by the 
Soviet Government concerning technical difficul- 
1 ies for organizing the conference in Belgrade on 
July 30 was based on his personal statement and 
was not shared by the Yugoslav Government, 
which had in fact taken all steps in preparation 
for the conference to be held on July 30 in Bel- 
grade without any obstacles. 

The Department replied to the Soviet note of 
June 12 in a note delivered June 18, the text of 
which is released herewith. On June 19 the De- 
partment received a further note dated June 18 
from the Soviet Embassy supplementing its 
earlier note of June 12 and, after confirming the 
statement by the Yugoslav Foreign Minister re- 
ferred to above, whicli was also communicated to 
the Soviet Embassy in Yugoslavia, stating that the 
Soviet Government now considers the agreement 
reached earlier for the convocation of the con- 
ference in Belgrade on July 30 as re-established. 



TEXT OF THE AMERICAN NOTE TO THE U. S. S. R. 



[ Released to the press June 21 ] 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His E.xcellency the Ambassador of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and has the honor to 
acknowledge the receipt of the Ambassador's note 
of June 12, 19-48, concerning the convocation of a 
conference to work out a new convention regard- 
ing the regime of navigation on the Danube. 

It is noted that the Ambassador states that the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics has been informed by the Yugoslav Gov- 
ernment that it would be difficult to make satis- 
factory arrangements for such a conference in 
Belgrade by July 30, 1948 as proposed and sug- 
gests instead that the conference be held in the 
capital of one of the other Danubian States par- 
ticipating in the conference on a voting basis. 

' Spe Bui.LKTiN of June 6, 1048, p. 73.5. See also Bul- 
letin of June 20, 1948, p. 787, for an article on freedom of 
navigation on the Danube and the July issue of Dotuments 
and State Papers. 

^ Not printe<l. 



Howevei', since the receipt of the Ambassador's 
note under acknowledgment the Yugoslav Govern- 
ment has informed the United States Government 
that all necessary measures have been taken to in- 
sure that the conference is held in Belgrade on 
July 30. 

Wliile the United States Government has no 
objection to holding the conference in Bucharest, 
Budapest, Prague or Sofia, it was, and still is, 
equally pleased to accede to the original proposal 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that the 
conference take place in Belgrade and, in the cir- 
cumstances, will appreciate the further comments 
of the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics in the light of this apparent 
misunderstanding. 

The Secretary of State is transmitting copies of 
this communication to the Governments of the 
United Kingdom and France. 

Washington, June 18, 1948 



July 4, 1948 



23 



U. N. Nationals Granted Postponement of Payment of Property Tax to 
Italian Government 



[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the American Embassy at Rome that the Italian 
Ministry of Finance has instructed local tax offi- 
cials in Italy to grant United Nations nationals 
postponement of payment to the Italian Govern- 
ment of the extraordinary progi-essive tax on 
property in Italy belonging to physical persons 
and of the extraordinary proportional tax on 
property in Italy belonging to juridical persons. 
Such postponement is being granted pending deci- 
sion by a conciliation commission, pursuant to 
the terms of the treaty of peace with Italy, as to 
the liability of United Nations nationals for such 
taxes. No postponement is being granted regard- 
ing the payment of that extraordinary propor- 
tional tax on property in Italy which has replaced 
the ordinary property tax. 

Postponement of payment of the above- 
mentioned taxes is not automatic, but must be 
specifically requested by the United Nations na- 
tionals concerned or b,y their representatives in 
Italy. There are quoted below the instructions of 
the Italian Ministry of Finance regarding the pro- 
cedure which shall apply with respect to postpone- 
ment of (A) the extraordinary progressive tax and 
(B) the extraordinary proportional tax. 

A. EXTRAORDINAKY PROGRESSIVE TAX 

"(1) ^Vhenever the tax has already been entered 
on the register, as in most cases, collections of it 
shall be suspended by the Intendants of Finance 
upon written application of the tax payer con- 
ceiiied or his representative in Italy. Such appli- 
cation should be presented to the 'Intendenze di 
Finanza' or to the District Offices for Direct Taxes. 
Postponement shall be gi-anted as an ex gratia con- 
cession for an undetermined period affecting the 
taxes entered on the register for the year 194S. 

"In order to ascertain the status of United 
Nations nationals in relation to the question of 
taxation, it will be sufficient for each such national 
to attach to the application for postponement any 
document which will constitute evidence of such 
status. Such document will be returned as soon 
as the status of the applicant shall have been 
recorded at the Intendants of Finance or at the 
District Offices. 

"(2) If the tax has not been entered on the tax 
register, such entry shall be suspended whenever 
the 'applicant's' tax returns contain reservations 

24 



as to the liability to the extraordinary tax speci- 
fically based on paragraph 6 of Article 78 oi the 
Peace Treaty. 

"If such reservations have not been made, it will 
be necessary for the tax payer to present a written 
application set out as above to the District Officer, 
who will thereupon postpone the entry in the tax 
register unless the status of United Nations 
national of the applicant cannot be accurately 
determined at the District Office. 

"(3) The postponement of payment or of entry 
in the register shall remain in force until new in- 
structions shall have been issued by this ilinistry." 

B. Extraordinary proportional tax 

"(1) Postponement can only be granted at the 
specific application of the company concerned or 
of its representative in Italy. 

"Such application shall be presented at the In- 
tendenze di Finanza or at the District Offices with 
the necessary documentation showing that the 
company has been constituted under the laws of 
one of the United Nations concei-ned. This docu- 
mentation will be required every time a company 
shall be liable to taxation under the last para- 
graph of Article 70 of the Legislative Decree of 
ilth October 1947, on the capital invested or exist- 
ing in Italy. 

"On the other hand, whenever a company con- 
stituted in Italy is concerned, the postponement 
may be granted whenever such company, during 
the period of the war, shall have been subjected to 
sequestration under the provisions of Article 5 of 
the War Law approved by Royal Decree No. 1415 
of the 8th July 1938. 

"(2) Considering that the collection of the ex- 
traordinary tax payable by companies and juridi- 
cal persons shall commence by an instalment fall- 
ing due in August 1948, all offices shall postpone 
sine die the entry into the tax register as soon as 
they shall have received the written application 
for suspension, together with the evidence of the 
origin of the company on the one hand or of its 
sequestration during the war on the other. 

"Such evidence may be returned to the appli- 
cants as soon as recorded in the books of the offices 
concerned. Furthermore whenever the postpone- 
ment shall have been requested after the entry in 
the tax register, the Intendenze di Finanza shall 
likewise suspend sine die the collection of the tax 
as an ex gratia concession." 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



U.S. C-0'n<c«fTi O'ver D*i'p«rta-iio>n o^ 
Gmk ChiiWireri 



Li'nder EGA 






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A«->et3 A ire^'tTTent 



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THE FOREIGN SIRMCE 



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■■-. — .- .T— ^ ;if re-', li. 12^, gi. 1192 fflni 



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as 



Sales off Surplus Combat Materiel During May 1948 

[Released to the press June 22] 

The following is a list of the sales of surplus combat materiel effected by the Department of State 
in its capacity as foreign surplus disposal agent, during the month of May 1948, and not previously 
reported to the Munitions Division : 



Country 


Description of materiel 


Procurement cost 


Sales price 


Date of 

transfer 


Brazil.. 


Battery of four each field artillery trainers, M3 

Miscellaneous spare parts of radio equipment ^ 


$1, 699. 02 

3, 879. 54 

271, 559. 60 

3, 600, 250. 82 

129, 184. 64 

854. 80 

1, 661, 934. 79 


$84. 96 

894. 66 

22, 409. 06 

83, 096. 74 

15, 000. 51 

42.76 

83, 096. 74 


5/20/48 
5/27/48 


Canada.. . 


Chile. 




5/20/48 
5/11/48 


China. 


Miscellaneous spare parts for aircraft (C-46s and C-47s) 

Miscellaneous spare parts for revolvers, rifles, automatic 
rifles, bayonets, machine guns, sub-machine guns. 

Recoil mechanism for 37 mm. gun, sub-caliber M1916, for 
105 mm. howitzer M2A1. 

300 periscopes, M3, with telescope; 65 periscopes, M4, with tele- 
scope; 33 periscopes, M5; 2 telescopes, M54; 115 tank engines, 
Continental radial model W670-9A; 600 bundles of track 
assemblies; miscellaneous spare parts for tank, light M3A3. 


Cuba.. 


5/3/48 
5/20/48 
5/26/48 


Guatemala 

TrRKET 



Designating tlie International Joint Commission — United States and Canada as a Public Inter- 
nationaLOrga nization Entitled To Enjoy Certain Privileges, Exemptions, and Immunities' 



[Released to the press by the White House June 2C] 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 
1 of the International Organizations Immunities 
Act, approved December 29, 1945 (59 Stat. 669), 
and having found that the United States par- 
ticipates in the International Joint Commission — 
United States and Canada, established under the 
authority of the Treaty between the United States 
and Great Britain relating to the boundary waters 
between the United States and Canada, signed at 
Washington, January 11, 1909 (36 Stat. 2448), 
I hereby designate such organization as a public 
international organization entitled to enjoy the 
privileges, exemptions, and immunities conferred 
by the said Act. 

The designation of the above-named organiza- 



tion as a public international organization within 
the meaning of the said International Organiza- 
tions Immunities Act is not intended to abridge in 
any respect privileges, exemptions, and immuni- 
ties which such organization may have acquired 
or may acquire by treaty or Congressional action. 
This order supplements Executive Orders No. 
9698 of February 19, 1946, No. 9751 of July 11, 
1946, No. 9823 of January 24, 1947, No. 9863 of 
May 31, 1947, No. 9887 of August 22, 1947, and 
No. 9911 of December 19, 1947. 



' B.X. Or. 9972 (13 Fed. Reg. 3573). 



The White House, 

Jtine 25, 1948. 




26 



Department of State Bulletin 



Atomic Energy Issues — Continued from page 14- 

bers of this Commission are certain that they have 
evolved and set forth in their reports the technical 
framework of a system of control which will be 
satisfactory and which, in the end, will be accepted 
and implemented by all nations. . . . 

"I sliould like tlie Commission to think of this 
action by the majority members for what it is — a 
bold challenge to the forces of reaction, of ignor- 
ance and of timidity to face up to the new concep- 
tions of international organization which recog- 
nize the inescapable facts consequent upon our 
entrv into the atomic age. . . ." 



Resolution Concerning the International Con- 
trol of Atomic Energy > 

The Security Council, 

Having received and examined the First, the Sec- 
ond, and the Third Reports of the United Nations 
Atomic Energy Commission, 

Directs the Secretary-General to transmit to the 
General Assembly and to the Member nations of the 
United Nations, the First, Second, and Third Reports 
of the Atomic Energy Commission, together with 
the record of the deliberations of the Security Coun- 
cil on this subject, as a matter of special concern. 

' U.N. doe. 8/852, June 22, 1948. 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale by the ^Superintendent of Documents, Oovern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address re- 
quests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, which may he obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Germany: Economic Fusion of American and British 
Zones of Occupation. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1689. I>ub. 3059. 11 pp. 5«S. 

Asreement Between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelaml 
.\mending the Agreement of December 2, 1940 — Signed 
at Washington December 17, 1947 ; entered into force 
December 17, 1947. 

The Foreign Service of the United States: General Infor- 
mation and Pertinent Laws and Regulations, June 1, 1918. 
Pub. 3138. GO pp. 20^. 

Diplomatic List, Jnne 1948. Pub. 3170. 187 pp. 30^ a 
copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

THE CONGRESS 

United States Foreign Policy for a Post-War Recovery 
Program: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs, House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 1st and 2d 
sess., on United States foreign policy for a post-war 
recovery program, the first step being consideration of 
proposals for a European Recovery Program. Including 
H.R. 4840, H.R. 4579, and similar measures : Part I, Decem- 
ber 17, 1947, .January 12, 18, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28 29 
February 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 1948 ; Part 2, February 17* 
18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, March 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 1948. ii, 2296 
rip. [Department of State, pp. 48, 84, 86, 197, 230 412 
476, 508, .509, 582, 584, 067, 070, 820, 832, 857, 8.58' 86l' 
1202, 1267, 1771, 1772, 1793, 1907, 1913.] 

Question of Ownership of Captured Horses: Hearings 
Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed 
Services, United States Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on 
determining the basis of the contemplated return to 
Hungary of certain horses said to have been brought to 
the United States as captured war materiel ; December 3 
5, 8, 9, 12, 15, 18, 19, 22, and 23. 1947. iii, 328 pp. [De- 
partment of State, 22, 59, 89, 202, 314.] 

Proposed Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Naviga- 
tion Between the United States and the Italian Republic: 
Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 80th Cong., 2d 
sess., on a proposed treaty of friendship, commerce, and 
navigation between the United States and the Italian 
Republic; April 30, 1948. iii, 37 pp. [Department of 
State, p. 1.] 

Great Lakes Fisheries: Executive Hearings Before the 
Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House 
of Representatives, 79th Cong., 2d sess., pursuant to the 
authority of H. Res. 38, a resolution authorizing investi- 
gation of the National Defense Program as it relates to 
the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries; 
June 12 and 13, 1946. iv, 689 pp. [Department of State, 
p. 10.] 

European Interim Aid and Government and Relief In 
Occupied Areas: Hearings Before the Committee on 
Appropriations, United States Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., 
on European interim aid and government and relief In 
occupied areas, il, 914 pp. [Department of State, pp. 108, 
lo7, 172, 370, 459, 5."p5, 798. J 

Hearings on Proposed Legislation To Curb or Control 
the Communist Party of the United States: Hearings 
Before the Subcommittee on Legislation of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, 80th 
Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 4422 and H.R. 4581; Public Law 
601 (Section 121, Subsection Q (2)); February 5, 6, 9. 
10, 11, 19, and 20, 1948. iv, 500 pp. 

Amending Section 32 of the Trading With the Enemy 
Act: Hearings Before the Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, 80th Cong., 
2d sess., on H.R. 4903, H.R. 5188, and H.R. 5200, bills to 
amend section 32 of the trading with the enemv act ; March 
8,1948. ill, 70 pp. 



July 4, 1948 



27 




The U.N. and Specialized Agencies 

Voting in the Security Council. By Bern- 
hard G. Bechhoefer ......... 

Progress in Indonesia. By H. Merrell Ben- 
ninghoff , ■ ■ 

U.S. Steps Talien To Implement Palestine 
Truce Resolution. Letter From Philip 
C. Jessup to Trygve Lie 

The Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council. By 
Andrew W. Anderson 

Soviet Opposition to Atomic Energy Issues. 
Statement by Frederick Osborn .... 

The United States in the United Nations . . 

North Pacific Air Navigation Meeting . . . 

U.S. Concern Over Greek Children .... 

Resolution Concerning Atomic Energy . . . 

Foreign Aid and Reconstruction 

Progress of Bilateral Negotiations Under Eca . 
Economic Affairs 

Scientific and Economic Development in 

the Caribbean 

Sales of Surplus Combat Materiel: May . . 



Page 



11 

12 

14 
15 
20 

25 

27 

25 



19 
26 



General Policy Pas* 

Signing of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948. 

Statement by the President 21 

Establishment of Missions Between U.S. and 

Israel. Statement by President. ... 22 

Treaty Information 

Convocation of Danube Conference .... 23 

U.N. Nationals: Italian Tax Postponed . . 24 

Luxembourg Signs German Enemy Assets 

Agreement 25 

Designating the International Joint Commis- 
sion — U.S. and Canada as a Public 
International Organization 26 

Calendar of international Meetings ... 17 

International information and 
Cultural Affairs 

U.S. Grants-in-Aid 25 

The Department and the Foreign Service 

Confirmation 25 

Publications 27 

The Congress 27 



Contents of Documents and State Papers for July 1948 

* The Soviet AUiance System, 1942-1948 

* Principal Treaties and Conventions Relating to Freedom of Navi- 

gation on the Danube, 1815-1947 

* Resolutions Relating to Narcotic Drugs 

* Sixth Session of the Economic and Social Council 

* Dependent Peoples and World Order 

* Calendar of International Meetings 




Bemliard O. Bechhoefer, author of the article on voting in the Se- 
curity Council, is an expert on United Nations affairs, Division of 
United Nations Political Affairs, Office of United Nations Affairs, 
Department of State. 

Andrew W. Anderson, author of the article on the Indo-Pacifle Fish- 
eries Council, is an officer in the Fish and Wildlife Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior. Mr. Anderson sei"ved as delegate to the 
conference. 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1948 



«>w^ ^eh€i^t7)tenf/ ^^ trtate/ 




ECONOIVIIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT WITH 
ITALY SIGNED: 

Summary of Agreement 37 

Text of Agreement 38 

THE EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM AGREE- 
MENTS—A NEW INTERNATIONAL ERA • Address 

by Ernest A. Gross, Legal Adviser 35 

COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMS OF THE 

II AA • Article by Louis J. Halle, Jr 31 



For complete contents see back cover 




Vol. XIX, No. 471 
July 11, 1948 




x/Ae z!l)eh€(/yi^efit jc£ C/taCe 




bulletin 



Vol. XIX, No. 471 • Publication 3211 



July 11, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documentg 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Subscription: 
62 Issues, $5; single copy, 15 cents 

rublished with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents oi this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will bo 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a vceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government uith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



{/^^^'^^ 



THE INSTITUTE OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS 



Cooperative Education Programs 



by Louis J. Halle, Jr. 



I Democracy is a system of government that places 
' the uhimate responsibility for civilization and 
survival on the shoulders of the people. Its effec- 
tiveness depends on the preponderance of morally 
and intellectually responsible individuals in the 
p'lpulations that enjoy it. Education, in turn, is 
vr^at produces responsible individuals. Educa- 
tion cannot solve today's problems, but today's 
education will determine the great issues of civil- 
ization or barbarism, plenty or hunger, war or 
peace for the generations of tomorrow. Those 
who are preoccupied with the problems of the 
moment will attach no importance to it, but those 
who take a view that embraces the future must 
invest it with supreme importance. 

The character of the education that any country 
which has passed the stage of cultural tutelage 
affords to its new generations necessarily involves 
national traditions and objectives in so intimate a 
fashion that it is not a proper subject for active 
determination by governments, groups, or indi- 
viduals outside that country. The technical means 
for attaining the objectives of education may be, 
however, a fit and fruitful subject for international 
exchange; and if we extend the word education 
to embrace training in technical skills, we have 
another large area in which such cooperation may 
be carried on for the mutual benefit of the nations 
I in a community. 

The components of the present Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs, established as a federal corpora- 

Ju/y 7T, 1943 



tion in 1947, are the two former government 
corporations that respectively bore the names, In- 
stitute of Inter-American Affairs and Inter- 
American Educational Foundation. Although 
separately incorporated, they had virtually identi- 
cal boards of directors, the same president, over- 
lapping staffs, and use of the same administrative 
facilities. The transformation of the Educational 
Foundation into the Education Division of the 
Institute was not, therefore, a major change except 
in appearance. For convenience, it will be re- 
ferred to throughout this article by its married 
name. 

The Education Division was established in Sep- 
tember 1943 to carry out programs of cooperation 
with other American republics in the field of pre- 
university education. Within that field, it was 
to be especially concerned with rural and agricul- 
tural education, education in matters of health, and 
vocational education. This emphasis is to be 
viewed in the light of a relationship among the re- 
spective undertakings of the Institute's three divi- 
sions: the Divisions of Food Production and of 
Health and Sanitation, in addition to that of Edu- 
cation. Nutrition is a factor in health ; the health 
of farmers is a factor in food production ; educa- 
tion and specialized training contributes to health 
and to the applied science of agriculture. To- 
gether, the respective programs of the three divi- 
sions supplement one another in giving essential 
support to the broad economic and social develop- 
ment of peoples. The education programs in 

31 



which the Institute participates are, therefore, part 
of a larger complex. 

The Education Division has cooperated in pro- 
grams with the Ministries of Education in 13 of 
the other American republics. Seven of these pro- 
grams are continuing today : in Bolivia, Brazil, 
Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, and 
Peru, respectively. They vary in their scope as 
well as in their scale. Thus the Paraguayan pro- 
gram is confined to the establishment of a small 
vocational school in Asuncion for the training of 
badly needed mechanics, plumbers, carpenters, re- 
frigeration and radio engineers, electricians, black- 
smiths, weavers, and leather workers. Those in 
Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador have the objective of 
applying specialized educational techniques to the 
Indian populations over a large part of the Andean 
highlands. Wliat is being done in Bolivia will 
serve here as an example of a major program. 

II 

The entire approach to the education problems 
of the Bolivian Indians has been based on the prin- 
ciple that the established systems and techniques 
of education among urban white populations are 
not necessarily suited to the simple culture and 
environment of rural Indians. The terms of the 
Bolivian Indian's environment do not require him 
to have a good background of European history or 
an ability to recite passages from Cicero, but they 
do make it advisable for him to know the arith- 
metic of the market place, the significance of 
household sanitary precautions, and vegetable 
gardening. 

The mass of Bolivian Indians live in a spectacu- 
lar but not a fruitful environment. Most of them 
inhabit a great intermontane plain (the alti- 
plano) bounded by the snow-capped peaks of the 
eastern Andes, on one side, and of the coastal 
range on the other. The inhabitants of Tibet 
might feel at home here, although a general alti- 
tude of 13,000 feet would be more than they were 
used to. This plateau is hard and stony in large 
parts, so that the casual visitor sometimes wonders 
how it is possible to grow anything on it besides 
the coarse native gi-asses on which herds of llamas 
and sheep subsist. Potatoes, however, were 
grown here before Columbus and are staple today. 
The Indians along the shore of that vast and 
lofty lake, Titicaca, also cast their nets for fish 



from the balsa craft that they have used since pre- 
Columbian and even pre-Incan times. 

These Indians were conquered by the Inca of 
Peru about the time Columbus was a boy, and 
their liighlands were incorporated into the Inca 
empire. A couple of generations later, the white 
men arrived from Europe and began to take over. 
There has been more cultural continuity among 
them, however, than one might expect after four 
centuries of white rule. They still speak Aymara 
(or Qupchua) as their native tongue and have pre- 
served much of their specific cultural identity. 
Today they constitute, perhaps, some 80 percent 
of the population of Bolivia and are the almost 
universal element of the population outside the 
few cities. 

You have to picture these Indians living in 
little compounds of adobe huts and stone corrals 
or in occasional villages scattered up and down the 
long altiplano or tucked away in folds of the sur- 
rounding mountains. Not the least conspicuous 
among the buildings in any community is the 
schoolhouse. When the cooperative program in 
Bolivia was undertaken in 1945, a potentially ef- 
fective system for the administration of these rural 
schools had already been developed by the Boliv- 
ians. They had, in some areas, been grouped in 
nucleos consisting of several satellite schools de- 
pending on a central or "nuclear" school. The 
satellite schools were supervised and, in fact, ad- 
ministered by the nuclear school. This system 
provided a good foundation for the cooperative 
program and was developed forthwith. There 
were thirty-odd nucleos in 1945 of from 15 to 20 
schools apiece, 41 at the end of 1946, 51 by the 
early months of 1948. The reforms introduced 
under the program were disseminated through the 
directors and teachers in the nuclear schools, who 
took responsibility for communicating them to 
the other schools of the system. 

At the same time, a small number of strategi- 
cally placed rural normal schools were chosen as 
training centers for teachers, directors of nuclear 
schools, and supervisors. These were given im- 
proved physical plants, strong administrations, 
and practice-demonstration schools for the use of 
their students. A series of summer schools, special 
courses, seminars, and "workshops" was carried on 
for the training of teachers and school supervisors 
and for the stimulation, exchange, and develop- 
ment of ideas among them. Finally, nine Bolivian 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



educators were brought to the United States for 
varj-ing periods of intensive training, observation, 
or consultation. So much for the organization on 
whicli tlic piogiani is based. 

The actual contents of the education for school 
children (hat has been developed under the pro- 
gram bear on the jDractical conduct of life within 
the possibilities open to the Indian farmers of 
Bolivia. Emphasis is given to nutrition, health, 
use of clothing, personal and connnunity hygiene; 
111 the conservation of soils, the improvement of 
livestock, the development of home industries, the 
diversiiication of crops, and the institution of 
1 itter agriculture methods. 

It has been customary, in the past, for the school 
children of the ajtlplano to arrive at school hungry 
after walking long distances, to sit through the 
school day without food, and to make the long 
walk home again on stomachs still empty. Un- 
der the program, the Bolivian Ministry of Educa- 
tion and the Institute have been providing for the 
preparation, in the schools, of breakfasts and, in 
some cases, of lunches. Alleviation of hunger 
pangs is only one purpose. The educational pur- 
pose lies in the occasion this gives to educate the 
children in the preparation of well-balanced meals, 
in the principles of nutrition, and in methods of 
storage and preservation. They learn by doing. 

They also learn hygiene by doing. Through the 
cooperative efforts of the children and the adults 
of their families, latrines are built, not only on the 
school grounds but on individual farms as well. 
Other projects of this sort include whitewashing 
the interiors of dwellings and painting them with a 
solution containing DDT, exclusion of farm ani- 
mals from the interiors of homes, drainage, the 
protection of water supplies, and so on. 

The three K's are also taught but with specific 
reference to the environment in which they find 
their use. The primers and readers by which the 
child learns to read contain accounts of the scenery 
of the altiplano, of his own home life, of farms 
and markets and schools that he recognizes. His 
arithmetic is based on the measurements of his 
parental farm, on the census of its animals, and 
on the weights and prices that govern transactions 
in the local markets. The slyness of his mentors 
is manifested by insinuating into these texts little 
lessons about the principles of agriculture and 
good health. 



Now all this is not something that has been im- 
posed on the rural teachers of Bolivia by the 
Bolivian and United States experts responsible for 
the conduct of the pi-ogram. In great degree, the 
teachers have themselves worked out the new cur- 
riculum and put it into practice. The experts have 
provided much of the organization and the stimu- 
lus and have served as catalytic agents in bringing 
about the combination of ideas. They have also, 
of course, made suggestions of their own. One of 
the products of the "workshops" in which the 
teachers and directors have participated is a Guia 
Diddctica, or teacher's manual, embodying the 
ideas developed in common. This Guia has been 
printed and placed in use officially, but it is by no 
means final. The intention is that it shall undergo 
frequent revision in the light of experience gained 
from its use. 

For the most part the teachers must work with 
few and simple materials of instruction, locally 
devised and locally produced. This is not to say 
that some sophisticated modern methods of in- 
struction are not also in use under the program — 
slides, motion pictures, recordings. Although 
their use is generally confined to the instruction of 
teachers in normal schools and "workshoj^s" they 
are often brought to individual schools by means 
of sound-trucks. 

Ostensibly, the sole objective of the education 
program in Bolivia is the education of children in 
the rural Indian communities. Actually, its ob- 
jective embraces each community as a whole. It 
reaches out to the adults through the children. 
The rural school, for this purpose, is conceived to 
be the center of the community, and is developed 
as such. The mechanics of dissemination take the 
form of rural school clubs {clubs escolares cam- 
pesinos), similar to our 4-H Clubs, and parent- 
teacher associations. By these means, and others, 
the adults are drawn into the beneficent processes 
of learning and are given some chance to keep 
abreast of their children in matters of hygiene, 
agriculture, and other aspects of a healthy com- 
munity life. 

Ill 

Neither the Andes nor the Indians stop at the 
borders of Bolivia. They continue into Peru and 
into Ecuador, in both of which countries the Edu- 
cation Division of the Institute is cooperating with 



July 11, 1948 



33 



the respective Ministries of Education in programs 
similar to tiiat in Bolivia. Common problems 
argue common solutions and a common search for 
solutions. The result is that inter- American co- 
operation has developed some ramifications here 
beyond the bilateral. Some years ago the present 
President of Peru, then Minister to Bolivia, sug- 
gested that the two countries develop a common 
plan for the education of their cdtiplano popula- 
tions. The suggestion was not translated into im- 
mediate action. Most of us have learned that the 
scope and stress of daily governmental affairs is 
such that suggestions and proposals, like the seeds 
of plants, must often lie dormant for some time 
before they begin to put forth. After the coopera- 
tive education programs were inaugurated in Peru 
and Bolivia, and in connection with them, the 
President's suggestion demonstrated its viability 
in the form of a meeting between the Ministers of 
Education of the two republics. These two Min- 
isters proceeded to call the Ministers of Health 
and of Agriculture, Peruvian and Bolivian, into 
consultation with theni, and the upshot was Boli- 
vian-Peruvian cooperation in the respective pro- 
grams of education. Later, Ecuador joined in. 

Educators and administrators of these three 
South American republics have since participated 
together in "workshops" and similar enterprises. 
They have established the practice of exchanging 
information on school laws, curricula, teaching 
materials, and teacher's manuals. The result has 
been to enhance the effectiveness of the measures 
taken in each country by the contributions of the 
others. This is a worthwhile and admirable ex- 
ample of how nations can live together construc- 
tively. It is, albeit on a very small scale, the kind 
of thing on which peace, understanding, and pros- 
perity depend. 

The Education Division has also cooperated in 
programs of rural education, varying in scale and 
emphasis from country to country, in Brazil, 
Costa Kica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, and 
Honduras. In some of these, activities have been 
confined to the training of teachers in normal 
schools ; in others the programs have been special- 
ized and vocational. Both the Panamanian and 
Paraguayan programs have been exclusively voca- 
tional. The program in Brazil has been two fold : 

^ Bulletin of May 23, 1948, p. 659 ; June 13, p. 758 ; June 
27, p. 819. 



vocational agriculture carried on in cooperation 
with the Ministry of Agriculture and trade and 
industrial education in cooperation with the Minis- 
try of Education. The Chilean program has oper- 
ated within the broad field of secondary education. 
The program in the Dominican Republic was 
directed at vocational education, physical educa- 
tion, and the teaching of English. 

IV 

This concludes the last in a series of four articles 
on the Institute of Inter-American Affairs and its 
activities as expressions of United States foreign 
policy.^ The first established the general setting 
and significance ; the others have given a summary 
view of what is actually being done by the special 
cooperative devices in the development of agri- 
culture, in the promotion of health and sanitation, 
and in education. 

Returning now, for a final moment, to the mood 
and matter of the first article, I draw attention to 
one essential feature of all this work that has not 
yet proved and justified itself. These programs 
are essentially long-range. Inaugurating them is 
like planting so many fruit trees. It implies op- 
timism with respect to one's ability to continue 
their cultivation over the years until they come to 
full fruition. The simile is, of course, exaggerated 
with respect to certain aspects of these programs. 
Tlie mere fact of constructive cooperation among 
nations yields immediate results in closer inter- 
national understanding and friendship. It repre- 
sents in itself a reduction of international barriers. 
But the solid aim of an agriculture program, after 
all, is permanently to develop and strengthen the 
agriculture of a nation. Actual fruit trees may be 
involved. There are processes of growth that must 
have their time. Sanitation is more quickly ac- 
complished, in most cases, but it camiot be perma- 
nent unless, concurrently, there is an implantation 
of certain ideas and attitudes among the popula- 
tions to be protected, who must at least know how 
to protect themselves. Education, especially, puts 
the future under tribute to the present. 

This raises the question whether modern gov- 
eriunents, with the changing stresses and vicissi- 
tudes to which they are subject, can maintain their 
course in such matters over a sufficient period of 
years. The success of what has already been done 
can best be judged by the generation that follows 
our own. 



34 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe BMeiin 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



The European Recovery Program Agreements — A New International Era 



BY ERNEST A. GROSS' 
Legal Adviser 



It is fitting that an association of lawyers which 
sponsored the European Recovery Pi-ogram prior 
to its adoption by the Congress slioidd be the first 
to hold public discussion of a vital phase of the 
program now about to get under way. Certainly, 
the expenditure of billions and the provision of 
a vast tonnage of supplies moving across the seas 
is thought of. by many of our citizens, as the 
whole of the "Marshall Plan". A giant market, 
with some goods marked "free" and others "loan", 
although frightening by its size, makes a ready 
mental image. But the Erp is a recovery pro- 
gram, not a grocery business. And the spend- 
ing of billions, and the moving of supplies through 
unending pipe lines of warehouses and ships is 
not unprecedented; it has happened on an un- 
imaginable scale twice in our own lifetime, but the 
objective each time was victory in war, not re- 
covery in peace. 

The vital phase of the program now about to 
get under way, to which I have referred, is the 
system of bilateral agreements wMch next week 
will introduce a new era in our relations with 
Europe. These agreements, unique in the history 
of dealings between modern states, can be the 
machine for genuine economic cooperation and 
recovery, or they can be the instruments of deep 
international rancor and friction. It is for this 
reason that the problems these agreements will cre- 
ate should be discussed candidly now, and that 
they should be discussed by lawyers, trained to 
the legal tradition of interpreting agreements in 
the light of their objectives and applying the 
rule of reason and the common-sense test of good 
faith. 

The agreement between the United States and 
each participating European country crystallizes 
the basic purpose of the program: we shall help 
European nations to help themselves to recovery 
in such a way as to become independent of out- 
side assistance. Lest there be any misunder- 
standing of the sincerity' of our professed objective 
in this regard, each agreement explicitly sets this 
forth at the very outset. In solemn covenant 
between ourselves and each sovereign European 
participant, we thus refute the charge frequently 
made by opponents of the program, and keynoted 
by the declaration adopted at the first meeting 

Ju/y 11, 1948 



of the Cominform that the Marshall Plan is but 
the European subsection of a general United 
States plan for global expansion. 

The agreements crystallize the conditions of 
our assistance as well as the purposes of the pro- 
gram. The legislation itself provides that the 
continuity of assistance provided by the United 
States should, at all times, be dependent upon con- 
tinuity of cooperation among the participating 
countries. But "cooperation" is a rubbery yard- 
stick, as the usages of police states make clear. 
Hence, the democratic governments, genuinely de- 
sirous of finding effective measures of self-help and 
mutual aid in order to achieve recovery, met to- 
gether and exchanged pledges among each other, 
which were embodied in the historic report of the 
Committee of European Economic Co-operation, 
September 1947.^ 

However, the United States was neither a mem- 
ber of the European Committee nor a party to 
its recijirocal pledges. That Committee, and its 
successor, the Organisation for European Econom- 
ic Co-operation, has been and will remain an 
organization of European countries dedicated to 
^^close and la-sfinff cooperation'''' as well as to the 
immediate task of developing and carrying out a 
joint recovery program. I underscore, as well as 
quote, the phrase "close and lasting cooperation", 
from the charter of the organization. 

It will be apparent that although the Organisa- 
tion for EurojDean Economic Co-operation could 
be born and even, perhaps, survive as an organ 
of lasting European cooperation without tempo- 
rary United States economic assistance, it could 
not possibly serve its essential immediate purpose 
of accomplishing a recovery progi-am without the 
ingredients for European recovery. The dollar 
transfusion is no mere act of charity : it is a gift 
of life itself. More than that, as the Senate Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations said in its Report, 
"free institutions and genuine independence can- 
not perish in Europe and be secure in the rest of 
the world". 



'Address delivered before tlie New York State Bar 
Association, Lake Placid, N.Y., July 2, 1948, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

2 Department of State publications 2930 and 2952. 

35 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

But the American people — all of us — are tired 
of generalities, skeptical of slogans, and above all, 
fed up with rat-hole relief. The Executive branch 
of the Government in submitting the program and 
the Legislative branch in approving it, insisted, 
in the words of the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs that "primary emphasis" must be placed 
"on encouraging the participating nations to help 
themselves and each other", and that "the success 
of the program rests upon the willingness and 
good faith of these countries in cai'rying out their 
pledges" to that end. 

I am sure that the people of this country are 
convinced, as this association must have been con- 
vinced in endorsing the program, that "the pro- 
gram is necessary to prevent the United States 
from being confronted with a world so unbalanced 
and hostile as to present almost insuperable bur- 
dens to the people of the United States in the 
future, if Europe is not once more rendered free 
and adequately strong, both in its political and 
economic life". (I have again quoted the lan- 
guage of the House Foreign Affairs Committee.) 

This is the purpose and the setting against which 
v^e are discussing the bilateral agreements which I 
have said introduce a new era in our relations with 
participating countries of Europe. These agree- 
ments respect the dignity of the participating 
countries as well as of the United States and give 
assurance that our assistance will be used to the 
best possible advantage. However, like all com- 
pacts or basic charters they must be appraised, in- 
terpreted, and applied in the light of the vast pur- 
poses which they are intended to achieve. The 
undertakings of the participating nations burrow 
deep into the internal economy of each country, in- 
timately affecting the daily lives of the 250 million 
inhabitants of western Europe. 

Never before in history, so far as I am aware, has 
any nation undertaken by solemn international 
agreement to use its best endeavors "to adopt or 
maintain the measures necessary to ensure efficient 
and practical use of all the resources available to 
it"; "to promote the development of industrial and 
agricultural production on a sound economic 
basis"; and "to stabilize its currency, establish or 
maintain a valid rate of exchange, balance its gov- 
ernmental budget as soon as practicable, create or 
maintain internal financial stability". 

Undertakings of this magnitude surely require 
a mature and reasoned appraisal, comparable in 
many respects to the judicial approach toward the 
application of constitutional doctrines of due proc- 
ess, interstate commerce, or freedom of contract. 
Our responsibility for realistic and wise interpre- 
tation is as solemn as is the duty of each signatory 
to discharge its undertakings with unchallengeable 
good faith. And that responsibility on our part, 
which is an inevitable corollary of our position of 



leadership, is in some measure in the custody of the 
bar of this country. 

I have said that these agreements can be instru- 
ments of genuine cooperation on a scale never be- 
fore attempted or that they can bring about serious 
international misunderstandings and friction. 
The latter will be a danger only to the extent we 
Americans fail to understand that, as is true of all 
basic charters, these agreements are essentially be- 
tween peoples, not governments. And we bear a 
responsibility for wise interpretation and applica- 
tion of the agreements not merely because they em- 
body the general, basic undertakings to which I 
have already referred. 

In addition, the participating countries make 
connnitmonts of a more specific nature which I 
shall illustrate briefly, for the purpose of under- 
lining the necessity of appreciating fully that these 
agreements do in fact represent a new pattern in 
our international relations. 

Each country undertakes, with respect to assist- 
ance provided on a grant basis, to deposit in a spe- 
cial account the local currency equivalent of the 
value of our assistance. Thereafter, that country 
may make expenditures from the account only in 
agreement with th.e United States. 

In general, such expenditures are to take into 
account the need for promoting internal mone- 
tary and financial stabilization in the participat- 
ing country, the stimulation of productive activity 
and international trade, and the development of 
new resources required not only by the participat- 
ing country but also by ourselves. The agree- 
ments also provide that the fund may be used for 
the effective retirement of the national debt of each 
participating country. Inasmuch as the Congress 
has authorized the expenditure of five billion dol- 
lars during the first twelve months, of which over 
half probably will be made available on a grant 
basis, the impact upon the internal economy of 
miuiy of the participating countries through the 
administration of these funds becomes clear. The 
United States will have a voice in the expenditure 
by participating countries of amounts of local cur- 
rency which in certain instances may well exceed 
the total value of the currency in circidation in the 
country concerned. 

I have referred to the fact that the local cur- 
rency deposits may be expended for the explora- 
tion and development of materials required by this 
coinitry. There are additional provisions in the 
agreements which require participating countries 
to facilitate the sale, exchange, or other method of 
transfer to the United States for stockpiling or 
other purposes of materials available in such coun- 
try and required by the United States. The 
quantities to be available for transfer are to be 
agreed to between the two governments with due 
regard for the reasonable requirements of the par- 
ticipating country for its domestic use and com- 



36 



Departmenf of Sfafe Builefin 



-* mercial export of such materials. The agreements 
also contemplate future subsidiary agreements 
according suitable protection to the right of access 
of any citizen of the United States, including any 
corporation or other association created under the 
laws of the United States, to the development of 
raw materials witliin participating countries on 
terms of treatment equivalent to those afforded to 
the nationals of the participating country con- 
cerned. This provision extends an "open door" 
policy in a strictly modern sense, and will be ap- 
plied in a manner which will neither injure the 
economy of the participating country concerned, 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

nor hamper the accomplishment of the broad ob- 
jectives of the European Recovery Program. 

These illustrative examples, drawn from the 
agreements, will suffice to show to the members of 
the association the gravity of the general obliga- 
tions which have been freely undertaken by sov- 
ereign states. You are, I believe, the first "group 
to discuss this matter publicly. I am certain that 
as operations under the agreements get under way, 
as problems of their application and interpreta- 
tion arise, and as the objectives of the undertakings 
come closer to fruition, this association will lead 
the way to clearer and fuller public understanding. 



Economic Cooperation Agreement With Italy Signed ^ 



SUMMARY OF AGREEMENT 



The preamble recites the general purposes of 
the recovery program and the objectives which the 
United States Congress had in mind in enacting 
the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. 

In article I, the Government of the United 
States states its intention to furnish assistance to 
Italy within the terms set by the Congress. The 
imdertaking of the United States is, of course, sub- 
ject to the necessity of United States approval of 
all assistance and to the right of the United States 
to terminate aid at any time in accordance with 
the act. The Government of Italy undertakes gen- 
erally to exert sustained efforts to accomplish the 
recovery program. The third paragraph contains 
an undertaking by Italy that in cases where sup- 
plies are procured outside the United States with 
EcA ^ funds, Italy will cooperate with any arrange- 
ments which the United States may make to insure 
the use of a reasonable proportion of the dollar 
proceeds for private trade and financial trans- 
actions with the United States. 

Article II contains the general undertakings 
which are closely parallel to the mutual pledges 
contained in the report of the Committee of 
European Economic Co-operation issued Septem- 
ber 1947 and in the Paris convention of April 16, 
1948. These undertakings include agreement by 
Italy to make efficient and practical use of all its 
resources including aid made available under the 
recovery program, to mobilize assets in the United 
States belonging to Italians, to promote produc- 
tion, to take the necessary measures to establish 
financial stability, and to further the increase of 
trade. There are additional undertakings to co- 
operate in arrangements to make full use of the 
manpower available in Europe and to take action 
with respect to restrictive business practices, such 
as cartels, which would have the effect of interfer- 
ing with the achievement of the recovery program. 

Article III provides for the consultation be- 



tween the two Governments which is necessary in 
order that the United States may, under section 
111(b) (3) of the act, guarantee the convertibility 
into dollars of new private American investment 
in projects in Italy approved by the Italian 
Government. 

Article IV relates to the deposits of the local 
currency counterpart of assistance made available 
to Italy as a grant. The Italian Government will 
establish a special account to which there will be 
credited the lira equivalent of the dollar cost of 



Signing of the First of the Agreements 

The first of the economic cooperation 
agi'eements under the Economic Coopera- 
tion Act of 1948 were signed June 28 in 
Dublin and Rome. It is expected that the 
agreements with most of the other partici- 
pating countries will be signed this week 
and will be closely similar. Announce- 
ments concerning signing of the other 
agreements will be made in the respective 
capitals and in Washington. 

The agreements parallel the convention 
for European economic recovery which 
was signed in Paris by the participating 
countries on April 16," 1948, and in addi- 
tion establish the framework of relation- 
ships with the United States within which 
assistance under the program will be car- 
ried out. The general nature of the agree- 
ments follows the provisions of section 
11.5 (b) of the Economic Cooperation Act. 



' Released to the press June 28, 1948. 
' Economic Cooperation Administration. 



July 11, 1948 



37 



FOREIGN AID AND RBCONST RUCTION 

United States grants. These lire will be used for 
administrative expenses of the United States in 
Italy arising under the program, for the internal 
cost of the transportation of relief packages and 
for other purposes agreed between the two Govern- 
ments, including the development of productive 
capacity within Italy, exploration for and the de- 
velopment of production of materials of which the 
United States is or may be deficient, the retirement 
of the national debt, and other noninflationary 
purposes. 

Under article V Italy agrees to work out with 
the United States arrangements by which the 
United States can obtain increased quantities of 
materials needed because of deficiencies or poten- 
tial deficiencies in United States resources. De- 
tailed arrangements with regard to specific 
materials are to be made later under this article. 

Under article VI Italy agi-ees to cooperate in 
facilitating American travel to Italy and also 
agrees to negotiate subsequent agreements regard- 
ing free entry of relief supplies, including private 
relief packages, to Italy. 

Under article VII Italy agrees to furnish to the 
Government of the United States the full informa- 
tion necessary for planning and carrying out the 
recovery program. In addition the two Govern- 
ments agree to consult at the request of either one 
regarding any matters arising out of the agreement. 

Article VIII recognizes the necessity of full 
publicity — particularly in Europe — for the pro- 
gram and the assistance furnished by the United 
btates. 

Article IX makes provision for a special mission 
to carry out United States responsibilities in Italy 
under the agreement, including the observation 
and review of the carrying out of the program and 
further makes provision for appropriate status 
for the joint congressional Committee on Foreign 
Economic Cooperation and its staff. 

Article X provides for arbitration of claims 
arising as a consequence of govermuental meas- 



ures. Such claims may be presented either before 
the International Court of Justice or a mutually 
agreed arbitral tribunal. Although Italy is not a 
member of the International Court it agrees to 
submit to its jurisdiction in such cases upon the 
request of the United States. It has been addi- 
tionally agreed that when Italy becomes a member 
of the Court, the undertaking will be reciprocal 
as it is in the cases of countries which have already 
submitted to the jurisdiction of the Court. It is 
made clear that the submission of claims under 
this paragraph will depend upon there having been 
an exhaustion of the remedies available in the es- 
tablished courts within the respective countries. 

Under article XII the agreement remains in 
force until June 30, 1953, a year after the termina- 
tion of the projected four-year program. This will 
allow a period after assistance ceases for the com- 
pletion of the many operating matters which re- 
sult fi'om assistance. There is a further provision 
that if either Government considers that there has 
been a fundamental change in the basic assumption 
underlying the agi-eement, as for example, a ter- 
mination of assistance at a date earlier than an- 
ticipated, the Governments shall consult as to 
whether the agreement should be modified or ter- 
minated. If there is not agreement on this point, 
a six months' notice of termination of the agree- 
ment may be given. Such termination, however, 
would be subject to the following limitations: 

(a) The agreement with regard to scarce ma- 
terials continues for two years from the notice of 
termination ; 

(b) The provision relating to the local currency 
deposits remains in effect until agreement has been 
reached as to the disposition of such deposits ; and 

(c) Any subsidiary agreements or arrange- 
ments such as those relating to scarce materials 
will be governed by their own terms. 

It is provided that the agreement will be regis- 
tered with the United Nations. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 



PREAMBLE 

The Governments of the United States of America and 
Italy : 

Recognizing that the restoration or maintenance in 
European countries of principles of individual liberty, free 
institutions, and genuine independence rests largely upon 
the establishment of sound economic conditions, stable 
international economic relationships, and the achievement 
by the countries of Europe of a healthy economy in- 
dependent of extraordinary outside assistance; 

Recognizing that a strong and prosperous European 

38 



economy is essential for the attainment of the purposes 
of the United Nations ; 

Considering that the achievement of such conditions 
calls for a European recovery plan of selfhelp and mutual 
cooperation, open to all nations which cooperate in such 
a plan, based upon a strong production effort, the expan- 
sion of foreign trade, the creation or maintenance of in- 
ternal financial stability and the development of economic 
cooperation, including all possible steps to establish and 
maintain valid rates of exchange and to reduce trade 
barriers ; 

Considering that in furtherance of these principles the 

Department of State Bulletin 



FOREIGN AID AND KECONSTRUCTION 



Government of Italy lias joined with other like minded 
nations in a Convention for Euroijeau Economic Coopera- 
tion signed at Paris on April Hi, 1948 under which the 
signatories of that Convention agree*! to undertake as 
their Immediate task the elaboration and execution of a 
joint recovery program, and that the Government of Italy 
is a member of the Organization of European Economic 
Cooperation created pursuant to tlie provisions of tiat 
Convention ; 

Considering also that, in furtherance of these principles, 
the Government of the United States of America has 
enacted the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, providing 
for the furnishing of assistance by the United States of 
America to nations participating in a joint program for 
European recovery, in order to enable such nations through 
their own individual and concerted efforts to become in- 
deiiendent of extraordinary outside economic assistance ; 

Taking note that the Government of Italy has already 
expressed its adherence to the purposes and policies of the 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 ; 

Desiring to set forth the understandings which govern 
the furnishing of assistance by the Government of the 
United States of America under the Economic Coopera- 
tion Act of 1948, the receipt of such assistance by Italy, 
and the measures which the two Governments will take 
individually and together in furthering the recovery of 
Italy as an integral part of the joint program for European 
Recovery ; 

Have agreed as follows : 

Article I. Assistance and Cooperation 

1. The Government of the United States of America 
undertakes to assist Italy by making available to the 
Government of Italy or to any person, agency or organi- 
zation designated by the latter Government, such assist- 
ance as may be requested by it and approved by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America. The Government 
of the United States of America will furnish this assistance 
tinder the provisions, and subject to all of the terms, condi- 
tions, and termination provisions of the Economic Coopera- 
tion Act of 1948, Acts amendatory and supplementary 
thereto and Appropriation Acts thereunder, and will make 
available to the Government of Italy only such commodi- 
ties, services and other assistance as are authorized to be 
made available by such Acts. 

2. The Government of Italy, acting individually and 
through the Organization of European Economic Coopera- 
tion, consistently with the Convention for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation signed at Paris on April 16, 1948 will 
exert sustained efforts in common with other participating 
countries speedily to achieve through a Joint Recovery 
Program economic conditions in Europe essential to lasting 
peace and prosperity and to enable the countries of Europe 
participating in such a .Joint Recovery Program to become 
independent of extraordinary outside economic assistance 
within tJie period of this agreement. The Government of 
Italy reaffirms its intention to take action to carry out the 
provisions of the general obligations of the Convention cf 
European Economic Cooperation, to continue to participate 
actively in the work of the Organization of European 
Economic Cooperation, and to continue to adhere to the 
purposes and policies of the Economic Cooperation Act of 
1948. 

3. With respect to a.ssistance furnished by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America to Italy and procured 
from areas outside the United States of America, its 
territories and possessions, the Government of Italy will 
cooperate with the Government of the United States of 
America in ensuring that procurement will be effected at 
reasonable prices and on reasonable terms, and so as to 
arrange that the dollars thereby made available to the 
country from which the assistance is procured are used in 
a manner consistent with any arrangements made by the 
Government of the United States of America with such 
country. 

July n, 1948 



Article II. General Undertaking 

1. In order to achieve the maximum recovery through 
the employment of assistance received from the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America, the Government of 
Italy will use its best endeavors; 

(A) To adopt or maintain the measures necessary to 
ensure efficient and practical use of all the resources avail- 
able to it, including 

1) Such measures as may be necessary to ensure that 
the commodities and services obtained with assistance 
furnished under this Agreement are used for purposes 
consistent with this Agreement and, as far as practicable, 
with the general purjwses outlined in the schedules fur- 
nished by the Government of Italy in support of the re- 
quirements of assistance to be furnished by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America ; 

2) The observation and review of the use of such 
resources through an effective foUowup system approved 
by the Organization of European Economic Cooperation 
and 

3) To the extent practicable, measures to locate, 
identify and put into appropriate use in furtherance of 
the joint program for European Recovery assets, and earn- 
ings therefrom, which belong to nationals of Italy and 
which are situated within the United States of America, 
its territories or possessions. Nothing in this clause im- 
poses any obligation on the Government of the United 
States of America to assist in carrying out such measures 
or on the Government of Italy to dispose of such assets. 

(B) To promote the development of industrial and agri- 
cultural production on a sound economic basis ; to achieve 
such production targets as may be established through the 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation ; and 
When desired by the Government of the United States of 
America to communicate to that Government detailed pro- 
posals for specific projects contemplated by the Govern- 
ment of Italy and to be undertaken in substantial part with 
assistance made available pursuant to this agreement in- 
cluding whenever practicable projects for increased pro- 
duction of food, steel and transportation facilities ; and 

(C) To stabilize its currency, establish or maintain a 
valid rate of exchange, balance its governmental budget 
as soon as practicable, create or maintain internal finan- 
cial stability, and generally restore or maintain confidence 
in its monetary system ; and 

(D) To cooperate with other participating countries in 
facilitating and stimulating an interchange of goods and 
services among the participating countries and with other 
countries and in reducing public and private barriers to 
trade among themselves and with other countries. 

2. Taking into account Article 8 of the Convention for 
European Economic Cooperation looking toward the full 
and effective use of manpower available in the various 
participating countries, the Government of Italy, with due 
regard for the urgency and importance of its own problem 
of surplus manpower, will accord sympathetic considera- 
tion to proposals made in conjunction with the Interna- 
tional Refugee Organization, directed to the largest prac- 
ticable utilization of manixiwer available in any of the 
participating countries in furtherance of the accomplish- 
ment of the purposes of this agreement. 

3. The Government of Italy will take the measures 
which it deems appropriate, and will cooperate with other 
participating countries, to prevent, on the part of private 
or public commercial enterprises, business practices or 
business arrangements affecting international trade which 
restrain competition, limit access to markets or foster 
monopolistic control whenever such practices or arrange- 
ments have the effect of interfering with the achievement 
of the Joint Program of European recovery ; 

Article III. Guaranties 

1. The Governments of the United States of America 
and Italy will, upon the request of either Government, 

39 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCT/ON 

consult respecting projects in Italy proposed l)y nationals 
of the United States of America and with regard to which 
the Government of the United States of America may 
appropriately make guaranties of currency transfer under 
Section 111 (b) (3) of the Economic Cooperation Act of 
1948. 

2. The Government of Italy agrees that if the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America malces payment in 
United States dollars to any person under such a guaranty, 
any lire or credits in lire, assigned or transferred to the 
Government of the United States of America pursuant to 
that Section shall be recognized as property of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America. 



Article IV. Local Currency 

1. The provisions of this Article .shall apply only with 
respect to assistance which may be furnished by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America on a grant basis. 

2. The Government of Italy will establish a special 
account in the Bank of Italy in the name of the Govern- 
ment of Italy (hereinafter called the Special Account) 
and will make deijosits in lire to this account as follows: 

(a) The unencumbered balance at the close of business 
on the day of the signature of this Agreement in the 
special accounts in the Bank of Italy in name of the Gov- 
ernment of Italy established pursuant to the Agreements 
between the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of Italy made on July 4, 1947 and 
on January 3, 1948 and any further sums which may, from 
time to time, be required by such agreements to be de- 
posited in the special accounts. It is understood that 
Subsection (e) of Section 114 of the Economic Coopera- 
tion Act of 1948 constitutes the approval and determina- 
tion of the Government of the United States of America 
with respect to the disposition of such balances, referred 
to in those Agreements. 

(6) The unencumbered balances of the deposits made 
by the Government of Italy pursuant to the exchange of 
notes between the two Governments dated April 20, 1948. 

(c) Amounts commensurate with the indicated dollar 
cost to the Government of the United States of America 
of commodities, services and technical information (in- 
cluding any costs of processing, storing, transporting, re- 
pairing or other services incident thereto) made available 
to Italy on a grant basis by any means authorized under 
the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, less, however, the 
amount of the deposits made pursuant to the exchange 
of notes referred to in Subparagraph (6). The Govern- 
ment of the United States of America shall from time to 
time notify the Government of Italy of the iiulicated dollar 
cost of any such commodities, services and technical in- 
formation, and the Government of Italy will thereupon 
deposit in the Special Account a commensurate amount of 
lire computed nt a rate of exchange which shall be the par 
value agreed nt such time with the International Monetary 
Fund ; provided that this agreed value is the single rate 
applicable to the purchase of dollars for imports into Italy. 
If at the time of notification a par value for the lira is 
agreed with the Fund and there are one or more other 
rates applicable to the purchase of dollars for imports into 
Italy, or, if at the time of notitication no par value for the 
lira is agreed with the Fund, the rate or rates for this 
particular purpose shall be mutually agreed upon between 
the Government of Italy and the Government of the United 
States of America. The Government of Italy may at any 
time make advance deposits in the Special Account which 
shall be credited against subsequent notifications pursuant 
to this paragraph. 

3. The Government of the United States of America will 
from time to time notify the Government of Italy of its 
requirements for administrative expenditures in lire 



within Italy incident to operations under the Economic 
Cooperation Act of 1948, and the Government of Italy will 
thereupon make such sums available out of any balances 
in the Special Account in the manner requested by the 
Government of the United States of America in the 
notification. 

4. Five percent of each deposit made pursuant to this 
Article in respect of assistance furnished under authority 
of the Foreign Aid Appropriation Act, 1948, shall be al- 
located to the use of the Government of the United States 
of America for its expenditures in Italy, and sums made 
available pursuant to paragraph three of this Article shall 
first be charged to the amounts allocated under this 
paragraph. 

5. The Government of Italy will further malce .such .sums 
of lire available out of any balances in the Special Account 
as may lie required to cover costs (including port, storage, 
handling and similar charges) of transportation from any 
point of entry in Italy to the consignee's designated point 
of delivery in Italy of such relief supplies and packages 
as are referred to in Article VI. 

6. The Government of Italy may draw upon any remain- 
ing balance in the Special Account for such purpose as 
may be agreed from time to time with the Government of 
the United States of America. In considering proposals 
put forward by the Government of Italy for drawings from 
the Special Account the Government of the United States 
of America will take into account the need for promoting 
or maintaining internal monetary and financial stabiliza- 
tion in Italy and for stimulating productive activity and 
international trade and the exploration for and develop- 
ment of new sources of wealth within Italy, including in 
particular : 

(a) Expenditures upon projects or programs, including 
those which are part of a comprehensive program for the 
development of the productive capacity of Italy and the 
other participating countries, and projects or programs the 
external costs of which are being covered by assistance 
rendered by the Government of the United States of 
America under the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 or 
otherwise, or by loans from the International Bank for 
reconstruction and development; 

(6) Expenditures upon the exploration for and develoi)- 
ment of additional production of materials which may be 
required in the United States of America because of defi- 
ciencies or potential deficiencies in the resources of the 
United States of America ; and, 

(c) Effective retirement of the national debt, especially 
debt held by the Bank of Italy or other banking institu- 
tions. 

7. Any unencumbered balance other than unexpended 
amounts allocated under paragraph 4 of this Article re- 
maining in the Special Account on June 30, 19.52, shall be 
disposed of within Italy for .such purposes as may here- 
after be agreed between the Governments of the United 
States of America and Italy, it being understood that the 
agreement of the United States of America shall be sub- 
ject to approval by act or joint resolution of the Congress 
of the United States of America. 

Article V. Access to materials 

1. The Government of Italy will facilitate the transfer 
to the United States of America, for stockpiling or other 
purposes, of materials originating in Italy whicli are re- 
quired by the United States of America as a result of 
deficiencies or potential deficiencies in its own resources, 
upon such reasonable terms of sale, exchange, barter or 
otherwise, and in such quantities, and for such period of 
time, as may be agreed to between the Governments of the 
United States of America and Italy, after due regard for 
the reasonable requirements of Italy for domestic use and 
commercial export of such materials. The Government 
of Italy will take such specific measures as may be neces- 



40 



Deparfmeni of State Bulletin 



sary to carry out tlie provisions of tliis paragrapli, includ- 
ing tlie promorion of the increased production of such 
materials within Italy, and the removal of any hiiiilranoes 
to the transfer of such materials to the United States of 
America. The Government of Italy will, when so re- 
quested by the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica, enter into negotiations for detailed arrangements 
necessary to carry out the provisions of tliis paragrajih. 

2. Kecognizing the principle of equity in respect to the 
drain upon the natural resources of the United States of 
America, and of the participating countries, the Govern- 
ment of Italy will, when so requested by the Government 
of the United States of America, negotiate where appli- 
cable ((I) a future schedule of minimum availabilities to 
the United States of America for future purchase and 
delivery of a fair share of materials originating in Italy 
wliich are required by the United States of America as a 
result of deficiencies or potential deficiencies in its own 
resources at world market prices so as to protect the access 
of the United States industry to an equitable share of such 
materials either in percentages of production or in absolute 
quantities from Italy, (6) arrangements providing suit- 
able protection for the right of access for any citizen of the 
United States of America or any corporation, partnership, 
or other association created under the laws ot the United 
States of America or of any state or territory thereof and 
substantially beneficially owned by citizens of the United 
States of Ameriia, in the development of such materials on 
terms of treatment equivalent to those afforded to the 
nationals of Italy, and, (c) an agreed schedule of increased 
production of such materials where practicable in Italy 
and for delivery of an agreed percentage of such increased 
production to be transferred to the United States of 
America on a long-term basis in consideration of assistance 
furnished by the United States of America under this 
Agreement. 

3. The Government of Italy when so requested by the 
Government of the United States of America, will cooper- 
ate whenever appropriate to further the objectives of para- 
graphs 1 and 2 of this Article in respect of materials 
originating outside of Italy. 

Article VI. Travel Arrangements and Relief Supplies 

1. The Government of Italy will cooperate with the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America in facilitating and 
encouraging the promotion and development of travel by 
citizens of the United States of America to and within 
participating countries. 

2. The Government of Italy will, when so desired by the 
Government of the United States of America, cuter into 
negotiations for agreements (including the provisions of 
duty-free treatment under appropriate s.ifeguards) to 
facilitate the entry into Italy of supplies of relief goods 
donated to m- purchased by United States voluntary non- 
profit relief agencies and of relief packages originating in 
the United States of America and consigned to individuals 
residing in Italy. 

Article VII. Consultation and Transmittal of Information 

1. The two Governments will, upon the request of either 
of them, consult regarding any matter relating to tlie 
application of this Agreement or to operations or arrange- 
ments carried out pursuant to this Agreement. 

2. The Government of Italy will communicate to the 
Government of the United States of America in a form and 
at intervals to be indicated by the latter after consultation 
with the Government of Italy : 

(A) Detailed information of projects, programs and 
measures proposed or adopted by the Government of Italy 
to carry out the provisions of this Agreement and the 
general obligations of the Convention for Euroiwan Eco- 
nomic Cooperation. 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

(B) V\\\\ statements of operations under this Agree- 
ment including a statement of the use of fun<lK, connnodi- 
tics and services received thereunder, such statements to 
be made in each calendar quarter; 

(C) Information regarding its economy and any other 
relevant information, necessary to supplement that ol)- 
tained by the Government of the United States of America 
from the Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
which the Government of the United States of America 
may need to determine the nature and scopt? of operations 
under the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, and to evalu- 
ate the effectiveness of assistance furnished or contem- 
plated under this Agreement and generally the progress of 
the Joint Recovery Program. 

3. The Government of Italy will assist the Government 
of the United States of America to obtain information re- 
lating to the materials originating in Italy referred to in 
Article V which is necessary to the formulation and execu- 
tion of the arrangements provided for in that Article. 

Article VIII. Publicity 

1. The Governments of the Uniled States of America 
and Italy recognize that it is in tlieir mutual interest that 
full publicity be given to the objectives and progress of the 
joint program for European Recovery and of the actions 
taken in furtherance of that program. It is recognized 
that wide dissemination of information on the progress 
of the program is desirable in order to develop the sense 
of common effort and mutual aid which are essential to 
the accomplishment of the objectives of the program. 

2. The Government of the United States of America will 
encourage the dissemination of such information and will 
make it available to the media of public information. 

3. The Government of Italy will encourage the dissemi- 
nation of such information both directly and in coopera- 
tion with the Organization for European Economic Coop- 
eration. It will make such information available to the 
media of public information and take all practicable steps 
to ensure that appropriate facilities are provided for such 
dissemination. It will further provide other participating 
countries and the Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation with full information on the progress of the 
program for Economic Recovery. 

4. The Government of Italy will make public in Italy in 
each calendar quarter, full statements of operations under 
this Agreement, including information as to the use of 
funds, commodities and services received. 

Article IX. Missions 

1. The Government of Italy agrees to receive a Special 
Mission for Economic Cooperation which will discharge the 
responsibilities of the Government of the United States 
of America in Italy under this Agreement. 

2. The Government of Italy will, upon appropriate no- 
tification from the Ambassador of the United States of 
America in Italy, consider the Special Mission and its 
personnel, and the United States Special Representative 
in Europe, as part of the Embassy of the United States 
of America in Italy for the purpo.se of enjoying the priv- 
ileges and immunities accorded to that Embassy and its 
personnel of comparable rank. The Government of Italy 
will further accord appropriate courtesies to the members 
and staff of the Joint Committee on Foreign Economic 
Cooperation of the Congress of the United States of Amer- 
ica and grant them the facilities an<l assistance necessary 
to the effective performance of their responsibilities. 

3. The Government of Italy, directly and through its 
representatives on the Organizati(m of European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation will extend full cooperation to the 
Special Mission, to the United States Special Representa- 
tive in Europe and his staff, and to the members and staff 
of the Joint Committee. Such cooperation shall include 



July 11, 1948 



41 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

the provision of all information and facilities necessary 
to the observation and review of the carrying out of this 
Agreement, including the use of assistance furnished under 
it. 

Article X. Settlement of Claims of Nationals 

1. The Governments of the United States of America 
and Italy agree to submit to the decisions of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice any claim espoused by either 
Government on behalf of one of its nationals against the 
other Government for comi)ensation for damage arising as 
a consequence of governmental measures (other than 
measures concerning enemy property or interests) taken 
after April 3, 1948, by the other Government and affecting 
property or interests of such national, including contracts 
with or concessions granted by duly authorized authori- 
ties of such other Government. 

It is understood that the undertaking of the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America in respect of claims 
esiwused by the Government of Italy pursuant to this 
Article is made under the authority of and is limited by 
the terms and conditions of the recognition by the United 
States of America of the compulsory jurisdiction of the 
International Court of Justice under Article 36 of the 
statute of the Court, as set forth in the declaration of the 
President of the United States of America dated August 
14, 1946. The provisions of this paragraph shall be in all 
respects without prejudice to other rights of access, if 
any, of either Government to the International Court of 
Justice or to the espousal and presentation of claims based 
upon alleged violations by either Government of rights and 
duties arising under treaties, agreements or principles of 
international law. 

2. The Governments of the United States of America 
and of Italy further agree that such claims may be re- 
ferred, in lieu of the Court, to any arbitral tribunal mu- 
tually agreed upon. It is understood that the undertak- 
ing of each Government pursuant to this paragraph is 
subject to and limited by the terms and conditions of 
existing arbitration treaties, conventions or other agree- 
ments, particularly any provisions respecting the functions 
of the Senate of the United States of America and the 
Italian Parliament. 

3. It is further understood that neither Government will 
espouse a claim pursuant to this Article until its national 
has exhausted the remedies available to him in the Admin- 
istrative and Judicial Tribunals of the country in which 
the claim arose. 

Article XI. Definitions 

As used in the Agreement, the term "participating coun- 
try" means: 

(1) Any country which signed the report of the Com- 
mittee of European Economic Cooperation at Paris on Sep- 
tember 22, 1947, and territories for which it has inter- 
national responsibility and to which the Economic Coop- 
eration Agreement concluded between that country and 
the Government of the United States of America has been 
applied, and 

(2) Any other country (including any of the zones of 
occupation of Germany, any areas under international ad- 
ministration or control, and the Free Territory of Trieste 
or either of its zones) wholly or partly in Europe, together 
with dependent areas under its administration ; for so long 
as such country is a party to the Convention for European 
Economic Cooperation and adheres to a joint program for 
European recovery designed to accomplish the purpose of 
this Agreement. 

Article XII. Entry into Force, Amendments, Duration 

1. This Agreement shall become effective on this day's 
date. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of 

42 



this Article, it shall remain in force until June 30, 1953, 
and, unless at least six months before June 30, 1953, either 
Government shall have given notice in writing to the other 
of intention to terminate the Agreement on that date, it 
shall remain in force thereafter until the expiration of 
six months from the date on which such notice shall have 
been given. 

2. If during the life of this Agreement, either Govern- 
ment should consider there has been a fundamental change 
in the basic assumption underlying this Agreement, it shall 
so notify the other Government in writing and the two 
Governments will thereupon consult with a view to agree- 
ing upon the amendment, modification or termination of 
this Agreement. If, after three months from such notifica- 
tion the two Governments have not agreed upon the action 
to be taken in the circumstances, either Government may 
give notice in writing to the other of intention to terminate 
this Agreement. Then, subject to the provisions of para- 
graph 3 of this Article, this Agreement shall terminate 
either: 

(o) Sis months after the date of such notice of inten- 
tion to terminate, or 

(b) After such shorter period as may be agreed to be 
sufficient to ensure that the obligations of the Government 
of Italy are performed in respect of any assistance which 
may continue to be furnished by the Government of the 
United States of America after the date of such notice; 
provided, however, that Article V and paragraph 3 of 
Article VII shall remain in effect until two years after the 
date of such notice of intention to terminate, but not later 
than June 30, 1953. 

3. Subsidiary agreements and arrangements negotiated 
pursuant to this Agreement may remain in force beyond 
the date of termination of this Agreement and the period 
of effectiveness of such subsidiary Agreements and ar- 
rangements shall be governed by their own terms. Article 
IV shall remain in effect until all the sums in the cur- 
rency of Italy required to be deposited in accordance with 
its own terms have been disposed of as provided in that 
Article. 

4. Paragraph 2 of Article III shall remain in effect for 
so long as the guaranty payments referred to in that 
Article may be made by the Government of the United 
States of America. 

5. The Annex to this agreement forms an integral part 
thereof. 

6. This Agreement may be amended at any time by 
agreement between the two Governments. 

7. This Agreement shall be registered with the Secre- 
tary General of the United Nations. 

In witness whereof the respective representatives, duly 
authorized for the purpose, have signed the present 
Agreement. 

Done at Rome, in duplicate, in the English and Italian 
languages, both texts authentic, this 28th day of June 
1948. 



James Clement Dunn 



Sforza 



ANNEX. Interpretive notes 

1. It is understood that the requirements of paragraph 
1 (A) of Article II, relating to the adoption of measures 
for the efficient use of resources, will include, with resiject 
to commodities furnished under the Agreement, effective 
measures for safeguarding such commodities and for pre- 
venting their diversion to illegal or irregular markets or 
channels of trade. 

2. It is understood that the obligations under paragraph 
1 (C) of Article II to balance the budget as soon as prac- 

(Continned on page 57) 

Department of State Bulletin 



statement by Secretary Marshall Concerning Signing 
of Economic Cooperation Agreements 



[Released to the press June 28] 

"With the signing of the bilateral agreements be- 
tween the participating countries and the United 
States we take one more step in the development of 
the program for European recovery. The pros- 
pect for success of this great project lies in the de- 
termination of the people of Europe to work to- 
gether to achieve recovery. The peojjle of the 
United States have demonstrated their confidence 
in the success of this undertaking through the 
action of Congress in making available for the 
initial period of the program the sum of five billion 
dollars. 

This unprecedented undertaking required ex- 
pression in formal agreements stating its basic 
objectives and establishing the relationships nec- 
essary for the orderly achievement of those ob- 
jectives. The Paris convention of April 16 ex- 
presses the aims and mutual pledges of the par- 
ticipating countries and establishes the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Co-operation as the 



mechanism through which the joint program will 
be achieved. The bilateral agreements state the 
mutual aims of the participating countries and 
the United States and establish the relationships 
through which American assistance will supple- 
ment the efforts of Europe. The two agreements 
are closely related. The basic undertakings in the 
bilateral agreements are essentially the same as 
those which the European countries had themselves 
already stated, both in last summer's report and in 
the convention, as necessary to achieve I'ecovery. 
Important progress has been made since the 
historic meetings in Paris of last summer. A 
framework has been established for a joint recov- 
ery program based on European initiative and 
mutual aid; an organization is functioning and 
the United States has assured large-scale assist- 
ance. A continuation of the cooperation and effort 
of the people of the countries concerned, under 
these conditions, should achieve the success of the 
program. 



Most-Favored-Nation Treatment for Areas Under Military Occupation 
With Respect to U.K., Italy, Ireland, and Greece 



Text of Note Exchanged Between the United 
States and United Kingdom 

June m, 19Ii8. 

Sir: 

I have the honor to refer to the conversations 
•which have recently taken place between repre- 
sentatives of our two Governments relating to the 
territorial application of commercial arrangements 
between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom and to confirm the under-stand- 
ing reached as a result of these conversations as 
follows : 

1. For such time as either the Government of the 
United States of America or the Government of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland participates in the occupation or con- 
trol of any areas in western Germany or the Free 
Territory of Trieste, the other Government will 
apply to the merchandise trade of such area the 

Ju/y IT, 1948 



provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, dated October 30, 1947, as now or here- 
after amended, relating to most-favored-nation 
treatment. 

2. The undertaking in paragraph 1, above, will 
apply on the part of tne Government of the United 
States of America or the Government of the United 
Eangdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
to the merchandise trade of any area referred to 
therein only for such time and to such extent as 
such area accords reciprocal most-favored-nation 
treatment to the merchandise trade of the United 
States of America or the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, respectively. 

3. The undertakings in paragraphs 1 and 2, 
above, are entered into in the light of the absence 
at the present time of effective or significant tariff 
barriers to imports into the areas herein concerned. 
In the event that such tariff barriers are imposed, 
it is understood that such undertakings shall be 
without prejudice to the application of the prin- 
ciples set forth in the Havana Charter for an 

43 



FORE/GN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

International Trade Organization relating to the 
reduction of tariffs on a mutually advantageous 
basis. 

4. It is recognized that the absence of a uniform 
rate of exchange for the currency of the areas in 
western Germany referred to in paragraph 1 above 
may have the effect of indirectly subsidizing the 
exports of such areas to an extent which it would 
be difficult to calculate exactly. So long as such 
a condition exists, and if consultation with the 
Government of the United States of America fails 
to reach an agreed solution to the problem, it is 
understood that it would not be inconsistent with 
the undertaking in paragraph 1 for tlie Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom to levy a counter- 
vailing duty on imports of such goods equivalent to 
the estimated amount of such subsidization, where 
the Government of the United Kingdom deter- 
mines that the subsidization is such as to cause or 
threaten material injui-y to an established domestic 
industry or is such as to prevent or materially 
retard the establishment of a domestic industry. 

5. The undertakings in this note shall remain in 
force until January 1, 1951, and unless at least six 
months before January 1, 1951, either Government 
shall have given notice in writing to the other of 
intention to terminate these undertakings on that 
date, they shall remain in force thereafter until the 
expiration of six months from the date on which 
such notice shall have been given. 

Please accept [etc.] 

In the exchange of notes between the United 
States and Italy variations from the U.S.-V.K. 
exchange of nx)tes appear in the following para- 
graphs : 

1. For such time as the Government of the 
United States of America participates in the occu- 
pation or control of any areas in western Germany, 
Japan or southern Korea, the Government of Italy 
will apply to the merchandise trade of such area 
the provisions relating to the most-favored-nation 
treatment of the merchandise trade of the United 
States of America set forth in the Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, signed 
February 2, 1948 (and, pending the entry into 
force of such Treaty, in the exchange of notes on 
commercial policy of August 14, 1947) , or for such 
time as the Government of the United States of 
America and Italy may both be contracting par- 
ties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, dated October 30, 1947, the provisions of 
that Agreement, as now or hereafter amended, re- 
lating to the most-favored-nation treatment of 
such trade. It is understood that the undertaking 
in this paragraph relating to the application of 
the most-favored-nation i)rovisions of the Treaty 
of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation shall be 
subject to the exceptions recognized in the General 



Agreement on Tariffs and Trade permitting de- 
partures from the application of most-favored- 
nation treatment and that the undertaking relating 
to the exchange of notes on commercial policy 
shall be subject to such exceptions and to the ex- 
ceptions recognized in the Treaty of Friendship, 
Commei'ce and Navigation; provided that nothing 
in this sentence shall be construed to require com- 
pliance with the procedures specified in the Gen- 
eral Agreement with regard to the application of 
the exceptions in the General Agreement. 

2. The undertaking in point 1, above, will apply 
to the merchandise trade of any area referred to 
therein only for such time and to such extent as 
such area accords reciprocal most-favored-nation 
treatment to the merchandise trade of Italy. 

4. It is recognized that the absence of a uni- 
form rate of exchange for the currency of the 
areas in western Germany, Japan or southern 
Korea referred to in point 1 above may have the 
effect of indirectly subsidizing the exports of such 
areas to an extent which it would be difficult to 
calculate exactly. . . . 

In the exchange of notes between the United 
States and Ireland variations from the U.S. -U.K. 
exchange of notes appear in the following para- 
graphs: 

1. For such time as the Government of the 
United States of America participates in the oc- 
cupation or control of any areas in western Ger- 
many, the Free Territory of Trieste, Japan or 
southern Korea, the Government of Ireland will 
extend to the merchandise trade of such area the 
most-favored-nation treatment for the time being 
accorded to the merchandise trade of the United 
States of America. It is understood that the 
undertaking in this paragi-aph relating to the 
extension of most-favored-nation treatment shall 
be subject to the exceptions recognized in the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade permitting 
departures from the application of most-favored- 
nation treatment; provided that nothing in this 
sentence shall be construed to require compliance 
with the procedures specified in the General Agree- 
ment with regard to the application of such 
exceptions. 

2. The undertaking in point 1, above, will apply 
to the merchandise trade of any area referred to 
therein only for such time and to such extent as 
such area accoi'ds reciprocal most-favored-nation 
treatment to the merchandise trade of Ireland. 

4. It is recognized that the absence of a uniform 
rate of exchange for the currency of the areas in 
western Germany, Japan or southern Korea re- 
ferred to in point 1 above may have the effect of 
indirectly subsidizing the exports of such areas to 
an extent which it would be difficult to calculate 
exactly. . . . 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



In the exchange of notes hetioeen the United 
States and Greece variations from the U.S.-V.K. 
exchange of notes appear in the following para- 
graphs: 

1. For such time as the Government of the 
United States of America participates in the occu- 
pation or control of any areas in western Germany 
or the Free Territory of Trieste, Japan or soutliern 
Korea, tlie Government of Greece will apply to 
the merchandise trade of such area the provisions 
relating to the most-favored-nation treatment of 
the merchandise trade of the United States of 
America set forth in the Provisional Commercial 
Agreement, signed November 15, 1938, or for such 
time as the Governments of the United States of 
America and Greece may both be contracting par- 
ties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, dated October 30, 1947, the provisions of 
that Agreement, as now or hereafter amended, re- 
lating to the most-favored-nation treatment of 
such trade. It is understood that the undertaking 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCT/ON 

in this paragraph relating to the application of the 
most-favored-nation provisions of tlie Provisional 
Commercial Agreement shall be subject to the ex- 
ceptions recognized in the General Agreement on 
Tariff's and Trade permitting departures from the 
application of most-favored-nation treatment; 
provided that nothing in this sentence shall be 
construed to require compliance with the pro- 
cedures specified in the General Agreement with 
regard to the application of such exceptions. 

2. Tlie undertaking in point 1, above, will apply 
to the merchandise trade of any area referred to 
therein only for such time and to such extent as 
such area accords reciprocal most-favored-nation 
treatment to the merchandise trade of Greece. 

4. It is recognized that the absence of a uniform 
rate of exchange for the currency of the areas in 
western Germany, Japan or southern Korea re- 
ferred to in point 1 above may have the efi^ect of 
indirectly subsidizing the exports of such areas 
to an extent which it would be difficult to calculate 
exactl}'. . . . 



Signing of the Foreign Aid Appropriation Act 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House June 28] 

I have signed today H.R. 6801, the Foreign 
Aid Appropriation Act, 1949,^ providing funds 
for the first year of the European Recovery Pro- 
gram, for aid to Greece, Turkey, and China, for 
meeting our occupation responsibilities in Europe 
and the Far East, and for our participation in 
the International Children's Fund and the Inter- 
national Refugee Organization. The total ap- 
propriation for these purposes included in the 
act is $0,030,710,228. 

By far the largest item in this act is the $4 bil- 
lion appropriation for economic cooperation with 
Europe. I know that the American people share 
the deep sense of satisfaction which I feel in tak- 
ing this final step to make the European Recovery 
Program effective. It furnishes concrete evidence 
and assurance to the free peoples of the world 
that we stand ready to work side by side with them 
to preserve free institutions in stability and peace. 

In June of last year, the United States indicated 
its readiness to work with the countries of Europe 
in developing a program of joint action to achieve 
economic recovery. Representatives of 16 Euro- 
pean countries drew up a progi-am in response 



to this suggestion and submitted it to this Govern- 
ment in September. After careful study, I sub- 
mitted to the Congress on December 19 recommen- 
dations for legislation to make the European Re- 
covery Program a reality. Following full con- 
sideration by the Congress, this legislation was 
enacted on April 3. 

Then began the last step in the legislative proc- 
ess — the enactment of the necessary appropria- 
tions to make the law effective. Again the pro- 
gram was carefully scrutinized and its various 
elements weighed and tested. As finally enacted, 
this appropriation is substantially in accord with 
the program presented to the Congress six months 
ago. It represents the combined judgment and 
will of the Executive and the Congress. It was 
evolved in the spirit of cooperation and not of 
partisan conflict. It demonstrates tlie united de- 
termination of our people to make good our pledge 
of cooperation to those who, like ourselves, are 
striving to achieve enduring peace and prosperity 
among all nations. 



' Public Law 793, 80th Cong., 2(1 sess. 



July 11, 1948 



45 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



The United States in the United Nations 



The Veto 

Consideration of proposals for mitigating abuse 
of the veto power in the Security Council was be- 
gun by the Interim Committee of the General As- 
sembly on July 7. Under discussion were recom- 
mendations of a subcommittee to which was 
assigned preliminary work on this problem. The 
General Assembly last fall asked the Interim Com- 
mittee to "consider the problem of voting in the 
Security Council" and to report its conclusions to 
the Secretary-General not later than July 15 for 
transmission to member states and to the General 
Assembly. 

The subcommittee reviewed 96 categories of 
Security Council decisions. Of these it listed a 
first group of 36 categories as clearly procedural 
and hence not subject to the veto, and a second 
group of 21 categories as decisions which ought to 
be taken by an affirmative vote of any seven mem- 
bers of the Council, whether or not they were con- 
sidered procedural. 

On July 7 and 8 the Committee ratified the sub- 
committee's findings regarding the groups of 36 
and 21 decisions, although reservations were 
noted by a number of members. The Representa- 
tives of France and the United Kingdom refused 
to endorse inclusion in the second group of the de- 
cision whether a matter is procedural. This is 
the type of decision which often leads to the so- 
called "double veto." The United Kingdom Rep- 
resentative, James Fawcett, doubted the wisdom of 
including in the second group all decisions taken 
under the Charter's chapter VI (pacific settlement 
of disputes). United States policy on this point, 
as originally announced by Secretary of State 
Marshall in his opening address at the General 
Assembly last September, favors abandonment by 
all the permanent members of the veto power on 
chapter VI decisions. 

There was no dissent to inclusion in the second 
group of Security Council decisions on admissions 
to U.N. membership. 

No less than 24 of the 26 vetoes cast by the Soviet 
Union to date fall in these three fields of decisions 
under chapter VI, membership applications, and 
the "double veto". 

Representatives of China, France, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States all took exception 
to a proposal of Selim Sarper of Turkey, which 
was later withdrawn, that the Committee should 
add to the second group Security Council findings 
under article 39 that there was a "threat to the 

46 



peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression". 
Article 39 is the first article in chapter VII, which 
covers peace-enforcement action by the Security 
Council. Joseph E. Johnson of the United States 
argued that a decision under article 39 should be 
suibject to the unanimity rule, because if it were to 
be meaningful it would have to envisage recom- 
mendations or sanctions whose effectiveness would 
require big-power unanimity. He recalled that at 
the San Francisco conference article 39 had pur- 
posely been put in chapter VII rather than in 
chapter VI because it was felt that a determination 
that a threat to i^eace existed could lead to the 
whole range of action under chapter VII. Fran- 
Qois de Rose of France said the Turkish proposal 
might permit sanctions to be ordered without the 
assent of those who would have to enforce them. 

The view that the recommendations were inade- 
quate and that only elimination of the veto power 
would make the United Nations a real guardian of 
peace was urged by Jose Arce of Argentina, Carlos 
P. Romulo of the Philippines, and Sir Carl Be- 
rendsen of New Zealand. Dr. Arce and General 
Romulo declared they still favored calling a gen- 
eral conference under article 109 to revise the 
Charter. 

Palestine 

The Security Council was called to an unsched- 
uled meeting at a late hour on July 8 to discuss 
indications that full-scale warfare in Palestine 
was about to be resumed. 

The Council's July President, Dmitri Z. Manuil- 
sky of the Ukraine, called the emergency meeting 
upon receipt of a telegram from Moshe Shertok, 
Foreign Minister of Israel, which charged that 
Egyptian forces had opened an offensive in South 
Palestine 24 hours before the four- week truce was 
due to expire. As the Council met, a telegram 
came in from Count Bernadotte, U.N. mediator in 
Palestine, rej^orting that Israel had accepted his 
proposal of a 30-day truce extension but that the 
Arab states had rejected it. The telegram ex- 
pressed the mediator's disappointment "that hos- 
tilities are to be resumed" and added that he would 
concentrate on obtaining "a cease-fii-e in Jerusalem 
and its ultimate demilitarization". Bernadotte 
said he did not yet have a text of the Arab reply 
and promised the Council a full report "at a very 
early date". 

Philip C. Jessup of the United States, referring 
to the Shertok telegram, said that the Council 
clearly could not act solely on the basis of an al- 
legation from one of the parties and must await 
the mediator's report on resumption of fighting. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Tlie information at luxnd, Mr. Jessup said, con- 
fronted tlie Council with some "uncertainty and 
ambiguity". It could be hoped that further news 
would show that anticipation of a truce rupture 
was based on a misunderstanding or that an Arab 
refusal to prolong it had been reconsidered. He 
noted it was not clear whether the Arab Govern- 
ments" reply to the proposal for a truce extension 
had been sent before they had received the text of 
the CounciTs resolution of July 7, which appealed 
to both sides to prolong the truce. 

"jMy Government welcomes the fact that the 
Government of Israel has accepted the proposals 
of the mediator", JNIr. Jessup said. "It is very 
hard to believe that the Arab States, members of 
the United A'ations, have actually rejected any 
prolongation of the truce and that they would con- 
template actually resorting to war in violation of 
the Charter"'. If this were the case, the Council 
would have no choice, Mr. Jessup said, but to turn 
to chapter VII of the Charter (action with respect 
to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and 
acts of aggression). He recalled that the resolu- 
tion of May 29 bound the Council to consider 
chapter VII action if the tince were repudiated 
or violated. 

"There can be no question, in my opinion," Mr. 
Jessup declared, "that in a situation in which one 
of the contesting parties has clearly indicated its 
willingness to prolong the truce the other party 
could allege that a resort to force was an act based 
upon a necessity of self-defense". 

ilr. Jessup pointed out that no case had hitherto 
required the full application of chapter VII 
(which authorizes diplomatic, economic, and mili- 
tary sanctions), "but it must be recognized that 
chapter VII is as much a part of the Charter as 
any other chapter." The U.S. Government, he 
said, "will be prepared to carry out its obligations 
as a member of the Security Council and of the 
United Nations." 

A proposal by the United States for a finding 
under article 39 would parallel one made in the 
Council by Ambassador Warren K. Austin on 
May 17. It obtained only five votes, two short of 
the required seven. 

Indonesia 

The Security Council decided on July 6 to ask 
its Good Offices Committee in Indonesia for a full 
report on restrictions applied to trade with the 
Indonesian Republic. The action followed a com- 
plaint by the Indonesian Republic Representative, 
Lambertus Palar, that "the Dutch are trying to 
strangle the Republic." 

The Good Ollices Committee reported on June 
21 ' that, although the truce agreement signed 
aboard the U.S.S. Renville on January 17, 1948, 
stipulated that normal trade channels, both domes- 
tic and foreign, were to be reopened, no significant 

Jufy n, 1948 



mt UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

increase in trade in and out of Republican terri- 
tory had occurred and there were severe shortages 
of vital commodities. 

Nine members of the Council voted for a Chinese 
proposal to ask the Committee for full informa- 
tion. The U.S.S.R. and the Ukraine abstained 
because they thought the language of the request 
too mild. 

Children's Fund 

The Program Committee of the International 
Children's Emergency Fund met in Paris on July 
3 to review its program in the 12 European coun- 
tries and China where the Fund is now operating 
and to consider extending its aid to the U.S., U.K., 
and French zones in Germany, as well as to coun- 
tries in the Far East other than China. The Pro- 
gram Committee, on which the United States is 
represented at this session by Louis K. Hyde, began 
a field trip to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Italy 
on July 8 to inspect Icef operations in these 
countries. Established by a General Assembly 
resolution of December 11, 1946, the Fund today 
is providing supjilementary food for more than 
4,000,000 children in European countries and 
China. 

Labor Conference 

The International Labor Organization began 
its Thirty-first Conference in San Francisco on 
June 17, with 51 of the Ilo's 59 member countries 
represented at the Conference. David A. Morse, 
recently elected Director General of the organi- 
zation, heads the U.S. Delegation. Among the 
more important decisions made by the Confer- 
ence are preliminary approval of the principle of 
equal pay for equal work, agreement to consider 
establishment of regulations for labor clauses in 
public contracts at next year's conference, and 
extension of an invitation to General MacArthur, 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in 
Japan, to send an observer delegation. Awaiting 
Conference adoption is a proposed convention on 
freedom of association by which both workers and 
employers will have the right to join workers' or 
employers' organizations of their own choosing. 
The Conference is expected to end on July 10. 

Telecommunication Pact 

President Truman has sigiied the international 
telecommunication convention with its final pro- 
tocol, and the Radio Regulations annexed thereto, 
which were recommended for ratification by the 
U.S. Senate on June 2. The convention includes 
reorganization of the International Telecommuni- 
cation Union to strengthen its relationship with 
the United Nations. The convention and regula- 
tions go into eilect on January 1, 1949, with regard 
to countries and territories which have ratified or 
adhered to the convention by that date. 



' U.N. doc. S/S48, June 21, 1948. 



47 



INTERNATSONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. DELEGATIONS TO BNTERNATEONAL COr^FERENCES | 



Theatre Institute 

[Released to the press June 29] 

The Department of State announced on June 29 
the composition of the United States Observer 
Delegation to the First Congress of the Inter- 
national Theatre Institute being held at Praha 
from June 28 to July 3, 1948. Warren Caro, execu- 
tive secretary of the Theatre Guild, New York, 
is serving as chairman of the Observer Delegation 
and Miss Rosamond Gilder, secretary, American 
National Theatre and Academy, New York, as 
adviser. 

The meeting is being held under the sponsorship 
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (Unescx)) with the co- 
operation of the Government of Czechoslovakia. 
The purpose of the Congress is to create an In- 
ternational Tlieatre Institute to provide for the 
establishment of international theatre centers in 
the member states of Unesco. 

A proposal for the creation of an International 
Theatre Institute was approved by the First Ses- 
sion of the General Conference of Unesco at Paris 
in 1946. A meeting of experts was held at Paris 
in July 1947, at whicli a charter for the Institute 
was drafted. The Second Session of the General 
Conference of Unesco, held in Mexico City in No- 
vember 1947, authorized the convening of an in- 
ternational conference to establish the Inter- 
national Theatre Institute. 

The provisional agenda for the meeting in- 
cludes: (1) adoption of a final draft charter for 
the Institute; (2) the election of an Executive 
Committee wliich will be responsible for making 
recommendations concerning the site of the per- 
manent headquarters of the Institute, the site of 
the Second Congress, and the appointment of the 
Secretary General and staff; (3) the organization 
and operation of a playscript-exchange service; 
(4) the development of an operational scheme for 
services to performing companies abroad ; and (5) 
the development of the structure and nature of 
information services. 



UNESCO 



[Released to the press June 28] 



The Department of State announced on June 
28 the list of advisers to the United States Dele- 
gation to the Third Session of the General Con- 



ference of the United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization (Unesco), which 
is scheduled to be held at Beirut, Lebanon, Oc- 
tober IS to November 10, 1948, as follows : 

Special Adviser to the United States Delegation and Mem- 
ber of the Executive Board of Unesco 

George D. Stoddard, President, University of Illinois. Ur- 
bana. 111. 

Advisers 

Ben M. Clierrlngton, Social Science Foundation, Denver, 
Colo. 

Kermit Eby, Director of Education and Researcli, Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations 

E. Pendleton Herring, President-elect, Social Science Be- 
search Council 

Richard P. McKeon, Professor of Philosophy, University 
of Chicago 

Kendric Marshall, United States Office of Education 

Stephen B. L. Penrose, President-designate of Beirut Uni- 
versity 

Louise Wright, Director, Chicago Council on Foreign Re- 
lations 

Charles M. Hulten, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Ad- 
ministration, Department of State 

Walter M. Kotschnig, Chief, Division of International 
Organization Affairs, Office of United Nations Affairs, 
Department of State 

Kenneth Holland, Counselor on Unesco Affairs, American 
Embassy, Paris 

James S. Moose, Jr., Foreign Service Inspector 

Samuel de Palma, Division of International Organization 
Affairs, Department of State 

Esther C. Brunauer, Assistant Director, Unesco Rela- 
tions Staff, Department of State 

Special Assistant to the Chairman 

Saxton Bradford, Deputy Director, Unesco Relations 
Staff, Department of State 

Executive Secretary 

Henry J. Sabatini, Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

Technical Secretary 

Herbert J. Abraham, Unesco Relations Staff, Department 
of State 

On June 24, 1948, the President approved the 
designation of the following in the capacity 
named : 

Representatives of the United States to the Third Session 
of the Ocncral Conference of Unesco 

George V. Allen, of North Carolina 

Milton S. Eisenhower, of Kansas 

Luther H. Evans, of Texas 

Waldo G. Leland, of Massachusetts 

Mrs. Anne O'Hare McCormick, of New York 



48 



Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



Altrnidtc Representatives 

Frniik Onpra, of (California 

William II. Hastio, of tlio District of CoUiiubia 

Mrs. Katliloen N. Lardie, of Jrichigan 

W. Albert Noyes, Jr.. of New York 

George F. Zook, of Virsinia 

Cmigrexsional Adviser 

J, William Fiilbright, of Arkan.sas 

In accordance with the Unesco constitution, 
the Executive Board of Unesco, at its meeting 
at Paris in February 1948, prepared the dralH; 
agenda for the Tliird Session of the General Con- 
ference. Among the items on tliis provisional 
agenda are : ( 1 ) report of the Director General on 
the activities of the Organization in 1948; (2) 
consideration of reports submitted by member 
states in 1918; (3) discussion of certain items in 
the program for 1948 and of new activities pro- 
posed for 1949 ; (4) the Organization's budget; (5) 
matters which have been raised by member states, 
the United Nations, or other specialized agencies ; 
(6) organizational (luestions, including the Na- 
tional Commissions of Unesco; (7) election of 
seven members to the Executive Board; (8) ap- 
pointment of the Director General ; (9) considera- 
tion of recommendations of the Executive Board 
concerning the admission of new members to the 
Organization: and (10) consideration of recom- 
mendations of the Executive Board concerning the 
admission of observers of international nongovern- 
mental organizations to the Third Session of the 
General Conference. 

Unesco, a specialized agency of the United 
Nations, designed to foster international under- 
standing through educational, scientific, and cul- 
tural activities, was launched at a meeting of 41 
members of the United Nations at London in No- 
vember 1945. The main objective of the organiza- 
tion is to contribute to peace and security by 
promoting collaboration among nations in every 
field of Imowledge. The First Session of the 
General Conference of Unesco was held at Paris 
in November and December 1946. The Second 
Session was held at Mexico City in November and 
December 1947. 

It is expected that representatives of the 39 
governments which have adhered to the Unesco 
con.stitution will attend the forthcoming meeting. 



ACriV/r/ES AND DEVBLOPMENTS 

U.S.-CANADA INTERNATIONAL JOINT 
COfVlKIISSION DISCUSSES KOOTENAY 
RIVER FLOODS 

[Released to the press Juue 291 

At the request of Governor C. A. Robins of 
Idaho, members of the International Joint Com- 
mission, United States and Canada, will meet at 
Bonners Ferry, Idaho, on July 27, 1948, to confer 
with officers and persons affected by the recent 
serious floods of the Kootenay River, which have 
caused serious damage in both Canada and the 
United States. 

The Connnission has pending before it a refer- 
ence from the Governments of the United States 
and Canada requiring a study and recommenda- 
tions with respect to the entire Columbia River 
Basin, which includes the Kootenay River. As 
rivers in the States of Washington, Oregon, Mon- 
tana, and Wyoming are involved in this project 
in addition to rivers in the State of Idaho, the 
Governors of all five States have been invited to 
participate, either personally or by representa- 
tives, in the meeting. Officials of the Canadian 
Government and of the Province of British Co- 
lumbia, as well as other interested Canadians, have 
also been invited to be present and present their 
views. 

The International Columbia River Engineering 
Board has been conducting studies in Canada and 
the United States for the past four years, and the 
results of their work up to the present time will be 
available for consideration. The chairman of the 
Canadian group of engineers is Victor Meek, con- 
troller. Dominion Water and Power Bureau, and 
Major General R. C. Crawford, deputy chief of 
engineers, Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, is chairman of the group of engineers that 
has conducted investigations in the United States. 
It is hoped that an important program for de- 
velopment of water storage and hydroelectric 
development may be planned to prevent the de- 
struction and gi-eat loss of property that has 
occurred as a result of devastating floods in this 
area this spring. 



July I?, 1948 



49 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S. Urges Soviet Command To Resume Electric Power to Soutli Korea 



U.S. NOTE TO THE SOVIET MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 



[Released to the press June 29] 

Delivered June 26^ 19Jt8. 

I have the honor to bring to the attention of 
your Excellency the matter of the distribution of 
electric power in Korea. 

As you are doubtless aware, the principal elec- 
tric power production facilities for the whole of 
that country are located in the area north of the 
38° parallel presently occupied by Soviet forces. 
As you are probably also aware, those facilities 
wei'e designed to meet a substantial propoi'tion of 
the electric power requirements of that part of the 
country lying south of the 38° parallel and pres- 
ently occupied by U.S. forces. 

With a view to ensuring that the people of south 
Korea would not be deprived of the continued 
normal flow of electric power from such north 
Korean sources, the U.S. Command entered on 
June 17, 1947 into an agreement with the Soviet 
Command designed to effect a settlement for power 
already supplied and to provide the basis for a 
subsequent settlement for power to be furnished 
in the future. The provisions of that agreement 
were substantially as follows : 

(a) the cost of power delivered for the period 
August 16, 1945, through May 31, 1947, was fixed 
at 16,334,735 yen, based upon 1941 prices at 0.0195 
yen per K.W.H. ; 

(b) payment should be in equipment and speci- 
fied materials to be delivered by the U.S. Com- 
mand within six months from the date of delivery 
of final revised specifications ; 

(c) the cost of the equipment and materials 
would be determined on the basis of 1941 Japanese 
price lists, or when unavailable or lacking the 
necessary data, corresponding U.S. price lists 
would be used. The rate of exchange for this 
purpose was fixed at 100 yen equalling $23.44; 

(d) should the delivery of particular materials 
be impossible at a specified time, new terms of de- 
livery or the substitution of other materials would 
be determined by mutual agreement ; 

(e) electric power supplied after June 1, 1947, 
would be the subject of a separate agreement, to 
be signed within one month. 

When it became apparent, as early as December 
1947, that delays in the delivery of the specified 
materials would be unavoidable because of their 

50 



extreme shortage in the world markets, the Com- 
manding General of the U.S. Army Forces in 
Korea, in accordance with stipulation (d) of the 
agreement as outlined above, initiated a series of 
efforts to open discussions with the Soviet Com- 
mand regarding the substitution of other mate- 
rials, or to settle the account in American dollars. 
By his letter of May 8, 1948, General Hodge noti- 
fied General Korotkov that the 8th shipment of 
materials, in partial payment of electric power 
received prior to June 1, 1947, would be ready for 
inspection and delivery on May 25, 1948. The 
estimated value of this delivery was given as 40% 
of the total debt, and it was pointed out that this 
amovmt, in addition to the 35% already delivered, 
left an unpaid balance of 25% which General 
Hodge suggested should be negotiated, under the 
terms of the Agreement, at a conference between 
the two commands. On May 14, 1948, six days 
after the delivery of this letter, the electric power 
supply to south Korea was cut off, and has never 
been resumed. On May 17, 1948, in a letter to 
General Korotkov, General Hodge protested this 
unwarranted action. 

On June 12, 1948, General Hodge referring to 
his letter of May 8, 1948, notified the Soviet Com- 
mand in north Korea that materials in payment 
of the outstanding obligations were either in Seoul 
awaiting delivery to north Korea, or en route to 
Seoul. The alternative of settling the accoiuit in 
United States dollars was also i-eiterated. In this 
letter. General Hodge again proposed that upon 
the resumption of the flow of electric power to 
south Korea and the transfer of the materials now 
awaiting delivery to north Korea, a conference 
of accredited representatives of the two Com- 
mands, including representative Koreans from 
both north and south Korea, be convened in either 
Seoul or Pyongyang. General Hodge expressed 
the hope that through such a conference a defini- 
tive settlement of outstanding accounts, which 
would include payments for power delivered after 
June 1, 1947, could be made. 

In reply to his letter of May 17, 1948, General 
Hodge has received a letter from General Merku- 
lov dated June 15, 1948, which reiterated previous 
communications from the Soviet Command in 
north Korea to the effect that "the Soviet Com- 
mand cannot fulfill the functions as an intermedi- 
ary between the American Command and the 

Department of State Bulletin 



Peoples Committee of north Korea in the case of 
delivery of electric energy to south Korea." Ac- 
knowledgment has not been made of General 
Hodge's letter of June 12, 1948. 

It is the view of this Government that so long 
as Soviet forces remain in occupation of north 
Korea, tlie Soviet Command cannot divest itself 
unilaterally of its responsibilities, including the 
responsibilitv incurred under the agreement of 
June 17, Idi^. Should the Soviet Command per- 



THE RECORD OF THE W£BK 

sist in refusing to maintain an adequate flow of 
electric power to south Korea, the people of that 
ai"ea will thereby be subjected to unwarranted 
hardships. 

It is urged, therefore, that instructions be trans- 
mitted to the Soviet Command in Korea to resume 
deliveries of electric power to south Korea im- 
mediately, and to participate with representatives 
of the United States Command in the negotiations 
proposed by General Hodge. 



Consideration of Soviet Reply to American Lend-Lease Settlement Proposals 

STATEMENT BY SECRETARY MARSHALL 



[Released to the press July 2] 

After receiving a communication from the De- 
partment of State on the subject of a lend-lease 
settlement, the Soviet Ambassador called in late 
May and stated his intention to return to Moscow 
to obtain new instructions. Since his return to 
the United States the Ambassador has submitted 
a reply which is now being studied. 

After many delays the negotiations began on 
April 30, 1947, since which time they have con- 
tinued sporadically. The United States has made 
proposals as to the main points of settlement which 
follow the basic principles of settlements already 
concluded with other major lend-lease recipients. 
Our proposals are in accord with the provisions 
of the Soviet master lend-lease agreement of June 
11, 1942. 

In general the United States asks no payment 
for any lend-lease aid represented by articles or 
services expended in the common war effort prior 
to V-,T Day, September 2, 1945. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment is being asked to pay the reasonable value 



as of V-J Day of civilian-type lend-lease articles 
which remained in existence on that day, such 
articles being of a kind which would have a peace- 
time utility to the Soviet economy. Eight lend- 
lease merchant vessels have been returned by the 
Soviet Government under the provisions of article 
V of the master agreement. Settlement for the 87 
merchant vessels remaining in Soviet possession is 
one of the subjects under discussion in the nego- 
tiations, and their ultimate disposition depends 
upon the outcome of these negotiations. In addi- 
tion to the 8 merchant vessels already re- 
turned, this Government has requested the im- 
mediate return of 3 icebreakers and 28 frigates 
of the United States Navy. The disposition of 
certain other small naval craft still in Soviet 
possession is also a subject under discussion in the 
negotiations. The United States asks the Soviet 
Government to provide compensation to United 
States firms for the use of their patented processes 
supplied to the Soviet Government under lend- 
lease during the war. 



Reply to Soviet Protest of Newsweek Article 



[Released to the press June 29] 

Text of note froin the Secretary of State to the 
Soviet Amhassador, dated June 28, 1948 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His Excellency the Ambassador of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and has the honor to 
acknowledge the receipt of the Embassy's note 
No. 107 of June 9, 1948, bringing to the attention 
of this Government an article which appeared in 
the May 17, 1948, issue of News-week magazine, 
which the Embassy's note characterizes as a viola- 
tion of the Resolution on Measures to be taken 
against Propaganda and the Inciters of a New 
War adopted at the Second Session of the General 
Assembly of the United Nations. The article dis- 
cusses an alleged plan of defense by American air 
forces in the event of an attack upon the United 
States. 

Jo/y n, J 948 



The American attitude concerning the function 
of the press has been made clear to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment at numerous meetings of various agencies 
of the United Nations at which the question of the 
freedom of the press has been discussed. It is a 
tradition in this country that the public press shall 
serve as a forum for the discussion of all questions 
of public concern. 

The Government of the United States agrees 
that this Government, whose representatives ap- 
proved the General Assembly Resolution, should 
"promote, by all means of publicity and propa- 
ganda available to them, friendly relations among 
nations based on the Purposes and Principles of 
the Charter". The Government of the United 
States is actively pursuing this policy. This Gov- 
ermnent, however, cannot accept the view ex- 
pressed in the Embassy's note to the effect that 
governments which accepted the resolution should 

51 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

bear responsibility for acts committed on their ter- 
ritories which by their nature viohite the resolu- 
tion. The position of the United States Govern- 
ment on this point was made clear in the debate on 
the resolution at the General Assembly last year in 
the following statement by Mr. Austin : 

"The United States Delegation opposes any at- 
tempts, direct or indirect, to limit freedom of ex- 
pression. We are against even setting foot upon 
the path leading to suppression and tyranny." 

Any attempt on the part of the Government of 
the United States to control or suppress articles of 
this type appeai'ing in the public press would be a 
violation of the right of freedom of the press which 
is guaranteed by the Constitution of the United 
States. 

An examination of the Neivsiveefc article will re- 
veal that its whole tenor was postulated on an as- 
sumed act of aggression against the United States. 
The greater part of the article was devoted to 
speculation concerning measures to which the 
United States might resort for its national defense 
if confronted with such an attack. There is no 
suggestion that the United States should take the 
initiative in attacking the Soviet Union or any 
other country. 

It is a cause for surprise to this Government 
that the Soviet Government should feel called 
upon to protest against articles appearing in the 
United States where the press and other organs of 
information are free of governmental control in 
accordance with the principles of freedom of in- 
formation, when in the Soviet Union where, as 
Premier Stalin made clear in his interview with 
Mr. Stassen on April 9, 1947, the government in 
fact controls and censors the press and other 
organs of information and theieby makes itself 
responsible for the material they publish, articles 
are constantly appearing which in the opinion of 
this Government can scarcely be construed as pro- 
moting friendly relations among nations, based 
on the purposes and principles of the Charter. 

The Government of the United States is happy 
to observe the statement in the Embassy's note 
characterizing the charge that the Soviet Union 
is preparing an attack upon the United States as 
a libelous invention. 

Surplus-Property Payments From France, 
Netherlands, and Brazil 

[Released to the press July 2] 

The Department of State announced on July 2 
that the Government of the United States has re- 
ceived the following payments: 

A sum in francs equivalent to 13 million dollars 
from the Government of France for interest due 
on July 1, 1948, under a credit extended to France 



for settlement of its U.S. lend-lease account and 
the purchase of U.S. surplus property. No pay- 
ments of principal are due until 1951. 

The sum of 960 thousand dollars from the Neth- 
erlands Government for interest due on July 1, 
1948, on the Netherlands lend-lease account. No 
payments of princii^al are due until 1951. 

The sum of 5 million dollars from the Govern- 
ment of Brazil as the July 1, 1948, installment on 
its remaining lend-lease obligations to the United 
States. 

The francs making the second installment paid 
by France to the United States will be used for 
educational purposes under the Fulbright Act if 
an agi'eement, now under negotiation between 
France and the United States, is concluded prior 
to August 15, 1948. If such an agreement is not 
concluded by that time, the disposition of the 
francs will be subject to further negotiation, or 
the francs will be returned and the obligation of 
the French to pay the interest in dollars will be 
reinstated. 

The lend-lease and surplus-property agreement 
with France was signed on May 28, 1946. France 
agreed to pay the United States 720 million dollars 
on deferred i^ayment, for which it received 
approximately 1,398 million dollars at procure- 
ment cost in United States war surplus located in 
France and also settled its lend-lease account of 
3,233 million dollars for France and its posses- 
sions. This settlement also took into account the 
760 million dollars in reverse lend-lease furnished 
by France to the United States during the war. 

The Netherlands payment was the first intei'est 
installment on the 67,500 thousand dollars due the 
United States under its lend-lease settlement agree- 
ment signed on May 28, 1947. Under lend-lease, 
the Netherlands received 249 million dollars in 
lend-lease materials and furnished the United 
States 2,400 thousand dollars in reverse lend-lease. 

Brazil's 5-million-dollar installment leaves 
approximately 30 million dollars due to the United 
States under its lend-lease settlement agreement, 
signed on April 15, 1948. 

Bolivian Proposal on Defaulted Bonds 

Statement hy Secretary Marshall 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The Bolivian Government has made a public an- 
nouncement of a proposed plan for the resumption, 
on an adjusted basis, of its dollar bonds which have 
been in default for many years. The announce- 
ment describes an offer which will be made to the 
bondholders when it has been approved by the 
Bolivian Congress. 

The decision of the Bolivian Government to re- 
sume service on its external obligations is a con- 
structive action which is most gi-atifying. 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



Discussions Witli Sweden on Loss of Gold and Foreign-Exchange Holdings 



SUMMARY OF NEGOTIATIONS 



[Released to the press June 28] 

The Department of State announced on June 
28 that discussions have recently been held be- 
tween representatives of the United States and 
Swedish Governments regarding Sweden's need 
to prevent further serious losses of gold and for- 
eign-exchange holdings caused by the svibstantial 
deficit in Sweden's trade with the hard-currency 
areas of the world. 

The drastic reduction of Sweden's holdings of 
hard currencies since the close of the war neces- 
sitated temporary modifications of the quantita- 
tive :ind nondiscriminatory commitments of the 
trade airrcement of 1935 between the two countries. 



Understandings regarding such modifications for 
the period ending June 30, 1948, were reached 
on June 24, 1947, and February 11, 1948.^ 

Due to Sweden's continued shortage of hard 
currency it was agreed on June 12 to extend the 
arrangements embodied in the aforementioned 
understandings until June 30, 1949, or until 
Sweden becomes a contracting party to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, whichever 
is the earlier date. The understanding of June 12 
may be terminated by either Government on 60 
days' written notice, after consultation as to the 
justification for its continuance. 



EXCKAr^GE OF MEIVIORANDA BETWEEN THE U.S. AND SWEDEN 



[Released to the press June 281 

The Government of Sweden wishes to refer to 
discussions which have recently been held between 
its Embassy in Washington and representatives of 
the Government of the United States of America 
concerning the problems faced by the Government 
of Sweden as the result of the serious loss of its 
gold and dollar exchange. These discussions have 
resulted in a mutual understanding between the 
two Governments as follows : 

1. Because of the large deficit in the Swedish 
balance of payments with the hard-currency areas 
of the world it is recognized that the Government 
of Sweden continues to be faced with the necessity 
of taking measures to correct its present imbalance 
of trade and to conserve its foreign exchange. Tlie 
import restrictions imposed by the Government of 
Sweden on March 15, 1947, as presently applied 
are understood to serve these purposes. 

2. It is therefore agreed that the provisions con- 
tained in the exchange of aide-memoire between 
the two Governments dated June 24, 1947, as modi- 
fied by the exchange of memoranda dated Febru- 
ary 11. 1948 shall continue to be applied after 
June 30, 1948. until the Government of Sweden 
becomes a contracting party to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade concluded at Geneva 
Switzerland on October 30, 1947, or until June 30, 
1949, whichever is the earlier. If by May 1, 1949, 



Sweden has not adhered to the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade, the two Governments agree 
to review the situation for the purpose of con- 
sidering such actions as the circumstances may de- 
mand. 

It is further agreed that either Government 
after consultation as to the continued justification 
for this understanding may terminate it on sixty 
days written notice. 

Washington, D. C, Jime 12, 194.8. 



The Government of the United States of 
America wishes to refer to discussions which have 
recently been held between its representatives and 
representatives of the Embassy of Sweden con- 
cerning the pi'oblems faced by the Government of 
Sweden as the result of its serious loss of gold and 
dollar exciiange, and to the memorandum of to- 
day's date from the Embassy of Sweden setting 
forth the understanding reached in these discus- 
sions. The Government of the United States of 
America confirms the understanding reached in 
these discussions as set forth in the memorandum 
from the Embassy of Sweden. 

Washington, June 12, l!)!j8. 



' See Bulletin of Feb. 22, 1948, p. 231 . 



July 11, 1948 



53 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Air Transport To Supply Civilian 
Needs in Berlin 

Statement by Secr^etary Marshall 

[Released to the press June 30] 

We are in Berlin as a result of agreements be- 
tween the Governments on the areas of occupation 
in Germany, and we intend to stay. The Soviet 
attempt to blockade the German civilian popula- 
tion of Berlin raises basic questions of serious 
import with which we expect to deal promptly. 

Meanwliile, maximum use of air transport will 
be made to supply the civilian population. It has 
been found, after study, that the tonnage of food- 
stuffs and supplies which can be lifted by air is 
greater than had at first been assumed. 

Hungary Requires Presentation of Foreign- 
Owned Shares of Hungarian Banks 

[Released to the press June 29] 

The Department of State announced on June 
29 the receipt of information that a decree of the 
Hungarian Government, published on May 6, 1948, 
requires that shares of the National Bank or 
Hungary and of banks in the first category of the 
Central Corporation of Banking Companies (the 
banks nationalized on December 4, 1947) which 
are owned by foreign nationals and corporations 
registered abroad must be presented by the owners 
or custodians, for the purpose of listing, before 
July 30, 1948. For individuals residing abroad 
and corporations domiciled abroad the time limit 



is 45 days after the pertinent Hungarian diplo- 
matic mission makes an announcement on the 
matter through the newspapers. (The Hungarian 
Legation at Washington has informed the De- 
partment that no announcement has yet been made 
in the United States.) If the shares involved 
were annulled by Hungarian courts or are in 
process of nullification, a copy of the nullification 
decree or information concerning the nullification 
procedure must be presented. The presentation 
must be made whether or not the shares have been 
declared pursuant to previous legislation.^ 

Shares held in Hungary must be presented at 
the Central Corporation of Banking Companies, 
wliile those held abroad must be presented at a 
Hungarian diplomatic mission. 

The owner or custodian of the shares must de- 
clare at the time of presentation the date and man- 
ner of acquisition of the shares, and if the owner is 
an individual there must be stated also the date of 
his acquisition of foreign citizenship and, if he 
previously lived in Hungary, the date of his de- 
parture from that country. The Central Coi'- 
jjoration of Banking Companies may require proof 
of the date submitted. 

Shares not presented within the time limit will 
be declared null and void and will be replaced 
by new shares which will be delivered to the 
Hungarian Treasury without compensation. This 
will also be done in the case of shares of which 
the foreign ownership is not proved prior to a 
date to be fixed by the Hungarian Government. 

The decree became effective on the date of pub- 
lication. 



Signing of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House June 26] 

I have today signed H.K. 6556, the Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act of 1948. Unfortunately, 
tliis act extends for only one year tlie authority 
to enter into reciprocal trade agreements. It also 
makes unwise changes in the procedure for nego- 
tiating such agreements. 

I regret very much that the Congress has not 
seen fit to renew this authority for the customary 
three-year period. There is no valid reason for 
a one-year limitation, which appears to cast some 
doubt upon our intentions for the future. 

Moreover, tlie act prescribes a new, complicated, 
time-consuming and unnecessary procedure for 
the negotiation of reciprocal trade agreements. 
This change in procedure will necessarily hamper 
and obstruct the negotiation of new agreements, 

■ Buu-ETiN of July 13, 1947, p. 060. 
54 



a defect which is particularly undesirable in view 
of the act's limitation to a single year. 

The reciprocal trade-agreements program has 
long occupied a key position in our foreign policy 
and in our endeavors to assist world recovery. As 
I pointed out in a special message to the Congress 
last March, the program is a tested and practical 
means for achieving the benefits of expanding 
world commerce for tlie United States and other 
countries and a continuing evidence of the deter- 
mination of the United States to contribute its 
full share to the reconstruction of a sound and 
growing world economy as a basis for enduring 
world peace. 

As part of the European Recovery Program, the 
participating countries have agreed to work to- 
gether to lower barriers to trade. The United 
States can surely do no less than show its deter- 
mination to support the same principle, which is 

Department of State Bulletin ; 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEIC 



SO important to an expansion of world markets 
and world trade. 

It is so essential that the reciprocal trade-a<^ree- 
ments proj^rain should not lapse, that I have signed 
this act iTi sjiite of its serious defects. 

I will do my best to make the new procedures 
work. As a lirst step, I intend to pi'oceed in the 
near future with plans for bringing other coun- 
tries into the General Agreement on Tariffs and 



Trade signed with 22 countries at Geneva in Oc- 
tober 1947. 

The reciprocal trade-agreements program is one 
of high national policy. When the act is again 
extended next year, I trust that the defects con- 
tained in this year's extension will be corrected, 
in order that the act will be restored as a fully 
effective instrument of permanent United States 
policy. 



Geneva Trade Protocol Signed by Twenty-two Countries 



[Released to the press July 1] 

Twenty-two of the twenty-three countries sign- 
ing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
at Geneva on October 30, 1947, have signed the 
protocol of provisional ajjplication, meeting the 
June 30 date for such signature as provided in 
the protocol. Burma, Ceylon, and Lebanon 
signed on June 29, Brazil, New Zealand, Pakistan, 
and Syria on June 30. Pursuant to the provisions 
of the protocol, the seven countries will become 
contracting parties to the agreement on the expira- 
tion of 30 days from date of signature. A presi- 
dential proclamation will be necessary to give 
effect to the tariff concessions which were granted 
by the United States in schedule XX of the 
general agreement and are of primai'y interest to 
these countries. 

Chile, which participated in the Geneva nego- 
tiations, has requested from the contracting parties 
to the general agreement an extension for six 
months beyond June 30, 1948, of the period during 
which it might sign the protocol of provisional 
application. This request is under consideration 
by the contracting parties. 



The 15 countries which had previously signed 
the protocol are the United Kingdom, France, 
Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, 
Australia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, China, the 
Union of South Africa, India, Norway, Southern 
Ehodesia, and the United States. 

The signature of the protocol by 22 of the 23 
countries marks an important milestone in the 
program for the relaxation of tariffs and other 
barriei's to international trade initiated by the 
United States in 1934 and carried forward in 
the multilateral negotiations concluded at Geneva 
last October. As stated by the President in con- 
nection with his signature on June 26 of the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1948, plans are now 
being laid to bring other countries into the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The sched- 
uling of future tariff negotiations is on the agenda 
for the second session of the contracting parties 
to the general agreement to be convened at Geneva 
on August 15. In accordance with the usual prac- 
tice, participation by the United States in any 
negotiations which may be scheduled at Geneva 
will be preceded by public notice and hearings. 



Proclamation on General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade With India, 
Norway, and Southern Rhodesia 



The President, on June 25, 1948, issued a procla- 
mation putting into effect as of July 9 and 11 the 
tariff concessions in schedule XX of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of primary in- 
terest to India and Norway, respectively. The 
proclamation also states that Southern Ehodesia 
will be a contracting party to the general agree- 
ment on July 12, 1948. The general agreement 
was entered into by the United States last October 
30 at Geneva with 22 other countries. 

The proclamation also announces that the 
amendments to article XXIV of the general agree- 
ment, contained in a protocol concluded at the 
first session of the contracting parties to the Gen- 
eva agreement at Habana last March, entered into 
force on June 7.' 

The President's action followed receipt of infor- 
mation that India signed the protocol of provi- 
sional application of the general agreement on 

July J J, 1948 



June 8, 1948 ; Norway on June 10 ; and Southern 
Rhodesia on June 11. Pursuant to the provisions 
of the protocol, these countries will become con- 
tracting parties to the agreement on the expiration 
of 30 days from date of signature. 

Adherence to the general agreement by these 
three countries is particularly significant, since it 
is the first trade agreement to be in force between 
the United States and each of them. 

India, Norway, and Southern Ehodesia are, re- 
spectively, the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth 
of the Geneva countries to give effect to this agree- 
ment. The other countries which have done so, 
in addition to the United States, are the United 
Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, 
Luxembourg, Canada, Australia, Cuba, Czecho- 
slovakia, China, and the Union of South Africa. 



1 For text of protocol, see Department of State press 
release 261 of Mar. 31, 194S. 

55 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Under the general agreement India, Norway, 
and Southern Rhodesia grant a wide range of tariff 
concessions benefiting the trade of the United 
States. Moreover they and the other contracting 
parties to tlie agreement are committed to certain 
limitations with respect to the apiDlication of quo- 
tas, import I'estrictions, exchange control, valua- 
tion for customs purposes, and the conduct of state 
trading. These provisions are important since 
they commit these countries as well as the other 
contracting parties giving effect to the agreement 
under the protocol of provisional application to 
accord fair treatment to the trade of the United 
States. Under the agreement the United States 
on its part has made tariff concessions on products 
of primary interest to Norway and India and of 
secondary interest to Southern Rhodesia. The 
reciprocal tariff concessions in the case of each of 
these countries are summarized hereafter: 

India 

In schedule XII of the general agreement, India 
has granted concessions on products of primary 
interest to the United States representing about 
$9,552,000 in terms of 1938-39 Indian imports from 
the United States. The United States will also 
benefit from additional Indian concessions nego- 
tiated with other countries at Geneva on products 
the imports of which into India from the United 
States amounted to $487,000 in 1938-39. These 
concessions were given in the form of reductions in 
rates of duty, bindings against increase of existing 
duties, bindings of the duty-free status, and reduc- 
tions in the margins of preference. Imports in 
1938-39 from the United States which will be sub- 
ject to these four types of concessions were valued 
at $2,349,000, $1,931,000, $599,000, and $5,160,000, 
respectively. Among the principal Indian conces- 
sions of interest to the United States are those on 
dried and condensed milk, canned fish and meat, 
unmanufactured tobacco, certain canned fruits, 
certain chemicals and drugs, unwrought copper, 
rosin, mineral grease, coal-tar dyes, certain ma- 
chine items, ofSce machines, radios, tubes, tractors, 
and automobiles. 

India will give effect to the items appearing in 
schedule XII, with certain exceptions, on the ex- 
piration of 30 days from the date of signature. It 
will be necessary for India to withhold tempoi-arily 
certain concessions on tariffs which are levied for 
revenue purposes, until legislative action may be 
taken on them in September. 

United States concessions in the general agree- 
ment on products of interest to India apply to im- 
ports from India which represented approximately 
$55,145,000 in terms of 1939 trade. The most im- 
portant of these products are not produced in the 
United States; e.g., jute and jute products, dutiable 
and free imports of which amounted to roughly 
$25,608,000 and $3,600,000, respectively, in 1939. 
In terms of 1939 trade, United States tariff reduc- 



tions apply to a total of $33,627,000; bindings 
against increase of certain duties, to $978,000 ; and 
bindings on the free list, to $20,540,000. Among 
these products of principal interest to India on 
which the United States has granted duty reduc- 
tions are mica, cashew nuts, burlap and bags, 
cocoa-fiber mats, wool rugs, badminton rackets and 
nets, and tennis rackets. Continued duty-free 
entry is assured on such j^roducts as carpet wools, 
raw jute, and shellac. The present duty on 
bagging is bound against increase. 

Norway 

Under the general agreement Norway gi-anted 
tariff' concessions on products of interest to the 
United States representing more than $15,300,000 
in terms of 1939 trade. Of this total, $6,500,000 
represents duty reductions, $3,800,000 duty bind- 
ings, and $5,000,000 bindings on the free list. 
Existing Norwegian import duties were reduced 
on such products as automobiles, trucks, oiSce ma- 
chines, refrigerators, a variety of fruits and fruit 
juices, and of vegetables and vegetable juices. 
Moderate existing duties were bound on rubber 
tires and tubes, machine and transmission belting, 
certain varnishes and polishes, cosmetics and den- 
tifrices, and unexposed photographic and motion- 
picture film. The duty-free status was bound for 
such items as cotton, wheat flour, tractors, sulphur 
and othei" chemicals, rubber and certain rubber 
semi-manufactures, tin plate, and certain types of 
lumber. 

The concessions on products of interest to Nor- 
way, made by the United States in the general 
agi-eement, apply to commodities which repre- 
sented approximately $21,000,000 in terms of 1939 
trade. On products accounting for approximately 
$11,000,000 of this total the United States conces- 
sions consist of bindings on the United States free 
list. Among the items of principal interest to Nor- 
way on which United States tariff reductions are 
granted are : whale oil, sardines packed in oil, cer- 
tain other fish and fish products, fish hooks, certain 
types of pig iron and ferromanganese. The exist- 
ing duties on sardines and certain other types of 
fish not packed in oil, and that on artificial abra- 
sives, were bound. Continued duty-free entry is 
assured for such commodities as cod-liver oil, cod 
oil, fox furs (other than silver, black, or platinum), 
and nitrogenous fertilizer materials. 

Southern Rhodesia 

In schedule XVI of the agreement Southern 
Rhodesia bound the existing low rates of duty on 
12 items, among which are certain types of agri- 
cultural machinery and implements, mining ma- 
chinery, pumps and accessories, tractors and parts, 
machine tools and lubricating oils; reduced ita 
duties on motorcycles and motorcycle parts; and 
bound the duty-free status on radios. In terms of 
1939 trade, Rhodesian imports from the United 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



States of these items on which concessions were 
piven iunonnted to approximately $1,'22(),()00. 
Soutliorn Rliodi'sia is an important source for 
United Slates imports of mica, chromium and its 
alloys, asbestos, chrome ore, and tanning extracts; 
consequently, it will benefit from the tariff conces- 
sions granted by the United States on these prod- 
ucts in schedule XX of the agreement. 



Voice of America Program Contracts 
Signed With Networks 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The signature of interim agreements with the 
National Broadcasting Company and the Colum- 
bia Broadcasting System covering the broadcasts 
to be performed by those companies for the Voice 
of America during the period of July 1 to Septem- 
ber 30 was announced on July 1 by George V. 
Allen, Assistant Secretary for public affairs. 

The National Broadcasting Company and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System have decided to 
withdraw from programing activities in the field 
of international broadcasting previously per- 
formed for the Voice of America under contract, 
and the three months' interim contracts cover the 
period during which the State Department's Inter- 
national Broadcasting Division will prepare to 
take over the Voice of America broadcasting now 
done by the National Broadcasting Company and 
the Columbia Broadcasting System. 

The interim agreements, effective July 1, provide 
for maintenance by the State Department of full 
and complete review, prior to broadcast, of all 
materia] prepared under contract by the private 
agencies. 

The International Broadcasting Division of the 
State Department broadcasts Voice of America 
progi-ams in the following languages: Bulgarian, 
Chinese, Czechoslovak, German, Greek, Hungar- 
ian, Korean, Polish, Rumanian, Russian, and 
Yugoslav. 

The National Broadcasting Company and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System have broadcast for 
the State Department in the following languages: 
Annamese, English, French, German, Indonesian, 
Italian, Portuguese, Siamese, and Spanish. 

During the next three months the International 
Broadcasting Division of the State Department 
will organize its staff to handle that portion of its 
broadcasts which was programed by the two com- 
panies during the past year. 

After October 1, the International Broadcasting 
Division will program and broadcast all news and 
commentaries but will continue to contract with 
private radio and recording companies for record- 
ing of feature programs for overseas broadcasts 
and will continue to lease, under contract, the 
shortwave transmitting facilities of private com- 
panies. 

Jufy n, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Italian Agreement^Continued from page J,2 

ticable will not preclude deficits for over a short i)eriod 
hut will mean a budgetary policy involving the balancing 
of the budget in the long run. 

3. It is understood that the business practices and busi- 
ness arrangements referred to in paragraph 3 of Article II 
mean : 

(a) Fixing prices, terms or conditions to be observed in 
dealing with others in the purchase, sale or lease of any 
products ; 

(6) Excluding enterprises from, or allocating or divid- 
ing, any territorial market or field of business activity or 
allocating customers, or fixing sales quotas or purchase 
quotas ; 

(c) Discriminating against particular enterprises; 

(d) Limiting production or fixing production quotas; 

(e) Preventing by agreement the develoijment or appli- 
cation of technology or invention whether patented or 
unpatented ; 

(f) Extending the use of rights under patents, trade 
marks or copyrights granted by either country to matters 
which according to its laws and regulations are not within 
the scope of such grants, or to products or conditions of 
production, use or sale which are likewise not the subjects 
of such grants ; 

ig) Such other practices as the two Governments may 
agree to include. 

The foregoing reproduces the definition of restrictive 
business practices contained in Article 46, paragraph three, 
Havana International Trade Organization Charter. 

4. It is understood that the Government of Italy is 
obligated to take action in particular instances in accord- 
ance with paragraph 3 of Article II only after appropriate 
investigation or examination. 

5. It is understood that the phrase in Article V, "After 
due regard for the reasonable requirements of Italy for 
domestic use" will include the maintenance of reasonable 
stocks of the materials concerned and that the phrase 
"commercial export" might include barter transactions. 
It is also understood that arrangements negotiated under 
Article V might appropriately include provision for con- 
sultation, in accordance with the principles of Article 
Thirty-two of the Havana Charter for an International 
Trade Organization, in the event that stockpiles are 
liquidated. 

6. It is understood that the Government of the United 
States of America in making the notifications referred to 
in paragraph 3 of Article IX will bear in mind the desirabil- 
ity of restricting, so far as practicable, the number of 
officials for whom full diplomatic privileges will be re- 
quested. It is also understood that the detailed applica- 
tion of Article IX will, when necessary, be the subject of 
inter-governmental discussion. 

7. It is understood that the Government of Italy will not 
be requested, under paragraph 2 (a) of Article VII, to 
furnish detailed information about minor projects or 
confidential commercial or technical information, the dis- 
closure of which would injure legitimate commercial inter- 
ests. 

S. It is understood that if the Government of Italy 
should accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the InternJi- 
tional Court of Justice under Article 36 of the statute of 
the Court, on suitable terms and conditions, the two Gov- 
ernments will consult with a view to replacing the second 
sentence of paragraph 1 of Article X with provisions along 
the following lines : "It is understood that the undertaking 
of each Government in respect of claims espoused by the 
other Government pursuant to this paragraph is made in 
the case of each Government under the authority of and is 
limited by the terms and conditions of such effective recog- 
nition as it has heretofore given to the compulsory juris- 
diction of the International Court of Justice under Article 
36 of the statute of the Court". 

57 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Current Discussions With Colombian 
Economic Mission 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The Department of State announced July 1 that 
a Colombian economic mission is conferring with 
Department officials and other interested agencies 
of the Government regarding financial and com- 
mercial matters. 

One of the items under discussion is the imple- 
mentation of the lO-million-doUar Export-Import 
Bank loan granted Colombia for rehabilitation 
purposes following the recent disturbance in that 
country. The Colombians are discussing with the 
Export-Import Bank the types of materials and 
equipment which might be purchased under the 
credit. 

The Colombian mission is also holding prelimi- 
nary talks with officials of the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development regarding 
long-term loans, and is conferring with officials of 
the International Monetary Fund. 

Members of the mission are as follows: Alfonso 
Araujo, former Minister of Public Works; Jose 
Gutierrez Gomez, President of the National Asso- 
ciation of Industrialists; Arturo Bonnet, Office of 
Exchange Controls; Alfredo MacCausland, Direc- 
tor General of the Colombian Customs Board ; Al- 
fonso Mesa Salazar ; Ezequiel Castaneda, Director 
of the Stabilization Fund and Assistant Manager, 
Banco de La Republica; Alberto Alban Lievano, 
Director of National Railways; Roberto Botero 
Londono ; and Augustin Velez Restrepo, Economic 
Adviser, Banco de La Republica. 

Free Port of Monrovia To Be Opened 

Thomas E. Lyons, Special Assistant to the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and Executive Secretary of 
the Foreign Trade Zones Board in the Department 
of Commerce, departs this week for Monrovia, 
Liberia, where he is to undertake a survey of the 
American-constructed port which is soon to be 
opened and which will be the first free port on the 
west coast of Africa. 

In 1943 lend-lease funds were made available 
for the construction of a modern port and port 
works at Monrovia. Under the terms of the agi-ee- 
ment providing for the construction of the port, the 
Government of Liberia agreed that upon its com- 
pletion it should be operated as a free port. It is 
expected that this port will attract an increasingly 
large amount of traffic to Liberia en route to the 
now scarcely accessible hinterlands of the British 
and French colonies bordering Liberia. It is also 
anticipated that this port will greatly facilitate the 
movement of goods between Liberia and other 
West African ports. Mr. Lyons will assist in 
organizing the free port along established tech- 
nical lines. 



58 



Cultural Leaders Awarded Grants-in-Aid 

United States 

[Released to the press June 30] 

Grants-in-aid have been extended by the De- 
partment of State to a group of five educators from 
various institutions in the United States to enable 
them to serve on the summer-session faculty of the 
University of Habana beginning July 5 and con- 
tinuing through August 14. They will give 
courses in the English language. United States 
literature and history, and civic recreation. 

Those receiving grants for participation in this 
program are C. M. Hutchings, associate pro- 
fessor of romance languages at the University 
of Cincinnati; Thomas E. Downey, assistant 

grofessor of history. University of Notre Dame; 
!alph B. Long and Malcolm Forsman, both of 
the department of English, University of Texas; 
and Nash Higgins, superintendent, board of public 
recreation, Tampa, Florida. Dr. Hutchings will 
give courses in the English language and pho- 
netics; Dr. Downey will give courses in United 
States history; Dr. Long and Mr. Forsman will 

§ive courses in the English language and United 
tates literature; and Mr. Higgins will give a 
course in civic recreation. 

Uruguay 

Ergasto H. Cordero, director of the Museum 
of Natural History, Montevideo, has arrived in 
the United States to confer with officials of the 
Fish and Wildlife Service and to visit universities, 
laboratories, museums, and fish hatcheries in va- 
rious parts of the United States. 

His visit has been arranged under the travel- 
grant program of the Department of State admin- 
istered by the Division of International Exchange 
of Persons in cooperation with the Fish and Wild- 
life Service of the Department of the Interior and 
the National Museum. 

Haiti 

Arsene Magloire and Ulrick Telson, engineers 
with the Department of Public Works of Haiti, 
have been awarded grants by the Department of 
State to enable them to study highway construc- 
tion in this country with the cooperation of the 
Public Roads Administration. 

They will spend two months in the United 
States, returning to Haiti by way of Puerto Rico, 
where they will spend an additional month in i 
study and observation. They will attend the ex- ' 
hibit of highway machinery to be held in Chicago 
from July 17 to July 26. 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE 
ConsuSar Office 

The American Consulate at Hull, England, was closed 
to the public on May 31, 1948. The consular district for i J 
Hull has been temporarily assigned to Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Letters of Credence 

Argentina 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Argen- 
tine Republic, Jeronimo Remorino, presented his 
credentials to the President on July 2. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and for the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 536 of July 2, 1948. 

THE DEPARTMENT 

William C. Johnstone, Jr., Named 
Head of OEX 

William C. Johnstone, Jr., dean of the School of Govern- 
ment and professor of political science at George Wash- 
ington University, has been appointed Director of the 
Office of Educational Exchange, effective July 1, 194S. 

Dr. Johnstone succeeds Kenneth Holland, director of the 
Office for the past three months, who will return to Paris 
immediately to resume his duties as the United States 
adviser on Unesco affairs. 

As director of Oex, Dr. Johnstone will have charge of 
the Department's educational-exchange programs and poli- 
cies in the fields of educational, scientific, and cultural 
affairs. This responsibility will include programs of in- 
ternational educational exchange conducted by the Depart- 
ment of State and other Federal agencies, the operation 
of American libraries and schools abroad, assistance to 
American-sponsored institutions abroad, and stimulating 
and facilitating the educational-exchange activities of 
private agencies. 



THE RECORD Of THE WEBK 

PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale hy the Superintendent o/ Documents. Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Participation of the United States Government in Inter- 
national Conferences, July 1, 1946-June 30, 1947. Interna- 
tional Organization and Conference Series I, 1. Pub. 
3031. XX, 373 pp. Q5(l^. 

Contains brief accounts of international conferences 
and meetings in which the U.S. Government partici- 
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Canol Project : Arrangement for Evaluation of all Facili- 
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Pub. 3060. 3 pp. bi. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Canada — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Ottawa Feb. 26, 1945 ; entered into force Feb. 26, 1945. 

Second Report to Congress on The United States Foreign 
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Economic Cooperation Series 8. Pub. 3148. 138 pp. 35^. 

Report on the accomplishment of the purposes of 
the Foreign Aid Act of 1947 — "to alleviate conditions 
of hunger and cold and prevent serious economic retro- 
gression." Includes details on the distribution, use, 
and sale of commodities. 

National Commission News, July 1, 1948. Pub. 3175. 10 pp. 
100 a copy; $1 a year domestic, $1.35 a year foreign. 

Prepared monthly for the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography' 



General Assembly 

Official Records of the Second Part of the First Session of 
the General Assembly. Second Committee. Economic 
and Financial Questions. Summary Record of Meet- 
ings, 1 November-9 December 1946. xii, 189 pp. 
printed. $2.00. 

Trusteeship Council 

Reply of the Government of the Union of South Africa to 
the Trusteeship Council Questionnaire on the Report 
to the United Nations on the Administration of South 
^^■est Africa for the Year 1946. T/175, June 3, 1948. 
viii, 230 pp. mimeo. 

Disposition of Agenda Items [Second Session]. T/IXF/6, 
June 11, 1948. 29 pp. mimeo. 

Security Council 

Official Records : 
Second Year : 
Supplement No. 6. [Annex to meeting of February 18, 
1947; reproductions of eleven exhibits submitted by 
the U.K. in connection with complaint against Al- 
bania.] 40('. 

July 11, 1948 



Third Year : 

No. 03. 2SSth meeting, 29 April 1948. 29 pp. printed. 
300. 

No. 65. 291st meeting, 12 May 1948. 21 pp. printed. 
200. 

No. 66. 292d meeting, 15 May 1948. 27 pp. printed. 
300. 

No. 67. 293d meeting, 17 May 1948. 21 pp. printed. 
200. 
No. 69. 296th meeting, 18 May 194S. 23 pp. printed. 
250. 
Supplement for April 1948. 12 pp. printed. 100. 

Letter Dated 26 May 1948 from the Chairman of the Atomic 
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ference Opened in Bandung on 27 May 1948. S/842, 
June 16, 1948. 37 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2060 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

59 



iCeri'l^^' 



Foreign Aid and Reconstruction Page 

The European Recovery Program Agreements — 
A New International Era. Address by 
Ernest A. Gross 35 

Economic Cooperation Agreement With Italy 
Signed: 
Signing of the First of the Agreements ... 37 

Summary of Agreement 37 

Text of Agreement 38 

Statement by Secretary Marshall Concerning 
Signing of Economic Cooperation Agree- 
ments 43 

Most-Favored-Nation Treatment for Areas Un- 
der Military Occupation With Respect to 
U.K., Italy, Ireland, and Greece .... 43 

Signing of the Foreign Aid Appropriation Act. 

Statement by the President 45 

Treaty information 

U.S. Urges Soviet Command To Resume Elec- 
tric Power to South Korea. U.S. Note 
to the Soviet Ministry for Foreign Affairs . 50 

Consideration of Soviet Reply to American 
Lend-Lease Settlement Proposals. State- 
ment by Secretary Marshall 51 

Surplus-Property Payments From France, Neth- 
erlands, and Brazil 52 

Discussions With Sweden on Loss of Gold and 
Foreign-Exchange Holdings: 

Summary of Negotiations 53 

Exchange of Memoranda Between U.S. and 

Sweden 53 

Signing of the Trade Agreements Extension Act 

of" 1948. Statement by the President . . 54 

Geneva Trade Protocol Signed by Twenty-two 

Countries 55 

Proclamation on General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade With India, Norway, and South- 
ern Rhodesia 55 

Tlie United Nations and Specialized 
Agencies 

United States in the United Nations 46 

U.S. Delegations to International [Conferences: 

Theatre Institute 48 

UNESCO 48 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . . 59 



International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 



^Page 



The Institute of Inter- American Affairs: Co- 
operative Education Programs. Article by 
Louis J. Halle, Jr 31 

Reply to Soviet Protest of A^eiosiaeefc Article . . 51 

Voice of America Program Contracts Signed 

With Networks 57 

Cultural Leaders Awarded Grants-in-Aid ... 58 



Economic Affairs 

U.S.-Canada International Joint Commission 

Discusses Kootenay River Floods .... 49 

Bolivian Proposal on Defaulted Bonds. State- 
ment by Secretary Marshall 52 

Current Discussions With Colombian Economic 

Mission 58 

Free Port of Monrovia To Be Opened .... 58 



Occupation Matters 



Air 



Transport To Supply Civilian Needs in 
Berlin. Statement by Secretary Marshall . 
Hungary Requires Presentation of Foreign- 
Owned Shares of Hungarian Banks ... 54 



54 



General Policy 

Letters of Credence: Argentina 



59 



The Department 

William C. Johnstone, Jr., Named Head of 

Oex 59 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 58 

Publications 

Department of State 59 



ff 



'^mvt)mwt(yyA 



Louis J. Halle, Jr., author of the article on cooperative education 
programs of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Is Special Assist- 
ant to the Director of the Office of American Republic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State, and is also a member of the Board of Directors of the 
Institute. 



U. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1948 



jAe/ ^e/ia^t7)tervl/ m t/taie/ 




UNITED STATES PROTESTS SOVIET BLOCICADE 

OF BERLIN • jVote From Secretary Marshall to Am- 
bassador Panyushkin 85 



GERMANS, THE SOVIET UNION, AND TURKEY 

DURING WORLD WAR II • Article by Harry N. 
Howard 63 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 472 
July 18, 1948 



^enx o*. 




"^T^ES ^^ 




*.^..wy*. bulletin 



Vol. XIX, No. 472 • Publication 3218 
July 18, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Washington 26, D.C, 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
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appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
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currently. 



GERMANY, THE SOVIET UNION, AND TURKEY 
DURING WORLD WAR 11 

by Harry N. Howard 



The Position of Turkey on the Eve of the War 

During World War II the Turkish Republic, as 
was natural in view of its strategic position at the 
crossroads of three continents, was of great in- 
terest to both the Axis powers and the nations 
united during that struggle. Documentary evi- 
dence has thrown some light on Axis policy with 
respect to the Near East generally during the war 
period. This area was of considerable economic, 
political, and strategic significance.^ 

It will be recalled that following World War 
I, which led to the partition of the Ottoman Em- 
pire and the establishment of the Turkish Re- 
public, Turkey pursued a policy of friendship in 
good faith with the Soviet Union, based on the 
treaties of March 16, 1921. and December 17, 1925. 
It entered the League of Nations on July 18, 1932, 
and took a leading part, along with Greece, in the 
Balkan conferences (1930-1934) and the Balkan 
Entente (February 9, 1934). With Soviet sup- 
port, Turkey succeeded in revising the Lausanne 
Straits convention (1923) at the Montreux con- 
ference of 1936, although its relations with the 
Soviet Union were somewhat complicated by 
Turkey's orientation toward Great Britain and 
France in the years between 1936 and 1939. 
Diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy re- 
mained in force, officially "correct" but not cordial, 
in the years immediately prior to the outbreak of 
the war in September 1939. 

The Turkish press and Turks who were influen- 
tial in public life did not look with favor upon 
tiie events which led to the Munich agreement of 
September 29-30, 1938, and the steady German 
diplomatic and economic advance into the Balkan 
region was viewed with cautious eye. The Italian 
invasion of Albania on April 7, 1939, caused con- 
siderable apprehension in Turkish official circles, 
despite the reassuring statements of Premier 
Mussolini. That the German Foreign Office was 

July J8, 1948 



not unaware of the possible influence of the Ital- 
ian venture in Albania on Turkey was evident 
from the sending of Baron Franz von Papen to 
the post of Ambassador to Turkey, following his 
retirement after the Anschluss with Austria in 
April 1938, with the responsibility of keeping 
Turkey in line with German policy and also of 
keeping Turkey neutral, at least, in the event of 
another great war. 

Events moved very rapidly in southeastern Eu- 
rope in the spring of 1939, following the German 
march into Praha and the destruction of the Re- 
public of Czechoslovakia, where the diplomatic 
missions of Germany, Great Britain, France, and 
the Soviet Union were all very active. As early 
as February 1939 the Soviet Union had proposed 
a Black Sea pact to protect its southern ap- 
proaches. MoreoA^er, on April 13, 1939, Prime 
Minister Chamberlain, following the offer of a 
guaranty to Poland, announced in the House of 
Commons that Great Britain attached the great- 
est importance "to the avoidance of disturbance 
by force or threat of force of the status quo in the 
Mediterranean and the Balkan Peninsula"," of- 
fered support to Greece and Rumania, in case 
their independence were threatened, and commu- 
nicated this declaration to Turkey. The French 
Government made a similar declaration.^ 

Although Rumania had refused to participate 
in the "encirclement" of Germany, it was still an 
open question whether Turkey would become in- 
volved in this policy. Von Ribbentrop told Von 
Papen in mid-April 1939 that if the "encircle- 
ment" ring were closed, this time with the par- 
ticipation of Turkey in contrast to 1914, there 
would be no alternative to war. Von Papen ar- 
rived in Turkey on April 29, 1939, the very day 
that M. Potemkin, the Soviet Vice-Commissar for 



Note : See footnotes on p. 76. 



63 



Foreign Affairs, had arrived in Ankara for impor- 
tant conversations, and both were received by 
President Inonii on this date. While Potemkin 
impressed on Turkey the desirability of resistance 
to possible German aggression and the impor- 
tance of strengthening relations among the Balkan 
States, especially with Great Britain and France, 
"Von Papen recalled the old Turco-German friend- 
ship and insisted that there were no reasons for 
strained relations between Germany and Turkey 
and no reason for Turkish fears. 

Turkey, apparently, was not unreceptive to the 
British announcement of April 13, although the 
British appeared to desire an agreement to pro- 
tect the entire Mediterranean while Turkey de- 
sired to bind itself only in the eastern Mediter- 
ranean. On May 12, 1939, pending conclusion of 
a definitive instrument. Great Britain and Tur- 
key signed a provisional agreement, declaring 
their joint concern for the security of the Balkan 
region and pledging their cooperation in the 
event of aggression leading to war in the Mediter- 
ranean.^ At the same time France and Turkey 
were reaching agreement concei'ning the Hatay 
(Alexandretta) region — an agreement ultimately 
signed on June 23, 1939. 

Meanwhile, Von Papen came to Berlin for the 
signature of the German-Italian alliance of May 
22, 1939, using the occasion to advise Count Ciano 
of Turkish fears concerning Italian policy as to 
Albania, and proposing that Italy return the 
Dodecanese Islands to Turkey and pointing out 
the important strategic position of Turkey in 
Germany's calculations.^ On his return to An- 
kara the German Ambassador continued to warn 
Berlin concerning the possibilities of encircle- 
ment, indicating that Great Britain had asked 
Turkey to agree to make it possible for the Bi-it- 
ish to render active assistance to any state guar- 
anteed by it, in case it should come to a showdown. 
The Germans interpreted this to mean that Tur- 
key, even if not directly attacked, would permit 
passage of British warships through the Straits 
to assist the Soviet Union.^ 

The German-Soviet Pact of Nonaggression 
and the Problem of Turkey 

The position of Turkey was discussed consider- 
ably in the weeks immediately preceding the sign- 
ing of the Soviet-German pact of nonaggression 
on August 23, 1939. At the conference between 



Hitler and Ciano at Obersalzburg on August 12, 
1939, for example, when the Balkan problem was 
surveyed, it was recognized that the Axis could 
count on Bulgaria only as reliable and that the 
Dodecanese Islands might be placed in a difficult 
position because of the Turkish attitude." More- 
over, in a conversion between Admiral Canaris of 
German Naval Intelligence and General Keitel on 
August 17,' Canaris called attention to the actions 
of the British in the Balkans and tried to explain 
that "the English would certainly have everything 
prepared in the Balkans" for eventualities. Bul- 
garia would not prove useful "as an ally as it 
would be attacked at once by Kumania and 
Turkey". But such a development did not alarm 
the Fiihrer, who, in a secret talk to the Supreme 
Commander and Commanding Generals on August 
22, 1939, at Obersalzburg, stated that he had "de- 
cided to go with Stalin", remarking that there 
were only three "great statesmen in the world: 
Stalin, myself, and Mussolini". Turkey, in the 
Fiihrer's mind, was "ruled by morons and half- 
idiots" following Atatiirk's death and need cause 
no worry.^ 

On August 23, 1939, the Soviet-German non- 
aggression agreement was signed in Moscow.' 
As a prelude to formal negotiation of the agree- 
ment, Stalin was informed that Germany would 
be prepared to recognize the primary Soviet in- 
terests in the region from the Baltic to the Black 
Sea, and the Germans continually repeated that, 
despite certain ideological differences, there was 
no reason for basic conflict of interest. In the 
delimitation of spheres in southeastern Europe, 
Bessarabia was assigned to the Soviet Union, and 
Germany indicated a political distinterestedness, 
despite economic interests in southeastern Europe, 
"even, if necessary, as far as Constantinople and 
the Straits." ^^ Although Von Ribbentrop indi- 
cated that the problem of Turkey had not been 
discussed, in fact, it was discussed with Stalin 
and Molotov on the night of August 23-24," Stalin 
himself asking Ribbentrop what Germany thought 
about Tui'key. The German Foreign Minister 
indicated that he had done everything to promote 
more friendly relations with Turkey but that 
Turkey had become "one of the first countries to 
join the encirclement pact against Germany and 
had not even considered it necessary to notify the 
Reich Government of the Pact". Both Stalin 
and Molotov observed that the Soviet Union had 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



had "a similar experience with the vacillating 
policy of the Turks". 

Von Papen deemed it his primary duty to keep 
Turkey from going into the war on the side of 
Great Britain and to preserve the economic ties 
between Turkey and Germany, especially in view 
of the importance of Turkish chrome for Germany. 

Official Turkey was lukewarm in its attitude and 
policy toward Germany, and there is no doubt 
that the Turkish Government was somewhat 
shocked at the seeming shift in the position of 
the Soviet Union in the signing of the pact of 
August 23, 1939. 

The Turkish Negotiations With the Soviet Union, 
September-October 1939: The Anglo-Franeo- 
Turkish Treaty 

As a result of the signature of the Soviet-German 
treaty of August 23 both Mussolini and Hitler 
envisaged that Turkey would be forced to alter 
its position. TIius, on August 25, 1939," Hitler 
wrote Mussolini that Turkey would have to revise 
its "previous position", and Mussolini replied on 
the same day that the treaty blockaded both Ru- 
mania and Turkey and that "a new attitude on the 
part of Turkey would upset all the strategic plans 
of the French and English in the Eastern Medi- 
terranean". 

The Turkish Foreign Minister, Siikrii Saracoglu, 
was in ]\Ioscow from September 25 to October 17, 
1939, for the purpose of signing a pact with the 
Soviet Government with provisions concerning 
the Straits, the essence of which had been discussed 
between Ambassador Terentiev and Saracoglu in 
Ankara." But Saracoglu ran into difficulties in 
Moscow, for the Soviet position appeared to have 
altered considerably. Ribbentrop was again in 
Moscow on September 28 to sign a new agreement 
on the delimitation of German-Soviet spheres in 
eastern Europe, and the Turkish Foreign Min- 
ister was kept waiting for three weeks." 

As a matter of fact, the German Foreign Office 
was much interested in the Soviet-Turkish 
negotiations, and as early as September 2, Count 
von der Schulenburg, the German Ambassador to 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, reported 
that Molotov had confirmed rumoi'S from Istanbul 
that Turkey was already negotiating with the So- 
viet Union." After consulting with Stalin, Molo- 
tov told Schulenburg that there was only a non- 

Ju/y J 8, 1948 



aggression pact with Turkey and relations were 
"good in general." Moscow was prepai'ed to work 
for permanent neutrality of Turkey, as desired by 
Germany, and the German conception of the Turk- 
ish position in the conflict which had broken out 
on September 1 was shared in Moscow. No use of 
Molotov's remarks, however, was to be made in 
dealing with the Turks. On September 5 ^^ Schul- 
enburg asked Molotov to continue working on 
Turkey "with a view to permanent neutrality", 
mentioning rumors that Great Britain was putting 
pressure on Rumania to take an active part and 
was holding out a prospect of aid from British and 
French troops. Since such assistance might come 
by sea, "it was in the interests of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to prevail upon Turkey to close the Dar- 
danelles completely". Molotov thought the Soviet 
Union had "considerable influence" with Turkey 
and was exerting it in this sense, adding that the 
conversations on a mutual-assistance pact had 
borne no fruit. Moreover, Stalin told Schulenburg 
on September 17 " that Turkey had proposed an 
assistance pact which was to apply to the Straits 
and the Balkans but would obligate Turkey to 
assist the Soviet Union only in "such actions as are 
not directed against England and France". The 
Soviet Govermnent was not "greatly edified" by 
this suggestion and was considering a clause 
whereby the Soviet Government would not be ob- 
ligated to any action against Germany. Voro- 
shilov, who was present, thought such a pact would 
be a " 'hook' by which Turkey could be pulled 
away from France". On October 2 ^^ Schulen- 
burg was instructed to inform Molotov of the Ger- 
man belief that Turkey would hesitate as to the 
Anglo-Franco-Turkish pact if the Soviet Union 
"emphatically" opposed it, and it was important 
in the Soviet interest, because of the question of 
the Straits, "to forestall a tie-up of Turkey with 
England and France". Ribbentrop was therefore 
especially anxious that the Soviet Government dis- 
suade Turkey "from the final conclusion of mutual 
assistance pacts with the Western powers and to 
settle this at once with Moscow". Probably the 
best solution would be the return of Turkey to a 
policy of absolute neutrality, while confirming ex- 
isting Soviet-Turkish agreements. Prompt and 
final diversion of Turkey from the Anglo-French 
treaty. Von Ribbentrop felt, would also be "in 
keeping with the peace offensive agreed upon in 
Moscow" on September 28, since another country 

65 



"would withdraw from the Anglo-French camp." 
Von Papen had similar instructions on October 2 ^^ 
and was to advise the Turks of the strong Soviet 
aversion toward a pact with Great Britain and 
France. Molotov appeared to share the German 
view of the situation, although it appeared to him 
that Turkey had already become closely involved 
with France and Great Britain. Wlien Schulen- 
burg told him on October 3 of rumors that Great 
Britain and France intended to assault Greece and 
overrun Bulgaria in order to establish a Balkan 
front, Molotov "asserted spontaneously that the 
Soviet Government would never tolerate pressure 
on Bulgaria".^" Schulenburg kept plying Molotov 
with advice, and on October 7 was instructed to 
find out in detail concerning the Soviet-Turkish 
negotiations, jaarticularly with regard to the 
Straits.^^ Meanwhile, Molotov had not seen Sara- 
coglu since October 1 and by October 9 thought a 
mutual-assistance pact would not be concluded, al- 
though German interests and the special nature of 
Soviet-German relations would be upheld, since 
the Soviet Government was trying to induce Tur- 
key "to adopt full neutrality and to close the Dar- 
danelles as well as to aid in maintaining peace in 
the Balkans". 

There is no doubt that the Turkish Government 
was somewhat alarmed at the expansionist attitude 
shown by the Soviet Union in the direction of the 
Baltic States during the fall of 1939. Moreover, 
the treatment accorded Saracoglu was not appre- 
ciated. In addition, the Turkish Government was 
not willing to accept the conditions on which the 
Soviet Govermnent had insisted. 

The negotiations between Turkey and the Soviet 
Union were broken off, therefore, on October 17, 
and two days later, the Anglo-Franco-Turkish 
treaty of mutual assistance, October 19, 1939, was 
signed.-- The treaty pledged mutual assistance 
on the part of the three signatories, "in the event 
of an act of aggression by a European Power 
leading to war in the Mediterranean". Despite 
the implications as to the Straits, protocol no. 2 
declared specifically that Turkey's obligations 
could not "compel that country to take action 
having as its effect, or involving as its consequence, 
entry into armed conflict with the Soviet Union". 

Mr. Molotov gave his own interpretation of the 
Soviet-Turkish negotiations in a report to the 
Fifth Extraordinary Session of the Supreme So- 
viet of the Soviet Union on October 31, 1939,=^ in 

66 



which Great Britain and France were accused of 
prolonging the war, acknowledgment was made 
that Soviet relations with Germany had "radically 
improved" and were based "on a firm foundation 
of mutual interests", and the Soviet actions with 
respect to the Baltic States were explained. There 
had been all sorts of rumors as to the Turkish 
negotiations, but Mr. Molotov denied that the 
Soviet Union had demanded the cession of Kars 
and Ardahan from Turkey. He also denied that 
the Soviet Union had "demanded changes in the 
international convention concluded at Montreux 
and a privileged position as regards the Darda- 
nelles". This was "also a fabrication and a lie", 
for all the Soviet Union had desired, he said, was 
the conclusion of a "bilateral pact of mutual 
assistance limited to the regions of the Black Sea 
and the Dardanelles". Such a pact could not in- 
volve armed conflict with Germany, and the Soviet 
Union "should have a guarantee that, in view of 
the war danger, Turkey would not allow warships 
of non-Black Sea powers to pass through the 
Bosphorus into the Black Sea. Turkey rejected 
both these stipulations of the U.S.S.R. and thereby 
made the conclusion of the pact impossible." Al- 
though no pact had resulted, a number of political 
questions had been cleared up, including Turkey's 
foreign policy. The Turkish Government, ac- 
cording to Molotov, had preferred to tie its fate 
up with Great Britain and France, who were 
waging war on Germany, and, while this might 
be pleasing to France and Great Britain, Molotov 
wondered "whether Turkey will not come to regi-et 
this — we shall not try to guess". In any case, this 
was not Soviet foreign policy, thanks to which 
the Soviet Union had secured "not a few successes 
in the sphere of foreign affairs". He was con- 
vinced that the policy of peace held out the best 
prospect for the future and indicated that it would 
be pursued "in the region of the Black Sea, too, 
confident that we shall fully ensure its proper 
application as demanded by the interests of the 
Soviet Union and of the states friendly to the 
Soviet Union". 

Soviet-German Relations and tlie Turkish 
Problem, June-November 1940 

Relations between Turkey and the Soviet Union 
cooled perceptibly after October 1939, while rela- 
tions between Germany and the Soviet Union ap- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



peared more close, althoiitrli the partners in "non- 
aggression'' by no means fully trusted each other, 
especially because of Germany's diplomatic and 
military moves in the Balkans, notably in the case 
of Hungary and Rumania. The Soviet Govern- 
ment forced Rumania to cede Bessarabia and 
Northern Bukovina on June 28, 1940, and on Au- 
gust 30, 1940, through the Vienna award, Rumania 
lost one half of Ti-ansylvania. At the same time 
Germany gave a guaranty to Rumania, and German 
troops soon poured into that country for the al- 
leged purposes of military instruction and protec- 
tion of the oil fields. Moreover, the Soviet Gov 
ernment was also somewhat concerned when Ger- 
many, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact 
of September 27, 1940.=^* Finally, the two powers 
were completely at odds over the control of the 
Danube River. 

It was not diiBcult, in the view of events, for 
Von Papen to keep Turkey from entering the war 
(luring the early part of the struggle, nor did 
tlie Anglo-Franco-Turkish treaty call for action. 
On the occasion of Italy's entry into the war, June 
11, 1940, Turkey continued to maintain her neu- 
trality. On July 18 Turkey signed a commercial 
agreement with Germany, which did not, however, 
provide for the shipment of chrome to Germany. 

Throughout the period the question of Tur- 
key continued to be discussed between Germany 
and the Soviet Union, the later regarding Turkey 
"with deep suspicion", as a result of Turkey's at- 
titude toward the Soviet Union, Italy, and Ger- 
many, and this attitude was intensified by the 
Turkish policy "in regard to the Black Sea, where 
Turkey desired to play the dominant role, and the 
Straits, where Turkey wanted to exercise exclusive 
jurisdiction", as Molotov told the Italian Ambas- 
sador on June 25, 1940. The Soviet Union was 
apparently willing to recognize Italy's "hegem- 
ony" in the Mediterranean provided the latter 
recognized the Soviet position in Black Sea. By 
July Soviet interest was focused on events in the 
Baltic and on developments in relation to Turkey 
and Iran, but the Soviet Union was not too fearful 
of German military victories on the Continent. 
In mid-July Stalin was quoted as having remarked 
to Sir StaiTord Cripps that, although interested 
in the Balkan region, "no power had the right 
to an exclusive role in the consolidation and lead- 
ership of the Balkan countries", and the Soviet 
Union (lid not assert such a mission. As to Tur- 



key, he repeated that the Soviet Union was "in 
fact opposed to the exclusive jurisdiction of Tur- 
key over the Straits and to Turkey's dictation of 
conditions in the Black Sea. The Turkish Gov- 
ernment was aware of that." ^^ 

By the fall of 1940, Berlin was ready to explore 
German-Soviet relations further, and on October 
13 ^^ Ribbentrop wrote to Stalin suggesting that 
Molotov visit Berlin for talks. Stalin replied on 
October 21,^^ agreeing that a further improvement 
in Soviet-German relations was "entirely possible 
on the permanent basis of a long-range delimita- 
tion of mutual interests". Meanwhile, on Novem- 
ber 1, President Inonii reaffirmed Turkey's non- 
belligerency and friendship with both Great Brit- 
ain and the Soviet Union. Together with Great 
Britain, Turkey was studying and trying to en- 
visage the results of the situation, and he hoped 
that these principles would help to maintain Turk- 
ish security in the future and declared that Soviet- 
Turkish friendship was of intrinsic value. 

Molotov arrived in Berlin on November 12 and 
during the next 48 hours he had conversations with 
Ribbentrop and Hitler covering the entire gamut 
of Soviet-German relations, including such prob- 
lems as the Skaggerak and Kategat, the Baltic 
Sea, Finland, the Baltic States, Poland, south- 
eastern Europe, Turkey, the Straits, Iran, and 
Sakhalin. Ribbentrop told Molotov on Novem- 
ber 12 ^^ of the Fiihrer's conviction that it would 
be advantageous to establish spheres of influence 
among Germany, the Soviet Union, Italy, and 
Japan, since the expansion of all was toward the 
south and there should be no real conflict, and re- 
minded him of "the good business" which had been 
done since August 1939. Ribbentrop thought that 
the easiest access to the sea for the Soviet Union 
lay through the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. 
Turning to Turkey, Ribbentrop, who believed the 
end of the war near, inquired of Soviet interest 
there. He thought Turkey should be induced to 
free itself from British ties and believed adoption 
of "a common platform" by Germany, the Soviet 
Union, Italy, and Japan would help in this di- 
rection. The Turks knew of the German position, 
and Ribbentrop expressed his understanding of 
the Soviet dissatisfaction with the Montreux Con- 
vention of the Straits, Germany being "even more 
dissatisfied". The Soviet Union, in Ribbentrop's 
view, should have certain privileges in the Black 
Sea, and Soviet warships and merchant vessels 



Ju/y 78, 1948 



67 



should have freer access to the Mediterranean. 
Mussolini was also sympathetic to this view, and 
it seemed advisable that Germany, Italy, and 
the Soviet Union adopt a common policy toward 
Turkey, bringing that country into line with the 
Axis, writing a new Straits convention, and con- 
sidering the problem of whether it might not be 
possible to "recognize the territorial integrity of 
Turkey". 

In a talk with Hitler on November 12 -^ Molotov 
was reminded that the historic moment had come, 
that the British Emjjire would be liquidated after 
the war, already won, and that the Soviet Union 
and Germany should reach a basic agreement — a 
l^oint of view with which Molotov was in accord. 
The problem of Soviet access to the sea was 
stressed, and Hitler repeated that Germany was 
prejiared at any time to effect "an imi^rovement for 
Kussia in the regime of the Straits". Molotov, 
however, wanted some specific answers to ques- 
tions, particularly about Soviet interests in the 
Balkans and the Black Sea, and about the Tripar- 
tite Pact of September 27, 1940. The next day 
there were more detailed discussions with the 
Fiihrer,^" Molotov asserting Finland's position in 
the Soviet sphere, protesting against the German 
guaranty to Rumania, and raising the question 
of a Soviet guaranty of Bulgaria, which was in 
the zone of the Straits, remarking that the Straits 
were "England's historic gateway for attack on 
the Soviet Union". Hilter was evasive on these 
points but thought the decisive point was whether 
the Soviet Union saw an opportunity "to gain suf- 
ficient security for her Black Sea interests through 
a revision of the Montreux Convention". Al- 
though an innnediate reply was not expected, 
Molotov stated that the Soviet Union only wanted 
to be secure from attack via the Straits and would 
like to settle the matter with Turkey, and that a 
guarantee to Bulgaria would alleviate the situa- 
tion. Hitler agreed as to the freer passage of So- 
viet Avarsliips through the Straits, to the exclusion 
of nonriverain warships, but Molotov wanted 
something more than a "paper" guarantee. Ee- 
turning to the Bulgarian problem, Molotov indi- 
cated that the Soviet Union was "prepared to guar- 
antee Bulgaria an outlet on the Aegean Sea". In 
the end, Hitler felt that the question of the Straits 
would have to be studied further. 

After dinner at the Soviet Embassy on the eve- 
ning of November 13 ^^ Molotov and Ribbentrop 

68 



continued their talks in the latter's air-raid shelter. 
Ribbentrop believed that the real problem was 
general collaboration between the Soviet Union 
and the Axis, indicating that then an understand- 
ing with Turkey could be reached, since Germany, 
Italy, and the Soviet Union were particularly in- 
terested in the Straits question. Even though it 
was clear that the discussions would take some 
time, in order to facilitate matters, Ribbentrop 
had had a draft agreement ^- prepared which he 
submitted to Molotov for his consideration, as the 
discussions were continued through the diplomatic 
chamiel. In the draft the four states were to col- 
laborate against extension of the war, for an 
early conclusion of the peace, and mutually to re- 
spect their spheres of influence. In the delimita- 
tion of spheres of interest, German territorial as- 
pirations were defined in Central Africa ; Italian, 
in N'orthern and Northeastern Africa; Japanese, 
in Eastern Asia ; and Soviet aspirations in the di- 
rection of the Indian Ocean. But in a secret pro- 
tocol no. 2 Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union 
were to detach Turkey from its commitments to 
Great Britain and gradually to win Turkey over 
to political collaboration with the Axis, signing, 
at the same time, an agreement recognizing the ex- 
tent of Turkey's possessions. Finally there was 
to be a new Straits convention granting the So- 
viet Union unrestricted I'ight of naval passage 
through the Straits, while all other jDowers, with 
the exception of other Black Sea powers, would re- 
nounce the right of passage for naval vessels. 
Commercial passage, of course, would remain 
free.^'' 

Thus ended the discussions in Berlin, and it is 
worthy of passing notice that on November 12 the 
Fiihrer, as a precautionary move, ordered that 
"all preparations" for possible difficulties in the 
East were to continue. ^^ Curiously enough, too, 
the files of the High Command of the German 
Navy ^^ contain some interesting notes with re- 
si^ect to the Hitler-Molotov conversations; an en- 
try of November 16, 1940, indicates that Molotor 
not only requested bases in the Turkish Straits but' 
also demanded the Kars-Ardahan region of 
Turkey. 

By November 25, 1940, Molotov was ready to 
comment definitively on the draft agreement 
which Ribbentrop had presented to him on No- 
vember 13.^^ He asked Schulenburg to call on him 
and, in the presence of Dekanosov, the Soviet Am- 

Departmenf of State Bulhtin 



bassador to Berlin, told Scluilenburg that, sub- 
ject to some conditions, the Soviet Government 
was ready to accept the draft of the Four Power 
Pact outlined in Berlin. As a price, German 
troops woukl have to be withdrawn immediately 
from Finland, although German economic inter- 
ests would be protected. Secondly, within the next 
few months, the security of the Soviet Union in 
the Straits would have to be protected "by the 
conclusion of a mutual-assistance pact between 
the Soviet Union and Bulgaria" which geograph- 
ically was situated within "the security zone of 
the Black Sea boundaries of the Soviet Union, 
and by the establishment of a base for land and 
naval forces of the U.S.S.R. within range of the 
Bosporus and the Dardanelles by means of a long- 
term lease".^'' It was also stipulated that the "area 
south of Batum and Baku in the general direction 
of the Persian Gulf" be recognized "as the center 
of the aspirations of the Soviet Union" and that 
Japan renounce its rights to concessions for coal 
and oil in northern Sakhalin. Therefore, in 
Molotov's view, the draft of the protocol on 
spheres of influence would have to be amended in 
order to stipulate "the focal point of the aspira- 
tions of the Soviet Union south of Batum and 
Baku in the general direction of the Persian 
Gulf ■'.^" But it is also of special interest to note 
that Molotov proposed amending the draft pro- 
tocol between Germany, Italy, and the Soviet 
Union — 

"so as to guarantee a base for light naval and land 
forces of the U.S.S.R. on the Bosporus and the 
Dardanelles by means of a long-term lease, includ- 
ing — in case Turkey declares herself willing to 
join the Four Power Pact — a guarantee of the in- 
dependence and of the territory of Turkey by 
the three countries named. 

"This protocol should provide that in case Tur- 
key refuses to join the Four Powers, Germany, 
Italy, and the Soviet Union agree to work out and 
to carry through the required military and diplo- 
matic measures, and a separate agreement to this 
effect should be concluded." 

In addition to protocols concerning Finland and 
Saklialin, Molotov also proposed a protocol which 
should recognize that Bulgaria was within "the 
security zone of the Black Sea boundaries of the 
Soviet Union" and therefore it was a political 
necessity that a Soviet-Bulgarian mutual-assist- 

Jo/y 78, 1948 



ance treaty should be signed. Molotov now de- 
sired a statement of the German view as to the 
Soviet counter-proposal for Soviet cooperation 
with the Axis. 

The Turco-German Nonaggression Pact and the 
German Attack on the Soviet Union 

The aftermath of the November 1940 conver- 
sations, especially in southeastern Europe, Tur- 
key, and the Near East was interesting. On No- 
vember 25, the very day on which Molotov had 
stated the Soviet terms to Schulenburg, Moscow 
made 12 projjosals to Bulgaria, recalling that it 
was "vitally interested in the Straits for the sake 
of the security of the Black Sea frontier" and 
could not "permit a repetition of the danger" 
which was "constantly directed through the 
Straits toward southern Russia". A mutual-as- 
sistance pact was therefore proposed which would 
assist Bulgaria in realizing its national aspira- 
tions both in Western (Greek) and in Eastern 
(Turkish) Thrace and under which Bulgaria 
would assist the Soviet Union in case of a threat 
to Soviet interests in the Black Sea or in the 
Straits. If Turkey threatened or attacked Bul- 
garia, the latter would have Soviet assistance and 
support in the achievement of Bulgarian claims 
to "the European part of Turkey". Moreover the 
Soviet Union would withdraw objections to Bul- 
garia's signature of the Tripartite Pact, and it 
was "entirely possible that the Soviet Union" 
would "in this case adhere to the Three Power 
Pact". The Bulgarians informed the Germans 
of this move, felt that signature of a mutual-as- 
sistance treaty would be i-egarded as unfriendly 
in Turkey, and indicated no direct interest in the 
Straits. 

On December 18, 1940,^* the Fiihrer ordered 
that the German armed forces be prepared "to 
crush Russia in a quick campaign even before the 
conclusion of the war with England", and early 
in 1941 there wei-e increasing preparations for 
action in southeastern Europe, although Berlin 
was advised that Moscow would take "the strong- 
est interest" in such movements and would want 
to know, especially, how Bulgaria and the Straits 
might be affected. There was considerable Soviet 
fear that Great Britain, as a countermove, might 
occupy both Bulgaria and the region of the 
Straits. 

While Germany was getting ready to move into 

69 



the Balkans with force and to explain the move 
on the ground that it was necessary to block the 
British in Greece, Turkey signed a nonaggression 
pact with Bulgaria on February 17. Upon the 
German occupation of Bulgaria, on March 1, Mo- 
lotov drafted a note in Schulenburg's presence 
expressing "regret" that Germany, by moving 
into Bulgaria, had done injury "to the security in- 
terests of the U.S.S.R.", maintaining its basic po- 
sition as stated in the memorandum of November 
25.^" At the same time Hitler advised President 
Inonii that the move into Bulgaria would not af- 
fect Turkish interests. Meanwhile, the British 
Foreign Minister, Anthony Eden, was in the Near 
East toward the end of February 1941 attempting 
to reconstitute a Balkan pact, composed of Greece, 
Yugoslavia, and Turkey, but failed because of 
Yugoslav and Turkish reluctance, although the 
Anglo-Turkish pact was reaffirmed on February 
28. The German view of the general situation 
and of relations between the Soviet Union and 
Germany was well revealed in the Matsuoka con- 
versations in Berlin on March 27, 28, and 29 and 
April 4, when the Japanese Foreign Minister was 
told that the Soviet conditions for cooperation 
were not acceptable, involving, as they did, sac- 
rifice of German interests in Finland, the grant- 
ing of bases on the Straits, and a strong influence 
in the Balkans, especially in Bulgaria.*" 

Meanwhile, as a possible counterweight to the 
German moves, a Soviet-Turkish agreement, re- 
affirming the pact of December 19, 1925, with 
an additional declaration covering aggression 
against either on the part of a third power, was 
signed on March 24, 1941. The next day the Svet- 
kovich Government in Yugoslavia signed the Tri- 
partite Pact with Germany and Italy, but was 
overthrown by a coup cVetat on March 27, and the 
Germans concluded that Yugoslavia must be 
crushed immediately." A few hours before the 
attack on Yugoslavia and Greece on April 6, 1941, 
the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact 
with Yugoslavia, a move which the Germans con- 
sidered "unfortunate". « But there was no indica- 
tion that the Soviet Government did not want to 
remain friendly with Germany. 

By this time Hitler was considering an attack 
on the Soviet Union. June 22, 1941, was set as 
the date as early as April 30, 1941." But he was 
also moving in the direction of a nonaggression 
pact with Turkey and toward a larger develop- 

70 



ment in the Near East as a whole, since Yugo- 
slavia was crushed by April 17 and the Greek 
High Command had surrendered on April 23." 
Revolt had broken out in Iraq on May 2, 1941, 
and Mussolini and Ribbentrop discussed this de- 
velopment in relation to Turkey in a confer- 
ence in Rome on May 13.*^ It was agreed that 
help should be extended to Iraq and Von Papen 
was instructed "to obtain from the Turks permis- 
sion for the secret passage of arms for Iraq 
through Tui'kish territory", in which case it might 
also be possible to send large airborne forces into 
Iraq for operations against the British, and even 
Egypt might be attacked. U Duce thought Tur- 
key was the Axis "trump card" and wondered 
whether it would march with Germany and Italy. 
Ribbentrop indicated that Germany was using its 
influence in this direction, with some prospect of 
success, since Turkey would not like to see large 
British forces in Iraq. 

Germany, therefore, pushed the matter of an 
agreement with Turkey in ]\Iay and June 1941, 
meeting, however, with a number of difficulties, 
especially in view of the Anglo-Turkish treaty 
of 1939 and of the Turkish desire not to be drawn 
into the conflict.'"' Von Papen, at one point, how- 
ever, took it for granted that transit of war ma- 
terials to Iraq could be considered as guaranteed. 
But that position had to be dropped, and on June 
9 *' Ribbentrop summed up the Turkish position 
by remarking : 

"Turkey desires to conclude a treaty with Ger- 
many to assure itself against a German attack; 
however, simultaneously, it is desirous of main- 
taining the alliance with England, and visibly, to 
assTire herself, on the side, of the possibility of 
collaborating with her politically and militarily. 
The Turkish Government must absolutely under- 
stand that if it collaborates, even on the side, with 
England, against Avhom Gei'many is involved in a 
death struggle, by this fact, it ranges Turkey on 
the side of Germany's enemies. Turkey would 
thereby abandon anew the neutrality, the reestab- 
lishment of which must be considered as the least 
of the results of its treaty with Germany. We are 
evidently in agi-eement as to the fact that Turkey 
desires that the treaty with Germany be drafted 
in such a manner that it does not appear as an 
open rupture of her treaty with England ; our pro- 
posals have been drafted in this sense. If, how- 

Depatin\en\ of State Bulletin 



ever, Turkey demands of us the positive recoo^ii- 
tion of licr treaty with England and if she wishes 
to reserve especially the possibility of collaborat- 
ing with the latter, this would evidently be in- 
acceptable for us." 

In the end Germany obtained no more than the 
nonaggression treaty of June 18, 1941, without 
secret commitments or wider implications, which 
clearly reafKrmed Turke_y's prior obligations un- 
der the Anglo-Franco-Turkish treaty of October 
19, 1939. Four days later, on June 22, the German 
armies were hurled against the Soviet Union as 
Hitler had already decided on April 30. It is 
noteworthy that Molotov indicated his inability to 
understand German dissatisfaction with Soviet 
policy, while the Germans recited their own 
charges against Soviet policy with respect to the 
Balkans and Turkey as among the reasons for 
open hostilities.^^ In Hitler's proclamation of 
June 22, 1941, he repeated the German version of 
the Molotov conversations of November 1940 for 
propaganda purposes, and the charges were soon 
denied in Moscow. 

German Pressure on Turkey 

With the German attack on the Soviet Union 
the position of Turkey took on new significance. 
Although Von Papen asserted that Turkey should 
not be used as a route to the Suez Canal and 
thought there were no actual military plans in- 
volving Turkey, this situation might change if 
Marshal Rommel finally reached the Suez Canal 
and the German armies in the east attained the 
Persian Gulf via the Caucasus, in which case Tur- 
key would be surrounded and would lose much of 
its strategic value to Germany.^^ The Germans, 
of course, soon told the Turks about the Soviet- 
German conversations, but on August 10, 1941, 
Great Britain and the Soviet Union confirmed 
their fidelity to the Montreux convention and as- 
sured the Turkish Government that they had no 
aggressive intentions or claims with regard to 
the Straits. Both Governments were prepared 
scrupulously to respect the territorial integrity of 
the Turkish Republic, and, in the event of an at- 
tack by a European power, they were ready to 
give Turkey every help and assistance. The Ger- 
mans also sought to stimulate Turkish official in- 
terest in the Pan-Turanian movement with a view 
to territorial aggrandizement, but without success 
in view of the nationalistic legacy of Atatiirk.^ 

July 18, 1948 



On October 9, 1941, as foreshadowed in the June 
18 treaty, a German-Turkish economic agreement 
was signed after desperate German efforts to se- 
cure Turkish chrome, but it was not to be valid 
before March 31, 1943, for an exchange of goods 
to the value of about £T100,000,000. Germany 
was to provide steel and war materials in exchange 
for Turkish raw materials. Turkey was to supply 
Germany with 90,000 tons of chrome in each of the 
years 1943 and 1944, but only after Germany had 
delivered to Turkey war materials to the value 
of £T18,000,000, and after the expiry of the Anglo- 
Turkish agreement concerning chrome. The 
United States — four days prior to the Japanese 
attack on Pearl Harboi- — declared the defense of 
Turkey essential to the defense of the United 
States and extended lend-lease assistance to 
Turkey on December 3, 1941. 

During the period immediately prior to and just 
after the entry of the United States into the war, 
there was considerable German discussion as to the 
position of Turkey. The Germans knew that 
Turkey desired to avoid open hostilities but 
pointed out that while Great Britain could offer 
nothing to Turkey, Germany held in her hands 
"the Gi-eek islands at the entrance of the Darda- 
nelles", which were of vital importance to Turkey. 
In the event of success against the Soviet Union, 
Turkey must become "more and more friendly", 
although since the period of Atatiirk, Turkey had 
been pursuing a policy of national consolidation 
and domestic reconstruction and had expressed 
"no desire at all to obtain any territorial gain". 
Nevertheless, it might be induced to "enlarge its 
benevolent neutrality and to facilitate access to the 
Arab territories and the Suez Canal for the Ger- 
man High Connnand".''^ Von Papen, however, re- 
ported on January 5, 1942,^*^ that the American 
entry into the war had produced a "sentiment of 
profound deception" in Turkey, which would 
reiterate its desire to avoid hostilities, and he did 
not believe that Turkey should be pushed too far, 
lest Turkey enter the war on the other side, al- 
though there were fears regarding the Soviet 
Union, particularly on the part of Numan Mene- 
mencioglu. 

Turkish policy continued to develop in this man- 
ner during the spring and summer of 1942, and 
Near Eastern questions, particularly that of Tur- 
key, figured largely in the Hitler-Mussolini con- 
versation at Salzburg on April 29, 1942,^^ when 

71 



Hitler assured II Duce that "Turkey was moving 
slowly but surely over to the Axis" in view of the 
suspicion of the Russians. There was also the 
problem of an Axis declaration concerning the 
independence of India and the Arab countries. 
Hitler and Molotov agreed that this matter could 
wait, however, and Hitler took the position that 
such a declaration would only be a practical matter 
"when the Axis troops stood south of the Cau- 
casus". German pressure on the Turks continued 
in the summer, the Germans insisting on the "un- 
realistic" character of Turkish policy, conjuring 
the Soviet demands on the Straits before the 
Turks, and holding out the Pan-Turanian dream, 
only to meet the view that the preservation of the 
"absolute neutrality" of Turkey was indispensable. 
However, a new trade agreement was signed on 
June 2, 1942, and it was announced on Sei)tember 
29 that Turkey had contracted to send 45,000 tons 
of chrome, about one half the annual production, 
to the Krupp works in exchange for arms.'"* 

Turkey, the United States, and Great Britain 

Following the Casablanca meeting of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill on 
January 14, 1943, and clearing of North Africa, 
there were possibilities that Turkey might be in- 
volved, with resulting German pressure or inva- 
sion of the country. Mr. Churchill, therefore, tele- 
graphed President Inonii on January 26, and the 
two met at Adana on January 30, after which 
Churchill declared the British wish to see Turkish 
territories, rights, and interests effectively pre- 
served, and the British desire to have "warm and 
friendly relations" between Turkey and the Soviet 
Union.'*'* 

Following the Quebec (August 11-24), Moscow 
(October 19-30), and Tehran (November 28-De- 
cember 1) conferences. President Roosevelt and 
Prime Minister Churchill conferred with Presi- 
dent Inonii and Foreign Minister Menemencioglu 
at Cairo on December 4-6, 1943. Indeed, it had 
been agreed at the Tehran conference on December 
1, 1943, that, from the military point of view, "it 
was most desirable that Turkey should come into 
the war on the side of the Allies before the end of 
the year".'*^ Moreover, note was taken of Marshal 
Stalin's statement that "if Turkey found herself at 
war with Germany, and as a result Bulgaria de- 
clared war on Turkey or attacked her", the Soviet 
Union "would immediately be at war with Bul- 

72 



garia".'*^ The conference further took note that 
this fact could be explicitly stated in the forthcom- 
ing negotiations to bring Turkey into the war. A 
communique was issued after the Cairo conference 
which declared that Inrmii, Roosevelt, and 
Churchill had examined the general situation, 
taken into account the "joint and several interests 
of the three countries", and indicated that "the 
closest unity existed between the United States of 
America, Turkey and Great Britain in their atti- 
tude to the world situation". It was also stated 
that the identity of interests and views of the 
United States and Great Britain with those of the 
Soviet Union and the traditional friendship be- 
tween the three powers and Tui'key had been re- 
affirmed throughout the proceedings at the Cairo 
conference. 

The subject of the Cairo conversations had been 
Turkey's possible entry into the war, and Numan 
Menemencioglu later indicated that the talks had 
been carried on with "almost brutal" frankness 
but that the Anglo-Turkish ties had been strength- 
ened. As a result, Anglo-Turkish military discus- 
sions were carried on in January and February 
but were broken off on February 3, 1944. Never- 
theless, events now moved ineluctably toward a 
break with Germany, first economically and then 
diplomatically. By April 20, 1944, Turkey was 
induced to stop the shipments of chrome to Ger- 
many, effective the next day, although on May 24, 
1944, Mr. Churchill, in a statement to the House 
of Commons ^^ spoke "bluntly", indicating that no 
pressure had been brought to bear on Turkey and 
stating that Turkey would not have the strong 
position at the peace conference which would at- 
tend entry into the struggle. He noted the sus- 
pension of chrome shij^ments, however, looked to- 
ward entire suspension of economic relations with 
Germany, and expressed confidence that a still 
better day would dawn for Anglo-Turkish rela- 
tions, and indeed, "with all the gi'eat Allies". In 
June there were difficulties with respect to the pas- 
sage of certain German ships through the Straits, 
and Mr. Eden expressed his disturbance in the 
House of Commons concerning the matter on June 
14. On June 15, 1944, Numan Menemencioglu re- 
signed as Foreign Minister.'*^ 

On August 2, 1944, Turkey broke off diplomatic 
and economic relations with Germany. Although 
the Soviet Government was reserved in its atti- 
tude toward the Turkish action. Prime Minister 

Department of State Bulletin 



Cliui-chill announced in the House of Commons 
that he could not forget that "Turkey dechared her 
alliance with us before the present war, when our 
aiinaments were weak and our policy pacific". 
The Turkish action liad infused "new life into the 
alliance" between Turkey and Great Britain. If 
Turkey were attacked by Germany or Bulgaria, 
Great Britain would, of course, make common 
cause. The Britis^h Prime Minister also hoped 
that the break with Germany would "contribute 
to the continuity of friendship of Turkey and 
Russia". Two days later Von Papen and his staff 
of the German Embassy in Ankara departed for 
Germany. 

In the months which followed, the United States 
and Great Britain opened conversations with the 
Turkish Government concerning the right of 
merchant vessels to pass through the Straits into 
the Black Sea; the United States, however, as- 
sumed that there was no need for special agi'ee- 
ment in view of the provisions of the Montreux 
convention. By the middle of January 1945 sup- 
plies to the Soviet Union were passing tlu'ough the 
Turkish Straits. On February 23, 1945, Turkey 
declared war on Germany and Japan and the next 



day announced its intention to adhere to the Decla- 
ration by United Nations, and the adherence of 
Turkey was, in fact, signed on February 28, 1945.®° 
The policy and position of Turkey, at the cross- 
roads of three continents, situated at the Straits 
and occupying a strategic key to the entire Near 
and Middle East, were naturally of concern both 
to the Axis and to the Allies during the entire 
period of World War II. It was also natural 
that the Turkish Government should have adopted 
a cautious policy throughout this period. The 
evidence indicates that Turkey was faithful as a 
nonbelligerent to its obligations under the Anglo- 
Turkish treaty of 19:39 and that its position as a 
neutral served the interests of the Allies. Had 
it acted prematurely the entire Near East might 
well have been thrown open to the Axis armed 
forces in the critical period of 1940-1942. In the 
end, it did not become involved in actual armed 
conflict largely because there was no concerted or 
integrated plant for Turkish operations, no Bal- 
kan campaign was carried out on a scale to involve 
Turkish forces, and no supplies were diverted by 
the western powers for this purpose. 



Statistics Concerning Sliipping in the Turltisli Straits 

TABLE I 

Registered Net Tonnage (1913-1923) > 



Flag 


1913 « 


1920' 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Arnprican 




266, 679 


300, 277 


589, 778 


222, 481 




1 615, 293 




Belgian 

British 


295, 038 

5, 370, 781 

199, 034 

572, 730 

733, 600 

1, 958, 201 

370, 302 

288, 203 

350, 302 

1, 428, 435 

906, 416 










557, 353 

46,419 

231,318 

331,203 
329, 491 


204, 065 
121,488 
500, 062 
38, 508 
559, 338 
385, 684 


1,488, 171 
210, 754 
644, 073 
38,311 
614, 804 
759, 002 


1, 994, 689 


Dutch 

French 

German 

Greek 

Italian 

Norwegian 

Rumanian 


380, 817 
632, 087 
167, 651 
276, 283 
1,513, 180 


138, 537 

250, 375 

77, 331 

238, 109 


172, 885 
64, 371 
18, 453 

360, 277 


284, 925 
31,042 
29, 668 

473, 162 


457, 564 
68, 498 


Turkish 

Other 


296, 322 
490, 606 








Total 


13, 412, 065 


2,472,815 


2, 725, 408 


5, 164, 650 


6, 500, 178 



' These statistical data have been gathered from the foUowing sources: (1) Rapport de la Commission des DHroils a la Sociitl des Nations (1924-1935); (2) R{- 
publique turque. Ministere des Aflaires etrangcres. Rapport Annual sur le Mouvcment des Navires a Trarers les Dctroils et des Alronefs Civils enlre la Mcditer- 
ranie et la Met Noire (1936-1941); (3) T. C. Istanbul Ticaret ne Sanayi Odasi Mecmunsi (Bulletin de la Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie d'Jstanbul (1941); (4) 
Basvekalet Istatistik. Umum Mudurlugu (Rcpublique turque. Presidence du Conseil. Office central destatistique). Istatistik Yilligi {Annuaire Statistique), 
vol. 12. no. 194. 1940-1941 Ankara, 1941). 

• From PhUlipson and Buxton, The Question nflhe Dardanelles and Bosphorus. pp, 232-233. In 191 1 the number of ves.'sels passing the Bosphorus was 34,.502. with 
a total tonnage of 19,968,409; in 1912 there were 34,577, with a tot:iI tonnage of 16,298,.937; and in 1913 there were 34,826 vessels, with a total tonnage of 13,412.005. 

> From O. B. Ravndal, Turkey: A Commercial and Industrial Handbook, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Trade Promotion Series 28, p. 60. 

July J 8, J 948 ^^ 



TABLE li 

Registered Net Tonnage (1924-1938) 



Flag 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


l'J39 


1930 


1931 


General 

American 

British 

Dutch 

French 

German 

Italian 

Norwegian .... 
Polish 

Regional 

Bulgarian 

Egyptian 

Greek 


169, 938 

1, 984, 783 

396, 799 

570, 412 

260, 863 

1, 518, 052 

112, 773 

5, 191 

87. 183 

48, 876 

827, 000 


154, 000 

2, 242, 000 

323, 000 

627, 000 

469, 000 

1, 802, 000 

169, 000 

9,000 

92, 000 

151, 000 

1, 270, 000 


126, 941 
2, 499, 471 


166, 809 
2, 080, 330 


203, 110 

1, 915, 053 
397, 654 
866, 010 
576, 943 

2, 214, 586 
689, 853 

6,335 

103, 509 
106, 509 
779, 950 


287, 187 

2, 778, 946 
422, 436 
897, 847 
643, 566 

3, 538, 205 
905, 048 

7, 197 

117,673 

112,402 

1, 243, 082 


468, 850 

3, 669,816 
551,458 
889, 318 
806, 860 

4, 551, 027 
1, 108, 512 

6,916 

90, 016 

113,968 

3, 400, 512 


370, 802 

3, 684, 132 

669, 618 


825, 039 

464, 337 

2, 463, 861 

362, 186 

83, 701 


831, 429 

540, 817 

2, 624, 822 

87, 041 


1, 109, 469 

813, 099 

5,016,973 

1, 451, 169 


2, 122, 861 


1, 592, 795 


3, 351, 389 


Rumanian 

Russian 

Turkish ' ^ 


364, 134 

172, 402 

715, 103 

36, 173 


479, 000 

196, 000 

774, 000 

31, 000 


550. 873 
188, 022 


432, 331 
295, 004 


468, 183 
468, 891 


489, 164 
572, 095 


547, 620 
612, 713 


605, 816 
324, 472 


Yugoslav 


143, 154 


91,422 


22, 780 


64, 948 


167, 770 




Total. . . . 


7, 646, 550 


9, 178, 000 


10, 643, 812 


9, 897, 579 


9, 218, 371 


12, 767, 012 


17, 864, 753 


19, 198, 346 



' The figures for Turkey, which are not included after 1925, do not include sailing vessels and coasting vessels from the Sea of Marmara, amounting to 
about 500,000 tons. 

' The figures for Turkey, 193&-1941, are taken from T. C. Istanbul Ticaret ve Sanayi Odasi Mecmuasi (Bulletin de la Chambre de Commerce et d' Industrie d' Istan- 
bul). They are not Included in the total figures for the years indicated. 



TABLE il 

Registered Net Tonnage (1924-1938)- 



-Conlinued 



Flag 



1933 



1934 



1935 



1936 » Aug. 15- 
Dec. 31,1936 



1937 



1938 



General 



American 
British . . 
Dutch . . 
French . . 
German 
Italian . . 
Norwegian 
Polish . . 



196, 717 
2, 847. 770 

503, 676 
1,011,056 

619. 064 
4, 230, 477 
2, 104, 843 



175, 850 

2, 616, 755 

562, 884 

524, 625 

655, 566 

4, 160, 918 

2, 232, 632 



147, 048 

2, 586, 817 
423, 356 
518, 136 
573, 083 

3, 414, 456 
2, 165, 998 



189, 252 

1, 986, 232 
353, 357 
394, 250 
452, 073 

2, 527, 164 
968, 032 



Regional 



Bulgarian. 
Egyptian . 
Greek . . 
Palestinian 
Rumanian 
Russian . 
Turkish ' \ 
Yugoslav . 



2, 469, 396 



91, 143 

103, 406 

2, 974, 505 



130, 873 

73, 454 

2, 294, 990 



135, 792 

45, 619 

1, 861, 400 



643, 038 
752. 340 



770, 399 
985, 961 



749, 895 
912, 792 



654, 788 
1, 614. 564 



108, 512 
923, 796 
152, 852 
291, 201 
373, 323 
799, 156 
229, 480 
235, 264 



133, 022 
24, SSI 

341, 929 
58, 964 

474, 059 

338, 410 
,315,981 



124, 841 



101, 906 



6,080 



207, 013 

2, 601 497 

569, 165 

1, 261, 999 
754, 434 

2, 167, 770 
959, 658 
187, 289 



180, 379 

30, 304 

1, 648,211 

75, 584 

709, 536 

1, 111,351 

57, 438 



275, 545 
, 890, 184 
372, 842 
408, 073 
627, 384 
604, 666 
743, 700 
196. 998 



154, 413 
22, 881 

1, 576, 094 

647, 391 
740, 098 

2, 875, 777 

67, 040 



Total. 



17, 514, 641 



17, 445, 427 



15, 504, 374 



12, 322, 012 



4, 781, 232 



12, 957, 364 



10, 762, 266 



' There was no report, apparently, for the months of January to August 1936, since the Commission of the Straits ceased to function in the fall of 1936. The 
monthly figures in Bulletin de la Chambre de Commerce et d^ Industrie d' Istanbul make a total of 18,219,990 tons for the entire year 1936, Turkish shipping included. 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



TABLE III 
Commercial Shipping in the Marmara Region (1939-1945)' 

N — Number of ships 
T— Net Tonnage 



Country 


1939 


1940 


1941 


1942 


1943 


1944 


1945 


Turkey 


N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 
N 
T 

N 
T 

N 
T 


34 397 

4 273 136 

41 

121 075 

360 

775 952 

506 

715 941 

684 

227 811 

188 

330 638 

2 

2 664 

91 

471 119 

74 

157 318 

201 

528 452 

90 

103 184 

45 

77 126 

14 

20 486 

95 

126 919 

32 

13 824 

15 

22 822 

8 

8 928 

6 

6 386 

5 

19 443 

86 

96 864 

28 

49 914 

54 

29 529 


33 567 

4 369 125 

59 

102 553 

245 

542 818 

377 

268 263 

664 

247 481 

32 

29 637 


29 407 
4 645 182 


30 460 
4 671 998 


25 363 
4 095 023 


25 646 

4 766 453 

2 

26 


32 793 
5 616 509 












Great Birain 


52 
69 887 

11 

23 598 

294 

25 038 

21 
20 994 






9S 










565 208 


Italy 


8 

438 

11 

4 423 


6 

11 652 

1 

54 

14 

15 373 










Greece 

Germany 

Belgium 


11 

136 

15 

6 458 


125 
13 464 
















United States 


52 

168 143 

60 

128 025 

162 

498 465 

26 

29 035 

3 

10 270 

2 

2 282 

54 

47 865 

32 

12 871 

7 

13 249 










191 












841 766 


Soviet Union 

Rumania 

Netherlands 


24 

53 813 

58 

120 476 


3 

8 061 


4 
13. 288 


1 

45 

2 

7 836 


5 

19 093 

3 












10 839 


Norway 










14 










73 393 


Denmark 
























Bulgaria 

Hungary 


24 

14 673 

11 

4 413 


9 
402 


14 

9 106 

4 

1 232 


34 

1 206 


34 
1 206 








Egypt 


















Poland 


























Spain 


6 
7 194 




23 
38 107 














2 200 


Finland 






















Japan 


3 

9 678 
10 

13 743 
18 

24 480 
53 

29 126 
























Sweden 








3 

2 513 


14 










21 613 


Yugoslavia 


2 

4 528 

31 

9 947 






1 










1 558 


Others 




1 
91 




2 

7 494 


Total f oreign 
shipping. 


2 625 
3 906 395 


1 865 
2 185 178 


528 
347 367 


54 
51 431 


44 
50 796 


68 
18 220 


487 
1 557 834 


General total . . . 


37 022 
8 179 531 


35 432 
6 554 303 


29 935 
4 992 549 


30 514 
4 723 429 


25 407 
4 145 819 


25 714 
4 784 673 


33 280 
7 174 343 



> Rei)Ut)lique turque. PrSsidence de Conseil. OflSce central de statistique, Annuahe Statistique (1942-1945), vol. 15, p. 518. 

July ?8, 1948 



75 



TABLE IV 
Commercial Shipping in the Straits, 1946* 



TABLE V 
Commercial Shipping in the Straits, 1947' 



Country 



United States . . . 
Soviet Union . . . 
Great Britain . . . 

Greece 

Rumania 

Yugoslavia .... 

Norway 

Sweden 

Netherlands . . . 

France 

Italy 

Denmark 

Canada 

Lebanon 

Union of South Africa 

Belgium 

Panama 

Bulgaria 

Honduras 

Poland 

Palestine 

Spain 

Egypt 

Hungary .... 

Total . . . 



Operating 

at 
Istanbul 



109 

57 

42 

67 

17 

14 

28 

45 

12 

1 

25 

4 

1 

7 

4 

8 

4 

12 

1 

1 

1 

1 

5 

1 



467 



Ships 



72 
120 

11 

12 
7 

22 
1 
1 
7 
8 

10 
3 
3 



279 



Total 



181 

177 

53 

79 

24 

36 

29 

46 

19 

9 

35 

7 

4 

7 

4 

8 

6 

12 

1 

1 

1 

1 

5 

1 



746 



Tonnage 
(Reg. net) 



797.126 

495.843 

151.307 

142.950 

94.293 

81.360 

72.399 

57.072 

21.789 

20.613 

19.538 

15.563 

12.219 

11.273 

10.832 

9.235 

9.196 

8.821 

4.381 

4.278 

3.425 

1.037 

570 

518 



2.045.638 



Country 



United States . 
Soviet Union . 
Great Britain . 
Greece .... 
Italy .... 
Norway . . . 
Panama . . . 
Sweden .... 
Rumania . . . 
Yugoslavia . . 
Netherlands . . 
Denmark . . . 
Lebanon . . . 
Canada .... 
Bulgaria . . . 
Spain .... 
Hungary . . . 
Belgium . . . 
Argentina . . . 
Honduras . . . 

Java 

Egypt .... 
Poland .... 

Syria 

Saudi Arabia . 

Total. . 



Operating 

at 
Istanbul 



118 

111 

75 

52 

128 

39 

31 

74 

15 

22 

17 

13 

9 

4 

44 

6 

12 

11 

1 

3 

1 

8 

2 

1 

1 



798 



Ships 

in 
transit 



62 

106 

17 

30 

8 

16 

15 

12 

14 

15 

11 

3 

8 

1 

33 

7 
1 
1 



364 



Total 



180 

217 

92 

82 

136 

55 

46 

86 

29 

37 

28 

16 

17 

5 

77 

6 

19 

12 

2 

3 

1 

11 

3 

1 

1 



1, 162 



Tonnage 
(Reg. net) 



787. 

739. 

228. 

142. 

127. 

125. 

109. 

102. 

94, 

77, 

46, 

28, 

27, 

18, 

17 

13 

12 

11 

10 

6 

4 

4 

3 



495 
706 
173 
546 
755 
256 
995 
464 
073 
700 
735 
,887 
.443 
920 
431 
088 
430 
900 
.112 
.927 
.236 
302 
818 
365 
240 



2.741.997 



' RSpublique turque. Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres. Rapport Annuel 
VT te Mouvement des Navires a travers tes Detroits. Dixieme Ann(5e — Janvier 
1947. Ankara. Disisleri Balianligi Basimevi. 1947. p. 9. 



' Rfpublique turque. Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres. Rapport 
Annuel sur le Mouvement des Navires a trovers Us Detroits. Onzieme 
AnnSe— Janvier 1948. p. 9. 



Footn otes 



' Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939-1941. Documents From 
the Archives of the German Foreign Office (Department 
of State publication 3023), here cited as Nazi-Soviet Rela- 
tions, 1939-1941. The Soviet publication, consisting of 36 
documents from the German archives and published in 
1940, is : Arkhivnoe Upravlenie Ministerstva Inostran- 
nikh Diel Soiiiza SSR. Dokumenti Ministerstva Inostran- 
nikh Diel Germanii. Vipusk II. Germanskaia Politika 
V. Turtsii (1941-1943). OGIZ-Gospolitizdat, 1946. A 
French translation is : La Politique AUemandc, 1941-1943 
V. Turquie. Documents Secrets Au Ministere des Affaires 
Etrangircs d'Allcmagne. Traduit du russe loar Madeleine 
et Michel Eristov (Paris, Dupont, 1946). Here cited as 
Germanskaia Politika v. Turtsii. The Niirnberg documents 
are: Office of the U.S. Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of 
Axis Criminality, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, 8 vols. 

'Parliamentary Dehates, House of Commons, vol. 346, 
col. 13 ; Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Documents 



Dii)loma.tiques, 1938-1939 (Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 
1939), p. 109; Royal Greek Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
The Greek WJiite Book: Diplomatic Documents Relating 
to Italy's Aggression Against Greece (London, Hutch- 
inson, 1942), pp. 30-32; German Library of Information, 
Documents on the Events Preceding the Outltreak of the 
War (New York, 1940; Berlin, 1939), pp. 309-340. 

^ Affaires DanuUennes, no. 4, 1939, pp. 209-210 ; Parlia- 
mentary Delates, House of Commons, vol. 347, col. 955; 
German Library of Information, op. cit., p. 321. 

* In a comment of May 30, 1939, on the German-Italian 
alliance, Mussolini indicated the necessity of taking over 
the entire Balkan and Danubian area immediately after 
the first hours of war, noting : "By this lightning-like 
operation which is to be carried out decisively, not only 
the 'guaranteed states', like Greece, Rumania, and Tur- 
key, would be out of the fight, but one would also protect 
one's back . . . ." Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 
V, pp. 453-455. 



76 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Footnotes— Continued 



'German Library of Information, op. cit., p. 343. On 
Apr. 21, 1939, Turkey gave a contract to a British com- 
pany for Iniiliiing a naval base at Gelcnii. 

".Voci Conspiracj/ and Aggression, vol. IV, pp. 508-517; 
vol. VIII, pp. 519-520. 

'/6i(f., vol. Ill, pp. 5S0-581. 

'Ibid. vol. VII, pp. 752-754. 

• For background, see especially Nazi-Sovi'Bt Relations, 
J930~n>.',l. pp. 1-50, text, pp. 76-78. 
j "/&iVJ., pp. 157-158. 
! " Ibid., pp. 73-74. 

" Ibid., pp. 80-83. 

" Sarac6glu had been in touch with Gafenco, the Ru- 
manian Foreign Minister, as a member of the Balkan 
Entente, and was asked to find out the Soviet attitude 
toward Balkan solidarity. Molotov was quite "cold" on 
this subject. Although there had been a preliminary 
Turkish-Soviet agreement concerning the Straits and a 
political agreement, Molotov turned down all Turkish 
suggestions which would have permitted Ankara to play 
any role on the side of the western powers or, in union 
with its Balkan neighbors, a preiKinderant role in the 
maintenance of peace and order In the region. See Gre- 
goire Gafenco, Pr&iminaires de la Ouerre a I'Est, 1939- 
19',1, pp. 303-310. 

"Naxi-SotHet Relatione, 1939-1941, pp. 105-106. 

'^ Ibid., pp. 85-86. 

"Ibid., pp. 87-88. 

"Ibid., p. 97. 

''Ibid., p. 110. 

"Ibid., p. 111. 

""Ibid., p. 113. 

"Ibid., pp. 117-118. 

~ Great Britain. Treaty of Mutual Assistance between 
His Majesty in respect of the United Kingdom, the Presi- 
dent of the French Republic, and the President of the 
Turkish Republic. Angora, Oct. 19, 1939. Cmd. 6135, 
Turkey No. 4 (1940). 

" V. M. Molotov, Foreign Poliey of the Soviet Union. 
Report by the Cliairnian of the Council of People's Com- 
missars of the U.S.S.R. and People's Commissar of Foreign 
Affairs at the Extraordinary Fifth Session of the Supreme 
• Soviet of the U.S.S.R., Oct. 31, 1939. See especially pp. 
14-15. 

"Nasi-Soviet Relations, 1939-19 J,l, pp. 144-194. 

"" Ibid., pp. 160-161. 

'°/6(f/., pp. 207-213. 

"" Ibid., pp. 216-217. 

"^ Ibid., pp. 217-225. 

"Ibid., pp. 226-234. 

'" Ibid., pp. 234-247. 

" Ibid., pp. 247-2.34. 

" Ibid., pp. 257-258. 

"Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. Ill, pp. 403-407. 

^Ibid., vol. VI, pp. 977-1002. There is no verification 
of this item in the German accounts of the Molotov con- 
versations in Berlin. 



'"■yaziSnviet Relations, 1939-19',!. pp. 258-259. In 
studying tliis proposal, which Molotov considered defini- 
tive and referred to a number of times later, it is well to 
bear in mind Imperial Russia's historic position as to 
the Straits as registered in the treaties of 1798, 1805, and 
1833 and the Charykov proposal of 1911-12, as well as 
the Soviet-Turkish treaties of 1921 and 1922 and the 
Soviet support of claims to tlie Kars-Ardahan region in 
1946. This claim was supported by the Soviet Representa- 
tive, Mr. Vysbinsky, in tlie Political and Security Com- 
mittee of the General As.sembly of the United Nations 
on Oct. 24, 1947. For convenient reference to the treaties 
cited above see Harry N. Howard, The Problem of the 
Turkish Straits (Department of State publication 2752, 
Near Eastern Series 5), pp. 14-29. 

'" Tliis proposal should be compared with the Soviet 
notes concerning the Straits on Aug. 7 and Sept. 24, 1046, 
and the American, British, and Turkish replies during 
this period. It will be noted that the proposals are sub- 
stantially identical. For convenience see The Problem of 
the Turkish Straits, pp. 47-68. 

" It is probable that the Soviet position with respect to 
Iran, 1045, and later, should be considered in the light of 
the Novemlier 1940 position of the Soviet Union as well as 
in the light of the long historic past. 

^Nazi-Soviet Relation.^ 1939-19J,1, pp. 264-269. 

™/6i(i., pp. 278-279. 

"/6/rf., pp. 281-316. 

" :Sazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. IV, pp. 278-279, 
475-477; vol. VI, pp. 938-939: vol. VIII, pp. 70-72. 

"= Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939-19.1,1, pp. 316-320, 323-324, 
326-327. 

■" Ibid., pp. 333-334 ; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, 
vol. Ill, pp. 633-634. 

"The Yugoslav and Greek problems were discussed 
at Vienna on Apr. 22, 1941. Bulgaria claimed not only 
Yugoslav Macedonia and Western Thrace but also 
Salonika. Von Papen claims to have prevented Bulgarian 
occupation of Salonika, because, among other things, it 
would have made relations with Turkey ditfieult. 

" Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. IV, pp. 499-508, 
for minutes of conference. 

" This account is based on the Soviet publication of 
German documents, Qermanskaia Politika v. Turtsii, 
1941-1943, published in August 1946 while the Soviet 
Union was making demands on the Straits. 

" Ibid., no. 7. See also ibid., nos. 1-G, for background. 
At one point Germany was willing to promise Turkey 
territorial rectifications in the region of EdirncS, along 
the Greek-Turkish Thracian frontier, and in the Aegean 
Islands. 

"Nazi-Sotyiet Relations. 1939-19/,1, pp. 347-349, 355-357, 
and Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. VI, pp. 977-1002. 

"Doc. no. 456-PS, Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel for 
tlie Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 

'^ Germanskttia Politika v. Turtsii, nos. 10-15, and 
Anthony Eden's statement in the House of Commons on 



July 18, J 948 



77 



Footnotes — Continued 



Jan. 8, 1942, following his return from Moscow {Parlia- 
mentary Debates, House of Commons, vol. 377, col. 373). 
■" Oermanskaia Politika v. TurtsH, nos. 12 and 17. 

'' Ibid. no. 16. 

"'For text of conversation, see Bullethn of July 14, 
1946, pp. 57-63. 

" Germanskaia Politika v. Turtsii, nos. 22-36. 

'^ See Mr. Churchill's address to the House of Commons 
on Feb. 11, 1943, Parliamentary Debates, Official Report, 
House of Commons, vol. 386, cols. 1467-1488. 

" Department of State press release 240, Mar. 24, 1947. 

" Bulletin of Dec. 11, 1943, p. 412. 

^Parliamentary Debates, House of Convmons, vol. 400, 
cols. 762-786. See also Mr. Eden's address to the House 
of Commons, Dec. 14, 1943. 

During this period the German military estimates of 
the Turkish position indicated that while Turkey had re- 



mained neutral, the closer Soviet armies came to the 
Balkans, the more difficult Turkey's position would be. 
Turkey's position was dominated by the Straits question ; 
she had expansionist claims. Nevertheless, if Turkey 
changed its position, enemy operations against the Bul- 
garian-Rumanian Black Sea coast would have to be taken 
into account (Kazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. VII, 
pp. 949-952, 954-955). 

" Parliamentary Debates, Official Report, House of Com- 
mons, vol. 400, cols. 1986-1988. The vessels in question 
included K.T. ships of about 800 tons, carrying two 3.7 
inch guns and machine gims, an E.M.S. craft of about 40 
or 50 tons, with a normal armament of one three pounder, 
machine guns, and depth charges. See also the Soviet 
note of Aug. 7, 1946, and the Turkish reply of Aug. 22, 
1946, in The Problem of the Turkish Straits, pp. 47-55, 
and the discussion, pp. 36-45. 

"" BuTLLETiN Of Mar. 4, 1945, p. 373. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography ' 



Economic and Social Council 

Report of the Secretary-General on the Activities of the 
Specialised Agencies, Inter-Governmental Organisa- 
tions, Non-Governmental Organisations and United 
Nations Organs in the Fields of Housing and Town 
and Country Planning. E/S02, June 4, 1948. 23 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report of the International Telecommunication Union. 
E/812, June 10, 1948. 12 pp. mimeo. 

Second Report of the International Labour Organisation 
of the United Nations. E/810, June 9, 1948. [Cover- 
ing document states Secretary-General has received 
report ; attached is Iix) printed report. 138 pp.] 

Report on the Progress and Prospect of Repatriation, Re- 
settlement and Immigration of Refugees and Dis- 
placed Persons. E/816, June 10, 1948. 67 pp. mimeo. 

Translation of the Classics. Report of the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 
E/823, June 16, 1948. 16 pp. mimeo. 

Communication Dated 3 June 1948 from the Preparatory 
Commission for the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion to the Secretary-General Proposing Action for the 
Co-ordination of Procedures for Declarations of Death 
and Enclosing a Survey of the Problem. E/824, June 
15, 1948. 17 pp. mimeo. 



" Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

78 



Official Records— Third Year: 

Sixth Session. Supplement No. 3. Report of the Sta- 
tistical Commission. E/577. 20 pp. Printed. 20^. 

Supplement No. 3A, Report of the Sub-Commission 

on Statistical Sampling. E/CN.3/37. 18 pp. 
printed. 20^. 

Seventh Session. Supplement No. 3. Report of the 
Transport and Communications Commission. E/7S9. 
30 pp. printed. 30^. 

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. 
Report of the Executive Board on the Nineteenth 
through Twenty-fifth Meetings Held at Lake Success, 
9-12 March 1948. E/ICEF/56, Mar. 25, 1948. 43 pp. 
mimeo. 

Programme Committee. Note by the Executive Di- 
rector on Utilization of New Resources. E/ICEF/57, 
Apr. 15, 1948. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the International Health Conference Held in 
New York from 19 June to 22 July 1946. E/772, Mar. 

11, 1947. iv, 71 pp. Printed. 750. 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Summary of Annual 
Reports of Governments for 1945. E/NR 1945/Suin- 
mary. iv, 54 pp. Printed. 500. 

Official Records, Second Year : Fourth Session. Supple- 
ment No. 7. Report of the Social Commission. 41 
pp. Printed. 400. 

Supplement No. 9. First Report of the Secretary- 
General on activities under the Resolution on Relief 
Needs after the termination of Unkea. E/269, Feb. 
21, 1947. 29 pp. Printed. 300. 

Supplement No. 10. Report of the Working Group for 

Asia and the Par East. E/307/Rev. 1, Mar. 4, 
1947. 81 pp. Printed. 800. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 
Reaffirming the Policy of the United States in the United Nations 

TEXT OF SENATE RESOLUTION 239 OF JUNE 11' 



Wliereas peace with justice and the defense of 
luuuan rights and fundamental freedoms require 
international cooperation through more effective 
u?;e of the United Nations : Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Senate reatlirm the policy 
of the United States to achieve international peace 
and security tlirough the United Xations so that 
armed force shall not be used except in the common 
interest, and that the President be advised of the 
sense of the Senate that this Government, by con- 
stitutional process, should particularly pursue the 
following objectives within the United Nations 
Charter: 

(1) Voluntary agi-eement to remove the veto 
from all questions involving pacific settlements of 
international disputes and situations, and from 
the admission of new members. 

(2) Progressive development of regional and 
other collective arrangements for individual and 
collective self-defense in accordance with the pur- 
poses, principles, and provisions of the Charter. 



(3) Association of the United States, by consti- 
tutional process, with such regional and other col- 
lective arrangements as are based on continuous 
and effective self-help and mutual aid, and as affect 
its national security. 

(4) Contributing to the maintenance of peace 
by making clear its determination to exercise the 
right of individual or collective self-defense under 
article 51 should any armed attack occur affecting 
its national security. 

(5) Maximum efforts to obtain agi-eements to 
provide the United Nations with armed forces as 
l^rovided by the Charter, and to obtain agreement 
among member nations upon universal regulation 
and reduction of armaments under adequate and 
dependable guaranty against violation. 

(6) If necessary, after adequate effort toward 
strengthening the United Nations, review of the 
Charter at an appropriate time by a General Con- 
ference called imder article 109 or by the General 
Assembly. 



CONCLUSIONS 



The committee on May 19, 1948, by a vote of 13 
to 0, approved the resolution. It recommends its 
prompt adoption. The major reasons for the ac- 
tion of the committee are summarized below : 

1. A constructive program for the strengthening 
of the United Nations is essential for world peace. 
To this end, a clear expression of the Senate's views 
on the objectives which the United States should 
pursue will support the efforts of the executive 
branch in the United Nations and will make clear 
to world opinion the unity of this Govenunent in 
regard to this program. 

2. The United States cannot ignore the security 
aspect of world recovery. European recovery in- 
volves not only the economic elements covered by 
recentl)- enacted legislation, but also international 
security considerations. These considerations 
have fundamental bearing alike upon successful 
economic recovery and upon world peace. 

3. World peace — the paramount objective of the 
United States — can and should be bulwarked by 
the development of regional and other collective 

iu\y 18, J 948 



arrangements among free nations for their self- 
defense consistent with the Charter. Association 
of the United States, by constitutional process, 
with such arrangements as affect our national se- 
curity and as are founded ujion the practical prin- 
ciple of continuous and effective self-help and 
mutual aid will promote the security of all mem- 
bers of such arrangements, including our own. 

4. The time is opportune for the United States 
to contribute to the maintenance of peace by mak- 
ing clear now its determination to defend itself 
against any armed attack affecting its national se- 
curity, by exercise of the right of individual and 
collective self-defense recognized in the Charter. 
Certainty in advance concerning this intention on 
the part of the United States should constitute a 
vital factor in deterring aggression. 

.5. Maximum efforts to complete the enforce- 
ment machinery of the United Nations and to 

' Reported in the Seriate on May 19, 1948, by Arthur H. 
Vaiidenhtrg, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign 
Relations (S. Rept. 1301, 80th Cong., 2d sess.). 

79 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

achieve universal regulation and reduction of 
armaments, with effective safeguards, is obligatory 
upon every faithful member of the United Na- 
tions. The United States should continue to make 
vigorous efforts to this end. 

The United Nations is the forum of negotiation 
of 58 nations. It is available daily to assist its 
members to resolve difficult issues between them. 
It will grow stronger only as members strive to 
improve it, to use its resources, to conduct their 
policies in accord with their obligations luider its 
Charter. It is the considered judgment of the 
committee that world peace with justice and the 
defense of human rights and fundamental free- 
doms will be advanced through the United Nations 
strengthened by the practical steps set forth in 
this resolution. 



U.S., U.K., FRANCE, CANADA, AND BENELUX 
COUNTRIES DISCUSS S. RES. 239 



[Released to the press July 6] 

Tlie Under Secretary of State on July 6 received 
the Ambassadors of the United Kingdom, France, 
Canada, and the Benelux countries for an informal 
and exploratory exchange of views concerning 
jjroblems of common interest in relation to the 
Senate resolution of June 11, 1948. These conver- 
sations are expected to continue for some time. 
Since they are purely exploratory, no information 
concerning the substance of the conversations will 
be made public until such time as decisions may 
be reached. 



Signing of Resolution Providing for U.S. Membersliip in WHO 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



President Truman issued the following state- 
ment on June 14, 1948, upon the occasion of his 
signing the joint resolution providing for United 
States membership in the World Health Organiza- 
tion and the instrument of acceptance of the con- 
stitution of the World Health Organization, the 
latter necessary for deposit with the United 
Nations. 

"I have today signed a Joint Resolution provid- 
ing for the U.S. membership and participation in 
the World Health Organization. I have at the 
same time signed the Instrument of Acceptance 
of the Constitution of the World Health Organiza- 
tion, which will immediately be sent to the United 
Nations for deposit. 

"In viev/ of the long liistory of effective inter- 
national cooperation in the field of health which 
spares us the haunting fear of devastating epi- 
demics of cholera and plague, we can look to the 
World Healtli Organization with hope and ex- 
pectation. While performing its humane service, 
it will at the same time contribute to general 
economic improvement through the progressive 
development of healthy, alert, productive man- 
power. Tlie world economy is seriously burdened, 
and unnecessarily so, by malaria, tuberculosis and 
other controllable diseases. 

"The World Health Organization can help con- 

80 



tribute substantially to the attainment of the 
healthy, vigorous citizenry which tlie world needs 
so badly today and tomorrow. 

"I am proud to have signed this Joint Resolution 
which makes it possible for the United States to 
continue its leadership in this important work. In 
the teclmical field of health we hold today a pre- 
eminent position. We must and will give freely 
of our great knowledge to help liberate men every- 
where from the overhanging dread of prevent- 
able disease. In doing so through the Woi-ld 
Health Organization we once again testify to our 
faith in the United Nations as the gi-eat instru- 
ment for reaching those goals of common under- 
standing and mutual helpfulness among nations 
which alone can lead to peace and security for all 
peoples." 

In view of some of the provisions included by 
the U.S. Congress in the joint resolution, the 
United Nations deferred acceptance of the deposit 
of the U.S. instrument of acceptance pending 
definitive action on the part of the World Health 
Assembly, which is currently in session in Geneva. 
On July 2, 1948, the Assembly unanimously ap- 
proved United States membership in the World 
Health Organization. With this action, member- 
ship in the AVno has reached 50. 

Deparimeni of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



Reports on Trust Territories 

Examination of Australia's annual report on its 
administration of the Trust Territory of New 
Guinea began in the Trusteeship Council at Lake 
Success on July 14. J. R. Halligan, Secretary of 
the Australian Department of External Terri- 
tories, came from Canberra to answer the CounciPs 
questions about the written report and to provide 
any additional information required. 

The Council had previously examined the Bel- 
gian report on Euanda-Urundi, a trust territory' 
located east of the Belgian Congo, in central 
Africa, and the British report on Tanganyika, an 
east-African territory which is the largest and 
most populous of the 10 former League mandates 
placed under U. N. trusteeship. Drafting com- 
mittees are now foi'mulating the observations of 
the Council on these two reports. 

Territories on which reports will be considered 
at later sessions are Togoland and the Cameroons, 
under British and French administration, Nauru, 
under Australian administration, and Western 
Samoa, under New Zealand. The question whether 
the Trusteeship Council or the Security Council 
will examine any report submitted by the United 
States on the Pacific Islands formerly mandated 
to Japan depends largely on the still unsettled 
issue of the two councils' relations regarding 
strategic trusteeships.^ 

Reports of administering authorities are written 
on the basis of a questionnaire formulated by the 
Trusteeship Council. They cover almost every 
phase of political, economic, social, and educa- 
tional advancement in the territories and indicate 
the extent to which the administering authority is 
carrying out the objectives of the trusteeship sys- 
tem laid down in article 76 of the Charter. 

The Council has closely questioned the repre- 
sentatives of the administering authorities. Am- 
bassador Francis B. Sayre of the United States 
has in the case of all three territories expressed 
a special interest in educational programs for the 
indigenous peoples. In the cases of both Ruanda- 
Urundi and Tanganyika he urged acceleration of 
efforts to establish universal elementary educa- 
tion for indigenous children and pointed out the 
necessity for increased teacher training. Regard- 
ing Ruanda-Urundi, Mr. Sayre said he thought it 
desirable for the Belgian administration to estab- 
lish public schools to complement the present 
mission schools and to insure adequate instruc- 
tional standards for all schools in the territory. 

July 18, 7948 



Discussion of the New Guinea report began with 
consideration of a plan now pending in the Aus- 
tralian Parliament for consolidating the admin- 
istration of the trust territory with tliat of the 
adjoining Australian territory of Papua. Mx*. 
Sayre, conceding that the trusteeship agreement 
authorized such an arrangement, expressed once 
more the concern of the United States that admin- 
istrative unions should not have the practical 
effect of impeding the operation of the interna- 
tional trusteeship system, should not alter the 
status or separate identity of a trust territory, and 
should not prevent submission to the Council of 
information, statistical or otherwise, bearing ex- 
pressly on the trust territory. - 

The 1948 visiting mission of the Trusteeship 
Council, composed of E. W. P. Cliinnery. of Aus- 
tralia, Lin Mou-sheng, of China, Robert E. Wood- 
bridge, of Costa Rica, and Henri Laurentia, of 
France, left Lake Success July 15 for East Africa. 
The mission will travel in Ruanda-Urundi and 
Tanganyika until mid-September and will report 
to the Council by October 31. 

Palestine 

Count Folke Bernadotte, the U.N. mediator in 
Palestine, appeared before the Security Council 
July 13 to make a personal report on the four- 
week truce which expired July 9 and on the failure 
of his efforts to have it extended. 

The same day Philip C. Jessup of the United 
States introduced a draft resolution which was 
ado23ted by the Council late on July 15 with some 
amendments and with a few changes proposed by 
the United States to meet some of the criticisms 
made during three days of debate. 

In final form the resolution called for a cease- 
fire in Palestine under article 40, to be effective 
within three days; declared that noncompliance 
would lead to consideration of further action un- 
der chapter VII ; ordered an immediate cease-fire 
in Jerusalem ; instructed the mediator to work for 
the demilitarization of Jerusalem and to continue 
his supervision of truce observance; and ruled 
that, "subject to further decision by the Security 
Council or the General Assembly", the truce shall 
remain in force until the Palestine situation is 
I^eacefully adjusted. 

In introducing the U.S. draft resolution, Mr. 
Jessup said the mediator's report made it clear 



' BULMTIN of July 4, 1948, p. 15, and June 27, 1948, p. 830. 
' Bulletin of July 4, 1048, p. 15. 

81 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

that the Security Council must face its responsi- 
bility and order the fighting to stop. By deciding 
that the truce should stay in force until a peaceful 
settlement was effected, Mr. Jessup said, the Coun- 
cil would make it clear "that it insists that the 
Palestine problem is not to be solved by force." 

The Council voted separately on each of the 
resolution's 12 paragraphs. The paragraph order- 
ing an immediate cease-fire in Jerusalem was 
adojjted unanimously. Composition of the major- 
ities which passed other paragraphs varied con- 
siderably. The fact that the U.S.S.R. and the 
Ukraine voted for several paragraplis on which 
China and Argentina abstained, and vice versa, 
assured jmssage of a number of paragraphs whose 
fate had been in doubt. On final passage of the 
resolution as a whole, the vote was seven in favor 
(Ca^nada, China, Colombia, Belgium, France, 
U.K., U.S.), Syria against, and three abstentions 
(Argentina, Ukraine, and the U.S.S.R.). 

Charter Revision 

The Interim Committee adopted on July 9 a 
proi^osal by Jose Arce of Argentina that it ask 
the General Assembly to consider calling a general 
conference of U.N. members to review the Charter. 
The vote was 19-7 with 10 abstentions, including 
that of China. The United States, United King- 
dom, and France voted no, Joseph E. Johnson, of 
the United States, arguing that a general confer- 
ence at this time would be ineffective. 

Economic and Social Council 

The Economic and Social Council will open its 
seventh session at Geneva on July 19 with a record 
agenda of .50 items. In the social field, the Council 
will consider the completed draft of the Declara- 
tion of Human Rights, a draft convention on the 
crime of genocide, and a survey of forced labor and 
measures for its abolition. Among the economic 
items for the Council's consideration are reports 
from the various regional economic connnissions, 
including the report of the ad hoc committee on the 
factors bearing upon the establishment of an 
Economic Commission for the Middle East and the 
principle of equal pay for equal work. The U. S. 
Delegation will be headed by Willard L. Thorp, 
Assistant Secretary of State "for economic affairs, 
with Leroy D. Stinebower, Special Assistant to the 
Assistant Secretary, and Walter M. Kotschnig, 
Chief of the Division of United Nations EconomTc 
and Social Affairs, serving as Deputy U. S. Rei> 
resentatives. 

Health Assembly 

The first World Health Assembly, which opened 
in Geneva on June 2J:, approved tiie recommenda- 
tions of its Program Committee to set up interna- 
tional programs for malaria, maternal and child 
health, tuberculosis, and venereal disease. The 

82 



Program Committee has also recommended con- 
tinuation and expansion of the network of epi- 
demic-control services. The Assembly also ap- 
proved a committee recommendation providing 
for the establishment of five World Health Or- 
ganization regional offices in the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, western Pacific, southeast Asia, Europe, 
and Africa, when the consent of members in the 
area is obtained. A Latin American regional office 
was not included because of current negotiations 
designed to integrate the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau with Who. The United States was elected 
a member of the Who Executive Board by the As- 
sembly on July 13. 

Labor Conference 

The International Labor Organization con- 
cluded its Thirty-first Conference in San Fran- 
cisco on July 10, approving two new conventions 
and revising two earlier ones. Of the two new 
conventions, one would guarantee freedom of as- 
sociation to workers and employers and the other 
requires governments to maintain free public em- 
ployment services. These conventions will be sub- 
mitted to member states of the ILO for ratifi- 
cation. 

Revisions were made of two earlier interna- 
tional conventions concerning night work for 
women and for young persons, providing for more 
liberal interpretations of these treaties. The Con- 
ference also agreed to discuss labor clauses in 
public contracts, protection of worker's earnings, 
and the general question of wages, at its 1949 con- 
ference, as well as other labor items. The Con- 
ference gave final approval to a resolution re- 
questing the ILO's Governing Body to consult 
with the competent U.N. organs to examine the 
measures necessary to insure the safeguarding of 
freedom of association. The Conference voted to 
hold its 1949 session in Geneva. 

India-Pakistan Dispute 

The U.N. Commission on India and Pakistan 
arrived in Karachi on July 7 and paid an informal 
visit on the following day to the Pakistani Prime 
Minister and Foreign Minister. The Commission 
held its first formal meeting in New Delhi on 
July 13, after having called on the Indian Prime 
Minister and Governor-General. 

U. S. Representation 

President Truman, by recess appointment, 
named H. Merle Cochran, U.S. Foreign Service 
officer with the rank of career minister, to succeed 
Coert duBois as the U.S. Representative on the 
Security Council's Committee of Good Offices in 
Indonesia. Mr. duBois asked to be relieved of his 
duties because of illness. Mr. Cochran has been a 
Foreign Service officer since 1914, except for one 
brief interruption. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Report on Sixth Meeting of Preparatory Commission for IRO 

by George L. Warren 



The PrepiH-alory Commission for tlie Interna- 
tional l\cfu<iee Organization met for the sixth time 
at Geneva on May 4, IMS} The purpose of the 
meetinji was to consider tlie status of adlierences 
to the Iro constitution, to examine financial re- 
ports, to receive the report of the Executive Secre- 
tarj-, and to take such action thereon as might be 
indicated. The Conmiission had assumed operat- 
ing responsibilities on behalf of Iro on July 1, 
1947, for the care, repatriation, and resettlement 
of refugees. 

The Commission was advised that since the last 
meeting the Governments of Argentina, Belgium 
and France had deposited certificates of ratifica- 
tion to the Iro constitution with the Secretary- 
Geneial of the United Nations, thus bringing the 
number of adherences to Iro to 14. The adherence 
of one additional government is required in order 
to bring tlie Iko into being. The total percentage 
of governments' contributions is now 76.74 percent. 
The Brazilian Delegate announced that a working 
agreement had been satisfactorily concluded be- 
tween his government and the Preparatory Com- 
mission and that ratification legislation had been 
presented to tlie Brazilian Congress. He ex- 
pressed the hope that Brazil might complete its 
adherence before the next meeting of the Commis- 
sion. The Commission was also advised that the 
Governments of Denmark, Sweden, and Venezuela 
are giving serious consideration to adherence. 

At the opening of the meeting the Executive 
Secretary appealed to the governments to act more 
generously in receiving displaced persons, stating 
that he regarded the current rate of movement in 
resettlement as inadequate to resolve the problem 
of displaced persons within the anticipated time 
of three years. 

During the meeting the Commission was ad- 
dressed by Hector McNeil, ]M.P., :Minister of State 
of the United Kingdom, and by Pierre Schneiter, 
French Secretary of State for German and 
Austrian Affairs. Mr. McNeil promised the con- 
tinuing support of his government in the efforts of 
the Commission, and Mr. Schneiter proposed the 
bodily transfer to other countries of assembly 
centers in which displaced persons are housed in 
accordance with a plan of fair distribution. He 
suggested that the Preparatory Connnission could 
continue its efforts at resettlement in the countries 
to which the centers might be transferred and 
argued that tlie pi-oposed transfer of the centers 
would contribute substantially to the peace and 
order of central Europe. 

Jvly 18, 7948 



The Commission noted the fact that the im- 
possibility of conclusively establishing the decease 
of large numbers of war victims was proving an 
obstacle to the accomplishment of many legal ac- 
tions which relatives of these persons require to 
execute. Hence the Commission i-eferred to the 
Economic and Social Council the question of the 
wisdom of drafting an international convention 
as a measure of relief for the persons concerned. 

The Commission also approved a draft agree- 
ment of relationship between the United Nations 
and the Iro based on the standarcl text for such 
agreements, and appointed a negotiating commit- 
tee consisting of the delegates from Brazil, Canada, 
China, and Norway to conduct negotiations with a 
similar committee of the Economic and Social 
Council during its seventh session in Geneva in the 
summer of 1948. 

The Commission also considered the financial 
report and statements for the six months' period 
ending December 31, 1947, which showed total 
income as of that date to be $43,913,680 ; expendi- 
tures, $33,441,922 ; and cash on hand, $10,471,758. 
The balance sheet showed assets of $21,607,210, 
liabilities of $20,869,630, and an excess of funds 
received over funds applied of $737,580. The 
Commission took note of the financial report and 
statements and was advised by the Executive Sec- 
retary that every effort would be made to present 
to the next meeting of the Commission an audited 
financial report for the period ending June 30, 
1948. The Commission, recognizing that it would 
not reconvene before June 30, 1948, and that it was 
not feasible for the Executive Secretary to present 
at the current meeting a plan of expenditures 
based on anticipated income for the fiscal year 
1948-49, authorized the Executive Secretary to 
make administrative and operational expenditures 
in the period from July 1 to September 30, 1948, 
at a rate equal to one fourth of the respective ex- 
penditures in the administrative and operational 
budgets for the present fiscal year. The Com- 
mission also authorized the Executive Secretary to 
include for expenditure during the above period 
amounts he deemed prudent from any fmids that 
might be carried forward from the fiscal year 
1947-48 in accordance with paragraph 1 of annex 
II to the constitution. 



' For the report of the fifth meeting of the Preparatory 
Commission for Ibo, see Bulletin of Apr. 4, 1948, p. 4-)l. 

83 



ACTIVITieS AND DBVELOPMENTS 

The Commission considered the recommenda- 
tions made by the Executive Secretary in his report 
on the repatriation and resettlement policy of the 
Organization to the effect that the realization of a 
"fair share" plan should continue to be pursued. 
The Commission urged upon receiving countries 
the most generous methods of selection, the maxi- 
mum feasible relaxation of immigration require- 
ments, recognition of the family unit in selection, 
and the adoption of measures of selection minimiz- 
ing the return of refugees and displaced persons 
from receiving countries. The Commission noted 
that the two main factors retarding the rate of re- 
settlement were inadequacy of ocean shipping and 
lack of housing facilities, pai'ticularly in western 
European receiving countries. 

The Connnission considered the Executive Sec- 
retary's report on progress made during the period 
January to April 1948 with respect to financial 
administration, agreements with governments, 
eligibility, health, care and maintenance, supply 
and transport, repatriation, resettlement, legal and 
other protection, and administration. Particu- 
lar attention was given to the needs of the Organi- 
zation with respect to shipping and all government 
members were requested to re-examine the possi- 
bilities of making more ships available to the 
Commission. 

The Commission recessed on May 12, 1948, to 
reconvene on or about August 20, 1948, for the 
purpose of convening the General Council of the 
Iro on or about August 23, 1948. It was as- 
sumed that the constitution of the Organization 
would come into force before that date. On invi- 
tation of the Executive Secretary the United States 
Delegate addressed the headquarters staff of the 
Preparatory Commission May 15, 1948, after the 
Commission had adjourned. 

U.S. DELEGATION TO NORTH PACIFIC REGION- 
AL AIR NAVIGATION MEETING OF ICAO 

[ Released to the pi-ess July 7] 

The Department of State announced on July 7 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the North Pacific Eegional Air Navigation 
Meeting of the International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization (IcAo), scheduled to convene at Seattle 
on July 13, 1948. The United States Delegation is 
as follows : 

Chairman 

Clifford P. Burton, Chief of Technical Mission, Civil Aero- 
nautics Administration, Department of Commerce 

Me7n'bcrs 

Luther R. Hayes, Adviser, International Telecommunica- 
tions Standards, Civil Aeronautics Administration, 
Department of Commerce 

Donald C. House, Assistant Chief, International Aviation 
Section, United States Weather Bureau, Department 
of Commerce 

84 



Lt. Comdr. .J. D. McCuhbin, U. S. C. G., Search and Rescue 
Agency, Department of the Treasury 

Raymond P. Nicholson, Representative, Flight Operations, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

Francis J. Rhody, Special Adviser to the Assistant Ad- 
ministrator for Airports, Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, Department of Commerce 

Walter B. Swanson, Adviser, International Air TraflSc 
Control Standards, Civil Aeronautics Administration, | 
Department of Commerce 

Advisers 

James S. Anderson, Vice President-International, Aero- 
nautical Radio, Inc., Washington, D.C. 

Oscar Bakke, Technical Assistant, International Stand- 
ards Division, Civil Aeronautics Board 

Capt. F. A. Berry, Jr., U.S.N., Officer in Charge, U.S. 
Navy Weather Central, Department of the Navy 

James D. Durkee, Chief, International Branch, Aviation 
Division, Federal Communications Commission 

Lt. Comdr. Benjamin F. Engel, U.S.C.G., Communications 
Division, Department of the Treasury 

Mnj. Grove C. Johnson, U.S.A.P., Acting Assistant Chief, 
ICAO Liaison Section, Department of the Air Force 

Victor J. Kayne, IcAO-Air Traffic Control Regional Repre- 
sentative, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Comdr. Donald E. Macintosh, Ic.\o Coordinator, Depart- 
ment of the Navy 

Lt. Col. Norman J. McGowan, Chief, Air Surveillance 
Branch, Directorate of Communications, Hq. U.S.A.F., 
Department of the Air Force 

John R. Mercer, Chief, Landing Areas Section, Airways 
Engineering Division, Civil Aeronautics Administra- 
tion, Department of Commerce 

Donald W. Nyrop, Operations Division, Air Transport 
Association of America, Washington, D.C. 

George L. Rand, Representative, International Telecom- 
munications Standards, Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, Department of Commerce 

R. D. Shall, Regional Foreign Staff Officer, Sixth Region, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

Stenoffraphers 

E. Vernice Anderson, Personal Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Trans- 
portation and Communications, Department of State 

Mary E. Bean, Administrative Assi.stant, Icao Division, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 

Commerce 

i 

The purpose of the meeting is to examine the 
problems of air navigation in the North Pacific 
region. The delegates will prepare a plan of navi- 
gational services and facilities needed in the region 
to assure compliance with the standards estab- 
lished and the practices reconnnended by the Icao 
Council. The meeting is expected to last from two 
to three weeks. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S. Protests Soviet Blockade of Berlin 

NOTE FROM SECRETARY MARSHALL TO AMBASSADOR PANYUSHKiN 

[Released to the press July 9] States woulcl not have SO withdrawn its troops 



July 6, 1048 
Excellency: The United States Government 
wishes to call to the attention of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment the extremely serious international situa- 
tion which has been brought about by the actions 
of the Soviet Government in imposing restrictive 
measures on transport which amount now to a 
blockade against the sectors in Berlin occupied by 
the United States, United Kingdom and France. 
The United States Government regards these 
measures of blockade as a clear violation of exist- 
ing agreements concerning the administration of 
Berlin by the four occupying powers. 

The rights of the United States as a joint oc- 
cupying power in Berlin derive from the total de- 
feat and unconditional surrender of Germany. 
The international agreements undertaken in con- 
nection therewith by the Governments of the 
United States, United Kingdom, France and the 
Soviet Union defined the zones in Germany and 
the sectors in Berlin which are occupied by these 
powers. They established the quadripartite con- 
trol of Berlin on a basis of friendly cooperation 
wliich the Government of the United States ear- 
nestly desires to continue to pursue. 
I These agreements implied the right of free ac- 
cess to Berlin. This right has long been confirmed 
by usage. It was directly specified in a message 
sent by President Truman to Premier Stalin on 
June 14, 1945, which agreed to the withdrawal of 
United States forces to the zonal boundaries, pro- 
vided satisfactory arrangements could be entered 
into between the military commanders, which 
would give access by rail, i-oad and air to United 
States forces in Berlin. Premier Stalin replied 
on June 16 suggesting a change in date but no 
other alteration in the plan proposed by the Presi- 
dent. Premier Stalin then gave assurances that 
all necessary measures would be taken in accord- 
ance with the plan. Correspondence in a similar 
sense took place between Premier Stalin and Mr. 
Churchill. In accordance with this understand- 
ing, the United States, whose armies had pene- 
trated deep into Saxony and Thuringia, parts of 
the Soviet zone, withdrew its forces to its own 
area of occupation in Germany and took up its 
position in its own sector in Berlin. Thereupon 
the agreements in regard to the occupation of Ger- 
many and Berlin went into effect. The United 

July 18, 7948 



from a large area now occupied by the Soviet 
Union had there been any doubt whatsoever about 
the observance of its agreed right of free access to 
its sector of Berlin. The right of the United 
States to its position in Berlin thus stems from 
precisely the same source as the right of the Soviet 
Union. It is impossible to assert the latter and 
deny the former. 

It clearly results from these undertakings that 
Berlin is not a part of the Soviet zone, but is an 
international zone of occupation. Commitments 
entered into in good faith by the zone commanders, 
and subsequently confirmed by the Allied Control 
Authority, as well as practices sanctioned by 
usage, guarantee the United States together with 
other powers, free access to Berlin for the purpose 
of fulfilling its responsibilities as an occupying 
power. The facts are plain. Their meaning is 
clear. Any other interpretation would offend all 
the rules of comity and reason. 
■"In order that there should be no misunder- 
standing whatsoever on this point, the United 
States Government categorically asserts that it is 
in occupation of its sector in Berlin with free 
access thereto as a matter of established right de- 
riving from the defeat and surrender of Germany 
and confirmed by formal agreements among the 
principal Allies. It further declares that it will 
not be induced by threats, pressures or other 
actions to abandon these rights. It is hoped that 
the Soviet Government entertains no doubts 
whatsoever on this point. 

This Government now shares with the Govern- 
ments of France and the United Kingdom the re- 
sponsibility initially undertaken at Soviet request 
on July 7, 1945, for the physical well-bemg ol 
2,400,000 persons in the western sectors of Berlin. 
Restrictions recently imposed by the Soviet au- 
thorities in Berlin have operated to prevent this 
Government and the Governments of the United 
Kingdom and of France from fulfilling that 
responsibility in an adequate manner. 

The responsibility which this Government 
bears for the physical well-being and the safety o± 
the German population in its sector of Berlin is 
outstandingly humanitarian in character. Ihis 
population includes hundreds of thousands ot 
women and children, whose health and safety are 
dependent on the continued use of adequate facili- 
ties for moving food, medical supplies and other 

85 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

items indispensable to the maintenance of human 
life in the western sectors of Berlin. The most 
elemental of these human rights which both our 
Governments are solemnly pledged to protect are 
thus placed in jeopardy by these restrictions. It 
is intolerable that any one of the occupying au- 
thorities should attemjjt to impose a blockade upon 
the people of Berlin. 

The United States Government is therefore 
obliged to insist that in accordance with existing 
agreements the arrangements for the movement of 
freight and passenger traffic between the western 
zones and Berlin be fully restored. There can be 
no question of delay in the restoration of these 
essential services, since the needs of the civilian 
population in the Berlin area are imperative. 

Holding these urgent views regarding its rights 
and obligations in the United States sector of Ber- 
lin, yet eager always to resolve controversies in the 
spirit of fair consideration for the viewpoints of 
all concerned, the Government of the United 
States declares that duress should not be invoked 
as a method of attempting to dispose of any dis- 
agreements which may exist between the Soviet 
Government and the Government of the United 
States in respect of any aspect of the Berlin 
situation. 



Such disagreements if any should be settled by 
negotiation or by any of the other peaceful 
methods provided for in Article 33 of the Charter 
in keejDing with our mutual pledges as coi:)artners 
in the United Nations. For these reasons the 
Government of the United States is ready as a first 
step to particii^ate in negotiations in Berlin among 
the four Allied Occupying Authorities for the 
settlement of any question in dispute arising out 
of the administration of the city of Berlin. It is, 
however, a prerequisite that the lines of communi- 
cation and the movement of persons and goods be- 
tween the United Kingdom, the United States and 
the French sectors in Berlin and the Western 
Zones shall have been fully restored. 

Accept [etc.] 




His Excellency 

Alexander S. Pantushkin, 
Arnbassador of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 



Reply to Polish Protest Concerning Six-Power Talks on Germany 



NOTE FROM UNDER SECRETARY LOVETT TO AMBASSADOR WINIEWICZ 



[Released to the press July 7] 

July 6, 1948 
Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge 
the receipt of your note No. 51/41/48 of June 18, 
1948, protesting on behalf of your Government 
the recommendations resulting from the Six- 
Power talks on Germany, recently held in London, 
on the grounds that the participants were "not 
competent and not empowered to deal with these 
problems". You stressed your Government's op- 
position to many of the recommendations as being 
contrary to existing international agreements and 
your Government's belief that all matters involv- 
ing the future of Germany should be the exclusive 
concern of the Council of Foreign Ministers. I 
noted with particular interest your observation 
that "any possible difficulties in reconciling the 
positions within the Council cannot be insuper- 
able, if all the Powers will abide by the Potsdam 
agreements." 
I need hardly remind you of my Government's 

86 



persistent efforts to achieve four-power agreement 
on Germany on the basis of the Potsdam Agree- 
ment. I discussed this point in my note to you of 
September 30, 1947, in connection with the deci- 
sion to revise the level of industi-y in the Anglo- 
American zone. The record clearly shows that 
the continuing efforts of my Government to 
achieve an equitable solution of the German prob- 
lem in the Council of Foreign Ministers and in 
the Allied Control Council in Berlin have been 
fruitless largely as a result of the intransigent 
attitude of one of the occupying powers. The rec- 
oi-ds of the Control Council as of March 1948 
show that the Soviet representative has vetoed 
the agreed decisions of the other three powers in 
69 instances — nearly three times the combined 
number of vetoes exercised by the other powers. 
As explained in my note under reference, it is 
because of the repeated failure over a period of 
three years to achieve four-power agreement that 
my Government "feels justified in pursuing ob- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



jectives wliich have been commonly afrrcml and 
makinu: anaii^oments for that purixisi- with any 
other occupying power willing to work toward the 
common end." 

My Government agrees with your Government 
that "German resources ought to be used for the 
benefit of the general reconstruction of Europe 
rather than for the reconstruction of only a part 
of Europe. The United States has consistently 
endeavored to implement the clear understanding 
in the Potsdam Agreement that Germany, includ- 
ing tlie Soviet Zone, should be treated as an eco- 
nomic whole and it has consistently striven to 
create those conditions which would lead to the 
establishment of a democratic German state capa- 
ble of assisting the reconstruction of all the 
devastated countries of Europe and yet not con- 
stituting a threat to the security of those nations. 
The assertion that the United States has sought 
to divide Germany or to di\-ide Europe is without 
any foundation. The fact that its offer to assist 
the general European recovery has not been ac- 
cepted by certain countries, including Poland, has 
of necessity limited the application of that recov- 
ery program to those countries which have ac- 
cepted it. The apparent division of Germany to- 
day after three years of vmsuccessful attempts to 
hold it together is greatly deplored by my Gov- 
ernment. Here again the necessity to confine our 
joint program in German to Western Germany is 
not of our making and certainly not in accordance 
with our wishes. The fact that the efforts of the 
United States toward the rehabilitation of Europe 
now have to be concentrated on the program for 
Western Europe, including Western Germany, is 
a direct result of the failure of the other countries 
of Europe at the instigation of the Soviet Union 
to join in a common program looking toward the 
rehabilitation of all Europe. 

With regard to the substance of the London 
recommendations I must point out that there was 
no attempt in these talks to cover all aspects of 
the German problem. Therefore, there is no basis 
for your protesting the fact that the problem of 
reparations was omitted in the recommendations 
of the conference, a conference which you have 
insisted had no right to discuss any matters relat- 
ing to (lermany. 

I must take exception to your comments on the 
recommendations concerning security and your 
statement that the fundamental aim of removing 
Germany's economic basis of aggression has been 
ignored. It should not be necessary for me to 
remind you that the United States has twice been 
engaged in major wars with Germany and that it is 
vitally interested in preventing a recurrence of 
German aggression. Security considerations, far 
from having been relegated to a secondary posi- 

Ju/y 18, 7948 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

tion. were constantly in mind throughout the 
London discussions as should be evident from the 
comnnniiqne reporting the final recommendations. 
This problem has of course become more compli- 
cated as a result of the unwillingness of the Soviet 
Union to join the other occupying powers in a long 
term treaty guaranteeing the disarmament and 
demilitarization of Germany. The London 
reconunendations on the Ruhr and on general 
security make specific provision against the 
rebuilding of German economic power as a means 
to future aggression. 

Your conmients on the plan for the control of 
the Ruhr have, I believe, been answered in the 
general discussion above with respect to the divi- 
sion of Germany and of Europe. It should be 
observed that the program for the rehabilitation 
of AVesteni Germany does not exclude that area 
from trade relations with Eastern Eurojie but, 
on the contrary, seeks to foster such trade in the 
conunon interest. If certain countries "who 
suffered most in consequence of German aggres- 
sion" claim that their interests are not sufficiently 
taken into account by the program planned for 
Western Germany, their complaint should not l)e 
addressed to the United States Government but 
to the Government primarily responsible for pre- 
venting these countries from cooperating in the 
genei'al recovery j^rogram for Europe. In the 
same way it seems to me that your protest against 
the failure to utilize quadripartite consultative 
machinery, should more appropriately be ad- 
dressed to the occupying power responsible for the 
present deplorable division of Europe and Ger- 
many. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State: 

Robert A. Lovett 

His Excellency 
Josef Winiewicz; 
Ambassador of Poland. 



Letters of Credence 

Czechoslovakia 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Czecho- 
slovakia, Dr. Vladimir Outrata, presented his 
credentials to the President on June 21. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and for the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 501 of June 21, 1948. 

Panama 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Panama, 
Senor Don "Octavio A. Vallarino, presented his 
credentials to the President on June 24. For the 
text of the translation of the Ambassador's re- 
marks and for the President's reply, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 506 of June 24, 1948. 

87 



U.S. Information Program 



BY GEORGE V. ALLEN' 
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs 



We fire frequently asked in the Department to 
state the ahns of our foreign information program. 
The answer, I believe, is not difficult to formulate. 
Our information program is nothing more, nor 
less, than an instrument— one of the instruments— 
in achieving the foreign policy of the United 
States. That policy has today one paramount aun, 
the preservation of democracy as we understand 
and have always used the term. We seek the pres- 
ervation of democracy in the United States and 
assist the free peoples of the world in preserving 
their liberties. We hope that in due course other 
peoples who have lost their liberties will be able 
to regain them. 

The information program is but one of the im- 
plements we employ in our efforts to achieve our 
great foreign-policy objective. I would by no 
means claim that it is our most important imple- 
ment. Our financial and economic efforts to assist 
in the economic recovery of Europe are perhaps 
our outstanding implementation of foreign policy 
today. Wliat we are remains more important than 
what we say we are. Doing is more important than 
saying, or promising, or boasting. Indeed, so true 
is this doctrine that we waste our energy, our man- 
power, and our resources if we say anything at all 
in our information program except what we are, or 
what we do, or what we genuinely expect or hope 
to do. 

I have frequently tried to assess why it was that 
Nazi Germany, the coimtry which devoted more 
time and effort and money than any other nation 
to the work of information, or propaganda if you 
wish, had so little propaganda success. Herr 
Goebbels, the outstanding protagonist of the prop- 
aganda technique, succeeded, during the recertt 
war, in achieving perhaps the greatest single suc- 
cess, as far as gaining a large listener aiidievce is 
conceived, when he put "Lord Haw Haw" on Kadio 
Berlin. Many of you will recall the eagerness with 
which Americans tuned their shortwave dials dur- 
ing the war, trying to hear what "Haw Haw" had 
to say. During the worst days of the bombing of 
Britain, residents of London still tuned their dials 
to listen to him. There is no doubt that Goebbels 



' Excerpts from an address made at the Mount Holyoke 
College Institute of the United Nations, South Hadley, 
Mass., on June 29, 1W8, and released to the press on the 
same date. 

88 



succeeded in getting a great and eager listening 
audience. The Japanese achieved the same sort of | 
success in the Pacific, with a girl called "Tokyo i 
Kose". Our soldiers sat in foxholes in Guadalcanal i 
and Guam, scanning their watches to be certain to ; 
hear her daily transmissions. If the task of a '• 
propagandist ' is to get listeners, the Nazis and j 
Japanese scored tremendous successes. ; 

But no one has produced any evidence that "Haw : 
Haw" made the British military or civilian popu- . 
lation fight one whit less hard through six years of ; 
war. Nor did the blandishments of "Tokyo Rose" i 
have any harmful effect on the fighting spirit of ; 
our Marines at Tinian. Quite the contrary. The ; 
German and Japanese propagandists only sue- | 
ceeded in increasing our determination. Their i 
money and effort were worse than thrown away. 

Why did they not succeed? I have asked myself , 
this question often during the past three months, 
since I began considering this subject. The an- 
swer, I believe, is relatively simple. The Japanese 
and Nazis failed because they did not tell the 
truth. They told a few truths, yes, regarding 
bombing targets and raid objectives— enough to 
give a similarity of truth and to attract listeners, 
but the ba^ic underlying theme of their broadcasts 
was not truth, and our listeners marked it down as 
easily recognizable propaganda. 

Americans have always felt, rather instinctively, 
that the best way to conduct an information pro- 
gram is to tell tlie truth, and only the truth; but I 
had not realized, until going into the question, just 
why this is so. I am fully convinced that if our 
information program is not based on truth we 
had better close down all our broadcasts and call 
home all our press attaches from our Embassies 
abroad. 

The primary advantage we have over the propa- 
ganda efforts of totalitarian states today is the fact 
that we Americans are not obliged to present our- 
selves to the world as models of perfection. The 
U.S. has so many virtues to overcome its short- 
comings that we need not fear the effect of our 
being truly known abroad. 

Totalitarian propagandists must picture their 
country as a paradise on earth, where everything 
is perfect, and must proclaim that everything in 
democratic countries is wicked and debased. 

In our information activity, we must present our 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



civilization in its true color if we are to be effective. 
That color is fjraj — not lily-white. We have the 
enormous aJvantac:e in our information pi'ogram 
that we are willing to ailmit our imperfections and 
to tell the truth as nearly as we can ascertain it. 

If. however, those in tiie State Department and 
elsewhere who are in charge of our information 
work should ever become subject to the daily fear 
that they might say something objectionable to 
some official, or suppress unpleasant facts for fear 
of losing their jobs, the result would eventually 
be that we would water down our scripts until 
American broadcasts would become merely the 
counterparts of that of the totalitarian propa- 
ganda : America would be presented to the world 
as the home only of sweetness and light. And the 
world would be no more convinced by our broad- 
casts than they are by totalitarian efforts. 

I do not pretend that the truth is any easier to 
ascei'tain todaj' than it was in the days of jesting 
Pilate. But we must be motivated always by the 
effort to find it out, and to state it clearly and 
boldly as nearly as we can. 

As many of you may know, the formalized effort 
of governments to influence people outside their 
borders through organized information or propa- 
ganda programs is a relatively recent develop- 
ment. The first scheduled shortwave broadcasts 
in a foreign language by any govcrmnent, for ex- 
ample, were inaugurated by the Nazis in 1936, I 
believe, when Herr Goebbels put on a Russian- 
language program beamed to the U.S.S.R. (Pri- 
vate American broadcasters began broadcasting in 
Spanish to Latin America as early as 1929, but 
entirely as a commercial venture without Govern- 
ment sponsorship.) 

The British Broadcasting System inaugurated 
its foreign-language broadcasts in 1938. as I recall, 
using at first German, Russian, and French. 
Radio Moscow began to speak in German, French, 
English, and other languages about the same time. 

The American Government's entry into the 
foreign information field came in 1942, as a result 
of the war. Two independent agencies of the 
Government in Washington were given the respon- 
sibility for this program. These were the Office 
of Inter-American Affairs under Mr. Nelson 
Rockefeller, for Latin America, and the Office of 
War Information, under Mr. Elmer Davis, for the 
remainder of the world. 

At the close of the war, in the fall of 1945, 
these two agencies were transferred to the Depart- 
ment of State, and that Department found itself 
charged, for the first time, with responsibility for 
our foreign information program. The primary 
job at the start was a liquidating operation. My 
predecessor. Mr. William Benton, had the task, for 
example, of reducing the 13,000 employees in Owi 
by 90 percent. 

There was considerable doubt in the minds of 
Congress, private information-media officials, and 

Ju/y 18, ?948 



JHB RECORD OF THE WBEK 

others concerning the propriety of the U.S. 
Government's continuing in the information field 
during peacetime. Most people hoped that since 
Nazi Germany, the Government which had per- 
verted information to propaganda purposes, had 
been defeated, the victorious Allies would continue 
to associate harmoniously in peace as they had in 
war, through the newly formed United Nations. 
It was hoped that misunderstandings and misrep- 
resentations of motives among nations would be 
reduced to a point where no official information 
program by the U.S. would be required. Pub- 
lishers of American newspapers, magazines, and 
books, and officials of American radio networks 
and motion picture studios felt they could do a 
better job than the Government in telling the 
American story abroad. 

Debate on the subject w^as at its height in the 
summer of 1947, when many members of the 
U.S. Congress visited Europe and the Near East. 
They were amazed at the extent of misunderstand- 
ing and wilful misrepresentation of the U.S. 
which they found abroad. They returned to 
enact legislation, known as the Mundt-Smith act, 
signed January 27, 1948, providing for an official 
foreign information program as an integral part 
of the conduct of our foreign relations. 

It is under this act that we now operate. Our 
information work is conducted primarily through 
three divisions, handling radio, press, and mo- 
tion pictures. We also disseminate information 
abroad through 50 U.S. Government libraries. 
These libraries are considered primarily as edu- 
cational institutions and are administered under 
our separate educational program, but the 
American newspapers and periodicals displayed 
on our library tables abroad are predominantly 
informational in character. There is considerable 
question whether educational and informational 
work can be sharply delineated. Someone has 
characterized our entire information program as 
"adult education''. 

The most conspicuous of our official information 
activities, as far as the American public is con- 
cerned, has always been the shortwave radio pro- 
grams beamed abroad, known as the "Voice of 
America". 

Much has been heard recently of the congi'es- 
sional investigations of the Voice of America. 
I do not propose to dwell on this subject tonight, 
except to say that I regard the investigations as 
having served a highly salutary purpose. They 
have clarified the atmosphere and have brought 
to light misunderstandings regarding responsi- 
bility and laxness in supervision which ought not 
to have been allowed to continue. I may add that 
I have often thought, during these recent congres- 
sional hearings, of the opinion expressed, I believe, 
by Lord Bryce in his monumental study of the 
American commonwealth, that the single most im- 
portant contribution made by the American Gov- 

89 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

ernment to political science has been the congres- 
sional investigation. This thought has sustained 
me through many clays of such investigations dur- 
ing the past three weeks. 

I wish to refer at this time, however, to another 
voice, which I would like to call the Voice of 
Democracy. I do not have in mind any radio 
program, either domestic or foreign. I refer to 
the Voice, or the synthesis of the voices, of all 
mankind throughout the world, who believe in the 
principles of individual freedom and human 
liberty. 

This Voice should find its principal outlet in the 
various organs and independent agencies of the 
United Nations. The American people regard the 
United Nations as having been founded on the 
principles of democracy as we understand the 
term. Woven through the warp and woof of 
U. N. and all of its constituent parts, notably in 
the Charter of Unesco, is the concept that the 
human mind and spirit should be free from the 
chains of repressive government. 

Perhaps the most frequently discussed of the 
many human rights and aspirations is the free- 
dom of speech. (And now we have added to that, 
in the United States, not only the right to speak, 
but also the right to speak loudly, since the Su- 
preme Court upheld the right, in principle, of a 
religious group to use mechanical loud speakers 
in the propagation of its faith.) 

A companion piece to the right of man to speak 
freely is the equal right of an individual to listen, 
in this modern age of radio communication. To 
this we must also list, as David Sarnoflf has pointed 
out, the freedom to look, in these growing days of 
television. 

Membership in the United Nations carries with 
it an obligation on the part of every member 
government to permit its citizens the full right to 
speak and the right to read and to listen and to 
look at news and ideas depicted in the press, 
radio, and all other information media without 
regard to national boundaries. Only in this way 
can the voice of the world's people, the Voice of 
Democracy, be created. 

The Secretariat of the United Nations has con- 
ceived an excellent plan for a greatly increased 
information program, to disseminate knowledge 
of the activities of U. N. through press, radio, and 
pictures. This is an excellent project, and the 
facilities of the American Government, especially 
in the field of shortwave radio broadcasting, will 
be made available to U. N. to the maximum feasi- 
ble extent, to assist in this most desirable project. 
But the official Voice of the United Nations is 
not what I have in mind. The Voice of Democ- 
racy today is the combined expression of every 
newspaper and every radio program, every pub- 
lic speaker and private discussion group, in the 
United States and in every other nation in the 
world where man is free to make his opinions 

90 



heard. Anyone at Lake Success who speaks on 
behalf of genuine democracy is a part of that 
voice. 

The struggle in the world today, as President 
Truman has recently indicated, is not a struggle 
between two powerful nations. It is a struggle 
between two concepts or ideas. I do not hesitate 
to place it on the level of a struggle between good 
and evil, the good represented by human liberty 
and the evil by the totalitarian police state. 

My experience in Iran during the past two years 
has caused me to visualize this conflict more clearly 
than I had before. Some of my Iranian friends 
who did not underetand the nature of the conflict 
were quite frank in saying to me : "Why must Iran, 
a relatively small and weak country, continue to be 
involved, against its will, in great-power struggles? 
Why can't we be left alone, to live our own lives 
without disturbing or being disturbed by anyone? 
As for the quarrel between the U.S. and U.S.S.R., 
a plague on both your houses !" 

If the contest in the world today were merely 
another contest between two opposing imperial- 
isms, one could sympathize fully with this atti- 
tude. But it is not such a struggle. I make that 
declaration flatly and bluntly, despite certain 
groups, even in the United States, who regard 
the present world difficulties in very much the 
same light as did my Iranian friends to whom I 
have referred. 

In the struggle between the Voice of Democracy 
and the Voice of Totalitarianism, every human 
being in the world has an equal stake. There are 
those who promote Fascism and Communism on 
both sides of the Iron Curtain, and those on both 
sides who are devoted to freedom and liberty. 
Every individual in the world has a choice to make. 
Liberty is challenged today on a scale never ap- 
proached in modern times. This struggle of ideas 
will not go away and leave Iran alone, nor will it 
bypass any other nook and cranny of the globe 
where there are human beings, motivated by hu- 
man desires and aspirations. There can be no 
neutrals in such a struggle, whether the contest is 
within a single village, a nation, or the world. 

The Voice of America is and must remain a part 
of the Voice of Democracy. We must strive, in 
every possible way, to sustain what our experience, 
and world experience, has shown to be the best 
system of government and of society yet devised 
— the system which protects the individual against 
the repression of his human liberties by the state. 

It is wicked for individuals or groups inside the 
United States or any other democratic country to 
utilize the freedoms of democracy in order to 
agitate for a system of government which offers 
spurious panaceas of equality, but which would 
immediately eliminate all such freedoms as soon 
as it came to power. How shallow it is for cer- 
tain American citizens to visit the Soviet Union 
and return to this country puffed up with the fact 

Department of State Bulletin 



that they were received on a basis of racial or social 
equality in the U.S.S.R. I saw the same thing 
happen to tribesmen in the Middle East. 

It is true that Uzbeks and Tajiks and Tartars 
have tiie same rights in Moscow as the Russians 
and Ukrainians and Georgians — the equal privi- 
lege of voting and speaking exactly as they are 
told and of going to Siberia if they breathe a word 
of criticism of the regime. It is true that democ- 
racies have not yet achieved all the equalities to 
which they aspire, but tlieir vision is not clouded 
by any false belief that the security of the prison 
or the equality of the animal is the answer. 

The U.S. information program must make these 
and otlier facts clear. At the same time, we must 
iruard constantly, in our fight against the Com- 
numist brand of totalitarianism, which is most 
dangerously active at the moment, against the 
tenclency to get in bed with the Fascist type. We 
must "play it straight down the middle"', devoting 
every ounce of our energies to the preservation of 
the human personality and the steady advancement 
towards the achievement of our goals through 
democratic processes. 

Hungarian Campaign Against Voice of America 

Statement hy Assistant Secretary Allen 

[Released to the press July 9] 

Tlie Department has been advised that the 
present authorities in Hungai-y are carrying for- 
ward what appears to be a systematic campaign 
to frighten the people of Hungary from listening 
to the news broadcasts and commentaries on the 
Voice of America. 

These measures are not yet in the form of legal 
Dr police restrictions against listening to Amer- 
ican broadcasts but take the form of arrests of per- 
sons on charges of "inciting against Hungarian 
democracy". The police cite, as one of the evi- 
iences of guilt, the fact that the persons arrested 
have listened to Voice of America broadcasts. 

The news broadcasts which we beam to Hungary 
are factual, objective reports such as the American 
public reads and listens to daily in American news- 
papei-s and radio news broadcasts. The fact that 
5uch drastic steps are being taken in Hungary to 
prevent the people from obtaining news of the out- 
Bide world is a good indication that our Voice of 
A.merica broadcasts are proving effef^tive in that 
country. 

More importantly, however, these repressive tac- 
:icsbj' tlie present Hungarian Government to pro- 
tect its dictatorship by keeping the people in ig- 
norance and insulating them from the outside 
tvorld is another indication that totalitarian rule 
s being applied there against the popular will. 
Its leaders have thus plainlj- shown that they fear 

iu\y 18, 1948 



IHB RECORD Of THE W£BK 

they can hold their power only by denying to their 
people, in increasing degree, freedom of informa- 
tion. This device has long been a necessary tool of 
dictators — Communist and Fascist. 

U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational 
Exchange Appointed 

[Released to the press by the White House July 9] 

The President on July 9 appointed the United 
States Advisory Commission on Educational Ex- 
change as provided in the Information and Edu- 
cational Exchange Act of 1948.^ 

The five Commission members were selected to 
represent the public interest from a cross section of 
educational, cultural, scientific, technical, and 
public-service backgrounds as provided in the act. 
The newly appointed members are: 

Harold Willis Dodds, president of Princeton University, 
Princeton, N.J. 

Karl Taylor Compton, president of Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge, Ma.ss. 

Bennett Harvie Branscomb, chancellor of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, Nashville, Tenn. 

Mark Starr, educational director. International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union, New York, N.Y. 

Martin P. McGuire, professor of Greek and Latin, Catholic 
University of America, Washington, D.C. 

The Advisory Commission is charged under the 
Mundt-Smith act with formulating and recom- 
mending to the Secretary of State policies and 
programs for carrying out educational-exchange 
activities under the new law, with tlie exception 
of matters provided for in the Fulbright act and 
those within the jurisdiction of the United States 
National Commission for Unesco. 

In making the appointments, the President 
designated Chancellor Branscomb as chairman of 
the Commission, to serve a three-year term, and 
specified two-year terms for President Dodds and 
President Compton and one-year terms for Mr. 
Starr and Dr. McGuire. 

The Commission will meet at least once a month 
during the first six months of its existence and 
thereafter at intervals as it finds advisable. It 
will make quarterly reports to the Secretary of 
State and semiannual reports to the Congress. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Consular Offices 



The American Consulate at Grenada, British West In- 
dies, was officially closed to the public on June 30, 1948. 
The former Grenada consular district has been assigned 
to the American Consulate General at Port-of-Spain, 
Trinidad, B.W.I. 



' Public Law 402, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 



91 



^<yyiCe/rvC!^ 



The United Nations and I'^ge 

Specialized Agencies 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . . 78 
Reaffirming the Policy of the United States in 
the United Nations: 
Text of Senate Resolution 239 of June 11.. 79 

Conclusions 79 

U.S., U.K., France, Canada, and Benelux 
Countries Discuss Senate Resolution 

239 80 

Signing of Resolution Providing for U.S. Mem- 
bership in Who. Statement by the 

President 80 

The United States in the United Nations ... 81 
Report on Sixth Meeting of Preparatory Com- 
mission for Iro. Article by George L. 

Warren 83 

U.S. Delegation to North Pacific Regional Air 

Navigation Meeting of Icao 84 

Treaty Information 

Germany, the Soviet Union, and Turkey Dur- 
ing World War II. Article by Harry N. 
Howard 63 



Occupation Matters Page 

U.S. Protests Soviet Blockade of Berlin. Note 
From Secretary Marshall to Ambassador 

Panyushkin 85 

Reply to Polish Protest Concerning Six-Power 
Talks on Germany. Note From Under 
Secretary Lovett to Ambassador Winie- 
wicz 86 



International 
and Cultural 



Information 
Affairs 



U.S. Information Program. Address by George 

V. Allen 88 

Hungarian Campaign Against Voice of America. 

Statement by Assistant Secretary' Allen . 91 

U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational Ex- 
change Appointed 91 

General Policy 

Letters of Credence: Czechoslovakia, Panama . 87 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 91 



I 

) 



Harry N. Hoioard, author of the article on the problem of Turkey 
and the Straits during World War II, is Special Assistant in the Divi- 
sion of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Office of Near Eastern and 
African Affairs, Department of State. 



U. S. GOVERNMEM PRINTING OFFICE; 19*8 



j/ie/ ^eha/)^i7}%ent/ m tnate/ 





APPEALS BY U.N. MEDIATOR FOR PEACEFUL 
SETTLEMENT OF PALESTINE SITUATION • 

Documents Relating to Palestine Situation 105 

U.S. URGES SECURITY COUNCIL ACTION FOR 
PROLONGATION OF TRUCE: 

Remarks by Philip C. Jessup 114 

Security Council Resolution 114 

THE 1947 FOREIGN RELIEF PROGRAM • An article . 95 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 473 
July 25, 1948 





,jAe ^e^ia/y^^mit 



y^^ bulletin 

Vol. XIX, No. 473 • Publication 3220 
July 25, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OfBce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Sdbscription; 
52 Issuer, $5; single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the iiork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



The 1947 Foreign Relief Program 

An 

On February 21, 1947, President Truman sent 
a message to the Congress recommending the ap- 
propriation of $350,000,000 "to assist in complet- 
ing the great task of bringing relief from the rav- 
ages of the war to the people of the liberated 
countries." 

This action marked the beginning of the United 
States foreign-relief program of 1947, the first 
exclusively American large-scale relief effort fol- 
lowing World War II. Tlie program represented 
a new departure in the American approach to the 
relief needs of the postwar world. As the Presi- 
dent indicated in his message, the 1947 program 
differed in many important respects from the re- 
lief efforts that had preceded it. 

Previously, the United States had sought to al- 
leviate liuman suffering resulting from the war by 
joining with other countries in the collective pro- 
gram entrusted to the United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration. In those cases in 
wliich the United States acted independently to as- 
sist nations struggling toward recovery, it had 
provided aid in the form of credits and loans, as 
in the loan to Great Britain and smaller loans to 
other nations, 

Tiie 1947 relief program, in contrast, called for 
limited direct aid to certain liberated countries 
by the United States, administered exclusively by 
this Government. Relief was to be free and was 
to consist only of the basic necessities of life — 
food, medical supplies, and similar items. It was 
designed to keep people alive, rather than rebuild 
devastated areas and rehabilitate shattered econ- 
omies. It was limited in scope; only a few na- 
tions, which were still facing critical essential 
needs, were to receive assistance. Most important 
of all, the relief granted was to be strictly Ameri- 
can. This country reserved the right to select the 
recipients, to determine the amounts, and to apply 
its own administrative standards and procedures. 
Although, as the President stated in his message 
of February 21, it was hoped that other countries 

Jo/y 25, 1948 



Article 

capable of extending assistance would coordinate 
such assistance with American action, the aid to 
be rendered by the United States was in no way 
connected with or contingent upon the actions of 
any other countries. 

Earlier United States Relief Activities 

By the end of 1946, the United States had al- 
ready made available almost 20 billion dollars for 
relief and rehabilitation assistance throughout the 
world. Among these American contributions to 
world recovery had been the British loan, foreign- 
credit authorizations by the Export-Import Bank, 
civilian supplies sent to occupied and liberated 
areas, credits advanced to finance sales of United 
States surpluses abroad, United States quotas in 
the World Bank and the International Monetary 
Fund, and United States contributions to Unrra. 
In addition, the American Red Cross and 93 other 
private relief organizations in the same period had 
raised and donated over $600,000,000. 

Of all the relief activities in which the United 
States took part during and immediately after 
World War II, Unrra was the most ambitious. 
Long before the end of the war, it was generally 
recognized both here and abroad that world re- 
construction would be a gigantic task, calling for 
the best and united efforts of all the nations of the 
world capable of helping. In order to study and 
consider the challenging problems of relief and 
reconstruction and to make preparations to meet 
those problems, the United States took the lead in 
calling together in Atlantic City, in November 
1943, representatives of the Allied and associated 
nations. Unrra was created at that meeting. 

Through Unrra, war-ravaged areas of the globe, 
princifjally in Europe and Asia, received critically 
needed relief supplies, such as food, medicines, and 
clothing; industrial commodities and tools needed 
for economic reconstruction, such as railroad 
equipment, basic raw materials, and industrial 
machinery; and other goods and services without 
which rescue from starvation and chaos would 

95 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

not have been possible. In all, Unrra was respon- 
sible for the shipment of some 23,000,000 tons of 
supplies, nearly three fourths of which were pro- 
duced and shipped by the Uuited States. Of the 
approximately 3.9 billion dollars in contributions 
made available to Unrra by its 48 member govern- 
ments, the United States contributed 2.7 billion 
dollars, or 70 percent. 

United States contributions to Unrra were 
unavailable for obligation beyond June 30, 1947; 
the substitution of other relief agencies, therefore, 
was needed to meet the still critical situation in 
many parts of the world. It was into that threat- 
ened breach that the United States stepped with 
its 1947 program and with its support for other 
international agencies which inherited important 
Unrra functions. A plan was adopted, in con- 
nection with the liquidation of Unrra, by which 
the remaining functions, properties, and in some 
cases personnel were transferred to individual 
governments or to successor international agen- 
cies. In February 1947, for instance, a portion 
of Unrra's agricultural-rehabilitation functions 
were transferred to the Food and Agriculture 
Organization. On January 1, 1947, the activities 
of Unrra's Health Division became the respon- 
sibility of the Interim Commission of the World 
Health Oi-ganization. An International Chil- 
dren's Emergency Fund was established in De- 
cember 194G. With Unrra's responsibilities for 
the care and maintenance of displaced persons 
scheduled to end, the Preparatory Connnission for 
the International Refugee Organization was set 
up and held its first session in February 1947. In 
March 1947, negotiations were begun with the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Na- 
tions on the transfer of Unrra's functions in 
connection with the proceeds of the sale of 
Unrra supplies. By the end of 194e, the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment and the International Monetary Fund were 
organized for operation. 

Development of the Foreign Relief Program of 1947 

Although the United Nations and its specialized 
agencies were in a position to carry on the efforts 
toward economic rehabilitation, they were not de- 
signed to cope with certain relief problems. The 
need for food, medicine, fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, 
and seed was urgent in many war-torn countries 
which did not have the means to obtain these sup- 

96 



plies in the commercial market. These needs could 
be met only through outright relief grants. These 
were the vital needs that the 1947 foreign-relief 
program of the United States was designed to 
meet. 

In a radio address on December 8, 1946, Acting 
Secretary Acheson expressed the desire of the 
United States Government for completion of the 
job which had been undertaken by Unrra and laid 
down the principles which would guide this covm- 
try in the prosecution of the relief task. Mr. 
Acheson pointed out that Unrra was a large and 
somewhat unwieldy organization. For political 
and other reasons, its relief contributions were not 
always equitable. The United States, which fur- 
nished the bulk of the aid, had no effective control 
of its disposition or use. Moreover, the job which 
remained after the liquidation of Unrra as an offi- 
cial operating organization, though essential to 
continued recoveiy progress, was viewed then as 
comparatively small; the major relief job, it was 
felt, had already been accomplished. Only a few 
countries in Europe were considered in real need 
of free relief to avoid suffering and hardship. 

With these considerations in mind, Mr. Acheson 
proposed that each nation capable of helping 
should contribute M'hat it could toward meeting 
relief needs in 1947. He suggested that the relief 
activities of the several countries involved be co- 
ordinated as far as possible and that the United 
Nations be used as a clearinghouse. Each nation, 
however, was to retain control over its own relief 
appropriations. "Nations receiving free relief", 
said Mr. Acheson, "must jarove their need for it, 
and they can be held to a much closer and fairer 
accountability of the use of food and other free 
supplies." The people of the United States and 
the Congress, he said, had made up their minds 
that the relief problems of the near future were 
not of a character to warrant grants of enormous 
sums of money from the United States Treasury 
"under conditions which would leave little or no 
effective control by the grantor of these funds." 

The Nature of the Proposed Program 

The proposed United States program, as pre- 
sented to the Congress following the Presidential 
message of February 21, 1947, called for a total , 
outlay by this country of $350,000,000. This fig- j 
ure was 57 percent of $610,000,000, the approxi- j 
mate amount exclusive of remaining Unrra i 

Department of State Bulletin ; 



shipinenls estimated by the State Department to 
be the minimum relief requirements of the neediest 
countries for the calendar year 1947. This pro- 
portion was held to be a fair United States share 
of the total requirement, bearing in mind the ca- 
pacity of this country in relation to that of other 
supplying countries. Five European countries, 
Austria. Greece. Hungary, Italy, and Poland, and 
one Asiatic country, China, were thought to be 
in need of outside relief assistance if their popu- 
lations were to avoid disastrous suffering and 
starvation. Relief needs were calculated as that 
part of a country's minimum imports required to 
provide the basic essentials of life which could 
not be financed out of its own resources. 

A fundamental principle of the proposed plan 
was that the total amount of assistance to be al- 
located to any country was not to be determined 
finally until the progi-am was put in operation. 
There were three reasons for this principle. First, 
it was deemed advisable to avoid a situation in 
which a recipient nation might feel that it had a 
vested interest in or a right to a specific amount 
of money. In the case of Unrra, for instance, it 
had proved difficult to make necessary adjustments 
in allocations in accordance with changing needs 
once the original allocations had been set and an- 
nounced. Second, in estimating relief needs 
under the program, it had been necessary to make 
certain assumptions regarding future weather and 
crop conditions, export probabilities, loan and 
credit possibilities from private sources, and other 
variable factors. If unforeseen emergencies were 
to arise, these assumptions would be subject to 
serious change. Third, the amounts and types of 
assistance to be rendered by other contributors had 
to be considered and coordinated with American 
aid. ^Miat these contributions would be, and who 
would make them, were still largely unknown. 
At the time, only one relief commitment outside of 
the Unrr.\ progi-ams had been made by another 
government: the British Government had an- 
nomiced a 40-million-dolIar assistance program 
for Austria. 

The 1947 program was to remain firmly in 
American hands. Control was to be exercised to 
the end that relief supplies would be distributed 
and used by lecipient countries in a manner con- 
sistent witli the purposes of the program. As 
far as possible, American relief supplies distri- 
buted in foreign countries were to be sold, rather 

July 25, 1948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

than given away. It was expected that people 
who were able would pay in local currencies for 
the supplies they received, and the funds accumu- 
lated by recipient governments in that manner 
would be set aside for use in relief activities with- 
in the countries involved. It was also proposed 
that the peoples receiving American aid should 
be kept fully informed as to the source, the nature, 
and the extent of the assistance given them. 

It was jjlanncd that, following approval of the 
program by Congress, the United States Govern- 
ment would reach an agi-eement with each recipi- 
ent government regarding all necessary aspects of 
the relief operation including the policies, prin- 
ciples, and methods to be followed in the distribu- 
tion of the supplies. To be covered in the agree- 
ments were such subjects as the proper utilization 
of relief supplies, those produced locally and re- 
ceived from outside sources as well as those shipped 
by the United States ; internal measures designed 
to achieve more efficient operation of the economies 
of the recipient countries such as rationing and 
price contiol; nuichinery for effective crop collec- 
tions ; freedom of United States officials and news- 
men to travel, inspect, and report conditions; ade- 
quate publicity for American relief contributions; 
the right of the United States to halt or change the 
program at any time for any reason ; efforts of 
the reciijient governments to achieve economic 
recovery; and other provisions deemed necessary 
in carrying out the purposes of the relief program. 

After the conclusion of an agreement, it was ex- 
pected that target programs would be approved 
for the recipient country covering the goods to be 
procured over a two- or three-month period. Items 
to be obtained under the program would be pro- 
cured either through commercial channels or 
through appropriate U.S. Government agencies. 
The Department of State was to make the neces- 
sary arrangements with each foreign government 
and was to keep fully informed regarding ship- 
ments and use of supplies, current relief needs, and 
compliance with the agreements concluded. It 
was not expected that the State Deijartment would 
itself procure supplies in this country or abroad 
for shipment under the relief program. Procure- 
ment of supplies by the United States Govern- 
ment, wherever necessary, was to remain in the 
hands of the appropriate agencies, such as the De- 
partment of Agriculture for agricultural products, 
the Treasury Department for other products, and 

97 



FORCICN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

the Department of the Army for supplies for oc- 
cupied areas. A small staff of trained United 
States officials was to be stationed abroad to ob- 
serve the proffress made under the program and 
to insure that the obligations assumed under the 
agreements were being carried out ai^propriately 
by each of the recipient covnitries. 

Congressional Action 

On February 25, 1947, within a week of receipt 
of the President's message, the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives 
began public hearings on House Joint Kesolution 
134, providing for relief assistance to countries 
devastated by war. After termination of the hear- 
ings, the original bill was redrafted and reintro- 
duced as House Joint Resolution 153. On March 
20, 1947, the Committee voted to report favorably 
on the Resolution. The Committee report, issued 
on April 9, 1947, generally endorsed the proposed 
relief program and stressed the urgency of prompt 
action. "Delay", stated the report, "would under- 
mine much of the humanitarian work heretofore 
done . . . cause much suffering and economic de- 
terioration, with consequences to the entire world 
not pleasant to contemplate." 

On May 31, 1947, the President signed Public 
Law 84, authorizing the appropriation of $350,- 
000,000 for "relief assistance to the people of coun- 
tries devastated by war." Public Law 84, which 
followed closely the text of the Joint Resolution, 
included additional provisions and language con- 
cerned primarily with administration of the pro- 
gram. It provided that up to $40,000,000 of the 
$350,000,000 authorized could be used as a contri- 
bution to the International Children's Emergency 
Fund of the United Nations; that not more than 
15 million could be used for relief "in any coun- 
tries or territories other than Austria, Greece, 
Hungary, Italy, Poland, Trieste, and China"' ; that 
not more than 6 percent of the authorized $350,- 
000,000 could be used for the procurement of sup- 
plies outside of the United States and its terri- 
tories and possessions ; that not more than $5,000,- 
000 could be used to pay necessary shipping ex- 
penses for supplies donated by American volun- 
tary and nonprofit relief agencies ; and that relief 
supplies were to be procured and furnished by 
the appropriate United States procurement 
agencies, unless the President determined other- 
wise. The effect of this last provision was to leave 



the procurement and shipment of relief supplies 
in the liands of those agencies normally respon- 
sible — the Department of Agriculture, the Treas- 
ury Department, and in regard to areas in which 
the United States maintained militai-y occupation 
forces (Austria and Trieste), the Department of 
the Army. 

The law also contained a section directing the 
President "to seek arrangements that reparations 
payable from current production" by any country 
receiving relief "to any other country by treaty 
be postponed during the period of such relief." 
This section was a reference to the fact that Hun- 
gary and Italy were obligated to pay substantial 
amounts in reparations to the Soviet Union, a 
fact which had been discussed at length in the 
hearing held on the proposed relief program by 
the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

In regard to the control of the relief program, 
the law attached two additional conditions to the 
obligations to be undertaken by recipient coun- 
tries. One directed that provision "be made for 
a control system so that all classes of people within 
such country will receive their fair share of es- 
sential supplies". The other directed that, to the 
extent practicable, relief supplies be marked as 
having been furnished by the United States for 
relief assistance. 

On May 31, 1947, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Public Law 84, President Truman issued 
Executive Order 9864, delegating to the Depart- 
ment of State responsibility for operation of the 
relief program. On the same day, he transmitted 
to the Speaker of the House of Representatives a 
supplemental appropriation estimate of $350,000,- 
000 for the fiscal year 1947 "for relief assistance to 
war-devastated countries". In his message to the 
Speaker of the House, the President stated that 
"our promi^t rendering of this assistance will do 
much to enable recipient countries to progress to- 
ward economic and political stability and will be 
a real contribution toward an enduring peace." 

On July 30, 1947, Public Law 271 was approved. 
This law, known as "The Supplemental Appro- 
priation Act, 1948", appropriated $332,000,000 
"for relief assistance to countries devastated by 
war". Of this total, an amount not to exceed 
$600,000 was made available for the administrative 
expenses of the Department of State. In Public 
Law 393, which was approved on December 23, 
1947, five months later, an additional $18,000,000 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



v\-as appropriated for aid to China "to enable the 
President to carry out the provisions of Public 
Law 84". This legislation brought to $;3r)0,000,000 
the total appropriation for tlie Foreign Relief 
Program of 1947, authorized under Public Law 84. 

Administrative Phases 

Following the passage of Public Law 84 and 
tlio promulgation of Executive Order DS64, the 
Dei:)artment of State proceeded to set up the 
necessary administrative arrangements for opera- 
tion of the relief program. Under these arrange- 
ments, the princijial functions of the Department 
included developing of supply programs for the 
recipient countries; expediting and coordinating 
the procurement and shipment of supplies; con- 
ducting negotiations with representatives of 
foreign governments regarding all phases of the 
program, including the conclusion of agreements 
setting forth the conditions under which relief sup- 
plies would be distributed; recruiting and train- 
ing of personnel for United States relief missions 
abroad : determining the principles and practices 
to be followed by these missions ; controlling and 
directing the allocation of relief funds to the 
participating agencies of the United States Gov- 
ernment and to the United States relief missions 
abroad ; and serving as headquarters for the over- 
all administration of the relief program. 

In accordance with tlie provisions of Public 
Law 84, the President appointed a field adminis- 
trator, Richard F. Allen, to supervise American 
relief assistance. Mr. Allen, who was confirmed 
by the Senate on June 16, 1947, established his 
headquarters in Rome, where he supervised the 
work of the United States missions in Italy, 
Greece, Austria, and the Free Territory of Trieste, 
the only European areas which received assistance 
under the program. The decision to drop Poland 
and Hungary from the list of countries to receive 
aid, and to add Trieste, was based principally on 
the capacity of the program to meet only the most 
urgent relief needs. In the case of Poland, the 
decision was based largely upon the report of a 
United States mission sent to that country at the 
request of the Secretary of State. The mission, 
headed by Colonel R. H. Harrison, Special Assist- 
ant to the Secretary of Agriculture, found that 
Poland's minimum food needs during 1947 gen- 
erally could be met without assistance from the 

July 25, J 948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

United States. Poland's need for certain items, 
such as medical supplies and supplementary food- 
stuffs i.jv special groups — children, orphans, sick, 
and aged — could be met, it was felt, through pri- 
vate relief organizations and other sources, includ- 
ing the International Children's Fund, which the 
United States was supporting. 

The Relief Agreements 

One of the first tasks that the Department of 
State undertook in connection with the program 
was the negotiation of agreements with the re- 
cipient countries regarding the distribution and 
use of relief supplies. The first agreement con- 
cluded was with Austria; it was signed on June 
25, 1947. Agreements with Italy and Greece were 
signed on July 4, 1947, and July 8, 1947, respec- 
tively. No formal agreement was signed with the 
Free Territory of Trieste, created by the Italian 
peace treaty in September 1947, since that area 
had no official Government organization. The 
distribution of United States relief supplies in 
Trieste was handled through the facilities of the 
Allied Military Government. The relief pro- 
gram, however, covered only persons in the British 
and American zones. Since the agreement with 
China was not signed until October 27, 1947, the 
initiation of the assistance program for that 
country was delayed for several months. 

The relief agreements with the recipient coun- 
tries all followed the same pattern and generally 
covered the same points. Each was divided into 
ten articles: furnishing of supplies; distribution 
of supplies; utilization of funds accruing from 
sales of United States supi^lies; effective produc- 
tion, food collections and use of resources to reduce 
relief needs; United States representatives (this 
section was headed "United States Mission" in the 
agreements with Austria and Italy) ; freedom of 
the United States press and radio rei^resentatives 
to observe and report; reports, statistics and in- 
formation; publicity regarding United States 
assistance; termination of relief assistance; and 
date of agreement. Each agreement was to take 
effect on the date it was signed and was to "con- 
tinue in force until a date to be agreed upon by 
the two Governments." 

The Over-Ail Program 

After Congress had approved the appropria- 
tion of funds, the program moved ahead rapidly. 

99 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCT/ON 

As of September 30, 1947, $248,663,000 had been 
approved for country programs, of which $204,- 
660,273 was the total commodity cost, and $44,002,- 
739 was the transportation cost. Considering the 
$15,000,000 set aside for the International Chil- 
dren's Emergency Fund, the $5,000,000 for the 
voluntary agency transportation fund, and the 
$600,000 for administrative expenses, only 
$62,737,000 remained unprogramed. Of the ap- 
proved country programs, procurement had been 
initiated in the amount of $136,127,325, and the 
value of shipments made had totaled $72,088,161. 
In regard to the procurement of supplies outside 
the United States, which had been limited by con- 
gressional statute to not more than 6 percent of 
the total relief outlay, procurement had been initi- 
ated in the amount of $10,995,000, covering coal 
from the Ruhr, Poland, and Czechoslovakia des- 
tined for sliipment to Austria, and fertilizer from 
Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, and Ice- 
land destined for shipment to Austria, Greece, and 
Italy. 

The bulk of the approved programs that re- 
flected the principal needs abroad consisted of 
foodstuffs, mostly cereals. Of the total approved 
commodity cost of approximately $205,000,000, 
more than half, about $130,000,000, was for cereals, 
and an additional $16,000,000 for fats and oils. 
Fuel accounted for $30,000,000 of assistance, and 
fertilizer and medical supplies for about $2,000,- 
000 and $3,000,000 respectively. In terms of ton- 
nages, over one million tons of relief supplies, made 
up chiefly of 553,000 tons of cereals and 424,000 
tons of fuel, had been shipped abroad by the end 
of September 1947. 

The country programs were subject to constant 
change to meet varying needs abroad. During 
October, for instance, it was necessary to increase 
the Italian relief program to include essential coal 
shipments from the United States, and to increase 
the Greek program to meet additional essential 
food requirements. During that month also, a 
$27,700,000 program was set up for China, and 
$500,000 was set aside for the conservation pro- 
gram of the Citizen's Food Committee in the 
United States. By the end of October, less than 
$25,000,000 of the $332,000,000 appropriated re- 
mained unprogramed. 

The relief program, by the last quarter of 1947, 
was in high gear. By December 31, 1947, ship- 

100 



ments under the progi-am totaled 4,743,314 tons. 
The value of these shipments totaled $229,520,292, 
or approximately 80 percent of the entire amount 
reserved for country progi-ams, $285,900,000. The 
$18,000,000 of additional aid appropriated for 
China on December 23, 1947, had not been pro- 
gramed. The scheduled value of offshore pur- 
chases, which now included fish from Iceland des- 
tined for Greece and Italy and rice from Siam 
destined for China, had risen to $19,495,000, of 
which deliveries in the amount of $13,129,738 had 
already been made. Of the $285,900,000 reserved 
for country programs, less than $6,000,000, ex- 
cluding the additional $18,000,000 reserved for 
China, had not yet been programed. Most of that 
$6,000,000 was being held for assistance to Trieste 
after January 1, 1948. It was hoped that, with the 
exceiJtion of the programs for China and Trieste, 
all shipments made against programs approved as 
of December 31, 1947, would be completed during 
the first quarter of 1948. 

By April 30, 1948, the program was virtually 
completed, with only $622,000 remaining to be 
programed. Approximately $303,000,000 had been 
set aside for country programs, including $256,- 
000,000 for commodities and $47,000,000 for ship- 
Y>n\g charges. Of the total, Austria was scheduled 
to receive assi-stance valued at about $90,000,000, 
China at $46,000,000, Greece at $37,000,000, Italy 
at $117,000,000, and Trieste at $12,000,000. Pro- 
curement had been initiated for all but $2,000,000 
of suiDplies. Deliveries had been made of com- 
modities valued at $284,000,000, of which $239,- 
000,000 was the supply cost and $45,000,000 the 
shipping cost. Foodstuffs made up 80 percent, or 
$205,000,000, of all the aid programed, with cereals, 
principally wheat, accounting for $170,000,000, 
almost 50 percent of all relief supplies. Included 
in the programed aid was approximately $39,- 
000,000 for fuel, $1,000,000 for pesticides, $7,000,- 
000 for medical supplies, and $2,000,000 for seeds. 
The over-all United States foreign relief program 
breakdown, as of April 30, 1948, included $303,- 
000,000 for country programs ; $40,000,000 for the 
International Children's Emergency Fund; $4,- 
500,000 for the Voluntary Belief Agency Trans- 
portation Fund ; $600,000 for Department of State 
administrative expenses ; $250,000 for the Citizen's 
Food Committee ; $1,000,000 for the Food Con- 
servation Program; and $622,000 not yet 
programed. 

Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



The Individual Country Programs 

The breiiktluwii of the individual country pro- 
grams was as follows : 

Att-ifria: As of April 30, 1948, approximately 
$76,000,000 of aid, excluding $14,000,000 for the 
cost of shipping supplies, had been programed for 
Austria. Of this total, procurement had been ini- 
tiated for $75,000,000 of supjilies, and deliveries 
valued at $71,000,000 had been made. Food sup- 
plies, predominantly cereals, made up 75 percent 
of the aid f(n- Austria. 

The United States relief supplies were bai'ely 
enougli to maintain Austria's minimum economic 
level. Food products shipped under the program 
furnished 60 percent of the food rationed to the 
Austrian population. Without this American aid, 
Austria would have faced an acute situation. 
Lack of adequate agricultural equipment, short- 
ages of fertilizer and seed, and a bad drought dur- 
ing the summer months affected the country's 
agricultural production during 1947. Indigenous 
production of bread grains was only 60 percent 
of prewar. The Austrian ration provided the 
normal consumer during 1947 with only 1550 to 
1700 calories a day. The normal level in the 
United States is approximately 3400 calories a 
day. 

Fuel, or coal, supplies valued at $14,000,000, 
about 18 percent of the total Austrian program, 
were programed for shipment to Austria. The 
severe 1947 drought seriously affected power fa- 
cilities and aggravated Austria's desperate need 
for coal to meet industrial fuel requirements and 
to maintain essential services, such as hospitals 
imd rail transportation. 

Greece: The relief program for Greece had al- 
most been completed by April 30, 1948, with only 
$300,000 in supplies still to be shipped. In all, 
Greece was scheduled to receive aid in the value 
of $37,000,000, including more than $4,000,000 
chargeable to shipping cost. 

The need for food in Greece, which never has 
[been able to feed itself, was critical. More than 
132,000,000 of the $33,000,000 in aid programed 
for Greece went for food supplies— $24,000,000 
for cereals and $8,000,000 for fats and oils, meats 
ind fish, pulses, and dairy products. 

The guerrilla warfare in Greece has seriously 
"omplicated economic problems in that country. 
By the end of 1947, 430,000 refugees had fled 
from areas threatened by the guerrillas. More 

luly 25, 7 948 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

than 1,000,000 peoi)le in addition were destitute 
and almost entirely dependent upon relief sup- 
plies. As a result of guerrilla activities, it was 
impossible to deliver needed relief supplies to 
areas with which the Greek Government was not 
able to maintain adequate communication facili- 
ties. The Greek Government faced tremendous 
problems in the care and maintenance of the 
refugees from the war-ravaged areas in the 
northern and central parts of the country, and it 
was not always able to provide them with the 
minimum food rations required for subsistence. 
Medical supplies furnished under the relief pro- 
gram, mostly penicillin, streptomycin, and cholera 
vaccine, have proved invaluable in protecting the 
population against outbreaks of serious epidemics. 

In view of the critical internal situation in 
Greece, the relief program in that country played 
a particularly important role. The United States 
relief mission worked closely with the officials of 
the United States Mission for Aid to Greece. The 
availability of United States relief supplies con- 
tributed significantly to the maintenance of stabil- 
ity in Greece and helped avert the development of 
a completely chaotic situation in that country. 

Italy: The relief program for Italy was virtually 
complete by the end of April 1948. Dollars num- 
bering 117 million had been progi-amed for Italy — 
$96,000,000 for supplies and $21,000,000 for ship- 
ping cliarges. Only $400,000 in supplies remained 
to be delivered as of April 30, 1948. Cereals, pri- 
marily wheat, constituted 65 percent of the Italian 
program, and fuel, primarily coal, 25 percent. 

Italy was heavily dependent upon United States 
wheat and coal. The wheat harvest during 1947 
was only 68 percent of prewar, and without ade- 
quate outside help Italy would have faced a des- 
perate situation. Even with the foodstuffs fur- 
nished under the United States relief program, 
the Italian Government was barely able to main- 
tain mininnun food-ration levels. The need for 
American coal to maintain Italy's reduced rate of 
industrial production was urgent. The coal 
shipped under the program was subject to allo- 
cation in Italy and was used only for essential 
purposes to prevent economic retrogression. The 
success of the relief progi'am in Italy may have 
been reflected, to a considerable degree, in the out- 
come of the Italian elections in April 1948. 

Trieste: The area supplied under the relief 
program previously had included the provinces of 

101 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 

Udine and Venezia Giulia, an area with a popu- 
lation of 1,300,000 and with a rehxtively substan- 
tial agricultural output. Trieste had been in- 
cluded in this area. After the signing of the 
Italian treaty, the program supplied only the 
British and American zones of the Free Territory 
of Trieste, an area with a population of 290,000 
and with practically no agricultural production. 
These zones were almost entirely dependent upon 
the United States foreign-relief program for im- 
ports to meet essential requirements of food, coal, 
and other critical items. 

A $12,000,000 program was set up for Trieste, 
consisting of approximately $10,000,000 in sup- 
plies and $2,000,000 for shipping costs. More than 
$9,000,000 in supplies had been shipped to Trieste 
by the end of April 1948. Almost $7,000,000, or 
75 percent of the program, consisted of wheat. 
Nonfood items, coal and medical supplies, made up 
only 12 percent of the Trieste program. 

The Allied Military Government's control over 
the distribution of these supplies facilitated an 
equitable distribution of relief in Trieste. The 
shijament of relief supplies for Austria through the 
ports of the Free Territory provided a means of 
improving conditions in Trieste, where opportuni- 
ties for industrial and agricultural employment 
were limited. 

China: After the relief agreement with China 
was signed on October 27, 1947, a program of $27,- 
700,000 was set aside for that country, chiefly for 
procurement of wheat and rice. The program in- 
cluded $5,000,000 for the procurement of rice in 
Siam and also $4,000,000 for the procurement of 
medical supplies in the United States. 

When Public Law 393 was passed on December 
23, 1947, an additional $18,000,000, that was pro- 
gramed early in 1948, was made available for 
China relief. The total Chinese program totaled 
$46,000,000, $41,000,000 for commodities and 
$5,000,000 for shipping. Cereals made up about 85 
l^ercent of China's commodity program, and medi- 
cal supplies another 12 percent. Eelatively small 
amounts of pesticides and seeds also were sched- 
uled for shipment. By April 30, 1948. deliveries 
had been made in the value of $33,000,000, includ- 
ing $3,000,000 for shipping expenses. The bulk of 
the deliveries, almost 99 percent of the total com- 
modity value, had been made up of cereals. Little 
more than $300,000 in medical supplies and seeds, 
and no pesticides, had been delivered. 

102 



China's critical months, as far as food needs 
were concerned, were from March to June. It is 
tradiiional in China to distribute indigenous food 
stocks during the period of the Chinese New Year, 
which this year came in February. The American 
relief mission, therefore, took all possible steps 
to insure that the distribution of United States 
relief supplies should begin in March. To help 
distribute the United States supplies, the Ameri- 
can mission worked with the Chinese Government 
in developing a controlled ration plan for use in 
China's important distribution centei'S — Canton, 
Nanking, Peiping, Shanghai, and Tientsin. 

Evaluation of the Program 

Tlie 1947 foreign-relief program had the im- 
mediate and direct effect of saving lives and pre- 
venting economic retrogression in critical areas 
of Europe and Asia. At the same time, by pro- 
viding those supplemental amounts of food, fuel, 
medical supplies, fertilize!', pesticides, and seed 
needed to sustain life and maintain agricultural 
activity, it averted the complete deterioration of 
social, political, and economic conditions. It was 
a stabilizing influence in areas threatened with 
chaos and confusion. 

That the program, despite its contribution to 
the well-being and stability of important parts of 
the world, did not accomplish the purpose set out 
for it — the completion of the world relief task — 
can be attributed to a number of important fac- 
tors, over which the Government of the United 
States largely had no control. Abnormally ad- \ 
verse weather conditions during 1947 — droughts, ' 
freezes, and floods — set Europe back to a degree i 
which could not have been foreseen. Resultant 
crop failures and transportation tie-ups rendered , 
most of Europe incapable of continuing the pace 
of reconstruction and rehabilitation and increased ! 
the dependence of the Europeans upon outside as- i 
sistance, principally American, for the very neces- 
sities of life. Thus the 1947 relief program, i 
instead of furnishing the final push toward reason- 
able economic recovery, barely enabled the popu- 
lations of those countries it assisted, those in most 
dire need, to maintain the progress they had 
already made. 

Other factors also lessened the effectiveness of 
the relief program. Rising prices, for instance, 
cut materially into the volume of goods which 
could be purchased both here and abroad for over- 
seas use. It was not possible to procure those 

Department of State Bulletin 



FOREIGN AID AND RECONSTRUCTION 



quiuitities of sujiplios witli the $^50,000,000 appro- 
priatod which it hud been anticipated would be 
obtained -ndien the program was proposed and 
autliorized. As a result, relief targets could not 
be met fully, and consequently the entire program 
suffered. Political conflicts and disturbances 
played a part in reducing the effectiveness of the 
program. Internal dissension over national policy 
and turmoil created by dissident political groups 
woiked against the necessary self-help and re- 
habilitation efforts of the countries receiving 
American assistance. In Greece and China con- 
ditions of actual warfare existed. In Austria, the 
presence of the uncooperative occupation force of 
the Soviet Union hampered the distribution of re- 
lief supplies to the needy population. In all of the 
countries receiving aid, these disruptive elements 
made strong attempts to minimize the importance 
of the United States relief program and to keep 
the facts concerning it from the people. 

The Place of the 1947 Program in 
United States Foreign Policy 

It was realized even before the program was 
authorized by Congress that the 1947 foreign- 
relief program could not succeed in bringing an 
end to Europe's need for outside assistance. By 
June .5, 1947, when Secretary Marshall made his 
famous speech at Harvard University which set 
in motion the European Recovery Program, it had 
become clear to the authors of American policy 
that no amount of relief alone could place Europe 
firmly on the road to reconstruction and recovery. 
The extent of the physical destruction and of the 
economic and political dislocation which the war 
had visited upon Europe demanded a new and 
more fundamental approach to the problem of 



recovery. The European Recovery Program, the 
most extensive economic undertaking in history, 
was the answer. As a stopgap until Erp could 
be placed in operation, it was necessary to supple- 
ment the $350,000,000 relief program of 1947 with 
the $522,000,000 interim-aid program for Austria, 
France, and Italy made possible by Public Law 
393, ap[)roved December 23, 1947. 

In the adoption of the interim aid and the 
European Recovery Programs lies the proof of 
the value of the 1947 foreign-relief program. It 
was an integral link in the chain of United States 
foreign policy. By preventing chaos and con- 
fusion, it held the fort during a critical period un- 
til the forces of stability and democracy could be 
mobilized for the great effort toward world re- 
covery and peace. In the absence of this foreign- 
relief program, the year 1947 might well have seen 
the triumph in strategic areas of the world of those 
forces of despair and tyranny which oppose Erp 
and which have sought on so many occasions to 
thwart American attempts to promote inter- 
national stability and understanding. Under 
such circumstances, the concept of a European Re- 
covery Program, with its significance for world 
peace and progress, might have disappeared into 
the limbo of lost opportunities. 

Taken in this larger sense, the 1947 relief pro- 
gram, the link between the war-born Unrra and 
the great cooperative European Recovery Pro- 
gram, emerges as more than a $350,000,000 foreign- 
aid program. It is seen in its true light as an in- 
dispensable step in the direction of that world of 
peace, jDrogress, and prosperity which is the hope 
of the United States and of men of good will 
everywhere. 



July 25, 7 948 



103 



ERP Agreements Concluded With Fourteen Countries 



[Released to the press jointly with ECA July 4] 

The following 14 countries have signed or ini- 
tialed bilateral agreements with the United States 
under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 : Austria, 
Belgium, China, Denmark, France, Greece, Ice- 
land, Ireland, Italy,' Luxembourg, the Nether- 
lands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. 

These agreements are finally eflfective for 10 of 
these countries : Austria, China, Denmark, Greece, 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Nether- 
lands, and Norway. In the case of the other 
countries participating in the foreign-assistance 
program, it is expected that appropriate parlia- 
mentary proceedings to make the agreements 
finally effective will be completed in the near 
future. 

Formal action with respect to bilateral agree- 
ments has not yet been taken by Switzerland, Por- 



tugal, and Turkey. With respect to the occupied 
zones of western Germany, after the draft text of 
the master agreement was worked out, it had to 
be adapted to the special circumstances of the occu- 
pied zones. However, in view of recent develop- 
ments in Berlin, the senior occupation authorities 
of the British-American bizone of occupation have 
not had an opportunity to conclude work on the 
agreement for their zone. In the case of the 
French zone, early signing of the agreement is 
anticipated with the understanding that amend- 
ments might be made later in order to bring it 
into conformity with the bizonal agi-eement. 

Under the provisions of the law, further assist- 
ance must be suspended for countries with whom 
agreements had not been concluded as of July 3. 
It is expected that there will be only brief delays 
in completing final action; serious interruptions 
in the flow of Eca - supplies are not anticipated. 



Most-Favored-Natton Treatment for Areas Under Military 
Occupation With Respect to Turkey 



In the text of the notes exchanged 'between the 
United States and Turkey, which are identical in 
form,, variation from the U. S.-U. K. note ^ appear 
in paragraphs 1 and 3. Paragraph 4 of the V. S.~ 
U. K. note is not contained in the U. S -Turkey 
exchange of notes. 

1. For such time as the Government of the 
United States of America participates in the oc- 
cupation or control of any areas in western Ger- 
many, the Free Territory of Trieste, Japan or 
southern Korea, the Government of the Republic 
of Turkey will apply to the merchandise trade of 
such area the provisions relating to the most-fa- 
vored-nation treatment of the merchandise trade 
of the United States of America set forth in the 
Trade Agreement between the United States of 
America and the Republic of Turkey, signed April 
1, 1939, or, for such time as the United States of 
America and the Republic of Turkey may both be 
contracting jDarties to the General Agreement on 

' See BuLMTiN of July 11, 1018, p. 37, for Italian 
agreement. 

' Economic Cooperation Administration, directing the 
European Recovery Program under the Foreign Assistance 
Act of 1948. 

" Bulletin of July 11, 1918, p. 43. 



Tariffs and Trade, dated October 30, 1947, the pro- 
visions of that Agreement as now or hereafter 
amended, relating to the most-favored-nation 
treatment of such trade. It is understood that the 
undertaking in this paragraph relating to the ap- 
plication of the most-favored-nation provisions 
of the Trade Agreement shall be subject to the ex- 
ceptions recognized in the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade permitting departures from the 
application of most-favored-nation treatment; 
provided that nothing in this sentence shall be con- 
strued to require compliance with the procedures 
specified in the General Agreement with regard to 
the application of such exceptions. 

2. The undertaking in point 1, above, will apply 
to the merchandise trade of any area referred to 
therein only for such time and to such extent as 
.such area accords reciprocal most-favored-nation 
treatment to the merchandise trade of the Repub- 
lic of Turkey. In this connection, the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America will seek 
arrangements whereby such areas will accord 
most-favored-nation treatment ( including most- 
favored-nation treatment in the application of 
quantitative restrictions in accordance with the 
principles of the Genei'al Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade) to the merchandise trade of Turkey. 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Appeals by U.N. IVIediator for Peaceful Settlement of Palestine Situation 



CABLEGRAM FROM MEDIATOR TO SECRETARY-GENERAL > 



June 30, 191,8 
On 28 and 29 June I presented to Arab and 
Jewish autliorities in Caii'o and Tel Aviv respec- 
tively three brief papers setting forth in outline 
my views and suggestions for a possible approach 
to the peaceful adjustment of the future situation 
of Palestine. These documents were presented to 
the apjiropriate Arab and Jewish officials by rep- 
resentatives of the Secretariat who. as my envoys, 
were authorized to explain orally the suggestions 
presented and to give such elaboration of them 
as might be required. 

Tlie suggestions have been presented quite tenta- 
tively and with a primary view to discovering if 
there may be found at this stage of the mediation 
a conunon ground on which further discussion and 
mediation can proceed. 

I have invited both Arab and Jewish repre- 
sentatives to come to Rhodes to discuss with me 
the suggestions which I have advanced or any 



counter-suggestions which either or both of them 
may wish to put forth. If for any reason this 
should not prove feasible, I have expressed my 
willingness to meet with the representatives of 
each side at such places as they may suggest. 

I have not, however, asked either side to come 
to Rhodes for a joint meeting of Arabs and Jews 
or a joint roundtable conference of the two parties. 

I have also appealed to both Arab and Jewish 
authorities not to release to the press or to other- 
wise publish the suggestions I have offered or 
their comments on them until I have officially re- 
ceived these comments or counter-suggestions. 
For this reason I am not communicating these 
papers to the Security Council at this time. 

As of 30 June no such comments or counter- 
suggestions had been received by me. I have set 
no deadline date for the communication to me of 
the views of the two parties. 

Count Bernadotte 



TEXT OF SUGGESTIONS PRESENTED BY MEDiATOR 



The foUoiring text v^as sent iy the Mediator to 
he held hy the SecretaTy-General for transinission 
to the President of the Security Council at a time 
to be notified later. The Secretavy-Geveral siibse- 
quently was requested to release the text at 2:00 
p.m., E.D.T., 4 July 191,8 

I have the honour to present for the information 
of the Security Council the following three papers 
presented to the Arab and Jewish authorities on 
28 June 1948, for their consideration in pursuance 
of my effort to find a common basis for discussion 
witli the two parties looking towards a peaceful 
adjustment of the future situation of Palestine. 

Part 1. Introductory Statement 

1. The resolution of the General Assembly of 
14 May 1948, provides inter alia that the United 
Nations Mediator is to use his good offices to "pro- 
mote a peaceful adjustment of the future situation 
of Palestine". 

Jo/y 25, 7948 



2. It follows that my prime objective as Medi- 
ator is to determine on the basis of the fullest ex- 
ploration, whether there is any possibility of rec- 
onciling, by peaceful means, the divei'gent and 
conflicting views and positions of the two sides. 

3. The co-operative attitude manifested thus 
far by both sides has made possible the truce which 
began on 11 June. This truce has brought a calmer 
atmosphere, more favourable to the task of media- 
tion entrusted to me by the General Assembly. In 
this improved atmosphere I have talked with the 
representatives of both sides and have obtained a 
very clear impression of their positions on the 
question of the future of Palestine. I have also 
jirofited from the information afforded by the 
technical consultants whom each side has desig- 
nated in response to my request. 

' II.N. doc. S/860, June 30, 1948. 
" U.N. doe. S/S63, July 3, 1948. 

105 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZBD AGENCIES 

4. The basic issues arising from the opposing 
parties relate to partition, the establishment of a 
Jewish State, and Jewish immigration. 

5. I have thoroughly studied, weighed and ap- 
praised the positions taken by the two parties. I 
interpret my role as Mediator not as one involving 
the handing down of decisions on the future of 
Palestine, but as one of offering suggestions on 
the basis of which further discussions might take 
place and possibly counter-suggestions be put forth 
looking toward a peaceful settlement of this diffi- 
cult problem. My suggestions at this stage, then, 
must clearly be of such nature as to provide a 
reasonable framework of reference within which 
the two parties may find it possible to continue 
their consultations with me towards the end of a 
peaceful adjustment. 

6. My analysis has taken into account the equi- 
ties involved, and the aspirations, fears, motiva- 
tions of the parties. It has also taken account of 
the realities of the existing situation. It has con- 
vinced me that on grounds of equity as well as on 
practical grounds it is impossible for me as Media- 
tor to call upon either party to surrender com- 
pletely its position. In the light of this analysis 
I see a possibility of an adjustment which would 
give adequate reassurance to both parties as re- 
gards the vital factors in their respective positions. 
But the realization of this possibility depends 
upon the willingness of the parties to explore all 
avenues for a peaceful adjustment and their readi- 
ness not to resume armed conflict as a means of 
settling their differences. 

7. Despite the present conflict, there is a com- 
mon denominator in Palestine which, happily, is 
acceptable to and affirmed by both sides. This is 
the recognition of the necessity for peaceful rela- 
tions between Arabs and Jews in Palestine and of 
the principle of economic unity. 

8. It is with this common denominator es- 
pecially in mind that I put forth the accompany- 
ing suggestions in outline as a basis for discussion. 
These suggestions, I must emj^hasise, are sub- 
mitted with no intimation of preciseness or final- 
ity. They are designed solely to explore the 
possible bases for further discussions and media- 
tion, and to elicit from the parties their reactions 
and further views. Moreover, any plans which 
might result from these suggestions could be work- 
able only if voluntarily accepted and applied. 
There can be no question of their imposition. 

9. I should make perfectly clear my intentions 
as regards future procedure. If it develops that 
the suggestions herewith presented, or suggestions 
subsequently presented, which may arise from the 
reactions to tliose now put forth, provide a basis 
for discussion, I will carry on with the discussions 
as long as may prove necessary and fruitful. If, 
however, these or subsequent suggestions, if any 
should emerge, are rejected as a basis for discus- 
sion, which I earnestly hope will not occur, I shall 

106 



promptly report the circumstances fully to the Se- 
curity Council and shall feel free to submit such 
conclusions to the Security Council as I may con- 
sider appropriate. 

Count Folke Bernadotte 
United Nations Mediator on Palestine, 

Ehodes, Greece, 27 June 1948. 

Part II. Suggestions Presented by the 
Mediator on Palestine 

The Mediator advanced the following suggestions 
as a possible basis for discussion; 

1. That, subject to the willingness of the directly 
interested parties to consider such an arrangement, 
Palestine, as defined in the original Mandate en- 
trusted to the United Kingdom in 1922, that is in- 
cluding Transjordan, might form a Union com- 
prising two members, one Arab and one Jewish. 

2. That the boundaries of the two members be 
determined in the first instance by negotiation with 
the assistance of the Mediator and on the basis of 
suggestions to be made by him. When agreement 
is reached on the main outlines of the boundaries 
they will be definitively fixed by a Boundaries 
Commission. 

3. That the purposes and function of the Union 
should be to promote common economic interests, 
to operate and maintain common services, includ- 
ing customs and excise, to undertake development 
projects and to co-ordinate foreign policy and 
measures for common defence. 

4. That the functions and authority of the 
Union might be exercised through a central coun- 
cil and such other organs as the members of the 
Union may determine. 

5. That, subject to the provision of the Instru- 
ment of Union, each member of the Union may 
exercise full control over its own affairs including 
its foreign relations. 

6. Immigration within its own bordere should 
be within the competence of each member, pro- 
vided that following a period of two years from 
the establishment of the Union, either member 
would be entitled to request the Council of the 
Union to review the immigration policy of the 
other member and to render a ruling thereon in 
terjns of the common interests of the Union. In 
the event of the inability of the Council to reach a 
decision on the matter, the issue could be referred 
by either member to the Economic and Social 
Council of the United Nations whose decision, tak- 
ing into account the principle of economic absorp- 
tive capacity, would be binding on the member 
whose policy is at issue. 

7. That religious and minority rights be fully 
protected by each member of the Union and guar- 
anteed by the United Nations. 

8. That Holy Places, religious buildings and 
sites be preserved and that existing rights in re- 
spect of the same be fully guaranteed by each 
member of the Union. 

Department of State Bulletin 



9. That recogniLion be accorded to the rif^ht of 
residents of Palestine who, because of conditions 
created by the conflict tliere have left their normal 
places of abode, to retnrn to their homes without 
restriction and to repain possession of their 
property. 

COTJNT FOLKE BeRNADOTTE 

United Nations Mediator on Palestine, 
Rhodes, Greece, -11 June 19^8. 

Part III. Annex to the Suggestions: 
Territorial Matters 

I With regard to paragraph 2 of the suggestions 
it is considered that certain territorial arrange- 
ments might be worthy of consideration. These 
might be along the following lines : 



rHE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

1. Inclusion of the wliole or part of the Negev in 
Arab territory. 

2. Inclusion of the whole or part of Western 
Galilee in Jewish territory. 

;i. Inclusion of the City of Jerusah'ni in Arab 
territory, with municipal autonomy for the Jewish 
community and special arrangements for the pro- 
tection of the Holy Places. 

4. Consideration of the status of Jaffa. 

5. Establishment of a free port at Haifa, the 
area of the free port to include the relineries and 
terminals. 

6. Establishment of a free airport at Lydda. 

Count Folke Bernadotte 
United Nations Mediator on Palestine, 
Rhodes, Greece, 27 June 1948. 



REPLY FROM PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL » 



7 July 1H8 
On behalf of the Provisional Government of 
Israel, I have tiie honour to convey, for the in- 
formation of the Security Council, the text of the 
reply given by the Foreign Minister of Israel to 
the suggestions presented by Count Bernadotte to 
the Governments of Israel and of the Arab States. 
Aubrey S. Eban 
Representative of the 
Provisional Government of Israel 

On behalf of the Provisional Government of 
Israel. I have the honor to offer the following ob- 
servations on the suggestions presented by you un- 
der cover of your letter of June 27 as a possible 
basis for discussion in discharge of your task to 
"promote a peaceful adjustment of the future 
situation of Palestine". 

1. The Provisional Government of Israel noted 
with surprise that your suggestions appear to ig- 
nore the resolution of the General Assembly of 29 
November 1947. which remains the only interna- 
tionally valid adjudication on the question of the 
future government of Palestine. 

The Provisional Government also regrets to find 
that, in formulating your suggestions, you do not 
appear to have taken into account fully the out- 
standing facts of the situation in Palestine, namely, 
the effective establishment of the sovereignty of 
the State of Israel within the area assigned to it in 
the Assembly's resolution, and other territorial 
changes which resulted from the repulse of the 
attack launched against Israel by Palestinian 
Arabs and by the neighboring Arab States. 

2. The Provisional Government of Israel begs 
to recall that the Jewish people accepted the settle- 
ment laid down in the General Assembly's resolu- 

Ju/y 25. J 948 



tion as a compromise entailing heavy sacrifices on 
its part, and the territory assigned to the Jewish 
State as an irreducible minimum. It is indeed the 
conviction of the Provisional Government of 
Israel that the territorial provisions affecting the 
Jewish State now stand in need of improvement, in 
view both of the perils revealed by Arab aggres- 
sion to the safety and integrity of Israel and of the 
results achieved by Israel in repelling this aggres- 
sion. In this connection, the Provisional Govern- 
ment of Israel desires to point out that the terri- 
torial settlement laid down in the resolution was 
based on partition of Western Palestine between 
the Jewish people and the Arab population of 
Palestine. Inclusion of the Arab portion of Pales- 
tine in the territory of one of the neighboring Arab 
States would fundamentally change the context of 
the boundary problem. 

3. The Provisional Government of Israel can- 
not agree to any encroachment upon or limitation 
of the free sovereignty of the people of Israel in 
its independent State. While it is the basic aim 
and policy of Israel to establish relations of peace 
and amity with her neighbors on the basis of clos- 
est possible collaboration in all fields, interna- 
tional arrangements which may be necessary to 
give effect to this policy cannot l)e imposed upon 
Israel, but can only be entered into as a result 
of an agreement negotiated between the interested 
parties as free and sovereign States. 

4. The Provisional Government of Israel would 
be ready to accept the provisions concerning Eco- 
nomic Union as formulated in the Assembly's reso- 
lution if all their basic premises were to ma- 
terialize. This is not, however, the eventuality 



' U.N. doc. S/870, July 8, 1948. 



107 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

envisaged in your suggestions. The partner State 
whom the Israelis are invited to join in a Union 
is both in its political identity and in its geograph- 
ical dimensions wholly different from the Arab 
State provided for in the resolution. Jewish 
consent to Economic Union in the context of the 
resolution cannot therefore be binding in the new 
situation. It must now be left to the free and 
unfettered discretion of the Government of Israel 
in the exercise of its sovereign rights to determine 
what arrangements should govern Israel's rela- 
tions with her neighbor or neighbors in the field 
of economic co-operation. 

5. The Provisional Government of Israel must 
be particularly emphatic in its opposition to any 
infringement of Israel's independence and sover- 
eignty as I'egards her immigration policy. Com- 
plete and unqualified freedom to determine the 
size and composition of Jewish immigration was 
the very essence of the Jewish claim to statehood. 
Eecognition of the moral validity and the prac- 
tical urgency of that claim in connection with 
the issue of immigration lay at the roots of its 
acceptance by the international world. There can 
be no question of any Israeli Government accept- 
ing the slightest derogation in favor of any joint 
or international body from Israel's sovereignty 
as regards control of her immigration policy. 

6. The Provisional Government of Israel was 
deeply wounded by your suggestion concerning 
the future of the City of Jerusalem, which it re- 
gards as disastrous. The idea that the relegation 
of Jerusalem to xlrab rule might form part of a 
peaceful settlement could be conceived only in 
utter disregard of history and of the fundamental 
facts of the problem which are : 

a) The association of Judaism with the Holy 
City; 



b) The unique place occupied by Jerusalem in 
Jewish history and present-day Jewish life ; 

c) Jewish inhabitants constituted a two-thirds 
majority in the City before the commencement of 
Arab aggression, and this proportion has greatly 
increased since then as a result of Arab evacua- 
tion ; 

d) The whole of Jerusalem with only a few 
minor exceptions is now in Jewish hands; 

e) And not least, the fact that after an exhaus- 
tive study of the problem and as a result of the 
overwhelming consensus of Christian opinion in 
its midst, the General Assembly resolved that 
Jerusalem be placed under an international 
regime. 

The Provisional Government of Israel must 
make it clear that the Jewish people in the State 
of Israel and the Jews of Jerusalem will never 
acquiesce in the imposition of Arab domination 
over Jerusalem, no matter what formal municipal 
autonomy and what right of access to Holy Places 
the Jews of Jerusalem might be allowed to enjoy. 
They will resist any such imposition with all the 
force at their command. The Provisional Govern- 
ment of Israel regrets having to say that your 
startling suggestion regarding Jerusalem, by en- 
couraging false Arab hopes and wounding Jewish 
feelings, is likely to achieve the reverse of the 
pacifying effect which you undoubtedly had in 
mind. 

7. The Provisional Government of Israel does 
not find it necessary at this stage to comment upon 
the other points raised in your suggestions as it 
hopes that examination of its present observations 
on the major aspects of the scheme for a settle- 
ment tentatively outlined by you may cause you 
to reconsider 3'our whole approach to the problem. 



CABLEGRAM FROM MEDSATOR TO SECRETARY-GENERAL ON PROLONGATION OF TRUCE* 

July S, 19Ji8 

The following proposals have been submitted to 
the parties on 3 and 5 July 1948 : 



During that very short period, a first effort has 
been made to explore the possibilities for effective 
mediation of the Palestine dispute. It could have 
been expected that i)i these four weeks a peaceful 
adjustment of the future situation of Palestine 
could have been achieved on the basis of agreement 
between the parties. 

On the whole, the truce has worked well. There 
have been complaints from both sides as to the 
alleged violations of the terms of truce agreement. 
There have been instances of violation, but all 
fighting on a major scale has been stopped, and it 
can be said quite confidently that the truce has 

' U.N. doc. S/86.5, July 6, 1948. 
" U.N. doe. S/875, July 9, 1948. 

108 



worked well, and by 9 July 1948, neither State will 
have gained any significant military advantage 
from its application. In the meantime, through 
the operation of the truce, much bloodshed and 
destruction have been avoided and many lives 
spared. 



Security Council Resolution of July 7' 

The Security Council, 

Taking into consideration the telegram 
from the United Nations Mediator dated 5 
July 1948, 

Addresses an urgent appeal to the inter- 
ested parties to accept in i)rinciple the pro- 
longation of the truce for such period as may 
be decided ujaon in consultation with the 
Mediator. 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



The expiration of tlie date of the truce on 9 
July is now innninent. Tlie parties to the truce 
must answer the question whether, in the absence 
of a<rreeuient on tlu> ]iri)cechu'e and substance of 
mediation, they will ajrain resort to armed conflict. 

There can be little doubt that a decision to re- 
sume tiizhtini: in Palestine will be universally con- 
dennu'il and that the part}' or parties taking such 
a decision will be assuming a responsibility which 
will be viewed by the world with the utmost 
gravity. 

The truce, in effect, is based on the resolution of 
the Security Council of 29 Way 19-18. It was the 
fighting in Palestine which induced to adopt that 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

1-esolution. Unless the i)arties themselves agree to 
extend the truce beyond 9 July, it may be assumed 
that the Security Council will again consider the 
matter and take such action as circumstances may 
demand. 

In order that the efforts toward mediation of 
the dispute may continue, and in the interest of a 
peaceful settlement of the problem by means of 
patient and tolerant effort and reciprocal good 
will, I ask the United Nations, as the United Na- 
tions Mediator on Palestine, to urgently appeal to 
the interested parties to accept in principle the 
{jrolongation of the truce for such period as may 
be decided upon in consultation with the Mediator. 



REPLY OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL ACCEPTING 30-DAY TRUCE" 



FoTIowinff is text of Jewish reply to proposals 
of Mediator handed to Mediator by Shertok 
Thursday afternoon, 7 July ' 

1. The Provisional Government of Israel agrees 
to a prolongation of the Truce for a period of 
thirty days from G a. m. GMT on Friday, July 9th 
194S, on the understanding that the conditions to 
be observed by all parties concerned shall be sub- 
stantially the same as those which govern the 
Truce at the present time. 

2. The Provisional Government of Israel is 
ready to discuss the Mediator's proposal for the 
demilitarisation of Jerusalem. This proposal 
provides for the supply to Jerusalem of food, fuel, 
water and other essential non-military supplies 
without limitation of quantity. It also provides 
for an international force to assume full respon- 

I sibility for security but not for administration in 

: the demilitarized zone, in regard to which status 

quo will be maintained. It stipulates that this 

arrangement shall in no way prejudice the future 

political status of Jerusalem and also that at the 



' U.N. doc. S/8-2, July 8, 194S. Telegram from the U.N. 
mp<liator to the Secretary-General dated .July 8, li)48. 

'U.X. doc. S/871, July 8, 1948 (cable to the Secretary- 
General dated July 8, 11)48, from Provisional Government 
of Israel) : 

"Have honour acknowledge receipt your telegram 11320 
July 7th. Have already communicated yesterday to 
Mediator decision Provisional Government Israel accept 
prolongation truce for thirty days and extension truce 
for three days if other side rejects prolongation. Also 
expre.ssed readiness discuss demiltarization whole city 
Jeriisaleui. 

Jo/y 25, 7 948 



end of the period of demilitarisation the Jewish 
forces would be entitled to return to the military 
status quo ante. The Israeli Government fully 
reserves its rights and claims with regard to the 
future status of Jerusalem. 

3. If the present country-wide Truce should not 
be prolonged, the Provisional Government of 
Israel is willing to accept an immediate cease fire 
in Jerusalem to permit a final decision to be 
reached on the question of demilitarisation. 

4. The Provisional Government of Israel does 
not favour the demilitarisation of the Haifa docks 
and port area, but is willing to consider an ar- 
rangement by which the off-loading of supplies 
required for the demilitarised area of Jerusalem 
could take place in safety. 

5. The Provisional Government of Israel does 
not favour the demilitarisation of the Haifa re- 
fineries. 

6. The Provisional Government of Israel ac- 
cepts the proposal of the Mediator for a three 
days' extension of the Truce to permit evacuation 
of observers and stores even if the Truce as a 
whole is not prolonged. 

"Informed by Mediator this morning .\rab Governments 
rejected both proposals maximum and minimum for ex- 
tension truce and as regards Jerusalem accepted demili- 
tarization principle only for old city. 

"This morning l.tK) a.m. (G..M.T. ), Egyptian force con- 
siderin.g [consisting] two armoured columns and infantry 
launched oft'ensive against our positions in soutli Palestine. 
Battle now in progress. While its armed forces are ready 
for most determined action on all fronts. Provisional Gov- 
ernment of Israel is most interested learn what Security 
Council will decide in present emergency. 

Sheetok" 

109 



REPLY FROM ARAB GOVERNMENTS REJECTING 30-DAY TRUCE' 



Political Committee of League of Arab States 
has very carefully studied proposal put forth by 
United Nations Mediator for prolongation of 
truce and has taken note of reasons which, in his 
view, justify such prolongation. In this connec- 
tion the committee would like to recall that Arab 
Governments were forced to intervene militarily 
in Palestine on 15 May last in response to appeal 
of Arab inhabitants who are crushing majority of 
population to put an end to slaughters committed 
by Zionist terrorists against Ai'abs and humanity, 
to restore law and order in country and enable its 
inhabitants to exercise attributes of independence 
and right of self determination. 

Indeed, it was due to this armed intervention 
that it was possible to save many Arab lives, avoid 
much destruction and further bloodshed and re- 
store peace, law and order to areas occupied by 
Arab armies. 

Despite the fact that Arab armies were at time 
masters of situation, Arab states accepted Secu- 
rity Council resolution of 29 May last inviting 
tliem to agree four-week truce to enable United 
Nations Mediator carry out his functions. It was 
only to demonstrate their good-will, and give fur- 
tlier evidence their earnest desire cooperate with 
United Nations in efforts to arrive peaceful and 
just solution of Palestine problem, they did so. 

However, Arab apprehension that Zionists were 
sure violate truce conditions proved well founded. 
In fact, despite these conditions Zionists continued 
aggression against Arabs in areas under their oc- 
cupation and steadily persisted throughout truce 
in pursuing their policy of smuggling immigi'ants, 
arms and amnumition into country, as witnessed 
by United Nations observers. They have also oc- 
cupied number of villages and positions not in 
their possession at time of cease-fire. They have 
furthermore intensified their aggi'essive activities 
against peace-abiding inhabitants, burning their 
villages and crops in various parts of country. 
They have committed atrocities against civilian 
population, plundering homes and pillaging prop- 
erty and forcing them work in erecting of fortifi- 
cations, digging trenches and other hard labor. 

All these activities, which constitute flagrant 
violation spirit and letter Security Council's reso- 
lution 29 May as well as of truce conditions agreed 
to and accepted by both sides, were duly brought 
attention of United Nations Mediator. 

As matter of fact, these flagrant violations of 
truce constituted in themselves sufficient justifica- 
tion for immediate resumption of fighting by Arab 
states. However, much as they could ill atford it, 

'U.N. doc. S/876, July 9, 1948. The capitalization, 
spelling, and punctuation used here do not conform to 
the U.N. doc. 

110 



they have patiently kept peace in desire to afford 
United Nations Mediator ample scope carry out 
his endeavors to find peaceful solution. Unfortu- 
nately, solution proposed by Mediator based as 
it is on continuation of status quo aiming at parti- 
tion and creating of Jewish state has been most 
disappointing to Arabs. It is evident that status 
quo which inspired suggestions put forth by Medi- 
ator is result of Zionist terrorist activities in which 
they have been encouraged by policy of hesitation 
ancl indecision adopted by former mandatory 
power in maintenance of law and order in comitry, 
a policy which has not only enabled Zionist gangs 
to amass huge forces, build strong fortifications in 
many parts of country and launch surprise attacks 
on peaceful population, but also to occupy many 
towns and villages and large areas without fight- 
ing. 

The Mediator fully realizes that partition and 
establishment of a Jewish state in country lies at 
root of present dispute. Therefore, the suggestion 
to adopt status quo as basis for discussions to ar- 
rive at peaceful and permanent solution of prob- 
lem undoubtedly proves to be inconsistent with 
principles of justice ancl democracy and detrimen- 
tal permanent interests of country's inhabitants. 
Moreover, prolongation of truce under present con- 
ditions would mean perpetration of status quo 
which Mediator adopted as basis for his sugges- 
tion. All these factors carry us away from pur- 
pose of his Excellency's mission, which is to find 
peaceful and just solution to problem. 

Further, the Zionists are steadily carrying on 
with establishment and consolidation of their state 
and there is no hope of their cooperation in ar- 
riving at desired peaceful settlement which was 
aim of truce. This is confirmed by Mediator's 
memorandum 5 July setting forth his comments 
on Arab counter proposals. 

His Excellency therein declares he is fully con- 
vinced there is no possibility of persuading Jews 
to give up i^resent sejDarate cultural, political exist- 
ence and accept merging in unitary state. It is 
noC reasonable, therefore, particularly after ex- 
pression of such conviction, to expect that pro- 
longation of truce would lead to desired peaceful 
settlement. On contrary such prolongation would 
help Zionist terrorists intensify aggressive activi- 
ties, a state which would aggravate already grave 
situation and not serve cause of peace. 

Indeed, prolongation truce in this manner is de- 
trimental to Palestine Arabs who are majority. 
In fact, more than quarter million civilians among 
Arab inhabitants of country forced under terrorist 
pressure, anarchy and state of insecurity wrought 
by Zionist gangs to abandon homes and property to 
become i-erugees in Arab countries without re- 
sources after Zionists plundered their homes and 

Department of State Bulletin 



liiid hands on all their property. On the contrary, 
as result of truce Palestine's gates have been Hung 
wide open to unlimited Jewish inunigration which, 
in four weeks of truce, has reached record unprec- 
etlented in annals of country. It is only natural 
for Zionists Iherefore to welcome truce prolonga- 
tion because, in addition to assisting them continue 
acts of violence and depredations against Arab 
jieighbors and intensify policy of unlimited Jew- 
ish immi2:ration, it hinders restoration of peace 
and security. 

Nothing is more welcome to Arabs who are 
staunch supporters of peace than avoidance of 
bloodshed and solution of problems by peaceful 
means but impossibility of persuading Jewish mi- 
nority to abandon political ambitions always al- 



THE UNITBD NATIONS ANO SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

luded to by Mediator and its determination to im- 
pose its will by force and terrorism on the over- 
whelming majority of iniiabitaiits of country who 
form part of Arab luition coupled with its viola- 
tions of conditions of truce and utilization of in- 
terval as means for intensification of aggression 
against Arabs and for overflooding country with 
continuous flow of immigrants, all these factors 
make it imperative for Arab states not to agree 
to prolongation of truce under present conditions 
and to take all measures necessary to bring these 
conditions to end. This, however, should not shut 
door in face of further efforts by Mediator, nor 
should it preclude whatever proposals his Ex- 
cellency may put forth in that capacity. 



STATEMENT OF MEDIATOR TO SECRETARY-GENERAL" 



Statement of the Mediator on the Arab and Jewish 
replies: 

The replies from the Arab and Jewish represent- 
atives have been received. The Jewish replies 
were handed to me by Mr. Shertok in Tel Aviv 
yesterday afternoon 7 July; the Arab replies, the 
full text of which have not been received, were 
cabled to me at Haifa in paraphrase by my repre- 
sentative in Cairo who received them early this 
morning from Azzam Pasha. 

These replies related to the following questions : 

1. The prolongation of the Truce. 

2. A temporai-y cease fire in Jerusalem as a 
means of concluding arrangements for the demili- 
tarization of that city. 

3. The demilitarization of the Haifa refineries, 
terminals and port area. 

The Jewish reply agreed to a prolongation of 
the Truce for a period of thirty days from G a. m. 
GMT on Friday, 9 July on the under.standing that 
the conditions of the prolonged Truce would be 
substantially the same as those governing the ex- 
isting one. 

The Arab reply, the translated text of which 
has not been received, states that the Arabs are 
not prepared to accept a prolongation of the Truce 
under jiresent conditions in view of their experi- 
ence of the past four weeks. 

A request had also been presented to the parties 
that, in the event there was no agreement on the 
prolongation of the Truce, a three-day extension 
would be granted in order to facilitate the evacua- 
tion of the U.N. observers and their equipment. 
The Jewish reply accepted this proposal, the Arab 
reply makes no specific reference to it and it is 
apparently rejected. Despite this apparent re- 
jection of the three-day extension, however all 
necessary steps are being immediately taken for 

Ju/y 25, 1948 



the safe evacuation of all U.N. observers and per- 
sonnel and their equipment. 

As regards the demilitarization of Jerusalem 
the Jewish reply has indicated a willingness to 
discuss this proposal and to accept an immediate 
cease fire in Jerusalem in order that a final decision 
might be reached on demilitarization since the pre- 
cise meaning of the Arab reply to the proposal is 
not clear, a request has been made for clarification. 
I have also informed the Arab representatives of 
my willingness to meet with them in Cairo on 
Saturday to discuss a temporary cease fire in the 
whole city of Jerusalem looking toward further 
discussions concerning its demilitarization. I have 
also informed Mr. Shertok by telephone of my de- 
sire to carry on similar discussions in Tel Aviv. 

As regards the Haifa proposal the replies of the 
two parties are so divergent as to indicate that 
there is no prospect of an agreement of this pro- 
posal. 

I am disapjDointed that hostilities are to be re- 
sumed in Palestine since it appears quite impos- 
sible for me to obtain agreement of the two parties 
not to resume hostilities. I will now concentrate 
my efforts during the next few days on obtaining a 
cease fire in Jerusalem and its ultimate demilitari- 
zation. I will do my utmost to save Jerusalem and 
the Holy Places from further destruction. 

It is my intention to make a full report to the 
Security Council at a very early dale. I do not 
consider my mission as Mediator to be at an end 
as a result of this temporary set back. I will con- 
tinue to work on the task assigned to me by the 
May 14th resolution of the General Assembly with 
a view to attaining at the earliest possible day 
a peaceful adjustment of the future situation of 
Palestine. 



' U.N. doc. S/873, July 8, 1948 (telegram from U.N. 
mediator dated July S, 1948). 

Ill 



MEDIATOR CALLS FOR 10-DAY CEASE-FIRE TRUCE 



The folJowing appeal has been eommwnicated to 
all parties concerned hy the Mediator on 9 July 
19J(8 

I find it imperative to proceed to Lake Success 
immediately for the purpose of presenting to tlie 
Security Council of the United Nations a full re- 
port of my negotiations and the Arab and Jewish 
replies to my several proposals. I am particularly 
and most keenly disappointed that my proposal 
for a prolongation of the truce was not favourably 
acted upon by the Arab Eepresentatives. In this 
regard I may also call attention to the resolution 
of the Security Council of 7 July addressing an 
urgent appeal to the interested parties to accept in 
principle the prolongation of the truce for such 
period as may be decided upon in consultation with 
the Mediator. The Security Council is now ac- 
tively and urgently engaged in the consideration 



of appropriate steps looking toward an assurance 
of peace in Palestine and it is my intention to place 
myself fully at the disposal of the Security Council 
towards this end. I plan to return to Near East 
from Lake Success within a matter of days for 
the purpose of resuming my efforts at mediation. 
YoY the above reasons in the interest of peace and 
the peoples of Palestine, Arabs and Jews alike, and 
with grave concern for the preservation of Jeru- 
salem I make this appeal to both parties with 
utmost urgency to accept an unconditional cease 
fire in Palestine for a period of ten days extending 
from twelve o'clock noon G.M.T., Saturday, ten 
July 1948. I earnestly hope that both parties will 
demonstrate their sincere desire for peace in 
Palestine by accepting this urgent appeal and that 
their acceptance will be notified to me at my head- 
quarters at Rhodes at the earliest possible moment. 

Count BERNADt)TTE 



PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL ACCEPTS 10-DAY TRUCE" 



Sir : I have the honour to inform you that the 
Foreign Minister of the Provisional Government 
of Israel communicated the following message to 
the Mediator on the night of July 9 : 

"The Provisional Government of Israel accepts 
in principle the new cease-fire proi^osal for the 
period of ten days and is ready to issue the nec- 
essary orders as soon as it is notified by the Media- 
tor that the proposal has been accepted by the Arab 
governments and authorities concernecl and that 



orders to cease all hostilities have actually been 
issued to all commanders of Arab forces operating 
in the field against the forces of Israel. The Pro- 
visional Government would prefer the time for the 
commencement of the cease-fire to be fixed in the 
forenoon Israel time." 
I have [etc.] 

Atjbeet S. Eban 
Representative of the Provisional 
Government of Israel to the United Nations 



CONCLUSION FROM MEDIATOR'S REPORT TO SECURITY COUNCIL '^ 



32. There are certain stark facts in the Pales- 
tine situation which are both fundamental and 
inescapable. The Arabs are bitterly opposed to 
the partition of Palestine, the establishment of a 
Jewish State, and Jewish immigration. While 
willing to permit many of the Jews now in Pales- 
tine to remain there as a minority group in an 
Arab-dominated luiitaiy state, they regard the 
Jews of Palestine as interlopers antl a menace to 
the Arab world. The xVrab States have demon- 
strated their willingness to employ armed force 
to the limit of their capacities against what they 
regard as the injustice inherent in a Jewish in- 
vasion supported by the outside world. The Arab 
States regard it as their solemn obligation to take 
up the cudgels on behalf of the Arabs of Palestine. 

33. On the other hand, the Jews of Palestine are 



" U.N. doc. S/878, July 9, 1948 ( telegram from the United 
Nations mediator dated July 9, 1948, to the Secretary- 
General ) . 

" U.N doc. S/S84, July 10, 1948. 

" Excerpts from U.N. doc. S/888, July 12, 1948. 

112 



equally as determined to have partition in Pales- 
tine, to defend and preserve the state they have 
establislied, and to keep open the gates for Jewish 
immigration into that state. They too have amply 
demonstrated their willingness and ability to fight 
tenaciously to defend their state against attack. 
34. The de facto situation in Palestine today is 
that a Jewish Provisional Government, recognized 
by an increasing numl)er of states, exists in an 
area of Palestine, and is exercising, without re- 
strictions of any kind on its authority or power, 
all the attributes of full sovereignty, including the 
waging of war. This provisional government and 
the state it represents, were established under the 
cloak of authority given by the 29 November reso- 
lution of the General Assembly. Since that reso- 
lution, much has happened in Palestine, and it is 
not easy to undo what history has recorded. It is 
this de facto situation which the Arab states are 
fighting to eliminate, but the plain fact remains 
that it is there. It is a small state, precariously 
perched on a coastal shelf with its back to the 
sea and defiantly facing on three sides a hostile 

Department of State Bulletin 



Arab world. Its future may be assessed as vincer- 
tain, and if it survives this war its security will be 
likely to present a serious problem for a gootl time 
to e()me. Its peoples, other than the Arabs in its 
midst whose large numbers have been at least 
temporarily reduced by more than half by their 
Hijrht from Jewish occupied areas, are intensely 
nationalistic and apparently fearless in the face of 
the Arab threat. 

.''),"i. A tirst essential in Palestine today is an im- 
mediate cessation of hostilities. But that is only 
a first step. For the question must be answered, 
at some stage, whether the international com- 
munity is willing to tolerate resort to armed force 
as the means for settlement of the Palestine issue. 
Willingness to do this could well involve many 
risks for the peace of the entire Near East, if not 
for the larger world. In this regard a distinction 
may ])roperly be drawn between forbidding the 
use of force in Palestine and making it unprofit- 
able to use force, on the one hand, and enforcing a 
political settlement, on the other. Ending the use 
of force in Palestine will in fact, make possible an 
eventual peaceful settlement. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

36. For many and compelling reasons the inter- 
national community has a vested interest in a 
])eaceful settlement of the Palestine problem. 
Viewed realistically, the situation is as follows. 
If armed force is forbidden in the settlement of 
the problem, and it is made jn-ohibitively unprofit- 
able for the Arab states to employ it, there will 
be in Palestine a Jewish community with a sepa- 
rate cultural and political existence, a Jewish 
state, whose strength and prosperity and capacity 
for economic and social development, by the ad- 
mission of its own leaders, must largely depend 
on its ability to cultivate friendh' relations with 
its Arab neighbours. If the employment of armed 
force is not forbidden, the issue of the Jewish state 
in Palestine will be settled on the field of battle. 
The decision which may be taken with regard to 
the resort to armed force in Palestine wijl deter- 
mine the innnediate prospects for further effective 
mediation over the settlement. In this vital re- 
gard the decisions of the Security Council on the 
matter will be controlling. 



PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL NOTES EXPIRATION OF TRUCE AGREEMENT >3 



IJ July 1948 

1. On 3 and 5 July 1948, the United Nations 
Mediator addressed a connnunication (S/865) to 
the Provisional Government of Israel and the 
Governments of the Arab States. In the course 
of that commmiication, the Mediator wrote : 

"The expiration of the date of the truce on 9 
July is now imminent. The parties to the truce 
must answer the question whether . . . they will 
again resort to armed conflict." 

The Provisional Government of Israel ex- 
pressed its readiness to agree to a further prolon- 
gation of the truce agreement (S/872, 8 July). 
The Arab States informed the Mediator on 9 Jul}- 
that they find it: 

"imperative not to agree to a prolongation of the 
truce under present conditions and fa take all meas- 
ures necessary to bring these conditions to an end." 
(S/876) 

2. In his cablegram of 5 July addressed to both 
parties (S/8G5), the Mediator wrote: 

"There can be little doubt that a decision to re- 
sume fighting in Palestine will be universally con- 
denuied and that the party or parties to take such 
a decision will be assuming a responsibility which 
will be viewed by the world with the utmost grav- 
ity." 

Despite this appeal, and the i-esolution of the 
Security Council proposed bv the United Kingdom 
on 6 July 1948 (S/8()7). the Arab States have 
rejected the prolongation of the truce, resumed 

iuly 25, J 948 



fighting, and thereby assumed the responsibility to 
which the Mediator referred. 

3. It is therefore clear to the Provisional Gov- 
ernment of Israel that the truce initiated by the 
Security Council's resolution of 29 May 1948 has 
expired, and has not been prolonged. The Pro- 
visional Government of Israel therefore regards 
itself as entirely free from all its conditions and 
terms. 

4. In this connection, may I refer to the pro- 
ceedings of the Security Council at its 320th meet- 
ing on 15 June 1948, when it was decided to : 

"call to the attention of Member States as well as 
to that of non-members, if possible, paragraph 6 
of the Truce Proposals and to request them to ex- 
tend co-operation and assistance to the United 
Nations ^Mediator in the implementation of the 
provisions of the truce proposals," 

The Provisional Government of Israel submits 
that it is now necessary for the Secretary-General 
to inform all Governments addressed by the Coun- 
cil on 15 June that the period of the Truce agree- 
ment has expired and has not been renewed, with 
the result that the Security Council's request to 
them to assist in implementing the provisions ot 
the truce proposals is no longer in force. 
Aubrey S. Eban 
Representative of the Provisional 
Government of Israel to the United Nations 



"^U.N. (ioc. S/SS9, July 12, 1048 (letter from Pro- 
visional Governinont of Israel dated July 11, 1948, to the 
President of the Security Council). 

113 



U.S. Urges Security Council Action for Prolongation of Truce 



REMARKS BY PHILIP C. JESSUP > 
Acting U.S. Representative at the Seat of the United Nations 



We listened this morning to the report of a man 
who has been carrying out courageously a most 
difficult assignment. 

The United Nations mediator's report speaks 
for itself. 

This is not the time for me to attempt to make 
a flowery speech. It is the time for action by the 
Security Council. 

Fighting is now going on in Palestine. 

It is going on because one party has not agreed 
to any suggestion or appeal to avoid fighting, al- 
though the other party — the Provisional Govern- 
ment of Israel — declared its readiness to accept 
each and every suggestion and appeal. 

The Security Council must face its respon- 
sibility. 

The general, the practically universal opinion, 
is that there is a threat to the peace in Palestine 
within the meaning of article 39 of the Charter. 
I mention article 39, the first article of chapter 
VII. 

The Security Council should recognize this fact. 

I repeat : Fighting is going on in Palestine. It 
must stop. The Security Council, in discharge of 
its duty under article 40, should order it to stop. 

The Security Council should call attention to 
the consetiuences of a failure to stop fighting. 
Such a warning would clearly have particular 
meaning for that party which has so far rejected 
all appeals. 



United Nations machinery must be available to 
supervise the truce. It is obvious that this ma- 
chinery should be under the direction of the United 
Nations mediator appointed by the General As- 
sembly, with the assistance of the Truce Commis- 
sion appointed by the Security Council. 

The City of Jerusalem is of special concern to 
mankind. The United Nations has recognized 
this fact. No mechanical difficulty applicable to 
communication with military forces scattered over 
a wide front exists in Jerusalem. The Security 
Council should order an unconditional cease-fire in 
Jerusalem to take effect 24 hoiu-s from the time of 
the resolution which I hope the Security Council 
will adopt this afternoon so that the destruction 
of Jerusalem will come to an end. 

The Security Council, in ordering, under chap- 
ter VII of the Charter, the observance of a truce, 
should make it clear that it insists that the Pales- 
tine problem is not to be solved by force. 

The Security Council should therefore decide 
that the truce shall remain in effect until the future 
situation in Palestine is adjusted by peaceful 
means. 

The United States has embodied these views in a 
draft resolution which we have handed to the Sec- 
retariat and which I hope has now been distrib- 
uted to the members of the Council. With your 
permission I shall now read the text of that reso- 
lution.- 



TEXT OF SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 



The Security Council 

Taking into consideration that the Provisional 
Government of Israel has indicated its accei^tance 
in principle of a prolongation of the truce in 
Palestine; that the States members of the Arab 
League have rejected successive appeals of the 
United Nations Mediator, and of the Security 

' Made in the Security Council on July 13, 1948, and re- 
leased to the press by the U.S. Mission to the United 
Nations on tlie same date. 

■ U.N. doc. S/.S!)0, July 13, 194S. Not here printed. 

"U.N. doc. S/002. adopted on July 15, 104S. The last 
thri'e pnrngraphs arc an addition to tlie resolution pre- 
sented by the U.S. Variations appear in paragraphs five 
and eight of the Security Council resolution as compared 
with the U.S. draft. 

.114 



Council in its resolution of 7 July 1948, for the 
prolongation of the truce in Palestine; and that 
there has consequently developed a renewal of hos- 
tilities in Palestine; 

Detenmnes that the situation in Palestine con- 
stitutes a threat to the peace within the meaning of 
Article 39 of the Charter : 

Orders the Governments and authorities con- 
cerned, pursuant to Article 40 of the Charter of 
the United Nations, to desist from further military 
action and to this end to issue cease-fire orders to 
their military and para-military forces, to take 
effect at a time to be determined by the Mediator, 
but in any event not later than three days from 
the date of the adoption of this resolution ; 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Declares that f:ulure by any of the Governments 
or autliorities concerned to comply with tlie pre- 
cedinji parajrvaph of tliis rcsohition would demon- 
strate the existence of a breach of the peace within 
the meaning of Article 39 of the Charter requiring 
immediate consideration by the Security Council 
with a view to such further action under Chapter 
VII of the Charter as may be decided upon by the 
Council; 

Calls upon all Governments and authorities con- 
cerned lo coiitimie to co-operate with the Mediator 
with a view to the maintenance of peace in Pales- 
tine in conformitv with the resolution adopted by 
. the Seciwity Council on 29 May 1948 ; 
t Orders as a matter of special and urgent neces- 
sity an immediate and unconditional cease-fire in 
the City of Jerusalem to take effect 24 hours from 
the time of the adoption of this resolution, and 
instructs the Truce Commission to taken any neces- 
sary steps to make this cease-fire effective. 

Instructs the Mediator to continue his efforts to 
bring about the demilitarization of the City of 
Jerusalem, without prejudice to the future politi- 
cal status of Jerusalem, and to assure the protec- 
tion of and access to the Holy Places, religious 
buildincs and sites in Palestine; 

Instructs the ^Mediator to supervise the observ- 
ance of the truce and to establish procedures for 
examining alleged breaches of the truce since 11 
June 1948, authorizes him to deal with breaches 
so far as it is within his capacity to do so by appro- 

Sriate local action, and requests him to keep the 
ecurity Council currently informed concerning 
the operation of the truce and when necessary to 
take appropriate action; 

Decides that, subject to further decision by the 
Security Council or the General Assembly, the 
truce shall remain in force, in accordance with 
the present resolution and with that of 29 May 
1948, until a peaceful adjustment of the future 
situation of Palestine is reached; 

Reiterates the appeal to the parties contained in 
the last paragraph of its resolution of 22 May and 
urges upon the parties that they continue conversa- 
tions with the Mediator in a spirit of conciliation 
and mutual concession in order that all points un- 
der dispute may be settled peacefully; 

Requests the Secretary-General to provide the 
Mediator with the necessary staff and facilities to 
assist in carrying out the functions assigned to him 
under the resolution of the General Assembly of 
14 May. and under this resolution ; and 

Requests that the Secretary-General make ap- 
propriate arrangements to provide necessary funds 
to meet the obligations arising from this resolu- 
tion. 



In Bulletin of .Tuly IS, 1948, footnote 58 on page 78, 
second column, line 4, should read : "she had no expan- 
sionist claims." 

July 25, ?948 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Consulate General at Jerusalem To Be 
Guarded by Marine Detachment 

[Released to the press July 17] 

At the request of the Department of State, with 
the approval of the President, the Department of 
the Navy has ordered a squad of 12 marines, under 
the command of a noncommissioned officer, de- 
tached from the U.S. Naval Forces in the Mediter- 
ranean to guard the U.S. Consulate General at 
Jerusalem. 

These men are being assigned as consular guards 
in accordance with authority contained in the 
Foreign Service Act of 1946. Marines are already 
serving as guards at the American Embassies at 
London, Paris, and Rome. 

Admiral Richard L. Conolly, U.S.N., Com- 
mander-in-Chief of U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern 
Atlantic and Mediterranean, has been ordered by 
Admiral Louis E. Denfeld, Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions, to expedite the arrival of the marines at 
Jerusalem. 

The marines are being ordered into Jerusalem to 
provide protection and security for representa- 
tives of the U.S. Government and for U.S. Govern- 
ment property. 

U.S. Contribution to U.N. for 1948 

A United States Treasury check for $13,841,032, 
representing the full amount of the United States 
contribution to United Nations operating ex- 
penses for the 1948 financial year, was handed 
July 8 to Byron Price, Assistant Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the United Nations, by Philip C. Jessup, 
Acting U.S. Representative at the seat of the 
United Nations. The transfer of funds took place 
at the Manhattan offices of the United Nations, 
405 East 42d Street, New York City, at 11 :30 a.m. 

The United States share of the United Nations 
operating expenses this year is 39.89 percent. The 
1948 U.N. budget, as approved by the General 
Assembly at its last regular session, totals $34,825,- 
195, a small part of which was to be met by casual 
income, and the balance of about $34,000,000 to be 
defrayed by contributions from member nations 
based on an ability-to-pay ratio determined by 
prewar national income, per-capita income, and 
the effects of the war on national productivity. 

The contribution made by the United States last 
year was also at the rate of 39.89 percent. In 
accepting this rate for one more year, the U.S. 
Delegation to the General Assembly reiterated the 
United States conviction that in an organization 
of sovereign equals no single member should in 
normal times pay more than one third of the ad- 
ministrative expenses. 

115 



The United States in the United Nations 



Children's Fund 

The Executive Committee of the U.N. Interna- 
tional Children's Emergency Fund, which began 
its session in Geneva on July 16, has reported a 
plan to spend about $83,000,000 during 1949 in 12 
European countries and Asia. The plan also calls 
for an extension of limited Unicef aid to children 
in Germany, as well as an anti-tuberculosis 
campaign. 

Nutrition Conference 

The United States is one of the 14 countries rep- 
resented at the Latin American Nutrition Confer- 
ence convened on July 18 at Montevideo by the 
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. This 
conference is the result of a recommendation made 
by the Fao conference which met in Geneva last 
summer. The conference is currently engaged in 
studying and making recommendations on the spe- 
cific problems involved in raising the nutritional 
stanclards of the Latin American countries. 

Privileges and Immunities 

Secretary of State Marshall told a July 21 press 
conference that he did not think the security of 
the United States was endangered by the presence 
of aliens connected with the United Nations whose 
ideologies and beliefs differ from those of the 
United States. 

Mr. Marshall's statement was made in response 
to repoi'ters' questions about testimony given a 
Senate Subcommittee by an officer of the State 
Department's Visa Division regarding applica- 
tion of U.S. immigTation laws to U.N. personnel. 

Mr. Marshall recalled that U.N. Headquarters 
had been established in the United States at the 
invitation of the U.S. Government with the full 
support of C(3ngress and the American people. It 
is obvious, he said, that the U.N. could not operate 
if its personnel were excluded from the United 
States. 

The Secretary said that existing laws and pro- 
cedures provide adequate remedies in the event 
that any individual connected with the U.N. were 
found to be acting against the security of the 
United States. No such case has been raised, he 
added. 

Charles M. Hidten, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
of State for Administration, told the Senate Sub- 
committee July 21 that the United Nations has 
cooperated completely with the U.S. Government 
in working out agreements and procedures de- 
signed to reconcile U.N. privileges with U.S. 
security. 

116 



Trusteeship 

The Trusteeship Council completed on July 22 
an extended discussion of the Australian report 
on administration of the Trust Territory of New 
Guinea and referred to a Drafting Committee the 
formulation of the Council's critique of the report. 
Other Drafting Committees are completing formu- 
lations of the Council's reactions to the United 
Kingdom report on Tanganyika and the Belgian 
report on Ruanda-Urundi. 

The Council was next to review information sup- 
plied by the Union of South Africa on its admin- 
istration of Southwest xVf rica, a League of Nations 
Mandate which the Union has refused to place 
under United Nations Trusteeship. 

Freedom of Information 

"For governments to arrogate unto themselves 
the power to determine wliat is true and what false, 
what is friendly and what unfriendly, would mark 
the end of the i' ree press", says the concluding sen- 
tence of a United States report to the U.N. on im- 
plementation of the General Assembly's resolution 
of November 15, 1947, regarding "false and dis- 
torted reports". 

Such reports were asked of all U.N. members by 
Secretary-General Lie in accordance with the Gen- 
eral Assembly's resolution of October 31, 1947, 
which directed the Secretary-General to obtain 
reports from members on implementation of the 
Assembly's resolutions in the economic and social 
field. 

Asserting that the use of govei-nmental power 
to combat, by censorship or suppression, reports 
likely to injure friendly relations between states 
would endanger freedom of information, the U.S. 
report reasserts the position taken by the United 
States at the Conference of Freedom of Informa- 
tion held in Geneva in March and April 1948, i.e., 
that "the most effective means of combating the 
diffusion of false or distorted reports is to assure 
the availability of a multiplicity of unfettered 
sources of news and infoi-mation." 

The report suggests that ancilliary means of 
combating distorted news should include : encour- 
aging nonofficial organizations of news personnel 
to develop higher standards, facilitating the train- 
ing and exchange of journalists, developing the 
intergovernmental right of official correction, and 
establishing continuing United Nations machinery 
to deal with information problems. 

The report noted that the Department of State 
had sent copies of the report of the U.S. Delega- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tion to the Geneva conference to some 1,800 per- 
sons enjrajred in collection and dissemination of 
information. 

Economic and Social Council 

At the conclusion of the first week of its Seventh 
Session and its first to be held in Eurojie, the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council established its plan of 
work for dealinfj: witli the 51 items on its provi- 
sional ajienda, determining those items wliich 
sliould be dropped, tliose which should be referred 
directly to the Plenai-y Session, and tliose wliich 
sliould be the subject of prior Committee consider- 
ation. Among the items deleted from considera- 
tion at this session were those dealing with the 
forced-labor question, an item proposed by the 
American Federation of Labor, and an item deal- 
ing with a series of charges against 11 countries 
for infringing trade-union rights, proposed by the 
AYorld Federation of Trade Unions. The U.S. 
Representative opposed in principle re-deferring 
tlie forced-labor item which had already been post- 
poned from the Sixth Session of tlie Council, point- 
ing out that Ecosoc could not avoid all political 
debate. 

Tiie Council also proceeded to set up three Com- 
mittees of the Whole, an Economic Committee, a 
Social Committee and a Human Rights Commit- 
tee, and two 12-member committees, a Coordination 
Committee and a Procedure and Organization 
Committee, to deal with the agenda items not re- 
ferred directly to the Plenary Session. 

In the Economic Committee, the Council ap- 
proved proposals for convoking a conference to 
draft a new world convention on highway and 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

auto transport. In the Social Committee, during a 
discussion of a draft protocol bringing under con- 
trol narcotic drugs outside the scope of the 1931 
narcotics convention, the U.S. Representative pre- 
sented a formal declaration that the United States 
at the time of accession to the i)rotocol will extend 
tlie convention to all territories for whose foreign 
relations the United States is responsible. The 
U.S.S.R. Representative had objected that the pro- 
jjosed protocol was only permissive in colonial 
territories. On July ^.'J, the Council unanimously 
ajiproved the decision of the World Health Assem- 
bly that Geneva Ije made the permanent headquar- 
ters of the World Health Organization, subject to 
General Assembly ajiproval. 

Health Assembly 

Tlie World Health Assembly ended its first ses- 
sion in Geneva on July 2-1 after drawing up a 
program for creation of the first single world-wide 
health body in history. The Assembly decided that 
top priority should be given to programs in six 
fields: malaria, tuberculosis, venereal disease, ma- 
ternal and child health, nutrition, and environ- 
mental hygiene, whicli includes I'ural hygiene, 
housing, and sanitation. The Assembly also ap- 
proved the establishment of an international in- 
fluenza center and the carrying out of a world sur- 
vey to discover ways of increasing the production 
of penicillin and insulin. Dr. Brock Chisholm, 
Executive Secretary of the Wiio Interim Commis- 
sion, was elected first Director-General of the per- 
manent organization and Geneva was chosen as 
the permanent headquarters of the World Health 
Organization. 



July 25, J 948 



117 



Relationship of Economic Commission for Europe to 
European Recovery Program 



STATEMENT BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY THORP 



U.S. Representative on Economic and Social Council 



[Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. July 2] g^ort Supply ; ill tlie examination of i)roblems re- 



Mr. W. Averell Harriman, the U.S. Special 
Representative with siDccial responsibilities for the 
European Recovery Program, has recently been 
named by President Truman as the U.S. Repre- 
sentative to the Economic Commission for Europe. 
Tlie assignment of this additional responsibility 
to Mr. Harriman should not only help this Govern- 
ment to coordinate its own programs of assistance 
to Europe but also contribute to the eifective solu- 
tion by the United Nations of the urgent economic 
problems confronting the European countries. 

The Economic Commission for Europe is a com- 
mission of the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations with headquarters in Geneva. It 
was established in the spring of 1947, following a 
field survey by the United Nations Temporary 
Sub-Commission on the Economic Reconstruction 
of Devastated Areas of which the United States 
was a member. 

The terms of reference of the Commission state, 
among other things, that it is to — 

"Initiate and participate in measures for facili- 
tating concerted action for the economic recon- 
struction of Europe, for raising the level of Euro- 
pean economic activity, and for maintaining and 
strengthening the economic relations of the Euro- 
pean countries both among themselves and with 
other countries of the world." 

All the Eui-opcan members of the United Nations 
and the United States are members of the Com- 
mission. All other European countries, with the 
exception of Spain have been invited to participate 
in its work in a consultative capacity, and all the 
countries of Europe, except Spain, have attended 
one or more meetings of the Commission or its 
Committees. 

It is generally agreed that the Commission has 
thus far made notable progi-ess in a number of 
fields, in particular in recommending allocation of 
coal in order to insure the equitable distribution 
of one of the commodities most basic to European 
recovery which until recently has been in critical 

118 



lating to the increased production of steel; in the 
freeing-up and rationalization of the European 
transport system ; and in the analysis of the nature 
of the underlying problems of European recovery. 
It has also done useful but not such outstanding 
work in connection with the distribution of tim- 
ber — an essential of the rebuilding programs of 
the European countries — the development of elec- 
tric power resources, the production of fertilizers, 
and the examination of factors hindering the pro- 
duction of various critical components of a wide 
variety of industries. 

This substantive work of the Economic Commis- 
sion for Euroise is clearly directly related to the 
EuroiJean Recovery Program and the objective of 
the early re-establishment of a European economy 
capable of assuring an adequate standard of living 
without recourse to abnormal outside assistance. 
This dii'ect relationship has been recognized from 
the beginning by the countries participating in the 
European Recovery Program. For example, those 
countries, in the Paris report of last summer drawn 
up in response to Mi". Marshall's Harvard address, 
indicated their desire and intent to use the Com- 
mission, where possible, as the forum for the con- 
sideration of common economic problems and, in 
particular, for the consideration of those problems 
which were of mutual interest to eastern and 
western Europe. This close relationship between 
the EcE and the European Recovery Program 
was also recognized by the Congress of the United 
States. Accordingly, the Economic Cooperation 
Act provided that the U.S. Special Representative 
in Europe might also be designated as the U.S. 
Representative on the Economic Commission for 
Europe. In so designating Mr. Harriman, it is 
our hope that the objective of economic recovery 
in Europe can be more rapidly attained by full 
utilization of the resources of the Commission and 
that those problems which are of concern to all 
European countries, and which all European coun- 
tries are prepared to examine together, can be 
solved through mutual cooperation within the 
framework of the United Nations. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENECS 



Progress on International tVlaritime Safety Measures 

by Lt. Lawrence D. Bradley, Jr. 



Of singular interest to all those concerned with 
the sea and with transportation by water should 
be tlie recent Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, 
held at London April-June 10, lO-iS. The meeting, 
attended by delegations from 'M) nations, was out- 
standing in the high degree of cordiality and co- 
operative etlort demonstrated in arriving at the 
most practicable solution of the various problems 
on the agenda. Much was accomplished in a 
comparatively short time, and a substantial 
contribution was made to increased safety of ocean 
transportation. 

The Conference drew up a new convention on 
safety of life at sea which is proposed to abrogate 
and replace that of 1929. The proposed conven- 
tion will require ratification or acceptance by the 
United States in accordance with its constitutional 
procedures and will come into effect on January 1, 
1951, if by that time it has been ratified by 15 
nations, seven of wliich nuist possess mercJiant 
marines of over one million gross tons. The con- 
vention is a short document setting forth the con- 
tractual obligations of the signatory governments. 
Appended thereto and forming an integral part 
are the technical regulations having to do with 
maritime safety. 

Preparations by the United States for the recent 
Conference were commenced at an early date. In 
general, the 1929 convention served its purpose 
well and had been accepted by a total of 43 nations. 
Nevertheless, with the advances in nautical science 
and improved techniques accelerated during 
World War II, it seemed obvious that a conference 
should be convoked as soon as possible after the 
close of h.ostilities. Such a recommendation was 
made to the Secretary of State in 1943 by a special 
shipping committee organized by the Department 
of State. 

In accordance with a request of the Secretary 
of State, the Commandant of the United States 
Coast (juard undertook to coordinate the work 
of drawing up a set of proposals for the revision 
of the 1929 convention. To develop the proposals 
the Commandant organized early in 1945 a num- 
ber of committees upon which served 235 repre- 
sentatives of interested Government agencies and 
of all branches of the maritime industry. 

While the work relating directly to maritime- 
safety measures was progressing, steps toward the 
eventual establislmient of the Intergovernmental 

July 25, J 948 



Maritime Consultative Organization were taking 
place. The proposals put forward by the United 
States Delegation at the London conference were 
in accord with and fully took into consideration 
the parallel development of the maritime organi- 
zation which was agreed upon at the conference 
held in Geneva in February and March of this 
year under the auspices of the United Nations. 

A delegation of 35 persons was appointed to 
represent the United States at the London con- 
ference. It was headed by Admiral Joseph F. 
Farley. Commandant, United States Coast Guard, 
while Jesse E. Saugstad, Chief, Shipping Divi- 
sion, Department of State, served as Vice Chair- 
man. The Delegation was made up of represen- 
tatives of the Department of State, Coast Guard, 
Navy, Maritime Commission, Federal Communi- 
cations Commission, Weather Bureau, National 
Federation of American Shipping, Shipbuilder's 
Council of America, American Bureau of Ship- 
ping, Society of Naval Architects and Marine En- 
gineers, American Federation of Labor, and Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations. 

Delegations from 30 countries attended the Con- 
ference, namely, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, 
Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, 
Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, India, Ireland, 
Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Paki- 
stan, Panama, Republic of the Philippines, Po- 
land, Portugal, Sweden, Union of South Africa, 
United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, United States, and Yugoslavia. In ad- 
dition, observers were present from Ceylon, Mex- 
ico, Rumania, Turkey, and from the following in- 
ternational organizations : International Civil 
Aviation Organization, International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau, International Labor Office, In- 
ternational Meteorological Office, International 
Telecommunication Union, the United Nations, 
and the World Health Organization. 

At the first plenary session on April 23, the 
Right Honorable Sir John Anderson, United 
Kingdom, and Admiral Joseph F. Farley, United 
States, were elected Chairman and Vice Chairman 
of the Conference, respectively. 

In view of the extensive field to be covered in 
the deliberations of the Conference, it was agreed 
to apportion the work by setting up a number 
of committees. Following the precedent of the 
1929 conference, committees were established to 

119 



ACTIVITI£5 AND DBVELOPMENTS 

deal with tlie five main divisions into vphich the 
subject matter to be considered conveniently segi-e- 
gated itself, namely, construction, lifesaving ap- 
pliances, radio, safety of navigation, and general 
provisions. 

The deliberations of the committees extended 
over a six-week period, after which each committee 
submitted to the Conference its report and recom- 
mendations for modifications and additions to the 
1929 convention. As approved by the Conference 
the changes provide generally for an improved de- 
gi'ee of safety for passenger vessels and a consider- 
able extension of safety provisions to cargo vessels. 

With respect to passenger vessels, provision is 
made for improved subdivision requirements by 
taking into account the stability of the vessel in 
an assumed condition of damage. Alternative 
methods are provided for increased protection of 
vessels in case of fire. Special provisions are made 
to cover the more important electrical installations 
on board passenger vessels. 

The provisions for lifesaving appliances, which 
include lifeboats, life rafts, life buoys, and the like, 
have been modernized and improved and have been 
extended to cargo vessels as well as to passenger 
vessels. An improved line-throwing device is pro- 
vided for, and regular boat and fire drills are 
required. 

In the field of radio the provisions of the 1929 
convention that all passenger and cargo vessels 
of over 1,600 gross tons shall, with some minor 
exceptions, be equipped with radiotelegraphy are 
continued. In addition cargo vessels between 500 
gross tons and 1,600 gross tons nuist be equipped 
either with racliotelegraph or radiotelephone. 
The technical requirements for the auto alarm 
have been improved. Radio direction finders are 
made mandatory within a specified period upon all 
passenger vessels and upon cargo vessels of over 
1,600 gross tons. Provision has also been made 
for a continuing study of radionic navigation 
equipment and aids to navigation with the view 
to standardization and, when practicable, for in- 
ternational adoption. 

General principles for the international regu- 
lation of especially dangerous cargoes have been 
adopted, and means have been provided for future 
study of this important subject, the need for which 
was brought out sharply by the Texas City dis- 
aster. Necessary principles for the safe carriage 
of gTain are laid down. 

Those provisions contributing to the general 
safety of navigation, such as danger messages, 
warning ships of storms and of dangers to navi- 
gation, supplying meteorological information 
to improve weather forecasts, misuse of distress 
signals, and procedures to be followed in case of 
a vessel in distress, were I'eviewed and bi'ought up 
to date or otherwise improved. The obligation 
on the master of a vessel to proceed to the assist- 

120 



ance of a vessel in distress has been extended to 
require him to go to the rescue of disabled air- 
craft and survival craft as well. 

Provision for the maintenance of the inter- 
national ice patrol has been continued, but ar- 
rangement has been made for the redistribution 
among contributing nations of the cost of this 
service so that it will bear a reasonable relation 
to the benefits derived therefrom by the respective 
nations. 

The final act accompanying the convention 
makes numerous recommendations, among which 
is the adoption by nations of modified regulations 
for the prevention of collisions at sea or, as they 
are generally called, the rules of the road. The 
present rules have been in effect, with few modifi- 
cations, since 1889, and various attempts have been 
made to secure their improvement. The proposals 
attached to the final act will substantially meet 
this need. 

The Conference considered the unprecedented 
advancements in the field of electronic navigation 
aids, such as radar and position-fixing systems, 
which were developed for war purposes and are 
now available for use in merchant ships. Wliile 
recognizing that the recent advance in this field 
is of great service to shipping, it was agreed that 
currently it is inopportune to require that ships 
be provided with such apparatus. However, the 
Conference did make a recommendation adopting 
the specifications for certain characteristics of 
radar agreed ujion at the International Meeting on 
Marine Radio Aids to Navigation at New York 
City and New London, Connecticut, in 1947 and 
urging governments to encourage the development, 
manufacture, and installation of radar aboard 
their national vessels. 

At the final plenary session on the evening of 
June 10, all delegations present at the Conference 
signed the convention and final act with the ex- 
ception of Panama, the Soviet Union, and Yugo- 
slavia. The Soviet and Yugoslav Delegations 
announced that they were unable to sign the pro- 
posed convention as drafted l>y the Conference 
without further advice from their respective Gov- 
ernments. In order not to deprive those delega- 
tions which had iiarticipated and contributed to 
the work of the Conference of an opportunity of 
being included among the original signatories, it 
was voted that the convention should remain open 
for signature for a period of one month. 

Wliile it is premature to set forth the effect of 
the Conference decisions on United States mari- 
time interests in matters of merchant-vessel con- 
struction and equipment. United States vessels will 
be virtually unaffected by the regulations drawn 
up at the Conference. As particularly high stand- 
ards are already established for its national vessels 
under United States law and practices, the in- 
stances in which the proposed regulations will 
make for increased safety on United States mer- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



^ chant vessels are oomparatively few. Several 
features of lifeboat and lifesaving appliances have 
been improved upon, and certain classes of vessels 
heretofore not included domestically will be re- 
quired to be equipped with radio direction finders 
and radio telephones. 

On ilie oilier liand, prevailingr standards for the 
construction anil eipiipment of foreijin vessels will 
be appreciably raisetl by tlie proposed regidations. 
: Thus, on the coming into t\)rce of the convention 
and regidations. United States citizens traveling 
on foreign vessels will be insured of increased 
siHurily. 

In several directions improvements have been 
made in tiie regulations relating to general navi- 
giition facilities and procedures which will en- 
hance the operation safety of United States vessels. 
Provisions are made looking toward improved 
ship-to-ship rescue procedure, lifesaving signals, 
meteorological services, aids to navigation, search 
and rescue facilities, and regulations for the pre- 
vention of collisions at sea. 

The London conference is probably the last of 
tlie so-called ad hoe diplomatic conferences deal- 
ing with maritime safety. Conferences such as 
those which were held in 1889, 1914, 1929, and 
19-18 will no longer be needed with the coming 



Acnv/ncs aho developments 

into being of the Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Or":anization as a specialized agency 
of the United Nations, proposed at Geneva in 
February and March 19-18. When formed that 
Organization will provide the machinery for deal- 
ing with jn-oposed amendments to the maritime- 
safety convention and regulations. It will enable 
the early circulation of proposals and the con- 
sideration thereof by the assembly of the Organi- 
zation at its regnlar biennial meetings. As all 
members of the Organization have representation 
on the assembly, consideration equivalent to that 
of the ad hoc conferences can be given the pro- 
posals with the same authority to recommend to 
governments changes in the maritime-safety code. 
In addition it is contemplated that the Organiza- 
tion shall become the repository or central secre- 
tariat of safetj'-at-sea affairs. In providing for 
the transfer to the Organization of such functions 
and responsibilities, the proposed convention 
opens the way to more logical, consistent, and 
thorough treatment of international maritime- 
safety matters in the future. It should have the 
effect not only of narrowing differences between 
United States standards and those of foreign- 
flag vessels but perhaps of advancing the mini- 
mum standards of all shipping. 



U.S. DELEGATIONS TO INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES 



Poliomyelitis 

The Department of State annonnced on July 12 
the composition of the United States Delegation to 
the First International Poliomyelitis Conference. 
This Conference, which is being held under the 
auspices of the National Foundation for Infantile 
Paralvsis. is scheduled to convene at New York, 
N. Y.,' July 12-17, 1948. The United States Dele- 
gation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Dr. Rolla E. Dyer, Assistant Surgeon General, United 
States Public Health Service ; Director, National In- 
stitute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 

Delegates 

Dr. Thomas M. Anderson, Assistant to the Chief, Ortho- 
pedic Surgery, Department of Medicine and Surgery, 
Veterans Administration 

Dr. Pearce Bailey, Assistant Chief, Neuropsychiatry Di- 
vision. Department of Medicine and Surgery, Vet- 
erans Administration 

Miss Harriett M. Bartlett, Director, Medical Social Work, 
School of Social Work, Simmons College, Boston 

Dr. Rob(-rt W. Boyle, Chief Medical Officer, Veterans Ad- 
ministration Hospital, Fort Thomas, Kentucky 

Dr. George K. Callender, Chief, Laboratory Section, De- 
1 partment of Medicine and Surgery, Veterans Admin- 
istration 

Dr. Carl C. Dauer, epidemiologist. District of Columbia 
Health Department 

July 25, 7948 



Rear Adm. Arthur H. Dearing, District Medical Officer, 

Third Naval District, United States Navy 
JIaj. Louis C. Kossuth. Chief. Preventive Medicine 

Branch, Department of the Air Force 
Col. Don Longfellow, Chief, Preventive Medicine Division, 

Office of the Surgeon General, Deijartmeut of the 

Army 
Dr. .John R. Paid, professor of preventive medicine, Yale 

University, New Haven 
Dr. Harold A. Sofield, Chief Surgeon General, Shriners' 

Hospital for Crippled Children, Chicago 
Dr. Samuel M. Wisliik, Chief, Program Planning Section, 

Health Services Division, Children's Bureau, Social 

Security Administration 

The National Foundation for Infantile Paraly- 
sis is sponsoring the Conference in celebration of 
its tenth anniversary. The purpose of the Confer- 
ence is to coordinate and evaluate the progress that 
medical science has made in the last decade in the 
study of poliomyelitis. It will be the first time 
that information on this disease, its treatment, and 
the research being done in the field will be ex- 
changed internationally on such an extensive basis. 

The program for the Conference will include the 
presentation of scientific papers and scientific and 
technical exhibits showing the progress in research 
and treatment of poliomyelitis. 

Invitations to attend the Conference have been 
transmitted to more than 60 countries. A delegate 
from each of the countries represented will present 
a summary of the j^oliomyelitis problem in his 
country. 

121 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVBLOPMBNTS 

ECOSOC 

The Dqjartment of State announced on July 12 
the composition of the United States Delegation to 
the seventh session of the United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, convening in Geneva 
July 19, 1948, for approximately five weeks. The 
United States Delegation is as follows : 

U.S. Representative 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State for eco- 
nomic affairs 

Deputii U.S. Representatives 

Leroy D. Stinebower, Special Assistant to the Assistant 

Secretary of State for economic affairs 
Walter M. Kotschnig, Chief, Division of United Nations 

Economic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

Kathleen Bell, Division of United Nations Economic and 

Social Affairs, Department of State 
Philip Burnett, Division of United Nations Economic and 

Social Affairs, Department of State 
William F. Busser, Second Secretary of Legation, Vienna 
Joseph D. Coppock, Adviser, Office of International Trade 

Policy, Department of State 
L. Randolph Hisgs, Counselor of Legation, Bern 
Louis K. Hyde, Jr., Adviser on Economic and Social 

Council Affairs, U.S. Mission to the United Nations, 

New York 
Frances K. Kernohan, Division of International Labor, 

Social and Health Affairs, Department of State 
Lewis L. Lorwin, Economic Adviser, Office of Inter- 
national Trade, Department of Commerce 
Frieda S. Miller, Director, Women's Bureau, Department 

of Labor 
Herzel H. E. Plaine, Office of the Assistant Solicitor 

General 
Paul R. Porter, Alternate U.S. Representative, Economic 

Commission for Europe, Geneva 
Harry N. Rosenfleld, Assistant to the Administrator, 

Federal Security Agency 

Psychology 

The Department of State announced on July 14 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the Twelfth International Congress of Psychol- 
ogy scheduled to be held at Edinburgh July 23-29, 
1948. The United States Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Leonard Carmichael, President, Tufts College, Medford, 
Mass. 

Delegates 

Joseph M. Bobhitt, Chief Psychologist, Office of Program 
Planning, Mental Hygiene Division, Federal Security 
Agency 

A. Hadley Cantril, professor of psychology, Princeton 
University, Princeton, N. J. 

Herbert S. Langfeld, Stuart professor of psychology, 
emeritus, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

Louis L. Thurstone, Charles F. Grey distinguished service 
professor of psychology, University of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Morris S. Vlteles, professor of psychology. University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

A program of symposia, lectures, discussions, 

122 



and presentatioii of papers has been arranged. 
The papers to be presented will be concerned with 
the following subjects: cerebral function, sensa- 
tion and perception, learning, child psychology, 
thought processes and language, mental testing 
and statistics, personality, social psychology, in- 
dustrial psychology, and clinical psychology. 

Rehabilitation of Cripples 

The Department of State announced on July 15 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the First Inter-American Conference for the 
Rehabilitation of Cripples scheduled to be held at 
Mexico City, July 18-24, 1948. The United States 
Delegation is as follows: 

Chairman 

Mr. Michael J. Shortley, Director, Office of Vocational 
Reh.'ibilitation, Federal Security Agency 

Vice Chairman 

Col. Harold B. Luscombe, M C, U.S.A., Chief, Physical 
Medicine Service, William Beaumont General Hos- 
pital, El Paso, Tex. 

Delegates 

Mr. Joseph J. Brown, State Director of Vocational Reha- 
bilitation, Austin, Tex. 

Comdr. Thomas John Canty, M.C., U.S.N., United States 
Naval Hospital, Mare Island, Vallejo, Calif. 

Dr. Francis J. Cummings, President, American Associa- 
tion of Workers for the Blind, Wilmington, Del. 

Dr. Edwin F. Daily, Director, Division of Health Services, 
Children's Bureau, Social Security Administration, 
Federal Security Agency 

Dr. Merle E. Frampton, Vice Chairman of the President's 
Committee on National Employ the Physically Handi- 
capped Week, Office of the Secretary of Labor 

Dr. Henry H. Kessler, President, National Council on Re- 
habilitation, New York, N. Y. 

Dr. Riimaine Mackie, Specialist, Schools for Physically 
Handicapped, Division of Elementary Education, 
Federal Security Agency 

Lt. Col. Ben.iamin A. Strickland, Jr., M.C., U.S.A., Chief, 
Physical Medicine Consultants Division, Office of the 
Surgeon General 

The conference is being organized by the Inter- 
national Society for the Welfare of Cripples and 
will be held under the sponsorship of the Depart- 
ment of Health and Welfare of the Government 
of Mexico. 

The purposes of the conference are: (1) to be- 
come acquainted with the condition of cripples and 
existing means for their rehabilitation in each of 
the countries of this continent; and (2) to or- 
ganize a commission, on which all countries will 
be represented, for the purpose of fornudating a 
five-year program to initiate or further the work 
of rehabilitation in each country. The subjects 
to be discussed at the conference will include such 
aspects of the problem of rehabilitation of cripples 
as (1) legislation; (2) means of securing the in- 
terest and help of the ptiblic; (3) adoption of a 
minimum five-year program as a guide for 

Department of State Bulletin i\ 



> tlie countries of tliis continent; (4) special 
orfr;>niz;i(i()n of services and scientific discussions 
concerning medical care; and (5) education, pre- 
vocational training, and employment of cripples. 



PUBLICATIONS 
"The International Control of Atomic Energy: 
Policy at the Crossroads" Released 

[Released to the press July 18] 

Tlie Department of State released on July 18 a 
document summarizing the efforts made during 
the past two years by this Government and other 
governments to obtain the adoption of an effective 
system for the international control of atomic 
energy. This publication is entitled Policy at the 
Crossroads (publication 31G1) and was prepared 
in the Office of Public Affairs. Its purpose and 
scope are indicated in a foreword by the Secre- 
tary of State : 

"The Department of State, in keeping with the 
objective that a democratic foreign policy should 
reh' on an informed citizenry, presents in this 
volume the record of United States participation 
in the United Nations Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion since October 1946. Together with the 
previous volume, entitled Growth of a Policy 
[publication 2702], it constitutes a full record of 
this Government's efforts in this field since the 
advent of atomic energj'." 

Policy at the Crossroads opens with a section 
entitled "Tlie National Setting" which emphasizes 
the peaceful applications of atomic energy 
achieved by the United States Atomic Energy 
Commission and connects the broad aspects of sci- 
entific research, public understanding, and na- 
tional security with the international control prob- 
lem. A narrative record of the work in the Unaec 
follows. The issues and discussions that found ex- 
pression in the Commission's first two reports to 
the Security Council are documented in detail. 
A section analyzing the six major issues which 
separate majority and minority members of the 
Commission precedes an account of the continuing 
controversies that led to the submission of the 
Third Report and to the recommendation that the 
work of the Commission be suspended. 

The title Policy at the Crossroads expresses con- 
cisely the world's position at the end of nearly 
three years of international negotiation. The 
hopeful sequence of action which began with Presi- 
dent Truman's message to Congi-ess on atomic 
energy in 1945 has come to an impasse. As shown 
by the record, this impasse is the result of the 
Soviet Union's unwillingness or inability to co- 
operate on an effective plan of control. An im- 

Jo/y 25, 7 948 



THE DIP ARJMBNJ 

portant section of the present document is entitled 
"The Deadlocked Committees". It gives in detail 
some of the Soviet Union's obstructive tactics in 
the Un.\ec and notes the specific failures of the 
Soviets to recognize the special nature of the threat 
which the uncontrolled production of nuclear fuel 
would have for modern world society. 

This publication highlights the conclusion 
reached in the Unaec's Third Report, that agree- 
ment on effective measures for the control of atomic 
energy is dependent on cooperation in the broader 
fields of policy. Both the Soviet case and the con- 
crete achievement of the majority members of the 
Commission are presented fully, however, and the 
account closes with a statement by the United 
States Deputy Representative to the Commission, 
Frederick H. Osborn, ". . . we have not come to 
the end of the road on the control of atomic energy. 
Rather we have blazed a trail which leads to a 
known destination and our problem now is to get 
the Soviet Union to follow that trail along with 
the rest of us." 

The policy of the United States has been that of 
full cooperation with the other members of the 
Commission. The will to cooperation expressed in 
the original proposals to the Commission made by 
this Government in June 1946 is still vigorous and 
still its declared policy. Secretary Marshall has 
emphasized in his foreword : "The international 
control of atomic energy remains a paramount 
problem of humanity. The United States will con- 
tinue in its efforts to reach a solution of that prob- 
lem." 

One of the important conclusions advanced in 
Policy at the Crossroads concerns public under- 
standing of the atomic energy issues. It is sug- 
gested : 

"That the people of the United States as a 
whole — and not merely those with a special or 
professional interest in the subject — must concern 
themselves with acquiring an adequate under- 
standing of the essential facts about atomic energy 
and of the proposed international control measures 
on which their future security may depend. The 
same obligation falls upon the peoples of other 
nations." 

The pamphlet will be sold by the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C., for 45 cents a copy with a 25-per- 
cent discount to purchasers of 100 copies or more. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Consular Offices 



The consular section of the mission at Tel Aviv, Israel, 
was opened for limited consular business including citizen- 
ship, welfare, whereabouts, and shipping services, effec- 
tive July l.'i, 1946. 

The office at Alexandria, Egypt, was raised to the rank 
of Consulate General, effective June 1, 1948. 

123 




The United Nations and Specialized Page 
Agencies 

Appeals by U.N. Mediator for Peaceful Set- 
tlement of Palestine Situation: 
Cablegraua From Mediator to Secretary- 
General 105 

Text of Suggestions Presented by Mediator 105 
Reply From Provisional Government of 

Israel .' . 107 

Cablegram From Mediator to Secretary- 
General on Prolongation of Truce . . 108 
Security Council Resolution of July 7 . . 108 
Reply of Provisional Government of Israel 

Accepting 30-Day Truce 109 

Reply From Arab Governments Rejecting 

30- Day Truce 110 

Statement of Mediator to Secretary- 
General Ill 

Mediator Calls for 10-Day Cease-Fire 

Truce 112 

Provisional Government of Israel Accepts 

10- Day Truce 112 

Conclusion From Mediator's Report to 

Security Council 112 

Provisional Government of Israel Notes 

Expiration of Truce Agreement ... 113 
U.S. Urges Security Council Action for Pro- 
longation of Truce: 

Remarks by Philip C. Jessup 114 

Text of Security Council Resolution ... 114 
U.S. Contribution to U.N. for 1948 .... 115 
The United States in the United Nations . . 116 
U.S. Delegations to International Confer- 
ences. Ecosoc 122 



Foreign Aid and Reconstruction Page 

The 1947 Foreign Relief Program. An 

Article 95 

Erp Agreements Concluded With Fourteen 

Countries 104 

Most-Favored-Nation Treatment for Areas 
Under Military Occupation With Re- 
spect to Turkey 104 

Relationship of Economic Commission for 
Europe to European Recovery Program. 
Statement by Assistant Secretary Thorp 118 

Economic Affairs 

Progress on International Maritime Safety 
Measures. Article by Lt. Lawrence D. 

Bradley, Jr 119 

U.S. Delegations to International Conferences: 

Poliomyelitis 121 

Ecosoc 122 

Psychology 122 

Rehabilitation of Cripples 122 

Tlie Foreign Service 

Consulate General at Jerusalem To Be 

Guarded by Marine Detachment ... 115 
Consular Offices 123 

Publications 

"The International Control of Atomic En- 
ergy: Policy at the Crossroads" Released. 123 



Lt. Lawrence D. BnuUeit, Jr., United States Coast Guard, author of 
the article on the Safety of Life at Sea Conference, served as technical 
secretary of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference. 



U, S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1948 



I 



^/i€/ z/)eh<z'iit'ment .(w tjiate/ 




U.S.-YUGOSLAV CLAIMS SETTLEMENTS • Texts of 

Agreements ••••••••••••••• 137 

THIRD CURRENCY REFORM LAW IN GERMANY . 141 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 474 
August 1, 1948 








AUG 21 ^9*8 



'e/ia/iti^ent jOi 



o/9L(e bullGtin 



Vol. XIX, No. 474 • Publication 3224 
August 1, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OfHce 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Subscription: 
62 issues, J5; single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



U.S. Report to U.N. on False and Distorted Reports 



[Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the D.N. July 19] 

On May 1" the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations, acting in accordance with the General 
As^icnibly's resolution 119 (II) of October 31. 1947, 
regar(lin<^ inipleinentation of reconnnendations on 
economic and social matters, asked the Representa- 
tive of the United States at the seat of the United 
Nations for the observations of the United States 
Government on implementation of the General 
Assembly's resolution 127 (II) of November 15, 
1947, regarding false or distorted reports. 

Following is the text of the United States re fly : 

Resolution No. 127 (II) , adopted by the General 
Assembly on November 1.5, 1947, invites the Gov- 
ernments of States Members "to study such meas- 
ures as might with advantage be taken on the na- 
tional plane to combat, within the limits of consti- 
tutional procedures, the diffusion of false or dis- 
torted reports likely to injure friendly relations 
between States". 

The position of the United States with respect to 
such measures was outlined in a statement filed at 
the United Nations Conference on Freedom of 
Information (E/Conf 6/6 Add 6), which reads in 
part as follows: 

"It is the view of the Government of the United 
States that the most effective means of combatting 
the diffusion of false or distorted reports is to as- 
sure the availabilitj- of a multiplicity of unfettered 
sources of news and information to the various 
peoples of the world. It is the fundamental belief 
of the Government of the United States that, pro- 
vided they have access to sufficient information 
from diverse sources, the peoples of a democracy 
are comjietent to distinguish the true from the 
false and the wise from the stupid, and on the basis 
of their judgments to form their own opinions and 
make their own decisions. 

"Conversely, it is the view of the Government of 
the United States, that the greatest danger from 
false or distorted reports arises from monopolies 
of information, and particularly those of a govern- 
mental character. The American people have ob- 
served that monopolies of information tend to be- 
come monopolies of misinformation and that State 
control of the flow of information is inevitably 
utilized as a propaganda mechanism to further the 
political aims, both domestic and international, of 

Augosf 7, 1948 



the existing government. This may lead — and fre- 
quently has led — to the deliberate falsification or 
distortion of reports concerning other States with- 
out possibility of counteraction." 

This Government is vigilantly aware of the 
danger of monopoly in the communications field. 
No government monopoly of any character over 
the flow of news or information exists in the 
United States. In addition, this Government has 
a long-established policy of combatting private 
monopoly, as evidenced by its anti-trust laws and 
such special statutes as the Federal Communica- 
tions Act. 

There are in the United States today more than 
1,700 daily newspapers. Of these, about 83 per 
cent are locally owned and only about 13 per cent 
absentee owned. In other words, approximately 
four out of every five dailies are individual, in- 
dependent units. Only slightly more than one out 
of five is linked with a chain, and the largest chain 
in the United States consists of less than twenty 
dailies. There are, in addition, almo-st 10,000 
weekly newspapers. The overwhelming majority 
of these are individual units, locally owned. Each 
of these papers — both weeklies and dailies — has its 
own editors, free to report world news and to com- 
ment on it as they like. 

Scores of magazines and periodicals are pub- 
lished in the United States, many of which contain 
news and information concerning international 
affairs. 

In the field of radio there are almost 1700 AM 
stations broadcasting at the present time, together 
with more than 500 FM stations, and some 27 tele- 
vision stations. Almost without exception, con- 
siderable attention is given by all of these to the 
dissemination of news and information concerning 
public affairs. 

These news media — newspapers, periodicals and 
broadcasting stations — are .served by three na- 
tional wire services with world-wide coverage. In 
addition, many newspapers, periodicals and radio 
networks maintain extensive, supplementary for- 
eign coverage through correspondents of their 
own. 

Through this extensive network for the collec- 
tion and dissemination of news and information, 
the multiplicity of sources of news and informa- 
tion available to the people of the United States is 
unsurpassed in any other country of the world. 

127 



TH£ UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

The probability that false or distorted reports will 
be corrected by true reports is correspondingly 
gi'eat. 

As stated to the Conference on Freedom of In- 
formation, it is thus the view of this Government 
that, "the major means for combatting false or dis- 
torted reports is to implement freedom of informa- 
tion by reducing barriers and promoting the flow 
of information available to the various peoples of 
the world from a multiplicity of news sources by 
breaking up existing monopolies of information 
and striking off existing fetters of State control". 

Compared with the efHcacy of diverse sources of 
information in offsetting false or distorted reports, 
other measures for correcting whatever abuses 
may now exist are viewed as secondary and must 
be such as not to destroy or restrict freedom of in- 
formation itself. 

In the view of this Government, such ancillary 
means might include the following : 

1. The idea of the moral responsibility of infor- 
mation agencies should be implemented through 
encouraging non-official organizations of news and 
information personnel dedicated to the develop- 
ment of high standards of ]n-ofessional conduct. 

In this connection the United States Delegation 
to the Conference on Freedom of Information sup- 
ported the inclusion of the following provisions in 
a resolution introduced by it (Kesolution No. 1 
of the Final Act of the Conference) : 

"5. That it is the moral obligation of the press 
and other agencies of information to seek the truth 
and report the facts, thereby contributing to the 
solution of the world's problems through the free 
interchange of information bearing on them, pro- 
moting respect for human rights and fundamental 
freedoms without discrimination, foste'ring under- 
standing and cooperation between peoples, and 
helping maintain international peace and security ; 

"6. That this moral obligation, under the spur 
of public opinion, can be advanced through or- 
ganizations and associations of journalists and 
through individual news personnel; 

"7. That encouragement should be given to the 
establishment and to the functioning within the 
territory of a State of one or more non-oilicial 
organizations of persons employed in the collec- 
tion and dissemination of information to the pub- 
lic, and that such organization or organizations 
should encourage the fulfillment infer alia of the 
following obligations by all individuals or organi- 
zations engaged in the collection and dissemina- 
tion of information ; 

"(a) To report facts without prejudice and in 
their proper context and to make comments with- 
out malicious intent; 

"(&) To facilitate the solution of the economic, 
social and humanitarian problems of the world 
as a whole through the free interchange of infor- 
mation bearing on such problems ; 

128 



"(e) To helji promote respect for human rights 
and fundamental freedoms without discrimina- 
tion ; 

"(d) To help maintain international peace and 
security ; 

"(f) To counteract the spreading of intention- 
ally false or distorted reports which promote 
hatred or prejudice against States, persons or 
groups of different race, language, religion or 
philosophical conviction ;" 

2. Secondly, the training and exchange of 
journalists should be facilitated and in such man- 
ner as to inculcate higher standards of competence 
and integrity. 

The United States has developed extensive 
facilities for the training of journalists. More 
than seventy schools of journalism are now in 
operation, virtually all of them affiliated with col- 
leges or universities. In recent years, increasing 
attention has been paid to opportunity for ad- 
vanced study on the part of practicing journal- 
ists. Outstanding in this field are fellowships 
granted annually by the Nieman Foundation, con- 
nected with Harvard University, and the Ameri- 
can Press Institute, connected with Columbia 
University. 

The United States Delegation supported Eesolu- 
tion No. 35 adopted by the Conference on Freedom 
of Information, making recommendations regard- 
ing the training of journalists. 

The United States, both through the Depart- 
ment of State, UNESCO and private endeavor, has 
also consistently supported the principle of the 
exchange of persons between countries, including 
journalists and other information personnel. It 
is the hope of this Government that this type of 
exchange can be substantially increased as time 
goes on. 

3. The creation of private organizations of citi- 
zens dedicated to the purpose of increasing inter- 
national understanding through greater know- 
ledge of other countries and peoples and of the 
purposes and activities of the United Nations 
should be encouraged. 

In accordance with this policy the United States 
Delegation to the Conference on Freedom of In- 
formation supported the recommendation con- 
tained in Resolution No. 3, "that appropriate 
national bodies should supplement the work of 
information agencies and associations of journal- 
ists and of others engaged in the collection, publi- 
cation and dissemination of news, in ensuring the 
impartial jiresentation of news and opinion . . .''. 

Thousands of private organizations in the 
United States concern themselves with interna- 
tional affairs. Every effort is made by this Gov- 
ernment to facilitate their educational work. 
The Department of State maintains regular and 
continuous liaison with more than 450 national 
organizations alone. These are of all types and in 
total represent some 60 million members. The 

DepartmBnf of State Bulletin 



Department of State during; the past year has re- 
ceived ami answered nearly one-half million let- 
ters, telegrams, and post cards. During the last 
four years more than seven million copies of some 
five iuindred different publications covering all 
phases of American foreign policy have been pub- 
lished and distributed by the Department. Ap- 
proximately 150 meetings attended by representa- 
tives of national organizations have been held 
during this same four-year period to provide back- 
ground information and discussion of interna- 
tional matters. In these ways the Government of 
the United States assists private organizations to 
provide a flow of information to the general public 
which supplements that disseminated by the press 
and other organs of information. 

•i. The development on the inter-governmental 
plane of the right of oflicial correction jirovides a 
fourth means of offsetting false or distorted re- 
ports. 

The Draft Convention on the Gathering and In- 
ternational Transmission of News submitted to 
the Conference on Freedom of Information by the 
United States Delegation contained a provision for 
an international right of official correction. This 
applied to cases where a State felt that a report 
likely to injure its relations with other States sent 
out by a foreign correspondent was false or dis- 
torted. The complaining government could in 
such cases send its own version of the facts to the 
State in which the report had been published. 
The latter would then be obliged to make this ver- 
sion available to the information agencies which 
supply news to its public. 

This provision in somewhat expanded form was 
adopted by the Conference in a separate Draft 
Convention Concerning the Institution of an In- 
ternational Right of Correction, originally sub- 
mitted by the French Delegation. No power to 
compel publication is contemplated. It need 
hardly be pointed out, however, that American 
newspapers follow the general practice of publish- 
ing corrections and denials. 

5. A fifth means is the establishment of continu- 
ing United Nations machinery which would in- 
clude in its terms of reference continuing investi- 
gation of obstacles to the free flow of information 
and continuing study and reporting on the per- 
sistent dissemination of false or intentionally dis- 
torted reports contrary to the principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations. 

The United States Delegation to the Conference 
on Freedom of Information sponsored Resolution 
No. 30 which requested the Economic and Social 
Council to continue the Subcommission on Free- 
dom of Information and of the Press with power 
to study and report to the Economic and Social 
Council on "the persistent dissemination of infor- 
mation which is false, distoi'ted or otherwise in- 
jurious to the principles of the Charter of tlie 
United Nations . . ." 

August I, 7948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

6. In a desire to implement the General As- 
sembly resolution concerning false or distorted re- 
ports and the corresponding resolutions adopted 
by the Conference on Freedom of Information 
(Resolutions No. 2 and 3), the Department of 
State during the first part of June, 1948, trans- 
mitted to some 1800 persons engaged in the col- 
lection and dissemination of news and infoi'mation 
copies of the attached Report ^ of the United States 
Delegates to the United Nations Conference on 
Freedom of Information. In an accompanying 
letter of transmittal, the Assistant Secretary of 
State for Public Affaii-s, specifically called the at- 
tention of news and information personnel to these 
resolutions, which were reproduced in the report. 
This step was taken in the belief that the moral 
obligation of the press and other agencies of in- 
formation to seek the truth and report the facts 
can best be advanced by journalists and other in- 
formation personnel themselves. 

In this connection the Government of the United 
States endorses the action of the Conference on 
Freedom of Information (Resolution No. 2) in 
appealing "vigorously to the personnel of the 
press and other agencies of information of all the 
countries of the world, and to those responsible 
for their activities, to serve the aims of friendship, 
understanding and peace by accomplishing their 
task in a spirit of accuracy, fairness and respon- 
sibility;" 

In the view of this Government, a free people 
cannot go beyond such measures as those described 
above without destroying the most fundamental 
of all their freedoms, freedom of information. The 
use of governmental power to combat false or dis- 
torted reporting likely to injure friendly relations 
between States through censorship or suppression 
would constitute a dangerous infringement of 
freedom of information. For governments to ar- 
rogate unto themselves the power to determine 
what is true and what false, what is friendly and 
what unfriendly, would mark the end of the free 
press. 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE 
Consular Offices 

An American Consular Agenc.v was established at Port 
Linion, Costa Rica, on July 19, 19-18. 

Tlie American Consulate at Dar-es-Salaam, Tansanyika, 
was opened to the public on .July 12, 1948. The consular 
district for Dares-Salaam will comprise the trusteeship 
territory of Tanganyil<a and the Protectorate of Zanzibar 
(including; I'(>niha). 

Henry F. Grady To Assume Duties in Greece 

After two weeks of consultation in Washington, 
Henry F. Grady will depart by air on July 18 to 
assume the duties of his new post as Ambassador 
to Greece. 



' Not here printed. 



129 



Cease-Fire Orders for July 18 ^ 



CABLEGRAM TO THE ARAB STATES AND TO THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL 
CONCERNING THE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION OF 15 JULY AND THEIR REPLIES 



1. Cablegram Dated 16 July From the 
United Nations Mediator 

Paragraph 3 of the resolution on the cease-fire 
and truce in Palestine adopted by the Security 
Council on 15 July at its three hundred and thirty- 
eighth meeting provides that the cease-fire is "to 
take effect at a time to be determined by the Media- 
tor, but in any event not later than three days 
from the date of the adoption of this resolution". 

In pursuance of this provision of the resolution 
and following consultations at Lake Success, I 
wish to notify you that the date and hour on which 
the cease-fire is to be effective is 3.00 p.m., G.M.T., 
Sunday, 18 July 1948. In order that each party 
may be informed of the intentions of the other, 
will you be so kind as to confirm to me this is- 
suance of the cease-fire orders in accordance with 
the decision above noted at my Rhodes headquar- 
ters at the earliest possible moment. 

Paragraph 8 of the resolution "instructs the 
Mediator to supervise the observance of the truce". 

In order that there shall be no misunderstanding 
regarding the discharge of my responsibilities in 
the supervision of the truce, I take this oppor- 
tunity to inform you that, although I will do my 
utmost to establish and put into operation a sys- 
tem of observers as quickly as possible, I cannot 
ensure that the functioning of this system, in view 
of the short time available, will coincide with the 
effective date of the truce. It is my earnest hope 
that both parties will undertake to observe scru- 
pulously both the letter and the spirit of the truce. 
I will, of course, give advance notice and at the 
earliest jjossible moment, of the institution of the 
system of supervision, and of the arrival of the 
observers and their equipment at the observation 
posts. 

2. Replies 

(a) Egypt 

In reply to your cable of 17 July which was 
communicated to me on the same date, the Egyp- 

' U.N. doc. S/907, July 19, 1948. 
130 



tian Government has given the cease-fire order in 
Palestine as from Sunday, 18 July at 3.00 p.m., 
G.M.T. 

NOKRASHY 

President of the Council of 
Ministers of Egypt 



(b) Trans JORDAN 

I have the honour to inform you that the Gov- 
ernment of the Hashemite Kingdom of Trans- 
jordan, complying with the resolution of the Secu- 
rity Council, accepts cease-fire as from three 
o'clock Greenwich Time this day, Sunday, 18th 
July 1948. 

F. MlTLKA 

Transjordan Foreign Minister 

{c) Iraq 

Owing to delay of receipt of your wire, and be- 
cause the subject necessitates Arab State delibera- 
tions, and in view of Arab League Political Com- 
mittee being still kept busy in meetings, I ear- 
nestly endeavour to get Iraqi Government's reply 
reach you at earliest possible moment. 

Ali Mumtaz 
Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs^ Iraq 

(d) Israel 

View shortness time and absent reply regarding 
Arab decision, orders have been issued all our 
commanders cease fire today 7.00 p. m. Israeli 
Time corresponding hours fixed by you and re- 
sume firing only if other side continues. 

MosHE Shertok 

(e) Syria 

We have ordered our troops to cease fire at 17 
hours Damascus time. 

Jamil Mardam Bey 

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Syria 

Department of State Bulletin 



(/) Lkague of Arab States - 

I wish to notify Your Excellency that the Arab 
States members of the Arab League issued orders 
to cease lire in I'alestine as from Sunday, 18 July, 
at3G.M.T. 

AzzAM Pasha 
Secretary-General of League 

of Arab States 
{g) Lebanon 

Hare honour to inform you cease-fire order was 
given Lebanese forces 5.00 p. m. Sunday. 

Hamii) Frangie, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lebanon 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

( h ) Saudi Arabia 

Reference your telegram No. 13 dated July 16, 
contents of which have fully been noted by the 
Saudi Arabian Government, but so far as taking 
final decision on the subject, this comes imder the 
jurisdiction of the Political Committee of the 
Arab League. You will be notified thereof by the 
said League in due course. 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
Saudi Arabia 



Terms of Reference for the Visiting Mission to 
Ruanda-Urundi and Tanganyii<a 



RESOLUTION^ 



The Trusteeship Council : 

Having appointed a visiting mission composed 
of Mr. H. Laurent ie of France, Chairman, Mr. 
E. W. P. Chinnery of Australia, Dr. Lin Mou- 
sheng of China, and IMr. E. E. Woodbridge of 
Costa Rica, assisted by members of the Secretariat 
and by such representatives of the local admin- 
istrations as the mission may determine necessary ; 

Having decided that the visiting mission should 
visit the Trust Territories of Ruanda-Urundi and 
Tanganyika during tlie months of July, August, 
and September 1948 in accordance with rules 84, 89, 
94, 96 and 98 of the rules of procedure of the 
Trusteeship Council ; 

Directs the visiting mission to observe the devel- 
oping political, economic, social and educational 
conditions in the Trust Territories of Ruanda- 
Urundi and Tanganyika, their progress toward 

' U.N. doc. S/90S, July 19, 1948. 

Excerpts from a telegram dated 18 July 1948, from 
Abdel Rahman Arel, the Secretary-General of the Arab 
League to the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 
reply to the Security Council resolution (doc. S/902) 
adopted 15 July 1948 : 

The Governments of the Arab States are surprised at the 
attitude the Security Council has adopted in regarding the 
situation in Palestine as a threat to the peace subject to 
the provisions of Chapter VII of the Charter of the United 
Nations and entailing the application of sanctions against 
the Arab States if they refused to cease tire in Palestine. 
This attitude has never been adopted by the Security 
Council with regard to any of the problems it has hitherto 
dealt with. 



. . . Because the Security Council persists in considering 
the continuation of hostilities in Palestine to be a breach 
of the peace and because it expressly threatens to apply 
sanctions against the Arab States if they refuse to cease 
fire, the Arab States, anxious to avoid doing anything 
which would aggravate the critical situation through 



August 1, J 948 



self-government or independence, and the efforts 
of the respective Administering Authorities to 
achieve this and other basic objectives of the Inter- 
national Trusteeship System ; 

Directs the visiting mission to give attention, 
as may be approj^riate in the light of discussions 
in the Trusteeship Council and resolutions adopted 
by the Council, to issues raised in and in connexion 
with the annual reports on the administration of 
Ruanda-Urundi and Tanganyika and in petitions 
received by the Trasteeship Council relating to 
those Trust Territories ; and 

Requests the visiting mission to transmit to the 
Trusteeship Council, not later than 31 October 
1948, in accordance with rule 99 of the rules of 
procedure of the Trusteeship Council, a report on 
the findings of the mission with such observations 
and conclusions as the mission may wish to make. 

which the world is now passing, have no other alternative 
than to accept the Security Council's resolution with re- 
gard to the cessation of hostilities in Palestine. 



. . . They will accordingly follow carefully and with 
anxiety the efforts made by the United Nations to consoli- 
date the so-called State of Israel. In this connection the 
Arab States can only express astonishment that the Se- 
curity Council's resolution has recognized the Zionist 
bands as a provisional government. Such recognition goes 
beyond the limits of neutrality which the Security Council 
should observe in regard to the present conflict. Moreover, 
it contradicts the resolution adopted by the Council on 
29 May which stated that the rights, claims and positions 
of both parties should be respected. In such circumstances 
the Arab States make the most energetic protests and 
enter the most express reservations with regard to such 
recognition. The Arab States, anxious to see the wlshed- 
for solution of the Palestinian problem realized, will await 
that solution with impatience. Then and then only will 
peace return to the land of peace. 

' U.N. doc. T/195, July 13, 1948. Adopted by the Trustee- 
ship Council at the twenty-third meeting of Its third ses- 
sion on July 13, 1948. 

131 



The United States in the United Nations 



Privileges and Immunities 

Appointment of a committee of three private 
citizens to study the question of whether persons 
whose pi'esence is inconsistent with national secu- 
rity have entered the United States in connection 
witli the work of international organizations was 
annoiniced on July 28 by Secretary of State 
Marshall.' 

Members are Benjamin M. McKelway, editor of 
the Washington Star; James H. Rowe, Jr., Wash- 
ington attorney, former Assistant Attorney-Gen- 
eral; and Marcellus C. Sheild, retired, clerk of the 
House Appropriations Committee from 1916 to 
1944. 

Mr. Marshall's letter to the committee members 
said that recent "public discussion and concern" 
about this question had led him to decide "to have 
a careful study made and all the relevant facts 
analyzed and published as soon as possible so that 
a determination can be reached as to whether the 
Government possesses, and has exercised, all neces- 
sary powers to protect the public interest." 

Mr. Marshall asked the committee specifically to 
report whether the United Nations headquarters 
agreement, as accepted with certain reservations by 
the Seventy-ninth Congress, prevents "the exclu- 
sion from this country of persons whose presence 
is inconsistent with our national security." 

On July 21 Mr. Marshall had told a press con- 
ference that in his opinion the admission to the 
United States of U.N. personnel whose ideologies 
and beliefs differ from those of the United States 
had not endangered this country's security.- 

On July 30 the United Nations Acting Secretary- 
General, Arkady A. Sobolev, made public a letter 
from the staff committee representing U.N. em- 
ployees which expressed the hope that the commit- 
tee appointed by Secretary Marshall would "oper- 
ate on a high level of justice and international 
amity, ancl not inquisitorially''. The letter dis- 
approved in principle "any form of national in- 
vestigation" which would "encroach on the inter- 
national character of the United Nations. 

Strategic Trusteeships 

The relationship of the Security Council and 
the Trusteeship Council with respect to strategic 

' Department of State press release no. 613. 
' Bulletin of July 25, 1948, p. 116. 

' See Bulletin of June 27, 1048, iJ. 830, ancl Julv 4, 1948, 
p. 1.5. 

" U.N. doc. S/642, Jan. 12, 1948. 

132 



trusteeships was again considered by a joint com- 
mittee of the two Councils on July 22.' 

Speaking for the Trusteeship Council, Liu 
Chieli of China said that the procedure proposed 
in the report of the Security Council's committee 
of experts * was generally acceptable. This pro- 
posal is that the Trusteeship Council should per- 
form "in accoi-dance with its own procedures, on 
behalf of the Security Council, the functions 
specified in Articles 87 and 88 of the Charter re- 
lating to the political, economic, social and educa- 
tional advancement of tlie inhabitants" of strategic 
ti'ust areas, but shall be subject to the primacy of 
the Security Council in security matters. 

The Security Council has yet to ratify this 
procedure. Representatives of the U.S.S.R. and 
the Ukraine have expressed bitter opposition to 
granting the Trusteeship Council participation as 
of right in U.N. procedures regarding strategic 
trust ecsliips. Only one such trusteeship, that of 
the United States over the Pacific Islands formerly 
mandated to Japan, is in effect. 

Palestine 

A Syrian proposal that the International Court 
of Justice be asked to give an advisory opinion 
of the international status of Palestine after the 
termination of the United Kingdom mandate was 
rejected by the Security Council on July 27. Votes 
for it fell one short of the required majority of 
seven. Voting in favor were Argentina, Belgium, 
China, Colombia, Syria, and the United Kingdom. 
The Ukraine voted against, and Canadn, France, 
the U.S.S.R., and the United States abstained. 

A. G. L. McNaughton, of Canada, argued that 
reference to the International Court would "in- 
evitably hinder and postpone the negotiations for 
a peaceful settlement" and would "unquestionably 
introduce doubts and uncertainties in the work 
of the Mediator on whom we have placed our pri- 
mary reliance." 

Philip C. Jessup, of the United States, endorsed 
Genei-al McNaughton's arguments. He added that 
a reference to the Court by the recent special ses- 
sion of the General Assembly might have been 
"very pertinent at tliat time", but pointed out that 
the Assembly had decided instead to appoint a 
mediator. 

On July 29 similnr argmnents prevailed in the 
Trusteeship Council, which voted 8-1 (U.S.S.R. 
against) to postpone indefinitely further discus- 

Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



sion of the draft Statute of Jerusalem. The 
majority ajrreed with Pierre Ryckmans of Bel- 
gium that debate on this "inllannuable"' question at 
the present time miglit endanger the Palestine 
truce and the success of the mediator's efforts. 

Tiie Council drafted an organic law for ad- 
ministration of Jerusalem by the United Nations 
at its last session, in comjiliance with one of the 
provisions of the General Assembly's partition 
resolution of November 2d, 1947, but has not finally 
approved it and received no further instruction 
from the Assembly during its April-May special 
session on Palestine. 



Indonesia 

By a 9-0 vote (U.S.S.R. and Ula-aine abstain- 
ing), the Security Council on July 29 approved a 
Chinese resolution calling for strict observance 
by the Netherlands and the Indonesian Republic 
of the Renville truce agreement of Januai'y 17, 
1948, and for early and full implementation of the 
agreed principles for forming a sovereign United 
States of Indonesia. 

The resolution noted four recent reports^ from 
the Council's Committee of Good Offices in Indo- 
nesia. One was in reply to the Council's July 6 
resolution asking for information on restrictions 
applied by the Netherlands to trade with the Re- 
public. It said that the restrictions, "whatever 
their intent,"' had caused severe economic difficul- 
ties for the Republic. Another i-eport said that 
political negotiations had again been suspended 
and that further progress depended on "substan- 
tial concessions" by one side or the other or both. 



International Law Commission 

Four Americans are among 78 candidates from 
whom the General Assembly will elect the 15 mem- 
bers of the United Nations' new International Law 
Commission. The list was announced at Lake Suc- 
cess July 24. 

Edwin DeWitt Dickinson, dean of the Univer- 
sity of California school of jurisprudence, was 
nominated by the Philippine Republic. Mauley 
O. Hudson, Bemis professor of international law 
at Harvard University and from 1936 to 1946 a 
judge of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice at The Hague, was nominated by Ethiopia, 
Iceland, the Philippine Republic, and the United 
States. Philip C. Jessup, Deputy U.S. Represent- 
ative in the Security Council and Hamilton Fish 
professor of international law and diplomacy at 
Columbia University, was nominated by Iceland 
and Turkey. Francis B. Sayre, U.S. Representa- 
tive in the Trusteeship Council, was nominated 
by Siam. 

Besides Dr. Hudson, the nominees of the United 

August 7, 7948 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

States are Alberto UUoa Sotomayor of Peru and 
Jean Spyropoujos of Greece. 

The purpose of the Commission is to promote 
the progressive development and codification of 
international law. 



Economic and Social Council 

Continuing into its second week, the seventh 
session of the Economic and Social Council in 
Geneva discussed in plenary session the report of 
the Economic Commission for Europe. Endorse- 
ment of the Commission's work was expressed on 
July 27 by delegates of France, Great Britain, 
Poland, the U.S.S.R., and tlie United States. 
However, the Soviet representative launched a 
lengthy attack against the European Recovery 
Pi'Ogram, through which, he charged, the United 
States was interfering with the sovereignty of 
European nations The Soviet representative pro- 
posed that the Ece adopt measures to expand trade 
and economic relations among its members and 
with others, to insure the carrying out of U.S. 
assistance within tlie U.N. framework, to stop 
foreign trade discrimination by which the United 
States would gain advantage at the expense of the 
receiving countries ; to encourage European efforts 
to develop basic industries; to raise the vohune of 
agricultural production; and to prevent the pau- 
jDerization and unemployment produced by Erp. 

In reply. Assistant Secretary of State Thorp, 
U.S. Representative at the Ecosoc meeting, 
pointed out that the 16 nations participating in 
the recoveiy program are democratic countries 
with free institutions and with parliaments con- 
trolling their decisions, and with a free press 
which discusses all aspects of the matter. The 
European nations themselves, he recalled, pre- 
pared the recovery program. Far from trying to 
make Europe more dependent on the United 
States, the whole puri^ose of the recovery plan is 
to restore the European economy so that the Euro- 
pean nations will be completely independent of 
American aid. Mr. Thorp said. He stated that 
under the program European countries are encour- 
aged to develop to the limit of their capacity in- 
dustry, agriculture, and commerce. ISIr. Thorp 
also pointed out that the United States will as far 
as possible assist in the expansion of agriculture in 
the various European countries and that "to say 
that we are trying to hold down the expansion of 
industry through this program is likewise 
incorrect." 

On July 29, deliate was completed on the Soviet 
resolution on the Ece report, with the Council re- 
jecting it by a vote of 14-3. The Social, Eco- 
nomic, and" Human Rights Committees of the 
Council continued working on items within their 
competence referred to them by the Council. 



' U.X. docs. S/842, S/848 and S/848/Add. 1, S/918, S/919. 

133 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



Linguistics 

The Department of State announced on July 
19 the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the Sixth International Congress of Linguists 
scheduled to be held at Paris July 19-24, 1948. 
The United States Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Charles C. Fries, Professor, University of Michigan 

Delegates 

William P. Albright, Professor of Semitic Languages, Johns 

Hopkins University 
Herbert Penzel, Associate Professor of German, University 

of Illinois 

The International Congresses of Linguists have 
been meeting periodically since 1928, bringing 
together scholars from all parts of the world. 
The Fifth Congress was scheduled to be held at 
Brussels August 28-September 2, 1939. How- 
ever, upon meeting, the delegates decided that in 
view of the critical international situation the 
Congress should adjourn immediately. 

The principal effort of the Sixth Congress will 
be devoted to general morphology. Among the 
other items to be considered will be: (1) to at- 
tempt to arrive at a general unification of termi- 
nology of linguistics throughout the world ; (2) to 
institute a general inquiry on the state of research 
in the several fields of linguistic study; (3) to 
compile a linguistic atlas of the world; (4) to 
inquire into the question of statistics in linguistics ; 
and (5) to study the present state of development 
of international auxiliary language studies. 

Physical Education 

The Department of State announced on July 15 
the United States Delegation to the International 
Congress of Physical Education, Recreation and 
Eehabilitation which is scheduled to be held at 
London July 23-26, 1948. The United States 
Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

T. Nelson Metcalf, Professor of Physical Education and 
Director of Athletics, University of Chicago 

Delegates 

Robert J. H. Kiphuth, Professor of Physical Education 
and Director of Athletics, Yale University 



Sargeant, Jr., Chief, Troop Information- i i 



of 



Editor's Note : The Calendar of International Meetings, 
which usually appears in the Bulletin in the first issue of 
each month, will appear in the August 8 issue. 

134 



Maj. Bliss P. .„...„ , --.. -- , 

Education Branch, Office of Director 
Personnel, Department of the Air Force 

This Congress, sponsored by six British organi- 
zations under the aegis of the Ministry of Educa- 
tion, is scheduled to take place immediately before 
the Olympic Games. The program of the Con- 
gress will include short addresses on such sub- 
jects as physical education in schools, the training 
of physical-education teachers, post-school physi- 
cal recreation, rehabilitation in the services and in 
civilian life, the physical education of hospital 
patients, and applied physical training in in- 
dustry. Demonstrations of various aspects of 
physical education by school children, students in 
physical-training colleges, members of youth 
clubs, and members of the services will also be 
presented. 

Navigation of tlie Danube 

The Department of State announced on July 20 
that the President has approved the composition 
of the United States Delegation to attend the In- 
ternational Danube Conference to be held in Bel- 
grade opening on July 30, 1948. 

Invitations to the conference were extended by 
Yugoslavia as the host government to the United 
States, United Kingdom, France, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Eepublics, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Ru- 
mania, Bulgaria, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist 
Republic, and Austria. 

The United States Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Cavendish W. Cannon, Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary, American Embassy, Belgrade 

Vice Chairman 

Walter A. Radius, Director, Office of Transport and Com- 
munications, Department of State 

Advisers 

Francis B. Stevens, Chief, Division of Eastern European 
Affairs, Department of State 

John W. Tuthill, Inland Transport Adviser, Office of 
Transport and Communications, Department of State 

Charles I. Bevans. Treaty Affairs, Office of the Legal Ad- 
viser, Department of State 

John C. Campbell, Council on Foreign Relations, New 
York, N.Y. „. 

Robert G. MeCreary, Leckie, McCreary, Schlitz and Hins- 
lea. Maritime Lawyers, Cleveland, Ohio 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Rt'prpsentiitivo, Office of Military Uoveniment, United 

States (OMGfS), Berlin 
Representative, United States Forces, Austria (Usfa), 

Vienna 
George A. Mann, Public Affairs, Overseas Program Staff, 

Office of International Information, Department of 

State 
Fredericli Strauss, C3iief, European Branch, Office of 

International Trade, Department of Commerce 

Secretariat 
Executive Secretary 

Arthur C. Nagle, Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

Trch n ical Secret a rp 

Maxwell Harway, Office of Transport and Communica- 
tions, Department of State 

Press Offlcer 

Walter H. Dustmann, .Ir., Office of the Special Assistant 
for Press Relations, Department of State 

Fiscal Officer 

Ann F. Jablonski, Division of Finance, Department of 
State 

Language Service Officer 

Kenneth R. Boyle, Division of Language Services, Depart- 
ment of State 

Documents Assistant 

Virginia E. Sparks, Division of Departmental Personnel, 
Department of State 

Interpreters 

Jeannette Dastous, Division of Language Services, Depart- 
ment of State 

Ellen Gavrisheff, Division of Language Services, Depart- 
ment of State 

Alexander Logofet, Division of Language Services, De- 
partment of State 

Stenographic Services 

Lillian E. Atland, Division of Eastern European Affairs, 
Department of State 

Teresa Beach, Office of Transport and Communications, 
Department of State 

Audrey C. Kluczny, Office of Assistant Secretary for politi- 
cal affairs. Department of State 

Helen Perlraan, Office of Transport and Communications, 
Department of State 

Sammie M. Venable, Office of Assistant Secretary for polit- 
ical affairs. Department of State 

Medical Histories 

The Department of State announced on July 21 
the composition of the United States Observer 
Delegation to the meeting of the United Kingdom 
and Dominions Official JMedical Histories Liaison 
Committee scheduled to be held at Corpus Christi 
College. Oxford, England, August 3-7, 1948. The 
observer delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Capt. John Matthew Baehulus, M.C., U.S.N., Staff Medical 
Officer with Commander in Chief of Naval Forces, 
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, London 

August I, 7948 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVEIOPMENTS 

Observer Delegates 

Col. Joseph H. McNinch, M.C., U.S.A., Editor-in-Chief of 
History of Array Medical Department in World War 
II, Director of Army Medical Library, Surgeon Gen- 
eral's Office, Department of the Army 

Dr. Donald O. Wagner, Chief Historian, Historical Divi- 
sion, Army Medical Library, Surgeon General's Office, 
Department of the Army 

The purpose of the meeting is to discuss colla- 
boration in the preparation of the official medical 
histories of the war. A previous meeting of the 
Committee was held at Ottawa in September 1947. 

Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 

The Department of State announced the United 
States Delegation to the Third Session of the 
International Congress of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences scheduled to be held at 
Brussels and Tervueren, Belgium, August 15-23, 
1948. The United States Delegation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Dr. Melville J. Herskovits, Professor of Anthropology, 
Northwestern University 

Delegates 

Dr. Wilton Marion Krogman, Professor of Physical 
Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania 

Dr. Ralph Linton, Sterling Professor of Anthropology, Yale 
University 

The purpose of the Congi"ess is to enable scien- 
tists to submit for consideration and discussion the 
I'esults of their research relating to the character- 
istics and customs of races and peoples. The Sec- 
ond Session of the Congress, held at Copenhagen 
July 31-August 6, 1938, appointed six special com- 
mittees which will present reports to the forth- 
coming session on the following subjects: the or- 
ganization of systematic research on the peoples 
and cultures of the circumpolar regions ; the stand- 
ardization of anthropological methods; the 
standardization of anthropological and ethno- 
logical terminology ; the position of anthropology 
and ethnology in public education; the provisions 
by various governments for the conservation of 
aboriginal peoples whose mode of life is of scien- 
tific interest; and the problems of megalithic cul- 
tures. The general scientific subjects to be 
discussed will include physical anthropology, the 
ethnology of Europe, Asia, Africa, the Arctic, 
Oceania, and the Americas, the methods, theories, 
and history of ethnology, and linguistics. 

Geodesy and Geophysics 

Tlie Department of State announced on July 19 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to the Eighth General Assembly of the Interna- 
tional Union of Geodesy and Geophysics sched- 
iiled to be held at Oslo August 17-28, 1948. The 



United States Delegation is as follows : 



135 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Chairman 

Walter D. Lambert, Chief, Section of Gravity and Astron- 
omy, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, De- 
partment of Commerce 

Delegates 

Leason H. Adams, Director, Geophysical Laboratory, 
Carnegie Institution 

K. Hilding lieij, Assistant Director, Hydraulics Laliora- 
tory. National Bureau of Standards, Department of 
Commerce 

Francis W. Reichelderfer, Chief, United States Weather 
Bureau, Department of Commerce 

Waldo E. Smith, Executive Secretary, American Geo- 
physical Union 

It is expected that approximately 31 countries 
will be represented at the Assembly. 

The iJurpose of the Eighth Assembly is to ex- 
change scientific information; to discuss the 
rapidly growing importance and value in human 
endeavor of geodesy and geophysics; to promote 
international cooperation for the development of 
natural resources; and to improve geophysical 
methods of scientific investigation and utility. 
The agenda for the meeting will include the pres- 
entation of papers on such subjects as the physical 
aspects of the influence of solar activity on ter- 
restrial magnetism, the ionosphere, magnetic sur- 
veys and instruments, air-borne magnetism, ter- 
restrial magnetism, and aurora. In addition, 
reports of the committees appointed at the Seventh 
General Assembly will be presented. 

The International Union of Geodesy and Geo- 
physics is one of the component unions of the In- 
ternational Council of Scientific Unions. The 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics is composed of 
international associations concerned with the fol- 
lowing subjects: seismology, meteorology, ter- 
restrial magnetism and electricity, physical ocean- 
ography, vulcanology, and scientific hydrology. 

Geology 

The Department of State announced on July 23 
the composition of the United States Delegation 
to tlie Eighteenth International Geological Con- 
gress scheduled to be held at London, August 25- 
September 1, 1948. The United States Delegation 
is as follows : 
Chairman 

Dr. Eliot Blackwelder, Professor Emeritus of Geology, 
Stanford University, and Chairman, U.S. Geological 
Survey Advisory Committee, Stanford University 

Delegates 

Dr. Leason Heberling Adams, Director, Geophysical Labor- 
atory, Carnegie Institution 

Dr. James Boyd, Director, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Depart- 
ment of the Interior 

Dr. Norman Levi Bowen, Petrologist, Carnegie Institution 

Dr. A. F. Buddington, Professor of Geology, Princeton 
University 

Dr. Carl O. Dunbar, Professor of Geology, Yale University 

Dr. Herbert E. Hawlses, Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, 
Department of the Interior 

Dr. W. D. Johnston, Jr., Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, 
Department of the Interior 

136 



Dr. 0'(jhn F. Marble, Chairman, Committee on Geologic 
Time, National Research Council 

Dr. Louis L. Ray, Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, De- 
partment of the Interior 

The main purpose of the forthcoming Congress 
will be to exchange scientific information on and to 
discuss the following geological subjects : problems 
of geochemistry; metasomatic processes in meta- 
morphism ; rhythm in sedimentation ; the geologi- 
cal results of applied geophysics; the geology of 
petroleum; the geology, paragenesis, and reserves 
of the ores of lead and zinc; the geology of sea 
and ocean floors ; the Pliocene-Pleistocene bound- 
ary ; faunal and floral facies and zonal correlation; 
the correlation of continental vertebrate-bearing 
rocks ; and earth movements and organic evolution. 
Other items on the agenda include an examination 
of the program conducted in the American re- 
publics since 19-1:0 under the auspices of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Scientific and 
Cultural Cooperation and a discussion on the de- 
sirability of forming an international union of 
geology to be affiliated with the International 
Council of Scientific Unions. 

In addition to the regular program of the Con- 
gress a number of excursions to points of interest 
in England, Scotland, and Wales have been sched- 
uled. 

John Abbink Appointed to Joint Brazil-U.S. 
Technical Commission 

John Abbink has been appointed by the Presi- 
dent as Chairman, with the personal rank of 
Minister, of the United States Section of the Joint 
Brazil-United States Technical Commission in 
which the Brazilian and the United States Gov- 
ernments are cooperating for the purpose of mak- 
ing a study of Brazilian resources and capacity 
for economic development. 

Mr. Abbink will serve as Co-Chairman with the 
Chief of the Brazilian Section of the Commission. 
The Brazilian and United States Sections will 
each consist of three members who will be assisted 
by a technical staff to be furnished by their re- 
spective governments. Other members of the 
United States Section will be appointed at an 
early date, and it is anticipated that this section 
will arrive in Rio de Janeiro early in September. 

The Commission will direct its attention toward 
an analysis of (1) Brazil's natural and capital 
resources; (2) the supply of labor, particularly of 
skilled labor; (3) problems in fiscal and banking 
fields; (4) problems of domestic and international 
trade; and (5) the position of Brazil in the world 
economy. 

The organization of this Technical Commission 
is a further instance of the cooperative work en- 
couraged by the United States Govermnent to 
assist the other American Republics in attaining 
the comprehensive development of their resources. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



U.S.-Yugoslav Claims Settlement 



SUMMARY OF AGREEMENTS 



Agreements between the Government of the 
United States and the Government of the Federal 
People's Repnblic of Yugoslavia were signed 
on July 19 in Washington, D. C. One agreement 
provides for settlement for American property 
nationalized in Yugoslavia and other outstanding 
pecuniary claims between the two Governments. 
The other agreement provides for settlement of 
the lend-lease accounts and for pre-UxnRA aid 
furnished to Yugoslavia by the United States. 
The U.S. Treasury is also unblocking Yugoslav 
assets in the United States. 

The agreements were signed on behalf of the 
United States by George C. Marshall, Secretary of 
State, and on behalf of the Government of Yugo- 
slavia by Dr. Obren Blagojevic, Deputy Minister 
of Finance. 

The agreements signed on July 19 are the result 
of discussions of outstanding financial questions 
between the two Governments which began at the 
Department of State in May 1947, between a spe- 
cial Mission of the Yugoslav Government and 
representatives of the Department of State. 

Under the nationalization agreement, the Yugo- 
slav Goverimient agrees to pay to the United 
States in dollars the sum of 17 million dollars in 
full settlement for American property national- 
ized or otherwise taken in Yugoslavia and in settle- 
ment of all other pecuniary claims of the United 
States Government against Yugoslavia, except 
those under lend-lease and pre-UNRRA civilian 
relief, which are settled in the second agreement. 

The second agi-eement, to settle the lend-lease and 
pre-UxRRA accounts, provides for the payment by 
Yugoslavia to the United States of 45 million 
Yugoslav dinars. These dinars will be used by 
the United States in Yugoslavia in the acquisition 
of Embassy or consular property and for other 
local uses. Of the approximately 32 million dol- 



lars in lend-lease aid furnished by the United 
States to Yugoslavia, the great majority was used 
in the war. As is customary in the settlement 
of lend-lease accounts, no charge is made by the 
United States for materials expended in winning 
the war. The few small naval vessels loaned to 
Yugoslavia under lend-lease will be returned to the 
United States. 

The lend-lease settlement also includes the re- 
solving of several minor categories of claims, 
mostly maritime in nature, arising from the war. 
These include such items as the hire of Yugoslav 
vessels by the United States and claims arising 
from collision of vessels of the respective Govern- 
ments. 

The Treasury Department is unfreezing Yugo- 
slav assets in the United States by including 
Yugoslavia in general license 53 issued under 
Executive Order 8389, as amended. Included 
among the assets unfrozen is gold amounting to 
almost 47 million dollars held at the Federal Re- 
serve Bank of New York in the name of the Gov- 
ernment of Yugoslavia. 

The agreement concerning compensation for 
nationalization covers claims of individual Ameri- 
can nationals arising from nationalization or other 
taking of property in Yugoslavia if the property 
was owned at the time, either directly or indirectly 
through a corporation, by an individual Ameri- 
can national or by an American corporation which 
was owned in turn by individual American na- 
tionals at least to the extent of 20 percent of any 
class of its outstanding securities. 

The 17 million dollars paid to the United States 
is to be distributed among the claimants under 
procedures which Congress will be requested to 
establish. 

The two Governments agree to provide inter- 
change of information respecting American claims 
in order to promote substantial equity in awards. 



AGREEMENT REGARDING PECUNIARY CLAIMS 



The Government of the United States of America and 
the GoTernment of the Federal People's Republic of 
Tugoslavia. being desirous of effecting an expeditious and 
equitable settlement of claims of the United States of 
America and of its nationals against Tugoslavia, have 
agreed upon the following articles: 

August 1, 1948 



Article 1 

(o) The Government of Yugoslavia agrees to pay, and 
the Government of the United States agrees to accept, 
tlie sum of $17,000,000 United States currency in full set- 
tlement and discharge of all pecuniary claims of the 
Government of the United States against the Government 

137 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

of Yugoslavia, other than those arising from Lend-Lease 
and civilian supplies furnished as military relief, arising 
between September 1, 1039 and the date hereof, and in 
full settlement and discharge of all claims of nationals 
of the United States against the Government of Yugo- 
slavia on account of the nationalization and other taking 
by Yugoslavia of property and of rights and interests in 
and vpith respect to property, vphicli occurred between 
September 1, 1939 and the date hereof. 

(6) Such payment by the Government of Yugoslavia 
shall be made to the Secretary of State of the United 
States of America within forty-five days after the signing 
of this Agreement. 

{c) If, upon adjudication made by the agency estab- 
lished or otherwise designated by the Government of the 
United States to adjudicate claims settled under this 
Agreement, it is found that the sum of $17 million pay- 
able by the Government of Yugoslavia under the pro- 
visions of the Agreement is in excess of the total sum 
of the claims determined to be valid, exclusive of any 
interest on such claims for the i)eriod beginning on the 
date of the payment referred to in paragraph (a) of this 
Article, plus the costs of adjudication, if any, not borne by 
the claimants, the Government of the United States shall 
take the necessary steps to return such excess amount 
to the Government of Yugoslavia. 

Article 2 

The claims of nationals of the United States to which 
reference is made in Article 1 of this Agreement include 
those respecting property, and rights and interests in 
and with respect to property, which at the time of na- 
tionalization or other taking were : 

(a) Directly owned by an individual who at such time 
was a national of the United States. 

(6) Directly owned by a juridical person organized un- 
der the laws of tlie United States, or a constituent state 
or other political entity thereof, twenty percent or more 
of any class of the outstanding securities of which were 
at such time owned by individual nationals of the United 
States, directly, or indirectly through interests in one 
or more juridical persons of whatever nationality, or 
otherwise ; or 

(o) Indirectly owned by an individual within category 
(A) above, or by a juridical person with category (B) 
above, through interests, direct, or indirect in one or 
more juridical persons not within category (B) above, or 
otherwise. 

Article 3 

The claims of nationals of the United States to which 
reference is made in Article 1 of this Agreement do not 
include claims of individual nationals of the United States 
who did not possess such nationality at tlie time of the 
nationalization or other taking, which claims shall be sub- 
ject to compensation by the Government of Yugoslavia, 
either by direct negotiations between that Government and 
the respective claimants or under compensation procedures 
prescribed by Yugoslav law. 

Article 4 

(o) Nothing herein contained shall constitute or be 
construed to constitute a waiver or release by the Govern- 
ment of Yugoslavia of any claims it or any Yugoslav na- 
tional may have against any national of the United States. 

(6) Claimants against the Government of Yugoslavia 
for compensation on account of the nationalization or 
other taking of enterprises, whose claims with respect to 
such nationalization or otlier taking are claims which are 
fully settled and discliarged by this Agreement, receiving 
payment out of the funds to be paid by the Government of 
Yugoslavia under Article 1 of this Agreement shall be 
deemed to have undertaken to hold the Government of 
Yugoslavia, and the resisective successor enteriarises estab- 
lished by such Government, harmless against, and to have 

138 



assumed, all debt obligations, including guarantees, of the 
enterprises of which such claimants were formerly the 
owners, to nationals of countries other than Yugoslavia, 
valid and subsisting as of the date hereof, incurred not for 
the benefit of such enterprises, but fur the benefit of the 
owners thereof ; but such assumption and undertaking 
shall be applicable only to such proportion of such ob- 
ligations as .such claimants' interests in such enterprises, 
at the date of the nationalization or other taking thereof, 
bore to the total ownership interests therein. Debt obli- 
gations, including guarantees, owing to nationals of coun- 
tries other than Yugoslavia, incurred prior to the time 
such claimants became nationals of the United States, 
shall be deemed subject to such assumption and under- 
taking in the absence of proof that such obligations, in- 
cluding guarantees, were incurred for the benefit of such 
enterprises. 

(c) The Government of Yugoslavia recognizes the obli- 
gation of the successor enterprises created by it with 
respect to debts valid under Yugoslav law which were in- 
curred prior to the nationalization or other taking, for 
the benefit of the enterprises nationalized or otherwise 
taken, provided, however, that there sliall be deemed 
fully settled and discharged all debt obligations of enter- 
prises, nationalized or otherwise taken, owing to nationals 
of the United States whose claims against the Government 
of Yugoslavia with respect to the nationalization or other 
taking of such enterprises are claims which are fully 
settled and discharged by this agreement : and further 
that all debt obligations of such enterprises to juridical 
persons tlirough which the claims of such claimants are 
derived shall be deemed settled and discharged in the 
same proportion as such claimants' interests in such enter- 
prises, at the date of the nationalization or other taking 
thereof, bore to the total ownership interests therein. 

Article 5 

The Government of Yugoslavia agrees to accord to na- 
tionals of the United States lawfully continuing to hold, 
or hereafter acquiring assets in Yugoslavia, the rights 
and privileges of using and administering such assets 
and the income therefrom within the framework of the 
controls and regulations of the Government of Yugo- 
slavia, on conditions not less favorable than the rights 
and privileges accorded to nationals of Yugoslavia, or of 
any other country, in accordance with tlie Convention of 
Commerce and Navigation between the United States of 
America and the Prince of Serbia, signed at Belgrade, 
October 2-14, 18S1. 

Article 6 

The Government of Yugoslavia agrees not to employ 
or to permit the employment of trademarks, and company 
names and trade names formerly used in Yugoslavia by 
enterprises, now nationalized, which were, at the time 
of such nationalization substantially owned, directly or 
indirectly, by nationals of the United States to the extent 
that such trademarks, company names and trade names 
are counterparts of trademarks, company names and 
trade names used elsewhere than in Yugoslavia by the 
former American owners of such enterprises, directly or 
through subsidiaries, or by their authority; provided, 
however, that nothing herein contained shall prejudice 
the right of the Government of Yugoslavia, or any national 
thereof, to employ such trademarks, company names and 
trade names with the consent of the former owners of 
such enterprises, or others authorized to permit the use 
thereof. The Government of Yugoslavia will take such 
measures as may be necessary and appropriate to prevent 
the use of such trademarks, company names and trade 
names within Yugoslavia, except with such consent or in 
connection with products imported into Yugoslavia with 
respect to which the use of such trademarks, company 
names and trade names is permitted by or on behalf of 
the former owners of such enterprises, or others au- 
thorized to permit the use thereof. Tills Agreement does 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 



not affect in any way the rights, if any, of nationals of 
the United States with respect to trademarks, trade names ' 
and company names which were used in YuRoslavia by 
enterprises which have been taken other than by ua- 
tionalizatioD. 

Article 7 

Claims of nationals of the United States for war dam- 
age to property which has not been nationalized or other- 
wise taken prior to tlie date hereof shall be treated not 
less favorably than those of nationals of Yugoslavia, but 
in no event less favorably than those of the nationals 
of any other country. 

A}- tide 8 

The funds payable to the Government of the United 
States under Article 1 of this Agreement shall be dis- 
tributed to the Government of the United States and 
among the several claimants, respectively, in accordance 
with such methods of distribution as may be adopted by 
the Government of the United States. Any determinations 
with respect to the validity or amounts of individual 
claims which may be made by the agency established or 
otherwise designated by the Government of the United 
States to adjudicate such claims shall be final and binding. 

Article 9 

(a) In the interest of an equitable distribution by the 
Government of the United States among the several 
claimants for participation in the amount to be paid by 
the Government of Yugoslavia in full settlement and 
discharge of claims in accordance with this Agreement, 
the Government of Yugoslavia will, upon the request of 
the Goveriunent of the United States, and to the extent 
possible, bearing in mind the wide-spread destruction of 
property and books and records in Yugoslavia caused by 
the war, furnish such information, including certified 
copies of books, records or other documents, as may be 
necessary or appropriate to support or refute, in whole 
or in part, any claim for participation in such amount, 
and to the same end will permit, in a manner consistent 
with Yugoslav law, the taking of depositions of such wit- 
nesses as may be requested by the Government of the 
United States. 

(b) In the interest of protecting the Government of 
Yugoslavia from the possible assertion through third coun- 
tries, or otherwise, of claims falling within the scope of 
this Agreement, the Government of the United States will 
supply to the Government of Yugoslavia, certified copies 



of such formal submissions as may be made by claimants 
to such agency as may be established or otherwise desig- 
nated by the Government of the United States to adjudi- 
cate claims to participation in the funds to be paid by the 
Government of Yugoslavia pursuant to this Agreement 
and of the corresponding awards of such agency with re- 
spect thereto. A certified copy of each such submission 
and award will be supplied to the Government of Yugo- 
slavia within a reasonable time after its receipt or an- 
nouncement. Subject to such rules and regulations as may 
be established with respect to proceedings of such agency, 
the Government of the United States further agrees to 
make available to the Government of Yugoslavia, upon its 
request, certified copies of transcripts of any proceedings 
before such agency and certified copies of documents sub- 
mitted to such agency in support or in refutation, in whole 
or in part, of any claim submitted thereto Subject to 
such rules and regulations, and with the consent of such 
agency, the Government of Yugoslavia may file briefs as 
amicus curiae with respect to any specific claims. 

Article 10 

(a) The Government of Yugoslavia shall authorize per- 
sons residing in Yugoslavia who are legally indebted to any 
individual, firm, or governmental agency in the United 
States, to meet such indebtedness on maturity. 

(6) To the extent feasible, considering Yugoslav for- 
eign exchange resources and regulations, and when nec- 
essary to effectuate the purposes of paragraph (a) of this 
Article, the Government of Yugoslavia shall permit the use 
of dollars by, or provide dollars to those Y'^ugoslav resi- 
dents legally owing dollar obligations arising from com- 
mercial transactions involving goods or services. 

Article 11 

The Government of Yugoslavia agrees to give sym- 
pathetic consideration to applications for transfers to the 
United States of deposits in banks of Yugoslavia and other 
similar forms of capital owned by nationals of the United 
States, where the amounts involved are small but which, 
in view of the circumstances, are of substantial impor- 
tance to the persons requesting the transfers. 

Article 12 

The present Agreement shall come into force and effect 
upon the date of signature. 

In witxess whereof the undersigned, being duly au- 
thorized thereto by their respective Governments, have 
signed the present Agreement. 



AGREEMENT REGARDING SETTLEMENT FOR LEND-LEASE, MILITARY RELIEF, AND CLAIMS 



The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the Federal People's Republic of 
Yugoslavia have reached an understanding regarding a 
settlement for lend-lease, for the obligation of the Govern- 
ment of Yugoslavia to the Government of the United States 
for civilian sup[ilies furnished as military relief, and for 
other claims of each Government against the other aris- 
ing out of the conduct of the war. In arriving at this 
understanding, both Governments have recognized the 
benefits accruing to each from the contributions of both 
to the defeat of their common enemies. This settlement 
is complete and final and both Governments agree that, 
except as provided in this Agreement, no further benefits 
will he sought by either Government from the other as 
consideration for the foregoing. 

1. The term "lend-lease article" as used in this Agree- 
ment means any article transferred by the Government of 
the United States under the Act of March 11, 1941: 

(a) to the Government of Yugoslavia, or 

Aogosf J, J 948 



(b) to any other government and retransf erred to the 
Government of Yugoslavia. 

2. The Government of Yugoslavia receives, without 
qualification as to disposition or use, full title to all lend- 
lease articles, other than those described in nimibered 
paragraphs 3 and 4 below. 

3. The Government of the United States reserves the 
right to recapture any lend-lease articles of types defined 
as arms, ammunition and implements of war by Proclama- 
tion Number 2776 issued bv the President of the United 
States on March 26, 1948, 13 Federal Register 1623, 
March 27, 1948, which are held by the Government of 
Yugoslavia on the date on which notice requesting return 
is communicated to the Government of Yugoslavia. The 
Government of the United States has indicated that it does 
not intend to exercise generally its right to recapture 
such articles. The Government of Yugoslavia will not 
retransfer or dispose of such articles to any third country 
or for export without the prior consent of the Government 
of the United States. 

13» 



THE RECORD Of THE WBEK 

4. To the extent required by United States law, vessels 
which were made available to the Government of Yugo- 
slavia under lend-lease will be returned to the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

5. The Government of Yugoslavia, in consideration of 
supplies and services received as lend-lease, in consider- 
ation of its obligation to the Government of the United 
States for civilian supplies received as military relief, 
and in consideration of the other provisions of this 
Agreement, will pay to the Government of the United 
States the sum of 45,000,000 Yugoslav dinars, by either 
of the methods designated in subparagraphs (a) and (6) 
below, or any combination thereof, designated by the 
Government of the United States : 

(o) By delivery of title to the Government of the United 
States of such real property and improvements to real 
property in Yugoslavia for diplomatic or consular pur- 
poses, as may be selected and determined by agreement 
between the two Governments, at values or prices to be 
agreed between tlie two Governments ; 

(6) By providing to the Government of the United 
States, at such time or times and in such amounts as may 
be desired by the Government of the United States, Yugo- 
slav currency to be used for the purchase of such real 
property and improvements to real property in Yugoslavia 
for diplomatic or consular purposes or for such other ex- 
penses of United States diplomatic or consular missions, 
excepting the purchase of commodities for export, as the 
Government of the United States may desire. The Gov- 
ernment of Yugoslavia agrees that with respect to the 
Yugoslav dinars to be paid by the Government of Yugo- 
slavia as above, the Government of Yugoslavia will grant 
the Government of the United States privileges and rates 
of conversion, in tlie event of any future currency conver- 
sion, no less favorable than those granted generally to 
nationals of Yugoslavia and in no event less favorable than 
those granted to the Government of any third country. 
The Government of Yugoslavia agrees that, should any 
future currency conversion nevertheless result in inequity 
to the Government of the United States with respect to any 
amount of such Yugoslav dinars, the privileges and rates 
of conversion to be applied to such amount of Yugoslav 
dinars shall be subject to agreement between the two 
Governments. 

6. In reference to numbered paragraph .5 above, in case 
the Government of the United States wishes to acquire 
any property located in Yugoslavia, real or personal, 
tangible or intangilile. except for export, or to furnish any 
property so located, the Government of Yugoslavia will at 
any time or times, as requested by the Government of the 
United States, enter into negotiations, and use its best 
efforts consistent with public policy, to reach an agreement 
with the Government of the United States whereby there 
will be delivered to the Government of the United States 
the properties, improvements, or furnishings which the 
Government of the United States desires or its representa- 
tives have selected. Representatives of the Government 
of the United States may at their discretion conduct dis- 
cussions directly with owners of property or with contrac- 
tors for improvements or furnishings as to fair terms and 
lirices prior to the delivery of such property or improve- 
ments or furnisliings to the Government of the United 
States. 

7. The Government of Yugoslavia will process the claims 
described in the following subparagraphs (a), (&), (c), 
and ((?) and will discharge the liability with respect there- 
to of the Government of the United States and of indi- 
viduals, firms, and corporations against whom such claims 
are asserted : 

(a) Claims against the Government of the United 
States, or respecting which the ultimate liability is that 
of the Government of the United States, arising from 
maritime incidents or transactions occurring on or after 

140 



April 6, 1941 and prior to July 1, 1946, asserted in courts | 4 
of Yugoslavia or asserted anywhere by individuals, firms, ' 
and corporations, nationals of Yugoslavia at the time of 
the event giving rise to the claims. 

(b) Claims of individuals, firms and corporations domi- 
ciled in Yugoslavia at the time of the use or infringement 
giving rise to the claim against the Government of the 
United States, Its contractors or subcontractors, for royal- 
ties under contracts for the use of inventions, patented or 
unpatented, or for infringement of patent rights, in con- 
nection with war production carried on or contracted for 
on or after April 6, 1941 and prior to July 1, 194(5 by the 
Government of the United States, its contractors or sub- . 
contractors. ' 

( c ) Claims of Individuals, firms, and corporations domi- 
ciled in Yugoslavia at the time of tlie event giving rise to 
the claim against the Government of the United States 
arising out of the requisitioning on or after April 0, 1941 
and prior to July 1, 194(1 for use in the war program of 
property located in the United States in which the 
claimant asserts an interest. 

(d) Claims, whether contractual or noncontractual, of 
individuals, firms, and coiporations domiciled in Yugo- 
slavia at the time of the event giving rise to the claim 
against the Government of the United States, its agents, 
employees, and military personnel, arising out of any act 
or omission of its agents, employees, and military per- 
sonnel, both line-of-duty and non-llne-of-duty, occurring 
on or after April 6, 1941 and prior to July 1, 194C. 

8. The Government of the United States and the Gov- 
ernment of Yugoslavia, except as otherwise provided in 
this Agreement, mutually waive all claims of each against 
the other, and against agents, employees, and military 
personnel of the other, described in the following sub- 
paragraphs (a), (6), (o), (d) and (e) : 

(a) Claims arising out of lend-lease. 

(6) Claims arising out of military relief. 

(c) Claims arising out of the procurement or furnishing 
of supplies and services through any other arrangements 
on or after April 6, 1941 and prior to July 1, 1946, other 
than claims of Yugoslav nationals for services performed 
for the United States Forces while in the custody of such 
Forces and represented by military payment orders or 
certificates of credit balances issued by such Forces. 

{d) Claims arising out of the billeting of personnel on 
or after April 6, 1941 and prior to July 1. 1946. 

(e) Claims arising out of maritime collisions and other 
ocean shipping incidents and transactions occurring on or 
after April 6 1941 and prior to July 1, 1946. 

9. Nothing in this Agreement affects the obligation of 
the Government of Yugoslavia under Article IV of the 
Preliminary Agreement of July 24, 1942. 

10. To the extent that the provisions of this Agreement 
are inconsistent with those contained in any previous 
agreement, the provisions of this Agreement shall prevail. 

11. This Agreement shall be effective upon the date of 
signature. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly au- 
thorized thereto by their respective Governments, have 
signed the present Agreement. 

Done in duplicate, in the English language, at Washing- 
ton this nineteenth day of July. 1948. 

For the Government of the United States of America : 

George C. Maksiiall 

Secretary of /State 

For the Government of the Federal People's Republic of 
Yugoslavia : 

Obren Blagojevic 
Deputy Minister of Finance 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Third Currency Reform Law in Germany 



[Released to the press by the OMGDS June 26] 

The niilitiuy governors of the American, 
Frencli. and British zones announced at 1300 hours 
today (2tl June 1948) the third haw for the reform 
of the currency. 

As is already known, the first law for the reform 
of the currency was announced on 18 June; ^ and 
the second law, which did not aft'ect tlie public di- 
rectly, but which authorized the Bank Deutscher 
Laender to issue currency and limited the maxi- 
nunu amount of currency which could be issued, 
was announced on 21 June. 

The third law, which goes into effect at midnight 
on June 26, sets the rate and conditions for the ex- 
change of old money for new and also prescribes 
what must be done about old debts, contracts, wage 
scales, social insurance, other forms of insurance, 
et cetera, now that new currency' has been issued. 

In the explanation of Law Thi'ee which follows, 
the term "old money credit balances'' {Altgdd- 
guthaben) will be understood to mean the sum of 
cash surrendered and deposits reported during the 
past week by individuals and family heads on form 
A and by enterprises on form B. 

Law Three is long and complicated and is al- 
ready supplemented by three "administrative reg- 
ulations", but the following summai'y covers the 
most important points affecting the vast majority 
of the population : 

1. CoN\-ERSiON Rate: Tn principle, old money 
credit balances (which by definition include sur- 
rendered cash) reported on forms A or B will be 
converted into deutsche marks at the rate of one 
deutsche mark for every 10 old marks. However, 
the law provides for investigation of all but a mini- 
mum amount (as explained under 4) before any 
conversion takes place. 

2. Free and Blocked AcrorxTS : One half of 
the deutsche marks after conversion will be credits 
to a "free deutsche mark account" {Freikonto) 
and the other half will go into a "blocked deutsche 
mark accoimt" (Fesfko7ifo). 

Mone}- in the Freikontos may be withdrawn and 
used as soon as the financial institutions involved 
have completed the necessary clerical work. 

Military Government will issue further regula- 
tions concerning the money in the Festkontos 
within 90 days. The law makes no promises or 
predictions as to what will be done with the Fest- 

Augusl 1, 1948 



Statement by Secretary Marshall on 
Berlin Situation 

[Released to the press July 21] 

I can merely say at this time that our posi- 
tion I think is well understood. We will not 
be coerced or intimidated in any way in our 
procedures under the rights and responsibili- 
ties that we have in Berlin and generally in 
Germany. At the same time we will proceed 
to invoke every possible resource of negotia- 
tion and diplomatic procedure to reach an 
acceptable solution to avoid the tragedy of 
war for the world. But I repeat again, we 
are not going to be coerced. 



kontos. They will be released as and when eco- 
nomic conditions permit, except for those balances 
that the tax authorities have found to be of illegal 
origin. 

3. Possible Additional Claim : In addition to 
the conversion of one deutsche mark for ten old 
marks, the law provides that holders of the old 
money credit balance may at some future time be 
granted a further claim of a maximum of one 
deutsche mark for every ten old marks. 

Military Government will decide in what 
amount and in what manner this claim maj' be 
granted but only after considering the views of the 
competent German legislative bodies. The law 
does not suggest any of the forms this additional 
payment might take. 

4. Clearance by Tax Office: The currency- 
reform laws have been carefully designed to catch 
speculators and profiteers. As is already known, 
one copy each of form A and form B has been sent 
on to the appropriate tax office. However, it is 
obvious that examination of these forms in the tax 
office will take a considerable time. Therefore, 
Law Three provides that in the case of individuals 
or families who have reported on a single form A, 
5,000 reichsmarks of the total amount of the old 
money credit balance will be released for conver- 
sion immediately without clearance by the tax 
office. 

In the case of tradesmen or members of a pro- 



' BULLETIN of June 27, 1948, p. 835. 



141 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

fession, the amount which can be converted im- 
mediately will be increased to 10,000 reichsmarks, 
if the applicant produces a "provisional clearance 
certificate" from the tax office. 

In the case of enterprises, the total amount of 
the old money credit balance reported on form H 
will be released for immediate conversion it a 
provisional clearance certificate is obtained trom 
the tax office. A certificate from the labor office 
or a wage-tax declaration indicating that the en- 
terprise employs at least 20 persons will be ac- 
cepted in lieu of the provisional clearance certif- 
icate from the tax office. 

Thus an adequate supply of money will be avail- 
able immediately to meet the essential needs ot 
all citizens and keep trade and industry going, and 
a bottleneck at the tax office will be avoided. 

Under the above procedure, the tax office is also 
enabled to prevent the conversion of illegal earn- 
ino-s since the Festkontos will not be released un- 
tif the tax-office investigations are complete, re- 
gardless of whether or not tire Festkontos are 
released in principle by Military Government de- 
cision. Also, no old money credit balance which 
is not converted immediately under the above pro- 
visions can be converted before final tax-office ap- 
proval is given. mi ^ «„„ 
.5 Investigation BY Tax Office: The tax office 

will investigate on the basis of the forms A and 
B which have been submitted whether all taxes 
due have been paid. Unless otherwise provicled 
in Law Three or regulations made thereunder the 
provisions of the existing tax laws {Reichmhga- 
henordnung) will apply. If tax evasions or illegal 
transactions are discovered, a reichsmarks hue 
will be imposed. Where the tax evasion is re ated 
to illegal transactions, the fine will be so calculated 
as to amount, together with the amount of tax due, 
to a sum at least equal in reichsmarks to the 
amount gained by the offender in the illegal trans- 
actions. In other words, the tax office is m posi- 
tion to wipe out any profit made by illegal deal- 
ings In cases where reichsmark balances do not 
cover back taxes and fines, payment must be made 
in deutsche marks at the rate of one to ten or out 
of other property of the offender. 

6 Deductions for Deutsche Marks Already 
Issued: The 60 deutsche marks per capita which 
has already been given out in cash and credit to 
each member of the population must be counted 
as part of the one-for-ten conversion provided tor 
in Law Three. That is, each person who has al- 
ready drawn 40 deutsche marks and received the 
ri<rht to obtain another 20 deutsche marks later on 
is'considered to have used up the first 5i0 reidis- 
marks in his old money credit balance, (ihe 
fio-ure here is 540 instead of 600 since due allowance 
is^made for the 60 reichsmarks handed m in cash 
at the time the 60 deutsche marks per capita were 
given or credited in exchange.) 

This in effect means that those persons who have 

142 



old money credit balances of more than 540 marks j 
per person have not been given the more favorable , 
exchange rate which is reserved for persons who j 
have really small holdings of money. j 

Here is an example of how the above cfeduction [ 
is applied: Suppose that a family of five has , 
reported on its form A an old money credit balance ; 
of 10,000 reichsmarks. Five hundred forty marks 
must be deducted for each member oi the tamily, 
leaving a total of 7,300 reichsmarks. But only 
5 000 of this can be converted immediately, ihis 
conversion yields 500 deutsche marks, of which 
250 ^o into the family's Freikonto available lor 
immediate use, while the other 250 deutsche marks 
go into the family's Festkonto. The remaining 
2 300 reichsmarks can be converted m the same 
manner after final clearance by the tax office. 

Similarly, the old money credit balance of enter- 
prises will be reduced by 10 reichsmarks for every 
deutsche mark which has already been released to 
these enterprises as a temporary assistance, ihus 
an enterprise with 100 workers which has already 
received 6,000 deutsche marks (60 per worker) 
would have its old money credit balance reduced 
by 60,000 reichsmarks. 

7. Unreported Credit Balances: Old cur- 
rency credit balances which were not reported on 
form A or B by 26 June as provided in Currency 
Keform Law No. 1 cannot be converted. How- 
ever, special provision is made for prisoners of war 
who have recently returned or who will be return- 
ing in the near future and for some other excep- 
tional cases. 

8 Old Currency Credit Balances Which ami 
NOT CoN^^2RTIBLE: The old currency credit bal- 
ances of all governmental agencies, the railway 
and postal administrations, the Nsdap, the Reich, 
the Eeichsbank, et cetera, will not be converted. 
In other words, the reichsmark accounts ot these 
ao-encies will be wiped out. A reasonable one-time 
payment of new currency will be made to govern- 
mental agencies to start their operatjons. Ihe 
funds of the occupying powers, including the 
reichsmarks collected for food imports, will also 
receive this treatment. 

9 Debts: In general, reichsmark debts whicH 
were still unpaid on 21 June will be settled by the 
debtor paying to the creditor one deutsche mark 
for every 10 reichsmarks due. Should any addi- 
tional claim be allowed to holders of old money 
credit balances (AltgeUguthaben), creditors will 
be treated accordingly. Forthcoming German 
leo-islation on equalization of burdens is expected 
to'' take care of cases where the debtor makes a 
profit by virtue of the conversion of his debt from 
reichsmarks to deutsche marks. The foUowmg; 
reichsmark obligations, however, will be settled 
by the debtor paying to the creditor one deutsche 
mark for each reichsmark due : 

{a) Wages and salaries, rentals, annuities, pen- 
Deparfmenf of Sfafe BoHefin 






sions. and otlior recurrent payments coming due 
after 20 June 1948; 

(b) Obligations arising out of contracts for the 
purchase of goods or services insofar as the con- 
tracts were not fulfilled before 21 June 19-18 ; 

(c) Certain obligations arising out of settle- 
ments between partners, coheirs, married persons, 
divorced persons, and parents and children ; 

(d) All reichsmark obligations incurred on 19 
and 20 June 1948. 

Any person liable for a money debt under the pro- 
visions of (6) above may, with certain exceptions, 
withdraw from the contract at any time before 
11 July 1948. 

10. Debtors' Eelief : The law provides that the 
courts can order postponement or reduction of 
debts which the debtor cannot reasonably be ex- 
pected to pay on the date due. However, wages 
and salaries falling due after 20 May 1948 may 
not be reduced or postponed under the above pro- 
visions. 

11. Mortgage Bonds: Mortgage bonds, agricul- 
tural mortgage bonds, municipal bonds, and other 
certificates of indebtedness issued by mortgage 
banks, institutions for municipal credit, ship-mort- 
gage banks, and sinking-fund institutions will be 
converted by substituting one deutsche mark for 
every 10 reichsmarks or gold marks. 

12. Socn\L Insurance : The law states that the 
reform of social insurance shall be the respon- 
sibility of German legislative bodies. Pending 
such reform, social-insurance payments will for 
the time being be made in the same nominal 
amount in deutsche marks as was previously re- 
quired in reichsmarks. Land governments may 
alter social-insurance payments and contributions 
until the enactment of new legislation by German 
legislative bodies. 

13. Insurance Other Than Social Insurance : 
The paid-in value of life-insurance policies or in- 
surance contracts will be scaled down on the basis 
of one for ten like other private debts. In view 
of the nature of insurance this does not mean an 
automatic reduction in future benefits of as much 
as 90 percent. 

14. Adai>tation of L.\bor and Civil Service 
Legislation : Employment contracts entered into 
before 21 June 1948 which, in accordance with 
existing provisions or agreements, may be termi- 
nated only after 30 September 1948, may never- 
theless be terminated by six weeks' notice expiring 
on the day falling midway between the earliest 
permissible date for giving notice under the con- 
tract and 30 September 1948, but in any case not 
later than 31 March 1949. If the agreed salary 
amounts to more than 800 reichsmarks per month, 
the employment contract may be terminated by 
four weeks' notice expiring 30 September 1948. 

August 1, 1948 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

The Law also gives authority to (1) the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Bizonal Economic Adminis- 
tration, (2) the Bank Deutscher Laender, and (3) 
the Land governments to take such measures in the 
held of civil service law, and particularly in regard 
to pay and allowances, as may appear to them'nec- 
essary to stabilize the currency and public finances. 
This amounts to broad authority to adjust pay and 
allowances and certain other working conditions 
of practically all civil servants, including railway 
and postal employes, in the three Western Zones. 
This special authority will expire 31 March 1949. 

15. Prohibition of Budgetary Deficits: Al- 
though reichsmark balances of public authorities 
were wiped out without conversion, the law pro- 
vides that expenditures of public authorities must 
be covered by current incomes. Procurement of 
necessary funds by borrowing will be lawful only 
to the extent that loans are covered by anticipated 
future revenues. Military Government reserves to 
itself the right to intervene in budgetary matters 
if the maintenance of this principle is imperiled. 

16. Equalization of Burdens: The funds re- 
quired to carry out the equalization of burdens 
arising out of inflation ancl currency reform will 
be i^rovided by means of special levies on property, 
the receipts from which will be paid to an equaliza- 
tion fund outside the budget. Further provisions 
for the equalization of burdens are to be made in 
German legislation to be enacted by 31 December 
1948, as called for in the preamble of the first cur- 
rency-reform law. 

17. Penal Provisions : Prison terms of up to five 
years and fines of up to 50,000 deutsche marks, or 
both, are provided for persons wilfully violating 
this law. 

18. Date Effective: This law will come into 
force on 27 June 1948. 

Settlement of Lend-Lease and Reciprocal-Aid 
Accounts in the United Kingdom 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Government of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have 
reached agi'eement regarding settlement of lend- 
lease and reciprocal-aid accounts and certain fi- 
nancial claims of each Government against the 
other.^ This agreement modifies and supplements 
the specific agreements between the two Govern- 
ments signed on March 27, 1946, which imple- 
mented the joint statement of December 6, 1945, 
regarding settlement for lend-lease, reciprocal aid, 
surplus war property, and claims.'^ 



' For text of the agreement, see Department of State 
press release 566 of July 15, 1948. 

' DuLi.£TiN of Apr. 7, 1946, p. 581, and Dec. 9, 1945, p. 905. 

143 



Reference Materials to U.S. Licensed Newspapers in Germany 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
SALTZMAN AND WILLIAM BENTON 



July «?, WIS 
Dear Mk. Saltzman : 

I've been in touch with the United States dele- 
gates who shared with me the responsibility of 
representing our country at the United Nations 
Conference on Freedom of Information at Geneva 
this spring. We have developed a project on which 
we should like to have your advice and assistance. 

Those members of our delegation who had the 
opportunity to visit the U.S. Zone of Germany 
were impressed with the seriousness of the prob- 
lems faced by U.S. licensed newspapers in their 
earnest efforts to create a free German press. One 
of these problems is lack of reference materials. 

]\Ir. Harry Martin, President of the American 
Newspaper Guild, who was one of our U.S. Dele- 
gates, reported as follows: "Almost without ex- 
ception the editoi-s and their staffs said to me that 
the lack of suitable reference books is their great- 
est single handicap. The only such books left to 
our friends of the German press today are those 
which were so badly doctored by the Nazis that 
they are no longer serviceable or dependable." 

Since these German newspapers do not have the 
foreign exchange to buy reliable reference works I 
have undertaken to provide, without charge, fifty- 
one sets of the Encyclopaedia Britannica for this 
purpose. 

Joining me in sponsoring this proposed gift are 
the other five U.S. Delegates of the Geneva Con- 
ference: Mr. Sevellon Brown, Editor and Pub- 
lisher of the Providence Journal and president of 
the American Press Institute; Mr. Erwin Canham, 
editor of the Christian Science Monitor and presi- 
dent of the American Society of Newspaper Edi- 
tors; Professor Zechariah Chafee, Jr. of Harvard 
Univei'sity; Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby, executive 
vice-president of tlie Houston Post ; and Mr. Harry 
Martin of tlie Memphis Commercial Appeal, and 
president of the American Newspaper Guild. 

Our delegates were again impressed at Geneva 
with the fact that freedom of the press cannot be 
fully realized in the absence of adequate facilities. 
In their official report they stated : "Effective free- 
dom of information — with all that it connotes for 
the democratic way of life — is impossible on both 
the national and international planes in the case 
of countries suffering from crippling deficiencies 
in the sinews of communication." This reference 
book project is a token of their belief. 

144 



The fifty-one sets of the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica are intended one each for the forty-nine li- 
cense dnewspapers in the U. S. Zone ; one for Dena, 
the U.S. sponsored news agency in our zone; and 
one for the U.S. sponsored news agency in Austria. 
I am attaching a list of forty-nine newspapers 
which was currently available this spring. It is 
possible that there may have been changes since 
then, and we shall be glad to make adjustments. 

We would appreciate your comments on this 
proposal, and if you are agreeable we would be 
glad to have you or Omgus make the distribution. 
Very sincerely yours, 

William Benton, 

PubUslier 



Dear Mr. Benton : 



July 16, 191S 



I am very happy to have your letter of July 6, 
1948, describing the generous project which you 
have undertaken in association with your fellow- 
delegates to the recent United Nations Conference 
on Freedom of Information at Geneva. 

Your proposal to provide 51 sets of a reliable 
and univei*sally acceptable reference work such as 
the Encj'clopaedia Britannica for the use of jour- 
nalists in Germany and Austria will meet a need 
keenly felt by men now striving against great 
handicaps to develop a democratic press in those 
countries. It will contribute materially to the 
carrying out of the basic reorientation objective of 
our occupation policy. This is a heartening ex- 
ample of how public-spirited citizens in their 
private capacities can supplement and strengthen 
important overseas programs of our Government 
which are conducted with the necessarily limited 
public funds available for the purpose. In a wider 
sense, your project serves to demonstrate the sin- 
cere devotion of the American people to the prin- 
ciple of freedom of information, which underlies 
the public statements of our official representatives 
at international gatherings. 

I am referring a copy of your letter to the De- 
partment of the Army for their guidance in ar- 
ranging to receive this handsome gift for distribu- 
tion in the occupied areas under their jurisdiction. 
It is noted in this connection that adjustments will 
be feasible to accord with any changed circum- 

Xiepat\men\ of Stale Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 



stances since your tentative list of appropriate re- 
cipients was conipiiod. 

Tiie nei)artini'nt of State is deeply frratified to 
be infoi ineil of tliis project and conlidently believes 
that it will have the great and continuing results 
which you and your associates seek. 
Sincerely yours. 

Charles E. Saltzjian 

Assistant Secretary 

49 U.S. Zone Licensed Newspapers 

Ilaniria: 

Fnii'iikische Laiuleszeitnrig, Ansliach ; Main Echo, Ascbaf- 
feiiliurg ; Schwaebische Laiideszeitung, Augsburg ; Suedost- 
Kurier, Bad Relclienball ; Fraeukischer Tag, Bamberg; 
Fraeiikische I'resse, r.ayreutb ; Neue Presse. Cuburg ; 
Hoc'hlaiid Bote, Ganiiisch-Partcnkirchen ; Fiankeiipost, 
Hof ; Donau Kurier, Ingolstadt ; Der Allgaeurer, Kempten ; 
Isar Post, Landshut : Mueiichner ilcrkur, Munich; S'ued- 
deutsche Zeitung, Munich ; Nuevnberger Nachrichten, 
Nuremberg : Passauer Neue Presse, Passau ; Mittel- 
bayerische Zeitung. Regensburg; O'berbayerisches Volks- 
hlatt, Rosenheim ; Der Volkswille, Scliweinfurt ; Der Neue 



Tag, Weideu ; Main Post, Wucrzliui'g ; Niederliayerisehe 
Naclirichten, Straubing. 

II esse: 

Darmstaedter Fclio, H;innstadt; Frankfurter ?\eiie Presse, 
Frankfurt; Fiardcfui'ter Rundschau, Frankfurt; Fuldaer 
Volkzeituug, Fulda ; Giessener Freie Presse, Giessen ; 
Hessische Nachricliten, Kassel ; Kasseler Zeitung, Kassel ; 
Offenbach Post, Offenbach; Warburger Presse, Marburg; 
Wetzlarer Neue Zeitung, Wetzlar; Wiesbadener Kurier. 
Wiesbaden ; Werra Rundschau, Eschucge. 

Wuerttcmhcrff-Iliiflcn: 

Neue Wuerttembergische Zeitung, Goeppingen ; Rhein 
Neckar Zeitunu', Hcidellierg; Heillironner Stinime. H;il- 
bronn ; Badisclie Neueste Nachrichten, Karlsruhe ; Der 
Mannheinier Morgen, Mannlieiin ; Sueddeutsi-lie AIl- 
genielne, Pforzheim ; Das Wuerttembergische Zeit Echo, 
Schwaebisch-Hall; Htuttgarter Nachrichten, Stuttiiart; 
Stuttgarter Zeitung, Stuttgart ; Fraenkische Nachrichten, 
Tauberbischofsheim ; Schwaebische Donau Zeitung, Ulm. 

Brrliti: 

Der Tagesspiegel, Berlin ; Der Abend, Berlin. 

Bremen: 

Weser Kurier, Bremen ; Nordsee Zeitung, Bremerhaven. 



Hungary Assures U.S. That Bts Citizens Are f^ot Restricted in 
Listening to Voice of America 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE U.S. AND HUNGARY 



[Released to the press July 22] 

July 20, 194S 
The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to the Charge d'Atfaires ad interim of Hungary 
and acknowledges the receipt of the Legation's 
note Xo. ;3330/194S of July U, 1948, concerning a 
recent statement by the Assistant Secretary of 
State for Public Affairs regarding persons in 
Hungary who listen to "Voice of America" broad- 
casts.^ 

The Secretary of State welcomes particularly 
the statement, in the note luider reference, that 
there are no legal or police restrictions in Hungary 
against any citizens listening to American broad- 
casts and that no one has been persecuted or ar- 
rested there for listening to American or any other 
broadcasts. The Government of the United States 
is convinced that the peoples of the world must be 
permitted to obtain news from a multiplicity of 
sources both within and outside their national 
boundaries, if they are to be able to judge for them- 
selves the truth or falsehood of the information 
they read or hear. 

As the United States Delegation emphasized at 
the recent conference on Freedom of Information 
at Geneva, "Freedom to Listen" has become a car- 
dinal requirement in the modern world. The Gov- 
ernment of the United States is led to assume, 
from the Legation's statement, that the Hungarian 

Aogosf J, ?948 



Government intends to give effect to this principle. 
The American public had gained a contrary im- 
pression regarding the Hungarian Government's 
attitude on this point, not only from reports re- 
ceived from Hungary but also from the tenor of 
statements appearing in the Hungarian press it- 
self. The Secretary of State therefore welcomes 
the Legation's affirmation that these impressions 
are unfounded. 

The Secretary of State also notes the Legation's 
categoric denial of recent articles in American 
newspapers including a report alleging that col- 
lectivization of land in Hungary is imminent and, 
in this connection further, the Legation's refer- 
ence to explicit declarations by the Hungarian 
Government on several occasions that it has not the 
remotest intention of introducing this measure in 
Hungary. 

In the light of the considerations stated above, 
the Government of the United States believes that 
public understanding both here and in Hungary 
will be served by the release of this correspondence 
to the press and that free peoples everywhere will 
observe attentively the support which the Hiin- 
garian Government gives in the future to the prin- 
ciple of "Freedom to Listen". 



' Bulletin of .July IS, 104S, p. 91. 



145 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

A copy of this communication is being trans- 
mitted to the Hungarian Government through the 
American Legation in Budapest, which is in re- 
ceipt of a note from the Hungarian Foreign Office 
on the same subject. 

Department of State, 
Washington 

July H, 194s 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
presents his compliments to the Honorable the 
Secretary of State and upon instructions received 
from his Government has the honor to draw his 
attention to the following: 

On July 10, 1948 several newspapers in the 
United States published a statement made by Mr. 
George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for 
Public Affairs in which he denounced the Govern- 
ment of Hungary for arresting and charging per- 
sons for listening to broadcasts of the "Voice of 
America". 

In the above mentioned statement Mr. Allen 
himself admits that there exist "no legal or police 
restrictions against listening to American broad- 
casts'' in Hungary but he maintains "that these 
measures take the form of arrest of persons on 
charges of inciting against Hungarian democracy. 
The police cite as one of the evidences of guilt, 
the fact that the persons arrested have listened to 
'Voice of America' broadcasts". 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
deeplj' regrets that he has to denounce the state- 
ment of Mr. Allen as being entirely mistaken and 
not covering the facts. The situation in Hungary 
is that not only are there no legal or police re- 
strictions against any citizens listening to Ameri- 
can broadcasts in Hungarj' but never has anybody 
been persecuted or arrested in Hungary for lis- 
tening to American or any other broadcasts. In 
fact the Hungarian police have never detained 
anybody with the charge that he or she listened to 
American broadcasts. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
has no doubts that in accordance with Paragraph 
B, of the Presidential Executive Order of March 
8, 1927 the appropriate United States diplomatic 
representatives in Budapest have been keeping 
the American Government promptly and accur- 
ately informed" of the situation as it existed in 
Hungary and in their reports have given a denial 
to Mr. Allen's statement to that effect. 

It goes without saying, however, that police in 
Hungary will detain and prosecute anybody who 
incites against Hungarian democracy according to 
the law voted by the Hungarian Parliament which 
was duly elected by the free will of the Hungarian 
people. This is a primary duty of Hungarian 
policemen entrusted with the peaceful enforce- 
ment of the law. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
has no doubts that the Honorable Assistant Secre- 
tary does not wish Hungarian law enforcing of- 

146 



ficers to disobey the laws entrusted to them by 
the democratic Government of Hungary as this 
would indeed, present a serious case of interference 
by a foreign government official of high standing 
into the internal affairs of a sovereign nation with 
which the United States maintains peaceful and 
orderly diplomatic relations. Furthermore, the 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary has no 
doubt that the Assistant Secretary does not wish 
to induce the responsible Government of Hungary 
to the infringement of the fulfilling of the obli- 
gations as imposed by the Peace Treaty which was 
agreed upon by the Allied Powers after their joint 
victory over Nazism and Fascism. This Treaty, 
to the enforcement of which the United States 
assumed a commitment of support, clearly indi- 
cates that one of the primary duties of the respon- 
sible democratic Government as set forth, is to 
"uproot and abolish the existing renmants of no- 
torious prewar and wartime Hungarian reaction- 
ary Fascist regimes. These remnant elements are a 
constant threat to world peace by their spreading 
of war propaganda and inciting hatred between 
peaceful nations. Thus the Hungarian law prose- 
cuting them evolved from the necessity of a crucial 
situation in the development of Hungarian democ- 
racy, and constitutes merely an exercise in the right 
of self-defense of a sovereign, democratic 
government. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary, 
however, concedes that it is a most regrettable 
occurrance that the persons on whose recent ar- 
rests Mr. Allen has based his above-quoted state- 
ment, when detained for spreading the rumor that 
the dropping of atomic bombs over Hungary is 
only a matter of a few weeks, claimed that it was 
the "Voice of America" broadcasts which bore di- 
rectly on their actions. 

Hungarian law enforcement officers commend- 
ably fulfilling their duty, cannot by any means be 
made responsible for the fact that persons in de- 
tention i-efer the general pi'ospect of an atomic war 
to broadcasts which are headed by Mr. George V. 
Allen. 

Mr. Allen, referring to the new broadcasts of 
the "Voice of America" says that they "are factual, 
objective reports such as the American public reads 
and listens to daily in American newspapers and 
radio broadcasts". 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
takes this occasion to declare that in connection 
with events in Hungai'y in the course of the last 
few weeks several newspapers in the United States 
have published statements which were not only far 
from being "factual" and "objective" but were in 
their entirety, contrary to truth and misinformed 
the United States public about the actual situation 
in Hungary. They are in a direct contradiction to 
the principle of the First President of the United 
States who said that "It is essential that public 
opinion should be enlightened". 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Eeference has to be made to the report of Mr. 
Jolin MacCormac of the July 1, 19-18 issue of the 
New York Times in whicli he writes about collec- 
tivization of the land as about to be introduced in 
Hunijarv whereas the truth is that the present 
Hun^Mrian Government on several occasions ex- 
plicitly declared that it had not the remotest in- 
tention of introducing this measure in Hungary. 
In the same connection reference has to be macle 
to certain reports published in numerous American 
newspaj)ers concerning Hungarian monks and 
nuns fleeing the country because they do not want 
to serve in the nationalized schools whereas the 
truth is that most of the teachers of religious 
schools, monks and nuns included, are willing to 
continue their work in the schools and at the 
present time are engaged in negotiations with the 
Government through their representative com- 
mittee of four outstanding Catholic religious lead- 
ers, discussing the details of the transition of 
schools unto government control. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Hungary 
wishes to express his thanks and appreciation for 
the good office of the Honorable Secretary of State. 

The Honorable 
George C. Marshall 
Secretary of iState 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Voice of America Broadcasts Strengthened in 
Europe Through New Relay 

[Released to the press July 18] 

Inauguration of a new relay of Voice of Amer- 
ica broadcasts by the British Broadcasting Cor- 
poration was announced on July 18 by the State 
Department. 

The news service, which goes into effect on July 
18, is provided for in agreements recently nego- 
tiated between BBC and the State Department. 
It contemplates the use of five additional trans- 
mitters to increase the BBC relays of Voice of 
America broadcasts from the present three hours 
to nine hours a day. 

George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State 
for public affairs, said the increased relaj' service 
was undertaken to improve the signal of Voice 
of America broadcasts to Europe and to insure 
a larger listening audience in this vital target 
area. 

As in the past, the BBC relays will include long, 
medium, and shortwave broadcasts. They will 
be in addition to the eight hours daily now re- 
layed by the State Department's European relay 
base in Munich. 



U.S. Proposals Regarding Resumption of^Delivery of 
Electric Power to South Korea 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN GENERAL HODGE AND GENERAL MERKULOV 



[Released to the press July 23] 

GemralJohn R. Hodge, Commander of U.S. Army 
Forces in Korea, to General Merktdov 

July 12, 19Jf8. 

This is to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
25 June 1948, which was delivered to me in Seoul 
on 2 July. 

As I have often stated in the past, the Ameri- 
can command in Korea would welcome the oppor- 
tunity to reach settlement for all electric power 
hitherto received from northern Korea, and to 
come to a mutually satisfactoi-y agreement relat- 
ing to future deliveries of electric power. The 
American position in this matter has been clearly 
set forth by the United States Government note of 
29 June 1948 ^ to the Soviet Government, which 
says, in part : "It is the view of this government 
that so long as Soviet forces remain in occupation 
of North Korea, the Soviet command cannot divest 
itself unilaterally of its responsibilities, including 
the responsibility incurred under the agreement 

Augosf ?, ?948 



of June 17, 1947. Should the Soviet command 
persist in refusing to maintain an adequate flow 
of electric power to South Korea, the people of 
that area will thereby be subjected to unwarranted 
hardships." 

Following directive of the American command 
in past power negotiations, I expect to designate 
qualified Koreans to participate in any future 
negotiations on the power question. Similarly, it 
is acceptable to the American command if the So- 
viet command wishes to designate certain Koreans 
to act as its authorized representatives in accepting 
commodities transferred in payment for power 
under the 17 June 1947 agreement, and to partici- 
pate in any further negotiations regarding electric 
power. 

In order to promote the best interests of the 
Korean people, both north and south of the thirty- 
eighth parallel, I propose the following: 



' BuixETiN of .July 11, 1948, p. 50. 



147 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

1. Immediate resumption of the flow of electric 
power from northern to southern Korea. 

2. Simultaneous dispatch of representatives of 
Soviet command to Seoul to accept delivery of the 
first of many train-loads of valuable electrical 
equipment and other commodities, which were 
ordered on world markets to meet the requirements 
specified by the Soviet command. 

3. Concurrent dispatch to Seoul of fully author- 
ized representatives of the Soviet command, or 
agents designated and properly accredited by the 
Soviet command with full powers to act in their 
behalf, for the purpose of concluding a settlement 
for electric power received after 31 May 1947, and 
of reaching an agi-eement regarding payment for 
electric power to be received during the remainder 
of the occupation. 

General Serafi'm Petrovich Merkuloi\ Commander 
of Soviet Army Forces in Korea, to General Hodge 

June 26, 194S 

I confirm having received your letter of June 
12, 1948.= I informed the North Korea Peoples 
Committee of your proposal that the American 
Military Government in South Korea will offer 
commodities to North Korea in compensation for 
the electric power supplied. 

The North Korean Peoples Committee informed 
me that immediately the American Military Gov- 
ernment pays for the electric power supplied to 
South Korea for the period from August 15, 1945, 
through June 1947, which was to have been paid 
in full by December 17, 1947, under provisions of 
the agreement dated June 14, 1947, it will resume 
supplying electric power to South Korea. 

In view of your statement that the commodities 
to be sent to North Korea in payment of the elec- 
tric power supplies are already in Seoul ware- 
houses, tlie North Korean Peoples Committee has 
decided to dispatch its representatives to Seoul to 
take delivery of the said commodities, when the 
American Military Government in South Korea 
will have a satisfactory opportunity to pay for 
the electric power supplies, and at the same time, 
to reach an agreement on the electric power to be 
supjilied to South Korea in future. 

With regard to your proposal for holding a par- 
ley in connection with the payment for electric 
power supplies to South Korea, as I have informed 
you already on several occasions, negotiations on 
tliis matter will have to be conducted with the 
North Korean Peoples Committee. I am well 
aware of the fact tliat the proposal for the Peoples 
Committee to initiate sucli negotiations already 
was submitted to you in March this year. 

I am convinced that if you accept the afore- 
mentioned proposal of the North Korean Peoples 
Committee, the question of electric power supply 
to South Korea will be settled at an early date. 



'Not printed. 



148 



Procedure for Filing Claims With Finland 

[Released to the press July 15] 

The Department is in receipt of a note from the 
Finnish Legation which reads in part as follows 

"On April 23, 1948, the President of the Ee- 
public of Finland signed a law concerning com- 
pensation for losses caused by transferring of Ger- 
man proi:)erty in Finland to the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. On the basis of this law the 
Ministry of Finance gave on April 30, 1948 a 
decision according to which compensation for 
losses mentioned in said law are to be claimed in 
writing to the Ministry of Finance on or before 
June 30, 1948 or in case the permanent domicile or 
residence of the party entitled to compensation is 
outside Finland, on or before August 31, 1948. 
It is further stipulated in the decision that the 
parties entitled to compensation domiciled or re- 
siding abroad may within the time last mentioned 
above either deliver in person or send by mail the 
application for compensation to the Finnish Lega- 
tions or to Consulates, the Chiefs of which are 
career officers." 

The Department of State is seeking further in- 
formation concerning the scope of the legislation 
involved but considers it desirable in the meantime 
to publisli the information in view of the short 
time for filing claims. The offices in the United 
States which may receive such claims are the 
Legation of Finland, 2144 Wyoming Avenue, 
Washington, D.C., and the Finnish Consulate Gen- 
eral, 53 Broadway, New York City. 

It is suggested that American claimants inform 
the Dejiartment of any claims which they may file 
under the above legislation. 

Belgium and Czechoslovakia Make Payments 
on Surplus-Property Credits 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The Department of State announced July 7 that 
the following payments have been received on U.S. 
war-surplus credit accounts : 

Belgium has paid the sum of $436,699.32 in prin- 
cipal and interest on its surplus credit account. 

Czechoslovakia has paid the sum of $182,164.03 
in interest on its credit account. Both payments 
were made to the Paris office of the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner, Department of State, 
on July 1, 1948, the date tliey fell due. 

The Belgian payment marks the second install- 
ment on tlie account. Of the $436,699.32 paid, 
appro.ximately $118,000.00 was interest and the 
remainder principal. 

The Czechoslovak interest payment is also the 
second paid on the account. Principal is not due 
until 1951. Both Belgium and Czechoslovak 
agreements provide interest at 2% percent with 
annual payments over a 30-year period. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Adherence to Genera! Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: Brazil, Burma, 
Ceylon, New Zealand, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon 



The President on July 15, 1948, issued a procla- 
mation putting into effect as of July 30 and 31 the 
tariff concessions in schedule XX of tlie General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated October 30, 

1947, of primary interest to Ceylon and Lebanon 
and to Brazil and New Zealand, respectively.' 

The President's action followed receipt of infor- 
mation that the first two countries signed the pro- 
tocol of provisional application of the general 
agreement on June 29, 1948, and that the latter two 
signed on June 30, 1948. The proclamation also 
states that Burma signed the protocol on June 29, 

1948, and that Pakistan and Syria signed on June 
30, 1948. Pursuant to the provisions of the proto- 
col, each of these countries will become a contract- 
ing party to the agreement on the expiration of 30 
days from the date of its signature. 

The general agreement was entered into by the 
United States last October 30 at Geneva with 22 
other countries. Application of it by the seven 
countries named brings to 22, out of the total 23, 
the number of negotiating countries applying the 
agreement. Chile, the remaining country, has 
asked for an extension of time in which to sign the 
protocol. In the case of six of the countries which 
have just adhered to the agreement, the event also 
marks the first entry into force of a trade agree- 
ment with the United States, Brazil being the only 
one of the seven which already had a trade agree- 
ment with this country. The earlier trade agree- 
ment with Brazil will be inoperative while both 
the United States and Brazil are contracting 
parties to the Genei-al Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. 

Under the general agreement, the seven coun- 
tries will malve effective a wide range of tariff con- 
cessions benefiting the trade of the United States. 
Moreover, these coTOitries, along with the other 
contracting parties, commit themselves to limita- 
tions with respect to the application of quotas, 
import restrictions, valuation for customs pur- 
poses, and the conduct of state trading. These 
provisions give important assurance that the trade 
of the United States will be accorded fair treat- 
ment. The United States on its part negotiated 
tariff concessions affecting a substantial volume of 
trade with all of the seven countries. The re- 
ciprocal benefits in the case of each of these 
countries are summarized below. 

Augosf I, 1948 



Brazil 

In the general agreement Brazil granted con- 
cessions on products of primary interest to the 
United States representing aboiit $30,500,000 in 
terms of 1938 imports from the Unitetl States, or 
about one half of Brazil's total imports from the 
United States in that year. 

The Brazilian duties used as a basis for negotia- 
tion were rates adjusted upwards by 40 percent un- 
der a plan consented to by the negotiators for the 
general adjustment of the Brazilian tariff designed 
to deal with changes in the value of the Brazilian 
currency and in the Brazilian price level. Con- 
cessions granted by Brazil consisted of reductions 
and bindings of adjusted duties and bindings on 
the free list. On the basis of 1938 figures, about 
60 percent of United States export trade covered 
by Brazilian concessions (over $17,000,000 out of 
$30,500,000) will be dutiable at rates equivalent 
to less than 10 percent ad valorem on the basis of 
1943 values; about $5,000,000 more of that trade 
will be dutiable at between 10 and 20 percent ad 
valorem; and another $3,500,000 will be subject to 
rates between 20 and 30 percent ad valoiem. In 
addition, nearly $2,500,000 in trade is assured a 
continuance of the present duty-free treatment. 

Reductions in pre-agreement duty rates were 
granted by Brazil on a number of items of inqwr- 
tance to the United States such as powdered milk, 
walnuts in the shell, canned fruit, radio tubes, coal- 
tar dyes, paraffin, turpentine, certain automobile 
parts, steel safes, cameras, ready-made woven cot- 
ton clothing (except shirts and drawers), and 
bituminous coal. The bindings granted on the ad- 
justed tariff rates, or reductions therefrom, include 
such items as barbed wire, airplanes and parts, 
most trucks, power pumps, motion-picture films, 
photographic films and plates, steam boilers, power 
excavators and dredgers, pneumatic and electric 
tools, automatic refrigerators, most household 
machinery and appliances, calculating machines, 
linotypes and other typographical machines, and 
passenger automobiles. 

The concessions made by the United States in the 
general agreement on products of pi-imary interest 
to Brazil represent in terms of 1939 trade about 
$100,200,000. Of this total, duty-free imports, on 



' Proclamation 2798, 1.3 Fed. Rc(r. 4057. 



149 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

which bindings were granted, accounted for $93,- 
100,000, a large part of which consists of coffee. 
The dutiable imports amounted to $7,100,000. The 
principal items in this category, on which bindings 
of existing rates or reductions therefrom were 
granted, include Brazil nuts, castor oil, manganese 
ore of more than 35 percent manganese content, 
mica, unmanufactured, valued above 15 cents a 
pound, cocoa butter, animal glues valued at less 
than 40 cents a pound, caffeine, theobromine, nat- 
ural menthol, dried bananas, and various hardwood 
limiber items. 

Burma 

Items of principal interest to the United States 
on which Burma made concessions are canned 
milk, canned or bottled fruits and vegetables, lu- 
bricating oil, various chemicals, drugs and medi- 
cines, machinery, and typewriters. Because of its 
dollar shortage, the Government of Burma has 
restricted imports from hard-currency areas to 
those items which are most essential to its economic 
reconstruction program. It is expected that most 
dollar exchange will therefore be reserved for capi- 
tal goods, particularly communications equipment, 
power equipment, mining and textile machinery, 
and other industrial materials for the rehabilita- 
tion of key industries. 

United States concessions from which Burma 
will benefit include those on tungsten, nickel and 
alloys, copper and manufactures, and cei'tain hides 
and skins. 



Ceylon 

Under the general agreement Ceylon granted 
concessions on products of primary interest to the 
United States which in terms of 1939 imports from 
the United States represented more than $844,000. 
The United States will also benefit from additional 
Ceylonese concessions negotiated with other coun- 
tries at Geneva, imports of which into Ceylon from 
the United States amounted to $93,000 in 1939. 
These concessions were given in the form of re- 
ductions in the rates of cfuty, bindings against in- 
crease of existing moderate rates of duty, a bind- 
ing of the duty-free status of one item, and a re- 
duction in the margin of preference on another. 
Ceylonese concessions of principal interest to the 
United States were on apples and other fresh fruit, 
dried and canned fruit, condensed milk and milk 
foods, tobacco, machinery, radios, refrigerators, 
typewriters, paints, drugs, and medicines. 

United States tariff concessions on products of 
interest to Ceylon apply to imports from Ceylon 
which amounted to $20,788,000 in 1939. These con- 
cessions consisted of reductions in and bindings 
of rates of duty on imports from Cevlon in 1939 
valued at $162,000, and the binding of the duty- 
free status of imports from Ceylon which 
amounted to $20,626,000 in 1939. United States 

150 



concessions of interest to Ceylon are on graphite, 
coconut oil, desiccated coconut, coir fiber, rubber, 
tea, cinnamon, and citronella oil. 

New Zealand 

New Zealand granted concessions on products of 
interest to the United States representing about 
$12,896,000 in terms of 1939 trade. These con- 
cessions were given in the foi'm of reductions in 
the rates of duty, bindings against increase of 
moderate rates of duty, reductions in the margin 
of preference, the elimination of certain margins 
of preference, and bindings of duty-free status. 
Some of the products falling into these categories 
are as follows: raisins, citrus fruits, certain 
canned fruits, agricultural machinery, automo- 
biles, tractors, machine tools, office machinery, 
tobacco, motorcycles, cinema films, and surgical 
appliances. New Zealand eliminated preferences 
on 11 items accounting for $2,631,000 of New Zea- 
land imports from the United States in 1939, 
namely: cigarettes, tobacco for cigars and ciga- 
rettes, grapes, and lemons (except for South 
Africa) , canned prunes, sausage casings, furs, re- 
frigerating apparatus, adding and computing 
machines. 

The concessions on products of interest to New 
Zealand made by the United States apply to com- 
modities valued at $9,690,000 in terms of 1939 
trade. United States tariff reductions apply to a 
total of $1,579,000; bindings against increase of 
certain duties, to $2,149,000; and bindings on the 
free list, to $5,962,000. Among the products of 
interest to New Zealand on which the United States 
reduced or bound its duties are butter, beef, veal, 
mutton, certain grass seeds, and apparel wools. 
The bindings of duty-free status apply to the fol- 
lowing products of interest to New Zealand : sheep 
and lamb skins, sausage casings, coney and rabbit 
furs, and New Zealand fiber. 

Pakistan 

In the general agreement Pakistan granted 
concessions on several important United States ex- 
port products among which are dried and con- 
densed milk, certain canned fruits and vegetables, 
drugs, oil crushing and refining machinery, type- 
writers and office machinery, agricultural machin- 
ery and tractors, radios, and automobiles. These 
concessions were in the form of reductions in the 
rates of duty, bindings against increase of existing 
duties, bindings of the duty-free status, and reduc- 
tions in the margin of preference. Pakistan is an 
important source of United States imports of bad- 
minton and tennis rackets, carpet wools, wool rugs, 
and raw jute, items on which the United States 
granted concessions in the agreement. Since 
Pakistan achieved Dominion status only on August 
15, 1947, there are no prewar trade figures available 
on either the quantity or value of our trade with 
Pakistan. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Syro-Lebanese Customs Union 

In the goncml agreement, Syria and Lebanon 
granted tariff concessions on products of interest 
to tlie United States rejjresenting approximately 
$1,784,000 in terms of 1!);!8 trade, or 63 percent of 
total imports into Syria and Lebanon from this 
country in that year. Tlie duties were reduced on 
28 items, bounil against increase on 17, and bound 
free on three. The items of principal interest to 
the United States are passenger automobiles, tires 
and tubes, machine tools, otiice machines, batteries, 
dentifrices, and prunes. Among the concessions 
made by Syria and Lebanon was an undertaking 
to eliminate the differential dut}' treatment under 
which much higher duties have been imposed on 



THE RECORD Of THE WBBK 

heavy passenger automobiles, which are imported 
chiefly from the United States, than on lighter 
automobiles, wliich are imported chiefly from 
countries other than the United States, and to pro- 
vide a uniform rate for all such automobiles. 

The concessions on products of interest to Syria 
and Lebanon made by the United States in the 
general agreement apply to commodities which 
represented approximately $1,778,000 in terms of 
1938 trade, or 72 percent of United States imports 
from Syria and Lebanon in tliat year. Reductions 
were granted on apricots, apricot pulp, chickpeas, 
Latakia-type tobacco, pistachio nuts, and thyme 
leaves. The duty-free entry of carpet wools, lico- 
rice root, and sausage casings was bound against 
change. 



Fourth Semiannual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission Released 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House July 24] 

Today tlie fourth semiannual report of the 
Atomic Energj' Commission is made public, al- 
most on the eve of the second anniversary of the 
Atomic Energy- Act of 1946. Every thoughtful 
person shoukl become familiar with tliis report. 
Atomic energy is not only the Government's busi- 
ness; it is the vital concern of every citizen. 

Two years have elapsed since the Atomic Energy 
Act became law, and it is now possible to see in 
true perspective tlie wisdom of that legislation. 
Rarely has the writing of a statute so challenged 
this nation's political courage and integrity. 
Never before has a nation victorious in war, and 
unequaled in power, demonstrated more concretely 
its devotion to peace and social progress. 

The Atomic Energy Act stands upon four policy 
points. The first is that since a free society places 
the civil authority above tlie military power, the 
control of atomic energy properlj' belongs in ci- 
vilian hands. The second is that until the tech- 
nolog}- of atomic energy is better understood and 
safeguards are devised to reduce the hazards of 
its use, the normal role of private enterprise in 
the development of a natural resource must be 
restrained, and public ownBrship maintained. The 
third point is that until controls are established 
on the international level to prevent the military 
use of atomic energj', we cannot, as a nation, af- 
ford to disclose the secrets which make this new 
force the most deadly form of military weapon. 
The fourth policy point is that we must not relax 
our efforts to probe deeper into the facts of nature 
to derive increasing knowledge of atomic energy, 
botli to supplement our defenses and to open new 
opportunities for peaceful progress. 

As to tlie first of these principles, I have con- 
cerned myself, since becoming President, with 

August I, 1948 



the difficult problem of balancing the civilian and 
military interests in atomic energy. It was my 
grave responsibility to make the decision which 
resulted in the first use of atomic weapons in time 
of war. Ever since that time, I have sought to 
eliminate atomic weapons as instruments of war, 
by seeking througli the United Nations to put the 
control of the dangerous aspects of atomic energy 
beyond the reach of any individual nation. At the 
same time, without losing hope of achieving in- 
ternational control, I have directed that every ef- 
fort be made toward maintaining the leading posi- 
tion of the United States in the knowledge of 
nuclear energy and its military applications. 

Today we possess powerful atomic weapons. 
The recent tests conducted jointly by the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the armed services in the 
Pacific have demonstrated beyond any question 
that our position in the field of atomic weapons 
has been substantially improved. Such advances 
vindicate the faith of the American people in the 
principle of civilian control of atomic energy. 

The progress which has been achieved under the 
present allocation of responsibilities is itself 
strong proof of the capacity of civilians and mili- 
tary men to work together in common cause. 

As President of the United States. I regard the 
continued control of all aspects of the atomic- 
energy program, including research, development, 
and the custody of atomic weapons, as the proper 
functions of the civil authorities. Congress has 
recognized that the existence of this new weapon 
places a grave responsibility on the President as to 
its use in the event of a national emergency. There 
must, of course, be very close coo]ipration between 
the civilian commission and the Military Estab- 
lishment. Both the military authorities and the 
civilian commission deserve high commendation 

151 



THE RECORD Of THB WBBK 

for the joint efforts which they are putting for- 
ward to maintain our nation's leadership in tliis 
vital work. 

The Government of the United States holds in 
trust all our fissionable materials and production 
facilities. These are being used, on an increasing 
scale, to speed the discovery of applications of 
atomic energy to industry, agriculture, and public 
health. The Atomic Energy Commission reports 
that recent experiments hold out the promise of 
more efficient production on the farm and in the 
factory and of an increase of mechanical and 
human energy for doing the world's work. While 
this program is directed by an agency of the Gov- 
ernment, the plants and laboratories are operated 
by leading industrial and research organizations 
through contracts with the Federal Government. 
I hope that, in due course, the Government will be 
able to permit greater participation by private 
industry in the development of atomic energy. 
"When that time arrives, our industries and re- 
search organizations will be well prepared to carry 
forward the applications of atomic energy which 
will provide better living and better health for our 
people. 



Secrecy is always distasteful to a free people. 
In scientific research, it is a handicap to produc- 
tivity. But our need for security in an insecui-e 
world compels us, at the present time, to maintain 
a high order of secrecy in many of our atomic- 
energy undertakings. 

V/hen the imtions of the world are prepared to 
join with us in the international control of atomic 
energy^ this requirement of secrecy xoiU disappear. 
Our Government has sought, through its repre- 
sentatives on the United Nations Atomic Energy 
Commission, to find a common basis for under- 
standing with the other member nations. How- 
ever, the uncompromising refusal of the Soviet 
Union to participate in a workable control system 
has thus far obstructed progress. 

The Atomic Energy Act has stood the test of 
two years of administration. There is no reason 
to question the sound basis on which it rests. In 
two years, the world has found no ready answers to 
the problem of war and peace. Atomic energy, 
therefore, remains a fearful instrument of destruc- 
tion and a wonderful invitation to progress 
through peace. 



Proposed Amendments by the President to the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 



[Released to the press by the White House July 23] 

The President has completed the amendments 
which he will recommend that the Congress, dur- 
ing the forthcoming special session, make to the 
law for the immigration of displaced persons, 
passed by the Congress at the end of the last ses- 
sion. In general, the amendments he will propose 
follow the lines of the statement he issued on 
June 25, when he signed this law.^ 

The amendments which the President will pro- 
pose include the following : 

(1) The elimination of all features of the law 
whose effect is to discriminate by reason of race or 
religion. The chief discrimination of this sort is 
the date limitation introduced into the law. It 
now provides that, except for the recent Czech 
i-efugees, no displaced person or refugee can im- 
migrate under this law unless he had arrived in the 
western zones of Germany or Austria or in Italy, 
by December 22, 1945. Since most of the Jewish 
displaced persons took refuge in the western zones 
of Germany and Austria and in Italy after that 
date and since that limitation also bars Catholic 
refugees from Yugoslavia and elsewhere who es- 
caped after that date, the President proposes a 
substitute date — one urged by advocates of this 
legislation originally — April 21, 1947. 

Other provisions of the present law which the 
President regards as discriminatory would also be 
eliminated by other amendments he is proposing. 

' Public Law 774, 80th Cong., 2d sess. 
152 



(2) The law as passed by the Congress contains 
certain features which make it difficult of admin- j 
istration. Certain provisions require the submis- i 
sion of certain types of data and the making of 
certain kinds of arrangements in advance of the 
granting of visas to displaced persons — conditions 
so rigidly framed that it will be very difficult for 
the displaced persons to comply with them. The 
result may be that instead of immigration in the 
numbers fixed by the bill only a considerably re- 
duced number can come in at all. 

For example, there is a provision in regard to 
having a job prior to arrival. Tlie President be- 
lieves that the various social, welfare, and religious 
groups which will handle the problem in the 
United States will be in a position to solve all such ■ 
questions effectively and that it is both sound and 
wise to place confidence in the fairness of the re- 
ligious and welfare groups and in their ability to , 
do the job well. The representatives of many of i 
them have indicated that they can solve the diffi- 1 
culties confronting displaced persons on their ar-- 
rival in this country but that it will be extremely 
difficult to proceed under the restrictive provisions 
unnecessarily introduced into the law at the last 
session. 

(3) The President will propose an amendment 
to eliminate the so-called "Mortgaging of the' 
Future Quotas" provision. Under this provision, 
future generations of prospective and desirablel 
immigrants seeking to enter the United States un- 
der the regular immigration quotas will be penal- 

Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bu//efin 



ized and will be uiiiible to iiiimigrate into the 
United States. This penalty will apply for many 
years. For example, in the case of immigrants 
seeking to come from Poland, the penalty will 
run for almost an entire generation and in the 
case of innnigrants seeking to enter from the Bal- 
tic countries the penalty will be in effect for 100 
years or more. 

(4) The President will propose an amendment 
increasing the number of disphiced persons who 
may enter under this emergency bill, from 202,000 
in two years, the figure in the present law, to ap- 
proximately 402,000 in four years. This larger 
ligiu'e has been supported by experts ever since 
this subject was broached. 

Cultural Leaders Awarded Grants-in-Aid 

Chile 

Jorge Ugarte Vial, Director of the Library of 
the National Congress of Chile, has arrived in 
Washington for a three months' visit to consult 
with officials of the Library of Congress and to 
study the Legislative Reference Service of the 
Library. His visit has been arranged under the 
travel-grant program of the Department of State 
lin cooperation with the Library of Congress. 

Cuba 

Dr. Julian B. Acuna, head of the department of 
botany of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, arrived in Wash- 
ington June 28 for a three months' visit in this 
country in connection with a fiber-research project 
on which the United States and the Cuban station 
are collaborating. He will spend several days in 
consultation with officials of the Department of 
Agriculture before beginning a trip to various 
other cities to confer with fiber-research agi'ono- 
'nists, breeders, and engineers. His visit has been 
facilitated through a grant-in-aid from the De- 
)artment of State, awarded at the request of the 
department of Agriculture. 

VIexico 

Fernando Obregon Fernandez, chief of the tech- 
ncal office of the Directorate General of Fisheries 
uid Allied Industries of the Ministrv of Marine 
>t Mexico, arrived in Washington June 28 for a 
hi-ee months' visit under the travel-grant program 
't the Department of State in cooperation with the 
ntenor Department. 

Rafael Orellana, archeologist of the National In- 
titute of Anthropology and professor of anthro- 
lological sciences at the National University of 
lexico. has arrived in Washington to spend three 
ugusf J, 7948 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

months in this country visiting museums, and con- 
ferring with other experts in his field. 

Mr. Orellana, whose visit has been arranged 
under the travel-grant program of tlie Department 
of State m cooperation with the National Gallery 
of Art, plans to spend two months in Washington, 
at the end of which time he will go to New York 
for further conferences and observation at the 
iVIetropolitan and Brooklyn Museums, returning 
to Mexico in October. 

United States 

Dr. Harvey L. Johnson, associate professor of 
Romance Languages at Northwestern University, 
has been awarded a grant-in-aid by the Depart- 
ment of State for a series of lectures at the cultural 
centers in Montevideo, Asuncion, Cordoba ( Argen- 
tina) , Lima, and La Paz. His lectures will cover 
subjects pertaining to Latin American studies and 
culture m the ITnited States and intellectual and 
social development in the United States. 

Walter M. Bastian, former assistant professor 
of English at the United States Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, has been awarded a grant-in-aid by 
the Department of State to serve as visiting pro- 
fessor of English at the University of El Sah-ador 
for one year, beginning this month. This grant 
was awarded in response to a request from the 
University in connection with its plans to inaugu- 
rate a three-year course in English and to build 
up a library of English books. The classes will 
be open to a limited number of outsiders as well 
as to university students. 

Dr. Cecil R. Monk, director of the department 
of biology of Willamette University, Salem, Ore- 
gon has received a grant from the Department 
of State to enable him to spend a year as visitino- 
professor of biology at the Institute of Natural 
Sciences, Central University, Caracas, Venezuela. 
The University has invited Dr. Monk to assist in 
the organization of the department of biology to 
give courses in zoology and biology, and to do 
research in invertebrate zoology. 

Uruguay 

Felix de Medina, counselor and professor of the 
faculty of engineering of the University of Monte- 
video and director of the Machinery Institute of 
the same school, has arrived in Washington for a 
three months' visit in the United States under the 
travel-grant program of the Department of State. 
Mr. de Medina M-ill visit schools of engineering in 
various parts of the country, his chief interest 
being in methods of teaching mechanical engineer- 
ing and in laboratory equipment. He will also 
study methods of production of machinery, espe- 
cially Diesel electric locomotives and gas turbines, 
and mass production of automobiles, airplanes, etc. 
He will visit the Railroad Fair in Chicago in 
Ausust. 



153 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Paul Daniels Appointed to Council of 
Organization of American States 

The Secretary of State announced on June 21 
the appomtment of Paul C. Daniels as United 
States Representative on the Council ot the Ur- 
cranization of American States. Ambassador 
Daniels succeeds in this capacity Ambassador 
William Dawson, who resigned for reasons ot 

in serving in his new post on the Council Am- 
bassador Daniels will continue his present duties 
as the Department's Director for American Ke- 
public Affairs. The Council of the American 
States, created by the charter approved at Bogota, 
is a permanent representative council with mem- 
bers representing all the American republics it 
supervises the Pan American Union and ascertains 
that all decisions of Inter-American conferences 
are carried out. 

Willard Thorp Appointed to inter- American 
Economic and Social Council 

[Released to the press July 13] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 13 
the appointment of Willard L. Thorp, Assistant 
Secretary of State for economic affairs, as Repre- 
sentative of the United States of America on the 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, re- 
placing Paul C. Daniels, Director of the Depart- 
ment's Office of American Republic Affairs. 

H Gerald Smith will continue as Alternate to 
the United States Representative on the Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council. 

Abolishment of the Shipping Division 

I Effective July 1, 1948, the Shipping Division 
(SD) is abolished. 

II The Office of Transport and Communica- 
tions (TRC), through a small staff of advisers on 
international ocean shipping and inland trans- 
portation, will assume responsibility for advisory 
and coordinating functions of the Department 
with respect to ocean shipping and inland 

transport. . n ^^ ■ 

A Action responsibility m these fields is as- 
si<^ned to the geographic offices. However, pend- 
ing specific redelegation of functions, through 
amendment of the Organization Manual, the Divi- 
sion of Communications and Records (DC) will 
continue to assign to TRC action responsibility 
for correspondence dealing with shipping and in- 
land transport matters. 

154 



III The Seamen Affairs Branch of the Ship- 
ping Division, together with its personnel, func- 
tions, records, furniture, equipment, and funds, is 
transferred to the Division of Protective Services 
(DS). 

Abolishment of Division of Procurement 
Control 

I Pursuant to Executive Order 9960 of May 
19 1948 the Division of Procurement Control 
(PC) of the Office of Budget and Planning 
(OBP) is abolished as of the close of business 
June 30, 1948; its functions, records, equipment, 
and personnel are transferred from the Depart- 
ment of State to the Economic Cooperation Ad- 
ministration. . i -rv i. 

II Within thirty days appropriate Depart- 
mental Regulations will be issued to effect the 
necessary realignment of functions. 

Appointment of Officers 

Winthrop G. Brown as Director of the Office of Inter- 
national Trade Policy, effective June 13, 1948. 

Edwin M. Martin as Deputy Director of the Office of 
International Trade Policy, effective June 13, ms. 

Samuel D. Boykin as Director of the Office of Controls, 
effective June 28, 1048. , . 

Philip D Sprouse as Chief of the Division of Chinese 
Affairs, Office of Far Eastern Affairs, effective June 14, 

1948 

George H. Butler as Deputy Director of the Policy 
Planning Staff, effective July 6, 1948. ^ ^^ ^„ ^ 

Joseph G. Sattertliwaite as Director of the Office of 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, effective July lb, 1948. 

Raymond A. Hare as Deputy Director of the Office of 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, effective July 16, 1948. 



Volume XIII of "Territorial Papers of the U.S." 
Released 

[Released to the press July 25] 

Advance copies of volume XIII of the series en- 
titled The Territorial Papers of the United States, 
published by the Department of State under the 
authority of an act of Congress, were received by 
the Department on July 25. 

This volume, which marks the resumption of the 
project after war-imposed curtailment, contains 
the official papers found in the archives m Wash- 
ington pertaining to the Territory of Louisiana 
for the years 1803-1806. In all, three volumes are 
in prospect for the Territory of Louisiana- 
Missouri, 1803-1821, which comprised the entire 
area of the Louisiana purchase with the exception 
of the present state of Louisiana. The significance 
of the present work and its companion volumes lies 
in the fact that it presents for the first time a com- 
prehensive documentation of the beginning of 
American administration of a region out ot which 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



no less than a dozen states of the Union were sub- 
sequently carved. 

Beginning with the acquisition of Louisiana in 
1803, the present vohime embodies documents per- 
taining to the transfer of Upper Louisiana to the 
United States, and to the administration of the 
first governor, General James Wilkinson. For the 
first and only time the civil administration of a 
territory was united with the military ; the failure 
of this policy became manifest before Wilkinson's 
removal as governor. In this comiection there are 
presented many hitherto unpublished letters of 
General Wilkinson. 

Problems of the transition from an old world 
colony to a United States territory are depicted by 
selected correspondence between departments of 
the Federal Government and the various terri- 
torial officials, as well as by letters passing between 
numerous subordinate officers within the territory. 
A wide range of materials, other than those per- 
taining to tlie purely political administration, are 
also included. Such documents include petitions 
to Congress for redress of grievances, reports of 
congi-essional committees, proclamations, letters 
of application for office, as well as those illustrat- 
ing party and class divisions, and other relevant 
papers. 

Dr. Clarence E. Carter, of the Division of His- 
torical Policy Kesearch in the Department of 
State, is the editor of the series of Territorial 
Papers. Volume XIII of the series will be sold by 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for $3.50 
a copy. 



Department Inaugurates Treaty 
Information Service 

[Released to the press July 25] 

The Department of State inaugurated on July 
24 a loose-leaf service entitled United States 
Treaty Developments, designed to meet the need 
for a single compilation containing up-to-date 
factual information on developments affecting 
international agreements entered into by the 
United States. 

Information on over 400 international agree- 
ments is contained in the first release of loose-leaf 
sheets and includes, when appropriate, notes re- 
specting date and place of signature, effective date, 
duration, citations to the text, signatories, ratifica- 
tions, adherences, accessions, resei'vations, amend- 
ments, extensions, terminations, authorizing 
and implementing legislation, Executive action, 
administrative interpretations, opinions of the At- 
torney General, court decisions, and other relevant 
action. 

The 400 agreements included in this release have 
either been concluded since January 1, 1944, or 
there has been some development concerning them 



August 7, 7948 



THE DEPARTMBNT 

since that date. The service will be kept current, 
new loose-leaf sheets being issued as new agree- 
ments are published, and earlier agreements will 
be included as rapidly as possible, any recent 
develoiiment regarding an earlier agreement being 
made the occasion for bringing up to date the rec- 
ord with respect to that instrument. 

United States Treat;/ Developments is a com- 
bination and extension of such previous publica- 
tions of the Department of State as Treaties Suh- 
mitted to the Senate, Treaty Developments lO^Ii-, 
and A List of Treaties and Other International 
Acts of the United States in Force on Decemher 
31, 1941, and it will eventually replace them and 
serve as a comprehensive guide to official material 
respecting all treaties and other international 
agreements to which the United States has become 
a party in nearly two centuries of treaty-making. 

United States Treaty Developments is compiled 
by Eunice Webber Shafferman and Helen Hedvig 
Brown under the direction of Bryton Barron, As- 
sistant for Treaty Affairs, Office of the Legal 
Adviser. The first release of loose-leaf sheets may 
be purchased for $4.00 from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C. 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Q-overnment 
Printing Office, Washington 25. D.C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may he obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Assistance to the People of Italy Under Public Law 389, 
80th Congress. Treaties and Other luternational Acts 
Series 1678. Pub. 3039. 17 pp. 100. 

Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Italy — Signed at Rome January 3, 1948 ; entered 
into force January 3, 1948. 

Air Transport Services. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1679. Pub. 3040. 39 pp. 15«f. 

Agreement Between the United States of America and 
France signed at Paris March 27, 1946, entered into 
force March 27, 1946; and Provisional Arrangement 
effected by exchange of notes signed at Paris Decem- 
ber 28 and 29, 1945. 

Headquarters of the United Nations. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1676. Pub. 3042. 29 pp. 10<!. 

Agreement Between the United States of America 
and the United Nations — Signed at Lake Success, 
N.Y., June 26, 1947 ; and exchange of notes bringing 
agreement into force November 21, 1&47. 

Canol Project: Waiver by Canada of Certain Rights Relat- 
ing to Crude Oil Facilities. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 1696. Pub. 3067. 2 pp. 5(J. 

Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Canada — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Ottawa August 31, and September 6, 1945 ; entered 
into force September 6, 1945. 

155 




The United Nations and 

Specialized Agencies p°b» 

U.S. Report to U.N. on False and Distorted 

Reports ^^'^ 

Cease-Fire Orders for July 18. Cablegram to 
the Arab States and to the Provisional 
Government of Israel Concerning the 
Security Council Resolution of 15 July and 
Their Replies 130 

Terms of Reference for the Visiting Mission to 
Ruanda-Urundi and Tanganyika. Reso- 
lution Ill 

The United States in the United Nations . . 132 

Treaty Information 

U.S.-Yugoslav Claims Settlement: 

Summary of Agreements 137 

Agreement Regarding Pecuniary Claims . . 137 
Agreement Regarding Settlement for Lend- 

Lease, Military Relief, and Claims. . . 139 
Settlement of Lend-Lease and Reciprocal-Aid 

Accounts in the United Kingdom .... 143 
Adherence to General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade: Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, New Zea- 
land, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon 149 

Occupation Matters 

Third Currency Reform Law in Germany . . 141 
Statement by" Secretary Marshall on Berlin 

Situation I'll 

U.S. Proposals Regarding Resumption of De- 
livery of Electric Power to South Korea. 
Exchange of Letters Between General 
Hodge and General Merkulov 147 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to International Conference. 

Linguistics 13^ 

Reference Materials to U.S. Licensed News- 
papers in Germany. Exchange of Letters 
Between Assistant Secretary Saltzman and 
William Benton 144 

Hungary Assures U.S. That Its Citizens Are 
Not Restricted in Listening to Voice of 
America. Exchange of Notes Between the 
U.S. and Hungary 1*5 



international Information and 

Cultural Affairs — Continued Page 

Voice of America Broadcasts Strengthened in 

Europe Through New Relay 147 

Cultural Leaders Awarded Grants-in-Aid ... 153 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegations to International Conferences: 

Physical Education 134 

Navigation of the Danube 134 

Medical Histories 135 

Anthropological and Ethnological [Sciences . 135 

Geodesy and Geophysics 135 

Geology 136 

Procedure for Filing Claims With Finland . . 148 
Belgium and Czechoslovakia Make Payments 

on Surplus-Property Credits 148 

General Policy 

John Abbink Appointed to Joint Brazil-U.S. 

Technical Commission 136 

Willard Thorp Appointed to Inter-American 

Economic and Social Council 154 

The Department 

Paul Daniels Appointed to Council of Organ- 
ization of American States 154 

Abolishment of the Shipping Division .... 154 

Abolishment of Division of Procurement 

Control 154 

Appointment of Officers 1'''4 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 129 

Henry F. Grady To Assume Duties in Greece . 129 

The Congress 

Proposed Amendments by the President to the 

Displaced Persons Act of 1948 152 

Publications 

Fourth Semiannual Report of the Atomic 
Energy Commission Released. Statement 
by the President 151 

Volume XIII of "Territorial Papers of the 

U.S." Released 154 

Department Inaugurates Treaty Information 

Service 1^^ 

Department of State 155 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1948 



^Ae/ ^eha^tTTieni/ ^ t/tate^ 





TRUCE SUPERVISION IN PALESTINE • CahXegraiM 

from V.N. Mediator 175 

PROGRESS REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS • Article 

by James Pomeroy Hendrick 159 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 475 
August 8, 1948 



^SNT o«. 




. ^ •i^t&&Xi\ \ : 



M 



'le 



zl^e^ia/yi^e^t ^^ Cytale 




bulletin 

Vol. XIX, No. 475 • Publication 3237 
Augist 8, 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Woshington 25, D.C. 

Sdbsceiption: 
52 issues. $5; single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a meekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
tcell as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



PROGRESS REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS 



by James Pomeroy Hendrick 



The United Nations Commission on Human 
Rights has completed its second year of service,^ 
devoted for the most part to planning for and 
working on the project of an international bill of 
human rights." 

An international bill of human rights could con- 
sist of a statement of general principles, such as 
the American Declaration of Independence or the 
French Declaration of the Rights and Duties of 
Man. On the other hand it could take the form of 
a document having legally binding force — an in- 
ternational equivalent of the United States Bill of 
Rights. The Commission on Human Rights de- 
cided at its second session in Geneva that both a 
statement of principles and a treaty were neces- 
sary ; it defined the term "international bill of hu- 
man rights" as including both a declaration (i.e. 
statement of principles), and a covenant (i.e. 
treaty) as well as measures of implementation.^ 
It produced a draft declaration and a draft cove- 
nant, and examined (but neither approved nor dis- 
approved) the report of a working group on im- 
plementation.'' 

The substantive work of the Commission at its 
third session (May 24 to June 18, 1948) was the 
completion of a declaration, the question of imple- 
mentation being considered briefly. The Commis- 
sion's Drafting Committee, which met from May 
3 to May 21, 1948, considered the covenant on 
human rights as well as doing preliminary work 
on the declaration. This article will deal with 
the i^rogress made in the preparation of an in- 
ternational bill of human rights at these two ses- 
sions. 

Definitive work on a covenant and measures of 
implementation must await the fourth session of 
the Commission to be held early in 1949.^ 

August 8, 1948 



INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION OF 
HUMAN RIGHTS « 

There has at no time been serious controversy 
among Commission members over the general con- 
tent of the declaration. It has been agreed that 
the declaration should specify, first, fundamental 
civil rights, known to countries such as the United 
States for one hundred and fifty or more years; 
and, second, social and economic rights, which have 
been recognized as a development of the twentieth 
century." There had, however, until the third ses- 
sion of the Commission, been no very general agree- 
ment on two salient points concerning the declara- 
tion : length and effect. 

"A Short and Concise" Declaration 

The first draft of the declaration was an outline 
prepared by the United Nations Secretariat, con- 
sisting of 48 articles. Though the Geneva draft 
was reduced to 33 articles, it was recognized that 
even this was pei-haps overlong.* The United 
States and China in successive sessions pressed for 
a document which would be drastically shortened." 
The Commission's final draft contains 28 articles, 
and its content is substantially reduced. 

The substantive rights now covered in the new 
declaration are as follows : 

Civil Rights 

Article 3 : Right to life, liberty, and security of the person 
Article 4 : Freedom from slavery, torture, inhuman treat- 
ment or punishment 
Article 5 : Recognition as a person before the law 
Article C : Right to equality before the law " 
Article 7 : Freedom from arbitrary arrest 
Article 8 : Right to a fair hearing by an independent and 
impartial tribunal 



Note : For footnotes, see p. 164. 



159 



Article 9 (1) : Presumption of innocence and right to 

public trial, with all guarantees necessary for defense, 

in criminal cases 
Article 9 (2) : Freedom from ex post facto laws" 
Article 10: Freedom from interference with privacy 
Article 11 (1) : Freedom of movement and residence 

within a state 
Article 11 (2) : Right to leave any country 
Article 12 : Right of asylum 
Article 13 : Rights concerning nationality " 
Article 14 : Right to marriage and to protection of the 

family 
Article 15 : Right to own property 
Article 16 : Freedom of religion 
Article 17 : Freedom of information 
Article 18 : Freedom of assembly and association 
Article 19 : Eight to participate in government " 

Social and Economic Rights 

Article 20 : Right to social security " 

Article 21 : Right to work 

Article 22 : Right to health and security 

Article 23 : Right to education 

Article 24 : Right to rest and leisure 

Article 25: Right to participate in cultural life 

The problem of the long declaration as opposed 
to the short declaration was first presented to the 
third session of the Commission, with respect to in- 
dividual articles, in connection with freedom from 
arbitrary arrest (article 7) . Once the decision was 
made that this article should read, quite simply, 
"No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or 
detention", it became clear that an important 
precedent had been established.^^ The Commis- 
sion having adopted with respect to this article the 
principle of a "short and concise" declaration, 
there was thenceforth no serious departure from 
the principle in subsequent articles.^^ A compari- 
son between the Geneva draft and the draft pro- 
duced by the third session shows the beneficial re- 
sults thus obtained.^' 

Effect of the Declaration 

At the risk of over-simplification, it can be said 
that three theories have been considered as to the 
effect of the declaration : 

1. The declaration imposes an immediate obli- 
gation upon all member states to bring their laws 
into conformity with its provisions. 

2. The declaration imposes no obligation of any 
sort. 

3. The declaration represents a common stand- 
ard of achievement for all peoples and all nations 



and may thus be considered to impose a moral, but 
not a legal, obligation to strive progressively to se- 
cure universal and effective recognition and ob- 
servance of the rights and freedoms therein set 
forth. 

The first of these theories rests on the assump- 
tion that the United Nations Charter, particularly 
in articles 55 and 56, sets forth an obligation in 
treaty form to observe human rights and that the 
declaration, as an "extension" of the Charter, de- 
fines these rights. 

The second theory rests upon a far more strict 
construction of the Charter and constant reliance 
upon its domestic jurisdiction clause.^* 

The third theory is based upon what is con- 
sidered a fair interpretation of action appropriate 
to be taken under the Charter. It is in no way 
intended to derogate from the domestic jurisdic- 
tion clause of the Charter, although its proponents 
freely admit that a covenant, as distinguished 
from a declaration, is a necessary element in the 
program and that a covenant would bring up for 
scrutiny matters which have heretofore been con- 
sidered domestic. 

It is the third of these theories which has now 
been adopted by the Commission. It finds expres- 
sion in the preamble to the declaration, reciting 
that "Member states have pledged themselves to 
achieve, in cooperation with the Organization, the 
promotion of universal respect for and observance 
of human rights and fundamental freedoms," and 
proclaiming the declaration as a "common stand- 
ard of achievement for all peoples and all na- 
tions, to the end that every individual and every 
organ of society, keeping this declaration con- 
stantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and educa- 
tion to promote respect for these rights and free- 
doms and by progressive measures, national and 
international, to secure their universal and effec- 
tive recognition and observance." It finds ex- 
pression also in the introduction to the articles 
dealing with social and economic rights : "Every- 
one as a member of society ... is entitled to the 
realization, through national effort and interna- 
tional cooperation, and in accordance with the or- 
ganization and resources of each State, of the 
economic, social and cultural rights set out be- 
low." ^' Finally, the theory finds expression in 
article 26 which states that "Everyone is entitled 
to a good social and international order in which 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



the rights and freedoms set out in this Declaration 
can be fully realized." 

A necessary consequence of the adoption of this 
tlieory has been the abandonment of language con- 
tained in the Geneva draft purporting to place an 
immediate legislative obligation with respect to 
certain articles.^" Such language is now reserved 
for use in the covenant. A further consequence 
has been the defeat of proposals that violations of 
the declaration should be punished by law.^^ 

Declaration: Present Status 

The Commission on Human Rights has accord- 
ingly approved a declaration which is short and 
concise ; its effect is clearly stated, and its meaning 
is obvious. This accomplislunent of major pro- 
portions is a tribute to the leadership of the Com- 
mission's Chairman, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

The declaration remains to be approved by the 
Economic and Social Council and thereafter by the 
General Assembly in order to attain its full 
stature in the field of human rights. 

THE COVENANT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND 
MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION 

The Human Rights Drafting Committee started 
its second session with consideration of the 
covenant on human rights. At the time it ap- 
peared possible that both the Committee and the 
Commission would be able to develop definitive 
drafts of both covenant and declaration, and reach 
a conclusion as to what should be done with re- 
spect to implementation.-- However, despite ex- 
traordinary efforts and a seriousness of purpose 
which was not questioned, the problems proved 
to be too difficult, and too diffuse, for solution in 
the time allotted. The Commission did not con- 
sider the covenant at its third session. It pre- 
ferred to do a thorough job on one document — 
the declaration — rather than a superficial job on 
two.^' 

Covenant — Substantive Problems 

As drafted by the Commission at its Geneva ses- 
sion, the covenant included most of the basic civil 



rights set forth in the declaration. Notable ex- 
ceptions were the right to marriage, the right to 
property, the right to participate in government, 
and freedom from searches and seizures. The 
Geneva covenant included none of the social and 
economic rights.--* At the outset of the second 
session of the Drafting Committee, a proposal was 
made by the Australian member to include in the 
covenant virtually all the rights enumerated in 
the declaration. What the result would have been 
had this proposal been voted upon article by arti- 
cle is a matter of conjecture; in fact, the proposal 
was voted upon en bloc, and defeated. The result 
was that the substance of the covenant as passed 
upon by the Drafting Committee remained for 
the most part unchanged from the Geneva draf t.^' 



Covenant — Procedural Problems 

At the second session a difference of opinion 
had developed with respect to the manner in which 
limitations on rights should be expressed in the 
covenant. On one hand it was thought that the 
covenant should state the rights and at the same 
time state in detail all limitations on the rights; 
on the other hand, that the covenant should con- 
tain one over-all statement of limitations, roughly 
analogous to that contained in the declaration.^ 
The proponents of the first theory urged that there 
was no object in having a covenant which each 
adherent state could construe in accordance with 
its own wishes and that this was the inevitable re- 
sult of an over-all clause so bi'oad that anyone 
could "drive a team of horses through it". The 
proponents of the over-all clause urged that it was 
impossible to codify the exceptions to general 
rules already existing in the law except by em- 
ploying very broad language and that it was 
equally impossible to foresee in detail what new 
exceptions it might be necessary to formulate. 

An example in point was freedom of informa- 
tion. Certain limitations have been generally 
acknowledged by most countries as necessary with 
respect to this right, although practices have 
varied considerably. Yet the enumeration in the 
covenant of limitations on the right of freedom of 
information, started with six ^^ and has been pro- 
gressively increased to 25,^ with proponents of 
the over-all clause stating that there are more to 



Augosf 8, J948 



161 



come. These limitations failed to take into ac- 
count new limitations which might be required in 
connection with television or other unforeseen 
techniques. Discussion of the problem was con- 
tinued throughout the Conference on Freedom of 
Information and the second session of the Human 
Rights Drafting Committee. Tlie report of the 
Drafting Committee leaves the problem unre- 
solved. 

Nevertheless there are grounds for hope that a 
solution can be found. The differences between 
the two opinions have been exaggerated. Both 
have in fact been in favor of a general clause. The 
proponents of detailed limitations would, however, 
limit its application to cases of "war or other pub- 
lic emergency" ^ and would require a report of 
its application in each case to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the United Nations.^" A substantial num- 
ber of the articles in the covenant as approved by 
the Drafting Committee contain provisions which 
are in effect as broad, or almost as broad, as a gen- 
eral over-all limitation clause.^^ Finally, the pres. 
sure for achieving agreement on this procedural 
question, which threatens the verj' existence of the 
covenant, should be so great as to force a solution.^^ 

A further point of particular interest to the 
United States is a provision that the covenant shall 
make allowance for the problems of federal states. 
In the case of the United States, for example, the 
covenant would bind the Federal Government, but 
not necessarily bind the 48 State governments. 
This provision, modeled after the pattern estab- 
lished by the International Labor Organization, 
was adopted in the Geneva draft of the covenant 
and was not changed in the third session of the 
Commission. 

One other procedural question has been of par- 
ticular importance to the United States Delegation. 
In the United States not all treaties are self- 
executing, since certain treaties require imple- 
menting legislation. In countries such as the 
United Kingdom, legislation is necessary in order 
to establish the ratified treaty as part of domestic 
law. Tlie members of the Drafting Committee 
were sympathetic with the view that time should 
be given to bring legislation, to the extent neces- 
sary, in accord with provisions of the covenant.^^ 
The covenant accordingly contains wording tenta- 
tively designed to make it clear that so far as 
domestic enforcement is concerned it may require 
enabling legislation.^* 

162 



Implementation "> 

The three leading theories as to what should be 
done in the event of a violation of the covenant 
may be summarized. 

According to the Australian theory, any viola- 
tion of the covenant should be considered by a new, 
six-member, international court of human rights 
whose decisions shall be complied with by cove- 
nanting states. Individual complaints as well as 
complaints by states should be dealt with.^ 

Violations, according to the French theory, 
should be considered by a Commission empowered 
to make recommendations to parties concerned. 
Individual complaints as well as complaints by 
states should be dealt with.^' 

According to the China-United States theory, 
violations not settled by direct negotiation should 
be referred to a committee empowered to make a 
recommendation to the state or states concerned. 
Complaints are to be limited, for the time being, 
to those made by states.^' 

Although it would be impossible to draw any 
conclusions from the brief debate on the subject at 
the Commission's third session, it may be noted 
that the China-United States proposal was spe- 
cifically supported by more members of the Com- 
mission ^^ than any other proposal on implementa- 
tion. Certain points in connection with the China- 
United States proposal may be of sjiecial interest. 
Of these the most widely discussed was the question 
of petitions. 

Petitions 

The covenant is directed primarily at insuring 
the rights of the individual." The following ar- 
gument may be made in favor of allowing individ- 
uals to bring their cases to the attention of the 
committee or court which is to consider violations 
of the covenant : A state cannot be relied upon to 
bring up cases arising within its own borders ; and 
reliance on other states to take the initiative in 
such matters, in the absence of an inspection pro- 
cedure (which would surely prove unacceptable in 
many countries), would mean that serious viola- 
tions might never come to light. A precedent was 
established for consideration of individual peti- 
tions in connection with minorities problems by 
the League of Nations, and according to some evi- 
dence at least the procedure was successful." A 
fundamental basis of effective democratic govern- 
ment is recognition of the right of individual ap- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



peal ; among the significant contributions made by 
the United States to the philosophy of government 
has been the concept that sovereignty is lodged in 
the people, which thereby permits individual ac- 
cess to federal courts and does not limit cases to 
those brought by states which, like corporations, 
"have no souls.'' " 

In contrast to this argument, if the covenant is 
to attain widespread adherence, it is essential that 
its j)rovisions should not interfei'e unduly with the 
domestic jurisdiction of member states. The 
theory of the covenant in itself is revolutionary : 
an undertaking by international treaty to insure 
certain rights which have traditionally been re- 
garded as being solely of national concern. A 
sufficient impetus has been created in the Coimnis- 
sion for the completion of a covenant, on the basis 
of a sincere desire to avoid catastrophes such as 
those launched by Hitler in his persecution of the 
Jews, and to improve the standards of interna- 
tional human rights in a field which appears to 
many to be more important than the ever expand- 
ing field of science. But this impetus may be lost 
if the initial program is too ambitious. To allow 
an individual to appeal from a decision of his 
countr3''s court of last resort is a serious step ; yet 
this might be the consequence of recognizing the 
right of individual petition.*^ 

The International Court of Justice 

The China-United States proposal recognizes 
that certain cases arising under the covenant may 
be considered by the International Court of Jus- 
tice. Compulsory jurisdiction, however, is not 
expressly provided.^* 

Committee To Consider Complaints 

The China-United States proposal provides for 
"the appointment of a Committee by Covenanting 
States . . .^^ which is in contradistinction to the 
French proposal, providing for an eleven-member 
special commission, to be appointed by a "two- 
thirds majority of the General Assembly of the 
United Nations with due consideration of equita- 
ble geographical distribution."' ^° The theory of 
the China-United States proposal is that countries 
which do not agree to assume the burdens of the 
covenant should not, without the consent of ratify- 
ing states, be concerned with its implementation. 

Aogosf 8, 1948 



PROGRAM FOR THE FUTURE 

The Commission on Human Rights did not ex- 
press an opinion on whether the declaration 
should be approved at once, or whether its ex- 
pression as a formal document of the General 
Assembly should be postponed until the time that 
a covenant could be submitted simultaneously for 
ratification. This is a problem which must be con- 
sidered by the Economic and Social Council, and 
by the General Assembly. 

Although unanimous approval of the declara- 
tion was secured (with abstentions on the part of 
the four easteim European members), it is clear 
that agreement on a legally binding covenant in- 
volves even greater problems than those posed, and 
now solved, in connection with the declaration. 
Even assuming, as it must be assumed, that the 
j^rocedural aspects of the covenant will be taken 
care of to the satisfaction of a substantial major- 
ity, the question of which substantive I'ights are to 
be included in the covenant and also the question to 
what extent they are to be included are matters 
of almost infinite complexity ; and the further 
question of implementation is perhaps even more 
difficult. 

If it is decided to proceed along the line of at- 
tracting within a reasonable time as many ratifi- 
cations of the covenant as possible, it will be 
necessary to limit the covenant to a small number 
of fundamental rights, such as freedom from 
slavery, and limit implementation to machinery 
of a rather sketchy nature. Such a covenant, start- 
ing in effect on the principle of the lowest com- 
mon denominator, could of course be followed by 
other covenants covering other rights and further 
expansion of the implementation machinery." 

An alternative procedure would be to aim at 
once for a comprehensive covenant, with full im- 
plementation. Such a document would presum- 
ably be ratified only by a relatively small number 
of states at the outset, and the all-important ques- 
tion would be whether this exclusive "club" could 
successfully attract new members. 

Still another method of operation would be to 
invite "like-minded" member states to enter into 
covenants covering the rights in which they were 
particularly interested, with the possibility of 
several covenants entered into by different groups, 

163 



all having the same primary purpose : the progres- 
sive promotion throughout the world of respect 
for human rights. 

Whatever procedure is adopted, one thing is 
clear. The Commission of Human Rights is not 
content to see a declaration of general principles 
approved and consider its task done. It is the 
view of the Commission, that "the completion of a 



Covenant, containing measures of implementation 
is essential." ^ 

Those members of the United Nations who were 
chiefly responsible for the insertion of no less than 
seven references to human rights in the Charter, 
and for the creation of the Commission on Human 
Rights, have assumed a heavy burden, which has 
not yet been discharged. 



Footnotes 



' First session of nuclear Commission, April 1946 ; first 
session of full Commission, January 1947 ; first session of 
Drafting Committee, June 1947 ; second session of full 
Commission, December 1947 ; second session of Drafting 
Committee, May 1948 ; third session of full Commission, 
June 1948. 

' The work of the Commission through its second session 
is described by Mr. Hendrick in an "International Bill of 
Human Rights", Bulletin of Feb. 15, 194S, p. 19.5. 

"U.N. doe. E/600, par. IS (a). 

* U.N. doc. E/600. These documents were forwarded 
early in 1&48 to all member nations for comment. The 
comments which have been received and studied both by 
the Commission and the Drafting Committee are contained 
in U.N. doc. E/CN.4/82 and addenda thereto. 

°U.N. doc. E/800, par. 17. 

° The title of the declaration has now been changed from 
"International Declaration on Human Rights" to "Inter- 
national Declaration of Human Riglits." A motion to sub- 
stitute the words "United Nations" for "International" 
was defeated by the Commission at its third session. 

' Hendrick, op. cit., p. 199. The declaration includes the 
rights of an international character — asylum and nation- 
allt.v — and has included, but no longer includes, special 
provision for rights of minorities. For an early example 
of references to social as well as civil rights, see President 
McKinley's instructions to William H. Taft, president, 
Board of Commissioners to the Philippine Islands, Apr. 7, 
1900. These instructions had been drafted by Elihu Root 
(Cameron, The Philippine IslaniU, vol. II, pp. 438, 500). 

' U.N. doc. E/600, par. 50. 

° U.S. proposal made at second session of Commission 
(U.N. doc. E/GOO, annex A, part II, par. 10) ; Chinese pro- 
posal made at third se.ssion of Commission (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/95, annex A ) . The Chinese proposal is the shorter 
of the two. In its comment to the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations, the United States stressed the point 
that the declaration should be "short and concise" (U.N. 
doc. E/CN.4/S2, p. 8). The original proposal for a "deca- 
log" was informally made by the U.S.S.R. Representative 
at the first session of the Human Rights Drafting Com- 
mittee June 1947, but no draft was submitted by the 
U.S.S.R. at that time. The attitude of the U.S.S.R. 
throughout the third session of the Commission was con- 
sistently in favor of more detailed wording of the declara- 
tion along the general lines approved by tlie Commission's 



second session, at Geneva, rather than the more concise 
wording adopted by the Commission's third session, at 
Lake Success (U.N. doc. E/SOO, appendix). 

'"Provision is made that all are entitled "without any 
discrimination to equal protection of the law against any 
discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against 
any incitement to such discrimination." See also art. 2. 
The provision on incitement to discrimination was passed 
over the objection of a substantial number ; a somewhat 
similar provision (which, however, was mandatory) was 
deleted from the Covenant by the Drafting Committee (see 
footnote 25). 

" The question of war criminals was handled in a par- 
ticularly skilful manner by the Commission. At the 
Geneva session a paragraph was added to the provision 
on freedom from ex post faeto laws stating tliat "nothing 
in this Article shall prejudice the trial and punishment 
of any person for tlie commission of any act which, at the 
time it was committed, was criminal according to the 
general principles of law recognized by civilized nations." 
This paragraph was criticized on the ground that it in- 
dicated doubt as to the validity of the Niirnberg trials. 
On the other hand it was supijorted on the ground that 
it extended the principle of freedom from ex post facto 
laws to the international field. Tlie solution reached by 
the Commission at its third session was to provide, very 
simply, that "No one shall be held guilty of any offence 
on account of any act or omission which did not con- 
stitute an ofEence, under national or international law, 
at the time when it was committed." (Art. 9 (2).) 

"^ Riglits of asylum and nationality are here classed, 
for convenience, under the category of civil rights. In 
the Geneva draft, provision was made for the right to 
nationality and protection by the U.N. of tliose not en- 
joying the protection of any government. At its third 
session the Commission eliminated provision for protec- 
tion by the U.N. on the ground that this was not proper 
subject matter for a declaration but should, instead, be 
carried through by positive action, which had, indeed, 
already been started in the Economic and Social Council 
(resolution 116 VI D, Resolutions of the Economic and 
Social Council, sixth sess., U.N. doc. E/777). 

" Provision for periodic elections by secret ballot, which 
had been contained in the Geneva draft, was eliminated 
by the Commission at its third session. In the case of 
certain members (notably the United States) the omis- 
sion was agreed to in the interests of achieving a short- 



164 



Department of State Bulletin 



Footnotes — Continued 



form declaration. Otlier members expressed difficulty 
with the concept as applied to primitive communities. The 
U.S.S.R. strongly favored a provision that "The State shall 
consider the will of the people as expressed in elections, 
which sliall be conducted periodically and must be uni- 
versal and equal and be held by secret ballot'' (U.N. doc. 
E/800, appendix, amendment to art. 20). On tlie other 
hand the U.S.S.R. consistently proposed the elimination 
of "political opinion" from the category of unjustifiable 
grounds for discrimination (U.N. doc. E/800, appendix, 
statement of fundamental requirements, par. (o) ; state- 
ment of omissions and shortcomings in the declaration, 
par. (c) ; amendment to preamble; amendment to art. 
21; amendment to art. 23). 

" The right to social security is included in the chapenu 
clause referred to in footnote 19. Whether or not the 
term "social security" should be included in art. 22 was 
debated at length. After the final decision was reached 
to omit the term, because it meant different things in 
different countries, the minority view that it should liave 
been included was so strongly expressed that inclusion 
in the chapeau clause became inevitable. 

" The article on freedom from arbitrary arrest, as 
drafted at the Commission's second session, contained cer- 
tain specific guarantees (U.N', doc. E/600, appendix A, 
art. 5). Later, at the Drafting Committee's second ses- 
sion, a motion was made to substitute for these guarantees 
the concept of freedom from "arbitrary" arrest, which 
would by the use of one word encompass the guarantees set 
forth in the Geneva draft, and other necessary guarantees 
as well. A majority of the Committee members had in 
mind specific guarantees for inclusion in the article. 
Since the members were not in agreement as to the essen- 
tial guarantees, the result was an omnibus provision which 
recited seven of them. The arrest must be (1) "accord- 
ing to pre-existing law" and (2) "in accordance with due 
process". The person arrested has the right (3) "to be 
promptly informed of the reasons for his detention", (4) 
"to immediate judicial determination of the legality" of 
the detention, and (5) to "trial within a reasonable time 
or to release". (C) No one shall be imprisoned "merely 
on the grounds of inability to meet a contractual obliga- 
tion". (7) "Everyone has the right to compensation in 
respect of any unlawful arrest" (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/95, 
alternative article for arts. 6, 7, and 8). In its entirety 
this seemed too long an article ; and the Drafting Commit- 
tee, which had approved the seven individual provisions 
as they came up successively for a vote, voted down the 
article as a whole. This action meant a reversion to the 
Geneva draft, which had also proved unsatisfactory. 

When the article was considered by the full Commission 
at its third session, a motion was again made to limit the 
article to a statement that "no one shall be submitted to 
arbitrary arrest or detention." In view of the Drafting 
Committee's unhappy experience, a majority of the Com- 
mission determined that the abbreviated form was prefer- 
able to a detailed provision ; the shorter statement thus 
proposed was accordingly approved. 

" The declaration as approved by the Commission's third 



session is not consistently as brief as in the case of the 
article on arrest. Detail is avoided, however, by general 
adherence to the principle that a simple statement is suffi- 
cient, and by far greater reliance than in the past upon 
one article indicating permissible limitations on rights 
(art. 27, par. 2). 

" See p. 167. 

"Art. 2, par. 7, of the Charter, provides as follows: 
"Nothing contained in the present Charier shall authorize 
the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essen- 
tially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall 
require the Members to submit such matters to settlement 
under the present Charter ; but this principle shall not 
prejudice the application of enforcement measures under 
Chapter VII." (Chapter VII refers to "Action With 
Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and 
Acts of Aggression.") 

"Art. 20, referred to in the third session of the Commis- 
sion as the chapeau, was the subject of considerable con- 
troversy. Certain members felt that there was no reason 
to say anything more about social and economic rights 
than was said about civil rights ; to do so would indicate 
the former were more important than the latter, an im- 
pression which they definitely did not wish to convey. 
Others felt that this new type of right should be given 
special attention ; people throughout the world were "used 
to" civil rights, but they did not know about social and 
economic rights. The compromise was to retain the 
chapeau clause but to include in it a phrase, loosely mod- 
eled after a provision of the International Trade Organi- 
zation Charter, which would recognize the necessary dif- 
ferences among various states in the manner and extent 
of the granting of these rights, which would depend upon 
"the organization and rt'sources of each state." 

"As pointed out in Hendrick, op. cit., footnote 2, the 
Geneva declaration was seriously out of balance in that 
it purported to obligate the state to take certain measures 
with respect to social and economic rights, whereas no 
such obligation was expressed with respect to civil rights. 
Thus, the Geneva draft provided that "The State shall 
take all necessary steps to prevent unemployment," but 
it contained no such affirmative language with respect, for 
example, to the obligation to maintain independent and 
impartial tribunals. 

" A proposal to this effect was made by the Frencli Mem- 
ber, who at the outset favored a declaration containing 
a more legislative character than was adopted by the 
Commission at its third session (U.N. doc. E/CN.4/82/ 
Add. 8, art. 28). It will be recalled that one penal pro- 
vision dealing with discrimination had been proposed by 
the U.S.S.R. Member at the second session of the Com- 
mission, but was defeated (Hendrick, op. cit., footnote 
45). At the third session the U.S.S.R. Member con- 
tinued to press the point, although not with specific refer- 
ence to all articles, that "The Declaration should 
guarantee . . . implementation" of rights (U.N. doe. 
E/SOO, appendix, p. 38) . The test vote in the third session 
was on the wording of art. 4 of the Declaration. Here 
the U.S.S.R. Member proposed that all violations of the 
right to freedom from slavery "must be punished accord- 



Augusf 8, 1948 



165 



Footnotes — Continued 



ing to law" (U.N. doc. E/SOO, appendix, basic proposals 
advanced by the U.S.S.R., p. 40). This proposal was 
defeated and the precedent for a declaration which should 
not purport to be a legislative document was established. 

° The initiative for starting with consideration of the 
covenant was taken by the United States Member. At 
both the first and second sessions of the Commission, and 
at the first ses.sion of the Drafting Committee, the United 
States had urged that priority be given to consideration 
of the declaration, on the ground that it was preferable 
to state general principles first and then pass on to the 
embodiment of these principles into "a convention or con- 
ventions". This view was opposed, except at the first 
session of the Commission, by a majority of the other 
members who feared that a declaration without a covenant 
might be considered sutficient in itself ; that the pressure 
for a covenant would be removed ; that the result would be 
insufficient interest in a covenant to insure its adoption by 
a substantial number of states. In consequence, drafts of 
both a covenant and a declaration were produced at the 
first session of the Drafting Committee and the second ses- 
sion of the Commission. It was generally agreed that a 
repetition of the procedure adopted at the second session 
of the Commission, whereby two working groups, drafting 
independently one of the other, produced a declaration and 
a covenant, was undesirable. The answer was to have 
all members work together on each document ; this being 
the case, it was logical for the Committee to start with 
the more diflicult task, which was the covenant. 

^ Two insuperable obstacles to speed in drafting were 
the number of participants involved — S in the Drafting 
Committee; 17, Iran being absent, on the Commission — 
and the different languages represented, 11 languages 
among IT members. 

" For a comparison between declaration and covenant, 
see Hendrick, op. cit. The United States Member of the 
Drafting Committee specifically suggested the inclusion in 
the covenant of reference to right to property (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/AC.1/19, art. 5). 

" Among the changes made in the covenant, it may be 
noted that Geneva art. 20 on freedom from discrimination 
was rephrased in terms of "equal protection of the law" ; 
the Geneva article stating that "any advocacy of national, 
racial or religious hostility that constitutes an incitement 
to violence shall be prohibited by the law of the state" ; 
art. 21. was deleted. 

""Declaration, art. 27 (3d sess.). 

" Geneva text, embodying draft prepared by the Sub- 
commission on Freedom of Information and of the Press at 
its first session (U.N. doc. E/600, annex B, art 17). 

" U.N. doc. E/800, annex B, art. 17. 

""Art. 4, Geneva draft, par. 1, reported in U.X. doc. 
E/SOO, annex B, and U.N. doc. E/600, annex B. This 
article may, in fact, be considered more liberal tlian the 
article suggested by the proponents of a single over-all 
clavise. It reads : "In time of war or other public emer- 
gency, a State may take measures derogating from its 
obligations under Article 2 above to the extent strictly 
limited by the exigencies of the situation." 

" U.N. doc. E/600, annex B, art. 4, par. 2. This provision 

166 



was not considered by the Drafting Committee at its 
second session on the ground that it involved a question 
of implementation. 

"Art. 11(1) (liberty of movement and free choice of 
residence) ; art. 16 (freedom of religion) : art. 17, the first 
of three alternatives (freedom of information) ; art. 18 
(freedom of assembly) ; art. 19 (freedom of association). 
The articles which are thus left unencumbered by limita- 
tions of a general character are as follows : art. 5 (right to 
life: single limitation — conviction of crime) ; art. 6 (free- 
dom from mutilation or experimentation: no limitation) ; 
art. 7 (freedom from torture, cruel or inhuman punishment 
or indignity: no limitation); art. 8(1) (freedom from 
slavery or servitude: no limitation) : art. 8(2) (freedom 
from forced or compulsory labor : several limitations enu- 
merated) ; art. 9 (freedom from arbitrary arrest or de- 
tention: several limitations enumerated); art. 10 (im- 
prisonment for inability to fulfil a contractual obligation: 
no limitation) ; art. 11(2) (freedom to leave country: 
limitations — lawful deprivation of liberty or national 
service obligations) ; art. 12 (esjaelling of aliens only in 
accordance with law) ; art. 13(1) (fair hearing before 
independent and impartial tribunal: no limitation) ; art. 
13(2) (public trial, legal assistance, and services of in- 
terpreter: several limitations enumerated with respect to 
public trial) ; art. 14 (freedom from ex post facto laws 
or punishment, with special provision for war criminals: 
no limitation) ; art. 15 (juridical personality: no limita- 
tion) ; art. 17 (freedom of information — Geneva confer- 
ence draft; several limitations). 

^ The chief proponent of the detailed limitation theory 
has been the United Kingdom, which has no written con- 
stitution, and is accustomed to statutory law which is 
often more detailed even than that of the United States. 
The chief proponent of the over-all limitation clause has 
been the United States, whose constitutional provisions 
cover most of the rights in the covenant, in very brief 
form. The problem is .squarely presented in connection 
with the United Kingdom's proposed convention on free- 
dom of information, examined by the Conference on Free- 
dom of Information at Geneva in March 1948 and now 
presented for consideration by the Economic and Social 
Council at its seventh session (Geneva, July-August 
1948). In many respects the United Kingdom convention 
resembles the Human Rights Covenant, except that it 
deals solely with one right — ^freedom of information. 

It may be noted that the representative of one of the 
Category B organizations argued in the third session of 
the Commission that certain of the rights set forth in 
the covenant, such as freedom from torture, should be 
expressed witliout any limitations whatsoever. 

" In the case of slavery, for example, there would be 
considerable doubt as to whether any new legislation 
would be needed, for the right to freedom is already guar- 
anteed in the United States Constitution. On the other 
hand, the provision on freedom of information as drafted 
by the Geneva Conference on Freedom of Information 
(U.N. doc. E/800, annex B, art. 17, alternative C) may 
require positive legislation. 

Department of State BuUetin 



Footnotes — Continued 



"Art. 2 of the draft covenant contains an undertaking 
that th'> "rights and freedoms" therein set forth "where 
not now provided under existing laws and procedures 
[shall] be given effect in [each ratifying State's] domestic 
law through the adoption of appropriate laws and pro- 
cedures." The members of the Drafting Committee were 
Still struggling witli the exact wording to be used for 
this article when it became necessary to pass on to con- 
sideration of other matters. A note appears under the 
title of tlie covenant stating that "The Drafting Commit- 
tee agreed to poiut out In its Report its view that the 
Covenant is not self-operative", U.N. doc. E/CN.4/95, 
annex B. (The term "not self-executing" would have been 
technically more correct.) 

"^ The suliject of implementation was considered by the 
Commission on the last day of the third session. Although 
actual di.scussion was brief, there was evidence of great 
interest and considerable study on the part of Commission 
Jlembers. The Drafting Committee at its second session 
postponed consideration of covenant art. 4(2) (report 
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on meas- 
ures talien derogating from rights, in case of war or 
public emergency), and art. 26, amendments to the cove- 
nant, in the hope that it would consider these articles 
in connection with its study of implementation. The 
Drafting Committee's covenant lacks also any mention 
of steps to be taken in case of violation of a covenant 
provision. The declaration, however, as approved by 
the Commission, is complete except for the article on right 
of petition, consideration of which was postponed until 
the more definitive discussion of implementation which 
never materialized. 

»° U.N. doc. E/CN.4/AC.1/27. 

"U.N. doc. E/CN.4/82/Add.lO. 

"U.N. doc. E/CN.4/14.^. 

"^ In addition to China and the United States. The In- 
dian Member indicated general supiMirt for the China- 
United States proposal except that she expressed her view 
that petitions must be considered forthwith (U.N. docs. 
E/CN.4/151, 153). The U.S.S.R. Member, however, ex- 
pressed opposition to all implementation proposals on the 
ground that they might "become a means of interfering 
with the internal affairs of a State party to the convention 



and of undermining the sovereignty and independence of 
particular states" (U.N', doc. E/CN.4/1.')4). 

"■ Except in the case of tlie rights of assembly and asso- 
ciation (arts. 18 and 19 of the draft covenant) and the 
alternate (Geneva) draft of the right of liberty of move- 
ment and free choice of residence (art. 11(1)) each of 
tlie substantive articles is phrased in terms of "no one" 
shall be denied or "everyone" has the right, etc. 

"See Azcarate, The Leayiie of Nations and Minorities 
Treaties. 

'- A number of the Commission Members have been con- 
cerned over the large number of individual petitions com- 
plaining of violations of human rights which have been 
received by the United Nations. The Commission has de- 
clared that it has "no power to take any action in regard 
to any complaints regarding human rights" (U.N. doc. 
E/2.j9). See also Economic and Social Council, resolution 
75 (V), U.N. doc. E/573. 

" Had a vote been taken at the Commission's third ses- 
sion on whether the covenant should at once make provi- 
sion for action on individual petitions, the decision would 
probably have been in opposition to such provision. This 
conclusion is based on the assumption that the four east- 
ern European members (Byelorussian S.S.R., Ukrainian 
S.S.R., U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia) would have continued 
their expressed opposition to consideration of individual 
petitions and joined with the supporters of the /Thina- 
United States proposal on implementation to form a total 
of 10 out of a possible 18 votes. Since there was not full 
discussion of the question the China-United States pro- 
posal leaves the door open for further consideration of in- 
dividual petitions under the covenant. 

" The proposal on this point is as follows: "States may 
in any event have such recourse to the International Court 
of Justice as is provided in the Charter of the United 
Nations and the Statute of the Court." (U.N. doc. 
E/CN.4/145, par. 2(c).) 

"U.N. doc. E/CN.4/145. 

"U.N. doc. E/CN.4/82/Add.lO. 

" To a certain extent this is the procedure which has 
been adopted by the International Labor Organization, 
with marked success. 

" U.N. doc. E/SOO, par. 16. 



APPENDIX: COMPARISON BETWEEN TEXTS OF "DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS" AS APPROVED 
AT SECOND AND THIRD SESSIONS, RESPECTIVELY, OF THE COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 



Second Session (Geneva Draft; U.N. doc. 
E/600, Part i, Annex A> 



[No preamble drafted.] 



Third Session (U.N. doc. E/800, Annex A) 

Preamble 

Whereiks recognition of the inherent dignity and of the 
equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human 
family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in 
the world ; and 

Wheeeas disregard and contempt for human rights re- 
sulted, before and during the second world war, in bar- 
barous acts which outraged the conscience of mankind and 
made it apparent that the fundamental freedoms were 
one of the supreme issues of the conflict ; and 



Aogosf 8, 1948 



167 



Second Session (Geneva Draft; U. N, 
E/600, Part 1. Annex A) 



doc. 



Third Session (U. N. doc. E/SOO, Annex A) 

Wheeeas it is essential, if mankind is not to be com- 
pelled as a last resort to rebel against tjTanny and op- 
pression, that hnman rights should be protected by a 
r^me of law ; and 

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the 
Charter determined to reafBrm faith in fundamental hu- 
man rights and in the dignity and worth of the human 
person and to promote social progress and better stand- 
ards of life in larger freedom ; and 

Whebeas Member States have pledged themselves to 
achieve, in co-operation with the Organization, the pro- 
motion of tmiversal respect for and observance of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms ; and 

Whereias a common understanding of these rights and 
freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full reali- 
zation of this pledge, 

Now therefore the General Assembly 

Proclaims this Declaration of Human Rights as a com- 
mon standard of achievement for all peoples and all na- 
tions, to the end that every individual and every organ 
of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, 
shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect 
for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, 
national and international, to sectire their universal and 
effective recognition and observance, both among the 
peoples of Member States themselves and among the peo- 
ples of territories under their jurisdiction. 



Scope of Declaration 



Article I 
All men are born free and equal in dignity and rights. 
They are endowed by nature with reason and conscience, 
and should act towards one another like brothers. 

Article S 
1. Every one is entitled to all the rights and freedoms 
set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any 
kind, such as race, (which includes colotir), sex, lan- 
guage, religion, political or other opinion, property status, 
or national or social origin. 



Article 1 
All htmian beings are bom free and equal in dignity 
and rights. They are endowed by nature with reason 
and conscience, and should act towards one another in 
a spirit of brotherhood. 

Article 2 
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set 
forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, 
such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or 
other opinion, property or other status, or national or 
social origin. 



Civil Rights 



Article 4 
Every one has the right to life, to liberty and security 
of person. 

Article 8 
Slavery, in all its forms, being inconsistent with the 
dignity of man, shall be prohibited by law. 

Article 7 
3. No one shall be subjected to tortnre, or to cruel or 
inhuman punishment or indignity. 

Article 12 
Every one has the right everywhere in the world to 
recognition as a person before the law and to the enjoy- 
ment of frmdamental civil rights. 



Article S 
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of 

I)erson. 

Article 4 

1. No one shall be held in slavery or involuntary servi- 
tude. 

2. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, In- 
htmian or degrading treatment or punishment. 

Article 5 
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a 
person before the law. 



168 



Deporfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Second Session (Geneva Draft; U. N. doc. 
E/600, Part I, Annex A) 

Article S 
2. All are eqnal before the law regardless of office or 
status and entitled to equal protection of the law against 
any arbitrary discrimination, or against any incitement 
to such discrimination, in violation of this Declaration. 

Article 5 
No one shall be deprived of his personal liberty or kept 
in custody except in cases prescribed by law and after 
due process. Every one placed under arrest or detention 
shall have the right to immediate judicial determination 
of the legality of any detention to which he may be subject 
and to trial within a reasonable time or to release. 

Article 6 
Every one shall have access to independent and im- 
partial tribunals in the determination of any criminal 
charge against him, and of his rights and obligations. He 
shall be entitled to a fair hearing of his case and to have 
the aid of a qualified representative of his own choice, and 
if he appears in jierson to have the procedure explained 
to him in a manner in which he can understand it and to 
use a language which he can speak. 

Article 7 /x' 

1. Any person is presumed to be innocent until proved 
guilty. No one shall be convicted or punished for crime 
or other offence except after fair public trial at which he 
has been given aU guarantees necessary for his defence. 
No person shall be held guilty of any offence on account of 
any act or omission which did not constitute such an 
offence at the time when it was committed, nor shall he 
be liable to any greater punishment than that prescribed 
for such offence by the law in force at the time when the 
offence was committed. 

2. Nothing in this Article shall prejudice the trial and 
punishment of any person for the commission of any act 
which, at the time it was committed, was criminal accord- 
ing to the general principles of law recognized by civilized 
nations. 

Article 9 ^^ 

Every one shall be entitled to protection under law from 
unreasonable interference with his reputation, his privacy 
and his family. His home and correspondence shall be 
inviolable. 

Article 10 

1. Subject to any general law not contrary to the ptir- 
poses and principles of the United Nations Charter and 
adopted for specific reasons of security or in general in- 
terest, there shall be liberty of movement and free choice 
of residence within the border of each State. 

2. Individuals shall have the right to leave their own 
country and. if they so desire, to acquire the nationality 
of any cotmtry willing to grant it. 

Article 11 
Every one shall have the right to seek and be granted 
asylum from persecution. This right will not be accorded 

Aogos/ 8, J 948 



Third Session (U. N. doc. E/800, Annex A) 

Article 6 
All are equal before the law and are entitled without 
any discrimination to equal protection of the law against 
any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and 
against any incitement to such discrimination- 

Article 7 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or deten- 
tion. 



Article 8 
In the determination of bis rights and obligations and 
of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled in 
full equality to a fair hearing by an independent and im- 
partial tribnnaL 



Article 9 

1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right 
to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to 
law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees 
necessary for his defence. 

2. No one shall be held guilty of any offence on account 
of any act or omission which did not constitute an offence, 
under national or international law, at the time when it 
was committed. 



Article 10 
No one shall be subjected to unreasonable interference 
with his privacy, family, home, correspondence or reputa- 
tion. 

Article 11 

X. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and 
residence within the borders of each State. 

2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including 
his own. 



Article 12 
1. Everyone has the right to seek and be granted. In 
other countries, asylum from persecution. 

169 



Second Session CGeneva Draft; U. N. doc. 
E/600, Part I, Annex A> 

to criminals nor to tliose whose acts are contrary to the 
principles and aims of the United Nations. 

Article 15 

Every one has the right to a nationality. 

All persons who do not enjoy the protection of any 
Government shall be placed under the protection of the 
United Nations. This protection shall not be accorded 
to criminals nor to those whose acts are contrary to the 
principles and aims of tlie United Nations. 

Article 13 

1. The family deriving from marriage is the natural 
and fundamental unit of society. Men and women shall 
have the same freedom to contract marriage in accordance 
with the law. 

2. Marriage and the family shall be protected by the 
State and Society. 

Article H 

1. Every one has the right to own jiroperty in conform- 
ity with the laws of the State in which such property is 
located. 

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. 

Article 16 

1. Individual freedom of thought and conscience, to 
hold and cliange beliefs, is an absolute and sacred right. 

2. Every person has the right, either alone or in com- 
munity with other persons of like mind and in public or 
private, to manifest his beliefs in worship, observance, 
teaching and practice. 

{Articles 17, 18) 

(1. Every one is free to express and impart opinions, or 
to receive and seek information and the opinion of others 
from sources wherever situated.) 

(2. No person may be interfered with on account of 
his opinions.) 

(There shall be freedom of expression either by word, in 
writing, in the press, in books or by visual, auditive or 
other means. There sliall be equal access to all cliannels 
of communications.) 

Article 19 

Every one has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly 
and to participate in local, national and international as- 
sociations for purposes of a political, economic, religious, 
social, cultural, trade union or any otiier charactei", not 
inconsistent with this Declaration. 

Articles 21, 22 

Every one without discrimination has the right to take 
an effective part in the Government of his country. The 
State shall conform to the will of the people as mani- 
fested by elections which shall be periodic, free, fair and 
by secret ballot. 



Third Session (U. N. doc. E/800, Annex A) 

2. Prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political 
crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and prin- 
ciples of the United Nations do not constitute persecution. 

Article 13 

No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality 
or denied the right to change his nationality. 



Article I4 

1. Men and women of full age have the riglit to marry 
and to found a family and are entitled to equal rights 
as to marriage. 

2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the full con- 
sent of both intending spouses. 

3. The family is the natural and fundamental group 
unit of society and is entitled to protection. 

Article 15 

1. Everyone has tlie right to own property alone as well 
as in association with others. 

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. 

Article 16 

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, con- 
science and religion; this riglit includ-'S ire dom to 
change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone 
or in community with others and in public or private, to 
manifest his religion or lielief in teaching, piavti>^e, wor- 
ship and observance. 

Article 11 

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and ex- 
pression ; this right includes freedom to hold opinions 
without interference and to seek, receive and impart in- 
formation and ideas through any media and regardless of 
frontiers. 



Article 18 

Everyone has the right to freedom of assembly and 
association. 



Article 19 

1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government 
of his country, directly or through his freely chosen 
representatives. 

2. Everyone has the right of access to public employment 
in his country. 



170 



Department of State Bulletin 



Second Session (Geneva Draft; U. N. doc. 
E/600, Part I, Annex A) 

1. Every one shall have equal opportunity to engage in 
public employment and to bold public ofiiee in the State 
of wbicb be is a citizen or a national. 

-. Access to public employment shall not be a matter 
of privilege or favour. 



Third Session (U. N. doc. E/SOO, Annex A) 

3. Everyone has the right to a government which con- 
forms to the will of the people. 



Social and Economic Rights 



Article 20 



[Xo equivalent article; however, cf. article 26 below.] 



Artkles 23, 24 

1. Every one has the right to work. 

2. The State has a duty to take such measures as may 
be within its power to ensure that all persons ordinarily 
resident in its territory have an opportunity for useful 
work. 

3. The State is bound to take all necessary steps to pre- 
vent unemployment. 

1. Every one has the right to receive pay commensurate 
with his ability and skill, to work under just and favour- 
able conditions and to join trade unions for the protection 
of his interests in securing a decent standard of living for 
himself and his family. 

2. Women shall work with the same advantages as men 
and receive equal pay for equal work. 

Articles 25, 26 

Every one without distinction as to economic and social 
conditions has the right to the preservation of his health 
through the highest standard of food, clothing, housing 
and medical care wliich the resources of the State or com- 
munity can provide. The responsibility of the State and 
community for the health and safety of its people can be 
fulfilled only by provision of adequate health and social 
measures. 

1. Every one has the right to social security. The State 
has a duty to maintain or ensure the maintenance of com- 
prehensive measures for the security of the individual 
against the consequence of unemployment, disability, old 
age and ail other loss of livelihood for reasons beyond his 
control. 

2. Motherhood shall be granted special care and assist- 
ance. Children are similarly entitled to special care and 
assistance. 

Articles 27, 28 

Every one has the right to education. Fundamental 
education shall be free and compulsory. There shall be 
equal access for higher education as can be provided by 
the State or commuiuty on the basis of merit and without 
distinction as to race, sex, language, religion, social stand- 
ing, financial means, or political affiliation. 

Education will be directed to the full physical, intel- 
lectual, moral and spiritual development of the human 

August 8, J 948 



Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to 
social security and is entitled to the realization, 'through 
national effort and international co-operation, and in ac- 
cordance with the organization and resources of each 
State, of the economic, social and cultural rights set out 
below. 

Article 21 

1. Everyone has the right to work, to just and favourable 
conditions of work and pay and to protection against un- 
employment. 



2. Everyone has the right to equal pay for equal work. 
3 Everyone is free to form and to join trade unions for 
the i)rotection of his interests. 



Article 22 

1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living, in- 
cluding food, clothing, housing and medical care, and to 
social services, adequate for the health and well-being of 
himself and his family and to security in the event of 
unemi)loyment, sickness, disability, old age or other lack 
of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 



2. Mother and child have the right to special care and 
assistance. 

Article 23 

1. Everyone has the right to education. Elementary and 
fundamental education shall be free and compulsory and 
there shall be equal access on the basis of merit to higher 
education. 



2. Education shall be directed to the full development of 
the human personality, to strengthening respect for human 

171 



Second Session (Geneva Draft; U. N. doc. 
E/600, Part I, Annex A) 

personality, to the strengthening of respect for human 
rights and fundamental freedoms and to the combating 
of the spirit of intolerance and hatred against other 
nations or racial or religious groups everywhere. 

Article 29 

1. Every one has the right to rest and leisure. 

2. Rest and leisure should be ensured to every one by 
laws or contracts providing in particular for reasonable 
limitations on working hours and for periodic vacations 
with pay. 

Article SO 

Every one has the right to participate in the cultural 
life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in 
the benefits that result from scientific discoveries. 



Third Session (U. N. doc. E/800, Annex A) 

rights and fundamental freedoms and to combating the 
spirit of intolerance and hatred against other nations 
and against racial and religious groups everywhere. 

Article Zi 
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. 



Article S5 

Everyone has the right to participate in the cultural 
life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in 
scientific advancement. 



General Provisions 



Article 52 



All laws in any State shall be in conformity with the 
purposes and principles of the United Nations as em- 
bodied in the Charter, insofar as they deal with human 
rights. 

Article 2 

In the exercise of his rights every one is limited by the 
rights of others and by the just requirements of the 
democratic State. The individual owes duties to society 
through which he is enabled to develop his spirit, mind and 
body in wider freedom. 



Article S6 



Everyone is entitled to a good social and international 
order in which the rights and freedoms set out in this 
Declaration can be fully realized. 

Article 27 

1. Everyone has duties to the community which enables 
him freely to develop his personality. 

2. In the exercise of his rights, everyone shall be subject 
only to such limitations as are necessary to secure due 
recognition and respect for the rights of others and the 
requirements of morality, public order and general wel- 
fare in a democratic society. 



Article SS 

Nothing in this Declaration shall be considered to 
recognize the right of any State or person to engage in 
any activity aimed to the destruction of any of the rights 
and freedoms prescribed herein. 



Article S8 

Nothing in this Declaration shall imply the recognition 
of the right of any State or person to engage in any 
activity aimed at the destruction of any of the rights 
and freedoms prescribed herein. 



Riglit of Petition; Rigiit of Minorities 



Article 20 
Every one has the right, either individually, or in asso- 
ciation with others, to petition or to communicate with 
the public authorities of the State of which he is a national 
or in which he resides, or with the United Nations. 

Article SI 
[The Commission did not take a decision on the two texts 
below. They are reproduced here for further consid- 
eration.] 

Text pkoposed by the Dbaftino Committee ( first session ) : 

(In States inhabited by a substantial number of persons 

of a race, language or religion other than those of the 

majority of the population, persons belonging to such 



[No decision reached by Commission at its third session 
regarding an article on petitions.] 



[The Commission at its third session decided against 
inclusion of an article on minorities.] 



(Continued on page 186) 



172 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Provisional Agenda for the Third Regular Session 
of the General Assembly ^ 



To Convene at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris, on September 21, 1948 



1. Opening of the session by the Chairman of 
the Delegation of Argentina 

2. Appointment of the Credentials Committee 

3. Election of the President 

4. Constitution of the Main Committees and 
election of officers 

5. Election of Vice-Presidents 

6. Notification by the Secretary-General under 
Article 12, paragraph 2, of the Charter 

7. Adoption of the agenda 

8. Opening of the general debate 

9. Report of the Secretary-General on the work 
of tlie Organization 

10. Report of the Security Council 

11. Report of the Economic and Social Council 

12. Report of the Trusteeship Council 

13. Headquarters of the United Nations : report 
of the Secretary-General (Resolution 182(11) of 
20 November 1947) 

14. Admission of new Members 

(a) Report of the Security Council (Resolution 
113(11) of 17 November 1947) 

(i) Advisory opinion of the International 
Court of Justice (Resolution 113(11), B of 17 
November 1947) 

(c) Admission to the Organization of Italy and 
all those States whose applications for member- 
ship have obtained seven votes in the Security 
Council : item proposed by Argentina 

15. Threats to the political independence and 
territorial integrity of Greece: report of the 
United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans 
(Resolution 109(11) of 21 October 1947) 

16. The problem of the independence of Korea : 

(a) Report of the United Nations Temporary 
Commission on Korea (Resolution 112(11) of 14 
November 1947) 

{Jj) Report of the Interim Committee of the 

August 8, 7948 



General Assembly (Resolution 112(11) of 14 No- 
vember 1947) 

17. The problem of voting in the Security 
Council : 

(a) Report of the Interim Committee of the 
General Assembly (Resolution 117(11) of 21 No- 
vember 1947) 

(h) Convocation of a General Conference under 
Article 109 of the Charter in order to study the 
question of the veto in the Security Council : item 
I^roposed by Argentina 

18. Advisability of establishing a permanent 
committee of the General Assembly : report of the 
Interim Committee of the General Assembly 
(Resolution 111(11) of 13 November 1947) 

19. Study of methods for the promotion of inter- 
national co-operation in the political field : report 
of the Interim Committee of the General Assem- 
bly (Resolution 111(11) of 13 November 1947) 

20. Reports of the Atomic Energy Commission : 
resolution of the Security Council 

21. Election of three non-permanent members 
of the Security Council 

22. Report of the Government of the Union of 
South Africa on the administration of South West 
Africa: report of the Trusteeship Council (Res- 
olution 141(11) of 1 November 1947) 

23. Information from Non-Self-Governing Ter- 
ritories : 

(a) Summary and analysis of information trans- 
mitted under Article 7Ze of the Charter: report 
of the Secretary -General (Resolution 66(1) of 
14 December 1946) 

(b) Information transmitted under Article 73e 
of the Charter : report of the Special Committee 
(Resolution 146(11) of 3 November 1947) 



' U.N. doc. A/5S5, July 23, 1948. 



173 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

24. Agreements with specialized agencies : 

{a) Application of Finland for membership in 
the International Civil Aviation Organization: 
item proposed by the Secretary-General 

(b) Approval of supplementary agreements 
with specialized agencies concerning the use of 
United Nations laissez-passer : report of the Sec- 
retary-General 

25. Relations with and co-ordination of special- 
ized agencies and work programmes of the United 
Nations and specialized agencies: report of the 
Secretary-General (Resolution 125(11) of 20 
November 1947) 

2G. Freedom of Information: report of the 
Economic and Social Council (Resolution 59(1) of 
14 December 1946) 

27. Election of six members of the Economic 
and Social Council 

28. Election of five members of the International 
Court of Justice (article 13, paragraph 1 of the 
Statute of the Court) 

29. Progressive development of international 
law : election of the members of the International 
Law Commission (Resolution 174 (II) of 21 No- 
vember 1947) 

30. Registration and publication of treaties and 
international agreements: report of the Secre- 
tary-General 

31. Privileges and immunities of the United 
Nations: reports of the Secretary-General 

(a) Headquarters Agreement 

(b) General Convention on the Privileges and 
Immunities of the United Nations 

32. Genocide: draft Convention and report of 
the Economic and Social Council (Resolution 180 
(II) of 21 November 1947) 

33. Draft rules for the convening of interna- 
tional conferences: report of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral (Resolution 173 (II) of 17 November 1947) 

34. Installation of the Assistant Secretary-Gen- 
eral in charge of the Executive Office of the Secre- 
tary-General and general co-ordination 

35. Financial administration of the United 
Nations : 

{a) Financial report and accounts for the finan- 
cial period ended 31 December 1947, and report of 
the Board of Auditors 

(6) Supplementary estimates for the financial 
year 1948 : report of the Secretary-General 

(c) Budget estimates for the financial year 1949 
{d) Unforeseen and extraordinary expenses: 

report of the Secretary-General (Resolution 
16G(II), B of 20 November 1947) 

(e) Reports of the Advisory Committee on Ad- 
ministrative and Budgetary Questions 

(/) Report of the Committee on Contributions 
(g) International Children's Emergency Fund : 

174 



Annual audit of the accounts of the Fund : report 
of the Secretary-General 

36. Appointments to fill vacancies in the mem- 
bership of subsidiary bodies of the General Assem- 
bly : 

(«) Advisory Committee on Administrative 
and Budgetary Questions 

{h) Committee on Contributions 

{c) Board of Auditors 

{d) Investments Committee 

37. United Nations Joint Staff Pension Scheme 

(fl) Report of the United Nations Statf Benefit 
Committee submitting draft Regulations for a per- 
manent Pension Scheme (Resolution 162(11) of 
20 November 1947) 

(6) Annual report of the Staff Benefit Com- 
mittee on the operation of the Pension Fund 
(Resolution 82(1) of 15 December 1946 and Sec- 
tion 35 of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension 
Scheme Provisional Regulations) 

38. Tax equalization : proposed staff assessment 
plan : report of the Secretary-General (Resolution 
160(11) of 20 November 1947) 

39. United Nations telecommunications system : 
report of the Secretary-General (Resolution 
158(11) of 20 November 1947) 

40. Organization of a United Nations postal 
service: report of the Secretary-General (Resolu- 
tion 159(11) of 20 November 1947) 

41. Transfer of the assets of the League of Na- 
tions : report of the Secretary-General (Resolution 
24(1) of 12 February 1946) 

42. Composition of the Secretariat and the prin- 
ciple of geographical distribution : report of the 
Secretary-General (Resolution 153(11) of 15 
November 1947) 

43. Proposal for the adoption of Spanish as one 
of the working languages of the General Assem- 
bly: report of the Secretary-General (Resolution 
154(11) of 15 November 1947) 

44. Violation by the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics of fundamental human rights, tra- 
ditional di])lomatic practices and other principles 
of the Charter : items proposed by Chile 

45. Treatment of Indians in the Union of South 
Africa : item proposed by India 

46. Equitable geographical distribution of the 
seat for the six non-permanent members in the 
Security Council : item proposed by India 

47. Amendment of rule 149 of the rules of joro- 
cedure of the General Assembly to provide for the 
recognition of the principle of a percentage ceiling 
in the scale of assessments to meet expenses of the 
United Nations: item proposed by the United 
States of America 

48. Increase to twenty-four of the number of 
Member States represented in the Economic and 
Social Council : item proposed by Argentina 

Department of State Bulletin 



Truce Supervision in Palestine 



CABLEGRAMS FROM THE UNITED NATIONS MEDIATOR DATED JULY 22 AND 27, 1948, 

TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL' 



I. instructions to United Nations Observers Engaged 
in the Supervision of the Truce in Palestine 

1. The Role of the Observer 

(i) Primary function of observer is to super- 
vise observance of terms of truce in area to which 
he is assigned. To discharge this function pi-op- 
erly observer must be completely objective in his 
attitudes and judgments and must maintain a 
thorough neutrality as regards political issues in 
the Palestine situation. Fundamental objective 
of terms of truce is to ensure to fullest extent 
possible that no military advantage will accrue 
to either side as result of application of truce. 
Observer is entitled to demand that acts contrary 
to terms of truce be not committed or be rectified 
but has no power to enforce such demands and 
must rely largely upon his ability to settle dis- 
putes locally by direct approaches to local com- 
manders and authorities and where possible by 
bringing the commanders and authorities together. 
It is responsibility of the observer to call promptly 
to attention of appropriate local commanders and 
authorities every act which in his opinion is con- 
trary to letter and spirit of truce. 

(ii) Observers acting on behalf and under 
orders of United Nations Mediator are official 
representatives of United Nations. They are 
under command of Mediator who is represented by 
a General Officer acting as his Chief of Staff in 
connection with truce supervision. This Chief of 
Staff is assisted by American, Belgian and French 
liaison officers of senior rank who will be assigned 
to Chief of Staff at truce supervision headquarters. 

(///) Truce applies to seven Arab States (Egypt, 
Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan 
and Yemen) and to all of Palestine. 

2. Operational histiiictions 

{i) Each observer must become thoroughly 
familiar with (a) provisions of resolutions of 
Security Council of 29 May and 15 July 1948, 
(h) terms of truce, and (c) list of items banned 
for import as coming under heading "war mate- 



rials." (Copies of these documents are contained 
in the folder provided each observer.) 

(//) Each observer will report daily as in- 
structed and on forms prescribed. Reports should 
cover each incident in particular locality relating 
to application of truce and should include other 
information pertinent to function of Mediator. 

{Hi) Any failure to comply with conditions of 
truce on part of either party shall immediately be 
reported by observer. Report to extent possible 
shall fully exfilain each such failure and shall 
clearly fix responsibility therefor. Questions re- 
lating to disputed interpretations of terms of truce 
or their application shall be referred through 
chain of command to Chief of Staff. 

{iv) Observer shall investigate and report on 
as instructed all complaints of alleged violations 
of truce occurring within area to which he is 
assigned. 

{v) In dealing with local incidents observer 
shall make clear to parties concerned that full re- 
sponsibility will be borne by them and by tlieir 
Governments for failure to comply with ruling of 
observer in connection with actions and incidents 
relating to application of truce. Observer should 
exercise reasonable discretion in each instance in 
order minimize unpleasant incidents and local 
friction. 

(vi) Observer is entitled to inspect all military 
positions and installations and other premises 
which might reasonably be connected with ap- 
plication of truce as well as ships, aircraft and 
convoys. Purpose of such inspection shall be to 
a.scertain that no activity is carried on in any such 
place which will result in any military advantage 
accruing to either side during truce. 

{vii) Observers shall be entitled to request and 
receive fi'om both parties armed protection for 
himself, his staff' and material and safe conduct 
whenever necessary in discharge of his duties. 

( inii) Observers assigned to coastal areas where 
landing of immigrants and war material can be 
expected shall maintain effective observation in- 



' U.N. doe. S/928, July 28, 1948, as corrected. 



August 8, 1948 



175 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

volving reconnaissance by air, land and sea and se- 
curing fullest possible information about any 
violations suspected or alleged of truce conditions. 
All fighting personnel which shall include persons 
identified as belonging to organized military units 
and all persons bearing arms shall be denied entry. 
(ix) Men of military age (i. e., in the age group 
18 to 45) among immigrants shall be permitted 
entry during truce only in such limited numbers as 
the Mediator in the exercise of his discretion may 
determine with a view to ensuring that no military 
advantage will accrue to either side. No men of 
military age shall be disembarked until they have 
been registered by local authorities in presence of 
United Nations Observers, given identity cards 
and their destinations, intended places of abode 
and occupations are clearly indicated and recorded. 
Men of military age thus gaining enti-y are not to 
be mobilized in armed forces and cannot partici- 
pate in any military or paramilitary training ac- 
tivities. Such men are not Isic] to be assigned to 
particular area or areas which shall be approved by 
observers who shall periodically check on where- 
abouts and activities of such men. 

3. Administrative Instructions 

(i) All observers will be provided with per diem 
advances at rate of $15 per day. Those funds are 
intended for defrayment of costs of meals, lodging, 
laundry and incidental expenses. Observers will 
not be paid second time for expenditures in these 
categories. However personnel forced by official 
duties to maintain accommodations in different lo- 
cations simultaneously may claim for reimburse- 
ment for excess costs involved provided reasonable 
judgment is exercised in releasing accommodations 
and person in charge of administration at observ- 
er's duty station is notified immediately. In no 
circumstances are dual accommodations "to be held 
for more than two days. 

(m) Each observer will be provided with a pay 
card which will contain record of all per diem 
payments made to him. Pay-masters have been 
instructed that per diem payments are to be made 
to observers personnel only upon presentation of 
pay card. 

(Hi) Expenditures for purposes of official busi- 
ness not falling in categories outlined in paragraph 
(i) above (such as use of taxicabs when no other 
transportation is available or purchase of supplies 
when previously authorized by administrative offi- 
cer) may be reimbursed upon submission of au- 
thenticated claim by observer together with re- 
ceipts covering expenditure. Claims for expen- 
ditures for personal expenses paid on behalf of 
some one other than the payer will [not?] be hon- 
oured by United Nations. 

{iv) Observers are not authorized to employ 
local personnel nor to purchase equipment for ac- 
count of United Nations without prior authoriza- 
tion of chief administrative officer except in clearly 

176 



demonstrated emergencies. When emergencies re- 
quire such action without prior approval, the chief 
administrative officer must be notified at once. 

(v) Any observer who is custodian of United 
Nations property is personally liable therefor and 
must return or account for property assigned to 
him prior to his departure to his regular duty 
station. 

Rhodes, £0 July 194S. 

Count Folke Bernadotte 
United Nations Mediator on Palestine 

II. Additional Instructions for the Supervision of 
the Truce in Palestine 

1. Headquarters is established in Haifa. 

2. One group of observers will be assigned to 
each Arab army and to each Jewish army group. 
Besides there will be one group of observers for 
the coast and ports and one for control of convoys 
between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. 

3. The commanding officer of each group will : 

{a) secure detailed information about the army 
or army group to which he is assigned; 

(b) assign observers to various units and to im- 
portant crossroads, bridges, airfields, etc. ; 

(c) supplement the general instructions to 
observers with special instructions according to 
local requirements; 

(d) ensure that observers are permanently sta- 
tioned with military units or on sections of the 
front (generally two observers together) ; 

(e) take decisions on questions referred to him 
by his observers and on any other questions within 
his competence which may arise ; 

( /) refer to headquarters in Haifa any questions 
which he is unable to solve himself; 

(g) submit requests to headquarters in Haifa in 
respect of his requirements of observers, communi- 
cations, transportation, etc. ; 

(A) until such time as his requirements have been 
fully met, maintain contact with headquarters in 
Haifa and with his observers by any means at hie 
disposal (it may be necessary to make use of 
private vehicles, civilian telephone, telegraphic or 
radio communications to ensure the efficiency of 
the supervision in his area by means of personal 
visits to unit sections of the front check posts, etc.) ; 

(i) submit at the earliest possible date to head- 
quarters in Haifa a map showing the exact front 
line as it was at the commencement of the cease-fire, 
or, if this should prove impossible, at the time the 
observers first reached the spot; 

(j) act according to his best judgment in any 
situation which arises. 

4. The above rules should also be observed in the 
supervision of ports, convoys and the coast insofar 
as they are applicable. 

5. Observers may be transferred as necessary 
from one group to another on orders from head- 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



quarters in Haifa. Commanding oflScers may also 
be rejilaced by officers of higher rank or greater 
seniority assigned to the same group. 

III. Organization of the System of Observation 
of the Truce 

1. Introductory 

(?) Paragraph 8 of the resohition on the Pales- 
tine question adopted at the 338th meeting of the 
Security Council, on 15 July 1948, instructed the 
jMediator to supervise the observation of the truce ; 
also to establish procedures for examining alleged 
breaches of the truce since 11 June 1948. In con- 
nection with the latter, the Mediator was author- 
ized to deal with the breaches so far as it is within 
his capacity to do so by appropriate local action. 
Finally the Mediator was requested : 

(a) to keep the Security Council currently in- 
formed concerning the operation of the truce, and 

(b) when necessary, to take appropriate action. 

{ii) The fact that the truce ordered under para- 
graph 9 of the resolution is to remain in force 
"until a peaceful adjustment of the future situa- 
tion of Palestine is reached"' calls for a methodical 
organization of its operation. To that effect ap- 
propriate machinery for investigating and report- 
ing violations of the truce should be set up. Below 
is a brief outline of a scheme covering both the 
supervision of the observation of that truce and 
the establishment of procedures for examining 
alleged breaches of the truce. 

2. Supervision 

(i) Chief of Military Staff, Central Truce 
Supervision Board. 

The system of observation will be administered 
on behalf of the Mediator by the Mediator's Chief 
of Military Staff assisted by an Advisory Board to 
be known as the "Central Truce Supervision 
Board". Particularly it will be the duty of the 
Chief of Military Staff to : 

(a) organize a detailed plan for land, sea and 
air observation with the greatest possible dispatch; 

(i) assign the observers to their posts and di- 
rect their activities ; 

(c) on the basis of field observations to define 
on a map the positions of the respective armed 
forces in the several fighting sectors at the begin- 
ning of the truce. Alterations of such positions 
should be only in connection with local agreements 
negotiated concerning no-man's land. Questions 
of principle relating to the interpretation of the 
terms of the truce shall be referred to the Mediator 
for decision. 

(«) Composition and Functions of the Central 
Truce Supervision Board. 

The Central Truce Supervision Board shall 
function under the chairmanship of the Chief of 

August 8, 1948 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGBNCIES 

Military Staff and shall consist of one American, 
one Belgian and one French Senior Officer to be 
designated by the Mediator and the political ad- 
visor to the Chief of Military Staff. The Chief of 
Military Staff may designate a member of the 
Board to act as vice-chairman. The Central Truce 
Supervision Board shall advise the Chief of Mili- 
tary Staff on all questions relating to the adminis- 
tration of the truce. 

(Hi) Kegional Truce Supervision Boards. 

To the extent feasible the area affected by the 
truce will be divided into zones in each of which 
there will be a "Regional Truce Supervision 
Board", the members of which will be designated 
by the Central Truce Supervision Board. Each 
regional board will be responsible to the Central 
Supervision Boai'd for the system of observation 
to be established in that region. 

3. Establishment of procedures for examining 
alleged breaches of the truce 

(/) Requests by Governments for investigation 
of alleged breaches of the truce which have not 
been settled by observers on the spot shall be sub- 
mitted to the Central Truce Supervision Board, 
which shall refer them for investigation and report 
to the appropriate Regional Truce Supervision 
Board, or to an observer or a special investigation 
team designated for this specific purpose. 

( ii) As circumstances permit, each of the parties 
may appoint military experts to act as liaison 
officers with observers in the field, with Regional 
Truce Supervision Boards, or with the special in- 
vestigation teams. 

{Hi) Investigations of alleged breaches shall be 
undertaken on the spot, shall include the hearing 
of witnesses and the collection of all available 
evidence and in general all practicable steps shall 
be taken toward the clarification and settlement of 
the incident. The special investigation teams and 
the Regional Truce Supervision Boards should 
normally indicate the measures which ought to be 
taken to preserve the respective rights of either 
party. The findings of such bodies shall be sub- 
mitted to the Central Truce Supervision Board. 

4. Breaches of the Truce 

It must be clearly understood by all personnel 
dealing with the supervision of the truce that the 
truce has been ordered by the United Nations Se- 
curity Council for an indefinite duration and that 
breaches of the truce by one side do not release 
the other side from the obligation to comply with 
the Security Council order to refrain from mili- 
tary action. Breaches of the truce which cannot 
be rectified by the Truce Supervision organization 
will be promptly reported by the Mediator to the 
Security Council for approj^riate action. 

Rhodes, 23 Jvly 19J+8. 

Count Folke Beenadotte 

177 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



Security Council 

DueuiHtnts itlfTiiiiy to the Piilrsthir SHiintion 

Oiiblosniiii nutcd IS Juno 10-IS frmii tlu> I'lillod Nsitidiis 
Modi.Mtor to tlio S<vi-oliiry-(!oiiov;il 'rrniisinitlins 'IVxt 
of AyriHMiioiit of Iti .luiio I'oiuvniinj; t'oiilrol of "No 
M.'iiv's I.iiiul". .lonisjiloin Aivii. ami Otlior Truoo l>e- 
ttltls. S Sto. .liino 21, 104S. ;i pp. niiiiioo, 

Ciil>los;i!iiu Piiloii IS .luiio 1!MS from tlio Viiilotl Nations 
Moilialor to tho SiH'ivtar.v-(5onoral 'riansiuitlinsr Two 
-Vsivouioiits Ooncornnn: AbamtoiUHl Ui-itish Military 
Instatiallons. S Sit!. Juno "Jl, I'.'IS. 4 pp. min\oo. 

Uopilos from Statos Momlu-rs of tlio I'liitoii Nations auii 
I'rom Sonio Non-Momlior Statos Pursuant to tlio Di^ 
olsloii Taivon by tlio Soourlty roniuil loooporatlon with 
Moiilator in ralostiuo) at tlio Tliroo llumlroii ami 
Twontiotli Mtvtins. S Soo. Juno "ja. UMJ>. 7 pp. 
miiuoo. ISovoral Adiloinla.l 

CViliIo.^ram Patoit 'Jo Juno lOIS from tlio Untted Nations 
Atoiliator to tlio S<HTotary-Ooiioriil ("oiioornins tlio In- 
oiilonl at Nosba in tlio Nosob. S 'sr>(>, Juno •2T\. tO-lS. 
1 p. nil 11100, 

Oablo^rani Oatinl oO Jniio 1S14S From tho I'nittM Nations 
Moillator .Xiiiirossod to tho SooiviaryOonoral Ooinvrn- 
iiii,' tlio 1 ST ■•Aitnlona" Inoiaont. S StU. July 1, 104S. 

4 pp, niinuv. 

t.ottor I>atoil -J July I'.US from tbo U<>prosontativo of tbo 
rnnisioual tiovonitnont of Israol, .Viiiirossod to tlio 
Soorotary-Oonoral. S/SC4. July ti, 1;>4S, S pp. 
niinioo, 

lA'tlor from tho Vormanont Woprosontativo of tho VnitiHl 
KinsiliMii V>atO(l S July 1!V1S Adilivssod to the Six'ro- 
tary Oonoral Oonooriiinsr tlio IVtontion of Five 
V>ritish Subjoots by tbo lr,!;nii X.val Lounii. S ■S74. 
July S, ISMS. 1 p, miintH>, 

Lottor from tho Vii>> Cliairman. Arab Hislier Coinuiittet>. 
and n-osiiiont of tbo ralostiuo Arab liolosratlon to tlio 
I'nilod Nations Oatoil S .Inly ISVIS .ViUIrossoii to tho 
rrosiilont of tlio Soourity Oounoil. S SSO. July 0, 
1!MS. '2 i>i>, mimoo, 

Roplios from l.obniion. Transjordan and Iran r>atod !> July 
ISVIS .\ddrossod to tlio Sivrotary-tlonorai Pursuant to 
tho Stvurity Couiu'il Hosolution Adopted at Its IvUst 
Mivlin,!!, 7 July IIMS (Doniimnit S/Sli7), S/SSl. July S>. 
1!M,V I p, minuH>. 

Oablo.sram Oalod July ISMS from tho Minister for Forei.su 
AtTairs >>f the Provisional (.lovornnioiit of Israel in 
Uoply to tho Oabloiirain From tho President of the 
S«vurity Oounoil PattHl S July ISMS, S.'SS2, July 10, 
ISHS. -J pp. minuHi, 

Oahloiiram .\ddressod to the President of the Stvurity 
Oounoil From tho President of the Rsiyptian Oouncil 
of Ministei-s, Dated 10 July 1SM8, S/SS3, July 10, ISM^. 

5 pv>. mim«H>. 

IVlesram I">ate»l 10 July from the Permanent Uepresenta- 
tive of F^aj-pt to the I'nited Nations, .\ddressed to the 
Stvretary-(1eiioral. S. SS.*>. July H>. ISMS. 'J pp. iiiinuHV 

Letter PattM 10 July ISMS fivm the Representative of tlie 
Provisional Ooverument of Israel, Addrt^sseil to the 
S<vivtary-i;eneral. S/'SSlJ, Jul,v 1-. ISMS. - pp. 



' l*rint»M materials may be stvnr«l in the FnittHl States 
fr<>m the International Divuments Serviee. Oolumbia 
I'niversity Pro.ss, L'SHUi l>ivadway. New Yv>rk I'ity, Other 
materials (minuH>,srai>hed or v>i">*>>"sst\l doeunieuts* may 
lie ivnsulttHl at ivrtaiu dosisnatiHl libraries in the Vniteil 
States. 

178 



Report of the United Nations Mediator on Palestine to the 
Soeurlly Ooiuuil, S SSS, July 12. ISMS, 17 pp. miineo. 
IKxoorpIs printed in IU'l.i.eti.n of July 2,"!. ISMS 1 

Letter Dated l;! July IIMS From the VitX'-l'liairniaii of the 
.Vrab lli.irher (^>nlmiltoo lor Palestine an<l IMosiiiout of 
tile P.'ilostino .\rab Peloiiatioii to the I'nilod Nations 
.\ddressed to the Soorotary-Genoral Transmittins; a 
Memm-ainlnni of Violations of Seeurity Council 
KosoUilions anil the Tnuo .Vsiroonient by the Jews in 
Paloslint>, S .'^SVJ, .Inly l:>. ISMS. 11 pp. uiiineo. 

Oahlosrani Patod 17 July ISMS from the Secretary General 
of the l.(>a?:uo of .\ral> States to the Socrolaiy General 
in Koply to the Resolution (PociinnMit S 1H12) .Vdoiitcd 
by the Secniity Oouncil at the 'riiiee Uuiutrod and 
Thirty-Ki.tfhth Meetins on I.". .Inly ISMS. S, SKXi, July 
17. ISMS. 2 pp. miineo. 

Oablesram Dated 21 July ISMS From the United Nations 
Mediator to the SeeretaryGeneral Oonceniini: Oom- 
)ilaiiits .\sainst .\lle,god Violations of the Truce by 
Jewish Forces. S SUO. July 21, ISMS. 1 p. niimoo. " 

Letter Dated 12 July ISMS From the Forei.sn Minister of 
the Provisional Govornnient of Israel .Vildressecl to ' 
tho United Nations Mtnliator C\>iicernin.s Violations i 
by .\rahs of the Security Oonneil Resolution of 2S) May ' 
and the Truee Asrnvment of June ISHS. S.^sni, 
July 21. ISVIS. 1.'! pp. niinieo. 

Tele^nams D.-ited 21 July 1SM>^ Addressed to the Sivretary- 
General by the Syrian Foreign Minister, on Truce Vio- 
lations by Jewi.sh Forees. S/SV12. July 21. 1!>IS. 2 pp. \ 
mimtHi. I 

Oahlesirani Dated 21 July from the United Nations Media- 
tor to tho Secretary-General Ooiuvrninir Ooniplaints 
of -Mleiied Violations of the Truee hv .Vrab l-'orces. 
S/^13. July 22. ISMS. 1 p. mimeo. 

General Assembly 

I'nittHl Nations Tonii>orary Oommission on Korea 
Ninth Information Report on the Work of the Coinniis 
sion. (Period 2-l,"i May ISMS 1 A/."iti3, 75 pp. miineo. 
Tenth Information Report on the Work of the Oom- 
mission. (Period Iti May-ii June 1JV4S) A/504. 6 pp. 
miineo. 

Information From Non-S(>lf-Governin.£r Territories. Sum- 
mary of Inforni.-ition Transmitted by the Government 
of the United Kingdom. A .'lOti. July 14, ISMS. 113 
pp. minieii. 

The Problem of Voting in the StK'urity Onincil. Reixirt 
of tho Interim v'ommittee to the General Assembly. 
A ','>7S. July 15. ISMS. 42 pp. miineii. 

Economic and Social Council 

Official R<\-ords 
Third Year 

Seventh Session. Supplement No. 4. Reivirt of the Sub- 
oinninission on Employment and Fconomie Stability 
to the KiHinomie and Kmploynient Couimission. 4.S pp, 
printed, 45(', 

Atomic Energy Commission 

Otlieial KtHvrds 
Third Year 
No, 2, Sixtt^nth meeting. 17 Mjiy ISMS. 16 pp. 
printetl. 20* . 
An International Bibliosrraphy on Atomic Knergy. Politi- 
eal, Eoi>noinie, and Sivial AsiHX?ts. Volume I (Pre- 
liminary Edition ) . SS) pp. mimeo. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in The United Nations 



Congress Approves U.N. Loan 

House apiiroval on August a of legislation au- 
thorizing a !?(;5.000,()00 U.S. loan to the United 
Nations for construction of a headquarters build- 
ing in New York completed congressional action 
on the measure. The bill provides for an advance 
of $25.001), UOO by tlie Reconstruction Finance Cor- 
poi-ation so that work on tlie building need not 
await a separate appropriation by Congress. 

"In a matter of weeks tlie shovels and tlie ham- 
mers and the trowels will be at work building a 
permanent home for the United Nations," said 
Philip C. Jessup, Acting U.S. Representative. 
"That fact is a matter of intense pleasure to me 
and to the United States Mission. During the ab- 
sence of Senator Austin, I can speak also for him 
since it was lie wlio conducted the negotiations for 
the loan and throughout took the most intense and 
active interest in it. 

"The approval of the loan provides a tangible, 
visible symbol of our unwavering support of the 
United Nations and of the great confidence we 
place in tlie organization whicli is working to keep 
the world at peace. The loan represents the sound- 
est possible investment in tlie future." 

Trieste Charges Discussed 

Yugoslavia on August 4 took to the Security 
Council its formal cliarges that the British-Amer- 
ican military administration in Trieste had vio- 
lated the Italian peace treaty. The repi-esentatives 
of both the United Kingdom and the United States 
categorically denied tlie allegations. 

The Yugoslavs as.serted, among other charges, 
that in matters of foreign trade and finance the 
British-American zone had been turned, in effect, 
into an Italian province. 

Mr. Jessup's reply said, in part : 

"AVe are surprised that any government should 
present to the Security Council charges so utterly 
devoid of sub.stance and also that the cliarges are 
made by a government which, in the administra- 
tion of its own zone, has paid no heed to its inter- 
national obligations and which has kept its admin- 
istration shrouded in secrecy. 

". f . General Airey has administered the zone 
according to the letter and spirit of the pertinent 
provisions of the treaty of peace and in compliance 
with international law". 

Trusteestiip Session Ends 

The results of the Soviet Union's first participa- 
tion in the work of the Trusteeship Council com- 
prise one of the most interesting and significant 

August 8, 1948 



developments emerging from the third session of 
the Council, which adjourned August 5. 

Membership of the Council is equally divided — 
six and six^ — between countries which administer 
trusteeship areas and non-administering countries. 
Heretofore, however, the "give and take" between 
the two groups has been sufficient to limit to a few 
instances the cases in which a proposal failed of 
adoption because of a tie vote. 

Daring the third session, this situation ceased 
to exist. Issues raised and pressed by the Soviet 
Delegate, S. K. Tsarapkin, resulted in repeated 
clashes. In numerous instances a split vote, 
divided strictly between administering and non- 
administering powers, resulted in failure of a 
pending motion. 

Although she is a permanent member of the 
Council, this is the first full session attended by 
the Soviet Union. 

The main substantive work of the Council dur- 
ing the third session was the examination of re- 
ports on the administration of the trust territories 
of Ruanda-Urundi (Belgium), Tanganyika 
(United Kingdom), and New Guinea (Australia). 
The Council drafted observations on the reports 
to be forwarded to the General As.sembly, some of 
them critical of current policies and practices. 
The U.S. Representative, Ambassador Francis B. 
Sayre, was chairman of the drafting committee 
on Tanganyika. 

The Council also examined a report submitted 
voluntarily by the Union of South Africa on the 
former mandated territory of South-West Africa. 
Mr. Sayre opened the discussion of this report with 
a statement pointing to a number of apparent de- 
ficiencies in the Union's handling of South-West 
African affairs. The Council's report to the Gen- 
eral Assembly reflected many of these points. 

The session ended in a bitter clash occasioned by 
a Soviet charge that the Council's action in the 
matter of a statute for the City of Jerusalem 
proved that body to be "an instrument of U.S. 
policy". (Over Soviet opposition, t he Council had 
voted previously to postpone indefinitely discus- 
sions of the draft statute for Jerusalem.) 

Vigorous protest followed from the other 11 
delegates. Mr. Sayre said in part, "I am shocked 
that the official representative of a member state 
of the United Nations should stoop so low. The 
statement is utterly untrue and has no foundation 
in fact whatsoever, as I think the members of this 
Council know. It is a serious reflection not on 
the United States but on the character of the gov- 
ernment which has introduced it." 

179 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Non-Self-Governing Territories 

Benjamin Gerig, Chief of the Division of De- 
pendent Area Aifairs, U.S. Depai'tment of State, 
has been named to represent the United States on 
the General Assembly's Special Committee on In- 
formation on Non-Self-Governing Territories. 
The Committee will meet in Geneva from Septem- 
ber 2 to IS to examine information submitted by 
members having responsibility for non-self-gov- 
erning territories. 

Palestine 

Ninety-five additional American truce observers 
were to be dispatched at once to Palestine at the 
request of Count Bernadotte, the U.N. mediator, 
it was announced during the week. Brig. Gen. 
William E. Riley of the U.S. Marine Corps was 
appointed chief of the U.S. observers, who now 
number 125. General Riley left on August 3 to 
report to Count Bernadotte at Rhodes. 

The State Department also announced that the 
United States will send additional communications 
personnel and equipment to the mediator as soon 
as possible. 

Palestine came before the Security Council on 
August 2 in the form of a discussion of the refugee 
situation. The British Representative suggested 
inquiry into the plight of Arab refugees from 
Jewish-held territory, who he said numbered be- 
tween 250,000 and 550,000. The Representatives 
of the Ukraine and Israel then brought up the 
matter of the 10,000 Jews detained on the Island 
of Cyprus. The U.S. Representative, Philip C. 
Jessup, favored the action finally taken — referring 
the questions to the mediator. 

Economic and Social Council 

The Economic and Social Council, in its seventh 
session in Geneva, approved unanimously on 
August -1 the report of the Economic Commission 
for Europe. The resolution adopted expressed a 
hope for increased industrial and agricultural pro- 
duction, particularly in undeveloped countries, 
authorized steps toward implementation of this 
work, invited consultation with specialized agen- 
cies, and asked for an early analysis of the eco- 
nomic-reconstruction possibilities of trade expan- 
sion and development of underindustrialized coun- 
tries. 

The Council also approved the draft of an inter- 
national protocol for the control of new synthetic 
drugs. 



These were the main actions taken by the Council 
in the third week of the session. Most of the items 
on the 44-point agenda still were being considered 
in committee. 

Disarmament Talks 

Frederick H. Osborn. Deputy United States 
Representative in the Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments, took occasion at a meeting on 
xVugust 2 to counteract press speculation that the 
Commission will discontinue its work. Such spec- 
ulation has been current since the Atomic Energy- 
Commission announced that its negotiations had 
reached an impasse. 

The U.S. position is not changed from that ex- 
pressed to the General Assembly on September 17, 
1947, by Secretary Marshall. Mr. Osborn said. The 
Secretary asserted then that "the regulation of 
armaments presupposes enough international 
understanding to make possible'' peace treaties 
with Germany and Japan, implementation of 
agreements on military forces at the disposal of 
the Security Council, and an international control 
arrangement for atomic energy. "Nevertheless," 
added the Secretary, "we believe it is important 
not to delay the formulation of a system of arms 
regulation for implementation when conditions 
permit." 

"We cannot but note regretfully," said Mr. 
Osborn, "that the Soviet system of obstructionism 
in this Commission is the same as that employed 
by them in the Atomic Energj' Commission. 
Nevertheless, the United States believes that the 
Commission must proceed with its work." 

Philip C. Jessup, Deputy U.S. Representative 
in tlie Security Council, referred to Soviet in- 
transigence in atomic-energy and conventional- 
armament negotiations in a speech before the sum- 
mer school sponsored by the United Nations at 
the New School for Social Research. 

"The fear, the suspicion and distrust which per- 
meate the Soviet attitudes toward these problems 
can be found influencing the position of Soviet 
Delegates on such issues as the Interim Committee, 
Greece and Koi'ea," Mr. Jessup said. "This state 
of mind on the part of one of the great powers thus 
pi-esents itself as one of the great issues facing us 
in the United Nations and in the whole interna- 
tional community. Obviously, it is a problem 
which cannot be solved quickly and certainly will 
not be solved easily. Patience and firmness as a 
phrase has become almost trite; but as a formula 
it has not yet been surpassed." 



180 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned during July 

United Nations: 

Commission on Conventional Armaments . 



Trusteeship Council : Third Session . 



Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 
International Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference . . 
Fifth Plenary Meeting of International Radio Consultative Com- 
mittee. 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

105th and 106th Session of Governing Body 

31st General Conference 



U.S.-Swedish Inter-Custodial Discussions . 
Royal Society Information Conference . . 



Who (World Health Organization) : First Session of World Health 
Assembly. 

International Conference on Large High Tension Electric Systems: 
Twelfth Biennial Session. 

Eleventh International Conference on Public Education 



International Council of Museums: First General Biennial Confer- 
ence. 

Meeting of International L^nion of Family Organizations 

IcEF (International Children's Emergency Fund) : 

Program Committee 

Executive Board 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization) : Eighth Session of Executive Board. 

First International Poliomyelitis Conference 

Seventh International Congress of Agricultural Industries 

First Inter- American Conference for the Rehabilitation of Cripples . 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : Technical Conference of 
Latin American Nutrition Experts. 

Sixth International Congress of Linguists 

International Wine OflBce: 27th Session of Committee 

Thirteenth International Congress of Zoology 

21st International Congress of Orientalists 



Lake Success .... 



Lake Success 



Geneva . . 
Stockholm 



San Francisco . 
San Francisco . 



Washington . 
London . . 
Geneva . . , 



Paris 



Geneva . 
Paris . . 



Geneva . 



Paris . . 
Geneva . 



Paris . 



New York . 
Paris .... 
Mexico City 
Montevideo . 



Paris . 
Paris . 
Paris . 
Paris . 



Mar. 25, 1947-July 
1948 

1948 

June 16— 



Mav 15- 
.Julv 12-31 



June 9- July 10 
June 17-JulyilO 

June 15- 

June 21-July 2 

June 24-July 

June 24-July 3 

June 28-July 3 
June 28-July 3 

July 1-3 



July 3- 
July 16- 

July 12-17 



July 12-17 
July 12-18 
July 18-24 
July 18-28 

July 1&-24 
July 20-23 
July 21-27 
July 23-31 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 



August 8, 1948 



181 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



In session as of August 1, 1948 

Far Eastern Commission .... 

United Nations: 

Security Council ■ 

Military Staff Committee . . . 



Security Council's Committee of Good Offices on the Indonesian 

Question. 
'General Assembly Special Committee on the Greek Question . . 



Temporary Commission on Korea 

Interim Committee of the General Assembly .... 

Security Council's Kashmir Commission 

Economic and Social Council: Seventh Session . . . 

German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Sweden 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

Council of Foreign Ministers: 

Deputies for Italian Colonial Problems 

Commission of Investigation to Former Italian Colonies 



Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : Provisional Fre- 
quency Board. 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : North Pacific 
Regional Air Navigation Meeting. 

Conference to Consider Free Navigation of the Danube 

Meeting of International Penal and Penitentiary Commission . . . 

Scheduled for August 1-31, 1948 

Meeting of the United Kingdom and Dominions Official Medical 
Histories Liaison Committee. 

Eighth International Congress of Entomology 

International Congress on Mental Health 

Meeting on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 

Iro (International Refugee Organization): 

Seventh Part of First Se.ssion of Preparatory Commission . . . . 
Fir.st Meeting of the General Council 

Eighth World's Poultry Congress 

Seventeenth Conference of the International Red Cross 

United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council): 

Economic Commission for Europe: Committee on Coal. . . . 
Subcommission on Statistical Sampling 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization) : Meeting of Radio Program Commission. 

18th International Geological Congress 

Ito (International Trade Organization) : Meeting of Interim Com- 
mission. 



Washington .... 

Lake Success ... 
Lake Success . . . 

Lake Success . , . 
Salonika and Geneva . 

Seoul 

Lake Success . . . 
Geneva and Kashmir 
Geneva 

Lisbon 

Madrid 

Washington .... 

London 

London 

Geneva 

Seattle 

Belgrade 

Bern 

Oxford, England . . 

Stockholm .... 

London 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Copenhagen. ... 

Stockholm .... 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Paris 

London 

Geneva 





1946 


Feb 


2&- 


Mar. 
Mar. 


25- 
25- 




1947 


Oct. 


20- 


Nov. 


21- 




1948 


Jan. 
Feb. 
June 
July 


12- 
23- 
15- 
19- 




1946 


Sept 
Nov. 


3- 
12- 



Oct. 24- 



1947 



Oct. 3- 
Nov. 8- 



1948 

Jan. 15- 

July 13-Aug. 2 

July 30- 
Julv 31- 



Aug. 3-7 

Aug. 8-14 
Aug. 11-21 
Aug. 15-25 

Aug. 20-23 
Aug. 23- 

Aug. 20-27 

Aug. 20-30 



Aug. 23- 
Aug. 30- 

Aug. 23-29 



Aug. 25-Sept. 1 
Aug. 25- 



182 



Department of State Builetin 



International Institute of the Hylean Amazon 
Established at Iquitos Conference 

By Clarence A, Boons tra 



On May 10, lO-tS, a convention was signed at 
Iquitos, Peru, by nine countries establishing the 
International "Institute of the Hylean Amazon. 
The Conference To Plan for the Establishment of 
an International Institute of the Hylean Amazon 
was sponsored by Uxesco and met from April 3U 
to May 10. Subjects of discussion wei'e princi- 
pally the draft documents prepared by Unesco in 
accordance with recommendations of the Interna- 
tional Commission which met at Belem in August 
1947.^ 

Objectives of the Institute are the encourage- 
ment of scientific investigations in the vast tropi- 
cal region surrounding the Amazon River, the 
actual conduct of such research, the publication of 
studies relating to the region, the maintenance of 
scientific collections, and similar technical func- 
tions. The term "Hylean Amazon" is considered 
by the Institute as denoting forested land inclusive 
of areas outside the Amazon drainage such as the 
French, Dutch, and British Guianas, and parts of 
Venezuela. Iquitos as a site for the conference 
enabled the delegates to see at first hand a portion 
of this region, with characteristic heavy rainfall, 
high temperatures, and limited acconnnodations 
for living. 

The conference elected Dr. Luis Alayza y Paz 
Soldan of Peru as president and named Dr. Linneu 
de Albuquerque Mello of Brazil and Dr. Rafael 
Alvarado of Ecuador as first and second vice 
presidents, respectively. Dr. Alayza has been' in- 
timately connected with this project since its in- 
ception, serving as vice chairman when the Inter- 
national Conmiission met at Belem in ]'.)47. E. J. 
H. Corner of Unesco was secretary of the confer- 
ence at Icjiiitos. 

Signatories to the convention were the Delegates 
of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, France, 
the Netherlands, Peru, Italy, and Venezuela. The 
United States sent a delegation - to the conference 
but did not sign the convention, explaining its 
views that the organization and operation of the 
Institute should be primarily the responsibility of 
nations having Amazon territory, and that the 
United States could contribute most effectively to 
the scientific projects by collaboration of its insti- 

Aogusf 8, 1948 



tutions and organizations. Such collaboration is 
contemplated by article XI of the convention, 
which grants wide powers to the Institute for co- 
operative arrangements with other organizations. 

In addition to delegations from the countries 
named above, observers were present from the 
United Kingdom, Switzerland, Unesco, the Pan 
American Union, the Inter-American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences, and the International Edu- 
cation Office. All governments of countries be- 
longing to Unesco were informed of the confer- 
ence and had the privilege of sending delegates 
or observers if they so desired. 

The convention, which consists of 15 articles, 
provides that any member country of the United 
Nations or of its specialized organizations is eli- 
gible for membership in the Institute. Govern- 
ing authority is vested in a council composed of 
representatives of all member countries, and ad- 
ministration is conducted through an executive 
committee and a director. 

Under article X, the Institute is authorized to 
invite the Director General of Unesco to partici- 
pate in the council and in the executive commit- 
tee, and to enter into an agi'eement with Unesco 
outlining the terms of cooperation between the 
respective organizations. Also, the Director Gen- 
eral of I'nesco is asked to propose one nominee 
on the list of five from which the council will 
choose a director of the Institute. 

To enable an immediate start on Institute activi- 
ties, the confei-ence established an Interim Com- 
mission which will supervise operations until the 
convention enters into force after ratification of 
signatures by five Amazon nations. The Interim 
Commission met on May 14 and 15 at Manaos, 



' For article by Remington Kellogg on "International 
Commission for tbe Establishment of an International 
Hvlean Amazon Institute", see Bulletin of Nov. 9, 1947, 
p."801. 

■ Delegates representing the United States were Clarence 
A. Boonstra (chairman), Agricultural Attach^, American 
Embassy, Lima ; Clauile L. Horn, Head. Complementary 
Crops Division, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 
Department of Agriculture; and Allan R. Holmberg, Cul- 
tural Anthropologist, Institute of Social Anthropology, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

183 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Brazil, and selected this city as the permanent 
headquarters of the Institute. Subcenters for re- 
search are planned for Iquitos, Peru ; Riberalta, 
Bolivia; San Fernando de Atabapo, Venezuela; 
Sibundoy, Colombia; Archidona, Ecuador; and 
Belem do Para, Brazil. _ tt i • 

Officers of the Interim Commission are Heloisa 
Alberto Torres, President, and E. J. H. Corner. 
Both are located in Rio de Janeiro. Dra. Torres 
is director of the Museo Nacional, and Mr. Corner 
is principal field scientific officer of Unesco, with 
offices in that city. . t v ^ 

In sponsoring the organization of the insitute, 
UNESCO has provided funds for 1948 which are 
being used for initial surveys as well as tor the 
conference expenses. Five scientists have been 
employed this year for investigations m zoology, 
botany, and anthropology. Efforts will be made 
by them to assemble the results of previous explor- 



ations and investigations in the Amazon, and to 
encourao-e the establishment of museums and of 
plant collections which will be useful in future 
studies. The conference has requested also that 
UNESCO assign several of the scientists to a regional 
study of the Huallaga valley of Peru. 

The conference agreed on a 1949 budget amount- 
incr to $306,200, of which $209,370 is scheduled 
directly for research and $96,830 for administra- 
tion. Initial pledges undertaken by participat- 
ing countries were $150,000 by Brazil, $40,000 
each by Peru and Colombia, and $25,000 by Vene- 
zuela. Other countries pledged amounts ranging 
from $5,000 to $15,000, with the exception of Italy, 
which signed the convention but not the accom- 
panying financial protocol. The convention pro- 
vides that a permanent scale of contributions will 
be determined by discussions withm the Institute, 
after ratification of the basic agreement. 



U.S. Delegation to UNESCO Preparatory Conference 



i 



The Department of State announced on July 26 
the composition of the United States Delegation to 
the Preparatory Conference of Representatives of 
Universities to be convened by the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(Unesco), in cooperation with the Netherlands 
Government, the Netherlands National Commis- 
sion of UNESCO, and the University of Utrecht, at 
Utrecht, August 2-13, 1948. The United States 
Delegation is as follows : 
Chairman 

George F. Zook, president, American Council on Education, 
Waslilngton, D.C. 

Delegates 

Jaime Benitez, chancellor, University of Puerto Rico, Rio 
Piedras, Puerto Rico „ <. 

Martlia B. Lucas, president. Sweet Briar College, Sweet 
Briar, Va. „ _,. 

Thomas Raymond McConnell, dean, University of Minne- 
sota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

William F. Russell, dean. Teachers College, Columbia 
University, New York, N.Y. 

Official Observers 

Laurence Duggan, director, Institute of International Edu- 
cation, New York, N.Y. 
Marten ten Hoor, dean. College of Arts and Sciences, Uni- 
versity of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Rev. Edward B. Rooney, S.J., executive director, Jesuit 

Educational Association, New York, N. Y. 
Dr. Howard E. Wilson, Carnegie Endowment for Inter- 
national Peace, New York, N.Y. 
The forthcoming conference is being held pur- 
suant to a resolution adopted at the Second Session 

184 



of the General Conference of Unesco at Mexico 
City in November 1947. This resolution in- 
structed the Director General of Unesco to call 
together in 1948 a meeting of representatives ot 
universities to: (1) consider plans for the develop- 
ment of an international association ot univer- 
sities- (2) consider the problem of equivalence of 
degrees, utilizing data which had been requested 
by UNESCO in 1947 from international associations 
concerned; (3) consider how education m inter- 
national relations within universities may luini 
their mission in national life; (4) discuss ways 
and means whereby universities may fulfil their 
mission in national life; (5) consider how closer 
cooperation between universities and Unesco may 
be promoted; and (6) study the possibility of 
organizing, in certain universities throughout the 
world, international departments consisting ot 
scholars, professors, and educators from foreign 

countries. . j. tt • 

The Conference of Representatives ot Universi- 
ties is one of the most significant projects which 
UNESCO has undertaken. It is clear from reports , 
that universities in all countries are facing a series 
of interrelated problems, such as problems ot 
student population, university autononiy, and the 
place of research in the university. Close rela- 
tionships among universities are widely recog- i 
nized as being important at this crucial time.!! 
This conference should give to the university leaa- 
ers a much needed opportunity to focus attention j 
on their common problems. ; 

Deparfment of Sf ate Bulletin \} 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Calling of Special Session of Eightieth Congress 

EXCERPTS FROM THE MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS 



IVIk. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the 
80th Congress: 

The urgent needs of the American people require 
our presence here today. 

Our people demand legislative action by their 
Government to do two things : first, to check in- 
flation and the rising cost of living, and second, 
to help in meeting the acute housing shortage. 

These are matters which affect every American 
family. They also affect the entire' world, for 
world peace depends upon the strength of our 
economy. 

The Communists, both here and abroad, are 
countmg on our present prosperity turning into a 
depression. They do not believe that we can— 
or will— put the brake on high prices. They are 
counting on economic collapse in this country. 

If we should bring on another gi-eat depression 
in the United States by failing to control high 
prices, the world's hope for lasting peace would 
vanish. A depression in the United States would 
cut the ground from under the free nations of 
Europe. Economic collapse in this country would 
prevent the recovery throughout the world which 
is essential to lasting peace. We would have only 
ourselves to blame for the tragedy that would 
follow. 

In these tense days, when our strength is being 
tested all over the world, it would be reckless folly 
if we failed to act against inflation. 

In our relations with the rest of the world, 
action is also needed at once, and can be taken 
quickly, to afford additional proof that we mean 
what we say when we talk about freedom, hu- 
manity, and international cooperation for peace 
ind prosperity. Three measures are involved. 

First, the Displaced Persons Act in its present 
form discriminates unfairly against some dis- 
placed persons because of their religion, land of 
nigm, or occupation. These provisions are con- 
niry to all American ideals. This act should be 
)roraptly amended to wipe out these discrimi- 
lations Furthermore, the present act permits 
he entry of only 200,000 persons and charges 
liem against future immigration quotas. I be- 
leve strongly that the act should provide for the 
ntry o± 400,000 persons over a four-year period, 
tugusf 8, 7948 



and they should be outside the normal immigra- 
tion quotas. The act can and should be amended 
promptly. 

Second, many people in the world must wonder 
how strongly we support the United Nations when 
we hesitate to assist the construction of its perma- 
nent home in this country. Legislation can and 
should be passed at once to authorize a loan by the 
United States Government to the United Nations 
for the construction of U.N. headquarters build- 
ings m New York City. 

The international wheat agreement is another 
vital measure on which the Congress should act. 
This agreement is designed to insure stability in the 
world wheat market in the years ahead when wheat 
will be more plentiful. It would guarantee 
American farmers an export market of 185 million 
bushels of wheat at a fair price during each of the 
next five years. Since the agreement is in the 
form of a treaty it requires only ratification by 
the Senate. Although this agreement should have 
been ratified by July first of this year, we have 
good reason to believe that it can still be made 
effective if it is now ratified promptly. 

Finally, I wish again to urge upon the Congress 
the measures I recommended last February to pro- 
tect and extend basic civil rights of citizenship 
and human liberty. A number of bills to carry 
out my recommendations have been introduced in 
the Congress. Many of them have already re- 
ceived careful consideration by Congressional 
committees. Only one bill, however, has been 
enacted, a bill relating to the rights of Americans 
of Japanese origin. I believe that it is necessary 
to enact the laws I have recommended in order 
to make the guarantees of the Constitution real 
and vital. I believe they are necessary to carry 
out our American ideals of liberty and 'justice for 
all. 

I hope there is no misunderstanding of the rec- 
ommendations I have made. I have asked the 
Congress to return, first of all, in order to meet 
the urgent need of our people for relief from high 

'Delivered before the Congress of the United States 
on July 27, 1948, and released to the press on the same 
date. For complete text of the message, see H. Doc 374 
SOth Cong., 2d se.ss. ' 

185 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEIf 

prices and the housing shortage. I urge the 
Congress not to be distracted from these central 
purposes. 

At the same time, as I have stated, the Congress 
can and should act on certain other important 
items of legislation at this special session. 

These include : a comprehensive health program, 
based on health insurance ; a fair and sound labor- 
management relations law — in place of tlie Taft- 
Hartley law which has proved to be unfair and 
unsound and which should be repealed ; a real long- 
range farm program; a stronger reciprocal trade 
agreements act; a universal training program; a 



national science foundation; strengthened anti- 
trust laws; and approval of the St. Lawrence 
Waterway treaty. 

The vigor of our democracy is judged by its 
ability to take decisive actions — actions which are 
necessary to maintain our physical and moral 
strengtli and to raise our standards of living. In 
these days of continued stress, the test of that vigor 
becomes moi'e and more difficult. The legislative 
and executive branches of our Government can 
meet that test today. 

The American people rightfully expect us to 
meet it together. I hojie that the American people 
will not look to us in vain. 



Announcement Regarding Presentation of Hungarian Bank Shares 



[Released to the press July 30] 

The attention of American owners or custodians 
of shares of the National Bank of Hungary and 
of financial institutions in the first category of the 
central corporation of banking companies is called 
to the Department of State's announcement of 
June 29, 1948,^ entitled "Hungary requires pres- 
entation of foreign-owned shares of Hungarian 
banks", stating that such shares must be presented 
for listing at a Hungarian consulate on or before 
August 31, 1948. 

In this connection the Hungarian Consulate 
General at New York (37 Wall Street, New York, 
New York) has now published the following an- 
nouncement in the press: 

"According to Government Decree 5210/1948 
Korm. of the Hungarian Republic published on 
May 6th, 1948, shares, share certificates, scrips or 
any negotiable papers (hereafter shares) of sliare- 
holders issued by the Hungarian National Bank 
and financial institutes belonging to tlie I. cate- 
gory of the Central Corporation of Banking Com- 
panies have to be presented by the owner or the 
custodian. 

"When presenting the shares it must be stated 
in writing as to when, from whom and on what 
basis the shares had been acquii-ed and, further- 
more, if the owner is a foreign citizen, when his 
citizenship was acquired and, if he resided pre- 
viously in Hungary, when did he leave the country. 

"Physical persons living abroad and juridical 
persons domiciled outside of Hungary have to pre- 
sent shares at any Hungarian Consulate. The 
time limit for presentation is August 31, 1948. 
Presentation of sliares must be effected on forms 
available free of charge at all Consulates. Per- 
sons whose shares are in Hungary should inform 
the custodian of all data so that he could make 
use of them wlien presenting the shares. If shares 
are in process of nullification, tlie declaration con- 
taining all details serves as substitute. 



' Bulletin of July 11, 1948, p. 54. 



"Tlie presentation or registration of the shares 
will be acknowledged by receipt. Shares not pre- 
sented within the stipulated time, will be invali- 
dated. 

"The following sliares must be presented: 
National Banlv of Hungary, British and Hunga- 
rian Bank Limited, The City Savings Banii Com- 
pany Limited, City of Budapest Municipal 
Savings Bank Company Limited, Hungarian 
General Creditbank, Hungarian Discount and 
Exchange Bank, Hungarian Italian Bank Lim- 
ited, First National Savings Bank Corp. of Pest, 
Hungarian Commercial Bank of Pest. 

"Furtlier: the shares of joint stock companies 
merged into the preceding ones, tud: National 
Banking Corporation Limited, National Central 
Savings Bank of Hungary, National Credit In- 
stitution Limited, Hungarian General Savings 
Bank Limited, Caisse d'Epargne Unie de la Capi- 
tate de Budapest, Nova Communication and In- 
dusti-y Limited, et cetera." 



Second Session, Geneva draft — Continued from page 172 

ethnic, linguistic or religious minorities shall have the 
right, as far as compatible with public order, to establish 
and maintain schools and cultural or religious institu- 
tions, and to use their own language in the press, in public 
assembly and before the courts and other authorities of 
the State.) 

Text proposed by the Sub-Commission on the I'bevention 
OP Discrimination and the Proteotion op Minorities 
(In States inhabited by well-defined ethnic, linguistic or 
religious groups which are clearly distinguished from the 
rest of the population, and which want to be accorded 
differential treatment, per.sons belonging to such groups 
shall have the right, as far as is compatible with public 
order and security, to establish and maintain their schools 
and cultural or religious institutions, and to use their 
own language and script in the press, in public assembly 
and before the courts and other authorities of the State, 
if they so choose.) 



186 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



THE DEPARTMENT 



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Assistance to the People of Austria Under Public Law 
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Agreement Between the United States of America 
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Transfer of United States Naval Vessels and Equipment 
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Monthly list of foreign diplomatic rejiresentatives in 
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THE FOREIGN SERVICE 
Diplomatic and Consular Offices 

The Legation and the Consulate at Bern, have been 
combined, effective July 1. 1948. 

187 




Fast 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Progress Report on Human Rights. Article 

by James Pomeroy Hendrick 159 

Provisional Agenda for the Third Regular 

Session of the General Assembly .... 173 

Truce Supervision in Palestine. Cablegrams 
From the United Nations Mediator 
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■fo j-y.fjpfjgpg,! i/0 

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Page 

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r. 



James Pomeroy Hendrick, author of the article on human rights, 
is Acting Associate Chief of the Division of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Office of United Nations Affairs, Department of 
State. He has served as Adviser to Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 
United States Representative to the Commission on Human Rights, 
at all sessions of the Commission and of its Drafting Committee. 

Clarence A. Boonstra, author of the article on the establishment of 
the International Institute of the Hylean Amazon, is Agricultural 
Attach^, American Embassy, Lima. Mr. Boonstra served as chairman 
of the U.S. Delegation to the conference. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: IS48 



"^ 



^r'^. 1 hi>o 



tJri€/ ^e^a/}ci77ten{/ ^ t/tate/ 




PROGRESS IN THE INTERIM COMMITTEE • 

Statement by Joseph E. Johnson 191 

CONFERENCE TO CONSIDER FREE NAVIGATION 

OF THE DANUBE • Statement by Ambassador 
Cavendish W. Cannon 197 

ECONOMIC FACTORS IN U.S. FOREIGN POLICY • 

By Winthrop G. Brown 203 



Far complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XIX, No. 476 
August 15, 1948 



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Vol. XIX, No. 476 • Pubucation 3244 
August 15, 1948 



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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department, Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



g. S. SUPtRlNTENOEWr Vf OOCUM£NrS 

AUG 25 1948 

A REVIEW OF SIX MONTHS OF PROGRESS IN THE 
INTERIM COMMITTEE 



BY JOSEPH E. JOHNSON > 



Deputy U.S. Representative on the Interim Committee 



The six months during which the Intei'im Com- 
mittee has sat have been busj^ ones. 

It is an important fact that 52 members of the 
United Nations have at frequent intervals sat 
around a table and exchanged views on many im- 
portant questions without the pressure of an im- 
mediate political dispute demanding settlement. 
That has permitted the Interim Committee to look 
beyond the immediate future and to do some think- 
ing about long-range planning. 

Here is my estimation of what the Interim Com- 
mittee has done : 

1. In the first place, I think it is fair to say that 
it has avoided the necessity of a special session of 
the General Assembly by means of the Korean con- 
sultation. You will remember that the United Na- 
tions Temporary Commission on Korea was au- 
thorized to consult the Interim Committee in the 
light of developments. When it arrived in Korea 
and was faced with the negative attitude of the 
Soviet Government, it requested the Interim Com- 
mittee for advice as to whether it should proceed 
with elections. It wanted the views of this body, 
representing as it did all those members of the 
United Nations who were willing to take their 
seats. Witlun a week or two, it received the views 
of the Interim Committee that it should proceed 
with elections in those areas open to it. and there 
followed steps looking toward the creation of a 
Korean Government. The elections were duly held 
under the supervision of the Commission. 

2. The Assembly has the responsibilities under 
article 13 and article 11 to promote international 
cooperation in the political field. That broad re- 
sponsibility includes consideration of the pacific 
settlement of disputes. The Charter provides in 
article 33 that before going to United Nations 

August 15, 1948 



organs with a dispute the parties are expected 
"first of all" to seek a solution by various forms 
of pacific settlement. They are mentioned in ar- 
ticle 33 as "negotiation, enquiry, mediation, con- 
ciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to 
regional agencies or arrangements, or other peace- 
ful means of their own choice." As a constitu- 
tional document, the Charter has not set out in 
detail how these methods operate or what their 
nature is. Subcommittee 2 has had a look at this 
whole field and has written a report which attempts 
to put them all together in a systematic way and 
show what their relations are. The subcommittee 
has thus begun for the General Assembly an im- 
portant study in a field for which the General 
Assembly is responsible. The Interim Committee 
feels that this study will be in the nature of a con- 
tinuing examination of these principles. 

Some modest, concrete proposals have resulted 
from the study. In the first place there is a recom- 
mendation resulting from a Chinese-United States 
proposal for the establishment of a panel from 
which commissions of conciliation or inquiry may 



• Released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. 
on July 30, 1948. For previously published material 
relating" to the Interim Committee, see U.S. draft reso- 
lution on the Problem of Voting in the Security Council, 
Bulletin of Jan. 18, 1948, p. 86 : Discussion in the Interim 
Committee on the Problem of Voting, U.S. Proposals and 
Statement by Philip C. Jessup, Bttlletin of Mar. 2S, 1948, 
p 412; The Little Assembly of the United Nations, by 
Philip C. Jessup. Bulletin of May 2, 1948, p. 573; Future 
of the Interim Committee, Statement by Joseph E. John- 
son. Bulletin of June 27, 1948, p. 823 ; Voting in the Se- 
curity Council, by Bernhard G. Bechhoefer, Bulletin of 
July 4, 194S, p. 3; Korean Question in the U.N. Interim 
Committee, Statement by Philip C. Jessup, Documents and 
State Papers, May 194S, p. 92; Tlie Interim Committee of 
the General Assembly: A Legislatiye History, by David 
W. Wainhouse, Documents and State Papers, June 1943, 
p. 159 (also Department of State publication 3204). 

191 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAIIZED AGENCIES 

be dra^Yii, either by the parties to a dispute or by 
United Nations organs. Putting aside technical 
considerations, what it amounts to is a list of com- 
petent persons of known ability, available on short 
notice, to act as individuals and not as representa- 
tives of governments in forming commissions of 
inquiry or conciliation. In case of urgent need, 
parties to a dispute or the Secretary-General can 
convene a commission by telephone or telegram, 
drawing on the membership of the panel. This 
element of time is important in the fast-moving 
world of today, and the commissions provided for 
in some of the older treaties could not under certain 
circumstances be convened in less than six months. 

Another proposal approved by the subcom- 
mittee involves the conferring upon organs of the 
United Nations of certain responsibilities that of- 
ficials of the League of Nations had under the 
General Act of 1928. The act is a multilateral 
treaty attempting to stop up gaps in the League 
of Nations Covenant by providing, in a flexible 
way, a system of peaceful settlement. It covers 
conciliation, arbitration, and judicial settlement 
and represented the best thinking of the time on 
these subjects. The United States is not a party 
to the General Act. 

A third proposal which was acted upon sug- 
gested rules of procedure of the Security Council 
and the Assembly which would take over what 
was considered a useful League of Nations prac- 
tice of having the parties to a dispute meet with 
eitlier the president or some other representative 
of the Council or Assembly not later than after 
they had made their opening statements in either 
body. Following tliat, with the president or per- 
son so appointed, they could clarify the issues and 
areas of agreement and disagreement. It was the 
custom of the League of Nations Council to appoint 
a rapporteur for each dispute who would famil- 
iarize himself with details of the case and meet 
with the parties, in part as a conciliator and in part 
so that the case could be clearly presented and the 
discussion channeled toward the real questions at 
issue. In the Interim Committee proposals this 
man has been called a conciliator or rapporteur. 
Tliis was the suggestion of the United Kingdom 
and Iranian Representatives arising out of their 
League experience. 

There were other proposals which the subcom- 
mittee felt need further study. One is a Lebanese 
proposal that a permanent conciliation commission 
should be appointed as a subsidiary organ of the 
Assembly. There is an Ecuadoran proposal that 
questions of domestic jurisdiction, when they arise 
in the wide field of pacific settlement, should al- 
ways find their way to the International Court of 
Justice. The United States had difficulties with 
the principles involved in both of these proposals. 

China and the United States, considering the 
fact that there are few definite rules of procedure 



in the field of pacific settlement, have suggested 
a multilateral treaty or General Assembly reso- 
lution that would cover all the procedural details 
which would come up before a United Nations 
commission in the field or a conciliation commis- 
sion or before a moderator. We think it would be 
useful for states to be able to look at a collection 
of rules of procedure and thereby be able to as- 
certain how they would proceed if they wished 
to conciliate or mediate a particular dispute. We 
have referred in the subcommittee to rules of civil 
procedure or a civil practice act such as we have 
in American domestic law. 

3. Then there is the veto. The exercise of the 
veto power in the Security Council has the great- 
est bearing upon the vitality and success of the 
United Nations. We have taken the position that 
the most practical method of improving the situ- 
ation caused by the abuse of the rule of unanimity 
is to liberalize the voting procedure. 

We recognize the importance of the unanimity 
principle among tlie great powers, and therefore 
we have proceeded step by step. The United 
States suggested that the Interim Committee 
should study all the categories of decisions which 
the Security Council is required to make and then 
report to the General Assembly those categories 
which the Interim Committee thinks should be 
made by the affirmative vote of any seven members 
of the Council. We believe the most effective way 
of securing improvement of operations of the 
Council is by agreement of the permanent mem- 
bers on a repoil which is the result of careful and 
unlmrried consideration in the Interim Committee. 

The report approved by the Interim Committee 
is just such a report. It is a long and technical 
document, but a study of it will show just what all 
the members of the United Nations who took their 
seats in the Interim Committee think about these 
various categories. We all agreed that certain 
decisions were procedural. We were all agreed 
that no recommendation should be made as to cer- 
tain decisions, including all of those under chapter 
VII. 

The United States has stated its willingness to 
eliminate the veto as to all chapter VI decisions 
and membership applications. The report of the 
subcommittee contains some divergencies of views 
on chapter VI decisions, but there is a wide meas- 
ure of agreement that membership applications 
should not be subject to the veto. 

This study provides the basis that is needed for 
consideration by the permanent members of their 
position on the veto. It is, we believe, the surest 
way to secure better voting procedures in the Se- 
curity Council. That is one reason why we op- 
pose the calling of a conference now to revise the 
Charter. This apparent short cut would solve 
nothing. 

The report is an important step in our efforts 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



to strengthen the Charter and avoid abuses of the 
veto. 

4. The record of the Interim Committee shows 
that it should be continued. This veto report is a 
good example of the sort of job that tlie first 
committee or even one of its subcommittees could 
not possibly undertake during the pressure of the 
General Assembly, and a small ad hoc committee 
would lack the authority necessai'y to produce an 
eifective result. The Interim Conunittee or some 
other body has got to carry on the study of po- 
litical cooperation and pacific settlement. A good 
start has been made. 

The absence of the Soviet bloc has made some 
of the Interim Committee work less effective than 
it otherwise might have been. However, we do 
not propose to urge the limitation of the develop- 
ment of the United Nations and its activities be- 
cause the Soviet bloc does not choose to participate 
in a body, whether in the Interim Committee or 
in various ad hoc committees of the General As- 
sembly. We would like to see tliese six members 
take their seats in the Interim Committee. We 
think that its work indicates pretty clearly liow 
incorrect the Soviet prophecy was that it would 
be used simply as a crude device to bypass the 
Security Council and to usurp its functions. 

We would like to see all United Nations mem- 
bers contribute in an active way to the Interim 
Committee's work. But here as in other organs 
and committees where the Soviet bloc abstains, we 
do not propose to sit back and admit that their 
absence ties our hands. 

By its work, the Interim Committee has short- 
ened the probable length of the next session of the 
General Assembly. The carefully drafted reports, 
with details worked out and draft resolutions at- 
tached, are bound to save time for the Assembly's 
standing committees. The time-saving effect 
would be even more noticeable if the Committee 
had been called upon to undertake preparatory 
work for Assembly consideration of disputes re- 
ferred to it in accordance with paragraph 2b of 
the resolution establishing the Interim Commit- 
tee. As the Interim Committee develops we may 
see this preparatory function repeatedly used. 

We have seen the Interim Committee conduct 
the follow-up function for the General Assembly 
in a careful and thorough way in both the veto 
study and the Korean case. I am sure the Polit- 
ical and Security Committee of the General As- 
sembly will realize the usefulness of this body for 
following up on complicated cases when it con- 
siders these two items in Paris. Consequently, 
they are likely to want the Interim Committee to 
undertake further work of this sort next year. 

Therefore, we feel that the Interim Committee 
is winding up a successful first season and that it 
has a role to play in the sound development of the 
United Nations organization. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

Harper Sibley Named Chairman of 
U.N. Day Citizens' Committee 

Harper Sibley of Rochester, New York, has ac- 
cepted the invitation of Secretary of State George 
C. Marshall to be chairman of the National Citi- 
zens' Committee for United Nations Day. Frank 
B. Frederick of Boston and Alger Hiss of New 
York have also accepted invitations to be vice 
chairmen of the Committee. 

The General Assembly of the United Nations on 
October 31, 1947, passed a resolution naming 
Octo