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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

il'iiiilii: 










t 





.: Numbel 
January 2-June 26, 1949 



INDEX 




API? ,6 iy60 



'}. S. SUPERl TEMDENT OF DOOJMEKT* 

AFK 6 1950 
Corrections In Volume XX 



The Editor of tlip Bullktin wislios (o call ndpntion to the omission of ciefi- 
nitions as applied to notigovonimeiital orKaiiiznl ions liaving a consultative status 
witli the Economic and Social Council, which are discussed in the June 12 issue 
on page 739. 

There are three categories idenliticd as (n), (b), and (c): 

(a) organizations are tliose which have a specific interest in most of the activities 
of the Council and are closely linked with tlie economic and social life of the areas 
which they represent (representatives of these organizations will include organi- 
zations of labor, of management and business, and of farmers and consumers) ; 

(b) organziations are those which have a specific confidence but are concerned 
specifically with only a few of the fields of activity covered by the Council; and 

(c) organizations arc those which are iiriniarily concerned with the development 
of public opinion and with the dissemination of inft)rmation. 

Attention is also called lo a correction in the article entitled "Foreign Visitors 
in Germany to Use Deutsche Marks," printed in the Bullktin of June 26, 1940, 
page St)7, in which it was stated in the first paragraph that the three Western 
zones of Germany were opened to foreign businessmen, tourists, and other visitors 
on Jime 21. This information should bo corrected since only the Rrilisli and 
American zones were opened on that date; however on the seventh of July the 
French relaxed their regulations for entry into the French zone. 

On page 808, the next to the last paragraph, line 3 should read "maximum of 
60 days subject to extensions through." 



Publication 3737 






INDEX 

Volumo XX: Numbers 496-521, January 2-June 26. 1949 



rCj^3S'3, 



v,u;?^ 



'5a<^• 



-V'^^ 



Absrntee-ownetl property In Germiiu U. S. zone to be re- 
turned, 501. 
Aclioson, Ooan 

Addresses (Src also MarsluiU, Oeorge C, Secretary of 
State, and Lovett, Kobert and Webl>, .lames B., Act- 
ing Secretaries) : 
Current Situation in Germany before American So- 
ciety of Newspaper I'ulilisliers, New York, N.Y., 

r>8r.. 

Economic policy and ITO diarter before National 
Convention of U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Wash- 
inston, D.C., G23. 
North Atlantic pact, meaning of, over CBS and MBO 

networks, 3S4. 
Pan American Day, before OAS Council, Washington, 
D.C., 564. 
Confirmation as Secretary of State, 150. 
Correspondence (Sec also Marshall, GeorRe C, Secre- 
tary of State, and Lovett, Kobert, and Webb, James 
E., Acting Secretaries) : 
Canadian Ambassador (Wrong) on wartime claims 

and accounts settlement. S97. 
General Clay, congratulations on millionth ton of 

airlift. 300. 
ITO charter memorandum to President Truman. 602. 
North Atlantic Treaty transmittal roimrt to Presi- 
dent. 532. 
Reply to National Conference of Christians and Jews 
petition on Bulgarian and Hungarian violation 
of religious freedom. 455. 
Secretary General Lie, on U.S. participation In con- 
tinued U.N. Appeal for Children. 515. 
President Truman sends telegraphic congratulations 

on North Atlantic pact address, 3SS. 
Statements and remarks (Sec also Marshall, George C. 
Secretary of State, and Lovett, Robert, and Webb, 
James K., Acting Secretaries) : 
American States charter, organization, 198. 
Berkner. Lloyd V., apiiointment as MAP diiector in 

State Department, 46G. 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, violation of human 

rights. 611, 824. 
Czechoslovakia. American soldiers convicted of 

espionage, 459. 
Rastern European political refugees, assistance to, 

685. 
ECE economic survey of Europe, clarification of cer- 
tain misai)piehcnsions toward. 002. 
Huropcan recovery, continued aid necessary, 300; 

need for, 232. 
GATT Conference at Aiinecy, France, 620. 



N^W^ 



Acheson, Dean — Continued 

Statements and remarks — Continued 
General Assembly, reconvening of 3d session, 483. 
Germany : 

Berlin blockade, lifting of, 662. 
CFM problems in Paris, 675. 
Federal Constitution, 001. 
Occupation Statute, 526. 
Relinquishment of proiwrty control, 383. 
Ruhr Authority, Organization of, 520. 
Swiss-Allied Accord, ()5!). 
Tripartite a,!;reemi'nt, 4',)!). 
U.K.-U.S. discussion, 4,W. 
Greece: 

U.K.-U.S. discussion, 459. 
Work and victory demonstration, 433. 
International Court of Justice opinions, 516. 
Iran, reports of Soviet pressure on, 432. 
Janimu and Kashmir, Admiral NImitz named as 

plebiscite administrator for, 419. 
Mindszenty, Jozscf, trial of, 2;?0. 
Netherlands-U.S. problems dl.scussed; Joint statement 

with Foreign Minister Stikker, 458. 
North Atlantic Treaty : 

Joint statements with Danish Foreign Minister 
(Rasnuissen). ,'iS6; with Norwegian Foreign 
Minister (Lange), 231. 
Military Assistance Program, 59'!. 
Proceedings, 263. 
Purpose of proposed pact, 160. 
Signing ceremony, 471. 
Pacific pact untimely, C'.)6. 
Point 4 Program, I.'")."!; developments, 695. 
President Dutra of Brazil, visit of, 694. 
Stalin's answers to Kingsbury Smith questions, 192. 
Statute for Council of Europe, 0(>4. 
Trieste, economic recovery, 632. 
U.S. Interest in security outside North Atlantic 

community, 428. 
U.S. Spanish policy, 660. 
Wheat Agreement, International, 701. 
Achilles, Theodore C, designation in State Department, 735. 
Addis Ababa, U.S. legation, elevation to embassy. 630. 
Ad Ilor Political Committee (Security Council), 99, 101, 
446, 491, 512. 518. 519, 556, 561, 506, 579, 584, 611, 617, 
655, 656, 687, 744. 
Advance Transfers Program (SCAP), 668, 669, KW. 
Afghanistan. U.S. Ambassador (Dreyfus), appointment, 

African-Indian regional meeting, U.S. delegation, 425. 
Agrarian reform in Japan : FEC policy decision, text. 670. 



Index, January to June 1949 



839 



Agriculture : 

Agricultural workers agreement with Mexico (1948) to 

be discussed for revision, 116. 
American farmer and ITO charter, article by Norman 

Burns, 215. 
Cooperative programs of Institute of Inter-American 

Affairs, 212, 329, 462, 754, 795. 
ECE economic survey of Europe, 662. 
Israel, Export-Import Bank extends credit for re- 
habilitation, 173. 
Phyto-Sanitary Conference, U.S. observer, 622. 
U.S. foreign trade in agricultural products (1929-48), 

table, 220. 
U.S. agricultural production and employment (1929-48), 

table, 220. 
U.S. principal agricultural exports (1948), table, 220. 
Wheat Agreement, International. See Wheat Agree- 
ment. 
Aid to foreign countries (See also individual countries): 
China, 180, 498, 503. 
Cooperative programs of Institute of Inter-American 

Affairs, 212, 329, 462, 754, 795. 
Economic Commission for Europe, progress, 651. 
Economic Cooperation Administration (EGA). See 

Economic Cooperation Administration. 
Educational-exchange. See Educational exchange pro- 
gram. 
European Recovery Program (ERP). See European 

Recovery Program. 
Foreign aid, coordinating, address by George C. Mc- 

Ghee, 53. 
Greek and Turkish aid, a case study, 53. 
Israel, Export-Import Bank extends credit for rehabili- 
tation, 173. 
Korea, 84, 781, 783, 786. 
Latin America, 439. 

Military Assistance. See Military Assistance Program. 
Panama, 149. 
Philippines, 110, 439. 
Point 4 I'rogram. See Point 4 Program. 
President's budget, excerpts, 110. 
Refugees. See Refugees. 
Russia, 404. 

Technical assistance. See Technical assistance. 
Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recognition 
of rights in, transmitted to Senate by President Tru- 
man, 118. 
Aircraft, emergency, U.S.-Canadian agreement; exchange 
of notes between U.S. (Webb) and Canada (Wrong), 
200. 
Air lift in Berlin. See Germany : Berlin blockade. 
Air navigation meeting, regional. South East Asia, report 

by Clifford P. Burton, 190. 
Air navigation services in Iceland, agreement (1948) be- 
tween ICAO Council and Iceland, 164. 
Air transport agreement, U.S. with — 
Bolivia, signature, 62. 
Canada, signature, 766. 
Finland, signature, 406. 
Panama, signature, 466. 
Ala, Ambassador, (Iran), VGA message on initial broad- 
cast to Iran, text, 431. 



Albania : 

Italian reparations, 628. 

U.K. vs Albania (Corfu Channel case), opinion of In- 
ternational Court of Justice ; statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 491, 516. 
Al-Faqih, Slieikh Asad, credentials as Saudi Arabian Am- 
bassador to U.S., 328. 
Alien Property, Office of, transfer of control over certain 
property of former German government by Secretary 
of State, 333. 
Aliens, admi-ssion to U.S.: 
OflScers in Visa Division to issue permits, 365. 
Selecting our future citizens, article by Herve J. 
L'Heureux, 456. 
Allen, George V. : 
Addresses : 

Perpetual peace through world-wide federation, be- 
fore Institute of International Affairs, Grinnell, 
la., 801. 
Telling story of U.S., before Women's Division, Demo- 
cratic National Committee, Washington, D.C., 
142. 
•U.S. world information program, before N.Y. Herald 
Tribune Student Forum, N.Y., 322. 
Statements on VGA : 

Iran inauguration prog^ram, 431. 
Washington studios open, 83. 
Allied, Swiss, Accord. See Swiss-Allied Accord. 
Allied tripartite customs committee, procedures of; offi- 
cial communique, 326. 
Altmeyer, Arthur J., confirmed as U.S. representative on 

Social Commission (ECOSOC), 316. 
Aluminum, steel and copper, probable impact of military 

assistance program on, 650. 
American course in foreign affairs, address by Charles E. 

Bohlen, 157. 
American Republics: 
American States Members, Fourth Regional Conference 
(ILO), Latin American problems on agenda, 620. 
Bogota economic agreement (1948), 462. 
Census, 1950, preparation for, 441. 
Cultural cooperation with U.S. See Educational Ex- 
change program. 
General Assembly resolution (May 11), study of under- 
developed populations, 747. 
Indian Life, Inter-American Conference on, U.S. dele- 
gation, 818. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of. See Inter- 
American Affairs, Institute of. 
Inter -American cooperation discussed by Ambassador 

Ellis Briggs, 752. 
Inter-American security system, address by Willard 

F. Barber, 61. 
Inter-American Travel Conference, agenda and U.S. 

delegation, 107. 
Organization of American States (OAS). See Organ- 
ization of American States. 
Pan American day, address by Secretary Acheson, 564. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 

(1947). See Rio treaty. 
Pact of Amity, Costa Rican-Nicaraguan signatures, 
461, 712. 



840 



Department of State Bulletin 



American Republics — Continued 

U.S. concern at overthrow of governments, 30. 
U.S. foreign policy, influence of inter-American rela- 
tions on. 4(>0. 
U.S. Inforniiition luul wlucntion programs develop Inter- 
national undorstanding, 439. 
Women lenders visit U.S., 834. 
Visiting e<iucator to U.S. law schools, 523. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 835. 

U.S. National Commission in the Pan American Rail- 
way Congress Association ; appointment of mem- 
bers, aims, 818. 
American States Members, Fourth Regional Conference, 

U.S. delegation, G20. 
Amerika, Czech language edition begun, 730. 
Amity, Pact of, Costa Rican-Nlcaraguan signatures, 461, 

712. 
Amman, Jordan, U.S. legation established, 332. 
Andrews, H. T., credentials as South African Ambassador 

to U.S., 328. 
Antarctica, warships not to be sent to, during 1948-49, 

149. 
Antitrust laws, British Commission study American, 637. 
Arab States. See Palestine situation. 
Argentina : 

Commercial consultations with U.S., 734. 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 732. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Reciprocal trade agreement with U.S. (1941) ; Presi- 
dential proclamation restores duty on flaxseed, 802. 
Warships not to be sent to Antarctica during 1948-49, 

149. 
Wheat Agreement (1949) , nonparticipation in, 511. 
Armaments, Commission for Conventional (CCA), dis- 
armament program discussed, 184, 228, 253, 718, 812. 
Arms and armed forces : 

American arms in China, 182. 

Atomic energy control. See atomic energy. 

Discussed by : 

Sayre, Francis B., 148. 
United Nations, 1S4, 228, 253, 718, 812. 
Germany. See Germany : Military Security Board. 
Russian proposal discussed, 395. 
Stalin's answer to Kingsbury Smith ; Secretary Acheson 

remarks, 192. 
Korea, U.S. military training mission, 781. 
National defense. President's budget, 111. 
Asia and Far East, Economic Commission for, (ECAFE), 

4, 6, 11, 14, 361. 
Atherton, Ray: 
Appointment as alternate representative to General 

Assembly, 316. 
U.S. policy toward Spain ; statement In General As- 
sembly, 686. 
Atlantic Fisheries Convention signed, Northwest, 319. 
Atomic energy : 

Budget, 19.00, recommendations, 114. 
Peaceful utilization of ; statement by Senator Brieu 
McMahon, 726. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.N. : 

(Control of atomic energy discussed by Francis B. Sayre, 
147. 



Atomic Energy Commission, U. N. — Continued 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 193. 

United Nations, 184, 227, 382, 690, 719, 750, 780. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. : 

Isotopes, foreign distribution of; statement from Gen- 
eral Advisory Committee to AEC, 829. 
Radioactive materials, shipments to foreign countries, 

listing, 727. 
Radioisotopes, foreign distribution program of; ex- 
cerpts of ofllcial correspondence, 727. 
Attlee, Prime Minister Clement ; ECA anniversary mes- 
sage to President Truman, text, 455; reply from 
President Truman, 536. 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses : 

Final address, 3d session. General Assembly, 077. 
More perfect union, before Vermont General Assem- 
bly, 278. 
Proposed North Atlantic pact, before Vermont His- 
torical Society, 298. 
Voting problem in Security Council, before General 
Assembly, 512. 
Appointment as U. S. representative to General Assem- 
bly, 316. 
Correspondence : 
Agreement lifting Berlin restrictions; joint letter 

(Chauvel, Cadogan) and communique, 631. 
U.N., transmitting U.S. report on Pacific Islands trust 
territory, 293. 
Statements : 
Egyptian-Israeli armistice agreement signed, 312. 
Indonesia, U.S. supports Security Council's resolu- 
tion, 379, 687. 
International political cooperation, promotion of, 579. 
Israeli U.N. membership, U.S. support, 311, 655. 
Italian colonies, disposition of former, 713. 
North Atlantic Treaty, 384; U.S. answers Soviet 

charges, 552. 
Palestine relief, presentation of U.S. contribution, 

517. 
Strategic trust areas, relation to Security Council, 309. 
Trieste, Italian peace treaty provision not workable, 
292. 
Australia : 

Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
U.S. Ambassador (Cowen), appointment, 332. 
U.S. Ambassador (Jarman), appointment, 803. 
Austria : 

Foreign Ministers' Deputies meeting, U.S. delegation, 

229. 
German ethnic origin defined to implement Displaced 

Persons Acts (1948), 459. 
Office of German and Austrian affairs established, 330. 
Peace treaty negotiations, requests CFM to resume, 52. 
Aviation. (See also Aviation Organization, International 
Civil ; Treaties) : 
Conference, U.S.-Canadian Civil, U.S. delegation, 725. 
Cooperative program by CAA under IIAA, 213. 



Index, January fo June 1949 



841 



Aviation, Organization, International Civil (ICAO) : 
African-Indian Ocean regional meeting, U.S. delegation, 

425. 
Air navigation services in Iceland, report on ICAO con- 
ference by Rear Admiral Paul A. Smith, 164. 
Regional Air Navigation meeting. South East Asia, re- 
port by Clifford P. Burton, 190. 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB) : 
Discussed, 148, 446, 696. 
U.S. representative (Drew) appointed, 316. 
Bank Deutscher Laender, establishment of, 126. 
Bank, Export-Import, 110, 143, .373, 375. 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International. 
See Reconstruction and Development, International 
Bank. 
Barber, Willard F., address on inter-American security 
system before American Political Science Association, 
Chicago, 61. 
Barkley, Alben, VOA inauguration message to Iran, 431. 
Basic Law of Germany. See Germany : Tripartite agree- 
ments. 
Battle, Lucius D., appointed as Assistant to Secretary of 

State, 398. 
Bavaria : 

Greater home rule proposal offered Bavarians, article 

by Murray D. Van Wagoner, 350. 
Public opinion : freedom of thought in Bavaria ; article 
by Albert C. Schweizer, 354. 
Bech, Joseph, Luxembourg, North Atlantic Treaty signing 

ceremony, remarks, 476. 
Belgium : 

Brussels, European broadcasting conference, prepara- 
tory meetings, 187. 
Frontier provisional rectifications (Germany) ; com- 
munique of Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Nether- 
lands, U.K., and U.S., 427. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. .shipment of, 727. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 

84, 265. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Ruhr, International Authority for. See Ruhr. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, (5G4. 
Bell, Kathleen, consultation between ECOSOC and non- 
governmental organizations, a compilation, 739. 
Bennett, Jr., W. Tapley, article on Costa Rican-Nica- 

raguan incident, 707. 
Berckemeyer Pazos, Fernando, appointment as Peruvian 

Ambassador to U.S., 150. 
Berkner, Lloyd V., appointed as MAP director in State 

Department, 466. 
Berlin blockade. See Germany. 

Berlin, free university of, article by Howard W. John- 
ston, 548. 
Berlin museum masterpieces returned : 
Hall, Ard€lia R., introductory note, 543. 
Heinrich, Theodore Allen, introduction, 546. 
Newman, James R., foreword, 545. 
Bermuda, radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Bevin, Ernest (British Foreign Minister) : 

Nortli Atlantic Treaty signing ceremony, remarks, 480. 
U.S. -U.K. discu.ssions on Germany and Greece, 459. 
Bizonal ((Jermany) fusion agreement (1940, rev. 1947), 
extension of ; text of U.S. note to U.K., 76. 



842 



Bogota economic agreement (1948), 462. 
Bohlen, Charles E. : 
Addresses : 

American course in foreign affairs, before N.Y. State 

Bar Association, N.Y., 157. 
Nortli Atlantic Pact : historic step in development of 
American foreign relations before Philadelphia 
Bulletin Forum, 428. 
Bolivia : 

Air transport agreement signed with U.S., 62. 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 732. 

Labor strikes in tin-mining areas ; statement by Acting 
Secretary Webb, 764. 
Bonn Constitution or Parliamentary Council. See Ger- 
many : Federal Republic. 
Brady, Frederick J., article on international cooperation 

against tsetse, 722. 
Brannan, Charles F., addresses on International Wheat 
Agreement : 
Significance to American farmer, 449. 
Welcome at Conference opening, 186. 
Brazil : 

Cultural leaders visit U.S., 117, 732, 733. 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission report com- 
pleted, 363; discussed, 694; released, 435. 
President Dutra's visit to U.S. : 

Invitation from President Truman, 174. 
Joint statement (President Truman) on fostering 
economic development and social progress, 694. 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 694. 
Welcoming remarks by President Truman, 694. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties and agreements : 

Double taxation with U.S., joint study, 830. 
U.S.-Brazil cultural treaty negotiations approved ; 
joint statement by Presidents Truman and 
Dutra, 695. 
Bremerhaven, Germany, U.S. consular office, elevation to 

consulate, 735. 
Briggs, Ellis O., address at 4th conference of American 
States Members (ILO) on inter- American coopera- 
tion at Montevideo, 752. 
British West Indies, radioactive materials, U.S. shipment 

of, 727. 
Broadcasting conference, European report by Robert R. 

Burton, 187. 
Bruce, David K. E., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

France, 703. 
Brussels treaty (1948) : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 234, 596. 
Austin, Warren R., 298. 
Sayre, Francis B., 146. 
Truman, President, 347. 
Origin, 348. 
U.S. military aid asked by signatories, exchange of 

notes, 494; discus.sed, 648. 
Value with North Atlantic Treaty, 348. 
Budget (1050) message transmitted to Congi-ess l)y Presi- 
dent Truman, excerpts, 108. 
Buenaventura, Colombia, U.S. consular office, elevation to 
consulate, 735. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Building, Civil Kngineering and Public Works Committee 
(ILO), U.S. delegation, 365. 

Bulgaria : 
Peace treaty (1947) : 

Intprnntional claims settlement, 627. 
Violation of human rights. See Human rights: Vio- 
lation of. 

Burma, scholarships/fellowships under Fulbright Act, 84, 
171, 265. 

Burns, Norman, article on American farmer and ITO 
charter, 215. 

Burton, Clififord P., article on South East Asia Regional 
Air Navisation meeting, New Delhi, 190. 

Burton. Robert R., report on European broadcasting con- 
ferences, Bru.ssels and Copenhagen, 187. 

Butterworth, W. Walton, nominated as Assistant Secre- 
tary, 734. 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, World Meteorologi- 
cal convention, ratification, 622. 

Cabot, John M. : 
American activities continue despite Communist action, 

statement on, 765. 
Chinese Communist propaganda, American answer to ; 
address before American University Club, Shang- 
hai, 179. 
Caeiro da Matta, Jos(5, Portugal, North Atlantic Treaty 

signing ceremony, remarks, 479. 
Cale, Edward G., article on International Wheat Agree- 
ment (1949), 507. 
Camagiiey, Cuba, closing of U.S. consulate, 117, 271. 
Cameroons, British and French. See Trusteeship and 

Trusteeship Council. 
Canada : 

Pearson, L. B., North Atlantic Treaty signing ceremony, 

remarks, 473. 
Prime Minister (St. Laurent) to visit U.S., 171. 
I Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreement, etc. : 
Air transport agreement with U.S., signature, 766. 
Aircraft agreement, emergency ; exchange of U.S. 

(Webb) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 200. 
Boundary Waters Treaty (1909), air pollution study 
on Detroit River asked; letter (Lovett) to Inter- 
national Joint Commission, 115. 
Great Lakes Fisheries (1946), signature, 70. 
Halibut Commission, Joint (1937), 69. 
Industrialization Mobilization Committee: 
Establishment by exchange of U.S. (Steinhardt), 

and Canadian (Pearson) notes, text, 537. 

U.S. delegation to 1st meeting, 725. 

Niagara River, diversion of waters (1948) exchange of 

U.S. (Lovett) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 85. 

North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 

Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention, signature, 

319. 
Pacific Salmon Commission, International (19.30), 69. 
Wartime claims and accounts settlement; exchange 
of U.S. (Acheson) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 
397. 
Whaling, International convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
U.S. Ambassador (Steinhardt), appointment, 332. 



Canada — Continued 

U.S.-Canadlan Civil Aviation Meeting, U.S. delegation, 

725. 
Wildlife Conference, migratory waterfowl studied, 364. 
Wood Pulp Problems, Preparatory Conference on. World, 
U.S. delegation, 621. 
Canaday, W. M., address on U.S. economic policy in Caril>- 
bean at 8th meeting of Caribbean Commission, Port- 
au-Spiiin, Trinidad, Sl.'J. 
Canham, Erwin D., recommends adoption of draft con- 
vention of international transmission of news and 
right of correction in General Assembly, 678. 
Cans, Sefior Dr. Oscar, credentials as Cuban Ambassador 

to U.S., C37. 
Caribbean Commission : 

Point 4 I'rogram discus.sed, 621. 

Puerto Rico shipping facilities, improvement of, 622. 
Removal of transportation tax discussed, 622. 
Report of 3d session of West Indian Conference, 221 ; 

released, 467. 
U.S. Commissioners and State Department officials 

meet, 621. 
.U.S. delegation to 8th meeting, 816. 
U.S. economic policy in Caribbean discussed by W. M. 
Canaday, 813. 
Caribbean, U.S. economic policy in ; address by W. M. 

Canaday, 813. 
Caroline Islands. See Trusteeship Council. 
Cartels : 

Curb on, discussed by Norman Burns, 218. 
ITO offers international control, 38. 
Carter, Brig. Gen. M. S., appointed as MAP assistant to 

Ambassador Douglas, London, 327. 
Ceylon, U.S. naval attach^ and naval attach^ for air, first 

appointment (Hodgson), 803. 
Chang, Dr. John M., credentials as Korean Ambassador to 

U.S., remarks, 434. 
Chapin, Selden : 

Force and freedom ; address before Catholic War Vet- 
erans, Houston, Tex., 820. 
Recall requested by Hungary, 230. 
Resignation as U.S. Minister to Hungary, 735. 
Chapman, Wilbert M., article on U.S. policy on high seas 

fislieries, 67. 
Chapultepec, Act of (1945), 61, 460. 

Childhood, Directing Council of American International 
Institute for Protection of, annual meeting, U.S. dele- 
gate, 426. 
Children, U.N. Appeal for (UNAC) : 

General Assembly resolution (Dec. 8, 1948) extensioa 

through 1949, text, 12, 515. 
ECOSOC resolution (Mar. 18) , resources, 382. 
U.S. participation ; letter from Secretary Acheson to 
Secretary-(;eneral Lie, text, 515. 
Children's Emergency Fund, U.N. International 
(UNICEF) : 
Program reviewed by Walter M. Kotschnig, 12. 
ECOSOC resolution (Mar. 18) , resources, 382. 
Childs, J. Rives, appointed as U.S. Ambassador to Saudi 

Arabia, 332. 
Chile: 
Cultural leaders, visit U.S., 194, 733, 834. 



Index, January to June 1949 



843 



Chile — Continued 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 

signature and U.S. concessions, 363. 
Soviet wives of foreigners, proposal on departure from 
U.S.S.R. ; General Assembly resolution (Apr. 25), 
561 ; text, 614. 
Warships not to be sent to Antarctica during 194S-49, 
149. 
China : 
American Embassy, Nanking, partial move to Canton, 

271. 
Communistic propaganda discussed by John M. Cabot, 

179. 
Educational emergency grants to Chinese students, 503 ; 

rules for, 498. 
Japanese reparation removals, U.S. repudiates Philip- 
pine and Chine.se complaint, 831. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bulk Sale Agreement (1946), Marshall Islands scrap 

material to be sold, 803. 
U.S. aid agreements and treaties discussed by John 
M. Cabot, 180. 
U. S. citizens, evacuation of, 28; warnings, 571, 607. 
Christ, Lt. Col. Charles M. (U.S. air attach^ to Iran), 

search for plane, 231. 
Citizens, U.S. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 
Civil service, International, development of, 97. 
Claims (See also Protection of U.S. nationals), "World 

War II international, discussed by Jack Tate, 627. 
Clay, Gen. Lucius D. : 

Achievements (1948) of Military Government in 

Germany, summarized, 324. 
Congratulatory telegram from Secretary Acheson on 

millionth ton of Berlin airlift, 300. 
Resignation as Military Governor in Germany ; state- 
ment by President Truman, 632. 
Coal Mines Committee (ILO), 3d session, U.S. delegation, 

620. 
Cochran, H. Merle, U.S. delegate to Security Council's 
Committee of Good Offices on Indonesia, recalled for 
consultation, 84. 
Cohen, Benjamin V. : 
Appointment as representative to General Assembly, 

316. 
Human rights violations in Bulgaria, Hungary, and 
Rumania ; statements, 556, 611. 
Colombia : 
Treaties and agreements: 

Double taxation with U.S., discussions, 830. 
GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 520. 
Military advisory agreement with U.S., signed, 303. 
U.S. consular office at Buenaventura, elevation to 
consulate, 735. 
Commissioner, U.S. High, for Germany. See Germany. 
Commissions, Committees : International. 
Ad Hoc Political Committee (Security Council) 99, 
101, 440, 491, 512, 518, 519, 556, 566, 579, 584, 611, 
617, 655, 656, 687, 744. 
Allied Tripartite Customs Committee, 326. 
American Committee on Dependent Territories (OAS), 

319. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for, 184, 228, 
253, 718, 812. 



844 



Commissions, Committees : International — Continued 
Asia and Far East, Economic Commission for (ECAFE), 

4, 6, 11, 14, 361. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.N., 147, 184, 193, 227, 

382, 690, 719, 750, 780. 
Balkans, U. N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB), 148, 

161, 316, 446, 696. 
Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission, Joint, 363, 435, 694. 
Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works Com- 
mittee (ILO), 365. 
Calendar of international meetings, 42, 163, 297, 420, 

562, 720. 
Caribbean Commission, 221, 467, 621, 813, 816. 
Children, U.N. Appeal for (UNAC), 12, 515, 382, 516. 
Coal Mines Committee (ILO), 620. 
Committee of Eight (ITU), 187. 
Committee of Experts (Security Council), 309, 317, 301, 

377. 
Committee of Information (OAS Council), 707. 
Conciliation Commission (Peace treaties 1947), 630. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 563, 723. 
Economic and Employment Commission, 689. 
Europe, Economic Commission for (ECE), 4, 6, 11, 13, 

228, 361, 651, 662, 663. 
Executive Committee (IRO), 107. 
Far Eastern Commission (FEC), 271, 433, 502, 569, 

635, 667, 670, 831. 
Fiscal Commission (ECOSOC), 74. 
Freedom of Information and Press, Subcommission on, 

185, 253, 383, 492, 719, 751. 
Halibut Commission, Joint, U.S.-Canada, 69. 
Human Rights, Commission on (ECOSOC), 4, 8, 18, 

185, 490, 617, 689, 718, 751, 780, 812. 
India and Pakistan, U.N. Commission (UNCIP), 41, 74, 

318, 382, 519, 750. 
Indonesian Committee of Good Offices, 24, 41, 74, 81, 84, 

91, 104, 162, 185, 228, 250, 296, 317, 382, 445, 492, 

617. 
Industrial Mobilization Committee, Joint U.S.-Cana- 

dian, 537, 725. 
Inland Transport Committee (ECE), 651. 
Inland Transport Committee (ILO), 691. 
Inter-American Committee (OAS), 833. 
Interim Committee (General Assembly), 161, 254, 315, 

418, 488, 491, 512, 561, 579. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 85, 115. 
IRO Executive Committee, 107, 256, 426. 
Korea, U.N. (Temporary) Commission on, 136, 161, 185, 

227, 254, 689, 780, 781. 

Latin America, Economic Commission for (ECLA), 

4, 11, 14, 719. 
Law Commission, International, 492, 519, 561, 690, 719, 

750. I 

Middle East, Economic Commission for (ECME), 4. 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on, 13. 
Nongovernmental Organizations, Committee for 

(ECOSOC), 362, 739. 
Pacific Salmon Commission, International (U.S.-Cana- ; 

da), 69. I 

Palestine Conciliation Commission, 41, 102, 105, 136, 141, | 

228, 254, 316, 318, 419, 445, 655, 780. 

Penal and Penitentiary Commission, International, 143. 
Permanent Migration Committee (ILO), 106, 421. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Commissions, Committees : International — Continued 
Population Commission (ECOSOC), 316. 
Social Commission (ECOSOC), 4, 7, 11, 98, 143, 185, 

295, 307, 316, 718, 749. 
Special Committee on Methods and Procedures of 

General Assembly (U.N.), 715. 
Statistical Commission (ECOSOC), 316. 
Tariff Negotiations Committee (GATT), 819. 
Telegraph Regulations Revision Committee (ITU), 658. 
Transport and Communications Commission (U.N.), 

383. 418. 
Trypanosomiasis Research, International Committee of, 

229, 722. 
Tuna Commission, Inter- American Tropical (U.S.-Costa- 

Rlca),692, 766. 
Tuna, U.S. Mexican International Commission for in- 
vestigation of, 70, 174, 463, 7G6. 
Weights and Measures, International Committee on, 

448. 
Whaling Commission, International, 692. 
Women, Commission on Status of (ECOSOC), 11, 361, 

445. 
Commissions, Committees, Conferences: National: 
AEC General Advisory Committee, 829. 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 

171, 263, 442, 498. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission, 116, 503, 803. 
Humphrey (Industrial Advisory) Committee, 524. 
Information, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 464. 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, U.S. 

National Commission in, 818. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 169, 267, 520, 

766, 803. 
Scientific and Cultural (Cooperation, Interdepartmental 

Committee on, 212. 
UNESCO, U.S. Commission, 2d national conference, 133. 
U.S. Tariff Commission, 168, 267. 
Communism (See also U.S.S.R. : Obstructionist tactics) : 
Action in — 

China, 28, 179, 571, 607, 765. 
Hungary, 820. 
Indonesia, 81,94,687. 
Korea, 782. 
Labor Unions, 358. 
Latin America, 465. 
American activities continue in Shanghai despite Com- 
munist fighting, 765. 
Discussed, 123, 144, 158, 260, 771, 782. 
Propaganda, countermeasures discussed in report of 

U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, 464. 
Representatives to cultural and scientific conference for 

world peace, visas authorized, 392. 
Condon, Edward U., report on Ninth General Conference 

on Weights and Measures, 447. 
Conferences, Congress, Councils : International : 
Adult Education Conference, U.S. delegation, purposes, 

817. 
Air navigation meeting (ICAO regional), South East 

Asia, 190. 
American States Members, 4th Regional Conference, 

620. 
Broadcasting conference, European, 187. 



Conference, Congress, Councils : International — Continued 

Calendar of international meetings, 42, 163, 297, 420, 
562, 720. 

Civil Aviation Conference, U.S.-Canadian, 725. 

Conservation and Utilization of Resources, U.N. Scien- 
tific Conference, 440. 

Foreign Ministers' Deputies meeting for Austria, U.S. 
delegation, 52, 229. 

Cultural and scientific conference for world peace, 392. 

Freedom of Information, Conference on, 682. 

ICAO Conference on air navigation services in Iceland, 
164. 

Indian Life, Inter-American Conference on, 818. 

IRO General Council, 2d session, 426. 

Labor Conference, International, 815. 

Medical Council, World, planned, 446. 

Mental health, international congress, 166. 

Pan American Railway Congress Association, 818. 

Photogrammetry congress and exhibition, 6th interna- 
tional, 255. 

Phyto-Sanitary Conference, 622. 

Protection of Childhood, Directing Council of American 
International Institute for, 426. 

Protection of war victims, conference for drawing up 
convention for, 522. 

Radio Conference, Administrative (ITU), 659. 

Rheumatic Diseases, 7th International Congress, 693. 

Royal Sanitary Institute Health Congress, 692. 

Rubber Study Group, 398, 521, 816. 

Science Abstracting, International Conference on, 817. 

Standard Loran, Special Administrative Conference on, 
106. 

Swiss-Allied Accord quadripartite conference, 659, 819. 

Telephone and Telegraph Conference, Administrative 
(ITU), 426, 6!iS; preparatory, 30. 

Travel Congress, 3d inter-American, 107. 

Weights and Measures, 9th General Conference on, 447. 

West Indian Conference, 221, 467. 

Wheat Conference, International, 167, 186, 449, 507, 619, 
699, 701. 

Wildlife Conference, North American, 364. 

World Engineering Conference, 2d international techni- 
cal Congress of, 425. 

World Wood Pulp Problems, Preparatory Conference on, 
(FAO), 621. 
Congress, U.S. : 

Confirmations of U.N. nominations, 316. 

Economic Recovery Program evaluated by Secretary 
Acheson before Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations, 232. 

Electors of President and Vice President, certificates 
of ascertainment transmitted by Acting Secretary 
Lovett, 118. 

"Hoover" report, Co7nmission on Organization of the 
Executive Branch of the Oovemment on Foreign 
Affairs, released, 333. 

Korea, economic assistance to: 

Message of President Truman for continuation of, 

text, 781. 
Statement in support of, by Acting Secretary Webb 
before House Foreign Affairs Committee, text, 
783. 



Index, January to June 1949 



845 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 
Legislation listed, 118, 206, 331, 366, 399, 539, 600, 615. 
McCloy, Jolin J., nomination as L'.S. High Commis- 
sioner, 730. 
Messages from President Truman to : 
Congress, transmitting : 

Budget, 1950, recommendations, 108. 
Economic report, 79. 

Governmental reorganization procedure, recom- 
mendations, 140. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, continuation 

recommended, 329. 
Korean economic aid, continuation requested, 781. 
Palestine refugees, request for relief, 202. 
State Department reorganization legislation re- 
quested, 333. 
State of Union, 75. 
Supplementary funds, request, 330. 
Senate, transmitting — 

Aircraft, convention on international recognition 

of rights in, 118. 
ILO conventions and recommendations, 150, 205. 
ITO Charter, 601. 
Narcotics protocol, 330. 
North Atlantic Treaty, 599. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention, 765. 
Safety of life at sea, international convention for, 

118. 
Sugar, international agreement on regulation of 

production and marketing of, 118. 
U.S.-Mexiean convention for tuna investigation, 

463. 
Wheat Agreement, International, 619. 
Women, Inter-American convention on granting 

political rights to, 118. 
World Meteorological Organization, convention, 
118. 
Mindszenty, Cardinal, House Concurrent resolution 19, 

on trial of, 231. 
North Atlantic Treaty: 
Foreign Relations, Committee, Senate ; excerpts from 

report on, 787. 
Sen. doc. 48 issued, 600. 
Olympic games, 1056 (Public Law 22, 81st Cong.), U.S. 

extends invitation ; text, 453. 
Organization of American States charter ; statement 
by Secretary Acheson befoi-e Senate Foreign Re- 
lations Committee, 198. 
Palestine refugee relief: 
Authorization of contribution (S. J. Res. 36), 235; 
statement of President Truman at time of signa- 
ture, 419. 
Message from Pre.sident Truman asking appropria- 
tion and transmitting letter from Acting Secre- 
tary Lovett, draft of proposed legislation, and 
General Assembly resolution, 202. 
Statement of Dean Rusk before Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee, 237. 
Reduction in ECA proposed appropriations; statement 

by Acting Secretary Webb, 729. 
Senate Resolution 239 (June 11, 1948). See Vanden- 
berg resolution. 

846 



Congress, U. S. — Continued 

Stepinac, Archbishop, House Concurrent resolution 19, 

on trial of, 231. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act, statement by Willard 

L. Thorp, 168. 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, report to 

Congress, 464. 
U.S. participation in United Nations (1948) ; report of 

President Truman to Congress, 716. 
Vandenberg resolution (S. Res. 239, 1948). See 
Vandenberg. 
Consular offices, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Cook, Richard F., designation in State Department, 174. 
Copenhagen Plan for European broadcasting, 190. 
Copper, aluminum, steel, probable impact of military as- 
sistance program on, 650. 
Coppock, Joseph D., address before Importers Association, 
Inc., Chicago, on government assistance in developing 
U.S. imports, 137. 
Corfu Channel Case (U.K. vs Albania), 491, 516. 
Costa Rica : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 439, 884. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Pact of Amity with Nicaragua, 461, 712. 

Rio treaty, application in incident with Nicaragua, 

461, 707. 
Tuna convention establishing Inter-American Tropi- 
cal Commission, discussed, 692 ; signed, 766. 
Visiting professor from Puerto Rico, 835. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International : 
Eighth meeting, report by J. G. Evans, 723. 
U.S. delegation, 563. 
Council for Europe, statute for ; U.S. approval, 6(U. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Cowen, Myron Melvin, appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Australia and Philippines, 332. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Criminals, Japanese war, FEC policy decision on trials, 

569. 
Crocker, Edward S., (2d., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Iraq, 332. 
Cuba: 

Ambassador to U.S. (Cans), credentials, 637. 
Treaties and agreements, etc. : 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, renegotia- 
tions of certain tariff concessions with U. S., 766, 
803 ; supplemental proclamation, 435. 
U.S. consulate at Camagiiey, closing, 117, 271. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 834. 
Cultural cooperation (See aUo Educational exchange 
program) : 
Br;izil-U.S. treaty, negotiations approved, 695. 
Hamlet theatrical production, 664, 731. 
Soviet blocks American efforts fur cultural-scientific 
exchange, 403, 799. 
Cyrenaica. See Italy : Former colonies. 
Czechoslovakia : 

Anu'iitan soldiers (Hill and Jimes) convicted of es- 
pionage: 
Detained in prison, 266. 

Interviewed by U.S. oflicial (McNamara),502. 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 459. 
Amerika, Czech language edition begun, 730. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 
Anniversary of lihi'rntioii ; docunientary correspondence 

between SHAKK and Soviet Hisli Command, texts, 

60."). 
Head of American Relief (Vraz) arrested, 536. 
ProiH'rty-restitvitiim. deadline for applications, 632. 
U. S. Ambassador (Jacobs), appointment, 332. 

Daniels, I'aul C. : 

Inter-American relations, influence on U.S. foreign 
policy, address at University of Wisconsin, Madi- 
son, 4G0. 
U.S. Ambassador to OAS, 735. 
de la Colina, Rafael, credentials as Mexican Ambassador 

to U.S., 150. 
Denmark: 
Americans to present Hamlet in Elsinore, CG4 ; depart 

for Denmark, 731. 
Copenhagen, European broadcasting conference, 187. 
Military aid requested ; exchange of notes, 405 ; discus- 
sion, (>48. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Technicians visit U.S. under EGA, 328. 
Treaties and agreements: 

G.\TT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 520. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention, signature, 

319. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
U.S. Ambassador (Marvel), resignation, 467. 
Detroit River, U.S. and Canada to study air pollution of, 

115. 
Deutsche marks, foreign visitors in Germany to use, 807. 
Diplomatic officers : 
Hungary, U.S. Minister, recall demanded, 230. 
Poland, U.S. attach^, recall requested, 432. 
Diplomatic relations with — 
El Salvador, 150. 
Israel, 205. 
Jordan, 205. 
Paraguay, 538. 
Syria, 637. 
Venezuela, 172. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 150, 328, 

434, 538, 637, 698, 765. 
Disarmament. See Arms and armed forces ; Armaments. 
Displaced persons and refugees. See Refugees and dis- 
placed persons. 
Displaced Persons Act of 1948, implementation; German 

ethnic origin defined, 459. 
Dominican Republic : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Declaration with Haiti on peaceful settlement of 

differences, 833. 
GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 
520. 
Donahue, Ruth A., article on Point 4, 211. 
Donnelly, Walter J., note to Venezuelan Foreign Minister 

(Gomez Ruiz) on de faeto government, 172. 
Double taxation conventions, U.S. and — 
Brazil, joint study, 830. 
Colombia, discussions, 830. 
Norway, signature, 830. 



Double taxation conventions, U.S. and — Continued 

United Kingdom, extension exjiected, 270. 
Drew, (lerald A., appointed U.S. representative on Special 

Balkan Committee (UNSCOH),316. 
Dreyfus, Louis G., Jr., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Afghanistan, (i3i). 
Dudley, Edward K., appointed as U.S. Minister to Liberia, 

332 ; as U.S. Ambassador to Liberia, 639. 
Dulles, John Foster : 
Apiiointment as U.S. representative to General Assembly, 

316. 
Statements : 

Reply to U.S.S.R. on Italian colonies, 581. 
U.S. views on Italian colonies, 484. 
Dutra, Eurice Caspar (President of Brazil) visits U.S.: 
Invitation from President Truman, 174. 
Joint statements (Dutra-Truman) : 

Brazil-U.S. cultural treaty, negotiations approved, 605. 
Economic and six^iai progress, mutual approval, 694. 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 694. 
Welcoming remarks by President Truman, 694. 

Economic and Employment Commission (ECOSOC), 689. 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 
Economic and Employment Commission, 689. 
American recovery policy, reply to criticLsm, by W. L. 

Thorp, 313. 
Committee on Procedure, 74. 
Economic and technical cooperation, statements by 

Willard L. Thorp, 283. 
Economic (Regional) Commissions. See Asia and Far 
East (ECAFE) ; Europe (ECE) ; Latin America 
(ECLA) ; Middle East (ECME). 
Economic reports, 288. 

Eighth session, agenda, excerpts, 252 ; election of officers, 
184 ; provisional list, 129 ; resolutions, 443 ; U.S. 
delegation, 229. 
Ninth session, provisional agenda, list, 776. 
Nongovernmental organizations, consultative relation- 
ship with ECOSOC, governing resolutions and de- 
cisions, 739 ; list granted status, 744. 
Penal and Penitentiary Commission, International, 

integration with, 143. 
Resettlement program problems; remarks by Walter 

M. Kotsehnig, 307. 
Reviewed by Walter M. Kotsehnig, 3. 
Resolutions : 

Cooperation in economic reports (Feb. 25), text, 316. 
Economic development of underdeveloped countries 
(Mar. 4), text, 360. 
Forced labor (Feb. 24), text, 254. 

International nongovernmental organizations having 

members in Spain (Feb. 14), text, 362. 
Resolutions and decisions of 8th session, table listing, 

443. 
Resolutions of General Assembly, 3d session, table 

listing, 134. 
Technical assistance for economic development (Mar. 

4), text, 360. 
Trade union rights: freedom of association (Mar. 17), 
text, 490. 
Soviet slave labor study, asked by U.S., 248. 
Specialized agencies, agreements with, 3. 



Index, January to June 1949 



847 



Economic and Social CouncU (ECOSOC) — Continued 
Trade-union rights, infringement of ; statement by 

Leroy D. Stinebower, 358. 
U.S. representative (Altmeyer) on Social Commission, 

appointed, 316. 
U.S. representative (Hauser) on Population Committee, 

appointed, 316. 
U.S. representative (Rice) on Statistical Commission, 
appointed, 316. 
Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) (See also 
European Recovery Plan ; Technical assistance ; Point 
4 Program) : 
Chinese students, educational emergency grants, 503; 

rules for, 498. 
Continued aid for European recovery necessary ; state- 
ment by Secretary Acheson, 300. 
First anniversary of ECA : 

President Truman replies to Prime Minister Attlee's 

message of gratitude, text, 536. 
Prime Minister Attlee's message of thanks to Presi- 
dent Truman, text, 455. 
Special broadcasts by VGA, 455. 
Greek transportation reconstructed, supplementary 

funds from ECA, 826. 
Italian ERP stamps issued, 828. 
Korean relief and rehabilitation program, 84. 
McCloy, John J., named as representative in Germany, 

829. 
Proposed appropriations, Congressional reduction ; 

statement by Acting Secretary Webb, 729. 
Technical assistance proj«!Ct: 
Danish technicians visit U.S., 328. 
Swedish technicians to visit U.S., 328. 
Economic development abroad, America's role in, article 

by Wilfred Malenbaum, 371. 
Economic Report of President released, excerpt, 79. 
Economic situation, world, remarks by Willard L. Thorp. 

566. 
Economic stabilization program In Japan, 60. 
ECE. See Europe, Economic Commission for. 
Ecuador : 

Cultural leaders visit U.S., 440, 733, 834. 
U.S. aid, case studies, 440. 
Education (See also United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization ; Educational exchange 
program). 
Adult Education Conference, U.S. delegation, purposes, 

817. 
Cooperative programs of Institute of Inter-American 
Affairs, 212, 329, 462, 754, 795. 
Educational exchange program : 

Cultural cooperation -with other countries : 
Chinese students, emergency grants, 503 ; rules for, 

498. 
Finland recommended, 171. 

Visitors to U.S. from: Argentina, 732; Bolivia, 7.S2; 
Brazil, 117, 732, 733; Cliile, 194, 733, 834; Costa 
Rica, 4.39, 834; Ecuador, 440, 733, 8.34; El Salva- 
dor, &34 ; Guatemala, 440 ; Honduras, 834 ; I^atin 
American -women leadens, 8.34 ; Mexico, 117, 266, 
364 ; Pern, .36."i ; Uruguay, 194. 
Visitors from U.S. to: Argentina, 523; Chile, 523; 
Colombia, 523; Cuba, 834; Ecnador, 523; Latin 



Educational exchange program — Continued 
Visitors from U.S. to — Continued 

America, 835 ; Latin American law schools, 523 ; 
Mexico, 364, 835 ; Peru, 523 ; Uruguay, 523. 
Expansion advocated by U.S. Advisory Commission on 

Educational Exchange, 263. 
Fulbright Act : 
Explained, 439. 

Surplus War Property disposal agreements with : 
Belgium, 265. 
Burma, 171, 265. 
Greece, 326. 
Italy, 593. 

Netherlands, signature, 698. 
New Zealand, 171. 
Norway, signature, 731. 
Philippines, 396. 
Scholarships abroad, 84. 
United Kingdom, 417. 
Korean activities, responsibility of State Department, 

84. 
Philippine training program, 439. 
Smith-Mundt (1948), explained, 439. 
U. S. information and education programs, policies 

and activities, 439. 
VOA, Washington facilities aid purpose of, 83. 
Educational exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 171, 

263, 442, 498. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of U.N. 

See United Nations Educational, etc. 
Egypt: 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
Armistice with Israel ; statement by President Tru- 
man, 302 ; statement by W. R. Austin, 312. 
U.S. Ambassador (Griffis), appointment, 332. 
Eisenhower, General, anniversary of Czechoslovak libera- 
tion ; texts of documentary correspondence between 
SHAEF and Soviet High Command, 665. 
Elath, Ellahu, first Israeli Ambassador to U.S., 302; cre- 
dentials, text, 538. 
Electors of President and Vice President, certificates of 

ascertainment transmitted to Congress, 118. 
El Salvador : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 834. 

Provisional government, U.S. resumption of relations 
with, 150. 
Embassies, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Engineering Conference, 2d international technical Con- 
gress of World, U.S. observers, 425. 
Enochs, Elisabeth Shirley, U.S. delegate to Directing 
Council of American International Institute for Pro- 
tection of Childhood, annual meeting, 426. 
Eritrea. See Italy : Former colonies. 
Ethiopia (See also Italy ; Former colonies) : 
Italian reparations, 628. 

Legation in Washington, elevation to embassy, 639. 
Lend-lease settlement, payment, 733. 
U.S. legation at Addis Ababa, elevation to embassy, 639. 
Ethridge, Mark Foster. apjKiinted as U.S. representative 

on Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 316. 
Europe, Statute for Council of ; U.S. approval, 664. 



848 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Europe, Economic Commission for (ECE) : 
Activities 4, 6, 11, 13. 228, 361. 
Progress, statement by W. A. llarriuinn, 651. 
Survey of Economic tiituation and Prospects of Europe, 
summary, 66;{ ; clarillcations by Secretary Acheson, 
602. 
European broadcasting conference, preparatory meeting 

at Brussels, 187 ; Copenhagen conference, 188. 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
(OEEC) : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 234. 
Truman, President, 536. 
Memliers listed, ."548. 
Officials visit U.S., 827. 
European Recovery Program (ERP) : 

CIO objection to NetlierlanUs use of EGA aid, 82. 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 232, 585, 606, 623, 675. 
Allen, George V., 322. 
Bohlen, Charles E., 158. 
Chapin, Selden. 823. 
Cuppock, Joseph D., 138. 
Dulles, John Foster, 582. 
Peurifoy, John E., 633. 
Russell, Francis H., 276. 
Sayre, Francis B., 145. 
Thorp, Willard L., 170, 313, 568. 
Truman, President, 79, 124, 601, 773. 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, 465. 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 729. 
ECE economic survey, 651, clarification of certain misap- 
prehensions toward ; statement by Secretary Ache- 
son, 662. 
German reparation program to harmonize with, 524. 
Italy issues ERP postage stamps, 328, 828. 
Latin Aniercian benefits, 463. 
North Atlantic pact, 348. 
Relation with ITO, 37, 216. 
Relation with MAP, 643. 
Soviet opposition, 6, 313, 323, 554. 
Statute for Council of Europe, U.S. approval, 664. 
Trieste, economic recovery, 632. 
European Union, Western. See Brussels treaty. 
Evans, J. G., report on 8th meeting of International Cot- 
ton Advisory Committee, 723. 
Executive Committee (IRO), 2d meeting, 107. 
Executive orders : 

U.S. High Commissioner for Germany : 
Position established (Ex. O.10062),828. 
Functions defined (Ex. O.10063 ) , 828. 
Experts, Committee of (Security Council) : 

Berlin currency and trade problems ; text of U.S. 

statement, 361, 377. 
Strategic trust areas, recommendations and report on, 
309. 
Export-Import Bank, 110, 143, 373, 375. 

Far Eastern Commission (FEC) : 

Japanese patent application time extended, 502. 
Japan, policy decisions on : 

Access to technical and scientific information, ex- 
tension of, 833. 



Far Eastern Coauuission (FEC) — Continued 
Japan, policy decisions on — Continued 
Agrarian reform, text, 670. 
Economic stabilization, 271. 
War criminals, trial of, 569. 
Japanese reparations and level of industry ; statement 

by Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy, 667. 
Japanese resumption of international responsibilities, 

U.S. attitude, 635. 
Philippine and Chinese complaint on Japanese repara- 
tion removals, U. S. repudiation of, 831. 
Procedure for filing claims for looted property In Japan, 
433. 
Fiji Islands, U.S. consulate at Suva closing, 1.50. 
Film quotas, British attitude toward; letter from Act- 
ing Secretary Webb to Mr. Johnston, president of Mo- 
tion Picture Association, text, 825. 
Finance : 

Balance-of-payment difficulties, 38. 
Banking system, reorganization in U.S. zone in Ger- 
many, 126. 
Budget (1950) message transmitted by President Tru- 
man to Congress, excerpts, 108. 
ECE economic survey of Europe, 663. 
Economic development abroad, America's role in, article 

by Wilfred Malenbaum, 371. 
International economic picture, remarks by Willard L. 

Thorp, 366. 
Israeli credit for rehabilitation by Export-Import Bank, 

173. 
Reparations, World War II, International, discussed 

by Jack Tate, 627. 
Supplementary funds, President's request to Congress, 

330. 
U.S. military assistance program, impact on American 

economy, 640. 
Yugoslav gold In U.S., 14. 
Finland : 
Educational exchange recommended, 171. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169 

520. 
Air transport agreement with U.S., signature, 466. 
Peace treaty (1947), international claims, 627. 
World Meteorological convention, ratification, 622. 
Fisher, Adrian S., nominated as Legal Adviser in State 

Department, 734. 
Fisheries, Northwest Atlantic, convention: 
President Truman transmits to Senate, text, 765. 
Signatures, 319. 
Fisheries, U.S. policy on high seas, article by Wilbert M. 

Chapman, 67. 
Fishing industry conservation program, progress of Japa- 
nese, 833. 
Flaxseed scarcity terminated ; presidential proclamation, 

803. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission (FLC) (See also Sur- 
plus war property) : 
Marshall Islands, call for bids on surplus war scrap, 

116 ; acceptance of hid, 803. 
Termination of agency, 503. 



Index, January to June 1949 



849 



Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 

Fislieries convention, Northwest Atlantic, signature, 

319. 
Reports, 313. 

Wheat Agreement, International. See Wheat Agree- 
ment. 
Wood Pulp Pioblems, Preparatory Conference on World, 
U.S. delegation, 621. 
Foreign assistance programs. See Aid to foreign 

countries. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM) : 

Austria, meeting proixised for treaty negotiations, 52. 
German prisoners of war, agreement (1947) on repatri- 
ation of, 77. 
Korean agreement (1945), 784. 
Paris meeting German problem facing, 675. 
Ruhr, International Authority for. See Ruhr. 
Sixth session, U.S. delegation, 691. 
Foreign Ministers' Deputies Meeting for Austria, 229. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (See also Diplomatic representa- 
tives) : 
Ambassadors, appointment : 
Afghanistan (Dreyfus), 639. 
At Large (Jessup), 332. 
Australia (Cowen),332; (Jarman), 803. 
Canada (Steinhardt), 332. 
Czechoslovakia (Jacobs), 332. 
Egypt (Griffis), 332. 
Ethiopia (Merrell), 703. 
Europe (Foster), 703. 
France (Bruce), 703. 
Guatemala (Patterson), 332. 
India (Henderson), 332. 
Iraq (Crocker), 332. 
Israel (McDonald), 302. 
Korea (Muccio), 523. 
Liberia (Dudley), 639. 
New Zealand (Scotten), 332. 
Nicaragua (Waynick), 703. 
Philippines (Cowen), 332. 
Poland (Gallman), 332. 
Saudi Arabia (Childs), 332. 
Turkey (Wadsworth), 332. 
Union of South Africa (Winship), 332. 
U.S.S.R. (Kirk), 703. 
Ambassadors, resignation : 
El Salvador (Nufer), 735. 
Denmark (Marvel), 467. 
U.S.S.R. (Smith), 467. 
China, evacuation of U.S. citizens, 28, 571, 607. 
Consular convention with U.K. signed, 269. 
Consular oflices: Rremerhaven, Germany, elevated to 
consulate, 735 ; Ruenaventura, Colombia, elevated 
to consulate, 735; Caniagiiey, Cuba, closing, 117, 
271; Frankfort, Germany, combined with Office of 
U.S. Political Adviser on German AlTairs, 271; 
Shannon, Ireland, closing, 117; Suva, Fiji Islands, 
closing, 150. 
Con.sular services for German nationals, 575. 
Diplomatic relations with: 

El Salvador i)rovisional government resumed, 1.50. 
Israel, ile jure recognition of government, 205. 
Jordan, de jure recognition of government, 205. 



Foreign Service, U.S. — Continued 

Diplomatic relations with— Continued 
Paraguay resumed, 538. 
Venezuela resumed, 172. 
Embassy, elevation to : 

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 639. 
Jidda, Saudi Arabia, 151. 
Monrovia, Liberia, 206, 735. 
Pretoria, Union of South Africa, 117, 435. 
Wellington, New Zealand, 150. 
Embassy, establishment of, Tel Aviv, Israel, 302. 
German ethnic origin defined by Department to imple- 
ment Displaced Persons Act (194S), 459. 
Hungary demands recall of U.S. Minister (Chapin), 

230. 
Israel, appointment of special representative (Mc- 
Donald), 332. 
Legation, establishmedt of, Amman, Hashemite King- 
dom of Jordan, 332. 
Ministers, appointment : 
Nepal (Henderson), 332. 
Liberia (Dudley), 332. 
Minister, resignation, Hungary (Chapin), 735. 
Nanking, China, partial move of Embassy to Canton, 

271. 
Naval attach^ and naval attach^ for air, tirst appoint- 
ment, Ceylon (Hodgson), 803. 
Poland requests recall of attach^ (Opal) , 432. 
Regional Foreign Service conference in New Delhi, 332. 
Search for American plane in Iran and Iraq, 231. 
Stuart, J. Leighton, Ambassador (China), instructed to 

report to Washington, 607. 
Syrian Government, U.S. recognition of new, 637. 
Visa requirements changed with France, 457. 
Fosdick, Dorothy, designation in State Department, 150. 
Foster, William C, U.S. special representative in Europe, 

703. 
France : 

Caribbean Commission, 8th meeting, 816. 
Germany. See Germany. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Residual and maritime claims, agreements with U.S., 

392. 
Ruhr, International Authority for. Sec Ruhr. 
Statute lor Council of Europe, signature, 6(>4. 
Swiss-Allied Accord. See Swiss-Allied Accord. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
Visas requirements changed, 457. 
Frankfort, Germany, consulate general combined with 
Office of U.S. Political Adviser on German AlTairs, 
271. 
Freedom Day, National, 174. 

Freedom of information. See Information, freedom of. 
Fulbright Act : 
Explanation, 84, 439. 

Surplus war surplus property agreements. Src Edu- 
cational exchange programs. 
Gallman, Waldemar J., appointed as U.S. Amba.ssador to 
Poland, 332. 



850 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



General Assembly of U.N. : 

Addendum to stiitus of work, talile lIstinR, T.S. 
Bodies and post.s established, table listing, TL'. 
International politieal eooperation, promotion of; ad- 
dress by Warren U. Austin, 579. 
Korea. Scv Korea. 

Membership in U.N. Scv United Nations : Membership. 
Reconvening of 3d session ; ai^enda and statement by 

Secretary Acheson, 483. 
Resolutions : 
Appointment of special committee on methods and 

procedures (Apr. 29), 71"). 
ECOSOC matters, table lisUng. 134. 
Human rights in peace treaties (Apr. 30), (ilS. 
Indonesian question (May 11), (588. 
Inquiry and conciliation panel (Apr. 28), 746. 
Interim Committee subcommittee, establishment of 

(.Tan. 31), SI.'). 
Italian colonies, disposal of (May 17, 18), 713, 714. 
Korean Republic, recognition of (Dec. 12, 1948), 59. 
Tolitical cooperation, international (Dec. 10, 1948), 

101: correction (Apr. 28), 745. 
Refugees : 

Discriminations against immigrating labor (May 

16), text, 748. 
Displaced persons and refugees (May 16), text, 747. 
Palestine relief (Nov. 19, 1948), 203; text, 236. 
Rules of procedure (Apr. 28) , text, 745. 
Slavery (May 16), text, 748. 
Soviet wives of foreigners, departure from U.S.S.R. 

(Apr. 25), 22, 561 ; text, 614. 
Spanish question (May 7), text, (553. 
Trade union rights (May 13), test, 748. 
Transmission of news and right of correction, draft 

convention on international ( May 13 ) , text, 682. 
U.N. Appeal for Children, extension through 1949 

(Dec. 8, 1948), text, 516. 
U.N. Guard (Apr. 29), 491; text, 747. 
Underdeveloped groups of American continent, social 

study (May 11), text, 747. 
Union of South Africa, treatment of Indians in (May 

14), 617, 637; text, 748. 
World social and cultural situation (May 13), text, 
749. 
Summary of important decisions of 2d part of 3d ses- 
sion, 745. 
Transmission of news and right of correction, draft 
convention on international, adoption (May 13), 
682 ; recommended by Erwin Canham, 678. 
U.S. alternate delegates (Cohen, Atherton, Thorp, 
Gross, Rusk, and Sayre), Senate confirmations, 
316. 
U.S. delegates (Austin, Cohen, Dulles, Roosevelt, and 

Jessup), Senate confirmations, 316. 
U.S. delegation, 418. 

U.S. policy toward Spain ; statement by Ray Atherton, 
686. 
Geneva, General Act (1928), suggestion by Belgium for 

settlement of U.N. disputes, 579. 
Genocide : 
General Assembly adopts convention, 22. 
Soviet opposition to convention, 9. 



Germany : 

Rerlin bUx-kade : 

Clay, Geni'ial. congratulatory telegram from Secre- 
tary Acheson on millionth ton of airlift, .'{00. 
Currency and trade problems study in Security Coun- 
cil, 361 ; text of U.S. statement, 377, 435. 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 193, 675. 
Sayre, Francis R., 148. 
Informal conversations between U.S. (Jessup) and 

U.S.S.R. (Malik), 585, 590. 
Lifting of: 
Acheson, Secretary, remarks, 662. 
Letter and comnuiiu(|ui'' from tripartite representa- 
tives to U.N. (Lie), texts, 631. 
Berlin, Free University of, article by Howard W. John- 
ston, 548. 
Berlin museums, returned masterpieces of: 
Hall, Ardelia R., introductory note, 543. 
Heinricb, Theodore Allen, introduction, 546. 
Newman, James R., foreword, 545. 
Bizonal fusion agreement (1946, rev. 1947), extension 

of ; text of U.S. note Lovott to U.K., 76. 
Consular services for German nationals; article by 

Walter J. Marx, 575. 
Federal Republic, establishment of: 
Basic Law, tripartite views, 1551. 
Discassed by Secretary Acheson, 500, 586. 
Draft constitution approved by Bonn Parliamentary 

Council, statement by Secretary Acheson, 661. 
Occupation Statute: 

Discussed by Secretary Acheson, 499, 526, 587. 
Text, 500. 

Tripartite communique on, 499. 
Tripartite agreements, 499, 589, 590. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM), German prob- 
lems facing Paris meeting, 675. 
Frontier provisional rectifications communique of Bel- 
gium, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, U.K., and 
U.S., 427. 
German and Austrian affairs. Office of, established in 

Department of State, 3.30. 
German and Greek questions; joint statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson and Foreign Minister Bevin, 459. 
German ethnic origin defined by Department of State 

to implement Displaced Persons Act (1948), 459. 
Hamlet theatrical production: 

Presentation before American troops, 664. 
American actors leave, 731. 
Hesse .school reform, article by James R. Newman, 808. 
High Commissioner : 

Establishment of position (Ex. O. 10062), 828. 
Functions, definitions of (Ex. O. 10063), 828. 
McCloy, John J., nomination sent to Senate, 730. 
Provisions in trizonal fusion agreement, 589. 
Tripartite communique of agreement, 589. 
Hungarian lefugees from U.S. zone ; exchange of notes 

(U.S.-IIungary),197. 
Liquidation of German assets in Switzerland. See 

Swiss-Allied Accord. 
Military Government: 
Absentee-owned properties to be returned, 501. 



Index, January fo June 1949 



851 



Germany — Continued 
Military Government — Continued 

Achievements (1948), summarized by General Clay, 

324. 
Allied Tripartite Customs Committee, procedures, 

326. 
Banking system, reorganization of, 126. 
Basic Law, Foreign Ministers transmit views to mili- 
tary governors, 551. 
Bavaria : 

Greater home rule proposal, 350. 
Public opinion in, 354. 
Broadcasting needs submitted to Copenhagen confer- 
ence, 187. 
Clay, General, resignation as military governor, 632. 
Deutsche marks, foreign visitors to use, 807. 
Dismantling plants and prohibited and restricted in- 
dustries, 499. 
Laws on property restitution, 593. 
Military Security Board, 195. 
School reform in Hesse, 808. 

Tripartite message of appreciation to military gov- 
ernors, text, 500. 
Military Security Board, establishment of, 195, terms 
of reference, 195, constitution and functioning, 
196, 43 ; discussed by Secretary Acheson, 586. 
Property : 

Absentee-owned property, returned, 501. 

Nazi-forced transfers, jurisdiction of U.S. courts on 

suits for, 592. 
Relinquishment of control over certain government 
property, 333. 
Repatriation of prisoners of war : 

Status under CFM agreement (1947), 78, 77. 

Soviet complaint on dismissal, 307. 

Soviet refusal to fulfill commitments, 824 ; U.S. note 

to U.S.S.R., 77. 
Soviet refusal to furnish data ; exchange of notes, 389. 
Ruhr Authority, International. See Ruhr. 
Soviet repatriation mission, U.S. requests withdrawal; 

discussed, 307 ; exchange of notes, 320. 
Tripartite agreements : 
Allied High Commission, 499, 589. 
Basic Law, views on, 551. 
Controls (trizonal fusion), 500; text, 589. 
Customs Committee, procedures of, 326. 
Communique announcing complete agreement, 499. 
German Government, establishment of, 499, 590. 
Military Security Board, 195. 
Occupation Statute, 499; text, 500; 589. 
Port of Kehl, 590. 

Plant Dismantling and prohibited and limited in- 
dustries, 499 : text, 526. 
Reparation program, 524. 

Ruhr Authority, International, 43, 500, 525, 586, 592. 
Territorial adjustments, 427. 
Wijrttemlierg-Baden plebiscite postponed, .590. 
U.S. consular office at Bremerhaven, elevation to con- 
sulate, 735. 
U.S. consulate general at Frankfort, combined with 
Office of U.S. Political Adviser on German Affairs, 
271. 
U.S. policy ; address by Secretary Acheson, 585. 



Gomez Ruiz, Luis E., note to American Ambassador 

(Donnelly) on establishment of new government, 172. 

Grady, Henry F., U.S. Ambassador to Greece, appointed as 

chief of American Mission for Aid to Greece, 332. 
Great Lakes fisheries treaty with Canada, 70. 
Greece : 

German and Greek questions discussed by U.S. and 
U.K. ; joint statement by Secretary Acheson and 
Foreign Minister Bevin, 459. 
Grady, Henry F., appointed as Chief of American Aid 

to Greece, 332. 
Greek situation : 

Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB), 
416; appointment of U.S. representative (Drew), 
316. 
Discussed by Francis B. Sayre, 148. 
Frontier violations basic issue, 696. 
Soviet obstructionist tactics, 696. 
Greek-Turkish Aid Program, 55. 
Italian reparations, 628. 
Murder of U.S. correspondent (Polk), case to be tried, 

327. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 

84, 326. 
Transportation system, U.S. completion of, 826. 
U.S. military aid requested, discussed, (548. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 
520. 
Work and victory demonstration ; statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Secretary Acheson, 433. 
Griffis, Stanton, appointed as U.S. Ambassador to Egypt, 

332. 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Appointed as Assistant Secretary of State, 334. 
Appointed as U.S. alternate representative to General 

A.ssembly, 316. 
Designation in State Department, 150. 
Named as coordinator for foreign assistance programs, 
59. 
Guatemala : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 440. 

U.S. Ambassador (Patterson, Jr.), appointment, 332. 
Gubichev, Valentin A., Soviet charges on arrest, rejected 
by U.S., 636. 

Baikal, Dr. Yussef, credentials as (Jordan) Minister to 

U.S., 765. 
Haiti : 

Treaties and agreements : 

Air force agreement with U.S., signed, 87. 

Declaration with Dominican Republic on peaceful 
settlement of differences, S33. 

GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 109, 520. 

Naval mission agreement with U.S., (537. 
Halibut Commission, Joint Commission, U.S. -Canada, 69. 
Hall, Ardelia R., introductory note, returned masterpieces 

of Berlin museums, 543. 
Hamlet theatrical production in Elsinoro, Denmark; 

American actors to present, C64; departure of actors, 

7:51. 
Harrinian, W. Averell, Economic Commission for Europe, 

progress In, statement, 051. 



852 



Department of State Bulletin 



Hashemlte Jordan Kingdom. 8er .Jonlau. 

Haiiser, riillip M., appointed as U.S. representative on 

Population Couimission (ECOSOO), 31(>. 
HealUi : 

Cooi)erative programs of Institute of Inter-American 

Affairs. 212. 
Mental, international congress on; report by Wlnfred 

Overholser, M.I>., ICG. 
Rheumatic Diseases, 7th International Congress, U.S. 

delegation, 693. 
Royal Sanitary Institute Health Congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, 692. 
Tsetse, international cooperation against ; article by 

Fredericlc J. Brady, M.D., 722. 
Yellow fever, U.S. aid to Panama, 149. 
Health Organization, World. See World. 
Heinricli, Theodore Allen, introduction, returned master- 
pieces of Herlin museums, 546. 
Henderson, Loy W., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

India and U.S. Minister to Nepal, 332. 
Hesse (Germany) school reform, article by James R. New- 
man, SOS. 
Hlckerson, John D., nominated as Assistant Secretary, 

734. 
Hill, Clarence R. and Jones, George R. (American 
soldiers) : 
Detained in Czechoslovaliia, 266. 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 450. 
U.S. official Interview, 502. 
Hodgson, James T., Jr., appointed as first naval attach^ 

and naval attach^ for air, Ceylon, 803. 
Honduras : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Valle) credentials, 434. 
Cultural leader visits U.S., 834. 
Hoover report, 333. 

Howard, John B., appointed as Special Assistant to Secre- 
tary of State, 767. 
Human Rights, < 'ommission on (ECOSOC) : 

Discussed in U.N., 185, 490, 617, 689, 718. 751, 780, 812. 
Discussed by Walter M. Kotschnig, 4. 8, 18. 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information and Press, 

185. 253, 383, 492, 719, 751. 
Yearbook, 185, 262. 
Human Bights, Covenant on, progress reviewed by James 

Simsarian, 19. 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of : 
Development reviewed by James Simsarian, 19. 
Di.scussed by : 

Cohen, Benjamin V., 556. 
Sandifer, Durward V., 258. 
Thorp, Willard L., 98. 
U.S. UNESCO conference, 133. 
Opposition by Soviet bloc, 8, 19. 
West Indian Conference, resolution, 226. 
Human rights : 

General Assembly resolutions: 
Discriminations vs immigrating labor (May 16), text, 

748. 
Forced labor (Feb. 24) , U.S. draft, text, 254. 
Peace treaties (1947) (Apr. 30), text. 613. 
Slavery (May 16) , text, 748. 

South African Indians, treatment (May 14). 657, 
617 ; text, 748. 



Human rights — Continued 
General Assembly resolutions — Continued 

Soviet wives of foreigners, departure from D.S.S.R. 

(Apr. 25). text. 614. 
Trade union rights (May Vi), text, 748. 
UndcrdeveloiR'd peoples of American continent, social 
study (May 11), text, 747. 
In Iiidcmesia. See Indonesian situation. 
International frontiers in human rights, address by 

Durward V. Sandifer, 2^8. 
Soviet slave labor study, U.N., asked by U.S., 248. 
Soviet wives of foreigners, departure from U.S.S.R., 22, 
561; General Assembly resolution (Apr. 25), 614. 
Trade union rights: freedom of association; ECOSOC 

resolution (Mar. 17), 490. 
U.N. action (1948), address by James Simsarian, 18. 
Violations of peace treaties (1947) : 

Bulgaria, U.S. protests indictment of Protestant 

clergy ; note, 300. 
Bulgaria and Hungary : 
Discussed in U.N., 445, 518, 561. 
General Assembly resolution (Apr. 30), 445; text, 

613. 
National (Conference of Christians and Jews protest 
denial ; text of petition to Secretary of State, 
454 ; Acheson's reply, 455. 
Statement by Benjamin V. Cohen, 556. 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania : 
Exchange of notes with U.S., 755. 
Soviet refusal to cooperate in settlement, 391, 824. 
Statements by : 
Ache-son, Secretary, 611, 824. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 611. 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 759, 824. 
U.S. further charges, 391. 

U.S. notes to Bulgaria, 450; Hungary, 451; Ru- 
mania, 453. 
Hungary, denial of freedom in elections, 697. 
Hungary : 
Force and Freedom; address by Selden Chapin before 

Catholic War Veterans, Houston, Tex., 820. 
Mindszenty. See Mindszenty, Jozsef Cardinal. 
Refugees from U.S. zone in Germany, exchange of notes, 

197. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Peace treaty (1947) : 
Human rights. See Human rights : Violations of. 
Reparations and peace settlements, 627. 
Hurricane warning system in Caribbean, recommenda- 
tions, 814. 

Iceland : 
Air navigation ( ICAO ) , conference on, 164. 
Radioactive materials. U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services In Iceland, agreement (1948) 

with ICAO Council, 164. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
World Meteorological convention, ratification, 622. 
ILO. See Labor Organization, International. 



Index, January to June 1949 

872816—50 3 



853 



Immigration (See also Aliens, admission to U.S.) : 
German ethnic origin defined by Department of State, 

459. 
U.S. policy on selection of future citizens by Herve J. 

L'Heureux, 456. 
Visas requirements changed, U.S. with France, 457. 
Inaugural address by President Truman {See also Point 
4 Program) : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 384. 
Austin, Warren R., 299. 
Chapin, Selden, 823. 
Jessup, Philip C, 243, 3W, 489. 
Point 3 discussed, 246, 346, 645. 
Text, 123. 
India : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Pandit), credentials, 698. 
Jammu-Kashmir dispute: 

Admiral Nimitz named plebiscite administrator, 382, 

419. 
Settlement by acceptance of plebiscite: 
U.S. (Lovett) message of approval, 114. 
India (Nehru) message of acknowledgment, 114. 
Pakistan (Khan) message of acknowledgment, 115. 
Discussed in U.N., 41, 74, 519, 750. 
Nehru Jawaharlal, Prime Minister : 
Acceptance of U.S. invitation, 671. 
Telegram of acknowledgment of U.S. (Lovett) mes- 
sage of approval on Jammu-Kashmir, plebiscite 
acceptance, 114. 
U.S. Ambassador (Henderson), appointment, 332. 
U.S. Foreign Service conference, regional, in New Delhi, 

332. 
World Meteorological convention, ratification, 622. 
Indian Life, Inter-American Conference on, U.S. delega- 
tion, 818. 
Indians In Union of South Africa, treatment of; General 

Assembly resolutions (May 14), 617, 657, 748. 
Indonesia : 
CIO president (Murray) and Secretary of State 

(Lovett) correspondence on U.S. policy, 81. 
Indonesian situation : 
Committee of Good OflBces : 
Reports, 26, 41, 91, 250. 
Change of name to U.N. Commission for Indonesia, 

250. 
U.S. delegate (Cochran) recalled for consultation, 
84. 
Discussed by : 

Jessup, Philip C, 24, 91. 

United Nations, 41, 74, 104, 136, 162, 185, 228, 296, 
317, 361, 382, 445, 492, 617, 657. 
Documents relating to, 252. 

General Assembly resolutions (May 11), further con- 
sideration, 688. 
Netherlands, preliminary agreement with, 653; U.S. 

approval, 6.54. 
Renville agreement (1948), violation of, by Nether- 
lands, 24, 91, 250. 
Security Council resolutions : 
Cease-fire (Aug. 1, 1947), 24. 



Indonesia — Continued 
Indonesian situation — Continued 

Cease-fire and release of prisoners (Dec. 24, 1948), 

82, 91. 
Interim federal government, establishment (Jan. 

28), 250. 
U.S. supports, 379, 687. 
Soviet obstructionist tactics, 81, 94, 687. 
Industrialization Mobilization Committee, Joint U.S.- 
Canadian : 
Establishment, text of notes, 537. 
1st meeting, U.S. delegation, 725. 
Industry : 
Anglo-American Council of Productivity, technical as- 
sistance exchange program, 213. 
Caribbean industry, promotion by Caribbean Commis- 
sion, 814. 
ECE economic survey of Europe, 662. 
Flaxseed scarcity terminated ; Presidential proclama- 
tion, 803. 
Japanese fishing industry conservation program, 833. 
Japanese reparations and level of industry, 667. 
Oil, U.S.-Mexican discussions on development, 466. 
Potatoes, Cuba grants renegotiation of tariff concessions 

on, 803. 
Trade Week, World (1949) ; Presidential proclamation, 

523. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Fisheries convention. Northwest Atlantic, signatures, 

319. 
Germany : 
Plant dismantling, prohibited and limited indus- 
tries, tripartite agreement, 526. 
Reparation program, tripartite agreement, 524. 
ILO convention on wage and work stati-stics in princi- 
pal mining and manufacturing industries trans- 
mitted to Senate by President Truman, 150. 
Sugar, international agreement (Aug. 31, 1948) re- 
garding regulation of production and marketing 
of, transmitted to Senate by President Truman, 
118. 
Tuna convention with Costa Rica establishing Inter- 
American Tropical Commission, 692, 766. 
Information, freedom of : 

Czech language edition of Amerika begun, 730. 
Discussed in U.N., 185, 253, 383, 492, 518, 657, 719, 751. 
Freedom of Information, Conference on, 682. 
Iron curtains; address by Assistant Secretary Thorp, 

797. 
Korean information and educational-exchange pro- 
gram, responsibility of State Department, 84. 
Public-opinion analysis in formulation of foreign policy 

discussed by Francis H. Russell, 275. 
Public opinion : freedom of thought in Bavaria ; article 

by Albert C. Schweizer, 354. 
Soviet bloc, obstructionist attitude in U.N. Conference 

on Freedom of Information, 8. 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information and Press, 

185, 253, 383, 492, 719, 751. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Conventions discussed, 22. 



854 



Department of State Bulletin 



Information, frwdom of^Ooiitiniu'd 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

International Transmission of News and Kinht of 
Correction : 
General Assembly resolution (May 13), adoption, 

6S2. 
Statement recommending adoption by Erwin D. Can- 
ham, 678. 
Text of convention, G82. 
U.S. information-education program discussed, 142, 322, 

439, 464. 
U.S.S.K.-U.S. cultural and scientlflc exchange blocked 

by U.S.S.R., 403. 
Voice of America. See Voice of America. 
World public opinion and international policy, dis- 
cussed by W. K. Austin, 278. 
Inland Transport Committee (ILO), U.S. delegation to 

3d session, 691. 
Intor-Americau Affairs, Institute of (IIAA) : 
Discussed by : 

Daniels, Paul C, 462. 
Thorp, Willard L., 795. 
History and cooperative programs, 212, 329, 462, 754, 795. 
Message of President to Congress recommending: con- 
tinuation, 329; expansion of programs, 329. 
Role in inter-American cooperation, 754. 
Inter-American Committee, Dominican-Haitian declara- 
tion on peaceful settlement of differences, 833. 
Inter-American Conference on Indian Life, U.S. delega- 
tion, 818. 
Inter-American security system, address by Willard F. 

Barber, 61. 
Inter-American travel conference, agenda and U.S. dele- 
gation, 107. 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance. See Rio 

treaty. 
Interim Committee ("Little Assembly") of General As- 
sembly : 
Discussed in U.N., 161, 254, 418, 488, 491, 512, 561, 579. 
Resolution for establishment of subcommittee (Jan. 31), 
161, 315. 
International Authority of Ruhr. See Ruhr. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 
See Reconstruction and Development, International 
Bank. 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). See 

Aviation Organization, International Civil. 
International Conference on Military Trials, released, 

257. 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Fish- 
eries convention. Northwest Atlantic, signature, 319. 
International Court of Justice. See Justice, International 

Court of. 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, Niagara 

River, diversion of waters, 85. 
International meetings of organizations and conferences, 

calendar of, 42, 1&"?, 207, 420, 562, 720. 
International Monetary Fund. See Monetary Fund, In- 
ternational. 
International political cooperation, address by Warren 

R. Austin, .579. 
International Refugee Organization. See Refugee Or- 
ganization, International (IRO). 



International Tclccoinniunicatiun Union. See Telecom- 
munication Union, International (ITU). 
International Trade Orgiinization. See Trade Organ- 
ization, International (ILO). 
Iiiteruatioual Wheat Agrcetuent. See Wheat Agreement, 

International. 
Iran : 
Search for American plane, 231. 
Soviet pressure, reports of; statement by Secretary 

Acheson, 432. 
VOA broadcast inaugurated, 396; messagts of Presi- 
dent Truman, Vice President Barkley, Assistant 
Secretary Allen, and Ambassador Ala, texts, 431. 
Iraq : 
Search for American plane, 231. 
U.S. Ambassador (Crocker), appointment, 332. 
Ireland : 

Congratulatory message from President Truman to 

President Kelly, 571. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
IRO. See Refugee Organization, International. 
Iron Curtains ; address at Amherst College by Willard 

L. Thorp, 797. 
Isotopes, foreign distribution of ; statement from Gen- 
eral Advisory Committee to AEC, 829. 
Israel («(;e also Palestine situation) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Elath), credentials, text, 538. 
Armistice with Egypt, 302, 312. 

Credit extended for agricultural rehabilitation by Ex- 
port-Import Bank, 173. 
Discussed in U.N., 296, 383, 492, 584, 616. 
Membership in U.N. : 
Admission, General Assembly resolution (May 11), 

296, 688. 
Application for, 311, 492, 584, 616, 655. 
U.S. support; statements by Warren R. Austin, 311, 
655. 
Suspension of tonnage duties proclaimed, 734. 
U.S. de jure recognition of, 205. 

U.S. (McDonald) and Israel (Elath) exchange tirst Am- 
bassadors, 302. 
U.S. representative (McDonald), appointment, 332. 
Weizmann, Dr. Chaim, 1st president, congratulated by 
President Truman, 271. 
Italian Somaliland: See Italy: Former colonies. 
Italy : 
ERP postage stamps issued, 328, 828. 
Former colonies : 

Discussed in U.N., 445, 519, 584, 617. 
General Assembly resolutions : 
Disposal of (May 18), 714. 
Progress (May 17), 713. 
Soviet charges answered by John Foster Dulles, 581. 
U.S. views stated by : 
Austin, Warren R., 713. 
Dulles, John Foster, 484. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Reparations and peace settlements, 627. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 
593. 



Index, January fo June 7949 



855 



Italy — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc: 

GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 

520. 
Liombardo agreement with U.S. (1947), 629. 
Prisoners of war agreement with U.S. (Jan. 14), 116. 
North Atlantic Treaty. Sec North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
Trieste situation. See Trieste. 
U.S. military aid, discussed, 648. 
Jackson, Wayne G., appointed acting U.S. representative 
to organizational meetings of International Authority 
of the Ruhr, 693. 
Jacobs, Joseph E., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Czechoslovakia, 332. 
Jamrau. See India or Pakistan. 
Japan : 

Agrarian reform, FEC policy decision, text, 670. 
Economic stabilization : 

Japanese government program, 60. 
Statement by Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy, 271. 
Fishing industry conservation program, progress, 833. 
Japanese reparations and level of industry ; statement 

by Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy, 667. 
Land claiming procedure, 571. 
Looted property claims, procedure for filing, 433. 
Patent application time extended, 502. 
Prisoners of war, U.S. request to U.S.S.R. for informa- 
tion; text of U.S. letter (Sebald) to U.S.S.R. 
(Derevyanko), 635. 
Reparation removals, U.S. repudiates Philippine and 

Chinese complaint on, 831. 
Resumption of international responsibilities, U.S. views 

on, 635. 
Technical and scientific information, extension of FEC 

policies on access to, 833. 
War criminals, trial of; FEC policy decision, 569. 
Jarman, Pete, U.S. Ambassador to Australia, appointment, 

803. 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Addresses : 
Atlantic community and U.N. before Academy of 

Political Science, N.Y., 486. 
International security through U.N. and Atlantic 
pact before Yale Daily News dinner. New Haven, 
Conn., 281. 
U.S. foreign policy before National Conference on 
American Foreign Policy, Washington, D. C, 393. 
U.S. support of U.N. before National Farm Institute, 
Des Moines, la., 243. 
Appointments : 
Ambassador at Large, 185, 332. 
U.S. representative to General Assembly, 316. 
Berlin blockade, informal conversations with U.S.S.R. 

(Malik), 590. 
Indonesian situation ; statements, 24, 91. 
Jidda, Saudi Arabia, elevation of U.S. and Saudi Arabia 

legations to embassies, 151. 
Johnston, Howard W., article on free university of Berlin. 
,548. 



Jones, George R. and Hill, Clarence R. (American 
soldiers) : 
Detained in Czechoslovakia, 266. 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 459. 
U.S. official interview, 502. 
Jordan Kingdom, Hashemite : 

Minister to U.S. (Haikal), credentials, 765. 

Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 

U.S. (le jure recognition of Transjordan Government. 

205. 
U.S. legation at Amman, establishment, 332. 
Justice, International Court of: 

First advisory opinions announced ; statement by Secre 

tary Acheson, 516. 
U.K. vs Albania (Corfu Channel case), 491, 516. 
U.N. personnel, government liability for injuries of. 
317, 491, 517. 

Kashmir. See India or Pakistan. 

Kehl, port of, tripartite agreement, 590. 

Kennan, George F., nominated as Legal Counselor in 

State Department, 734. 
King, Charlos D. B., credentials as Liberian Ambassador 

to U.S., 698. 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., U.S. Ambassador to U.S.R.R., ap- 
pointment, 703. 
Korea : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Chang), credentials; remarks, 

434. 
CFM agreement (1945), 784. 

Discussed in U.N., 136, 161, 185, 227, 253, 492, 689, 780. 
Educational exchange programs under State Depart- 
ment authority, 84. 
Military Advisory Group established ; text of letter to 

President Rhee from Ambassador Muccio, 786. 
Recognition of Republic: 

General Assembly resolution (Dee. 12, 1948), 59. 
U.S. approval, 59. 
Soviet opposition, 148. 
U.N. membership application, discussed in U.N., 227, 

253. 
U.S. Ambassador (Muccio), appointment, 523. 
U.S. economic assistance: 
Message of President Truman to Congress for con- 
tinuing, text, 781. 
Statement in support of, by Acting Secretary Webb, 

text, 783. 
Programs transferred to ECA, 84. 
U.S. poUcy, summary of 1947-19 actions, 781. 
Kotschnig, Walter M. : 
Resettlement program problems, remarks, 307. 
Reviewing ECOSOC 1948, article, 3. 

Labor : 

Agricultural workers agreement with Mexico (Feb. 21, 

1048) revision to be discussed, 116. 
ECE economic survey of Europe, 664. 
Labor, General .^ssemlily resolution, discrimination 

again.st immigrating (May 16), 748. 
Labor Organization, International (ILO) : 
American States Members, 4th Regional Conference, 

U.S. delegation, 620. 
Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works Com- 
mittee meeting, U.S. delegation, 365. 



856 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



linhor Organization, International (ILO) — Continued 
Charter : 
Memorandum to President Truman from Secretary 

Acheson, text, G02. 
Message to Senate from President Truman, 601. 
Coal Mines Committee, U.S. delegation to 3d session, 

620. 
Conference, 32d, U.S. delegation and agenda, 751, 815. 
Convention concerning statistics of wages and hours 
of work in principal mining and manufacturing 
industries transmitted to Senate, 150. 
Conventions and recommendations transmitted to Con- 
gress by President Truman, 205. 
Forced labor, U.S. draft resolution (Fob. 24), 254, 318. 
Governing Bod.v : 
108th session, 300. 
10<.)th and 110th sessions, 603. 
Inland Transport Committee, 3d session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 091. 
Inter-American cooperation discussed by Ambassador 

Briggs, 752. 
Manpower program, discussed, 162, 185, 423. 
Migration for employment convention, discussed, 424. 
Permanent Migration Committee, 3d session : 
Agenda and T'.S. delegation, 106. 
Report by Irwin M. Tobin, 421. 
Trade union rights: 

ECOSOC resolution (Mar. 17), freedom of associa- 
tion, 490. 
General Asembly resolution (May 13), 748. 
Statement in ECOSOC by Leroy D. Stinebower, 358. 
Land claiiiiiug procedure in Japan, 571. 
Lange, Halvard, Norway, North Atlantic Treaty signing 

ceremony, remarks, 478. 
Latin America, Economic Commission for (ECLA), 4, 11, 

14, 719. 
Law Commission, International, discussed in U.N., 492, 

519, 5G1, 5S1, 690, 719, 750. 
Lebanon (See also Palestine situation). World Meteoro- 
logical Convention, ratification, 622. 
Lend-lease settlement, U.S. and Ethiopia, 733. 
L'Heureux, Herve J., article on selecting future citizens, 

456. 
Liberia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (King), credentials, 698. 

U.S. Ambassador (Dudley), appointment, 639; U.S. 

Minister, appointment, 332. 
U.S. legation at Monrovia, elevation to embassy, 206. 
G.\TT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 520. 
Libya, See Italy : Former colonies. 
Lie, Trygve, Secretary-General (U.N.) : 
Berlin, removal of restrictions ; letter and communique 
from tripartite representatives (Austin, Cadogan, 
Chauvel), 031. 
U.N. Appeal for Children ; letter from Secretary Ache- 
son on participation, text, 515. 
"Little Assembly." See Interim Committee. 
Lombardo agreement, U.S.-Italy (1947), mentioned, 629. 
Lovett, Robert A. : 
Correspondence : 

British Ambassador (Franks) on extension of Bi- 
zonal Fusion Agreement, 76. 



Lovett, UolH'rt A.— Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Canadian Ambassador (Wrong) on diversions of 

water from Niagara, 85. 

CIO president (Murray) on Indonesian situation, 81. 

Congress, electors of President and Vice President, 

certificates of ascertaiimient transmitted to, 118. 

International Joint Commission (Canada-U.S.), on 

air pollution on Detroit River, 115. 
President Truman on relief for Palestine refugees, 

202. 
President Truman ; resignation as Under Secretary of 

State, 86. 
U.S. note of approval to India (Nehru) and Pakistan 
(Khan) on Kashmir- Jammu plebiscite principle, 
text, 114. 
Statements : 
China, evacuation of U.S. citizens from, 29. 
Mindszenty, Cardinal, trial of, 230. 
Luxembourg: 
Frontier provisional rectifications (Germany) com- 
muniqut? of Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Nether- 
lands, U.K., and U.S., 427. 
Ruhr, International Autliority for. See Rulir. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 

84. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 6(>4. 

MacArthur, Douglas, designation in State Department, 

767. 
Malaya, claims for war damage to American property, 

procedure for filing, 87. 
Malenbaum, Wilfred, article on America's role in economic 

development abroad, 371. 
Mariannas. See Trusteeship Council. 
Marshall, George C, resignation as Secretary of State, 

text of letter, 86 ; President's acceptance, 86. 
Marshall Islands: 

See also Trusteeship Council. 

Surplus war scrap, bids invited for, 116 ; sale, 803. 
Marshall Plan. See European Recovery Program (ERP). 
Marvel, Josiah, Jr., resignation as Ambassador to Den- 
mark, 467. 
Marx, Walter J., article on consular services for German 

nationals, 575. 
McCloy, John J. : 

Named as EGA representative in Germany, 829. 
U. S. High Commissioner for Germany : 

Certain functions defined (Ex. O.10062),828. 
Nomination sent to Senate, 730. 
Position established (Ex. O.10063) , 828. 
McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank, statements on: 
Japanese economic stabilization, 271. 
Japanese reparations and level of industry, 667, 831. 
McCoy, John J., excerpts from address before Foreign 

Policy Association, Minneapolis, 10.5. 
McDonald, James Grover, appointment as U.S. special 
representative to Israel, 332 ; first U.S. Ambassador to 
Israel, 302. 
McGliee, George C. : 

Coordinating foreign aid, address before American Po- 
litical Science Association, Chicago, 53. 
Nominated as Assistant Secretary, 734. 



Index, January to June 1949 



857 



McMahon, Senator Brien, statement on peaceful utiliza- 
tion of atomic energy for VOA, 726. 
Medical Council, World, planned, 446. 
Membership in U.N. See United Nations : Membership. 
Mental health, international congress on, 166. 
Mental Health, World Federation of, organization, 167. 
Merrell, George R., U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia, 703. 
Meteorological Organization, World (WMO) : 

Convention transmitted to Senate by President Truman, 

118. 
U.S. raUfication, 622. 
Mexico : 

Ambassador to U.S. (de la Colina), credentials, 150. 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 117, 266, 364. 
Oil industry development discussions with U.S., 466. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural workers agreement with U.S. (Feb. 21, 

1948), discussions for revision, 116. 
U.S.-Mexican convention for investigation of tuna, 
70, 174 ; sent to Senate by President Truman, 463. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 364, 835. 
Wildlife Conference, migratory waterfowl studied, 364. 
Middle East, Economic Commission for (ECME), 4. 
Migration Committee, ILO Permanent, agenda and U.S. 
delegation, 106 : report on 3d session by Irwin M. 
Tobin, 421. 
Migratory waterfowl studied, 364. 
Military Assistance Program (MAP) : 
Appointments : 

Berliner, Lloyd V. as director in State Department, 

466. 
Carter, Brig. Gen. M. S. as assistant to Ambassador 
Douglas, 327. 
Discussion, 643. 
Gross, Ernest A., designated as Coordinator for 

Foreign Assistance Programs, 59. 
Role in peace discussed by Selden Chapin, 823. 
Relation to North Atlantic Treaty, 348 ; statement by 

Secretary Aeheson, 594. 
Request for aid from Atlantic pact countries : 
Statement by Secretary Aeheson, 493. 
Exchange of notes with — 
Brussels treaty powers, 494. 
Denmark, 495. 
Italy, 496. 
Norway, 497. 
State Department responsibility, 59. 
Steel, copper, and aluminum supply, probable impact 

on, 650. 
U.S. Militanj Assistance Program, reprint, 643. 
Military Government in Germany. See Germany. 
Military mission. See Missions. 
Military Security Board. See Germany. 
Miller, Edward G., nominated as Assistant Secretary, 734. 
Mindszeiity, .Tozsef Cardinal, trial of : 

Chapin, Selden, address on force and freedom, 820. 

House Concurrent Resolution 19, 231. 

Hungary requests recall of U.S. Minister (Chapin), 

230. 
Statements by : 

Aeheson, Secretary, 230. 
Lovett, Acting Secretary, 230. 
Truman, President, 230. 



Missions, U.S. : 

Colombia, military advisory, agreement signed, 303. 
Haiti, naval mission agreement, (537. 
Monetary Fund, International : 
Exchange-rate adjustments, 290. 
Relation with ITO, 37, 606. 
Monrovia, U.S. legation at Liberia, elevation to embassy, 

206, 735. 
Moose, Jr., James S., designation in State Department, 

435. 
Muccio, John J., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to Korea, 

523. 
Murray, Philip, letter to Secretary of State on CIO's atti- 
tude toward U.S. actions in Indonesia, 82. 
Nanking, part of American Embassy moved to Canton, 

China, 271. 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on (ECOSCOC) , program, 13. 
Narcotics protocol transmitted to Senate by President, 330. 
Naval mission agreement between U.S. and Haiti, (537. 
Nazi-forced transfers, jurisdiction of U.S. courts on suits 

for identifiable property in, 592. 
Nehru, Pandit (Prime Minister of India) : 
Acceptance of invitation to visit U.S., 671. 
Telegram acknowledging U.S. (Lovett) message of 
approval on Jammu-Kashmir plebiscite agreement, 
114. 
Nepal, U.S. Minister (Henderson), appointment, 332. 
Netherlands : 

Caribbean Commission, 8th meeting, 816. 
Discussion of mutual problems ; joint statement by 
Secretary Aeheson and Foreign Minister Stikker, 
458. 
Frontier provisional rectifications (Germany) com- 
munique of Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Nether- 
lands, U.K., and U.S., 427. 
Indonesian situation. See Indonesian situation. 
Military assistance requested from U.S. ; exchange of 

notes, Brussels treaty powers-U.S., text, 494. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational exchange agreement under Fulbright 

Act, signature, 698. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Preliminary agreement with Indonesian Republic, 

653 ; U.S. approval, 654. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
Netherlands East Indies. See Indonesia. 
Newfoundland : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Ruhr, International Authority for. See Ruhr. 
Newman, James R. : 

Berlin nmseums, returned masterpieces of, foreword 

545. 
Hesse, school reform in, arti<-l(', 808. 
New Zealand : 

Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act. 

17, 84, 171. 
U.S. Ambassador (Seotten), appointment, 332. 
U.S. consulate at Wellington, elevation to embassy, 150. 



858 



Department of State Bulletin 



New Zealand — Continued 

World Jleteoi'ologicul Convention, ratification, 622. 
NiiiKara waters, emergency diversions of, 85. 
Nicaragua : 

Costa lUcan-Nioarasuan incident: 
Effective use of liio treat.v, 461, 707. 
Pact of amity with Costa Rica, 461, 712. 
GATT, negotiations for puriwse of accession, 160, 520. 
Nicholson, Donald L., designation In State Department, 

435. 
Nimltz, Admiral Chester W., named as plebiscite admin- 
istrator for .lanuiui and Ivashniir, ;{S2, 419. 
NoMgoveriiniental organizations : 
Committee for (ECOSOC), 362. 
List granted consultative status by ECOSOC, 744. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
North Atlantic Treaty: 
Addresses : 

Acheson, Secretary, 384. 
Bolilen, Charles E., 428. 
Jessup, Philip C, 278, 486. 
I'eurifoy, John E., 633. 
Approval for signature by Foreign Ministers ; communi- 
que, 458. 
Background and explanation, 342. 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 696. 
Austin, Warren R., 298. 
Bohlen, Charles E., 159. 
Jessup, Philip C, 246, 278, 394. 
Sayre, Francis B., 146. 
Truman, President, 771. 
Inaugural address, mentioned in, 125. 
Invitations issued for signature to Denmark, Iceland, 

Italy, and Portugal, 387. 
Joint statements : 

Denmark (Rasmussen) and U.S. (Acheson), conver- 
sations, 386. 
Norway (Lange) and U.S. (Acheson), exchange of 
views, 231. 
Military Assistance. See Military Assistance Program. 
Preliminary conversations (1948) Belgium, Canada, 
France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, U.K., and U.S. 
in Washington, 342. 
President Truman's message transmitting treaty to 

Senate, text, 599. 
President Truman telegraphs congratulations to Secre- 
tary Acheson on address, text, 388. 
Ratification : 

Belgium, exchange of remarks between Baron Silver- 

cruy.s and Acting Secretary Webb, 825. 
United Kingdom ; exchange of remarks between Am- 
bassador Franks and Acting Secretary Webb, 794. 
Rio pact, comparison with, 345. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, report of ; 

excerpts, 787. 
Senate document 49 issued on, 600. 
Signing ceremony : 
Broadcast by VOA, 458. 
Program, 471. 
Remarks by : 

Acheson, Dean (U.S.), 471. 



North Atlantic Treaty — Continiied 
Ratification — C"on tinned 

Signing ceremony — Contiinii'd 
Remarks by — Conti'iiiol 

Bech, Joseph (Luxembourg) , 476. 
Benedikts.son, Hjarni (Iceland), 475. 
Bevln, Ernest (United Kingdom), 480. 
Caerio da Malta Jo.s«' ( Portugal ) , 479. 
Lange, Halvard (Norway), 478. 
Pearson, L. B. ( Canada ) , 473. 
Rasmussen, Gustav (I)ennwrk), 474. 
Schuman, Robert (France), 474. 
Sforza, Carlo (Italy), 476. 
Spaak, Paul-IIenri (Belgium), 472. 
Stikker, Dirk U. (Netherlands), 477. 
Truman, President ( U.S.) , 481, 487, 489, 599. 
Soviet charges and views, 457, 552. 
Statements : 
Acheson, Secretary, 1 60, 263, 428, 594. 
Austin, Warren K., 384, 552. 
Foreign Ministers, 457. 
Text, 339. 

Transmittal report of Secretary of State to President, 
text, 532. 
Norton, Garrison, resignation as Assistant Secretary of 

State, 271. 
Norway : 

Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties and agreements: 
Double taxation with U.S., signature, 830. 
Educational exchange agreement under Fulbright 

Act, with U.S., 731. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

(1948), 1st meeting, 603. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 662. 
U.S. military aid requested, discussed, 648; exchange 
of notes, 497. 
Salvador, 735. 
Nufer, Albert F., resignation as U.S. Ambassador to El 

Occupation Statute. See Germany : Federal Republic. 
Oil industry development discussions between U.S. -Mex- 
ico, 466. 
Olympic games, 1956 (Public Law 22, 81st Cong.), U.S. 

extends invitation, text, 453. 
Opal, Chester H., recall requested by Poland, 432. 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 

Costa Rican-Nicaraguan incident, settlement of, 707. 
Daniels, Paul C, U. S. Amba.ssador to OAS, 73.5. 
Dependent territories meeting, American Committee on, 

319. 
Discussed by Willard F. Barker, 61. 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 

(OEEC). See European Economic Cooperation. 
Overholser, Winfred, M.D., article on the international 
congress on mental health, 166. 

Pacific Islands, Territory of: 
Discussed in U.N., 317. 



Index, January to June 1949 



859 



Pacific Islands, Territory of — Continued 
Relation of strategic trust areas to the Security Coun- 
cil, statement by W. R. Austin, 309. 
U.S. annual report transmitted to U.N., 2S3, 293, 317. 
Pacific pact, untimely; statement by Secretary Acheson, 

696. 
Pakistan : 
Kashmir-Jammu dispute: 

Admiral Nimitz named plebiscite administrator, 382, 

419. 
Discussed, 41, 74, 318, 519, 750. 
Settlement by acceptance of plebiscite : 
U.S. (Lovett) message of approval, 114. 
India (Nehru) reply of acknowledgment, 114. 
Pakistan (Khan) , reply of acknowledgment, 115. 
Palestine : 
Palestine situation: 

Conciliation Committee (Security Council) : 
Ethridge, Mark, appointment as U.S. representative, 

316. 
Report of chairman (Moe), 102. 
Discussed in U.N., 41, 105, 136, 148, 161, 228, 254, 282, 

296, 318, 362, 445, 780. 
Egyptian-Israel armistice : statement by W. R. 
Austin, 312; statement by President Truman, 
302. 
Israel-Lebanon armistice (Mar. 23), signature, 383. 
Security Council resolution (Dec. 29, 1948), cease- 
fire, 102. 
Refugee problems. See Refugees and displaced persons. 
Panama : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement with U.S., signature, 466. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
Yellow fever, U.S. aid, 149. 
Pan American Day, address by Secretary Acheson, 564. 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, U.S. Na- 
tional Commission, appointment of members, aims, 
818. 
Pan American Union. See Organization of American 

States. 
Pandit, Vijaya Lnkshmi, credentials as Indian Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 698. 
Paraguay, U.S. resumes diplomatic relations, 538. 
Passports. See Visas. 

Patent applications in Japan, time extended, 502. 
Patterson, Jr., Richard C, appointed as U.S. Ambassador 

to Guatemala, 332. 
Peace, es.sential elements of lasting ; address by President 

Truman at Little Rock, Ark., 771. 
Pearson, L. B., Canada : 

North Atlantic Treaty signing ceremony, remarks, 473. 
U.S. Ambassador (Steinhardt), note on establishment 
of U.S.-Canadian Industrialization Mobilization 
Committee, 537. 
Penal and Penitentiary Commission, International, meet- 
ing of, 143. 
Perkins, George W., nominated as Assistant Secretary, 

734. 
Peril point reports of U.S. Tariff Commission for trade 
agreements program, 207. 



Peru : 
Ambassador to U.S. ( Berckemeyer ) , credentials, 150. 
Cultural leader visits U.S., 365. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 523. 
Peurifoy, John E. : 
Appointed as Deputy Under Secretary for Administra- 
tion, 734. 
U.S. foreign policy and North Atlantic pact, address 
before DAR, Farmville, N.C., 633. 
Philippines : 

Japanese reparation removals, U.S. repudiates Philip- 
pine and Chinese complaint, 831. 
Rehabilitation Act of 1946 : 

Training of nationals in U.S. agencies, 213, 439. 
U.S. policy of Japanese reparations, 832. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 

84, 396. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
U.S. aid, 110, 439. 

U.S. Ambassador (Cowen), appointment, 332. 
Photogrammetry congi'ess and exhibition, 6th inter- 
national, report by Oliver S. Reading, 255. 
Phyto-Sanitary conference, U.S. observer to, 622. 
Poca terra, Don Jos6 Rafael, credentials as Venezuelan 

Ambassador to U.S., 698. 
Point 4 Program {See also Technical assistance) : 
Discussed by : 

Allen, George V., 802. - 

Bohlen, Charles E., 159. - 

Briggs, Ambassador, 753. 

Canaday, W. M., 814. 

Cliapin, SeUlen, 823. 

Daniels, Paul C, 461. 

Jessup, Philip C, 487. - 

National organizations and State Department officials, 

398. 
Sandifer, Durward V., 259. 
Thorp, Willard L., 283. 

U.S. Commissioners on Caribbean Commission, 621, 
816. 
Expanded educational program advocated by U.S. 

Advisory Commission, 263. 
Goals and practical problems, address by John R. 

Steelman, 760. 
Point 4 and its relation to existing technical assistance 

programs, article by Ruth S. Donahue, 211. 
Statements and remarks : 
Acheson, Secretary, 155, 695. - 
Thorp, Willard L., 283, 568. 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 774. 
Text from inaugural address, 125, 156, 283.' 
World response; VGA interview with Willard Thorp, 
text, 774. 
Poland : 
Recall of Chester H. Opal, American attach^, requested, 

432. 
U.S. Ambassador (Gallman), appointment, 332. 
Polk, George, U.S. correspomieut, trial for his murder 

held in Greece, 327. 
Portugal : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 



860 



Department of State Bulletin 



Portugal — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Potatoes, Cuba grants renegotiation of certain tariff con- 
cessions on, 803. 
Potsdam Declaration (1945) : 

Economic decentralization of Germany, establishment 

of principle, 120. 
Korean freedom, 7S2. 
Punishment of war criminals, 570. 

U.S. policy in Japanese reparation removals, 667, 831. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry, S. 
Pretoria, Union of South Africa, elevation of U.S. legation 

to embassy, 117, 435. 
Prisoners of war : 
German repatriation : 

CFM repatriation agreement (1947), 78. 
Exchange of U.S. and U.S.S.R. notes, 389. 
U.S. note to U.S.S.R, 77. 

Soviet refusal to fultill commitments, U.S.S.R. note, 
824. 
Japanese repatriation, U.S. request for data ; text of 
U.S. note (Sebald) to U.S.S.R. (Derevyanlso), 635. 
U.S.-Italy agreement (Jan. 14) , 116. 
Proclamations, Presidential : 

Fisheries, high seas, protection of (1945), 71. 

Flaxseed scarcity terminated, 803. 

National Freedom Day, 174. 

Supplement on trade agreements (1947, 1948) with 

Cuba, 435. 
Suspension of tonnage duties : 
I.srael, 734. 

Union of South Africa, 734. 
Tarififs and trade, general agreement on (1947), U.S. 

concessions to Chile, 363. 
World trade week, 1949 ; text, 523. 
Property : 

Czechoslovakia, property restitution in, 632. 
Germany : 
Absentee-owned property, returned, 501. 
Nazi-forced transfers, jurisdiction of U.S. courts on 

suits for, 592. 
Relinquishment of control over certain government 
property, 333. 
Japan : 

Land claiming procedures, 571. 
Looted property claims, procedure for filing, 433. 
Singapore and Malaya, war damages in, 87. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 
American activities continue in Shanghai despite Com- 
munist fighting, 765. 
China, evacuation warnings to U. S. citizens, 28; tables, 

29 ; 571, 607. 
Fisheries, high seas, 71. 
ITO charter, provision for security, 39. 
Lombardo agreement (1947), U.S.-Italy, Italian com- 
mitments, 629. 
Peace treaties (1947), provisions for claims, 028. 
Procedures for filing claims : 

Czechoslovakia, property-restitution in, 632. 

Japan, looted property in, 433. 

Singapore and Malaya, war damages in, 87. 



Protection of U.S. n.'ilinnals and iiroperty — Continued 
U.S. considei-s Rumanian nationalization law discrimi- 
nation against American nationals; text of U.S. 
note, 391. 
Publications: 
Economic Report of President released ; excerpt, 79. 
Economic Survey of Europe in ISI/S, discussed, (584. 
"Hoover report," 333. 
International Conference on Military Trials, released, 

257. 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Technical Commisison report, 363, 

435. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 118, 206, 331, 306, 399, 530, 000, 615. 
ECOSOC documents, 17. 

Indonesian situation, U.N. documents on, 252. 
State Department, 31, 87, 119, 151, 167, 206, 303, 334, 

366, 399, 435, 407, 539, 007, 671, 703, 735, 767. 
United Nations, 17, 23, 133, 252, 291, 312, 381, 419, 
444, 517, 578, 056, 676, 715, 749, 775. 
North Atlantic Treaty (Sen. doc. 48), 600. 
Technical Assistance for Economic Development, re- 
leased by U.N., 265. 
Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XVI (111.), 

released, 31. 
U.S. Military Assistance Program, reprint, 643. 
United States Treaty Developments, 639. 
•U.S.S.R.-U.S. exchange of publications discussed, 413. 
West Indian Conference, report of 3d session of Carib- 
bean Commission, 467. 
Yearbook of Human Riffhts, 185, 262. 
Puerto Rico, shipping facilities, improvement of, 622. 

Radioactive materials. See Isotopes. 
Radio Conference, Administrative (ITU), U.S. delega- 
tion, 659. 
Radio navigation aids, long range, ITU Special Adminis- 
trative Conference on ; agenda and U.S. delegation, 
106. 
Radio : 

Copenhagen Plan for European broadcasting, 190. 
European Broadcasting Conference, report by Robert 

R. Burton, 187. 
Voice of America. See Voice of America. 
Radioisotopes, foreign distribution of, 727. 
Rasmussen, Gustav, Denmark, North Atlantic Treaty 

signing ceremony, remarks, 474. 
Reading, Oliver S., report on 6th international congress 

and exposition of photogrammetry, 255. 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements. See Trade Agreements. 
Reciprocity Information, (U.S.) Committee for, 169, 267, 

520, 766, 803. 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank : 
Discussed by John J. McCoy (president), 105. 
Foreign investments, 374. 
Function of, 286. 
Relations with ITO, 36, 606. 
Surveys, 373. 
Refugee Organization, International (IRO) : 
Assistance to political refugees from Eastern Europe ; 

statement by Secretary Aclieson, 685. 
Discussed in U.N., 7, 162, 295, 446, 519, 719. 



Index, January to June 1949 



861 



Refugee Organization, International (IRO) — Continued 
Executive Committee : 

Fourtli meeting, U.S. delegation, 426. 
Second meeting, 107. 

Tliird meeting, report by George L. Warren. 256. 
General Assembly resolution, refugees and displaced 

persons (May 16), 747. 
General Council, second session: 
Report, 618. 
U.S. delegation, 426. 
Resettlement program problems ; remarlis by Walter M. 

Kotschnig, 307. 
Soviet opposition, 7. 
Refugees and displaced persons : 

General Assembly resolution (May 16) discriminations 
against immigrating labor, text, 748 ; Refugees and 
displaced persons (May 16) , text, 747. 
Hungarian refugees, U. S. refuses extradition from U.S. 

zone in Germany ; Hungarian note, text, 197. 
Refugee problems in Palestine : 

American Middle East Relief program, contribution 

to world peace, 301. 
Congress authorizes special contribution (S. J. Res. 

36), text, 235. 
Discussed in U.N., 136, 254, 318, 362, 383, 445. 
Presentation of U.S. contribution, 517. 
Ruslj, Dean, statement before Congress, 237. 
U.S. aid, 202, 419. 
Soviet repatriation mission in Germany : 
Discussed by Walter Kotschnig, 307. 
U.S. requests withdrawal, exchange of notes, 320. 
Renville agreement. See Indonesian situation. 
Reorganization procedure, recommendations ; President 

Truman's message to Congress, text, 140. 
Reparation removals, U.S. repudiates Philippine and 

Chinese complaint on Japanese, 831. 
Reparations and peace settlement, international, discussed 

by Jack Tate, 627. 
Re.sources, U.N. Scientific Conference on the Conservation 

and Utilization of, 446. 
Repatriation. See Prisoners of war ; Refugees and dis- 
placed persons. 
Residual and maritime claims, agreements, U.S. and 

France, 392. 
Rheumatic diseases, 7th International Congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, 693. 
Rice, Stuart A., confirmed as U.S. representative on Statis- 
tical Commission (ECOSOC), 316. 
Rio treaty (1947) : 

Comparison with North Atlantic Treaty, 345. 

Costa Rican-Niearaguan incident ; effective application 

of, 461, 707. 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 394, 532, 564. 
Barber, Willard F., 61. 
Daniels, Paul C, 460. 
Jessup, Philip C, 489. 
Senate doc. 48, 600. 
Transmittal of copies to U.N. by Secretary Lleras, 316. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D., appointed as U.S. representa- 
tive to General Assembly, 316. 
Ruanda-Urundi. iS'ee Trusteeship and Trusteeship 
Council. 



Rubber Study Group, 6th meeting, 521; U.S. delegation, 

398. 
Ruhr, International Authority for : 
Discussed by Secretary Acheson, 500, 525, 586. 
Establishment : 

Administrative divisions, map, 45. 

Agreement, signatures, 592. 

Communique on six-power meetings. (Dec. 28, 1948), 

43. 
Text of draft agreement, 46. 
Jackson, Wayne G., appointed acting U.S. representative 
to meetings, 693. 
Rumania : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Peace treaty (1947) : 

Human rights. See Human rights : Violations of. 
Reparations and peace settlements, 627. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
U.S. considers Rumanian nationalization law discrimi- 
nation against American nationals; text of U.S. 
note, 391. 
Rusk, Dean : 
Appointments : 

Assistant Secretary of State, 271. 
U.S. alternate to General Assembly, 316. 
Palestine refugees, assistance to ; statement, 237. 
Russell, Francis, H., address on function of public-opinion 
analysis in foreign policy before Conference on Atti- 
tude and Opinion Research, University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, 275. 

Safety of life at sea, international convention (1948), 

transmitted to Senate by President Truman, 118. 
Salmon Commission, International Pacific (U.S.- 
Canada), 69. 
Saltzman, Charles E., resignation as Assistant Secretary 

of State, 735. 
Samoa, Western. See Trusteeship and Trusteeship 

Council. 
Sandifer, Durward V., address on human rights before 
National Citizens Conference on Civil Liberties, 
Washington, D.C., 258. 
Sanitary Institute Health Congress, Royal; U.S. delega- 
tion, 692. 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, Near East Relief contribution 
to world peace, excerpts from address before Ameri- 
can Middle East Relief, Inc., New York City, 301. 
Satterthwaite, Livingston, designation in State Depart- 
ment, 150. 
Saudi Arabia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Asad Al-Faqih), credentials, 328. 
U.S. Ambassador (Childs), appointment, 332. 
U.S. and Jidda legations, elevations to embassies, 151. 
Sayre, Francis B. : 

Appointed as U.S. alternate representative to General 

Assembly, 316. 
Present international outlook, address before Joint 
Council for International Cooperation, Boston, 144. 
Scholar.ships anil fellowshiiis. Srr Educational exchange 

program. 
Schuman, Robert, France, North Atlantic Treaty signing 
ceremony, remarks, 474. 



862 



Department of State Bulletin 



ScUweizer, Albert C, article on public opinion : freedom of 

thouglit in Bavaria, 354. 
Science Ai)strac(inj,', Inteinationul Conference on, U.S. 

delegation, purposes, 817. 
Seotten, lt(il)eit JNI., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to New 

Zealand, 332. 
Security Council (U.N.) : 
Activities of 1948, 103. 
Berlin blockade. See Germany. 
Court. See Justice, International Court of. 
Indonesian situation. See Indonesian situation. 
Indonesian resolution; supported, W. K. Austin, 379. 
Israeli's application for membership; supported, W. R. 

Austin. 311. 
Menibcisliip for 1948, 103. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
Disarmament. See Arms and armed forces. 
Resolutions: 

Functions, strategic areas under trusteeship (Mar. 

7), text. ."Jl."). 
Indonesia, cease-fire (Aug. 1, 1947). 24. 
Indonesian cease-fire and release of prisoners (Dec. 

24. 194S).82, 91. 
Indonesian interim government (Jan. 28), text, 250. 
Palestine situation (Dec. 29, 1948), text, 102. 
Voting problem, four-power draft (Nov. 26, 1948), 

text, 99. 
Strategic trust areas relation to Security Council, 
statement by W. R. Austin, 309. 
Trieste. See Trieste, Free Territory of. 
Veto. See Veto. 
Secretary of State. See Acheson, Dean G. and Marshall, 

George C. 
Shannon, Ireland, closing of U.S. consulate, 117. 
Shipping facilities in Puerto Rico, improvement of, 622. 
Siam. See Thailand. 

Simsarian, James, address on U.N. action on human 
rights in 1948 before American Political Science 
Association, Chicago, 18. 
Singapore, claims for war damage to American property, 

procedure for filing, 87. 
Slavery, General Assembly resolution (May 16), 748. 
Smith, Donald W., designation in State Department, 150. 
Smith, Kingsbury, Secretary Acheson's comments on 

questions submitted to Joseph Stalin, 192. 
Smith-Mundt act (1948), explained, 439. 
Smith. Paul A., Rear Admiral, report on ICAO conference 

on air navigation services in Iceland, 164. 
Smith, Walter Bedell, resignation as Ajnba.ssador to 

U.S.S.R., 467. 
Social Commission (ECOSOC), 4, 7, 11, 98, 143, 185, 295, 

307. 316, 718, 749. 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, Belgium, North Atlantic Treaty sign- 
ing ceremony, remarks, 472. 
Spain : 

ECOSOC resolution : international nongovernmental 
organizations having members in Spain (Feb. 14), 
text, 362. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signed, 319. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Spanish question: 
Discussed in U.N., 584, 616, 657. 



Spain — Continued 
Spanish question — Continued 
Genei-ai Assembly resolution (May 7). (553; resolu- 
tions, 749. 
U.S. policy, statements by : 
Aclieson, Secretary, (360. 
Atherton, Ray, C80. 
Stabler, Wells, U.S. Charge d'Affalres to Transjordan, 332. 
State, Department of: 
Appointments : 
Acheson, Dean G., as Secretary, 150. 
Battle. Lucius D., as As.sistant to Secretary, 398. 
Berkner, Lloyd V., as MAP Director, 466. 
Carter, Maj. Gen. M. S., as MAP Assistant, 327. 
Gross, Ernest A., as Assistant Secretary, 334. 
Howard, John B., as Special Assistant to Secretary, 

767. 
Rusk, Dean, as Assistant Secretary, 271. 
Webb, James E., as Under Secretary, 174. 
Consular services for German nationals, interim oflSce, 

575. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission (FLC) terminated, 

503. 
Foreign Service. See Foreign Service. 
German and Austrian Affairs, Office of, establishment, 

330. 
Military Assistance Program (MAP), Authority for, 

649. 
Nominations for Assistant Secretaries (Butterworth, 

Hickerson, McGhee, Miller, Perkins), 734. 
Relinquishment of control over certain property of 

former German government, 333. 
Reorganization : 
Administrative area, 702. 
Assistant Secretaries, provisions for 10 under new 

law, 734. 
Authorization by Congress (Public Law 73, 81st 

Cong.), 835. 
"Hoover" report {Foreign Affairs, House doc. 79, 81st 

Cong.) released, 333. 
Legislation requested by President in message to 
Congress, text, 333. 
Resignations : 

Lovett, Robert A. as Under Secretary, 86. 
Marshall, George C. as Secretary, 86. 
Norton, Garrison as Assistant Secretary, 271. 
Saltzman, Charles E. as Assistant Secretary, 735. 
VLsa Division to issue permits to aliens, designation of 
oSicers in, 365. 
State of Union message to Congress by President Truman, 

75. 
Strategic trust areas under trusteeship, Security Council 
resolution of functions regarding (Mar. 7), text, 315. 
Steel, copper, and aluminum, probable impact on military 

assistance program on, ()50. 
Steelman, John R., goals and practical problems of Point 
4 Program, address before Executives Club, Chicago, 
7(50. 
Steinhardt, Laurence A. : 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Canada, 332. 
Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs 
(Pearson) Industrialization Mobilization Com- 
mittee, 537. 



Index, January to June 1949 



863 



Stepinac, Archbishop, trial of ; House Concurrent Resolu- 
tion 19, 231. 
Stikker, Dirk U. (Netherlands Prime Minister) : 
North Atlantic Treaty signing ceremony, remarks, 477. 
U.S.-Netherlauds problems, discussion of; joint state- 
ment with Secretary Acheson, 458. 
Stinebower, Leroy D., infringement of trade-union rights, 

statement before ECOSOC, 358. 
St. Laurent, Louis (Prime Minister of Canada) to visit 

U.S., 171. 
Stuart, Ambassador J. Leighton (China), Instructed to 

report to Washington, 607. 
Sugar, international agreement (Aug. 31, 1948) regarding 
regulation of production and marketing of, trans- 
mitted to Senate by President Truman, 118. 
Surplus war property, disposal (See also Educational ex- 
change program) : 
Agreement, U.S. and China (1946) ; discussion by John 

M. Cabot, 180. 
Combat materiel, militarized and nondemilitarized, 

transfer of, tables, 119. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission terminated, 503. 
Marshall Island, bids invited for surplus war scrap in, 
116 ; sale, 803. 
Suva, Fiji Islands, U.S. consulate closing, 150. 
Sweden : 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Technicians to visit U.S. under EGA, 328. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 520. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
Whaling, international convention for reg^ation of 

(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
World Meteorolosical Convention, ratification, 622. 
Swiss- AlUed Accord (1946) : 

Joint communique (U.S., U.K., France, Switzerland) 

on major issues, 819. 
Quadripartite conference discussion, 659. 
Switzerland : 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Swiss-Allied Accord. See Swiss-Allied Accord. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
Syria : 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
U. S. recognition of new government ; text of note, 637. 

Tanganyika. See Trusteeship and Trusteeship Council. 
Tariff Commission, U.S., 1(58, 267. 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT, 1947) : 
Contracting parties to, 3d session : 

Message from Secretary Acheson, 520. 

U.S. delegation, 520. 

Progress in negotiations, 819. 

Trade negotiations discussed, 750. 
Discussed by : 

Burns, Norman, 217. 

Coppock, Joseph D., 139. 

Thorp, Willard L., 168. 

Truman, President, 80. 
Renegotiations of certain tariff concessions with : 

Chile, 363. 

Cuba, 760, 803. 



Tariffs and trade, etc. — Continued 

Negotiations for purposes of accession by : 
Colombia, 169, 520. 
Denmark, 169, 520. 
Dominican Republic, 169, 520. 
Finland, 169, 520. 
Greece, 169, 520. 
Haiti, 169, 520. 
Italy, 169, 520. 
Liberia, 169, 520. 
Nicaragua, 169, 520. 
Sweden, 169, 520. 
Uruguay, 169, 520. 
Proclamations putting into effect for: 
Chile, 363. 

Cuba, supplement, 435. 
Relationship with ITO, 36. 
Trade Agreements Act, request for extension to obtain 

benefits of GATT, 80. 
U.S. Tariff Commission participation in, 2(58. 
Tate, Jack B.: 
Designation in State Department, 150. 
Jurisdiction of U.S. courts on suits for identifiable prop- 
erty involved in Nazi-forced transfers ; text of let- 
ter, 592. 
Reclamations and peace settlements, international; 
address before American Society of International 
Law, in Washington, D. C, 627. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Technical assistance (See also Educational exchange pro- 
gram ; European Recovery Program ; Point 4 Pro- 
gram) : 
Aid to U.S.S.R., 404. 

Anglo-American Council of Productivity, 213. 
Caribbean area, 814. 
Economic development abroad, America's role in ; 

article by Wilfred Malenbaum, 371. 
ECOSOC resolutions : 

Economic development of underdeveloped countries 

(Mar. 4), text, 360. 
Technical assistance for economic development (Mar. 
4), text, 360. 
Inter-American programs discussed by Paul C. Daniels, 

460. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs cooperative pro- 
grams, 212, 329, 462, 754, 795. 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission report, 363, 

435, 694. 
Technical Assistattce for Economic Development, U.N. 

release, 265. 
U.N. first international program, 13, 718. 
Technical and scientific information, Japanese, extension 

of PEC policies, 833. 
Technical Commission, Joint Brazil-U.S., report, 363, 435, 

694. 
Telecommunication Union, International (ITU) : 

Radio Conference, Administrative, U.S. delegation, 659. 
Standard Loran, Administrative conference ; agenda 

and U.S. delegation, 106. 
Telegraph regulations, international ; U.S. proposals, 
426. 



864 



Department of State Bulletin 



Telecommunication Union, International (ITU) — Con. 
Telegraph regulations, preparatory meeting on: 
U.S. to send delegation, 30. 
U.S. delegation, 106. 
Telephone and Telegraph Conference, International 
Administrative, preparatory meeting, 426; U.S. 
delegation, 658. 
U.S. protest of Soviet Jamming. VOA, 638. 
Telegrapli conferences and regulations, International. 

Sec Telecommunication. 
Telephone and Telegraph Conference, International Ad- 
ministrative (ITU). -12(5, (iOS. 
Temperature Scale, International, discussion of, 447. 
Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XVI (111.), 

released, 31. 
Thailand, Siam changed to Thailand ; communique, 705. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses : 

International economic picture, at the Mississippi 
Valley World Trade Conference, Neve Orleans, 
566. 
Iron Curtains, at Amherst College, Amherst, Mass., 

797. 
U.N., significant developments in. Association of 
American Colleges, New York City, 95. 
Appointment as U.S. alternate representative to Gen- 
eral Assembly, 316. 
Toint 4 Program, VOA interview, 774. 
Statements : 

American recovery policy, reply to critcism of, 313. 
E)conomic development and technical cooperation in 

ECOSOC, 283. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, accomplish- 
ments, 795. 
Tariff Commission, role in trade agreements program, 

267. 
Trade Agreements Extension Act, need for, 1(38. 
U.N. study on U.S.S.R. slave labor requested, 248. 
Wheat Agreement, International, significance of, 699. 
World economic situation, 288. 
Tin-mining areas, labor strikes in Boliva ; statement by 

Acting Secretary Webb, 764. 
Tin Study Group International, 4th meeting, U.S. delega- 
tion, 816. 
Tobin, Irwin M., article on 3d session. Permanent Migra- 
tion Committee (ILO) , 421. 
Togoland, British and French. See Trusteeship and 

Trusteeship Council. 
Tonnage duties, suspension of, proclaimed with : 
Israel, 734. 

Union of South Africa, 734. 
Tourist development, 224, 814. 
Trade (See also Tariffs and Trade) : 

Economic growth through trade ; excerpt from the Eco- 
nomic Report of the President, 79. 
Imports, U.S. government assistance in developing ; 

address by Joseph D. Coppock, 137. 
World trade week, 1949 ; proclamation by President 
Truman, 523. 
Trade Agreements Acts : 
Argentina (1941) and Uruguay (1942) agreements ef- 
fect restored on flaxseed by Presidential proclama- 
tion, 803. 

Index, January to June 1949 



Trade Agreements Acts — Continued 
Extension requested by President Truman, text of letter 

to Congressional Committees, 80. 
Discussed by : 

Burns, Norman, 217. 
Coppock, Joseph D., 139. 
ITO relationship with, 36. 
Need for renewal, statement by W. L. Thorp before 

House Ways and Means Committee, 168. 
U.S. Tariff Commission participation, statement by 
Assistant Secretary Thorp before Senate (Committee 
on Finance, 267. 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 

American farmer anil ITO charter discussed by Norman 

Burns, 215. 
Analyzed, 35. 
Discussed by : 

Coppock, Joseph D., 139. 
Thorp, W. L., 170. 
Economic policy and ITO charter, address by Secretary 

Acheson, 623. 
GATT. See Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement oa 
Trade union rights : 

ECOSOC resolution (Mar. 17), freedom of associa- 
tion, text, 490. 
General Assembly resolution (May 13) , text, 748. 
Infringement of ; statement by Leroy D. Stinebower, 
358. 
Transjordan. See Jordan. 

Transporation system, U.S. completion of Greek, 826. 
Transportation tax in Caribbean area, removal of, dis- 
cussed, 622. 
Travelers in Germany, to use deutsche marks, 807. 
Treaties, agreements, etc : 
Agricultural workers agreement with Mexico (Feb. 21, 

1948), discussions for revision, 116. 
Aid agreements and treaties with China disciissed by 

John M. Cabot, 180. 
Aviation : 

Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 118. 
Air force mission agreement, U.S. and Haiti, signed 

87. 
Air Navigation Services in Iceland, agreement (1948) , 

ICAO Council and Iceland, 164. 
Air transport agreement, U.S. with : 
Bolivia, signature, 62. 
Canada, signature, 766. 
Finland, signature, 466. 
Panama, signature, 466. 
Berlin, removal of restrictions ; letter and communique 
from tripartite representatives (Chauvel, Cadogan, 
Austin) to U.N. Secretary-General, texts, 631. 
Bizonal (Germany) fusion agreement (1946, rev. 1947), 

extension of; text of U.S. note to U.K., 76. 
Bogota economic agreement (1948), 462. 
Brussels treaty. See Brussels treaty. 
Canada : 
Air transport agreement with U.S., signature, 766. 
Aircraft agreement, emergency ; exchange of U.S. 
(Webb) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 200. 



865 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Canada— Continued 

Boundary Waters Treaty (1909) , air polution study on 
Detroit River asked; letter (Lovett) to Interna- 
tional Joint Commission, 11.5. 
Great Lakes Fisheries (1946), .signature, 70. 
Halibut Commission, Joint (1937), 69. 
Industrialization Mobilization Committee: 
Establishment by exchange of U.S. (Steinhardt) and 

Canadian (Pearson) notes, 537. 
U.S. delegation to tirst meeting, 725. 
Niagara River diversion of waters (1948) ; exchange 
of U.S. (Lovett) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 
85. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention, signature, 

319. 
Pacific Salmon Commission, International (1930), 69. 
Wartime claims and accounts settlement ; exchange 
of U.S. (Acheson) and Canadian (Wrong) notes, 
397. 
Whaling, International convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
CMF agreement on Korea (1945), 784. 
Chapultepee, Act of (1945), 61, 460. 
China Bulk Sale Agreement (1946), Marshall Islands 

scrap material, 803. 
Commodity agreements under ITO charter, discussed, 

218. 
Consular convention, (U.S.-U.K.) signed, 269. 
Copenhagen Plan for Euroi)ean broadcasting, 190. 
Dominican-Haitian declaration on peaceful settlement 

of differences, 833. 
Double taxation, U.S. and — 
Brazil, joint study, 830. 
Colombia, discussions, 830. 
Norway, signature, 830. 
U.K. (1945), extension expected, 270. 
Egyptian-Israeli armistice agreement signed ; state- 
ments by : 
Austin, W. R., 312. 
Truman, President, 302. 
Germany, tripartite (U.S.-U.K.-France) agreements. 

See Germany. 
ILO conventions: 

Mijrration for employment, discussion, 424. 
Wage and work statistics in principal mining and 
manufacturing industries (1938) transmitted to 
Senate, 150. 
Inter- American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947). 

See Rio treaty. 
L«'nd-lease, settlement of, U.S. with Ethiopia, 733. 
Lombardo agreement, U.S.-Italy (1947) , 629. 
Meteorological convention, world : 
Transmittal to Senate, 118. 
U.S. ratification, 022. 
Military uiis.slon, U.S. and Colombia, signature, 303. 
Military Security Board in Germany, London agree- 
ment (1948) establishing, 195. 
Narcotics protocol (1948) transmitted to Senate by 

President, S.'iO. 
Naval mission agre(!meut, U.S. and Haiti, 637. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Netherlands and Indonesian Republic, preliminary 
agreement; letter from Netherlands (Hurgronje) to 
President of Security Council, text, 6.53; U.S. ap- 
proval, 654. 
North Atlantic Fisheries convention : 

Message of transmittal to Senate from President, 765. 
Signatures, 319. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Rumania 
(1947) : 
International reparations, 627. 
Trieste provision (Italy) unworkable, 292. 
Violations of human rights. See Human rights. 
Peace treaty, Austria requests resumption of negotia- 
tions, 52. 
Potsdam Declaration. See Potsdam Declaration. 
Prisoners of war agreement, U.S.-Italy, under Geneva 

prisoners of war convention (1929), 116. 
Reciprocal Assistance, treaty of (1947). See Rio 

treaty. 
Repatriation of German prisoners, CFM agreement 
(1947), Soviet failure to notify other powers of 
their action ; text of U.S. note, 77, 78. 
Residual and maritime claims, agreements with France, 

392. 
Ruhr, International Authority for. See Ruhr. 
Safety of life at sea, international convention for (June 
10, 1948), transmitted to Senate by President 
Truman, 118. 
Sino-Soviet treaty of 1945 discussed by John M. Cabot, 

182. 
Sugar, international agreement (1948) regarding regu- 
lation of production and marketing, transmitted 
to Senate by President Truman, 118. 
Surplus war property disposal agreements under Ful- 
bright Act. See Educational exchange programs. 
Surplus war property agreements, U.S.-China (1946), 

discussed by John M. Cabot, 180. 
Swiss-Allied Accord (1946). See Swiss-Allied Accord. 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. See Tariffs 

and trade. 
Trade Agreements Act (1947), request for extension; 
text of President's letter to chairman of Congres- 
sional Committees, SO. 
Transmission of News and Right of Correction, Con- 
vention on International : 
General A.sseuibly resolution (May 13), text, 682. 
Statement recommending adoption by General As- 
sembly by Erwin D. Canham, 678. 
Text of convention, 682. 
Tuna, U.S.-Costa Rican convention for scientific in- 
vestigation of: 
Discussions, 692. 
Signature, 766. 
Tuna resources, U.S.-Mexican convention, for investi- 
gation of: 
Signature, 70, 174. 
Transmittal to Senate, 463. 
United States Trcatii Developments, released, 639. 
U.S.-Brazil cultural treaty, negotiation of, approved 
by Presidents Truman and Dutra ; joint statement, 
695. 



866 



Department ot State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Western Union. Sec Brussels trenty. 
Whaling, international convenlion for regulation of 

(1948), 1st international meeting, 602. 
Wheat Agreement, International : 
Article by Edward G. Cale, 507. 
Signiticance to American farmer, statement by 

Charles F. Brannan, 449. 
Transmittal to Senate, 619. 
Women, Inter-American convention (1948) on granting 
of political riglits to, transmitted to Senate by 
President Truman, 118. 
Treaty Developments, United States, released, 639. 
Trials, International Conference on Military, released, 257. 
Trieste, Free Territory of: 

Discussed in U.N., 227, 253, 617. 

Economic recovery, achievements ; statement by Sec- 
retary Aclieson, text, 632. 
Peace treaty with Italy, Trieste provision not workable, 
292. 
Tripartite (U.S.-U.K.-France) agreements for Western 

Germany. See Germany: Tripartite agreements. 
Tripolitania. See Italy : Former colonies. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses : 
Essentials elements of lasting peace in Little Rock, 

Ark., 771. 
Inaugural address, 123. 
Brazilian president (Dutra), joint statements on: 
Brazilian economic development and social progress, 

G94. 
U.S.-Brazil cultural treaty negotiations, 695. 
Correspondence : 

British Prime Minister (Attlee), reply to EGA anni- 
versary message, 536. 
Chairman ( George, Doughton ) of Congressional Com- 
mittees requesting extension of trade agreements 
act (1947), 80. 
Irish president (Kelly), congratulations, 571. 
Israeli president (Weizmann), congratulations, 271. 
Secretary of State (Marshall) accepting resignation, 

86. 
Secretary of State (Acheson), congratulatory tele- 
gram on North Atlantic pact address, 388. 
Under Secretary of State (Lovett) accepting resigna- 
tion, 86. 
ECA anniversary, text of message from Prime Minister 

Attlee, 455. 
Economic Report of President released ; excerpt, 79. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
India Prime Minister (Nehru) accepts invitation to 

visit U.S., 671. 
ITO charter memorandum from Secretary Acheson, text, 

602. 
Messages to Congress. See Congress : Messages from 

President Truman. 
North Atlantic Treaty report transmitted by Secretary 

Acheson, 532. 
Proclamations. See Proclamations, Presidential. 
Statements : 
Brazilian president (Dutra), visit of, 694. 
Egyptian-Israeli armistice, 302. 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
St at CM lent. s — ("Diitinucd 
General Clay, resignation as Military Governor In 

Germany, 632. 
Greece, work and victory demonstration in, 433. 
Iran, VGA inauguration, 431. 

Israeli Ambassador (Elath), presentation of creden- 
tials, 538. 
Korean Amba.s.sador (Chang), presentation of cre- 
dentials, 434. 
Jllndszenty, Cardinal, trial of, 230. 
North Atlantic Treaty signing ceremony, 481. 
Palestine refugee relief, after signing bill author- 
izing U.S. contribution, 419. 
U.S. participation in U.N. (1948), report to Congress, 
716. 
Trusteeship : 

U.S. reply to Soviet attitude toward Italian colonies; 

statement by John Foster Dulles, 581. 
U.S. views on former Italian colonies ; statement by 
John Foster Dulles, 484. 
Trusteeship Council : 

Discussed in U.N., 136, 161, 184, 296, 317, 362, 383. 
Italian colonies, former. See Italy : Former colonies. 
Resolutions adopted in 4th session, 614. 
Strategic areas under trusteeship, Security Council 

resolution (Mar. 7), functions on, text, 315. 
Strategic trust areas, relation to the Security Coun- 
cil ; statement by W. R. Austin, 309. 
U.S. report on trust territory of Pacific Islands trans- 
mitted to U.N., 2.53, 293. 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, summary of U.S. 

report, 294. 
Trypanosomiasis : 

International Committee on, research meeting, 229. 
Research on, 722. 
Tsetse, international cooperation against ; article by 

Frederick J. Brady, M.D., 722. 
Tuna, conference on scientific investigation, U.S.-Costa 
Rica : 
Meetings for discussion, U.S. delegation, 692. 
Signature, 766. 
Tuna Resources, U.S.-Mexico convention for scientific 
investigation of: 
Discussions, 70. 
Signature, 174. 
Transmittal to Senate, 463. 
Turkey : 

Greek-Turkish Aid Program, 55. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
U.S. Ambassador (Wadsworth), appointment, 332. 
U.S. military aid requested, discussed, 648. 
Wadsworth, George, appointed as Chief of American 
Mission for Aid to Turkey, 332. 

United Kingdom : 

American antitrust laws study by British Commission, 
637. 

Anglo-American Council of Productivity, example of 
ECA technical assistance, 213. 

Attitude toward film quotas; letter from Acting Sec- 
retary Webb to Mr. Johnston, president of Motion 
Picture Association, text, 825. 



Index, January to June 1949 



867 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Attlee, Prime Minister, ECA anniversary message to 
President Truman, 455 ; President Truman's reply, 
536. 
Berlin blockade. See Cfermany. 

British recovery ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 300. 
Caribbean Commission, Sth meeting, 816. 
Greek situation. See Greece. 
Military Security Board. See Germany. 
Radioactive materials, U.S. shipment of, 727. 
Royal Sanitary Institute Health Congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, 692. 
Scholarships and/or fellowships under Fulbright Act, 

84, 417. 
Soviet jamming of VGA, BBC action, 638. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Consular convention with U.S., signature, 269. 
Double taxation convention with U.S. extension ex- 
pected, 270. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries convention signature, 

319. 
Ruhr, International Authority for. See Ruhr. 
Statute for Council of Europe, signature, 664. 
Swiss-Allied Accord. See Swiss-Allied Accord. 
Tripartite (U.K.-U.S.-France) agreements. See 

Germany. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
Trieste, Anglo-American cooperation for economic re- 
covery in, 632. 
U.K. vs Albania (Corfu Channel case) ; International 
Court of Justice opinion, 491, 516. 
Uranium production, discussions by U.S., U.K., and 

South Africa, 830. 
Warships not to be sent to Antarctica during 1948-49, 
149. 
United Nations: 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for. See Arm- 
aments. 
Arms and armed forces. See Arms. 
Atomic energy. See Atomic energy. 
Berlin blockade. See Germany: Berlin blockade. 
Children's Emergency Fund, U.N. International 
(UNICEF), 12, 382. 

Children, United Nations Appeal for (UNAC), 12, 382, 
515. 

Civil service, development discussed by Willard L. 
Thorp, 97. 

Court. See Justice, International Court of. 

Developments, address by Willard L. Thorp, 95. 

Documents, listed, 17, 23, 133, 252, 291, 312, 381, 419, 444, 
517, 578, 656, 676, 715, 749, 775. 

Economic and Social Council (BCOSOC). See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council. 

General Assembly. See General Assembly. 

Geneva, General Act (192S), aid in dispute settlement, 
579. 

Greek situation. See Greece. 

Gubicliev, Valentin A., Soviet charges on arrest re- 
jected by U.S., 636. 



868 



United Nations — Continued 
Headquarters : 
Construction, 161. 
Cornerstone ceremony, 254. 
Human Rights, Commission on. See Human Rights. 
Human rights, violation of. See Human rights. 
Indonesian situation. See Indonesian situation. 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, trans- 
mission of copies ; letter to Secretary-General from 
Secretary Lleras, 316. 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee. 
International security, through Atlantic pact and; 

partial text of address by Philip C. Jessup, 278. 
Meetings, calendar of international, 42, 163, 297, 420, 

562, 720. 
Membership: 

Admission of Israel (May 11), 296, 688. 
Membership applications : 
Israel, 311, 492, 584, 616, 655. 
Korea, 227, 253. 
Nepal, 690. 
Reconsideration of old applications, 780, 812. 
Meteorological Organization, World. See Meteorologi- 
cal Organization, World. 
North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
Paris assembly, achievements of, 147. 
Peace through world-wide federation ; address by 

George V. Allen, 801. 
Present international outlook, address by Francis B. 

Sayre, 144. 
Publications (See Documents above) : 
Technical Assistance for Economic Development, r©- 
leased, 265. 
Resolutions : 

United Nations Guard (Apr. 29), 491, 747. 
Role in world peace discussed by Warren R. Austin, 

278. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Senate confirms U.N. nominations, 316. 
Soviet slave labor study requested by U.S., 248, 617. 
Specialized agencies. See name of agency. 
Technical Assistance. See Point 4 Program ; Technical 

assistance ; European Recovery Program. 
Trieste. See Trieste, Free Territory of . 
Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship CouncU. 
United States in United Nations, weekly summary, 41, 
74, 104, 136, 101, 184, 227, 253, 295, 317, 361, 382, 
418, 445, 491, 518, 561, 584, 616, 657, 689, 718, 750, 
780, 812. 
U.S. Military Assistance Program as aid to peace, 649. 
U.S. participation in U.N. (1948) ; report by President 

Truman to Congress, 716. 
U.S. report on trust territory of Pacific Islands trans- 
mitted, 253, 293, 317. 
U.S. support discussed by Philip C. Jessup, 243. 
World War II claims to U.N. nationals, 629. 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganiz.-ition (UNESCO) : 
Adult Education Conference, U.S. delegation and agenda, 

817. 
Science Abstracting, International Conference on, 
U.S. delegation, purposes, 818. 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations Kducatlonal, Scientific and Cultural 
Ort;anizutlon (UNESCO)— Continued 

U.S. Commission, 2d national conference, 133. 
Union of South Africa : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Andrews), credentials, 328. 

General Assembly resolution, treatment of Indians In 
Union of South Africa (May Iti), 617, 657, 748. 

Uadioactlve material-s, U.S. shipment of, 727. 

Suspension of tonnage duties proclaimed, 734. 

Uranium production, dlssussions by U.S., U.K., and 
South Africa, 830. 

U.S. Ambassador (WinsUip), appointment, 332. 

U.S. legation at Pretoria, elevation to embassy, 117, 435. 

Whaling, international convention for regulation of 
(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) : 

Berlin blockade. See Germany. 

Comiuform communique denouncing Tito discussed by 
John iM. Cabot, 183. 

Cultural relations: U.S. efforts to establish cultural- 
scientific exchange blocked by U.S.S.R., 403. 

Czechoslovakia, anniversary of liberation ; texts of docu- 
mentary correspondence between SHAEF and So- 
viet High Ck)mmand, 665. 

Democratic and Soviet legal concepts discussed by 
Charles E. Bohlen, 158. 

German and Jaimnese prisoners of war, repatriation. 
See Prisoners of war. 

Greek situation. See Greece. 

Gubichev, Valentin A., Soviet charges on arrest, re- 
jected, 636. 

Iran, reports of Soviet pressure on; statement by Sec- 
retary Acheson, 432. 

Iron Curtains ; address by Willard L. Thoi-p, 797. 

Italian reparations, 628. 

Obstructionist tactics : 5, 6, 7, 8, 19, 77, 86, 94, 96, 144, 
148, 158, 162, 179, 184, 188, 192, 227, 243, 245, 253, 
260, 271, 292, 299, 313, 323, 377, 392, 403, 429, 432, 
457, 464, 488, 491, 518, 548, 552, 581, 585, 623, 627, 
633, 644, 675, 687, 690, 696, 699, 717, 782, 797, 801, 
824. 

Stalin answers Kingsbury Smith ; remarks by Secretary 
Acheson, 192. 

Trade-union rights, infringement of ; statement by Leroy 
D. Stinebower, 358. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
North Atlantic Treaty : 
Pact countries note Soviet views, 457. 
Soviet charges answered by W. R. Austin, 552. 
Peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 
(1947), violation of human rights. See Human 
rights : Violations of. 
Whaling, international convention for regulation of 

»(1948), 1st meeting, 693. 
Wheat Agreement (1949), International, attitude to- 
ward, 511. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 
Trieste, uncooperative attitude toward, 202. 
U.N. study of Soviet slave labor asked by U.S. in 

ECOSOC. 248. 
U.S. Ambassador (Smith), resignation, 467. 
U.S. protests jamming of VOA, 638. 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)— Con. 
U.S. requests withdrawal of Soviet repatriation mission : 
Discussed by Walter M. Kotscbnig, 307. 
Exchange of notes, 320. 
U.S. technical aid, 404. 
Wives of foreigners : 

Attitude on departure from U.S.S.R., 22. 
General Assembly resolution (Apr. 25), 501 ; text, 614. 
United States citizens. See Protection of U.S. nationals. 
Uranium production, discussions by U.S., U.K., and South 

Africa, 830. 
Uruguay : 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 194. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, negotiations for purpose of accession, 169, 520. 
Reciprocal trade agreement with U.S. (1042), effective 
by proclamation, 802. 

Valle, Dr. Rafael Heliodoro, credentials as Houduran Am- 
bassador to U.S., 434. 
Vandenberg resolution (S.Res. 239, June 11, 1948), 247, 

298, 386, 532, 553, 596. 
Van Wagoner, Murray D., article on greater home rule 

for Bavarians, 350. 
Venezuela : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Pocaterra), credentials, 698. 
U.S. resumes diplomatic relations; exchange of notes, 
texts ; 172. 
Veto in Security Council : 

Discussion by Francis B. Sayre, 148. 
Voting problem : 

Address by Warren R. Austin, 512. 
Four-power draft resolution (Nov. 26, 1948), 99. 
General Assembly resolution (Apr. 14), 491. 
Visas : 
Communist representatives to world peace conference, 

visas authorized for, 392. 
Requirements changed, U.S. with France, 457. 
Visa Division to issue permits to aliens, designation of 
officers in, 3(35. 
Voice of America : 
Atlantic pact ceremonies broadcast, 458. 
Atomic energy, peaceful utilization of; statement by 

Senator Brien McMahon, 726. 
EGA anniversary : 
Message to President Truman from Prime Minister 

Attlee on, text, 4.55. 
Program broadcast, 455. 
Its role in peace, discussed by Selden Chapin, 823. 
New service to Iran added, 396 ; inauguration of pro- 
gram, 431. 
Point 4 Program, world response to ; interview with 

Willard L. Thorp, 774. 
Telling U.S. story, address by George V. Allen, 142. 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, discussion 

in report of, 464. 
U.S. protests Soviet jamming : 

International Telecommunication Union notified, 638. 
VOA and BBC joint action, 638. 
Washington broadcasting studios opened, 83. 
Voting in Security Council. See Veto. 
Vraz, Vlasta Adele, head of American Relief ; arrested In 
Czechoslovakia, 536. 



Index, January fo June 1949 



869 



Wadsworth, George, appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Turke.v, 332. 
Warren, George L., report on : 

Executive Committee (lUO), 3d meeting, 256. 
General Council (IRO), 2d session, 618. 
Wartime claims and accounts settlement between U.S. 
(Acheson) and Canada (Wrong) ; exchange of notes, 
texts, 397. 
War victims, conference on convention for protection of, 

U.S. delegation, 522. 
Waynick, Capus M., appointed U.S. Ambassador to Nica- 
ragua, 703. 
Webb, James E., Acting Secretary : 

Appointment as Under Secretary of State, 174. 
Correspondence : 

Canadian Ambassador (Wrong), on air search and 

rescue operations along boundaries, 201. 
Mr. Johnston, president of Motion Picture Association, 
on British attitude toward film quotas, 825. 
Statements and remarks : 
Bolivian tin-mining areas, labor strikes, 764. 
ERP factor in U.S. foreign policy, 729. 
North Atlantic Treaty; ratification by Belgium; 
exchange of remarks with Baron Silvercruys, 825. 
North Atlantic Treaty, U.K. deposits ratification ; 
exchange of remarks with Ambassador Franks, 
794. 
Request for continued economic assistance to Korea 
before House Foreign Affairs Committee, text, 
783. 
Soviet refusal to cooperate in settling disputes under 

peace treaties (1947), 824. 
U.S. charge against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 

on violations of human freedoms, 759. 
U.S. -U.N. cooperation in Point 4 Program, 774. 
World Trade Week, significance of, 733. 
Weights and Measures, 9th General Conference on ; report 

by Dr. Edward U. Condon, 447. 
Weizmann, Dr. Chaim, 1st Israeli president, congratula- 
tory message from President Truman, 271. 
Wellington, New Zealand, elevation of U.S. legation to 

embassy, 150. 
West Indian Conference, oflicial report released, 467 ; con- 
ference report by Elizabeth Armstrong, 221. 
Western (European) Union. Sec Brussels treaty. 
Whaling Commission, 1st International, U.S. delegation, 

692. 
Wheat Agreement, International (1949) : 
Conference : 

Report by Edward G. Cale, 507. 
U.S. delegation, 167. 
Discussed in President's Budget message, 114. 
Message of President Truman transmitting agreement 
to Senate, text, 619. 



Wheat Agreement, International (1949) — Continued 
Statements : 
Acheson. Secretary, 701. 
Brannan, Charles F., 186, 449. 
Thorp, Willard L., 699. 
Wilber, Edward B., designation in State Department, 150. 
Wildlife Conference, North American, 364. 
Winship, North, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Union 

of South Africa, 332. 
Women, Commission on Status of, 11, 361, 445. 
Women, Inter-American convention (1948) on granting 
of political rights to, transmitted to Senate by Presi- 
dent Truman, 118. 
Wood Pulp Proiilems, Preparatory Conference on. World 

U.S. delegation, 621. 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Executive Board, U.S. delegation to 3d session, 257. 

Honduras, ratification of charter, 492. 

Medical Council, World, planned, 446. 

Mental Health, international congress; report by Win- 

fred Overholser, M.D., 166. 
Mental Healtli, World Federation of, organization, 167. 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau becomes part of organi- 
zation, 719. 
Second World Health Assembly, 816. 
U.S.S.R. and Ukraine withdraw membership, 228. 
World Meteorological Organization. See Meteorological 

Organization, World. 
World Trade Week, significance of; statement by Acting 

Secretary Webb, 733. 
World-wide federation, perpetual jwace through ; address 

by George V. Allen, 801. 
Wright, William Dudley Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 271, 334. 
Wrong, Hume H. : 
Correspondence : 
Acheson, Secretary, on air search and rescue opera- 
tions along U.S.-Canadian, 201 ; on wartime 
claims and accounts settlement, 397. 
Lovett, Acting Secretary, on diversion of waters of 
Niagara River, 85. 
Wurttemberg-Baden plebiscite postponed, 590. 

Yangtze valley, U.S. consulate general gives evacuation 

notice to Americans in lower, 607. 
Yellow fever in Panama, U.S. aid, 149. 
Yugoslavia : 

Cominform communique denouncing Tito discussed by 

John M. Cabot, 183. 
Gold issue with U.S., 14. 
Italian reparations, 628. 

Stepinac. .Archbishop, trial of: House Concurrent Reso- 
lution 19, 231. 
World Meteorological Convention, ratification, 622. 



870 



Department of State Bulletin 



tl S GOVfHNMENT PRINTINC OFFICE- 1950 



1 



My9e/i 



ict^tmenf/ ^. 



v^^ tjCaCe/ 



'■> •- T'. " -■■ ■»«■ 





:OSOC 1948: A RFVTFW AXD FORFCA^T • /(v 
Walter M. Kuti 



aXED NATIONS ACTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 

IN 1948 • By Jamet Simaariun 




'»«» 



B. S. SUPf-RlMTENOENT OF DWUMtK* 

JAti 12 1949 




^ Qle/i^^mefU ^ 9Ll^ JDUllGtin 



Vol. XX, No. 496 • Pubucation 3385 
January 2, 1949 



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ECOSOC 1948: A REVIEW AND FORECAST 

by Walter M, Kotschnig 



In a troubled world, full of new fears and 
suspicions, a world beset witli unsolved economic 
and social problems, questions are being raised 
more and more insistently about the efficacy of the 
United Nations and the whole planetary system 
of international organizations revolving around it. 
The headlines shriek about new threats to the 
peace, if peace there is. The teeming millions 
everywhere worry about the cost of living, the in- 
securities of tomorrow, and, in most parts of the 
world, the bare necessities of life. Those who 
have ever heard of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil of the United Nations and such organizations 
as the Food and Agriculture Organization or the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment or the International Trade Organiza- 
tion are no longer satisfied with promises and as- 
pirations. They want to know whether and what 
reality there is beyond the haze of high-sounding 
statements of purpose and intention. 

The peoples of the world who helped to create 
these organizations and who support them have 
a right to know. The time has come for an ac- 
counting, for a hard-headed review and evalua- 
tion, not of promises but of achievements. Fail- 
ures must be recognized and errors frankly faced. 
Such a review of United Nations efforts in the 
economic and social fields is now under way in 
the Department of State and will be made public 
in the near future. The present article sets itself 
the more modest task of scrutinizing the work of 
the Economic and Social Council (Ecosoo) in 
1948. At the same time, such scrutiny will call for 
a consideration of at least some of the major ac- 
tivities of the subsidiary bodies of the Council and 
of the specialized agencies. 

The Economic and Social Council is the center 
of the system of intergovernmental organizations 
dealing with economic, social, humanitarian, and 
related issues. Through the Council the work of 
all these organizations is to be coordinated, over- 
laps and duplications are to be avoided, and joint 
action is to be achieved in meeting some of the 



major economic and social problems of the post- 
war world. 

Tooling Up for Economic and Social Cooperation 

The Council is responsible for the coordination 
of the activit'ies of these organizations; in addi- 
tion the Council itself initiated the creation of 
several of the intergovernmental organizations 
estiiblished since the war and brought all of them 
into close relationship with the United Nations. 

Agreements With Specialized Agencies 

The Council's Committee on Negotiations with 
Inter-Governmental Agencies has negotiated re- 
lationship agreements under articles 57 and 63 of 
the United Nations Charter with 11 of these or- 
ganizations. 

Four of these agreements — with the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization (Ilo), the Food and 
Agriculture Organization (Fao), the United 
Nations Educational, Srfentific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (Unesco), and the International Civil 
Aviation Organization (Icao) — were concluded 
and entered into force before the Second Session 
of the General Assembly in September 1947. 

Five other agreements were approved by the 
Second Session of the General Assembly in 1947 : 
agi-eements with the International Bank for Re- 
construction and Development (Ibrd), the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund (Imf), the World Health 
Organization (Who), the Universal Postal Union 
(Upu), and the International Telecommunication 
Union (Itu). 

In the course of 1948, the Council concluded 
two further agreements — with the International 
Refugee Organization (Iro) and the Preparatory 
Committee of the Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization (Imco) — which the 
Third Session of the General Assembly approved 
in the fall of 1948. 

No agreements have been concluded to date with 
two remaining major intergovernmental agencies, 
the International Trade Organization (Ito) and 
the World Meteorological Organization (Wmo). 



January 2, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Both organizations are still in the preparatory 
stage but have expressed the hope that they may 
soon enter into negotiations with the United Na- 
tions. Of these 13 agencies only three — Ilo, Upu, 
Itu — existed before World War II. 

Commissions Estahlished 

The listing of these specialized agencies gives 
only part of the pii'ture. Although these agencies 
are largely autonomous, operating within their 
respective fields, Ecosoc has created 12 commis- 
sions, subsidiary and advisory to the Council. 
Nine of these conunissions are functional in char- 
acter; three are regional. A simple enumeration 
of the commissions and their several subcommis- 
sions will give an idea of the scope of the Council. 
The broad economic field is covered by the 
Economic and Employmei\t Commission and its 
Subconimissions on Economic Development and 
on Employment and Economic Stability. Trans- 
port and related matters are discussed by the 
Transport and Communicat ions Connnission. The 
Social Commission deals with problems of social 
wel fare, including such matters as child '.uul family 
welfare, prevention of white-slave trailic, penal 
and penitentiary reform, housing, and standards 
of living. The Commission on Human Rights has 
to date concentrated on drafting two documents, 
a declaration and a covenant on human rights. It 
is assisted by a Subcommission on Freedom of 
Information and the Press and another on Preven- 
tion of Discrimination and Protection of Minori- 
ties. Closely related to the work of the Connnis- 
sion on Human Rights is the Commission on the 
Status of AVomen, primarily devoted to the exten- 
sion of women's rights. The Statistical Commis- 
sion has set up a Sub-Commission on Statistical 
Sampling and a Committee on Statistical Classi- 
fication. There are in addition the Fiscal Com- 
mission, the Population Commission, and the Com- 
mission on Narcotic Drugs; the latter closely I'e- 
lated to the Permanent Central Opium Board and 
the Su])ervisoi-y Botly, which were both taken over 
from the League of Nations. Each of these com- 
missions and subconimissions, with the exception 
of tlie Fiscal Connnission and the Subccnnmissions 
on Statistical Sami)ling and on Prevention of 
Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, has 
held at least one meeting in 1948. 

Of the three regional commissions, the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe (Ece) is the oldest 



and has been by far the most active. It operates 
through a number of committees and subcommit- 
tees and working parties on industrial materials, 
timber, steel, coal, inland transport, electric power, 
and trade. The Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East (Ecafe) held two sessions in 
19-18, and the Economic Commission for Latin 
America (Ecuv) held its first session in June 1948. 
The creation of an Economic Commission for the 
Middle East (Ecme) is under consideration by 
the Council. 

Merely to list all these agencies and bodies is 
truly staggering. In the period of transition 
from war to peace, the world has created, by means 
of international bodies, the tools to cope with al- 
most ever_v problem that lends itself to interna- 
tional action. More international machinery has 
been established during these three years than was 
created during the twenty years of active existence 
of the League of Nations. In 1946 and 1947, these 
organizational developments proceeded most 
I'apidl}', slowing down in 1948 not because of less 
need for cooperation through international or- 
ganizations but because of the completion of the 
organizational pattern. The period of tooling- 
up is over. We now expect production and de- 
livery. 

Sand in the Machinery 

The shift in emphasis from organizational to 
substantive issues was clearly reflected in the 
agenda and work of the two sessions of the Council 
in 1948, the Sixth Session, held at Lake Success 
from February 2 to March 11. and the Seventh 
Session, held in Geneva from July 19 to August 
29. Instead of spending time discussing the 
terms of reference and membei-ship of commis- 
sions, the Council concentrated attention on such 
matters as the Economic Report: Salient Features 
of the World Economic Situation, 1045-1947, the 
first postwar and world-wide economic report pre- 
pared by the Secretariat, or on measures to meet 
the continuing world food crisis. Instead of giv- 
ing days and weeks to a discussion of the consti- 
tution of the International Refugee Organization, 
it occupied itself with concrete proposals regard- 
ing the repatriation and resettlement of approxi- 
mately 800,000 refugees. 

Before we proceed to an analysis of the sub- 
stantive issues before the Council and the way in 
which they were handled, it is important to convey 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



iin idea of tlic temper and atmosphere in wliieh tlie 
Council operates. The substantive problems of the 
Council are the problems of a dislocated world — as 
wide in scope and as complicated. They cannot 
be dissociated from the strains and stresses of 
]iresent-day politics. This is not necessarily bad. 
To disregard politics in the consideration of eco- 
nomic and social issues leads too easily to abstract 
and academic conclusions of little practical worth. 
Unfortunately, however, politics have been in- 
jected into the work of the Council to a point where 
they tend to interfere seriously with the accom- 
plishment of its tasks. There is a tendency to 
make economic thought completely subservient to 
political expediency and to use the Council as a 
mere sounding board for political propaganda. 

Soviet Russia and her satellites are the chief 
protagonists of the unlimited primacy of politics 
over economics, Karl Marx notwithstanding. One 
of the outstanding characteristics of the two ses- 
sions of the Council in 1948 was the extent to which 
these countries stepped up their political propa- 
ganda campaign. There was hardly an item on 
the agenda that did not provoke endless propa- 
ganda speeches ; frequently these speeches lost all 
contact with the issue at hand. Thus at the Sev- 
enth Session the discussion of the protocol to bring 
under international control drugs outside the scope 
of the narcotics convention of 1931 centered not 
on the question of drug control but almost com- 
pletely upon the '"sinister" attempt of the "colonial 
powers" to exempt their colonies and territories 
from the application of the convention. The fact 
that the United States, as a general rule, applies 
to its territories all the conventions to which it 
becomes a party did not save the United States 
Delegation from repeated attacks on U.S. 
"colonialism". 

Similarly, in the discussion of the report of the 
International Civil Aviation Organization the 
Soviets appeared interested only in the question 
of the alleged Spanish participation in the or- 
ganization rather than in the remarkable progress 
made by the organization in furthering inter- 
national civil aviation. Every time a nongovern- 
mental organization asks to be brought into con- 
sultative relationship with Ecosoc under article 
71 of the Charter the first question asked by the 
Soviet Representative is not whether the organi- 



JHC UNITBD NATIONS AND SPtCIALIZED AGENCIES 

zation has anything to contribute to the woik of 
the Council, but whether it has any member in 
Spain. The orgy of political propaganda reached 
its height in the discussions of the relations be- 
tween the European Recovery Program and the 
Economic Commission for Europe, the review of 
the Secretary -General's report on the progress and 
prospect of the repatriation and resettlement of 
refugees and displaced persons, as well as the re- 
view of the report of the Commission on the Status 
of Women and the draft conventions on freedom 
of information. 

Hour after hour, day after day, speakers from 
the U.S.S.R. and the satellite states, particularly 
Poland, would hold forth on the "iniquities" of 
Western capitalism and imperialism. From Au- 
gust 6 through August 2G, 1948, altogether 456 
speeches were made by the 18 members of the 
Council in plenary sessions, lasting altogether 3309 
minutes. Of these, 108 speeches were made by the 
Representatives of the U.S.S.R., Byelorussia, and 
Poland, lasting a total of 1184 minutes, or more 
than a third of the time used by all the 18 members 
of the Council. The Representative of the 
U.S.S.R. alone intervened 65 times, speaking al- 
together 900 minutes. During the same period the 
Representatives of the United States, the United 
Kingdom, France, and China combined took up 
only 870 minutes of the time of the Council. 

There can be no doubt that the propagandistic 
and obstructionist tactics of the Eastern states in- 
terfere seriously with the achievements of the 
Council. In the Seventh Session of the Council 
11 items on the agenda had to be postponed to later 
sessions, including such items as the problem of 
forced labor and measures for its abolition, equal 
pay for equal work for men and women, and the 
protection of trade-union rights and the freedom 
of association. 

Such are the trials of the Economic and Social 
Council. But what are its achievements? 

Clarification 

Confused and wishful thinking, national or in- 
ternational, is a threat to international peace and 
an impediment to constructive action. It stands 
to the credit of the Economic and Social Council 
that it has greatly contributed to the clarification 
of present-day internafional issues. 



January 2, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 
European Recovery 

Both in its Sixth and Seventh Sessions the Coun- 
cil discussed the European Recovery Program. 
Even though this subject did not appear as an 
item upon the agenda of tlie Council, it was raised 
by the Representatives of the U.S.S.R. and of some 
of its satellite states. The United States was ac- 
cused of frustrating the work of Ecosoc by not 
offering its aid to Europe, and the earlier aid to 
Greece and Turkey, through the United Nations. 

It will be recalled that even within the United 
States there were some who criticized this Gov- 
ernment for "by-passing" the United Nations. 
If ever any doubt existed about the sound- 
ness of the more direct approach to problems of 
European recovery taken by the United States 
Government, these doubts have been completely 
dispelled by the discussions in the Economic and 
Social Council. In the course of these discussions 
it clearly evolved that any attempts to organize the 
European Recovery Program through the United 
Nations would have caused interminable and prob- 
ably fatal delays which might well have meant 
economic and political catastrophe in Europe. 
The attacks on the Marshall Plan by the Rep- 
resentatives of the U.S.S.R. showed that they not 
only did not want to cooi:)erate in European re- 
covery but that they were determined to prevent 
the implementation of the European Recovery 
Program, which they characterized as an im- 
perialist attempt to "enslave" Western Europe. 
Representatives of the United Kingdom and of 
France were quick to refute these Soviet accusa- 
tions and to point to the predominant part played 
by the European governments themselves in plan- 
ning and carrying out that program. 

Nor was it overlooked, that, by contrast, the 
U.S.S.R., through the establishment of "mixed 
companies" and by other means, is indeed at- 
tempting to obtain a stranglehold over the econ- 
omies of the satellite countries. The farther the 
discussion proceeded, particularly in the Seventh 
Session of the Council, the more it became evident 
that the Soviets were opposed to any effective help 
to Western Europe. In a resolution introduced 
in the Seventh Session, which played up the 
Economic Commission for Europe, wliich body 
was established in March 1947, against the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program, they urged that the 
EcE expand its activities to assist the governments 



of those countries of Europe which were less de- 
veloped — meaning of course Eastern Europe — and 
to help increase agricultural production by pro- 
viding teclmical aid and easy credit to the peasants 
and prevent unemployment "caused by the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program". The whole resolution 
was interspersed with expressed or implied de- 
nunciations of United States policy. This move 
on the part of the Soviets did not achieve its ends. 
On the contrary, it only served to strengthen West- 
ern solidarity. The Russian resolution was de- 
feated by a vote of 15 to 3 (U.S.S.R., Byelorussia, 
and Poland). It should be noted that the United 
States supports both the Erp and the Ece which 
will be discussed more fully. 

Recovery in Asia and Far East 

Some measure of clarification has also been 
reached regarding recovery and development pro- 
grams in other parts of the world. There has 
been a natural and manifest tendency in many 
foreign quarters to expect the establishment of 
Marshall Plans in other regions of the world. 
Even where it was not assumed that all or most of 
the funds necessary for large-scale development 
plans would be made available by the United 
States, it was frequently assumed that the United 
States would become the major partner in the im- 
plementation of such plans. This assumption has 
been very evident in the Economic Commission for 
Asia and the Far East, a working party of which 
issued a report calling for an expenditure of 13 
billion dollars on industrial development in the 
area through the next 5 years. 

According to informal estimates it was expected 
that the United States might contribute over 7 
billion dollars of that total. At the Fourth Ses- 
sion of EcAFE in Lapstone, Australia, November 
29-December 10, 1948, the U.S. Delegation made 
it clear that the United States, although fully 
sympathetic to the needs of the area, did not and 
could not contemjjlate at this point the formula- 
tion of projects for the development of the area 
which called for large-scale financial support on 
the part of the U.S. Government. Tims the no- 
tion of new Mar.shall Plans is gradually being 
dispelled, and the limitations of American re- 
sources for purposes of foreign development are 
being recognized. As a result, attention is grad- 
ually shifting to other and more realistic methods 
for assisting particular deve1<ii)ment problems 



Department of State Bulletin 



emphasizing a larger degree of self-help coupled 
witli technical assistance from abroad when nec- 
essary. 

Arrangement Among Nations 

Ik'hiiul the discussions, centered on specific 
issues of reconstruction and development, looms 
a broader issue which is likely to hold the atten- 
tion for some time to come not only of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council but more particularly 
of the various governments members of the 
United Nations. It is the question of whether 
and to what extent the global or broadly multi- 
lateral approach to international economic prob- 
lems can or should supersede bilateral or other- 
wise restricted arrangements among states. In 
view of the large network of international eco- 
nomic organizations established in recent years, 
some think the time has come to reject all bi- 
lateral and sectional arrangements in favor of 
global, or at least broadly nmltilateral, arrange- 
ments. Others contend that bilateral arrange- 
ments or arrangements among a limited number 
of countries are more easily concluded and more 
eifective and that it will be a long time before 
these types of arrangements can be abandoned. 
Although any categorical statement on this sub- 
ject may be unwise, it would appear that neither 
school of thought is correct. Modern technologi- 
cal progress, which has made for economic inter- 
dependence, favors the broadly multilateral 
arrangements. 

At the same time political differences preclude 
the swift conclusion of global arrangements, with 
serious consequences in cases where time is es- 
sential. In the solution of international eco- 
nomic and related problems, therefore, both ap- 
proaches must be used and any "either-or" po- 
sition can only lead to barren discussions. In 
the Erp, for example, the global approach through 
the United Nations would not have been effec- 
tive. On the other hand the work accomplished 
imder the auspices of the United Nations in the 
drafting of the Charter for the International 
Trade Organization in Habana, which was in- 
dorsed by the Economic and Social Council at 
its Seventh Session, is an excellent example of a 
broad multilateral approach to international eco- 
nomic relations. The Charter was negotiated 
among 57 countries and lays down a detailed com- 
mercial code governing the conduct of its mem- 



TNE UNITED NATIONS AND SPCC/AIIZEO AGENCfES 

bei-s regarding trade barriers, cartels, and com- 
modity agreements. This is a long-range prop- 
osition which will be the more effective the larger 
the number of countries participating in the Ito. 
The conclusion, in 1948, of the work on the Charter 
is one of the great achievements of the United 
Nations. 

Social Commission 

Turning from economic to social issues, the work 
of the Council has resulted in considerable clarifi- 
cation of the social activities of the United Nations. 
In its Seventh Session the Council approved the 
report of the Social Commission, which sets forth 
a clear-cut program in the social field. Priorities 
were established according to which attention will 
be centered on problems of family, youth, and 
child welfare, which, without doubt, are basic to 
the well-being and stability of all countries; on the 
suppression of traffic in women and children and 
obscene publications; on the prevention of crime 
and the treatment of offenders; on housing, town 
and country planning ; on standards of living ; and 
on migration. Specific studies of these problems 
are now going forward in the Secretariat, and the 
discussion of concrete measures to meet these prob- 
lems has taken the place of high-sounding declara- 
tory statements which characterized earlier meet- 
ings of the Social Conmiission and of the Council. 

IRO 

Despite strenuous opposition from the Eastern 
European members of the Council, clarification 
was also obtained in the discussion of the serious 
problem of refugees and displaced persons, of 
whom there are still close to one million in Europe. 
The U.S.S.K., seconded by Poland and Byelo- 
russia, made every effort to discredit the work of 
the International Refugee Organization as an in- 
strument of Western "war-mongers" and "slave 
traders", who for political reasons and the obtain- 
ing of cheap labor were opposed to the repatria- 
tion of these unfortunate refugees and displaced 
persons. In the course of discussion of this issue 
at the Seventh Session, it was brought out that 
the large majority of persons displaced during the 
war and still alive had returned to their respective 
countries and that the remaining one million repre- 
sented only less than one seventh of the total of 
those originally displaced. 

It was clearly demonstrated that while the Iro, 



January 2, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

in cooperation witli the occupation authorities of 
those parts of Germany and Austria where most 
of these displaced persons find themselves, is con- 
tinuing its efforts for repatriation, the limits of 
such repatriation have for all practical purposes 
been reached. Those who remain are either peo- 
ple whose nationality cannot be ascertained or who 
definitely do not want to return to their countries 
of origin for fear of reprisals. Thus not out of 
choice but due to necessity the accent in refugee 
work will in the future have to be placed on reset- 
tlement rather than repatriation. As regards chil- 
dren among the displaced persons, the Council 
agreed that children should be united with their 
parents wherever the latter may be, and that or- 
phans or unaccompanied children whose national- 
ity has been established beyond doubt should be 
returned to their country, always provided that 
the best interest of the child is the determining 
factor. 

In the question of refugees, Soviet opposition re- 
sulted again in greater solidarity on the part of 
the overwhelming majority of the Council, which 
voted the final resolution by a majority of 15 to 3 
(U.S.S.R., Poland, and Byelorussia). By a simi- 
lar vote the Council decided to initiate the drafting 
of an international convention governing the issu- 
ance of the "declaration of death", an issue of great 
interest to the survivors of an estimated 8 million 
people who disappeared during the war and most 
of whom it can be assumed have perished. 

Human Rights and Freedom of Information 

The process of clarification was illustrated most 
strikingly in the field of human rights and freedom 
of information. In the course of 1948 these issues 
were discussed at great length in the Human 
Eights Commission and its Subcommission on 
Freedom of Information and the Press, in two 
sessions of the Council, in the General Assembly, 
and in the Conference on Freedom of Information 
held in Geneva from March 23 to April 21. 

In these discussions it became very evident that 
the U.S.S.R. is divided from the rest of the world 
by fundamental differences in outlook and philos- 
ophy. The rock bottom of ideological disagree- 
ment was reached early in the discussions. Al- 
though the U.S.S.R. is interested in the so-called 
social rights such as rights to employment, leisure, 
health, and education, it believes that these rights 



are to be assured primarily by state action, i.e. by 
the regimentation of the individual. At the same 
time the U.S.S.R. has little interest in or is funda- 
mentally opposed to the historic but still vital 
rights, such as freedom of speech and expression ; 
the right to fair trial; the right to move freely 
within and beyond the territory of a state; and 
similar basic tenets of a free society. In the 
drafting of the Declaration of Human Rights, i 
which was adopted by the General Assembly after % 
it had been prepared by the Commission on 
Human Rights, the Eastern European Representa- 
tives attempted to amend almost every article to 
insist on the responsibilities of the individual to 
the state and on measures to control the individ- 
ual. The Declaration which finally emerged 
shows some traces of that insistence, but it remains ■ 
basically a declaration for free men : drafted and 
approved by free men. The final Assembly vote 
was by an overwhelming majority of 48 to 0, with 
abstentions by the Soviet bloc — the U.S.S.R., 
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Byelorussia, the 
Ukraine — and also by Saudi Arabia and South 
Africa. Honduras and Yemen were absent when 
the final vote was taken. 

The Soviet struggle against larger freedom in 
the world was even more strenuous in the discus- 
sions of freedom of information. To the U.S.S.R., 
freedom of information means freedom to publish 
only what is acceptable to Soviet doctrine and in- 
terest. Everything else they label as war-monger- 
ing and incitement to hatred and therefore has 
to be controlled, censored, and penalized. In the 
Council, the Soviet Representatives were either 
unable or unwilling to show any comprehension 
of the American point of view, shared by most of 
the other countries, which is based on our faith 
in the dignity and worth of the individual and his 
ability to think for himself and to form his own 
opinion on the basis of all available information 
and M'hich therefore postulates the widest freedom 
for the dissemination of information without 
state interference. Notwithstanding Eastern 
European opposition the Conference on Freedom 
of Information, which had been called by the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, succeeded in drafting 
three conventions: on the gathering and inter- 
national transmission of news, designed to give 
greater freedom to foreign correspondents; con- 
cerning the institution of an international right of 



Department of State Bulletin 



correction, designed to counteract false informa- 
tion; and on freedom of information, safefrnanl- 
ing in more general terms freedom of speech and 
expression. Only a small minority, chiefly com- 
posed of the U.S.S.R., Byelorussia, the Ukraine, 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, opposed 
these drafts in the final votes. They also opposed 
most of the other 4:5 resolutions of the conference, 
which dealt with sjiecitic measures to facilitate the 
gathering and international transmission of in- 
formation ; with measures concerning the free pub- 
lication and reception of information; with con- 
tinuing machinery to promote the free flow of 
infonnation, including the continuation of the 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information and 
the Press; and with possible modes of action by 
which reconnnendations of the Council could best 
be put into effect. 

When these draft conventions and the resolu- 
tions of the conference came before the Seventh 
Session of the Economic and Social Council the 
Representatives of the U.S.S.R., Byelorussia, and 
Poland engaged in a full-fledged filibuster. Hav- 
ing discovered that they were practically alone in 
their views and could not gain a favorable vote, 
they did their utmost to prevent the majority from 
reaching decisive votes. In this attempt they were 
unfortunately successful, with the result that the 
Economic and Social Council, without voting on 
the substance of the conventions and the resolu- 
tions, passed them on to the Third Session of the 
General Assembly. There again the protracted 
discussions of the Declaration of Human Rights 
made it impossible for the Third Committee of the 
General Assembly to take action upon the con- 
ventions or the resolutions. Thus the conventions 
will have to await the reconvening of the General 
Assembly in April 1949, while some of the reso- 
lutions may not be acted upon before the Ninth 
Session of the Economic and Social Council in 
July 1949. This Soviet success in temporarily 
hampering the cause of freedom may prove only a 
Pyrrhic victory and the three conventions, after 
suitable revision, will meet with the same accept- 
ance on the part of the General Assembly which 
they found in the Conference on Freedom of In- 
formation. 

Genocide 

Soviet opposition was not so destructive in the 
drafting of the convention on genocide, even 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

though they were most reluctant to accept any 

form of international criminal jurisdiction on the 
ground that it violated the principle of national 
sovereignty. This thoroughly reactionary point of 
view did not prevail. The Soviet Representatives 
did, however, take a successful lead in the General 
Assembly, which received the draft convention 
from the Economic and Social Council, to elimi- 
nate political groups from the groups protected 
by the convention. 

Voting 

Soviet Representatives and their satellites in 
the Council, as well as Soviet publications, have 
complained bitterly about the "Anglo-American 
voting machine" which caused the almost un- 
broken series of Soviet defeats and prevented the 
Council from taking "constructive action" as such 
action is understood in Moscow. This is rather a 
pathetic explanation. No such "voting machine" 
operates in the Council unless the term is applied 
to the mechanical minorities of the Soviets and 
their satellites. Numerous occasions could be 
jDointed out where the United States point of view 
on particular issues was not supported by the 
majority. It is true, however, that the solidarity 
of the nontotaliturian countries on matters of 
principle has indeed been sti-iking. That soli- 
darity which is rooted in a common belief in basic 
rights and decencies and is nourished by a grow- 
ing understanding of contemporary facts has been 
greatly advanced by the work of the Council and 
its subsidiary bodies. All the complaints about the 
"voting machine" only show that the vice of wish- 
ful thinking evidently has been shifted from the 
Western "idealists" to the Eastern European 
"realists". 

Fact-Finding 

Second in importance in an evaluation of the 
work of the Council is the fact that it has laid the 
foundations for what is probably the greatest co- 
operative effort in history in ascertaining eco- 
nomic and social facts. In field after field, the 
Secretai-'iat of the United Nations and experts in- 
vited by it are developing studies and publications. 
As a rule, the programs of studies and publications 
are suggested by the Commissions of the Council, 
which submit their proposals to the Council for 
approval. 



January 2, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD ACENCIBS 
Publishing Statistical Information 

Thus, during the year under review the Council 
approved and called upon member governments 
to implement detailed programs of studies and 
specific recommendations submitted by the Statis- 
tical Commission and tlie Population Commission. 
The Statistical Commission's program for the im- 
provement of the international comparability of 
national statistics includes studies on problems of 
statistical classifications ; analyses of the concepts 
and methodologies of basic industrial production 
and price indexes ; definitions, methods, and tech- 
niques in census collection, including the use and 
adaptation of statistical sampling ; as vrell as spe- 
cial consideration of specific problems relating to 
housing, migration, transport and communica- 
tions, national income, trade statistics, populations 
and vital statistics, cost-of-l'iving statistics, and 
family-budget inquiries. In pursuing these ob- 
jectives, the Commission is working in close con- 
tact with the appropriate specialized agencies 
through a Special Consultative Committee on 
Statistical Matters. The results of the studies un- 
dertaken including assembled statistics, are, in 
part, being published in the Monthly Bulletin of 
Statistics, which has already become an indis- 
pensable source of information. In addition the 
Economic and Social Council authorized the pub- 
lication of a Statistical Year Booh as well as a 
Demographic Year Booh prepared by the Sec- 
retariat under the guidance of botli the Statistical 
Commission and the Population Commission. A 
special publication has been devoted to National 
Income Statistics of Various Countries 1938-1947. 

Both the Statistical and the Population Com- 
missions have been paying special attention to 
preparations for the world-wide 1950 census and 
are working on a common set of questions to be 
asked at that time wherever the census is taken. 
The Economic and Social Council in its Seventh 
Session, furthermore, approved the recommenda- 
tion of the Statistical Commission that a study 
be undertaken, in collaboration witli the special- 
ized agencies, regarding the shortages of trained 
statisticians. It also requested the Secretary-Gen- 
eral to formulate an international program of 
education and training to meet these needs. 

Population Statistics 

Beyond collaborating with the Statistical Com- 
mission on matters relating to the Demographic 



Year Booh and the 1950 census, the Population 
Commission is giving special attention to the 
interrelationship of demograpliic, economic, and 
social factors. The importance of these studies 
need not be emphasized in a world where it has 
been suggested that population is outgrowing 
available food supplies and where birth rates, in 
Europe for instance, may well determine the po- 
litical complexion of the world twenty or thirty 
years from now. With the approval of the Council, 
the Commission has initiated a special study, in 
cooperation with tlie World Health Organization, 
on infant mortality. In addition, the Commis- 
sion has established a program of studies regard- 
ing the population aspects of migration, which 
includes five items: improvement of migration 
statistics ; analysis of change in the size and struc- 
ture of populations in the countries of origin and 
destination, resulting from migi-ation; analysis 
of the influence of migration on the size and char- 
acteristics of the labor force in countries of im- 
migration and emigration; analysis of the in- 
fluence of economic and social factors on migra- 
tion; and influence of legislation on migration. 
Several of these studies are being carried on in 
close cooperation with the International Labor 
Organization. 

Fiscal Information 

For tlie sake of completeness, reference should 
be made also to the work of the Fiscal Commis- 
sion, even though it did not meet in 1948 and the 
Council did not take any action on fiscal matters 
during the year. This does not indicate any lack 
of activity in the field for which the Commission 
is responsible. The Council in its Fifth Session 
approved an elaborate program of studies which 
is now being undertaken by the Secretariat. Sub- 
stantial documentation is in preparation both for 
publication and for submission to the next session 
of the Fiscal Commission in January 1949. With 
the approval of the Council, the Secretariat has 
established an international fiscal information 
center which collects and is making available in- 
formation on double taxation and other tax ob- 
stacles to international trade, foreign investment, 
and economic development. It is preparing a 
series of reports under the heading Public Fin- 
ance Surveys, which will ultimately cover some 60 
countries. Another volume. Public Debt, 191^- 
19^7, will be available shortly, which will contain 



10 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



tables giving comprehensive information on the 
public debt — long term luul short term, domestic 
and foreign — of some 60 countries during the 
last thirty-year period. A collection, interna- 
tianal Tax Agreements, is i^resently in the process 
of being printed. 

These remarkable achievements in fact-finding 
are due, among other reasons, to the fact that 
present-day political divisions have so far not in- 
terfered substantially with the work of these 
commissions, although it should be noted that 
even statistical information from the U.S.S.K. 
continues to be scarce. 

Economic Reports 

Mention has been made of the Economic He- 
port: Salient Features of the Wo7-ld Economic 
Situation, 194S-J947, which was prepared by the 
Secretariat and which is to be published annually. 
This report formed the basis of an extended de- 
bate in the Sixth Session of the Council, the full 
text of which was published in printed form as 
the Supplement to the Economic Report. In 
turn, the Economic Commission for Europe has 
produced a Survey of the Economic Situation and 
Prospects of Europe and the Economic Commis- 
sion for Asia and the Far East an Economic Sur- 
vey of Asia and the Far East, 1947. A similar 
report on the economic situation in Latin America 
is being prepared by the Secretariat of the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Latin America. 

All this fact-finding work is essential to the 
formulation of policies both of international or- 
ganizations and of national governments. It of- 
fers the raw material which will give body to the 
discussions of the Economic and Social Council 
and such commissions as the Economic and Em- 
ployment Commission, the record of which has 
been somewhat disappointing. The report of the 
Economic and Employment Commission sub- 
mitted to the Seventh Session of the Council was 
subjected to severe criticism by many members 
of the Council as being too academic. The Com- 
mission itself, not satisfied with its achievements, 
has appointed an Ad Hoc Committee on Organi- 
zation, which will review the structure and func- 
tions of the Commission and will report to the 
Commission previous to consideration of its fu- 
ture at the Ninth Session of the Council. 

Child Welfare and Town Planning 

Increased emphasis on systematic fact-finding 



THE UN/rCO NATIOm AND iPECIAUZED AGENCIES 

has also been characteristic of nuich of the work 
accompJished in the social field in 1948. The 
Council approved the continued publication of the 
Legislatire Series on Child Welfare, originally 
initiated by the League of Nations, and the Sum,- 
maries of Annual Reports on Child Welfare, 
submitted by governments. In the future these 
publications are to be combined in one volume. 
Sunamaries of annual reports on traffic in women 
and children and on the suppression of obscene 
jjublications are now being published. Finally, the 
Council approved the proposal of its Social Com- 
mission for the publication of a Bulletin on Hous- 
ing and Town and Country Planning, the first 
issue of which is now in preparation. It is in- 
tended as a focal point for the collection and pub- 
lication of information in this important field of 
social planning. 

Status of Women 

Much of the time of the Commission on Status 
of Women in 1947 was devoted to the review of a 
questionnaire prepared by the Secretariat on the 
political and economic rights of women and their 
educational opportunities {Questionnaire on the 
Legal Status and Treatment of Women). The 
results of this questionnaire, which are still coming 
in, are serving as a factual basis for much of the 
work of the Commission, particularly as regards 
the promotion of equal franchise and the eligibility 
of women for public office. The problem of equal 
pay for equal work for men and women held the 
attention not only of the Commission on the Status 
of Women but also of the Economic and Social 
Council and the International Labor Organiza- 
tion and will appear again on the agenda of the 
Eighth Session of the Council. Judged by past 
experience the Commission is likely to make the 
most of the information gathered on these and 
other issues of importance to women and to main- 
tain through the Council and General Assembly 
its pressure upon governments to insure women 
equal rights. Unfortunately meetings of the 
Commission and the discussion of its reports to 
the Council are being used extensively for purposes 
of Communist propaganda. Thus at the Seventh 
Session of the Council the representatives of the 
"iron curtain" countries had much to say of the 
small number of American women in public posts 
and legislative bodies. To listen to their speeches 
one would have thought that the United States 
was one of the most backward countries in safe- 



January 2, 1949 



11 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZBD AGENCIES 

guarding the rights of women. Tliose endowed 
with some sense of humor could not help noticing, 
in the midst of Soviet tirades on the subject at 
the Seventh Session, that the U.S.S.R. did not 
have a single woman as adviser in its delegation 
whereas tlie United States had no less than three. 

Other Publications 

To complete the picture of fact-finding in the 
social field, mention must be made of the decision 
of the Economic and Social Council authorizing 
the Secretariat to bring out a periodical on nar- 
cotic drugs. 

Furthermore, the first issue of a Tearhoolc on 
Human Rights was presented to the Seventh Ses- 
sion of the Council. This yearbook is packed with 
facts regarding provisions on human rights in the 
various national constitutions, ordinary laws, and 
international treaties, to which the Human Rights 
Commission proposes to add in next year's edition 
appropriate court decisions. 

From the foregoing, it is indeed evident that 
under the guidance of the Economic and Social 
Council the United Nations has become an im- 
portant fact-finding institution and that the facts 
once ascertained are increasingly becoming a basis 
for constructive action. 

Action 

Those who look for sensational "action" on the 
part of the Council itself overlook the fact that 
under the Charter the powers of the Council are 
essentially recommendatory. Implementation of 
the recommendations of the Council lies essentially 
with governments and specialized agencies such as 
the Iro, the Icao, or the International Bank. 
Nevertheless, the Council and the General As- 
sembly have authorized direct action by the Secre- 
tariat or by some of the subsidiary bodies of the 
Council in a number of cases, particularly in the 
social-welfare field, where no specialized agency 
exists. 

Social Welfare 

One of the first action programs thus authorized 
is the program of advisory social-welfare serv- 
ices, established by resolution of the General As- 
sembly in 1947 and continued upon Ecosoc 
recommendation in 1948. The Third Regular Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly in the fall of 1948, 
again following a recommendation made by the 
Economic and Social Council in its Seventh Ses- 



sion, decided to continue the program in 1949. It 
includes provision of social-welfare experts to 
countries developing their social-welfare services 
(30 experts made available to 12 countries in 
1948) ; training fellowships in the social-welfare 
field (128 from 18 countries in 1948, of whom ap- 
proximately 50 percent selected the United States 
as their country of training) ; provision of demon- 
stration equipment for the treatment of the dis- 
abled (prosthetic appliances) ; exchange of films 
and social-welfare literature; and regional sem- 
inars in selected areas. 

ICEF 

The International Children's Emergency Fund 
(Icef) has carried on an active program, which 
was authorized by the General Assembly in Decem- 
ber 1946, and the operation of which started in 
November 1947. Since then more than G5 million 
dollars have been committed by the Fund for its 
work. In the course of the Seventh Session the 
Economic and Social Council urged the continu- 
ation of the work of the Fund for another year and 
larger support for it. The General Assembly en- 
dorsed this recommendation and the Fund has 
budgeted 78 million dollars for its work in 1949. 
At present supplementary meals are being served 
to some 4,500,000 children in 12 European countries 
and in China. In cooperation with the World 
Health Organization, it is actively pushing for- 
ward a BCG (TB) vaccination campaign, which 
is reaching tens of millions of children in Europe 
and is being extended to other parts of the world. 

The major part of the funds available for this 
work are derived from voluntary government con- 
tributions, the United States having given almost 
42 million dollars of the approximately 68 million 
contributed or pledged by governments. Ad- 
ditional funds have been secured through the 
United Nations Appeal for Children. Although 
successful in many parts of the world, this appeal 
did not yield any substantial results in the United 
States, where it was grafted onto the American 
Overseas Aid Campaign sponsored by American 
voluntary organizations which long before the es- 
tablishment of Unac had been contributing hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars to relief purposes 
abroad. The Economic and Social Council recom- 
mended that Unac should not be continued in 
1949. This reconnnendation was modified by the 
General Assembly, which eliminated a separate 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



|iiomotional unit in the United Nations Secre- 
tui'iiit, Imt (lociiled to coiitimio tlie iijipoiil on a 
more clearly delinod and restricted basis, niakinj? 
it mandatory that all funds collected as a result 
of tlie ajipeal phoiild be turned over to the Inter- 
national Childreirs Emergency Fund. In the iii*st 
year of its existence the yields of the appeal had 
been lianded over to a varietj' of orjianizutions or 
had been useil for purposes of national child wel- 
fare in the countries raising the money. 

Narcotic Drugs 

The most effective action program, operating 
through a system of import certificates and export 
authorizations, was continued on in the control of 
the traffic of narcotic drugs. This system was 
taken over from the League of Nations and 
tightened by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs 
operating in conjunction with the Permanent Cen- 
tral Opium Board, the Supervisory Body, and a 
most efficient division in the United Nations Sec- 
retariat. The Economic and Social Council in 
its Seventh Session recommended to the General 
Assembly favorable action on a new protocol 
bringing under international control drugs outside 
the scope of the 1931 convention, including par- 
ticularly new synthetic drugs. This proposal was 
adopted unanimously by the General Assembly. 
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs is also laying 
the groundwork for the drafting of a single con- 
vention on narcotic drugs to replace the several 
international instruments relating to drug control 
currently in force. In a further attempt to fight 
the pernicious use of narcotics, the Council also 
decided to send a Commission of Inquiry to Peru 
to study the effects of the chewing of coca leaf and 
possibilities of limiting the production and con- 
trolling the distribution of the leaf. 

Expert Assistance 

Few similarly striking examples of action pro- 
grams can be given in the economic field, the rea- 
son being that economic action is largely carried 
forwai'd through such specialized agencies as the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment or the Food and Agriculture Organization. 
The Council's activities in this respect are largely 
confined to coordination, of which more will be 
said later. One significant exception is the pro- 
gram of technical assistance which got under way 
in 1948. As pointed out, there is a growing recog- 



THE UNITBD NATIONi AND SPECMIIZEO AGENCIES 

nitinii ()( (he importance of rendering expert as- 
sistance under international auspices to under- 
developetl countries. By resolution of March 28, 
1947, the Economic and Social Council had in- 
structed tlu' Si'ci-etary-Geiu'ral to establish ma- 
chinery within tiio Secretariat to organize such 
expert assistance, including assistance to member 
governments in obtaining information on expert 
personnel, the elaboration of plans and programs 
for the most efficient utilization of such personnel, 
and the recruiting of teams of experts to be sent 
to countries seeking their advice. In the imple- 
mentation of this resolution one such team com- 
posed of experts supplied by tlie United Nations 
Secretariat and several specialized agencies was 
sent to Haiti in the fall of 1948 to study economic 
conditions and to make reconnnendations thereon. 
The General Assembly, at its Third Session in 
Paris, went one step further and authorized funds 
for three such missions for 1949. 

Closely related to this problem of technical as- 
sistance are technical training schemes designed 
to improve technical know-how in underdeveloped 
countries. In this field the International Labor 
Organization is at i^resent developing a compre- 
hensive program, in consultation with other spe- 
cialized agencies and the regional commissions, 
which is likely to be brought up for consideration 
by the Economic and Social Council at its Ninth 
Session. 

Economic Commission for Europe 

Action is also the keynote of the Economic Com- 
mission for Europe, the establishment of which 
was strongly favored by the United States. Al- 
though its powers are also only recommendatory, 
experience has shown that its recommendations 
have been highly effective. The Commission was 
thus able to contribute greatly to the reestablish- 
ment of inland transport in Europe; to improve 
substantially the allocation of coal, i.e. to make it 
available for such essential purposes as the pi'O- 
duction of steel rather than for less essential 
domestic purposes; and to break other bottlenecks 
in the production of steel and fertilizers to men- 
tion only a few of its achievements. The Economic 
and Social Council in its Seventh Session, after 
having rejected the anti-American Russian motion 
mentioned, put its seal of approval upon the crea- 
tion of an Ad Hoc Committee on Industrial Devel- 
opment and Foreign Trade within the Ece. At the 



January 2, J 949 



13 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

same time the Council expressed the hope that "this 
work will lead to an increase of industrial and 
agricultural production in Europe, particularly in 
those of the countries concerned in which natural 
resources and manpower reserves are as yet not 
fully utilized, and result in an expansion of inter- 
European trade such as to facilitate increased and 
better-balanced trade with the other continents". 
This resolution was passed unanimously, and 
there was a strong feeling in the Council that if 
properly implemented it would help in developing 
East-West economic relations in Europe with- 
out interfering with the Erp program. Such 
development might actually supplement the re- 
covery program. 

Other Economic Action 

The action programs of the Economic Commis- 
sion for Asia and the Far East and of the Economic 
Commission for Latin America are not so nearly 
developed and may never reach in scope and in- 
tensity the European action program which is 
dictated by the urgent and immediate needs of 
reconstruction. The Council did, however, over 
United States opposition, agree to the establish- 
ment of a Bureau of Flood Control under the 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. 
That opposition was, of course, not directed 
against any efforts at flood control in the Far East 
but was motivated by the desire to avoid overor- 
ganization, it being felt that the necessary work 
could be done by the Secretariats of Ecafe and the 
Fao. Both EcATE and Ecla are planning for early 
expert meetings on matters of inland transport. 
Ecla operates in a field which is well covered by 
a number of inter- American agencies, such as the 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council. 
The necessary measures of coordination will ob- 
viously take some time. 

Looking toward future action in the field of 
conservation the American-sponsored plan for a 
Scientific Conference on Conservation and Utili- 
zation of Resources was considered both at the 
Sixth and Seventh Sessions of the Council. It was 
agreed that the conference should be held in May 
or June 1949 and that it should limit itself to an 
exchange of experience in the techniques of con- 
servation and the utilization of resources, a matter 
of paramount importance in a world which in so 
many cases has been reckless in the utilization of 
its resources. 



The Transport and Communications Commis- 
sion, which held its Second Session in Geneva in 
April 1948, concluded that the world-wide con- 
ventions of 1926 on road and motor transport 
were obsolete and proposed the calling of a con- 
ference of governments with the object of con- 
cluding a new world-wide convention on road and 
motor transport. This proposal was adopted by 
the Council, which requested that the 1931 con- 
vention on road signals be included in the review. 
The conference is to be held in 1949. The Com- 
mission furthermore, with the approval of the 
Council, urged member governments to reduce, 
simplify, and unify passport and frontier formali- 
ties to the extent consistent with national security. 
Special attention was given the coordination of 
activities in the fields of aviation, shipping, and | 
telecommunications with respect to safety of life 
at sea and in the air. Finally, the Commission 
mapped out a program for the improvement of 
transport statistics. Concrete action in these fields 
rests, of course, largely with the appropriate spe- 
cialized agencies, i.e. Icao, Itu and Upu, to which 
is soon to be added the International Maritime 
Consultative Organization. The constitution of 
this organization was drafted at a special confer- 
ence called by the Economic and Social Council 
and held early in 1948. 
Yugoslav Gold 

There remains one other item worthy of men- 
tion in this section. Yugoslavia placed upon the 
agenda of the Sixth Session of the Council an item 
requesting action regarding the return of the 
Yugoslav gold which had been entrusted to the 
United States Government for safekeeping during 
the war. The return of this gold had been delayed 
because of the refusal of the Yugoslav Govern- 
ment to arrive at a settlement of American claims 
in Yugoslavia. The Council reached the decision 
that it had no competence to deal with the juridical 
issues involved. The point of view of the United 
States was thus upheld that the Council was not 
qualified to act as an arbitral tribunal, a concilia- 
tion agency, or court. The issue between the two 
governments was subsequently resolved by di- 
rect negotiations between the two governments 
concerned. 

Coordination 

In turning to the achievements of the Council 
in the field of coordination, it is difficult to resist 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



the tcinptafion to highlight tho activities of the 
specialized agencies: to bring to the fore the 
outstanding work accomplished by the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization in establish- 
ing uniform world standards essential to safe and 
eflicient internal'ional air travel; or, to review the 
work of the International Telecommunications 
Union in establishing internationally agreed reg- 
ulations governing the use of radio, telegraph, and 
telephone services, and including the allocation of 
frequencies; or, to recall the attainments of the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment or the International Monetary Fund, both 
of which have extended credits of approximately 
600 million dollars each to member countries for 
purposes of reconstruction and development or 
currency stabilization ; or, to dwell upon the out- 
standing services of the World Health Organiza- 
tion in stamping out the cholera epidemic in Egypt 
or 'in attacking man-killing diseases such as ma- 
laria, tuberculosis, or venereal disease. For lack 
of space this temptation has to be resisted although 
it is essential to realize that in spite of their au- 
tonomy these agencies are part of the United 
Nations eti'ort to assure the well-being of people 
everywhere. 

AdministTative Committee 

In carrying out its special responsibilities under 
article 63 of the Charter for the coordination of 
the activities of the specialized agencies, the Coun- 
cil made substantial headway in 1948. Coordi- 
nation has to be achieved both in administrative 
and substantive, or program, matters. Coordi- 
nation in the administrative matters is largely 
centered in the Administrative Committee on 
Coordination, authorized in 1947 and composed 
of the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
and of the chief executive officers of the spe- 
cialized agencies. Originally this Committee 
was set up to deal with such problems as common 
personnel policies; administrative and general 
services, including libraries ; and information poli- 
cies. During 1948 the Committee showed a 
tendency to concern itself with program coordi- 
nation, a tendency which is not surprising in a 
Committee composed of top officers of the Secre- 
tariats of the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies. Nor is this tendency undesirable as long 
as it is recognized that final responsibility for sub- 



TNE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

stantivo matters rests with the Economic and 

Social Council itself. 

Cooperation in the Specialized Agencies 

In its Sixth Session the Council devoted a great 
deal of time to the elaboration of a set of resolu- 
tions outlining the nature of reports which it ex- 
pected to receive from the specialized agencies. 
It also requested the Secretary-General to produce 
a Comparative Review of the Activities and Work 
Programs of the United Nations in the Economic 
atid Social Fields. This review was submitted to 
the Seventh Session of the Council and gives an ex- 
cellent picture of activities and work programs as 
of the middle of 1948. 

In this same session the Council for the first time 
had before it an almost complete set of reports 
from the specialized agencies. The review of these 
reports revealed that in spite of the complicated 
pattern of organizations now in existence there is 
very little overlapping in their activities and there- 
fore very little waste of effort and money. 

Most promising of all is the growing emphasis, 
both within the Council and within the specialized 
agencies, not only on coordination of activities 
but on increasingly joint action. The best ex- 
isting example of this new emphasis is found in 
the measures taken to meet the continuing world 
food crisis. This matter was originally raised 
during the Sixth Session of the Council by the 
Food and Agriculture Organization, which 
pointed out that any solution of the food crisis 
required the cooperation of several of the special- 
ized agencies as well as the regional commissions. 
The Coimcil invited such cooperation on the part 
of these bodies to study suitable measures to in- 
crease food production by the elimination of the 
shortage of materials directly or indirectly af- 
fecting the production of fertilizers, agricultural 
machinery, and the availability of transport. 
This invitation did not go unheeded. Thus the 
International Labor Organization is now giving 
special attention to manpower problems and the 
training of technically qualified personnel. The 
question of supply shortages is being considered 
by regional commissions, particularly the Ece. 
The World Health Organization is concentrating 
some of its best efforts on the fight against malaria 
in regions where food production is suffering se- 
riously from lowered output due to the heavy in- 
cidence of malaria. 



January 2, 1949 



15 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Similar joint action was contemplated in the dis- 
cussion by the Council of the housing problem. 
The more or less mechanical coordination of ac- 
tivities and the avoidance of overlaps is therefore 
being replaced by the initiation of positive joint 
attacks on some of the most critical economic prob- 
lems of the contemporary world. 

Going beyond the specialized agencies, the 
Council also initiated a study of other intergov- 
ernmental organizations in the economic, social, 
cultural, educational, health, and related fields 
with a view to achieving some reduction in the 
number of such organizations in order to avoid 
overlapping and to diminish governmental ex- 
penditure. This study is being undertaken in 
answer to a request by the United States and will, 
it is hoped, result both in a simplification of in- 
ternational machinery and in considerable savings. 

The Future 

In the light of all that has gone before, the 
achievements of the Council have indeed been re- 
markable, particularly when full account is taken 
of the difficulties under which it is operating. The 
Council is well launched, and barring a major in- 
ternational crisis threatening the very existence 
of the United Nations, it is bound to become an 
increasingly effective organ in improving eco- 
nomic and social standards throughout the world. 
At the same time, and as we look to the future, cer- 
tain awkward and difficult problems have to be 
faced squarely. Only a few of them can be listed 
here. 

First and most important, every effort must be 
made to put an end to the abuse of the Council 
for purely political purposes. There is need for 
more cooperation and less propaganda. It should 
be possible to improve the present situation, at 
least somewhat, by way of more or less mechanical 
devices such as amendments to the rules of pro- 
cedure which would eliminate filibusters and make 
discussions more pertinent to the matters under 
consideration. In the same way attempts have to 
be made to avoid so far as possible some of the 
stages which most proposals usually must pass. 
The repeated reviews of the same question first in 
a commission, then in the full Council, then in a 
committee of the Council, then in the full Council 
again, and finally possibly by tlie General Assem- 
bly, are extremely time consuming and frequently 



result only in the repetition of shopworn 
arguments. 

The Committee on Procedures of the Council 
will meet in January 19-19 to work on these very 
problems. Notwithstanding the results of the 
Committee's work it has to be recognized that 
mechanical devices will be little more than pallia- 
tives. Effective cooperation among all the mem- 
bers of the Council which would result in more 
effective operations of the Council itself is con- 
tingent upon the settlement of pending political 
issues in the world. Without accepting the Soviet 
view of the primacy of politics it is nevertheless 
true that a minimum of political cooperation is 
essential to the effective improvement of economic 
and social relations. It is a fallacy to think that 
a peaceful, prosperous world depends primarily on 
the economists and social workers. It is not their 
job to make the peace. Their task is to give con- 
tent and substance to an established peace and to 
strengthen its foundations. 

Other minor improvements could be made in 
the operations of the Council in the light of past 
experience. Thus it would appear that the Coun- 
cil composed of IS members is not the appropriate 
body to give the final polish to international con- 
ventions, such as the conventions on freedom of 
information, drafted by a much larger intergov- 
ermnental conference. It is doubtful also whether 
the General Assembly is the proper body for the 
final review of such conventions since the Assembly 
is essentially a political body. Conventions might 
possibly be initiated by the Council or the General 
Assembly, leaving the preparation of drafts to 
special drafting committees composed of experts 
and appointed by the Council. Their work would 
be submitted for final action to an intergovern- 
mental conference. This procedure M'ould cer- 
tainly reduce opportunities for obstruction and 
filibustering tactics. 

In the future the number of meetings — not of 
the Council itself, which is overburdened with 
work, but of various subsidiary bodies of the 
Council and, perhaps, of the specialized agencies — 
could conveniently be reduced. During recent 
years the number of international meetings has in- 
creased so rapidly that smaller countries find it 
increasingly difficult to participate in them. 
Fewer meetings might make for moi-e high-level 
representation and greater concentration on para- 
mount issues. In this connection the membei'ship 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



on the Economic and Social Council and its vari- 
ous commissions should not hcconie the vested in- 
terest of a limited number of countries. Because 
of reelect ions only 26 countries out of 58 members 
of the United Nations have so far had an oppor- 
tunity of servinij on the Council. 

Finally, ways and means will have to be found 
to give real meaning to the consultative relations 
established with some 70 nongovernmental organ- 
izations under article 71 of tlie Charter. This 
article was written into the Charter at United 
States initiative. It reflects the conviction that 
the United Nations is an organization not merely 
of governments but also of the peoples of the 
world. For the imjilementation of this article 
detailed arrangements have been worked out by 
the Council which are being changed at -almost 
every meeting of the Council. This whole system 
is still in an experimental stage. Some of the or- 
ganizations brought into relationship have made 
real contributions to the Council by way of con- 
structive suggestions, particularly on the commis- 
sion level. They and others have done much to 
bring about a better miderstanding of Council 
activities. 

Unfortunately, however, a fair proportion of 
the organizations appear to have been interested 
primarily in getting on the list of consultative 
organizations and have since remained inactive. 
Others have flooded the Council with requests for 
special privileges, such as the demand to sit with 
the Council and to participate, without vote, in 
all of its activities, a privilege not even accorded 



THE l/N/rED NATIONS AND SPEC/ALIZEO AGENCIC5 

to governments not members of the Council. 
These organizations seem to be more interested 
in their own standing and prestige than in the 
work of the Council. This situation is not im- 
proved by the fact tliat these same organizations 
have urged upon the Council the discussion of 
essentially political topics designed to cause dis- 
sension rather than cooj^eration among the mem- 
bers of the Council. "Wliere they succeeded in 
having such items put on the agenda of the Coun- 
cil, they frequently failed to produce any support- 
ing documentation, thus delaying the work of the 
Council. These are regrettable developments. 
Enlightened public support for the work of the 
Council is essential and the Council will always 
be ready to act upon constructive suggestions 
made by nongovernmental organizations. How 
to secure such support and how to utilize to the 
full the gi'eat contributions which nongovern- 
mental organizations can make to the Council is 
a matter which requires urgent review. 

One word in conclusion. Looking at the desper- 
ate economic needs of the present-day world and 
considering the social strains and stresses within 
the fabric of contemporary society, it is evident 
that no one body is adequate to deal with these 
acute needs, these strains and stresses. What is 
needed is concerted action on the part of all inter- 
national organizations, governmental and non- 
governmental. To initiate and develop such ac- 
tion remains the primary task of the Economic 
and Social Council. The record of the year 1948 
holds out fair promise for the future of the Coun- 
cil and the achievement of its essential tasks. 



RELATED ECOSOC DOCUMENTS' 

Resolutions adopted by tlie Ecunomic and Social Council during its Sixth S'ession from 2 February 
to 11 March 1948. E/777, March 12, 1948. 48 pp., printed. 

Resolutions adopted by the Economic and Social Council during its Seventh Session from 19 July 
to 29 August 1948. E/106."), August 30, 1948. 79 pp., printed. 

Report of the Economic and Social Council to the General Assembly, covering the period from 18 
August 1947 to 29 August 1948. A/62o-Supplement No. .3, September 1948. 87 pp.. printed. 

Annual Rep«irt of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization, pp. 46-88. A/565-Sup- 
plement Xo. 1. 135 pp., printed. 



• Printed materials may be secured in the United States from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2980 Broadway, New York City. 



January 2, 1949 



17 



United Nations Action on Human Rights in 1948 

BY JAMES SIMSARIAN' 



United Nations action in the field of human 
rights is cn'stallizing on several fronts. The 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights was ap- 
proved by the General Assembly in Paris on t>e- 
cember 10 as a statement of principles to serve 
as a common standard of achievement for all peo- 
ples and all nations in order that the rights and 
freedoms enumerated in the Declaration might 
by progressive measures be gradually secured for 
all.^ The Declaration is not in the form of a 
treaty or international agreement and accordingly 
it does not purport to be a statement of law or 
of a legal obligation. But the principles set forth 
in the Declaration will no doubt have considerable 
moral persuasive influence in the world. 

The next step in the field of hiunan rights will 
be the completion of the drafting of an interna- 
tional covenant on human rights in treaty form at 
the meeting of the United Nations Human Rights 
Commission at Lake Success scheduled for April 
1949. This covenant, legally binding on the 
countries which ratify it, is expected to set forth 
certain basic civil rights typical of those included 
in the first nine amendments to the United States 
Constitution. 

In addition to the Covenant on Human Rights, 
three conventions in the field of freedom of infor- 
mation are being developed in the United Nations. 
One was initially sponsored by the United States, 
another by the United Kingdom, and the third by 
France at the Conference on Freedom of Infor- 
mation held in Geneva in March 1948. These con- 
ventions are also in treaty form and will be legally 
binding on the countries which ratify them. They 
will be considered further by the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations when it reconvenes at 
Lake Success in April 1949. 

Another outstanding development in the field 



'An address delivered before the American Political 
Science Association at Chicago, 111., on Dec. 28, 1948. 
Mr. Simsarian, Acting Chief, Division of United Nations 
Economic and Social Affairs, Department of State, was 
Adviser to the U.S. Representative at the Third Session 
of the U.N. Commi.ssion on Human Rights. 

' For text of the Declaration, see Bulletin of Dec. 19, 
1948, p. 752. 

18 



of human rights was the approval of the genocide 
convention by the General Assembly in Paris and 
the signing of the convention by the Representa- 
tives of the United States and 19 other countries 
on December 11. This convention outlaws gen- 
ocide as a crime under international law, whether 
committed in time of peace or of war, and the 
states which ratify the convention undertake to 
prevent and to punish this crime. The crime of 
genocide is defined in the convention to mean an 
act which is committed with the intent of de- 
stroying, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, 
racial, or religious group as such. 

A number of basic provisions in the U.N. Char- 
ter authorize action in the field of human rights 
in the various organs of the United Nations. In 
the preamble of the Charter there is a reaffirma- 
tion of faith in fundamental human rights, in the 
dignity and worth of the human person, in the 
equal rights of men and women and of nations 
large and small. There is in addition the stated 
determination to promote social progress and bet- 
ter standards of life and larger freedom. Under 
articles 55 and 56 of the Charter, the members of 
the United Nations pledge themselves to take joint 
and separate action in cooperation with the United 
Nations for the promotion of universal respect for 
and observance of human rights and fundamental 
freedoms for all without distinction as to race, 
sex, language, or religion. 

Provision of the Declaration 

The Declaration of Human Rights was initially 
drafted in the United Nations Commission on 
Human Rights over a period of two years of meet- 
ings under the able leadership of Mrs. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt, who is the United States Represen- 
tative and Chairman of that Commission. The 
Declaration, as approved by the General Assem- 
bly, sets forth civil, political, economic, and social 
rights and freedoms. All of these are well 
known — the right to life, liberty and securitj' of 
person, freedom from slavery, torture, cruel, in- 
human or degrading treatment or punislunent, 
freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. 

Department of State Bullet'm 



right to a fair and public hearing by an independ- 
ent and impartial tribunal, presumption of inno- 
cence, protection aga'inst ex post jacto laws, free- 
dom from arbitrary interference with one's pri- 
vacy, family, home or correspondence, freedom 
to leave any country, freedom of movement and 
residence, right of asylum from persecution, equal 
rights as to marriage, right to own property, free- 
dom of religion, expression, assembly, association, 
right of people to have their will serve us the basis 
of the authority of government, right to work, 
right to join trade-unions, right to rest and leisure, 
right to social security, right to education, right 
to participate in the cultural life of the commu- 
nity, right to equality before the law and freedom 
from discrimination. According to the Declara- 
tion, all of these rights and freedoms shall be 
subject to only such limitations as are prescribed 
by law for the purpose of securing due recognition 
or respect for the rights and freedom of others 
and meeting requirements of moralitj-, public or- 
der, and general welfare in a democratic society. 

The Covenant on Human Rights 

The draft Covenant on Human Rights, as I 
pointed out earlier, is concerned with only certain 
basic civil rights, with the expectation that con- 
ventions will be drafted later with respect to cer- 
tain of the other rights set forth in the Declaration. 
The present draft of the Covenant has the follow- 
ing civil rights enmnerated — the right to life and 
liberty, freedom from slavery, forced labor, tor- 
ture, cruel or inhuman punishment or indignity, 
freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, right 
to a fair and public hearing by an independent 
and impartial tribunal, protection against ex post 
facto laws, freedom of movement and residence, 
freedom to leave any country, freedom of religion, 
expression, assembly, association, right to equality 
before the law with respect to these rights and 
freedoms so that none of them is denied to any 
one on account of race, color, sex, language, re- 
ligion, political or other opinion, property status, 
or national or social origin. 

After the Commission on Human Rights com- 
pletes the drafting of the Covenant, it will be 
forwarded to the Economic and Social Council for 
its consideration and then to the General Assembly 
for its approval. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPeCIAUZBD AGENCIES 
Support of U.S. Delegation 

Secretary of State Marshall, in his speech at 
the opening session of the General Assembly in 
September, hailed "the approval of a new declara- 
tion of human rights for free men in a free world". 
He pointed out that — 

"Systematic and deliberate denials of basic hu- 
man rights lie at the root of most of our troubles 
and threaten the work of the United Nations. It 
is not only fundamentally wrong that millions of 
men and women live in daily terror of secret po- 
lice, subject to seizure, imprisonment, or forced 
labor without just cause and without fair trial, 
but these wrongs have repercussions in the com- 
munity of nations. Governments which system- 
atically disregard the rights of their own people 
are not likely to respect the rights of other nations 
and other people and are likely to seek their ob- 
jectives by coercion and force in the international 
field." 

The Secretary called on the General Assembly to 
"approve by an overwhelming majority the Decla- 
ration of Human Rights as a standard of conduct 
for all". 

John Foster Dulles, member of the United 
States Delegation to the General Assembly, in a 
speech in Paris a few days later, said with 
reference to the Declaration of Human Rights : 

"I hope and believe this Assembly will endorse 
this Declaration. But we must not stop there. 
We must go on with the drafting of a Covenant 
which will seek to translate human rights into 
law. It does not minimize the importance of our 
own Declaration of Independence to recognize that 
the Constitution and its Bill of Rights were re- 
quired to establish the body of law necessary to 
achieve practical results. So with the Declara- 
tion before the Assembly. It is an important 
proclamation of principles and should be ap- 
proved. But that approval is only a step toward 
fulfilling the faith in fundamental himian rights, 
in the dignity and worth of the human person and 
the pledge to practice tolerance that is contained 
in the Preamble of the United Nations Charter." 

Obstructions by U.S.S.R. 

In contrast to the affirmative support consist- 
ently given by members of United States Delega- 
tions to the United Nations in the field of human 



January 2, 1949 



19 



THB UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

rights, Soviet Kepresentatives have sought again 
and again to obstruct and negate steps toward a 
universal respect for human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms undertaken in the United Na- 
tions. But fortunately, Soviet representatives 
have been defeated again and again in their nega- 
tive tactics, with only the five Soviet satellites con- 
sistently supporting them — Byelorussia, the 
Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia. 
For example, the Commission on Human Rights 
rejected 25 different amendments to various arti- 
cles of the Declaration of Human Rights that the 
Soviet Union proposed. When the Declaration 
was considered in the General Assembly, the So- 
viet Delegation submitted these rejected amend- 
ments. The General Assembly rejected practically 
all of them. The Soviet bloc did not vote in favor 
of the Declaration in the Commission nor in the 
General Assembly. At the last moment the Soviet 
Delegation to the General Assembly sought to se- 
cure the postponement of consideration of the 
Declaration until the General Assembly session in 
September 1949. But.only the six members of the 
Soviet bloc voted for this proposal. It was, ac- 
cordingly, overwhelmingly defeated, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly proceeded with the approval of the 
Declaration. 

Soviet Amendments 

A brief review of some of the Soviet amend- 
ments to the Declaration rejected by both the 
Commission on Human Rights and the General 
Assembly will make clear why they were rejected. 
One of these was a proposal to amend article 13 of 
the Declaration. This is the article which pro- 
vides that "Everyone has the right to freedom of 
movement and residence within the borders of each 
state." The Soviet Delegation urged that this 
right should be modified so that the right could be 
exercised only "in accordance with the laws of" 
the particular state in which a person happens to 
be. This proposal was rejected with the observa- 
tion that the acceptance of the Soviet amendment 
would completely negate the right expressed in the 
article. 

The Soviet proposal that the right to own prop- 
erty should be subject lo whatever laws may be 
enacted by the country in which the property is 
located was also rejected by tiie Commission on 
Human Rights and the General Assembly for the 
same reason. 



20 



Another Soviet amendment which was rejected 
in both the Commission on Human Rights and the 
General Assembly proposed to limit the right to 
freedom of opinion and expression. The Soviet 
Delegation felt that express provision should be 
made that "Freedom of speech and the press shall 
not be used for purposes of propagating Fascism, 
aggression, and for pi-ovoking hatred between na- 
tions." The United States of course is also against 
Fascism, aggression, or any increase in hatred be- 
tween nations. But should freedom of speech and 
the press be limited for this reason? When a 
similar question was raised in the United Nations 
Economic and Social Council in August 1918, As- 
sistant Secretary of State Thorp pointed out 
that— 

"We are convinced that without access to un- 
fettered news, the people in any country cannot 
carry out their democratic functions as an in- 
formed body of citizens. We are convinced that 
without a free flow of information between coun- 
tries, the development of stable international un- 
derstanding is impossible. We are not afraid of 
so-called false and slanderous information which 
may at times find its way into the columns of a 
free press. We are not afraid of it because we 
believe in the dignity, capacity and worth of man. 
We believe in his judgment and innate intelli- 
gence, and we are certain that we can trust in his 
judgment based upon information and opinion of 
all kinds freely presented and freely received. 
This is the fundamental protection of the true 
democracy, where every effort is made to reduce 
the power of a few, either in private or public life, 
and to rely to the fullest degree possible upon the 
broad judgment and participation by all the 
jDeojile. 

"By contrast, in nations where information is 
state-controlled and censorsliip rules, a few gov- 
ernment oflicials have the power to lead tlieir peo- 
ple down the road to misunderstanding and even 
war, between the walls of contrived ignorance and 
distorted propaganda. The power of the state is 
such that there is no protection. Only the opinion 
of the few and facts selected by the few are pre- 
sented to the people. The essence of the cen- 
tralized approach to information is not freedom, 
but control. Tiie few wlio control from their po- I 
litical seats are inevitably afraid of letting their ' 
people know what otlier people think about their 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



governments; afraid to let them form an unbiased 
judgment about other nations and their institu- 
tions; afraid of the fresh breeze of free argument 
and criticism. Here the power of the few is 
complete. Censorship and control are in their 
hands; in such circumstances, there is no protec- 
tion of the many against the few. That is why 
freedom of information is so basic to the whole 
notion of iiuman riglits and of responsible citizen- 
ship, national and international." 
Consideration by General Assembly 

When the General Assembly turned to the con- 
sideration of the article in the Declaration pro- 
viding that the will of the people shall be the 
basis of the authority of Government, Colombia 
and Costa Rica jointly proposed that this article 
should expressly provide that everyone should 
have the right to oppose the government of his 
country and to promote its replacement by legal 
means with equality of electoral opportunities and 
of access to means of propaganda. This proposal 
was not accepted principally because it was felt 
by a number of delegates that the phraseology of 
the article already implied this right. The So- 
viet Delegate, however, pointed out that he would 
vote against Its inclusion for a different reason. 
He recalled that it was because Hitler and Mus- 
solini had been allowed to oppose their Govern- 
ments that they had eventually been able to come 
to power. He therefore hesitated, he explained, 
to accept the amendment, for it might, he added, 
provide the possibility for Fascist elements to 
overthrow the government. 

The Belgian Delegate proposed that express 
provision be made in the Declaration not only for 
a secret ballot but also for several lists of candi- 
dates to be submitted for offices, because, he 
pointed out, the essence of the democratic system 
was the electoral competition between political 
paities. He felt that in the absence of a guaranty 
of competition based on the existence of several 
lists of candidates, the whole democratic charac- 
ter of free, equal, periodical, and secret elections 
might be distorted. The Bj-elorussian and Soviet 
Delegates strenuously objected to the proposal. 
The Soviet Delegate said that the bourgeois class 
had ceased to exist in his country. He pointed oift 
that there thus remained only workers and peas- 
ants, and the Communist Party by itself was capa- 
ble of looking after their interests. 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPCCIALIZBD AGCNCIES 

In drafting of the economic and social rights, 
the Soviet Delegate repeatedly urged that they be 
stated as obligations of the state and society. For 
example, he proposed that express provision 
should bo made that "The State and society shall 
guarantee" the right to protection against unem- 
ployment "by measures calculated to provide 
everyone with the broadest opportunities for tak- 
ing part in useful work, and to prevent imem- 
ployment." He also proposed tiuit the Declara- 
tion expressly provide that "It is the duty of the 
State and society to take all necessary steps, in- 
cluding legislation, to insure that everyone has 
a real opportunity to enjoy . . . the right to medi- 
cal care and assistance in the case of illness" and 
"the right to decent housing." 

The Commission on Human Rights, however, 
felt that the rights enumerated in the Declaration 
should not be stated as the sole obligations of the 
state. The Commission thought that the Declara- 
tion should state the rights of individuals without 
a detailed elaboration of the manner in which they 
are to be achieved. The General Assembly agreed 
with this view and accordingly rejected the So- 
viet amendments. Where it is felt that provision 
for the implementation of certain rights should 
be provided it is expected that separate treaties 
will be drafted, and these treaties will be binding 
on the states which ratify them. 

The United States made it clear in the course 
of the development of the Declaration that it does 
not consider that the economic and social and cul- 
tural rights stated in the Declaration call upon 
governments to assure the enjoyment of these 
rights by direct governmental action. Article 22 
of the Declaration recognizes that the realization 
of economic, social, and cultural rights must be in 
accordance with the organization as well as the 
resources of each state. 

Soviet Action on the Covenant 

In the consideration of the Covenant on Human 
Rights in the Drafting Committee of the Com- 
mission at Lake Success in May 1948, the Soviet 
Union proi)osed restrictive amendments to that 
document also. Again the Soviet Delegate pro- 
posed that the right of everyone to freedom of 
movement and residence within the borders of a 
state should be "subject to the laws of his own 
country." He again proposed that the right to 
freedom of opinion and expression should be lim- 



January 2, 1949 



21 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

ited. Wlien the Covenant on Human Rights is 
reviewed by the Commission on Human Rights at 
its next session, these Soviet amendments will 
doubtless be considered again. 

Adoption of Genocide Convention 

In the case of the genocide convention, the Soviet 
Delegation abstained from voting in favor of it 
in the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly 
but joined in the plenaiy session with other dele- 
gations in the unanimous vote for it. Of the 20 
countries which signed this convention following 
its approval by the General Assembly, only one 
member of the Soviet bloc participated — Yugo- 
slavia. The signing of the genocide convention is 
subject to ratification by each country. The con- 
vention will be binding only on countries which 
ratify it. 

Freedom of Information Conventions 

In the case of the three freedom-of -information 
conventions, the Soviet Delegation to the General 
Assembly session in Paris sought to secure the post- 
ponement of the consideration of two of these 
conventions until the September 1949 session of 
the General Assembly. Instead of accepting this 
proposal, however, the General Assembly decided 
to consider all three conventions when it reconvenes 
at Lake Success in April. 

Wlien the freedom-of-information conventions 
initially proposed by the United States and the 
United Kingdom were considered at the Confer- 
ence on Freedom of Information held in Geneva 
in March 1948, only the Soviet bloc voted against 
the api^roval of these conventions — the U.S.S.R., 
the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
and Yugoslavia. The convention sponsored by 
the United States is intended to promote the free 
flow of news between countries by facilitating the 
work of foreign correspondents, while the United 
Kingdom convention undertakes to provide for a 
recognition of broad principles of freedom of in- 
formation. 

Debate on Soviet Wives of Foreigners 

The conflict in the field of human rights between 
the Soviet bloc and the democratic countries was 
brought out dramatically in the Sixth Committee 
of tlic General Assembly in Paris when the Chilean 
Delegate attacked the Soviet Union for violating 
fundamental human rights in preventing the 



Soviet wives of foreigners from joining their hus- 
bands abroad. The Soviet Union was censured by 
the vote of this committee for this practice. Only 
the Soviet bloc voted against the Chilean indict- 
ment. The concern of the Chilean Government 
concerning this practice of the Soviet Union initi- 
ally arose because of the refusal of the Soviet 
Union to permit the Soviet wife of the son of the 
Chilean Ambassador to Moscow to leave the 
U.S.S.R. with her husband. Of course this has 
not been an isolated case. Not only the Soviet 
wives of Chilean nationals have been denied the 
right to leave the Soviet Union to join their hus- 
bands but the Soviet wives of the nationals of many 
other countries, including the United States, the 
United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Aus- 
tralia, Colombia, and Uruguay, have been 
similarly denied the right to leave the Soviet 
Union. From the time of the recognition of the 
Soviet Government by the United States in No- 
vember 1933 to the present time, only about 50 of 
the Soviet wives of American citizens have been 
permitted to leave the Soviet Union. There are 
now 350 Soviet wives and 65 Soviet husbands of 
American citizens who have applied for permis- 
sion to depart from the Soviet Union without suc- 
cess; 97 of this group are the wives of American 
war veterans. On February 15, 1947, a Soviet law 
was adopted which stated that marriage between 
Soviet citizens and foreigners is prohibited. The 
Chilean Ambassador's son was married prior to 
the passage of this law as were also the Soviet 
wives and husbands of American citizens whom I 
mentioned. Although repeated representations 
have been made by the United States Government 
to the Soviet Government for permission to en- 
able the Soviet wives and husbands of Americans 
to leave the Soviet Union to join their spouses 
abroad, the Soviet Government has been adamant 
in refusing to permit them to leave. 

Shortcomings in the U.S. 

In conclusion, I wish to give due recognition to 
our own shortcomings in the United States. We 
all know that we in this country are far from per- 
fect in our own recognition of human rights. 
There are many shortcomings in the respect we ac- 
cord to human rights, just as there are many short- 
comings in other countries. We publish our 
shortcomings in the headlines of our newspapers 
and are proud of the fact that we are prepared to 



22 



Department of State Bullet'm 



face them and to try to overcome them. Vigorous 
self-criticism is basic to our democracy. The re- 
port of tlie President's Conunittce on Civil Rights 
is illustrative. It did not undertake to list the ad- 
vances made in the field of civil rights in this 
country; it pointed out the ways in which we 
should continue to improve conditions in the 
United States. 

But in this zealous effort, commendable as it is, 
to see the bad side of our record, we sometimes for- 
get that thei-e is an increasing respect for human 
riglUs in this country tliat is indeed heartening. 
In fact, there has been a steady march of progress 
along this road, year by year, generation by gen- 
eration. Naturally we all wish to continue along 
this road, steadily promoting a universal respect 
for human rights. It is in contrast to this stead- 
ily increasing respect being accorded to human 
rights in this country and in other democratic 
countries that the repressive practices in the Soviet 
Union and her satellites stand out in shocking and 
tragic form. As discussions in the field of human 
rights continue in the United Nations, we observe 
more and more clearly that the denial of human 
rights in the Soviet Union is being reflected in the 
positions being taken by the Delegates of the 
Soviet Union as they undertake to participate in 
the formulation of a Declaration of Human 
Rights, a Covenant on Human Rights, conven- 
tions concerning freedom of information, and a 
genocide convention. The practices of the Soviet 
Union were brought out clearly in the Sixth Com- 
mittee of the General Assembly when the Delegate 
of Chile pointed to the refusal of the Soviet Union 
to permit Soviet wives to join their husbands 
abroad. The tactics of Soviet Delegates in trying 



THE UNirCD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

to obstruct and negate efforts toward the promo- 
tion of respect for human rights in the Commis- 
sion on Human Riglits, in the Economic and Social 
Council, and in the General Assembly and at other 
international conferences merely mirror the re- 
strictions and limitations on human rights and 
freedoms existing within the Soviet Union itself. 

Moral Leadership of Free Nations 

As the totalitai''ian states seek to write into in- 
ternational agreements in the field of human rights 
the restrictive and repressive tactics practiced in 
their own countries, the United States and other 
members of the United Nations with free people 
must continue to stand firm. They must make it 
clear time and time again to the totalitarian states 
that countries with free peoi)le cannot compromise 
with the principles of human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms. These free nations must main- 
tain their moral leadership in the United Nations, 
so that there will be no misunderstanding on the 
part of the totalitarian states. At the same time 
the United States must join with these other free 
nations in showing the world that in this counti-y 
as well as in other free nations we are indeed 
moving along the road to increasing respect for 
human rights and freedoms and that although we 
have not reached our objectives as yet, we are 
pressing ahead in that direction. Perhaps if all 
the free nations of the world join together in a 
concerted drive towards increasing respect for 
human rights and freedoms in their own countries 
as well as in other countries, the few men who di- 
rect the fate of totalitarian states in the world 
today may finally realize that they too must ac- 
cord some measure of freedom to their people. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography' 



General Assembly 

Official Rocords of the Second Session of the General 
Assembly 
Fifth Conmiittee. Administrative and Budgetary Ques- 
tions. Summary Record of Meetings, 16 September- 
18 November 1!>47. xxii, 500 pp. printed. $5.00. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 29fX) Broadway, New York City. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



OflScial Records of the Third Session 
— — Information Annex IV to Budget Estimates for the 

Financial Year 1949. Supplement No. 5a. (A/556/ 

Add.l). 17 pp. printed. 25({. 
Iteports of the Interim Committee, 5 January-5 

August 1948. Supplement No. 10 (A/578, A/583, 

A/G05, A/606), iv, 51 pp. printed. 00<;. 
Report of the Economic and Social Council to the 

General Assembly Covering the Period from 18 August 

1947 to 29 August 1948. Supplement No. 3 (A/625). 

vi, 87 pp. printed. 90#. 

(Continued on page 27) 



January 2, 7949 



23 



Discussion in the Security Council of the Indonesian Situation 



STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUPi 
Deputy U.S. Representative in the Security Council 



My Government took the initiative in request- 
ing an emergency meeting of the Security Council 
so the Council might take prompt and forthright 
action in dealing with the dangerous situation 
which has developed in Indonesia. 

At the outset, Mr. President, I consider it neces- 
sary to state that my Goverimient's position in this 
matter is basically what it was in July and August 
of 1947, when the Council was previously con- 
fronted with an outbreak of hostilities in Indo- 
nesia. 

After tlie outbreak of hostilities in July 19-±7, 
the Security Council adopted on August 1, 1947, 
the following resolution - : 

"Tlie Security Council 

"Noting with concern the hostilities in progress be- 
tween the armed forces of the Netherlands and the Re- 
public of Indonesia, 

"Calls upon the parties 

"(A) To cease hostilities forthwith and 

"(B) To settle their disputes by arbitration or by 
other peaceful means and keep the Security Council in- 
formed about the progress of the settlement." 

At the 193d meeting of the Security Council on 
August 22. 1947, the United States Representative 
stated, and I quote : 

"My Government believes that the Security 
Council acted properly and in entire conformity 
with the Charter in calling upon the parties to 
cease hostilities. We consider that paragraph 
(A) of the Council's resolution of August 1, 1947, 
so far as the Charter is concerned, is a provisional 
measure under article 40. This decision, in our 
view was properly taken, without prejudice to the 
contentions of tlte parties, in respect to whether 
the Indonesian Eepublic is an independent state 
under international law. 

"In our view, the Council's jurisdiction rested 
in the fact that large-scale hostilities were being 
carried on in Indonesia, the repercussions of which 
were so serious that they amounted to a threat to 
international peace and security. 

"In the view of the United States, the Security 
Council has ample power to observe, if necessary, 

' Made before the Security Council in Paris on Dec. 22, 
194f>, and released to the press on the same date. 

' U.N. doc. S/4.">!), Aug. 1, 1947. 

'See Work of the Lnited Nationn Qood OffU:cs Commit- 
tee in Indonesia (Department of State publication 3108), 
p. 334. 

* U.N. doc. S/1085, Nov. 15, 1948. 



its own cease-fire order and to make certain that 
new hostilities do not break out which would 
threaten international peace and security. 

"It is hardly necessary for me to emphasize the 
seriousness with which my Government would 
view a failure by the parties to comply with the 
Council's cease-fire order. Of course, in such an 
event, the Council would, under article 40, have 
to take such failure into account in considermg 
further action." 

The United States Government considers that 
the Council today is faced with at least as grave 
a situation as that of August 1947, and we believe 
that the Council must act accordingly. 

This is not a situation, Mr. President, where 
there can be any uncertainty as to whether there 
lias been a breakdown of a truce agreement. In- 
deed, the Government of the Netherlands has quite 
formally and officially announced that it has re- 
nounced the truce agreement it signed w^th the 
Government of the Republic of Indonesia on Jan- 
uary 17, 1948.^ The armed forces of the Nether- 
lands have in fact crossed the status quo line es- 
tablished under the truce agreement and are at 
this very moment carrying out militaiy operations 
within Republican-controlled territory. It fol- 
lows from this that the Council need not and 
should not await a further report from its agency 
on the spot, the Good Offices Committee, befox'e 
deciding to order both parties to cease hostilities 
immediately. 

In the above connection, I invite the attention 
of the members of the Security Council to the tele- 
gram dated December 19, 1948, from members of 
the (jood Offices Committee in Batavia. Para- 
graph 10 of the telegram reads as follows: 

"The Good Offices Committee calls upon the 
Security Council to consider, on a basis of the ut- 
most urgency, the outbreak of hostilities in Indo- 
nesia in violation of the Renville truce agreement 
signed by the Governments of tlie Netherlands and 
the Republic of Indonesia on the I7th of January 
1948." 

The outbreak of hostilities in Indonesia follows 
more than a year's attemjit on the part of the 
Council's agency, the Good Offices Committee, to 
assist the Netherlands and tlie Republic of Indo- 
nesia to reach a negotiated settlement of their 
disjnite.'' 

It is clear from the Committee's fourth interim 



i 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



report and its subsequent telegraphic reports that 
the Committee has tried iigain and ajrain to brinji 
tlie parties togetlier. Indeed, tlie etl'orts of the 
representatives on the Committee, actinji botli 
singly and collectively, even in the face of what 
has recently appeared to be an almost hopeless 
task, are, I am sure, fully appreciated by all the 
members of the Security Council. 

Followinsi: the adoption of the Council's cease- 
fire resolution of the first of August 1!>47, the ef- 
forts of the parties to settle tlieir dispute between 
themselves met with no success. Accordingly, on 
August 25, 19-17, the Couiu-'il tendered its own good 
offices to the j^arties through the committee of 
three members of the Council. Each party selected 
one: the tliird member was designated by the two 
so selected. 

The Council's committee went to Indonesia in 
October 1947 to assist the parties directly and, 
on the spot, to reach a formal truce agreement and 
also to assist them in reaching a settlement of their 
political differences. 

On January 17, 1948, the Governments of the 
Netherlands and of the Republic of Indonesia 
signed tlie Renville agreements, whicli established 
a formal truce and which laid down 18 principles 
as a basis for the negotiation of a final settlement 
of their ]:)olitical dispute under the auspices of the 
Good Offices Committee. 

After various delays, negotiations for a political 
settlement were finally begun under the Commit- 
tee's auspices in March of this j^ear. 

The Council will recall that these negotiations 
were suspended last June by the Netherlands, fol- 
lowing the presentation of a plan for settling the 
dispute suggested by the representatives of Aus- 
tralia and the United States on the Committee. 
Later that month the Netherlands indicated its 
willingness to resume negotiations. However, as 
the Committee made clear in its fourth interim 
report to the Council, there have been no political 
negotiations under the auspices of the Committee 
since the end of May 1948. The introduction of 
that report emphasized that the long-continued 
delay in achieving a political settlement had had 
serious economic effects, had intensified both politi- 
cal difficulties within the Republic and political 
tension between the parties, and had resulted in an 
increasing strain on the truce with the ever-present 
possibility of a general breakdown. 

That breakdown has now occuri-ed. In a tele- 
gram dated December 12. the Committee reported 
to the Council in part as follows : 

"The setting up of an interim federal govern- 
ment by decree of the Government of the Nether- 
lands, which is apparently to occur before January 
1. 1949, will contribute further to the opinion of 
the Republic that the Netherlands Government has 
been proceeding unilaterally to establish ulti- 
matelv a United States of Indonesia on its own 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

terms and without the Republic. The formation 

of an interim federal government now without the 
Republic will greatly complicate a negotiated set- 
tlement of the Indonesian dispute and could create 
serious unrest in Indonesia. 

"In the light of the statements made by the 
Netherlands delegation that 'negotiations under 
the auspices of tiie Conunittee at this stage are 
futile,' and that tliere are 'irreconcilable' positions 
of the parties on cei'tain issues, the Committee does 
not foresee the jwssibility of its bringing the pai"- 
ties together in bona fide negotiations. 

"The Committee has no confidence that even the 
presently unsatisfactory level of truce enforcement 
can be maintained as the possibility of political 
agreement becomes more remote. The Committee 
can see in the present situation only intensification 
of the factors already making for further economic 
deterioration, general unrest and social upheaval. 
Widespread hostilities involving the conflict of 
organized armed groups on a large scale might be 
the outcome." 

On the other hand, let us examine the circum- 
stances under which the Netherlands Government 
has seen fit to abandon the truce. These ai'e re- 
ported to you, Mr. President, in document S/1129/ 
Add :1, dated December 20, 1948. The Good Of- 
fices Committee was physically separated on 
December 18. The Chairman of the week, the 
Australian representative, and the Belgian repre- 
sentative were at Kallurang, the Republican capi- 
tal, and the United States representative was at 
Batavia some three hours distant by air. In the 
middle of the night on December 18, the Nether- 
lands Delegation handed a letter to the United 
States representative addressed to the chairman of 
the Committee. The letter stated that the truce 
agreement would be terminated in less than an 
hour's time. It went on to say that the Republican 
Government had been notified accordingly. But in 
the course of the night on which this letter was 
delivered to the United States representative in 
Batavia, telegraphic communications were cut off 
and permission for the Good Offices Committee 
aircraft to fly to the Republican capital was de- 
nied. Thus no notice of the repudiation reached 
the Committee as a whole and, as far as known, 
according to this document none reached the Re- 
public in Jogjakarta. 

In a telegram dated December 18, the Committee 
forwarded a letter from the United States repre- 
sentative on the Committee to the Acting Chair- 
man of the Netherlands Delegation which read in 
part as follows : 

"In the four and a half months that I have been 
present in Indonesia as the United States repre- 
sentative on the Committee of Good Offices, neither 
I nor any other members of the Committee have 
had an oi^portunity to participate in, or to observe 



January 2, 1949 



25 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

a discussion of any of tliese issues in the Committee 
of Good Offices or in the conference of the parties. 
Nor have we been given an opportunity to examine 
in any detail or in full context the opposing posi- 
tions of the parties in the recent direct talks except 
as presented sketchily in the statements made by 
the two parties whicli are appended to the special 
report of the Committee of Good Offices to the 
Security Council of December 12." 

In the light of the above record and in view of 
the recent events in Indonesia, my Goverimient is 
unable to conclude that the Netherlands has either 
consistently or conscientiously endeavored to ex- 
haust all possibilities of resuming negotiations un- 
der the Committee's auspices. This appears to us 
to be particularly true in the light of the fact that 
the truce agreement itself was, from all objective 
accounts, satisfactorily implemented in the begin- 
ning. As the Committee pointed out on November 
26 in the introduction to its fourth interim report, 
however, "at the time of the signing of the truce 
agreement, it was expected that a political settle- 
ment would follow within a short time. The truce 
has now been in force for ten months. This is an 
extremely long period for any truce to remain 
effective and, in this case, the regi'ettable lack of 
progress toward a political settlement and the 
deterioration in the economic conditions within the 
Republic have subjected the truce to an ever-in- 
creasing strain. The rising number of infringe- 
ments of the truce agreement during this period 
is testimony to the relationship between the main- 
tenance of the truce and successful progress in 
political negotiations". 

After carefully studying the material thus far 
made available by the Committee, my Government 
fails to find any justification for renewal of mili- 
tary operations in Indonesia. This is particularly 
true in light of the fact that there has been a resort 
to force following a period of seven months in 
which the resources of the Committee of Good 
Offices have not been utilized. If, as is alleged, 
violations of the truce agreement by the Republic 
have been so extensive and so persistent over a 
period of time, then it seems to me that the Nether- 
lands Government should have reported these vio- 
lations directly to the Security Council before 
renouncing the truce agreement and resorting to 
military action by land, sea, and air against the 
Republic. This is especially noteworthy in view 
of the assurances offered the Council by the Neth- 
erlands representative the last time the Indonesian 
question was before the Council, and in view of 
more recent assurances offered the governments 
represented on the Committee of Good Offices. 

Article 10 of the truce agreement reads : "This 
agreement shall be considered binding unless one 
party notifies the Good Offices Committee and the 
other party that it considers the truce regulations 

26 



are not being observed by the other party and that 
this agreement should therefore be terminated." 

The Netherlands Government by the letter 
handed to the United States representative on the 
Committee purported thus to notify the Commit- 
tee of its abandonment of the truce a matter of 
minutes later with no communications available. 
Similarly, the Republican authorities in Batavia 
could not communicate with their capital and ac- 
cording to this report they were arrested less than 
two hours after receiving the notification. 

This then is the notification which the Nether- 
lands asserts it gave the Good Offices Committee 
and Republic, of termination of the truce. The 
United States representative and the Australian 
Deputy thus concluded in their message to you, 
Mr. President, that "The Netherlands have not 
fulfilled the requirements of Article 10". 

It is my understanding that the President of the 
Council has telegraphed the Committee to report 
to us fully on the most recent developments in 
Java and Sumatra. That report, together with 
the reports already received from the Committee, 
will be of considerable value to the Comicil in 
estimating the causes of the present situation in 
Indonesia. I believe, however, that we should ex- 
pressly instruct the Committee to prepare a report 
for us which will enable us to assess ultimate 
responsibility for the failure of the Committee's 
efforts to effect a peaceful solution. I think the 
members of the Council have a right to know, fully 
and in detail, why it is that from May until De- 
cember the Netherlands and the Republic did not 
resume negotiations under the Committee's aus- 
pices. I think we should call on the Committee 
expressly to assess responsibility, as between the 
parties, for the failure to reach a negotiated settle- 
ment. Both parties solemnly accepted the Coun- 
cil's tender of good offices and I think the time has 
now come for the Council to know how it is that 
this particular method of settlement, which seemed 
admirably suited to the circumstances, failed to 
produce the desired I'esults. 

Under the present circumstances in Indonesia 
it will doubtless take the Committee some little 
while to prepare a report of this nature. Mean- 
while, armed conflict is taking place there. The ^ 
simple, massive fact is that the Council's own or- 
der of August 1, 1947, has been contravened. This 
is a matter with which the Security Council must 
deal immediately and without awaiting any fur- 
ther reports from the Committee. As I said 
earlier, this is not a situation in which there can 
be an}' uncertainty as to whether there has in fact 
been an outbreak of hostilities. It seems to me 
that the Council is obligated under the Charter at 
this stage of its deliberations immediately to or- 
der a cessation of hostilities in Indonesia and to 
require the armed forces of botli parties immedi- 
ately to withdraw to their own sides of the demili- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



tarized zones which arc delineated in detail in the 
truce afrreeinent of JanuaiT 17, 1948. I must 
reiterate my Government's view that the Council's 
cease-fire order of the first of August, 19-47, con- 
tinues to be bindintron both parties and that it has 
been violated by the recent armed action taken by 
the Netlierlands authorities in Indonesia. 

It is hardly necessary for me to emphasize the 
seriousness with which my Government views a 
failure, by either party, to comply with the Coun- 
cil's cease-fire order, ft is our considered view that 
the renewed outbreak of hostilities in Indonesia 
may prove to be a grave threat to international 
peace. Accordingly, in concert with Colombia 
and Syria the United States has submitted a draft 
resolution to the Council today. I hoi^e it will 
adopt it with a minimum of delay. 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

It will be noted that tlie final paragraph of the 
draft resolution calls upon the Grood Oflices Com- 
mittee to nnike further reports, including an as- 
sessment of responsibility for the outbreak of 
hostilities. It may seem to some members of the 
Council that this paragraph is unnecessary in view 
of the very excellent reports which have already 
reached the Council, including one which has just 
been distributed as Document S/11.38. Neverthe- 
less, since members of the Committee have in- 
formed us that it has not yet been possible for the 
full Committee to meet together and since the 
Council has not yet formally requested reports of 
this nature, I believe that it would be helpful to 
the Committee to have the Council record its de- 
sires as expressed in this last paragraph. 



Current United Nations Documents — Continued from page : 

General Assembly^Continued 



OHU'ial Records of the Third Session 

Supplementary Report of the United Nations Special 

Committee on the Balkans Covering the Period from 
17 June to 10 September 1948. Supplement No. 8 A 
(A (544). Iv, 17 pp. printed. 25<*. 

Report of the Securit.v Council to the General As- 
sembly Covering the Period from Ifi July 1947 to 15 
July 1948. Supplement No. 2 (A/620). 144 pp. 
printed. $1.50. 

First Part of the Report of the United Nations 

Temporary Commission on Korea. Vol. I. Supple- 
ment No. 9 (A/575). V,. 47 pp. printed. 60<J. Vol. 
II— Annexes I-VIII. Supplement No. 9 (A/575 Add. 
1). 9t> pp. printed. $1.50. Vol. Ill— Annexes IX- 
XII. Supplement No. 9 (A/575, Add. 2). 304 pp. 
printed. $3.00. 

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Report of the Government of the Union of South Africa 
on the Administration of South West Africa : Report 
of the Trusteeship Council, Report of the Fourth 
Committee. A/734, Nov. 23, 1948. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Security Council 

Official Records, Third Tear 
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printed. 25('. 
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46 pp. printed. 50^. 

Economic and Social Council 

Seventh Session 
Resolutions Adopted by the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil During the Seventh Session from 19 July to 29 
Aufrust 1948. viii, 79 pp. printed. SOc". 
Report on the Progress and Prospect of Repatriation, Re- 
settlement and Immigration of Refugees and Dis- 
placed Persons. Submitted by the Secretary-General 
In Collaboration with the Executive Secretary of the 
Preparatory Commission for the International Refu- 
gee Organization. E/816, 10 June 1948. 67 pp. 



Report of the Secretary-General on Work Programmes 
of the Economic and Social Departments and of Com- 
missions of the Council for 1948-1949. B/844, 27 July 
1948. 49 pp. mimeo. 

Third Report of the Coordination Committee to the 
Economic and Social Council. E/846, July 20, 1948. 
22 pp. mimeo. 

Comparative Review of the Activities and Work Pro- 
grammes of the United Nations and the Specialized 
Agencies in the Economic and Social Fields, Sub- 
mitted bv the Secretary-General. E/848, 23 July 
1948. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Revision of the Rules of Procedure of the Council, Memo- 
randum by the Secretary-General. E/883, 26 July 
1948. 42 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Executive Board of the International Chil- 
dren's Emergency Fund. (Item 24) E/901, 30 July 
1948. 29 pp. mimeo. 

Resolutions of the Havana Conference Relating to Eco- 
nomic Development and Reconstruction. Interim Re- 
port by the Secretariat of the Interim Commission 
for the International Trade Organization. E/943, 
11 August 1948. 51 pp. mimeo. 

Implementation of Recommendations on Economic and 
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General. E/9()3, 13 August 1948. 37 pp. mimeo. 

Preliminary List of Agenda Items for the Eighth Session. 
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Fourth Report of the Administrative Committee on Co- 
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8 November 1948. 205 pp. mimeo. 
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mimeo. 
Disposition of Agenda Items. Third Session, 16 June to 

5 August 1948. T/INF/8, 18 November 1948. 27 pp. 

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Final Act and Related Documents, viii 2. 55 pp. 

printed. 40^. 



January 2, J 949 



27 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Evacuation of Americans From China 



Between November 1 and 15, 1948, Americans in 
China (with the exception of those living in the 
Taipei, Formosa, and Tihwa consular districts and 
those living in the Communist-occupied cities of 
Mukden and Dairen) were advised that, unless 
they had compelling reason to remain in China, 
they consider the desirability of evacuation while 
nomial transportation facilities remained avail- 
able. The texts of these warnings, as well as the 
approximate numbers of Americans who re- 
sponded thereto, are given below. The numbers 
given are necessarily approximate owing to the 
fact that no precise numbers of those evacuated 
from the different cities have yet been furnished 
the Department. 

Evacuation Warnings 

On November 1, 1948, the American Consulates 
General at Peiping and Tientsin issued the follow- 
ing notice to American citizens residing in their 
respective consular districts : 

"The military situation in north China appears 
to indicate that hostilities may spread to areas 
hitherto peaceful and that normal transportation 
facilities may be completely disrupted. Accord- 
ingly, American citizens should consider the desir- 
ability of evacuation at this time while normal 
transportation facilities are still available. 

"In view of the present limited accommodations 
for passengers who might desire to travel by sea 
from Tientsin, additional facilities for transporta- 
tion to Tsingtao or to Shanghai are being ar- 
ranged. It is contemplated that, as ice conditions 
may interfere with navigation of tlie Hai Ho about 
mid-December, such additional facilities for jDas- 
sage to Tsingtao or to Shanghai would be available 
between now and December 1, 1948. It is, there- 
fore, requested that you inform this Consulate 
General whether you or any of your dependents 
would desire to avail themselves of such facilities 
from Tientsin." 

Nanking 

On November 5, 1948, the American Embassy at 
Nanking issued the following warning to Amer- 
icans in Nanking and its vicinity : 



"Military developments in north China make it 
appear possible that hostilities may spread farther 
south, with the result that normal transportation 
facilities between Nanking and its environs and 
the sea may be disrupted. Also, with the approach 
of winter and the increasing shortage of food sup- 
plies and fuel, those remaining in Nanking and its 
environs may be subjected to undue hardships. 

"Accordingly, it is suggested that unless you 
have compelling reason to remain, 3'ou consider the 
desirability of evacuation while normal transpoi'- 
tation facilities remain available." 

Shanghai 

A similar warning was issued simultaneously by 
the American Consulate General at Shanghai tu 
Americans residing in the provinces of Kiangsu 
and Anhwei. On November 9, the American Con- 
sulate General at Hankow also sent a similar warn- 
ing to Americans residing in those parts of the 
Hankow consular district lying north of, and bor- 
dering on, the Yangtze River. On November lU, 
the American Consulate General at Tsingtao it;- 
sued a notice similar to those issued by the Embassy 
at Nanking and the Consulates General at Shang- 
hai and 
Tsingtao. 



Hankow to Americans residing in 



Peiping and Tientsin 

On November 11, 1948, the American Consulates 
General at Peiping and Tientsin issued the follow- 
ing further notice to American citizens in those 
cities : 

"In as much as later evacuation on an emergency 
basis may be impossible, American citizens who do 
not desire to remain in north China should plan to 
leave at once by United States naval vessel from 
Tientsin. It is planned that the next United 
States naval vessel will leave Tientsin on Novem- 
ber 18. American citizens who desire to avail 
themselves of the opportunity of proceeding by 
United States naval vessel should connnunicate 
with the Consulate General by November 13. 

"Persons proceeding to Shanghai should en- 
deavor to make their own arrangements for lodg- 
ing there. Efforts will be made to billet persons 
unable to make such arrangements." 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



Canton, Chungking, Hankoiv, Kunnting, 
Peiping, Shankhai, Ttingtao, and Tientsin 

On Novonibcr Ki, 1048, in aocordiinco with the 
Embass3'"s instructions, the foUowino; statement 
was issued to American citizens residing in the 
Shanghai (inchiding Nanking), Tsingtao, Tient- 
sin, Peiping, Canton, Kunming, Chungking, and 
Hankow consuhir districts : 

"In view of the generally deteriorating situation 
and the likelihood that means of exit from China 

may later be unavailable, all Americans in 

consular district who are not prepared to remain 
in areas where they now reside under possibly 
hazardous conditions should plan at once to move 
to places of safety. Facilities for movement are 
being arranged and will be announced shortly. 
These facilities will probably be available for only 
a short period of time. Therefore, all persons in- 
tending to take advantage of this opportunity for 
movement should do so immediately on receipt of 
information on the time and place of availability 
of transport." 

Mr. Lovett's Press and Radio News Conference, 
December 8, 1948 

At his press and radio news conference on De- 
cember 8, Acting Secretary Lovett reviewed the 
question of the evacuation of Americans from 
China. Mr. Lovett said that most of the corre- 
spondents would recall that early in November 
the consular and Embassy officials issued general 
warnings to American citizens which pointed out 
that, as the military situation deteriorated and 
transportation became more difficult to obtain, 
Americans would be well advised to leave unless 
there was some compelling reason for them to re- 
main. He pointed out that, from the first of No- 
vember through the fifth of December, 1,316 Amer- 
ican citizens liad been evacuated. Of tliese about 
751 went by plane, 560 by United States Army and 
Navy transport vessels, and 5 by commercial ship. 

Mr. Lovett stated that the diplomatic person- 
nel as a whole would remain at their posts. How- 
ever, female clerks and dependents of consular and 
diplomatic officials had been given the option of 
leaving or not. He added that 121 persons in these 
categories had already been evacuated. 



THE RECORD OF TH£ WEBK 

Pointing out that there were some 2,500 Amer- 
ican citizens in Shangiiai and that similar warn- 
ings had been issued to them, Mr. Lovett went on 
to say that there was enough shipi)ing available in 
the area to evacuate those persons, if necessary. 
He said that the Marine and Navy personnel were 
adequate to facilitate the embarkation of any 
Americans remaining there and, with the Ameri- 
can consular and Embassy personnel at their posts, 
they would, of course, continue to be of such serv- 
ice as they could to American civilian and business 
interests and take appropriate steps for their 
pi'otection. 

Mr. Lovett stated that there was a number of 
Americans who have sound, compelling reasons to 
remain, and he said that the choice to remain 
depended, of course, upon the individual or upon 
those interests sponsoring him, be it a missionary, 
educational, or business group. 

Approximate Numbers of Nonofflcial and Nonservice 
Americans Evacuated From China Through December 20, 
1948 

From the following cities in critical areas : 

Nanking No reliable information 

Shanghai 920 

Hankow 170 

Tientsin 120 

Peiping 432 

Tsingtao 40 

Total number evacuated from China 1, 754 

Dependents of V.8. Consulate and Diplomatic Personnel 
and Female Employees of U.S. Oovernment Evacuated 
From China Through December 20, 1948 

From the following cities : 

Nanking 77 

Shanghai 44 

Hankow 4 

Tientsin 8 

Peiping 4 

Total 137 

Total Number of Military Dependents Evacuated From 
China Through December 15, 19^8 

Navy and Marine dependents 501 

Army and Air Force dependents 1, 052 

Total 1, 553 



January 2, 1949 



29 



U.S. Concerned at Overthrow of Governments 
in Certain American Republics 



[Released to the press December 21] 

The Government of the United States has made 
known to a number of other governments of the 
American republics its growing concern with re- 
spect to the overthrow of popularly elected govern- 
ments by military forces in certain of the countries 
of this hemisphere. This Government has as- 
sured the governments to which it has expressed 
this concern that the United States wishes to make 
every legitimate and useful effort to encourage 
democratic and constitutional procedui'es. Any 
such effort by the United States would of course be 
faithfully consistent with inter- American commit- 
ments and procedures. 

The Department has solicited the comments of 
the foreigia ministers of other American republics 
regarding legitimate and appropriate actions the 
inter-American organization might take to 
strengthen the democratic and constitutional 
framework of the governments of this continent. 
It was mentioned in this respect that the view that 
nonrecognition is not a suitable approach to the 
much broader problem was an important consid- 
eration in this Government's approval of resolu- 
tion 35 at the Bogota conference, which resolution 
declares that "continuity of diplomatic relations 



among the American States is desirable", and that 
"the establishment or maintenance of diplomatic 
relations with a government does not imply any 
judgment upon the domestic policy of that 
government". 

In the view of the Government of the United 
States, the use of force as an instrument of political 
change is not only deplorable, but is usually incon- 
sistent with the acknowledged ideals of the Ameri- 
can republics and increasingly a danger to all the 
countries of this hemisphere. If this use of force 
continues, it cannot fail to become a sufficiently 
serious issue to engage the attention of the Ameri- 
can republics as a whole. 

Many of the other governments of the American 
republics luidoubtedly share this view with the 
United States since those governments partici- 
pated in formulating the preamble of the Rio 
treaty, which states that "peace is founded . . . 
on the effectiveness of democracy for the interna- 
tional realization of justice and security" and the 
charter of the Organization of American States, 
which declares that "The solidarity of the Ameri- 
can States and the high aims which are sought 
through it require the political organization of 
those States on the basis of the effective exercise of 
representative democracy." 



U.S. To Be Represented at ITU Preparatory Meeting 



[Released to the press December 20] 

The United States Government will send repre- 
sentatives, to be named at a later date, to a 
preparatory meeting to discuss the form of Inter- 
national Telegraph Regulations. This meeting, 
sponsored by the International Telecommunica- 
tions Union (Itu), is scheduled to open at 
Geneva on January 17, 1949. It is being called in 
accordance with a resolution of the sixth meeting 
of the International Telegraph Consulting Com- 
mittee, held at Brussels, May 1948. This resolu- 
tion provided that a committee of eight countries 
be convened to prepare the form for modification 
of the International Telegraph Regulations drawn 
up at the Itu Telegraph and Telephone Confer- 
ence at Cairo in 1938 in order that these regula- 
tions might be accepted by all membei-s of the Itu. 
The resolution calling this meeting further pro- 
vided that countries which have not accepted the 
Telegraph Regulations indicate to the Secretary 

30 



General of the Itu by January 1, 1949, the pro- 
visions of the regulations which have so far pre- 
vented their acceptance. 

Although for many years a party to interna- 
tional telecommunication conventions, the United 
States has not heretofore become a party to Int€r- 
national Telegraph Regulations. After careful 
consideration of the views of the telegraph indus- 
try and users, the Government has concluded that 
it should participate in the forthcoming Geneva 
meeting so that regulations may be developed to 
which the United States may adhere. A letter 
has been forwarded to the Secretary General of 
the Itu indicating this Government's intention to 
participate in the forthcoming meeting and stat- 
ing the views of the United States with respect to 
the provisions of the International Telegraph 
Regulations in connection with possible adherence 
by this Government. 

Department of State Bulletin 



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case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Proceedings and Documents of United Nations Monetary 
and Financial Conference. Bretton Woods, New Hamp- 
shire, July 1-22, 1944. Vol. II. International Orj-'anl- 
zalion and ('onferencc Series I. ;{. Pub. 2MW). ISOS pp. 
$2.2.'>. 

Aiipendixes : miseellnneous Conference documents, list 

of documents issued at the Conference, and related 

papers. 

Food Production Cooperative Program in Costa Rica. 

Treaties and Otlier International Acts Series 1772. Pub. 

3250. 17 pp. lOt'. 

Asreement Between the United States and Costa Rica 
Conflrming and Accepting Agreement of February 19, 
1948 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at San 
Jos^ February 20 and 27, 1948 ; entered into force 
February 27, 1948. 
Passport Visa Fees. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 179S. Pub. 3296. 3 pp. 50. 

Arrangement Between the United States and Sweden — 
Effected by exchange of notes dated at Washing- 
ton April 10 and 30, 1&17 ; entered into force April 30, 
1!>47. 
Caribbean Commission. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1799. Pub. 3297. 29 pp. 100. 

Agreement Between the United States, France, Neth- 
erlands, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland — Opened for signature at 
Washington October 30, 1946; entered into force 
August 6, 1948. 
Radio Broadcasting: Engineering Standards Applicable 
to the Allocation of Standard Broadcasting Stations 
(540-1600 kcs.). Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1802. Pub. 3306. 7 pp. 50. 

Arrangements Between the United States and Can- 
ada — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Wash- 
ington December 24, 1947 and April 1, 1948 ; entered 
into force April 1, 1948. 
War Damages in The Philippines: Public and Private 
Claims Against the United States. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1814. Pub. 3329. 10 pp. 50. 
Agreement Between the United States and the Re- 
public of The Philippines — Signed at Manila August 
27, 1948 ; entered into force August 27, 1948. 
Weather Stations: Cooperative Program on Guadalupe. 
Treaties and Other International Series 1807. Pub. 3317. 
7 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Mexico — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Mexico No- 
vember 6, 1945 and April 12, 1946, entered into force 
April 12, 1946. 

Volume XVI of Territorial Papers of the 
United States Released 

[Released to the press December 25] 

Volume XVI of the series entitled The Terri- 
torial Papers of the United States, published by 
the Department of State under the authority of 
an act of Congress, was released on December 25. 

Volume XVI, the first of two volumes on the 
Territory of Illino'is, contains the official papers 
found in the archives in Washington and the 
State of Illinois pertaining to that territory for 
the years 1809-1814. The territory in question 

January 2, 7949 



comprised the entire area now included within 
tlie present States of Illino'is and Wisconsin, and 
the documents reproduced represent a continua- 
tion of those presented in volumes II and III 
(Northwest Territory) and volumes VII and VIII 
(Indiana Territory) of the same series. Illinois 
Tei-ritory was carved out of Indiana Territory, 
whicli had previously evolved from the Northwest 
Territory. 

This volume presents documents on the or- 
ganization of the territory, on the activities of the 
territorial secretary, Nathaniel Pope, as acting 
governor from March to June 1809, and on the 
two administrations of Governor Ninian Edwards 
from 1809 to 1814. Aspects of the life of this 
frontier area touched upon include the policies 
and acts of the governor and other territorial offi- 
cials concerning the land system, Indian relations, 
establishment of postal routes, operation of the 
governmental factory trading system, organiza- 
tion of the territorial militia, and the erection and 
maintenance of militarv posts. Communications 
on various of these subjects passed between the 
governor and Secretary of the Treasury Albert 
Gallatin, Secretary of War William Eustis, Post- 
master General Gideon Granger, the governors of 
neighboring territories, and territorial officials. 
Other federal officials in the territory corresponded 
with John Mason, the Superintendent of Indian 
Trade at Washington, the Surveyor General at 
Cincinnati, and the Commissioner"^ of the General 
Land Office at Washington. Besides political and 
institutional history, the papers disclose informa- 
tion in regard to local history, biography, and 
genealogy. 

The outstanding event on this frontier during 
the period was the Indian war before and during 
the War of 1812. This necessitated the raising of 
rangers and mounted riflemen early in 1812. Gov- 
ernor Edwards himself commanded these forces 
until the middle of 1813 when the military com- 
mand in the territory passed to Brigadier General 
Benjamin Howard. On this and other matters 
the documents published supplement those to be 
found in the papers of Governor Edwards printed 
in the Chicago Historical Society ColUctions. 
The concluding volume, now in proof, covering 
the period 1811-1818, will appear during the next 
fiscal year. 

Dr. Clarence E. Carter, of the Division of His- 
torical Policy Kesearch in the Department of 
State, is the editor of the series of Territorial 
Papers. Volume XVI of the series may be pur- 
chased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
for $3.25 a copy. 

Notice 

The monthly Calendar of International Meet- 
ings will appear in the January 9 issue of the 
Bulletin. 

31 



mim:mB^M-r:;^^:^::i:mmii 



The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

Ecosoc 1948: A Review and Forecast. Ar- 
ticle by Walter M. Kotschnig .... 3 

United Nations Action on Human Rights in 

1948. Address by James Simsarian . . 18 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 23 

Discussion in the Security Council of the In- 
donesian Situation. Statement by Philip 
C. Jessup 24 



General Policy 

Evacuation of Americans From China . . . 
U.S. Concerned at Overthrow of Govern- 
ments in Certain American Republics . 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. To Be Represented at Itu Preparatory 
Meeting 

Publications 

Department of State 

Volume XVI of Territorial Papers of the 
United States Released 



Page 
28 

30 



30 



31 



31 



{Q<myt^mwt(yyA 



Waller M. Kotschnig, author of the article on Ecosoc 1948, is 
Chief of the Division of United Nations Economic and Social 
Affairs, Ollice of United Nations Affairs, Department of State. 
Mr. KotsclmiK serves as U.S. Deputy Representative on the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council. 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



%^ ^efw/y£m£/ri(/ AW t/t^ 





FOR THE RniR: 
Communique on Six Power Meeting- 
Text of Draft Agreement .... 



ttTY 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON THE PROPOSED 
INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION . 



COOKIMN \l IN«, loi{i,l<,\ AID • lU 




,«"* o» 



,. s. tmmum^' of oo.m^^ 
JAN 25 1949 




•»*»., o» 



e>^« z^efia/y^ment ^il' C/tate YJ Ll 1 JL Vly L X i A 



Vol. XX, No. 497 • Publication 3387 
January 9, 1949 



For sale by the SuperlDtendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Oflice 

Washington 2b, D.C. 

Pbice: 

£2 issues, domestic $5, foreign $7.25 

Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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ment, and statements and addresses 
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Publications of the Department, a» 
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of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Questions and Answers on the Proposed International Trade Organization 



What is the ITO and How Will it Work? 

What is the ItoI 

The Ito (International Trade Organization) is 
a proposed specialized agency of the United Na- 
tions to administer and implement a code of prin- 
ciples or rules of fair dealing in international 
trade. This code is contained in a charter which 
was developed at the United Nations Conference 
on Trade and Employment at Habana and which 
has been agreed upon in 1948 by representatives of 
54 countries. All governments adhering to the 
charter would become members of the Ito. 

The broad purpose of the charter is to promote 
the expansion of international trade, to encourage 
the economic development of backward areas, and 
to improve standards of living throughout the 
world. The charter seeks to achieve this goal 
by (a) establishing a code of fair dealing in in- 
ternational trade that will avoid economic war- 
fare; and (b) by encouraging countries to reduce 
artificial trade barriers and to establish a multi- 
lateral, nondiscriminatory trading system. 

The charter covers the whole range of inter- 
national economic relationships: tariffs, quotas, 
export subsidies, exchange matters, customs for- 
malities, cartels, commodity agreements, state- 
trading, and the international aspects of foreign 
investments, employment and economic develop- 
ment, and a procedure for the settlement of trade 
disputes. 

Why is an Ito needed? 

Before World War II, international trade was 
hampered by restrictive devices that prevented an 
expansion of world trade. Countries resorted to 
unilateral action without regard to the effect of 
their actions on the economies of other nations. 
This led to retaliation and resulted in economic 
warfare. At the end of World War II, the eco- 
nomic situation of a large part of the world was 
in chaos. Destruction of the tools for peacetime 
production meant lack of the most basic supplies 
for domestic consumption, and in many areas vir- 
tually no goods for export were available which 
'I mid be traded for essential items obtainable only 
from abroad, and particularly from the United 
States. 

As a result, most countries adopted even more 
rirrid governmental controls to insure that only 
tlie most necessary imports were bought with the 
fast-diminishing foreign currency available to 
thorn. They employed import quotas, foreign- 
January 9, J 949 



exchange controls, import-licensing systems, dis- 
criminatory bilateral and barter deals, state-trad- 
ing devices, tariff increases, and other restrictive 
devices. 

The Ito seeks, by cooperative agreement, to 
relax these barriers, to avert economic warfare, 
and to pave the way for an expansion of world 
trade. 

How will the Ito work? 

Implementation of the charter rests with mem- 
ber governments who voluntarily agree to follow 
its rules. 

The main governing body of Ito is the Confer- 
ence which includes all members, each having one 
vote. Decisions are by majority (in certain cases 
by a two-thirds or three- fourths) vote. No mem- 
ber has a veto. 

Some functions of the Conference are granted, 
and others may be delegated, to an Executive 
Board on which the United States will have per- 
manent representation by reason of its economic 
importance. Here also each member has one vote. 
As has been experienced in other international 
agencies, the United States position of world 
leadership will make its actual influence in Ito 
far greater than its single vote might indicate. 

The Ito pi'ovides a convenient forum and as- 
sists in consultation between members. Members 
agree to settle trade disputes in accordance with 
the procedures of the charter and the decisions of 
Ito. If a country does not wish to follow a de- 
cision of Ito, it may leave the organization (on 60 
days' notice) but will no longer be entitled to 
the benefits that Ito members extend to each other. 

What will the Ito costf 

The cost of Ito will be small because the only 
expense will be for administrative purposes. It is 
neither provided nor intended that Ito shall have 
funds for lending to its members or for any other 
similar purposes. 

From the standpoint of dollars and cents, Ito 
will yield returns many times greater than its 
cost to the United States. The Ito, by expanding 
world trade, will (a) benefit directly those 
branches of American agriculture and industry 
that must export; (b) benefit consumers and con- 
suming industries in this country that depend 
upon foreign sources for their raw materials; and 
(c) help other countries support themselves, 
thereby reducing their need for American grants 
and loans. The Ito thus offers a substantial bar- 
gain to the American taxpayer. 

35 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPBCIAUZBD AGENC/ES 

How will countries become members of the Ito? 

In the United States the charter will be sub- 
mitted to Congress for decision as to ratification. 
If ratified, an instrument of acceptance will be 
deposited with the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations. When ratified by 20 govern- 
ments, the charter will enter into force for those 
coimtries. 

The 54 countries whose representatives have 
agreed to the Habana charter are considering it 
for ratification. These 54 countries include prac- 
tically all of the important trading nations. The 
Soviet Union was invited to participate in the 
charter negotiations but declined. 

In view of our position of world leadersliip, 
most countries are awaiting action by the United 
States before deciding what they shall do about 
the charter. Consequently, the question as to 
whether there shall or shall not be an International 
Trade Organization rests largely with the Ameri- 
can people and the United States Congress. 

The ITO and U.S. Economic Foreign Policy 

Why is the Ito an impovtant instrument of United 
States economic foreign policy? 

The goal of United States economic foreign 
policy is to expand world trade, world production, 
and consumption, with the objective of raising the 
living standards of all peoples. 

The Ito, by establishing a code of fair trade 
practices, contributes to this goal. The Ito sup- 
plements the European Recovery Program, the 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Program, the Inter- 
national Bank, the International Fund, and the 
other U.N. economic agencies, each of which is 
designed to deal with a different aspect of world 
economic problems but all of which lead to world 
recovery. 

An improvement in the economic well-being of 
other countries is important to the United States 
because economic recovery will contribute toward 
world political stability. Democracy cannot sur- 
vive in the years to come unless the democratic 
countries are economically sound and economically 
self-sustaining. 

Is Ito consistent with United States foreign policy 
and our democratic institutions? 

The charter reflects the traditional objectives 
of American economic policy — reduction of arti- 
ficial trade barriers, equality of treatment for all 
countries, and the encouragement of private, com- 
petitive trade. In joining the Ito, the United 
States would not commit itself to any principles 
foreign to our economic or political philosophy. 

The Ito is a voluntary compact among nations 
based on the principle of sovereign equality. It 
is neither a supranational government nor a super- 
state. The Ito cannot require any member to 
take action. No nation is compelled to remain an 
Ito member. 

36 



The charter, like any other international agi'ee- 
ment, contains commitments that limit the action 
of the signatory powers but these commitments are 
freely undertaken by member countries ; they are 
narrowly defined and carefully limited, and may 
be canceled by withdrawal from the organization. 
Ito would have no jjower to intervene in the do- 
mestic wage, employment, price, or other internal 
economic policies of a member country. 

The Ito charter would not restrict our national 
sovereignty in any greater degree than does our 
membership in the United Nations. 

How does the Ito help our private-enterprise 
sy stein? 

The Ito, by promoting an expansion of world 
trade, heljJS to maintain our foreign trade and 
thus benefits our domestic economy. Nearly 10 
percent of our total agricultural and industrial 
production is exported. The maintenance of a 
high level of export trade is important, therefore, 
to our domestic economy. Prosperity in the 
United States helps the private-enterprise system. 
Depression in the United States would strengthen 
a movement for governmental controls at the ex- 
pense of the private-enterprise system. 

The Ito promotes an expansion of competitive 
international trade, rather than governmentally 
controlled international trade, by : {a) encourag- 
ing the reduction of artificial governmental bar- 
riers to the flow of competitive international trade ; 
(b) committing members, through the charter, to 
refrain from various governmental actions inter- 
fering with international trade that, in the ab- 
sence of the charter, they would be entirely free 
to take; and (c) improving the economic situa- 
tion of other countries, thereby reducing their 
need for governmental controls. 

Thus, the Ito provides a code consistent with 
our own system of free enterprise — a code essential 
in the long run to the continuation of private 
trading. 

What is the relationship of the Ito to the Recipro- 
cal Trade Agreements Program? 

The Ito charter has grown out of the Reciprocal 
Trade Agreements Program, but it is more com- 
jDrehensive. The Reciprocal Trade Agi-eements 
Program, begun in 1934, seeks to reduce artificial 
trade barriers and to establish nondiscriminatory 
trading practices by mutual negotiations between 
countries. Under the charter other countries agree 
to this traditional objective of our economic for- 
eign policy. 

Under tlie Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, 
the United States negotiated witli '2-2 other coun- 
tries to conclude the General Agreement on Tar- 
iffs and Trade at Geneva in 1947. This agreement 
is already in effect for all of the 23 coimtries except 
one. Under the agreement, the 23 nations reduced 
tariff rates on some items and bound against in- 

Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



crease of existing tariflF rates on other items, for 
protlucts uccouiitinj; for over one lialf of llie 
worlil's total foroign trade (prewar levels). 

The charter, however, covers numy other aspects 
of international traile relationships not included in 
recipi'ocal trade ajireenicnts. Ainon<i these are 
commodity ajireenients, cartels, the international 
aspects of investments, fidl employment and eco- 
nomic development, and the establishment of an 
International Trade Orjianization. The Recipro- 
cal Trade Agreements Program and the Ito char- 
ter have a common goal of expanding competitive 
world trade. 

What is the relationship between the Ito and the 
European Recoren/ Program? 

The European Recovery Program and the Ito 
complement each other. The European Recovery 
Program is an immediate measure to put Western 
Europe on its feet again. The Ito seeks to estab- 
lish worhl-trading conditions that will enable 
"Western Europe to staj- on its feet after American 
financial aid ends. 

The densely populated Erp countries must ob- 
tain raw materials from overseas areas to supple- 
ment their own inadequate resources. They pay 
for these imported raw materials by exporting 
manufactured products to many parts of the world. 
The expansion of world-wide markets for their 
exports is consequently a life-and-death matter if 
Western Europe is to be on a self-sustaining basis. 
The Ito is designed to establish trading conditions 
that will provide good markets throughout the 
world. It is thus more likely that the original 
American investment in European recovery will 
pay future dividends in terms of sustained world 
prosperity. 

What is the relationship of Ito to the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund and the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development? 

The Ito aims to establish trading conditions 
that will contribute to a maximum expansion of 
world trade on a multilateral basis. The Fund and 
the Bank, in the formation of which the United 
States played a leading role, aim to establish tinan- 
cial conditions that will contribute to the same 
end. Thus the Ito, the Bank, and the Fund sup- 
plement each other. 

Instability of foreign-exchange rates hinders 
the expansion of international trade, as the pre- 
war experience showed cleai'ly. Producers and 
traders engaged in international commerce find 
it exceedingly difficult to plan their business op- 
erations and to calculate cost and profits in their 
own currency, when a part of their transactions 
are in foreign currencies of widely fluctuating 
values. Thus, wide fluctuations in exchange rates 
tend to cui'tail international ti-ade. 

The function of the Fund is to promote orderly 

January 9. 1949 



JHi UNITED NATIONS AND SPCCIALIZED AGENCIES 

exchange practices, to i)revent the use of foreign- 
exchange practices that lead to competitive de- 
preciation or to trade restrictions, and in general 
prevent abnormal fluctuations of foreign-exchange 
rates. It does this by giving technical advice to 
members in the handling of their fiscal affairs, by 
serving as a consultative forum in exchange mat- 
ters, and by the purchase and sale of foreign cur- 
rencies. 

The Bank reinforces the efforts of the Fund by 
granting long-term loans to war-devastated and 
economically underdeveloped countries. The loans 
improve the internal economic conditions of such 
countries in the immediate future by increasing 
their importing capacity and in the long run by 
increasing their pi'oducing and exporting capacity. 
This helps them keej) tlieir currencies more stable. 

In the long run, the Fund and the Bank cannot 
promote orderly exchange practices and improve 
financial conditions generally unless countries 
adopt trading practices tliat enable goods to flow 
more freely from one country to another, and that 
enable each country to export enough to pay for 
its necessary imports. The establishment of such 
trading practices is the function of Ito. How- 
ever, goods cannot flow more freely from one 
country to another, unless there are orderly ex- 
change practices, convertibility of one currency 
into another, and improved financial conditions. 
These are aims of the Fund and the Bank. 

Will the charter hinder the United States from 
taking adequate -measures to protect our national 
security? 

Under the charter, no member could be required 
to release any information which it considered 
contrary to its essential security interests. No 
member would be prevented from taking whatever 
action it considered necessary in regard to fission- 
able materials or traffic in arms. The operation 
of any agreement made by or for a military estab- 
lishment for the purpose of meeting essential 
requirements of national security would likewise 
be excepted from the scope of the charter. No 
member could be prevented from taking any action 
it considered necessary in time of war or "other 
emergency in international relations". The char- 
ter therefore permits the United States to take 
such basic measures as may be necessary in 
furtherance of our national security. 

Important Provisions of the Charter 

Hoiiy does the charter handle the problem of trade 
relations between private-trading cou7itries and 
state-trading countries ? 

Tlie charter lays down rules to insure that state- 
trading enterprises will be subject to the same 
rules of the game in international trade as private 
enterprises. This is important to the develop- 
ment of stable and continuous world markets. 
Governments may not, through their control of 

37 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIAIIZED AGENCIES 

certain enterprises, erect barriers to trade or dis- 
criminate against other member nations so as to 
nullify their obligations in the charter regarding 
private trade. The charter requires that state- 
trading enterprises shall conduct their interna- 
tional trade on the basis of commercial considera- 
tions. The charter thereby stipulates that market 
forces rather than national political goals should 
be the fundamental regulator of international 
trade. 
What does Ito do about international cartels? 

The charter sets up the first international mech- 
anism in history to deal with the problem. 

Under the charter, members agree to take meas- 
ures to prevent harmful business practices that 
restrict international trade, such as those fre- 
quently carried on by cartels. This applies to 
both private and state-trading enterprises. The 
Ito is given responsibility to investigate com- 
plaints concerning the international effects of such 
restraints of trade as price fixing, exclusion from 
markets, suppression of technology, misuse of 
patents, restriction of production, and so forth. 

Ito may call upon all members concerned to take 
action to remedy specific cases of cartel abuses 
■which hinder the flow of goods between countries 
and interfere with the efficient use of the world's 
economic resources. Ito will publish its findings 
in each case. It will have no police powers but 
each member nation will be pledged to take action 
against cartels whenever they operate contrary 
to the principles of the charter. 

What does the Ito charter do about customs "red 
tape''' that now hampers businessmen in inter- 
national trade? 

The charter simplifies customs formalities. It 
will reduce the "red tape" of hundreds of different 
customs formalities, each different for different 
nations. This maze of dissimilar and onerous 
regulations has operated as an "invisible trade 
barrier" frequently regarded by businessmen as 
more burdensome to their operations than actual 
tariff duties. 

The new provisions in the charter represent the 
most inclusive set of rules for the improvement of 
customs regulations ever achieved internationally. 
These provisions relate to transit regulations, anti- 
dumping and countervailing duties, valuations for 
customs purposes, import and export formalities, 
marks of origin, publication and administration 
of trade regulations, and statistics. 

Hoto does the Ito charter affect our agricultural 
frogram? 

American agricultural production has increased 
so much since 1939 that a high level of domestic 
and export demand is necessary to absorb the out- 
put. United States exports of agricultural prod- 
ucts are about double imports of competitive-type 
agricultural products. The Ito charter, by ex- 

38 



panding world trade, will help to maintain good 
domestic and foreign markets for American farm 
products. 

The charter contains many provisions of spe- 
cific importance to our agricultural program. 
These provisions are designed to expand interna- 
tional trade, and, at the same time, to provide 
safeguards in special circumstances. 

Under the charter, when surplus production of 
a particular crop causes a sharp price fall, pro- 
ducing and consuming countries may make inter- 
governmental commodity agreements that regu- 
late production or price, to insure fair prices to 
producer and consumer alike. Such agreements 
help to stabilize conditions in the producing areas 
and in the consuming markets. In the absence of 
the charter, countries would continue to be free to 
make any kind of commodity agreement they saw 
fit but without the charter safeguard of adequate 
protection to both producers and consumers. 

Under the charter, a country may use export 
subsidies to dispose of agricultural surpluses, but 
not in such a way as to capture more than its 
equitable share of the world market for that 
product. 

Under the charter, when a country has an agri- 
cultural-control program to restrict the output of 
a particular crop, it may use quotas to restrict im- 
ports. The imports, however, may not be reduced 
proportionally more than the domestic crop is re- 
stricted. Without this safeguard, foreign coun- 
tries could reduce their imports of American agri- 
cultural products to zero. 

Under the charter, if a tariff concession is 
granted on a particular product and imports of 
that product enter the United States (or other 
country) in such increased volume as to cause se- 
rious injury to the domestic industry, the tariff 
concession may be withdrawn. The consent of 
the other country is not required, but the other 
country would be free to withdraw an equivalent 
concession from the United States. 

How does the charter deal with the dollar-shortage 
-problem? 

Many countries are in balance-of-payment dif- 
ficulties as a result of the war. Their exports are 
small compared to imports, with the result that 
they lack foreign exchange to pay for essential 
imports. The chief balance-of-paj'ment jDroblem 
today is the world shortage of dollars resulting 
from the overwhelming demand of other countries 
for products obtainable only in the United States. 
The United States has been exporting about twice 
as much as it imports, with the result that other 
countries have exhausted their supply of dollar 
exchange. 

The charter permits a country in balance-of- 
payment dithculties to use quotas to keep imports 
within its means of payment. A country may use 
such quotas to favor importing products essential 

Hepartmeni of Sfafe Bvllelin 



to its economic recovery over products less impor- 
tant in that respect. Until March 1, 1952 (but 
not thereafter witliout consulting the Ito, the 
Fund, or both), a country nmy use quotas to favor 
imports from countries where it has adeciuate 
supplies of foreign exchange over imports from 
countries where it lacks foreign exchange. 

The cliarter prescribes an orderly procedure for 
applying quotas, and for terminating their use, in 
order to disturb trade as little as possible. Coun- 
tries imposing quotas must, if requested, consult 
with other affected members. The charter re- 

?uires that a country must cease using quotas for 
oreign-exchange purposes when the International 
Monetary Fund (in which the United States has 
30 percent of the voting power) decides that a 
country's balance-of-payment difficulties are over. 
In the absence of the charter, there would be no 
curbs whatsoever either on the use of such quotas 
or on their duration. 

The fundamental solution for the world's bal- 
ance-of-payment problems, and for the dollar 
shortage, is to increase world production and 
trade. The Ito charter, by establishing trading 
conditions that enable countries facing balance-of- 
pajment ditliculties to sell their goods throughout 
the world, will help them expand their production 
and trade. This will enable them to export 
enough to pay for their necessary imports, thereby 
contributing to the solution of the world balance- 
of-payment problem. 

What does the charter do about -preferences? 

The basic principle of the charter is that mem- 
bers must not discriminate against the trade of 
each other. Nondiscrimination, or multilateral- 
ism, permits international trade to flow along 
competitive lines so as to bring about a maximum 
expansion of world production and trade. Dis- 
criminatory practices force international trade 
into noneconomic channels, often on the basis of 
national political and diplomatic goals, and such 
action often leads to retaliation by other countries 
and to a curtailment of international trade. 

The charter recognizes that immediate, rigid 
application of the basic principle of nondiscrimi- 
nation would not be practical in all cases. It rec- 
ognizes certain exceptions: (1) to avoid the dis- 
ruption of old trade channels; (2) to cope with 
transitional problems arising from the war; (3) 
to pave the way for the formation of customs 
unions; and (4) to stimulate the development of 
underdeveloped countries. The charter specifi- 
cally defines and limits these exceptions as follows : 

( 1 ) "WTien countries have long-established tariff 
preferences, such as the British Empire or the 
United States - Cuban preferential systems, such 
preferences may continue in effect but they may 
not be increased. Such preferences may be re- 
duced or eliminated by negotiation on individual 
items, as in fact many were reduced or eliminated 

January 9, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPeCIAUZED AGENCIES 

in the 2;5-nation General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade concluded at Geneva in 1917. 

(2) When a country has balance-of-payment 
difliculties, it may favor imports from a country 
where it has adequate supplies of foreign exchange 
as against imports from another country where 
it lacks foreign exchange (see question 17). 

(3) When two or more countries plan to form 
a customs union, with complete abolition of tariffs 
between members of the union, they may find it 
necessary to accomplish this plan in stages. Thus 
during the transitional stages, members of the 
union will have lower tariffs against each other 
than against outside countries. The final result, 
however, is to make a larger open-market area that 
will contribute to an expansion of foreign trade, 
in accordance with the long-run goal of the charter. 

(4) When neighboring countries wish to grant 
each other tariff preferences on certain products 
to insure an adequate market for the development 
of new industries, they may do so if expressly au- 
thorized by a two-thirds vote of Ito, or by a find- 
ing of Ito that the arrangement in question meets 
a number of rigorous conditions and requirements 
set out in the charter. 

Does the charter protect United States investors 
iti foreign countries? 

One aim of the charter is to encourage the inter- 
national flow of capital for productive purposes. 

The charter recognizes the right of countries 
to prescribe the terms upon which they will allow 
existing and future foreign investments. The 
United States and other countries have always 
insisted upon this right as an essential element of 
their sovereignty. 

However, under the charter all members pledge 
themselves to provide "adequate security for ex- 
isting and future investments" and not to take 
"unreasonable or unjustifiable action" injurious to 
foreign investment within their territories. In 
the past, many countries claimed the right to take 
any action whatsoever regarding foreign invest- 
ment in their jurisdiction. Accordingly, Amer- 
ican investments abroad were often injured by 
actions of other governments and compensation 
was often inadequate. The charter commitment 
by all member countries to provide adequate se- 
curity to foreign investments, and not to take 
unreasonable action injurious to foreign invest- 
ment, represents a major advance over current 
practice. 

Under the charter, members agree, if requested 
by another member, to negotiate bilateral agree- 
ments for more detailed arrangements regarding 
foreign investments. They agree to consult with 
each other when differences of opinion arise re- 
garding foreign investment. If unable to agree 
among themselves, they may refer such conflicts 
to the Ito, and if a country does not observe an 

39 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Ito decision, the Ito may authorize other members 
to withdraw charter benefits from that country. 
In cases involving legal differences, the disputes 
may be referred to the International Court of 
Justice. 

General Questions on the Charter 

Why are there "escape clauses'^ or exceptions in 
the charter f 

Certain "escape clauses" or exceptions have been 
included in the charter to allow for unusual cir- 
cumstances requiring some departure on the part 
of a member from the strict rules of Ito. One of 
the principal reasons for these exceptions is to 
meet current abnormal conditions arising out of 
World War II. There are no "blanket" excep- 
tions to the charter; each exception is specifically 
defined and can be used only if certain stated re- 
quirements are satisfied. 

These escape clauses, some of which were in- 
cluded in the charter at the request of other coun- 
tries and others at the request of the United States, 
simply recognize practical situations and pi'ovide 
a method of dealing with them in terms of the 
long-run principles of the charter. For example, 
one principle is that countries should not use 
quotas to restrict their trade. But now many 
countries lack foreign exchange to pay for all the 
imports they want. The charter allows them to 
use quotas, to budget their imports to essential 
products, and to keep their imports within their 
means of payment, as long as they are short of 
foreign exchange; hut as soon as the shortage is 
over, they must not use quotas for such restrictive 
purposes. 

Another long-run principle is that countries 
should negotiate for the reduction of trade bar- 
riers. The charter recognizes, however, that this 
commitment cannot be carried out effectively with- 
out the safeguard that in individual cases, where 
abnormally large imports of a particular jai-oduct 
injure the domestic industry, the tariff reduction 
granted on that product in an agreement may be 
withdrawn. 

The exceptions make it possible for countries to 
adopt the charter now, and enable them to put into 
effect immediately many of its provisions which 
can be applied at once and which in themselves 
hasten the return of orderly international trade. 
At the same time, the charter, by fixing the long- 
run principles of trade, enables countries to plan 
now their long-run course of action, on the basis 
of prospective cooperative trade relations rather 
than economic warfare; and this, too, hastens the 
return of orderly international trade. Thus the 
charter is a practical instrument to guide nations 
towards a cooperative expansion of world trade. 

Should the charter have been restricted to a state- 
ment of general principles only? 

The charter was designed as a practical, working 

40 



code for international commercial relations. Na- 
tions realized that the charter, to be effective, must 
deal with specific cases and specific procedures. 

A declaration of broad generalities, without defi- 
nite rules, without specific commitments, and with- 
out provisions for implementation, would mean 
little more than a declaration of hope. The World 
Economic Conference at Geneva in 1927 and the 
World Monetary and Economic Conference at Lon- 
don in 1933 issued broad declarations without 
specific commitments, which had little tangible 
influence in solving world-trade problems. On 
the basis of this past experience countries decided 
to make specific agreements with specific commit- 
ments that would really mean something. 

Wonid it T)e better to postpone adoption of the 
charter until world economic conditions return to 
normal? 

A major purpose of the charter is to establish 
trading practices that will hasten world economic 
recovery. To postpone adoption of the charter 
would be to delay recovery. 

Many provisions of the charter would have 
practical application at once. Among these are 
provisions for simplification of customs formali- 
ties, procedures for making commodity agreements 
equitable to both producing and consuming coun- 
tries, procedures for curbing cartel practices that 
restrict international trade, rules lor governing 
trade relations between state-trading and private- 
enterprise countries, commitments to negotiate for 
the reduction of world-trade barriers, commit- 
ments to provide adequate security for foreign in- 
vestments, methods for settling international trade 
disputes, and so forth. 

There are some important cases where the full 
effect of the charter principles will not be felt until 
the world returns to a more orderly economic life. 
The principal case is that of allowing countries to 
use discriminator}' quotas when faced with bal- 
ance-of-payraents difficulties. Even in such cases, 
the charter contains provisions which have inv 
mediate effect, for example, the procedures for an 
orderly application of such quotas so as to disturb 
trade as little as possible and the procedures for 
terminating the use of these quotas wlien the coun- 
try concerned no longer faces balance-of-payment 
difficulties. 

The charter establishes a pattern for world- 
trading practices that will lead to an expansion of 
world trade. It creates this pattern no??' before 
restrictive and discriminatory practices freeze into 
a mold too hard to break after the transition period 
is ended. 

Will countries in economic and political difjieuJty 
he able to put the charter into effect? 

The charter is a realistic document which takes 
into account i>rescnt emergency conditions facing 
(Continued on page 63) 

Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 

December 22-Januttry 7 

then it seems to nie that the Netherlands Govern- 



Palestine 

Eirypt and Israel liave ajjreed to cease-fire and 
to bejiin immediate negotiations, imder United 
Nations chairmanship, to implement the Secnrity 
Council resolutions of November 4 and November 
IG, Acting Mediator Ralph Bunche was informed 
on Januarv 6 by his representatives in Cairo and 
Tel Aviv. ' 

Meanwhile the United States on December 28 
had named James B. Keenan, formerly Assistant 
Attorney (Jeneral, as its representative on the Con- 
ciliation Connnissiou appointed by the General 
Assembly on December 11. The Security Council, 
at its meeting on December 29, had requested the 
members of the Commission to name their repre- 
sentative as soon as ])ossible. The French repre- 
sentative is Claude de Boissanger. The Turkish 
representative is Huseyin Yalcin. 

Indonesia 

The Security Council, remaining in Paris after 
the clo.«e of the General Assembly, met five times 
between December 22 and December 30 on the ques- 
tions of Indonesia and of Palestine. 

At a meeting called at the request of the United 
States, the U.S. Delegate, Ambassador Philii? C. 
Jessup, submitted a i-esolution, supported by Co- 
lombia and Syria, asking the Security Council to 
call for a cease-fire in Indonesia, for the with- 
drawal of both Dutch and Indonesian troops to the 
positions tliej^ held before the renewal of fight- 
ing on December 19, and for a report from the 
Good Offices Committee on events since Decem- 
ber 12, "assessing responsibility for outbreak of 
hostilities." 

As discussion began, a cable was received from 
the Good Offices Committee at Batavia, signed only 
by the U.S. representative, H. Merle Cochran, and 
the deputy Australian member, since Australian 
and Belgian representatives were at that time 
isolated at Kaliurang. The report said that "in 
commencing military operations on the 19th of 
December, the Netherlands Government acted in 
violation of its obligations under the Renville 
Truce Agreement." 

In his statement to the Council tracing the his- 
tory of tjie conflict in Indonesia and of tlie action 
by the Council since the first outbreak of hostilities 
in Jidy 1947, Dr. Jessup declared, "After care- 
ful Ij- studying the material thus far made avail- 
able by the Committee, my Government fails to 
find any justification for renewal of military 
operations in Indonesia. This is particularly true 
in light of the fact that there has been a resoit to 
force following a period of seven months in which 
the resources of the Committee of Good Offices 
have not been utilized. If, as is alleged, violations 
of the truce agreement by the Republic have been 
so extensive and so persistent over a period of time, 

January 9, 1949 



ment should have reported these violations di- 
riK'tly to the Security Council before renouncing 
the truce agreement and resorting to military ac- 
tion by land, sea, and air against the Republic. 
This is especially noteworthy in view of the assur- 
ances offered the Council by the Netherlands rep- 
resentative the last time tlie Idonesian question 
was before the Council, and in view of more recent 
assurances offered the Governments represented on 
the Committee of Good Offices." 

"I must reiterate my Government's view that the 
Council's cease-fire order of the first of August^ 
1947, continues to be binding on both parties and 
that it has been violated by the recent armed 
action taken by the Netherlands authorities in 
Indonesia." 

On December 24, the portion of the U.S. resolu- 
tion calling for a cease-fire, with an amendment 
submitted by Syria, calling for the release of the 
Indonesian Republic leaders, was passed by exactly 
seven votes with the U.S.S.R., France, IBelgium, 
and the Ukraine abstaining. 

A new Soviet resolution, submitted by Syria, 
Colombia, and the Ukraine, calling for the imme- 
diate withdrawal of troops, was offered on Decem- 
ber 27, and was defeated. 

The nest day, after the Dutch delegate, J. H. 
Van Royan, announced that his government was 
still considering the cease-fire order of December 
24 and that the Indonesian leaders were "merely 
in protective custody", the Council passed by a vote 
of 8-0 with Britain, France, and Belgium abstain- 
ing, a resolution calling on the Dutch to free the 
Indonesian leaders immediately and to report to 
the Council on this matter within 24 hours. At the 
Council session on December 29, the United States 
took the position that no further action was re- 
quired on the Indonesian question to bring out the 
fact of Dutch noncompliance, since the Nether- 
lands delegate had already announced that the 
cease-fire order had not been complied with. 

Kashmir 

On January 5 the United Nations Commission 
on India and Pakistan with Ambassador J. Klahr 
Huddle representing the United States, issued a 
statement that the Governments of India and 
Pakistan had agreed to a plebiscite in the state of 
Jammu and Kashmir to determine the state's fu- 
ture status. A unanimous resolution of the Com- 
mission also commended the two governments for 
their endeavor to reach a friendly and peaceful 
solution of the Kashmir problem and for their 
prompt proclamation of the cease-fire. The reso- 
lution outlined the principles of the plebiscite 
which the two countries had accepted. 

It was also resolved that the Commission would 
return to India in the innnediate future. 

41 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 

Calendar of Meetings ' 



Adjourned During December 

United Nations: General Assembly: Third Session 


Paris 


1948 

Sept. 25-Dec. 11 
Nov 17-Dec 11 


UNESCO* General Conference: Third Session 


Beirut 


West Indian Conference: Third Session 


Guadeloupe 

Guadeloupe 

Havana 


Dec 1-18 


Seventh Meeting of the Caribbean Commission 


Dec 1-18 




Dec 1-8 


Iro (International Refugee Organization): Meeting of Executive 
Council. 

In Session as of January 1, 1949 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : International 


Rome 


Dec 7-10 


Mexico City . . . 


Oct 22- 


Conference on High Frequency Broadcasting. 
Intergovernmental Working Party to Draft an Agreement for the 


London 


Nov. 7- 


Establishment of an International Authority for the Ruhr. 

Scheduled for January 

United Nations: 

Security Council Commission on India and Pakistan 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council): Fiscal Commission: 
Second Session. 


Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Jerusalem 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Rome 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Washington 

Washington 


1949 

Jan. 3- 
Jan. 10- 

January 
January 


Conciliation Commission for Palestine 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 




Jan. 12- 




Jan 18- 


Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : Meeting of Specialists 

on Hybrid Corn Production. 
Ilo (International Labor Organization): Permanent Migration 

Committee. 
Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Special Administrative Conference on Standard Loran .... 
Third Region Frequency Conference 


Jan. 10- 
Jan. 13- 

Jan. 17- 
Jan. 17- 


Preparatory Meetings to Discuss Form of Telegraph Regula- 
tions. 
International Telephone Consultative Committee: Meeting of 
Experts. 

International Wheat Conference 

International Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Conference 


Jan. 17- 

January 

Jan. 25- 
Jan. 26- 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Establishing an International Authority for the Ruhr, December 28, 1948^ 



COMMUNIQUE ON SIX POWER MEETINGS 



1. Representatives of Belgium, France, Luxem- 
bourg;, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and 
the United States have met in London to draft 
a detailed agreement establishing an International 
Authority for the Ruhr, as provided in the annex 
to the communique issued on June 7th, 1948, at 
the termination of the London Six-Power talks 
on Germany.- The delegates have completed a 
draft agreement which has now been submitted to 
their Governments for approval. The text of the 
draft agreement was made public on December 28. 

2. The meeting, which was held in a friendly 
atmosphere throutjhout, carefully examined all 
aspects of the problems involved. It was recog- 
nised at the outset that a number of organisations 
are being established and arrangements being 
worked out with respect to Germany. The Ruhr 
Authority is one of them and should be viewed in 
this context. To avoid duplication of effort and 
overlapping of jurisdiction, each of these has its 
particular functions. Taken together they are de- 
signed to accomplish a threefold objective: to as- 
sure the disarmament and demilitarisation of 
Germany ; to further the recovery of the countries 
of Europe, including a democratic Germany ; and 
to promote that intimate association of their eco- 
nomic life which in the last analysis alone can 
assure a peaceful and prosperous Europe. 

3. Among the arrangements designed to prevent 
aggression, the Military Security Board is one 
of the most important. The functions of this 
Board have recently been agreed upon in principle 
by the three Military Governors. They include 
provision for cooperation with the Ruhr Author- 
ity. The Board will have general responsibility 
for the maintenance of disarmament and demili- 
tarisation in the interests of security. As re- 
gards industrial disarmament, the Board will act 
in accordance with agreements which are in the 
course of completion concerning the necessary 

frohibitions and limitations on German industry. 
t was recognized that a ceiling of 10.7 million tons 
on the production of crude steel is now in effect 
in the Bizonal Area. 

4. In 1940, the United States Secretary of State, 
Mr. Byrnes, put forward certain ideas for assur- 
ing the effective disarmament and demilitarisa- 
tion of Germany.* It is anticipated that the ob- 
jectives and mechanisms envisaged by Mr. Byrnes' 
proposal will, to the extent appropriate, form a 
basis for long-term disarmament and demilitarisa- 
tion measures to be worked out through and 

January 9, J 949 



adapted to the Military Security Board or any 
other organisation established as its successor to 
perform these functions. These measures will be 
designed solely to prevent the revival of German 
aggression. 

5. Within this framework it is the purpose of 
the Six Powers to provide the means by which a 
peaceful democratic Germany can be brought into 
the European comnmnity to play its part as a fully 
responsible and independent member. The par- 
ticipation of the Western Zones of Germany in 
the European Recovery Programme and in the 
Organisation for European Economic Coopera- 
tion already demonstrates the intention of the 
Western Powers to afford to Germany its place in 
the economic life of Europe. 

6. With these various factors in mind, it has 
been a main objective of the Six Powers, in estab- 
lishing the Ruhr Authority, to ensure that the 
resources of the Ruhr shall in the future be used 
not for purposes of aggression but solely in the 
interests of peace, and to provide for a closer co- 
ordination of the economic life of the countries 
of Europe, cooperating in the common good, in- 
cluding a democratic Germany. 

7. During the pei-iod that the Occupation Au- 
thorities are exercising extensive economic func- 
tions in Germany, the decisions of the Authority 
will necessarily be carried out largely by or 
through the Occupation Authorities. As, how- 
ever, they relinquish their functions, the Author- 
ity will be in more and more direct relationship 
with the German Government in the exercise of 
its functions. 

8. A principal function of the Ruhr Authority 
is to make a division of the coal, coke and steel 
from the Ruhr as between German consumption 
and export, in order to provide adequate access 
to supplies of these products by countries cooperat- 
ing in the common economic good, at the same 
time taking into account the essential needs of 
Germany. This division must, of course, be in 
conformity with existing international agree- 
ments. Thus, in the case of coal and coke the 
sliding scales drawn up in Moscow and Berlin 
continue in force. 



' Released to the press simultaneously In London, Paris, 
and Washington on Dec. 28, 1948. 

' Bulletin of June 20, 194S, p. 807. 

'Bulletin of May 12, 1946, p. 815, and Sept 15, 1946, 
p. 497. 

43 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

9. The functions of the Ruhr Authority in the 
above field will be coordinated with the larger and 
more comprehensive operations of the O.E.E.C. 
in its work of promoting the economic rehabilita- 
tion of the countries i^articipating in the Euro- 
pean Recovery Programme. 

10. The Authority will have powers to ensure 
that the German Authorities do not institute, carry 
out or permit artificial or discriminatory trans- 
port, price and trade practices, quotas, tariffs and 
similar governmental measures or commercial 
arrangements which would distort the movement 
of Ruhr coal, coke and steel in international trade, 
except for measures of protection approved by the 
Authority. 

11. The Authority will furthermore be charged 
with responsibility for the safeguard and protec- 
tion of foreign interests in the coal, coke and steel 
industries of the Ruhr in conformity with inter- 
national agreements, in so far as these functions 
are not entrusted to another body for the whole of 
Germany. 

12. Particular attention was paid to the ques- 
tion of giving the Authority powers of supervision 
over the management and direction of the Ruhr 
coal, coke and steel industries. The Coal and 
Steel Control Groups established by the British 
and American Occupation Authorities now have 
extensive powers over these industries, including 
powers over production, investment, develojjment 
and other matters concerning management and 
direction. As is known, the French Authorities 
have been invited to join in the work of these 
Control Groups. It has been agreed that at the 
appropriate time such of these powers relating to 
the supervision of management and direction as 
the Six Powers consider necessary to achieve their 
purposes with respect to the security and well- 
being of Europe will be transferred to the Ruhr 
Authority or to the Military Security Board or its 
successor or to some other international body. 
These would be powers of supervision over pro- 
duction, investment and development and would 
not be powers of detailed control which would 
unduly interfere with the normal and regular re- 
sponsibilities of management. The conditions 
under which these powers will be transferred, and 
the manner in which they will be exercised, will be 
determined as soon as practicable in the light of 
experience acquired over a period of time under 
the present Control Groups. It is further under- 
stood that any powers transferred to the Authority 
in this connection under Article 19 for economic 
as opposed to agreed security purposes will be 
transferred for the purpose of contributing 
toward that closer association of the economies of 
Europe which the Six Powers have set out as one 
of tlieir objectives in the preamble to the agree- 
ment. It was agi-eed that the powers to be con- 
tinued should also be adequate to i)revent the re- 
vival of excessive economic concentration in the 

44 



coal, coke or steel industries of the Ruhr and to 
prevent persons who furthered the aggressive de- 
signs of the Nazis from acquiring ownership in- 
terests or positions of direction and management 
in those industries. The agenda of the meeting 
did not include the question of the final owner- 
ship of the industries concerned and this question 
is in no way affected by the discussions or the 
draft agreement. 

13. The Authority will have the right to obtain 
information necessary to enable it to perform its 
functions, including adequate rights of inspection 
and investigation. 

14. The Authority will consist of a Council 
composed of representatives of the member Gov- 
ernments and will have a permanent Secretariat. * 

15. As soon as a German Government is estab- | 
lished, it will have the opportunity of acceding to 
the Agreement, the vote for Germany being exer- 
cised meanwhile by the Occupation Authorities. 
When a German Government has undertaken the 
full obligations of its membership, it will enjoy 
full voting rights except in matters of security „ 
and default. Il 

16. The Authority, if its decisions and direc- 
tives are not 23i'operly respected by the German 
Government, may find the latter in default and 
make recommendations as to the action to be 
taken. 

17. The Authority will submit an annual re- 
port on its work which will normally be followed 
by a meeting of specially appointed representa- 
tives of member governments to review the report 
and the work of the Authority. Any two or more 
members, who consider that the policies of the 
Authority are not consistent with the purposes 
for which it was created, may call for a special 
examination of its operations by the member gov- 
ernments. Germany may not initiate such exami- 
nations in matters relating to security. 

18. In the past the resources of the Ruhr have 
been used for the purposes of aggression. The six 
Governments are determined that, through the se- 
curity measures referred to above, any I'ecurrence 
of such a situation shall be prevented. They are 
equally aware that the political and economic wel- 
fare of Europe requires the full and effective use 
of the industrial production of the Ruhr and the 
participation of a democratic Germany in the 
comity of nations, all enjoying a reasonable stand- 
ard of prosperity. The establishment of the Rulir 
Authority is an innovation in the international 
economic field. It is not being set up to limit free 
competition by European industries in the mar- 
kets of the world. It has a constructive function 
to fulfill in promoting the general economic well- 
being of Euro])e and in re-establisliing interna- 
tional confidence. If operated wisely, the Ruhr 
Authority may be regarded as a further contribu- 
tory step towards a more intimate economic asso- 
ciation among the countries of Europe. 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



TH£ RECORD OF THE WEEK 




11116 



BOUNDARIES 

Inlefnotionot— 1937 
Occupation Zone— 1Q4Q 
lond- ]g48 

Area under International Ruhr Authority 



January 9, J 949 



45 



THB RECORD OF THB WEEK 



TEXT OF DRAFT AGREEMENT 



Wliereas international security and general eco- 
nomic recover}' require : 

that the resources of the Ruhr sliall not in the 
future be used for the purpose of aggression but 
shall be used in the interests of peace ; 

that access to the coal, coke and steel of the 
Ruhr, which was previously subject to the exclu- 
sive control of Germany, be in the future assui-ed 
on an equitable basis to the countries cooperating 
in the common economic good ; 

Wliereas it is desirable for the political and eco- 
nomic well being of the countries of Europe co- 
operating in the common economic good, includ- 
ing a democratic Germany, that there be close 
association of their economic life; 

Whereas it is important that trade between the 
countries mentioned in the preceding paragraph 
should be facilitated by lowering trade barriers 
and by any other means; 

Now therefore, in furtherance of the foregoing 
purposes and in order to establish an international 
control in the Ruhr in conformity with the agreed 
statement of principles contained in Annex C to 
the Report signed in London on the first day of 
June, 1948 * at the conclusion of the Six Power 
Talks on Germany, the Governments of Belgium, 
France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
and the United States of America have agreed as 
follows : 

Part I: The Authority 

Article 1 

There is hereby established an International 
Authority for the Ruhr, hereinafter referred to 
as the ^'■Authority'''', the composition, powers and 
functions of which are as set forth herein. 

Article 2 

The members of the Authority shall be the Sig- 
natory Governments and Germany. 

Article 3 

The Authority shall consist of a Council com- 
posed of representatives of the Signatory Govern- 
ments and, subject to the provisions of xYrticle 4, 
of Germany. The Council shall be assisted by a 
Secretariat, headed by an Executive Secretary. 
The members shall also appoint alternate repre- 
sentatives. 

Article Jf. 

(a) Wlien a German Government is established, 
it may appoint a delegate to the Authority with 
the right to attend meetings of the Council. At 
such time as the German Government becomes en- 
titled to cast the votes allocated to Germany, as 

' BUIJ.ETIN of June 20, 1948, p. 807. 
46 



25rovided in Article 9 (c), it may appoint a repre- 
sentative on the Council and an alternate. 

(b) The Occupation Authorities concerned shall 
be represented at the Council by one of their na- 
tionals jointly designated by them, until such time 
as the votes allocated to Germany are cast by the 
German representative. 

Article 5 

The Headquarters of the Authority shall be at 
such place in Land North Rhine - Westphalia as 
the Council may determine. 

Article 6 

(a) Each member will pay the expenses of its 
own representation. Costs of travel on business of 
the Authority shall, however, be borne by the 
Authority. 

(b) The expenses of the Authority shall be de- 
frayed by the members in proportions correspond- 
ing to the votes allocated to such members. 

(c) Until the Occupying Powers decide other- 
wise, the expenses of the German representation 
and the share of the expenses of the Authority to 
be defrayed by Germany shall be met in such 
manner as may be determined by the Occupation 
Authorities concerned. 

Part II: Internal Organization and Procedure 

Article 7 

The Council shall hold such regular and special 
meetings as are necessary to the performance of 

its functions. 

Article 8 

The Chairmanship of the Council shall be held 
in rotation for periods of six months each, in such 
order as the Council shall determine, by the repre- 
sentatives of the Signatory Governments. The 
representative of the Government of the United 
Kingdom shall take the chair until the Council has 
determined the order of rotation. 

Article 9 

(a) The voting rights of the several members 
of the Authority in its Council shall be : 

Belgium 1 vote 

France 3 votes 

Germany 3 votes 

Luxembourg 1 vote 

The Netherlands 1 vote 

The United Kingdom 3 votes 

The United States 3 votes 

(b) Eight favorable votes shall be suflicient for 
every decision of tlie Authority, excejjt as pro- 
vided in Articles 13, 14, 17 and 24. 

(c) The votes allocated to Germany shall be 
cast as a unit by the joint representative of the Oc- 
cupation Authorities concerned appointed as pro- 

Depariment of Sfafe Bulletin 



videil in Article 4, until the Occupying Powers 
concerned determine that the German Govern- 
ment, by accession or by other means, has assumed 
the responsibilities placed upon Germany by the 

E resent Agreement. Thereafter such votes shall 
e cast by the German representative. 

Article 10 

(a) The Executive Secretary will be appointed 
by the Council, will serve as head of the Secre- 
tariat, will act under the instructions of the Coim- 
cil and will perform such duties as the Council 
shall determine. He will be entitled to participate, 
without right of vote, in all meetings of the Coun- 
cil, shall keep minutes of its meetings and shall 
maintain a register of its decisions. 

(b) The Executive Secretary shall appoint his 
staff in accordance with staff regulations drawn 
up as provided in Article 13. In his choice of staff 
he will be guided by the need for securing the 
highest standards of integrity, efficiency, inde- 
pendence and technical competence. The Council 
shall ensure that there is no undue concentration 
of posts in the hands of persons of any one 
nationality. 

(c) The responsibilities of the Executive Secre- 
tary and of the staff shall be exclusively interna- 
tional in character. In the discharge of their du- 
ties, they shall not seek or receive instructions 
from any government or from any authority other 
than that constituted by the present Agreement. 
They shall refrain from any action which might 
prejudice their position as international officials. 
Each member of the Authority undertakes to re- 
spect the international character of the responsi- 
bilities of the Secretariat and will not seek to 
influence the Executive Secretary or his staff in 
the discharge of their duties. 

Article 11 

The annual budget shall be prejjared by the 
Executive Secretary for approval by the Coui^cil. 

Article 12 

The Authority shall conduct its business in 
English, French and German, of which English 
and French shall be the official languages. Au- 
thoritative German texts of documents shall be 
provided as necessary. 

Article 13 

Immediately after the present Agreement comes 
into force the first meeting of the Authority shall 
be convened by the Government of the United 
Kingdom for the purpose of drawing up rules of 
procedure and operation, choosing an Executive 
Secretary, organizing its Secretariat and estab- 
lishing staff regulations. Decisions on such mat- 
ters, and any subsequent modifications of those 
decisions, shall require twelve affirmative votes. 

January 9, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THC WBEK 

Thereafter the setting up of the organization shall 
proceed as rapidly as possible and the Authority 
shall begin to exercise its functions at times to be 
establisiied by the Occupying Powers after con- 
sultation with the other Signatory Governments, 
but in any event prior to the establislunent of a 
German Government. 

Part III: Functions 

Article llf, 

(a) The Authority shall make a division of coal, 
coke and steel from the Ruhr as between German 
consumption and export. Such division shall: — 

(i) ensure adequate access to stipplies of these 
products by countries co-operating in the common 
economic good, taking into account the essential 
needs of Germany ; 

(ii) be in accordance with the terms of any 
agreement among the Occupying Powers with re- 
spect to the allocation of coal, coke or steel, which 
is in force at the time the division is made ; 

(iii) be consistent with the objectives set forth 
in the Convention for European Economic Co- 
operation and with any program approved, or 
decision taken, by the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, which is applicable to the 
period for which such division is made. 

(b) The export allocations of the Authority 
shall be in terms of minimum amounts of coal, 
coke and finished or semi-finished steel to be made 
available from the Ruhr for export. The Author- 
ity shall have the power to express these export 
allocations in terms of various qualities or types 
of coal, coke and finished or semi-finished steel. 
Exceptionally, the Authority may make an alloca- 
tion of pig-iron if at any time it decides by twelve 
affirmative votes that such an allocation is neces- 
sary in order to ensure adequate access to supplies 
of pig-iron. In making export allocations of 
finished or semi-finished steel, the Authority shall 
be bound by, and shall act within, any agreements 
relating to the level of steel production in Ger- 
many which are in force at the time and to wliich 
the Occupying Powers concerned are party. 

(c) Before the Authority begins to exercise its 
functions under this Article, it will agree with 
the Occupation Authorities concerned on a pro- 
cedure for co-ordinating the decisions of the 
Authority with the preparation of proposed pro- 
grams and plans for submission to the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Co-operation. This 
procedure shall be reviewed at any time at the re- 
quest of any member, and in any case at the end 
of the Control Period or at such earlier time as 
may be agreed upon by the Occupying Powers. 

Article 15 
The Authority shall have the right to examine 

47 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

transport, price and trade practices, quotas, tariffs, 
and other governmental measures or commercial 
arrangements instituted or permitted by the Ger- 
man authorities which affect the coal, coke or steel 
of the Ruhr. If the Authority determines that 
such practices, measures or arrangements are arti- 
ficial or discriminatory and are of such a nature 
as: — 

(i) to impede access by other countries to the 
coal, coke or steel of the Ruhr, 

(ii) to distort the movements of Ruhr coal, coke 
or steel in international trade, or 

(iii) otherwise to prejudice the accomplishment 
of the purposes of the present Agreement, 

the authority shall decide that such practices, 
measures or arrangements shall be appropriately 
modified or terminated. In making its determi- 
nations under this Article the Authority sliall have 
due regard for the requirements of international 
peace and security, for Germany's obligations 
under the Convention for European Economic 
Co-operation, and for the need of the German 
authorities to afford legitimate protection to the 
commercial and financial position of Germany in 
international trade. 

Article 16 

(a) During the Control Period, or until such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Occupy- 
ing Powers, the Authority shall bring to the at- 
tention of the Occupation Authorities concerned 
measures which would ensure, and after such 
period or time the Authority shall itself ensure, 
in conformity with any international agreements 
relating to the protection of foreign interests in 
Germany in force at the time, to which the Signa- 
tory Governments are party, 

(i) the safeguard and protection of foreign in- 
terests in coal, coke and steel enterprises in the 
Ruhr, and 

( ii ) the protection of such enterprises involving 
foreign interests from the application of dis- 
criminatory measures in any sector of their 
activity; 

provided that when and to the extent that the 
protection of such foreign interests or enterprises 
is entrusted to any agency created or designated 
by any international agreement to which the Sig- 
natory Governments are party, the functions of 
the Authority in this matter shall cease. 

(b) At the end of the Control Period, or at 
such earlier time as may be agi-eed upon by the 
Occupying Powers, the functions of the Author- 
ity refen-ed to in paragraph (a) of this Article 
shall, unless tliey have previously ceased, be re- 
viewed by the Signatory Governments, taking into 
account the desirability of transferring tliese 
functions to a separate agency or of extending 
them to tlie Aachen area. 

48 



Article 17 

(a) During the Control Period, or until such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Occupy- 
ing Powers, the Occupation Authorities concerned 
will maintain such powers as may be necessary 
to enforce the disarmament of Germany, including 
power to control the supply of Ruhr coal, coke 
and steel to any industry which may be prohibited 
or limited in the interests of security by agreement 
among the Occupying Powers or under the terms 
of any international agreement to which they may 
become party. 

(b) At the end of the Control Period, or at such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Occupy- 
ing Powers, the powers referred to in paragraph 
(a) of this Article shall be transferred to such 
international body as may be designated for tliese 
purposes by the peace settlement or by any inter- 
national agreement to which the Signatory Gov- 
ernments are party, and the Authority shall 
cooperate with that international body in such 
ways as shall be prescribed by the peace settle- 
ment or international agreement. If no such in- 
ternational body is established, these powers shall 
be transferred to the Authority to be exercised by 
the representatives of the Signatory Governments 
thereon. 

Article 18 

(a) At the end of the Control Period, or at such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Occupy- 
ing Powers, such of the existing powers of the 
Occupation Authorities as are necessary to ensure : 

(i) that there shall not be allowed to develop, 
or be restored, any pattern of ownership in the 
Ruhr coal, coke or steel industries, or trade and 
marketing agreements among such industries, 
which would constitute excessive concentration of 
economic power; 

(ii) that persons who have been, or may be, 
found to have furthered the aggressive designs of 
the National Socialist Party do not hold positions 
of ownership or control in the Ruhr coal, coke or 
steel industries or the trade and marketing organ- 
izations of such industries; and 

(iii) that adequate information is made avail- 
able for the purposes specified in sub-paragraphs 
(i) and (ii) above, 

will be transferred to the Authority or to the 
Militar}' Securitj' Board or its successor or to some 
other body created by international agreement and 
cliarged witli ensuring the achievement of these 
objectives with respect to these and otlier indus- ' 
tries in Germany. The Authority shall cooperate 
with any other body to which such powers may 
be transferred. 

(b) In conjunction with the first meeting of the 
special representatives of the members contem- 
plated in Article :i7, if practicable, but in any 

Department of State Bulletin 






event befoi-e the end of the Control Period, the 
Signatory Governments will determine, in the 
liprht of the experience of the Occupation Autlior- 
ities; 

(i) which of the existing powers of the Occu- 
pation Authorities are to be continued for the 
purposes provided for in paragraph (a) of this 
Article; (ii) whethei- such ])o\veis will be trans- 
ferred to the Authority, the Military Security 
Board or its successor, or some other body created 
by international agreement; 

(iii) the manner in which such powers will be 
exercised if transferred to the Authority; and, 
(iv) in the event of jjowers being so transferred 
to another body, the manner in which the Author- 
ity will cooperate with such other body. 

Article 19 

(a) At the end of the Control Period, or at such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Occupy- 
ing Powers, only such of the existing powers of 
the Occupation Authorities over the direction and 
management of the Ruhr coal, coke or steel indus- 
tries as are necessary to ensure : 

(i) that the general policies and general pro- 
grams relating to production, development and 
investment in those industries are in conformity 
with the purposes stated in the preamble to the 
present Agreement and 

(ii) that adequate information concerning such 
policies and programs be made available, 

will be transferred to the Authority, to the Mili- 
tary Security Board or its successor, or to some 
other body created by international agreement. 

(b) In conjunction with the first meeting of the 
special representatives of the members contem- 
plated in Article 27, if practicable, but in any 
event before the end of the Control Period, the 
Signatory Governments will determine, in the 
light of the experience of the Occupation Au- 
thorities : 

(i) which of the existing powers of the Occupa- 
tion Authorities are to be continued for the pur- 
poses provided in paragraph (a) of this Article; 

(ii) which of these powers will be exeixised by 
the Authorit}', by the Military Security Board or 
its successor, or by some other body created by 
international agi-eement; 

( iii) the manner in which powers transferred to 
the Authority will be exercised; and 

(iv) the relationship of the Authority with the 
Military Security Board or its successor, or with 
any other body to which the powers mentioned in 
paragraph (a) of this Article may be transferred. 

Part IV: Information and Investigation 

Article 20 

In order that the Authority may properly per- 
form its functions and in order that it may deter- 

January 9, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 

mine wlietlu-r its decisions are being a|)i)r()i)riately 
carried out, the Authority shall have the right: 

(i) to obtain periodical reports, and such addi- 
tional reports as it considers necessary, on produc- 
tion, distribution and consumption of Riilir coal, 
coke and steel, including such forecasts of pro- 
duction, distribution and consumption as may be 
necessary to enable it to perform its functions 
under Article 14; 

(ii) to obtain such information as it considers 
necessary concerning supplies of coal, coke and 
steel available to Germany from sources other 
than the Ruhr, and concerning exports from Ger- 
many of such products from sources other than 
the Ruhr; and 

(iii) to make in the Ruhr any investigations, in- 
cluding the examination of witnesses, which it 
considers necessary to verify the information ob- 
tained under this Article or other Articles of the 
present Agreement, and to determine the manner 
in which its decisions are being carried out, pro- 
vided that similar investigations may also be made 
in other parts of Germany under a special pro- 
cedure to be established in accordance with Ar- 
ticle 13. 

In the exercise of these rights, the Authority may 
make enquiries of individuals, including public 
officials, and public or private organizations, en- 
terprises and firms, and may examine records and 
installations. 

Part V: Execution of Functions 

Article 21 

(a) During the Control Period, or until such 
earlier time or times as may be agreed upon by the 
Occupying Powers, the Authority shall transmit 
its decisions under Articles 14 and 15 and its 
recommendations under Article 16 to the Occupa- 
tion Authorities concerned. 

(b) After the Control Period, or after such 
earlier time or times as may be agreed ujion by the 
Occupying Powers, the Authority shall transmit 
its decisions under Ai-ticles 14 and 15 and its direc- 
tions under Article 16 to the German Government. 

Article ^ 

During the Control Period, or until such earlier 
time or times as may be agreed upon by the Occu- 
pying Powers, the Occupation Authorities con- 
cerned will : 

(i) ensure that the decisions of the Authority 
under Article 14 are carried out except in so far 
as, in the judgment of the Occupation Authorities 
concerned, they require modification in order to 
make them consistent either with any agreement 
between two or more of the Occupying Powers re- 
lating to financial assistance to Germany which 

49 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

is in force at the time, or with any Agreement 
among the Occupying Powers with respect to the 
allocation of coal, coke or steel which is in force 
at the time ; 

(ii) ensure that the decisions of the Authority 
under Article 15 are carried out; 

(iii) inform the Authority of measures taken 
as the result of its recommendations under 
Article 16; 

(iv) take such action as is necessary to enable 
the Authority to exercise the rights provided for 
in Article 20 ; and 

(v) ensure the enjoyment of the privileges and 
immunities provided for in Article 28. 

Article 23 

After the Control Period, or after such earlier 
time or times as may be agreed upon by the 
Occupying Powers, the German Government shall : 

(1) ensure that the decisions of the Authority 
under Articles 14 and 15 and the directions of the 
Authority under Article 16 are carried out, and 
that any powers transferred to the Authority 
under Articles 17, 18 and 19 can be effectively 
exercised ; 

(ii) take such action as is necessary to enable 
the Authority to exercise the rights provided for 
in Article 20 ; and 

(iii) ensure the enjoyment of the privileges 
and immunities provided for in Article 28. 

Part VI: Default 

Article 2Jf 

(a) Should the German Government fail to 
take any action as required by Article 23 of the 
present Agreement, the representatives of the Sig- 
natory Governments on the Authority may serve 
notice in writing upon the German Government, 
which notice shall afford the German Government 
an opportunity, within a time determined by such 
representatives to be reasonable, to appear and 
present reasons why it should not be declared in 
default. 

(b) If the German Government does not pre- 
sent reasons satisfactory to the representatives of 
the Signatory Governments, such rej^resentatives 
may declare tlie German Government in default 
and in that event shall inform the German Gov- 
ernment in writing of their decision. Such rep- 
resentatives shall then make recommendations as 
to tlie necessary and appropriate measures to be 
applied. 

(c) Should the representatives of the Signatory 
Governments decide that the German Government 
is taking, or permitting, action which if permitted 
to continue might frustrate tlie proper exercise 
of tlie functions of the Authority, and that it is 
expedient that such action should be suspended 
pending further investigation by the Authority 

50 



and the formulation of a decision or direction, 
such representatives may serve preliminary notice 
in writing upon the German Government that 
such action shall be suspended, with immediate 
effect, for such a period as may seem appropriate, 
pending further consideration by the Authority. 

(d) The German Government may, within fif- 
teen days of the service of the preliminary notice 
in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 
(c) of this Article, request that the notice be set 
aside, and in that event shall be afforded a hearing 
at such time and place as may be determined by 
the representatives of the Signatory Governments. 
If the German Government fails to comply with 
the preliminary notice after : — 

(i) a hearing has been held and such repre- 
sentatives have notified that Government that 
their decision has been maintained; 

(ii) having failed to appear for a hearing at 
the time and place established ; or 

(iii) fifteen days have elapsed and no request 
that the notice be set aside has been made, 

such representatives may without further formal- 
ity declare the German Government in default 
and in that event shall inform that Government 
in writing of their decision. Such representatives 
shall then make recommendations as to the neces- 
sary measures to be applied. 

(e) All decisions under this Article shall be 
reached by a majority of the votes allocated to the 
representatives of the Signatory Governments. 

(f ) During the Control Period, the recommen- 
dations provided for in paragraphs (b) and (d) 
of this Article shall be made to the Occupation 
Authorities. 

(g) After the end of the Control Period, the 
recommendations provided for in paragraphs (b) 
and (d) of this Article will be made to the Signa- 
tory Governments. The measures recommended 
will be applied in accordance with the relevant 
provisions of the peace settlement or any interna- 
tional agreement to which the Signatory Govern- 
ments are party. 

Part VII: General Provisions 

Article 25 

The Authority may establisli such formal or 
informal rclutionsliip witli the United Nations and 
its subsidiary bodies, and with the Specialized 
Agencies and with otlier intergovernmental bodies, 
as may facilitate the performance of its functions. 

Article 26 

Tlie Powers of the Authority will not be exer- 
cised for the purpose of protecting the commer- 
cial or competitive interests of any country, nor 
for the purpose of preventing peaceful technologi- 
cal development or increased efficiency. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Article £7 

(ii) One year after ontoiing upon its functions 
and thereafter at annual intervals the Authority 
shall make a written report to the members on 
every aspect of its work. After the receipt by 
tlie members of such aumial report there shall be 
held, unless all the Sijj;natory Governments decide 
otherwise, a meetinj;; of special representatives of 
the members for the purpose of reviewing the re- 
port and the work of the Authorit}'. 

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of 
this Article, any two or more members of the Au- 
thority which, at any time, believe that the course 
of action or the policies initiated by the Authority 
are inconsistent with the purposes of the present 
Agreement, may give notice in writing to this 
effect to all other members of the Authority speci- 
fj'ing the particulars which they consider to con- 
stitute such inconsistency. Upon receipt of such 
notice, the members shall consult together with 
respect to the com]ilaint and shall take such action 
as may be required in the circumstances to accom- 
plish a solution of the matter, including, where 
appropriate, such arbitration or judicial settle- 
ment as may be agreed by such members. 

(c) A notice of complaint with respect to a 
course of action or policies initiated by the Au- 
thority for reasons of disarmament, demilitariza- 
tion or denazification may only be given when sup- 
ported by two members of the Authority other 
than Germany. 

(d) Nothing in this Article shall be construed 
to affect the provisions of Articles 13 or 33 of the 
present Agreement. 

Part VIII: Privileges and Immunities 

Article 28 

(a) The Authority and its assets, income and 
other property shall enjoy in Germany the same 
privileges, immunities and facilities as are pro- 
vided for the United Nations by the General Con- 
vention on Privileges and Immunities of the 
United Nations. 

(b) During the Control Period, or until such 
earlier time as may be agreed upon by the Oc- 
cupying Powers, the representatives of the Signa- 
tory Governments and their staffs and members 
of the staff of the Authority other than German 
nationals, and the dependents of such persons, 
shall enjoy in Germany the same privileges and 
immunities as are enjoyed by the official person- 
nel of the Occupation Authorities. Thereafter all 
such persons shall enjoy in Germany the same 
privileges and immunities as are provided for 
persons of comparable status by the General Con- 
vention on Privileges and Immunities of the 
United Nations. 

(c) German nationals on the staff of the Au- 
thority shall be immune from legal process in re- 

Jonuory 9, 1949 



THE RECORD Of TW WBCK 

spect of words spoken or written and all acts 
performed by them in their official capacity. 

Part IX: Definitions 

Article 29 
For the purposes of the present Agreement : 

(i) the expression '■^Ruhr" means the areas, as 
presently constituted, in Land North Rliine- 
Wcstphalia, listed in tiic Annex to this Agree- 
ment ; 

(ii) the expression '■^Signatory Governments'''' 
means the governments named in the last para- 
graph of the preamble; 

( iii ) the expression '■'■Occupying Powers'''' means 
the Government of France, the Government of the 
United Kingdom and the Government of the 
United States; 

(iv) the expression '■'■Occupation Authorities'''' 
means the Occupying Powers' representatives in 
Germany who are exercising responsibility for the 
Occupation of Germany on behalf of their Govern- 
ments ; 

(v) the expressions '■'■Occupying Powers con- 
cerned''' and ^'■Occupation Authorities concerned''^ 
mean those Occupying Powers or Occupation 
Authorities which share the responsibility for the 
economic administration of that part of Germany 
which includes the Ruhr; 

(vi) the expression '■'■Control Period''' means 
the period during which supreme authority is 
vested in the Occupying Powers; 

(vii) the expression '■^German Government''^ 
means any federal government, including a pro- 
visional federal government, in Germany which is 
approved by the Occupying Powers; 

(viii) the expression '■'■coaV means hard coal, 
soft coal, "Pechkohle" and lignite in all their 
forms, and agglomerates of these products; 

(ix) the expression "co/ce" means solid fuels de- 
rived from distillation of coal, including semi- 
coke or other special cokes in whatever form; 

(x) the expression '■'■steeV means all hot and cold 
finished rolled or drawn steel products, including 
tubes, with or without steel mill extras, all fin- 
ished steel forgings and finished steel castings, 
machined or unmachined, in carbon and alloy 
grades, ingots, semi-finished steel products, ferro- 
alloys and pig-iron of any type ; 

(xi) the expressions ^'-finifihed steel" and '■^semi- 
finished steeV include all forms of steel mentioned 
in the preceding definition except ingots, ferro- 
alloys and pig-iron. 

Part X: Final Clauses 

Article 30 

The present Agreement shall come into force as 
soon as it has been signed on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium, the Government of France, 

51 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 

the Government of Luxembourg, the Government 
of the Netherlands, the Government of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
and the Government of the United States of 
America. 

Article 31 

As soon as a German Government has been es- 
tablished, it may accede to the present Agree- 
ment by executing an instrument containing such 
undertakings with respect to the assumption of 
the responsibilities of the German Government 
under the Agi-eement and such other provisions as 
may be agreed by the Signatory Governments. 

Article 32 

The present Agreement shall, subject to the pro- 
visions of Article 33, continue in force until the 
coming into effect of a peace settlement for Ger- 
many and thereafter as provided in such peace 
settlement. 

Article 33 

The present Agreement may be amended by the 
agreement of all the Signatory Governments on 
the recommendation of the Authority. As long 
as the special relation of the Occupying Powers 
towards Germany continues, the present Agree- 
ment may be terminated by those Powers, subject 
to prior consultation with the other Signatory 
Governments. Thereafter it may be terminated 
by the agreement of all the Signatory Govern- 
ments. 

Article 34 

The English and French texts of the present 
Agreement are authentic. 

Article 35 
The original of the present Agreement shall be 



deposited with the Government of the United 
Kingdom, which will transmit certified copies 
thereof to each of the Governments on behalf of 
which it is signed, and it shall be registered with 
the Secretai-y-General of the United Nations. 

Done at this day 

In witness hereof the undersigned representa- 
tives, duly authorized by their respective govern- 
ments, have signed this Agreement on the dates 
appearing opposite their signatures. 



Annex 




In Refjiervnffsbezirk Duessel- 


In Regierungsbezirk 


dorf: 


Arnsberg: 


(1) Landkreis Dinslaken 


(1) 


Landkreis Ennepe- 
Ruhrkreis 


(2) " Duesseldorf- 


(2) 


Landkreis Iserlohn 


Mettmann 






(3) Landkreis Essen 


(3) 


Unna 


(4) " Geldern 


(4) 


Stadtkreis Bochum 


(5) " Krefeld-Uer- 


(5) 


Castrop 


dingen 




Rauxel 


(6) Landkreis Moers 


(6) 


Stadtkreis Dort- 
mund 


(7) " Rees 


(7) 


Stadtkreis Hagen 


(S) Stadtkreis Duesseldorf 


(8) 


Hamm 


(9) " Duisburg- 


(9) 


Heme 


Hamborn 






(10) Stadtkreis Muelheim 


(10) 


" Iserlohn 


(11) " Neuss 


(11) 


Luenen 


(12) " Oberhausen 


(12) 


Wanne- 
Eickel 


(13) " Remscheid 


(13) 


Stadtkreis Watten- 
seheid 


(14) " Solingen 


(14) 


Stadtkreis Witten 


(15) " Wuppertal 






[n Regierungshezirk Miienster: 






(1) Landkreis Beckum 






(2) " Luedingbau- 






sen 






(3) Landkreis Recklinghau- 






sen 






(4) Stadkreis Bottrop 






(5) " Gelsenkirclien 






(6) " Gladbeck 






(7) " Recklinghausen 







CFM Meeting Proposed To Resume Austrian Treaty Negotiations 



[Released to the press December 24] 

Text of the message transmitted hy the U.S. Dep- 
uty, Samuel Reher, for the Austrian treaty n-ego- 
tiations to the Secretary General of the Cowncil 
of Foreign Ministers in London 

The Austrian Government has informed the 
United States Government that favorable replies 
have now been received from the four govern- 
nients represented on the Coinicil of Foreign Min- 
isters to its note of Deceanber 6 requesting them 
to resume negotiations on the Austrian Treaty 

' Bulletin of Dec. 19, 1948, p. 77. 



with a view to finding an appropriate basis for 
their continuation and the early completion of the 
Treaty reestablishing Austrian independence.' 
The United States Deputy, as chairman of the 
next meeting, requests that a message be sent to 
the Governments of the United Kingdom, France, 
and the Soviet Union projiosing that the Deputies 
meet in London on or about Febr\iary 7. 1949 for 
this purpose. Tlie United States Deputy further 
requests that tlie Seci'etary General make avail- 
able to the Austrian Government a copy of this 
proposal and the replies received from the other 
three governments. 



52 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Coordinating Foreign Aid 



BY GEORGE C. McGHEE> 
Coordinator for Aid to Greece and Turkey 



Introduction 

111 Rdiiiun mytholofry. Janus was the god \yli<) 
looked two ways and was often pictured as haviiifi 
two heads. The subject assijrned me, tlie im- 
pact of foreign commitments upon the coordina- 
tive responsibilities of the Department of State, 
is two-headed in that it should include discussion 
of the nature of the foreifin coniinitineiits which 
have been undertaken by the Government, as well 
as the ways in which the Department of State, 
in the lijilit of its role amoiifi the executive agen- 
cies of the Government, has adapted itself to meet 
its coordinative responsibilities arising out of 
these commitments. 

As coordinator of the Greek-Turkish Aid Pro- 
gram, I have been concerned with the carrying out 
of a particular foreign commitment. As an officer 
of the Department of State, I have known inti- 
mately the impact of the program on the responsi- 
bilities of the State Department for coordinating 
the best advice and resources of the Executive 
establi.shmeiit in carrying out the program. My 
contribution to this panel, therefore, lies best in 
relating the conduct of the Greek-Turkish assist- 
ance program to rlie coordinative role of the State 
Department in foreign affairs. 

I should like to approach this problem, first, by 
discussing the background of law and tradition 
under which the Department of State undertakes 
coordinative responsibilities, then by outlining the 
methods by which coordination is achieved, and, 
finallj\ by giving you a case study in the Greek- 
Turkish Aid Program together with such conclu- 
sions as can be deduced from it. The Greek-Tur- 
kish Aid Progi-am provides for purpose of illus- 
tration a wide range of decisions and experiences 
which are for the most part applicable to the later 
European Kecovery Program and to other sub- 
sequent pi'ograms of economic defense assistance. 
Tiie Greek-Turkish Aid Program provided a test 
of the State Department's ability to exercise 
leadership in a relatively new type of foreign 
operation. Because we were working against 
time we had to learn while we were getting things 
done. 

I. Historical Background 

Under the Constitution it is the President who 
is empowered, with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties with other governments 
and to appoint and receive ambassadors, public 
ministers, and consuls. The Department of State 

January 9, 1949 



was created on July 27, 1789, as the Department 
of Foieigii Affairs, to assist the President in the 
making and execution of foreign policy. Its or- 
ganic iaw states that tiie Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs "shall perform and ex- 
ecute such duties as shall from time to time be 
enjoined on or entrusted to him by the President 
of the United States, agreeable to the Constitu- 
tion, relative to correspondences, commissions or 
nistructions to or with public ministers or consuls, 
from the United States, or to negotiations with 
public ministers from foreign states or princes, or 
to memorials or other applications from foreign 
public ministers or other foreigners^ or to such 
other matters respecting foreign affairs, as the 
President of the United States shall assign to the 
said department; and furthermore, that the said 
principal officer shall conduct the business of the 
said department in such manner as the President 
of the United States shall from time to time order 
or instruct."' 

As organized in 1806 under Secretai'y Madison 
the State Department consisted of eight persons 
with more domestic than foreign responsibilities. 
Although the State Department has at present 
approximately 7.200 employees in this country and 
approximately 12,000 abroad, its early growth was 
gradual. The total number of personnel em- 
ployed in this country in 1870 was only 52; in 
1909, 209; and in 1938, 963. Its most rapid 
growth was during the recent war, when it in- 
creased from 2,755 employees in 1943 to 7,623 in 
1946, exclusive of the Foreign Service. Madison's 
associates were all classified as clerks. At the 
present time the State Department organization 
includes an Under Secretary, a Counselor, 6 As- 
sistant Secretaries, 18 Offices, and 72 Divisions. 

The increase in size and organizational com- 
plexity of the Department of State is a conse- 
quence of the phenomenal growth of this country 
and our emergence as one of the two great world 
powers. It is also a result of the growing com- 
plexity of intergovernmental relations arising out 
of the increasing economic interdependence of the 
nations of the world, the rapid development of 
communications and transportation, the growth 
of world populations, the increase in the number 
of separate states, and the increasing complexity 
of political, social, and economic organizations 

' Adilress delivered liefore the American Political Sci- 
ence As.sociation in Chicago on Dec. 29, 1948, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

53 



THE RECORD OF THE WB£K 

within the various states which impinge on inter- 
national relations. As a result, the Department 
of State, as the principal organ of government 
assisting the President in the conduct of foreign 
affairs, has faced problems of increasing number 
and complexity and has had to grow and to adjust 
its organization and philosophy to the changing 
world environment. The State Department can 
be likened to a great "gear mechanism", which 
seeks to mesh the 145 million American people in 
all their many aspects — their wants, hopes, fears, 
and ambitions — to the 2 billion people in the rest 
of the world. Almost every problem facing the 
individual American has some foreign-policy re- 
percussion ; each American is in a multitude of 
ways related directly or indirectly to the citizens 
of every other nation. 

Eelations between nations in the nineteenth cen- 
tury were relatively leisurely, usually carried on 
between two nations at a time and involving es- 
sentially political problems which were ap- 
proached through the exercise of the "art" of 
diplomacy and through clever manipulations of 
power on the part of trained diplomats. The 
foreign-policy objectives of this country were 
limited, were essentially negative in character, and 
were largely calculated to keep us out of European 
conflicts. Today we deal not only with individual 
nations but increasingly with groups of nations, 
particularly through the United Nations. We 
have vital interests all over the world and are 
engaged in a number of positive foreign jirograms 
calculated to achieve certain definite foreign- 
policy objectives. More and moi-e of the problems 
facing the State Department, even though they 
may have strong political implications, can be 
solved only by specialists on a more or less tech- 
nical basis. This tendency is particularly well il- 
lustrated by the rapid growth of personnel in the 
economic offices of the Department of State from 
4 persons in 1933 to over 500 today, indicating the 
extent to which economic matters constitute the 
substance of today's foreign relations. 

II. Coordinative Role of the Department of State 

The increasing complexity and specialization in 
relations with other countries means that the pub- 
lic, the Congress, and the other agencies of gov- 
ernment are more and more involved in foreign 
affairs, which raises the important question of 
what the real role of the Department of State is in 
the conduct of foreign affairs. The organic law of 
the State Department leaves its responsibilities 
largely undefined. It is obvious that although 
the Department of State is the principal 
agency dealing with foreign affairs it is not re- 
sponsible for the conduct of all foreign affairs in 
behalf of the Executive branch of the Govern- 
ment. This must be the final responsibility of the 
President. Indeed, Congress has by statute and 
the President by Executive Order assigned cer- 

54 



tain definite responsibilities to other departments, 
such as the responsibility of the Civil Aeronautics 
Board to recommend issuance of foreign-carrier 
permits and of the Federal Communications Com- 
mission in the regulation of foreign commerce in 
wire and radio communications. The formula- 
tion of foreign policy is intimately related to 
domestic policy ; and public opinion, the Congress, 
and the other Executive agencies must play im- 
portant roles. 

A basic responsibility of the State Department 
is in the exercise of the techniques whereby for- 
eign relations are conducted, through representa- 
tion in foreign countries and negotiations with 
other governments. In addition the Department 
of State performs, as a result of law and tradition, 
certain administrative functions such as the is- 
suance of passports. It is the principal channel 
of information with respect to other countries. 
The Presidents also have from time to time as- 
signed the State Department certain specific re- 
sponsibilities to assist them in the conduct of for- 
eign affairs, such as the execution of the Greek- 
Turkish Aid Program. 

As a result of factors which have been pre- 
viously discussed, representatives of the State 
Department must deal more and more with for- 
eign-policy problems which have specialized and 
technical aspects, which may in themselves be the 
responsibility of some other agency of our Gov- 
ernment. Moreover, in fulfilling its own respon- 
sibilities, it has become increasingly necessary for 
the Department of State to coordinate the techni- 
cal asi^ects of the problems that constitute the 
grist of foreign relations with the other aspects 
of these problems. This need for coordination has 
made it increasingly necessary for officers of the 
Department to understand, if not to judge, the 
technical issues involved. It is this coordinative 
role of th§ State Department, with respect both 
to the public and to the rest of the government, 
that I shall, in accordance with the subject 
assigned, seek to develop. 

Some idea of the task of (lie State Department 
in relating public opinion to the conduct of for- 
eign affairs is indicated by the fact that it has 
liaison arrangements with some 500 private organ- 
izations covering all fields of American activity 
and thought. These organizations have their own 
special viewpoints and interests which must be 
taken into consideration in the formulation of na- 
tional foreign polic}-. In addition, the Depart- 
ment maintains liaison with editors, publishers, 
writers, and commentators and evaluates public 
opinion as expressed by the hundreds of thousands 
of letters from private citizens coming annually 
into the Department, from opinion polls and edi- 
torial comment. It has been necessary to create a 
si)ecial office, tlie Office of Public Affairs, to deal 
with the organizations, to answer the public's in- 
quiries about the State Department and its poli- 

Depariment of State Bulletin 



cies, and to interpret public opinion for the officers 
of tlie State Department. 

American business and industry, including both 
individual corporations and their trade organiza- 
tions, have a stake in foreign policy. The Depart- 
ment of State usually looks to the Dei)artment of 
Commerce, the Department of Agriculture, and 
otlier i-esponsible agencies of government to rep- 
resent domestic interests under their jurisdiction. 
However, it has in some cases been necossarj', be- 
cause of the comjilexity of the foreign-policy 
problems still remaining to the State Department, 
to set up special coordinative staffs, such as the 
Aviation and Petroleum Divisions, to deal with 
problems of particular industries. 

Some idea of the complexity of the coordinat- 
ing role of the Department of State within the 
Federal Government will be derived from the fact 
that there are in addition to the Congress eight 
departments, ten independent agencies, and ten 
interdepartmental agencies which have responsi- 
bilities bearing iipon foreign relations. Many of 
these, like the Departments of Commerce and 
Agriculture, have created separate offices to han- 
dle their foreign relations and work very closely 
with the State Department on a day-to-day basis. 
As of June 30. 19-18, the other departments and 
agencies were responsible for some 28 percent of 
personnel employed by this Government abroad, 
excluding those engaged in occupation of ex- 
enemy countries. During^ the last fiscal year only 
25 percent of the United btates representatives in 
394 international meetings were from the Depart- 
ment of State. The Congress has, in recent years, 
taken a keen interest in the conduct as well as in the 
formulation of foreign policy. Members of the 
congressional committees concerned and their 
staffs maintain constant contact with the Depart- 
ment of State. 

In effecting coordination with and between the 
other agencies of government concerned with for- 
eign relations, the Department has developed no 
startling new technique, no trick or device that 
renders the problem much easier. A great deal of 
coordination is achieved bilaterally with the ap- 
propriate officers of the agencj' involved over the 
telephone or tlirough direct liaison, correspond- 
ence, or regular or ad hoc meetings. The role of 
meetings in the conduct of government is well 
known and has probably not changed greatly since 
Sir Francis Bacon used and described them so 
effectively. Increasing utilization has, however, 
loon made of that time-tried device, the interde- 
partmental committee — the application of the 
Jiiultilateral principle of interagency relations 
which has proved particularly effective within the 
fi;imework of our democratic institutions. Utili- 
zation of this technique has, moreover, been ren- 
iltred more effective by the State Department 
Executive Secretariat. Without attempting to 
influence policy decisions, this professional group 

January 9, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

facilitates operations of most State Department- 
chairmanned committees, often eliminating un- 
necessary meetings, tlirough careful preparation 
of agenda, pointing up of policy issues, taking 
of mniutes, and systematic handling of committee 
papers. 

There are 33 interdepartmental committees that 
consider some aspect of foreign affairs, in addition 
to 14'2 subcommittees. Of these the State Depart- 
ment is cliairman of some 20, in which tlie primacy 
of tlie foreign-policy interest is recognized. Of 
increasing importance in the conduct of foreign 
relations during the postwar years, particularly 
in the fields of national security and international 
finance, has been the creation of certain cabinet- 
level committees : the National Advisory Council 
created by the Bretton Woods Agreements Act of 
1945, and the National Security Council and Na- 
tional Security Resources Board created under the 
National Security Act of 1947. These committees 
reflect the fact that the problems with which they 
deal lie beyond the coordinative responsibility of 
the State Department. 

Although most coordination by the State De- 
partment is done through the regular country or 
economic offices, there are certain specialized post- 
war activities of our Government for which the 
Department of State has been made responsible 
which cut across so many departmental lines as to 
require the creation within the State Department 
of special offices or coordinators, with appropriate 
staffs, to carry them out. The principal respon- 
sibilities of this nature include : 

1. Primary responsibility for relations with the 
United Nations and its specialized agencies and 
with other international organizations. 

2. Responsibility for liquidation of surplus war 
property abroad. 

3. Responsibility for formulation of policy with 
respect to occupied areas. 

4. Responsibility for operation of foreign in- 
formational and educational-exchange programs. 

5. Responsibility for certain foreign-assistance 
programs, including the Greek-Turkish Aid Pro- 
gram, the Philippine Rehabilitation Program, and 
the Institute of Inter-American Affairs. 

III. The Greek-Turkish Aid Program as 
a Case Study 

Let us now examine the Greek -Turkish Aid Pro- 
gram as an example, or "case study", of how the 
Department of State exercises its coordinative re- 
sponsibilities. The basic policy underlying the 
Greek-Turkish Aid Program was formulated in 
the brief period following the presentation of a 
note by the British Ambassador on February 26, 
1947, advising that the United Kingdom could 
as of March 31 no longer provide economic, finan- 
cial, and advisory assistance to Greece. The Presi- 
dent moved rapidly in the national interest and 

55 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

in his message to Congress on March 14 requested 
Congress to api^ropriate $400,000,000 in military 
and economic aid to assist these two freedom- 
loving countries, our allies in the last war, to resist 
the internal and external pressures which were 
being exerted against them by the Communist 
states. 

The State Department at the request of the 
President took the leadership among the execu- 
tive agencies in the formulation of the policy 
underlying the Greek - Turkish Aid Program, 
in the drafting of legislation, and in the 
preparation for its presentation to the Congress. 
This was done largely through ad hoc committees 
and informal liaison. On April 7, 1947, before 
the final approval of the enabling act (Public Law 
75, 80th Congress) which was not passed until 
May 22, 1947, the State Department took moi-e 
formal steps to initiate preoperational planning 
in order to reduce the objectives of the enabling 
legislation to practicable operating policies and 
plans in the short time available. 

In order to assure jDarticipation by all inter- 
ested offices and divisions of the State Department 
and all agencies of the Government having sub- 
stantive interest in the program and likely to be 
able to make a contribution to it, there was created 
concurrently a Departmental Committee and an 
Interdepartmental Committee for Aid to Greece 
and Turkey. It is worth noting, to demonstrate 
the extent to which interdepartmental coordina- 
tion must go, the number of separate organiza- 
tions represented on the interdepartmental 
committee and in the i^rogram: 

The White House 

Treasury Department 

Department of Agriculture 

De2)artment of Commerce 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Department of Labor 

Social Security Administration 

Public Roads Administration (Federal Works 

Agency) 
Bureau of the Budget 
Federal Security Agency 
U.S. Corps of Engineers (Department of the 

Army) 

The first order of business in the committees 
was the formulation of basic operating policies 
M'hich had not been si)elled out in the enabling 
legislation. Because of the urgency of the pro- 
gram the Interdepartmental Committee members 
canie in most cases prepared to make decisions for 
their agencies. In the case of the State Depart- 
ment lepreseiitative, who served as chairman, this 
was greatly facilitated by being able to obtain 
prior departmental agreement through the De- 
partmental Committees, which met daily in long 

56 



sessions. Once basic policies were agreed upon, 
plans were developed to show the congressional 
appropriations committees how the funds would 
be expended. 

The Department of State was formally dele- 
gated responsibility for the administration of the 
act by Executive Order dated May 22, 1947. The 
testimony of the executive agencies before the 
Congress and the reports of the House Foreign 
Affairs and Senate Foreign Relations Committees 
envisaged small but competent advisory missions 
in both Greece and Turkey. Each would have a 
chief of mission, who would exercise a large part 
of the responsibility for the execution of the pro- 
gram. It was also made clear that the State 
Department would utilize fully in the execution 
of the program the agency or agencies of the 
Government best qualified. 

Pursuant to this policy, the Army, Navy, and 
Air Force Departments assumed responsibility 
for the execution of the military aspects of both 
programs. The agricultural rehabilitation pro- 
gram envisaged as a part of Greek recover}' be- 
came the responsibility of the Department of 
Agriculture. The development of trade and pro- 
curement policies was the primary concern of the 
Department of Commerce. Responsibility was 
assigned to the United States Public Health Sei'v- 
ice for execution of the Greek public health pro- 
gram and to the Bureau of the Budget for devel- 
oping plans for the reorganization of the Greek 
Government calculated to increase its effective- 
ness. The Treasury Department, although pri- 
marily interested in the development of financial 
and monetary policy, assumed responsibility, 
through the Federal Bureau of Supply, for pro- 
curement of all nonmilitary supplies not pur- 
chased through private channels. The Depart- 
ment of Labor was responsible for all matters af- 
fecting Greek labor, the Federal Security Agency 
for Greek social insurance, and the Public Roads 
Administration for road building under the 
Turkish program. Thanks to the reservoir of 
technically competent personnel in each depart- 
ment, operational plans were quickly developed. 
After apjH'oval by the Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee and, where necessary, by the Secretary or 
Under Secretary of State, they were embodied in 
the master plans of the aid missions. 

Although the Secretary of State is responsible 
for carrying out the program and has delegated 
to the Chiefs of the Aid Missions full responsi- 
bility for oi)erati()ns in the field, in the Wash- 
ington "backstopping" of the various substantive 
aspects of the program the State Department has 
assumed the role of coordinator among the par- 
ticii)ating executive agencies. A total of 89 de- 
partmental officers from 22 offices and divisions 
participated in the planning of the i)rogi'am. In 
substantive problems they acted as liaison with 
the otlier interested departments, however, and 

Department of State Bulletin 



basic responsibility for operational planning was 
assumed directly by the departments involved. 

In order to facilitate the State Department's 
coordinating role, both within and without the 
iState Department, the position of Coordinator for 
Aid to Greece and 'rurkey was created on June 'iO, 
1!)47, as part of the Ollice of the Under Secretary 
of State. The Coordinator was directed to "take 
all necessary action relatinfj to the administration 
and proper coordination in Washinj^ton of func- 
tions under the Act". The Coortlinator assmned 
the chairmanship of the Greek-Turkish aid com- 
mittees anil was at the peak of activity assigned a 
staff of some 70 people, 50 of whom were, in order 
to disturb the orjianization of the State Depart- 
ment as little as possible, assigned to that part of 
the State Department functionallj- responsible for 
their activit}'. For example, j)ersonnel working 
on Greek Hnancial polic}' were assigned to the Fi- 
nancial Division. They attended regular "back- 
stop" staff meetings and maintained responsibility 
toward the aid programs. 

Direct consultation was arranged with private 
pjroups interested in the Greek Aid Program, 
either on their own or on the State Department's 
init iative, and consideration was given tlieir policy 
riews. Formal meetings were held with the Ex- 
port-Imiiort Advisory Committee of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce. This Committee included rep- 
resentatives of banks and export and import houses 
which would take part in the program, and helped 
to develop suitable procedures covering procure- 
ment, payment, insurance, and shipping under the 
program. Full cooperation was given to private 
iigencies who were engaged in activities which it 
(vas felt could contribute to the assistance effort. 
A. joint program with the Greek War Relief As- 
sociation will result in the construction of health 
:enters and hospitals involving total new expendi- 
tures of over $2,000,000 by the Association. The 
Unitarian Service Committee sent at its own ex- 
pense a mission of 12 outstanding physicians and 
:echnicians from this countiy to help in strength- 
;ning the (rreek medical profession. 

In a few cases it was not possible to find an ap- 
propriate agency of government to assume respon- 
sibility for a part of the program, and responsi- 
lility had to be retained by the State Department. 
N"o agency of government, for example, could be 
found that was in a position to assume full respon- 
iibility for a well-drilling program to increase the 
fvater supply of Greece. It was, as a consequence, 
lecessary for the State Department, with the as- 
sistance of some of the other departments, to de- 
velop this program itself. It was a startling in- 
lovation for the traditional State Department to 
lave well drillers from Texas waiting in its offices 
for their papers to be processed before leaving for 
jreece. 

An excellent illustration of the availability and 
competence of government agencies for foreign 

lanuary 9, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THE WBCK 

operating tasks is afforded by tiie Greek recon- 
struction program. Consideration had originally 
been given to letting the contracts for the recon- 
struction of roads, railroads, harboi-s, and canals 
in Greece directly by the Greek Government, witii 
the American Mission a party to the contracts and 
supervising execution of the contracts. Over 100 
contracting firms had approached the State De- 
partment ami had filed statements as to their ex- 
perience and cajiabilities. In order, however, to 
assure that the work would be done properly and 
within the period of a year originally assigned to 
the program for execution, and in order to safe- 
guard expenditure of public funds, it was decided 
to make use of the experience in overseas construc- 
tion of t he United States Corps of Engineers. The 
Army Engineers accepted the opportmiity and 
threw their resources wholeheartedly into the work 
by setting up a Grecian District Oilice in Athens. 
Under their supervision two groups of U.S. con- 
tractors were entrusted with the construction work, 
and the basic jn-ogram undertaken, aggregating 
some $(;5,00(),000 in dollar and drachma costs, is 
now scheduled for completion by the end of next 
month. The record of the Public Roads Admin- 
istration Mission in Tui'key, in assist ing in the con- 
struction of strategic roads and strenglhening the 
Turkish highway administration, is equally im- 
pressive. 

When the missions began their work in Greece 
and Turkey, each of the substantive divisions de- 
veloped direct lines of communication with their 
corresponding agencies in Washington. Although 
policy matters came from the Chiefs of Mission 
through Embassy and Department of State chan- 
nels, there was direct interchange at the working 
level of substantive information, ideas, and in- 
structions. Many of the departments had fur- 
nished some of their key personnel for the aid 
missions and maintained a keen interest in their 
segments of the program. It is believed that one 
of the most important elements in whatever suc- 
cess the missions have achieved was the bringing 
into play of all the potential contributions of the 
other executive agencies. 

As the aid programs developed and policies be- 
came formulated, the Departmental and Interde- 
jjartmental Committees for Aid to Greece and 
Turkey met less and less frequently. Ultimately 
it was" found most problems involving only one 
or a few of the interested agencies could be 
solved more etl'ectively by telei)lione or direct 
liaison with the other departmental representa- 
tives on the committee, or through interchange of 
letters and memoranda. This was possible be- 
cause the interdepartmental committee had been 
set up by exchange of letters with the other de- 
partments, not by statute, and had not acquired 
any vested interest as a committee. The com- 
mittee was continued formally for some time after 
it became inactive, in order to utilize it as a chan- 

57 



THE RECORD OF THE WBEK 

nel for distributing reports and other documents 
received from the missions. It was convened 
only in the case of important policy decisions or 
to hear reports from members of the missions 
returning to this country. 

Both the Greek and Turkish Aid Programs in- 
volve close coordination with the three service 
departments and with the National Military 
Establishment. Recommendations on important 
policy decisions are obtained from the Secretary of 
Defense who, when appropriate, refers them to the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. However, day-to-day op- 
erational matters are handled by direct liaison 
with the minimum of formality. Excellent co- 
ordination between and with the services has 
been achieved at all times, both in Washing- 
ton and in the field. The size of the military mis- 
sions, 450 in Greece and 363 in Turkey, gives some 
index to the complexity of the problem. Both in 
Greece and in Turkey the senior officer, in each 
case a ground-force officer, is in over-all super- 
vision of the military mission. 

Important as coordination in Washington is in 
the execution of a foreign program, coordination 
in the field is more important. This has in gen- 
eral been achieved in the Greek-Turkish Aid Pro- 
gram, and any lapses that have occurred have only 
served to highlight the importance of a united 
effort. Coordination between the economic and 
military aspects of the Greek Aid Program, 
which was vital to the success of the effort 
since each impinged directly upon the other, 
was originally assured by the fact that the Chief 
of the American Mission for Aid to Greece was 
responsible for both segments of the program. 
Even though the responsibility for the economic 
side was transferred on July 1, 1948, in accord- 
ance with Public Law 472, to the Economic Co- 
operation Administration, coordination of the 
over-all effort is effected in Greece by the United 
States Ambassador who is also Chief of the 
American Mission for Aid to Greece, now largely 
a military mission. Field coordination is effected 
through daily meetings of the Ambassador with 
his executive committee composed of the Director 
of the Military Mission, the Chief of the Eca 
Mission, and the Counselor of Embassy. 

IV. Conclusions 

Although you will, as political scientists, wish 
to draw your own interpretation of the conclu- 
sions that can be derived from the coordinative 
experience of the Department of State with the 
other agencies of government in the Greek- 
Turkish Aid Program, I should like to suggest a 
few : 

1. Since one department of government is not 
in a position to direct the activities of others even 
in the carrying out of a program for which it is 
responsible, it must use coordination as an admin- 

58 



istrative technique in the Washington "backstop- 
ping" of a foreign operation involving other de- 
partments. Control over program funds, which 
is vital for successful coordination, provides ade- 
quate authority for the coordinating agency. 

2. The coordinating agency should exert posi- 
tive leadership over the participating agencies and 
should keep the initiative at all times and the con- 
trol over the time schedule of the program. 

3. The maximum contribution will be made by 
the participating agencies if they are given the 
maximum of scope and responsibility within a 
broad policy framework, and encouraged to give 
full play to their own creative forces. In other 
words, coordination should be effected with as 
light a hand as possible. 

4. Coordination should make maximum use of 
existing channels and coordinative mechanisms 
and should supplement and amplify rather than 
compete with them. 

5. The coordinating agency should assume no 
substantive responsibility in a field for which an- 
other agency is responsible, but should be pre- 
pared to carry out some important segment of 
the program if it cannot be accomplished 
otherwise. 

6. The medium of coordination, whether com- 
mittee or direct liaison, should be the servant 
rather than the master of the coordinating agency. 
Selection should be determined by expediency 
rather than by statute. 

7. Coordination is facilitated by full prior con- 
sultation and agreement by the participating 
agencies on important policy issues of common 
interest, and by respect for the prerogatives of 
the participating agencies. 

8. In order to be effective the coordinating 
agency must understand thoroughly the substan- 
tive issues involved and follow the work of the 
participating agencies closely at the substantive 
level. 

9. Coordination in the field, vis-a-vis the foreign 
government concerned, is even more important 
than coordination in Washington. 

10. Irrespective of wliat the decision may be 
as to whether the Department of State should 
assume direct responsibility for the conduct of an 
operation, there appears to be no reason why it 
cannot effectively coordinate one. 

And what, you may ask, can one conclude as to 
the role the State Department will play as a co- 
ordinator in the field of foreign affairs in the 
future? In the final analysis the answer depends 
upon the use which the President chooses to make 
of it, which is in turn intimately related to the 
nature of the organization set up at tlie presiden- 
tial level to effect coordination of problems of 
great natioiuil importance falling outside the scope 
of any one of the Government departments. 

The extent to which the Department of State 

Department of State Bulletin 



continues to serve in the future as a coordinator 
in tlie field of foreifjn affairs depends in large 
measure upon the world situation, which will de- 
termine the importance of the foreign-policy 
aspects of the problems involved. It also de- 
pends on whether or not we in the State Depart- 
ment prove ourselves an effective coordinating 
mechanism. One way in which we can so prove 
ourselves lies in the perfection of the organiza- 
tion of the State Department to establish clear 
lines of policy and executive responsibility, and 
in the continued development of the techniques of 
coordination through a professional secretariat. 
An equally important element, however, is the 
caliber of the officers of the State Department. 
The Department of State needs to draw more 
than in the past from those outstanding citizens 
in this country who have through successful 
careers in busniess, professional, or academic 
life clearly demonstrated their ability and 
their devotion to public service. Such men 
would provide the wealth and breadth of ex- 
perience in particular substantive problems which 
are required if the State Department is to establish 
effective leadership over those it coordinates. 
Such men, brought into the State Department at 
all stages of their development, would serve to 
complement the outstanding group of men who 
constitute the Foreign Service of the United States 
and who have through experience become familiar 
with other countries and with the methods of 
diplomacy. Together they would assure that the 
Department of State was a tool which the Presi- 
dent could use effectively as his staff organization 
for coordinating the formulation and execution of 
United States foreign polic}^ — to safeguard the 
vital foreign interests of this country and to 
assure that we persevere in our efforts to achieve 
world peace and security. 

Preparation of Recommendations to the 
President on Military Assistance Programs 

Ernest A. Gross Designated Coordinator for 
Foreign Assistance Programs 

[Released to the press December 29] 

At the request of the President, the executive 
departments and agencies concerned with the 
formulation or administration of United States 
programs of foreign assistance are preparing for 
the President recommendations concerning legis- 
lation for possible submission to the 81st Con- 
gress, including recommendations for legislation 
authorizing the provision of military assistance 
in certain circumstances. For a number of months 
the Department of State and the National Mili- 
tary Establishment have been jointly engaged in 
the preparation of working drafts of such legisla- 
tion. 

The President has directed the several depart- 

Januar/ 9, J 949 



THE RECOBD OF THE WHK 

ments and agencies concerned to coordinate (heir 
efforts as closely as possible in order that all re- 
lated aspects of the foreign economic and military 
programs, from a policy, budgetary, and sujjply 
point of view, may be considered by him on a 
comprehensive and integrated basis. 

The Department of State has been assigned re- 
sponsibility for coordinating the preparation of 
recommendations to the President concerning 
military assistance programs. 

In order to discharge this responsibility, the 
Department of State has established within the 
oflice of the Under Secretary the position of Co- 
ordinator for Foreign Assistance Programs. He 
will be responsible for coordinating the Depart- 
ment's activities in this field, including planning 
for and initiating, in collaboration with the Na- 
tional Military Establishment, the Economic Co- 
operation Administration, and other appropriate 
agencies, legislation extending or affecting foreign 
military assistance and related economic assist- 
ance, and its presentation to the Congress, as well 
as representation of the Department in inter- 
departmental discussions concerning the United 
States policy with respect to this assistance. The 
Coordinator will also assure that matters relating 
to regional agreements and arrangements under 
the Charter of the United Nations and Senate 
Eesolution 239, 80th Congress, are fully coordi- 
nated with the development and presentation to 
Congress of the foreign assistance programs. 

Ernest A. Gross has been designated as Co- 
ordinator for Foreign Assistance Programs. Mr. 
Gross, who is Legal Adviser for the Dejiartment 
of State, has just returned from Paris, where he 
was United States Alternate Delegate to the Third 
Regular Session of the United Nations (leneral 
Assembly. Prior to his appointment as Legal 
Adviser, Mr. Gross was Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary of State for occupied areas, in which capacity 
he worked closely with the War and Navy De- 
partments in connection with politico-military 
matters. During the war he was a Lieutenant 
Colonel and served as Chief of the Economic Sec- 
tion of the Civil Affairs Division, War Depart- 
ment General Staff. 

United States Recognizes Republic of Korea 

[Released to the press by the White House January 1] 
On December 12, 1948, the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly adopted a resolution approving the 
conclusions of the report of the United Nations 
Temporary Commission on Korea and declaring 
in part "that there has been established a lawful 
government (the Government of the Republic of 
Korea), having effective control and jurisdiction 
over that part of Korea where the Temporary 
Commission was able to observe and consult and 
in which the great majority of the people of all 
Korea reside; that this Government is based on 

59 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

elections which were a valid expression of the free 
will of the electorate of that part of Korea and 
which were observed by the Temporary Commis- 
sion; and that this is the only such Government 
in Korea".^ The resolution of December 12 con- 
cluded with the recommendation that member 
states and other nations take the foregoing facts 
into consideration in establisliing their relations 
with the Government of Koi'ea. 

In the light of this action by the General As- 
sembly, and taking into account the facts set forth 
in the statement issued by this Government on 
August 12, 1948, concerning the new Korean Gov- 
ernment, the United States Government has de- 
cided to extend full recognition to the Government 
of the Eepublic of Korea. Incidental to this step 
it is anticipated that, by agreement with that Gov- 
ernment, the Mission of the United States Special 
Kepresentative in Korea will in the near future be 
raised to Embassy rank. 

In conformity with the General Assembly reso- 
lution of December 12, the United States Govern- 
ment will endeavor to afford every assistance and 
facility to the new United Nations Commission 
on Korea established thereunder in its efforts to 
help the Korean people and their lawful Govern- 
ment to achieve the goal of a free and united 
Korea. 

Economic Stabilization Program To Be Carried 
Out by Japanese Government 

[Released to the press jointly with the 
Department of the Army on December 18] 

The Departments of State and Army announced 
on December 18 that the Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers will direct the Japanese 
Government to carry out an effective economic 
stabilization program calculated to achieve fiscal, 
monetary,' price, and wage stability in Japan as 
rapidly as possible, as well as to maximize pro- 
duction for export. The action of the Supreme 
Conunander will be taken pursuant to an interim 
directive issued to him by the United States Gov- 
ernment which is in accord with the terms of 
reference of the Far Eastern Commission. 

Economic stability is a most urgent require- 
ment for assuring the continuation of Japan's 
economic recovery and insuring the maximum 
effect from use of United States - appropriated 
funds. General Mac Arthur and responsible offi- 
cials in Washington have been encouraged by the 
marked general recovery in Japanese industrial 
Ijroduction tlirough 1948 (with November at (12 
percent of the 19;50-34 average and 47 percent 
above a year ago) and by the anticipated increase 
in exports this year to about $200,000,000, 48 per- 
cent above 1947. General price and monetary in- 



' Bulletin of Dec. 19, 1948, p. 760. 



60 



flation have continued, however, with the consumer 
price level and note issue increasing 60 percent 
over the period between November 1947 and No- 
vember 1948. The retarding effects of this gen- 
eral and continuing inflation, together with the 
dangers to the gains already achieved, have made 
apparent the necessity for more resolute and 
intensive action by the Japanese. 

Improvements in the Japanese general stand- 
ard of living will be contingent on the degree to 
which the Japanese give whole-hearted support 
to the achievement of economic stabilization and 
recovery. Their performance in carrying out 
their program will be weighed in connection with 
future requests for appropriated funds for Japan. 

Countries which are recipients of United States 
assistance under the Economic Cooperation Act 
of 1948 have also undertaken certain measures 
similar to those specified in this program. These 
include financial and monetary measures neces- 
sary to stabilize their currencies, to establish or 
maintain valid rates of exchange, to balance their 
budgets as soon as practicable, and generally to 
maintain confidence in their monetary system. 
The action in Japan is in line with tlie efforts of 
the United States in other parts of the M'orld to 
contribute to general economic recovery. 

The necessity for such a program was recognized 
by General MacArthur in July 1948 when he urged 
upon the Japanese Government a program which 
was substantially that which he has now directed 
they carry out. The specific objectives of the 
program are : 

A. Achieving a true balance in the consolidated 
budget at the earliest possible date by stringent 
curtailing of expenditures and maximum expan- 
sion in total governmental revenues, including 
such new revenue as may be necessary and appro- 
priate. 

B. Accelerating and strengthening the program 
of tax collection and insuring prompt, widespread, 
and vigorous criminal prosecution of tax evaders. 

C. Assuring that credit extension is rigorously 
limited to those projects contributing to the eco- 
nomic recovery of Japan. 

D. Establishing an effective program to achieve 
wage stability. 

E. Strengthening and, if necessary, expanding 
the coverage of existing price-control programs. 

F. Improving the oi)eration of foreign-trade 
controls and tightening existing foreign-exchange 
controls, to the extent that such measures can ap- 
propriately be delegated to Japanese agencies. 

G. Improving the effectiveness of the present 
allocation and rationing system, particularly to 
the end of maximizing exports. 

H. Increasing production of all essential indig- 
enous raw material and manufactured products. 

I. Improving efliciency of (lie food-collection 
program. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Inter-American Security System 



BY WILLARD F. BARBER' 
Chief, Division of Central America and Panama Affairs 



It is a pleasure to attend this meeting of the 
American l\)litical Science Association, of which 
I have been a member for some twenty years. I 
am liapjiy to discuss one specific aspect of inter- 
American rehitions before an audience incUidin<r 
several whose contributions to the cause of good 
will in the Americas si)an far more than twenty 
years. 

Senator Vandenberg said that the inter- Ameri- 
can treaty of reciprocal assistance signed at Rio 
de Janeiro on September 2, 1947, is "sunlight in a 
dark world."' 

The treaty has a triple aspect: 

A. It is under the United Xations a regional ar- 
rangement for the maintenance of peace and 
security under articles 52 through 54 of the 
Charter. It invokes the right (in article 51) of 
individual and collective self-defense against 
armed attack, pending action by the Security 
Coimcil. 

B. It states that an armed attack by any state 
against one American state is an attack against 
all. An armed attack from any source made upon 
the area described in article 4 of the treaty or upon 
the territory of an American state outside the area, 
obliges the signatories to assist in meeting the at- 
tack, as well as to consult. The nature of the help 
which they are pledged to render individually will 
be determined by each state pending a consultation 
to decide upon the collective measures required of 
all. Thus the right of collective self-defense in 
article 51 of the Charter becomes an oiJigation 
under the Rio treaty. Decisions taken by a two- 
thirds vote are binding on all parties, including 
those not concurring. However, no state is re- 
quired to use armed force without its consent. 

C. It provides for consultation in the event of 
an act or threat of aggression against an American 
state or of any fact or situation which might en- 
danger the peace of the Americas. 

Years of Development 

These forthright treaty obligations were not 
signed at Rio in an outburst of hemispheric senti- 
mentality : on the contrarj'. The treaty was not 
an outburst, but an outgrowth which has been 
steady and cumulative in the more than fifty years 
of development of the inter-iVmerican system. 
Furthermore, it is based on the trial-and-error 
method, hammered out through years of actual 
practical experience. It is an outgrowth^ not an 

January 9, 1949 



outburst. It does indeed oflfer sunlight in a dark 
world. 
From our own national point of view, if I may 

be permitted a reminder, the hijjartisan foreign 
policy of the United States, which is now widely 
accepted, has prevailed for some time in the inter- 
American area. 

The Practice of Consultation 

It was at the inter-American conference of 
Buenos Aires in 193G that the principle of con- 
sultation was agreed to in the event that the peace 
of the Americas was threatened. This was, there- 
fore, an important milestone in establishing the 
macliinerj' for implementing the basic policy of 
hemispheric solidarity. 

The consultative procedure originating in 1936, 
confirmed at Lima in 1938, and manifested during 
the war years by meetings in 1939 at Panama, in 
1910 at Habana, and in 1912 at Rio de Janeiro, 
contributed substantially to inter-American 
security. 

The act of Chaj^ultepec, adopted at Mexico in 
1915, reaffirmed the pronouncements of Buenos 
Aires and Lima. It restated the justifications for 
continental consultation. 

Consultation, indeed, is provided for in the Rio 
treaty in articles 3, G, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 21. 
It also appears in the charter of the Organiza- 
tion of American States and in the treaty on pa- 
cific settlement signed at Bogota in 1948. Thus 
the principle of consultation is now firmly im- 
bedded in the constitutional law of the inter- 
American system. 

The Doctrine of All for One and One for All 

At Habana in 1940, the consultative procedure 
produced a resolution that an attack upon one 
American state by a non-American state would be 
considered as an attack upon all of them. Tliis 
was none too early as a security measure, for it 
was in the very next year that Pearl Harbor was 
bombed. 

Before the war was concluded, however, further 
steps to improve hemispheric security were taken. 
These include the work of the Montevideo Com- 
mittee for Political Defense, the Inter- American 

' Afldress delivered before the Inter-American Panel 
Meeting of the American Political Science Association in 
Chicago on Dec. 29, 194S, and released to the press on tlie 
same date. 

61 



THE RECORD OF THE WECK 

Juridical Committee, and the Defense Board, 
which I have insufficient time to discuss. These 
steps reached a culmination with statements in 
the Declaration of Mexico and the Act of Chapul- 
tepec of 1945 that an attack upon an American 
state by any state constitutes an aggression against 
all the American states. The act went on to pro- 
vide for consultation (more consultation 1 ) to 
decide upon the measures to meet such aggression, 
including the possible use of armed force. 

It will be recalled that at the time of Chapulte- 
pec the Charter of the United Nations did not yet 
exist. Nonetheless that act i^rovided that the 
treaty which might grow out of it should be con- 
sistent with the United Nations Charter. 

It was, then, at Rio that in 1947 the next logical 
and orderly steps were taken to put in treaty form 
the "all for one" doctrine. That treaty we will 
examine in a moment. 

In the charter of the Organization of American 
States signed at Bogota on May 2. 1948, a number 
of the principles adopted in the Eio treaty were 
unanimously confirmed.^ Article 5 (f) reaffirms 
the "all for one" principle. Articles 24 and 25 
reiterate the collective-security provisions of the 
Rio treaty in precise language, and article 43 states 
again that consultations shall be held without 
delay in case of armed attack. 

Thus we see that the resolutions on consultation, 
accepted in 1936, and the doctrine of "all for one," 
agreed upon since 1940, were brought together and 
considerably advanced by their incorporation into 
treaty form at Rio in 1947. That it was not an 
isolated peak of inter-American solidarity is 
proven by the categoric repetitions of the same two 
concepts in the charter of Bogota signed in 1948. 

The Rio Treaty 

To return to the Rio treaty. It consists of 26 
articles, most of them short. 

The all-for-one doctrine appears in articles 3 
and 6. The treaty establishes a clear obligation 
on the parties to take action in meeting armed at- 
tack ; it requires consultation respecting other acts 
of aggression and any other situations endanger- 
ing the peace of America. It specifies the proce- 
dure and organs through which the community of 
states will act and lists measures which may be 
taken against an aggressor. There is no veto. 
Each party is committed in advance to carry out 
decisions of the Organ of Consultation, although 
it may have voted against that decision. The sole 
exception is that its armed forces may not be used 
without a state's consent. 

' For the reports of the U.S. Delegations to the two 
conferences, see Ninth International Conference of Ameri- 
can States (Bogotft), Department of State publication 
32G3, and Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance 
of Continental Peace and Security (Qultandinha, Brazil), 
Department of State publication 3016. 

62 



The Rio treaty is open for signature by any 
American state. This includes Canada. Of the 
21 American Republics, representatives of 20 have 
already signed. The life of the treaty is indefinite. 

The United States Senate approved the treaty 
on December 8, 1947, 72 to 1. Our ratification, 
deposited on December 30, was the second. On 
December 3, 1948, the Pan American Union re- 
ceived the ratification of Costa Rica, the four- 
teenth, bringing the treaty into eflFect with respect 
to the ratifying states. It was a pleasure and an 
honor to attend in person that epochal event. 

Cuba has since deposited her ratification. 

Regarding the relationship of the Rio treaty to 
the United Nations, Secretary Marshall stated on 
September 4, 1947, that "the successful formula- 
tion of this regional treaty affords the United Na- 
tions a significant example — an example, I feel, 
of which it is in great need at the present time." 

The example, in summary, arises out of the fol- 
lowing points : 

1. There is no veto. 

2. The implementation of sanctions is bind- 
ing even upon states not concurring. 

3. It provides for immediate action. 

4. It is technically sound, applying to relations 
between states, within a regional group, and to 
the world organization. 

5. It is a culmination of nearly 60 years of inter- 
American effort. 

Finally, it does not suffice for there merely to be 
agreed-upon documentation and established ma- 
chinery in order to maintain inter-American se- 
curity. As was stated by Ambassador Daniels, the 
United States Representative on the Council of the 
Organization of American States, on October 12, 
1948: 

". . . that structure of peace wiU fail to 
achieve reality . . . if it does not receive a 
constant and devoted use. Every threat to use 
force . . . undermines the reality of our 
Organization, and deserves the united condemna- 
tion of all our peoples. Every successful solution 
of international disputes in accordance with our 
established procedures and principles, on the other 
hand, makes our inter-American structure more 
real, and deserves our united applause." 



Air Transport Agreement With Bolivia 

On December 29 the Department of State re- 
leased the text of a bilateral air transport agree- 
ment signed September 29, 1948, between the 
Governments of the United States and Bolivia. 
Announcement of the signing of the agreement was 
made in the Bulletin of October 10, 1948, 
page 470. 

Department of State Bulletin 



International Trade Organization — Continued from 
page 40 

most countries. It provides certain carefully de- 
fined and limited exceptions to enable member 
nations to cope with current abnormal conditions 
and. at the same time, to determine their long-run 
course of action in terms of charter principles. 
Agreement upon the long-run course of action will 
hasten the end of the transition period. Absence 
of agreement, with the prospect of future economic 
warfare, would prolong the transition period. 

Many provisions of the charter would have im- 
mediate applicability by all countries (see ques- 
tion 2-2) . Even in cases where certain provisions 
:annot be applied immediately by some countries, 
the charter provides a procedure to pass through 
the transition period with a minimum disturbance 
3f orderly trade. Countries demonstrated their 
will to work together along the lines of the char- 
ter when their representatives agreed upon its 
formulation and when 23 countries concluded the 
General Agreement on TarifPs and Trade, the 
most comprehensive effort ever undertaken to re- 
duce world-trade barriers. 

Would renegotiation of the charter result in a 
.better document f 

I The United States and the United Kingdom 
reached agreement on broad lines of postwar com- 
mercial policy under the Atlantic Charter of 1941. 
At the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944, 44 
countries agreed upon the objectives for an inter- 
national economic policy. Thereafter, a prepara- 
tory committee of 18 countries established by the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Na- 
tions held three international conferences at Lon- 
don, Lake Success, and Geneva in 1946^7, 
which formulated a draft charter for an Interna- 
tional Trade Organization. This charter was then 
considered, modified, and agreed upon by repre- 
sentatives of 54 countries, after four months of 
continuous negotiation at the United Nations Con- 
ference on Trade and Employment at Habana, in 
the winter of 1947^8. The Habana charter, like 
the United States Constitution, has a procedure 
for amending it as time, experience, and circum- 
stances indicate. 

In view of the fact that the United States spon- 
sored the project of an Ito, over a period of seven 
years of successful negotiations, it appears un- 
likely that renegotiation could possibly result in 
a better document from the standpoint of the 
United States which would, at the same time, be 
acceptable to a majority of other nations. It is 
highly improbable that a proposal to renegotiate 
would be accepted by other countries. They would 
lose faith in the consistency and continuity of our 
economic foreign policy. Such a proposal by the 
United States would kill the Ito. 



What are the alternatives to the Ito charter? 

If tlic Ito charter is not adopted, emergency 
trade practices of many countries are likely to 
form permanent patterns governing much of the 
world s commerce. Governments may then exer- 
cise more and more control over foreign trade re- 
suiting in additional restrictions and discrimi- 
nations. The danger of trade warfare will be a 
constant threat. In such circumstances, with 
trade conducted primarily on a bilateral basis, 
American businessmen might find themselves un- 
able to compete in foreign trade without federal 
aid and accompanying governmental controls. 
It is only one step from foreign-trade controls to 
supplementary domestic controls. Our system of 
free private enterprise could not flourish in such 
an atmosphere. 

Eejection of the Ito by the United States would 
weaken our leadership in the international eco- 
nomic sphere. It would seriously hinder our pro- 
gram of international economic collaboration and 
could iiardly fail to affect adversely our political 
influence in world affairs. 

William L. Clayton, former Under Secretary of 
State for economic affairs, speaking of the char- 
ter negotiations at the opening of the Habana 
Conference said : 

"There are only two roads open to us. One 
leads to multilateralism, nondiscriminatory 
trade, with a great increase in the production, dis- 
tribution, and consumption of goods in the world, 
and happier relations between all countries. The 
other leads to economic nationalism, restriction- 
ism, bilateralism, discriminatory practices, a low- 
ering of the standard of living, and bad feeling all 
around. We must choose now which road we will 
take." 



Documents and State Papers 

November and December 1948 

Contents : 

Soviet Domination of the Danube 

Conference 
Security Council Action on Palestine 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs: Third 

Session 
Calendar of International Meetings with 

Annotations 



Copies of this publication are for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C., at 30^ a copy; subscription price 
for 12 issues is $3.00 a year. 



January 9, 1949 



63 



^cim^^€/yd!y 



Treaty Information Page 

Questions and Answers on the Proposed Inter- 

national Trade Organization 

Cfm Meeting Proposed To Resume Austrian ^^ 

Treaty Negotiations 

Establishing an International Authority for the 
Ruhr, December 28, 1948: 
Communique on Six Power Meetings ... 4rf 
Germany: Administrative Divisions (map) . 4& 

Text of Draft Agreement 

Air Transport Agreement With Bolivia. ... 62 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Questions and Answers on the Proposed Inter- 

national Trade Organization 

The United States in the United Nations . . . 41 



General Policy Fag« 

Coordinating Foreign Aid. Address by George 

C. McGhee °^ 

United States Recognizes Republic of Korea . 5a 

The Inter-American Security System. Address 

by Willard F. Barber 

Occupation Matters 

Economic Stabilization Program To Be Carned 

Out by Japanese Government 

Calendar of International Meetings ... 42 

The Congress 

Preparation of Recommendations to the 

President on Military Assistance Pro- 

.... 59 
grams 

Publications 

BocumentB and State Papers, November- ^^ 

December 



U. S. OOVERNMENT PRINTIKC OrFlCE: 19" 



^Ae^ juJeficLo^tmend aw tfiafe/ 



m 





THE STAT 

.Message of the President to the Congress 



75 



THREE MOiNTHS' EXTENSION OF BIZONAL 
FUSION AGREEMENT: 

Exchange of Notes Between the U. S. and the I . Iv. . 76 



UNITED STATES POLICY ON HIGH SEAS FISH- 
ERIES • Article by Walter M. Chapnia, 67 



For complete eontenta see back cover 



Vol. 198 

January 16, 1949 




K>"""' °- . 



M. S. SlfPERirnrENOEMT OF oocuwewii 

FEB 18 1948 




M 



e 



Qje/iwr^eni ^f 9L(e OULilGllll 



Vol. XX, No. 498 • Publication 3398 
January 16, 1949 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

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Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information ia in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



United States Policy on High Seas Fisheries 

by Walter M. Chapman 
Special Assistant to the Under Secretary 



The policy of the United States Government re- 
garding fisheries in the high seas is to make possible 
the maximum production of food from the sea on 
a sustained basis year after year. 

So stated, the policy is extremely simple, and it 
is doubtful that there will be objection to it from 
any quarter. Yet the implementation of this sim- 
ple policy is as complex as any other single policy 
that the United States Government has before it. 
The roots of the difficulties go back into history 
even further than our colonial period. The vast ad- 
vances in marine technology that the recent war 
stimulated are rapidly accentuating the difficulties. 

The production of foods that animals eat occurs 
on two independent areas : on land, in the form of 
terrestrial plants that derive their nutrition from 
the soil and the air; and, in the sea, in the form of 
aquatic plants that derive their nutrition from the 
water that surrounds them. By and large no con- 
nection exists between the ability of the land and 
the sea to produce food. The influx of nutrient 
material to the sea from the land by means of riv- 
ers is inconsequential when compared with the 
vast bulk of nutrient material already in the sea. 

That eminently terrestrial animal, man, has 
succeeded in improving and regulating the pro- 
duction of food from the land in a manner which 
even his most sanguine immediate ancestors would 
have thought fantastic. During all the history of 
agi'iculture it has, indeed, been somewhat of a 
question whether man would not increase his num- 
bers more rapidly than he could improve his food 
supply, but so far man is still ahead in the race. 
In the course of the development of food produc- 
tion a concept has grown up for the production 
of food on land which is diametrically contrary to 
the one which has grown up for the production of 
food in the ocean. 

Most land on earth is owned by and is under 
the sovereign control of some group of people. 
Ownership may shift, through the fortunes of war 
or economic factors, from one group to another, 
but always some group can say for any produc- 

January 16, 1949 



tive spot of land that the food will be produced 
in sucli and such a way. The group owns the land 
and everything that comes from it. 

In direct contrast, no one owns the ocean. It is 
an international common comprising more than 
three-fourths of the surface of the earth; the res- 
ervoir of vast resources ; the producer of immense, 
and as yet unknown, quantities of those particu- 
larly essential types of food now in such short 
supply on land— animal fats and proteins. What 
is produced in this international common is either 
res nullius or res communis, the property of no 
one or the property of everyone, whichever legal 
phrase you prefer. The practical result is the 
same. If one can reduce any part of the produc- 
tion to his possession before somebody else does, 
then it is his — but not before then. 

The consequence of this lack of ownership is 
that there is no law to cover the means of produc- 
tion from these food resources. They cannot be 
placed under any solid type of management either 
for good or for bad. Fish are owned property 
when they are reduced to possession; fishery re- 
sources of the open sea, however, are owned by 
everyone or no one. They are the property of no 
nation. 

Between the land and the open sea is a narrow 
belt of water, which in many parts of the world is 
very productive and which is called territorial 
waters. By international accord this belt is under 
the sovereignty of the nation whose coasts it washes 
and its products are subject to the exclusive control 
of that nation. The narrowness of this band of 
water is assured because the naval policy and the 
commercial policy — ^and ordinarily the fishery 
policy — of the major maritime nations demand 
that the seas be open to unimpeded navigation. 

Most of the major fisheries of the world started 
in these narrow territorial waters. As market de- 
mands increased, however, fishermen increased the 
size and navigability of their vessels and the effi- 
ciency of their methods, and they went far beyond 
territorial waters for their catches. In the past 

67 



two hundred years most of the major fisheries of 
the world have lain at least partially outside ter- 
ritorial waters. 

Until 40 or 50 years ago these major fishery re- 
sources of the sea were generally considered inex- 
haustible. The greater the fishing, the greater the 
catch. True, in some years the herring or cod were 
not in such abundance as they had been before and 
great distress came to the fishing villages. Even- 
tually the fish always came back in abundance. 
The effect of man's activities on fish populations 
seemed to be so small, when compared with the 
effects of the great natural fluctuations caused by 
cyclic changes in the climate of the sea, that it 
could be ignored. 

But fishermen became more clever at harvesting 
the sea. In this century, fishing intensity has in- 
creased tremendously. Motors in vessels increased 
the distances that a fisherman could travel to the 
banks and the number of trips a year he could 
make between market and the banks. Diesel 
engines made his trips even more dependable and 
less costly. First ice and then mechanical refrig- 
eration on the vessels made it possible for him 
to stay longer on the grounds, to go farther to 
new grounds, and to return with larger catches 
in first-class condition. Gear was improved to 
catch more fish in less time. In only the last few 
years new developments have improved fishing 
efficiency tremendously. New instruments de- 
veloped during the war permit the fisherman to 
follow the schools in the depths and, without hav- 
ing sighted a fish, to set his nets where the fish are. 
Other instruments have made the most complex 
navigation easy to the simplest fisherman. Radar 
permits him to operate in the heaviest fog, the bane 
of all seamen. With the consequent tremendous 
increase in fishing effort, some kinds of fish have 
become less abundant. But this has been happen- 
ing for time without memory, and fishermen have 
always said, "Wait, they will be back again." 

But some kinds of fish just have not come back ; 
and biologists take another view of the fishermen's 
belief that the fish will come back. The biolo- 
gists, who have been building up a new branch of 
science — fishery biology — claim that some fish will 
never come back unless the fishery is relaxed. Too 
great a crop, they say, has already been taken. 
These fish cannot be harvested at the rate de- 
manded and still maintain their abundance 
In order to get big crops of food again from 



such a population of fish, smaller crops will 
have to be taken until the population recovers. 
Capital stock has to be built up if the revenue 
from it is to increase. 

In recent years evidence has continued to mount 
that when fishing is begun on any population of 
fish, that population begins to decrease in total 
numbers as the take of fish from it increases. As 
the intensity of fishing increases up to a certain 
point, however, the reproductive capacity of the 
population increases also. Why this is so is not 
yet well understood. It may be because there is 
more food for the fish that are left, or because 
there is less loss to natural predators, or because 
of other unknown factors. 

If the fishing intensity continues beyond this 
optimum point, the population of fish cannot re- 
spond and the crop harvested begins to drop off 
regardless of the number of vessels used or the 
efficiency of the fishing operation. This situation 
is easily expressed in a simple curve. 




Inodtquol* 



Optimum 
SUSTAINED INTENSITY OF FISHING 



The meaning of this curve is that for any par- 
ticular population of fish there is an optimum 
point of fishing intensity which, if sustained, will 
yield the maximum crop of fish year after year. 
Less fishing is wasteful, for the surplus of fish 
dies from natural causes without benefit to man- 
kind; more fishing is wasteful because it depletes 
the population and so results actually in a smaller 
crop. 

The determination of this point of optimum 
fishing intensity is a difficult and expensive task. 
The abundance of fish is determined only in part 
by the intensity of fishing. The population of 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



fish, and consequently the point of maximum 
harvest, fluctuates also with cyclic changes in tlie 
climate of the sea, which affect the productive 
ability of any particular fish population. In such 
important kinds of fish as herring and sardine 
these natural fluctuations are of major impor- 
tance; in such fish as halibut it seems that natural 
fluctuations are small enough that they can almost 
be ignored. 

It is not the purpose of this article to go into the 
difliculties of the scientific work at this time, but 
rather to dwell on the diplomatic difficulties that 
follow as a result of the new concept that less 
fishing can in some cases pi-ovide more fish and 
the apparent fact that, as the technologj- of catch- 
ing improves, one after another of the major 
fishery resources of the sea stands in danger of 
overfishing and depletion. 

These factors indicate that management of a 
fishery will be desirable when the fishing intensity 
gets beyond the point of maximum return. But 
who is to manage the fishery on the high seas? 
]SIanagement means laws and the enforcement of 
those laws. The high seas are an international 
common. It would probably be argued that the 
United States under accepted international pro- 
cedure has no right to regulate the fishermen of 
another nation unless that nation acquiesces in 
such regulation. 

One way out of this puzzle is not generally 
known to fishermen, but it is well known to all 
foreign chancelleries. A fisherman, once beyond 
the limits of the territorial waters of his country 
and on the high seas, is operating in an area under 
the domain of international law. No principle 
of international law is more universally recog- 
nized than that vessels on the high seas are under 
the jurisdiction of the country to which they be- 
long. The fisherman on the high seas is, there- 
fore, subject to any legislation which his govern- 
ment may enact concerning his activities in such 
waters. Consequently each country has full con- 
trol over the activities of its own fishermen wher- 
ever they go on the high seas. 

Thus any nation has the power to regulate and 
manage any fishery in which only its own nationals 
participate. 

The difficulty is that most kinds of fish are 
migratory, and fishermen, without regard to na- 
tionality, follow the fish. Where the nationals of 

January 16, 1949 



more than one nation fish together on the same 
grounds, all must work under the same regula- 
tions uniformly enforced on all, or a commercial 
advantage will accrue to one side or the other, a 
condition that no fisherman of any nation will 
peacefully accept. 

The United States and Canada have worked out 
a joint formula for managing the high seas fish- 
eries in which only tlieir nationals operate. Be- 
ginning first with the halibut fishery of the north 
Pacific, the two nations set up a Joint Commis- 
sion under treaty. The first duty of this Com- 
mission was to determine whether regulation of the 
halibut fishery was necessary and desirable. 
Through scientific investigation the Commission 
found that regulation was desirable. Successive 
changes in the treaty have given the Commission 
more and more power of regulation over the fish- 
ery. The regulations have proved tremendously 
beneficial to the fishermen of both countries. 

The regulations of the Commission are de- 
signed solely to keep the populations of halibut 
in the northeast Pacific at that level of abundance 
which makes possible the maximimi sustained 
yield from those populations year after year. The 
percentage of this catch which goes to either coun- 
try depends solely on the energy and ability of 
its fishermen. Within the season, fishermen of 
both countries fish everywhere under equal priv- 
ilege; when the season closes, all fishermen stop. 

Wlien the Commission began managing the hal- 
ibut fishery the fishermen of both countries to- 
gether, fishing nine months of the year (all that 
the weather would permit), could take about 44 
million pounds of halibut from the north Pacific. 
The populations of halibut on the banks have been 
so carefully managed and built up that now those 
fishermen can take 56 million pounds each year in 
less than two months of fishing. 

The object lesson of this cooperative effort has 
been so striking that it has had world-wide sig- 
nificance. The United States and Canada have 
been joint partners in another similar Commis- 
sion for the past several years, the International 
Pacific Salmon Commission, which manages the 
sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River. This 
Commission is also producing results which are 
highly beneficial to both countries and, in that 
its work results in a greater production of food, 
to mankind generally. A third fishery treaty, 
which has still to be approved by the Senate before 

69 



coming into effect, has been signed between the 
two countries to manage the fisheries of the Great 
Lakes. 

A major benefit of these various treaties has been 
that the two countries have become used to working 
together on fisheries problems. What used to be 
serious political problems between us have one 
after the other come under the impartial eye of our 
fishery scientists working jointly, and one after 
another they have simply evaporated under the 
pressure of scientific fact. In fact we work to- 
gether so closely on fisheries matters now, espe- 
cially on the Pacific Coast, that many problems are 
solved directly by our fishery administrators and 
scientists and never come to the attention of treaty 
makers or ambassadors. 

We have recently completed an agreement with 
Mexico to set up a commission, very similar to the 
Halibut Commission, for the purpose of investi- 
gating the tuna resources occurring off the coasts 
of both countries. With this treaty we hope to 
begin not only to gather information which will 
be useful in managing the great tuna fishery, when 
that proves to be necessary, but also to build up 
amity on fisheries problems by working jointly on 
these problems in order that one day we will have 
permanent mutually amicable relationships in fish- 
eries matters with our neighbors both to the south 
and to the north. 

These bilateral treaties represent the simplest 
form of management of fisheries in international 
waters. The work of even these bilateral Commis- 
sions has been much more difficult than has ap- 
peared. Long years of gathering scientific facts 
have preceded each positive step by both of our 
working Commissions. Arguments and high tem- 
peratures in meetings have occurred ; a high degree 
of statesmanship has been necessary on the part of 
both Commissioners and industry leaders; and a 
high degree of scientific competence has been re- 
quired on the part of the Commission staffs. That 
these treaties have worked at all is a high tribute to 
the good will, energy, and levelheadedness of the 
men involved. 

A task is now being undertaken which is much 
more difficult than anything that has ever been 
attempted in managing fisheries in international 
waters. It has become apparent that the halibut, 
haddock, and cod resources of the northwest At- 
lantic either require regulation now or will in the 
immediate future. The United States and Canada 



are both involved in these fisheries. There would 
be no trouble in signing a joint treaty to handle 
these fisheries, as has been done for others of our 
joint fisheries, if only Canada and the United 
States were interested. 

But fishermen of other nations are involved. 
There is good evidence that Basque fishermen were 
fishing cod on the Grand Banks when Leif Eric- 
son, the Norseman, sailed by on his way to Vinland, 
long before Columbus set sail to the west or before 
there was a Canada or a United States. Danish, 
English, French, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and 
Portuguese fishermen work on these stocks of fish, 
as well as fishermen from Canada, Newfoundland, 
and the United States. That these nations have 
rights to fish in the waters of the northwest At- 
lantic goes without question. That it is impos- 
sible to regulate a fisherman of one nationality and 
not one of another nationality who works along- 
side him on a bank is also unquestioned. 

The United States Government is calling to- 
gether, in late January 1949, a conference of eleven 
nations in the expectation of reaching a multi- 
lateral agreement establishing a commission 
which will have the same beneficial effect in the 
northwest Atlantic as has been achieved in the 
Pacific. 

The aim of these unilateral, bilateral, and multi- 
lateral arrangements for managing fisheries in 
international waters is without question beneficial 
to all of mankind in that they seek to increase and 
protect the amount of food that can be produced 
from the sea. Tlieir principles of such arrange- 
ments lie wholly within the presently accepted 
tenets of international law. As long as all na- 
tions whose fishermen are involved sign a fisheries 
treaty, all fishennen concerned are covered by the 
regulations of such joint commission as may be 
established. 

The difficulty is that technological advances in 
fishing practice may outmode these types of agi-ee- 
ments l)efore they can be fully put into force. The 
mother ship has come into the picture. A large 
ship and a group of smaller fishing vessels go 
out as a group. The large ship acts as a supply 
and repair vessel for the small vessels. The small 
vessels catch the fish and transfer the catches to 
the big ship for processing or refrigeration. The 
group of vessels can go to the ends of the earth 
after its catch and never come into the territorial 
waters of another country. 



70 



Department of State Bulletin 



In this way European whalers catch and process 
whales in the Antarctic; Japanese mother-ship 
operations liave worked in Bristol Bay; and Eii<;- 
lish mother ships have operated in the Greenland 
halibut fishery. Fishermen from any country 
liave the method, given tlie capital and working 
experience, to operate off the shore of any other 
country. This is a revolution in fishing technique 
which, to be properly controlled for mankind's 
benefit, requires a modification in international 
legislation. 

Canada and the United States by mutual sacri- 
fice, expense, and strict regulation of their fisher- 
men, have built up the Pacific halibut banks so 
that they are among the richest fishing grounds 
in the world. If there is nothing under accepted 
international law that would prevent a third na- 
tion from sending a mother-ship expedition to 
skim the cream off these halibut banks, what is 
the use of building up fisheries resources in this 
manner ? 

To meet this new need President Truman issued 
a proclamation in September 1945 to the effect 
that the United States might set up zones in the 
high seas in order to conserve fisheries without 
regard to the limitations of territorial waters. 
Wliere only its own nationals are involved, the 
United States would undertake exclusive juris- 
diction (as it might do at any rate under present 
international law). Where the nationals of other 
countries are involved with ours, those nations 
might participate in the jurisdiction over the 
fishery. The United States would recognize simi- 
lar action by other countries in fisheries off their 
own coasts. 

It should be carefully noted that the proclama- 
tion made no mention of extension of sovereignty 
beyond territorial waters or of exclusion of fisher- 
men. of any nationality from any fishery. 

The purpose of the proclamation was to provide 
for new means, under law, to protect fishery re- 
sources lying in international waters from over- 
exploitation. 

One nation by itself cannot change international 
law. A proclamation by the United States does 
not bind other nations to accept the new principle 
into the body of international law. Several other 
nations, for instance, have issued proclamations 
covering their coastal waters which extend very 
considerably the scope of the Truman proclama- 
tion. 



Although they differ considerably, the general 
tendency of those other proclamations is to extend 
the territorial watera of the country involved — 
its sovereignty — a considerable distance beyond 
generally recognized limits, in some cases, indeed, 
up to 200 marine miles. All the production of the 
sea in this new territory might be regarded as the 
property of that country. Foreign fishermen in 
such waters might bo looked upon as interlopers 
witliout rights and treated accordingly. 

This thesis would lead logically to the division 
of the oceans of the world into segments of sov- 
ereign territory in the same way that the land 
surface of the world is divided. This would be 
a step backward into the past to the time when 
Spain, Portugal, England, and other nations 
claimed sovereignty over vast areas of the ocean 
seas. The principle of sovereign control of the 
seas did not work then and will not work now. It 
works against too many maritime interests of too 
many maritime nations and is simply unacceptable 
to them. 

Yet half of this thesis has great attraction to 
fishermen everywhere. An industry man said in 
jest a short time ago that the only thing the Amer- 
ican fishing industry wanted was permission for 
their vessels to go anywhere in the world and for 
the fishing vessels of all other countries to stay in 
harbor. At least ten countries would like to see 
exactly the reverse of this — the vessels of this 
man's company staying out of the waters off their 
coast and their vessels going everywhere. 

This normal selfish desire of all fishermen has 
to be compromised with the realities of the in- 
ternational policies of their countries. At present 
the nationals of any nation can go anywhere and 
fish on the vast international common of the sea. 
It cannot be demonstrated that it is in the general 
good of mankind to restrict, for selfish national 
purpose, the fishing activity of any particular 
nation in any particular segment of this common. 

It can be demonstrated that it is in the general 
welfare of all mankind to protect the resources 
of the sea from overfishing to the end that the 
sea will continue to produce the maximum quan- 
tity of food that it can. 

This is precisely the goal at which the United 
States aims — to provide the possibility of manage- 
ment for each high seas fishery in the world to 
the end that the population of fish upon which 
{Continued on page 80) 



January 16, 1949 



71 



Bodies and Posts Established by Tliird Session of General Assembly in Paris 



Body or Post 



Membership 



Doc. No. 



Approved 



U.N. Postal Administration 
(Approved idea to establish a 
U.N. Postal Administration). 

International Law Commission 
(Established at 2d Session, 
members elected at 3d Ses- 
sion) . 



3. Headquarters Advisory Com- 
mittee (Reestablished with 
same membership as last 
year). 



4. Special Committee on Informa- 

tion Transmitted under Art. 
73 e of the Charter (Reestab- 
lished with additional terms of 
reference; members elected by 
Committee 4 and approved by 
GA). 

5. Director of Relief for Palestine 

Refugees (Appointment by 
Secretary-General) . 

6. United Nations Special Com- 

mittee on the Balkans (Re- 
established with additional 
terms of reference, of same 
membership as last year). 



7. Interim Committee (Reestab- 
lished for another year with 
terms of reference as specified 
in resolution). 



8. International Center for Train- 
ing in Public Administration 
(Secretary-General to report 
to Ecosoc on arrangements 
for its establishment). 
9a. Joint Staff Pension Board . . 
9b. Staff Pension Committee 
(Members of Board and 
Committee to be appointed 
and elected in accordance 
with the regulations of the 
U.N. Joint Staff Pension 
Fund (A/750)). 

10. Conciliation Commission on 

Palestine (Members chosen by 
a Committee of the Big Five 
and approved by the General 
Assembly). 

11. Commission on Korea (Super- 

sedes and replaces Temporary 
Commission on Korea). 



Professor Ricardo Alfaro, Pan- 
ama. 

Gilberto Amado, Brazil. 

James Leslie Brierly, U.K. 

Roberto Cordoba, Mexico. 

J. P. A. Francois, Netherlands. 

Shuhsi Hsu, China. 

Manley Hudson, U.S. 

Paris Bey el-Khouri, Syria. 

Vladimir Koretsky, U.S.S.R. 

Sir Senegal Rau, India. 

A. E. F. Sandstrom, Sweden. 

Georges Scelle, France. 

Jean Spiropoulos, Greece. 

Jesus Maria Yepes, Colombia. 

Jaroslav Zourek, Czechoslovakia. 

Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Canada, China, Colombia, 
France, Greece, India, Nor- 
way, Poland, Syria, Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
United Kingdom, United 
States, Yugoslavia. 

Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
China, Denmark, Dominican 
Republic, Egypt, France, 
India, Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, Sweden, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, United 
Kingdom, United States, 
Venezuela. 

Stanton GrifEs 



Australia, Brazil, China, France, 
Mexico, Netherlands, Pakis- 
tan, United Kingdom, United 
States. 

Poland and U. S. S. R., seats 
held, though participation 
declined. 

Each member to have one rep- 
resentative, following declined 
participation in 1947: Bye- 
lorussian S. S. R., Czechoslo- 
vakia, Poland, Ukrainian S. 
S. R., U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia. 



France, Turkey, U. S 



Australia, China, El Salvador, 
France, India, Philippines, 
Syria. 



A/671/Rev. 1 . 
A/P. V./154, 5 



150th meeting, Oct. 8 



154-5th meetings, 
Nov. 3 



A/707 



A/695, A/719 . 



A/725 
A/728 

A/740 

A/746 
A/750 



159th meeting, Nov. 18 



155th meeting, Nov. 3 
(establishment ap- 
proved) ; 159th meet- 
ing, Nov. 18 (mem- 
bership approved) 



163d meeting, Nov. 19 
167th meeting, Nov. 27 

169th meeting, Dec. 3 

171st meetin Dec. 4 
174th meeting, Dec. 7 



A/807 



A/788, A/P. v./ 187 



186th meeting, Dec. 11 



187th meeting, Dec. 12 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



Addendum to Status of Work of the Third Regular Session 
of the General Assembly' 



COMMITTEE 6 



Item 



1.' Genocide: Draft Convention and report of 
Ecosoc. 



2.' Registration and publication of treaties and 
international agreements: report of Syq. 



3." Transfer to U.X. of functions and powers 
exercised by League of Nations \inder inter- 
national convention relating to economic 
statistics signed at Geneva Dec. 14, 1928: 
item proposed by Ecosoc. 

4.' Transfer to U.N. of functions exercised by 
French Government under agreement of 
May 18, 1904, and convention of May 4, 
1919, for suppression of white slave traffic, 
and under agreement of May 4, 1910, for 
suppression of obscene publications: item 
proposed by Ecosoc. 

5.' Permanent missions to U.N.: item proposed 
by Bolivia. 

6.' Approval of supplementary agreements with 
specialized agencies concerning the use of 
U.N. laissez-passer : report of Stg. 

7.' Privileges and immunities of U.N.: report of 
Stg. 

a) Headquarters agreement. 

b) General convention on the privileges and 

immunities of U.N. 
8.* Violation by U.S.S.R. of fundamental human 
rights, traditional diplomatic practices, and 
other principles of the Charter: item pro- 
posed by Chile. 

9.' Permanent invitation to Director General of 
Organization of American States to assist 
at the sessions of the GA: proposed by 
Argentina. 
10.' Reparation for injuries incurred in service of 
U.N.: item proposed by Stg. 

11.' Modifications in rules of procedure as result 
of adoption of Spanish as a working lan- 
guage of GA. 



Action 



Discussion commenced 

Completed consideration of last six arts . . . 

Completed consideration of preamble . . . . 

Approved international convention 

Adopted Belgian propo.sal for GA to instruct 
Stg to ensure publication of registered 
pacts with least possible delay and maxi- 
mum accuracy of translation. 

.\dopted U.S. resolution on registration of 
treaties and international agreements. 

Approved 



Approved. 



Adopted Bolivian proposal urging the estab- 
lishment of permanent missions to U.N. 

Approved arrangements for use of U.N. 
laissez-passer . 



Adopted Egyptian proposal encouraging acces- 
sion to convention. 

Began discussion 

Adopted resolution asking U.S.S.R. to remove 
restrictions against Russian women married 
to foreigners leaving country to join hus- 
bands abroad. 

Adopted 



Action com- 



Discussion commenced . . . 

Established drafting committee, 
pleted. 

Adopted modifications in pertinent GA rules 
to conform to GA decision; decided pro- 
posals to adopt Chinese and Russian as 
working languages out of order for present. 



Meeting 



Date 



63 



79 



80 



Sept. 30 
Nov. 16 
Nov. 18 
Dec. 1 
Oct. 20 



Oct. 21 
Nov. 4 



71 



Nov. 29 
Dec. 7 



Nov. 29 

Dec. 2 
Dec. 7 



Oct. 11 



Nov. 19 
Nov. 26 

Dec. 10 



1 Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1948, p. 783. 

' Plenary action. 

» Postponed until second part of session. 



January 16, 1949 



73 



The United States in the United Nations 



[January 8-15, 1949] 

Indonesia 

The United States outlined its general position 
on the Indonesian situation at a meeting of the 
Security Council January 11. Extracts from the 
remarks of Ambassador Philip C. Jessup, Deputy 
United States Representative, follow : 

"The United States Government can find no 
adequate justification for the military action 
taken by the Netherlands in Indonesia. In many 
important respects, the reasons put forth by the 
Netherlands Representative at the meeting of the 
Security Council on December 22 in Paris and 
again here last Friday as to the justification for 
their action are not supported by the reports of the 
Committee of Good Offices. In our view, the 
Netherlands military action is in conflict with the 
Renville agreement and with the Security Coun- 
cil's resolution of August 1, 1947, and November 
1, 1947. . . . 

"The continuance of military action of the Neth- 
erlands authorities after the Security Council 
resolution of December 24 was clearly an act of 
defiance on the part of the Netherlands authorities. 
No excuses offered by the Dutch Government can 
conceal the fact that they have failed to comply 
with the Security Council demands, both in refus- 
ing to cease-fire immediately and in refusing to 
release the political prisoners immediately. In the 
opinion of the Government of the United States, 
the representative of the Netherlands has failed 
to relieve his Grovernment from the serious charges 
that it has violated the Charter of the United Na- 
tions. . . . 

"My Government is of the opinion that real 
peace in Indonesia can be expected only if there 
is a settlement of the political issues on the basis 
of the principles and procedures agreed to by the 
parties in the Linggadjati and Renville agree- 
ments and under the auspices of United Nations 
machinery. . . . 

"A first and fundamental step [toward settling 
the Indonesian problem] should be the fixing of a 
definite date for the holding of elections through- 
out all Indonesia with a view to establishing the 
foundations of the United States of Indonesia. 
Secondly, and also of fundamental importance, is 
the fixing of a firm date of the transfer of sov- 
ereignty from the Kingdom of the Netherlands to 
the United States of Indonesia. . . . 



"My Government believes that the length of time 
which should elapse between the present and the 
date when elections should take place, and also 
the date of transfer of sovereignty, 'should be 
calculated in terms of months and not in terms 
of years'. As soon as elections have been held and 
a provisional regime set up, authority should be 
turned over progressively to the new regime by 
the Netherlands Government, and the transfer 
should have been completed by the time when sov- 
ereignty is assumed by the United States of In- 
donesia." 

Ecosoc Committee on Procedure — 6 

During its first week in session, the Ecosoc Com- 
mittee on Procedure commenced its work on the 
revision of the Council's 70 rules of procedure. 
Numerous changes and additions were approved, 
including a new paragraph proposed by the United 
States, formally establishing a standing commit- 
tee on nongovernmental organizations. Louis 
Hyde is acting as U. S. Representative. 

Fiscal Commission 

The Fiscal Commission's first action was the 
approval of a United States proposal to create 
"a consultative group" of three members to confer 
between sessions with the Secretary General on 
implementation of the Commission's decisions." 
The U. S. Representative on the Commission is 
E. F. Bartelt, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. 

Kashmir 

On January 13 the Security Council took note 
of the Second Interim Report of the United Na- 
tions Commission for India and Pakistan, and 
praised the cooperative attitudes of the Govern- 
ments of India and Pakistan. Several members of 
the Council, including Ambassador Jessup, paid 
tribute to the Uncip's achievements. 

Security Council President McNaughton ex- 
pressed the Council's gratification of the Commis- 
sion's success in securing the agreements of the two 
governments concerned to the Commission's pro- 
posal for a plebiscite in Jamm;iu and Kaslimir. 
He also said that he hoped the Commission would 
return to the subcontinent at its earliest conven- 
ience to continue the work so far advanced. Am- 
bassador J. Klahr Huddle represents the United 
States on the Commission. 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



The State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



Mr. Presidknt. Mr. Spe.\kei!, Members of tiie 
Congress: I am happy to report to this 81st Con- 
gress that tlie state of the Union is good. Our Na- 
tion is better able than ever before to meet the 
neeils of tiie American people, and to give them 
their fair ciiant'e in the pui-siiit of happiness. It is 
foremost among the nations of the world in the 
search for peace. 

During the last sixteen years, the American peo- 
ple have been creating a society which offers new 
opportunities for every man to enjoy his share of 
the satisfactions of life. 

In this society, we are conservative about the 
values and principles which we cherish ; but we are 
forward-looking in protecting those values and 
principles and in extending their benefits. We 
have rejected the discredited theory that the for- 
tunes of the Nation should be in the hands of a 
Srivileged few, We have abandoned the "trickle- 
own" concept of national prosperity. Instead, 
we believe that our economic system should rest 
on a democratic foundation and that wealth 
should be created for the benefit of all. 

The recent election shows that the American 
people are in favor of this kind of society and want 
to go on improving it. 

The American people have decided that poverty 
is just as wasteful and just as unnecessary as pre- 
ventable disease. We have pledged our common 
resources to help one another in the hazards and 
struggles of individual life. We believe that no 
unfair prejudice or artificial distinction should 
bar any American from an education, or from good 
health, or from a job that he is capable of per- 
forming. 

The attainment of this kind of society demands 
the best efforts of every citizen in every walk of 
life, and it imposes increasing responsibilities on 
the Government. 

Our domestic programs are the foundation of 
our foreign policy. The world today looks to us 
for leadership because we have so largely realized, 
•within our borders, those benefits of democracy for 
which most of the peoples of the world are 
yearning. 

We are following a foreign policy which is the 
outward expression of the democratic faith we 
profess. We are doing what we can to encourage 
free states and free peoples throughout the world, 

January 16, 1949 



to aid the suffering and afflicted in foreign land.s, 
and to strengthen democratic nations against 
aggression. 

The heart of our foreign policy is peace. We 
are supporting a world organization to keep peace 
and a world economic policy to create prospci-ity 
for mankind. Our guiding star is the principle 
of intcrniitional cooperation. To this concept we 
have made a national conunitment as profound as 
anything in history. 

To it we have pledged our resources and our 
honor. 

Until a system of world security is established 
upon wliich we can safely rely, we cannot escape 
the burden of creating and maintaining armed 
forces sufficient to deter aggression. We have 
made great progress in the last year in the effec- 
tive organization of our armed forces, but further 
improvements in our national security legislation 
are necessary. Universal training is essential to 
the security of the United States. 

During the course of this session I shall have 
occasion to ask the Congress to consider several 
measures in the field of foreign policy. At this 
time, 1 recommentl that we restore the Reciprocal 
Trade Agreements Act to full effectiveness, and 
extend it for three years. We should also open 
our doors to displaced persons without unfair 
discrimination. 

It should be clear by now to all nations that we 
are not seeking to freeze the status quo. We have 
no intention of yjreserving the injustices of the 
past. We welcome the constructive efforts being 
made by many nations to achieve a better life for 
their citizens. In the European Recovery Pro- 
gram, in our Good Neighbor Policy, and in the 
United Nations, we have begun to batter down 
those national walls which ulock the economic 
growth and the social advancement of the peoples 
of the world. 

We believe that if we hold resolutely to this 
course, the principle of international cooperation 
will eventually command the approval even of 
those nations which are now seeKing to weaken 
or subvert it. 

We stand at the opening of an era which can 
mean either great acnievement or terrible catas- 
trophe for ourselves and all mankind. 

' Exrerpt.s from the PrMldent's message delivered to 
the Coiign's-s on Jan. !>, 1040, and released to the press by 
I he White House on the Bnme date. 

75 



The strength of our Nation must continue to be 
used in the interest of all our people rather than 
a privileged few. It must continue to be used 
unselfishly in the struggle for world peace and the 
betterment of mankind the world over. 

This is the task before us. 

It is not an easy one. It has many complica- 
tions, and there will be strong opposition from 
selfish interests. 

I hope for cooperation from farmers, from la- 
bor, and from business. Every segment of our 
population and every individual have a right to 
expect from our Government a fair deal. 



Tliey have a right to expect that the Congress 
and the President will work in the closest co-opera- 
tion with one objective — the welfare of the people 
of this Nation as a whole. 

In the months ahead I know that I shall be able 
to cooperate with this Congress. 

I am confident that the Divine Power which has 
guided us to this time of fateful responsibility 
and glorious opportunity will not desert us now. 

With that help from Almighty God which we 
have humbly acknowledged at every turning point 
in our national life, we shall be able to perform the 
great tasks which He now sets before us. 



Tliree Months' Extension of Bizonal Fusion Agreement 



NOTES BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE U.K. EXCHANGED 



[Released to the press January 4] 
By an exchange of notes, dated December 31, 
1948, the United States and the United Kingdom 
Governments have agreed to extend for three 
months the period of operation of the bizonal 
fusion agreement of December 2, 1946, as revised 
by the agreement of December 17, 1947, affecting 
the American and British zones of Germany.^ Ar- 



rangements for the merger of the French zone with 
the Bizonal Area are not yet completed. Ac- 
cordingly, it was decided to extend the current 
agreement for a short period to allow time for 
the comjjletion of these arrangements. In the 
meantime, in order to increase the flow of trade 
between the sterling area and the Western zones 
of Germany there will be discussions in Germany 
between the authorities concerned. 



TEXT OF NOTE FROM THE U.S. TO THE U.K. 



The Acting Secretary of State to the Bnfish 
Ambassador 

December SI, 19^8 

Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge 
the receipt of your note of today's date, the terms 
of which are as follows: 

"Sir, I have the honour to refer to the discus- 
sions which have taken place between His Maj- 
esty's Government in the United Kingdom and the 
Government of the United States of America on 
the subject of the extension of the Agi'eement be- 
tween the two Governments concerning the; 
British and American Zones of Occupation in 
Germany. 

"His Majesty's Government has had under con- 
sideration the obligation assumed by the United 
States Government and His Majesty's Govern- 
ment in the United Kingdom under paragraph 
11 (b) of the revised Fusion Agreement signed at 
Washington on December 17, 1947, to consult to- 
gether before December 1, 1948 to consider the 
terms and conditions of a new agreement. 



* BuiiETiN of Dec. 28, 1947, p. 1262. 



76 



"His Majesty's Government had hoped that it 
would be possible to replace the existing Fusion 
Agreement on January 1, 1949 by a new Agree- 
ment to which the French Government would be 
a party, providing for the economic fusion of the 
Three Western Zones of Occupation. It now seems 
clear, however, that until the new arrangements 
relating to Germany arising out of the six-power 
talks held last spring in London have matured, it 
would be desirable to extend the terms of the Bi- 
zonal Agreement, as amended, rather than attempt 
to negotiate a new agreement to include France. 
His Majesty's Government believe that extension 
of the agreement for a three-months' period with 
the understanding that it can sooner be terminated 
by mutual agreement, is a more practical arrange- 
ment in the circumstances than an attempt to 
conclude a Trizonal Fusion Agreement at this 
time. 

"In these circumstances, I have the honour to 
submit the following proposals for the considera- 
tion of the United States Government: 

"(A) The Fusion Agreement, as amended by 
the Agreement signed in Washington on December 
17, 1947, shall be extended to March 31, 1949, un- 

Department of State Bulletin 



less sooner terminated by niutiial afrreemcnt or by 
the conclusion of a Trizonal Fusion Afjjreement. 
Tiie two Governments shall consult together be- 
fore March 1, 194!), to consider the terms and 
conditions of a new agreement for a further period. 

"(B) During the period for which tlie existing 
Fusion Agreement is extended, His Majesty's 
Government will continue their contribution of 
supplies and services to Germany at the existing 
basic rate of 171/2 million pounds per annum 
(approximately the equivalent of 70 million 
dollars). 

"(C) Separate discussions will take place as to 
the nature of goods and services to be provided by 
His Majesty's Government for the first three 
months of 1949, if as a result of seasonal or other 
factors it proves impossible or difficult to supply 
precisely one-quarter of the quantities of the goods 
and services specified in the Annex to the Agree- 
ment of December 17, 1947, amending the Fusion 
Agreement. 

"(D) As soon as possible the Joint Export- 
Import Agency shall enter into negotiations with 



representatives of His Majesty's Government of 
the nature indicated in paragraph 3 (a) of the 
Agreement of December 17, 1947, amending the 
Fusion Agreement. 

"(E) Provisions of the Fusion Agreement as 
amended relating to Joint Forei<;n Exchange 
Agency Accounts shall be applicable to such ac- 
counts transferred to the Bank Deutscher Laender. 

"Should these proposals commend themselves to 
the United States Government, I have tiie honour 
to suggest that this note and your reply should 
constitute an Agreement between our two Gov- 
ernments." 

In reply, I have the honor to inform your Ex- 
cellency that the Government of the United States 
accepts the proposals set forth in your note and, 
in accordance with the suggestion contained 
therein, your P^xcellency's note and this reply will 
be regarded as constituting an Agi-eement be- 
tween our two Governments in this matter. 

Accept [etc.] 

Robert A. Lovett, 
Acting Secretary of State 



Status of Repatriation of German War Prisoners 



[Released to the press January 4] 

At the Council of Foreign Ministers meeting 
early in 1947 the Four Powers agreed to com- 
plete the repatriation of German prisoners of 
war by December 31, 1948, at the latest. For its 
part tlie United States Government fulfilled its 
obligation under that agi-eement on June 30, 1947, 
and has been informed that the British and French 
have likewise honored their commitment.^ Al- 
though requested to do so, the Soviet Govenmient 



has not furnished this Government with perti- 
nent information concerning its implementation 
of the agreement. In consequence, a further ap- 
proach to the Soviet Government concerning the 
matter has been found necessary. 

Quoted below is the text of a note on the sub- 
ject delivered Januaiy 3, 1949, by the American 
Embassy at Moscow to the Soviet Foreign Office. 
It is understood that the British and French have 
delivered similar notes. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE TO THE U.S.S.R. 



[Released to the press January 4] 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Minister of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Ee- 
publics and has the honor, under instructions 
from its Government, to communicate the follow- 
ing to the Soviet Government. 

In fulfillment of its commitment as a party to 
the agreement made at Moscow in April 1947 by 
the Council of Foreign Ministers, the Government 
of the United States has discharged all German 
war prisoners formerly held by it as a result of 
the hostilities against Germany. The United 
States Government has been informed by the 
British and French Governments that they have 
likewise honored their commitments under the 
above agreement. 

The United States Government addressed an 

Januaty ?6, 1949 



inquiry to the Soviet Government on September 
23, 1948, requesting information regarding its 
plans to fulfill its commitment under the Council 
of Foreign Minister Agreement. No reply has 
been received to this note nor has any informa- 
tion been furnished by the Soviet Government 
indicating it has in fact honored its conunitment 
in this respect. 

In view of the Soviet Government's failure to 
furnish information concerning the steps taken by 
it to implement the Council of Foreign Ministers 
Agreement, the United States Government is com- 
pelled to evaluate the Soviet Government's action 
on the basis of information available from other 
sources. According to official statistics main- 

' For information sent to the International Committee 
of the Red Cross, see Bulletin of Feb. 15, 1&48, p. 221. 

77 



tained by the Combined Eepatriation Executive in 
Berlin, the number of war prisoners repatriated 
by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to all 
four zones of Germany from March 31, 1947, to 
March 1, 1948, totaled 252,395. Official statistics 
for the three western zones only for the period 
March 1, 1948, to December 1, 1948, show that a 
total of 194,972 war prisoners were returned to 
those zones. Therefore, on the basis of the Soviet 
Government's statement at the Council of Foreign 
Ministers in Moscow that 890,532 war prisoners 
were still held by the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Eepublics at that time, only sonie 447,367 are offi- 
cially known to have been repatriated to Germany. 
In addition, it is estimated, on the basis of the 
above indicated rate of return, that approximately 
21.000 war prisoners were returned to the three 
Western zones during December 1948. 

The United States Government cognizant of its 
responsibilities under the Council of Foreign 
Ministers Agreement, requests information con- 
cerning the Soviet Government's intentions with 
respect to these war prisoners. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment is no doubt aware that the Council of 



Foreign Ministers Agreement with respect to 
German war prisoners was publicly announced 
and failure to comply with its terms can only be 
interpretexl by world opinion as a breach of faith. 
Conscious of the importance placed on the full 
implementation of this Agreement by the German 
people and humanitarian elements throughout the 
world, and in view of its continuing interest as a 
party to that agreement, the United States Gov- 
ermnent feels compelled to renew its request for 
specific information concerning the Soviet Gov- 
ernment's performance during the past ten months, 
and its intention with respect to the future re- 
patriation of war prisoners, including the number 
still to be repatriated. The United States Govern- 
ment is of the opinion that the Soviet Government 
has a continuing obligation to honor its commit- 
ment at the Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
United States Government simultaneoush' renews 
its earlier request for information concerning war 
prisoners who have died while in the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, as expressed in the 
Embassy's notes No. 129 dated March 9, 1948 and 
No. 599 dated September 15, 1948. 



PLANS UNDER THE 1947 CONFERENCE OF FOREIGN MINISTERS AGREEMENT 



At a press conference on January 4 in reply to 
questions regarding a statement by Tass, official 
news agency of the U.S.S.R., about the repatria- 
tion of German prisoners of war, Michael McDer- 
mott quoted from the 1947 agreement of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers as follows: 

"1. German prisoners of war located in the 
territory of the Allied Powers and in all other 
territories will be returned to Germany by Decem- 
ber 31, 1948. 

"2. The repatriation of the German prisoners of 
war will be carried out in accordance with a plan 
which will be worked out by the Control Council 
not later than July 1 of this year [1947]." 

Mr. McDermott then issued the following 
statement : 

In accordance with the mandate of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers, discussions were initiated 
by the Allied Control authorities with a view to 
implementing the agreement. In August 1947, 
the Governments submitted their repatriation 
plans. (The United States, having completed its 
repatriation program on June 30, 1947, was not 
called upon to submit a plan.) The plans sub- 



mitted by the British and French both indicated 
the future monthly rate at which repatriation 
would take place to meet the deadline set. 

The Soviet plan reported the numbers which 
had been repatriated during May and June of 
that 3'ear, but did not include any definite state- 
ment concerning the monthly rate to be followed 
in future repatriations. Tlie Soviet plan included 
the statement that all German prisoners of war 
would be repatriated to Germany by December 
31, 1948. 

Repeated efforts were made subsequently in the 
Combined Services Directorate and the Coordinat- 
ing Committee as well as at the Control Council 
level to obtain agreement from the Soviet authori- 
ties to furnish a timetable of their repatriation 
program. Soviet representatives, however, con- 
sistently refused to discuss or to disclose contem- 
plated repatriation rates or to make any commit- 
ment beyond giving assurances that the deadline 
set by the Council of Foreign Ministers would be 
met. 

In view of the breakdown at the Control Council 
level, an approach to the Soviet Government on 
the subject was made by the United States Gov- 
ernment in September 1948. No reply to that 
inquiry has been received. 



78 



Department of State Bulletin 



President's Economic Report Released 



INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS' 



Balanced economic growth will require large 
increases in our imports of raw materials, and 
many other goods, and services. Our own interests 
require that we concentrate domestic productive 
efforts in those fields where we can produce most 
efficiently and not draw down our reserves of 
exhaustible resources unduly. We need large im- 
ports to strengthen our conservation policy and 
increase the stock piles of critical materials; our 
imports also provide exchange to purchasers of 
our exports. 

The main lines of international economic policy 
for balanced economic growth have already been 
laid out, and great progress has been made in im- 
plementing; them. The initiation of the European 
Recovery Program was the main additional step 
taken during 1948 in pursuit of the ^oal of world 
recovery and reconstruction. Furuier progress 
was also made toward creating conditions for 
the post-recovery expansion of world trade on a 
nondiscriminatory and multilateral basis. The 
proposed charter for an International Trade 
Organization was accepted, after difficult negotia- 
tions, by 54 countries ; and the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade came into effect. These 
measures are important steps in the direction of 
reducing the barriers to world trade. 

Another aspect in the development of inter- 
national economic policy is the better coordination 
of our international trade policies with policies in 
certain other areas of the economy. The present 
situation of prosperity at home and of extensive 
American participation in economic affairs abroad 
offers a favorable opportunity for progress in this 
field. 

Conflicts between our foreign and domestic pro- 
grams lie less in general policy than in specific 
actions. The most serious of these arise out of 
programs designed to protect domestic producers 
of specific commodities. While these conflicts 
tend to be submerged in periods of intense demand 
and inflationary pressure, they may be expected to 
appear in acute form when some markets ease. 
The best time to resolve these conflicts is now. 

The basic approach in readjusting these domes- 
tic programs to our international policy should 
be similar to that involved in the improvement of 
farm price support policies: namely, to provide 
the necessary degree of domestic support in periods 
when it may be needed, but at the same time to 
encourage adjustment of production in line with 

January 16, 1949 



the basic supply and demand conditions through- 
out the world. Existing programs adopted to 
protect less productive industries indefinitely not 
only are contrary to our basic international policy, 
but also impede our efforts at home to make full 
and efficient use of our resources. They are a 
hangover from a period of fear of inadequate 
market and employment opportunities. 

Even with the maximum feasible level of im- 
ports, substantial foreign investment will be 
needed to maintain a level of exports sufficiently 
high to avoid a painful readjustment in certain 
areas of domestic agricultural and industrial pro- 
duction. Furthermore, such investment will 
probably be requisite if Western Europe is to 
relax its restrictive policies and still balance its 
international payments at a high level after the 
European Recovery Program is over. 

In the international field, the inseparability of 
economic and political objectives is particularly 
apparent; and it is not only in Western Europe 
that our economic policy must serve a dual pur- 
pose. Major areas of the world have emerged 
from the prewar and war years with a determina- 
tion to develop their own economic resources by 
improving their industrial and agricultural equip- 
ment. This determination reflects a basic popular 
aspiration on the part of hundreds of millions 
throughout the world towards higher standards of 
living and economic progress after centuries of 
grincting poverty. The United States cannot main- 
tain its world position of moral prestige and 
political leadership unless it positively supports 
those aspirations. 

Our abundant stock of capital and large savings 
enable us to do this by making both capital goods 
and our knowledge of technology and production 
methods available abroad. This function is now 
being performed in a small degree by private capi- 
tal, either directly or through the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It 
is to be hoped that it can be done more fully by 
private capital rather than Government aid as 
foreign countries bent on capital development give 
reasonable assurance of safety to private investors. 
This they must do if they wish to secure capital in 
large amounts. 

'From the Economic Report of the President, p. 72, 
transmitted to the Congress, January 1949, and released to 
the press by the White House on Jan. 7, 1949. 

79 



Action Requested To Extend Trade Agreements Act 



LETTER OF THE PRESIDENT TO CHAIRMEN OF CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES 



The President sent the following letter to the Hon- 
orable Walter F. George^ chairman of the Senate 
Finance Committee, and the Honorable Robert L. 
Doughton, chairman of the House Ways and 

Means Committee 

[Released to the press by the White House January 8] 

January 8, 19Ii9 
My dear Me. Chairman: In my message on 
the State of the Union I asked the Congress to act 
promptly to extend the Trade Agreements Act 
without the hampering restrictions placed on it by 
the last Congress. 

As you Imow, negotiations will begin in April to 
extend the benefits of the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade to thirteen countries that did 
not participate in the original Agreement. This 
General Agreement, concluded in the autumn of 
1947, is the most important and comprehensive 
trade agreement in history. Under it, the United 
States and twenty-two other nations agreed to 
reduce their tariffs, or to maintain low tariffs or 
none at all, on a wide variety of products. The 
products affected accounted in 1938 for over half 
of the world's international trade. In addition, 
the participating countries agreed to curb the use 
of other trade restrictions, such as import quotas, 
and to limit various kinds of discrimination, such 
as preferential treatment of imports from one 
country as against those from another. Never be- 
fore have so many nations combined in such an 
intensive effort to reduce barriers to trade. 

The extensio2i of the benefits of this Agreement 
under the authority of the Trade Agreements Act 
is a practical cooperative effort to remove unneces- 
sary obstacles to the building of a stable and 
prosperous world. The restrictive provisions and 
limited extension of the present trade agreements 
law materially hamper the effectiveness of United 
States participation in this effort. That is why it 
is so important that the existing Trade Agree- 
ments Act be promptly repealed, and that the Act 
as it existed on March 1, 1948, be extended for a 
further substantial period. I suggest that this 
period be until June 12, 1951. 

Unless nations can sell each other the products 
of their agriculture, labor and industry to the 
greatest possible extent, there can be no sure foun- 
dation for economic peace. Unless world trade is 
increased, the tremendous investment we are mak- 

80 



ing toward world economic recovery will be largely 
wasted. Unless trade restrictions are relaxed, the 
lot of the private trader in international trade will 
become increasingly difficult. 

In the achievement of these objectives. United 
States leadership and United States action is a 
decisive influence. 

The trade agreements program has proved itself 
to the people of the United States. It has justly 
earned their overwhelming support. We must be 
in a position to press that program forward with 
vigor. 

I know that I can count on your continued sup- 
port in securing necessary action to this end at 
the earliest possible date. 
Sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



Correction on Place of Meeting for 
April Tariff Negotiations 

In the Bulletin of December 26, 1948, page 
807, left-hand column, lines 8, 9, 10, and 11 should 
read as follows : 

"At Geneva on October 30, 1947. Colombia 
and Liberia will join with 11 other countries in 
the negotiations scheduled to begin at Annecy, 
France, on April 11, 1949." 

United States Policy on High Seas Fisheries — Con- 
tinued from page 71 

the fishery works will be kept at that level at 

which a maximum crop can be harvested year 

after year. 

The nations of the world could not possibly 
agree at this time on who will get what share of 
that crop. 

That part of the problem must be left, for the 
present, to free enterprise and competition. 
There is a crop to be taken in the international 
common. Each takes according to his ability. 
Wlien the safe crop is taken, all stop the harvest. 

Department of State Butletin 



CIO Interest in U.S. Actions in Indonesian Situation 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT OF THE CIO AND 
ACTING SECRETARY LOVETT 



CReleased to the press January G] 

^ Text of a letter from Acting Secretary Lovett to 
the President of the CIO 

Jamtary 3, 1949 
Dear Mr. Murr.\t: I write to thank you, in 
behalf of the Secretary, for your thoughtful and 
helpful letter to him dated December 23, 1948 
concerning the situation in Indonesia. The in- 
terests you regard as being at stake in this difficult 
problem, which can be solved satisfactorily only 
if recognition is afforded the legitimate desires of 
the Indonesian people for self-determination and 
democratic self-rule, are the very intei'ests which 
the Department of State has recognized and which 
have prompted it to take every feasible action to 
promote just such a solution. 

As 3'ou know, for over a year now this Govern- 
ment through its membership in the United Na- 
tions Security Council's Committee of Good Offices 
in Indonesia has activelj' endeavored to bring 
about a peaceful settlement of the conflict between 
the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia. 
Successive American Representatives on the Com- 
mittee, Dr. Frank P. Graham, Mr. Coert duBois 
and Mr. H. Merle Cochran, have exerted them- 
selves strenuously to effect a settlement which 
would meet criteria entirely consonant with the 
declaration of your Portland convention as cited 
in your letter. Mr. Cochi'an, the present Repre- 
sentative, had since his arrival in Indonesia last 
August given himself unsparingly to the task of 
attempting to bring about a resumption of negotia- 
tions between the parties, which had been in sus- 
pense since July, his activities having continued 
without intermission until the very hour military 
action was commenced. This Government had 
given him all the support it could appropriately 
render, having in particular consistently urged 
upon the Netherlands Government the necessity 
of reaching an agi-eement with the Republic which 
would meet the reasonable and legitimate demands 
of the Indonesian nationalist movement, as well 
as safeguard the legitimate interests of the Dutch, 
and stressing the serious consequences likely to 
follow upon a renewal of hostilities. In this con- 
nection, the United States Government recom- 
mended to the attention of the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment the compromise plan for a settlement 
wliich had been offered by the American Repre- 
sentative on the Committee of Good Offices and 
which this Goverimient regarded as affording a 
most promising means of approach to the creation 
of a sovereign United States of Indonesia. In 
brief, this plan called for Indonesia-wide elections 

January 16, 1949 



for a provisional parliament under safeguards of 
freedom of expression and franchise, the forma- 
tion of a provisional government by the parlia- 
ment in which the powers of self-rule would be 
vested, and the transfer of sovereignty to this 
government following the drafting of a constitu- 
tion for the United States of Indonesia by the 
parliament acting as a constituent assembly. 

In its efforts to persuade the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment to agree to the terms of a settlement which 
the Republican Government for its part could 
accept, this Government was mindful of the proved 
nationalist character of the Republican Govern- 
ment of President Sukarno and Prime Minister 
Hatta, which, laboring under signal difficulties, 
had resolutely taken action against and eliminated 
a Communist revolt against its authority, engi- 
neered by a Moscow-trained and disciplined Com- 
munist agent. In deciding to oppose the Commu- 
nist drive rather than to attempt to compromise 
with it, the Republican Government indicated its 
appreciation of what is so well understood by all 
independent peoples; tbat is, that in paying lip- 
service to the nationalist ideal in any country, 
international Communist forces have no other end 
in view but the subversion of that ideal, the rig- 
orous suppression of nationalism in the future and 
the institution of alien controls of far-reaching 
and tyrannical character. Had tliere ever been 
any doubt on this score, the fate of such formerly 
independent countries as Poland and Czechoslo- 
vakia should have dispelled it. 

You have no doubt read the statements made by 
the United States Representative in the Security 
Council, Mr. Jessup, which gave expression to the 
profound disappointment and concern of this 
Government occasioned by the action taken by the 
Netherlands in Indonesia. You are also of course 
aware of the suspension of further allocations to 
the Netherlands on behalf of Indonesia by the Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Administration. 

With regard to the prospects of a future settle- 
ment between the Netherlands and the Republic 
of Indonesia, I may draw your attention to a 
report submitted to the Security Council on De- 
cember 26 by the Committee of Good Offices in 
Indonesia in which the view is offered that (1) 
negotiations presuppose two parties each unco- 
erced by the armed force of the other and each 
prepared to move toward the reasonable viewpoint 
of the other, and (2) politically, the people of one 
party, without whose support any agreement, even 
if achieved, may well be unenforceable, will be 
reluctant to accept as bona fide any negotiations 
in which again they start with an area mider their 

81 



control diminished as the result of a resort to 
armed force by the other. 

In connection with this appraisal of the require- 
ments of the situation, it will be recalled that the 
United States Kepresentative in the Security 
Council had taken the initiative in introducing a 
resolution in the Council calling upon the parties 
to the dispute to cease fire, to withdraw their troops 
to the positions held before the commencement of 
military action on December 18, and to release all 
political prisoners. The United States cannot, of 
course, endorse or condone a solution by force of 
such a problem as that in Indonesia. Insofar as 
further action by the Council is concerned, that 
will depend upon the ability of at least seven mem- 
bers to reach agreement. 

The fact that the United States resolution with 
respect to the withdrawal of armed forces did not 
receive the nece.ssary number of votes in the Coun- 
cil and that the Netherlands did not at once com- 
ply with the resolutions that were in fact adopted 
means that the grounds for a negotiated settlement 
as outlined in the report by the Committee of Good 
Offices cited above do not exist. It emphatically 
does not mean, however, that this Government has 
abandoned hope of a constructive solution to the 
Indonesian problem in which the legitimate inter- 
ests of both sides may be safeguarded and indeed 
enhanced. 

The Netherlands representative in the Security 
Council has re-emphasized that his Government 
has been motivated by a desire to see law and or- 
der maintained throughout Indonesia and to bring 
about the creation of a democratic, independent, 
federal United States of Indonesia. The Nether- 
lands Government, furthermore, it should be noted, 
has never taken exception to the ultimate govern- 
mental arrangements in Indonesia envisaged in 
the United States compromise plan, which has 
been referred to earlier in this letter. Indeed, 
these arrangements appear to parallel what both 
parties have had in mind. 

Political peace is clearly an essential not only to 
progress in the construction of a new government 
of and by Indonesians but also to the economic 
rehabilitation of Indonesia, which is so important 
to the Indonesians themselves, the Netherlands and 
the world in general. It is reasonable to assume 
that the Netherlands Government is aware that 
peace will be impossible of attainment unless the 
trust and cooperation of the Indonesian people, in- 
cluding the Republican elements which have been 
in the van of the nationalist movement, are en- 
listed. Accordingly it is to be hoped that the 
Netherlands Government will seize the present 
opportunity to make concrete demonstration of its 
intention to satisfy the legitimate aspirations of 
the Indonesians for self-rule and to organize an 
Indonesian government in which all parties may 
seek and obtain representation in accordance with 
their popular followings, through the exercise of 

82 



free, democratic processes. With such assur- 
ances, t.lie now naturally acute apprehensions of 
Republican leaders and sympathizers may be al- 
layed; therefore the spectre of guerilla warfare 
and sabotage need not materialize and the Dutch 
and Indonesians may join efforts toward a com- 
mon and mutually beneficial goal. 

Please be assured of the Department of State's 
continuing interest and readiness to assist in every 
appropriate way in the attainment of this highly 
desirable and in fact essential objective. Your 
expression of support in this endeavor is greatly 
appreciated. 

Sincerely yours, 

Robert A. Lo^^:TT, 
Acting Secretary/ of State. 

The text of Mr. Murray^s letter of December 2S, 
19J(8, to the Secretary of State follows 

Deak Mr. Secretary : I wish to express, on be- 
half of the six million members of the Congress of 
Industrial Organizations, our pleasure that the 
American government, both in the United Nations 
and elsewhere, has taken the leadership in seeking 
a speedy end to the hostilities initiated by the 
Dutch government in Indonesia. 

The CIO has always felt that the peoples of the 
colonial countries should be given the greatest 
possible assistance in developing free, democratic 
governments. As our recent convention at Port- 
land, Oregon, declared : "An enduring peace de- 
mands that people everywhere, including the 
economically backward and colonial countries, be 
protected in their rights of self-determination and 
self-government, free from military, political and 
economic coercion." 

At a time when the world is striving desperately 
to find a road to peace, we feel that the action 
of the Netherlands government in suddenly and 
wantonly attacking the people of Indonesia con- 
forms neither to the morality of our civilization 
nor to the practical political needs of the people 
of western Europe and the United States. 

We feel that insofar as American aid is now 
available to the Netherlands government, it is 
being used for purposes inconsistent with the 
original intent and objectives of the European 
Recovery Program. 

I voice the hope, on behalf of the members of 
the CIO, that the government of the United States 
will continue to take every feasible step in the 
realm of diplomacy and economics to help termi- 
nate the Dutch aggression in Indonesia, and to 
assure a speedy settlement recognizing the rightful 
interests of the Indonesian people in their quest 
for democratic self-rule. You may rest assured 
that the State Department will enjoy the full 
support of American workers in whatever steps it 
may take in this direction. 
Sincerely, 

Phiup Murray. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Voice of America Opens Studios in Wasliington ^ 



DIRECT WORLD-WIDE SHORT-WAVE BROADCASTS TO BE MADE 



The Voice of America opened its Washington 
broadcasting studios on January 3 to originate 
direct world-wide short-wave broadcasts from the 
Nation's capital. 

The Voice will use the broadcasting studios on 
the top floor of the Interior Department building, 
which have been idle for one and one-half years, 
and which have been reactivated for the Wash- 
ington service under an arrangement with Secre- 
taiT Krug, of the Interior Department. 

George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State 
for public affairs, in announcing the extension of 
the Voice of America facilities said the Washing- 
ton broadcasts, at the outset, would be on a limited 
scale, but would be steadily increased in the future 
in order to "send to the other nations of the world, 
the direct, on-the-scene story of America's free, 
democratic government in action". The main 
programming operation of the Voice will remain 
in New York. 

The first major events to be broadcast from the 



Washington studios were the opening of Congress 
on January 3 and President Truman's message on 
the state of the Union. The inauguration cere- 
monies will be broadcast on January 20, and sub- 
sequent events of major importance will be car- 
ried direct from the Nation's capital. The studios 
will also be used for interviews with members of 
Congress and Government officials and for 
round-table programs. Transcriptions for de- 
layed broadcasts will also be prepared here. 

The Interior Department studios were the first 
to be built into a Government department build- 
ing, having been included in the plan of construc- 
tion when the Interior building was built 10 years 
ago. The main studio has an audience seating 
section behind soundproof glass with accommoda- 
tions for about 50 persons. Arrangements will be 
made for visitors to attend performances as soon 
as a definite schedule of broadcasts from Washing- 
ton is established. 



REMARKS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY ALLEN ^ 



With the opening of the 81st Congress of the 
United States in Washington today, the Voice of 
America begins the operation of its new broadcast- 
ing facilities in the Nation's capital. 

From the new Washington studios, the Voice of 
America hopes to give its listeners around the 
world a clearer, on-the-scene picture of America's 
democracy in action. It hopes to give the peoples 
of other lands a better understanding of the ex- 
ecutive, legislative, and judicial functions of the 
United States Government. And it hopes to give 
the rest of the world an accurate story of the Amer- 
ican people: how they live and work and solve 
their problems; and what they believe. 

The Voice of America is but one of the means 
used by the United States to tell this accurate 
story. Through libraries also, and through press 
and publications, through motion pictures, and 
through the exchange of persons the United States 
is trying to tell others exactly what we are like in 
this country of ours. 

The objectives of the international information 
and educational exchange program, as defined by 
law, are: "To promote a better understanding of 
the United States in other countries, and to in- 
crease mutual understanding between the people 
of the United States and the people of other 
countries." 

January 16, 1949 



We feel that the Washington facilities will en- 
able the Voice of America to make a worthwhile 
contribution to a better understanding among 
peoples. We feel that a more accurate picture of 
the United States — its weaknesses as well as its 
successes — is essential if the world's peoples are 
to have a clear understanding of the true aims and 
objectives of the American people and their Gov- 
ernment. 

I have just recently returned from a meeting of 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization. In the international field, 
Unesco is seeking to accomplish somewhat the 
same ends as is the Voice of America within its 
own scope. 

The Constitution of Unesco says : "Since wars 
begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds 
of men that the defences of peace must be 
constnicted." 

To that end — the building of the defenses of 
peace in the minds of men — the Voice of America 
is unalterably pledged. 



' Released to the press Dec. 30. 

' Made on the occasion of the opening of the radio 
broadcasting studios in the Interior Department Build- 
ing in Washington at 4 p. m. on Jan. 3, 19149, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

83 



Awards for Graduate Study Abroad 

[Released to the press January 6] 

Opportunities for Americans to pursue gradu- 
ate study under the Fulbright Act in the United 
Kingdom, Belgium and Luxembourg, Burma, 
Greece, New Zealand, and the Philippine Republic 
were announced on January 6 by the Department 
of State. Awards are made in the currency of the 
countries in which the candidate will study and 
include round-trip transportation, tuition, books, 
and maintenance for one full academic year. 

To qualify, a student must be an American citi- 
zen, have the B.A. degree or its equivalent before 
the 1949 academic year, and possess a knowledge 
of the language of the countiy sufficient to carry 
out the proposed study. 

Selection of candidates is based in general on 
scholastic achievement and the value of the project, 
as well as the high personal qualifications of the 
individual. Veterans are given preference pro- 
vided their qualifications are approximately equal 
to those of other candidates. 

Competition for awards in Burma, Greece, and 
the Philippine Republic will be open until Febru- 
ary 1, 1949 ; competition for awards in the United 
Kingdom, Belgium and Luxembourg, and New 
Zealand will be open until March 1, 1949. It is 
expected that the final selections will be made in 
time for the students to reach the foreign country 
for the opening of the 1949-50 academic year. Ap- 
plication blanks and additional information con- 
cerning these awards may be obtained from the 
Institute of International Education, 2 West 45th 
Street, New York 19, New York. The Depart- 
ment of State has designated the Institute as the 
agency to receive inquiries, accept applications, 
and recommend panels of qualified candidates 
from which the Board of Foreign Scholarships 
makes the final selection. 

In addition to the grants announced for Ameri- 
can citizens, a number of travel awards are also 
available to students who are citizens of the above 
countries to enable them to come to the United 
States for the purpose of attending colleges and 
universities here. It is expected that these oppor- 
tunities will soon be announced abroad by the 
United States Educational Foundations or Com- 
missions established to administer the Fulbright 
progi-ams in these countries. 

The scholarships are awarded under Public Law 
584 (79th Congress), the Fulbright Act, which 
authorizes the Department of State to use certain 
foreign currencies and credits acquired through 
the sale of surplus property abroad for programs 
of educational exchange with other nations. Nine 
agreements with foreign governments have now 

' Bulletin of Sept. 5, 1948, p. 301. 
' Bulletin of Jan. 9, 1949, p. 59. 

84 



been concluded for participation in this program. 
The first two of these agreements, with China and 
Burma, were signed during the latter part of 1947. 
The other seven agreements were concluded during 
1948. Governments which have most recently au- 
thorized exchanges under the program are the 
United Kingdom, New Zealand, Belgium and 
Luxembourg, France, and Italy. 

The Fulbright program is expected ultimately 
to embrace more than twenty countries and may 
involve an estimated expenditure of $140,000,000 
in foreign currencies during the next twenty years. 

U.S. Delegate on Indonesian Committee 
Recalled for Consultations 

[Released to the press January 5] 

The United States Government has recalled for 
consultation H. Merle Cochran, United States 
Delegate to the Security Council's Committee of 
Good Offices on Indonesia. This move is oc- 
casioned by the recent action of the Netherlands 
Government in Indonesia which abruptly inter- 
rupted the efforts of the Committee of Good Offices 
to find tlirough peaceful negotiation a satisfactory 
settlement of the three-year dispute between the 
Netherlands Government and the Indonesian 
Republic. 

ECA and State Department To Assume 
Responsibilities in Korea 

[Released to the press by the White House January 5] 

As anticipated in his announcement of August 
26, 1948,^ and following the full recognition of 
the Government of the Republic of Korea by the 
United States on January 1, 1949,= the President 
has instructed the Economic Cooperation Adminis- 
trator to take over the relief and rehabilitation 
program which has been carried on by the Depart- 
ment of the Army in Korea since the liberation 
of that country in 1945. At the same time, the 
Secretary of State has been instructed to assume 
responsibility for such information and educa- 
tional-exchange activities in Korea as have like- 
wise been carried out by the Department of the 
Army since the liberation. 



CORRECTION 



In the Bulletin of December 19, 1948, page 770, 
right-hand column, twenty-second line, the word 
"nations" should read "nationals." The corrected 
paragraph 5 should read : 

"5. Yen acquired by foreign nationals through 
activities envisaged in this policy should be useable 
for local expenditures in accordance with laws 
and regulations enforced in Japan." 

Department of State Bulletin 



Emergency Diversions of Water From Niagara Area 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 



[Released to the press December 23] 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 23 that notes had been exchanged between 
Canada and tlie United States providing for tem- 
porary emergency diversions of water for power 
purposes from the Niagara area. The notes pro- 
vide for the diversion of 4,000 cubic feet per 
second, as arranged in an exchange of notes Be- 
tween the two Governments on May 3, 1944, 
through the hydroelectric phints located along the 
Canadian side of the Niagara River, and the ad- 
ditional diversion of 2,500 cubic feet per second, 
during the nonnavigation season only, through 
the Welland Ship Canal for use in the De Cew 
Falls power plant near St. Catharines. The diver- 
sion of the 2,500 cubic feet was recently requested 
by Canada at the instance of the Hyclro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario to alleviate the 
serious power shortage in southern Ontario. 

In view of the emergency power situation in 
Ontario, the agreement will be operative pro- 
visionally as of the date of December 23 with the 
understanding that it will enter into force de- 
finitively when approved b}' the Senate and, if 
rejected by that body, the agreement will there- 
upon terminate and the diversion of water pro- 
vided therein be discontinued. 

The Ambassador of Canada to the Acting 
Secretary of State 

Decemher 23rd, 19^8. 

No. 613 

Sir, I have the honour to refer to the exchanges 
of notes of May 20, 1941, and of October 27 and 
November 27, 1941, regarding emergency diver- 
sions of water for power purposes from the Ni- 
agara River, and to conversations that recently 
have taken place between officials of the Govern- 
ments of Canada and the United States of 
America regarding the critical power shortage in 
Southern Ontario. 

In view of the urgent' need for additional power 
in Ontario and of the fact that there are existing 
hydroelectric facilities on the Canadian side of 
the Niagara River to use additional water, the 
Government of Canada hopes that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America will permit 
the following temporary diversions : 

1. The temporary diversion, above the falls, for 
power purposes of 4000 cubic feet per second, in 

January 16, 1949 



terms of daily aggregate, as provided in the notes 
exchanged between the two Governments on May 
3, 1944, through the hydroelectric plants located 
along the Canadian side of the Niagara River. 

2. The temporary additional diversion of 2500 
cubic feet per second, in terms of daily aggregate, 
during the non-navigation season, through the 
Welland Ship Canal for use in the DeCew Falls 
power plant near St. Catharines. 

These diversions of water for power purposes 
shall be subject to the following conditions: 

1. They shall terminate not later than April 
15, 1951. 

2. They shall be reviewed periodically, as are 
the arrangements effected by the exchanges of 
notes referred to above. 

3. They shall be used only through the existing 
hydroelectric facilities and shall not involve the 
construction of any new facilities. 

Accept [etc.] H. H. Wrong 

The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador 
of Canada 

December 83, 1948 

ExcELLENcr: I have the honor to inform you 
that the Government of the United States of 
America concurs in the proposals set forth in your 
note of December 23, 1948, and that it is willing to 
permit the temporary diversions of water under 
the conditions stated in your note and on the basis 
that the diversions will not create any vested in- 
terest in the use of such amounts of water. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica considers that your note and this reply thereto 
shall be regarded as an agreement between the 
Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of Canada concerning this mat- 
ter. In view of the emergency power situation 
to which you refer in your note, the Government 
of the United States of America will consider the 
said agreement to be operative provisionally as of 
today's date, with the understanding that this 
agreement shall enter into force definitively when 
approved by the Senate of the United States of 
America and if rejected by that body the agree- 
ment shall thereupon terminate and the diversion 
of these waters provided therein shall be discon- 
tinued. 

Accept [etc.] 

Robert A. Lovett 
Acting Secretary of State 

85 



Resignation of George C. Marshall as Secretary of State 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN GENERAL MARSHALL AND THE PRESIDENT 



Secretary Marshall to President Truman 

January <?, 19^9 

[Released to the presa by the White House January 7] 

Mt dear Mr. President : I regret that it is neces- 
sary for me to submit my resignation as Secretary 
of State. 

Please accept my thanks for the extraordinary 
consideration and complete support you have 
given me tliese past three years. I shall never for- 
get your kindness and I submit this resignation 
with affectionate regard and great respect. 
Faithfully yours, 

G. C. Marshall. 

The President on January 7 sent the following let- 
ter to General George C. Marshall, accepting his 
resignation as Secretary of State 

Mt dear General Marshall: Your letter of 
January third emphasizes to me that considera- 
tions of health compel your decision to return to 
private life which I had hoped in your country's 
interest could be long deferred. 

Those of us who have had extensive experience 
in public affairs know full well that there are very 
few indispensable men. Happily for the conti- 
nuity of government, there appears from time to 
time a man of outstanding ability whose service 
in one post of responsibility gives liim exceptional 



qualification to discharge other duties of equal 
moment in a quite different field of activity. You 
are the exemplification of the type of public serv- 
ant I have in mind. 

As Chief of Staff of the United States Army you 
were the guide and counselor of two Commanders 
in Chief. You brought to the performance of your 
task abilities and qualifications which inspired 
the armies of the democratic nations to victory in 
a war unparalleled in magnitude and in the vast- 
ness of the issues involved. 

When the great office of Secretary of State be- 
came vacant it seemed to me fortunate that you 
were available for the position, although you had 
richly earned retirement. As it turned out, your 
pi-evious training and experience were a prepara- 
tion for the onerous duties which befell you in 
directing our foreign affaii'S — particularly in the 
formulation and execution of the Marshall Plan. 

I had hoped that with medical treatment and 
rest and recuperation you could continue in office. 
I am, however, unwilling to assume the responsi- 
bility of further jeopardizing your health. I ac- 
cept, therefore, effective on January 20, 1949, your 
resignation as Secretary of State. In taking this 
action reluctantly and with deep regret, I heartily 
reciprocate your sentiments of affection and 
respect. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Haret S. Truman 



Resignation of Robert A. Lovett as Under Secretary of State 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN MR. LOVETT AND THE PRESIDENT 



Mr. Lovett to President Truman 

[Released to the press by the White House January 7] 

January 3, 1949 
Mt dear Mr. President: For personal reasons 
with which you are familiar, I respectfully sub- 
mit my resignation as Under Secretary of State. 
I thank you most sincerely for the confidence 
you have reposed in me and for your unfailing 
consideration and kindness. 

With great respect and deep appreciation, I am 
Faithfully yours, 

Robert A. Lovett 

The.President on January 7 sent the following let- 
ter to Robert A. Lovett, accepting his resignation 
as Under Secretary of State 

Mt dear Bob: I have received with heartfelt 
regret your letter of January third. Because of 

86 



my familiarity with the personal considerations 
which prompt it, I have no recourse but to comply 
with its terms and accept your resignation as the 
Under Secretary of State, effective January 
20, 1949. 

In taking this action, I need hardly assure you 
as you return to private pursuits, that I heartily 
reciprocate the personal sentiments of friendship 
and respect which you express. 

You have earned the gratitude of the Nation for 
outstanding service. As Special Assistant to tlie 
Secretary of War and as Assistant Secretary of 
War for Air, you had gained invaluable experi- 
ence before I called you to assume the intricate 
responsibilities of the Office of the Under Secre- 
tary of State. 

The country has been fortunate in having the 
benefit of your expert abilities in peace as well as 
in war. You have be^in guided and inspired 

Department of State Bulletin 



throu<!;li all of your varied service by tlie hi<?hest 
intellectual integrity and you have brought to 
each task untiring industry, outstanding ability 
and selfless devotion to the public interest. 

Although you must now relinquish public office, 
I shall like to think that we can call upon you 
from time to time for the advice and counsel which 
you can give out of your rich experience. 

With every good wish, 
Very sincerely jours, 

Harry S. Truman 



Time Limit Not Set for Filing With 
Malayan War Damage Claims Commission 

tReleased to the press January 3] 

The Department of State has been informed 
that claims for war damage to American prop- 
erty in Singapore and the Federation of Malaya 
are being accepted for registration by the Malayan 
War Damage Claims Commission although, as 
the Department has previously announced, the 
time for registration of such claims officially ex- 
pired in 1947. American nationals who have not 
previously submitted claims to the Commission 
are advised to submit their claims to the Commis- 
sion as soon as possible. Legislation is now being 
considered by the Governments of Singapore and 
of the Federation of Malaya which would pro- 
vide compensation for certain types of war dam- 
age to property. It cannot now be predicted 
whether the submission of late claims will be 
barred upon the enactment of the legislation. 

Claims should be addressed, for registration, 
to the Secretary, War Damage Claims Commis- 
sion, Kuala Lumpur, Federation of Malaya. 
Forms may also be obtained at the same address. 



Air Force Mission Agreement 
With Haiti Signed 

There was signed on January 4, 1949, by Rob- 
ert A. Lovett, Acting Secretary of State, and 
Joseph D. Charles, Ambassador of Haiti to the 
United States, an agreement providing for the 
detail of officers and enlisted men of the United 
States Air Force as an advisory mission to serve 
in Haiti. The agreement is to continue in force 
for four years from the date of signature, and 
may be extended beyond that period at the re- 
quest of the Government of Haiti. 

January 16, 1949 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

I''or sale by the Supcrintcndrnt of Docununls, Oovrrnment 
Printing O/jirc, Wunhinglon £5, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
cane of free publications, which, mav be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Foreign Service List, July 1, 1948. Pub. 3181. Iv, 209 
pp. 30<*. Subscription price $1.50 a year; $2 a year 
foreign. 

A quarterly list of officers In the American Foreign 
Service, their classitication, assignmenta, etc.; also 
description of consular districts and tariff of Foreign 
Service fees. 

Military Bases in the Philippines. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1775. Pub. 3257. 21 pp. 10^. 

Agreement and Accompanying Notes Between the 
United States and the Uepublic of the Philippines — 
Signed at Manila .March 14, 1!M7 ; entered into force 
March 26, 1947. 

Military Advisory Mission to Brazil. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1778. Pub. 3260. 9 pp. 5#. 

Agreement Between the United States and Brazil- 
Signed at Washington July 29, 194S ; entered into 
force July 29, 1948. 

Ninth International Conference of American States 

Bogota, Colombia, March 30-May 2, 1948. International 
Organization and Conference Series II, American Repub- 
lics 3. Pub. 3263. 317 pp. 60(f. 

Report of the Delegation of the United States with 
related documents. 

Weather Stations in Mexico: Cooperative Program in 
Mexico. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1806. Pub. 3316. 7 pp. 5^. 

Agreement Between the United States and Mexico— 
Ett'ecred by exchange of notes signed at Mexico May 
18 and June 14, 1943 ; entered into force June 14, 1943. 

United States Leased Naval Base at Argentia, New- 
foundland, Delimiting Area Within Newfoundland Terri- 
torial Waters. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1809. Pub. 3324. 6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement Between the United States and the United 
Kingdom — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
London August 13 and October 23, 1947 ; entered into 
force October 23, 1947. 

National Commission News, December 1948. Pub. 3356. 
10 pp. 100 a copy ; $1 a year domestic, $1.35 a year 
foreign. 

Prepared monthly for the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

Diplomatic List, December 1948. Pub. 3366. 196 pp. 
30^ a copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

Toward a Stronger United Nations. International Organ- 
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Free. 

Questions and answers concerning the status and 
development of international cooperation. 

87 




Hi 'JKtf>t.'(i»Y'cwy«')ti;.H'iK;a-'!~'M: 



Hiiitiim. 



Economic Affairs Page 

U.S. Policy on High Seas Fisheries. Article by 

Walter M. Chapman 67 

President's Economic Report Released .... 79 
Time Limit Not Set for Filing With Malayan 

War Damage Claims Commission .... 87 

Tlie United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Bodies and Posts Established by Third Session 

of General Assembly in Paris 72 

Addendum to Status of Work of the Third Reg- 
ular Session of the General Assembly. Com- 
mittee 6 73 

The United States in the United Nations ... 74 

U.S. Delegate on Indonesian Committee Re- 
called for Consultations 84 

Treaty Information 

U.S. Policy on High Seas Fisheries. Article 

by Walter M. Chapman 67 

Action Requested To Extend Trade Agreements 
Act. Letter of the President to Chairmen 
of Congressional Committees 80 

Emergency Diversions of Water From Niagara 
Area. Exchange of Notes Between the 
United States and Canada 85 

Air Force Mission Agreement With Haiti 

Signed 87 

General Policy 

The State of the Union. Message of the Presi- 
dent to the Congress 75 



General Policy — Continued Page 

CIO Interest in U.S. Actions in Indonesian 
Situation. Exchange of Letters Between 
the President of the CIO and Acting 
Secretary Lovett 81 

ECA and State Department To Assume Respon- 
sibilities in Korea 84 

Occupation Matters 

Three Months' Extension of Bizonal Fusion 
Agreement: 
Notes Between the U.S. and the U.K. 

Exchanged 76 

Text of Note from the U.S. to the U.K. . . 76 

Status of Repatriation of German War Prison- 
ers: 

Text of U.S. Note to the U.S.S.R 77 

Plans Under the 1947 Conference of Foreign 
Ministers Agreement 78 

International information and 

Cultural Affairs 

Voice of America Opens Studios in Washington: 
Direct World-wide Short-Wave Broadcasts 

To Be Made 83 

Remarks by Assistant Secretary Allen ... 83 

Awards for Graduate Study Abroad 84 

The Department 

Resignation of George C. Marshall as Secretary 
of State. Exchange of Letters Between 
General Marshall and the President ... 86 

Resignation of Robert A. Lovett as Under 
Secretary of State. Exchange of Letters 
Between Mr. Lovett and the President . . 86 

Publications 

Department of State 87 



r. $, COVERNHENT PRIHTINO OFPICEi IB4* 



,//ii ^ t,j , mni.f>,riT/ np .7ta.t& 



y 




111 




ICERPTS FROM THE PRESIDE! 

Bl I)(;KT message for 1950 108 

ISCI SS1(>N OF INDONESTW SlTl ATTON 

/',• ... 

l< - :,:. ELOPMENTS IN 1 II F 

IMTED NATIONS . /. 

I . 95 




>'jLi^r OH UuLUmtMb 



f£B 18 1949 




^e Qje/ia/ic^&nt ^ ^(ule JOUllGllD. 



Vol. XX, No. 499 • Publication 3401 
January 23, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent of Document! 

U.S. Ooverament Printing Office 

Washington 28, D.C. 

Pbice: 

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Published with the approval of the 
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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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or STiTit Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tveekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the tcork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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ment, and statements and addresses 
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Discussion of Indonesian Situation In Security Council 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR PHILIP C. JESSUP' 
Deputy U. S. Representative In the Security Council 



The United States Government can find no ade- 
quate justification for the military action taken by 
the Netherlands in Indonesia. In many impor- 
tant respects, the reasons put forth by the Nether- 
lands representative at the meeting oi the Security 
Council on December 22nd in Paris and again 
here last Friday as to the justification for their 
action are not supported by the reports of the 
Committee of Good Offices. In our view, the 
Netherlands military action is in conflict with the 
Renville agreement and with the Security Coun- 
cil's resolutions of August 1, 1947, and November 
1, 1947.== 

As the United States Delegation has frequently 
made clear, it is our opinion that these two Secur- 
ity Council resolutions were adopted under the 
provisions of article 40, chapter VII of the Char- 
ter, and that, therefore, in accordance with article 
25 of the Charter, the Netherlands Government 
was and is under obligation to comply. 

On the initiative of the United States, the Se- 
curity Council was called into session in Paris to 
consider the emergency created by the military 
action of the Dutch authorities. The United 
States, joining with Colombia and Syria, intro- 
duced a resolution which called upon both par- 
ties to cease hostilities forthwith and immedi- 
ately to withdraw their armed forces to their 
respective sides of the demilitarized zones under 
the Renville truce agreement of 17 January 1948. 
Unfortunately, the paragraph calling for the 
withdrawal of forces was not adopted by the 
Council. The Council on 24 December passed 
the resolution calling upon the parties to cease 
hostilities forthwith and to release the political 
prisoners which had been arrested since the 18th 
of December. Later, on December 28th, the 
Council passed an additional resolution calling 
upon the Dutch authorities to release the political 
prisoners within 24 hours. The Netherlands rep- 
resentative has assured the Council that his Gov- 
ernment has complied with the cease-fire and 
release-of-prisoners order of the Council. Neither 
my Government nor the Committee of Good Offices 
consider they have done so. The Committee has 
reported on this as follows: 

"The Committee is not in a position to report 
that there has been satisfactory compliance with 
sub-paragraph (A) of the resolution of 24 De- 
cember, which called on the parties to cease hos- 
tilities. 

January 23, 7949 



(A) The telegram dispatched to territorifil 
commanders in Java by the Chief of Staff of the 
Royal Netherlands Indonesian Army at 1700, 29 
December, 1948, is, according to its terms, for 
information and cannot be construed as an order 
to 'cease hostilities forthwith'. (Paragraph 9 
above) .^ The dissemination of the order of the 
Commander in Chief to territorial commanders 
in Java which confirmed the fact that hostilities 
in Java had ended at 2400 of 31 December was b&- 
gun at 1845 Batavia time, 2 January. (Para- 
graph 9 above). In Sumatra where a 'special 
emergency situation' existed, the parallel order 
disseminated late on 4 Januai-y had an effectrvB 
time of 1200, 5 January 1949. (Paragraph 10 
above) . 

(B) It is noted that these orders were issued 
at a time when the 'operational phase' of military 
activities presumably had been completed. (Ap- 
pendices I and II of Netherlands letter of 3 Jan- 
uary, paragraph 4 above). The orders • noted 
respectively that hostilities had terminated on 31 
December 1948 in Java and on 5 January 1919 
in Sumatra, but charged the troops 'carry out ac- 
tion against roving groups, bands of individuals, 
who attempt to cause unrest or, as was stated by 
our representative to the Security Council, to act 
against disturbing elements, who either individ- 
ually or collectively endanger public security or 
interfere with or prevent the supply of food and 
other essential commodities to the needy popu- 
lation.' The orders permit the continuation of the 
very type of military action that would be re- 
quired against the Guerilla resistance likely to he 
offered by regular or irregular Republican forces 
(paragraph 5 and 9 above). 

(C) As a result of the immobilization of its 
military observers the Committee has no first hand 
information as to the effect of the order discussed 
above. 

(D) The Committee is of the opinion that these 
orders issued more than a week after the adoption 



' Made on Jan. 11, 1949, and released to the press by the 
U.S. Mission to the United Nations on the same data 

' For text of tlie Renville agreement and a discussion 
of the work of the U.N. Good Offices Committee, see 
Department of State publication 3108. 

'Parenthetic citations are not here printed. 

91 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

of the resolution of 24 December, and expressed 
as they were, can not be looked upon as satisfac- 
tory compliance with sub-paragraph (A) of the 
resolution. 

(E) There is no channel available to the Com- 
mittee for dissemination of the resolution of 24 
December to the Government or to the command- 
ers of the Republican Army (paragraph 8 above). 
Subparagraph (b) of the Security Council's reso- 
lution of 24 December, calling for the immediate 
release of the President of the Republic and other 
political prisoners, has not been implemented. So 
far as the Committee is aware, President Sukarno, 
Vice-President Hatta, and the other members of 
the Republican Government, who were captured 
by Netherlands forces on 19 December, are still 
under detention. 

Despite the statements to the Security Council 
by the Netherlands representative on 27 and 29 
December, the Committee has not been in a po- 
sition to make independent investigations of any 
kind in the field for the purpose of carrying out 
its functions under the resolution of 24 December. 
It has been heard unofficially and informally that 
certain military and naval liaison officers attached 
to some of the consular officials in Batavia took ad- 
vantage of a Netherlands offer to conduct them on 
a tour of some of the military areas on 5-6 Jan- 
uary. These officers are not the military observers 
of the Committee of Good Offices and their ob- 
servations are not available to the Committee, even 
if their tour was the type of field investigation and 
observation required by the functions of the Com- 
mittee." 

The continuance of military action of the 
Netherlands authorities after the Security Coun- 
cil resolution of December 24 was clearly an act 
of defiance on the part of the Netherlands authori- 
ties. No excuses offered by the Dutch Government 
can conceal the fact that they have failed to com- 
ply with the Security Council demands, both in 
refusing to cease-fire immediately and in refusing 
to release the political prisoners immediately. In 
the opinion of the Government of the United 
States, the representative of the Netherlands has 
failed to relieve his Government from the serious 
charges that it has violated the Charter of the 
United Nations, 

The purpose of the Security Council cease-fire 
order of 24 December was to stop the fighting in 
Indonesia immediately so that the dispute could 
be settled not by force, but by the processes of 
peaceful settlement enjoined by the Charter on 
Member States. 

Even though members of the Coimcil were well 
aware that it was the Netherlands authorities 
which had initiated the resumption of military 
action, the resolution of the Security Council 
called on both parties to oi'der a cease-fire. In 

92 



such situations this is an appropriate form of Se- 
curity Council resolution since the cessation must 
be mutual no matter who was responsible for 
starting the fighting. 

It must be assumed therefore that in ordering a 
cease-fire, the Council could only have intended 
that such an order would apply equally and simul- 
taneously to both sides. The Council could not 
have expected one side to comply unilaterally 
while the other considered itself free to comply 
at such a time and in such a way as it saw fit. 
The continuance of military action by the Nether- 
lands forces until all military objectives 
have been taken cannot be regarded as compliance 
with the cease-fire order. Certainly the reserva- 
tion of the right by one side to use its own forces 
in the territory of the other side to eliminate 
armed adherents of that side which may so far 
have escaped destruction, cannot be regarded as 
compliance with the cease-fire order. Taking 
these factors into account, I am sure that the Se- 
curity Council has no intention of approving ac- 
tion consolidating military victories which them- 
selves were gained as a result of open defiance of 
an order of tlie Council. 

Probably the most striking and clearest disre- 
gard of the orders of the Security Council is to be 
found in the refusal of the Dutch authorities to re- 
lease President Sukarno and Prime Minister Hatta 
and the other leading officials of the Government of 
the Republic of Indonesia. Quite aside from the 
disregard of the Security Council's resolution of 
December 28, which required that these prisoners 
should be released within 24 hours, there is the 
present fact that these persons are still not at 
liberty. The Security Council cannot be expected 
to accept the view of the Netherlands Government 
that these prisoners have been released because 
they are given a certain liberty of movement on 
thelsland of Banka. In an archipelago compris- 
ing thousands of islands, liberty of movement 
which is restricted to a single island, one which, 
I might add, was under Netherlands control even 
under the Renville truce agreement, cannot be 
regarded as being in conformity with the Council's 
resolutions of December 24 and 28. The clear 
intent of these resolutions was that the high offi- 
cials of the Republican Government should be 
restored to a position in which they would be free 
to exercise their governmental authority. The 
minimum which would seem to be called for at this 
moment is that the President and other interned 
officers of the Republic should be allowed to return 
to their capitol and to exercise their appropriate 
functions there free from the constraint of any 
occiipying army. They should be free to estab- 
lish and maintain contact with other officials of 
their Government. They should also be free to 
provide their own forces for maintenance of law 
and order in Jogjakarta. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Further, my Government in considering the 
Netherlands-Indonesian dispute cannot but recall 
a history of noncooperation on the part of the 
Netherlantls in the work of the Good Offices Com- 
mittee in Indonesia. 

The failure to acliieve a political settlement and 
the protracted negotiations which followed the 
signing of the Renville agreement in January 1948 
brought about in Indonesia an increased tension 
between the Netherlands and the Republic with a 
consequent increase in provocative incidents which 
sorely strained the truce. The bill of particulars 
for these actions has, over a period of months, been 
reported by the Goc to the Council. From these 
reports it appears that even prior to the resump- 
tion of military action against the Republic, the 
Netherlands pursued a policy which had the effect 
of weakening tlie Republic; working lumeces- 
sary hardsliip on the population ; isolating the 
Republican Government economically and politi- 
cally, and presenting it with a prefabricated 
interim administration for Indonesia with which 
it was to associate itself but which it had no part 
in forming. My Government considers these 
actions and the Netherlands failure to enter into 
bona fide negotiations since May of last year to be 
indicative of a reluctance to utilize the procedure 
for pacific settlement made available by the United 
Nations, and to be in conflict with both the spirit 
and letter of the Linggadjati and Renville 
agreements. 

From a purely pragmatic point of view it should 
be pointed out tliat the quick military successes of 
the Netherlands forces will not effect a solution 
of the Indonesian problem. The United States 
Government cannot associate itself with any aspect 
of the Netherlands military action. The use of 
force in this situation makes the solution of the 
problem far more complex and difficult. The 
problem remains a matter of international con- 
cern with which the Secm-ity Council must con- 
tinue to deal. It cannot be solved if we begin 
on the basis of acceptance of the fruits of the il- 
legal use of force. 

The Republic of Indonesia represents the largest 
single political factor in the projected federation 
and should therefore have a voice in the formation 
of the federation. The Republic has a two-fold 
natui-e. Firstly, it is a political entity and sec- 
ondly, it is the heart of Indonesian nationalism. 
This latter attribute cannot be eliminated by any 
amount of military force. The Netherlands 
Government may find that far from assuring law 
and order in the Indies the action they have em- 
barked upon may instead let loose forces of terror, 
chaos, and sabotage. It may well be that the only 
victory will be that of the forces of anarchy. 

My Government is of the opinion that real peace 
in Indonesia can be expected only if there is a 
settlement of the political issues on the basis of 
the principles and procedures agreed to by the par- 

January23, 1949 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND iFBCIAUZED AGENCIES 

ties in the Linggadjati and Renville agreements 
and under the auspices of United Nations ma- 
chinery. 

Tlie re.siwnsibility for the future rests in the first 
instance on tlie Netherlands authorities. The Se- 
curity Council has a right to assume that the Neth- 
erlands Government will in accordance with its 
obligations bring to an end its defiance of the Se- 
curity Council and give its full cooperation to- 
wards a fair and reasonable solution of the Indo- 
nesian question. 

My Government has over a substantial period 
of time devoted serious thought to the i)roblem 
and to its proper solution. Our views are con- 
tained in the plan, which our representative on 
the Good Offices Committee submitted to the two 
parties on September 10 of last year, and which 
was accepted by both of them as a basis for the 
resumption of negof iations. If Indonesian leaders 
were restored to their riglitful position as the re- 
sponsible representatives of the Republic of Indo- 
nesia, free to conduct the affairs of their Govern- 
ment and to negotiate freely with the Netherlands 
Government concerning the future of Indonesia, 
and if these two Governments could proceed to 
negotiate on the basis of this proposal in accord- 
ance with their earlier undertakings, this would be 
a notable contribution to the ultimate solution of 
the Indonesian problem. 

A first and fundamental step in this direction 
should be the fixing of a definite date for the 
holding of elections throughout all Indonesia 
with a view to establishing the foundations of the 
United States of Indonesia. Secondly, and also 
of fundamental importance, is the fixing of a firm 
date of the transfer of sovereignty from the King- 
dom of the Netherlands to the United States of 
Indonesia. 

The elections should be for the purpose of choos- 
ing an assembly to represent the people of In- 
donesia as a provisional legislature and at the 
same time as a constituent assembly for the pur- 
pose of drawing up a constitution. The elections 
should be held by secret ballot with all the safe- 
guards necessary to ensure a vote free from any 
coercion. Freedom of assembly, speech, and pub- 
lication must be guaranteed as provided in the 
Renville agreement. This program contemplates 
a termination of the type of military occupation 
of the country which has been brought about by 
Dutch military action. The withdrawal of the 
Dutch armies should commence at the earliest pos- 
sible date and as rapidly as the need for the preser- 
vation of law and order permits. The occupation 
must be completely terminated before an effective 
transfer of sovereignty could take place. 

My Government believes that the length of 
time which should elapse between the present and 
the date when elections should take place, and also 
the date of transfer of sovereignty, should be cal- 

93 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Ciliated in terms of months and not in terms of 
jears. As soon as elections have been held and a 
provisional regime set up, authority should be 
turned over progressively to the new regime by 
the Netherlands Government, and the transfer 
should have been completed by the time when 
sovereignty is assumed by the United States of 
Indonesia. 

As I have stated earlier, the problem of Indone- 
sia remains a matter of international concern with 
which the Security Council must continue to deal. 
The carrying out of the steps necessary for the 
ultimate transfer of the sovereignty of the United 
States of Indonesia should, we believe, be accom- 
plished under the auspices of the United Nations 
and with the help of the machinery it affords. 
The Good Offices Committee in its report of Jan- 
uary 7 has appropriately pointed out that it does 
nat wish to be put in a position of seeming to ap- 
prove by its participation or even its authentica- 
tion any settlement based on force rather than on 
true negotiation. The Good Offices Committee 
was created at the outset as an instrument to 
further free negotiations between the parties. 
The Dutch action has temporarily suspended the 
Qjmmittee's ability to carry out that function. 
But the Council's agencies in the field remain in 
existence ready to carry out any task assigned to 
them by the Security Council. No temporary 
suspension of the functioning of an agency of the 
Security Council can operate to remove an estab- 
lished interest of the United Nations in dealing 
with a situation to which the Security Council 
has already addressed itself. In this connection, 
it is necessary to call attention to the report of the 
Good Offices Committee which indicates that the 
Netherlands authorities took upon themselves the 
authority to question whether the military ob- 
servers were reporting to the Consular Commis- 
sion or the Good Offices Committee. This is not 
a cfuestion which concerns the Netherlands au- 
thorities. The Security Council can utilize any 
agency which it considers appropriate, and it is 
the obligation of a member of the United Nations 
to cooperate with any and all agencies operating 
imder Security Council instructions. 

It can not be denied that despite the efforts of 
some governments of states which are members 
of the Security Council, this body has not yet suc- 
ceeded in overcoming the obstacles which have 
been placed in the path of achieving a peaceful 
settlement in Indonesia. The responsibility of 
the Netherlands Government for this lack of suc- 
cess has already been made clear. Another ob- 
stacle has been created by the action of a member 
of the United Nations which has in many parts of 
the world sought to obstruct the successful op- 
eration of the United Nations. I refer to the 
Soviet Union.. 

When this question of Indonesia was being dis- 
cussed in the Security Council in Paris, the Soviet 
94 



Union, speaking both through its own representa- 
tive and through the Ukrainian representative, 
followed its familiar procedure of endeavoring to 
cloak its own improper actions by seeking to place 
the blame on someone else. The representative of 
the Soviet Union and the representative of the 
Ukraine both insinuated that the Government of 
the United States was in some way responsibile for 
the action of the Netherlands in resorting to hos- 
tilities against the Indonesian Republic. It thus 
becomes necessary to point out again certain salient 
facts. In the first place, it was the Government 
of the United States which took the initiative in 
convening an urgent meeting of the Security Coun- 
cil when it became apparent that the Dutch were 
resoi'ting to military action. It was the Soviet 
Government that prevented the Security Council 
from acting promptly by insisting that the Coimcil 
meeting should be deferred for three days. Every 
other member of the Council attended the meeting 
on December 20 except the two Soviet representa- 
tives. The United States also took the initiative, 
in conjunction with the representatives of Co- 
lombia and Syria, in proposing a resolution to the 
Security Council to deal with the situation, but 
the Soviet representative refused to support this 
resolution. He later tried to cover up this further 
attempt to prevent the Security Council from act- 
ing by introducing a resolution of his own which 
he knew could not be adopted by the Council. 

More fundamental, however, than these obstruc- 
tionist tactics in the Security Council is the fact 
that the Soviet Union is fundamentally opposed to 
the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and 
has itself through the Communist Party, which is, 
of course, its mouthpiece throughout the world, 
sought to undermine and overthrow this Govern- 
ment. No one doubts that the Communists in In- 
donesia like the Communists throughout the world 
are responsive to and act in accordance with in- 
structions from Moscow. The Communist revolt 
against the Government of President Sukarno 
and Premier Hatta was thus an effort on the part 
of the Soviet Government to overthrow the Indo- 
nesian Republic. Furthermore, when the resump- 
tion of hostilities by the Netherlands Government 
agiainst the Indonesian Republic took place, the 
official Communist line as printed in the Conmiu- 
nist press instead of deploring this action, openly 
gloated that this action was a punishment for the 
Government of President Sukarno and Premier 
Hatta who had successfully put down the Commu- 
nist revolt. The Communist line, which I again 
repeat means the line of the Soviet Government, 
accused that distinguished statesman of the Indo- 
nesian Republic, Dr. Hatta, of being a traitor to 
his country. At the very time when editorials 
were appearing to this effect in the Communist 
Party organ in Paris, the Soviet representative on 
the Council sought to cover up the actual policy 
of his Government by identifying himself with the 

Dopartment of State BuHetin 



Council's endeavors to ensure the release of Dr. 
Hatta and other political prisoners. These are 
the facts on the record which are known to the 
world and which reveal that the Soviet Govern- 
ment has no interest in supporting the Government 
of the Indonesian Republic or of restoring peace 
to Indonesia. On the contrary, it is following its 
familiar tactics which it has used in Korea, in 
Greece, and Berlin, and again now in Indonesia, 
and which have been described in the speeches of 
many delegates in the last session of the General 
Assembly, namely, seeking to overthrow a lawful 
democratic government and to undermine its au- 
thority. The Soviet Union does not want an in- 
dependent Indonesia. It wants an Indonesia 
under the domination and control of a Conmiunist 
minority taking its orders from Moscow. Any- 



THB UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

where in the world when a (Communist govern- 
ment climbs in through the window, independence 
is kicked out of the door. 

The CJiovernment of the United States on the 
contrary has viewed with admiration the efforts 
of the Indonesian people both in the Republic and 
elsewhere to gain their independence and has stead- 
fastly sought to support them. It still takes that 
position and it is for this reason that it has taken 
the lead in endeavoring in the Security Council 
and in the Good Offices Committee to bring about 
a peaceful adjustment of the difficulties between 
the Indonesian Republic and the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment and to establish the United States of 
Indonesia as one of the fully sovereign and in- 
dependent peoples of the world. 



I Significant Developments in the United Nations 



BY WILLARD L. THORP i 



Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



The notion of handling international problems 
through multilateral machinery is clearly a mod- 
ern concept. Traditionally, governments have 
done their business with each other on a bilateral 
basis, joining in groups only for the purpose of 
commitments for joint defense, for fighting non- 
local wars, and for agreeing upon peace arrange- 
ments. However, such military collaboration rep- 
resents a clear exception to the general rule. For 
centuries, the normal handling of problems 
among countries has been almost entirely by direct 
negotiation, one with another. 

The first venture of the United States into a 
multilateral arrangement was in 1865, when a 
group of 11 nations having shipping interests en- 
tered into a joint agreement with the Sultan of 
Morocco to build and maintain the Cape Spartel 
lighthouse in his territory at the southern entrance 
to the Straits of Gibraltar. It need hardly be said 
that this innovation in international affairs arose 
because the Sultan of that day, being without a 
naval or commercial marine, had no apparent in- 
terest in limiting the bounty of nature which 
reached his people in the form of sliipwrecks along 
his coast. We are still contributing about $1,000 
a year to this enterprise. 

Our first real venture into an international or- 
ganization was in 1874, when we joined the 
General Postal Union. Shortly thereafter, we 
joined the International Bureau of Weights and 
Measures, in Paris. In 1882 we subscribed to the 
Geneva convention of 1864 which established the 
Red Cross. By the turn of the century, we had 

January 23, 1949 



accepted about five other international conven- 
tions, all very specific and limited in purpose. 
One of the most ambitious early multilateral 

grojects was the invitation which Secretary of 
tate Blaine issued in 1888 to the Latin American 
countries to join the United States in a confer- 
ence "to consider measures for preserving the 
peace," the formation of a customs union, better 
communications, a common silver coin, and other 
uniform matters in the fields of weights and mea- 
sures, patents, and copyrights, etc. Although 
the recommendations of this conference were 
lai'gely nullified by the failure of the governments 
to take action, it did give rise to the forerunner 
of the Pan American Union. 

During the first forty years of the twentieth 
century, the area covered by such arrangements 
was only slowly and slightly extended so far as 
United States participation was concerned. The 
Leagiie of Nations was a great step forward in 
broadening the area for multilateral action, but 
except as observers, it gave us very little experi- 
ence in this method of carrying on international 
relations. 

It is still true that most international business 
is done on a bilateral basis. However, the last 
three years have seen the multilateral approach 
mushroom to significant proportions, not only sub- 
stituting for or supplementing the bilateral ap- 

' An address delivered before the Association of Ameri- 
can ColleKes In New York City on Jan. 11, 1949, and re- 
leased to the press on the same date. Mr. Thorp Is D. S. 
Representative on the Economic and Social Council. 

95 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPCCIALIZBD AGENCIES 

proacli, but also extending the area of interna- 
tional interest and responsibility. These three 
years constitute an extraordinary period of crea- 
tion of international machinery, a tremendous 
experiment in political and social engineering. 
Something new has been added in this world of 
ours, a world which obviously needed something 
new. 

It is all too easy to render a quick judgment on 
this new experiment, based upon its obvious diffi- 
culty in finding quick and final solutions to cer- 
tain so-called political problems. It is not my 
intention to discuss these situations, although we 
must not forget that some have been solved and 
others have been substantially contained by the 
existence and operations of the United Nations. 
To judge in this area, one would need to speculate 
as to the possible course of events if these same 
situations had been exposed only to secret pres- 
sures and alliances without any forum where po- 
sitions had to be taken publicly. 

But, at this moment I am not concerned with 
evaluating these particular incidents in terms of 
hypothetical history, but shall rather point out 
certain simple and basic facts about the new ex- 
periment which are less headline worthy but quite 
as significant. 

First, the fact of international organization 
as a going concern. There is the United Nations 
General Assembly with its three Councils, the 
Security Council, the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, and the Trusteeship Council. Reporting to 
them are many commissions, subcommissions, 
committees, and working groups. There are thir- 
teen specialized agencies in preparatory or final 
form, each with its many meetings of technicians 
and specialists. 

Last year at Lake Success, 2,398 meetings were 
held. At the Geneva office of the United Nations 
there were 1,837 meetings. There were well over a 
thousand meetings at other places, but at these two 
alone, on the basis of a 5-day week with no holi- 
days, the total represents an average of more 
than 16 meetings per day. To this must also be 
added the activity of international investigating 
groups. Merely in terms of exposure of national 
representatives one to the other, this great organ- 
ized effort represents a tremendous new factor in 
the world. 

The area of subject matter covered in these 
groups is also extraordinary. It may be a prob- 
lem concerning the allocation of coal in Europe, 
or the control of the opium trade, or the considera- 
tion of methods for dealing with floods in Asia, or 
the performance of some administering authority 
over an area under the trusteeship system. It 
includes the operating of a project to improve 
weather reporting, to feed starving children, to 
assist refugees to be repatriated, to stop a threat- 
enmg epidemic, and to survey the needs of an un- 
der-developed country. Debates go on for what 

96 



seems often an interminable period, but it is unfair 
to describe these organizations as mere debating 
societies. There has been tangible accomplish- 
ment of substantial proportions, with prospects 
for greatly increased effectiveness as the period of 
initial organization comes to an end. These are 
going and producing concerns. 

One unfortunate aspect of this picture has been 
the failure of the Soviet Union, and frequently of 
its satellites, to participate in many of these varied 
activities. Only recently the Soviet Union took 
the place reserved for it on the Trusteeship Coun- 
cil. Of all the new specialized agencies, it has 
joined only the World Health Organization. In 
large part, this would seem to derive from an un- 
fortunate phobia against disclosure and a desire 
to keep contact with the non-Soviet world to a 
minimum. It is most regrettable that the impor- 
tant fact of working together, with its correlary, 
the free exchange of information, is at its least 
effectiveness in connection with the difficult prob- 
lem of the relations of the Soviet Union with the 
rest of the world. Nevertheless, although uni- 
versal cooperation is of course the Charter's ideal, 
cooperation among forty to sixty countries, the 
usual membership of a specialized agency, must 
not be undervalued as an accomplishment of major 
significance. 

We in the United States are clearly playing our 
part. In fact, I think it is fair to say that the 
United States is the most active participant in the 
total effort. This cannot help but have its reper- 
cussions upon our understanding of, and position 
in, international matters. It also creates serious 
problems for us, problems of time, energy, and 
personnel; but that is another story. 

At the other end of the scale, we must recognize 
the rise of the small countries. They are partici- 
pating in international affairs as they never did or 
could before. And with the general principle 
being one country, one vote, they have a new 
importance in the family of nations. It is inter- 
esting that the group which recently undertook a 
special study of the Berlin currency problem con- 
sisted of Argentina, Belgimn, Canada, China, 
Colombia, and Syria. 

Carl Becker once wrote an essay in fiction form 
called "Spirit of 76"'. It was about a conserva- 
tive Dutchman in early New York named Jeremiah 
Winkoop, who was quite content with British rule. 
He would never have approved of the American 
revolution. But step by step, without any reali- 
zation of the distance which he was traveling, 
events caused his attitude to change almost im- 
perceptibly until he could make the final break 
without difficulty, and he found himself ready to 
fight for independence. This is an important 
social process, the evolution of attitudes by grad- 
ualness. International cooperation is going on in 
many fields and this process should make inter- 
national cooperation easier and easier over a wider 
and wider area. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Tliis same process of grndualness has meaning 
for those who talk of Western union. They 
should not be surprised that the distance is greater 
than can be leajit today. But economic union is 
developing, and defense union is developing. 
These countries are working together as they 
never have before. These are the steps which 
make the ultimate achievement possible. 

To return to the United Nations, these thou- 
sands of meetings, these problems which are solved 
through concerted effort, all strengthen the notion 
of international responsibility and international 
cooperation. This is a new element in tlie world 
of inteinational affairs. 

A second obvious fact, but also one worth noting, 
is the creation by the various governments of more 
or less permanent representation to the United 
Nations and, even more important, the develop- 
ment of an international civil service. All this 
is in such an early stage that it is impossible fully 
to judge its signfficance. However, it -does mean 
that a group of individuals of more than average 
competence are specifically assigned to making the 
new international machinerj* work. As to the per- 
manent representatives, anyone who has partici- 
pated in such activities knows that complete 
strangers make slow progress, and that as famili- 
arity develops, time and energy can be saved, and 
there is a somewhat greater possibility of accom- 
plishment. It is also exceedingly fortunate that 
most delegates seem to have some reluctance to 
give the same speech twice to the same audience. 
More important, these permanent representatives 
become contact points between the individual 
governments and the international organization 
which greatly increase the intimacy and effective- 
ness of the relationship. 

I should like to stress even more the develop- 
ment of the international civil service, consisting 
of individuals who have taken an oath of loyalty 
to their international occupation. There have 
been international secretariats before, but they 
have consisted mostly of technical specialists 
working in international organizations with little 
political significance. Even the League Secre- 
tariat, which was decidedly limited in size, took a 
somewhat passive role, except as it operated in 
some field of rather narrow specialization. 

The new international civil service, however, is 
on quite a different scale. At the end of the last 
fiscal year, the United Nations had about 3,500 
so-called permanent employees in Lake Success 
and Geneva, and many more located at other places. 
It also had a substantial group of temporary em- 
ployees varying from time to time according to 
need. The specialized agencies may have as many 
more on their combined staffs. 

These staffs have a most important role to play. 
It is becoming increasingly evident that it is a 
most wasteful process for government representa- 

JanuarY23, 1949 



THE UNfTEO NATIONS AND SPSCIAUZBD AGENCIES 

tives to meet and endeavor to deal with a problem 
de novo. In most instances, an analysis giving 
relevant facts and background and even suggested 
solutions can not only save time but lead to wiser 
results. The problems brought to the Economic 
and Social Council, for example, are more and 
more being referred to the secretariat for prelimi- 
nary exploration and analysis, and even for the 
preparation of tentative draft conventions or 
agreements. If the new machinery is to work, 
the .secretariat must take an increasing responsi- 
bility. Furthermore, and this applies particularly 
to the specialized agencies, the joint staffs must 
carry on the manifold operations between meetings 
of the appropriate governing body. 

Obviously, an international civil service cannot 
be built over night, and it is extraordinary that the 
various staffs are as good as they are. Neverthe- 
less, they must be strengthened. If we hope for 
quality results, we must provide quality people. 
Here, the competing demand throughout the world 
for the limited number of qualified and responsible 
individuals is tragically evident. There are not 
enough to supply the needs in private life, in gov- 
ernments themselves, and in the international field, 
but we can at least hope that the unsatisfied de- 
mand will tend to increase the supply. However, 
this fact is clear: There now exists a group of 
carefully selected persons, often with very high 
competence, pledged to devoting their best energies 
to making international cooperation work. This 
is a new element in the world of international 
affairs. 

In the United Nations Charter, the first purpose 
stated in chapter I, article 1, is to maintain the 
peace. With the development of global war, it 
is obvious that peace is fundamental to all pro- 
grams and plans for world betterment. But the 
San Francisco founding fathers did not stop there. 
They placed on the new organization other re- 
sponsibilities, one of which is "to achieve inter- 
national cooperation in solving international 
problems of an economic, social, cultural, or hu- 
manitarian character, and in promoting and en- 
couraging respect for human rights and for 
fundamental freedoms for all". With such a 
mandate, no organization can be reduced to routine 
or mechanical operation. It must live also in the 
world of ideas and ideals. 

I would be the last to argue that we have learned 
how to use time efficiently in international meet- 
ings. Coming from different backgrounds, in- 
cluding differences in parliamentary practice, we 
waste many hours in problems of procedure. We 
must also spend time on routine but nevertheless 
important matters like budgets, coordination, and 
the determination of priorities. In the earlier 
years, much time was spent on problems of organi- 
zation and jurisdiction. However, at least in the 
Economic and Social Council, more and more time 
is now being devoted to the discussion of ideas. 

97 



THB UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENCIES 

Last February, an analysis by the secretariat con- 
cerning tlie world economic situation touched off 
a discussion of such esoteric subjects in economic 
theory as capital formation, inflation, balances of 
payments, and index numbers. In the July meet- 
ing, although the necessary actions in the area of 
housekeeping were taken, there was even more 
discussion on the theoretical level. 

The greatest debates about ideas come in the 
debates about ideals. In all probability, the re- 
cent session of the General Assembly in Paris will 
be recorded in history because of its approval of 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 
That an overwhelming majority of the nations, 
with their different religions and cultures, could 
agree on such a document is indeed remarkable. 
Probably no government was fully satisfied with 
the Declaration in its final form. Certainly no 
country today is living up to the Declaration. But 
it is the composite view of the many individuals 
and governments who contributed to its formula- 
tion. It is a great docimient, deserving to be 
placed as a statement of man's high hopes with 
the Magna Carta, the Declaration of the Rights 
of Man in France, and our own Bill of Rights. 

It is somewhat misleading to single out any one 
article for comment, since so many are overlap- 
ping and supplementary to each other. Never- 
theless, I should like to call your attention to 
article 26 because of your responsibility in the 
field of education. This article reads as follows : 

Aeticle 26. 1. Everyone has the right to education. 
Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and 
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be com- 
pulsory. Technical and professional education shall be 
made generally available and higher education shall be 
equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 

2. Education shall be directed to the full development 
of the human personality and to the strengUiening of 
respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It 
shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship 
among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall 
further the activities of the United Nations for tie main- 
tenance of peace. 

3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of edu- 
cation that shall be given to their children. 

This is the final wording, reached after many 
weeks of discussion of this article by Committee 
3, the so-called Social and Humanitarian Com- 
mittee, and subsequently approved by the General 
Assembly in Paris. 

I might add that general provisions concern- 
ing nondiscrimination appear in article 2 of the 
Declaration and therefore were not repeated in 
article 20. Article 2 provides : 

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set 
forth in this declaration, without distinction of any 
kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, iwliti- 
cal or other oi)inion, nationul or social origin, property, 
birth or oUier statu.s. 

The Social Committee had before it a draft 
declaration which had been worked out over a 

98 



two-year period by the 15 members of the Human 
Rights Commission, on which Mrs. Roosevelt had 
been the American member and the chairman. 
The Social Committee was a committee of the 
whole, and therefore had 58 members. Despite 
the excellence of the original draft, the ^-eat in- 
terest of the representatives in this project was 
shown by the dozens of amendments which were 
proposed and the fact that the Committee de- 
voted 85 meetings to the Declaration before it was 
presented to the General Assembly for action. 
In the Assembly, 48 members voted for the Dec- 
laration, 9 abstained, and none voted against. 

As to article 26, some of the proposed amend- 
ments were primarily verbal in character, such as 
whether it would be better to say "to combat in- 
tolerance" rather than "to promote tolerance." 
One suggestion supported by several representa- 
tives was that the right of education should be 
granted in accordance with natural talents, merit, 
and the desire to utilize the resources wliich the 
state or the community could provide as well as 
the interests of individuals — a plug for vocational 
training. 

There was much debate as to whether the word 
"compulsory" could properly appear in a declara- 
tion of human rights, even when it applied to 
elementary education. There was also prolonged 
discussion as to the levels to which education 
should be free. The question of whether or not 
parents might choose the kind of education for 
their children also provoked debate, with one sug- 
gestion being so specific as to give parents the 
right "to determine the religious and spiritual 
atmosphere in which their children should be 
educated." Another delegate was concerned 
that the right to free education might not safe- 
guard the right to choose education in a private 
school. Another was concerned that the uncondi- 
tional compulsory requirement might be regarded 
as applying to adults if they had never had ele- 
mentary schooling in their youth. 

In all, 30 delegates took part in the debate on 
this single article. As j'ou would expect, the dis- 
cussion turned mostly around the three issues of 
the extent to which education should be free, the 
extent to which education should be compulsory, 
and the degree of authority which parents might 
exert. The important fact is that when the article 
as a whole was finally put to a vote, after many 
amendments had been voted on and some accepted 
and others rejected, there were no negative votes 
and only two abstentions. To you who are leaders 
in the field of education, and who may feel that 
the article is quite limited in its objective, remem- 
ber that this is an article to apply to every nation 
in the world. For the world, it is a great step 
forward. 

The Declaration of Human Rights is not bind- 
{Conthuicd oti page 117) 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



The Problem of Voting in tiie Security Council 



FOUR-POWER DRAFT RESOLUTION' 



Tlie General Assembly 

Huviiio; considered the report of its Interim 
Comniitlee upon the problem of voting in tlie Se- 
curity Council, and 

Exercising the authority conferred upon it by 
Article 10 of the Cliarler to discuss any question 
within the scope of the Charter or relating to the 
functions of any organ of the United Nations and 
to make recommendations to the Membere of the 
United Nations and to the Security Council 
thereon, 

1. Recommends to the members of the Security 
Council that, without prejudice to any other de- 
cisions which the Security Council may deem pro- 
cedural the decisions set forth in the attached 
Annex be deemed procedural and that the members 
of the Security Council conduct their business 
accordingly. 

2. Recommends to the permanent members of 
the Security Council that they seek agreement 
among themselves upon what possible decisions by 
the Security Council they might forbear to exer- 
cise their veto, when seven affirmative votes have 
already been cast in the Council, giving favourable 



consideration to the list of such decisions con- 
tained in Conclusion 2, Part IV of the Interim 
Committee's report. 

3. Recommends to the permanent members of 
the Security Council, in order to avoid impair- 
ment of the usefulness and prestige of the Security 
Council through excessive use of the veto. 

(a) To consult together wherever feasible upon 
important decisions to be taken by the Security 
Council. 

(b) To consult together wherever feasible before 
a vote is taken if tneir unanimity is essential to 
effective action by the Security Council. 

(c) If there is not unanimity, to exercise tha 
veto, only when they consider the question of vital 
importance, taking into account the interest of th» 
United Nations as a whole, and to state upon what 
ground they consider this condition to be present. 

4. Recommends to the Members of the United 
Nations that in agreements conferring functions 
on the Security Council such conditions of voting 
within this body be provided as would to the greaV 
est extent feasible exclude the application of the 
rule of unanimity of the permanent members. 



ANNEX 

{Decisions deemed procedural) 



Decision to postpone consideration of or voting 
on a recommendation of a State for membership 
until the next occasion for the consideration of 
applications. 

Submission to the General Assembly of any 
questions relating to the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. 

Request to the General Assembly that the Gen- 
eral Assembly make a recommendation on a dis- 
pute or situation in respect of which the Security 
Council is exercising the functions assigned to it 
in the Charter. 

Consent to notification by the Secretary-General 
to the General Assembly or Members of the United 
Nations of any matters relative to the maintenance 
of international peace and security which are be- 
in^ dealt with by the Security Council. 

Consent to notification by the Secretary-General 
to the General Assembly or to Members of the 
United Nations of any matters relative to the 
maintenance of international peace and security 
with which the Security Council ceases to deal. 

Request to the Secretary-General for the con- 
vocation of a special session of the General 
Assembly. 

January 23, J 949 



Approval of credentials of representatives of 
members of the Security Council. 

Approval of annual reports to the General 
Assembly. 

Submission and approval of special reports to 
the General Assembly. 

Organization of the Security Council in such 
manner as to enable it to function continuously. 

Arrangement of the holding of periodic 
meetings. 

Holding of meetings at places otlier than the 
seat of the United Nations. 

Establishment of such subsidiary organs as the 
Security Council deems necessary for the per- 
formance of its functions. 

Steps incidental to the establishment of a sub- 
sidiary organ: appointment of members, terms 
of reference, interpretation of terms of reference, 



" U.N. doc. A/AC.24/20, Nov. 26, 1948. Draft resolutlDn 
presented to the ad hoc Political Committee by China, 
France, the United Kingdom, and the United States and 
adopted by the Committee on Dec. 4. General Assembly 
action was deferred until the second part of the session. 

99 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPeCIALIZED AGENCIES 

reference of questions for study, approval of rules 
of procedure. However, the approval of the 
terms of reference of such subsidiary organs 
should require the unanimity of the permanent 
members if the subsidiary organ were given au- 
thority to take steps which, if taken by the Secu- 
rity Council, would be subject to the "veto", or 
if the conferring of such authority would consti- 
tute a non-procedural decision. 

Adoption of rules of procedure: 

Decisions to adopt rules of procedure and de- 
cisions in application of the provisional rules of 
procedure, not contained elsewhere in the list: 

( 1 ) Overruling of ruling of the President on a 
point of order (rule 30) . 

(2) Order of principal motions and draft reso- 
lutions (rule 32). 

(3) To suspend the meeting; to adjourn the 
meeting; to adjourn the meeting to a certain day 
or hour; to postpone discussion of the question 
to a certain day or indefinitely (rule 33). 

(4) Order in which amendments to motions or 
draft resolutions are to be voted upon (rule 36). 

(5) Request to members of the Secretariat or 
to otlier persons for information or for other as- 
sistance (rule 39). 

(6) Publication of documents in any language 
other than the official languages (rule 47). 

(7) To hold a meeting in private (rule 48). 

(8) To determine what records shall be kept 
of a private meeting (rule 51). 

(9) To approve important corrections to the 
records (rule 52). 

(10) To gi'ant access to the records of private 
meetings to authorized representatives of other 
Members of the United Nations (rule 56). 

(11) To determine which records and docu- 
ments shall be made available to other Members 
of the United Nations, which shall be made public, 
and which shall remain confidential (rule 57). 

Adoption of method of selecting the President. 

Participation without vote of Members of the 
United Nations not members of the Security Coun- 
cil in the discussion of any question brought be- 
fore the Security Council whenever the Security 
Council considers that the interests of those Mem- 
bers are specially affected. 

Invitation to a Member of the United Nations 
which is not a member of the Security Council or 
to any State which is not a Member of the United 
Nations to participate without vote in the discus- 
sion relating to a dispute to which it is a party. 

Enunciation of conditions for such participa- 



tion of a State which is not a Member of the 
United Nations. 

Decision whether a state not a Member of the 
United Nations has accepted the conditions 
deemed just by the Security Council for partici- 
pation under Article 32. 

Approval of credentials of representatives of 
States invited under Articles 31 and 32 of the 
Charter and rule 39 of the provisional rules of 
procedure. 

Decision to remind members of their obligations 
under the Charter. 

Establishment of procedures for the hearing of 
disputes or situations. 

Request for information on the progress or the 
results of resort to peaceful means of settlement. 

Deletion of a question from the list of questions 
of which the Security Council is seized. 

Decision to consider and discuss a dispute or a 
situation brought before the Security Council 
(adoption of the agenda). 

Decision whether a State not a Member of the 
United Nations has accepted, for the purposes of 
the dispute which it desires to bring to the atten- 
tion of the Security Council, the obligations of 
pacific settlement provided in the Charter. 

Invitation to a Member of the United Nations 
not a member of the Security Council to partici- 
pate in the decisions of the Security Council con- 
cerning the employment of contingents of that 
Member's armecl forces. 

Approval of rules of procedure and organiza- 
tion of the Military Staff Committee. 

Request for assistance from the Economic and 
Social Council. 

Decision to avail itself of the assistance of the 
Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of 
the United Nations under the Trusteeship System 
relating to political, economic, social and educa- 
tional matters in the strategic areas. 

Decision to dispense, on grounds of security, 
with the assistance of the Trusteeship Council. 

Request of the Security Council for the appoint- 
ment of a joint conference for the purpose of 
choosing one name for each vacant seat in the 
International Court. 

Fixation of a period within which those mem- 
bers of the Court who have already been elected 
shall proceed to fill the vacant seats by selection 
from among those candidates who have obtained 
votes either in the General Assembly or in the 
Security Council. 

Fixation of the date of the election to fill vacan- 
cies in the International Court. 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



study of Methods for the Promotion of International Cooperation 
In the Political Field 



RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED' 



The General Assembly. 

Mindful of its responsibilities, under Articles 13 
(i)ara<iraph 1 a), and 11 (paragraph 1), of the 
Cliarter, to promote international co-operation in 
the political field and to make recommendations 
with regai'd to the general principles of the main- 
tenance of international peace and security, and 

Noting tliat tlie efficacy of the General Act of 26 
September 19:28 for the pacific settlement of inter- 
national disputes is impaired by the fact that the 
organs of the League of Nations and the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice to which it 
refers have now disappeared, 

Noting that the amendments hereafter men- 
tioned are of a nature to restore to the General 
Act its original efficacy, 

Noting that these amendments will only apply 
as between States having acceded to the General 
Act as thus amended, and, as a consequence, will 
not affect the rights of such States, parties to the 
Act as established on 26 September 1928, as should 
claim to invoke it in so far as it might still be 
operative, 

/nstruets the Secretary-General to prepare 
a revised text of the General Act, including the 
amendments mentioned hereafter, and to hold it 
open to accession by States, under the title 
"Revised General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes" : 

AmendmenU to he made to the General Act of 
£6 September 1928 

(a) In article 6, the words "to the Acting Presi- 
dent of the Council of the League of Nations" 
shall be replaced by "to the President of the 
General Assembly of the United Nations, or, if the 
latter is not in session, to the last President". 

(b) In articles 9, 43 (paragraph 2), 44, 45 and 
47, the words "of the League of Nations", or the 
words "of the League", shall be replaced by "of 
the United Nations". 

(c) In articles 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 28, 30, 33, 34, 
36, 37 and 41, the words "Permanent Court of In- 
ternational Justice" shall be replaced by "Inter- 
national Court of Justice". 

(d) The text of article 42 shall be replaced by 
the following provision : 

"The present General Act shall bear the date . . . 
(date of the resolution of the General Assembly)." 

(e) The text of paragraph 1 of article 43 shall 
be replaced by the following provision : 

ian{iarY23, 1949 



"1. The present General Act shall be open to 
accession by the Members of the United Nations, 
by the non-member States which shall have become 
parties to the Statute of the International Court of 
Justice or to which the General As.semblv of the 
United Nations shall have connnunicated a copy 
for this purpose." 

( f ) In article 43 ( paragraph 3) , the words "The 
Secretary-General of the League of Nations" shall 
be replaced by "The Secretary-General of the 
United Nations", and the words "the Assembly of 
League of Nations" shall be replaced by "the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations". 

(g) The text of article 46 shall be replaced by 
the following provision : 

"A copy of the present General Act, signed by 
the President of the General Assembly and by the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations, shall be 
deposited in the archives of the Secretariat. A 
certified true copy shall be delivered by the Secre- 
tary-General to each of the Members of the United 
Nations, to the non-member States which shall 
have become parties to the Statute of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice and to those designated 
by the General Assembly of the United Nations." 

B 

The General Assembly, 

Mindful of its responsibilities, under Articles 
13 (paragraph la), and 11 (paragraph 1), of the 
Charter, to promote international co-operation in 
the political field and to make recommendations 
with regard to the general principles of the main- 
tenance of international peace and security, and in 
discharge of its functions under Article 10 of the 
Charter, 

Noting the experience of the League of Nations, 
which it has caused to be studied, whereby cases 
were presented to the Council of the League of 
Nations by a rapporteur who had the function of 
a conciliator, and that this practice allowed private 
conversations among the parties and the rappor- 
teur and avoided the crystallization of views that 
tend to result from taking a stated public position, 

Noting that the Security Council has already 
made use of a similar procedure, and 

Deeming it desirable that such a practice should 
be developed in the Security Council as an integral 
part of the system of pacific settlement and also 

'U.N. doc. A/AC.24/38, Dec. 10, 1948. Draft resolu- 
tions adopted by the ad hoc Political Committee on Dec. 
9, 1948. General Assembly action was deferred. 

101 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

as a means for the better preparation of cases 
presented to the Security Council, 

Becommends that the Security Council should 
examine the utility and desirability of adopting 
the following practice: 

After a situation or dispute has been brought 
to the attention of representatives on the Security 
Council, in accordance with rule 6 of the provi- 
sional rules of procedure of the Security Council 
and not later than immediately after the opening 
statements on behalf of the parties concerned, 

(a) The parties shall be invited to meet with 
the President of the Security Council ; 

(b) They shall attempt to agree upon a repre- 
sentative on the Security Council to act as rappor- 



teur or conciliator for the case. The representative 
so agreed upon may be the President or any other 
representative on the Council who will thereupon 
be appointed by the President to undertake the 
function of rapporteur or conciliator. The Pres- 
ident shall inform the Security Council whether a 
rapporteur or conciliator has been appointed ; 

(c) If a rapporteur or conciliator is appointed, 
it would be desirable for the Security Council to 
abstain from further action on the case for a rea- 
sonable interval during which actual efforts at 
conciliation are in progress; 

(d) The rapporteur or conciliator so agreed 
upon and appointed shall attempt to conciliate 
the situation or dispute, and shall in due course 
report to the Security Council. 



Meeting of Security Council Committee on Palestine 

■REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN' 



7 January 191)9 
Dear Sir: I have the honour to submit the 
following report of the Committee of the Security 
Council on the Palestinian Question. 

The Committee met at Lake Success at 10.30 
a.m. on Friday, 7 January 1949, pursuant to the 
Resolution of the Security Council of 29 Decem- 
ber 1948 (document S/1169) "to consider the 
situation in Southern Palestine and to report to 
the Council on the extent to which the Govern- 
ments concerned have by that date complied with 
the present resolution and with the resolutions of 
4 and 16 November". 

The Committee considered the Report of the 



Acting Mediator to the President of the Security 
Council on the Cease-Fire Agreement in the Negev 
(document S/1187) and heard Statements from 
the Acting Mediator and his Chief of Staff of 
Truce Supervision. The Committee also heard 
statements from the representatives of Egypt and 
Israel. 

After some discussion the Committee was of the 
opinion that no further action by it was required 
at the moment, and decided that the Chairman 
should so report to the Security Council, 

I have [etc.] 

Finn Moe 
Chairman of the Security Council 
Committee on the Palestinian Question 



RESOLUTION CALLING MEETING' 



Tlie Security Council, 

Having considered the report of the Acting 
Mediator (document S/1152) on the hostilities 
which broke out in Southern Palestine on the 
22. December, 

Calls upon the Governments concerned : 

CiS to order an immediate cease-fire ; 

(ii) to implement without further delay the 
resolution of the 4 November and the instructions 
issued by the Acting Mediator in accordance with 
paragraph 5 (1) of that resolution; and 

{\\\) to allow and facilitate the complete super- 
vision of the truce by the United Nations 
observers ; 

' U.N. doc. S/1191, Jan. 7, 1949. 
* UJJ. doc. S/1169, Dec. 29, 1948. 

102 



Instructs the Committee of the Council ap- 
pointed on the 4 November to meet at Lake Suc- 
cess on the 7 January to consider the situation 
in Southern Palestine and to report to the Council 
on the extent to which the Governments concerned 
have by that date complied with the present reso- 
lution and with the resolutions of 4 and 16 
November ; 

Invites Cuba and Norway to replace as from 1 
January the two retiring members of the Commit- 
tee (Belgium and Colombia) ; and 

Expresses the hope that the members of the 
Conciliation Commission appointed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly on the 11 December will nominate 
their representatives and establish the Commis- 
sion with as little delay as possible. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Security Council in 1948 



(Released to the press December 30 by the 
U.N. Department of Tubllc luformatlon] 

Completing its third year of existence, the Se- 
curity Council held 168 meetings in 194;8, of which 
11 were private. 

Of the total of 168 meetings, 128 were held at 
the Headquarters of the United Nations at Lake 
Success (tiie lust on 30 August) and 40 in Paris 
where the Council moved for the duration of the 
third session of the General Assembly. After the 
Assembly adjourned on 1-2 December, the Council, 
according to a previous decision, continued to 
meet in Paris until the end of the year. It will 
resume its work at Lake Success not earlier than 
on January 1949. The first meeting in Paris 
took place on 16 September, the last on 29 De- 
cember. 

The membership of the Security Council in 1948 
consisted of Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Colom- 
bia, Syria, and the Ukraine in addition to the 
five permanent members (China, France, the 
U.S.S.R., the U.K. and the U.S.) . On 1 January 
1948, Argentina, Canada, and the Ukraine re- 
placed Australia, Brazil, and Poland whose terra 
had expired. The term of office of Argentina, 
Canada, and the Ukraine expires on 31 December 
1949. 

On 1 January 1949, Cuba, Egypt, and Norway 
will replace Belgium, Colombia, and Syria. Tlie 
three new members have been elected for tAvo 
years. Egypt which had served on the Council 
in 1946 when, together with Mexico and the Nether- 
lands, it had been elected for one j'ear, has become 
the first nonpermanent member of the Security 
Council to be reelected to the Council. 

The first Council meeting in 1948 took place on 
6 January and was devoted to the Kashmir ques- 
tion, later known as the India-Pakistan question. 
In all, 35 Council meetings were taken up during 
the year with this matter. 

The related question of Hyderabad to which the 
first Council meeting in Paris on 16 September 
was devoted, occupied 4 meetings and the Council 
is scheduled to return to this question in January 
when it meets at Lake Success. 

A major part of the Council's time was devoted 
to the Palestine question. Taking up this ques- 
tion for the first time on 7 February, the Council 
held 70 meetings on Palestine. 

Another important question on the Council's 
agenda in 1948 was Indonesia, which had already 
occupied the Council at 22 meetings in 1947. The 
number of Council meetings on the Indonesian 
question in 1948 was 30. 

The question of the events in Czechoslovakia, 
brought up before the Council by Chile, occupied 

January 23, 1949 



12 meetings, the Berlin question 7, Trieste 7 (the 

auestion of the Governorship of Trieste was also 
iscussed at several private meetings of the Coun- 
cil), membership applications 7, the Third Report 
of the Atomic Energy Commi.ssiori 5, the election 
of judges to the International Court of Justice 2, 
anil the relationship between the Security Council 
and the Trusteeship Council with respect to the 
strategic trust areas also took 2 meetings. The 
question of Franco Spain was discussed at one 
meeting of the Council, but was not placed on the 
agenda as the majority of the Council considered 
tliat the situation had not changed in any way to 
warrant consideration by the Security Council. 

The list of matters with which the Security 
Council is still seized is as follows : 

1. The Iranian question (see S/988)^ 

2. Special agreements under article 43 and the 
organization of the Armed Forces made available 
to the Security Council ' (see S/988) 

3. Rules of procedure of the Security Council ' 
(see S/988) 

4. Statute and rules of procedure of the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee (see S/988)' 

5. The general regulation and reduction of 
armaments and information on Armed Forces of 
the United Nations' (see S/988) 

6. Appointment of a Governor of the Free Ter- 
ritory of Trieste (see S/988) 

7. The Egyptian question' (see S/988) 

8. The Indonesian question (see S/988 and 
S/1050) 

9. Voting procedure in the Security Council ' 
(see S/988) 

10. Procedure in application of articles 87 and 
88 of the Charter with regard to the Pacific Islands 
under strategic trusteeship of the United States 
of America (see S/988) 

11. Applications for membership (see S/988, 
S/1021, S/1037, and S/1063) 

12. The Palestinian question (see S/988, S/1010, 
S/1021, S/1029, S/1037, S/1050, S/1063, S/1072, 
S/1073, S/1083, and S/1091) 

13. The India-Pakistan question (see S/988, 
S/1010, and S/1091) 

14. The Czechoslovakian situation (see S/988) 

15. The question of the Free Territory of 
Trieste (see S/988, S/1063, and S/1072) 

16. The Hyderabad question (see S/1010, 
S/1020, and S/1091) 

17. Identic notifications of the Governments of 
the French Republic, the United States of America 
and the United Kingdom to the Secretary-General 
dated 29 September 1948 (see S/1029, S/1037, and 
S/1063). (Berlin question) 



' Not considered In 1948. 



103 



The United States in tlie United Nations 

[January 15-22, 1949] 

Indonesia 

At a meeting of the Security Council on Janu- 
ary 21, Deputy U. S. Representative Philip C. 
Jessup spoke in behalf of a draft resolution on 
Indonesia, presented jointly by China, Cuba, 
Norway, and the United States. Mr. Jessup em- 
phasized that the proposed resolution was the 
product of a series of consultations with members 
of the Council, and stated in the following words 
the premises on which he believed Security Council 
action must be based : 

"In the first place, we are convinced that there 
is no question but that the Council must continue 
to concern itself with the Indonesian question. 
We agree with the recent statement of the dis- 
tinguished representative of the United Kingdom 
that in the light of recent events we now have a 
situation in which the Security Council feels com- 
pelled to make recommendations. As matters 
stand, I think the majority of the members of the 
Council will agree that we have an obligation to 
continue our efforts to assist in arriving at a solu- 
tion as a whole. The time has passed for a piece- 
meal approach. 

"A second basic premise of ours is that there 
were and are two parties before us. Discussions 
concerning the legal inequality in their status have 
not at any point prevented the Council from deal- 
ing with them as parties. The fact that they both 
in good faith signed an agreement under the 
auspices of our own agency is sufficient, aside from 
any other consideration, to establish both as parties 
with interests with which we have and can 
legitimately concern ourselves as we have done 
hitherto. 

"As we understand the factual situation at the 
moment, however, it is necessary that the Council 
seek to re-establish the position of one of the 
parties to a point where it can resume bona fide 
negotiations with the other. Naturally, the 
Council could not accept a contention that the 
Government of the Republic is, in its present situ- 
ation, able to enter upon negotiations in any real 
sense of the word. Clearly it must be enabled 
freely to negotiate with the Netherlands and thus 
have a voice in the discussions of the future of 
Indonesia. 

"In the third place, we do not believe the Council 
can put its seal of approval on the results of the 
recent military action. We all know that the 
Dutch troops will have to be withdrawn if the 
ultimate goal of creating a sovereign United 
States of Indonesia is to be achieved. We do not 
understand that the Netherlands Government has 
any intention or desire to maintain its troops in 
occupation indefinitely. The problem before us is 
not whether the troops should be withdrawn ; the 

104 



real problem is the method and timing of with- 
drawal worked out in such a way as not to create 
other and perhaps even greater difficulties. 

"In solving a problem of this nature we all of 
us recognize that there are local conditions which 
must be taken into account. Practical matters 
such as the maintenance of order, the supply and 
delivery of food and other every day necessities 
are vital to the success of an operation of this 
character. For example, as the records of the 
Committee of Good Offices will show, the problems 
of providing for the well-being of local popula- 
tions require long and tedious efforts. The de- 
struction of a single railroad bridge, the burning 
of a single sugar refinery can mean that the popu- 
lation of a particular area is cut off from vital 
sources of supply. There may be many com- 
munities whose daily supply of rice depends on 
access to areas from which, for all we know, they 
are now completely cut off. Wliere a local popula- 
tion might have to depend on delivery of grain by 
oxcart, a blown out bridge can lead to the severest 
deprivation unless such factors are otherwise pro- 
vided for. We believe the only way they can be 
provided for is to approach the problem of with- 
drawal realistically and painstakingly. 

"If we overlook such factors as these, we are 
simply not living up to our primary responsibili- 
ties. According!}', we recognize that these fac- 
tors must be brought into balance after full 
consideration of each one of them. This balance 
is reflected in the preamble of our draft resolu- 
tion. . . . 

"We all recognize, Mr. President, that we have 
placed a heavy burden on the Commission in our 
draft resolution. We have not, on the other hand, 
sought to give it any power which the Council 
can not delegate. . . . 

"In the fourth place, we consider that the ne- 
gotiations should be assisted by an agency of this 
Council. Both parties have heretofore accepted 
such assistance; we assume they will continue to 
accept it. We believe, however, that 18 months' 
experience has shown that a goal must be set for 
the consummation of negotiations; a protraction 
of them will not serve the interests of either party. 
As the reports of the Committee of Good Offices 
will show, most of the basic issues have already 
been thoroughly explored. In some matters, there 
have been large areas of agreement. . . . 

"The parties have been negotiating, intermit- 
tently, over a period of three years. They have 
not yet arrived at an agreement on the political 
issues between them. It is clear to all of us, how- 
ever, that it is only through negotiation of these 
political issues that there can be a just and durable 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



settlement of the Indonesian question. Fortu- 
nately, the negotiations which have taken place 
so far have produced some measure of agreement 
on the really fundamental issues. There are cer- 
tain basic principles which have been incorporated 
in (lie Linggadjatti and the Renville agreements 
wliicli undoubtedly will ft)rm a part of any tinul 
settlement. Both of these instruments, for ex- 
ample, contemplate the creation and establishment 
of a federal, sovereign and independent United 
States of Indonesia. Both contemplate the inclu- 
sion of the liepublic as a state within the United 
States of Indonesia. Both contemplate a Union 
in which the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the 
United States of Indonesia will be ecpial [lartners. 

"In addition to the measure of agreement 
reached in these instruments, the parties have also 
explored, as the reports of the Committee of Good 
Oliices indicate, a considerable number of impor- 
tant issues regarding the interim period between 
the present and the transfer of sovereignty. We 
believe that future negotiations should take ad- 
vantage of the fact that much ground has already 
been covered and we have sought to reflect this in 
our joint draft. 

"Finally, I think we all realize that it is essential 
to any workable settlement in Indonesia that it be 
the result of agreement of those concerned ; we do 
not believe a political settlement sliould or could 
be successfully inifjosed b_v one of the parties or, 
for that matter, through outside intervention. We 
consider that not only must a final settlement be 
negotiated, but that, since a final settlement will 
necessarily affect the future of Indonesia as a 
whole, the negotiations must take into account the 
interests of all parts of Indonesia. For this rea- 
son, we believe the representatives of non-Repub- 
lican parts of Indonesia should have an oppor- 
tunity to participate in the negotiations. 

"The draft resolution as a whole is an effort to 
assist a settlement first by seeking to establish the 
conditions under which free and bona fide nego- 
tiations can take place; secondly, by allowing all 
concerned to reach whatever freely negotiated set- 
tlement they wish; thirdly, by preserving certain 
basic points of agreement already reached and, 
fourthly, by making certain provisions against the 
possibility of an impasse. Finally, the resolution 
provides a time schedule which, we believe, coi-- 
responds in all essentials to the achievement of the 
goals which both parties have again and again de- 
clared they desire to achieve." 

Palestine 

The United Nations Conciliation Commission 
for Palestine, which consists of the United States, 
France, and Turkey, held its first meeting in 
Geneva on January 17 and selected Jerusalem as 
its official headquarters, beginning on January 24. 
Huseyin Cahid Yalchin of Turkey was elected 

January 23, 1949 



chairman, though the chairmanship will rotate. 
France was represented by Claude de Boissanger. 
The United States was represented ex o-fjicio by 
John Carter Vincent, U.S. Minister to Switzerland, 
because of the last minute resignation of Joseph 
D. Keenan. 

Dr. R;ilphe Bunche, acting mediator for Pales- 
tine, has asked the Security Council to turn over 
the functions of the U.N. mediator to the Concilia- 
tion Commission, in accordance with the terms of 
the General Assembly resolution of last December. 
He cabled, "It is obviously desirable that the func- 
tions and responsibilities of the U.N. in its efforts 
to achieve a peaceful adjustment of the Palestine 
situation should be centralized in one organ to 
the greatest extent possible." 

Dr. Bunche at present is representing the United 
Nations in the Riiodes negotiations on an armistice 
between Egypt and Israel. He anticipates that 
these negotiations should be concluded — and he 
hopes successfully — within a matter of days. He 
further hopes that similar negotiations involving 
other Arab states will take place in the near future 
and has taken steps towards that end. 

International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development 

John J. McCloy, president of the International 
Bank, addressing the Foreign Policy Association 
at Minneapolis on January 19, stressed his belief 
that— 

"money itself never solves the whole problem. 
There are many steps to be taken, by both the 
givers and the receivers of the aid, if the money 
made available is to be fully effective." 

Countries receiving help in recovering from the 
effects of the war should, Mr. McCloy suggested, 
"avoid the tendency to rationalize the solution of 
all or most of their problems in terms of further 
action on the part of the grantor," make necessary 
adjustments in fiscal and economic affairs now 
or the adjustments will be "much more painful 
later," make "ever more sustained and intelligent 
effort in the direction of increasing productions 
[and] stimulating exports," take greater steps 
to reach the American market," and deal with in- 
flation through action that includes "imposition 
and enforcement of an appropriate system of 
taxes." 

The United States, Mr. McCloy suggested, might 
well supplement its financial aid by taking certain 
steps to help Europe reduce its dollar deficit. 
Specifically he proposed action to "stimulate im- 
ports into the United States," encouragement of 
"the efforts of other countries to limit their pur- 
chases in the United States to essential goods they 
cannot make themselves or procure from other 
sources," and stimulation of American private in- 
vestment abroad "by every means possible so that 
there will not be an undue protraction of the period 
of necessary intergovernmental financing." 

10S 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



ILO Permanent Migration Committee 

The State Department announced January 12 
that Mrs. Clara M. Beyer, Associate Director, 
Bureau of Labor Standards, Department of Labor, 
has been designated upon the nomination of the 
Secretary of Labor to represent the United States 
Government as delegate to the third session of the 
Permanent Migration Committee of the Inter- 
national Labor Organization (Ilo). The meet- 
ing is scheduled to be held at Geneva January 
13-23, 1949. Named to serve as advisers are: 
John Pattison Boyd, Deputy Commissioner, Im- 
migration and Naturalization Service, Depar1> 
ment of Justice; Arthur W. Motley, Assistant 
Director, Bureau of Employment Security, Fed- 
eral Security Agency; and Irwin M. Tobin, Di- 
vision of International Labor and Social Affairs, 
Department of State. 

The agenda for the session includes revisions of 
the migration for employment conventions and 
recommendations of 1939, formulation of prin- 
ciples concerning migrants for land settlement, 
discussion of the problem of migration within the 
man-power program of the Ilo, and the questions 
of the migration of specialists and exchange of 
trainees. 

The establishment of the Permanent Migration 
Committee was authorized at the eighty-ninth ses- 
sion of the Ilo Governing Body in February 1940. 
Its purpose is to formulate international stand- 
ards concerning working conditions for migrant 
workers. This work was begun at the Commit- 
tee's first session held at Montreal in August 1946 
and was continued at its second session at Geneva 
in February 1948. 

Preparatory Meeting on Telegrapli Regulations 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 10 that Edward M. Webster, Commissioner, 
Federal Communications Commission, has been 
named chairman of the United States Delegation 
to a preparatory meeting to discuss the form of 
international telegraph regulations, scheduled to 
open at Geneva on January 17, 1949. T. H. E. 
Nesbitt, Assistant Chief, Telecommunications Di- 
vision, Department of State, has been appointed 
vice chairman of the Delegation. Also appointed 
to serve as members are : 

Marion H. Woodward, Assistant Chief Engineer, Federal 
Communications Commission; 

William J. Norfleet, Chief Accountant, Federal Communi- 
cations Commission ; 

106 



Jack Werner, Assistant Chief, Common Carrier Division, 
Bureau of Law, Federal Communications Commission ; 

Ronald M. Ayer, Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State, secretary of the Delegation. 

Long Range Radio Navigation Aids 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 6 that the President approved the designation 
of John S. Cross, Assistant Chief, Telecommuni- 
cations Division, Department of State, as Chair- 
man of the United States Delegation to the Special 
Administrative Conference on Standard Loran 
{LOng Range RAdio A^avigation Aids). The 
President also named Capt. Donald E. McKay, 
USCG, Chief, Communications Division, Office of 
Operations, United States Coast Guard, Depart- 
ment of the Treasury, as Vice Chairman oi the 
Delegation. The conference will open in Geneva 
on January 17, 1949. 

Other members of the Delegation are : 

Wilfrid Dean, Jr., Radio Engineer, Office of the Chief 
of Naval Communications, Department of the Navy 

Capt. Lawrence M. Harding, USCG, Chief, Electronics 
Engineering Division, Headquarters, United States 
Coast Guard, Department of the Treasury 

Rear Adm. George Gordon McLintock, USMS, Superin- 
tendent, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, 
Long Island, N.Y. 

Marvin A. Price, Branch Chief, Engineering Department, 
Federal Communications Commission 

Eugene Sibley, Director of Airway Operations Service, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

Joe Lowery Stewart, Electronics Engineer (Radio) , United 
States Coast Guard Electronic Test Station, Wild- 
wood, N.J. 

Col. David Schlenker, USAF, Air Communication Officer, 
USAFE Headquarters, Wiesbaden, Germany 

Capt. Frank Virden, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval 
Operations, Department of the Navy 

Industry Adviser 

George Erskine Rice, Jr., Superintendent of Operations 
Training, American Overseas Airlines 

Secretary of the Delegation 

Ronald M. Ayer, Division of International Conferences, 

Department of State 

The Geneva conference is expected to provide 
for the extension of time for the use of the existing 
Northeast Atlantic Standard Loran system; it 
will work for measures to minimize harmful inter- 
ference from Loran transmissions to other services 
operating in the same or adjacent frequency bands ; 
and it is expected to evolve more efficient operating 
means. 

At the telecommunication conferences held at 

Department of State Bulletin 



Atlantic City from May to September 1947, a Fre- 
quency Allocation Table was agreed upon which 
proviued space for the operation of Standard 
Loran in the l,S()t)-2,000 kilocycle band in all 
regions of the worhl except Europe, Africa, and 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Repiiblics. A tenta- 
tive provision in the form of a footnote to the 
Frequency Allocation Table was made for con- 
tinuing l^tandard Loran in Europe, Africa, and 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics until July 
1, 1949, provided that, in the meantime, all prac- 
ticable measures were taken to minimize the harm- 
ful interference to other services operating in the 
same or adjacent frequency bands. Particular 
emphasis was given to narrowing the emitted 
bandwidth. This tentative clause also provided 
that if nine months before the said date at least 
three of the fifteen interested countries declared 
to the Secretary-General of Itu that they were 
of the opinion that other aids to radio navigation 
suitable for the northeast Atlantic area and de- 
signed for operation in frequency bands allocated 
under the Kadio Regulations of Atlantic City 
were not available or could not be made available 
by July 1, 1949, a special administrative confer- 
ence of the interested countries should be sum- 
moned to review the matter. A sufficient number 
of countries having indicated their desire to hold 
the conference, the Itu called the forthcoming 
meeting. 

The continued use of Standard Loran in the 
northeast Atlantic area is generally considered to 
be of greatest importance to all those countries 
navigating the north Atlantic seas and air routes. 

Inter-American Travel Conference 

The Department of State announced on January 
14 that George P. Shaw, United States Ambas- 
sador to Nicaragua, has been named Chairman of 
the United States Delegation to the Third Inter- 
American Travel Congress. The Congress, pre- 
viously slated to open at Buenos Aires last month, 
is now scheduled to be held February 15-24, 1949, 
at San Carlos de Bariloche in the Argentine Andes. 

Xamed to serve as delegates are : 

Clarence S. Gunther, Office of International Finance, 

Treasury Department : 
H. H. Kelly, Assistant Director, Office of Transport and 

Communications, Department of State; 
George Kniglit, Assistant I>>gal Adviser for Special Prob- 
lems, Department of State ; 
Ernest E. Salisbury, Operations Adviser, Immigration and 

Naturalization Bureau, Department of Justice; 
Robert H. Wall, Assistant Chief, United States Travel 

Division, National Park Service, Department of the 

Interior ; 
Herbert A. Wilkinson, Chief, Travel Branch, Department 

of Commerce; 
Eldward Maney, First Secretary, American Embassy, 

Buenos Aires, adviser of the Delegation. 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELORMENTS 

The Third Liter-American Travel Congress is 
one in a series of meetings held for the purpose of 
encouraging and promoting tourist travel through 
the Americas. Argentina, as host government, has 
extended invitations to participate in the Congress 
to the 21 American republics and Canada as well 
as to a number of national and international or- 
ganizations. 

The meeting will study an agenda which in- 
cludes, among other items, methods for facilitating 
travel, simplification of documents, reduction of 
costs, the extension and improvement of transpor- 
tation services, the Pan American Highway sys- 
tem and the promotion of inter- American automo- 
bile travel, the extension and improvement of 
hotels and other accommodations, and publicity 
and advertising. 

The First Inter- American Travel Congress was 
held at San Francisco in April 1939 under the 
auspices of the Golden Gate International Expo- 
sition and with the cooperation of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union. The Second Congress was held at 
Mexico City in September 1941. 



Second Meeting of IRO Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee of the International 
Refugee Organization held its second meeting in 
Rome from December 7 to December 11, 1948. 
All members of the Committee elected at the first 
session of the General Council of Iro were rep- 
resented at the meeting. The member govern- 
ments of the Executive Committee are Australia, 
Belgium, Canada, China, France, Norway, United 
Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela. The 
meetings of the Committee were held in the Pa- 
lazzo Venezia. 

The Committee conferred with the President of 
the Italian Republic and the Italian Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and was granted an audience by 
His Holiness Pope Pius XII. During its session, 
the Committee also visited the displaced persons' 
camps at Cine Citta in Rome and Bagnoli in 
Naples. The Committee considered in private 
session the reports of the Director-General on 
operations and finances and other matters of a 
routine nature. Because many of the delegates 
lacked instructions on the problem, the Committee 
was unable to take definitive action on the question 
of Iro financial participation in the movement of 
refugees to Palestine. Action on this question 
was deferred until the next meeting of the Com- 
mittee, which is to take place at Ottawa on Jan- 
uary 25, 1949. 



January 23, 1949 



107 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Excerpts From the President's Budget Message for 1950 * 



To the Congi^ess of the United States: 

I am transmitting my recommendations for the 
Biid<ret of the United States for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1950. 

Under the laws of our country, the Budget, 
when approved by the Congress, becomes the plan 
of action for the Federal Government. It thus 
embodies decisions of tremendous importance, 
particularly in these times, to the American peo- 
ple and to the entire world. The preparation of 
the Budget is one of the most important duties of 
the President. It represents a carefully prepared 
plan for carrying out the many activities and serv- 
ices of Government which the Congress has au- 
thorized, and others which I am recommending, 
in response to the needs and desires of the Ameri- 
can people. 

This is the fourth Budget prepared since the 
close of World War II. The character of the 
postwar world still presents many complex prob- 
lems and unanswered questions. This Budget is 
the clearest expression that can be given at this 
time to the program which the Government of the 
United States should follow in the world today. 

It is founded on the conviction that the United 
States must continue to exert strong, positive effort 
to achieve peace in the world and growing pros- 
perity at home. Substantial direct assistance is 
provided for other members of the family of na- 
tions, and expenditures in support of our armed 
forces are materially increased. Funds are in- 
cluded for the necessary strengthening of our econ- 
omy through the development and conservation of 
the Nation's productive resources. Increased 
emphasis is placed on the provision of badly needed 
measures to promote the education, health, and 
security of our people. 

To support this program, the Budget provides 
for expenditures of 41.9 billion dollars for the 
fiscal year 1950. about 1.7 billion dollars above the 
requirements for the present year. Under exist- 
ing law and with continuing high levels of eco- 
nomic activity, revenues for the fiscal year would 
be 41 billion dollars. This would result in an esti- 
mated deficit of 873 million dollars. 

In a period of high prosperity it is not sound 
public policy for the Government to operate at a 
deficit. A Government surplus at this time is 
vitally important to provide a margin for con- 
tingencies, to permit reduction of the public debt, 

'Presented to the Congress on Jan. 10, 1949, and re- 
leased to the press by the White House on the same date. 

108 



to provide an adequate base for the future financ- 
ing of our present commitments, and to reduce 
inflationary pressures. I am, therefore, recom- 
mending new tax legislation to raise revenues by 
4 billion dollars. Because of the normal lag in the 
collection of taxes, however, tax receipts in the 
fiscal year 1950 would be considerably less. 

The 1950 Budget, like all those since the end of 
the war, is dominated by our international and 
national defense programs. Together, they are 
expected to amount to 21 billion dollars, or half 
of all Budget expenditures. 

International affairs and finance account for 6.7 
billion dollars of expenditures in the fiscal year 
1950, compared with 7.2 billion dollars in 1949. 
Most of these funds will be spent as part of the 
strong economic support we are extending to the 
free nations of Western Europe, whose recovery 
is the key to continued independence and to safe- 
guarding freedom in many other parts of the 
world. Our investment in European recovery 
will repay us many times in terms of increased 
strength and improved organization for peace. 

But in existing circumstances, economic strength 
is not enough to assure continued independence 
to free peoples. Under the Charter of the United 
Nations, therefore, we have been discussing with 
some of the Western European countries meas- 
ures designed to increase the security of the North 
Atlantic area. To further this objective, I ex- 
pect later to request funds for providing military 
supplies to those countries and to certain other 
countries where the provision of such assistance is 
important to our national security. It is not pos- 
sible now to predict accurately what will be 
needed, and I have therefore included no allow- 
ance in the Budget. The fact that additional 
funds will be required to meet the demands of 
this program emphasizes even more strongly the 
need for increased revenues in the years ahead. 

While we believe that active participation in 
the work of the United Nations and support for 
the economic recovery and growing strength of 
free nations are the most important steps we can 
take toward peace, we must also maintain ade- 
quate national defense forces. In this Budget, 
expenditures for national defense are estimated 
to total 14.3 billion dollars in 1950, compared to 

11.8 billion dollars for 1949. New authorizations 
recommended for national defense in 1950 total 

15.9 billion dollars. Defense expenditures to 
maintain the present program are expected to be 

Depariment of State Bulletin 



I 



higher in 1951, as a result of expanding programs 
now under way and the large orders already placed 
for aircraft, ships, and other material and equip- 
ment, which will be delivered and paid for in the 
next few years. 

The military forces recommended in this Budget 
are the most powerful this Nation has ever main- 
tained in peacetime. The principal objective we 
should have in mind in planning for our national 
defense at this time is to buila a foundation of 
military strength which can be sustained for a 
period of years without excessive strain on our 
productive resources, and which will permit rapid 
expansion should the need arise. The recom- 
mendations in this Budget move toward this ob- 
jective. I believe that they will permit this 
Nation to maintain a proper military prepared- 
ness in the present uncertain period. 

The following sections describe in broad out- 
line the Government programs in each of the major 
functional areas and the principal changes pro- 
posed in this Budget. 

International Affairs and Finance 

Two world wars and the years between have 
convinced the people of the United States that 
their security and well-being depend on conditions 
of peace and stability in the world. The com- 
plexity of the international postwar recovery 
problem and the tensions which make the transi- 
tion to peace more difficult have deepened this 
conviction. 

The fundamental objective of United States 
foreign policy is to achieve world peace and inter- 
national security resting on the strength, mutual 
interests, and cooperation of free nations. The 
Budget reflects this policy in the funds provided 
for our participation in the United Nations and 
for the regular operations of the State Depart- 
ment and other agencies. But the instruments of 
our policy requiring the largest measure of budg- 
etary support are the extraordinary programs of 
economic and military aid to those nations and 
peoples who share our international objectives 
and our determination to make them effective. 
Through all these means, we are acting to 
strengthen the great moral force of freedom on 
which we believe the advancement of people 
everywhere depends. 

Total expenditures for international activities, 
exclusive of possible expenditures for a new pro- 
gram of providing military supplies to certain 
countries, are expected to be 6.7 oillion dollars in 
the fiscal year 1950 — a drop from the 7.2 billion 
dollars estimated for the fiscal year 1949. Ex- 
penditures for economic assistance may be ex- 
pected to decline in subsequent years with con- 
tinued progress toward world economic recovery. 
But any forward estimate of our international ex- 
January 23, 1949 



THE KBCORD Of THB WEEK 

penditures must be highly tentative in view of the 
present uncertain world situation. 

Reconstruction and military aid. — Our aid to 
European recovery is the major program of eco- 
nomic assistance in which we are now engaged. 
Begun in April 1948, this program is expected to 
result in 4.6 billion dollars of expenditures in the 
present fiscal year, and 4.5 billion dollars in the 
fiscal year 1950 — nearly 70 percent of our 1950 
expenditures for international activities. 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND FINANCE 
I Fiscal yeara. In mlllioiu] 



Reconstruction and milUarj/ aid: 

Economic Cooperation Act— ERP (existing 
and proposed legislation) 

other propated aid legislation 

Oreek-Turliish Aid (acts of 1947 and 1948) 

Export-Import Banl£ loans 

Treasury loan to the United Kingdom 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation 

Foreign relief: 

Army (occupied areas) 

Assistance to China (act of 1948) 

Other (mainlv under Foreign Aid Act, 
UNRR.\and post-UNRRA). 

Palestinian refugee program (proposed legisla- 
tion) _ 

Displaced Persons Commission 

Foreign relations: 

Department of State; 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation (mamly war damage 
claims) 

Other 

Philippine war damage and rehabilitation: 

War damage claims (Philippine War Damage 
Commission) 

Rehabilitation program 

Interest on deposits (Treasury) 

Participation in international organizations: 

International Refugee Organization.. 

Other present programs 

FAO building loan and ITO (proposed legisla- 
tion) 



Total. 



Expenditures 



1948 
actual 



SIM 



186 

460 

1,700 

4 

965 
1 

1,027 



144 
"6 



4,782 



1949 
esti- 
mated 



$4,600 



285 




1,265 
350 



185 



171 

17 



171 
51 
4 

73 
S3 



7,219 



1950 
esti- 
mated 



$4,500 
355 
136 
146 



-35 



1,030 
49 



171 
4 



165 
46 
3 

70 
67 



6,709 



1950 
net 
new 
ap- 
pro- 
prla- 

tlODS 



$4,300 
600 



1,000 



165 
4 
3 

70 
31 

8 



'6,349 



■ In addition, this Budget includes 17 million dollars of appropriations 
recommended to liquidate prior year contract authorizations. 

United States aid to western European countries 
and the mutual self-help which it has stimulated 
among them are already resulting in substantial 
progress toward economic recovery and political 
stability. The volume of production — both agri- 
cultural and industrial — is increasing as the 
months go by. This momentum must be main- 
tained if the European economy is to become inde- 
pendent of extraordinary outside assistance by 
the target date of July 1952. To meet this objec- 
tive, it is also extremely important for this Nation 
to undertake through such means as an extended 
and less restrictive reciprocal trade act, those ad- 
justments in our foreign trade pattern which will 
help to bring about a higher level and a better 
balance of world trade. 

Further authorizing legislation by the Congress 

109 



THE RECORD Of THE WBEK 

will be necessary before the end of the current 
fiscal year in order to carry the European recovery 
program forward without interruption. By the 
end of December, authorizations issued to the 
European countries for procurement had nearly 
reached the limit set by the presently available 
Economic Cooperation Administration funds. 
The bulk of the commodities involved will be 
shipped by the end of March. This Budget ac- 
cordingly anticipates a supplemental appropri- 
ation request for 1,250 million dollars for the 
remainder of the current fiscal year, in addition to 
the 4.3 billion dollar appropriation requested for 
the fiscal year 1950. 

1 recommend that, in extending the Economic 
Cooperation Act, the Congress eliminate the 
present legal requirement which in effect charges 
3 billion dollars of the fiscal year 1949 expendi- 
tures for European aid against the fiscal year 1948 
surplus. This wholly artificial bookkeeping shift 
in no way affects the Government's actual financial 
operations, but it does result in a distorted picture 
of the Budget surplus or deficit in these 2 years. 

I have already referred to the prospective North 
Atlantic arrangements, now under discussion. In 
addition, we are considering furnishing military 
supplies to certain countries in furtherance of our 
national security. As with the European re- 
covery program, military aid will call for a large 
measure of mutual aid and self-help among the 
participating countries. Because of present un- 
certainty as to cost and timing, no amounts are 
included for this program in the Budget. 

The scope and magnitude of several of our other 
current assistance programs cannot be accurately 
foreseen at this time. These now include aid to 
Greece, Turkey, China, and Korea. Funds are 
provided for assistance programs of this character 
in the Budget under "other proposed aid legisla- 
tion," with appropriations tentatively estimated 
at 600 million dollars and expenditures at 355 mil- 
lion dollars for the fiscal year 1950. I shall rec- 
ommend specific legislation and appropriations to 
the Congress at a later date. 

The Export-Import Bank will continue to make 
loans in fiscal year 1950 for promoting interna- 
tional trade and economic development, particu- 
larly in Latin America. Net expenditures of the 
Bank in the fiscal year 1950 are expected to be 
relatively low because of rising collections on 
earlier loans and because our aid to Europe is 
now financed almost entirely from Eca funds. 
Mainly because of a large Canadian repayment, 
the Bank is expected to show no net expenditures 
in the current fiscal year. 

Foreign relief. — Our principal foreign relief ac- 
tivities at the present time are those under the 
Army's program of government and relief in occu- 
pied areas — primarily Germany and Japan. Ten- 
tative estimates of about 1 billion dollars of 

110 



appropriations and expenditures for fiscal year 
1950 are included in this Budget — a substantial 
decline from 1949. These estimates include funds 
to continue the rehabilitation program now under 
way in Japan. With these additional sums for 
rehabilitation and with further Eca recovery aid 
for Germany in the next fiscal year, progress 
toward economic recovery in the occupied areas 
should continue, with a resulting further decline 
in expenditures in subsequent years. 

Foreign relations. — The principal change con- 
templated in the program of the Department of 
State is the planned expansion of information and 
education activities. Expenditures for Foreign 
Service buildings are expected to decline, so that 
total expenditures for foreign relations activities 
are expected to be about the same in the fiscal year 
1950 as in 1949. As part of our general program 
for improved Federal administi'ation, provision 
is made for increased flexibility in management 
for the Secretary of State through the consolida- 
tion of appropriations. Amounts are included in 
this Budget to cover the cost of proposed legisla- 
tion granting Foreign Service personnel pay 
raises similar to those given most employees under 
the Federal Employees Salary Act of 1948. 

I am requesting legislation authorizing the pay- 
ment of 17 million dollars in the fiscal year 1949 
for payment of war-damage claims of neutral 
European countries. 

Philippine aid. — Our assistance to the Philip- 
pine Republic in its recovery from war devasta- 
tion is now at a peak level. Total expenditures 
for rehabilitation and for payment of war-damage 
claims are expected to decline slightly in the fiscal 
year 1950 and to fall much more sharply in the 
fiscal year 1951. In our veterans' program we are 
continuing to give compensation to disabled Plul- 
ippine veterans who fought in our joint efforts 
against the Japanese. Provision for financing 
veterans' hospitals and medical services, author- 
ized by recent legislation, are included in the 
reserve for contingencies, pending the develop- 
ment with the Philippine Republic of detailed 
plans for carrying out this program. 

International organizations.— Onv contribution 
to the International Refugee Organization is esti- 
mated at 70 million dollars in the fiscal j-ear 1950, 
approximately the same as in 1949. With the ex- 
pected migration of refugees to the United States 
and other areas, the Iro program should be sub- 
stantially completed by June 30, 1950. It is my 
hope that the present Displaced Persons Act will 
be speedily stripped of its restrictive and dis- 
criminatory provisions in order that we may make 
a contribution to this program more worth}' of 
our best traditions. A tentative estimate of 16 
million dollars for the fiscal year 1949 is also in- 
cluded in this Budget for our contribution to the 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations' program of relief for Arab and 
otlicr refup;ees from Palestine. 

Outlays for our participation in other interna- 
tional organizations, including the United Nations, 
will continue in the fiscal year 1950 at about the 
sajue level as in 1949. A 1949 supplenu'iitul appro- 

})riation of G.") million dollars is included for the 
oan for the United Nations' headquarters con- 
struction. Tentative estimates are included in 
1950 for a loan to the Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization for construction of a. headquarters 
building, and for our contribution to tlie Inter- 
national Trade Organization. 

National Defense 

In my Budget Message for the fiscal j'ear 1949 
I indicated that in spite of the reduction of our 
armed services to a small fraction of their war- 
time strength, national defense still remained the 
largest single Government program. I further 
indicated that the funds recommended, about 11 
billion dollars, provided for only the minimum 
national defense requirements. 

Before the Congress could complete action on 
that Budget, the uncertainty of world conditions 
made it necessary to consider steps to develop 
additional military strength which would give 
evidence of continuing firmness in world affairs. 
Therefore, in an address to the Congress on March 
17, 1948, I recommended the prompt enactment 
of universal training legislation and the tempo- 
rary enactment of selective service legislation. 
Shortly thereafter, I recommended additional 
authorizations for national defense, bringing my 
total recommendations for fiscal year 1949 to more 
than 14.7 billion dollars. 

Since then I have given continued study to our 
national security requirements for the present and 
the future. For the time being it is essential to con- 
tinue the selective service process. However, this 
is not the solution to the Nation's long-range mili- 
tary manpower and training problem. Permanent 
legislation providing for univereal training is 
essential if we are to achieve an acceptable degree 
of national security. 

My Budget recommendations for national de- 
fense in the fiscal year 1950 are based on a plan 
for a national defense position of relative mili- 
tary readiness, coupled with a higher degree of 
mobilization preparedness. This type of military 
planning will permit us continuously to revise 
our tactics and develop our weapons to meet mod- 
ern conditions, but is clearly consistent with our 
traditional concept of military strength for pur- 
poses of defense. 

In arriving at my recommendations, I have had 
the benefit of the considered advice of civilian and 
military' leaders best qualified to evaluate the in- 
ternational, strategic, and economic aspects of our 
national defense requirements. I believe that 

January 23, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THE WtBK 

these recommendations reflect a proper relation- 
ship between our security requirements and our 
economic and financial resources, and envision an 
Army, Navy, and Air Force in a condition of rela- 
tive readiness, all functioning as an integrated 
team. Moreover, I am convinced that we should 
plan our military structure at this time so as to 
msure a balanced military program in the fore- 
seeable future at approximately the level recom- 
mended in this Budget. 

At the same time we must recognize that prepa- 
rations for defense must be flexible, and not rigid. 
They must reflect changes in the international 
situation, changes in technology and in the eco- 
nomic situation. We must be in a position to alter 
our military programs as circumstances change. 

The National Security Act of 1947 established 
an organizational framework better than we have 
ever had before and provided for a more flexible 
control and adjustment of our military program. 
The establishment of a Weapons Evaluation 
Board under the Secretary of Defense is an ex- 
ample of the type of development we are con- 
tinuously making to achieve the best possible as- 
sigimient of weapons and tasks among the militaiy 
services. However, we have had enough experi- 
ence under that act to recognize that further im- 
provements need to be made which cannot be ac- 
complished under existing law. Therefore, I 
expect to recommend certain changes in the Na- 
tional Security Act which will help to assure 
readjustments of our defense program as a whole 
and in all its parts as security requirements change. 

The recommendations for the National Military 
Establishment for the fiscal year 1950 mark a be- 
ginning toward a national defense program in 
which our air, naval, and land forces plan and 
operate as a team under a unified strategic concept. 
The 1950 program gives priority to air power and 
to strengthening the civilian reserve components, 
and continues to emphasize research and develop- 
ment and industrial mobilization. The Budget 
provides for maintaining the necessary occupation 
forces in the former enemy areas for which satis- 
factory international settlements have not yet been 
worked out. The Budget also provides substan- 
tial amounts to continue the materiel improve- 
ment programs for which large authorizations 
were enacted under the augmented fiscal year 1949 
Budget. Continuing expenditures will be neces- 
sary for an orderly replacement program in future 
years as existing inventories are used up and as 
materiel wears out or becomes obsolete. 

Expenditures by the National Military Estab- 
lishment for defense purposes in the fiscal year 
1950 are expected to amount to somewhat over 13.1 
billion dollars', including a tentative estimate of 
385 million dollars for programs for which new 
authorizing legislation will later be requested. 
The stockpiling of strategic materials and other 
activities supporting defense are expected to re- 
in 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

quire additional expenditures of about 530 million 
dollars. Furthermore, a tentative estimate of 600 
million dollars has been added for the first year 
cost of universal training. (Wlien in full opera- 
tion this program may require expenditures of 2 
billion dollars annually.) In total, the national 
defense budget I am recommending -will require 
estimated expenditures of slightly less than 14.3 
billion dollars in the fiscal year 1950, an increase 
of 2.5 billion dollars over the 1949 level. Some- 
what higher expenditures are likely in subsequent 
years. 

NATIONAL DEFENSE 
[Fiscal years. Id millions) 





Expenditures 


1950 


Program or agency 


1948 
actual 


1949 
esti- 
mated 


1950 
esti- 
mated 


Net 
new 
appro- 
pria- 
tions 


Other 

au- 
thori- 
zations 


National Military Kstahlishmcnt (ez- 
cluding payments under Armed 
Forces Leave Act): 
Pay and maintenance of military 
personnel: 
Pay and allowances of regular per- 
sonnel 


$3,655 
148 

1,192 
350 
534 
791 
271 
395 

3,318 


$3, 434 
168 

1,407 
590 
557 

1,157 
309 
286 

3,422 


$3, 601 
192 

1,359 
760 
505 

1,718 
406 
302 

3,908 

385 


$3, 596 

191 

1,488 

795 

534 

330 

5 

93 

4.317 

645 




Pay of retired personnel _ .. 




Subs'Stence, travel, and other 




Research and development 




Aircraft and related procurement 

Naval ship construction 

MiUtary public works construction. . 
Another .. 


$1,992 

■47 

20 


Tentative estimate for proposed 


185 










Subtotal, National Military 


10, 552 


11,330 


13, 136 

600 

525 

1 

-39 
45 


11,994 
800 
314 


' 2, 244 


Activities supporting defense: 
Universal training.. .. .._ 




Stockpiling of strategic and critical 
materitils (Treasury) 


99 

269 

-66 
70 


350 

14 

-42 
93 


211 


Payments under Armed Forces 
Leave Act 




Reconstruction Finance Corpora- 






Other... 


36 








Total 


10,924 


11,745 


14,268 


1 13, 144 


' 2, 455 







' In addition, the Budget includes 2,061 million dollars of appropriations 
recommended to liquidate prior contract authorizations and 75 million dollars 
to cover other prior year obligations. 

' In addition, 279 million dollars is being made immediately available in the 
fiscal year 1949 to cover increased cost of completing authorized naval ship 
construction program. 

Net new appropriations and other authoriza- 
tions specifically recommended in this Budget for 
the National "Military Establishment in the 
fiscal year 1950 are 13.7 billion dollars. This 
total, however, includes an upward adjustment 
of 279 million dollars for increased cost of the 
naval ship construction programs authorized in 
1949 and prior years. In addition, 830 million 
dollars is provided as a tentative estimate for addi- 
tional public workSj for military pay adjustments, 
and for other special programs, dependent upon 
the passage of necessary enabling legislation. In 
all, 14.5 billion dollars of new obligational author- 
ity is provided for the National Military Estab- 
lishment for use in the fiscal year 1950, an increase 

112 



of 700 million dollars over amounts' enacted for the 
fiscal year 1949. 

Of the 13.7 billion dollars of specific recommen- 
dations for new obligational authority for the Na^ 
tional Military Establishment, 11 million dollars 
is requested for the Office of the Secretary of De- 
fense, 4.6 billion dollars for the Air Force, 4.5 
billion dollars for the Army, and 4.6 billion dollars 
for the Navy, counting the upward adjustment 
for ship construction costs' mentioned above. 

In addition to the new obligational authority for 
the National Military Establishment, this Budget 
includes 525 million dollars of new authority for 
procurement of critical and strategic materials, 36 
million dollars for other defense-supporting ac- 
tivities, and a tentative appropriation estimate of 
800 million dollars for the inauguration of uni- 
versal training. 

In all, new obligational authority for national 
defense programs of nearly 15.9 billion dollars is 
included in this Budget. This compares with 14.7 
billion dollars for the fiscal year 1949, including 
2.9 billion dollars made available in 1948, and also 
including tentative supplemental authorizations 
of 341 million dollars chiefly for stockpiling. 

Of the 15.9 billion dollars, 13.2 billion dollars 
is requested in the form of appropriations and 2.7 
billion dollars in contract authorizations. In addi- 
tion, appropriations of 2.1 billion dollars are re- 
quested to liquidate prior year contract authori- 
zations. 

Military strength — Siumnary. — The require- 
ments of the various services have been determined, 
not separately, but in relation to our total security 
position and the degree of military readiness which 
is planned. The basic concept upon which my 
recommendations are based is that this Nation s 
military security should rest on a nucleus of highly 
trained and mobile forces — Army, Navy, and 
Air — backed by ready reserves of trained men, 
stand-by equipment and productive facilities, and 
an integrated mobilization plan which relates our 
national security requirements to the tremendous 
productive capacity of American industry. Taken 
as a whole, the amounts recommended in this 
Budget will permit the maintenance and operation 
in the fiscal year 1950 of the augmented defense 
forces now reached under the increased 1949 
Budget program. 

Under this Budget, the Air Force in fiscal year 
1950 will continue at about the present strength 
of 412,000 officers and men on active duty. It 
is contemplated that the Air Force will be organ- 
ized with a minimum of about 48 combat groups 
and 10 squadrons, together with 27 groups of the 
Air National Guard. Within the limit of the 
funds provided, it is possible that adjustments in 
unit structure or strategic planning may at any 
time require changes in the number of active 
groups. At the end of fiscal year 1950, the Air 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Force program contemplates an active inventory 
of 9,200 aircraft of all types from trainers to 
heavy bombers. Increased funds in the Budget 
will permit the build-uj) of supporting forces in 
the Air National Guard to an average of 45,000 
personnel and in the xVir Force Reserve to 68,000 
personnel in regular training status. 

Personnel in the Army will be continued at 
677,000 ofhcers and men in order to maintain 10 
divisions at increased strengths, together with 59 
battalions. The active Army will bo backed by 
the National Guard with an average strength of 
325,000 personnel, an Organized Reserve of 230,- 
000 in regular training status, as well as by other 
reserve personnel and equipment. Continuing 
responsibilities in the occui)ation of Germany, 
Austria, and Japan and in manning outlying bases 
will engage about 40 percent of the Army strength 
overseas in fiscal year 1950. 

MILIT.\RY STRENOTH 
[In thousands] 





Regulars and Re- 
serves on full-time 
active duty 


Reserves In 

regular 
training 
status 


Other Re- 
serves 




Apr. 
1,1948 


1% a- 


Dec. 
1,1948 
(est.) 


1950 
aver- 
age 
(est.) 


Doc. 
1, 194S 
(est.) 


1950 
aver- 
age 
(est.) 


Air Force 


368 
638 
488 


411 

662 
531 


412 

677 
527 


68 
375 
222 


113 

555 
281 


400 
650 
900 


400 


Army 


650 


Navy and Marine Corps 


1,050 


Total 


1,394 


1,604 


1,616 


666 


949 


1,960 


2,100 





Note. — The recommended strengths for all the services include 18-year-old 
1-year enlistees and other personnel in training but exclude cadets and mid- 
shipmen at the Military and Naval Academies. 

In the naval and marine forces a strength of 
527,000 officers and men throughout tlie fiscal year 
1950 is provided. The size of the active naval 
fleet is planned to be 731 ships, including 288 
combatant ships. Its composition will be changed 
somewhat from the present fleet to accord with 
assigned functions and presently foreseen defense 
requirements. The active inventory of regular 
Nav^y and Marine Corps aircraft is expected to 
be 7,450 in the fiscal year 1950. 

Under the reserve programs of the Navy and 
Marine Corps, 281,000 officers and men will be 
trained in 1950. Stand-by ships and materiel to 
augment the active Navy will remain available if 
needed. 

Although present recruiting rates indicate that 
onlj' small inductions, if any, will be necessary 
under Selective Service, it is essential that such 
authority remain available in the event that vol- 
mitary enlistments drop. Moreover, it must be 
recognized that the existence of the Selective 
Service Act has in itself been a contributing factor 

January 23, 1949 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 

to the current results of the recruiting programs 
of the services. 



Stockpiling and other defense activities. — The 
aim of the stock-piling program is to provide a 
basic reserve of materials in which accessible re- 
sources are deficient, thereby permitting a rapid 
and sustained economic mobilization in the event 
of emergency. Stockpile procurement continues 
to bo hampered by materials shortages and rising 
prices, since it must meet the competition of cur- 
rent industrial consumption, including that for 
military purposes. However, the concentration of 
procurement on tlie more urgently required ma- 
terials should permit us to make substantial prog- 
ress toward our goal of a reasonably adequate 
stockpile with minimum eflPect on current con- 
sumption. 

Toward the stockpile goal, this Budget recom- 
mends 525 million dollars of new obligational au- 
thority for the fiscal year 1950 and supplemental 
authorizations of 310 million dollars for the pres- 
ent fiscal year. Of these amounts 211 million 
dollars for 1950 and 270 million dollars for 1949 
are in contract authorizations to be used primarily 
for developmental contracts. A total of 800 mil- 
lion dollars in obligational authority has already 
been enacted in the last 3 years. In addition, by 
the end of fiscal year 1950, materials valued at 
about 700 million dollars will have been trans- 
ferred to the stockpile from war surplus inven- 
tories and from Economic Cooperation Admin- 
istration operations. Of the total stockpile 
objective of 3.7 billion dollars, materials and 
authorizations amounting to 2.3 billion dollars 
will have been provided. 

Deliveries and expenditures, of course, will lag 
behind authorizations. Expenditures in the fiscal 
year 1950 are estimated at 525 million dollars, an 
increase of 175 million dollars in outlays over the 
current year. By the end of the fiscal year 1950, 
materials valued at about 1.6 billion dollars are 
expected to be on hand. 

The stockpile represents an addition to the sup- 
plies obtainable in an emergency from domestic 
production and imports from protected sources. 
The recommended authorizations will permit the 
stockpile to be built up to the point at which, with 
the aid of prompt and efl'ective allocations, a com- 
paratively high degree of protection will be af- 
forded to our economy in the event of emergency. 

Expenditures for all other defense programs, 
including expenses of the Selective Service System, 
maintenance of reserve industrial plants by the 
Federal Works Agency, and by other agencies, are 
estimated at 46 million dollars in the fiscal year 
1950. On the other hand, net receipts of 39 mil- 
lion dollars are estimated in the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation defense program. 



113 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Wheat Agreement. — If the International Wheat 
Agreement is successfully renegotiated, I shall 
recommend its ratification and the enactment of 
the necessary legislation to fulfill its provisions. 
Under this proposal, the principal exporting and 
importing countries would guarantee over a period 
of years an annual trade of a large volume of 
wheat within an agreed-upon price range. Thus, 
the Agreement would provide an orderly solution 
of some of the problems of international trade over 
the next few years without the demoralizing effect 
of unilateral action by governments acting inde- 
pendently. Approximately 56 million dollars is 
allowed in this Budget to cover the probable loss 
to the Commodity Credit Corporation in bridging 
the gap between the price of wheat for the farmer 
under the price support program and the price 
at which wheat is made available to foreign pur- 
chasers under the Agreement. Costs are expected 
to be less in later years and will be more than 



balanced by benefits to farmers and to the Nation 
in terms of greater stabilization of world trade. 

Atomic energy. — To an increasing extent our 
national welfare and security are linked to our 
atomic energy program. We must continue to add 
to our knowledge of this resource and move ahead 
with practical development. Special emphasis is 
given to the development of nuclear reactors as 
an eventual means for converting atomic energy 
into electricity and into power for propulsion of 
ships and airplanes. 

The 1950 Budget provides increased funds for 
the production of fissionable materials and the 
development of the science and technology of 
atomic energy. The present high costs of rapidly 
accomplishing these purposes must be balanced 
against the ultimate and far greater costs of fail- 
ure to move ahead vigorously in this field. 



India and Pakistan Accept Principles for Plebiscite 

MESSAGE FROM U.S. EXPRESSING GRATIFICATION 



[Released to the press January 5] 

The following message was transmitted on Janu- 
ary 5 directly to the Prvme Ministers of India and 
Pakistan 

January 4, 19Jf9 

It was extremely gratifying to learn of the ac- 
ceptance by your Government and by the Govern- 
ment of Pakistan (India) of the principles per- 
taining to a plebiscite in the State of Jammu and 
Kashmir proposed on December 11, 1948 by the 
United Nations Commission for India and Pak- 
istan as supplementary to the cease-fire and ti'uce 
arrangements contained in its Kesolution of 
August 13, 1948. It is believed that a sound basis 
has now been established for a final and fair set- 
tlement of the Kaslimir dispute. I wish also to 



express what must be general acclaim for the ac- 
tion of the Indian and Pakistan Governments in 
so promptly effecting a cease-fire in Kashmir 
without awaiting formal action by the 
Commission. 

Apart from the happy prospect for an early and 
friendly settlement of India-Pakistan differences, 
permitting your country and Pakistan (India) to 
direct their full energies toward constructive pro- 
grams of social and economic development, it is 
my feeling that the recent action of your Govern- 
ment will serve also as a demonstration to the 
world of how progress can be acliieved in the set- 
tlement of international disputes by peaceful 
means. 

KOBEET A. LOVETT, 

Acting Secretary of iState 



REPLIES FROM THE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN 



[Released to the press January 12] 

The following telegrams have been received by 
the Acting Secretary in reply to his message to the 
Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan expressing 
gratification on the acceptance by their Govern- 
ments of the principles pertaining to a plebiscite 
in Jammu and Kashmir proposed by the United 
Nations Conunission on India and Pakistan. 

From Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India 

I thank you for your message dated 4th January 

which my colleagues and I greatly appreciate. 

114 



India is happy to have given fresh proof of its 
steadfast desire for peaceful solution of dispute 
between member nations of the United Nations 
through recognized agencies of that organization. 
I share your hope that the cease-fire in Kashmir 
may create atmosphere of greater friendship and 
good will between India and Pakistan and thus fa- 
cilitate solution not only of difficult Kaslimir issue 
but close and lasting cooperation in all matters 
of common interest and in particular in promotion 
of world peace. 

Department of State Bulletin 



From, Liaqttat Ali Khan, Prime Minister of 
Fakistnn 

My colleague and I are deeply touched by your 
message dated 4 January, 1949 in which you have 
expressed your appreciation of fact that both 
India and Pakistan have accepted Uncip (United 
Nations Commission on India and Pakistan) pro- 



THi RECORD Of JH£ WEEK 

posal of 11 December and have promptly effected 
cease-fire without awaiting formal action by com- 
mission. Our desire for peaceful and just solution 
of Kaslimir disjiute has tnroughout been very firm 
and constant. We have pinned our faith all along 
in democratic method of free and impartial plebis- 
cite to determine whether Jammu and Kashmir 
should accede to Pakistan or to India. 



U. S. and Canada To Study Air Pollution on Detroit River 



TERMS OF REFERENCE ESTABLISHED 



[Released to the press January 12] 

The Governments of the United States and 
Canada have agreed upon terms of reference which 
were transmitted Januaiy 12 to the United States 
and Canadian Sections of the International Joint 
Commission, requesting them to investigate com- 

glaints that vessels passing through the Detroit 
liver and shore installations along the boundary 
are polluting the air in cities in the United States 
and in Canada by the discharge of smoke, soot, 
and fly ash in quantities sufficient to be detrimen- 



tal to the public health, safety, and general welfare 
of the citizens. 

The reference, which is made under the provi- 
sions of article IX of the boundary waters treaty 
signed January 11, 1909, asks the Commission to 
conduct inquiries and to report to the two Govern- 
ments upon certain questions and calls for recom- 
mendations as to remedial or preventive works 
which may be considered necessary to prevent pol- 
lution of the air in the vicinity of the international 
boundary. 



LETTER TO THE INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION 



January 12, IQlfi 
Sirs : I have the honor to inform you that repre- 
sentations have been made to the Governments 
of the United States and Canada to the effect that 
the air in the vicinity of the cities of Detroit and 
Windsor on both sides of the international bound- 
ary in the area of the Detroit River, is being pol- 
luted by the discharge of smoke, soot and fly ash, 
in quantities sufficient to be detrimental to the 
public health, safety and general welfare of the 
citizens of both countries in this area. It has 
further been represented to the two Governments 
that vessels passing through the Detroit River 
are a source of this pollution. Pursuant to the 
provisions of Article IX of the Boundary Waters 
Treaty, signed January 11th, 1909, the two Gov- 
ernments have agreed to a joint reference of this 
matter to the International Joint Commission. 
The Commission is requested to enquire into, and 
to report to the two Governments upon, the fol- 
lowing questions : 

1. Is the air over, and in the vicinity of, the 
cities of Detroit and Windsor, on either side of 
the international boundary, being polluted by 
smoke, soot, fly ash or other impurities, in quanti- 
ties detrimental to the public health, safety or 
general welfare of the citizens, or to property in- 
terests on either side of the international boundary 
line? 

2. If the foregoing question, or any part there- 
of, is answered in the affirmative, to what extent 

Jonoory 23, 1949 



are vessels plying the waters of the Detroit River, 
or any of them, contributing to this pollution; 
what other major factors are responsible and to 
what extent ? 

3. If the Commission should find that vessels 
plying the waters of the Detroit River, or any of 
them, are responsible for air pollution to an extent 
detrimental to the public health, safety or general 
welfare of the citizens, or to the property interests 
on either side of the international boundary line, 

(a) what preventive or remedial measures 
would, in its judgment, be most practical from 
the economic, sanitary and other points of view? 

(b) what would be the probable cost of such 
measures ? 

(c) by whom should cost be borne ? 

For the purpose of assisting the Commission in 
making the investigations and recommendations 
provided for in this reference, the two Govern- 
ments, upon request, will make available to the 
Commission the services of engineers and otlier 
specially qualified personnel of their respective 
Governments, and such information and techni- 
cal data as may have been acquired by such Gov- 
ernments or as may be acquired by them during 
the course of the investigation. 

The Commission should submit its report and 
recommendations to the two Governments as soon 
as practicable. 

Very truly yours, 

R. A. LOVETT 

lis 



Agreement With and Payment to Italy 
for Prisoners of War 

[Released to the press January 14] 

The United States Embassy at Rome has in- 
formed the Department of State that a $22,000,000 
payment was made by it on January 14 to the 
Government of Italy in settlement of obligations 
owed to former Italian prisoners of war under the 
terms of the Geneva prisoners of war convention 
of 1929. This payment was made following the 
signing of an agreement today between the two 
Governments effecting a full and final discharge 
of claims against the United States of this nature 
as was contemplated at the time of the signing of 
the agreements between the United States and 
Italy of August 14, 1947. Prior to the signing of 
the present agreement, payments for such obliga- 
tions were made to former Italian prisoners of war 
on an individual basis. Hereafter, the Italian 
Government will discharge such claims on behalf 
of the United States. 

The agreement was signed for the United States 
by Ambassador James Clement Dunn and for the 
Italian Government by Foreign Minister Count 
Carlo Sforza and Finance Minister Giuseppe 
Pella. The signature ceremony was attended by 
Ivan Matteo Lombardo, Minister of Commerce 
and Industry; Randolfo Pacciardi, Minister of 
Defense; repi-esentatives of the United States 
Army and members of the United States Embassy 
staff. 



Bids Invited for Surplus War Scrap 

[Released to the press January 14] 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 14 that its Foreign Liquidation Commissioner 
has called for bids on several thousand tons of 
surplus war scrap located in the Marshall Islands, 
which must be reimported into the United States 
by the pui'chaser. 

The Commissioner, Maj. Gen. Clyde L. Hys- 
song, stated that all bids must be received by his 
office not later than 5 p.m., March 14, 1949. De- 
tails of the scrap items available may be obtained 
by communicating directly with : Office of the 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, Temporary 
"R" Building, Room 1720, 4th and Jefferson 
Drive, S.W., Washington 2.5, D.C. 

The scrap, which consists of ferrous, non- 
ferrous, and other types of scrap, is located on the 
following islands: Kwajalein, Roi, Namur, Ebeye, 
and Majoru, all in the Marshall Islands. 

Successful bidders will be required to warrant 
that all scrap purchased must be shipped to the 

' Bulletin of Mar. 7, 1948, p. 317. 
116 



United States as scrap for use in the domestic 
economy. All sales will be on the usual "where-is, 
as-is" basis and removals must be made by the 
purchaser. As no guarantee or warranty is possi- 
ble, other than to title, the Foreign Liquidation 
Commissioner urges that inspections of the scrap 
be made before bids are submitted. 

To facilitate such inspections, the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner has planned two in- 
spection tours for prospective purchasers, as fol- 
lows: 

1. For purchasers from east of the Marshall 
Islands, with departure from Honolulu for 
Kwajalein scheduled on or about February 10, 
subject to availability of militai'y air transporta- 
tion. Anticipated return to Honolulu is about 
February 16. 

2. For purchasers from west of the Marshall 
Islands, with departure from Guam scheduled 
for about February 20, subject to same availability 
of air transport. Return to Guam will be about 
February 26. 

Expenses of the trips must be borne by the pros- 
pective customers. 



Revision of Agricultural Workers Agreement 
With Mexico Discussed 

The Governments of the United States and Mex- 
ico announce their intention to initiate conversa- 
tions leading to the adoption of a revised agree- 
ment covering conditions under which Mexican 
agricultural workers may be contracted for sea- 
sonal farm work in the United States. The re- 
vised agreement will replace the agreement of 
February 21, 1948.^ 

Although agreements of this kind are formal- 
ized by exchange of notes, details are worked out 
beforehand over a discussion table by representa- 
tives of the two Governments. The discussions 
on the Mexican workers agreement will be held 
in Mexico City commencing January 17, 1949, and 
the members of the American negotiating Dody 
will be as follows : 

Leslie A. Wlieeler, Counselor of the American Embassy, 
Mexico City ; 

Cleon Swayzee, Chief of the Division of International 
Labor and Social Affairs, Department of State; 

Robert E. Wilson, Acting Assistant Chief, Division of 
Mexican Affairs, Department of State; 

Watson B. Miller, Commissioner of Immigration and Nat- 
uralization ; 

Louis lUanchard, American Vice Consul, Mexico City; 

Don Larin, Chief of Farm Placement, Bureau of Employ- 
ment Security, Federal Security Agency ; 

Albert Mislor, Office of the General Counsel, Federal Se- 
curity Agency; 

Oscar Harper, Farm Placement Representative in San 
Francisco, Bureau of Employment Security. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Developments of U. N. — Continued from page 98 
iiig on any goveiiunent, but it has been stamped 
with tlie approval of the General Assembly by 
final vote of its members to serve as a common 
standard of achievement for all peoples antl all 
nations. No one can assess its value or its sig- 
nificance, but such a document, having the moral 
backing of 58 nations, will be undoubtedly a real 
force in the world. It is a demonstration of the 
life of the United Nations in the area of ideas 
and ideals. And it is such life that leads to moral 
power. This is a new element in the world of 
international affairs. 

But what of the maintenance of peace, the first 
purpose of the United Nations? Already, the or- 
ganization has had some successes in j)articular 
cases, but the world is clearly not a peaceful world. 
However, we must not write off tlie United Na- 
tions. It is growing power. I have talked in some 
detail of some of its sources of strength — its con- 
tinual promotion of international cooperation in 
many fields, its body of devoted international civil 
servants, and its increasing life in the world of 
ideas and ideals. 

These are forces of integration in a world where 
forces of disintegration are all too prevalent. 
They lead in the direction of international under- 
standing and peaceful cooperation. They can 
build that moral strength, based upon the will of 
the peoples of the world, which no nation can dare 
defy. Something new has been added, and we 
need not lose hope that we can achieve the goals 
stated in the preamble to the Charter of the United 
Nations, which begins so gloriously, "We the 
peoples of the United Nations determined", and 
then states those great objectives, "to save succeed- 
ing generations from the scourge of war, which 
twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow 
to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental 
human rights, in the dignity and worth of the 
human person, in the equal rights of men and 
women and of nations large and small, and . . . 
to promote social progi"ess and better standards 
of life in larger freedom". 



Visit of Brazilian Scholar 

Dr. Mario de Souza Lima, professor of litera- 
ture at the University of Sao Paulo, has just re- 
turned to Brazil after a tour in the United States 
as visiting professor of literature under the travel- 
grant program of the Department of State. He 
taught at the University of San Francisco from 
September 1947 to August 1948, and at Stanford 
University for the 1948 autumn quarter. 

Dr. Souza Lima Ktop])ed over in Washington en 
route to Brazil for conferences with officials of the 
Department of State, the Pan American Union, 
the Library of Congress, local universities, and 
others. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Shannon and Camagiiey Consulates To Close 

[Released to the press January 3] 

The American Consulate at Shannon, Ireland, 
will soon be closed in a further realignment of 
posts in the Foreign Service, and its functions 
will be absorbed by the United States Consulate 
at Cork. 

The decision to close the Consulate at Shannon 
conforms to continuing Foreign Service eiforts 
to effect budgetary savings wherever possible. 
It is expected that the Cork Consulate, which is 
only 90 minutes away from Shannon by automo- 
bile, will be able adequately to provide the neces- 
sary consulate services for travelers who visit the 
renowned Irish airport. 

It will be recalled that another American Con- 
sulate in Limerick, Ireland, was closed recently 
because the normal business for that post had de- 
creased considerably since the war's end, and there 
are now less than 200 United States citizens resid- 
ing in the Limerick area. 

The American Consulate at Camagiiey, Cuba, 
will also be closed shortly, and duties of the Con- 
sulate will be assumed by a United States consular 
agent. 



Visit of Mexican Geologist 

Eduardo Schmitter, head of the department of 
mineralogj" and petrology of the Geological In- 
stitute of Mexico, who has been visiting univer- 
sities, museums, and laboratories in the United 
States for the past two months, recently arrived 
in Washington, where he will spend a few weeks 
before returning to Mexico the latter part of 
January. His visit has been arranged under the 
travel-grant program of the Department of State 
in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey. 

ianuatY23, J 949 



U.S. and Union of South Africa Raise 
Missions to Embassies 

[Released to the press December 21] 

The Government of the United States and the 
Government of the Union of South Africa have 
agreed to the raising of their respective missions 
at Pretoria and Washington to Embassy status. 
The change in the status of the missions will be- 
come effective when the Ambassadors-designate of 
the two countries have presented their credentials 
at Pretoria and Washington. 

117 



THE CONGRESS 

Treaties Transmitted to the Senate 

The President transmitted to the Senate on 
January 13 the following conventions and pro- 
tocols : 

International convention for the safety of life at 
sea, 1948, signed at London on June 10, 1948; 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organi- 
zation, opened for signature at Washington on 
October 11, 1947, with a protocol ; 

Inter-American convention on the granting of 
political rights to women, signed at Bogota, 
Colombia, on May 2, 1948 ; 

Convention on the international recognition of 
rights in aircraft, signed at Geneva on June 19, 
1948; 

Protocol dated in London August 31, 1948, pro- 
longing for one year after August 31, 1948, the 
international agreement regarding the regula- 
tion of production and marketing of sugar, 
signed at London on May 6, 1937. 

The President also transmitted, for the infor- 
mation of the Senate, the reports on these agree- 
ments made to him by the Acting Secretary of 
State. 

Legislation 

United States Relations With International Organiza- 
tions : II. A Survey of tbe Legislative Activities of the 
Eightieth Congress, Report of the Committee on Ex- 
penditures in the Executive Departments pursuant to 
Public Law 601, 79th Cong. (Section 102 (1) (g) (2) (D)) 
of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1940), S. Rept. 
1776, SOth Cong., 2d sess. iii, 74 pp. 

Investigation of the National Defense Program: Addi- 
tional Report of the Special Committee Investigating the 
National Defense Program, pursuant to S. Res. 71 (77th 
Cong. ; S. Res. 6, 78th Cong. ; S. Res. 55, 79th Cong. ; and 
S. Res. 46, SOth Cong.). Resolutions Authorizing and 
Directing an Investigation of the National Defense Pro- 
gram. Navy Purchases of Middle East Oil. S. Rept. 440, 
part 5, SOth Cong., 2d sess. iii, 57 pp. and map. 

Manual Explanatory of the Privileges, Rights, and Bene- 
fits Provided for Persons who Served in the Armed Forces 
of the United States During World War I, World War II, 
or Peacetime (after April 20, 189S), and Those Dependent 
Upon Them With Special Reference to Those Benefits, 
Rights, and Privileges Administered by the Veterans' Ad- 
ministration. H. Doc. 745, SOth Cong., 2d sess. vli, 182 pp. 

Audit Report on Inter-American Affairs Corporations: 
Letter From the Comptroller General of the United States, 
Transmitting Report on Audit of Inter-American Affairs 
Corporations for the Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 1945, 
and .June 30, 1946, and Including in this Report the Audit 
of Inter-American Navigation Corporation for the Period 
July 1, 1946, to February 25, 1947. (Pursuant to H. Res. 
716, SOth Cong.) H. Doc. 747, SOth Cong., 2d sess. vi, 
45 pp. 

Revolving Fund for the Purchase of Agricultural Com- 
modities : Hearings Before the Committee on Agriculture 

' Certificates for Arizona, Connecticut, Kansas, Ohio 
(sealed), Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming were 
transmitted on Jan. 6, 1949 ; the ones for New York and 
Wisconsin, on Jan. 19. 

118 



and Forestry, United States Senate, SOth Cong., 2d sess., 
on S. 2376, a Bill to Provide a Revolving Fund for the 
Purchase of Agricultural Commodities and Raw Materials 
to be Processed in Occupied Areas and Sold. March 25, 
30, and 31, 1948. Iii, 70 pp. 

Strategic and Critical Minerals and Metals : Hearings 
Before the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the 
Committee on Public Lands, House of Representatives, 
SOth Cong., 2d sess., Part 4, Preliminary Review of the 
Problems of the Tungsten and Mercury Mining Industries, 
March 31 and May 20, 1948, part 5, StockplUng, May 3 and 
6, 1948. xsv, 662 pp. and 22 charts. 



Certificates of Final Ascertainment of Electors 
of President and Vice President Transmitted 
to the Congress 

Text of identical letters transmitted on Decerriber 
31 to the President pro tempore, of the Senate 
and to the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives 

December SO, 1948 

Sir : Pursuant to provisions of Section 6, Chap- 
ter 1, of Public Law 771, SOth Congress (3 United 
States Code 6) , the Secretary of State has received 
from the Executives of States certificates of the 
final ascertainment of the electors of President and 
Vice President of the United States chosen in the 
respective States on November 2, 1948. 

In conformity with the final clause of Section 6, 
copies of those certificates received to date from 
the Executives of the States named in the attached 
list are transmitted herewith to the Senate 
(House). 

Very truly yours, 

Robert A. JjOvett 
Acting Secretary 

Enclosures : List ; File of Certificates 

Certificates of Ascertainment of Electors trans- 
mitted to the Senate (House), December 30, 

1948 1 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Massachusetts (photostat) 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Montana 



Nebraska (amended) 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 



The certificate of Louisiana listed above was 
not transmitted to the Speaker of the House be- 
cause sullicient copies have not yet been received. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Sales of Surplus Combat Materiel 



(Released to the press January 14] 



The following is a list of the sales of surplus 
U.S. combat materiel (militarized and nondemili- 
tarized), effected by the Department of State in 



its capacity as foreign surplus disposal agent, dur- 
ing the months of December, 1947, and April, Jime, 
July, August, and September, 1948, as reported 
to the Munitions Division of the Department and 
not previously announced : 



Country 


Description of matfiriel 


Procurement cost 


Sales price 


Date of 
transfer 


Argentina 

Brazil 

China 

Cuba 


Ammunition, eight flame throwers with service kits 
and one fuel filling kit, binoculars, 40 mm Director, 
range finders, 16-40 mm guns, 133-30 cal. and 270 
50 cal. machine guns, 3-57 mm guns, observation 
instr., range indicator, mounts, firing tables, 
observation telescopes, 40 mm generating units. 

200 cal. .45 submachine guns MlAl 

1 LST to T. Y. Fong, to be used commercially (de- 
militarized). 

1 LSM to T. Y. Fong, for scrap (demilitarized) . . . 

1 LCC to Chinese ^Iaritime customs 

4 LCC's to Chinese Maritime customs 

Bayonets, binoculars, carbines, machine guns, sub- 
machine guns, truck mounts, pistols, helmets, and 
liners. 

Clinometers 

1 1-83 ft. coast guard cutters 


$755, 365. 50 

8, 800. 00 
1, 700, 000. 00 

843, 600. 00 

108, 620. 00 

434, 680. 00 

62, 577. 22 

1, 000. 00 

1, 265, 000. 00 

291, 657. 04 

104, 382. 00 
Captured en- 
emy mate- 
rial 

501. 85 
582, 250. 00 

582, 250. 00 

1, 574, 670. 00 


$148, 382. 64 

800. 00 
30, 000. 00 

3, 000. 00 
11,200.00 
44, 800. 00 
12, 695. 32 

50.00 
48, 500. 00 
14, 582. 85 

32, 500. 00 
5, 000. 00 

50.29 
20, 000. 00 

17, 500. 00 

75, 000. 00 


9/3/48 

7/9/48 
12/3/47 

6/7/48 
4/16/48 

8/8/48 
9/10/48 

9/22,48 

9,1/48 
9/30,48 

7/28/48 
6/8/48 

9/7/48 
6/13/48 

4/28/48 

6/30/48 


Mexico 

Haiti 


12 tank engines, 100 bundles track assemblies, spare 
parts for M3A1 tanks. 

1 C-47A aircraft 

Ex-German motor torpedo boat T-4 

Ammunition and metallic links 


Norway 

Sweden 


1 minesweeper to a Norwegian national (demilitar- 
ized). 

1 minesweeper to Norwegian national (demilitar- 
ized). 

30 nonoperable P-51 aircraft for cannibalization pur- 
poses. 



PUBLICATIONS 
Department off State 

For gale by the Superintendent of Documents, Oovernment 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Civil Aviation Mission to Venezuela. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1804. Pub. 3308. 6 pp. 54. 

Agreement Between the United States and Vene- 
zuela — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Caracas 
March 22 and 24, 1048 ; entered into force March 24, 
1948. 

Areas Under Occupation or Control. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 18.32. Pub. .3335. 6 pp. Gi*. 

Agreement Between the United States and Norway — 
Ejected by exchange of notes signed at Oslo July 3, 
1948 ; entered into force July 3, 1948. 

January 23, 1949 



Trade: Application of Most-Favored Nation Treatment to 
Areas Under Occupation or Control. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1821. Pub. 3339. 3 pp. 54. 

Agreement Between the United States and Belgium — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Brussels July 
2, 1&48 ; entered into force July 2, 1948. 

The Foreign Service Institute: Catalog and General Infor- 
mation. January 1949. Department and Foreign Service 
Series 4. Pub. 3351. 36 pp. 15«f. 

This catalog contains information on the program of 
the Foreign Service Institute and the courses of 
instruction which It offers. 
Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment 
to Areas Under Occupation or Control. Treaties and 
Other International Series 1822. Pub. 3331. 4 pp. 5<f. 
Agreement Between the United States and Den- 
mark — Effetced by exchange of notes signed at Co- 
penhagen June 29, 1948; entered into force July 2, 
1948. 

119 



;■■!■. St, '..-rr/r?. •■..-OS 



^O'TvCem/Hly 



The United Nations and Page 

Specialized Agencies 

Discussion of Indonesian Situation in Security 

Council. Statement by PhUip C. Jessup . 91 
Significant Developments in the United Nations. 

By Willard L. Thorp 95 

The Problem of Voting in the Security Council: 

Four-Power Resolution 99 

Annex 99 

Study of Methods for the Promotion of Inter- 
national Cooperation in the Political Field. 

Resolutions Adopted 101 

Meeting of Security Council Committee on 
Palestine: 

Report of the Chairman 102 

Resolution Calling Meeting 102 

The Security Council in 1948 103 

The U.S. in the U.N 104 

Second Meeting of Ibo Executive Committee . 107 
India and Pakistan Accept Principles for 
Plebiscite: 
Message from U.S. Expressing Gratification . 114 
Replies from the Governments of India and 
Pakistan 114 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegations to International Conferences: 
Ilo Permanent Migration Committee . . . 106 
Preparatory Meeting on Telegraph Regula- 
tions 106 

Long Range Radio Navigation Aids .... 106 

Inter-American Travel Conference 107 

Bids Invited for Surplus War Scrap 116 

Sales of Surplus Combat Materiel 119 



Treaty Information page 

U.S. and Canada To Study Air Pollution on 

Detroit River: 

Terms of Reference Established 115 

Letter to the International Joint Commission . 115 
Agreement With and Payment to Italy for 

Prisoners of War 116 

Revision of Agricultural Workers Agreement 

With Mexico Discussed 116 

Treaties Transmitted to the Senate. Life at 

Sea, Meteorological Organization, Rights 

of Women, Aircraft, Sugar 118 

General Policy 

India and Pakistan Accept Principles for 

Plebiscite: 
Message from U.S. Expressing Gratification . 114 
Replies from the Governments of India and 

Pakistan 114 

The Congress 

Excerpts from the President's Budget Message 

for 1950 108 

Treaties Transmitted to the Senate 118 

Legislation 118 

Certificates of Final Ascertainment of Electors 
of President and Vice President Trans- 
mitted to the Congress. Text of Identical 
Letters of Transmittal to the Senate and 
the House 118 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Visit of Mexican Geologist 117 

Visit of Brazilian Scholar 117 

The Foreign Service 

U.S. and Union of South Africa Raise Missions 

to Embassies 117 

Shannon and Camagtiey Consulates To Close . 117 

Publications 

Department of State 119 



U. 9. COVERNHCNT PRINTtNG OFFICCi 1949 



ItJAe/ z^e/ia'i^tTnenfi xw tnate/ 





fAUGURAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESI- 
DENT 123 

GOVERMMEiM A a si STANCE IN DEVELOP- 
ING IRIPORTS INTO THE U.S. • By 

Joseph D. Coppoch 137 

RECOMMENDATIONS ON REORGANIZA- 
TION PROCEDURE 

Message of the President to the Congress . 140 

BANK OF THE GERMAN STATES • in 

Article 126 



January 30, 1^ 




•• S. SUJ^tRiKTEHUENT OF UOCOwti-lfc 

f£B 18 1949 



^•"TO, 




e 



^.„^wy*. bulletin 



Vol. XX, No. 500 • Publication 3413 
January 30, 1949 



For sale t)y the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OfDce 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $6, foreign $7.26 
Single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Sole: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Departuknt 
07 State Bdllktin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the ivork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Inaugural Address of the President 



MR. Vice President, Mr. Chief Justice, 
AND Fellow Citizens: I accept with 
humility the honor which the American 
people have conferred upon me. I accept it with 
a deep resolve to do all that I can for the welfare 
of this Nation and for the peace of the world. 

In performing the duties of my office, I need th^ 
help and prayers of every one of you. I ask for 
your encouragement and your sujiport. The tasks 
we face are difficult, and we can accomplish them 
only if we work together. 

Each period of our national history has had its 
special challenges. Those that confront us now 
are as momentous as any in the past. Today 
marks tlie beginning not only of a new administra- 
tion, but of a period that will be eventful, perhaps 
decisive, for us and for the world. 

It may be our lot to experience, and in large 
measure to bring about, a major turning point in 
the long history of the human race. The first half 
of this century has been marked by unprecedented 
and brutal attacks on the rights of man and by the 
two most frightful wars in history. The supreme 
need of our time is for men to learn to live together 
in peace and harmony. 

The peoples of the earth face the future with 
grave uncertainty, composed almost equally of 
great hopes and great fears. In this time of doubt, 
they look to the United States as never before 
for good will, strength, and wise leadership. 

It is fitting, therefore, that we take this occa- 
sion to proclaim to the world the essential prin- 
ciples of the faith by which we live and to declare 
our aims to all peoples. 

The American people stand firm in the faith 
which has inspired this Nation from the begin- 
ning. We believe that all men have a right to 
equal justice under law and equal opportunity to 
share in the common good. We believe that all 
men have the right to freedom of thought and 
expression. We believe that all men are created 
equal because they are created in the image of God. 

From this faith we will not be moved. 

January 30, 1949 



The American people desire, and are determined 
to work for, a world in which all nations and all 
peoples are free to govern themselves as they see 
fit and to achieve a decent and satisfying life. 
Above all el.se, our people desire, and are deter- 
mined to work for, peace on earth — a just and last- 
ing peace — based on genuine agrpement freely ar- 
rived at by equals. 

In the pursuit of these aims, the United States 
and other like-minded nations find themselves di- 
rectly opposed by a regime with contrary aims and 
a totally different concept of life. 

That regime adheres to a false philosophy which 
purports to offer freedom, security, and greater 
opportunity to mankind. Misled by this phi- 
losophy, many peoples have sacrificed their liber- 
ties only to learn to their sorrow that deceit and 
mockery, poverty and tyranny, are their reward. 

That false philosophy is Communism. 

Communism is based on the belief that man is 
so weak and inadequate that he is unable to govern 
himself, and therefore requires the rule of strong 
masters. 

Democracy is based on the conviction that man 
has the moral and intellectual capacity, as well as 
the inalienable right, to govern himself with reason 
and justice. 

Communism subjects the individual to arrest 
without lawful cause, punishment without trial, 
and forced labor as the chattel of the state. It 
decrees what information he shall receive, what 
art he shall produce, what leaders he shall follow, 
and what thoughts he shall think. 

Democracy maintains that government is estab- 
lished for the benefit of the individual, and is 
charged with the responsibility of protecting the 
rights of the individual and his freedom in the 
exercise of his abilities. 

Communism maintains that social wrongs can 
be corrected only by violence. 

The President's address was delivered on Jan. 20, 1949, 
and released to the press by the White House on the same 
date. 

123 



Democracy has proved that social justice can 
be achieved through peaceful change. 

Communism holds that the world is so deeply 
divided into opposing classes that war is in- 
evitable. 

Democracy holds that free nations can settle dif- 
ferences justly and maintain lasting peace. 

These differences between Communism and 
democracy do not concern the United States alone. 
People everywhere are coming to realize that what 
is involved is material well-being, human dignity, 
and the right to believe in and worship God. 

I state these differences not to draw issues of 
belief as such, but because the actions resulting 
from the Communist philosophy are a threat to 
the efforts of free nations to brjng about world 
recovery and lasting peace. 

Since the end of hostilities, the United States 
has invested its substance and its energy in a gi-eat 
constructive effort to restore peace, stability, and 
freedom to the world. 

We have sought no territory and we have im- 
posed our will on none. We have asked for no 
privileges we would not extend to others. 

We have constantly and vigorously supported 
the United Nations and related agencies as a means 
of applying democratic principles to international 
relations. We have consistently advocated and 
relied upon peaceful settlement of disputes among 
nations. 

We have made every effort to secure agreement 
on effective international control of our most 
powerful weapon, and we have worked steadily 
for the limitation and control of all armaments. 

We have encouraged, by precept and example, 
the expansion of world trade on a sound and fair 
basis. 

Almost a year ago, in company with sixteen free 
nations of Europe, we launched the greatest co- 
operative economic program in history. The pur- 
pose of that unprecedented effort is to invigorate 
and strengthen democracy in Europe, so that the 
free people of that continent can resume their 
rightful place in the forefront of civilization and 
can contribute once more to the security and wel- 
fare of the world. 

Our efforts have brought new hope to all man- 
kind. We have beaten back despair and defeat- 
ism. We have saved a number of countries from 
losing their liberty. Hundreds of millions of peo- 



ple all over the world now agree with us, that we 
need not have war — that we can have peace. 

The initiative is ours. 

We are moving on with other nations to build 
an even stronger structure of international order 
and justice. We shall have as our partners coun- 
tries which, no longer solely concerned with the 
problem of national survival, are now working to 
improve the standards of living of all their people. 
We are ready to undertake new projects to 
strengthen the free world. 

In the coming years, our program for peace and 
freedom will emphasize four major courses of 
action. 

First, we will continue to give unfaltering sup- 
port to the United Nations and related agencies, 
and we will continue to search for ways to 
strengthen their authority and increase their ef- 
fectiveness. We believe that the United Nations 
will be strengthened by the new nations which are 
being formed in lands now advancing toward 
self-government imder democratic principles. 

Second, we will continue our programs for 
world economic recovery. 

This means, first of all, that we must keep our 
full weight behind the European Recovery Pro- 
gram. We are confident of the success of this 
major venture in world recovery. We believe 
that our partners in this effort will achieve the 
status of self-supporting nations once again. 

In addition, we must carry out our plans for 
reducing the barriers to world trade and increas- 
ing its volume. Economic recovery and peace it- 
self depend on increased world trade. 

Third, we will strengthen freedom-loving na- 
tions against the dangers of aggression. 

We are now working out with a number of coun- 
tries a joint agreement designed to strengthen the 
security of the North Atlantic area. Such an 
agreement would take the form of a collective de- 
fense arrangement within the terms of the United 
Nations Charter. 

We have already established such a defense pact 
for the Western Hemisphere by the treaty of Rio 
de Janeiro. 

The primary purpose of these agreements is to 
provide unmistakable proof of the joint determina- 
tion of the free countries to resist armed attack 
from any quarter. Each country participating 
in those arrangements must contribute all it can 
to the common defense. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



If we can make it sufficiently clear, in advance, 
that any armed attack affecting our national secu- 
rity would be met with overwhelming force, the 
armed attack might never occur. 

I hope soon to send to the Senate a treaty re- 
specting the North Atlantic security plan. 

In addition, we will provide military advice and 
equipment to free nations which will cooperate 
with us in the maintenance of peace and security. 

Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program 
for making the benefits of our scientific advances 
and industrial progress available for the improve- 
ment and growth of underdeveloped areas. 

More than half the people of the world are living 

I in conditions approaching misery. Their food is 

■ inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their 

economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their 

poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them 

and to more prosperous areas. 

For the first time in history, humanity possesses 
the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering 
of these people. 

The United States is pre-eminent among nations 
in the development of industrial and scientific 
techniques. The material resources which we can 
afford to use for the assistance of other peoples are 
limited. But our imponderable resources in tech- 
nical knowledge are constantly growing and are 
inexhaustible. 

I believe that we should make available to peace- 
loving peoples the benefits of our store of tech- 
nical knowledge in order to help them realize their 
aspirations for a better lifQ. And, in coopera- 
tion with other nations, we should foster capital 
investment in areas needing development. 

Our aim should be to help the free peoples of 
the world, through their own efforts, to produce 
more food, more clothing, more materials for hous- 
ing, and more mechanical power to lighten their 
burdens. 

Wb invite other countries to pool their technolog- 
ical resources in this undertaking. Their contri- 
butions will be warmly welcomed. This should be 
a cooperative enterprise in which all nations work 
together through the United Nations and its spe- 
cialized agencies wherever practicable. It must 
be a world-wide effort for the achievement of 
peace, plenty, and freedom. 

With the cooperation of business, private cap- 
ital, agriculture, and labor in this country, this 
program can greatly increase the industrial ac- 

January 30, 1949 



tivity in other nations and can raise substantially 
their standards of living. 

Such new economic developments must be 
devised and controlled to benefit the peoples of 
the areas in which they are established. Guar- 
antees to the investor must be balanced by guar- 
antees in the interest of the people whose resources 
and whose labor go into these developments. 

The old imperialism — exploitation for foreign 
profit — has no place in our plans. What we en- 
visage is a program of development based on the 
concepts of democratic fair-dealing. 

All countries, including our own, will greatly 
benefit from a constructive program for the bet- 
ter use of the world's human and natural resources. 
Experience shows that our commerce with other 
countries expands as they progress industrially and 
economically. 

Greater production is the key to prosperity and 
peace. And the key to greater production is a 
wider and more vigorous application of modem 
scientific and technical laiowledge. 

Only by helping the least fortunate of its mem- 
bers to help themselves can the human family 
achieve the decent, satisfying life that is the right 
of all people. 

Democracy alone can supply the vitalizing force 
to stir the peoples of the world into triumphant 
action, not only against their human oppressors, 
but also against their ancient enemies — hunger, 
misery, and despair. 

On the basis of these four major courses of action 
we hope to help create the conditions that.will lead 
evehtiially to personal freedom and happiness for 
all mankind. 

If we are to be successful in carrying out these 
policies, it is clear that we must have continued 
prosperity in this country and we must keep our- 
selves strong. 

Slowly but surely we are weaving a world fabric 
of international security and growing prosperity. 

We are aided by all who wish to live in freedom 
from fear — even by those who live today in fear 
under their own goverimients. 

We are aided by all who want relief from the lies 
of propaganda — who desire truth and sincerity. 

We are aided by all who desire self-government 
and a voice in deciding their own affairs. 

We are aided by all who long for economic 
security — for the security and abundance that men 
in free societies can enjoy. 

125 



We are aided by all who desire freedom of 
speech, freedom of religion, and freedom to live 
their own lives for useful ends. 

Our allies are the millions who himger and 
thirst after righteousness. 

In due time, as our stability becomes manifest, 
as more and njore nations come to know the bene- 
fits of democracy and to participate in growing 
abundance, I believe that those countries which 
now oppose us will abandon their delusions and 
join with the free nations of the world in a just 
settlement of international differences. 



Events have brought our American democracy 
to new influence and new responsibilities. They 
will test our courage, our devotion to duty, and 
our concept of liberty. 

But I say to all men, what we have achieved in 
liberty, we wUl surpass in greater liberty. 

Steadfast in our faith in the Almighty, we will 
advance toward a world where man's freedom 
is secure. 

To that end we will devote our strength, our re- 
sources, and our firmness of resolve. With God's 
help, the future of mankind will be assured in a 
world of justice, harmony, and peace. 



Bank Deutscher Laender 



The reorganization of the banking system in the 
U.S. zone reached its climax in March 1948 with 
the establishment of the Bank Deutscher Laender 
(Bank of the German States). 

The keynote in the postwar bank reorganization 
in the U.S. zone has been decentralization, which 
has included steps for the liquidation of the Reichs- 
bank and the decentralization of the big banks. 
The establishment of the Bank Deutscher Laender 
now provides a new central banking organization 
for the zone. 

Before May 8, 1945, the German banking system 
was highly centralized and under the control of the 
Nazi government. This condition developed 
through the existence of powerful associations of 
credit institutions, which in the case of savings 
banks and credit cooperatives took the form of 
regional associations under central associations in 
Berlin, formed with the purpose of collecting and 
investing the surplus deposits of the member in- 
stitutions. 

Moreover, the banking supervision exercised by 
the Nazi government was extensive. The Nazi 
government had wide powers, especially concern- 
ing the dismissal and appointment of high bank 
officials. 

The German banks engaged both in commercial 
banking by granting short term credits and in in- 
vestment banking by assisting industry and trade 
to meet their long-term capital needs. 

Through investment banking the German banks 
acquired considerable economic influence by par- 
ticipating directly in industry, promoting new 

' Rank of the German States. Reprinted from Informa- 
tion Bullclin of the U.S. Military Government in Germany. 
Material for this article was obtained from the Military 
Governor's monthly report no. 32 and from MG Law no. 
60 under which the Bank was established. 

126 



enterprises, initiating mergers and capital recon- 
struction, gaining representation on supervisory 
boards, dominating the stock exchanges, and vot- 
ing their customers' stock. This latter practice 
permitted, in many instances, the large banks actu- 
ally to hold proxies for the majority of stock in 
business enterprises. 

The huge expenditures for the prosecution of 
the war completely dominated the credit system. 
The financial resources of the banks were used 
almost exclusively by the state for financing the 
war. 

The expenditures were met not by the direct 
floating of loans to the public as in the United 
States, but by the banks' subscription to govern- 
ment securities out of the accumulated deposits 
of their customers. The result was that, on May 
8, 1945, approximately 80 percent of the banks' 
assets were invested in state securities. 

In the Potsdam Declaration of Aug. 2, 1945, 
the Allies established the principle of economic 
decentralization of Germany. The policy for the 
decentralization of banking in the U.S. zone was 
based on the following provisions: 

1. Decentralization of the Reichsbank by estab- 
lishing state central banks. 

2. Decentralization to the state level of all classes 
of banking and credit institutions in the same man- 
ner as for the Reichsbank. 

Initial proposals concerning central bank reor- 
ganization were addressed to the ministers presi- 
dent of the three principal states in the U.S. zone 
by Military Government on Nov. 1, 1945. 

Included in this letter was the following state- 
ment of one of the problems to be solved in carry- 
ing out the economic objective of the Potsdam 
Declaration : ". . . to establish a basic state 
central banking organization which can be coordi- 

Deparfment of Stafe Bulletin 



nated on a zonal basis and later integrated with any 
subsequent bankinp; plan for Germany as a whole. 

In a meeting held on March 4-5, 1946, the finance 
ministers of tne three states formulated a law es- 
tablishing state central banks which closely fol- 
lowed the original MG recommendations. The 
Finance Committee of the U.S. zone's Council of 
States accepted a revised version of the draft law 
on July 1.194(5. 

However, when the law was submitted to Mili- 
tary Government, it was found to be unsatisfactory 
from several points of view, particularly since the 
draft envisioned too much political control over 
the central banks. 

Finally, at an extraordinary session of the coun- 
cil's Finance and Banking Committee, held on 
Nov. 26, 1946, in Stuttgart, the final draft of the 
state Central Bank Law was approved. It was 
enacted in Bavaria on Dec. 6 and in Wuerttem- 
berg-Baden on Dec. 7, 1946, with the approval of 
the cabinets. 

Because of the political conditions in Hesse 
which would have delayed the passage of the bill, 
it was promulgated by order of Military Govern- 
ment on Dec. ( , 1946, in that state. The law be- 
came effective in all three states on Jan. 1, 1947. 

The law created a state central bank in each of 
the principal states of the U.S. zone, established 
along the lines of the U.S. Federal Reserve Banks, 
to act as a bankers' bank, taking over this func- 
tion from the former Reichsbank branches. 

As no complete liquidation of the Reichsbank 
is possible before such action is undertaken for all 
of Germany, a trustee was appointed in each state 
to administer the remaining assets of the Reichs- 
bank in that state until final liquidation. 

The greater part of the deposit liabilities of the 
Reichsbank were taken over by the new state cen- 
tral banks, leaving mainly the totally blocked ac- 
counts with the trustees. 

On the asset side, claims on Berlin originating 
out of preoccupation business, constituting a large 
asset item, were not transfen-ed to the state cen- 
tral banks. The consequent excess of liabilities 
over assets was balanced in the case of each of 
the banks by a claim on the trustee of the Reichs- 
bank for the state. In order to facilitate an even- 
tual liquidation of the Reichsbank on a zonal basis, 
a general trustee for the Reichsbank was also ap- 
pointed for the entire U.S. zone. 

When Bremen was established as the fourth 
state in the U.S. zone on Jan. 2, 1947, a reorienta- 
tion of its financial structure toward the U.S. zone 
was necessary. 

Heretofore, banking in Bremen had been an 
integral part of the central banking system of the 
British zone. Thus the Bremen Reichsbank, 
which had been instrumental in the financing of 
imports to the U.S. zone, had been dependent upon 
the Hamburg Reichsbank central office for the 
British zone. 

January 30, 1949 



Military Government endeavored to limit the 
excessive concentration of economic power in Ger- 
man private banking in the U.S. zone by decen- 
tralizing the three largest branch banking houses: 
the Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and Commerz- 
Bank. 

Before and during the war these banks consti- 
tuted the financial backing of German cartels, 
syndicates and trusts, and they exercised consid- 
erable influence over the greater part of the Ger- 
man monopolistic groupings. 

Military Government Law No. 57, promulgated 
on May 6, 1947, was designed to rectify this situa- 
tion in accordance with the principles established 
in the Potsdam Declaration. 

The law provided that an independent and dis- 
interested custodian should be appointed by each 
state government for the three banks. These 
custodians, responsible to the state governments 
would manage and administer the property of 
these banks within the respective states. They 
would preserve, maintain and safeguard the banks' 
assets. Moreover, they would in no way be in- 
fluenced by or take instruction from the present 
officials or shareholders of these banks. By a spe- 
cific provision of the law the independent custodi- 
ans would change the names of these banks in such 
a manner that the new names would be different 
in each state. 

To make the law effective, the ministers presi- 
dent of the state governments issued administra- 
tive regulations cutting off the giro systems of 
these banks beyond state boundaries and forcing 
all clearings of more than RM 100,000 to be carried 
out through the state central bank system. In 
addition, weekly statistical reports were required 
in order to assure that the banks would not try to 
weaken their structure by sending money outside 
the zone. All transfers for legitimate business 
were permitted. 

Contrary to fears of German officials that the 
decentralization policy might adversely affect pub- 
lic confidence in the banking system of the U.S. 
zone, Law No. 57 had in no way weakened public 
confidence. There was no run on the banks, there 
was no increase in withdrawals, there was no at- 
tempt to transfer funds into other zones, and 
stock quotations, which had declined for a few 
days, recovered their previous position shortly 
after passage of the law. 

Joint U.S. and British conferences in the fall of 
1947 resulted in the formulation of general prin- 
ciples regarding the establishment of a new cen- 
tral bank and of the implementation of bank de- 
centralization in the British zone. 

As a result of and in line with these decisions, 
various proposals for this new central bank were 
submitted by German authorities in the U.S. and 
British zones. 

Examination of these proposals revealed as a 
common characteristic, the difficulties encountered 

127 



by their German originators who envisaged a cen- 
tral banking system which was not dominated by 
political bodies, which would not control the bank- 
ing system operating under it through more than 
purely financial measures, and which would con- 
sciously refrain from engaging in any kind of com- 
mercial banking business. 

In order to come closer to the realization of these 
principles as well as others established by the U.S. 
and British Military Governments, a meeting of 
German experts of the various state central banks 
was convened to develop a draft law establishing 
the Bank of the German States. 

After long and detailed discussions the law was 
finally signed and promulgated in the U.S. zone 
as ]MG Law No. 60 and as Ordinance No. 129 in 
the British zone, and was made effective in March 
1948. A revision of the law went into effect Nov. 
1, 1948. 

Under this law the bank, set up in Frankfurt, 
had a capital of RM 100,000,000 and all member 
banks subscribe to it in proportion to the amounts 
of their deposits. The bank is limited to trans- 
actions with member state central banks, central 
banks of other German states and of foreign coun- 
tries or their equivalent, and the Bizonal Economic 
Administration. It has no branches or subsidi- 
aries or affiliates and is not subject to the German 
Banking Act or to the instructions of any political 
body or public non-judicial agency. In deciding 
upon the policies of the bank, however, the board 
of directors is subject to such directions as may be 
issued by the Allied Bank Commission. 

The policies of the bank are determined by a 
board of directors and executed by a board of man- 
agers. The board of directors consists of a presi- 
dent, a president of the board of managers and 
presidents of each of the member state central 
banks. The board of directors arrives at its de- 
cisions by a simple majority of the votes cast, each 
member having a single vote. The vote of the 
president is decisive in a tie. This chairman is 
elected by a simple majority of the members of the 
board. During his term, however, he cannot be a 
member of the board of directors or board of man- 
agers of any member bank. 

The board of managers of the bank has a presi- 
dent, a deputy and a number of managers fixed 
by the bylaws. The president of the board of 
managers and his deputy are elected and their 
terms of office fixed by the board of directors. The 
other members of the board of managers are ap- 
pointed for terms determined by the board of di- 
rectors. The president of the board of managers 
is responsible to the board of directors for the 
execution of all decisions of the board of directors 
and for the general conduct of the business of the 
bank. 

The bank is the exclusive bank of issue and, sub- 
ject to Allied direction, may issue and distribute 

12S 



bank notes and coins. In addition, the bank pro- 
motes the solvency and liquidity of the member 
banks and establishes common policies with respect 
to banking in general and uniformity in banking 
policies within the states. 

The bank may issue directions for the general 
regulation of bank credit, including interest and 
discount rates and open market operations of the 
member banks. The bank fixes the minimum re- 
serve requirements for the member state central 
banks and may regulate the establishment of mini- 
mum reserve requirements for individual banks. 
It assumes and effects all banking transfers result- 
ing from the ordere of third parties and which are 
transfers over state boundaries. Credit institu- 
tions must execute all such transfers through their 
accounts with the central banks. 

The bank may engage in the following trans- 
actions with central banks: purchase and sell 
foreign exchange and gold, silver and platinum, 
subject to existing legal restrictions; accept de- 
posits; rediscount bills of exchange; provide 
facilities for the safekeeping and custody of se- 
curities and valuables; and grant loans against 
bills of exchange, treasury bills and securities is- 
sued by the Bizonal Economic Administration or 
by any state within the area of the member state 
central banks, and fixed-interest-bearing securities 
which any member state central bank has pur- 
chased on the open market. 

The bank may serve as fiscal agent, without 
charge, for the Bizonal Economic Administration, 
including acceptance of deposits, purchase and 
sale of treasury bills and fixed-interest-bearing 
securities, and provision of payment facilities and 
facilities for the safe-keeping and custody of 
valuables and securities. It also may grant to the 
Binzonal Economic Administration short-term ad- 
vances in anticipation of specific revenues, ad- 
vances which do not exceed DM 300,000,000 unless 
the board of directors by a decision of three- 
quarters of its members raises it to DM 500.000,000. 
It may gi'ant to any one or more of the states of 
Rhineland-Palatinate, Wuerttemberg-Hohenzol- 
lern and South Baden in the French Zone, short- 
term advances in anticipation of specific revenues 
not in the aggregate to exceed the amount of DM 
40,000,000, miless the Board of Directors, by a 
decision of three quarters of its members, raises 
this limit to DM 60,000,000. 

In the open market, the bank may purchase 
and sell treasury bills and fixod-interest-bearing 
securities of the Bizonal Economic Admin- 
istration. 

Subject to any legislation for the time being in 
force, the bank may directly or through authorized 
agents, acquire and dispose of, for its own account 
or the account of others, foreign exchange (defined 
as means of payment and bills of exchange ex- 
pressed in foreign currencies and balances with 

Department of State Bulletin 



foreign banks), gold, silver and platinum, and for 
this purpose it may lUiiintiiin accounts with foreign 
banks. The bank reguhites foreign exchange 
transactions including, when licensed, foreign ex- 
change transactions prohibited by article I of MG 
Law No. 53 or article II of M(j Law No. b2 in 
respect of property covered by article I, paragraph 
1 (f) of the latter law. 



THE UNITBD NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

Upon request, the bank serves as fiscal agent 
for JEIA and equivalent agencies in other Ger- 
man states. It regulates the collection, assembly 
and evaluation of monetary and banking statistics 
and establishcw; rules for their prei)aralion by and 
through the member banks. It also fixes ancl pub- 
lishes interest and discount rates for its trans- 
actions with them. 



Provisional Agenda for the EigKith Session of tlie Economic and Social CounciP 



After consultation toith the President^ the Secre- 
tary-General has the honour to submit, in 
accordance with rules 7, 9, and 10, the pro- 
visional agenda for the eighth session of the 
Economic and Social Council, commencing at 
11:00 a. m., 7 February lOlfi, at Lake Success. 

1. Election of the President and Vice-Presidents 

2. Adoption of the agenda 

3. Survey of forced labour and measures for its 
abolition 

4. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the fac- 
tors beai'in^ upon the establishment of an 
Economic Commission for the Middle East 

5. Report of the second session of the Transport 
and Communications Commission: Inland 
transport in the Middle East 

6. Trade union rights (freedom of association) 

7. Principle of equal pay for equal work for 
men and women workers 

8. Administrative arrangements between the 
Council and the Permanent Central Opium 
Board 

9. Reports of the Council NGO Committee 

10. International facilities for the promotion of 
training in public administration 

11. Translation of the classics 

12. Question of the election of three members of 
the Economic Board for Palestine 

13. Draft rules for the calling of international 
conferences 

14. Infringements of trade union rights 

15. Implementation of recommendations on eco- 
nomic and social matters 

16. World economic situation 

17. Economic development of under-developed 
countries 

18. Technical assistance for economic develop- 
ment 

19. Report of the Food and Agriculture Or- 
garuzation of the United Nations on progress 
in the co-ordination of studies of suitable 
measures to bring about an increase in food 
production 

20. The problem of wasting food in certain 
countries 

21. Proceeds of sale of Unhra supplies 

January 30, 7949 



22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 



29. 

30. 
31. 

32. 

33. 
34, 

35, 

36, 



Interim Report: Economic Commission for 
Europe 

Interim Report: Economic Commission for 
Asia and the Far East 

Interim Report: Economic Commission for 
Latin America 

Report of the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development 
Report of the International Monetary Fund 
Report of the third session of the Commission 
on Human Rights : Paragraphs 20 and 23 
General Assembly resolutions regarding hu- 
man rights 
(i) Resolution relating to the right of 

petition 
(ii) Resolution relating to the fate of mi- 
norities 
(iii) Resolution relating to the preparation of 
a draft Covenant and draft measures of 
implementation 
Sub-Commission on Freedom of Information 
and of the Press and other questions arising 
out of the Final Act of the United Nations 
Conference on Freedom of Information 
Report of the Executive Board of the Inter- 
national Children's Emergency Fund 
United Nations Appeal for Children 
(i) Report of the Secretary -General 
(ii) Report of the Special Committee of the 

Council 
Question of procedure for the election of 
members of the Commission on Narcotic 
Drugs 

Annual report of the Permanent Central 
Opium Board 

Appointment of members of the Commission 
of enquiry into the effects of chewing the coca 
leaf 

Use of the central library at Geneva by the 
United Nations and the Specialized Agencies 
Report of the Secretary-General and of 
UNESCO on the teaching of the purposes and 
principles, the structure and activities of the 
United Nations in the schools of Member 
States 



■U.N. doc. B/1090. Jan. 14, 1949; and E/1090/Corr. 1, 
Jan. 17, 1949. 

129 



THE UN/TED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

37. Keport by the Secretary-General on housing 
and town and country planning 

38 Report of the International Refugee Organ- 
ization on resettlement of non-repatriable 
refugees and displaced pereons 

39. Draft Convention on declaration of death of 
missing persons 

40. Study of statelessness 

41. Declaration of old age rights 

42. Relations with and co-ordination of special- 
ized agencies 

(i) Report of the Secretary-General on gen- 
eral co-ordination matters 
(ii) Report of the Administrative Commit- 
tee on Co-ordination 
(iii) Report of the Secretary-General on 
arrangements for programme co-ordi- 
nation between specialized agencies and 
regional economic commissions 

43. Revision of rules of procedure 

44. Revision of rules of procedure of commissions 

45. Interim Committee on Programme of Meet- 
ings 

(i) Question of scope of functions 
(ii) Date of the second session of the sub- 
commission on prevention of discrimi- 
nation and protection of minorities 

46. Number of sessions of regional economic com- 
missions in 1949 

47. Distribution of membership in subsidiary or- 
gans of the Economic and Social Council 

48. Participation of Member States in the work 
of the Economic and Social Council 

49. Organization of the work of the Economic and 
Social Council 

50. Application of Article 65 of the Charter 

51. Location of ninth session of the Economic 
and Social Council 

52. Availability of DDT insecticides for combat- 
ting malaria in agricultural areas 

53. Application of Ceylon for membership in 

UNESCO 

54. Creation of a central publication for the pro- 
motion of and advising on development 
projects 

55. Report of the Joint Committee of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council and the Trusteeship 
Council on arrangements for co-operation in 
matters of common concern 

56. Summary of financial implications of actions 
of the Council 

57. Confirmation of members of commissions 

58. Election of members of the Agenda Commit- 
tee for the ninth session 

The order in which the above items will be 
taken up by the Council will form the subject 
of recommendations by the Agenda Committee 
for consideration by the Council at its first plen- 

130 



ary meeting. The Agenda Committee (consist- 
ing of the President, the two Vice-Presidents of 
the Council and the representatives of Brazil and 
New Zealand) is tentatively scheduled to meet at 
Lake Success on Tuesday, 1 February 1949. 

Notes 

1. See rules 18 and 19 of the rules of procedure 

2. The Agenda Committee is tentatively sched- 
uled to meet on 1 February 1949 

3. Item proposed bv the American Federation of 
Labor (postponed from the seventh session) 
Document E/596 distributed on 1 December 
1947 

4. Item postponed from the seventh session 
Council resolution No. 107 (VI) 

General Assembly resolution No. 199 (III) 
Docmnent E/AC.26/16 and E/AC.26/16/ 
Add.l distributed on 8 June and 9 July 1948 

rGSDGCtlVGlV 

Document E/814 distributed on 11 June 1948 

5. Question postponed from the seventh session 
Document E/789, Part III, paragraph 2(a), 
and resolution 4, page 16 distributed on 19 
May 1948 ., ^ ^ ^ , 
Document E/789/Add.l distributed on 6 July 

1948 

6. Item postponed from the seventh session 
General Assembly resolution No. 128 (II) 
Council resolution No. 84 (V) 

Document E/863 distributed on 22 July 1948 
Memorandum by the Secretary-General to be 
circulated at about 1 February 1949 

7. Item postponed from the seventh session 
Council resolution No. 121 (VI) 
Document E/881 distributed on 26 July 1948 
Additional report of the Ilo to be circulated 
about 18 January 1949 

Document E/1075 distributed on 1 December 

1948 

Document E/1082 distributed on 7 January 

1949 

Note by the Secretary-General to be circulated 

about 20 January 1949 
8 Item postponed from the seventh session 
Document E/OB/4, Annex A, page 4, distrib- 
uted in Geneva, in December 1948 
9. Part of this item postponed from the seventh 
session 

(i) Report of the Council Ngo Committee, 
documents E/940, E/940/Add.l and 
E/940/Add.2 distributed on 9 August 
1948, E/940/Add.3, E/940/Add.4 and 
E/940/ Add.5 distributed on 16, 19 and 
23 August, respectively 
(ii ) A further report resulting from the meet- 
ings of the Committee to be held com- 
mencing 17 January will be before the 
Council 

Department of State Bulletin 



10. Item postponed from the seventh session 
Council resolution No. 13"2 (VI) 
Documents E/849 and E/849/Add.l distrib- 
uted on 7 July 1948 

Document E/10S7 to be circulated on 18 Jan- 
uary 1949 

11. Item postponed from the seventh session 
Council resolution No. 53 (IV) 
Document E/823 distributed on 17 June 1948 

12. Item postponed from the seventh session 
General Assembly resolution No. 181 (II) 
Special Assembly resolution No. 186 (S-2), 
document A/555 

Council resolution No. 112 (VI) 

13. Item postponed from the seventh session 
General Assembly resolution No. 129 (II) 

t Council resolution No. 135 (VI) 

Document E/836 distributed on 29 June 1948 

14. Item j)roposed by the World Federation of 
Trade Unions (postponed from the seventh 
session) 

Document E/822 distributed on 15 June 1948 
See also document E/841 distributed on 2 
July 1948, and document E/1085 distributed 
on i2 January 1949 

15. General Assembly resolution No. 119 (II) 
Council resolution No. 175 (VII) 
Document E/963 distributed on 13 August 
1948 and addenda from 1 to 27 
Revised report of the Secretary-General to 
be circulated 

16. Item proposed by the Secretary-General 
The first part of a report on major develop- 
ments in the world economic situation in 1948 
prepared by the United Nations Secretariat 
will be circulated about 24 January 1949 ; the 
entire report, about 7 February 1949. 
"Review of International Commodity Prob- 
lems, 1948", prepared by the Interim Co-ordi- 
nating Committee for International Commod- 
ity Arrangements, published in November 1948 
by the United Nations 

17. General Assembly resolution No. 198 (III) 
The General Assembly, by its resolution No. 
209 (III), also transmitted to the Economic 
and Social Council draft resolutions proposed 
by Peru, Ecuador and Colombia on migration 
problems and amendments thereto, "together 
with the records of the debates in the third 
regular session of the General Assembly, for 
consideration when the linked subjects of eco- 
nomic development and migration were taken 
up for discussion by the Council" 

18. General Assembly resolution No. 200 (III) 

19. Council resolution No. 103 (VI) and No. 140 
(VII) 

Document E/1084 to be circulated on 18 Janu- 
ary 1949 

20. General Assembly resolution No. 202 (III) 

January 30, 7949 



THB UNITSD NATIONS AND SPECIAUZBD AGENC/ES 

21. Council re.solution No. 33 (IV) 

Report by the Secretary-General to be circu- 
lated about 24 January 1949 

22. Council resolutions No. 36 (IV) and No. 143 
(VII) 

Document E/1074 to be circulated about 24 
January 1940 

This report on the activities of the Commission 
includes the recommendations to Ece of its 
Ad Hoc Committee on Industrial Develop- 
ment and Trade, in accordance with resolution 
No. 1943 (VII) 

23. Council resolution No. 144 (VII) D 
Document E/1088 to be circulated about 24 
January 1949 

This document reports on the activities of the 
Commission including the fourth session of 
the Commission and, in particular, the results 
of the Commission's consideration of prob- 
lems of the establishment of the Bureau of 
Flood Control 

24. Council resolution No. 106 (VI) 

Report on the activities of the Commission 
to be circulated about 24 January 1949 

25. Council resolution No. 128 (VI) A 
Document E/1077 distributed on 13 December 
1948 

26. Council resolution No. 128 (VI) A 
Document E/1078 distributed on 13 Decem- 
ber 1948 

27. The Council, by its resolution No. 151 (VII), 
transmitted to the General Assembly the draft 
International Declaration of Human Rights 
submitted to the Council by the Commission 
on Human Rights, contained in the report 
of the Commission's third session, together 
with the remainder of this report. Paragraphs 
20 and 23 of the report, however, concerning 
Communications and Rules of Procedure re- 
spectively, call for further action by the Coun- 
cil, and the Agenda Committee will be invited 
to make a I'ecommendation to the Council re- 
garding the scope of the item. 

28. General Assembly resolution No. 217 (III) 

29. Council resolution No. 152 (VII) 
Document E/CONF.6/79 distributed on 22 
April 1948 

Document E/AC.27/W.2 distributed on 22 
July 1948 

30. General Assembly resolutions No. 57 (I) and 
No. 214 (III) 

Report of the Executive Board of the Icef to 
be circulated early in February 

31. Council resolution No. 162 (VII) 
General Assembly resolution No. 215 (III) 
Report of the Secretary-General to be circu- 
lated by 15 February 1949 

Report of the Special Committee to be cir- 
culated about 31 January 1949 

131 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

32. Council resolution No. 159 (VII) G 

Note by the Secretary-General to be circulated 
about 18 January 1949 

33. Article 27 of the International Convention 
relating to Dangerous Drugs of 19 February 
1925 as amended by the Protocol on Narcotic 
Drugs of 11 December 1946 

Document E/OB/4 distributed in Geneva in 
December 1948 

34. Council resolution No. 159 IV (VII) 
Document E/860, paragraph 4 

Report by the Secretary-General to be circu- 
lated about 24 January 1949 

35. Council resolution No. 172 (VII) 

Report by the Secretary-General to be circu- 
lated about 25 January 1949 

36. Council resolution No. 170 (VII) 
Report to be circulated 

37. Council resolution No. 155 (VII), F, C 

The report of the Secretary-General will be 
circulated after the meeting of the Technical 
Working Group of experts which is scheduled 
to meet on 24 January 1949 

38. Council resolution No. 157 (VII) 
Report of the Iro to be circulated 

39. Council resolution No. 158 (VII) 
Documents E/1071 and E/1071/Add.l dis- 
tributed on 26 October and 29 November 1948, 
respectively 

40. Council resolution No. 116 D (VI) 
Report of the Secretary-General to be circu- 
lated 

41. General Assembly resolution No. 213 (III) 

42. (i) Council resolution No. 128 (VI) 

Report of the Secretary-General to be 
circulated about 31 January 1949 
(ii) Council resolution No. 166 (VII) 

Document E/1076 distributed on 3 De- 
cember 1948 
(iii) Council resolution No. 166 (VII) 

Report of the Secretary-General to be 
circulated about 18 January 1949 

43. Council resolution No. 177 (VII) 

Report of the Committee on Procedure to be 
circulated after completion of the work of this 
Committee. The Committee commenced its 
meetings on 10 January 1949 

44. Item proposed by the Secretary-General 
The revision of the Council's own rules of 
procedure will entail a consequential revision 
of the rules of procedure of functional com- 
missions. The Council may wish to advise 
the regional economic commissions of any 
changes in their rules of procedure which may 
be desirable in order to eliminate inconsistency 
between those rules and Council resolutions 
(see E/SR.186, page 27). Since the terms of 
reference of the Committee on Procedure re- 
fer at present only to the Council rules of pro- 
cedure, the Secretary-General has proposed 
this additional item 

132 



45. See E/C.4/SR.7 and E/C.4/SR.8 , 

46. General Assembly resolution No. 206 (III) I 

47. General Assembly resolution No. 207 (III) 

48. General Assembly resolution No. 208 (III) 

49. Item proposed by the delegation of Lebanon 
See A/C.2 and 3/87 and Corr. 1. 
Documentation to be received 

50. Item proposed by the delegation of Lebanon 
See A/C.2 and 3/87 and Corr. 1. 
Documentation to be received 

51. Item proposed by the delegation of the United 
Kingdom 

Documentation to be received 

52. Item proposed by the World Health Organ- 
ization 

Document E/1086 to be circulated on 20 Jan- 
uary 1949 

53. Item proposed by Uiresco 
Documentation to be received 

54. Item proposed by the American Federation of 
Labor 

Document E/C.2/135 distribution on 10 No- 
vember 1948 

Document E/1086 distribution on 7 January 
1949 

55. Document E and T/C.l/2/Rev. 1 distribution 
on 10 November 1947 

The Trusteeship Council, at its 31st meeting 
on 25 November 1947, approved this report ^ 
(see T/PV.31). The Council may wish to f 
consider similar formal action 

56. Rule 30 of the rules of procedure as revised at 
the seventh session 

Financial statements relating to individual 
items, as well as a summary estimate of the 
proposals before the Council, will be circulated 
as soon as possible after the issue of the pro- 
visional agenda 

57. Document to be circulated during the Council 
session 

58. Rule 14 of the rules of procedure 

The report of the second session of the Fiscal 
Commission, which commenced on Monday, 10 
January, at Lake Success, has not been included in 
the provisional agenda above in view of the pro- 
visions of Council resolution No. 55 (IV) (the 
"six weeks rule".) 



CORRECTION 

The article entitled "United States Policy 
on High Seas Fisheries," in the Bulletin of 
January 16, 1949, page 67, was written by 
Wilbert McLeod Chapman. 

The Editor of the Bulletin regrets that 
the author's name was given as Walter M. 
Chapman. 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Meeting of Second National Conference on UNESCO 



Released to the press January 17] 

The Second National Conference on Unesco 
will be held March 31-April 2, in Cleveland, under 
the sponsorship of the United States National 
Commission. 

Over 800 national organizations are sending 
delegates to the three-day session, the theme of 
which is, ''Nations will come together — not to de- 
stro}' — but to construct." 

Jaime Torres Bodet, Director General of 
Unesco, will address the conference at an open 
meeting April 1 in the Cleveland Auditorium. 
Other sessions will be limited to delegates from 
the national organizations representing educa- 
tional, cultural, scientific, business, and profes- 
sional bodies, as well as church, farm, labor, civic, 
women's, and youth groups, to whom invitations 
are bein"; sent. Official observers from govern- 
ment and international agencies will also attend. 

Assistant Secretary of State Allen, who headed 
the American Delegation to the international con- 
ference of Unesco at Beirut, and Milton S. Eisen- 
hower, Chairman of the Commission, will make 
the major addresses the opening day of the Con- 
ference. Mr. Eisenhower is scheduled to review 
the work of the United States Commission. The 
Cleveland Council on World Affairs is the local 
clearinghouse for Conference matters. 

Attention will center on three topics: (1) Inter- 
change of persons; (2) Educational reconstruc- 



tion in war-devastated countries; and (3) Uneboo 
as the educational arm of the United Nations. 
Panels of experts will review the problems and 
accomplishments of the U.N. and its specialized 
agencies. In group meetings delegates will have 
an opportunity to discuss how such community 
channels as newspapers, radio programs, cluD 
meetings, and class rooms, can be used to further 
UNESCO's purpose — to build the defenses of peace 
in the minds of men. 

The final day will be given over to a discussion 
of the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights. This 
document, termed our generation's most impor- 
tant milestone on the road to freedom, was adopted 
by the U.N. General Assembly in Paris, December 
10, 1948. Unesco, one of the specialized agencies 
of the U.N. family, was two years old last Novem- 
ber. Its program of promoting peace through 
understanding and the free exchange of informa- 
tion is carried forward in the United States by a 
Commission of 100 members who serve as a volun- 
tary advisory body. Sixty of these people repre- 
sent a cross section of the country's principal na- 
tional organizations. The others are selected for 
their outstanding achievements in education, sci- 
ence, and the arts. In setting up the Commission, 
Congress instructed it to call a general conference 
every two years inviting United States community 
leaders to participate in Unesco affairs. The first 
conference was held in Philadelphia March 1947. 



Current United Nations Documents: A Selected Bibliography 



General Assembly 

Report of the Economic and Social Council (Chapter II). 
Draft Report of the Second Committee. A/737. 24 
November 194S. 16 pp. mimeo. 

Advisability of Establishing a Permanent Committee of 
the General Assembly. Report of the Ad Hoc Political 
Committee. A/740. 26 November 1948. 7 pp. 
mimeo. 

The Problem of Wasting Food In Certain Countries. Re- 
port of the Second Committee. A/756. 3 December 
1948. 14 pp. mimeo. 

Genocide : Draft Convention and Report of the Economic 
and Social Council. Report of the Sixth Committee. 
A/760. 3 December 1948. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Palestine : Progress Report of the United Nations Media- 
tor. Report of the First Committee. A/776. 7 
December 1948. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Draft International Declaration of Human Rights. Report 
of the Third Committee. A/777. 7 December 1948. 
9 pp. mImeo. 

Letter, Dated 15 November 1948, from the Premier and 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Spanish Republican 
Government to the President of the General Assembly. 
A/781, 10 December 1948. 5 pp. mimeo. 

January 30, 7949 



The Problem of the Independence of Korea : Reports of 
the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea 
and the Interim Committee of the General Assembly. 
A/788, 9 December 1948. 5 pp. mimeo. 

The Problem of Voting in the Security Council. Report of 
the ad hoc Political Committee. A/792, 10 December 
1948. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Transfer of the .\s.sets of the League of Nations. Report 
of the Fifth Committee. A/797, 10 December 1948. 
8 pp. mimeo. 

Fourth Annual Budget and Working Capital Fund of the 
United Nations. A/798, 10 December 1948. 24 pp. 
mimeo. 

Study of Meetings for the Promotion of International Co- 
operation in the Political Field. Report of the ad hoc 
Political Committee. A/809, 13 December 1948. 5 pp. 
mimeo. 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A/811, 16 De- 
cember 1948. 6 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries In the United 
States. 

133 



Resolutions of General Assembly on ECOSOC Matters ^ 



The following resolutions, adopted by the Gen- 
eral Assembly at the first part of the third session, 
relate to matters within the field of the Council. 
Attention is drawn to the discussion of these reso- 
lutions in the General Assembly. The symbol 
numbers of the appropriate verbatim records of 
the plenary proceedings (which include the uned- 
ited text of the resolutions) is given in the right 
hand column. The symbol numbers of the corre- 
sponding Kapporteurs' reports, which contain full 
references to the discussions of the resolutions at 
the conunittee stage, are listed in the second 
column. 

Resolutions which require to be included in 
the agenda of the Council for the eighth session, 
either as separate items or as part of other items, 
are marked with an asterisk. 



Title of resolution (at the date of 
issue of this document num- 
bers had not yet been allocated 
to the resolutions) 



Title of resolution (at the date of 


Rapporteurs' re- 




issue of this document num- 


port, including 


Reference to plenary 


bers had not yet been allocated 


reference to com- 


discussion 


to the resolutions) 


mittee discussion 




*Economic development 


A/737 


A/PV.170 


of under-developed 






countries 






♦Establishment of an 


A/737 


A/PV.170 


Economic Commission 






for the Middle East 






*Tcchnical assistance for 


A/737 


A/PV.170 


economic development 






Training for apprentices 


A/737 


A/PV.170 


and technical workers 






♦The problem of wasting 


A/756 


A/PV.177 


food in certain coun- 






tries 






AppUcation of Finland 


A/710 


A/PV.160 


for membership in the 






International Civil 






Aviation Organization 






Agreement between the 


A/709 


A/PV.160 


United Nations and 






the Inter-Governmen- 






tal Maritime Consul- 






tative Organization 






Agreement between the 


A/708 


A/PV.160 


United Nations and 




A/PV.161 


the International Ref- 






ugee Organization 






♦Number of sessions of 


A/711 


A/PV.161 


regional Economic 


A/711/Corr. 1 




Commissions in 1949 






♦Distribution of mem- 


A/711 


A/PV.161 


bership in subsidiary- 


A/711/Corr. 1 




organs of the Eco- 






nomic and Social 






Council 






♦Participation of Mem- 


A/712 


A/PV.161 


ber States in the work 






of the Economic and 






Social Council 






♦Economic development 


A/727 


A/PV.161 


and Migration 







• U.N. doc. E/1081, Jan. 5, 1949. 



♦Relations with and co- 
ordination of special- 
ized agencies and work 
programmes of the 
United Nations and 
specialized agencies 

Draft Protocol bringing 
under international 
control drugs outside 
the scope of the Con- 
vention of 13 July 
1931 for Umiting the 
manufacture and reg- 
ulating the distri- 
bution of narcotic 
drugs, as amended by 
the Protocol signed 
at Lake Success on 11 
December 1946 

Transmission of infor- 
mation relating to 
any drug notified to 
the Secretary-Gen- 
eral under Article 1 of 
the Protocol 
♦Declaration of old age 
rights 

Assistance to Palestine 
refugees 

Advisory social welfare 
services 

Report of the Executive 
Board of the Interna- 
tional Children's 
Emergency Fund 

Extension during 1949 
of the United Natiqns 
Appeal for Children 

Universal Declaration 

of Human Rights 

♦Resolution relating to 

the right of petition 
♦Resolution relating to 
the fate of minorities 

Resolution relating to 
publicity to be given 
to the Universal Dec- 
laration of Human 
Rights 
♦Resolution relating to 
the preparation of a 
draft Covenant and 
draft measiires of im- 
plementation 

Transmission of infor- 
mation under Article 
73 e of the Charter 

Special Committee on 
Information trans- 
mitted under Article 
73 e of the Charter 



Rapporteurs' re- 
port, including 
reference to com- 
mittee discussion 



A/714 
A/714/Corr. 1 



A/666 
A/666/Corr.l 



A/777 

A/695 
A/695 



Reference to plenary 
discussion 



A/PV.161 



A/PV.149 
A/PV.150 



A/666 
A/666/Corr.l 


A/PV.149 
A/PV.150 


A/751 


A/PV.170 


A/725 


A/PV.163 


A/764 


A/PV.177 


A/759 


A/PV.177 


A/763 


A/PV.177 


A/777 


A/PV.181-2-3 


A/777 


A/PV.183 


A/777 


A/PV.183 


A/777 


A/PV.183 



A/PV.183 

A/PV.155 
A/PV.155 



134 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Title of resolution (at the dnte of 
issue of this document num- 
bers hud not yet hecu ullocated 
to the resolutions) 



Liaison between the 
Economic and Social 
Council and the 
Special Committee on 
information trans- 
mitted under Article 
73 e of the Charter 

Collaboration of the 
specialized agencies 
in regard to Article 
73 e of the Cliarter 

Cessation of trans- 
mission of informa- 
tion under Article 
73 e of the Charter 

International Children's 
Emereency Fund: 
Annual audit of the 
accounts of the Fund 

Payment of travelling 
and subsistence ex- 
penses to representa- 
tives to the General 
Assembly and mem- 
bers of Commissions 
and other bodies 

Transfer to the United 
Nations of the resid- 
ual assets and activi- 
ties of the United 
Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration 
Verbatim records of the 
Economic and Soci.il 
Council and of the 
Trusteeship Coimcil 
Advances from the Work- 
ing Capital Fund (with 
special reference to 
the financing of the 
United Nations Con- 
ference on Trade and 
Employment and its 
prep.iratory bodies) 
♦International facilities 
for the promotion of 
training in Public Ad- 
ministration 
Transfer to the United 
Nations of functions 
and powers exercised 
by the League of Na- 
tions under the Inter- 
national Convention 
relating to Economic 
Statistics, signed at 
Geneva on 14 Decem- 
ber 1928 



Rapporteurs* re- 
port. IncludluR 
reference to com- 
mittee discussion 



A/695 



A/695 


A/PV.155 


A/695 


A/PV.155 


A/668 


A/PV.150 


A/670 


A/PV.150 



A/706 



A/716 



A/717 



A/746 
A/713 



Reference to plenary 
discussion 



A/PV.155 



A/PV.159 

A/PV.159 
A/PV.159 



A/PV.170 
A/PV.171 



A/PV.160 



Title of resolution (at the date of 
Issue of tills document num- 
bers had not yet been allocated 
to the resolutions) 



Transfer to the United 

Nations of the func- 
tions exercised by the 
French Government 
under the Interna- 
tional agreement of 
18 May 1904 and the 
International (Con- 
vention of 4 May 1910 
for the suppression of 
the white slave traffic, 
and the .\greonicnl of 
4 May 1910 for the 
suppression of the cir- 
culation of obscene 
publications 

Resolution relating to 
the adoption of the 
Convention on the 
Prevention and Pun- 
ishment of the Crime 
of Genocide, and text 
of the Convention 

Resolution relating to 
the study by the In- 
ternational Law Com- 
mission of the question 
of an international 
criminal jurisdiction 

Resolution relating to 
the application of the 
Convention on the 
Prevention and Pun- 
ishment of the Crime 
of Genocide with re- 
spect to dependent 
territories 

Approval of supplemen- 
tary agreements with 
specialized agencies 
concerning the use of 
United Nations laissez- 
passer 

Election of members of 
the Economic and 
Social Council (deci- 
sion) 



Rapporteurs' re- 
port, including 
reference to com- 
mittee discussion 



A/741 



A/760 



A/760 



A/760 



A/782 



Reference to plenary 
discussion 



A/PV.169 



A/PV.178 
A/PV.179 



A/PV.178 
A/PV.179 



A/PV.178 
A/PV.179 



A/PV.186 



A/PV.149 



The General Assembly also considered the sub- 
ject "Discrimination practiced by certain States in 
international trade obstructing normal develop- 
ment of trade relations and contrary to the pur- 
poses and principles of the United Nations Char- 
ter" but adopted no resolution. The Rapporteurs' 
report is contained in document A/733. 



January 30, 1949 



135 



The United States in the United Nations 



[January 22-29] 



Indonesia 

Meeting on January 25th, 27th, and 28th, the 
Security Council continued debate on the draft 
resolution on Indonesia presented jointly by 
China, Cuba, Norway, and the United States. 

The Council received on the 25th the resolution 
on the question passed by the New Delhi confer- 
ence, which entered into the further consideration 
of the Four Power draft resolution. 

Four amendments to the resolution were put 
forward on the 27th, three by the sponsoring 
powers, and the fourth by Canada, with the Four 
Powers expressing agreement. These were in- 
tended to extend the area to be returned immedi- 
ately and in the first instance to the Republican 
administration so as to include not only the city 
of Jogjakarta, but also its immediate environs; to 
clarify the authority of the proposed U.N. Com- 
mission over elections in the various islands; to 
emphasize responsibility of the proposed commis- 
sion for provision of such economic measures as 
may be necessary for the proper functioning of 
the Indonesian Republic; and textual changes in 
the interest of "more dignified language," as the 
Representative of China expressed it. 

Speaking in behalf of the proposed resolution 
and the four amendments, Philip C. Jessup, 
Deputy U.S. Repesentative, pointed out the simi- 
larities between its objectives and those of the New 
Delhi conference. With reference to two points 
of difference between these two proposals in the 
accomplishment of these objectives. Dr. Jessup 
argued that the timetable set forth in the Four 
Power proposal for the transfer of sovereignty to 
the United States of Indonesia was more practical 
in view of the difficulties involved, and that the 
fixing of the time and manner for troop with- 
drawals could more expeditiously be determined 
by the U.N. Commission on the scene. Dr. Jessup 
emphasized that the proposed resolution directed 
the Commission to make its recommendations re- 
garding progressive withdrawals of troops to the 
end that there shall be the earliest possible restora- 
tion of the civil administration of the Republic. 

On the afternoon of January 28, the Security 
Council adopted the resolution as amended in a 
paragraph-by-paragraph vote, with the U.S.S.R., 
the Ukraine S.S.R., France, and Argentina regis- 
tering abstentions to some of the paragraphs. No 
vote was taken on the resolution as a whole. 

Trusteeship Council 

Based on a United States proposal advanced 
on the 25th, a six-member committee was desig- 
nated by the Trusteeship Council on the 27th to 
make a preliminary study of the question of ad- 
ministrative unions. France, New Zealand, and 
tlie United States were appointed as administor- 

136 



ing members, and China, Mexico, and the U.S.S.R. 
as nonadministering powers. The Committee 
was instructed to present available documentation 
to the Council by March 1, and to submit its re- 
port not later than three weeks before the fifth 
session of the Council. 

On the request of the U.N. Secretariat, the Trus- 
teeship Council discussed problems presented by 
confidential and lengthy petitions regarding trus- 
teeship matters. 

Palestine Conciliation Commission 

To fill the vacancy in the U.N. Palestine Con- 
ciliation Commission created by the resignation 
of Joseph B. Keenan, it was announced on Jan- 
uary 24 that President Truman had appointed 
Mark F. Ethridge, publisher of the Louisville 
Courier -Journal. 

Acting mediator Ralph Bundle announced 
through the United Nations on January 27th that 
he had invited the Palestine Conciliation Commis- 
sion to come to Rhodes while negotiations are in 
progress between Israel and EgyjDt. 

Palestine Refugees 

President Truman has sent a special message to 
Congress urging "favorable consideration" of the 
request made by the State Department for a $16- 
million contribution by the United States to the 
United Nations to assist in relief of an estimated 
720,000 Palestinian refugees. This request was in 
response to an appeal from the General Assembly 
for voluntary contributions. 

U.N. Secretary-General Trj-gve Lie says more 
funds are urgently needed to operate the U.N. Re- 
lief for Palestine Refugees program. Work on 
the program was started two weeks ago under the 
direction of Stanton Griffis, now on leave from liis 
post as U.S. Ambassador to Egypt. The General 
Assembly approved a budget of $32 million on No- 
vember 19, 1948, for aid to Palestine refugees, 
based on voluntary contributions to be made by 
U.N. member nations. 

U. N. Commission on Korea 

Secretary General Lie has announced that the 
7-nation Commission on Korea will hold its first 
meeting in Seoul January 31. This Commission 
was created by the General Assembly to succeed 
the temporary commission which observed and 
reported on elections in South Korea last year. 
Made up of representatives of Australia, China, El 
Salvador, France, India, Philippines, and Syria, 
the new Commission is to seek Korean unification 
and to observe and verify withdrawal of the 
occupying forces. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Government Assistance in Developing Imports Into the United States 

BY JOSEPH D. COPPOCK > 
Economic Adviser, Office of International Trade Policy 



[Released to the press January 18] 

I should like to review a few of the main facts 
about imports into the United States. The most 
recent fact of general significance is that Americans 
bought 1014 billion dollars worth of goods and 
services from foreigners in 1948. This is the high- 
est figure on record. If one deflates this figure 
for price changes, it is still the highest figure on 
record. 

Seven and one-half billion of these imports was 
in goods ; 2i/o billion dolltirs was in services, mostly 
shipping and financial ; and one quarter of a billion 
was in income on investments. The breakdown 
of the goods imports by economic classes is: 30 
percent, crude materials; 16 percent, crude food- 
stuffs; 11 percent, manufactured foodstuffs; 24 
percent, semimanufactures; 19 percent, finished 
manufactures. These percentage figures by eco- 
nomic classes are very similar to those for the years 
1936, 1937, and 1938, but there are some very in- 
teresting shifts in the sources of our imports. The 
Canadian share ten years ago was only 14 percent 
as compared with the present 24 percent : the other 
Western Hemisphere share was only 23 percent 
as compared with the present 33 percent. The big 
drops percentagewise are in the Erp countries, 
where the share fell from 24 percent to 13 percent, 
and in the Asian countries, where the share fell 
from 28 percent to 17 percent. The 1948 figure 
for non-ERp European countries is 3 percent, for 
Africa, 6 percent, and for Australia and Oceania, 
3 percent. 

Other facts of general interest about the total 
import-item figure of IO14 billions for 1948 are 
that it represented 4 percent of our tremendous 
gross national product of 253 billion dollars, and 
that it still lagged behind exports to the extent of 
614 billion dollars. This gap was II14 billion in 
1947. The reduction in the gap in 1948 was the 
result of a decrease in exports from 19% billion in 
1947 to 16% in 1948 and an increase in imports 
from 31/2 billion in 1947 to 10)4 billion in 1948. 
These figiires show that the United States has not 
been plagued, as have nearly all other countries 
of the world, by an inadequacy of exports with 
which to buy the desired imports. Our concern 
has been just the opposite; namely, that our im- 
ports have been so low, compared with our exports, 

January 30, 1949 



that we wonder whether we will ever get paid as 
a country for our exports. 

The Government is only one factor in the situa- 
tion and by no means the most important factor. 
The greatest factor making for increased imports 
is a large national product. The more we produce 
the more we are able to buy, and the more we are 
willing to buy from abroad. This magnificent 
output of the American economy — which is esti- 
mated at between 40 and 50 percent of the total 
value product of the entire world — does not fall 
from the sky like manna. It is the result of the ap- 
plication of hard and intelligent work, bountiful 
natural resources, and a mighty good political and 
economic system. 

There are other rather specific factors affecting 
imports. There have to be goods produced in 
other countries that we want to buy, and other 
countries have to be willing to self them to us. 
United States businessmen have to have the imagi- 
nation and vigor and enterprise to seek out these 
products for import, and the United States con- 
sumer, both intermediate and final, must be will- 
ing to buy and use the imported articles. The 
goods to be imported must be of high enough 
quality and low enough price. Similar observa- 
tions apply to tourist, transport, financial, and 
communications services. Just as the national 
product does not fall from the sky, imports do 
not flow into the country automatically. As As- 
sistant Secretary Thorp told the American Council 
of Importers last spring, the hero behind the flow 
of imports is the individual importer. 

In spite of the importance of these non-Govern- 
ment factors affecting imports, there is still some- 
thing left for the Government to do. In the first 
place the Government itself buys a considerable 
quantity of foreign goods and services. Our mili- 
tary and diplomatic establishments abroad obvi- 
ously have to make substantial purchases. The 
Government has a sizable stockpile program, and, 
as a hang-over from the war, the Government is the 
sole importer of tin, which it then allots to indus- 
trial users. 

The Government also buys gold from abroad. 

' An address delivered before the Importers Association, 
Inc., in Chicago on Jan. 18, 1949, and released to the press 
on the same date. 

137 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

In fact, the net liquidation of gold and dollar assets 
(convertible into gold) by foreign countries was 
nearly 2 billion dollars in 1946, 41/2 billion in 1947, 
and a little over 1 billion in 1948. This is quite 
a sizeable import item, although it is not included 
in the usual trade statistics and is sometimes 
neglected in the discussion of imjoorts. Our siz- 
able national "kitty" of 24 billion dollars' worth 
of gold is a potent means of acquiring imports in 
case we should want to expand our imports con- 
siderably above the going level of our exports of 
goods and services. 

Outside the field of direct purchases from 
abroad, the Government is able to influence im- 
ports in a number of different ways. One of the 
main ways is to encourage production elsewhere 
so that the people in other countries will have 
more goods and services to sell to us. A prime 
requisite of increased production and trade, and 
of particular concern to the State Department, 
is the creation or preservation of political sta- 
bility in other parts of the world. One does not 
have to look hard or long for political disturbance 
in the world, so the Department has plenty of work 
to do in this field. Greece, Palestine, Indonesia, 
to say nothing of China, are good recent exam- 
ples of the close connection between political sta- 
bility and economic activity. The United States 
Government has been extremely active both 
through the United Nations and through direct 
dealings with other governments in seeking to 
compose differences between governments. The 
efforts of our Government are not always crowned 
with success, but there can scarcely be any doubt 
of the importance of United States foreign policy 
as a factor making for political stability. 

With political stability, and particularly with 
functioning democratic political institutions, peo- 
ple can turn from warlike pursuits to productive 
economic activities. Investments can be made by 
both domestic and foreign capital, and production 
can increase. Moreover, a country with a good 
and stable government can organize its economic 
affairs in such a way as to relate them to world 
economic currents and thus develop market out- 
lets and sources of imports which enable it to con- 
centrate on the production of things which it is 
best able to produce. The economic deterioration 
which set in in Western Europe in early 1947, and 
which led up to the Marshall Plan, arose as much 
fi'om political factors as from the economic con- 
ditions themselves. Some people contend that 
political stability must precede economic recovery, 
while others contend that economic recovery 
must precede political stability. However, if 
political stability is not maintained, external 
economic assistance becomes only temporary re- 
lief. As is well known, the Marshall Plan 
is designed to promote both economic recovery 
and political stability on a long-term basis. Our 

138 



aid is paying off, as the testimony before congres- 
sional committees will bring out in detail in the 
coming weeks. Europe is considerably better off 
than it was in early 1947, when the situation called 
for a Marshall Plan, but conditions are by no 
means satisfactory. Some of the countries are do- 
ing well ; some are not. Germany still remains a 
drag on the economic life of Europe. 

Our Government is also active in encouraging 
exports from other countries, particularly by dis- 
couraging export barriers or fees or taxes, and 
discouraging controls which are not necessary. It 
also seeks to discourage programs of national self- 
sufficiency while encouraging programs of national 
self-support. It seeks to discourage the system of 
bilateral balancing of international accounts. 
This system sei-ves to keep international trade at 
a low level and blocks the development of an inter- 
national payments system, which is the only sound 
basis for the multilateral clearing and balancing 
of international accounts, which, in turn, is the 
indispensable financial mechanism for an ex- 
panding and increasingly beneficial international 
trade. Closely associated with bilateral balanc- 
ing is the device of long-term contracts. These 
are almost inevitably administered by government 
trading or control agencies. Reducing or elimi- 
nating these barriers to trade will take time, since 
so much depends on general political and economic 
improvement in many countries. The Ixo Char- 
ter is the most important international proposal 
to improve this situation. 

The Government also seeks to keep the way open 
for American business and other private business- 
men to do business in other countries. Efforts 
have been made for a long time to keep the door 
open by discouraging monopolies and cartels, 
whether governmental or private. Finally, the 
United States Government is now negotiating 
more than a dozen treaties of friendship, com- 
merce, and navigation, which seek to regularize 
the rights of Americans doing business abroad 
and of foreigners doing business in the United 
States. 

The major responsibility of the Government in 
encouraging imports is to see that the govern- 
mental barriers to imports into the United States 
are no higher than required by important consid- 
erations of national concern. As this group well 
knows, the governmental barriers are of three main 
kinds: quotas, administrative regulations, and 
tariffs or fees. Of these devices, quotas, or as 
they are sometimes called, quantitative restric- 
tions, are the most severe form of barrier. If 
there is to be a quota, it has to be determined on 
some more or less arbitrary basis, and has to be 
administered by a Government official who may be 
less than all wise. Fortunately, the United States 
has comparatively few quotas. Most of them have 
arisen in connection with the agricultural pro- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



, 



<;rnms of the Government, when domestic prices 
beioine high enou<jh to attnict hirge imports. 

Tlie second type of barrier is iidministrative 
regulations. One does not have to read many sets 
of regiihvtions or stutlies of administrative pro- 
cedures or liear many tales from importers, to be- 
come an admirer of the importers wlio liave the 
energy and persistence required to bring goods into 
the country. It is no mean feat. There has been 
nuicli sympathetic consideration in recent years to 
ways of simplifying customs procedure. Much 
can still be done to simplify procedures without 
undermining the basic purpose of these regula- 
tions, which is to keep some things out, inspect 
some, and to collect a duty on some. 

The third major governmental barrier to im- 
ports is, of course, the tariff. A few key facts 
about the United States tariff are worth noting. 
Over 60 percent of the imports into the United 
States come in duty free. It is of course not to 
be concluded from this figure that the tariff is not 
an important barrier. It could be that the duty 
is so high on the other connnodities that their 
importation is severely restrained by the tariff. 
However, the level of duties has been steadily 
reduced since 193i, when the Trade Agreements 
Act first came into operation. Also, there has 
been a decline in the ratio of duties collected to 
the value of dutiable imports, although this is due 
to the effect of specific duties against rising prices, 
as well as the tariff rates themselves. This ratio 
was 50 percent during the Smoot-Hawley era of 
the early 1930's. It fell to ?,0 percent during the 
last half of the 1930's under the first impact of 
the Hull Reciprocal Trade Agreements program 
and in 1947 was just under 20 percent. This 
1947 figure does not reflect the results of the ex- 
tensive negotiations conducted in Geneva in 1947 
among 23 countries. These figures take into ac- 
count not only the rates of duty but the volume 
of imports under each dutiable class of goods. It 
is, of course, a matter of speculation as to how 
much imports would increase with further reduc- 
tions in the tariff, but the actual experience to 
date and some simple statistical analysis suggests 
that further feasible reductions could give rise 
to an expansion of imports in the neighborhood 
6f one billion dollars within a few years. This 
is of course a speculative figure. With our pres- 
ent balance of payments excess and our interna- 
tional creditor position, such an increase in im- 
ports would be pure net gain to the country. 

The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act is again 
before Congress, this time to repeal the one-year 
act enacted by the 80th Congress and to reinsti- 
tute the familiar three-year act, still using the 
rates of January 1, 1945, as a base, and permit- 
ting negotiations with other countries which 
would reduce rates up to 50 percent. This legis- 
lation has a high priority in the congressional 
program. Another set of negotiations is sched- 

January 30, 1949 



THl RECORD OF THE WBBK 

uled for April of this year, when 13 more coun- 
tries will meet with those which signed the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1947 to 
negotiate other reductions and to adhere to the 
General Agreement. The General Agreement in- 
cludes restraints on the use of nontariff barriers 
to trade and is an imjjortant aspect of the agree- 
ment, particularly from the point of view of the 
United States. 

The imjjorts into the United States depend, to a 
very large extent, on the state of international 
trade generally throughout the world, and the 
state of international trade generally depends very 
largely on the set of international monetary and 
trading arrangements which prevail among the 
countries of the world. Recognition of this fact 
gave rise to the proposals of the United States 
Government for a set of international organiza- 
tions within the U.N. framework which would 
promote improved international economic ar- 
rangements. One of the first moves under that 
program was the negotiation of what is known as 
the Chicago air agreement, the agreement under- 
lying the International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion. Other organizations in the transportation 
and communications field have since been organ- 
ized, or reorganized — the Universal Postal Union, 
the International Teleconnnunication Union, and 
the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Or- 
ganization. In the financial field, the Bretton 
Woods agreement gave rise to the International 
Bank, designed to promote the international flow 
of investment capital, and the International Mone- 
tary Fund, designed to help stabilize exchange 
rates. The Bretton Woods agreement envisaged 
an international organization to round out the pat- 
tern of international economic cooperation, and 
since late 1945 the United States Government has 
been working with other governments, under U.N. 
auspices, to bring into operation an effective In- 
ternational Trade Organization — the Ito. The 
Ito Charter was negotiated at Habana last winter 
and is now before the 53 participating govern- 
ments. The Charter is one of the major items on 
the congressional calendar this spring and upon 
the action of Congress hangs very largely the fate 
of international economic cooperation. Without 
the Ito Charter the objectives of the International 
Bank and the International Monetary Fund will 
be largely lost and the international economic co- 
operation essential to the political success of the 
U.N. will be lacking. The situation is summed up 
well in the resolution adopted by the Board of 
Directoi-s of the National Council of Importers on 
December 16, 1948, favoring the Ito, which states : 

"The imperfections of the Charter are recog- 
nized, but we believe that an International Trade 
Organization, functioning under the Economic 
and Social Council of the United Nations, is vital 
to international prosperity and peace. The 

139 



THE RECORD OF THE WBCK 

United States and the world have more to gain 
than to lose by its acceptance, and it should be put 
into effect as soon as possible. 

"In urging Congressional acceptance of the 
proposed Charter, the Board of Directors of the 
National Council of American Importers also rec- 
ommends that when the International Trade Or- 
ganization comes into being, our United States 
delegation make every effort to obtain those 
changes needed to remedy the imperfections in the 
Charter, and such other changes as experience may 
indicate are necessary to clarify its provisions and 
improve its operation." 

The Ito Charter is not a perfect instrument, but 



it is the best that can now be negotiated, and for 
the United States to fail to ratify it is to throw 
open the doors to bilateralism, restrictionism, dis- 
crimination, and economic warfare. The Rus- 
sians are dead set against the Ixo just as they are 
dead set against the Erp. They recognize it as a 
major cooperative effort among the countries of 
the non-Communist world and nothing could suit 
their wishes better than for this major aspect of 
international economic cooperation to fail. It is 
in the interest of the United States, economically, 
politically and strategically, for Congress to ratify 
the Ito Charter. 

And, incidentally, the effect will be to help im- 
porters expand imports. 



Recommendations on Reorganization Procedure 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS 



[Released by the White House to the press January 17] 

To THE Congress of the United States: In 
my recent messages to the Congress I have pre- 
sented the program which I believe this Govern- 
ment should follow in the months ahead. The 
magnitude and importance of that program, both 
at home and abroad, require able leadership and 
sound management. The Government must have 
the most effective administrative machinery to 
carry out its vast responsibilities. 

The Congress has recognized these needs by the 
establishment of the Commission on the Organi- 
zation of the Executive Branch of the Govern- 
ment. The recommendations of the Commission, 
which are soon to be reported to the Congress, 
may be expected to contribute significantly to 
our ability to meet the problem before us. To 
carry out those recommendations and to accom- 
plish other improvements in the Government's 
complex operations will, however, require further 
and more detailed steps. Improving the man- 
agement of the public's business calls for continu- 
ing efforts by the Congress, the President, and all 
agencies of Government. 

Throughout my administration I have taken 
action to effect improvements in the organization 
and operation of the Government. In 1945 I 
asked the Congress to enact legislation authoriz- 
ing permanent changes in administrative struc- 
ture oy the reorganization plan procedure. Un- 
der the authority granted by the Reorganization 
Act of 1945, numerous reorganizations were made 
which contributed to the efficiency of the Govern- 
ment and its transition from war to peace. The 
establishment of the permanent Housing and 
Home Finance Agency wtus an outstanding ex- 
ample of the improvements thus achieved. I also 

140 



recommended, and the Congress enacted, a major 
improvement in the organization of our armed 
forces by the creation of the National Military 
Establishment. On matters not requiring legis- 
lation I have made program adjustments designed 
to increase the effectiveness of governmental op- 
erations. 

It is my firm intention to continue to require, 
throughout the Executive Branch, the highest de- 
gree of attention to this need for improved man- 
agement. I expect each department and agency 
head to consider this a major part of his responsi- 
bility. It is essential that they be given the tools 
for effective management of their agencies. 
Further, I believe that every official and employee 
of the Government should feel a personal re- 
sponsibility for improving the way in which his 
work is performed. 

Increased efficiency and economy in the Govern- 
ment's far-flung activities can be realized only 
if certain essentials of organization and operation 
are satisfied. These essentials are not confined to 
Government. They have proven their effective- 
ness in the successful operation of large-scale en- 
terprise, both public and private. They are mat- 
ters on which it is easy to agree in principle but 
which are often violated in practice. 

There must be, first of all, a clear definition of / 
the objectives of public programs. Second, or- 
ganizational arrangements must be established 
which are consistent with those objectives and de- 
signed to produce responsible and effective admin- 
istration. Third, qualified personnel must be ob- 
tained to administer the programs. Fourth, the 
methods by which operations are conducted must 
be constantly reviewed and improved. Fifth, 
there must be provision for thoroughgoing review 

Deparfment of S/ofe Bulletin 



and evaluation of operations, by the President and 
the Congress, to assure thiit the objectives are being 
attained. These conditions can be achieved only 
through teamwork by the President and the Con- 
gress in carrying out their respective responsibili- 
ties under the Constitution for contlucthig the af- 
fairs of Government. 

I have alreatly recommended to the Congress two 
measures which will help us obtain better govern- 
ment. The enactment of legislation to increase 
the compensation of the heads and assistant heads 
of departments and agencies and to revise the 
Classification Act will greatly assist the Govern- 
ment in securing and holding the services of the 
best-qualified men and women. The appropria- 
tion to the President of a special fund of one mil- 
lion dollars for management improvement will 
yield major contributions to the better operation 
of the Government. It will be used in part for 
the development and installation of recommenda- 
tions coming from the Commission on Organiza- 
tion of the Executive Branch, and in part for the 
preliminary expenses incident to the appraisal 
and trial of other suggested improvements. This 
fund will in no sense be a substitute for the present 
day-to-day efforts by all Government agencies to 
improve the conduct of their operations. 

In addition to these steps, I am now recommend- 
ing that the Congress enact legislation to restore 
permanently the reorganization procedure tem- 
porarily provided by the Eeorganization Acts 
of 1939 and 1945. This procedure is the method 
of Executive-Legislative cooperation whereby a re- 
organization plan submitted to the Congress by 
the President becomes effective in sixty daj's unless 
rejected by both Houses of the Congress. 

In a letter to the President of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the 
Commission on the Organization of the Executive 
Branch of the Government has pointed out the 
need for such a method of reorganization in deal- 
ing with many of the changes which it will rec- 
ommend. I fully agree with the Commission on 
the necessity of reviving the reorganization plan 
procedure, which became inoperative on April 1, 
1948. 

In recommending the enactment of a new reor- 
ganization measure, I wish to emphasize three 
things. 

First, the reorganization legislation should be 
permanent rather than temporary. While the 
work of the Commission on the Organization of 
the Executive Branch of the Government makes 
such legislation especially timely and essential, the 
improvement of the organization of the Govern- 
ment is a continuing and never-ending process. 
Government is a dynamic institution. Its admin- 
istrative structure cannot be static. As new pro- 
grams are established and old programs change 
in character and scope to meet the needs of the 

January 30, J 949 



THE RECOKD Of THE WEEK 

Nation, the organization of the Executive Branch 
must be adjusted to fit its changing tasks. 

The impracticability of solving many problems 
of organization by the regular legislative process 
has been frankly recognized for many years by 
Congressional leaders. In many cases, changes 
which are essential cannot attract the necessary 
legislative attention in competition with the many 
other matters pressing for Congressional action. 
On the other hand, the reorganization plan affords 
a method by which action can be initiated and the 
proposal considered with a minimum consumption 
of legislative time. 

The reorganization plan procedure is a tested 
and proven means of dealing with organization 
problems. Twice within the last ten years tlie 
Congress has authorized this method of reorgani- 
zation for short periods. Under each of those au- 
thorizations many changes were made which added 
to the efficiency of the Executive Branch and 
tanded to simplify its administration. The ad- 
vances made during the brief life of the Reor- 
ganization Acts of 1939 and 1945 clearly indicate 
the desirability of permanent reorganization leg- 
islation. 

Second, the new reorganization act should be 
comprehensive in scope; no agency or function 
of the Executive Branch should be exempted from 
its operation. Such exemptions prevent the Presi- 
dent and the Congress from deriving the full 
benefit of the reorganization plan procedure, pri- 
marily by precluding action on major organiza- 
tional problems. A seemingly limited exemption 
may in fact render an entire needed reorganization 
affecting numerous agencies and functions wholly 
impractical. The proper protection against the 
possibility of unwise reorganization lies, not in the 
statutory exemption from the reorganization plan 
procedure, but in the authority of Congi-ess to re- 
ject any such plan by simple majority vote of both 
Houses. 

Finally, let me urge early enactment. Under 
the reorganization procedure, reorganization plans 
must lie before the Congress for 00 calendar days 
of continuous session in order to become effective. 
Unless the necessary legislation is adopted in the 
early weeks of the session, it obviously will be im- 
possible to make effective use of the reorganization 
procedure during the present session. 

The proper execution of the laws demands a 
simple, workable method of making organizational 
adjustments. Without it the efficiency of the 
Government is impaired and the President is 
handicapped in performing his functions as Chief 
Executive. In my judgment permanent legisla- 
tion to restore the reorganization plan procedure 
is an essential step toward efficient and economical 
conduct of the public's business. 



The WrirrE House 
Januanj 17, Wlfi 



Harry S. Trumah 



141 



Telling Our Side of the Story 



BY GEORGE V. ALLEN ' 
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs 



Last January, the American people, acting 
through their chosen representatives, took one of 
the most important, and even revohitionary, deci- 
sions ever taken in the history of our foreign rela- 
tions. The real significance of the change which 
was made in the conduct of our foreign policy 
is not yet appreciated, or even understood, by 
many people. 

Just a year ago, a law was enacted providing 
that the Department of State should continually 
carry out, as an integral part of the conduct of our 
foreign relations, an information, or "propaganda" 
campaign, if you wish, intended to reach over and 
through and around foreign governments, direct 
to the peoples of foreign countries. 

Let us face the significance of this decision 
squarely. In our propaganda activity, we are not 
primarily concerned whether foreign governments 
like what we say to their people. We are only con- 
cerned with what the people themselves think 
about it. 

Until a few years ago, governments normally 
conducted their foreign relations exclusively with 
otlier governments. They wrote diplomatic notes 
and expressed their governments' policies to for- 
eign officials. Any appeal direct to foreign peo- 
ples, over the heads of their governments, was 
generally castigated as improper interference in 
the affairs of a foreign country and was resorted to 
only on rare occasions, usually when formal diplo- 
matic relations had already been ruptured. As an 
example, Woodrow Wilson's speech of January 8, 
1918, containing the famous fourteen points, was 
one of those rare occasions. His speech was essen- 
tially a propaganda move, asking the German Gov- 
ernment to make peace on the terms offered, but it 
was also a direct appeal to the German people 
to do so themselves if their government refused. 

At present the American Government is ap- 
pealing direct to foreign peoples every day, 
speaking to them in tlieir own tongue, in a Voice 
of America radio program designed to tell for- 
eigiiers what we wish to say to them, and not neces- 
sarily what their own governments may wish them 
to know. 

Thus we are not only "Telling Our Side of the 

'An address delivered before the Women's Division of 
the Democratic National Committee in Washington, D.C. 
on Jan. 21, 1949, and released to the press on the same date. 

142 



Story," but we are telling it direct to foreign 
people by every means in our power. 

We tell the story of human liberty and the ad- 
vantages of the democratic system. We do not 
hesitate, moreover, to point out the wickedness of 
the dictatorial methods of a police state. 

The United States Government is not alone in 
its efforts to reach foreign peoples direct. Among 
the major powers, we were rather late in entering 
the field. Nazi Germany started it, and other 
European powers adopted the method in self-de- 
fense. Today, every country, great and small, 
that can build a radio station powerful enough to 
be heard outside its own borders, is doing the same 
thing. Programs in English are being beamed 
direct to the American people daily by a score of 
foreign governments. 

While the American Government did not orig- 
inate this new practice of appealing directly with 
foreign peoples, I do not regard the development 
as disadvantageous to us. Quite the contrary. I | 
believe we can play the game as well as the next ' 
man, and much better than any totalitai'ian gov- 
ernment can ever play it. 

Not all of our programs are directed at the 
people of unfriendly governments. We are en- 
deavoring to make our policies and our way of life 
better understood by all peoples. The practice of 
speaking directly to foreign peoples can be and is 
often a very healthy practice, welcomed by the 
governments as well as the peoples concerned. 
The former custom of limiting tlie relations be- 
tween two peoples to the exchange of formal dip- 
lomatic notes has passed out of the window — and 
it should stay out. We have entered a new era in 
foreign relations, infinitely broader than the era 
of traditional diplomacy. The more people who 
are able to come in direct contact with each other, 
the better chance they have of understanding each 
other and of avoiding the misunderstandings 
which have so often led to war. 

I could give many examples of the beneficial ef- 
fect of the Voice of America ojierations in further 
cementing the friendly relations already existing 
between two peoples. One example will suffice. 
Last October 25 was the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the founding of the Turkisli Republic. Presi- 
dent Truman found time, in a rather bus3' sched- 
ule, if you recall the date, to make a direct broad- 
cast to the Turkish Government and people, ex- 
pressing his admiration for the accomplishments 

Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



THf RECORD OF TH£ WEEK 

of that Republic since its foundation. The 
wiirnith of the Turkish people's response to this 
address has been astonishing and continuous. 
But propaganda, we nuist admit, is not always 
used for friendly purposes. When others use 
propaganda to attaclc us, in a "cold war" sucli as 
exists at the present time, the genius of the Ameri- 
can people, under our democratic system, will 
alwaj's hnd adequate means to reply. I am con- 
fident that we can accomplish the same outstand- 
ing results in the field of ideas that we have always 
accomplished in the material and military sphere 
during every "hot war" which others have forced 
upon us but which we have known how to finish. 

During the past war, the United States became 
known as the arsenal of democracy in the physical 
and material sense. We are now called upon to 
show equal determination, and equal success, in 
the political and spiritual field. We must remain 
the arsenal of political democracy for all time to 
come. 

Humanity everywhere looks to us today to sup- 
port the human soul from tyrannical oppi'ession 
no less than it has always looked to us for ma- 
terial and physical assistance. 

In telling our story abroad, we have gi-eat ad- 
vantages over totalitarianism. 

A totalitarian regime must always present it- 
self as perfect and its country as a paradise. 
Moreover, it must picture all other countries under 
a different system as entirely bad. 



In our information program, we are able to 

E resent the United States in its true colors. People 
elieve what we say for the very reason that we 
admit our imperfections. It has often been said 
that the man who tells the biggest lie, and tells it 
loudest and most often, is the man who is believed. 
We in the Voice of America operation reject that 
thesis flatly. We believe that truth, and only truth, 
must be the basis of any successful propaganda 
effort. 

As an example, the Voice of America is telling 
the world of the magnificent campaign which our 
President is conducting on behalf of civil rights 
within the United States. Wlien we report this 
campaign to the world, we show our constant .striv- 
ing for a fuller achievement of those very princi- 
ples of democracy which we profess. Wlien we 
present ourselves to the world exactly as we are, 
with our great strength and our imperfections, we 
are believed. If we pretend that we have achieved 
Utopia, our words will be as hollow as those which 
abuse tlie air daily from the radio towers of the 
dictators. 

We shall win the propaganda war. We shall do 
so not because the individuals engaged in this 
activity on our side are abler individuals than our 
opponents. We shall win because democracy is a 
sounder system of government than any other that 
has ever been devised. We have a vastly superior 
story to tell, and with supreme confidence in this 
superiority we cannot fail to triumph. 



Meeting of the International Penal and Penitentiary Commission 



At the meeting of the International Penal and 
Penitentiary Commission (Ippc) held at Bern 
from August 2 to August 6, 1948, significant prog- 
ress was made towards integrating the activity of 
this long-standing international agency with the 
work of the United Nations Economic and Social 
Council and its Social Commission. 

The principal topic discussed concerned the 
directions in which this organization could success- 
fully cooperate with the United Nations. At the 
invitation of tlie International Penal and Peniten- 
tiary Commission, a representative of the United 
Nations attended the meetings. Resolutions were 
passed expressing the desire of the Ippc to co- 
operate and to apply for consultative status in 
the United Nations. 

It is felt that significant steps were made toward 
the realization of the desire of the United States 
Government that all duplication or overlapping in 



international effort should be eliminated wherever 
possible. 

The Commission considered the reports of many 
of its subcommittees. It discussed some of the 
more important and current matters in connection 
with prison reform, including what to do with the 
habitual offender, substitutes for the short-term 
imprisonment, the development of open institu- 
tions, and other means whereby the cause of prison 
reform and crime prevention throughout the world 
could be advanced. 

It was voted to hold a quinquennial congress at 
Amsterdam in 1950. 

The United States Delegate was Sanford Bates, 
Commissioner, Department of Institutions and 
Agencies, for the State of New Jersey, who since 
1933 has been this Government's representative to 
the International Penal and Penitentiary Com- 
mission. Mr. Bates was elected president of the 
Commission in August 1946. 



January 30, 1949 



143 



The Present International Outlook 



BY FRANCIS B. SAYREt 
U. S. Representative In the Trusteeship Council 



There was a time when international problems 
seemed coldly remote and unconnected with 
American domestic issues back home. But now 
that is all changed. During the past three months 
in Paris we have been wrestling in the United 
Nations General Assembly with baffling inter- 
national problems which have become of momen- 
tous concern to every man and woman and child 
in America. Today we know that every home in 
every city and town and village of our country 
will be directly and vitally affected by the out- 
come of world issues. So will our taxes. So will 
the lives of our children, if these world issues are 
wrongly or improvidently decided. We have 
learned that a prosperous and free America cannot 
possibly exist in a hungry and desperate world. 

Tlie failure of the Paris Assembly to find defini- 
tive solutions for the war-breeding problems which 
today darken the international horizon, the real- 
ization that the United Nations has not yet proved 
able to set up an international military force to 
police disordered regions, and the fact that it has 
not yet succeeded in establishing effective inter- 
national control of atomic weapons, are leading to 
a sense of frustration. One hears it said on many 
sides that we must be realistic, must cease trying 
to work out an understanding with the U.S.S.R. 
and supplant the United Nations with a well- 
armed North Atlantic security league. 

Is this opinion sound and is it based upon solid 
facts ? 

Differences With U.S.S.R. 

The experience at Paris seemed to show the 
futility of trying to reach a compromise with the 
policies at present being pursued by the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics. Our divergencies are 
too radical and too fundamental. 

Western civilization, as a result of centuries of 
struggle and sacrifice, has come to believe in hu- 
man dignity as one of the most precious things in 
life, in a world society of tolerance. It is strug- 
gling to uphold human liberty, the rights of small 
nations, the rule of law and of right and of con- 
science as opposed to might. The Politburo, on 

' An address delivered before the Joint Council for Inter- 
national Cooperation in I5o.9ton, Mass., on .Tan. 12, 1949, 
and released to the press on the same date. Mr. Sayre is 
a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Third Session of 
the General Assembly. 

144 



the other hand, despite its loud protestations to the 
contrary, is seeking its ends — as its actions in the 
Baltic Republics, in Poland, in Yugoslavia, in 
Czechoslovakia, in Germany, and in other coun- 
tries indisputably prove — through methods of 
violence and terrorism and ruthless disregard 
of fundamental human rights. Between these two 
points of view there can be no compromise. 

The fundamental conflict is not primarily be- 
tween two great peoples, but between two philos- 
ophies — belief in a world of law and ordered jus- 
tice as against belief in the rule of sheer material 
power. In this there is nothing new. From time 
immemorial this struggle has been going on ; and 
it is only because peoples through the years have 
felt that human freedom and a rule of law are 
more ^^recious than life itself and have again and 
again been willing to figlit and die, if need be, 
in their defense that Western civilization as we 
know it has evolved. 

With the great masses of Russian people we have 
no quarrel. But, unhappily, for centuries they 
have been kept in ignorance and darkness, largely 
cut off from vital contacts with other peoples. 
They were scarcely touched by the great civiliza- 
tion of Rome. The Renaissance and the human- 
istic movements of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, sweeping across AVestern Europe, never 
reached the rank and file of Russian people. Their 
present government is still keeping them sepa- 
rated from the warm currents of human inter- 
course with the outside. The Soviet Government 
is isolating itself in the world as it is isolating 
itself in tlie United Nations. Manifestly it is not 
yet alive to the international responsibilities of the 
twentieth century world. 

If the Soviet Government is willing to respect 
fundamental human rights, if it is willing to co- 
operate in the building of a world based upon law 
and justice, there is no insoluble problem standing 
between us and the Russian people. But the 
United States cannot compromise with tlie attempt 
to build a lawless world upon sheer material 
jxjwer. 

It is imperative that our American foreign 
policy in the critical years ahead should be worked 
out realistically with these basic facts in mind. 
One of our objectives is even more fundamental 
than the keeping of immediate peace. It is the 
saving of our civilization. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Twentieth Century Approach to Peace 

It does not follow, however, that war is the 
only, or necessarily the best, means of protecting 
our civilization. The Soviet Union has herselt 
discovered that there are far more prolitable ways 
to gain her political ends than by war. War is 
too often due to the bankruptcy of brains. Ideas 
cannot be downed by force. It may be true that 
Uie Russians can be stopped only by superior force ; 
but it is not true that war is the way to stop the 
spread of Communism. Communism battens on 
war. 

The idea that the solution for present-day world 
problems is to be found in discarding the United 
Nations and setting up in its place strongly armed 
regional groups is too simple to lit our highly com- 
plex twentieth century world. It smacks of ob- 
solescent nineteenth century conceptions. 

In the nineteenth centurj- men lived in a differ- 
ent world. Modern electricity and airplanes and 
radios were unknown. Until 1858 it took more 
than a week to get news across the Atlantic Ocean. 
While in those days fewer artificial barriers than 
now were erected between national frontiers, na- 
tions due to physical factors were far more sep- 
arate and isolated. Out of such a world were 
naturally evolved theories of national sovereignty 
absolute in its nature, peace policies built upon a 
precarious balance of power between almost 
water-tight separate political units, a Europe 
based upon a Triple Alliance pitted against a 
Triple Entente. 

These policies may have suited the age in which 
they were developed. But today nineteenth cen- 
tury underlying conditions have been swept away. 
The basic conceptions built upon them must go, 
too, if Western civilization is to survive. 

By reason of today's amazing network of inter- 
national trade and travel and interchange of 
thought which has developed with modern tech- 
nological advance, the civilized world has now be- 
come so closely intermeshed in all its parts, so 
inescapably interdependent, that without constant 
and uninterrupted international collaboration our 
Western civilization cannot continue to function — 
cannot, indeed, continue to exist. The problems 
which each nation faces, even many of its pri- 
marily domestic issues, have come to be too world 
wide in their far-flung ramificatioi:is and complexi- 
ties, too extended in their scope, to be capable of 
solution by any one nation acting alone, or even 
by two or three acting together. Nations can 
no longer live separate, isolated existences, com- 
peting each for selfish, superior power over rivals. 

In the light of present conditions, the saving 
of Western civilization and the building of stable 
peace requires a decisive shift from nineteenth 
century conceptions. We have reached an age 
when, whether we like it or not, if our civilization 
is to survive, collaboration among peoples for the 

January 30, 1949 



service of humanity must take the place of power 
politics for selfish national ends. 

Since the Second World War a new world is 
emerging, a world built upon global concepts of 
international obligation. Call it humanitarian- 
ism, the service of humanity — or call it by the 
Christian name of brotherhood — this is the goal 
toward wliich our twentieth century world is 
moving, and must move if we are to survive. 
Those nations whose ]ieople work genuinely and 
unselfishly for the welfare of humanity will be 
and are the great nations of the earth. The world 
is emerging to a level where right must be reck- 
oned with and can conceivably play a more potent 
part than bare might. 

Manifestations of Twentieth Century Trends 

What are some of the concrete manifestations of 
this twentieth century trend ? 

Take, for instance, the Marshall Plan. Was 
there ever an instance before in human history 
when a nation shipped across the seas without hope 
of financial compensation hundreds of millions of 
dollars worth of its machinery and its industrial 
goods and its iron and steel to meet human need 
in alien lands? Those who oppose the Marshall 
Plan have brought forward the preposterous 
charge that these shipments have been made to 
dump unneeded surpluses for the economic ad- 
vantage of the United States. But the fact that 
large proportions of these goods are in short sup- 
ply and vociferously demanded by important 
American industrial and agricultural groups gives 
the lie to such a smear campaign. 

The American objective is manifestly not to 
weaken but to strengthen the European economy 
and to assist in building it again into a highly 
productive and self-reliant economy. The Mar- 
shall Plan rests upon the hard-headed realization 
that in our twentieth century civilization no nation 
can live unto itself alone, that we all sink or swim 
together, that not even the wealthiest nation can 
prosper even materially if large populations are 
desperately hungry and in need in other parts of 
the world, that the wisest and most rewarding, 
if not the only safe, national policy today is a 
humanitarian policy. And, as part of the project, 
so that these deliveries will not lead to pauperiza- 
tion and permanent dependency, the shipments 
are being made on the express condition that the 
receiving nations themselves collaborate in plan- 
ning what their own contributions shall be, each 
to the other, in order to build up a unified Europe 
and in planning how best to organize a European 
economy which will become at the earliest date 
possible independent of further American aid. 

Obviously, America, in spite of the vastness of 
its resources, cannot undertake to feed and main- 
tain every needy region of the world. But it can, 
to a limited degree, utilize its resources to strength- 

145 



en tliose who are fighting to maintain human 
freedom and protect fundamental human rights. 

Or, again, I think of the "regional arrangement," 
authorized under chapter VIII of the United Na- 
tions Charter, the so-called Western European 
Union. The objective of this cooperative enter- 
prise is not the setting up of a military alliance 
to threaten the security of other states. It is not 
a move for selfish power to impose its will through 
armed force on unwilling peoples. It is, rather, 
a cooperative movement by free peoples, through 
common effort and collaboration, to crash througli 
much of the outlived political and economic na- 
tionalism which once held them apart. It is an 
effort in the spirit of the twentieth century to give 
to peoples a freer and more spacious life and at 
the same time a higher degi'ee of security under 
which to work. It is another move away from 
nineteenth century rampant, selfish nationalism 
in the direction of forward-looking twentieth 
century internationalism. 

Many times before the closer unification of 
Europe has been attempted; many times it has 
failed. Now in the climate of the new world trends 
it bids fair to become a living reality. 

In this great cooperative and progressive ef- 
fort the United States cannot but be deeply in- 
terested and concerned. Our country is com- 
SDunded largely of "Western European peoples, 
ut it is equally clear that the United States can- 
not continue indefinitely to pour out reconstruc- 
tion supplies to a disunited Europe. Europe 
must be united, it must rid itself of exaggerated 
nineteenth century nationalisms, if its own se- 
curity and continued help from the United States 
are to be ensured. 

Here is a program of great promise and of great 
hope. If out of the tragedy and the suffering of 
the past war the peoples of Western Europe can 
be welded together and their ancient hostilities 
and deep-seated prejudices foi-gotten, the suffer- 
ing inflicted by the war will not have been in vain. 

Surely we are living in a world which has ad- 
vanced far from the separate nationalisms of the 
nineteenth century. We are facing global prob- 
lems, and they will never be solved except by glo- 
bal solutions based fundamentally on humani- 
tarian considerations. The nation which plays a 
lone hand for stakes of selhsh power is bound to 
lose in the twentieth century world. The dice 
are heavily loaded against her. 

Current East-West Controversies 

I have been outlining trends. It is quite true 
we are very far from having arrived. We have 
still a long, long way to go ; and these unmistakable 
trends which are manifesting themselves in our 
twentieth century world are at present darkly 
overshadowed by the present East- West controver- 
sies, which tend to distort every other international 
issue. 

146 



We must avoid allowing this distortion to ob- j 
scure the realities. We must not allow ourselves 
to be misled through it into a vain attempt to ap- 
ply obsolete nineteenth century conceptions to a 
twentieth century world. Superior armed force 
alone will not aiiord to twentieth century life the 
security which is necessary if civilization is to 
advance. 

This does not mean that we should strip our- 
selves of our defenses. In frontier days men de- 
voted to peaceful pursuits for improving their 
standards of living often found it necessary to 
build stockades against attack. Today the United 
States is a repository of immense wealth which 
carries with it immense responsibilities. 

Western Europe and the United States, under 
present conditions, must keep their power dry. 
We have a common lieritage to defend. It is to 
the very manifest interest of the United States 
to cooperate with a will in the protection of West- 
ern Europe. To the extent that the United States 
bolsters the capacity and the will of the freedom- 
loving nations to defend themselves against ag- 
gression, to that extent the United States, in ac- 
cord with the purposes and principles of the 
United Nations Charter, is strengthening the 
peace and bringing about conditions in which the 
United Nations can operate more effectively. 

But in doing so it is imperative that we should 
not slip back into obsolete conceptions. A North 
Atlantic security pact must not be conceived of as 
part of a program to supplant the United Nations 
but only under the United Nations to protect and 
defend progress gained through other means. 
Genuine progress can come only through intimate, 
continuous, and well -organized international 
collaboration built upon methods other than force. 

In spite of the menacing storm clouds with their 
distorting shadows at present darkening Europe, 
the important fact is that, given our modern 
twentieth century unified and closely interdepend- 
ent world, these trends toward international 
humanitarianism are inevitable and, if our civil- 
ization survives, ultimately irresistible. The 
United States, dreaming of economic self-suffi- 
ciency, attempted a long-range policy of selfish 
isolation in the years between the two world wars. 
In spite of our matchless power and wealth, the 
attempt ended in utter failure. The Iron Curtain 
is another attempt. It also will end in failure. 

Either the Soviet Government must sooner or 
later recognize and accept its twentieth century 
international responsibilities or fall. History, 
down through the centuries, has proved again and 
again that there can be but one outcome to a 
struggle for selfish power against forces fighting 
to protect and advance human rights. Those 
genuinely serving humanity always emerge ulti- 
mately triumphant. It is under their standards 
that allies choose to throw in their lot for human- 
ity's defense. 

Department of State Bulletin 



U. N. in World Relations 

In this inevitable evolutionary process what is 
the role of tlie United Nations? 

Unhappily the ori<;inal conception of the United 
Nations in the minds of the men on the street 
was as false as it was naive. The United Nations 
was conceived by many to be some kind of master 
political organization which would make war 
henceforth impossible. It would supplant war, 
they said, by reasoned debate. It wouhl lay down 
the rules of proper international conduct and pre- 
vent any nation from breaking those rules. 

Much of the present disillusioiunent is due to 
the failure of the United Nations to achieve this 
ideal, posed in part on a false interpretation of the 
Charter. Wars and threats of wai's have not been 
prevented. In the Paris session just concluded 
the more dramatic war-breeding issues found no 
immediate solution. Greece, Palestine, Korea, 
and Indonesia remain international worries. We 
are perceptibly no nearer the attainment of dis- 
armament or the effective control of atomic weap- 
ons than before the Paris meeting. Has the 
United Nations, then, apart from its purely hu- 
manitarian and economic activities, been reduced 
to futility? The question cannot be answered 
without understanding and appreciating the true 
functions of the United Nations. 

The United Nations was never set up in the 
belief that it would make all war impossible. It 
was never intended as a superstate. It is prima- 
rily a piece of international machinery to achieve 
the settlement of international disputes by peace- 
ful means and to make collaboration between re- 
sponsible representatives of the nations of the 
world practicable, effective, and continuous. If 
the Great Powers persist in conflict of funda- 
mental objectives, this piece of international ma- 
chinery manifestly cannot prevent war. But it 
can make a very great contribution in reducing the 
area of conflict and at times in actually resolving 
conflicts through better understanding of each 
other's viewpoints. With appropriate implemen- 
tation, it can provide enforcement action to main- 
tain peace. Of perhaps even greater significance, 
it can crystallize and record the public opinion of 
the world. This last can constitute a persuasive 
force of world-gi'ipping power. 

The continued existence of Western civilization 
is impossible without increased and genuine in- 
ternational collaboration. And effective inter- 
national collaboration is impossible without or- 
ganization and machinery. The United Nations 
is the only organized means of world collaboration 
in existence. It is that or utter disaster. 

Tlie existing structure of the youthful United 
Nations is not the last word. But I believe it 
represents the maximum attainment at present 
possible in the inevitable trend toward higher 
forms of world cooperation. One must not forget 
that it is a growing organism. And in spite of 

January 30, 1949 



its widely advertised failures, it has displayed a 
surprising and unexpected vitality and strength. 

Achievements of Paris Assembly 

The Paris meeting of the General Assembly, 
which concluded last month, achieved no immedi- 
ate solutions of the outstanding political problems 
of tlie day. It was marked by floods of fervid and 
often empty oratory and by prolonged committee 
meetings sometimes ending in deadlock or in bar- 
ren resolutions. Nevertheless, the Paris meeting 
achieved telling and substantial results. It may 
have averted active hostilities in several areas. 

The chief protagonists were talking and not 
fighting. Each was forced to lay before the bar 
of public opinion its actions and its policies and 
find justification for them in so far as possible. 
Out of the debate emerged a powerful public 
opinion which no nation can ignore. 

In issue after issue the nations of the world 
debated and weighed two sharply conflicting pro- 
grams, and under the spotlight of public debate 
reached definite, reasoned conclusions. 

Atomic Energy 

Typical of what was taking place was the dra- 
matic debate on the control of atomic energy. 
The Atomic Energy Commission had previously, 
after months of unceasing effort, reached the in- 
escapable conclusion, unanimous except for the 
vote of the Soviet Union and its satellites, that 
genuine international control was impossible with- 
out a program of effective ownership of dangerous 
facilities and thoroughgoing inspection by an in- 
ternational control agency. The Soviet Union 
voted against such program on the ground that 
it would constitute "an unwarranted infringement 
of national sovereignty." The General Assembly 
at Paris, after an illuminating debate, approved 
the control plan developed by the Atomic Energy 
Commission "as constituting the necessary basis 
for establishing an effective system of international 
control of atomic energy to ensure its use for 
peaceful purposes." The vote was 40 to 6, only 
the Soviet bloc voting against. This elucidation 
to the world of the complex issues which underlie 
the problem of atomic weapons and the definite 
fixing of responsibility upon the Soviet Union for 
our present inability to make further progress 
were achievements of no mean order. One hopes 
that as a result of this overwhelming opinion of 
the world, as thus focalized and recorded, the 
Soviet Union may find a way of reconsidering its 
position so as to permit atomic energy to be con- 
trolled for peace. 

In a succession of outstanding votes, the peace- 
loving nations of the world ranged themselves 
with near unanimity in support of progressive 
programs and against various obstructive Rus- 
sian proposals. 

147 



Armaments 

Tlie debate on conventional armaments made 
clear that the Soviet proposal to reduce existing 
armaments by one third was utterly impractical 
without a system of effective international in- 
spection and verification. It convinced practi- 
cally all of the insincerity and hypocrisy of Soviet 
aims. Out of the debate emerged a constructive 
resolution looking towards the checking and pub- 
lication by an international organ of control of 
full information with regard to existing arma- 
ments. This resolution, which may have far- 
reaching results, was passed in the Assembly by a 
vote of 43 in favor and only the Soviet bloc 
against. 

For a small minority to maintain an untenable 
jjositi on becomes increasingly difficult as the pub- 
lic opinion of the world becomes informed of the 
issues. Greece is a case in point. While the prob- 
lem of Greece has not yet been settled, it is under 
the spotlight of the United Nations; and tliis 
makes it a more and more difficult task to send 
armed guerrillas across the border. The debates 
in the General Assembly have resulted in ranging 
an overwhelming majority of governments back 
of the United Nations Special Committee on the 
Balkans, which had placed the blame on Greece's 
nortliern neighbors. In spite of the protests of 
the Soviet Government and its satellites, the As- 
sembly this year by a vote of 47 to 6 squarely placed 
the guilt upon Albania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria 
for the border disturbances and reconstituted the 
Balkan Commission for another year. At the 
same time the Assembly was careful to hold open 
the door of conciliation and settlement by nego- 
tiation. The Greek case has not yet been settled, 
but it is doubtful if Greece would be independent 
today were it not for the United Nations. 

Berlin Crisis 

In the Berlin dispute, which was debated in the 
Security Council in Paris, most of the Assembly 
delegates as a result of the debate now generally 
realize that the blockade of Berlin does in fact 
constitute a threat to the peace and hence is of 
vital concern to every member state. The Se- 
curity Council resolutioi., based upon this fact, 
was supported by every member of the Council 
except the Soviet Government and its satellites. 
The Security Council made clear to the world 
exactly where responsibility rests. Furthermore, 
the United Nations consideration of the issue re- 
sulted in demonstrating once again the close and 
strong unity between the three other great powers 
involved— the United Kingdom, France, and the 
United States. 

Palestine Situation 

In Palestine, thanks to the United Nations, the 
world understands the true issues as it did not in 

148 



the past, and a full-scale war has probably been 
averted. Due in large measure to the machinery 
and the unyielding efforts of the United Nations, 
the bitter controversy seems at the present nearer 
settlement than ever before. In the closing days 
of the Paris session a remarkable achievement 
took place. A constructive and forward-looking 
resolution was passed by over two thirds of the 
members of the Assembly, embodying the crys- 
tallized opinion of the world which had evolved 
from past months of varied efforts and debate. 
The resolution establishes a Conciliation Com- 
mission of three to seek agreement between the 
parties by negotiations conducted either with the 
Conciliation Commission or directly with a view 
to a final settlement of all questions outstanding 
between them and provides for "special and sep- 
arate treatment" for the City of Jerusalem, which 
is to be demilitarized and placed under effective 
United Nations control. For the first time in 
many years a reasonable hope of final settlement 
reigns in Palestine. 

Korean Independence 

Finally, on the very last day of the session, the 
General Assembly debated a hotly contested res- 
olution on Korea, which approved the conclusions 
of the reports of the Temporary Korean Com- 
mission, declared in unequivocal terms the legality 
of the Government of the Republic of Korea, 
which had been set up with the assistance of the 
Korean Commission, and authorized the contin- 
uance of the work by a new Commission. The 
resolution was strongly opposed by the Soviet 
Government and its five satellites. The under- 
lying issues were clarified and laid before the 
world. As a result, the resolution was passed by 
an overwhelming vote, 48 to 6, only the Soviet 
bloc voting against. This resolution also bids 
fair to have far-reaching results. 

Voting 

This year in the General Assembly there was 
much closer approach to unanimity among those 
supporting constructive programs toward peace 
than in anj' previous Assembly. The United Na- 
tions debates have been continuously throwing 
the searching spotlight of publicity upon issue 
after issue. They have pitilessly illumined hy- 
pocrisy and the pursuit of purely selfish rather 
than humanitarian ends. They have helped to 
consolidate and unify the policies of those coun- 
tries genuinely seeking world peace. The prac- 
tical unanimity recorded in vote after vote, with 
only the Soviet bloc voting in opposition, was con- 
vincing proof of solid achievement. AVliat took 
place in Paris will have far-reaching results. 
The Politburo cannot afford to ignore Paris. 

Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



The building of peace is far more difficult than 
recoui-se to war. Time is required. The complex 
and deep-rooted political and economic issues 
which make for war can rarely bo solved by for- 
mulas worked out in a night. Perhaps the most 
substantial and far-reaching achievements of all 
were the foundation stones laid at Paris for future 
advance. 

A declaration of fundamental human rights was 
debated at great length and agreed to. A conven- 
tion on genocide was drafted which will make the 
extermination of human groups an international 
crime. New judges were elected to the Interna- 
tional Court of justice. The report of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council was debated and im- 
portant resulting resolutions passed. The report 
of the Trusteeship Council involving the welfare 
of some fifteen million peoples living in trust areas 
was similarly debated and resulting resolutions 
passed. The work of the Trusteeship Council 
is another very concrete manifestation of the 
twentieth century trend toward international 
humanitarianism. 

Twentieth centuiy forces are in the ascendant. 
So far as I pereonally can see, the international 
outlook is considerably brighter than it was a 
year ago. Among those states sincerely desiring 
peace, the clarification of the true issues involved 
is developing a growing unity of program. With 
a closer economic and political unification of 
Western Europe may come a gi-eat upsurge of the 
forces of democracy. The consequences could be 
electric. Democracy, foundationed upon the deep 
desires and will of the great masses of mankind, 
is an unconquerable force. 

The time is big with opportunity. Destiny is in 
the making. The issues call for men of vision and 
men of courage. 



Vessels Not Required in Antarctica in 
1948-49 Season 

[Released to tbe press January 18] 

The Government of the United States is very 
pleased to learn that, being anxious to avoid any 
misunderstanding in Antarctica which might af- 
fect the friendly relations between Argentina, 
Chile, and the United Kingdom, the Governments 
of these three countries have informed each other 
that in present circumstances they foresee no need 
to send warships south of latitude 60 degrees dur- 
ing the 1948-49 Antarctic season, apart, of 
course, from routine movements such as have been 
customary for a number of years. 

The United States Government does not con- 
template sending any vessels to Antarctica during 
the 1948-49 Antarctic season. 



U.S. Rushes Aid To Combat Yellow Fever 
In Panama 

[Released to tbe press January 18] 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 18 that agencies of the United States Govern- 
ment have been mobilized to aid in combating a 
small outbreak of yellow fever in Panama. 

A total of 75,000 yellow-fever vaccine doses al- 
ready have been flown to Panama by the Depart- 
ment of the Air Force ; and another 175,000 doses 
are en route there. 

The Public Health Service emphasized that 
these measures are largely preventive and there 
is little likelihood of the outbreak developing seri- 
ous proportions or spreading beyond Panama and 
said that as a precaution Public Health quaran- 
tine officei-s at all United States ports of entry 
have been alerted to prevent any possible yellow- 
fever carriers from coming into the United States. 

The vaccines have been furnished by the United 
States Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency, from the Rocky Mountain Laboratory at 
Hamilton, Montana, which contains the only yel- 
low-fever vaccine stockpile in the United States. 
The Public Health Service is the sole manufacturer 
of yellow-fever vaccines in North America. 

In addition to supplying vaccines, the Public 
Health Service stated that Walter Reed Hospital 
is sending 1,000 collecting tubes to Panama to aid 
local authorities in fighting the outbreak and that 
Dr. Fred L. Soper, Director of the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, has already arrived in Panama 
from Mexico City to assist Panamanian author- 
ities. 

The initial 75,000 doses were picked up by the 
Air Force on January 16 at the Rocky Mountain 
Laboratory and flown direct to Panama, arriving 
at Howard Field, Canal Zone, late on January 17. 
The second 175,000 doses are being flown from the 
laboratory to New York City. The vaccines are 
scheduled to arrive at La Guardia Field at 1 : 50 
p.m., E.S.T., on January 18, where they will be 
met by Calvin B. Spencer, Chief Quarantine Offi- 
cer, Public Health Service, New York City, and 
W. A. Harman, Inspector in Charge, New York 
Office, Panama Canal Zone. They will immedi- 
ately deliver the vaccines to the S.S. Cristobal, 
Panama Line ship, at pier 64, for shipment to Pan- 
ama. Dr. R. R. Parker, director. Rocky Mountain 
Laboratory, wired special instructions to New 
York on the method of handling transfer of the 
vaccines. The Public Health Service said that the 
initial delivery of vaccine would be ample until 
the 175,000 doses arrive in Panama via the Cris- 
tobal. 



January 30, 1949 



149 



Relations With Provisional Government 
of El Salvador 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The United States Ambassador at San Salvador, 
Albert F. Nufer, is today replying formally to 
a note of December 18 received from the new Sal- 
vadoran Foreign Minister. This act of resuming 
relations with the provisional Government of El 
Salvador is being taken as a result of an exchange 
of views with the other American republics over 
a period of several weeks. 

Letters of Credence 

Peru 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Peru, Don 
Fernando Berckemeyer Pazos, presented his cre- 
dentials to the President on January 18. For 
translation of the Ambassador's remarks and for 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 38 of January 18, 1949. 

Mexico 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Mexico, 
Don Rafael de la Colina, presented his credentials 
to the President on January 18. For text of the 
Ambassadors remarks and the President's reply, 
see Department of State press release 39 of Janu- 
ary 18, 1949. 

ILO Convention on Uniform Statistics on Basic 
Economic Enterprises Sent to Senate 

Message of the President to the Senate 

[Released to the press by the White House January 17] 

To THE Senate of the United States : With a 
view to receiving the advice and consent of the 
Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith an 
authenticated copy of the text of a convention 
concerning statistics of wages and hours of work 
in the principal mining and manufacturing indus- 
tries, including building and construction, and in 
agriculture (No. 63) , adopted by the International 
Labor Conference at its Twenty-fourth Session 
held at Geneva June 2-22, 1938. 

This is the same convention which was trans- 
mitted to the Senate with the message of the Pres- 
ident of April 24, 1939 with a recommendation 
favorable to ratification. As the Senate did not 
find it possible to take action with respect to the 
convention during the war, I informed the Senate 
of my desire to withdraw it for further study and 
consideration in the light of developments since 

' Not printed. 



1939, and on April 17, 1947 the Senate directed 
that the convention be returned to me. 

A fresh appraisal has been made of the provi- 
sions of the convention, and the Departments of 
State, Labor, and Agriculture have indicated that 
in their opinion the convention should be ratified. 
In this connection, I transmit herewith the report 
on the convention made to me by the Acting Sec- 
retary of State and copies of communications from 
the Secretary of Labor and the Assistant Secre- 
tary of Agriculture with regard to the convention.^ 

In view of the desirability of furthering inter- 
national efforts to assure the development of uni- 
form statistics relating to basic economic enter- 
prises, I request that the Senate give its advice and 
consent to ratification of this convention, subject 
to the understanding that, in accordance with the 
provisions of Article 23 thereof, the convention 
shall apply only to the continental United States. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 
January 17, 191^9 

THE DEPARTMENT 



Dean G. Acheson Becomes Secretary of State 

On January 18, 1949, the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of Dean G. Acheson to be Secretary 
of State. Mr. Acheson took the oath of office on 
January 21. 

Appointment of Officers 

Edward B. Wilber as Chief, Division of Organization 
and Budget, effective .January 5, 19-19. 

Jack B. Tate as Acting Legal Adviser for tlie Depart- 
ment of State, effective January 3, 1949, during the 
temporary appointment of Ernest A. Gross as Coordinator 
for Foreign Assistance Programs. 

Donald W. Smith, as Chief of the Division of Foreign 
Service Personnel, effective December 31, 1948. 

Livingston Satterthwaite, as Chief of the Division of 
British Commonwealth Affairs, effective November 15, 
1948. 

Dorothy Fosdiek, as a member of the Policy Planning 
Staff, effective December 31, 1948. 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

Consular Offices 

The office at Wellington, New Zealand, was 
raised to the rank of Embassv, effective December 
22, 1948. 

The American Consulate at Suva. Fiji Islands, 
was closed to the public December 18 and officially 
closed December 31, 1948. The consular district 
has been assigned to Wellington. 



ISO 



Department of State Bulletin 



Raising of U.S. and Saudi Arabia Legations to 
Embassies 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The Governments of the United States and 
Saudi Arabia have agreed to raise their Li'pitions 
in eaoli other's countries to the status of Embassies. 
Tlie change in the status of the two missions will 
become effective when the Ambassadors-designate 
of the two countries have presented their cre- 
dentials. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Oovemment 
Printing Office. Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to ttie Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free pubiicati07is, ichich may be obtained from the 
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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Treaties and 
Other Internatioual Acts Series 1701-1705. Pub. ;J229. 85 
pp. 200. 

Protocols and Declaration — Signed at Havana March 
24, 1948. 

Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment 
to Areas Under Occupation or Control. Tre.Tties and 
Other International .\cts Series 1820. Pub. 3230. 4 pp. 
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Agreement Between the United States and Greece — 
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Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment 
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American Dead in World War II. Treaties and Other 
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Effected by exchange of notes signed at Bucharest 
June 19 and 28, 1946 ; entered into force June 28, 1946. 

Restitution of Property: Gold Looted by Germany and 
Transferred to the Bank for International Settlements. 

Treaties and Other International Act.s Series 1805. Pub. 
3309. 7 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States, the United 
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Effected by exchanges of letters signed at Washington 
May 13, 1948; entered into force May 13, 1948. 



Reciprocal Trade. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1811. Pub. 3320. 3 pp. r,<}. 

Agreement Between the United States and Brazil ren- 
dering Inoperative the agreements of February 2, 1935, 
and .April 17, 1935 and supiileniontliig the General 
Agreement on TaritTs and Trade of October 30, 1947 — 
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pp. 5«f. 

Agreement Between the United States and Argen- 
tina — Signed at Washington October 6, 1948; entered 
into force October 6, 1948. 

Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment to 
Areas Under Occupation or Control. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1823. Pub. 3332. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and France — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Paris June 
28, 1948 ; entered into force June 28, 1948. 

Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment 
to Areas Under Occupation or Control. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 1827. Pub. 3334. 7 
pp. 54. 

Agreement Between the United States and Iceland — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Reykjavik 
July 3, 1948; entered into force July 3, 1948. 

Economic Cooperation With Portugal Under Public Law 
472 — 80th Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1819. Pub. 3337. 49 pp. 15(J. 

Agreement Between the United States and Portugal — 
Signed at Lisbon September 28, 1948; entered into 
force September 28, 1948. 

Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment to 
Areas Under Occupation or ControL Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 1S24. Pub. 3338. 5 pp. 5<f. 

Agreement Between the United States and the French 
Zone of Occupation of Germany — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Paris July 9, 1948 ; entered 
into force J\ily 9, 1948. 

Marechal Joffre Claims. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1816. Pub. 3340. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States, Prance, and 
Australia — Signed at Washington October 19, 1948; 
entered into force October 19, 1948. 

Mutual Aid Settlement. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1818. Pub. 3345. 6 pp. 50. 

Agreement Between the United States and Czechoslo- 
vakia — Signed at Praha September 16, 1948; entered 
into force September 16, 1948. 

Collective Security in the North Atlantic Area. Foreign 
Affairs Outline no. 19. Pub. 3377. 4 pp. Free. 

A discussion of Senate Resolution 239 of June 11, 
1948, proposing that the United States associate Itself 
in peacetime with countries outside the Western 
Hemisphere in regional arrangements to safeguard 
world peace. 



January 30, 7949 



151 



^<yyvCe/rvl^ 






General Policy Page 

Inaugural Address of the President .... 123 

Recommendations on Reorganization Pro- 
cedure. Message of the President to 
the Congress • ■ ; 140 

Vessels Not Required in Antarctica in 1948- 

49 Season 149 

Relations With Provisional Government of 

El Salvador 150 

Letters of Credence: 

Peru 150 

Mexico 150 

Raising of U.S. and Saudi Arabia Legations 

to Embassies 151 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Provisional Agenda for the Eighth Session of 

the Economic and Social Council ... 129 
Meeting of Second National Conference on 

UNESCO 133 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 133 
Resolutions of General Assembly on Ecosoc 

Matters 134 

The U.S. in the U.N 136 

Meeting of the International Penal and 

Penitentiary Commission 143 

The Present International Outlook. By 

Francis B. Sayre 144 

Occupation Matters 

Bank Deutscher Laender 126 



International Information and 

Cultural Affairs p^g^ 

Telling Our Side of the Story. By George 

V. Allen 142 

U.S. Rushes Aid To Combat Yellow Fever 

in Panama 149 

Treaty Information 

Ilo Convention on Uniform Statistics on 
Basic Economic Enterprises Sent to 
Senate. Message of the President to 
the Senate 150 

Economic Affairs 

Government Assistance in Developing Im- 
ports Into the United States. By 
Joseph D. Coppock 137 

The Department 

Dean G. Acheson Becomes Secretary of 

State 150 

Appointment of OfiBcers 150 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 150 

Raising of U.S. and Saudi Arabia Legations 

to Embassies 151 

Publications 

U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 133 
Department of State 151 



B. S. eoVCRIIMIIIT pniHTIII« OFriCti l»4» 



'^py jU'e/icto^t) } ' pn/ . ^jicite^ 





"POINT 4" PROGRAM FOR WORLD 
ECONOMIC PROGRESS THROUGH 
COOPERATIVE TECHNICAL ASSIST- 

\XCF # Rpnwirt-v J»v ?^eCTt>tnr\ .'IrltPSOU , 155 

THE AMERICA \ COURSE IN FOREIGN 

\KF\TF!'^ 9 ' '■' -rir:. F. Tinhirn ... 157 

NEED FOR TRADE AGREEMENTS EX- 
TENSION ACT • f^- U-J^tnnt Srrretary 
Thorp Ifia 




Ha S. 5UPERII0ENDENT Of DOCUMtNlb 

f£6 18 1949 



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•>«r„ o« 



z/)efia/y^ent ^^ ^Tiate VJ Li. 1 1 KJ L 1 1 1 



Vol. XX, No. 501 • Publication 3421 
February 6, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Ooverament Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
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ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



''Point 4" Program for World Economic Progress 
Through Cooperative Technical Assistance 



REMARKS BY SECRETARY ACHESON' 



Firet of all, I hope that yon all understand the 
setting of ''Point 4" in the President's inaugural 
address.^ It was one of four major courses of 
action -which the President said would be carried 
out b}' his administration over the next four years 
for the purpose of achieving the great objective 
which he talked about mainly in that address. 
That objective was to make clear in our own coun- 
tr}' and to all the world the purpose of American 
life and the purpose of the American system. 
That purpose is to enable the individual to attain 
the freedom and dignity, the fullness of life, 
which should be the purpose of all government and 
of all life on this earth except in so far as it may 
be a preparation for some other life. 

The President went on to point out that the 
other theory — of the place of the individual in 
society — was not a modern theory, was not a radi- 
cal or a new view, but was reactionary in the ex- 
treme. It is a view which goes back to the period 
before the Renaissance. It is a view which is 
founded on the basic idea that status is the govern- 
ing factor in life, that every person is born into 
the world in a position, and that that person be- 
comes a mere cog in a machine. That is a basi- 
cally reactionary attitude and philosophy. It is 
not, as I say, modern. It is an attempt to crawl 
back into the cocoon of history. The American 
view of life is one which flows directly from the 
Renaissance and is one which says that the worth 
and dignity and freedom of the individual are the 
objectives of government. 

Then the President went on to point out courses 
of action which we were going to take over the 
next four years to try to bring about that purpose 
of life, not only in this country, but in any other 
country which wished our help and association 
in that effort. To me the essential thing about it 
is that it is the use of material means to a non- 
material end. It is not that we believe that other 

February 6, 1949 



people need or wish things for their own purpose 
merely to have these material objects. It is not 
that material objects in and of themselves make 
a better or fuller life; but they are the means 
by which people can obtain freedom, not only free- 
dom from the pressure of those other human 
beings who would restrict their freedom, but help 
in the ancient struggle of man to earn his living 
and get his bread from the soil. That is the pur- 
pose; that is the objective of this program. 

Now, the President was not announcing a proj- 
ect to be completed within a few weeks or months. 
He was announcing in this, as in the other three 
respects, a long program for his administration. 
It was a program on which much has been done in 
the past and on which more can be done in the 
future. The President pointed out that the 
United States has no monopoly of skills or tech- 
niques. Other countries have vast reservoirs of 
skill. In almost every country there is some 
nucleus of skill, some group of people whose tech- 
nical abilities can be expanded with help from the 
outside. With all of those people, the President 
stated, we wish to work. He particularly stated 
that we wished to work through the United Na- 
tions and all those affiliated organizations which 
are associated with it. He pointed out that in so 
far as his program is successful and in so far as 
peoples in less developed areas acquire skills, they 
may also create the conditions under which capital 
may flow into those countries. He did not say 
this was to be governmental capital ; and, indeed, if 
the proper conditions are created, the reservoirs 
of private capital are very great indeed. He 
pointed out that these must be two-way operations. 
There is abroad in the world an idea that there is 



' Made extemporaneously at the Secretary's press con- 
ference on Jan. 26, 1049, coucerning the President's 
inaugural address. 

• Bulletin of Jan. 30, 1949, p. 123. 

155 



THE PRESIDENT'S "POINT 4" PROGRAM 



Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program 
for making the benefits of our scientific advances and 
industrial progress available for the improvement and 
growth of underdeveloped areas. 

More than half the people of the world are living in 
conditions approaching misery. Their food is inade- 
quate. They are victims of disease. Their economic 
life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a 
handicap and a threat both to them and to more 
prosperous areas. 

For the first time in history, humanity possesses the 
knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these 
people. 

The United States is pre-eminent among nations in 
the development of industrial and scientific techniques. 
The material resources which we can afford to use for 
the assistance of other peoples are limited. But our 
imponderable resources in technical knowledge are 
constantly growing and are inexhaustible. 

I believe that we should make available to peace- 
loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical 
knowledge in order to help them realize their aspira- 
tions for a better life. And, in cooperation with other 
nations, we should foster capital investment in areas 
needing development. 

Our aim should be to help the free peoples of the 
world, through their own efforts, to produce more food, 
more clothing, more materials for housing, and more 
mechanical power to lighten their burdens. 

We invite other countries to pool their technological 
resources in this undertaking. Their contributions 
will be warmly welcomed. This should be a coopera- 
tive enterprise in which all nations work together 
through the United Nations and its specialized agen- 



cies wherever practicable. It must be a world-wide 
effort for the achievement of peace, plenty, and freedom. 

With the cooperation of business, private capital, 
agriculture, and labor in this country, this program 
can greatly increase the industrial activity in other 
nations and can raise substantially their standards of 
living. 

Such new economic developments must be devised 
and controlled to benefit the peoples of the areas in 
which they are established. Guarantees to the investor 
must be balanced by guarantees in the interest of the 
people whose resources and whose labor go into these 
developments. 

The old imperialism — exploitation for foreign profit — 
has no place in our plans. What we envisage is a 
program of development based on the concepts of demo- 
cratic fair-dealing. 

All countries, including our own, will greatly benefit 
from a constructive program for the better use of the 
world's human and natural resources. Experience 
shows that our commerce with other countries expands 
as they progress industrially and economically. 

Greater production is the key to prosperity and 
peace. And the key to greater production is a wider 
and more vigorous application of modern scientific and 
technical knowledge. 

Only by helping the least fortunate of its members 
to help themselves can the human family achieve the 
decent, satisfying life that is the right of all people. 

Democracy alone can supply the vitalizing force to 
stir the peoples of the world into triumphant action, 
not only against their human oppressors, but also 
against their ancient enemies — hunger, misery, and 
despair. 



a magic in investment. There is an idea that if 
every country can only have a steel mill, then all 
is well. There is a failure to understand that it 
is a long and difficult process to develop the skills 
which are necessary to operate many of these 
plants. There is sometimes failure to understand 
that plants should be located where the natural 
resources exist and not on purely nationalistic 
bases. There is also in many places a failure to 
understand that unless the conditions are created 
by which investors may fairly put their money 
into that country, then there is a great impedi- 
ment to development. It is no solution to say : 
"Well, the private investors won't do it. There- 
fore, governments must." So he pointed out that 
it must be a two-way street. 

156 



Now, as I say, much has been done in the past 
to try to make technological skill and advice avail- 
able from the United States and from other coun- 
tries, through the United Nations and through 
many of its organizations. All of those efforts 
can be brought together and intensified. The 
President pointed out that we are willing and 
anxious to work with every country that wishes 
to really enter into a cooperative system with 
the rest of the world to this end and with every 
country that wishes to help other countries to 
develop. 

Now, that is the broad background of the 
inaugural address. I have talked at some length 
about this because it seems to me important that 
it be put in its setting of American foreign policy. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



The American Course in Foreign Affairs 



BY CHARLES E. BOHLEN > 
Counselor of the Department of State 



We are now well into a new year and a little 
past the custoniar}- time for stocktaking in the 
commercial sense. Yet the inauguration of a new 
national administration, and the concurrent as- 
sumption of duties by a new Secretary of State, 
make this an opportune time for us to re-examine 
the position of the United States in world affairs. 

Mr. Acheson is the fifth Secretary of State to 
hold office in little more than four years; yet, as 
one who has served under all of them, I can testify 
to the continuity and consistency of our basic 
foreign policy. That this is true is a tribute to 
the high qualities of character and ability of the 
men who have filled the office. It is also confirma- 
tion of the fact that our foreign policy transcends 
personalities and is rooted in our American tradi- 
tions and in the requirements of the national 
interest. This is inevitably true, because ours is 
a democratic society and our informed public 
opinion will not long support or tolerate any 
policy that does not square with the convictions of 
our people and serve their best interest. 

It would seem that a little reflection on this 
truth would reveal the error and the futility of 
attempting to identify a policy, or those charged 
with carrying it out, by the use of such stereotyped 
labels as "hard" or "soft." The use of such ternis 
is much more likely to reflect the subjective atti- 
tude of those who use them than to describe those 
policies or persons to whom they are applied. 

Foreign policy simply does not fall into such 
easy classifications. Responsible Government of- 
ficials just don't single out a certain country and 
decide that our policy toward that country will 
be "hard" or "soft." 

Our government is engaged in thousands of 
contacts and negotiations with other governments 
every day, and a marked decree of open-minded- 
ness and'flexibility is required. Within the limits 
of certain fundamental principles, which we can 
never compromise, we must be prepared to carry 
on the give-and-take of human relationships in 
international affairs just as we all do in our per- 
sonal affairs. Each case must be judged on its 
own merits, though always by the criterion of 
what is best for the United States. 

Obviously we learn by experience the ap- 
proaches and methods that work best in dealing 
with particular countries. We learn how much 
confidence can be placed in the pledges of individ- 
ual governments and conduct ourselves accord- 
ingly in dealing with them. But it's a poor 

February 6, 1949 



diplomat who permits his emotional reaction to 
congeal his attitude toward a government into a 
"hard" or "soft" category, when the security and 
well-being of his country may depend on his re- 
maining alert and objective. 

Moreover, no nation, no matter how powerful, 
can make or carry out its policies toward other 
countries exactly as it desires. Every govern- 
ment must take into account the policies and ac- 
tions of other governments and must be ready to 
adapt itself to the rapid changes that occur in its 
global environment. An inflexible policy, either 
"hard" or "soft" or any other kind, does not com- 
port with national security and satisfactory eco- 
nomic conditions in the imperfect world in which 
all nations live. 

I am convinced that an objective appraisal of 
our policies during and since the war will show 
that they have been determined on the basis of 
these general principles — that is, fidelity to our 
fundamental convictions, flexibility as to methods 
and details. 

The compulsion to win unconditional victory 
was certainly the overriding consideration during 
the war. Failure of the Allied coalition to be 
guided by that all-compelling purpose — any 
wavering in the determination to maintain an un- 
broken front against the enemy — would have 
benefited no one but Hitler and his Axis partners. 

With the end of hostilities, it was necessary to 
ascertain whether the same unity of purpose and 
action could be maintained to overcome the many 
serious problems resulting from the war and to re- 
store stability and some degree of prosperity to 
the world. The United States and the Western 
democracies proceeded to make the test and to 
make it honestly and sincerely. 

It is inconceivable, even from the vantage point 
of hindsight, to suppose that we could have done 
otherwise. Our moral standing in the eyes of the 
world, to single out one consideration, required 
that we try to find a solid basis for continued 
understanding and cooperation with our wartime 
Allies. We could not have done otherwise than 
make every effort to reach such an understanding 
and make it fully effective. 

It is eternally to the credit of the United States 
that the effort was made. In large measure, the 



' Address made before the New York State Bar Associa- 
tion in New York City on Jan. 28, 11»40, and released to 
tlie press on tlie same date. 

157 



record of that endeavor is the basis of our moral 
position in the world today. That applies also 
to the otlier nations of the West, for they too made 
the same effort. 

It has become fashionable to criticize the agree- 
ments arrived at during the wartime conferences 
and to condemn those who made them on behalf 
of the Western Allies. 

Tlie basic deficiency in the series of Allied agi'ee- 
ments, and the peace treaties with the satellite 
countries as well, has been and is the failure of the 
Soviet Government and the Governments it domi- 
nates to live up to international commitments for- 
mally assumed. Until that defect is remedied, it 
is difficult to see how the agreements already made 
can be expected to accomplish their purpose. Until 
a fundamental change is made in that respect, it 
is difficult to see what useful purpose would be 
served by acceding to pressure for compromises 
on our part in order to achieve agi'eenients of 
doubtful validity. This is a matter that goes to 
the root of the differences of philosophy and moral 
values that now divide the world. 

In our democratic society the function of the 
state is to preserve and promote human rights and 
fundamental freedoms. The state exists for the 
benefit of man ; not man for the benefit of the state. 
Each individual must have as much liberty for 
the conduct of his life as is compatible with the 
rights of others. These are the essential purposes 
of our laws. Freedom and dignity of the individ- 
ual can be attained only under a system of law 
which protects the rights of individuals. 

This moral concept which lies behind our laws 
makes for the acceptability of the principle that 
in international affairs there should reign the rule 
of law rather than force and anarchy. 

The Soviet concept of law is diametrically op- 
posed. They vigorously deny that there is any 
moral concept involved and denounce as bourgeois 
hypocrisy the belief that there is such a thing as 
truth and justice. To them, law is an instrument 
of the state and not a protection for the individual. 
No less an authority than Mr. Vyshinsky, wliose 
book. The Law of the Sovi-et State, has recently 
been published in this country, leaves no doubt 
on this subject. He asserts that "legal relation- 
ships (and, consequently, law itself) are rooted in 
the material conditions of life, and that law is 
merely the will of the dominant class, elevated into 
a statute. . . ." 

He is no less explicit on the subject of Soviet 
justice : 

The task of justice in tlie U.S.S.R. is to assure the 
precise and unswerving fulfillment of Soviet laws by all 
the institutions, organizations, officials, and citizens of 
the U.S.S.R. 

This tlie court accomplishes by destroying without pity 
all tlie foes of the people in whatsoever form they mani- 
fest their criminal encroachments upon socialism. . . . ; 

158 



nor is he any less so in his description of bourgeois 
justice and civil rights : 

Bourgeois theorists strive to depict the court as an 
organ above classes and apart from politics, acting, sup- 
posedly, in the interests of all society and guided by com- 
mands of law and justice common to all mankind, instead 
of by the interests of the dominant class. Such a con- 
ception of the court's essence and tasks is, of course, 
radically false. It has always been an instrument in the 
hands of the dominant class, assuring the strengthening 
of its dominance and the protection of its interests. . . . 

In our state, naturally, there is and can be no place for 
freedom of speech, press, and so on for the foes of social- 
ism. Every sort of attempt on their part to utilize to the 
detriment of the state — that is to say, to the detriment of 
all the toilers — these freedoms granted to the toilers must 
be classified as a counterrevolutionary crime to which 
Article 58, Paragraph 10, or one of the corresponding 
articles of the Criminal Code is applicable. 

It is not difficult to imagine how any govern- 
ment holding as a matter of profound doctrine 
such concepts of law within the state would view 
the concept of the rule of law in international 
affairs. 

It logically and obviously follows that, from the 
Soviet point of view, international law would 
merely be an instrument for the furtherance of 
the purposes of the Soviet state and not a universal 
concept applicable to all nations. 

It is this fundamental difference in concept 
which accounts for tlie deep cleavage between the 
Soviet Union and the countries it dominates on 
the one hand and the rest of the world on the 
other. With this in mind, it is obvious that the 
differences which separate these two worlds are 
not due to disputes between nations, in the cus- 
tomary sense of that term, nor to a clash of in- 
terests which traditionally leads to disputes and 
quarrels between nations. 

Because of this fact the pi'oblem is not exclu- 
sively one of international relations or relations 
between states. It is far wider than that. It is 
not susceptible of being bridged by the magic of 
an agreement. This does not mean that the prac- 
tical unresolved questions of the postwar world 
may not be progressively settled. But we must 
clearly recognize that such agreements on prac- 
tical questions as may be reached will not in them- 
selves bring about a fundamental solution. We 
have to look forward to a long period of struggle 
and effort before we achieve a stable and tranquil 
world. 

Our course in foreign affairs since the defeat 
of the Axis powers falls into three more or less 
distinct periods. 

The first was the period in which we were giving 
a fair test to the assumption that in the immedi- 
ate postwar period Great Power cooperation could 
be continued as a basis for reconstruction and re- 
organization. The fact that Soviet conduct grad- 
ually rendered that assumption invalid does not 
mean that the degree of cooperation that did exist 
then was futile or that time was lost. During 

Department of Stale BuUetin 



that period tlio United Nations got under way, and 
immediate relief and rehabilitation needs were 
met by Unuka and other means. 

Next came the jjoriod in whicli the true inten- 
tions of the Soviets and international Connnu- 
nism became unmistakably clear and were fully 
recognized as a threat to world peace and the 
integrity of the free nations. That period, the 
stage of ''holding the line," began with Presi- 
dent Truman's message to Congress on March 12, 
1947, which set in motion the aid programs for 
Cireece and Turkey. 

The third period began a short time later, with 
the adoption and operation of the Marshall Plan. 
This was the response of the democracies to the 
realization that the European nations struggling 
for recovery and a return to tolerable standards of 
living could expect neither help nor mercy from 
the Soviet Union. It became apparent that the 
great task of recovery and reconstruction would 
have to be done i-egardless of the Soviet attitude. 

It was also in this period that it became clear 
that while the Marshall Plan would in fact make 
jtossible the economic recovei'y of Western Europe, 
the fear of aggression was a heavy burden on the 
cooperative effort. The psychological handicaps 
under which the Europeans are working are severe 
enough without the added fear that the fruits 
of their hard labor might be taken over by an 
alien army. Whether such fears are in fact fully 
justified or not, probably no man this side of the 
Iron Curtain and not many behind it can say with 
cei"tainty. That they do exist is sufficient cause to 
do everything in our power to remove them. 

The negotiation of a collective defense aiTange- 
ment for the North Atlantic area, under the United 
Nations Charter, is designed for this purpose. 
These negotiations, which are still proceeding, en- 
vision an association of the United States, Canada, 
the Brussels-pact nations, and possibly other West- 
em European countries for purposes of common 
defense against aggression. As the President 
stated in his inaugural address, this agreement 
will take the form of a treaty which will be sub- 
mitted to the Senate for ratification. 

It is important to note that while this step is 
taken to assure Western Europe against the im- 
mediate threat of aggression and to allay fears 
that might impede recovery, it is no less an 
attempt to safeguard the long-term security of the 
United States. History in two world cata.strophes 
has driven home to us the lesson that the security 
of the North Atlantic area is vital to the security 
of the United States. It is our intention to cari-y 
out the provisions of the Vandenberg resolution 
for participation of this country in collective de- 
fense an-angements where the security of the 
United States is affected and in conformity with 
the U.N. Charter. 

Irrespective of the present situation of Western 

February 6, 1949 



Europe, the proposed North Atlantic pact is neces- 
sary and desirable. In two great wars, the 
democracies of North America and Western 
Eui-ope, brought together by mutual devotion to 
their common heritage, joined forces in defense 
of Western civilization. Both times this common 
interest and purpose found expression in an asso- 
ciation formed after the event. The negotiation 
of a treaty for the cooperative strengthening of 
security in the North Atlantic area represents an 
agreed effort to formalize this natural association 
before it becomes necessary to improvise it once 
again under the pressure of threatened catas- 
trophe. This agreement is primarily, but not 
purely, for military security. It opens the way 
for other forms of cooperation in the common 
interest. 

The North Atlantic pact, if put into effect along 
the lines now indicated, will serve as a deterrent 
to potential aggressors only to the extent that the 
participating nations possess the strength to resist 
aggression. It is obvious that the Western Euro- 
pean countries, still struggling to regain their 
economic health, cannot now bear the double bur- 
den of both recovery and rearmament. The re- 
covery effort must be given priority. Therefore, 
the United States proposes to provide the military 
supplies and equipment, above the quantities the 
other countries can supply themselves, in order to 
put teeth in the pact. Each of the other countries, 
however, will be expected to meet its own needs 
to the greatest practical extent, and to contribute 
what it can to the common cause. This country 
also proposes to supply military assistance to other 
free nations which will cooperate in the common 
effort to preserve and promote peace and security. 
This must be done with primary regard to main- 
taining the economic strength of the United States. 

The stabilizing influence of the Marshall Plan, 
supplementing the courage and diligence of the 
people of Western Europe, has started the par- 
ticipating nations to the recovery of their rightful 
place in the world community. 

We will continue to encourage and promote re- 
construction and progi-ess in every possible way. 
We will press forward with our efforts to expand 
world trade as a material factor in establishing a 
peaceful and orderly world society. We will utilize 
the reciprocal trade-agreements program to the 
fullest possible extent and will seek to make the 
International Trade Organization a going and ef- 
fective concern. 

In addition, we will make available our im- 
mense technological resources to other people to 
assist them in their efforts to achieve better condi- 
tions of life. This objective itself is fundamental 
to the preservation of peace and the extension of 
freedom in the world. 

This fourth point mentioned in the President's 

159 



inaugural address has aroused the greatest 
speculation. 

As the Secretary of State said at his first press 
conference, this means the use of material means 
to nonmaterial ends. Material objects are the 
means by which people can attain freedom — free- 
dom from the pressure of those other human beings 
who would restrict their freedom, and help in the 
ancient struggle of man to earn his living and to 
get his bread from the soil. 

Much has been done on such a program. Much 
more can be done. Wliat will be done will vary 
from country to country depending on the re- 
sources of the country, its own pool of skills, its 
needs. 

Sometimes the United States may provide the 
necessary training or personnel. Such skills and 
techniques could be made available through the 
U.N. and the specialized agencies and this effort 
can be expanded. 

If the proper conditions are created, private 



capital will flow into these areas and skills and 
techniques will go with such investments. The 
efforts of the U.N. and some other countries and 
of the United States can be brought together and 
intensified. 

We are willing and anxious to work with every 
country that wishes to enter into a cooperative 
effort to this end. This is not a program requiring 
a tremendous effort for a brief time. It is a long- 
run program requiring sustained and imaginative 
effort. 

By such broad and fundamental approaches to 
the problems of the world we not only facilitate 
the settlement of immediate outstanding issues, 
but build toward a more tranquil world. This is 
a long and difficult process. It is a matter of 
day-to-day effort, of disposing of each jjroblem as 
it arises, within tlie limits of our abilities and 
powers. There is no magic formula or panacea. 
It is, in the last analysis, good common sense and 
plain, hard work in which each of us must do 
his share. 



Purpose of Proposed North Atlantic Treaty 

STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON 



[Keleasea to the press January 26] 

As the President said in his inaugural address, 
the primary purpose of the proposed North At- 
lantic treaty, like that of the Rio treaty, is to pro- 
vide unmistakable proof of the joint determina- 
tion of the participating nations to resist armed 
attack from any country. 

The American people unquestionably wish the 
great power and influence of the United States to 
be exerted for peace. This Government is deter- 
mined to exert its influence to weave, in the Presi- 
dent's words, a world fabric of international peace 
and security. We are convinced that we can best 
contribute to the maintenance of peace by joining 
with other nations in making it absolutely clear 
in advance that any armed attack affecting our 
national security would be met with overwhehning 
force. 

The proposed treaty would be a collective de- 
fense arrangement within the framework of the 
United Nations Charter, designed to strengthen 
the United Nations by providing for the orderly 
and coordinated fulfilment of the obligations of 
the participating nations under the Charter. It 



is being negotiated in accordance with the Senate's 
advice given in the " Vandenberg resolution" ( Sen- 
ate Resolution 239, 80th Congress). As provided 
in that resolution, our participation in the arrange- 
ment will be strictly in accordance with our con- 
stitutional processes. 

Our national security is vitally affected by the 
security of the North Atlantic area. The peoples 
of the North Atlantic area have a common heritage 
and civilization. We North Atlantic peoples 
share a common faith in fundamental human 
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human per- 
son, in the principles of democracy, personal free- 
dom, and political liberty. We believe in the rule 
of law among nations as among men and that the 
United Nations must be strengthened in its task 
of maintaining international peace and security. 

We believe that these principles and this com- 
mon heritage can best be fortified and preserved 
and the general welfare of the people of the North 
Atlantic area advanced by an arrangement for co- 
operation in matters affecting their peace and se- 
curity and common interest. I hope to be able 
very soon to speak more specifically about it. 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



Interim Committee 

Dillering interpretations of the General As- 
sembly resolution on tlie reconvening of its Interim 
Committee were discussed at tiie opening of the 
Interim Committee meeting on January 31. Nor- 
way, Eiuador, and Australia took the position that 
the General Assembly was technically still in ses- 
sion and tiiat the Interim Connnittee was not there- 
fore authorizetl to meet. The United States 
shared the view that the (Jeneral Assembly resolu- 
tion had stipulated that the Interim Committee 
was to meet no later than January 31, and that 
although this resolution was passed before the split 
session had been decided upon, it was nevertheless 
binding. In supporting this view, Ambassador 
Austin emphasized the importance of having the 
Interim Committee ''potentially in action," par- 
ticularly to permit possible consultation with the 
Korean or Balkan Commissions. The majority 
of the Committee concurred with this view and 
proceeded to the election of officers. As chair- 
man, the Interim Committee elected Ambassador 
Sarper of Turkej'; as vice-chairman, Ambassador 
Matienzo of Bolivia; and as rapporteur, Mr. 
Ignatieff of Canada. 

A resolution ' introduced by Ambassador Aus- 
tin, which provided for the creation of a Sub- 
committee to continue work on matters outlined 
in Paragraph 2 (c) of the General Assembly 
resolution, was passed by the Interim Committee 
without opposition and with but three abstentions. 
The Subcommittee is intended to carry on the 
work of seeking methods for the maintenance of 
international peace and the development of inter- 
national political cooperation. At the suggestion 
of Ambassador Austin, it was agreed that the 15 
nations who had served on the Subcommittee in 
1948 would be reappointed. It was also provided 
that the chairman be authorized to fill vacancies 
and to appoint up to four additional members. 

A nine-member Subcommittee was also created 
by the Interim Committee for the purpose of re- 
viewing its rules of procedure. The following 
nations were designated members of this Subcom- 
mittee : the United Kingdom. Norway, Syria, 
France, the United States, Philippines, Mexico, 
Uruguay, and Guatemala. 

In accepting office as chairman of the Interim 
Committee, Ambassador Sarper expressed the 
hope that the Soviet Union and other countries 
not present would at some time in the future take 
their places in the deliberations of the Committee. 

Trusteeship Council 

The fourth session of the Trusteeship Council 
devoted much of its second week to a discussion of 
proposals, sponsored in various forms by the 

' U.X. doe. A/AC.18/S6, Jan. 31, 1949. 
February 6, 1949 



Soviet Union, the Philippines, China, and Mexico, 
which would permit representatives of local 
groups in trust territories to participate without 
vote when the Council takes up the annual reports 
on those territories. None of the proposals was 
adopted, although the Chinese resolution failed 
by a tie vote of G to C. 

Speaking against the Mexican proposal. Ambas- 
sador Sayre, the United States Representative, 
noted tiie numerous methods by which the inhabi- 
tants of trust territories may present their views 
to the Council — by direct petition, by personal ap- 
pearance before visiting missions, and if anony- 
mity is required by communication to an individ- 
ual member of the Council. 

". . . because experience has not yet proved the 
present Charter machinery defective" in pro- 
tecting the right to present individual views to 
the Council, the United States believes the pro- 
posals contained in the resolution are "unneces- 
sary," Jlr. Sayre said. 

The Council also heard a French Representative 
explain the administration of French Togoland; 
discussed in a preliminary way the projected 
visiting mission to West Africa, agreeing that the 
group should start in early November; and took 
up a number of petitions, including that of the 
Bakweri Land Committee. 

Headquarters Construction 

The Secretariat announced on January 28 the 
award of a $23,809,573 contract for construction of 
the new U.N. Secretariat building in Manhattan. 
Steel work for the 39-story structure is scheduled 
to be completed by October 1 and the building 
ready for occupancy in the autumn of 1950, 

Palestine 

Mark F. Ethridge, United States representative 
on the U.N. Conciliation Commission for Pales- 
tine, arrived in Jerusalem, the official headquar- 
ters, P'ebruary 2 from Rhodes. 

Dr. Ralphe Bunche, acting mediator for Pales- 
tine, has invited Israel and the six Arab states at 
war with her, other than Egypt, which is presently 
engaged in negotiations in Rhodes, to meet before 
February 10 to discuss a permanent armistice, on 
either a collective or separate basis. He suggested 
Rhodes as a meeting place because it is "neutral 
ground" but expressed willingness to consider any 
other place which might appear more suitable. 

King Abdullah of Transjordan promptly in- 
dorsed the plan and called upon his Arab allies 
to join in such a meeting. 

Korea 

The Government of the Republic of Korea has 
formally applied for membership in the United 

161 



Nations. The letter to Secretary-General Trygve 
Lie from the Korean Acting Foreign Minister 
pledged the Republic's unreserved acceptance of 
U.N. Charter obligations. The letter pointed out 
that the Republic is the direct result of General 
Assembly mandates of November 1947 and De- 
cember 1948 and was established following U.N.- 
observed and approved elections. The General 
Assembly resolution of December 1948 recognized 
the Republic of Korea as the only lawful govern- 
ment of the country and established a Korean Com- 
mission to carry out U.N. endeavors looking 
toward Korean unification. The resolution was 
endorsed by an overwhelming majority of U.N. 
nations, excepting the Soviet group which has con- 
sistently attempted to block tJ.N. work in Korea. 

IRO 

A total of 130,000 persons were resettled by the 
International Refugee Organization between June 
and December 1948, according to an Iro report 
prepared for the eighth session of the Economic 
and Social Council, which opened at Lalve Success 
February 7. Nearly 20 countries are now receiv- 
ing refugees in large numbers, the report says, and 
35 others have received individual persons joining 
relatives and friends. Largest reception pro- 
grams are those of the United States, the British 
Commonwealth, France, Belgium, and the Latin 
American Republics. 

Indonesia 

H. Merle Cochran, U.S. Representative on the 
U.N. Commission for Indonesia, is en route to 
Indonesia to rejoin the Commission in its concilia- 
tion work there. He will confer with officials in 



Belgium and the Netherlands en route. The Com- 
mission, comprised of Belgium, Australia, and the 
United States, was established by the Security 
Council January 28 to take over the duties of its 
Good Offices Committee in Indonesia, on which 
Mr. Cochran was the U.S. Representative. 

The United States and three other Security 
Council members introduced the plan, adopted by 
the Council, which sets forth a program of steps 
leading to the establishment of a sovereign United 
States of Indonesia by July 1950 and established 
the Commission to supervise the transition. The 
Commission held its hrst meeting on January 29 
in Batavia. 

ILO 

A summary of the International Labor Organi- 
zation's efforts to help the world use more effi- 
ciently its "vast pool of unused and untrained 
man power" has been drawn up by Director 
General David A. Morse. The decision to launch 
a practical program to meet immediate man-power 
needs on the operational level "represents a funda- 
mental change in Ilo policy," Mr. Morse asserted. 
"In the jjast, iLohas operated primarily as a scien- 
tific research organization, and its decisions have 
been of a quasi-legislative nature. But the Ilo is 
adapting its machinery to the changing demands 
made upon it by a changing world." Tlie job 
ahead, he said, is to stimulate migration, to direct 
workers from surplus labor areas to those lacking 
man power, and to train labor forces in all 
countries. Ilo is organizing efforts in those fields, 
and, in addition, is seeking to improve the opera- 
tion of employment services so that available man 
power may be placed in suitable posts. 



162 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings 



Adjourned during January 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : Special Tele- 
typewriter Meeting. 

Fag (Food and Agrieulture Organization) : Meeting of Specialists on 
Hybrid Corn Production. 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : Permanent Migration 
Committee. 

Iro (International Refugee Organization) : Executive Committee . . 

In Session as of February 1, 1949 

United Nations: 

Security Council's Committee of Good Offices on the Indonesian 

Question. 
General Assembly Special Committee on the Balkans 

Commission on Korea 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Fiscal Commission: Second Session 

Security Council Commission on India and Pakistan 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Provisional Frequency Board 

International Conference on High Frequency Broadcasting . . . 

Special Administrative Conference on Standard Loran 

Third Region Frequency Conference 

Preparatory Meetings to Discuss Form of Telegraph Regulations . 
IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Communications Division 

Council: Sixth Session 

International Wheat Conference 

International Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Conference 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : Experts on Safety in Coal 
Mines. 

Scheduled for February 

United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Economic Commission for Europe: Steel Committee 

Eighth Session 

Cfm (Council of Foreign Ministers) : Deputies for Austria 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Operations Division 

Airworthiness Division 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : Meeting on Grain Infes- 
tation and Storage. 

Third Inter-American Travel Congress 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 108th Session of Governing 
Body. 

Who (World Health Organization): Executive Board: Third Session. 



Montreal 

Rome 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Netherlands East Indies 

Athens 

Seoul 

Lake Success 

London and Indian Subcontinent 

Geneva 

Mexico City 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Washington 

Washington 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Lake Success 

London 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Palmira, Colombia 

San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. 
Geneva 

Geneva 



1949 

Jan. 4-10 

Jan. 10-14 
Jan. 13-23 
Jan. 25 



1947 

Oct. 20- 

Nov. 21- 

1948 

Dec. 12- 

1949 

Jan. 10- 
Jan. 28- 

1948 

Jan. 15- 
Oct. 22- 

1949 

Jan. 17- 
Jan. 17- 
Jan. 17- 

Jan. 11- 
Jan. 18- 
Jan. 26- 
Jan. 26- 
Jan. 31- 



1949 

Feb. 6- 
Feb. 7- 
Feb. 7- 

Feb. 8- 
Feb. 22- 
Feb. 13- 

Feb. 15- 
Feb. 21- 

Feb. 21- 



Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 



February 6, J 949 

S2-SJo3—4'J 2 



163 



ICAO Conference on Air Navigation Services in Iceland 



BY REAR ADMIRAL PAUL A. SMITH 



The International Civil Aviation Organization 
Conference on Air Navigation Services in Iceland 
■was held at Geneva, June 8-25, 1948. 

The task of the Conference was to reach agree- 
ment among interested states on the technical de- 
tails of the air navigation services necessary in 
Iceland for North Atlantic air navigation and to 
agree upon the proportion which contributing 
states would pay in assistance to Iceland and the 
terms under which Iceland would undertake to 
supply these services. 

Unanimous agreement was reached as recorded 
in IcAO document 6143, JS/535, Agreevnent on 
Air Navigation Services in Iceland Between the 
Council of ICAO and the Government of Iceland 
Concluded in Montreal 16 Septemher, 19^8^ which 
includes the final act of the Conference covered by 
this report. The final act is a recommendation to 
the Council of Icao that it enter into an agreement 
with the Government of Iceland to provide finan- 
cial aid to the Government of Iceland for certain 
air traffic control, communications, and meteoro- 
logical services through the International Civil 
Aviation Organization. The act is of great in- 
terest and importance to the United States as the 
United States conducts a large percentage of the 
civil aviation operations across the North Atlan- 
tic. The completion by Icao of the agreement with 
Iceland, which is the result of the Conference, as- 
sures the continuing operation of the services 
necessary for such operations by a small country 
which otherwise would be unable to finance the 
services required by the air lines of other states. 
It apportions the proper cost on the basis of actual 
use to each of the states whose air lines use the 
services, and it has established satisfactory pro- 
cedure based on sound principles for use in sub- 
sequent developments involving joint financial 
assistance through Icao — a procedure which 
should expedite conclusion of future agreements 
within the framework of chapter XV of the 
convention on international civil aviation. 

The desire of a number of states for some type 
of final act by the Conference which was not in 
itself finally binding upon the signatories and 
which would permit bringing the agreement be- 
tween Iceland and Icao into effect contingent upon 
availability of funds to Icao from the respective 
signatories has been satisfied. It was also possible 
to include in the final act a provision that con- 
tributing states were to be bound only to tlie extent 
of the availability of funds approved by their na- 
tional legislatures. This provision was later ap- 
proved by the Council and included in its agi'ee- 

164 



ment witli Iceland. In this sense it is believed that 
the agreement constitutes an innovation in inter- 
national arrangements. The agreement can be 
and has in fact now been brought into force with- 
out all parties to the arrangement having made 
final commitments on the full amounts due, 80 per- 
cent of consents to assessment being the minimum 
required for bringing it into effect. 

The Icao Conference on Air Navigation Serv- 
ices in Iceland was one incident in an important 
sequence of events arising out of the Chicago Con- 
ference on International Civil Aviation, the in- 
terim agreement, and the acts of the Council of 
the Provisional International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization. Chapter XV of the convention on 
international civil aviation, to which the United 
States is a party, is the authority under which the 
United States is participating. 

The sequence of pertinent events is outlined 
below : 

( a) The Council of Picao established a schedule 
of regional air navigation meetings originally 
called route service conferences. 

ih) In March 1946, the North Atlantic Koute 
Service Conference, Dublin, recommended certain 
air traffic control, meteorological, and communica- 
tions facilities and services in Iceland. 

(c) In March 1946, Iceland gave notice it would 
be unable to maintain these services without finan- 
cial assistance. 

(c?) On April 17, and May 9, 1946, the Council 
of PiCAO approved the recommendations of the 
Dublin meeting. 

(e) The convention on international civil avia- 
tion came into force on April 7, 1947. 

(/) On May 16, 1947, Iceland formally re- 
quested financial and technical aid in accordance 
with chapter XV of the convention. 

{g) In May 1947, the Assembly of Icao ap- 
proved certain basic principles. 

(A) On June 25, 1947, the Council decided the 
Icelandic request constitutes priiiia facie case for 
financial and technical assistance under chapter 
XV of convention. 

{i) In December 1947, Icao sent a technical mis- 
sion to Iceland to study and report on Iceland's 
request. 

(;■) In March 1948, Council member states in- 
terested in North Atlantic air navigation held 
meetings concurrently with the Fifth Council ses- 
sion in Montreal and recommended procedures to 
be followed by Icao, including convening of the 
Conference and preparation of a draft final act 

Department of State Bulletin 



and the draft for an agreement between Iceland 
and tlie Council of Icao. 

(k) In May 1948, tlie North Atlantic Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting at Paris, reviewed and 
made recommendations on Icelandic services in- 
volved. 

(/) In May 1948, the Council approved the pro- 
cedure recommended by interested Council mem- 
ber states. 

(m) On June 2, 1948, the United States paid 
Iceland $300,000 in advance after an exchange of 
notes between the Secretary of State and the 
Minister of Iceland dated May 27, 1948. 

(n) On June 8, 1948, Conference of interested 
North Atlantic states convened. 

(o) On June 25, 1948, the Conference adopted 
its final act. 

(p) On June 26, 1948, the Icao Council for- 
mally accepted the final act of the Conference. On 
the same date it decided to enter into an agree- 
ment with Iceland, and it acted formally to assess 
signatory states in accordance with pi'oportions 
and specific amounts recommended in the final act. 
It requested signatory states to notify the Council 
of their consents at earliest possible date; and it 
resolved to consider the draft agreement with Ice- 
land at the beginning of its next session. 

(g) In June 1948 the Congress of United States 
approved funds of $3,750,000 for financial assist- 
ance through Icao. 

(r) On September 15, 1948, the Council ap- 
proved the agreement between itself and Iceland. 

(s) On September 16, 1948, the President of 
the Council and the Representative of Iceland 
signed the agreement at Montreal. 

( t) In September 1948, the United States gave 
its formal consent to be assessed in a letter signed 
by the United States Representative to Icao for 
the Secretary of State. 

(w) In October 1948, the United States paid 
Icao $432,165 as the balance over the $300,000 pre- 
viously paid due for the period up to the end of 
1948, and in full amount for its obligation for that 
period. 

(v) In October 1948, the Council declared that 
. consents to be assessed for more than the 80 per- 
cent required by the agreement had been received, 
and that the agreement was therefore in force. 

There were no committees or subcommittees of 
the Conference, simply three working groups 
which devoted their full time to producing the re- 
ports on which the final act was based. Formality 
of proceduce was commendably avoided. No 
minutes were recorded and no verbatim transcript 
of these meetings was made. The three groups 
were called technical, financial, and drafting 
working groups. 

The technical group held seven meetings be- 
tween June 9 and 22, 1948. It reviewed the exist- 
ing Icelandic aeronautical services considered to be 
necessary for the safe, regular, eflScient, and eco- 

February 6, J 949 



nomical operation of international air services in 
tiie North Atlantic region, taking into account the 
recommendation of the North Atlantic Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting, held May 4-15, 1948, at 
Paris, and recommended the specific services to be 
supplied by Iceland. The technical group listed 
these services in three categories : 

(1) the existing services; 

(2) the new facilities and services; and 

(3) additional services to be provided by the 
Government of Iceland at a later date. 

The group also provided estimates of cost, in- 
cluding operation for the year 1949, allowance 
for rates of depreciation, maintenance, and 
interest. It made recommendations on the 
application of procedures and specifications pro- 
mulgated by Icao and through the cooperation of 
the International Meteorological Organization. 

The financial group held nine meetings, and rec- 
ommended specific compensation to Iceland for 
the period ending December 31, 1948, and annual 
amounts as indicated in the final act for the period 
thereafter. The group also made recommenda- 
tions on the allocation of costs among contribut- 
ing states both for the period ending December 
31, 1948, and the annual amounts thereafter. 
These recommendations were based on scheduled 
airline flights over the North Atlantic, but ex- 
cluding flights by way of the Azores and Ber- 
muda. Account was taken of nonaeronautical 
benefits dei'ived by contributing states so far as 
practicable. Other recommendations included 
procedures for handling diff'erences in currency 
and methods of payment, either through the or- 
ganization or directly to the Government of Ice- 
land. The financial group also concurred with the 
recommendations by the technical group as to rates 
of interest, depreciation of buildings and equip- 
ment, interest on land, value of buildings and 
equipment, and related matters. 

The drafting group, which was made up pri- 
marily of legal experts, reported on whether the 
forms of the final act and the agreement seemed 
to have sufficient binding force on all parties, 
whether the final act should be di-awn up as a 
continuing agreement, and whether the wording of 
the instruments gave proper effect to the inten- 
tions of the parties to the final act. It also re- 
viewed the draft final act submitted by the 
Secretariat and incorporated in it the conclusions 
recommended by the other working groups. 

This Conference was notable in tnat, in addition 
to the insurance of necessary air navigation facili- 
ties and services in Iceland for United States and 
other international air carriers, it contributed to 
the development of an arrangement for financing 
of such services generally under chapter XV of the 
convention on international civil aviation. It 
provides a mechanism which enables the Council 
to finance such projects under an arrangement 

165 



with the desirable flexibility and permits the Coun- 
cil subsequent!}' to enter into a legal agi-eement 
with the assisted state. The Council of the or- 
ganization assumes responsibility for the opera- 
tion of the project. Through such an arrange- 
ment the contributing states have no direct con- 
tractual relation with the assisted state. The ar- 
rangement requires the following steps : 

(1) a conference of interested states is called 
to recommend to the Council that it assess certain 
states for the amounts required to support the 
scheme under appropriate terms and conditions; 



(2) the Council next acts to assess the states under 
the convention; (3) the states then consent to such 
assessment as formally recognized by article 73 
of the convention; and (4) the Council enters 
into a legal agreement with the assisted state to 
give effect to the arrangements agreed upon by the 
conference. The Council is given considerable 
discretion in the interpretation of the agreement 
within the limits imposed by the final act of the 
conference of contributing states. 

The Confei'ence was eminently successful with 
respect to the interests of the United States, Icao, 
and of international civil aviation in general. 



The International Congress on Mental Health 



BY WINFRED OVERHOLSER, M. D. 



The growing general interest in the field of 
mental hygiene was forcefully illustrated by the 
very successful International Congress' on Mental 
Health, held at London, August 12-21, 1948. Two 
similar congresses had been held previously, 
namely, at Washington, D. C, in 1930, and at 
Paris, in 1935, but they were surpassed in breadth 
of participation by this one, significant though 
they wei'e. Over 2,200 persons, representing not 
only psychiatry and psychology, but also social 
work, anthropology, nursing, teaching and the 
clergy, came to London from no less than 45 coun- 
tries. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
was the only large country which sent no dele- 
gates. That the Congress was considered gov- 
ernmentally significant is indicated by the fact 
that the official United States Delegation num- 
bered seven, representing the various Depart- 
ments directly concerned with mental health ; tlie 
Departments of the Army and Navy, the Veterans 
Adrninistration, and the Federal Security Agency. 

Not only has knowledge of mental mechanisms 
and psychiatric therapy made considerable prog- 
ress in the past decade, but also the recent war did 
much to increase public understanding of mental 
disorder and to emphasize the importance of so- 
cial factors in securing and maintaining mental 
health. Furthermore, the existence of interna- 
tional and inter-group tensions has directed the 
interest of students of human behavior toward the 
bases of such tensions and the possibility of re- 
solving them. That mental health is coming to 
be recognized as an important public-health prob- 
lem is indicated by the definition of liealth given 
in the preamble of the charter of the World Health 
Organization : 

"... a state of complete physical, mental and 
social well-being and not mei'ely the absence of 
disease or infirmity." 

166 



Further, states the preamble, 

"The health of all peoples is fundamental to the 
attainment of peace and security and is dependent 
upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and 
States . . . The extension to all peoples of the 
benefits of medical, psychological and related 
knowledge is essential to the fullest attainment of 
health." 

The preparatory activities were carefully 
planned. For the better part of a year "discus- 
sion groups" had been meeting in the various coun- 
tries — groups made up of representatives of the 
numerous interested disciplines. These groups 
had jJrepared written statements of their views on 
selected topics in the field of mental health and 
had forwarded them to the London headquarters. 
There the reports were summarized and collated 
and finally, during a two-week period immedi- 
ately before the opening of tlie Congress, were 
considered by an International Preparatory Com- 
mission and made a basis for their statement. The 
statement has been published in full in tlie jour- 
nal, PsycMatry^ for August 1948. 

The first four days of the Congress were taken 
up by sessions of the International Committee for 
Child Psychiatry and the International Federa- 
tion for Medical Psychotherapy; such topics as 
aggression in relation to emotional development, 
psychiatric problems in education, guilt and the 
dynamics of psychological disorder in the indi- 
vidual, and advances in individual and group 
psychotherapy were considered. The last five 
days of the Congress were devoted to mental h_v- 
giene, with particular reference to problems of 
world citizenshij) and good group relations, the 
individual and society, mental heaUh in industry, 
and planning for mental health. In general, pre- 
pared statements were road and then opened for 
general discussion. The official languages were 

Department of State Bulletin 



English and French, the former being evidently 
tlie language of preference for the preponderance 
of the delegates. 

Peiliaps even more fruitful than the large meet- 
ings were the small groups, iiO or so members, for 
which meetings were arranged. These groups 
were made up of persons of similar interests and 
provided an excellent opportunity for interchange 
of views. Visits to hospitals and other institu- 
tions were also planned, and numerous films and 
exhibits were accessible. The entire conference 
was a masterpiece of organization. 

At the closing session Pi-of. Julian Huxley, 
Director General of the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and 
Dr. Brock Chisholm, Executive Secretary of the 
World Health Organization, both expressed the 
hope that a permanent organization might be set 
up as a residt of this Congress to act as a con- 
tinuing source of information and advice to their 
respective organizations on matters relating to 
mental hygiene. As a matter of fact, such an or- 
ganization, the World Federation of Mental 
Health, was organized following the Congress, 
though not by the Congress or as a part of it. 
The delegates to the meeting convened for organ- 
izing this new body were selected by the mental 
h3'giene organizations of their respective coun- 
tries. This Federation should and undoubtedly 
will take an important part in keeping before the 
Who the views of those professionally interested 
in human behavior. The first President is 
Brigadier (Dr.) J. R. Rees, C.B.E., Chairman of 
tlie Congress, who took a prominent part in de- 
veloping psychiatry in the British Army during 
World War II. 

Si^ace does not permit elaboration of the recom- 
mendations of the International Preparatory Com- 
mission as presented by Dr. Lawrence K. Frank, 
its chairman, and accepted by the Congi-ess ; they 
are numerous, and are directed to (a) The United 
Nations; (b) World Health Organization; (c) 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization; and (d) World Federation 
for Mental Health. The entire report of the Com- 
mission deserves thorough reading by all who are 
interested in mental health. The proceedings of 
the Congress are now in process' of preparation. 

The Congress was an important one : it brought 
together from all over the world students of hu- 
man behavioi', whatever tlieir particular scien- 
tific approach; the recent advances in treatment 
and prevention of mental disorders were presented ; 
the contributions of psychiatry and its related dis- 
ciplines to the undei-standing and amelioration of 
group tensions were emphasized ; and finally a con- 
tinuing organization was established which will 
attempt to make, through the various subsidiary 
bodies of the United Nations, an effective contribu- 
tion to the promotion of individual, group, and 
international mental health. 

February 6, 1949 



United States Delegation 

to the International Wheat Conference 

The President has api)roved the composition of 
the United States Delegation to the International 
Wheat Conference to be held in Washington, D. C, 
beginning on January 26, 1949, the Departments 
of State and Agriculture announced on Jan- 
uary 24. 

The Delegation follows: 

Chairman 

Charles F. Braiinan, Secretary of Agriculture 

Vice Chairman 

Albert J. Loveland, Under Secretary ol" Agriculture 

Deleffatea 

Edward G. Caie, Associate Chief, International Resources 

Division, Department of State 
Elmer F. Kruse, Manager, Executive Staff, Commodity 

Credit Corporation, Department of Agriculture 
Lorins; K. Macy, Chief, Food Branch, Commodities Divi- 

.sion. Office of International Trade, Department of 

Commerce 
Fred J. Rossiter, Associate Director, OflSce of Foreign 

Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture 
Leroy K. Smith, Director, Grain Branch, Production and 

Marketing Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Secretari/ 

Oscar Zaglits, Acting Head, Foreign Agricultural Trade 
and Policies Division, Department of Agriculture 

PUBLICATIONS 
Department of State 

For sale 61/ Ihe Siiijerintcndcnt of Dornmcnts, Government 
Printing Office, Washi7igton 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, %ohich may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Thirty-first Session, International Labor Conference. 
San Francisco, California, June 17-July 10, 1948. Inter- 
national Organization and Conference Series IV, Inter- 
national Labor Organization 1. Pub. 3323. 100 pp. 25^. 

Report of the United States Delegation, with selected 
documents. 

Fifth Report to Congress on Assistance to Greece and 
Turkey, For the Period Ended September 30, 1948. 

Economic Cooperation Series 13. Pub. 3371. 36 pp. 150. 

The President's quarterly report on military aid to 
Greece and Turkey. Tables showing status of ap- 
propriation are included. 

Diplomatic List, January 1949. Pub. 3303. 107 pp. 300 
a copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

International Labor Organization: Final Articles Revision 
Convention, 1946. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1810. Pub. 3325. 11 pp. 50. 

Convention Between the United States and Other 
Governments— Adopted at Montreal October 9, 1946 ; 
entered into force with respect to the United States 
June 24, 1948. 

167 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Need for Trade Agreements Extension Act 



STATEMENT BY WILLARD L. THORP > 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 



Last spring, the President sent a special message 
to Congress asking extension of authority to con- 
duct one of the fundamental elements of United 
States foreign economic policy, the reciprocal 
trade-agreements program. He asked renewal of 
the Trade Agreements Act as it then stood for the 
customary three-year period. Congress enacted 
instead a measure which was limited and re- 
stricted. The President has now asked again for 
a three-year renewal of the Trade Agreements Act 
of 1934 to be effective from the date on which it 
expired, so that there will have been continuous 
authority under a single, consistently developed 
procedure. 

Under the Trade Agreements Act of 1934, as it 
existed up to 1948, the President was granted au- 
thority to enter into agreements with other coun- 
tries in which this country reduced or bound 
certain tariffs against increase in exchange for 
reciprocal concessions by the other country for the 
purpose of expanding American foreign trade and 
improving treatment of our commerce abroad. 
The act, which had generally been extended for 
three years at a time, prescribed limits beyond 
which the President could not go in granting con- 
cessions and outlined a procedure to be followed. 
This procedure has been elaborated in practice 
to assure full hearing to the public, careful study 
of all aspects of the negotiations by an interde- 
partmental organization, and very complete safe- 
guards for domestic industry. These safeguards 
included the undertaking, which still stands and 
which will be continued, that the United States 
will reserve in every trade agreement the right to 
withdraw or modify any concession which threat- 
ens to cause serious injury to any domestic 
industry. 

The Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1948, 
as last year's legislation was called, undermined 
the effectiveness of this program in four distinct 
ways. 

First, it gave the President authority for only 
one year instead of three to enter into tariff agree- 
ments with other countries. One year is not 
enough time to be sure of completing any sizeable 

' Made before the Ways and Means Committee of the 
House of Keprcsentatives on Jan. 24, 1949, and released 
to the press on the same date. 

168 



negotiation. Moreover, since it was less than the 
usual period, other countries could hardly fail 
to interpret the change as a weakening of our 
determination to continue the policy in full 
force as a long-range instrument of economic 
cooperation. 

Secondly, it removed a key participating 
agency, the Tariff Commission, from the central 
interdepartmental organization which recom- 
mends concessions to the President for inclusion 
in trade agreements and directs negotiations. At 
the policy level, in view of the expertness of the 
Tariff Commission's personnel, it seriously weak- 
ened the organization to lose a representative from 
the Commission. At the working level, gaps 
were created which had to be filled, with resulting 
duplication of effort. Though the Commission 
still furnishes factual data and reports, its mem- 
bers and experts can no longer participate in any 
manner in the making of decisions with respect 
to the proposed terms of any trade agreement or 
in the negotiation of agreements. 

The third major objection to the 1948 act is the 
requirement that the Tariff Commission report 
what it finds to be the minimum tariff and other 
import restrictions, or the increases in tariffs or 
import restrictions, necessary to avoid the threat 
of serious injury to domestic industry producing 
any article under consideration for trade-agree- 
ment concessions by the United States. The de- 
terminations by the Commission are to be made 
without regard to any national or international 
considerations, such as benefits to be obtained by 
other countries, long-term needs of the economy 
for expanding markets, the necessity of obtaining 
the best possible use of domestic resources, possible 
strategic considerations, or the possible repercus- 
sions of our action upon policies of other countries 
towards us. To be sure, the President was left 
nominal freedom, within the limits of the statute, 
to determine finally the amount of concessions to 
be granted, but it would seem almost inevitable 
that the Tariff Commission's findings would have 
a predominant influence and might seriously limit 
the scope of tlie agreements concluded. Thus, the 
1948 act returns to the old protectionist theory 
that only the pros])ority of an individual industry 
is affected by a tariff or a quota. In effect, the 
act practically makes such narrow protectionism 
the sole criterion for determining the concessions 

Department of State Bulletin 



which may be made by the United States in trade 
a<j;rcenients. 

The fourth major objection to the new act is 
tlie duplication of effort it has caused. The act 
obliged the Tariff Commission to hold public hear- 
ings in the course of preparing its reports. How- 
ever, as no provision was made for the Tariff 
Commission to receive views of exporters regard- 
ing concessions to be obtained or views of persons 
interested in the over-all aspects of the program, 
the Tariff Conmiission hearings did not eliminate 
the need for the regular hearings by the inter- 
departmental Committee for Reciprocity Infor- 
mation. Furthermore, since the Commission was 
to liave no part in the further stage of recom- 
mending concessions to the President, all wit- 
nesses who wished to be sure of a hearing before 
those making the recommendations felt compelled 
to attend the CRI hearings. Thus, most pro- 
ducer of domestic goods competitive with im- 
ports sent representatives to testify at two hear- 
ings in Washington instead of one. The result 
was a substantial and wholh' unnecessary' burden 
on all concerned. An attempt has been made to 
remedy matters by holding the two hearings si- 
multaneously and coordinating the timetables of 
appearances, but, even so, a great deal of time 
and effort was wasted. 

It is no wonder that the President characterized 
the act as having serious defects and that he signed 
it only with reluctance and because it was so essen- 
tial that the program not lapse. 

The President promised last June that in spite 
of the shortcomings of the new authority an effort 
would be made to make the new procedures work, 
specifically by bringing new countries into the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, nego- 
tiated at Geneva in 1947. 

In the General Agreement, known as Gatt, each 
of 23 countries, wnich together conducted over 
two thirds of world trade in 1938, agreed to bind 
or reduce specific tariffs or to bind, decrease, or 
eliminate specific preferences that limited its 
trade. The tariff concessions thus exchanged af- 
fected products which accounted for approxi- 
mately half of total world imports. In all, some 
45,000 tariff items in different countries' tariff 
nomenclatures were covered. About 3,500 of 
these were in the United States tariff. 

Accompanying the lists of concessions by each 
country, or schedules as they are known, were 
general provisions along the lines of those con- 
tained in earlier trade agreements concluded by 
the United States. Their purpose was to assure 
each country that the concessions granted by 
others would not be nullified through nontariff 
action and to safeguard the legitimate domestic 
interests of the countries parties to the agreement. 
Nine countries gave provisional effect to this un- 
precedented agreement on January 1, 1948, and by 
the time the Trade Agreements Extension Act 

February 6, 1949 



THB RECORD Of THE WCCK 

was under consideration most of the others were 
in the process of making it effective. It has now 
been made effective by 22 out of the 23 countries 
involved. 

It had been contemplated from the outset that 
as soon as the first group of countries had made 
the agreement effective, more countries should be 
brought into it by a further round of negotiations. 
The contracting parties, including the United 
States, therefore met at Geneva in the late sum- 
mer of 1948, sent out an invitation to other coun- 
tries to negotiate with them, and drew up plans 
to negotiate in April 1949 with additional coun- 
tries which might respond favorably. Denmark, 
the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Finland, 
Greece, Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Peru, Sweden, 
Uruguay, and later, Colombia and Liberia indi- 
cated a desire to negotiate, making thirteen new 
countries in all. 

Accordingly, on November 5, 1948, the United 
States published a formal announcement of in- 
tention to negotiate agreements imder the trade- 
agreements authority with the eleven new coun- 
tries which had already responded. Lists of 
products to be considered for possible concessions 
by the United States were issued. The lists were 
transmitted to the Tariff Commission in order 
that the reports required under the 1948 act might 
be prepared, and early in December the Tariff 
Commission and the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information held hearings simultaneously. On 
December 17, a notice and lists were published for 
the two other countries, along with supplementary 
lists in connection with negotiations with the 
original eleven countries, and hearings on these 
additional items were set to begin January 25. 

Immediately the hearings are over and the new 
material has been studied, the trade-agreements 
organization must begin the preparation of rec- 
ommendations to the President of concessions 
which may be offered by the United States in the 
negotiations nest April. 

I am confident that Congress intends to fulfil 
the President's request for a strong and effective 
trade-agreements act. It can hardly be empha- 
sized too much, however, that a large part of the 
good which this action can accomplish in connec- 
tion with the April negotiations depends upon 
having the new act in effect, not only during the 
new negotiations proper, but now, while prepara- 
tions are being made. It is for this reason that 
the President has asked the Congress to act quickly 
to remove the restrictive procedures of the 1948 
act, to bring the Tariff Commission back into the 
trade-agreements family, and to restore confidence 
in the integrity of this program. 

With full participation by the Tariff Commis- 
sion, under the old procedures, the concessions 
recommended to the President can be more intelli- 
gently formulated and can reflect a more balanced 
viewpoint than would be possible in the negative 

169 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 

atmosphere which would inevitably prevail under 
the present law. Furthermore, with full Tariff 
Conmiission participation, experts from the Com- 
mission's staff can be included in actual negotiating 
teams, where their contribution has been invalua- 
ble in the past. Under the act which the President 
has requested, every officer concerned will be mind- 
ful of the need to safeguard the American econ- 
omy, but at the same time we shall have a clear 
mandate to broaden the bases of United States 
foreign trade, to create purchasing power for 
American exports, and to guide the economy as a 
whole into the most productive lines possible. 

I have attempted to describe briefly the need 
for this legislation and what time schedule is 
involved. Before I close I would like to say some- 
thing of the broader reasons why it is necessary 
to push forward with a program for relaxation of 
trade barriers. 

First, as one of the oldest and best-known meas- 
ures of international economic cooperation, great 
significance attaches to the reciprocal trade-agree- 
ments program both at home and abroad as proof 
that United States economic policy takes into ac- 
count the world-wide nature of prosperity and 
security. 

But the trade-agreements program is more than 
a symbol. In each agreement, we exchange spe- 
cific benefits which improve our opportunities to 
sell and improve some other country's ability to 
sell in our market. The latter point is worth 
noting, as we cannot maintain the high returns we 
now earn by producing goods for a world market 
unless we stimulate imports. Exports look large 
at present, and unquestionably they will remain 
large for as long as this country is willing to foot 
the bill. Beyond that time, however, prudence 
and necessity will force other countries to limit 
their foreign purchases substantially to the value 
of what they can sell abroad. A principal market 
for many countries is the United States. Wliether 
we offer these countries a chance to sell us more 
of the things our consumers want will therefore 
inevitabl}' affect the welfare of the segments of 
our economy which must sell part of their output 
abroad. 

Besides stimulating trade, the agreements we 
conclude will increase the number of countries 
bound to us by the general provisions of our agree- 
ments. With allowance for needed flexibility in 
special circumstances such as the abnormal ex- 
change shortages which exist at the present time, 
these provisions will assure us most-favored-nation 
treatment by the other countries in matters of 
tariffs, quotas, exchange controls, and other restric- 
tions on imports. They will also reserve rights 
under which this country can be sure of protecting 
its vital interests. 

How this helps the United States is clear. 

170 



Practically the entire world outside the United 
States lacks goods and, though in desperate need 
of our goods, lacks the means of buying from the 
United States. Imports from us must be tailored 
to ability to pay. There is great danger that re- 
strictions imposed in this situation will curb pur- 
chases from us more than is necessary and will 
last longer than necessary. Trade-agreement 
commitments provide an important immediate 
safeguard in these circumstances, defining what is 
necessary and what is not. They forbid all un- 
necessary restriction and discrimination and give 
us powerful leverage for use in the event that 
another country restricts its trade unduly. In a 
positive way, by assuring other countries a market 
in the United States, the agreements also influence 
other countries to expand their most productive 
industries beyond domestic needs, confident of a 
growing integration of world markets. 

The trade-agreements program is an integral 
part of our over-all program for world economic 
recovery. 

The European Recovery Program extends im- 
mediate assistance on a short-term basis to put 
the European countries back on their feet. As a 
part of this program we have asked them, and 
they have agreed, to follow certain fundamental 
policies. The basic principle of the European Re- 
covery Program, as stated in the Oeec programs 
and as reaffirmed in the bilateral agreements be- 
tween the participating countries and ourselves, 
is that they will increase production, put their 
financial houses in order, and expand their trade 
with each other and with the rest of the world. 
So far as the United States has it in its power 
to do so, it must support and encourage these three 
objectives. They are fundamentals of economic 
recovery. Obviously, we cannot urge countries to 
adopt policies directed towards economic health 
if we do not pursue the same objectives oureelves. 
The International Trade Organization, upon 
wliich Congress will soon be asked to take favor- 
able action, provides a long-term mechanism by 
which all countries' commercial policies, in the 
broadest sense of the term, may be tested and 
guided into conformity with a pattern which will 
maximize trade and minimize political friction 
arising out of national trade measures which may 
be harmful to other countries' legitimate 
expectations. 

Each part of this program is important. Each 
contributes to an effective and consistent whole. 

Viewed in that perspective, it is perfectly clear 
to me that the trade-agreements program must 
continue in the form which will render it most 
effective; namely, the form introduced in H. R. 
1211, the form which has stood the test of experi- 
ence for fourteen years. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Opportunities for Researcli and Teaching 
In Burma and New Zealand 

[Kelensod to the press January 27] 

Opportunities for Americans to undertake re- 
search or serve as visiting professors in Burma and 
New Zealand were announced on January 28 by 
the Department of State. The awards will be 
made, under the provisions of the Fulbright Act, 
in the currencies of those countries. Financial 
benefits will include round-trip transportation, a 
stipend, and a living allowance. 

In Burma, openings were announced for visit- 
ing professors m the following fields: conunerce, 
statistics, biology, modern and Far Eastern his- 
tory, paleontology, antliropolog}', physical educa- 
tion, educational methods, public health, dentistry, 
orthopedic surgery, and eye, ear, nose, and throat 
surgery. Five grants for advanced research are 
being offered. Suggested fields are anthropology, 
geography, botany, public health, biology, and 
agriculture. 

There are four opportunities in New Zealand 
for visiting professors in the fields of botany, 
American histoi-y, agriculture, and political 
science. Four research openings in New Zealand 
are offered in any of the following fields : library 
science, entomologj', agi-iculture, dairy science, 
fisher}' research, medicine, dentistry, plant physi- 
olog}', metallurgy, structural engineermg, biology, 
seismology, child welfare, and geology^ 

Research scholars and professors interested in 
these opportunities may obtain applications and 
additional information from the Conference 
Board of Associated Research Councils, 2101 Con- 
stitution Avenue, Washington 25, D.C. The De- 
partment of State has designated the Conference 
Board as the agency to receive inquiries, accept 
applications, and recommend qualified candidates 
to the Board of Foreign Scholarships, which 
makes the final selections. 

In addition, awards are also offered for two 
agricultural extension experts to work with Bur- 
mese provincial schools. Information may be ob- 
tained from the United States Office of Education, 
Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 

The awards are offered under the Fulbright 
Act (Public Law 584, 79th Congi-ess), which au- 
thorizes the Department of State to use certain 
foreign currencies and credits acquired through 
the sale of surplus property abroad for programs 
of educational exchange with other nations. 
Agreements have been signed with the following 
countries which are now participating in the pro- 
gram: China, Burma, Greece, the Philippines, 
New Zealand, Belgium and Luxembourg, United 
Kingdom, France, and Italy. The Fulbright 
progi-am is expected ultimately to embrace more 
than twenty countries and may involve an ex- 
penditure of $140,000,000 in foreign currencies 
during the next twenty years. 

February 6, 1949 



THE KBCORD OF 7H£ WEEK 

Advisory Commission Recommends Steps 
for Educational Exchange With Finland 

[Released to the press January 27] 

Dedication of future payments by Finland on 
her World War I indebtedness to the education of 
citizens of Finland in the United States and for 
American educational materials for use in that 
country was reconunended on January 27 by the 
United States Advisory Commission on Educa- 
tional Exchange. 

The Commission's action was taken on recom- 
mendation of George V, Allen, Assistant Secre- 
tary for public affairs, and specifically endorses 
the proposal for use of the Finnish debt; payments 
as encompassed in a joint resolution introduced 
and now pending in the Senate. 

The Advisory Connnission held that the per- 
formance of the Republic of Finland in meeting 
its debt payments in the face of its economic and 
other difficulties and in the face of default of pay- 
ments on debts by most of the other debtors of the 
United States had won the respect and admiration 
of the American people to such an extent as to de- 
serve the dedication of future payments to a 
project in direct aid of the Finnish people. 

The Commission also considered a request made 
to the State Department by a group of American 
educators for assistance to foreign students in the 
United States who are faced with interruption of 
their education here owing to increasing costs and 
other factors. 

The Commission requested the Department to 
make a full study of the situation and to report to 
the Commission prior to its next meeting on 
February 28. 

Prime Minister of Canada To Visit U.S. 

[Released to the press by the White House January 27] 

The President announced on January 27 that 
he had invited Louis St. Laurent, Prime Minister 
of Canada, to visit Washington on February 12, 
1949, and that Mr. St. Laurent has accepted his 
invitation. It is expected that Mr. St. Laurent 
will arrive in Washington on the evening of 
February 11 and will remain for probably two 
days. 

The Prime Minister's acceptance of the invita- 
tion will permit the President to renew his ac- 
quaintance with Mr. St. Laurent, who became 
Prime Minister of Canada on November 15, 1948, 
after having served first as Minister of Justice 
and then as Secretary of State for External Affairs 
since 1941. This will be Mr. St. Laurent's first trip 
to the United States since he assumed the duties of 
Prime Minister from his predecessor, Mr. Mac- 
kenzie King, and he is coming at this time for a 
brief informal visit. 

171 



Relations With de facto Venezuelan Government 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR 
AND THE VENEZUELAN MINISTER OF FOREIGN RELATIONS 



[Released to the press January 21] 

The United States Ambassador at Caracas, Wal- 
ter J. Donnelly, on January 21 replied formally to 
a note of November 25, 1948, received from the 
new Venezuelan Foreign Minister. This act of 
resuming diplomatic relations with the de facto 
Government of Venezuela is being taken as a result 
of an exchange of views with the other American 
republics over a period of several weeks. As has 
been pointed out previously, the maintenance or 
resumption of diplomatic relations with a par- 
ticular government does not imply any judgment 
whatsoever as to the domestic policy of such a 
government. There are attached the texts of the 
Venezuelan note of November 25 and this Govern- 
ment's reply. 

The decision to resume diplomatic relations 
with Venezuela arose from the normal course of 
the exchange of views with the other American 
states. Several of the American republics have 
already resumed relations with the Venezuelan 
Government. In deference to all the other govern- 
ments, this Government wished to give them ample 
advance notice of its decision and they were so in- 
formed several days ago. 

From the Venezuelan Minister to the American 
Ambassador 

[Translation] 

Caracas, November 25, 1948 

Mr. Ambassador: I have the honor to inform 
Your Excellency that the National Armed Forces, 
compelled by grave circumstances threatening the 
social peace and economic life of the Republic, and 
in compliance with their sacred duty to the Na- 
tion, assumed fully from yesterday the Provisional 
Government of the Republic, establishing a Mili- 
tary Junta of Government formed by Lt. Colonels 
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, who presides over the 
Junta, Marcos Perez Jimenez, and Luis Felipe 
Llovera Paez. Dr. Miguel Moreno will act as 
Secretary of the Junta. 

By decree of this same date the following per- 
sons have been designated to form the Executive 
Cabinet : 
Minister of Interior, Citizen Lt. Col. Luis Felipe 

Llovera Paez; 
Minister of Foreign Relations, Citizen Dr. Luis 

Emilio Gomez Ruiz; 
Minister of Finance, Citizen Dr. Aurelio Arreaza ; 
Minister of National Defense, Citizen Lt. Col. 

172 



Marcos Perez Jimenez ; 
Minister of Development, Citizen Dr. Pedro Ig- 

nacio Aguerrevere; 
Minister of Public Works, Citizen Dr. Gerardo 

Sanson ; 
Minister of Education, Citizen Professor Augusto 

Mi j ares; 
Minister of Health and Social Assistance, Citizen 

Dr. Antonio Martin Araujo ; 
Minister of Agriculture and Cattle Breeding, Citi- 
zen Dr. Amenodoro Rangel Lamus ; 
Minister of Labor, Citizen Dr. Ruben Corredor; 
Minister of Communications, Citizen Col. Jorge 

Marcano ; 
Governor of the Federal District, Citizen Gen. 

Juan de Dios Cells Paredes. 

Until Colonel Jorge Marcano, at present absent 
from the country, takes possession of his office, Lt. 
Col. Josue Lopez Henriquez will be in charge of 
the Ministr;^ of Communications. 

In informing Your Excellency of the foregoing, 
I am happy to assure you that the new Govern- 
ment, whose authority has been accepted with sat- 
isfaction by the Venezuelan people, will maintain 
social progress and comply strictly with its inter- 
national obligations in constant reaffirmation of 
the principles of cooperation and solidarity among 
nations. 

These events were carried out in the most abso- 
lute good order and cahn prevails throughout the 
country. 

I am happy furthermore to express to Your 
Excellency the desire of my Government to con- 
tinue and strengthen even more those cordial rela- 
tions of friendship which exist between our two 
countries. 

I take this opportunity [etc.] 

Luis E. Gomez Ruiz 

From the American Ambassador to the Vene- 
zuelan Minister 

Caracas, January 21, 19^9 
Excellency: I have the honor to acknowledge 
receipt of Your Excellency's note dated Novem- 
ber 25, 1948 informing me that a Military Junta 
of Government has been constituted under the 
Presidency of Lt. Colonel Carlos Delgado Chal- 
baud in which Your Excellency has been desig- 
nated to serve as Minister of Foreign Relations. 
My Government has noted Your Excellency's 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



statement that the new administration will 
strictly fulfill its international obligations. It has 
also noted a passajje in an addiess delivered on 
November 2C, 1948 by His Excellency the Presi- 
dent of Junta in which it is stated that the Junta 
will prepare for elections in which all citizens will 
participate under conditions of equality. 

My Government attaches importance to this 
statement particularly in view of a cardinal 
principle found in the Charter of the Organiza- 
tion of American States, namely : 



THB RECORD OF THB WEEK 

"The solidarity of the American States and the 
high aims which are sought through it require 
the political organization of those States on the 
basis of the enective exercise of representative 
democracy." 

On instructions from my Government, I have 
the honor to exjjz'ess to Your Excellency the hope 
that the good will and friendship which histor- 
ically have characterized relations between Vene- 
zuela and the United States will be continued. 

Accept [etc.] Walter J. Donnelly 



Credit Extended Israel for Agricultural and Other Projects 



[Released to the press by the 
Export-Import Bank on January 19] 

The Board of Directoi-s of tlie Export-Import 
Bank of Washington announced on January 19 
the authorization of a credit of 35 million dollars 
to the State of Israel to assist in financing the 
purchase in the United States of equipment, mate- 
rials, and services required for the execution of 
various agricultural projects. 

In addition to this credit for agricultural pur- 
poses, the Board announced that it has earmarked 
65 million dollars to be available until December 
31, 1949, for establishment of further credits to 
finance projects in the fields of communications, 
transportation, manufacturing, housing, and pub- 
lic works, which are now under study by the staff 
of the Bank. 

The credit from the Export-Import Bank for 
the agricultural project as well as subsequent 
credits for projects to be approved under the 65- 
million-dollar earmark will bear interest at the 
rate of 3iA percent per annum and will mature in 
15 years. 

The agricultural project to be financed under 
the credit of 35 million dollars includes the estab- 
lishment and equipment of 8,000 new diversified 
farms, the rehabilitation, re-equipment, and gen- 
eral improvement of some 16,000 farms and 6,000 
citrus groves, and irrigation works to insure the 
water supply to 42,000 acres of new farm land. 
It is believed that the credit extended by the 
Export-Import Bank to assist the agricultural- 
development program of Israel will contribute 
substantially to the over-all economic development 
of the country. 

Jewish agriculture was revolutionized during 



the twenties and thirties in a manner reminiscent 
of the change in Danish agriculture during the 
1880's. In place of extensive, but subsistence, 
farming of previous times, in which wheat formed 
the chief crop, intensive diversified farming for 
commercial purposes was developed. Irrigation 
was very important in this process. The total 
irrigated area in Palestine increased more than 
tenfold in the twenties and thirties. 

The most striking development in Palestinian 
agriculture was the expansion of citriculture about 
thirtyfold during the two decades. During the 
latter part of the thirties, citrus comprised about 
three fourths of the value of all Palestinian ex- 
ports and accounted for about 25 percent of the 
value of agricultural production in Palestine. 
During the thirties, dairy products, eggs, vege- 
tables, and potatoes became increasingly impor- 
tant in Jewish agriculture. 

The irrigated area devoted to mixed farming 
was more than doubled during the war and has 
expanded still further since 1945. Jewish agri- 
cultural output, exclusive of citriculture, in- 
creased by about 85 percent during the war period 
and rose by a further 50 percent during the first 
two postwar yeare. 

The agricultural project as well as the projects 
to be covered by the 65 million dollars earmarked 
fund, is part of the over-all program of the State 
of Israel for the balanced economic development 
designed to establish a self-sustaining economy 
for tlie country. The State of Israel expects to 
finance this total investment program from local 
savings, contributions of world Jewry, and pri- 
vate foreign-capital investment as well as from 
the credits extended by the Export-Import Bank. 



February 6, 1949 



173 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

National Freedom Day 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas, near the end of the tragic conflict 
between the Northern and Southern States, the 
Congress adopted a joint resolution proposing an 
amendment to the Constitution which would out- 
law slavery in the United States and in every place 
subject to its jurisdiction; and 

Whereas the i^esolution was signed by President 
Lincoln on February 1, 1865, and thereafter led to 
the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution; and 

Whereas that Amendment is a corner stone in 
the foundation of our American traditions, and 
the signing of the resolution is a landmark in the 
Nation's effort to fulfill the principles of freedom 
and justice proclaimed in the first ten amendments 
to the Constitution; and 

Whereas, by a joint resolution approved June 
30, 1948 (62 Stat. 1150), the Congress authorized 
the President to proclaim the first day of February 
of each year as National Freedom Day in com- 
memoiation of the signing of the resolution of 
February 1, 1865; and 

Whereas the Government and people of the 
United States wholeheartedly support the Uni- 
versal Declaration of Human Rights approved by 
the General Assembly of the United Nations on 
December 10, 1948, which declares that "recogni- 
tion of the inherent dignity and of the equal and 
inalienable rights of all members of the human 
family is the foundation of freedom, justice and 
peace in the world'' : 

Now, therefore, I, Harry S. Truman, President 
of the United States of America, do hereby desig- 
nate February 1, 1949, and each succeeding Feb- 
ruary 1, as National Freedom Day; and I call 
upon the people of the United States to pause on 
that day in solemn contemplation of the glorious 
blessings of freedom which we humbly and thank- 
fully enjoy. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty- 
fifth day of January in the year of our 

[seal] Lord nineteen hundred and forty-nine, 
and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and seventy- 
third. 




By the President : 
Dean G. Acheson 

/Secretary of State. 



' Proc. 2824, 14 Fed. Reg. 361. 
174 



Convention With Mexico for Scientific 
Investigation of Tuna Signed 

A convention between the United States and 
Mexico for the establislmient of an International 
Commission for the Scientific Investigation of 
Tuna was signed on January 24 at Mexico City by 
representatives of the two Governments, the De- 
partment of State announced. This action was 
taken as the result of recommendations made by 
delegates to a conference which met in Mexico 
City from October 25 to November 4 to discuss 
fish-conservation matters of common concern to 
the two countries. 

The convention provides for a Commission, com- 
posed of two national sections of four members 
each, which will engage in scientific investigation 
of the tuna and tuna-like fishes of the eastern 
Pacific Ocean, as well as those fishes which are 
used for bait in the tuna fisheries. The scientific 
information now available, based on studies made 
in the past, is not sufficiently extensive, the Depart- 
ment pointed out, to indicate whether or not tuna 
stocks are now in danger of depletion or may be in 
the near future. The two countries will cooperate 
in this enterprise with the long-range view of 
maintaining the populations of these fishes at a 
level which will assure a maximum reasonable uti- 
lization, year after year, without depletion. 

The text of the convention is contained in De- 
partment of State press release 53 of January 25. 

President of Brazil To Visit U.S. 

[Released to the press by the White House January 26] 

The President of the Republic of the United 
States of Brazil, Eurico Caspar Dutra, has been 
invited by the President to visit the United States 
as an official guest. President Dutra has accepted 
with great pleasure and has expressed his hope that 
he will be able to arrive in Washington on May 
18. President Dutra's departure from the coun- 
try must, in accordance with the Brazilian con- 
stitution, be approved by the legislative power. 

The Department 

Confirmation 

On January 27, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nomina- 
tion of James E. Webb to be Under Secretary of State. 



Appointment of Officers 

Kichard F. Cook as Deputy Director of the Office of 
Educational Exchange, effective January 28, 1949. 



Department of State Bulletin 




:■'■?'«)? irgwisr.ii 



j.'m'.'K^K'me! 



General Policy ^'aee 

"Point 4" Program for World Economic Prog- 
ress Through Cooperative Technical 
Assistance. Remarks by Secretary 
Acheson 155 

The American Course in Foreign Affairs. 

By Charles E. Bohlen 157 

Purpose of Proposed North Atlantic Treaty. 

Statement by Secretary Acheson . . . 160 

Prime Minister of Canada To Visit U.S. . . 171 

Relations With "de facto" Venezuelan Gov- 
ernment. Exchange of Notes Between 
the American Ambassador and the Ven- 
ezuelan Minister of Foreign Relations . 172 

National Freedom Day. A Proclamation . 174 

President of Brazil To Visit U.S 174 

Treaty Information 

Purpose of Proposed North Atlantic Treaty. 

Statement by Secretary Acheson ... 160 

IcAO Conference on Air Navigation Services 
in Iceland. By Rear Admiral Paul A. 
Smith 164 

Need for Trade Agreements Extension Act. 

Statement by Willard L. Thorp .... 168 

Convention With Mexico for Scientific Inves- 
tigation of Tuna Signed 174 



International Information and Page 

Cultural Affairs 

The Internationa! Congress on Mental Health. 

By Winfred Overholser, M.D 166 

Opportunities for Research and Teaching in 

Burma and New Zealand 171 

Advisory Commission Recommends Steps for 

Educational Exchange With Finland . . 171 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

The United States in the United Nations . . 161 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to the International Wheat 

Conference 167 

Credit Extended Israel for Agricultural and 

Other Projects 173 

Calendar of International Meetings . . 163 

The Department 

Confirmation 174 

Appointment of Officers 174 

Publications 

Department of State 167 



r. 



Rear Adm. Paul A. Smith, author of the article on the Icao 
Conference on Air Navigation Services In Iceland, was chairman 
of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference and is United States 
representative on the Council of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization. 

Dr. Winfred Overholser, author of the article on the Inter- 
national Congress of Mental Health, is the Superintendent of 
St. Elizabeths Hospital, Federal Security Agency. Dr. Over- 
holser served as chairman of the United States Delegation to 
the Congress. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINC OFFICE^ (949 



on ^ 

Z/ri 




For compile rtinUmtM ««» hnrh rrtpff 



^,U«»TO. 



«. S. SUPERUflENDENT Of DOCUMtKrk 

FEB 23 1949 




x/Ae ^e/ia/3f^€7U /)£ 5/lale JL/ U 1 1 1? L 1 11 



Vol. XX, No. 502 • Publication 3427 
February 13, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent ot Documents 

U.S. Oovernment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Prick: 

62 issues, domestic $5, foreign $7.2S 

Single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director ot the Bureau of the Budget 

A'ote; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depabtuent 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department oj State liLLLETIlS', 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division oj Publications, 
Office of Public Avoirs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



AN AMERICAN ANSWER TO CHINESE COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

ADDRESS BY JOHN M. CABOT' 
Consul General, American Embassy, Shanghai 



Did any of yon read the January 14 message 
from the Chinese political leader who has figured 
rather prominently in the news recently ? Let me 
give you some excerpts. 

"Two and a half j-ears have elapsed since July 
1946, when the Nanldng Kuomintang reactionary 
government with the aid of American imperial- 
ists and in violation of the will of the people tore 
up the truce agreement . . . and launched a na- 
tion-wide counter-revolutionary civil war. Dur- 
ing these two and a half years' war the Nanking 
KMT reactionary government in violation of the 
will of the people . . . betrayed the national 
rights wholesale to the American Government 
and obtained several billion dollars in foreign 
loans from the American Government. It 
brought in the American Government's naval and 
air forces to occupy China's territory, territorial 
seas, and to encroach on her air sovereignty. This 
Government concluded many treaties of national 
betrayal with the American Government and ac- 
cepted the American Military Advisory Group's 
participation in China's civil war. It obtained 
from the American Government large quantities 
of planes, tanks, heavy and light artillery, machine 
guns, rifles, shells, ammunition, and other mili- 
tary materials for slaughter of the Chinese 
people." 

At that point the political leader stopped his 
attacks on American imperialism. Perhaps be- 
cause he was out of breath, although he did later 
specify abrogation of treaties of national betrayal 
as one condition for negotiation of peace. 

Now tliat's a pretty formidable indictment of 
all the things the American Government has been 
doing in China in the last two and a half years, 
and it's only part of what the North Shensi radio 
has been saying. Patriotic Chinese and good 
American citizens here today would certainly 
want to know about such nefarious doings on the 



part of the American Government. Since this is 
a University gathering in which a belief in 
academic freedom has been instilled, you will 
want the more to know what the truth is. So let's 
look at the record. It is too bad that the dis- 
tinguished leader I quote was rather shoi-t on facts 
and long on invective. Perhaps we can fill in the 
gaps ill the facts. 

The message shows a touching regard for the 
will of the people by twice referring to it in the 
short excerpt I quoted. It must refer to the will 
of the Chinese people. But I wonder how he 
knows what their will is. In the United States 
we can pretty well determine what the will of 
the people is — and I'm not referring to the Gallup 
poll. We know for example that the American 
people wanted Truman for President. We know 
that he and not Henry Wallace received the sup- 
port of organized labor. It is generally believed 
that most of the Wall Street bankers, whom North 
Shensi radio is so fond of castigating, were op- 
posed to Truman's election. We can therefore be 
fairly certain that when Mr. Truman's administra- 
tion sponsors aid to the National Government of 
China, it does so because the American people, and 
not Wall Street bankei's, want it to do so. 

But has the eminent political leader I have 
quoted any similar means of knowing what the 
will of the Chinese people is? Have Chinese 
Communists ever conducted a free election in the 
territory they control? Has any Communist re- 
gime ever conducted a free election or come to 
power in a free election in any country? The 
Czechs and Hungarians and a dozen other peoples 
might wish to give evidence regarding this. Let 
the Chinese Communists secure a mandate from 
the Clunese people in free elections before they 

' Address delivered before the American University Club 
in Shanghai on Jan. 26, 1949. Printed from telegraphic 
text. 



February 13, 1949 



179 



reproach the United States for flouting the 
people's will. 

The message next refers to the wholesale be- 
trayal of Chinese national rights to the American 
Government. In the absence of more specific 
charges this one is a little like the old have-you- 
stopped-beating-your-wife joke. But perhaps 
this is merely an introduction to later accusations. 
Let me say however that the United States is 
scrupulously respecting Cliinese sovereignty and 
would not ask the Chinese Government or any 
otlier government to betray its national rights. 
We are not seeking in China any privileged posi- 
tion vis-a-vis either the Chinese or any other 
nation. 

The next item is more specific: The National 
government "obtained several billion dollars in 
foreign loans from the American Government." 
Now the curious thing about that one is that 
the United States hasn't loaned a single dollar 
to the Chinese Government since July 1946. 
On the contrary, we refused to continue with the 
proposed U. S. $500,000,000 Export-Import Bank 
credit. Even Communist propaganda puts our 
total aid to China since V-J Day at only U.S. 
$4,000,000,000, a greatly inflated figure, and most 
of this is nonreimbursable. Of our aid agree- 
ments I shall speak shortly. 

The next item on the bill of particulars is "it 
brought in the American Government's naval and 
air forces to occupy China's territory, territorial 
seas, and to encroach on her air sovereignty." 
Have the Communists forgotten these forces came 
to China to assist in liberating its territory from 
the Japanese? Do they think these forces will 
remain any longer than the recognized Chinese au- 
thorities wish them to? Moreover we should like 
to hear about the position of the Chinese 
Communists on the occupation of Dairen by 
a foreign power. Then too do they accept the 
present status of Port Arthur? Agreeing as we 
do with Chinese Communists regarding the evils 
of imperialism, we feel that these cases merit 
their early attention. Here indeed are foreign 
troops which seem to be settling down for a long 
stay on Chinese soil. 

The message next complains that American 
planes encroach upon China's air sovereignty. No 
flight of any American Government plane was 
ever made to China without the explicit consent 
of constituted authorities. Our planes fly over 

180 



British territory, and foreign planes fly over 
American territory on exactly the same conditions 
without any feeling that they encroach upon 
British or American sovereignty, respectively. 
We have neither asked for nor received any special 
air rights anywhere in China. We would how- 
ever like to know how the Chinese Communists 
view the agreement imposed on China by another 
power Under which even the Chinese Government 
could not give its consent to the proposed flight 
of an American Embassy plane. 

The bill of particulai-s now comes to "many 
treaties of national betrayal with the American 
Government," and later demands their abrogation. 
Our two most recent treaties with Cliina are those 
signed in 1943 and 1946. By the first we aban- 
doned our extraterritorial rights and our rights 
in port concessions. If the Chinese Communists 
consider this treaty a national betrayal and try to 
abrogate it, I wish to make quite clear to them 
that we will refuse to take back our extraterri- 
torial rights and port concessions — we are glad 
these infringements on Chinese sovereignty have 
been ended. 

Our other recent treaty, the commercial treaty 
of 1946 which went into effect only on November 30 
last, expressly superseded all of the unequal 
treaties which still existed. It was designed to re- 
place them with a treaty which should give recog- 
nition to China's just demands for equal treatment 
in agreements with foreign powers. It was the 
first equal commercial treaty ever negotiated by the 
Chinese Government. I camiot say whether the 
distinguished leader considers tliis an unequal 
treaty since he fails to specify treaties to which he 
objects and the provisions in them to which he 
takes exception. But if it is to this one, then he 
and many American businessmen in Shanghai are 
in complete agreement in considering it unfair. 
But then in the United States, when we hear ob- 
jections to both sides, we generally feel we have 
attained a pretty fair middle-of-the-road position. 

We have also made several executive agreements 
with China in the postwar period. One of these 
was the surplus property agreement of 1946, in 
which we agreed to turn over some U.S. $500,- 
000,000 worth of surplus materials (from which, 
be it emphasized, guns, munitions, military air- 
planes, and other combatant materials were ex- 
pressly excluded), together with other items, in 
return primarily for cancellation of the indebted- 

Department of State Bulletin 



ness our armed forces had incurred in China. Do 
the Chinese Communists complain because we did 
not ask China to pay for the uplceep of our forces 
in China as we asked our other allies to pay for the 
upkeep of our forces on their territory in part com- 
pensation for our lend-lease assistance? This is 
certainly a most striking example of "inequality" 
which appears in many of our recent agreements 
with China. 

Under the surplus property agreement, the 
Chinese Government agreed to set aside U^S. 
$20,000,000 in Chinese currency in order that it 
might not be a burden on the Chinese economy and 
in order to establish an educational foundation. 
Perhaps this is a shocking example of j\jnerican 
"cultural imperialism" since the money was almost 
all spent in China. Yet even the Chinese Commu- 
nists do not criticize the money our missionaries 
have spent for education over yeai-s in China with 
noble intent and loving care. It is nevertheless 
rather tragic to think that in the Communist con- 
cept trade in ideas is contraband. 

I do not think that the message can refer to the 
air transport agreement of 1946 as a treaty of 
national betrayal. It is completely reciprocal in 
language, and each party grants the other entry 
over three international routes. The fact is that 
this agreement has gi'eatly improved China's inter- 
national communications. 

Perhaps the Communists are referring to our 
aid agi-eements as treaties of national betrayal. 
Here is where Communist propaganda really pulls 
out all stops in denouncing American "imperial- 
ism" — it claims our aid program a trap (1) to en- 
slave the Chinese worker and (2) to get rid of 
our surpluses in order to hold together for a while 
longer the tottering structure of our capitalistic 
economy. Cliinese Communists are again very 
unhelpful in failing to expand these thoughts. 
Probably they have discovered they don't have to 
prove their points where free speech doesn't exist. 
In any case, they don't explain why it is improper 
for the United States to aid the Chinese Govern- 
ment, which is recognized by all other govern- 
ments, including the Soviet Union, as the sole 
legitimate authority in China, 

The facts regarding our aid program are very 
simple. We have signed agreements by which we 
tried to insure aid which will truly benefit the 
Chinese people. The small group of Americans 

February 13, 1949 



who have been insisting we should grant aid only 
with political strings attached will doubtless 
be moved to tears to discover that they "done us 
wrong," If Communist propaganda is to be 
believed, we have unbeloiownst to the public at 
large been able to wring major political conces- 
sions from the National Government. Alas, I 
nuist disabuse this idea. We have granted aid 
without thought of political considerations. The 
Chinese Government will be under no enduring 
obligation to the U.S. when the aid program 
is finished. As traditional friends we are giving 
aid without insisting on more in return. Those 
agreements under which we have extended aid to 
China are intended to help the Chinese laborer. 
They are furnishing food for his family, fuel in 
the factories in which he works, and cotton to keep 
those factories running and to clothe him. There 
are millions of dollars of food and fuel and cotton 
in Shanghai today which are being given by the 
United States to the Chinese people with no 
thought of material recompense. The American 
people will be satisfied if this help aids the Chinese 
people. The last thing on earth they want is to 
take advantage of China's distress and secure self- 
ish privileges in this country. 

Perhaps the Chinese Communists vrill answer a 
question in this connection. Rather than Amer- 
ican aid, which is bringing hundreds of millions of 
dollars of materials into the country without com- 
pensation, do they prefer the aid a foreign power 
gave in Manchuria by taking from the country 
everything which wasn't nailed down and quite a 
bit that was ? That kind of "aid" cost China some 
two billion dollars in machinery and other items. 

I have noted Communist propaganda deriding 
comments by Mr. Hoffman, Eca head, regarding 
the possibility of furnishing American aid to 
Communist-dominated areas. This propaganda 
denounced Mr. Hoffman for suggesting that aid 
might be granted if Eca officials were permitted 
to supervise it and enjoy the right of full publicity 
respecting it. My last post was in a Communist 
country in southeastern Europe. There Unbra 
aid was used by the Communist regime to reward 
the faithful and to punish the unbelievers. Gov- 
ernment propaganda blatantly claimed for the 
government credit for this aid while damning 
the United States and Great Britain which had 
furnished over 90 percent. Is that why Cliinese 
Communists consider that it would be derogatory 

181 



to China's sovereignty to accept Mr. Hoffman's 
conditions ? 

Our aid program also includes a rural recon- 
struction agreement. I do not know whether the 
Communists will claim that this is just another 
"imperialistic" scheme to stunt the growth of 
Chinese crops or to sell American farm machinery 
to Chinese farmers. I do know that that is not 
our concept. Wliat we want is to help the Chinese 
farmer make the best possible use of his tragically 
limited acres. If Communists consider that agree- 
ment a national betrayal, let them make the most 
if it. 

In summary, it would be helpful if Communist 
propaganda would explain what material profit 
we hope to get by giving China iromense quanti- 
ties of our products. No nation ever got rich by 
that. It would be equally helpful if it would 
explain how we expect to advance our "imperial- 
istic" design of enslaving the Chinese worker by 
furnishing him with food, fuel, and raw materials 
with which to work without attaching any per- 
manent strings to the aid we are giving. 

Moreover, it seems fair to ask how it was pro- 
posed that these treaties be abrogated. The treaty 
of 1943 for obvious reasons contains no provision 
for abrogation. The 1946 treaty cannot be abro- 
gated for five years. We cannot imagine that 
Chinese Communists would wish to become, like 
Hitler, avowed treaty breakers. Treaties should 
be abrogated only under their own provisions or 
by mutual consent. 

Since we are on the subject of unequal treaties, 
it would be helpful if we could be told what Chi- 
nese Communists plan to do about the Sino-Soviet 
treaty of 1945. Here indeed is a classic example 
of an unequal treaty — so far as I know the only 
important treaty of that nature to which China 
is still a party — for it gives a foreign power spe- 
cific privileges on Chinese soil. When people in 
the United States hear Chinese Communists de- 
nouncing treaties of national betrayal, they will 
probably be prepared to accept the sincerity of 
such denouncements when the Chinese Commu- 
nists abrogate the Sino-Soviet treaty of 1945. It 
is a cui-ious fact that the United States seems more 
criticized in China for having recommended a 
treaty for fear of sometliing worse, than is the 
country which imposed this treaty on China in the 
classical tradition of nineteenth century imper- 
ialism. 



We seem to have strayed rather far from the 
message we are discussing, so let us return. The 
next allegation is that the American Military Ad- 
visory Group is participating in China's civil war. 
It would be interesting to know on what evidence 
this statement was made. Did Communists cap- 
ture American officers helping Nationalists at 
Tsinan or Chinchow or Mukden or Hsuchow or 
Tientsin ? The fact is that Communists know that 
American advisory groups have not participated 
in the civil war. Their orders have strictly for- 
bidden them to participate in it. The United 
States does not want authority in China, and it 
does not want responsibility without authority. 
Advisory groups were sent to China before medi- 
ation broke down to implement a long-range pro- 
gram which would make another aggressor thiiik 
twice before repeating Japan's mistake. They 
came to China with full agreement of the Commu- 
nists and with the intention, thwarted by renewed 
outbreak of civil war, that Communist forces 
should be included in its training program. Surely 
Communists know better than to think National 
military operations would have been so botched if 
American advisory groups had been running 
them. 

We next come to this business of planes, tanks, 
artillery, etc., which we furnished Chinese Na- 
tionals. The fact here is that most of the Amer- 
ican equipment the Nationals used had been 
provided before July 1946. It had been sent by 
the United States to help China crush Japanese 
aggression and prevent its recurrence rather than 
with any thought that it would be used in civil 
war. Chinese Communists should not forget that 
only four years ago the United States was engag- 
ing in the common cause with the Kuomintang and 
the Chinese Communists alike against the Axis — 
just as we who oppose Communism must not forget 
the many heroic deeds of the Chinese Conamunists 
in the war against Japan or their many services in 
our common cause. 

Having reequipped a large part of the Chinese 
National forces before July 1946 with American 
arms, we could scarcely deny a government which 
had cooperated with us in that program the right 
to buy munitions for these arms. Nor did we wish 
to when the opposing faction followed more and 
more slavishly a party line of a foreign power. We 
made clear in 1900 our opposition to domination of 
China by any foreign imperialism and we have f ol- 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



lowed the same policy ever since. Wo have be- 
lieved this served China's interests as well as our 
own and continue to believe so. It was not then 
for slaughter of the Chinese people that we fur- 
nished tlu'se arms. It was for their freedom, for 
the preservation of their independence against any 
foreign nation, Japan or any other which might 
seek to dominate them. We did not wish China, 
like many an ancient land in Europe, to fall be- 
neatli the heel of foreign tyranny ag-ainst the will 
of their people. 

Implicit in the whole message from which I 
have quoted is the idea that the Kuomintang is sub- 
servient to the United States — that the Kuomin- 
tang authorities are our puppets or running dogs. 
Should anyone have this idea I suggest he read 
General Stilwell's book which shows the extent 
to which our military commander in this theater 
was not heeded. Or he might read the leading 
Kuomintang organs in this city, which regularly 
criticize the United States more than they do 
Soviet Russia. 

I have a question to ask the Chinese Communists 
in this connection. 

In June of 1948 the Cominf orm published a com- 
munique denouncing Tito and other leaders of the 
Yugoslav Government. You will say Yugoslavia 
is far off and ask what it has to do with China. In 
that communique the Cominform made it very 
clear that Tito's crime had been to refuse to fol- 



low blindly orders from the Politburo in Moscow — 
(hat he liad insisted on his own right to interpret 
Marx and Lenin — that he had insisted on uphold- 
ing Yugoslavia's interests — that he had, to take a 
specific instance, formed a coalition with non-Com- 
munists in the national liberation front which ran 
Yugoslavia. For this he was called a Trotskyito, 
a deviationist. 

The Chinese Communist Party has publicly and 
unreservedly endorsed that communique. 

Now my question is: Does the Chinese Commu- 
nist Party blindly follow orders from Moscow or 
does it not? They surely cannot take it amiss if 
we infer from their endorsement of this commu- 
nique (and much of the evidence) that they do. 
The United States does not believe that the Chi- 
nese people want to be ruled by orders from any 
foreign capital and in accordance with its tradi- 
tional friendship, the United States has furnished 
aid to them to prevent this. If we have not fur- 
nished more aid, it has been due more to our 
doubts as to its effective use than to a lack of de- 
sire to help. We have not wanted to offend China's 
sovereignty by telling the Chinese Government 
how it should run its affairs. Those who accuse 
American "imperialism" of seeking to run China 
would do well to explain whether or not they 
themselves are accepting guidance from another 
foreign power. 



February 13, J 949 



183 



[February 5-12] 

Disarmament 

The Security Council devoted its meetings on 
February 8 and 10 to a consideration of the Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution on disarmament. The 
resolution, which had been sponsored by the Bel- 
gian and French Delegations and which passed 
the Assembly on November 19, 1948, recom- 
mended that the Security Council, through its 
Commission for Conventional Armaments, con- 
duct a survey of the existing level of armaments 
among nations, as the initial step in formulating a 
disarmament program. 

Criticizing the resolution as "generalized and 
non-concrete," the Soviet Representative, Mr. 
Malik, offered a separate draft resolution. The 
Soviet-sponsored measure pointed to activities 
which it said were leading to the "unleashing of 
a new war" ; it spoke of the creation of a number 
of "grouping of states" headed by the "aggressive 
circles of certain Great Powers", of the failure to 
implement earlier Assembly resolutions concerning 
the control of atomic energy and the reduction of 
armaments. According to Mr. Malik's draft, the 
Security Council would instruct the Commission 
for Conventional Armaments to present by June 
1, 1949, a plan by which the armaments and armed 
forces of the five permanent members of the Coun- 
cil would be reduced by one third as of March 1, 
1950; further, that the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion be instructed to work out a draft convention 
for the prohibition of atomic weapons and a draft 
convention for the control of atomic energy, to be 
enacted simultaneously; and that an international 
control organ be created under the Security Coun- 
cil to supervise the implementation of these meas- 
ures. The Soviet draft resolution also proposed 
that permanent members of the Security Council 
submit to that body by March 31 full data regard- 
ing their armed forces and all armaments, includ- 
ing atomic weapons. 

In reply to the Soviet draft resolution, which 
was presented orally, Ambassador Austin pointed 
out that it was composed of a number of proposals 
which had been previously discussed and rejected 
by various organs of the IJnited Nations, including 
the General Assembly. He spoke of the repetition 
of these once-rejected proposals as an obstruction 
to the passage of the first essential step toward a 
genuine disarmament program : the collection of 
information about the existing level of armaments. 
Ambassador Austin asserted that the United States 
was prepared to report on and allow verification 
of its effectives and conventional armaments, in 
accordance with the terms of the General Assembly 
resolution, and he inquired whether the Soviet 
Union would be willing to extend similar measures 
of cooperation. 

In reply to certain charges of the Soviet Repre- 
sentative, Ambassador Austin quoted a statement 

184 



by Secretary Acheson, issued on January 26, which 
referred to the proposed Atlantic Pact as a "col- 
lective defense arrangement" within the frame- 
work of the United Nations. 

The remarks of Ambassador Austin were en- 
dorsed by the Representative of Great Britain, 
who warned that "the practice of reviving defeated 
projects" could lead to "protracted confusion" in 
the debates of the Commission for Conventional 
Armaments. 

At the following meeting, on February 10, the 
United States submitted a motion transmitting the 
General Assembly resolution to the Commission 
for Conventional Armaments. This was passed 
by a vote of 9-0, with the Soviet Union and 
Ukraine abstaining. The Soviet resolution was 
defeated, 2-0, with 9 states abstaining, and a pro- 
posal by Mr. Malik that the Soviet resolution be 
transmitted to the Commission for Conventional 
Armaments along with the General Assembly reso- 
lution, was likewise defeated by a vote of 3-0, with 
8 states abstaining. 

Trusteeship Council 

The Trusteeship Council, in the third week of 
its fourth regular session, devoted a major share 
of its time to the consideration of petitions from 
inhabitants of trust territories. One of the prin- 
cipal points of controversy was the status before 
the Council of anonymous petitions, which Bel- 
gium and France contended sliould not be classed 
as petitions at all. Decision in the matter was 
deferred indefinitely. 

Controversy also arose when the United King- 
dom and Belgium sought postponements of con- 
sideration of the report of the Council's visiting 
mission to Tanganyika and Ruanda-Uruncli on the 
ground they had not sufficient time to prepare a 
reply. In the end, the Council accepted the sug- 
gestion of the U.S. Representative, Ambassador 
Sayre, that a "preliminary" examination of the 
report be undertaken later in the session. 

The report of the administering authority on 
the French Cameroons was the first of the annual 
reports to be taken up. 

Economic and Social Council 

The eighth session of the Economic and Social 
Council opened February 7 with public intei-est 
centered on steps toward implementation of the 
cooperative program suggested by President Tru- 
man for technical assistance in the development 
of underdeveloped areas. Discussions of these 
and other economic matters was deferred, how- 
ever, for at least two weeks. 

James Thorn of New Zealand was elected presi- 
dent of the Council ; V. V. Skoi'obogaty of Byelo- 
russia, first vice president; and Dr. Carlos 
Eduardo Stolk of Venezuela, second vice presi- 
dent. Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of 

Department of State Bulletin 



State, is the United States Kepresentative and 
Leroy D. Stinebower and Walter M. Kotschnig, 
Deputy Representatives. 

The following actions were taken during the 
week: 

Freedom of information. — The resolution of the 
Geneva Conference on Freedom of Information 
providing for a three-year continuation of the 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information was 
referred to the Social Committee along with pro- 
posed U. S. amendments. The amendments would 
not cliange the suggested terms of reference of the 
subcommission but would hasten its reorganiza- 
tion an work program under the new terms of 
reference. 

Human rights. — General Assembly resolutions 
on the right of petition and the problems of mi- 
norities were transmitted to the Human Rights 
Commission. A decision on the inclusion of court 
decisions in the Human Rights Yearbook was 
postponed until the ninth session. This discus- 
sion was aggravated by references to the trial of 
Cardinal Mindszenty in Hungary and the trial of 
eleven Communists in New York. June 13 was 
set as the date for the opening of the next meeting 
of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimi- 
nation and Protection of Minorities. 

In the Ecosoc Social Committee, U.S. reso- 
lutions were adopted on arrangements between 
the Council and the Permanent Central Opium 
Board, and on the selection of an expert panel to 
study the effects of the chewing of the cocoa leaf. 

Dr. Jessup Named Ambassador-at-Large 

President Truman sent to the Senate for con- 
firmation on February 10, the nomination of Dr. 
Philip C. Jessup to be Ambrssador-at-Large. 
Dr. Jessup, who had been serving as Deputy United 
States Representative to the Security Council and 
the Interim Committee of the General Assembly, 
will serve the Secretary of State on special assign- 
ment to international meetings, including the 
General Assembly. 

To fill the vacancies created by this appoint- 
ment, the President nominated John C. Ross as 
Deputy United States Representative in the Se- 
curity Council, and Charles P. Noyes as Deputy 
U. S. Representative in the Interim Committee of 
the General Assembly. 

Korea 

The "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" 
submitted in a letter dated January 19 from the 
Acting Foreign Minister a formal application to 
the Secretary-General for membership in the 
United Nations. In view of paragraph 2 of the 
General Assembly Resolution of December 12, 
1948, the Secretary-General circulated the appli- 
cation on February 10 for the convenience of the 
members of the Security Council rather than 

february 73, 1949 



under rule 6 of the provisional rules of procedure 
of the Council. Paragraph 2 "declared that there 
has been established a lawful government (the 
government of the Republic of Korea) having ef- 
fective control and jurisdiction over that part of 
Korea where the Temporary Commission was able 
to observe and consult and in which the great ma- 
jority of the people of all Korea reside ; that this 
Government is based on elections which were a 
valid expression of the free will of the electorate 
of that part of Korea and which were observed by 
the Temporary Commission : and that this is the 
only such Government in Korea." Rule 6 pro- 
vides that the Secretary-General shall bring to the 
attention of all representatives on the Council all 
communications from states, organs of the U.N., 
or the Secretary-General, concerning any matter 
for the consideration of the Security Council in 
accordance with the provisions of the Charter. 

The application for membership from the Re- 
public of Korea will be considered at an early 
Security Council meeting. 

ILO 

Training programs and techniques developed by 
government, management, and labor in the United 
States to supply American industry with skilled 
man power are described in a study just published 
by the Ilo entitled "Vocational Training of Adults 
in tlae United States." This is one in a series of 
monographs intended to serve as guides to coun- 
tries urgently in need of skilled man power to 
carry out plans for economic development. The 
studies are part of Ilo's broad man-power program 
aimed at more efficient use of the world's labor 
resources. 

Indonesia 

The Commission for Indonesia invited the 
Netherlands and Republican Delegations on Feb- 
ruary 10 to submit any documents or statement 
which they might consider would assist the Com- 
mission in the preparation of its recommendations 
concerning the formation of a federal interim 
government. 

In this connection the Commission reminded the 
parties that, mider the terms of the Security Coun- 
cil Resolution of January 28, unless the parties 
have reached agreement on the interim federal 
government by February 15, the Commission must 
report to the Security Council and make recom- 
mendations for the solution of the difficulties. The 
viewpoints of the parties will be taken into full 
consideration, the Commission said. 

H. Merle Cochran, U.S. representative on the 
Commission, is expected to arrive in Batavia on 
February 14. He departed from Batavia on Janu- 
ary 6 for consultations in Washington. En route 
to Indonesia he has conferred with officials in 
Belgium and the Netherlands. 

185 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Opening of the International Wheat Conference 



STATEMENT BY CHARLES F. BRANNAN i 
Secretary of Agriculture 



It gives me pleasure to greet you on behalf of 
the President of the United States and to express 
our appreciation of the honor which you have paid 
our Government by allowing us to be host to this 
conference. 

The United States is particularly gratified by 
the large number of nations represented here. It 
reflects the growing realization of the need for in- 
ternational cooperation in solving specific eco- 
nomic problems. It also augurs well for the 
success of our negotiations here. 

We have already made great progress. The suc- 
cess of our negotiations last year attest to that 
point. Furthermore, the consumers and the farm- 
ers of the world have become increasingly aware 
of what a wheat agreement could mean to them. 
At the recent conference of the United Nations 
Food and Agriculture Organization, held here in 
Washington, President Truman, speaking for the 
people of the United States, gave a very strong 
endorsement to an international wheat agreement. 
Government officials of other countries have also 
expressed the growing interest of their people. 

I have spoken of the progress that has been 
made. I am also very mindful of the importance 
of our work here. Wheat is the major food item 
of half the world's population and an important 
item in the diets of many more. A great many 
of the world's farmers depend upon it for much 
of their livelihood. It is the leading food item 
moving in international trade. So when we meet 
here in an attempt to draw plans which will stabi- 
lize the world's supply and markets for wheat, we 
are concerning ourselves with the food and 
livelihood of much of the world's population. 

Most of us ai'e keenly aware of what the absence 
of stability in wheat production and trade can 

* Welcoming statement made by Secretary Brannan on 
Jan. 26, 1949, at the opening of tlie Conference in Wasli- 
ington, and released to the press by the International 
Wheat Conference on the same date. Mr. Brannan served 
as Temporary Chairman and was later elected Chairman. 
J. C. Van Essche, Chairman of the Belgian Delegation, 
and Timothy O'Connell, Chairman of the Irish Delegation, 
were elected First and Second Vice-Chairmen respectively. 



mean. For importing nations it means insecurity 
of food supply and the inability to plan ahead. 
For exporting nations it means insecurity of 
markets and a comparable inability to plan anead. 

I think that we all recognize the clifficulty of 
the task which is before us. If it were not difficult 
we would have had an agreement long ago. When 
we consider the complexity of our world's economy 
and the differences of domestic programs, of con- 
stitutional procedures, and of historical back- 
grounds, it is not surprising that progress toward 
an agreement has been slow. Furthermore we 
were working in a field in which there has been 
very little previous international experience from 
which to draw. 

Fortunately, we will acquire valuable experi- 
ence here, for the implications of this conference 
go far beyond the realm of wheat. Since the end 
of the war the nations here represented have been 
struggling to build a firm basis for peace. We 
have conferred on many problems, political and 
economic. We have set up valuable machinery for 
international consultation. Much of our consulta- 
tion has of necessity been limited to broad, general 
subjects. Here today, gentlemen, we are tackling 
a specific problem and attemjiting to bring some 
order and stability into the international move- 
ment of one of our most basic commodities. 

If we can work out a plan and the necessary 
administrative machinery to stabilize world wheat 
trading, it should give us experience and hope 
with which to tackle other problems which now 
haunt consumers and producers in this complex 
world of ours. 

I am confident that if we work together in the 
spirit of mutual economic interests, tempered with 
international understanding, we can work out an 
agreement which will benefit the people of all the 
world. 

Again may I express a warm welcome from my 
Government and from the American people, and 
may I assure you of our earnest desire to do all 
we can to make your stay here pleasant and the 
conference a success. 



186 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



European Broadcasting Conference: Brussels and Copenhagen 

BY ROBERT R. BURTON 



In 1933 the majority of the nations of Europe 
met at a reirioiiul broadcasting conference in Lu- 
cerne to adopt a convention and a phin of fre- 
quency distribution. This Lucerne convention and 
plan were in force until 1939, when a conference 
was called at Montrcux to prepare a new conven- 
tion and plan. The Montreux convention and plan 
were sijjned by delegations representing 35 Euro- 
pean nations on April 15, 1939, and the new plan 
was scheduled tx) go into ell'ect on March 4, 1940. 

Due to tlie fact that war started in Europe in 
the fall of 1939, the Montreux plan was never put 
into effect, and the Lucerne plan, which in the 
Montreux convention had been declared abrogated, 
was extensively disi'egarded. 

At the end of the war broadcasting conditions 
in Europe were in a cliaotic state and the European 
nations accordingly wished to establish a new con- 
vention and plan as soon as practicable. 

At the world radio conferences held at Atlantic 
City in the summer of 1947, the European nations 
produced an additional protocol to the acts of tlie 
International Radio Conference. In this addi- 
tional protocol directives were given for the calling 
of a European Regional Broadcasting Conference 
at Copenhagen and for the preliminary work to be 
done at Brussels by a committee of eight nations in 
preparation for the Copenhagen conference. 

Under the terms of the directives, any extra- 
European country signatorj' to the Atlantic City 
convention or adhering thereto should have the 
right to be represented at the European Regional 
Broadcasting Conference. Such representation 
should be by observers who would be permitted to 
attend all meetings and to speak on any question 
which they considered affected the interests of the 
radio services of their countries. However, such 
observers would not be entitled to vote. 

In view of the fact that broadcasting frequencies 
were being extensively used in the American occu- 
pied areas of Germany, both for German language 
broadcasts to the indigenous people of those areas 
and for English language broadcasts to the Ameri- 
can troops, it was deemed expedient to send a 
United States delegation of observers both to the 
Brussels preparatorj- meetings and to the Copen- 
hagen conference itself in order to protect .iVmeri- 
can interests in Germany. 

Brussels Preparatory Meetings 

In accordance with the terms of the additional 
protocol, a preparatory committee made up of 
personnel from eight European nations was cre- 

February 13, 1949 



ated to prepare a draft frequency assignment plan 
for presentation to the full conference at Copen- 
hagen. This preparatory committee subsequently 
became known as the Committee of Eight. The 
eiglit member nations were the United Kingdom, 
France,Unionof Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugo- 
slavia, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, and 
Belgium, the host government. 

Tlie Committee of Eight began functioning on 
January 15, 1948, and continued its first session 
until March 20, 1948. 

All European countries were requested to sub- 
mit their frequency requirements in writing to the 
Committee. In the case of Germany the require- 
ments were submitted through the Quadripartite 
Committee of Telecommunications and Posts. 
With respect to the needs of the United States, the 
Committee of Telecommunications and Posts 
transmitted the requirements presented to it by the 
military authorities of the United States in Ger- 
many. These requirements consisted of 13 fre- 
quencies which were being currently used for 
German language and English language broad- 
casting, and also a request for two additional 
frequencies to be used by the Voice of America. 

The Quadripartite Telecommunications and 
Posts Committee also forwarded the requirements 
of the other three occupying powers at the same 
time. These requirements were sent to the Com- 
mittee of Eight on February 10, 1948. 

Three of the four powers occupying Germany 
were represented on the Committee of Eight and 
decisions were reached by each of these three 
powers (United Kingdom, France, and Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics) that the requirements 
submitted by their military authorities in Ger- 
many were excessive and should be reduced to 
a minimum. 

According to directives governing the Commit- 
tee of Eight, any administration of the European 
region had the right to send a delegation to the 
Committee to express the administration's views. 
However, when two representatives from General 
Clay's Office of Military Government attempted to 
present verbally the American requirements, they 
were not permitted to appear before the Committee 
of Eight. 

Inasmuch as these two men bore credentials from 
the Office of Military Government rather than 
from the United States Government, the delegate 
from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and 
the delegate from Yugoslavia stated that it would 
be illegal for the Committee of Eight to listen to 

187 



ACTIVITIES AND DSVELOPMENTS 

representations from these two gentlemen, and that 
if the majority of the Committee of Eight decided 
to hear them anyway, the representatives from 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Yugo- 
slavia would withdraw from the Committee. This 
of course would break up the Committee of Eight 
which had been created at Atlantic City, and any 
decisions rendered by the remaining participants 
could be attacked as being without legal founda- 
tion, since no provision had been made for creating 
a Committee of Six. Although the other six 
members of the Committee of Eight were willing 
to hear General Clay's representatives, because of 
the threat from the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia they 
denied their request for a hearing. 

On May 11, 1948, the second session of the Com- 
mittee of Eight was convened at Brussels. This 
session lasted until June 9 and in the course of its 
work heard the delegates of twenty-two European 
countries who desired to state the attitudes of their 
respective governments. The United States sent a 
full delegation to the second session of the Commit- 
tee of Eight, and this delegation was also denied 
the privilege of appearing before the Committee 
and defending the United States requirements. 

The Conunittee of Eight eventually drafted two 
proposals for presentation to the full European 
Broadcasting Conference scheduled to start in 
Copenhagen on June 25. 

Copenhagen Conference 

The Danish Government invited through diplo- 
matic channels the following countries of the Eu- 
ropean area to send representatives to the confer- 
ence : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Byelo- 
russia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, 
France. French Protectorates of Morocco and Tu- 
nisia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland. Italy, 
Lebanon, Luxembourg. Monaco. Netherlands. Nor- 
way, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Sweden, Swit- 
zerland, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, Vatican City, and 
Yugoslavia. 

Thirty-two of these invited countries partici- 
pated in the conference. Lebanon informed the 
Danish Government that she would not attend. 

There were a number of other countries which 
asked to be admitted to participate in the work of 
the conference with the right to vote, but their 
petitions were denied. These countries were : Lat- 
via, Lithuania, Estonia, Moldavia, Finno-Carelia, 
and the State of Israel. 

The debate on admission of these countries was 
lengthy and bitter. The Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and satellites were determined to obtain 
five more votes for the Eastern bloc (Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and satellites already 
accounted for 11 votes at the conference). The re- 
sult of the voting on the admission of the three 
Baltic states and of Moldavia and Finno-Carelia 

188 



was 11 votes for admission and 21 votes against. 

The Delegation of the United States was com- 
posed as follows : 

Robert R. Burton, Chairman, International Broadcasting 
Division, Department of State 

Richard J. Condon, Assistant Chairman, Civil Affairs Di- 
vision, Department of the Army 

John N. Plakias, First Secretary, United States Embassy, 
Paris 

Charles S. Lewis, Information Control Division, Office of 
Military Government, Berlin 

Edgar T. Martin, Communications Group, Office of Mili- 
tary Government, Berlin. 

As is the usual custom, the head of the Delega- 
tion of the host government was acclaimed chair- 
man of the conference. This honor fell to N. E. 
Holmblad, Chief of Posts and Telegraphs. The 
vice-chairman was Gunnar Pedersen, Chief of the 
Radio Section of Posts and Telegraphs of Den- 
mark. The secretary-in-chief of the conference 
was William F. Studer, Counselor of the General 
Secretariat of the International Telecommunica- 
tions Union. 

The following committees were established : 

Committee One. Executive Cornmittee to 
examine problems connected with the timetable of 
the Conference and the coordination of work of 
the different committees. 

Committee Two. Credentials Committee to 
examine the validity of credentials. 

Committee Three. Organizing Committee to 
study proposals concerning the organization of the 
Conference and the implementation of the Fre- 
quencv Plan. This committee was also entrusted 
with clrafting the new Convention. 

Committee Four. Technical Committee. This 
committee was given the task of defining the tech- 
nical bases for the preparation of the plan, such 
as determining the separation in kilocycles between 
the frequencies assigned to broadcasting stations, 
power limitation, use of directional antennas, and 
synchronization of transmitters. 

Committee Five. Frequency Allocation Com- 
mittee, This committee was entrusted with the 
drafting of the frequency plan and the discussion 
of the date of entry into force of the plan. 

Committee Six. Drafting Committee. This 
committee was entrusted with the drafting of the 
final documents of the conference. 

The problem of languages was a particularly 
difficult one. At the Atlantic City Conference held 
in 1947, the five official languages recognized by 
the United Nations (English, French, Spanish, 
Russian, and Chinese) were adopted as official 
languages of the International Telecommunication 
Union. However, also at Atlantic City three 
working languages were designated (English, 
French, Spanish), and article 15 of the Atlantic 
City convention states that other languages may 
be used in conferences and at meetings of the per- 
manent organs of the union, but that the delega- 

Departmenl of State Bulletin 



tions using them must make arrangements them- 
selves for oral translations into any one of the 
three working languages. Similarly, delegations 
may arrange for speeches to be translated orally 
into their own languages from one of the three 
working languages. 

This arrangement disturbed the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Kepublics delegation, who pointed out 
that there was no need for using Spanish at the 
European Regional Broadcasting Conference since 
Spain was not invited to attend. The U.S.S.R. 
therefore insisted that Russian be considered an 
official working language of the conference and be 
given e(]ual treatment with French and English 
both in the oral translations provided by the simul- 
taneous interpreting system and in the written 
documents. The British Delegation stated that 
they were quite willing to have this done providing 
the U.S.S.R. would abide by the Atlantic City con' 
vention and assmne the added expense for tne use 
of the Russian language. In this stand the British 
received no support n-om the other voting mem- 
bet's of the confei'ence and Russian was proclaimed 
an official working language of the conference to 
be treated exactly as English and French^ In the 
final days of the Conference, the United Kingdom 
delegation brought up the point of payment for 
the use of the Russian language and insisted that 
the action of the Copenhagen conference should 
not be taken as a precedent for any future con- 
ferences. 

At the outset of the conference, the U.S.S.R. 
proposed that all press releases should be unani- 
mously approved by the Conference before being 
released to the press. As a result of the debate 
which ensued, the following rule was adopted: 

"Plenary meetings of the Conference shall be open 
to the public unless otherwise decided by a 
majority vote. Official releases to the press about 
the work of the conference shall be issued only 
as authorized by the chairman or vice-chairman of 
the conference. However, the official release at 
the end of the conference shall require the approval 
of a plenary meeting." 

At various times during the course of the con- 
ference, the Soviet Delegation, the Albanian Dele- 
gation, and the Yugoslavian Delegation made 
charges that the press was given far too much free- 
dom in being permitted to attend the plenary 
sessions. 

The Copenhagen conference was originally 
scheduled to end on August 15, 1948, however, by 
the first of August it became quite evident that this 
closing date was not in view, and accordingly, Sep- 
tember 11, 1948, was agreed upon as the final 
closing date. 

During the last week of the conference, plenary 
sessions were held at night and some of tliem lasted 
nearly all night long. The object of these night 
meetings was to give the Plan Drafting sub-com- 
mittee an opportunity to work during the day unci 

February 13, 1949 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVELOPMBNTS 

to present its work to the plenary session at night. 
Actually, the Plan Drafting Sub-committee did 
not find it possible to present its complete proposal 
for both medium and long wave broadcasting be- 
fore 8 p. m. on the night of September 11, which 
was to have been the final closing date. 

Several of the smaller countries protested this 
procedure. It had been quite obvious that one or 
more of the major European powers had purposely 
prolonged the conference, and then had waited 
until tlie last night before permitting a full and 
complete picture of the proposed frequency assign- 
ments in Europe to be presented. 

When these protests were voiced, the Soviet 
launched an attack on the smaller nations and 
claimed they would be held responsible for sabo- 
taging the work of the entire conference if they 
did not accept the proposed plan. 

However, it became evident that the smaller 
countries were not willing to sign the plan on that 
particular night, and the closing date of the con- 
ference was postponed for a second time in order 
to give most of the countries an opportunity to 
study the proposed plan in its entirety. 

Most of the countries represented at the Euro- 
pean Regional Broadcasting Conference intended 
to send their same representatives to the World 
High Frequency Broadcasting Conference at 
Mexico City starting October 22. For this rea- 
son the Copenhagen conference should close, since 
most of the delegations could return to their re- 
spective countries and make preparations for the 
forthcoming Mexico City conference. The Soviet 
did not intend to send its same delegation to Mexico 
City, and therefore sought to prolong the confer- 
ence until all other delegations were ready to leave. 
At that point the Soviet-endorsed plan was pre- 
sented, and the other nations had to accept it 
without much alteration, or reject it, and bear 
the onus of causing the failure of the Copenliagen 
confei'ence. 

At the meeting on September 11, the chairman 
of the conference requested that countries with 
reservations or statements submit them in writ- 
ing in advance of the final plenary session re- 
scheduled for September 14. 

Twenty-eight countries (including the United 
States) entered statements or reservations. There 
was no time for them to be distributed, nor was 
there time to read them aloud at the final plenary 
session. The chairman of the conference stated 
that they could be seen by any participant wishing 
to see them before signing. 

xVt the final plenary session a delicate problem 
was surmounted by the chairman, who realized 
that if the reservations entered by the various na- 
tions were incorporated in the body of the plan, 
there would be very few signatures to the plan. 
He therefoi-e stated that he and the Vice Chair- 
man had carefully looked over all the statements 
and had found only one which must be classed as 

189 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

a "reservation". This one reservation was made 
on the part of Portugal and as a reservation it had 
to be accepted by the conference and attached to 
the plan. The acceptance of the reservation by 
the conference was contested, and the matter was 
finally decided by vote, so the reservation of 
Portugal is now accepted by aU signatories to the 
Copenhagen plan. 

All other reservations (including the one made 
by the United States) were arbitrarily classed as 
"statements" and therefore were not subject to 
acceptance by the conference ; nor were they to be 
considered part of the plan. 

In its statement, the United States expresses its 
regret that neither the Brussels committee nor the 
Copenhagen conference saw fit to consider seri- 
ously the United States requirements in Germany 
and the current situation in Germany. The as- 
signment of one shared frequency for troop 
broadcasting and two shared frequencies for a 
single program for German language broadcast- 
ing is evidence of this fact. The United States 
statement concludes with the remark that the 
United States Government is not prepared to 
implement any allocation plan which envisages 
only one program per zone in Germany and only 
one shared frequency for United States troop 
broadcasting. 

A formal press release on the work of the Copen- 



hagen conference had been prepared by the chair- 
man, and it was approved by the final plenary 
session. 

At 2 : 30 a.m. on the morning of September 15 
the work of the conference was officially declared 
closed by the chairman, the plenary session was 
ended, and the signatures of the delegates of 25 
comitries were affixed to the Copenhagen conven- 
tion and plan. 

The European Broadcasting Conference at 
Copenhagen accomplished two things. First, a 
new convention establishing the basic regulations 
for broadcasting relationships between the Euro- 
pean nations was created and approved. Sec- 
ondly, a frequency assignment plan, called the 
"Copenhagen Plan" for both long-wave and 
medium-wave broadcasting was drafted and 
approved. 

Although the Copenhagen Plan is scheduled to 
go into effect on March 15, 1950, the signing of the 
plan by 25 nations and the entering of statements 
or reservations by 20 of them, coupled with the 
outright refusal to sign the plan on the part of 7 
European countries, plus the possible lack of co- 
operation on the part of the 9 afi'ected countries 
who were not allowed to vote — Estonia, Latvia, 
Lithuania, Finno-Carelia, Moldavia, Israel, Spain, 
San Marino, and the United States of America — 
does not augur well for the success of the plan. 



South East Asia RegSonal Air Navigation Meeting 



BY CLIFFORD P. BURTON 



The South East Asia Eegional Air Navigation 
meeting held at New Delhi, India, November 23 
to December 14, 1948, under the auspices of the 
International Civil Aviation Oi'ganization was 
the ninth in the original series of ten regional 
meetings scheduled by Icao to survey aviation 
facilities throughout the world. The final meet- 
ing of the original series will be held at London, 
March 22, 1949, and will cover the area embraced 
by the African-Indian Ocean region. 

Fourteen contracting states attended the meet- 
ing, thirteen of which attended as voting members. 
The voting member contracting states included 
Afghanistan, Australia, Burma, Ceylon, China, 
France, India, Netherlands, Pakistan, Portugal, 
Siam, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 
Czechoslovakia and Belgium attended as contract- 
ing states but as nonvoting members of the meet- 
ing. Iran attended as a nonmember observing 
state. International organizations represented 
included the International Air Transport Associa- 
tion and the International Meteorological Organi- 
zation. A fact-finding group convened the week 
l)rior to the regional meeting to examine and docu- 

190 



ment operational data for the convenience and use 
of the main meeting. The North Pacific Regional 
Air Navigation meeting held at Seattle, Wash., 
July 13-29, 1948, was the first at which the fact- 
finding group was utilized, and the deliberations 
of the fact-finding group for this meeting were 
patterned after the results of the Seattle confer- 
ence. The organization of the meeting was 
identical with that employed at the North Pacific 
and included subcommittee I of the General Com- 
mittee and Technical Committees in the fields of 
air-traffic control, aeronautical communications 
and radio aids to air navigation, aerodromes, air 
routes and ground aids, aeronautical meteorology, 
and search and rescue. In addition a special fre- 
quency planning group was established to review 
the results of the International Radio Administra- 
tive Conference held at Geneva, September 1- 
October 5, 1948. and to apply the results of that 
meeting to specific problems on frequencies in the 
South East Asia region. N. C. Ghosli, leader of 
the Indian Delegation, was elected Chairman of 
the General Committee. Mohammed Ismail, 
leader of tlie Pakistan Delegation, was elected first 

Department of State Bulletin 



vice-chairman and D. Haguenaii, leader of the 
Frencli Deiejratii)n, was elected second vice-chair- 
man. The resuUs of (lie meetinji are quite satis- 
factory to the United States and it was found un- 
necessary to file any statements or reservations in 
the reports of the technical committees or the Gen- 
eral Committee. The United States position, as 
approved by the Interdepartmental Air Coordi- 
nating Committee, was upheld to a high degree. 
A digest of the accomplisliments in the technical 
fields is given in the brief summary that follows : ^ 

Flight Operations 

Problems in connection with this subject were 
handled by the no. I subcommittee of the General 
Committee. The committee developed an over-all 
regional plan outlining the operational require- 
ments in each technical field for the guidance of 
the other technical committees. The technical 
committees in turn developed detailed recommen- 
dations based on the over-all regional plan. A 
standard altimeter setting of 29.92 inches of mer- 
cury was recommended for vertical separation of 
aircraft, excluding the areas along routes approxi- 
mately one hundred miles from the major ter- 
minals. In these latter areas QNH value for al- 
timeter settings will be utilized for both terrain 
clearance and altitude separation. Dimensional 
units were not discussed at tliis meeting since annex 
5 to the convention establishes the units to be used, 
with each State to indicate to Icao the particular 
table or tables of the annex which it will apply 
to its national and international practices. A 
highly detailed plan for the handling of inter- 
national NoTAMS was developed at this meeting. 

Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids 

The committee agreed on the visual aid require- 
ments for air routes and for aerodromes and on 
the number, location, and necessary technical 
characteristics of aerodromes to serve the air 
traffic requirements of the region. In the case of 
strength characteristics those recommended are 
adequate to suppoi't any aircraft any operator pro- 
poses to operate in the region. ^Vliile they may 
be somewhat below those requested by the United 
States they are the maxima that could be tech- 
nically justified in debate. 

Air-Traffic Control 

The committee agreed to establish flight in- 
formation regions to cover all international routes 
and to establish aerodrome and approach control 
at all aerodromes regularly used by international 
air traffic. The states concerned agreed to es- 
tablish control areas around international aero- 
dromes where the volume of operations warranted 
and to establish control zones at all aerodromes 
where aerodrome control is provided. Supple- 
mentary procedures for air-traffic control were de- 
veloped similar to those developed for the North 

February 13, 7949 



ACTIVmeS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

and South Pacific regions. The connnittee also 
decided tliat English should be used throughout 
tiie region for aii-traffic control purposes except 
in French Indochina. In this area English was 
specified as the secondary language. 

Aeronautical Telecommunications and Radio Aids 
to Air Navigation 

The committee developed plans for proposed 
point-to-point aeronautical communications cir- 
cuits, aeronautical air-ground circuits and ade- 
quate aei'onautical radio navigational aids to meet 
tne needs of the other technical services. In 
addition recommendations were included which 
indicated the desirability of establishing the U.S. 
sponsored VHF Omni range with DME at 14 loca- 
tions within the region. 

Aeronautical Meteorology 

The committee recommended a network of 337 
six-hourly surface stations reporting four times 
a day and a network of 108 three-hourly surface 
stations reporting eight times a day. This in- 
volved the complete establishment of six new sta- 
tions and the partial establishment of 90 other 
stations. The committee also recommended a net- 
work of 181 upper-wind stations and a network 
of 56 radiosonde stations reporting twice daily. 
About 56 additional hourly stations were recom- 
mended to take observations on an "as required" 
basis for operations. 

Search and Rescue 

The committee followed the pattern of previous 
regional meetings in this technical field and re- 
viewed and tabulated the search and rescue facili- 
ties provided in the region and included therewith 
recommendations for certain additional facilities 
to meet the minimum requirements for the region. 

Frequency Planning Group 

The committee made a detailed study of the final 
report of the International Administrative Aero- 
nautical Radio Conference in Geneva in 1948 and 
used it as a basis upon which to draft a frequency 
allotment plan for the South East Asia region. In 
the course of its deliberations the Frequency Plan- 
ning Group developed formulas which may be 
found extremely useful in other regions in the pro- 
posed allotment of frequencies for the aeronautical 
services. A similar frequency planning group will 
be utilized at the forthcoming African-Indian 
Ocean meeting to be convened in London, March 
22, 1949. Tlie group will also take into considera- 
tion the Middle East frequency problem. 



' Specific details concerning the recommendations of the 
seven committees, in the order named, may be foimd in 
Doc. SR. 306, GO Sub-I/SE. 100; Doc. SE. 301, Aga 
SE/100; Doc. SE. 302, Ate SE/100; Doc. SE. 303, Com 
SE/100; Doc. SE. 304, Met SE/100; Doc. SE. 305, Sar 
SE/100 ; Doc. SE. 303, Com SE/100. 

. ' ■' 191 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Comments on Premier Stalin's Answers to Questions 

Submitted by Kingsbury Smith 

REMARKS BY SECRETARY ACHESON > 



I suppose except for the preservation of our 
nation and of our liberties, there is no matter more 
fundamental to the American people tha,n the 
preservation of peace. I say this because it is a 
matter not only fundamental but also sacred in 
America, and neither our people nor any of our 
representatives would play international politics 
with a matter of this importance. The hopes of 
hundreds of millions of people throughout the 
world are pinned on the preservation of peace. No 
man of conscience would tamper with those hopes 
or use the raising or the lowering of them as a 
pawn in any maneuver. 

Now, with those observations, I wish to talk 
about these questions and answers quite candidly 
but quite realistically.^ 

The first one of them, in the first group, reads 
as follows : 

"Would the Government of the U.S.S.R. be pre- 
pared to consider the issuance of a joint declara- 
tion with the Government of the United States of 
America asserting that the respective governments 
have no intention of resorting to war against one 
another?" 

The answer is that "the Soviet Government 
would be prepared to consider the issuance of such 
a declaration." 

Now, I confess that I find this answer puzzling. 
Both the Soviet Union and the United States and 
all the other members of the United Nations are 
pledged by the most solemn treaty commitments 
not to engage in war against one another. I should 
like to refresh your memory. 

Paragraphs three and four of article II of the 
United Nations Charter provide : 

All Members shall settle their International disputes 
by peaceful means in such a manner that international 
peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. 

All Members shall refrain in tlieir international rela- 
tions from the threat or use of force against tiie terri- 
torial integrity or political independence of any state, or 



* Transcription of extemporaneous remarks made at 
the Secretary's press conference on Feb. 2, 1&49, and re- 
leased on the same date. 

' The following questions commented on were sent on 
.Tun. 27, 1949, to Premier Stalin by Kingsbury Smith, 
European General Manager of the International News 
Service. Mr. Stalin's answers were given on Jan. 30, 1949. 

192 



in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of 
the United Nations. 

The President of the United States in his 
inaugural address stated that it was the position 
of his administration and of the people of the 
United States to give unfaltering support to the 
United Nations. He did not say that he was pre- 
pared to consider making that statement. He 
made it. So as I say, this answer is a puzzling 
one. So far as commitment is concerned, so far as 
the most solemnly pledged word is concerned, I 
had thought that we had long passed the point 
at which this answer seems to stick. 

Question no. 2 : "Would the Government of the 
U.S.S.R. be prepared to join with the Government 
of the United States of America in measures de- 
signed to implement this pact of peace such as 
gradual disarmaments?" 

The answer is: "Naturally the Government of 
the U.S.S.E. would cooperate with the Govermnent 
of the United States of America in the carrying out 
of measures designed to implement this pact of 
peace and leading to gradual disarmament." 

Now, "naturally" means, "in the nature of 
things" and the nature of things in the past three 
years since the end of hostilities has not been such 
as to encourage the expectation of the cooperation 
which is indicated in this answer. The members of 
the United Nations have considered since the first 
draft of the Charter that the hope of disarmament 
required not only the confidence and assurance 
which would come from peace settlements, which 
woidd be enduring because they would be just, but 
also from the carrying out of the whole system for 
the preservation of international peace which is 
contemplated in the United Nations Charter. In- 
deed, the very structure of the Charter is based 
upon these assumptions. The United States so far 
from hanging back on any even teclmical applica- 
tion of this assumption led the way by a demobili- 
zation after the last war which was not gradual 
but was precipitant. This country disbanded the 
greatest assemblage of armed force which had ever 
been put together in the world before. Not only 
is this true but this Government, togetlier with 
all the other governments represented upon the 
Security Council, with the unhappy exception of 

Department of State Bulletin 



I 



the Soviet Union, did its best to iniplomont those 
paraCTaphs and articles of the Charter which, lirst 
of all, were designed for the jieaceful settlement 
of disputes, and secondly, for the i)rovision of an 
international armed force which would give au- 
thority to the United Nations. 

The use of the veto lias frustrated the first effort. 
Obstruction of the U.S.S.R. in the military com- 
mittees has frustrated the second effort. The 
United States went still further. 

In the Atomic Energy Commission of the United 
Nations, it led the way in an attempt to put under 
international control the most destructive weapon 
and the most destructive force which man has yet 
devised. Here again these efforts of many nations 
were frustrated by Soviet action — so patently frus- 
trated that the Commission was forced to report to 
the General Assembly that it was unable to carry 
out its task. In the debate which followed in the 
General Assembly, the Soviet Delegation made it 
umnistakably clear that it would not participate in 
any arrangements which would permit an effective 
international control of atomic energy. 

Now, I mention these points not to score in a 
debate in which I have no interest but to point out 
that in the nature of things, the other nations have 
not received and have little reason to expect the 
cooperation which is indicated in that answer. 
This is certainly true if the present may be re- 
garded as the outcome of the jjast. 

Now I should like to take up out of order the 
fourth question because it relates to the first two. 

The fourth question is: "Would your Excellency 
be prepared to confer with President Truman at 
a mutually suitable place to discuss the possibility 
of concluding such a pact of peace ?" 

The answer is : "I have already stated before that 
there is no objection to a meeting." Now you will 
notice that the jiui-pose of the meeting has to do 
with the arrangements of which I have already 
spoken, that is, considering issuing a declaration 
regarding a matter which is already the subject of 
solemn treaty commitment. The White House 
spokesman reminded you, in answer to questions, 
of the fact that President Truman has on numer- 
ous occasions stated that he would be pleased to 
have Premier Stalin visit the United States and 
visit the President in Washington. 

Now in this connection I am sure it is clear to 
you, and if it is not clear to you I should like to 
make it clear now, that the Government of the 
United States would not discuss with any nation 
any matter which was of direct interest to other 
nations without the participation of the repre- 
sentatives of those other nations. This is not a 
new or startling doctrine. There have been many 
statements of it. I have here one made by Gen- 
eral Marshall on May 12 of last year when ques- 
tioned about the confidential interview between 
Ambassador Smith and Foreign Minister Molotov. 

February 13, 7949 

823474 — 19 3 



THB RECORD Of THE WBEK 

Tliere are two or three sentences whicli bear on 
this point. Secretary Marshall said : 

"Genei-al Smith did not ask for any general dis- 
cussion or negotiation. We have had a long and 
bitter exi)erience with such efforts. This Govern- 
ment had no intention of entering into bilateral 
negotiations with the Soviet Government on mat- 
ters relating to the interests of other governments. 
The discussion of any proposals in regard to out- 
standing issues which the Soviet Government may 
have in mind must, as a matter of course, be con- 
ducted in the body charged with responsibility for 
these questions." 

Now coming back to the discussion about this 
meeting, this morning we have still a further de- 
velopment. There has been a new question and 
answer. We gather from that exchange that Pre- 
mier Stalin is unhappily prevented by the con- 
dition of his health from coming to Washington 
because he cannot travel either by sea or air. He 
thus seems to be effectively grounded. The impli- 
cation of this answer perhaps is that the President 
of the United States for the fourth time should 
travel half way around the world to meet Premier 
Stalin and on this occasion to do so for the purpose 
of talking with him on a matter so tenuous that it 
defies specific statement. I think that concludes 
the comment on that question and answer. 

Now the third question and answer, which I will 
deal with last, is as follows: Question: "If the 
Governments of the United States of America, the 
United Kingdom and France agi-eed to postpone 
establislmient of a separate western German state 
pending a meeting of the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters to consider the German problem as a whole, 
would the Government of the U.S.S.R. be prepared 
to remove the restrictions which Soviet authorities 
have imposed on communications between Berlin 
and the western zones of Germany?" 

Answer : "Provided the United States of Amer- 
ica, Great Britain and France observe the con- 
ditions set forth in the third question, the Soviet 
Government sees no obstacles to lifting the trans- 
port restrictions on the understanding, however, 
that transport and trade restrictions introduced by 
the three powers should be lifted simultaneously." 

Now this question and answer is the only one of 
the four which relates to an issue between the 
Soviet Government and the Western powers. 
Therefore, it is the most interesting exchange of 
the four. I might review very briefly for you tliis 
situation out of which it comes. 

For more than six months now the protests of 
the three Western powers against the illegal 
blockade of Berlin have been the subject of the 
most earnest discussion. There were discussions 
in Moscow between the ambassadors and the Soviet 
authorities. The discussions were then transferred 

193 



THE RECORD Of THE WEBK 

to the military governors in Berlin. Both ^oups 
of discussions failed. The matter was then ti-ans 
f erred to the Security Council m Pans. There the 
Security Council proposed a solution to tins dit- 
ficulty, a solution which got 9 of the H votes on the 
Security Council but failed because of the Soviet 
veto. This matter is still on the agenda ot the 
Security Council. 

Durin.^ all of this time the reasons which were 
criven by the Soviet Government were first ot ail 
tliat there were technical difficulties which inter- 
rupted transport. Then the reason was given that 
the blockade was necessary to protect the econ- 
omy of the Soviet zone against the results ot a 
monetary reform in the Western zone. 

Now it is true that the question of the postpone- 
ment of the Western German government did 
arise in the Moscow discussions, but it is of even 
greater importance, that having arisen it was 
abandoned by the Soviet Union as a condition to 
liftino' the blockade for the reasons which are so 
fully let forth in the United States Wliite Paper 
on that subject. 

Last summer when these discussions were going 
on, the Western German government had not been 
formed. Its formation was not imminent. In 
the months which have passed it has still not been 
formed, and yet during all of this period the 
blockade has continued. The preparatory work 
for the formation of this Western German govern- 
ment has continued to go forward and is going 
forward as necessary work for the accomplishment 
of the responsibilities of the three Western powere. 
The three Western powers have stressed, re- 
peated again and again to the Soviet Union, that 
their agreements in regard to Western Germany 
do not in any sense preclude agreement on Ger- 
many as a whole. In fact, they have pointed out 
that this work facilitates agreement upon Ger- 
many as a whole and they have, as I have stated, 
stressed again and again that what they have m 
mind and what they are doing is purely provi- 
sional pending such agreement on Germany as a 
whole. During all of these months the three 
Western powers have tried patiently and persist- 
ently to solve the difficulties which have been put 
forward by the Soviet Government as the reasons 
for the blockade. 

As to the second point in this answer made by 
Premier Stalin— that he would expect that if 
Soviet restrictions were lifted the Western re- 
strictions would be lifted— that point has been 
made clear from the start. The Western govern- 
ments have always stated that if the Soviet Gov- 
ernment permits normal communications with and 
within Berlin their counter measures will, ot 
course, be lifted. 

194 



There are many ways in which a serious pro- 
posal by the Soviet Govermnent to restore normal 
interzonal communications and communications 
with and within Berlin could be made. All clian- 
nels are open for any suggestions to that end. i he 
United States, together with the other Western 
occupying powers, would, of course, consider care- 
fully any proposal made to solve the Berlin prob- 
lem consistent with their rights, their duties, their 
obligations as occupying powers. 

As I say, all of the normal channels are open. 
I hope you will not take it amiss if I point out 
that if I on my part were seeking to give assurance 
of seriousness of purpose I would choose some 
other channel than