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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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VOLUME XXI: Numbers 522-547 

July 4-December 26, 1949 



INDEX 




•^-TES O* 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, tT. S. Oi 
Washington 25, D. C. - Prlq " 



PUBLIC 



; Printing Office 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

• APn IT 195 1 



Publication 4135 



INDEX 



Volume XXI: Numbers 522-547, July 4-December 26, 1949 



Abs, Herman V., visits U.S.; text of letter from Jack 

McFall to Senator Gillette with information on, 988 
Acheson, Secretary Dean (See also Webb, James E., 

Acting Secretary) : 
Addresses : 

Foreign policy problems before Alfred E. Smith Me- 
morial Foundation, New York, 668 

Fourth anniversary of U.N. before National Citizens 
Committee, 455 

Inter-American principles and policy before Pan 
American Society of U.S., New York, 462 

Technical assistance program, summary of remarks 
before 11th OIO Constitutional Convention, 
Cleveland, 719 

U.S. as an importer before National Foreign Trade 
Council, New York, 747 

U.S. position on 4th General Assembly problems be- 
fore 1st plenary session. New York, 489 
Correspondence : 

Chairman (Kee), House Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs, refuting Wolverton's charges against 
Assistant Secretary Miller in Sabalo Transpor- 
tation Co. case, 55.3 

Consultant (Fosdick) on Far Eastern policy, 358 

ImjMjrtations of U.S. surplus property located in 
foreign areas ; text of Departmental regula- 
tion, 357 

Isbrandtsen Co. on release of vessels detained in 
China, 557 

Bepresentative Lodge, exchange of letters on 
MDAP, 476 

Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman (McCarran) 
on opposition to Immigration Act amendments 
(S. 1832), 516 

Thirty nations on Chinese Communist detention of 
Consul General Ward and staff, 799 

TJ.N. Acting Secretary-General (Price) on U.S. views 

on testimony concerning U.N. Secretariat, 2."i2 

Japanese Government, former, control relinquished over 

certain property, text of public notice, 37 
Statements : 

Albania and Bulgaria, embargo on arms ship- 
ments, 911 

Atomic explosion in TJ.S.S.R., 487 

Burmese Foreign Minister (Maung) visits U.S., 313 

China White Paper, reply to criticisms, 350 

Chinese attacks on U.S. shipping, 908 

Christian University in Japan, proposed, 909 

Council of Europe, 1st meeting, 269 

Council of Foreign Ministers, Paris conference : 
impressions, 860; reports to Congressional Com- 
mittees, 859 



Acheson, Secretary Dean — Continued 
Statements — Continued 
Czechoslovak charges of espionage against U.S. Em- 
bassy personnel, 710 
Czechoslovak church-state conflict, 30, 148 
Dominican Republic arms threat, 990 
Ecuador earthquake disaster, 278 
German elections, 303 
Greek guerrillas cease-fire activities, 658 
Guatemalan flood, U.S. aid, 712 
Hulen, Bert, death of, 117 
Indonesian independence, 752 
Israeli-Syrian armistice, 180 

Italy-U.S. treaty of friendship, commerce, and navi- 
gation enters into force, 114 
Jammu-Kashmir new truce proposal, 399 
Korean aid, 37 

Latvian Minister to U.S. (Feldmans), credentials, 34 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program : 
Testimony before House Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee, 189 ; Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations, 264 
Progress, 909 
North Atlantic Council (NAC), 2d session, 821 
North Atlantic Treaty, Senate approval, 148 
Palestine situation, negotiations of U.N. Palestine 

Conciliation Commission in Lausanne, 16, 148 
Panama coup d'etat, U.S. position, 911 
Panama, U.S. recognition of Arias government, 990 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1949, 

549 
Satellites protest establishment of German Federal 

Republic, 634 
Shah of Iran, visit of, 832 

Smith-Bender detention by Chinese Communists, 908 
Stettinius, death of former Secretary, 795 
Uranium shipments to U.S.S.R., 944 
Uruguay-U.S. treaty of friendship, signature, 909 
U.S. foreign service personnel refused exit visas by 

Chinese Communists, 709 
U.S. policy toward China, 236, 1037 
VGA facilities, recommendations for additional appro- 
priations for improving, 312 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, U.S. foreign ofiice elevated to 

Embassy, 78 
Administrative unions. See Trusteeship Council 
Advisory Social Welfare Services, U.N., continuation of, 

766 
AEC. See Atomic Energy Commission, U.N. and U.S. 
Afghanistan : U.S. foreign aid programs, 867 
Africa : 

Trust territories. Trusteeship Council resolution on 
higher education in, text, 255 



Index, July /o December 7949 



995 



Africa — Continued 

U.S. mission representatives in Africa, conference of, 951 
Agriculture : 

Caribbean, research in, 159 

Dairy Congress, Twelftli International ; U.S. delega- 
tion, 20 
Foreign workers, emploj'ment in U.S. discussed by 

Daniel Goott, 43 
Franco-Italian Customs Union problems, 204, 208, 211, 

243 
GATT negotiations on potatoes, U.S.-Cuba, 77 
Inter-American cooperation discussed by Willard F. Bar- 
ber, 923 
Isotopes, uses in, 251 
Mexico-U.S. agricultural workers agreement, signature, 

313 
Potato crop agreement (U.S.-Canada) terminated, 38 
Renewable Natural Resources, proceedings of Inter- 
American Conference on Conservation of, published, 
483 
South Pacific research program for economic develop- 
ment, 260 
U.N. Scientific Conference on conservation and utiliza- 
tion of resources ; U.S. delegation, 261 
Venezuelan irrigation problem reviewed, 86 ; table list- 
ing government projects, 87 
Wheat Agreement, International. See Wheat Agree- 
ment, International 
Wool Study Group, International ; U.S. delegation to 3d 
meeting, 701 
Aid to foreign countries: 
Afghanistan, 867 
American Republics, 188, 191, 267, 464, 923, 925, 926, 

928, 976 
Brazil, 866 
Burden of loss in foreign-aid transactions, article by 

Michael H. Cardozo, 215 
Canada, 188, 191, 267 
China, 476, 477, 603, 605 
Cuba, 866 
Discussed by : 

Allen, George V., 311 
Truman, President, 118 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 551 
Ecuador, 278, 312, 436 

Educational aid. See Educational Exchange Program 
France, 298 

Greece, 188, 191, 198, 232, 267, 603, 605, 814 
Guatemala, 712 
Haiti, 866 

Iran, 188, 191, 267, 603, 605 
Italy, 296 

Korea. 37, 117, 188, 191, 267, 476, 603, 605 
Liberia, 648 

Mexico, 76. 153, 866, 978 
Military assistance. See Mutual Defense Assistance 

Act of 1949 
Military missions : 

Air Force mission agreement with Mexico, 76 
Military mission agreement with Peru, 38 
Near East, 333 
Norway, 299 
Paraguay, 923, 924 



Aid to foreign countries — Continued 
Peru, 38, 866 

Philippines, 188, 191, 267, 951, 603, G05 
Technical assistance. See Technical assistance 
Thailand, 277 

Turkey, 188, 191, 267, 603, 605 
United Kingdom, 867 
Venezuela, 86, 979 

Western Europe, 188, 191, 229, 267, 295 
Aircraft Rights, Convention of International, recognition 

of, 938 
Air force mission agreement, U.S.-Mexico, signature, 76 
Air transport agreements, U.S. and: 
Burma, signature, 557 

Canada, consultation on suspension of Colonial Air- 
lines license, 949 
Dominican Republic, signature, 153, 279 
Albania : 
Greek problem (Balkan situation) : threats, to politi- 
cal and territorial security : 
Aid to guerrillas, 407, 420, 430, 489, 495, 588, 658, 779, 

813 
Arms-shipments embargo, U.S. cooperation ; state- 
ment by Secretary Acheson, 911 
Attitude, 407, 422, 430, 588, 657, 697, 779, 813 
Children and refugees, 408, 409, 410, 412, 416, 427, 

658, 697, 780, 781, 817, 853a 
Conciliation Commission proposed, 499; U.S. support, 
500, 542 ; reports, 662, 771 ; suspension of activi- 
ties, 657 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 489, 658, 911 
Austin, Warren R., 972 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 542, 779, 813 
Howard, Harry N., 407 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
Rusk, Dean, 654 

United Nations, 4.59, 489, 494, 662, 697, 745, 817 
Investigation, U.N. Commission of, 407 
Soviet action, 407, 408, 410, 459, 490, 662, 813, 826 
Summary record (1946-49) in U.N. by Harry N. 

Howard, 407 
U.N. resolution (Nov. 19, 1949), text, 852a, 1037 
UNSCOB action. See Balkans, U.N. Special Com- 
mittee on 
U.N. membership application, 13, 14, 15, 48, 459, 697 
Alien Property, Office of; former Japanese Government 

property, control over, 37 
Aliens, admission to U.S. (See also Immigration) : 
Classification of aliens, 527 
Control at departure or entrance ; text of Presidential 

Proclamation, 314 
Displaced persons, 532 
German ethnic origin, persons of 533 
Immigration laws, descriptive listing, 535 
Immigration quotas ; text of presidential proclamation, 

315 
Reciprocal visa fee agreements and arrangements, list- 
ing of countries and fees, 534 
U.S. treaties under Act of 1924, listing, 535 ; correction, 

706 
Visa and immigration control, 523 
Wartime regulations, 531 



996 



Department of State Bulletin 



Allen, George V. : 
Addresses : 

Point 4, U.S. stand, before American Society of En- 
gineering Education, Troy, N.Y., SG5 
Propaganda, Dul^e University, DurUam, N. C, 941 
Turkish-American relations before American-Turk- 
ish Society, 707 
UNESCO's role in world iieace at 4th session of 
UNESCO, Paris, 536 
Statements : 
American-Turkish Association promotes cultural re- 
lations, 39 
UNESCO and American foreign policy, 497 
U.S. Information Service in Shanghai and Hankow 

ordered closed by Communists, 152 
Soviet jamming of VOA, 32 
VOA. reprint of Washington Sunday Star article, 310 
Allied High Commission for Germany. See Germany 
Allied-owned trade-marks in Japan, PEC policy decision 
for restoration and protection of, 308 ; text of de- 
cision, 309 
American foreign policy and public opinion, address by 

President Truman, 145 
American Republics : 
Caribbean situation : 

Inter-American Peace Committee action, 450, 665 
U.S. memorandum, text, 450 
Exchange of persons program (Act for Cooi^eration 
with other American Republics, Public Law 355) : 
Application instructions, 794 
U.S. scholarships awarded, listed of names, 317 
Former Italian colonies, Latin American views, 369; 

draft resolution, 376. 
Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Con- 
ference on Problems ; U.S. delegation, 22S 
Inter-American Commission of Women, U.S. delegate 

(Cannon) to special assembly, 263 
Inter-American principles and policies discu.ssed by : 
Acheson, Secretary, 462 
Barber, Willard F., 149, 923, 976 
Miller, Edward G., 466 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance. See 

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 
Juridical Committee, Inter-American ; U.S. member 

(Freeman) appointed, 76 
Labor developments, 977 
Military aid from U.S. since V-J Day, surplus property, 

sales and transfers listed, 480, 481 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 

U.S. delegation and agenda, 461 
Pan American Railway Congress : 
Background, 51 

U.S. National Commission, report on 1st meeting, 21, 
49 
Pan American Sanitary Organization 3d meeting, U.S. 

delegation and agenda, .589 
Rio treaty. iSee Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal 

Assistance (1947) 
Travel Congress, Third Inter-American, report by Am- 
bassador George P. Shaw, 8S9 
U. S. aid, 188. 191, 267, 465, 479, 480, 481, 866, 867, 976 
American States, Organization of (OAS). .S'cc Organiza- 
tion of American States 



Anderson, Alvin named as U. S. member to Pacific Salmon 

Fisheries Commission, 184 
Anderson, Mrs. Eugenie, appointed as U. S. Ambassador 
to Denmark, 714 ; address before Women's National 
Press Club, Wa.shington, D.C., 788 
Anglo-American Council on Productivity, reisort of 2d 

session, 648 
Antarctica, Argentina-Chile-U.K. agreement not to send 

warships to, 833 
Arab states {See also Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi- 
Arabia, Syria, Yemen) : 
Palestine situation : 
Acting Mediator Bunehe reports to Security Council 
on status of peace negotiations, 142, 181, 227 ; 
text of report, 223 
Conciliation Commission for Palestine, U.N. ; 
Lausanne discussions, statements by Secretary 

Acheson, 16, 148, ISO 
U. S. representative appointment of Ely E. Palmer, 
785 ; of Paul A. Porter, 98, 319 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 400 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
McGhee, George C, 826 
Ru.sk, Dean, 654 
Economic Survey Mission to Near East, U. N. : 
Clapp, Gordon R., appointed as chairman, statement 

by President Truman, 333 
Establishment, 849a 

Report on resettlement of refugees, 459 : text, 847a 
Israeli-Syrian armistice agreement, statement by 

Seci'etary Acheson, 180; text, 177 
Jerusalem statute, U.N. debate, 818, 903, 934 
Refugee relief, 490, 494, 654, 056, 847a, 902 
Security Council resolution (Aug. 11), text, 286 
Argentina : 

Cultural leaders visit U.S., 77 
Inter-American Travel Congress host, 889 
Treaties, agreements, etc : 

Trade and payments agreement with U.K. studied, 37 
Warships to Antarctica, Argentina-Chile-U.K. agree- 
ment, 833 
U.S. Ambassador (Bruce), resignation, 482 
U.S. Ambassador (Griffis) appointment, 559 
Visitors from U.S., 77 
Arlington Memorial Bridge plaza, Italy presents good- 
will equestrian sculptural group for, 403 
Armaments, U.N. Commission on Conventional : 
Arms census and verification proposals for disarmament, 

1-13, 181, 348, 459, 492, 049, 7S-7, 902, 032 
Weapons under jurisdiction, 624 
Arms and armed forces (Sec also Armaments, U.N. Com- 
mission for Conventional ; Atomic Energy, U.N. Com- 
mission on; Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1049) : 
Brussels treaty powers (Western Union) common de- 
fense plan, 230, 266, 295, 476, 477, 478 
Combat materiel, sales of militarized and demilitarized 

surplus, tables showing, 156, 356, 479, 480, 481 
Embargo on arms shipments to Albania and Bulgaria, 

General Assembly resolution on, 911 
French defense status, 298 
Greek military status, 233 



Index, July to December 1949 



997 



Anns and armed forces — Continued 

Military Medicine and Pharmacy, 12tli International 

Congress; U.S. delegation and agenda, 667 
National defense budget, excerpt from Presidential 

i-adio address, 118 
Norway military status, 300, 301, 302, 478 
Standardization of military equipment, 267, 296, 476, 

477 
U.S.S.R. military power, 190, 193, 265 
Western European power, 265 
Asia : Economic Survey of Asia and Far East X9.'fS re- 
leased by U.N., 396 
Asia and Far East, U.N. Economic Commission (ECAFE) : 
Fifth session, U.S. delegation, 628 
Work program, 90 
Asian Seminar on Rural Adult Education, U.S. delegate, 

701 
Atomic energy : 

Uranium shipments to U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary 

Acheson, 944 
U.S.S.R. atomic explosion ; statements by : 
Acheson, Secretary, 487 
Truman, President, 487 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 488 
U.S.-U.K.-Canada policy consultations : 

AEC (U.S.) Reactor Safeguard Committee members 

attend U.K. meeting, 507 
Combined Policy Committee (1948), 472, 507, 589 
Declas.siflcation guides reviewed, 628 
Discussions, 185, 472, 488, 508 
Technical Cooi>eration Program (1948), 185, 507 
VOA corrects Pravda reports on Soviet developments, 
943 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.N. : 

Bulletin of June 19, 1949, correction, 18 
International control plan : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 491 
Austin, Warren R., 544, 624, 650 
Hickerson, John D., 811, 932 
Jessup, Philip C, 348, 495 
Osborn, F. H., 247 
Rusk, Dean, 632, 656 
Truman, President, 645 
U.N., 745, 787, 818 
Webb, James B., 488 
Soviet attitude and proposals, 18, 100, 181, 247, 249, 
290, 459, 492, 495, 544, 624, 649, 686, 787, 811, 813, 
818, 932. 
Isotope distribution program to foreign countries, 250, 
834 ; uses, 251 ; Japanese participation, 834 ; 3-yr. 
account of program, 834 
Resolutions on : 
Canadian-French proposals, 787, 811 
Peaceful uses of atomic energy, 940 
Soviet proposals, 18, 181, 290, 459, 932 
Suspension of further AEC discussions, 18, 100, 181, 
249, 290, 459 
Six sponsoring powers : 
Meetings, 181, 227, 334, 488, 544, 686, 787, 818, 940 
Report on consultations, 686, 812 ; U.K. statement of 
principles, text, 689 



Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. : 

Contracting and Purchasing Offices and Types of Com- 
modities Purchased, jjublication for small-business 
guidance, released, 639 
Reactor Safeguard Committee members attend U.S.- 
U.K.-Canada Technical Cooperation Program Con- 
ference, 507 
Uranium shipments to U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary 
Acheson, 944 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses : 

Human values and world security before Rochester 
Institute on International Affairs, Rochester, 
N.Y., 970 
Trygve Lie's achievements ; atomic energy control 

before American Association for U. N., 543 
U. N. as peace hope at Berkshire Musical Festival, 
Lenox, Mass., 283 
Correspondence : 

Secretary-General (Lie) on U. S. actions on human- 
riglits violations in Balkans, 541 
Statements : 

Atomic weapons, 624 

Disarmament, French proposals, 649 

Essentials-of -peace resolution : a challenge to Soviet 

sincerity, 801 
U. S. views on U. N. membership, 13, 14 
Australia : 

Former Italian colonies ; attitude toward, 371 ; draft 

resolution, 376 
Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for 

restitution of, 790 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement (Fulbright) with 

U.S., signature, 870a 
South Pacific Commission agreement, discussion, 839 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Austria : 
Election reports discussed, 635 

Salzburg, Austria, U. S. consular section of Vienna 
designated sjjeeial purpose post with rank of con- 
sulate, 482 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Peace treaty : 

CFM deputies, meetings of, 19, 399, 509 
CFM Paris conference, text of communique, 858; 
statements by Pres. Truman, 858 and See. Ache- 
son, 859, 860 
Tripartite discussion, 468 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.N. membership, application, 15, 459, 745 
Automotive traffic, proposed international treaty for ; 
chief agenda item at U.N. Road and Motor Transport 
Conference, 262 
Aviation : 
Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference (ITU), 

U.S. delegation, 144 
Aircraft Rights, Convention of International Recogni- 
tion of, 938 
Brazilian Air Mission, 866 

Chinese "Tiger Air Force" not American, statement 
by Consulate General (Formosa), 515 



998 



Deparimet\i of State Bulletin 



Aviation — Continued 
Colonial Airlines case, license suspension, U. S.-Canada 

consultation, 949 
Internutional civil aviation progress, statement by 

K. N. E. Bradfield, 936 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air force mission agreement, U. S.-Mexico, signa- 
ture, 70 
Air-trausport agreements : 
Burma, signature, 557 
Canada, violation, 949 
Dominican Republic, 279 ; signature, 153 
Yugoslavia destruction of Air Force transport plane, 
U.S. claim, 868 
Aviation Organization, International Civil (ICAO) : 
Aims and progress, 936 
Conference, 1949, report by Paul T. David : 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements for air navi- 
gation service, 683 
Franco-Italian Customs Union, adherence to ICAO 

principles, 205 
Program revieveed, priorities, 95 

U. N. technical assistance program, participation, 916, 
931 

Balance of payments. See Finance 
Balkans: 

Greek problem : threats to political independence and 
territorial integrity. See Albania, Bulgaria, 
Greece, Rumania, or Yugoslavia 
Human-rights (Peace treaties 1947) dispute. See Bul- 
garia, Hungary, Rumania, or Human Rights 
Political developments, U. S.-U. K. discussions, 467 
Soviet tactics in, 972 
Balkans, U. N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB) : 
Establishment and functions, 408, 410, 780 
General Assembly action on reports, test of resolution, 

852a 
Report mentioned 408, 459, 781, 852a ; text of report to 
4th session of General Assembly, 410 ; text of sup- 
plementary report, 588, 1037 
U.S. attitude, 489, 495 
Bank. See Export-Import Bank 

Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International 
(IBRD). See Reconstruction and Development, In- 
ternational Bank for 
Barber, Willard F. : 
Addresses : 
Economic cooperation in Americas before Tovrn Hall, 

Los Angeles, Calif., 976 
Inter-American jwlicy objectives before Foreign Pol- 
icy Association, Shreveport, La., 923 
Inter-American system before Round Table on Latin 
America, Colgate University, Hamilton, X.Y., 
149 
Baruch, Herman B., resignation as Ambassador to Nether- 
lands, 319 
Basic Law of Germany (Bonn constitution). See Ger- 
many : Federal Republic, Establishment 
BatUe Berres, President (Uruguay), message from Pres- 
ident Truman on signature of treaty of friendship, 
910 



Bay, Charles U., Ambassador to Norway, aid to Norway, 
testimony before House Foreign AfEairs Committee 
on MAP legislation, 299 
Belgium : 

Benelux union establish common tariffs, 203 
Central and South African transportation problems, 
Lisbon conference on, report by Maxwell Harway, 
852 ; text of final act, 854 
Ruanda-Urundi, Trusteeship Council resolution on 
higher education, text, 255 ; on racial discrimina- 
tion, 127 
Scholarships/fellowships exchange opportunities under 

Fulbright Act, 675, 676 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bilateral treaty with U.S. under Mutual Defense 
Assistance Act of 1949, negotiations started, 753, 
791 
Council of Europe, 231 ; text of statute, 858a 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements on air navi- 
gation service, signature, 683, 684 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Wheat Agxeement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. Ambassador (Murphy) appointment, 559 
U.S.-Belgium discuss mutual problems, 469 
U.S. and Swiss capital invested, free transfer of, 864a 
Bender, Elmer C. See Smith, William C. 
Benelux countries. See Belgium, Netherlands, Luxem- 
bourg 
Beran, Archbishop Josef (Czechoslovakia), attacked by 

Communist regime, 30 
Berkner, Lloyd V., designated as Consultant to Secretary 

of State, 754 
Berlin Museums, exhibition of returned collection of 
masterpieces, statements by : 
Heinrieh, Theodore Allen, 809 
Newman, James R., 810 
"Bermuda" air transport agreements, 153 
Bermuda Telecommunication Agreement (1945), U.S. 
delegation to Conference for Revision of, 261 ; brief 
report on new rates, etc., 508 
Bibliography, U.N. selected documents, listed 71, 141, 226, 

289, 396, 435, 538, 690, 783 
Bipartisan foreign policy : 
Discussed, 504, 875 

Foreign AfEairs, House Committee on, action discussed 
by Charles Burton Marshall, 505 
Bizonal (Germany) scrap agreement, suspending pro- 
vision of U.S.-U.K. Ferrous Scrap Agreement (1948), 
114 
Boettner, Dr. Luis Oscar, credentials as Paraguayan 

Ambassador to U.S., 278 
Bohlen, Charles E., appointed in charge of French MDA, 

950 
Bolivia : 
Agriculturalist visits U.S., 155 

U.S. concern over political develoi^ments ; statement 
by Michael J. McDermott, 472 
Bonesteel, Lt. Col. C. H. Ill, appointed as Mutual Defense 

official for Europe, 871a 
Bonn constitution (Basic Law of Germany). See Ger- 
many : Federal Republic, Establishment 
Boston Passport Agency opened, 871a 



Index, July to December 1949 



999 



Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 (U.S.-Canada) dis- 
cussed, 949 
Boyd-Roosevelt (Trans-Isthmian) Highway completed, 39 
Bradfleld, K.N.E., statement on 5th anniversary of signing 
of convention on international civil aviation on 
progress in field, 936 
Bradley, Gen. Omar, broadcasts over VOA on defense 

progress to North Atlantic nations, 869a 
Brazil : 

Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Con- 
ference on Problerus joint sponsorship of, 228 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT), 
request for renegotiations of Geneva sched- 
ules, 775 
U.S. consular office at Vit6ria elevated to consulate, 319 
U.S. foreign aid programs, 866 
Visiting professor from U.S., 317 
Briggs, Ellis O., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to Czecho- 
slovakia, 519 
British Cameroons, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council 
British exchange teachers indoctrination sessions ; article 
based on address on U.S. educational and ideological 
task by Margaret Hicks Williams, 609 
British Togoland, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council 
Browder-Eisenhardt case discussed in U.S. memorandum 
(Daniels) to Inter- American Peace Committee, 450, 
452 
Brown, Richard R., designation in State Department, 318 
Bruce, David K. E. (Ambassador to France) testimony on 
aid to France before House Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee for MAP legislation, 298, 1037 
Bruce, James, appointment as Director of Mutual Defense 
Assistance, 639, 791; resignation as U.S. Ambassador 
to Argentina, 482 
Brussels treaty (1948) : 

Achievements discussed by Ambassador Douglas, 230 
Defense plan and progress, 230, 266, 295 
U.S. military assistance, testimony before Congress, 
266, 295 
Building Roads to Peace, publication on educational ex- 
change, released, 79 
Bulgaria : 

Americans with financial holdings, instruction for con- 
version into U.S. dollars, 71 
Espionage charges against U.S. Minister (Heath), 911, 

981 ; U.S. protest, 981 
Greek problem (Balkan situation) : threats to political 
and territorial security : 
Aid to guerrillas, 407, 422, 489, 495, 588, 658, 779, 813 
Arms shipments embargo, statement by Secretai-y 

Acheson, 911 
Attitude, 409, 413. 417, 422, 430, 607, 779, 813 
Children and refugees, 408, 409, 410, 412, 416, 427, 658, 

697, 780, 781, 817, 853a, 1037 
Conciliation Commission proposed, 499 ; U.S. support, 
500, 542; reports, 662, 779; suspension of ac- 
tivities, 657 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 489, 658, 911 
Austin, Warren R., 972 



Bulgaria — Continued 
Greek problem — Continued 
Discussed by — Continued 

Cohen, Benjamin V., 542, 779, 813 
Howard, Harry N., 407 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
Rusk, Dean, 654 

United Nations, 459, 489, 494, 662, 697, 745, 817 
Investigation, U.N. Commission of, 407, 411 
Soviet action, 407, 408, 410, 459, 490, 662, 813, 826 
Summary record (1946-49) in U.N. by Harry N. 

Howard, 407 
U.N. resolution (Nov. 19, 1949), text, S52a, 1037 
UNSCOB action. See Balkans, U.N. Special Com- 
mittee on 
Human-rights dispute over peace treaty (1947) 
violations: 
Bulgarian action reviewed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 619 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 456, 491 
Austin, Warren R., 541 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 540, 617, 659, 662, 691 
Jessup, Philip C, 495 
Soviet attitude, 29, 238, 491, 495, 541, 622, 659, 662, 691 
U.N. action : 

Agenda item, 456, 618 
Debate, 459, 540, 617, 627, 659, 662, 691 
Resolution requesting International Court opinion, 
text, 692 
U.S. action : 

International Court opinion, attitude toward, 491, 

495, 540, 623 
Reply (June 30) to Soviet note, 29 
Reviewed in letter (Austin) to U.N. (Lie), 541 
Treaty Commission, request for : U.S. note to 
Balkans, 238 ; U.S. reply to Balkan refusals, 514 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity ; test 
of U.S. note, 832 
U.N. membership application, 13, 14, 15, 48, 459, 697 
Bunche, Ralph J., report to U.N. on status of Palestine 

armistice negotiations and truce, 223 
Burma : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 1.54 

Far Eastern Commission, admission to, 822 

Maung, U. E. (Foieign Minister) visits U.S., 276; 

statement by Secretary Acheson, 313 
Scholarships/fellowships exchange opportunities under 

Fulbright Act, 155, 675, 676 
Treaties, agreements, etc : 

Air transport agreement with U.S., signature, 557 
Visiting professor from U.S., 155 
Butrick, Richard Porter, appointment as Director Gen- 
eral of Foreign Service, 78, 519; resignation as U.S. 
Minister to Iceland, 78 
Butterworth, W. Walton, appointed as Assistant Secre- 
tary of State Department, 559 
Byelorussian S. S. R. : 

Former Italian colonies, attitude toward, 370 
Byroade. Henry A. : 

Appointment as Director of Office of German and 
Austrian Affairs, 599, 639 



1000 



Department of State Bulletin 



Byroade, Henry A. — Continued 

German problem, address before Southern Newspaper 
Publishers Assn., Mineral Wells, Tex., 792 

Caffery, Jefferson, appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Egypt, 78 
Calendar of international meetings, 182, 336, 510, 699, 

849, 904 
Canada : 
Atomic energy : 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada consultations : 
AEC U.S. Reactor Safeguard Committee members 

attend U. K. meeting, 507 
Combined Policy Committee (1943), 472, 507, 589 
Declassification guides reviewed, 628 
Further discussions, 185, 472, 589 
Technical Cooperation Program (1948), 185, 507 
International control, French-Canadian resolution sup- 
ported by U. S., 813 
Balance-of-payments problem (Canada-U.K.-U.S.) : 
agreement, text of communi(iu<5, 473 ; discussions, 
197, 307, 353, 473 
Immigration and customs, U.S.-Canada discuss im- 
provement. 990 
Mutual exchange of aid, U.S.-Canada, 188, 191, 267 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U.S.-Canada; 

Alvin Anderson named as U.S. member, 184 
Petroleum problems in production and distribution, 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada discussions, 468 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement with U.S. Colonial Airlines, 

consultation on license suspension, 949 
Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 discussed, 949 
Niagara River, diversion of water from ; negotiations 

for new treaty, 949 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

684 
Potato program agreement with U. S. terminated, 38 
Tax conventions with U. S. (1942, 1944), negotiations 

for revisions, 153 
Wheat Agreement. International, signature, 75 
Weather Station Program, Joint (U.S.-Canada), U.S. 
expedition, 76, 443 
Cannon, Cavendish R., resignation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Yugoslavia, 714 
Cardoza, Michael H., article on burden of loss in foreign- 
aid transactions, 215 
Career officers abroad, proportion largest in U.S. history, 

835 
Caribbean Commission : 

Eighth meeting report of action on : 
Research Council recommendations, 102 
Technical cooperation and economic development, 101 
West Indian Conference recommendations, 102 
Publications released : 

Dairy Products of Caribbean, 159 
Tobacco Trade of Caribbean, 159 
Year Book of Caribbean Research, 159 
Caribbean situation : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary. 463 
Daniels, Paul C, 920 



Caribbean situation — Continued 

Inter-American Peace Committee action, 665 
U.S. memorandum (Daniels) to Inter-American Peace 
Committee, text, 450 
Carroll, Philip W., interview with Bertha S. Rodrick on 

48 years in State Department, 741 
Cartels, U.S. foreign economic policy regarding, 910 
Carter, Thomas T., designation in State Department, 639 
Case, Everett, appointed as Far Eastern Consultant to 

State Department, 279 
Cayo Confites plot in Cuba discusssed in U.S. memoran- 
dum (Daniels) to Inter-American Peace Commit- 
tee, 452 
Central African transportation problems, report and final 

action of Lisbon Conference on, 852 
Ceylon : 

Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, 
U.K. extends invitation to Conference for Revi- 
sion of, 261 
Rubber problem, U.S. policy discussed by J. C. Satter- 

thwaite, 555 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT), 
request for renegotiations of Geneva scliedules, 
775 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.N. membership application, 15, 459, 496, 745 
U.S. Ambassadors: appointment (Satterthwaite), 559; 
resignation (Cole), 559 
CFM. See Foreign Ministers, Council of 
Charles, Ambassador Joseph D., reply to President Tru- 
man's statement to Ambassadors of OAS Council, 664 
Cheseldine, Raymond M., appointed as Special Assistant 

in Office of German and Austrian Affairs, 714 
Chicago Convention, forerunner of Convention on Inter- 
national Civil Aviation, 936 
Chicago Passport Agency to open, 991 
Children's Emergency Fund, International (ICEF) : 
Action by : 

ECOSOC summarized, 771 ; text of resolution, 291 , 
General Assembly, 903 
Social Commission, 9.35 
Congress extends time for contributions, 18 
Pi'ogram reviewed by U.N. Secretary-General, 91 
Chile : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 317 

Warships to Antarctica, Argentina-Chile-U.K. agree- 
ment (1949-50) not to send, 833 
China : 
American foreign service personnel refused exit visas 
by Communists ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 
709 
American residents in China, table listing number of, 

153 
American servicemen (Smith, Bender) detained by 
Communists, 442 ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 
908 
Canton consular district: evacuation warnings, 197; 

Embassy stalf moved, 318 
Communist action discussed by George F. Kennan, 324; 
by George C. McGhee, 825 



Index, July to December 7 949 



1001 



China — Continued 

Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for 

restitution of, 700 
Military aid from U.S.: appropriations, 603, 605; dis- 
cussed, 476, 477; transfer of U.S. surplus stocks, 
479, 481 
Mukden, U.S. consulate general : 
Espionage charges denied, 36 
Personnel listed, 957 

Release of staff requested, 759 ; release, 799 
Staff departure, arrangements made for, 907 
Stokes, Vice Consul, released, 907 
Visa requests refused, 482 

Ward, Consul General, summarizes detention experi- 
ences under Communists, 955 
National anniversary ; text of President Truman's 

message to Acting President Li Tsung Jen, 636 
Port closure order : 

American vessel attacked, text of U.S. note of pro- 
test, 557, 945 
Exchange of notes with U.S., 34 
U.S. attitude, 908 

U.S. commercial vessels detained, action taken for 
release; text of (Acheson to Isbrandtsen Co.) 
telegrams, 557 
Property, alien real : Communist notices for registra- 
tion 760, 800, 957 ; time extension, 868a 
Shanghai : 
Americans assured safe embarkation, 515 
American ships warned against entering port, 957 
Consul general, U.S. protests siege by former alien 
employees ; text of letter by Aliens Affairs Bureau, 
440 
U.S. information service ordered closed, 152 
"Tiger Air Force", not American, statement by consu- 
late general (Formosa), 515 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sino-Soviet treaty of friendship and alliance (1945), 
Soviet violations, 899, 900 
U.N. action on Chinese situation : 
Debate, 499, 856a, 897 
Eesolutions, 902 ; text, 900 
U.S. consular offices closed at Dairen, 714 ; Hankow, 442 ; 

Tihwa, 519 
U.S. information service in Shanghai and Hankow 

ordered closed, 152 
U.S. policy : 

"China White Paper" (U.S. Relations With China), 

237, 350, 351 
Statements by Secretary Acheson, 236, 1037 ; by Philip 
C. Jessup, 898 
VGA broadcasts increased, 239 
Cinematographic Art, Tenth International Exhibition: 
Awards for outstanding films, 829; listed, 950 
U.S. representative (Lindstrom), 228 
Citizens, U.S. See Protection of U.S. nationals and prop- 
erty 
Claims (See also Property; Protection of U.S. nationals 
and property) : 
International commission proposed, 870; request for 
appropriations, 118 



Claims — Continued 
Mexican 8th payment to U.S. under 1941 convention, 

833 
Yugoslavia : 
Claims settlement agreement, 869 
War damage, registration deadline fixed, 865a 
Clapp, Gordon R. : appointed chairman of U.N. Economic 
Survey Mission, 333 ; submits 1st interim report, text, 
847a 
Clapp, Verner W., report on international Conference on 

Science Abstracting, 292 
Clubb, Consul General O. Edmund (Peiping, China) re- 
quests release of Consul General Ward and staff, 759 
Coal Mines, ILO Technical Tripartite Conference on 

Safety in, U.S. delegation, 509 
Cohen, Benjamin V. : 
Statements : 
Greek situation, 542, 779, 813 

Human-rights dispute (Bulgaria, Hungary, and 
Rumania), 617, 659, 691 
Cole, Felix, resignation as U.S. Ambassador to Ceylon, 559 
CoUisson, N. H., excerpts from address on Germany's role 

in world trade at ERP Export Show, Munich, 302 
Colombia : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Zuleta- Angel), credentials, 558 
Housing expert visits U.S., 154 
Treaties, agi'eements, etc. : 

Reciprocal trade agreement with U.S. (1935) termi- 
nated by exchange of notes, text of U.S. note, 
711 ; text of Presidential proclamation, 865a 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT), 
withdrawal of application to accede, 439, 777 
Colonial Airlines case, U.S.-Canada consult over license 

suspension, 949 
Combat materiel : sales and transfers of militarized and 
demilitarized, tables showing, 156, 356, 479, 480, 481 ; 
correction, 679 
Combined Policy (atomic energy) Committee, U.S.-.U.K.- 

Canada, exploratory discussions, 185, 472, 589 
Commerce. See Trade 
Commercial treaty with Italy, exchange of ratifications, 

198 
Commissions, Committees : International : 
Ad Hoc Political Committee, U.N., 801, 983 
Armaments, Commission for Conventional, 348, 624, 649, 

650, 651, 933 
Asia and Far East, U.N. Economic Commission for 

(ECAFE), 00, 628 
Atomic Energy Commission (U.N.), 247, 249, 290, 348, 

488, 507, 544, 624, 645, 649, 650, 686, 940 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB), 408, 

410, 489, 405, 542, .588, 658, 780, 852a, 911 
Calendar of meetings of organizations and conferences, 

182, .336, 510, 609, 849, 904 
Caribbean Commission, 101, 159 

Claims Commission, International (proposed), 118, 870 
Combined Policy Committee (U.S.-U.K.-Canada), 472, 

507, 589 
Conciliation Committee (Greece), 409, 414, 415, 057, 779 
Criminal Police Commission, International, 02!) 
Cultural Cooperation, U.S.-Mexican Commission on. 



1002 



Department of State Bulletin 



Commissions, Committees : International — Continued 
Cultural Exclianse, U.S. Commission for (Iran), 443 
Danube Commis.sion (Belgrade convention of 1048), 

832 
Defense Committee (XAC), 470, 603, 909 
Defense Financial and Economic Committee (NAC), 

819 
Defense Ministers Committee (NAT), 869a 
European Coordinating Committee (MDAP), 871a 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee on, 203, 

243. 
European Travel Commission (OEEC), 304 
Far Eastern Commission (PEC), 107, 307, 308, 637, 

790, 822, 906 
First (Political and Security) Committee, 409 
Fiscal Commission, U.N., 90 
Human Riiiht.?. Commission of, 3, 500 
India ami Pakistan, U.N. Commission for, 143, 290, 

335, 399, 639, 654, 975 
Indonesia, U.N. Commission for (UNCFI), 181, 447, 

449, 752, 902, 958, 973 
Interim Committee ("Little Assembly"), 251, 495, 612, 

854a 
Juridical Committee, Inter-American, 76 
Korea, U.N. Commission on (UNCOK), 490, 494, 499, 

539, 625, 662, 694, 695 
Metal Trades Committee (ILO), 824 
Methods and Procedures of General Assembly, Special 

Committee on, 289 
Military Committee (NAT), 470, 869a, 948 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on, 768 
Neutrality Committee, Inter-American, 76 
Non-Governmental Organizations, Committee on 

(ECOSOC), 331 
North Atlantic Defense Committee, 948 
North Atlantic Defense Financial and Economic Com- 
mittee, 991 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U.S.-Canada, 184 
Palestine Conciliation Commission (U.N.), 16, 98, 148, 

225, 226, 319, 333, 490, 494, 785, 847a, 849a 
Pan American Railway Congress, 21, 49 
Peace Committee (OAS), Inter-American, 450, 463, 665 
Peace Treaty (1947) Commissions. 238 
Population Commission, U.N., 90, 768 
Reactor Safeguard Committee (AEC), 507 
Red Cross, International Committee of, 342 
Salaried Employees and Professional Workers, (ILO) 

Advisory Committee, 667 
Scientific Investigation of Tuna (Mexico-U.S.), Inter- 
national Commission, 355 
Social Commission, U.N., 765, 906 
South Pacific Commission, 259, 461, 547, 839 
Statistical Commission, U.N., 90 
Technical Assistance Committee (U.N.), 325, 918, 931 
Tran.sport and Communications Commission 

(ECOSOC), 90, 331 
Travel Commission (proposed), Inter-American, 892 
Tropical Tuna Commission (U.S.-Costa Rica), Inter- 
American, .355 
U.N. Commission of Investigation (Greece), 408, 410, 

411 
U.N. Guard, Committee on, 289 



Commissions, Committees : International — Continued 
U.N. Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian, and Cul- 
tural Matters), 732 
Western Union Defense Committee, 295 
Wheat Council Committees : 
E.xeeutive Committee, 228 

Price Equivalents, Advisory Committee on, 228 
Women, Inter-American Commission of, 263 
Women, U.N. Commission on Status of, 90, 768 
Commi-ssions, Committees : National : 
Atomic Energy, .loint Committee, 185, 250, 639, 8*4, 945 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 

674, 927 
Executive Committee (U.S. Commission for UNESCO), 

19 
National Citizens Committee for U.N. Day, 99 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, U.S. Na- 
tional Commission in, 21, 49 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 593, 595 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Inter-tlepartmental 

Committee on, 866 
Tariff Commission, U. S., 593, 595 
Trade Agreements (Interdepartmental) Committee, 593, 

595 
UNESCO, U.S. Commission for, 19 
U.S. Educational Commission (France), 263 
Communism : 
Action in : 
Balkans, 972 
China, 36, 236, 237, 239, 306, 324, 350, 351, 825, 899, 

907, 908, 955. 957, 973 
Czechoslovakia, 30, 148, 710, 973 
Europe, 187, 192, 193, 196 
Far East, 239, 972 
Germany, 304, 634, 761, 763 
Greece, 232, 234, 407, 813, 826, 972 
Indonesia, 973 
Italy, 297 
Korea, 37, 972 
Norway, 300 
Poland, 973 
Turkey, 826, 972 
Yugoslavia, 973 
Analysis, 872 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 673, 719 
Anderson, Eugenie, 788 
Jessup, Philip C, 346, 348, 349 
Peurifoy, John, 673 
Smith, Lt. Gen. Bedell, 872, 874 
Truman, President, 343 
"Stop Communism" is not enough, — problems in Near 
East, South Asia, and Africa : address by Assistant 
Secretary McGhee, 825 
Western Germany election, Communist Party vote 
analyzed, 563, 567 
Compton, Wilson, excerpt from speech on U. N. expanded 
program of technical assistance before General As- 
sembly, 930 
Conferences, Congresses, Councils: International: 

Administrative Aeronautical Radio (ITU) Conference, 
144 



Index, July fo December 1949 



1003 



Conferences, Congresses, Councils : International— Con- 
tinued 
Air Navigation Services, ICAO Conferences on, 684 
Anglo-American-Canadian Economic Conference, 473 
Anglo-American Council on Productivity, 648 
Asian Conference of Experts on Teclinical Training 

(ILO),461 
Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, Con- 
ference for Revision of, 508 
Calendar of meetings of organizations and conferences, 

182, 336, 510, 699, 849, 904 
Caribbean Research Council, 102 
Coal Mines, ILO Technical Tripartite Conference on 

Safety, 509 
Conservation and Utilization of Resources Conference, 

261 
Consultative Council (Brussels treaty), 230 
Council of Europe, 231, 269, 858a 
Dairy Congress, Twelfth International, 20 
Diplomatic Conference of 1949, 339 
PAO annual conference, 823 
Freedom of Information, TJ.N. Conference, 727 
Herring and Allied Species, international meeting on, 

294 
ICAO 1949 Conference, 683 

Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Con- 
ference on Problems, 228 
Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Renew- 
able Natural Resources, 483 
Inter-American Council of Jurists (OAS), 599 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, 98 
Inter-American Radio Conferences, 104, 258 
Inter-American Travel Congress, 3d, 889 
Interparliamentary Union. 38th regular conference, 398 
Johannesburg, South Africa, Plenary Conference on 
Central and South African transportation prob- 
lems, 852 
Labor Conference, International, 103 
Labor Statisticians of ILO, 7th International Confer- 
ence of, 509 
Military Medicine and Pharmacy, 12th Congress, 667 
Neurology, 4th International Congress, 398 
North American Regional Broadcasting, Third, 460 
North Atlantic Council, 399, 467, 469, 603 
OEEC Council, 115 

Pan American Railway Congress Association, 49 
Participation of U.S. Oovernment in International 

Conferences, volume released, 159 
Public Education (UNESCO), Twelfth International 

Conference on, 20 
Research Council (South Pacific Commission), 839, 841, 

843 
Rhine Boatman, ILO Special Tripartite Conference on, 

824 
Road and Motor Transport Conference (U.N.), 262, 

875a 
Round Table Conference at The Hague. 958 
Science Abstracting, International Conference on, 292 
South Pacific Conference, 842 
Soutli Pacific Research Cotincil, 259 
Technical Assistance Conference, 326, 929, 930 
Telegraph and telephone conference (ITU), 905 
Tin Study Group, 701 



Conferences, Congresses, Councils : International — Con- 
tinued 
Toponymy, 3d International Congress of, 106 
U.S. Missions in Africa, 951 
Veterinary Congress, 14th International, 144 
Western Europe, Council of, 476, 477 
West Indian Conference, 102 
Wheat Conference, International, 52, 75, 228 
Congress : 

CFM Paris conference reports on Austrian and German 

questions, to Congressional Committees, 859 
China White Paper ( United States Relations With 
China), Representative Judd's charges: 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 350 
Analysis of 10 charges of "Dishonesty," 351 
Foreign Affairs Committee (House) action summarized 

by Charles Burton Marshall, 505 
Foreign migratory labor legislation, 43, 44 
German banker (Abs) visit to U.S.; text of letter (Mc- 

Fall to Gillette) with information re, 988 
Immigration Act amendments (S. 1832), opposition to; 
text of Secretary Acheson's letter to Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee Chairman (McCarran), 516 
Immigration laws, descriptive listing, 535 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 
(Public Law 402) : 
Activities mentioned, 928 
Objectives, text, 927 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, extension author- 
ized, 438 
Interparliamentary Union, 3Sth regular conference ; 

U.S. group, 398 
Legislation listed, 157, 318, 340, 519, 559, 639, 847, 933 
Messages from the President to : 
Congress on : 

Lend-lease report (2Sth), 117 
Military aid legislation, 186 
Technical assistance program, 682 
Senate on : 
Costa Rica-U.S. tuna convention, 77 
Genocide convention, 844 
Withdrawal of obsolete treaties, 316 
Military Assistance Program legislation : 

President's message recommending legislation, 186; 
supporting .statement liy Secretary Acliesun. 18!] 
Testimony before House Foreign Affairs Committee 
by: 
Bay, Charles Ulrieh, 299 
Bruce, David K. E., 298, 1037 
Douglas, Lewis, 299 
Dunn, James Clement, 296 
Grady, Henry F., 232 

U.S. officials in Europe, statement based on reports 
of, 295 
Testimony before Senate Foreign Relations and 
Armed Services Committee by Secretary Acheson, 
264 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 : 
Full appropriations requested, 603 
Presidential signature, statement at time of signing, 

603 
Text, 604 



1004 



Department of State Bulletin 



Congress — Continued 

Point 4 Program, testimony by Under Secretary Webb 
before House Foreign Affairs Committee, 549; be- 
fore Senate Banliiug and Currency Committee, 274, 
305 
North Atlantic Treaty : 

Debate in Senate by Senator Tom Connally, 53; by 
Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, 61 
North Atlantic Treaty — Continued 

Ratification: statements by Secretary Acheson, 148; 
by President Truman, 109 
Senate confirmations : 
.U.N. representatives to General Assembly and 

UNESCO, 546 
U.S. deputy representatives to Security Council, 629 
Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of 
Senate Judiciary Committee, Secretary Acheson's 
letter to Byron Price on testimony concerning U.N. 
Secretariat, 252 
Technical assistance program : 
Draft Act of 1949, text, 72 
Propcsed legislation discussed, 171 
VOA facilities, additional apiH-opriations for improve- 
ment recommended ; statement by Secretary Ache- 
son, 312 
Wheat Agreement, International : Senate advice and 
consent for ratification. Presidential signature, 21 
Conciliation Committee (Greece), U.N., report on Greeli 

situation discussed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 779 
Congo Basin Treaty (1919), discussion of expansion at 
Lisbon Conference on Central and South African 
transportation problems, 852 
Connally, Senator Tom, statement on ratification of North 

Atlantic Treaty, 53 
Conservation and Utilization of Resources, U.N. Scientific 
Conference on (UNSCCUR) : discussion, 257, 290, 
335; U.S. delegation, 261 
Conservation of Natural Resources, proceedings of Inter- 
American Conference published, 483 
Consultative Council (Brussels treaty), activity dis- 
cussed by Ambassador Douglas, 230 
Costa Rica : 
Nicaragua-Costa Rica dispute : effective application of 

Rio treaty discussed, 453, 921, 924 
Presidential inauguration (Ulate) : statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 833 ; U.S. delegation, 711 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : trans- 
mittal to Congress, text of President's message, 
77; U.S. ratification, 355 
U.S. Ambassador (Flack) appointed, 78 
Coulter, Eliot B., article on visa work and foreign service, 

523 
Council of Europe (1949) : 
Defense plans, 476, 477. 478 

First meeting, statement by Secretary Acheson, 269 
Force in European unity, 231 
Statute, text of, 858a 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers 
Cox, Henry B., article on establishment of Soviet-sponsored 
East German Cvmocratic Republic, 761 



Criminal Policy Commission, International; U.S. repre- 
sentative, 629 
Cuba : 

Cayo Confites plot (1947), U.S. action reviewed by 

Paul C. Daniels, 452 
Cultural leader visits U.S., 828 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation treaty with U.S. discussed, 279 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Tariffs and Trade Agreement, General Agreement on: 
Potato rates amended, 77 

Renegotiations of Geneva schedules requested, 775 
Supplementary concessions with U.S., presidential 

proclamation, 947 
U.S. preference issue at Annecy, 776 
U.S. foreign aid programs, 866 
Cultural cooperation {See also Educational Exchange 
Programs) : 
American-Turkish Association jiromotes cultural rela- 
tions, statement by Assistant Secretary Allen, 39 
Howard University students present plays in Denmark, 

Norway, and Sweden. 442 
U.S.-Mexican Commission, on Cultural Cooperation, 
agreement establishing, 868a 
Customs and immigration, U.S.-Canada discuss improve- 
ment of procedures of, 990 
Customs procedures discussed by Secretary Acheson, 7.50 
Customs Union, Franco-Italian (Mar. 26) : 
Documents leading to establishment : 
Declaration and protocol (Sept. 13, 1947) 203; text, 

243 
Franco-Italian Commission reports, 203, 207 
Protocol of Mar. 20, 1948, 207 ; text, 244 ; correction, 

399 
Franco-Italian Customs Union Commission, 207 
GATT decision, text, 244 
Treaty text, 245 
Cyrenaica (Libya). See Italian colonies, disposition of 

former 
Czechoslovakia : 

Church-state conflict developments ; statements by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 30, 148 
Embassy employees (Munk, Horvath), U.S. demands 

recall, 790 
German Federal Republic, establishment of; Czecho- 
slovak protest ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 
634 
Germany inid Czechoslovakia, 1937-I9S8, vol. II of 
Documents on Oerman Foreign Policy, 1918-lSJi5 
released, 513 
Italian colonies, attitude toward former, 370 
Soviet tactics in, 973 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity ; text 
of U.S. note, 832 
U.S. Ambassador (Briggs) appointed, 519 
U.S. Embassy personnel, espionage charges and demand 
for departure of, 710 

Dacca, Pakistan, U.S. consulate opened, 519 
Dairen, China, U.S. consulate closed, 714 



Index, July fo December 7949 



1005 



Dairy Congress, Twelfth International: U.S. delegation, 

20 
Daniels, Paul C. : 

Inter-American Peace Committee (OAS), U.S. memo- 

randimi on Caribbean situation, text, 450 
Settling Disputes in Western Hemisphere, address be- 
fore Natl. Coffee Assn., Boca Raton, Fla., 920 
Danube Commission set up by Belgrade convention 
(1948), U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity; text of 
U.S. note, 832 
David, Paul T., report on 1949 ICAO Conference action 
on financing and operating air navigation services, 
683 
Davis, Malcolm W., statement on accepting chairmanship 

of National Citizens Committee for U.N. Day, 99 
Davis, Nathaniel P., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Hungary, 519 
DDT production for malaria control, ECOSOC resolution 

on, 772 
Defense Assistance Act of 1949, Mutual. See Mutual 

Defense Assistance Act of 1949 
Defense Committee (NAC) : 

Establishment, text of communique, 470 

Military Production and Supply Board, NAC approval 

of directive establishing ; text of directive, 820 
Representatives listed, 948 
Second meeting, 048 
Defense Financial and Economic Committee (NAC) estab- 

ment, 819 
Denmark : 

Hovifard University students present plays, 442 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bilateral treaty vfith U.S. under Mutual Defense As- 
sistance Act of 1949, negotiations started, 753, 
791 
Council of Europe, signature, 231 ; text of statute, 

858a 
GATT, application for accession to, 596, 774, 777 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements on air navi- 
gation service, signature, 684, 685 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. Ambassador (Anderson), appointed, 714 
U.S. military aid : request for, 418 ; program discus- 
sions with U.S. representatives, 791 ; treaty nego- 
tiations, 753 
De Palma, Samuel, article summarizing U.N. action on 
International freedom of press and information, 724 
Development, International Bank for Reconstruction and 
(IBRD). See Reconstruction and Development, In- 
ternational Bank for 
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia consular office elevated to con- 
sulate general, 519 
Diplomatic Conference of 1949, report on revision and 
extension of humanitarian conventions by William 
H. McCahon, 339 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials: 
Colombia (Zuleta-Angel), 558 
Ethiopa (Imru), 558 
Hungary (Horvath), 558 
Nepal (Shauker), 558 
Paraguay (Boettner), 278 



Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials — Con. 
Rumania (Magheru), 558 
Union of South Africa (Jooste), 558 
Dismantling (for reparations) program in Germany: 
Modification, text of protocol of agreements between 
Allied High Commission and Federal Republic of 
Germany, 863a 
Displaced persons. See Refugees and Displaced Persons 
Dollar earning problem. See Finance : Balance of pay- 
ments 
Dominican Republic : 

Arms threat to invasion deplored by Secretary Acheson, 

990 
Haitian-Dominican dispute, effective application of Rio 

treaty discussed by Paul C. Daniels, 922 
Luperon Incident discussed in U.S. memorandum 
(Daniels) to Inter-American Peace Committee, 453 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement with U.S., 279 ; signature, 153 
GATT, application for accession to, 596, 774, 777 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Double taxation treaties, U.S. with : 
Cuba, discussions, 279 
France, exchange of ratifications, 710 
Ireland, signature, 518 
Dunn, James Clement (Ambassador to Italy), testimony 
on aid to Italy before House Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee for MAP legislation, 295 
Douglas, Lewis (Ambassador to England), testimony on 
Western Europe unity before House Foreign Affairs 
Committee for MAP legislation, 229 ; correction, 358 

Earthquake disaster in Ecuador : 
Export-Import Bank loan, 312 
FAO aid, 334 

Statement by Secretary Acheson, 278 
Survey of destruction and relief, article by Edward G. 
Miller, 436 
East Africa, Visiting Mission to, report to 4th session of 

Trusteeship Council, 128 
East Asia and Far East Conference (Bangkok), of heads 
of U.S. missions: Ambassador Jessup to attend, 800 
Eastern Europe, U.S. chiefs of diplomatic missions meet 

(London), 598 
EGA. See Economic Cooperation Administration 
ECAFE. See Asia and Far East, (U.N.) Economic Com- 
mission for 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 

Activities and programs in economic and social fields, 
comparative review submitted by Secretary-Gen- 
eral, 88 
Children's Emergency Fund, International (UNICEF). 

See Children's Emergency Fund. 
Freedom of information conventions debated at 7th 

session, 730 
Genocide. See Genocide 
Ninth session : 

Social issues, action summarized by SavUIa M. 

Simons, 765, 1037 
Summary, 257 
U.S. delegation, 106 
Refugees. See Refugee Organization, International 



1006 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Economic and Social CJouncil — Continued 
Regional economic commissions : 

Asia and Far East, Economic Commission (ECAFE) ; 
"ith meeting, U.S. delegation, 628 
Kesolutions : 

Children's Emergency Fund report, U.N. Interna- 
tional (July 28), text, 291 
Intergovernmental organizations, text, 456, 1037 
Non-governmental Organizations (July IS), text, 331; 

(July 22), text, 332 
Technical assistance program (Aug. 14, 15), 916, 919, 
929, 930 ; texts, 325, 329 
Social Commission, 5th session; U.S. delegation and 

agenda, 906 
U.N. technical assistance program. Hee Technical 
assistance 
Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) : 
American travel in Europe : 
Off-season travel promoted, 304 
Visa restrictions lifted by Ireland, 314 
Burden of loss in transfer of foreign-aid articles dis- 
cussed by Michael H. Cardozo, 215 
Decartelization, U.S. policy of, 910 
ECA and Small Business, released, 483 
European Payments plan for 1949-50: Agreement by 
OEEC Council, features of, 115; statement of ap- 
proval by ECA administrator, 116. 
European Recovery Program. See European Recovery 

Program 
Federal Republic of Germany-U.S. agreement, signa- 
ture, 982 ; statement by John J. McCloy, 983 
Foreign crude oil production, discussions by U.K.-ECA- 

Netherlands, 102 
German technical assistance projects (thermal power 

and gas production) approved for bizone, 304 
Germany, transfer from military to civilian control 
in ; John J. McCloy consults with U.S. officials over 
problems of transfer, 272 
Gift parcels, postal-rate reduction to France, Greece, 
Western Germany, Netherlands, U.K., Italy, and 
Trieste, 829 
Information for American Businessmen on Marshall 

Plan published, 158 
Summary report on economic development of ERF 
countries, 32 
Economic development in underdeveloped countries. See 

Point 4 Program ; Technical assistance 
Economic Survey of Asia and Far East 19/f8 released by 

U.N., 396 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council 
Ecuador : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 317 
Eartliquake disaster : 

Export-Import Banli loan, 312 
FAO aid, 334 

Statement by Secretary Acheson, 278 
Survey of destruction and relief, article by Edward G. 
Miller. 436 
Education : 

Asian Seminar on Rural Adult Education, U.S., dele- 
gate, 701 
Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Con- 
ference on Problems; U.S. delegation, 228 



Education — Continued 

Information and research facilities offered to public by 

State Department, listing of offices, 792 
Japan, international Christian University proposed 

for ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 909 
Public Education (UNESCO), Twelfth International 

Conference on ; U.S. delegation, 20 
South Pacific Commission research program for social 

development, 260 
Trust territories in Africa, Tnisteeship Council reso- 
lution on higher education in, text, 255 
UNESCO scholarship information requested by Trustee- 
ship Council for higher education in African trust 
territories, test of resolution, 256 
U.S. educational and ideological task, article based on 
address by Margaret Hicks Williams at British 
exchange teachers indoctrination sessions, 609 
Educational Commission, U.S., established in France under 
terms of educational exchange agreement (1948), 263 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on: 
Role of government in educational exchange program 

discussed, 927 
Trading Ideas With the World, 3d quarterly report 
released, summary, 674 
Educational Exchange Program : 
Application instructions, 155, 675, 794 
Building Roads to Peace, booldet on exchange of per- 
sons, released 79 
Discussed by: 
Allen, George V., 79, 311, 868 
Barber, Willard F., 924 
Johnstone, Jr., William C, 925 
Division of Exchange of Persons responsible for pro- 
gram, 794 
Fulbright program (Surplus war property disposal 
agreements. Public Law 584) : 
Agreements, U.S. with : 
Australia, signature, 870a 
Egypt, signature, 831 

France (1948), U.S. Educational Commission es- 
tablished in, 263 
Iran, signature, 443 
Application information, 155, 675, 794 
British exchange teachers indoctrination, address 

by Margaret Hicks Williams, 609 
Exchange opportunities with : 
Belgium, 675 
Burma, 155, 675 
Prance, 675, 712 
Greece, 155, 675 
Iran, 675 
Italy, 675 
Luxembourg, 675 
Netherlands, 74, 675, 712 
New Zealand, 155, 675, 712 
Norway, 74, 675, 712 
Philippines, 155, 675 
United Kingdom, 74, 1.54, 611, 675 
Housing, study collection prepared for information use 

abroad, 830 
Inter-American program (Act for Cooperation with 
other American Republics, Public Law, 355) : 
Application instructions, 794 



Index, July fo December 1949 



1007 



/: 



Educational Exchange Program — Continued 
Inter-American program — Continued 

U.S. scliolarships awarded, listing of names, 317 
Smith-Mundt program (Information and Educational 
Act of 1948, Public Law 402) : 
Application instructions, 7J>4 
Government's role discussed, 927 
Greek writer receives 1st grant, 636 
Howard Universit.v dramatic production In Norway 

aided, 442, 928 
Objectives, 927 

U.S. activities reviewed in 3d quarterly report of 
U.S. Educational Advisory Commission, sum- 
mary, 674 
Soviet noncooperation discussed by Warren R. Austin, 

805 
Visitors from U.S. to : Argentina, 77, 317 ; Brazil, 317 : 
Burma, IG."! ; Chile, 317; Colombia, 317; Costa Rica, 
317 ; Cuba 317 ; Dominican Republic, 317 ; El Salva- 
dor. 77: Greece, l."i.5: Haiti. 833; Mexico, 317; Xew 
Zealand, 155; Norway, 422, 928; Peru, 317; Phil- 
ippines, 155, ; Uruguay, 317 
Visitors to U.S. from: Argentina, 77; Bolivia, 155; 
Brazil, 925 ; Burma, 154; Chile, 317 ; Colombia, 154; 
Cuba, 828; Ecuador, 317; Guatemala, 712; Haiti, 
• 77 ; New Zealand, 155 ; Norway, 925 ; Peru, 317 ; 
United Kingdom, 154 ; Venezuela, 77 
Educ. tion. Scientific and Cultural Organization (.UNE- 
SCO) : 
Asian Seminar on Rural Adult Education, U.S. delegate, 

For session, agenda and U.S. delegation 397 

Illi cy and Education of Adults in Americas, Con- 

rence on Problems ; joint sponsorship of, 228 
Pri cies in program reviewed, 94 
R 9 American foreign policy discussed by Assistant 
.-.'?■. ',"%r;»,f?..iA.llen, 497 
Sell ■ „ acting, International Conference; report 

\,j . erner W. Qapp, 292 
Technical assistance program, participation, 916, 931 
Egypt : 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 371 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement under Fulbright Act, 

signature, 831 
Road trafiic convention, signature, 886 
U.S. Ambassador (Caffery) appointed, 78 
U.S. Ambassador (Griffls) resignation, 78 
Eichholz, Robert B., appointed as deputy to MDA Special 

Asst. in Rome, 950 
Elliot, John C, appointed as chief of Munitions Division, 

358 
El Salvador : 

U.S. Ambasador (Shaw), appointed, 78 
Visitors from U.S., 77 
Employment Service, U.S., foreign migratory labor pro- 
gram discussed by Daniel Goott, 43 
Eritrea. See Italian colonies, disposition of former 
ERP. Sec Euroijean Recovery Program 
Essentials of peace resolution : 
Discussion, 786, 801, 855a, 970 



Essentials of peace resolution — Continued 
Soviet counterproposal, 970 
U.S.-U.K. draft, text, 807 
Etbiopa : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Imru), credentials, 558 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 368 
U.S. foreign office at Addis Ababa elevated to Embassy, 
78 
Europe, Council of. See Council of Europe 
Europe, deputy U.S. special representative (Katz) ap- 
pointed, 78 
European Coordinating Committee (MDAP) : Bonesteel 
III, Lt. Col. C. H. appointed executive director, 871a 
European customs union. See Customs Union, Franco- 
Italian 
European Economic Cooperation, Committee on : its role 
in establishment of Franco-Italian Customs Union, 
243, 203 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
(OEEC). See Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation 
European Payments Plan : OEEC Council agreement on 
principles, 115 ; statement of approval by ECA ad- 
ministrator, 116 
European Recovery Program (ERP) (See also Economic 
Cooperation Administration) : 
Aid to European unity, 229, 230, 231 
Discussed by : 
Acheson, Secretary, 264 
Kennan, Geo. F., 323 
Peurifoy, John E., G72 
Sargeant, Howland, S40a 
Smith, Lt. Gen. W. D., 873 
Truman, President, 344, 401 
Webb, James E., 550 
ECA summary report on economic development of ERP 

countries, 32. 
German role in world trade, 23, 24, 302. 
Progress, information regarding, 313 
European Travel Commission (OEEC) promotes off-season 

travel to Europe, 304 
Executive Orders : 
International organizations, revocation of Ex. orders 

regarding (Ex. Or. 10083), text, 616 
Trade agreements program, administration of (Ex. 

Or. 10082), text, 593,595 
U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) : 
Office established (Ex. Or. 10062), 512 
Role as ECA representative (Ex. Or. 10063), 513 
Export-Import Bank : 

Aid to American Republics, 464, 465, 977 

Ecuador earthquake disaster, extension of credit for 

reconstruction, 312 
Technical assistance, provision of capital for, 864 

Fahy, Charles: 
Statements : 
Korean independence, problem of, 694 
Korean position in international affairs, 625 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture organization 
Far East : 

Developments and problems, U.S.-U.K. discussions, 467 



J 



] 



1008 



Departmeni of State Bulletin] 



to 



(6. 



;tf»' 



ullelin 



Far East — Continued 
Economic Survey of Asia and Far East 1948 released 

by U.N., 396 
Far East, Foreign Relations vol. Ill, 359 
U.S. missions, conference (Bangkok) of heads: Ambas- 
sador Jessup to attend, 800 
U.S. policy : statement by Secretary Acheson, 236, 1037 ; 
test of letter from Secretary Acheson to Consultant 
(Fosdick), 35S 
VGA broadcasts increased, 239 
Far Eastern Commission (FEC) : 

Hamilton, Maxwell M., appointed U.S. representative, 

906 
Japanese gold earmarked for France and Thailand, 
release of : 
Amounts and dates, 638 
U.S. directive to SCAP, text, 637 
U.S. memorandum to FEC ; statement by Maj. Gen. 
Frank R. McCoy, 637 
Japanese labor policy, Soviet charges : 

McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank R., refutation, 107 
U.S. analysis, text of pertinent revised labor rela- 
tions adjustment laws, 108 
Japanese participation in international relations, 307 
Japan, policy decisions on : 

Allied-owned trade-marks, restoration and protec- 
tion of, 308; text, 309 
Looted property, restitution of, 790 
McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank, resignation as U.S. represen- 
tative, 906 
Membership, admission of Burma and Pakistan, 822 
Faroes, air navigation (ICAO) services in, 684 
FEC. See Far Eastern Commission 

Feldmans, Jules, Latvian Minister to U.S., credentials and 
exeliange of remarks with Secretary Acheson, 33, 34 
Fellowships/scholarships. See Educational Exchange 

Program 
Fezzan (Libya). See Italian colonies, disposition of 

former 
B'llm Festival, 10th international exhibition: awards, 

829, 950; U.S. representative (Lindstrom), 228 
SHnance : 
Appropriations: Presidential funds, 117; National de- 
fense and international aid, 118; Mutual Defense 
Assistance Program, 195, 603 
Balance-of-payments problem : 
Argentine-U.K. trade and payments agreement 

studied, 37 
Discussed by Dean Rusk, 632 
European Payments Plan, OEEC agreement, 115 
Swedish-U.S. discussions, 31 

U.K.-U.S.-Canada discussions, 197, 307, 353, 402, 473 
Bulgaria, Americans with financial holdings in ; in- 
struction for conversion into U. S. dollars, 71 
Burden of loss in foreign-aid transactions, article by 

Michael H. Cardozo, 215 
Financing our foreign policy, article by Charles Burton 

Marshall, 505 
Franco-Italian Customs Union problems, 211 
German securities, revalidation demanded by Federal 
Republic of Germany, 830 

idex, July to December 7949 

933534 — 51 — —3 



Finance — Continued 
Mexican petroleum development, di.scussions for U.S. 

loan suspended, 153 
Monetary gold, Nazi-looted, U.S.-France-U.K.-Poland 

agreement on distribution, 71 
Private investment abroad discussed, 175, 274, 305, 401, 

405, 552, 720, 864, 976 
U.S. and Swiss capital invested in Belgium, free trans- 
fer of, 864a 
Yugoslavia currency conversion in Trieste, U.S. protest; 
text of U.S. note, 113 
Finance Corporation, Reconstruction (RFC) : responsi- 
bility under Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, 
607 
Finland : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : GATT, application for ac- 
cession to, 596, 774 
U.S. compensation claims for Finnish vessels settled, 

790 
U.N. membership application, 15, 459, 745 
Fiscal Commission, U.N., priority program reviewed, 90 
Fisher, Adrian S., appointed as Legal Adviser, 78 
Fisheries : 

Conventions, U.S. ratification of : 

Costa Rica-U.S. : Inter-American Tropical ' una 

Commission, 355 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 355 
Mexico-U.S. International Commission for Scientific 
Investigation of Tuna, 355 
Herring and Allied Species, U.S. delegation ater- 

national meeting on, 294 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U.S.-( »da; 
Alvin Anderson named U.S. member, 184 
Fiske, Rear Admiral Leon S., remarks on U.S. 1st uial 

report on trust territory of Pacific islands, 13-^ 
Flack, Joseph, appointed as U. S. Ambaf • ^. tr 

Rica, 78 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 
Annual conference, fifth session : 
U.S. delegation, 823 

World Abundance Through FAO, address by Presi- 
dent Truman, 857a 
Headquarters to be established at Rome, 906 
Herring and Allied Species, U.S. delegation to inter- 
national meeting on, 294 
Technical assistance program, U.N., participation, 916, 

931 
Work programs reviewed, 93 
Foreign agricultural workers, employment in U.S., article 

by Daniel Goott, 43 
Foreign interests in Germany, protection of : 

Inter-Governmental Group for Safeguarding of Foreign 
Interests in Germany submits report and recom- 
mendations to 6 powers, text, 575, 579 
Six-power consideration of problem at Paris meeting, 

573 
U.S. memorandum on Group report and recommenda- 
tions, text, 573 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, Ofiice of (OFLO), 
liquidation, 157 

1009 



Foreign Ministers (Scliuiuau, Beviu, Acheson) : Paris 

meeting, 822 ; text of communique, 822 
Foreign Ministers, Council of, (CPM) : 

Austrian peace treaty, deputies resume work on, 19 
Paris conference, agreement on Austrian and German 
questions : 
Communique, text, 858 

Reports, statements by President Truman, 858; by 
Secretary Aclieson. ,S59, 860 
Foreign Service: 
Ambassadors : 

Appointments: Argentina (Griffis), 599; Belgium 
(Murphy), 559; Ceylon (Sattertbwaite), 559; 
Costa Rica (Flack), 78; Czechoslovakia 
(Briggs), 519; Denmark (Anderson), Egypt 
(Caffery), 78; El Salvador (Shaw), 78; Europe 
(Katz), 78; Hungary (Davis), 519; Uruguay 
(Ravndal) named, 78 
Resignations: Argentina (Bruce), 482; Burma (Hud- 
dle), 639; Ceylon (Cole), 559; Egypt (Griffis), 
78; Netherlands (Barueh), 319; Yugoslavia 
(Cannon), 714 
Appointment of officers : 

Director General (Butrick), 519 

Foreign Service Inspection Corps, Director (Travers), 

950 
MDA Director (Bruce), 639, 791; Special Assistants, 
950. 
Bulgaria charges U.S. Minister (Heath) with espion- 
age, 911, 981 ; U.S. protest, 981 
Career officers abroad, proportion largest in U.S. his- 
tory, 835 
China : 
Canton Embassy evacuates staff to Hong Kong, 318 
Communists refuse exit visas to U.S. personnel ; 

statement by Secretary Acheson, 709 
Mukden, U.S. consulate general : espionage charges 
denied, 36 ; personnel listed, 057 ; release of stafE 
requested, 759; staff released, 799; staff, de- 
parture arrangements for, 907 ; visa requests 
refused, 482 ; Ward, Consul General summarizes 
detention experiences under Communists, 9.55 
Shanghai : safe embarkation for Americans assured, 
515 ; U.S. protests siege of consulate general, 440 
Conferences of chiefs of U.S. missions: 
Africa (Lourengo Marques), 951 
East Asia and Far East (Bangkok) , 800 
Eastern Europe (London), 598 
Near East (Istanbul), 835 
Consular offices : Dacca, Pakistan, opening, 510 ; Dairen, 
China, closing, 714; Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, ele- 
vated to consulate general, 519; Hankow, China, 
closing, 442; Meshed, Iran, opening, 319; Poznan, 
Poland, office elevated to consulate, 78 ; Puerto la 
Cruz, Venezuela, office elevated to consulate, 78; 
Salzburg, Austria, Vienna consular section desig- 
nated special purpose post, 482 ; Tihwa, China, clos- 
ing, 519 ; Vit6ria, Brazil, elevation to consulate, 
319 
Czechoslovakia demands recall of U.S. Embassy person- 
nel on espionage charges, 710 



Departmental and Foreign Service exchange program, 

first appointment (Tibbetts), 358 
Diplomatic relations with : 

Panama: American action in coup d'etat, 868a; non- 
recognition of Arias government, 911 ; recognition 
of Arias government, 990 
Paraguay, continuation of, 558 
Syria, recognition of new government, 515 
Embassy, elevated to rank of: Addis Ababa, Ethiopa, 

78 
Intern program started, 1st official, 482 
Ministers, appointment of: 
Iceland (Lawson), 157 
Luxembourg (Mesta),78 
Ministers, resignation of: 
Iceland (Butrick), 78 
Foreign trade development discussed by President 

Truman, 400 
Formosa (Taiwan) : 

Chinese Tiger Air Force, not American, statement by 
consulate general, 515 
Fosdick, Dorothy, address on the world as framework for 
U.S. foreign policy before the Herald Tribune Forum, 
New York, 708 
Fosdick, Raymond Bland, appointed as Far Eastern con- 
sultant, 279; letter from Secretary Acheson on Par 
Eastern policy, text, 358 
France : 

Allied High Commission for Germany. See Germany 
Atomic energy, U.N. plan for international control, 

French-Canadian resolution, U.S. support, 813 
Disarmament plan of census and verification discussed, 

143, 181, 348, 492, 649, 787, 902, 932 
Economic recovery discussed by U.S.-France, 468 
Film Festival, International ; U.S. representative, 228 
Foreign Ministers (Franee-U.K.-U.S. ) discuss mutual 

problems, 468; text of Paris communique, 822 
French Morocco : import-license regulations, application 

period extended, 634 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 363, 364, 366, 

373 
Japan: Gold earmarked for Indochina released, 637; 
looted property in, FEC policy decision for restitu- 
tion of, 790 
Scholarships/fellowships exchange opportunities under 

Fulbright Act, 263, 675, 676 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Austrian peace treaty, deputy meetings to be resumed, 

509 
Belgrade convention to control Danube River, U.S.- 
U.K.-France protest validity; text of U.S. note, 
832 
Bilateral treaty with U.S. under Mutual Defense 
Assistance Act of 1949, negotiations started, 753, 
791 
Council of Europe, signature, 231 ; text of statute, 

858a 
Double taxation convention with U.S., exchange of 

ratifications, 710 
Educational exchange agreement (1948) with U.S., 
establishment of U.S. Educational Commission, 
263; opportunities, 675, 676 



1010 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Franco-Italian Customs Union : 

Background article by Howard J. Hiltou, .Tr., 203 

Text, 243 ; correction, 399 

German-looted monetary gold, U.S.-U.K.-France- 

Poland agreement on reparations distribution, 71 

Jlilitary obligations of dual nationals (1948), 279 

North Atlantic ocean-station agreement, signatiu-e, 

684 
Road traflic convention, signature, 886 
South Pacific Commission agreement, discussion, 839 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 7.5 
Trust territories in Africa : 

Annual report to Council, 125, 126 

Central and South African transportation problems, 

Lisbon conference, report, 852 
Higher education. Council resolution, text, 255 
Visiting mission Council resolution on terms of ref- 
erence for, text, 16 
U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate reduction on, 829 
U.S. military assistance: 

Report on aid since V-J I>ay, 3.")6, 480, 481 ; correction, 

679 
Testimony by Ambassador Bruce before Congress, 298, 

1037 
Treaty negotiations, Tri3, 791 
Freedom of Information. See Information, Freedom of 
Freeman, Alwyn V., appointed as member of Inter- 
American Juridical Committee, 76 
French Cameroons, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council 
French Morocco : import-license regulations, application 

period extended, 634 
French Togoland, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council 
Fulbright (Act) exchange person program (Surplus war 
property disposal agreements, Public Law 584) : 
Agreements, U.S. with : 
Australia, signature, 870a 
Egypt, signature, 831 

France (1948), U.S. Educational Commission estab- 
lished in. 263 
Iran, signature, 443 
Application instructions, l.i5, 675, 794 
British exchange teachers indoctrination, address by 

Margaret Hicks Williams, 609 
Exchange opportunities with: Belgium, 675; Burma, 
155, 675 ; France, 675, 712 ; Greece, 155, 675 ; Iran, 
675 ; Italy, 675 ; Luxembourg, 675 ; Netherlands, 
74. 675, 712; New Zealand, 1.55, 675, 712; Norway, 
74, 675, 712; Philippines, 155, 675; United King- 
dom, 74, 154, 611, 675 

GATT. See Tariffs and Trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly : 

Fourth regular session : 

Provisional agenda listed, 289 
U.S. delegation, 545 

U.S. representatives confirmed by Senate, 546 
U.S. position on agenda problems, address by Secre- 
tary Acheson at 1st plenary session, 489 



General Assembly — Continued 

Freedom of information convention proiMisals ; debate in 
Committee III (Social, Humanitarian and Cul- 
tural), 732 
Genocide. See Genocide 
Greek problem of political independence and territorial 

integrity. See Greece 
Italian colonies. See Italian colonies, disposition of 

former 
Methods and Procedures of General Assembly, Special 

Committee on ; establishment, 289 
Resolutions : 
Administrative unions, 129 
Armaments (Nov. 19, 1948), 933 
Atomic energy (Nov. 23, 1949), text, 940 
Educational advancement in trust territories (Nov. 

18, 1948), 129 
Essentials of peace, discussion, 801. 85.5a, 897, 898, 

901, 970 (Nov. 14, 1949), text, 807 
Greece: Threats to political independence and ter- 
ritorial integrity of (Nov. 19, 1949), text, 852a; 
arms-shipment embargo to Albania and Bulgaria, 
911 
Human-rights observance in Balkans (Oct. 22, 1949), 

text, 692 
Interim Committee, reestablishment of (Nov. 21, 

1949), text, 8.54a 
Italian colonies, disposal of (Nov. 21, 1949), text, 

844a 
Korea (Nov. 14, 1947), 625 
News personnel, access to U.N. meetings (Oct. 21, 

1949), text, 696 
Palestine Conciliation Commission (Dec. 11, 1948), 

225 
Palestine refugees (Dec. 11, 194S), S47a, 848a, 849a 
Refugees, establishment of Office of High Commis- 
sioner for (Dec. 3, 1949), 938, 939 
Technical assistance program (Nov. 16, 1949), 915, 

930 
Trusteeship Council reports, 130 
U.N. asses.sments (Oct. 20, 1949), text, 696 
UNCOK, continuation of (Oct. 21, 1949), 626; text, 
695 
Geneva conventions of 1929 for protection of war victims, 

revision of, 339 
Genocide : Convention transmitted to Senate, text of Presi- 
dent's letter and report of Secretary of State, 844 
Geological Survey, U.S. ; summary of results of coopera- 
tive program in Mexico, 978 
(jcrniany : 

Abs, Herman V. visits U.S.; text of letter from .lack 

McFall to Senator Gillette with information, 988 
Allied High Commission for Germany: 
Charter, text, 25, 1037 
Establishment, 512, 513 
High Commissioners, responsibilities under charter, 

text, 28 
Location ; text of joint communique, 114 
Occupation Statute : 

Control powers discussed, 23, 25, 303, .503, .512, 702, 

705 
Enti-y into force, 512 ; text of declaration, 983 



Index, July to December 1949 



1011 



Germany — Continued 
Allied Higti Commission for Germany — Continued 
Public laws enacted by Council, text, 983 
U.S. High Commissioner (HICOG), Office of. See 
below 
Berlin Museum paintings returned, statements by: 
Heinrich, Theodore Allen, 809 
Newman, James R., 810 
Decartelization in Western Germany, U.S. policy of, 

910 
Dismantling program : 

Discussed by Henry A. Byroade, 703 

Modification agreement between Federal Republic 

and Allied High Commission, text, 863a 
Statement by John J. McCloy, 635 
Federal Republic of Germany (West) : 
Elections: 
Analysis by : 

Kirchheimer, Otto, and Price, Arnold, 563 ; 

tables, 564, 565, 566, 568, 571, 572 
State Department, 303 
U.S. views, statement by Secretary Acheson, 303 
Establishment: 
Date, 512 

Preparatory steps, 23, 468, 702, 704, 762 
Occupation Statute: 

Allied control discussed, 23, 25, 303, 503, 512, 702, 

705 
Entry into force, 512 ; text of declaration, 983 
Soviet protests, partial text of U.S.S.R. note, 762; 
refutation by Acting Secretary Webb, 590; 
text of U.S. reply, 670 
Soviet satellite protests, statement by Secretary 

Acheson, 634 
Statement by Acting Secretary Webb, 512 
Securities of German issue. No. 155 ordinance de- 
mands revalidation, 830 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Dismantling modified, asreement with Allied High 

Commission, text, 863a 
ECA agreement, signature, 982; statement by John 
J. McCloy, 983 
Germany Affairs, establishment of Bureau in State De- 
partment, 63."); director (Byroade) appointed, 635 
German Democratic Republic, Soviet-sponsored : 
Establishment : 

Background action summarized by Henry Cox, 761 
U.S. view, 634 
Foreign interests, protection of: 

Inter-Governmental Group for Safeguarding of For- 
eign Interests : text of report, 575 ; text of recom- 
mendations, 579; text of U.S. memorandum, 573 
Patent rights, text of Allied Council public law, 986 
Securities of German issue, revalidation provided by 
Fedetal Republic, 830 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CPM), discussion of 
German question at Paris conference: 
Communique, text, 857 

Conference impressions by Secretary Acheson, 860 
Conference reports, statements by Secretary Acheson, 
859 ; by President Truman, 858 



Germany — Continued 
Information, freedom of: 
Allied Council public law, text, 985 
Radio development in U.S. zone, 83 
Military Government (OMGUS) transfer to civilian 

control: 
McCloy, John J. : 

Assumption of interim authority, 22 
Consultation with U.S. government officials on trans- 
fer problems, 272 
Economic and political conditions, discussion over 

CBS, 270 
Major developments summarized, 22 
Termination of OMGUS, 513, 702 
Munich relay station strengthens VOA European broad- 
casts, 403 
Publications : Docvments on German Foreign Policy, 
101S--'i5 released : vol. I, 158 ; vol. II, Germany and 
Czechoslovakia, 1931-38, 513 
Radio development in U.S. zone summarized by Ruby A. 

Parson, 83 
Reparations : 

Dismantling program, 635, 703, 863a 

General claims law for losses of Nazi-oppressed 

victims, 591 ; filing instructions, 592 
Identifiable property of Nazi-oppressed victims; text 
of tripartite announcement of Kommandatura 
law, 273 
Nazi-looted monetary gold, agreement for distribu- 
tion, 71 
War damage compensation, Allied Council law, 580 
Rhine boatmen, ILO Special Tripartite Conference ; tri- 
partite delegation from German Federal Republic, 
824 
Ruhr Authority, International, 23, 28, 185 
Six-power consultation at Paris, 573 
Soviet noncooperation, 23, 62, 590, 670, 703, 704, 706 
Technical assistance projects (thermal power and gas 

production) for bizone approved by ECA, 304 
Trade, Germany's role in Europe and world : 
Discussed by N. H. Collisson, 302 
Exports and imports, official report on, 24 
U.S. policy of expanded trade, 23, 25 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bizonal fusion agreement (1947) extended by U.S. 
(Rusk) and U.K. (Millar), exchange of notes, 
69 
Bizonal scrap agreement suspending provision of 
U.S.-U.K. Ferrous Scrap Agreement (1948), 114 
German-looted monetary gold, U.S.-U.K.-France- 
Poland agreement on distribution for repara- 
tions, 71 
London agreements, 23, 468 
Prohibited and Restricted Industries Policy, 24 
Reparations agreement, 24 

Ruhr Authority, International : discussed, 23 ; 6- 
power agreement creating, 185; U.S. representa- 
tive (Parkman) named, 185 
Washington agreements, 23, 468 
Tripartite discussions on present problems, 468, 822 
U.S. economic and political policies, 22, 23, 62, 303, 702 



1012 



Department of State Bulletin 



(U-rmany — ContiiuuHl 

U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate roduction to Western 

Germany, S29 
U.S. High Commissioner (HICOC), Office of: 
EGA role outlined in Ex. Or. 100(>3, partial text, 513 
Establishment by Ex. Or. 10062, partial text, 512 
Organization chart, 620 
Responsibilities under Allied High Commission 

charter, test, 28 
Special consultant (Stone) for Information and cul- 
tural affairs appointed, 950 
U.S. High Commissioner (McCloy), appointed, 78 
Goott, Daniel, article on farm-labor migratory problem 

in U.S., 43 
Gordon, Marcus J., appointed as Chief, Division of 

Organization, 950 
€rOverning Body. See Labor Organization, International 
Grady, Henry F., Ambassador to Greece : 
Statements : 

Greek situation, 198 

Military aid to Greece ; MAP testimony before House 
Foreign Affairs Committee, 232 
Graham, Senator Frank P., statement on new Indonesian 

independence, 753 
Great Seal of U.S., custody and use, 503 
Greaves, Rex E., appointed as Executive Assistant to 
Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations, 78 
Greece : 

Air navigation facilities, improvement of; action of 

ICAO conference, 685 
Citizens living in U.S.S.R. deported to Central Asia: 

Greek denunciation of Soviet action, 670, 1037 
Educational exchange program : 

Fulbright Act: opportunities, 675, 676; U.S. professor 

visits, 155 
Smith-Mundt Act : 1st grant to Greek writer (Ven- 
ezis), 636 
Greek problem (Balkan situation) : threats to political 
and territorial security : 
Conciliation Commission proposed, 499; reports, 622, 
779; suspension of activities, 657; U.S. support, 
500, 542 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 489, 658 
Austin, Warren R., 972 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 542, 779, 813 
Howard, Harry N., 407 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
McGhee, George C, 826 
Rusk, Dean, 6.')4 

United Nations, 4.59, G62, 697, 745, 817 
General Assembly resolution, text, 825a, 1037; on 
arms-shipment embargo to Albania and Bulgaria, 
911 
Guerrillas, aid from Balkan countries, 407, 588, 658, 

779, 813 
History of case summarized by Benjamin V. Cohen, 

813 
Investigation, U.N. Commission of, 407, 411 
Soviet action, 407, 408, 410, 412, 726, 813, 826. 
Summary record (1946—19) in U.N. by Harry N. 
Howard, 407 



Greece — Continued 

Greek problem — Continued 

UNSCOB action. See Balkans, U.N. Special Com- 
mittee on 
Officials (Tsaldaris, Venizelos) visit President Truman, 

829 
Soviet tactics in, 972 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Radio-transmitter project (Salonika) agreement with 

U.S., 829 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (QATT), 

application to accede to, 596, 774, 777 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate reduction on, 829 
U.S. military assistance : 
Appropriations, 603, G05 
Discussed, 188, 191, 267 
Surplus military property, sales or transfers since 

V-J Day, 480, 481 
Testimony by Ambassador Grady l>efore House For- 
eign Affairs Committee, 232 
Greenland, air navigation services (ICAO) in, 684 
Greenwald, Joseph A., address on significance of inter- 
national standardization before American Standard 
Association, New York, 646 
Griffis, Stanton, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Ar- 
gentina, 559 ; resignation as U.S. .Embassador to Egypt, 
78 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Appointment as deputy representative to Security 

Council, 629 
Bipartisan foreign policy, article, 504 
Guatemala: 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 712 

Flood disaster, American Red Cross aid ; statement by 
Secretary Acheson, 712 

Hague convention of 1907 (hospital ships convention), 

revision of, 339 
Hague roundtable conference, Indonesian independence, 
settlement reached for : statements by Secretary Ache- 
son, 752 ; by Sen. Frank P. Graham, 753 
Haiti : 

Bicentennial Exposition : 

Boulevard honoring President Truman. 945 
President Truman's message of felicitation to Presi- 
dent Estim4, text, 946 
U.S. participation, 754 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 77 
Dominican-Haitian di.spute, effective application of Rio 

treaty discussed by Paul C. Daniels, 922 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT), 
application to accede to, 596, 774, 777 ; concessions 
with U.S., 946 
U.S. foreign aid programs, 866 
Visiting professor from U.S., 833 
Hamilton, Maxwell M., appointed U.S. representative on 

Far Eastern Commission, 906 
Hankow, China : 
U.S. consulate general, closing of, 442 
U.S. Information Service ordered closed by Communists. 
1.52 



Index, July to December 1949 



1013 



Hanson, Haldore, article on U.N. action on technical assist- 
ance program, 915 
Harriman, Averell, North Atlantic Defense Financial and 
Economic Committee, appointment as U.S. represent- 
ative, 991 
Harway, Maxwell, report on Central and South African 

tran.sportation problems at Lisbon conference, 852 
Hawkins, Harry C, appointed as director of Foreign Serv- 
ice Institute, 911 
Hayes, Samuel P., address on engineering services in 
Point 4 Program before Construction Division of 
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 721 
Health : 

Isotopes u.ses in medical surgery research, 251 
Malaria control, ECOSOC resolution on DDT produc- 
tion, 772 
Neurology, 4th International Congress, U.S. delegation 

and program, 398 
Pan American Sanitary Organization, 3d meeting, U.S. 

delegation and agenda, 589 
South Pacific Commission pro.iocts, 259 
Venereal Disease, 26th General Assembly of Inter- 
national Union Against ; U.S. delegation, 509 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Organi- 
zation (WHO) 
Heath, Donald (U.S. iNIinister to Bulgaria). Bulgarian 

charges of espionage, 911, 981 
Heinrich, Theodore Allen, statement at exhibition of re- 
turned collection of Berlin Museum masterpieces, 809 
Herring and Allied Species, U.S. delegation to inter- 
national meeting on, 294 
Hickerson, John D. : 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Atomic energy control, statement in General Assembly, 
932 
HICOG. Scr High Commissioner for Germany 
HICOM. See Germany : Allied High Commission for 

Germany 
High Commi.s,sioner for Germany (McCloy) appointed, 78 
Hilton, Jr., Howard J., article on background of Franco- 
Italian Customs Union, 203 
Hodgson, James F., appointed as MDAP assistant (Nor- 
way), 791 
Horvath, Imre, Hungarian Minister to U.S., credentials, 

712 
Horvath, Jan (employee in Czechoslovak Embassy), U.S. 

demands recall, 790 
Housing, study collection for U.S. educational exchange 

program, 830 
Housing, U.N. action on, 766 
Howard, Harry N., article on Greek problem ( 19J6-9) 

in the U.N., 401 
Howard, John B., appointed as Special Assistant to Sec- 
retary, 792 
Howard University students present plays in Norway, 

Denmark, and Sweden, 442, 928 
Huddle, J. Klahr, resignation as U.S. Ambassador to 
Burma and as U.S. representative on U.N. Commission 
for India and Pakistan, 639 
Hulen, Bert, statement by Secretary Acheson on death 
of, 117 



Human Rights: 

Commission (U.N.) on Human Rights: 

Fifth session action on draft convenant summarized 

by James Simsarian, 3 ; text, 9 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D., chairman, 9 
Covenant of Human Rights : 
Discussed by : 

Human Rights Commission, 500 
Simsarian, James, 3 
Truman, President, 044 
Soviet action, 8 
Text of draft, 9 
Forced labor, study of, ECOSOC debate on, 227, 769 
Freedom of press and information. See Information, 

freedom of 
Genocide. See Genocide 
Minorities, protection of: 

Former Italian colonies, 381 , 

U.N. action, 848 ' 

Missing persons, draft convention on declaration of 

death of, 18, 771 
Slavery, ECOSOC to survey existing forms of, 770 
Trade-union rights, ECOSOC action, 769 
Traffic in persons and exploitation of prostitution of 
others, draft convention on suppression of ; con- 
sideration by ECOSOC, 765 
Violations of: 

Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Rumanian peace treaties 
(1947) dispute: 
Bulgarian action reviewed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 

619 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 456, 491 

Austin, Warren R., 541 < 

Cohen, Benjamin V., 540, 617, 659, 691 
Jessup, Philip C, 495 
Hunijarian action reviewed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 

618 
Rumanian action reviewed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 

619 
Soviet attitude, 29, 238, 495, 541, 622, 659, 662, 691 
U. N. action : 

Agenda item, 456, 618 

Debate, 459, 540, 617, 627, 659, 662, 691 i 

Resolution (Oct. 22) requesting International 
Court opinion, text, 692 
U.S. action : 

International Court opinion, attitude toward, 

491, 495, 540, 623 
Reply (June 30) to Soviet note, 29 
Reviewed in letter (Austin) to U.N. (Lie), 541 
Treaty Commission, request for : U.S. note to i 
Balkans, 238 ; U.S. reply to Balkan refusals, i 
514 ' 

Czechoslovak state domination over church, 30; 

statement by Secretary Acheson, 148 ' 

Racial discrimination in trust territories of Ruanda- | 
Urundi (Belgium) 127; and Tanganyika (U.K.) 
Trusteeship Council resolutions on, 128 



1014 



Department oi State Bulletin 



Ilvimaii Rights — Continued 
Wcnuou, U.N. Commission on Status of; ECOSOC 
action on recommendations in report, 76S, 1037 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of, discussed by 

Philip C. Jessup, 432 
Hungary : 

German Federal Republic, establishment of; Hun- 
;;arian protest; statement by Secretary Acheson, 
ti34 
Human-rights di.spute over treaty (1947) violations: 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 456, 491 
Austin, Warren R., 541 
Colien, Benjamin V., 540, 617, 659, 662, 691 
Jessup, Philip C, 495 
Hungarian action reviewed by Benjamin V, Cohen, 

61S 
Soviet attitude, 29, 238, 491, 495, 541, 622, 659, 662, 

691 
U.N. action : 

Agenda Item, 456, 618 
Debate, 459, 540, 617, 627, 659, 662, 691 
Resolution requesting International Court opinion, 
text, 692 
U.S. action : 

International Court opinion, attitude toward, 491, 

495, 540, 623 
Reply (June 30) to Soviet note, 29 
Reviewed in letter (Austin) to U.N. (I/ie), 541 
Treaty Commission, request for : U.S. note to 
Balljans, 238; U.S. reply to Balkan refusals, 
514 
Minister to U.S. (Horvatb), credentials, 712 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity; text 
of U.S. note, 832 
U.N. membership, application for, 13, 14, 15, 48, 459, 697 
U.S. Ambassador (Davis) appointed, 519 
Hurst, Jr., James G., activity in Nicaraguan revolution, 
452 

lAR. See Ruhr, International Authority 

IBRD. See Reconstruction and Development, Interna- 
tional Bank for 

ICAO. ySee Aviation Organization, International Civil 

Icebreakers and frigates, U.S.S.R. agreement to return 
to U.S., 558 

ICEF. See Children's Emergency F^nid, International 

Iceland : 
Air navigation services ICAO, financing, 685 
Genocide convention, ratification, 334 
U.S. Minister (Butrick), resignation, 78 
U.S. Minister (Lawson), appointment, 157 

ITAA. See Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Confer- 
ence on Problems; U.S. delegation, 228 

ILO. See Labor Organization, International 

IMF. See Monetary Fund, International 

Immigration : 

Act of 1924, U.S. treaties of commerce and navigation, 
etc. ; listing of countries, 535 ; correction, 706 



Immigration — Continued 

Canada-U.S. discuss improvement of procedures, 990 
Control of aliens, entering or departing; text of Presi- 
dential proclamation, 314 
Control of, discussed by Eliot B. Coulter, 523, 527, 529 
Foreign-labor migratory problem discussed by Daniel 

Goott, 43 
Immigration Act amendments (S. 1832) opposed, text of 
Secretary Acheson's letter to Chairman McCarran 
of Senate Judiciary Committee, 516 
Laws, descriptive listing, 535 
Quotas; text of Presidential proclamation, 315 
Importations of U.S. surplus property located in foreign 

area ; text of Departmental regulation, 857 
Importer, U.S. as an ; address by Secretary Acheson, 747 
Import-license regulations of French Morocco, applica- 
tion period extended, 634 
Imru, Ras H. S., credentials as Ethiopian Ambassador 

to U.S., 558 
India: 

Asian Seminar on Rural Adult Education, U.S. dele- 
gate, 701 
Italian colonies, attitude toward former, 370, 374 ; 

draft resolution, 376 
Kashmir-Jammu dispute with Pakistan: 
Cease-fire line agreement, 143, 290 
U.N. action reviewed by Dean Rusk, 654 
U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) : 
Interim report to Security Council, 975 
Truce negotiations, 290, 335, 399, 654 
U.S. representative (Huddle), resignation, 639 
Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for 

restitution of, 790 
Prime Minister (Nehru) visits U.S., 556; welcome by 

President Truman, 634 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road traflic convention, signature, 886 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT), 
question of excise duties on exports to Pakistan 
settled, 776 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 ' 
India and Pakistan, U.N. Commission for (UNCIP) : 
Cease-fire line established, 143, 200 
Report, 3d interim, to Security Council, 975 
Truce negotiations, 290, 335, 399, 654 
U.N. action reviewed by Dean Rusk, 654 
U.S. representative (Huddle), resignation, 639 
Indonesia, U.N. Commission for (UNCFI) : 

Good Offices Committee changed to UNCFI, 449, 752 
Settlement efforts, 181, 449, 752, 902, 973 
Terms of reference, 958 
Soviet policy, action against, 973 
Indonesia, United States of: ' 

DLspute with Netherlands : 
Reviewed, 447 
Soviet policy, 973 

U.N. action, 181, 491, 493, 655, 902, 973 
U.S. policy, 447 
Independence settlement at Hague conference : 
Official measures : 

Charter of transfer of sovereignty, 958 
New Guinea problem, 959 



Index, July to December 1949 



1015 



Indonesia, United States of — Continued 

Independence settlement at Hague conference — Con. 
OflBcial measures — Continued 
Provisional constitution, 958 
Transitional measures agreement, 960 
Union statute, 959 
Statements by Secretary Acheson, 752; by Senator 
Frank P. Graham, 7.53 
Industry : 

Caribbean Commission publications : 
Dairy Products of Caribbean, 159 
Tobacco Trade of Caribbean, 159 
Year Book of Caribbean Research, 159 
Coal Mines, Technical Tripartite Conference on Safety 

in ; U.S. delegation, 509 
Foreign crude oil production, discussions by U.K.-ECA- 

Netherlands, 102 
Franco-Italian Customs Union problems, 205, 209 
Isotopes, uses of, 251 
Latin American railroads, study by U.S. Commission to 

Pan American Railway Congress, 21 
Mexican petroleum development, discussions of U.S. 

loan suspended, 153 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U.S.-<l3anada ; 

Alvin Anderson named U. S. member, 184 
Petroleum problems in production and distribution ; 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada discussion, 468 
Rubber problem, U.S. policy and Ceylon, discussed by 
J. C. Satterthwaite, 555 
Information, Freedom of: 

Convention on freedom of Information, 500, 662, 727, 

1037 
Education and information programs. See Educa- 
tional Exchange Program 
Germany : 

Provision in Public Law, text, 984 
Radio development in U.S. zone, 83 
Information and research facilities offered to public 

by Department, listing of offices, 792 
International Transmission of News and Right of Cor- 
rection, 500 ; reviewed by Samuel De Palma, 724, 
1037 
News personnel, access to U.N. meetings ; General As- 
sembly resolution, text, 696 
Propaganda uses in modern diplomacy discussed by 

George V. Allen, 942 
Radio development in U.S. zone of Germany diseus.sed 

by Ruby A. Parson, 83 
Soviet restrictions discussed by Warren R. Austin, 805, 

806 
Trading Ideas With the World, 3d quarterly report of 
U.S. Educational Advisory Commission, summary, 
674 
U.N. Conference (1948) on Freedom of Information: 
Achievements, 727 
U.S. delegation, 727 
UNESCO's role, 497 

U.S. Information Service in Shanghai and Hankow 
ordered closed by Chinese Communists ; statement 
by George V. Allen, 152 
VGA corrects Pravda reports on Soviet atomic develop- 
ments, 943 



Information, Freedom of — Continued 

Voice of America. See Voice of America 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 
(Public Law 402) : 
Activities mentioned, 928 
Objectives, text, 927 
Insurance : burden of loss or risk in foreign-aid trans- 
actions discussed by Michael Cardozo, 215 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs (IIAA) : 
Cooperative programs discussed by : 
Acheson, Secretary, 464 
Allen, George V., 866 
Barber, Willard F., 923, 978 
Extension authorized by Congress, 438 
Inter-American Commission of Women, Mary M. Cannon 

as U.S. delegate to special assembly, 263 
Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Renew- 
able Natural Resources, proceedings of, published, 483 
Inter-American Council of Jurists (OAS), William Sand- 
ers appointed as U.S. representative, 599 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council ; U.S. rep- 
resentative (Nufer) appointed, 98 
Inter-American exchange of persons program (Act for 
Cooperation with Other American Republics, Public 
Law 355) : 
Application instructions, 794 
U.S. scholarships awarded, listing of names, 317 
Inter-American Neutrality Committee. See Juridical 

Committee, Inter-American 
Inter-American Peace Committee (OAS) : 

Caribbean situation, conclusions on, 665; text of U.S. 

memorandum, 450 
Meeting discussed by Secretary Acheson, 463 
Inter-American principles and policy discussed by Sec- 
retary Acheson, 462 ; by Willard F. Barker, 923, 976 
Inter-American Radio Agreement : replacement for Santi- 
ago agreement of 1940, 258 
Inter-American Radio Conference: radio frequency plan 

for Western Hemisphere adopted, 104 
Inter-American Travel Commission (proposed) discussed, 

892 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (1947) : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Dean, 463 
Barber, Willard F., 149, 151, 152, 924 
Daniels, Paul C, 920 
Disputes, efEective application in settlement of : 
Costa Rican-Nlcaraguan case reviewed, 924 
Haitian-Dominican Republic case reviewed, 921, 924 
North Atlantic Treaty, comparison with, 152 
Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural 
Cooperation. See Scientific and Cultural Cooperation. 
Intergovernmental organizations, ECOSOC resolutions on 

relations with, texts, 456, 1037 
Interim Committee ("Little Assembly") : 

Continuation supported by U.S., 48, 251, 495, 612 
General Assembly resolution on reestablishment, text, 
854a 



1016 



Department of State Bulletin 



Interiiaticinal Authority for Ruhr. See Ruhr, liiterna- 

tidiial Authority for 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD). Sec Reconstruction and Development, In- 
ternational Bank for 
iBternational Children's Emergency Fund (ICEF). See 

Children's Emergency Fund 
International Civil Aviation (1944), Convention on, ICAO 

forerunner, 936 
International Civil Aviation Organization. See Aviation 

Organization, International Civil 
International Claims Commission proposed for U.S. claims 

under Yugoslav-U.S. agreement, 870 
International Monetary Fund (IMF). See Monetary 

Fund, International 
International organizations, revocation of Ex. orders per- 
taining to ; Ex. Or. 100S3, text, 616 
International standardization as an aid to domestic and 
international trade discussed by Joseph A. Greenwald, 
646 
International Telecommunication Union. Sec Telecom- 
munication Union, International (ITU) 
International Wheat Agreement. See Wheat Agreement, 

International 
Interparliamentary Union, 38th regular conference, U.S. 

representatives, 398 
Intern program of Foreign Service and Department, 

started, 482 
Iran: 

Scholarships/fellowships exchange opportunities under 

Fulbright Act, 675 
Shah visits U.S.: remarks by President Truman, 831; 

statement by Secretary Aeheson, 832 
Soviet tactics discussed by Warren R. Austin. 972; by 

George McGhee, 826 
Surplus war property, transfer of U.S., 479 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement under Fulbright Act, 
signature, 443 
U.S. aid, 188, 191, 267 
U.S. consulate at Me.shed <ipened, 319 
U.S. military aid appropriations, 603, 605 
Iraq : 

Italian colonies, attitude toward former, 371, 377, 378 
U.N. Economic Survey (Clapp) Mission report, text, 
847a. See also Palestine situation 
Ireland : 
Passport visa restrictions lifted, 314 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Council of Europe discussed, 231 ; text of statute, 858a 
Double taxation convention with U. S., signature, 518 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

683, 684 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.N. membership, application for, 15, 459, 697, 745 
IRQ. See Refugee Organization, International 
Isbrandtsen Co. vessels detained in China, action taken 

for release; text of (Aeheson) telegrams, 557 
Isotopes : 
Distribution program, domestic and foreign, 250 
Japanese participation, 834 



Isotopes — Continued 

Summary report released, 834 

Uses in medicine, 250; in agriculture and industry, 251 
Israel : 
Palestine situation : 

Acting Mediator Bunche reports to Security Council 
on status of peace negotiations, 142, 181, 227 ; 
text of report, 223 
Conciliation Commission for Palestine, U.N., Lausanne 
discussions, statements by Secretary Aeheson, 16, 
148, 180 
U.S. representative, appointment of Ely E. Palmer, 785 ; 
of Paul A. Porter, 98, 319 
Discussed by : 

Aeheson, Secretary, 490 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
McGhee, George C, 826 
Rusk, Dean, 654 
Economic Survey Mission to Near East, U.N. : 

Clapp, Gordon R., appointed as chairman, statement 

by President Truman, 333 
Establishment,S49a 

Report on resettlement of refugees, 459 ; text, 847a 
Israeli-Syrian armistice agreement: statement by 

Secretary Aeheson, 180; text, 177 
Jerusalem statute, U.N. debate, 818, 903, 934 
Refugee relief, 490, 494, 654, 656, 847a, 902 
Security Council resolution (Aug. 11), text, 286 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Israeli-Syrian armistice: annexes, 179; statement by 

Secretary Aeheson, 180; text, 177 
Road traffic convention, signature, 880 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Italian colonies, disposition of former: 

Eritrea, 380, 383, 490, 493, 539, 586, 843a, 845a 
General Assembly action : 
Third session summarized by David Wainhouse and 

Philip Mangano, 363 
Fourth session debate, 459, 539, 585, 817, 842a 
Resolution ( Nov. 21 ) , text, 844a 
Italian Somaliland, 380, 383, 539, 5S6, 843a, 845a 
Libya (Cyrenaica, Fezzan, Tripolitania), 378, 382, 490, 

493, 539, 585, 842a, 844a 
U.S. views, 363, 364, 366, 377, 490, 493, 539, 585, 842a 
Italy : 
Cinematographic Art, 10th International Exhibition, 
awards for outstanding fUms, 829, 950; U.S. repre- 
sentative, 228 
Defense plans, 478 

FAO headquarters to be established at Rome, 905 
Former colonies (Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Libya). 

See Italian colonies, disposition of 
Good-will equestrian sculptural group for Arlington 

Memorial Bridge plaza presented to U.S., 403 
Military aid from U.S. : 

Bilateral treaty under MDA, 753, 791 
Report since V-J Day, 156, 356, 480 ; correction, 079 
Testimony for MAP legislation by Ambassador Dunn 
before House Foreign Affairs Committee, 296 
Scholarships/fellow.shlps exchange opportunities under 
Fulbright Act, 675 



Index, July to December 1949 



1017 



Italy — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bilateral treaty with U.S. under Mutual Defense 
Assistance Act of 1949, negotiations started, 753 ; 
discussions, 791 ; testimony by Ambassador Dunn, 
296 
Ck)uncil of EuroiK^ discussed, 231 ; text of statute, 858a 
Franco-Italian Customs Union: text of annexes (I, 
II, III, IV), 243, correction, 399; bacliground 
article by Howard J. Hilton, Jr., 203 
GATT, application for accession, 59G, 774, 777 
North Atlantic Treaty, U.S. rejects Soviet charges 
on Italy's participation in ; text of U.S. note to 
U.S.S.R., 238, 1037 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation with 
U.S. : entrance into force, statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 144 ; exchange of ratiiications, 19S 
U.N. membership, application, 1.5, 48, 459, 697. 745 
U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate reduction on, 829 
ITU. See Telecommunication Union, International 

Jacobs, Joseph E., appointed as MDA special asst. in 

Rome, 950 
Jammu-Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir 
Japan : 

Christian University, proposed ; statement by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 909 
Decartelization, U.S. policy of, 910 
PEC policy decisions : 

Allied-owned trade-marks, restoration and protection 

of, 308 ; text, 309 
Restitution of looted property, 790 
Gold earmarked for France and Thailand, release of: 
Amounts and dates earmarked, information given at 

163d FEC meeting, G38 
Statement by Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy, 637 
U.S. directive to SCAP, text, 637 
International participation encouraged under SCAP 

control, 307 
Isotope distribution program (AEC), participation in, 

834 
Labor policy, Soviet charges against : 

McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank R., refutation, 107, 1037 
U.S. analysis, text of pertinent revised labor rela- 
tions adjustment laws, 108 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT), U.S. 
proposal for most-favored-nation treatment, 776 
Jerusalem statute, U.N. debate, 818, 903, 934 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Addresses : 

Foreign policy before Golden Jubilee Convention of 

VFW, Miami, Fla., 345 
Human rights before 72d annual meeting of Ameri- 
can Bar Association, St. Louis, Mo., 432 
U.N. accomplishments before American Association 
for U.N., New York, 493 
East Asia and Far East Conference (Bangkok) of 

chiefs of U.S. missions, attendance, 800 
Statements : 
Chinese situation in U.N., 897 

Former Italian colonies, U.S. views on disposition 
question, 585, 842a 



Johannesburg, South Africa, i>lenary conference on Cen- 
tral and South African transportation problems, 852 
Johnstone, Wm. C, Jr., article on exchange programs in 

American foreign relations, 925 
Jooste, Herhardus Petrus, credentials as Ambassador of 

Union of South Africa to U.S., 558 
Jordan : 

Palestine situation. See Palestine situation 
U.N. membership, application, 15, 48, 459, 496, 097, 745 
Juridical Committee, Inter-American ; Alwyn V. Freeman 

appointed as member, 76 
Jurists, Inter-American Council of ; William Sanders ap- 
pointed as U.S. representative, 599 
Justice, International Court of : 
Advisory opinions on: 

Human-rights dispute with Balkans, 491, 49.5, 540, 
618, 623, 691 ; General Assembly resolution, text, 
692 
U.N. membership, admission procedure, 697, 745, 817 

Kashmir, India-Pakistan dispute: 
Cease-fire line agreement, 143, 290 
U.N. action reviewed by Dean Rusk, 654 
U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) : 
Interim report to Security Council, 975 
Truce negotiations, 290, 399 
U.S. representative (Huddle), resignation, 639 
Katz, Milton, appointed as deputy U.S. special representa- 
tive in Europe, 78 
Kee, John (Chairman of House Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee) ; text of letter from Secretary Acheson re- 
futing Wolverton's charges against Asst. Secretary 
Miller in Sabalo Transportation Company vs Mexico 
case, 553 
Keesing, Felix M., report on progress of South Pacific 

Commission, 839 
Kellerman, Henry J., appointed as chief of Division of 
German and Austrian Information and Reorientation 
Affairs, 714 
Kelly, H. H., report on international road traffic conven- 
tion, 875a ; on U.S. participation in Pan American 
Railway Congress Assn., 49 
Keniian, George F., address on international situation 

over CBS, 323; appointed as Counselor, 78 
Kirchheimer, Otto and Arnold H. Price, article on analy- 
sis and effects of elections in Western Germany, 563 ; 
tables, 564, 565, 566, 568, 571, 572 
Kohler, Foy D., appointed as chief of International Broad- 
casting Division, 714 
Korea : 

Aid from U.S. : 

Acheson, Secretary, statement by, 37 
Appropriations from Presidential fund, 117 
Surplus war property, transfer of, 479, 480 
Independence and unification problem in U.N. : 
Commission on Korea, U.N. (UNCOK) : 

Continuation with increased powers, provisions of 

joint draft resolution for, 499, 626, 694; 

adoption of resolution, 539; General assembly 

approval, 662 

General Assembly resolution (Oct. 21, 1949), text, 

695 
Interim Committee, advice from, 615 



1018 



Department of State Bulletin 



Korea — Continued 

Independence and unification problem in U.N, — Con. 
Commission on Korea, U.N. — Continued 
Report to U.N., 459, 625, 694 
U.S. support, 490 

Withdrawal of occupation forces, action on, 48, 848 
Reviewed by : 

Aclieson, Dean, 490 
Faliy, Charles, 694 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
Ru.sk, Dean, 655 
Military Defense Assistance Program (MDAP) : 
Acheson, Secretary : statements before Congress, 191, 

267 ; letter answering Rep. Lodge, 476 
Congressional authorization, 605 
Lodge, Rep. J. D. questions Secretary Ache.son. 476 
Truman, President : message to Congress, 188. 
Soviet tactics summarized by Warren R. Austin. 972 
U.S. merchant vessel on loan to Korea ; text of U. S. 

note requesting Soviet aid in location of, 636 
World Health Organization membership application ac- 
cepted, 17 
Kostov treason trial, I'.ulgariau charges against U.S. 
Minister (Heath), 911, 981; U.S. protest, 981. 

Labor (See also Labor Organization, International) : 
Franco-Italian Customs Union, problems of, 210, 243 
Latin American developments discussed by Willard F. 

Barber, 977 
Japan, Soviet charges against policy in : 
McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank refutes, 107, 1037 
U.S. analy.sis, text of laws, 108 
Labor Organization, International (ILO) : 

Asian Conference of Experts on Technical Training, 

U.S. official observer, 461 
Coal Mines, Technical Tripartite Conference on Safety 

in ; U.S. delegation, 509 
Conference, 32d session, summary : 
Conventions adopted, 103 
Recommendations and resolutions, 103 
Forced labor survey, recommendation to U.N. by Gov- 
erning Body, 769 
Foreign-labor migratory problem, U.S. policy, 46 
Governing Body, action at 109th session, 104 
Labor Statisticians, 7th International Conference of; 

U.S. delegates, 509 
Metal Trades Committee, 3d session; U.S. delegation 

and agenda, 824 
Reports and program reviewed, 91 
Rhine boatman. Special Tripartite Conference re ; U.S. 

observer, 824 
Salaried Employees and Professional Workers, Ad- 
visory Committee ; U.S. delegation to 1st session, 
667 
Technical assistance program, U.N., participation, 916, 

931 
Trade-union rights, ECOSOC action, 769 
Latvia, Minister to U.S. (Feldmans), credentials and ex- 
change of remarks with Secretary Acheson, 33, 34 
Laukhuff, Perry, appointed as chief of Division of German 

Political AITairs, 714 
Lausanne (U.N. Palestine Conciliation Commission) 
negotiations resumed, 148 



Lawson, Edward B., appointment as Minister to Iceland, 

157 
Lebanon : 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road traffic convention. Signature, 886 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Legislation, U.S. Congress, listed : 157, 318, 340, 519, 559, 

639, 847, 933 
Lend-lea.se : 

Burden or risk of loss in foreign-aid programs dis- 
cussed by Michael Cardozo, 215 
Icebreakers and frigates ; Soviet agreement to return 

to U.S., 558 
Report, 2Sth, transmitted to Congress : text of Presi- 
dent's message, 117 
Uranium sliipnients to U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary 
Acheson, 944 
Liberia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, application for accession to, 596, 774, 777 
U.S. technical aid, 648 
Libya. See Italian colonies, disposition of former 
Lie, U.N. Secretary-General Trygve, achievements com- 
mended by Ambassador Austin, 543 
"Little A.ssembly." Sec Interim Committee 
Li Tsung-jen, Acting President of China ; text of President 

Truman's message on national anniversary, 636 
Lodge, Representative John Davis : exchange of letters 

(Acheson) on MDAP, texts, 476 
Louisiana-Missouri territory of: Territorial Papers of 

United States, vol. XIV released, 715 
Ludden, Raymond P., appointed as MDAP assistant 

(Belgium), 791 
Luxembourg : 

Common tariffs established by Benelux union, 203 
Scholarships/fellowships exchange opportunities under 

Fulbright Act, 675, 676 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Council of Europe discussed, 231 : text of statute, 858a 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
U.S. military aid : 
Discussions with U.S. representatives, 791 
Treaty negotiations, 753 
U.S. Minister (Mesta) appointed, 78 

Maddox, Dr. Wm. P., resignation as director of Foreign 

Service Institute ; new designation, 911 
Magheru, Mihail, credentials as Rumanian Ambassador 

to U.S., 558 
Mangano, Philip A., joint (Wainhouse) report on problem 

of former Italian colonies, 363 
Marshall, Charles Burton, article on financing our foreign 

policy, 505 
Marshall Plan. See European Recovery Program 
Maung, U. E. (Burmese Foreign Minister) visits U.S., 276 ; 

statement by Secretary Acheson, 313 
MDA. See Mutual Defense Assistance Act 
MDAP. See Mutual Defense Assistance Program (under 

MDA) 
Medicine. See Health 



Index, July to December 1949 



1019 



Medicine and Pharmacy, 12th International Congress ; 

U.S. delegation and agenda, 667 
Meetings of international organizations and conferences, 

calendar of, 182, 336, 510, 699, 849, 904 
Membership in U.N. See United Nations 
Merchant vessel, U.S., on loan to Korea ; text of U.S. note 

requesting Soviet aid in locating, 636 
Meshed, Iran, opening of U.S. consulate, 319 
Mesta, Mrs. Perle, appointed as U.S. Minister of Luxem- 
bourg, 78 
Metal Trades Committee (ILO), 3d session; U.S. delega- 
tion and agenda, 824 
Mexico : 

Farm-labor migration problem and agreements with 

U.S. discussed, 43, 44. 46, 46 
Petroleum development, discussions of U.S. loan sus- 
pended, 153 
Sabalo Transportation Company claims ; Secretary 
Acheson's letter answering Wolvertoii's charges 
against Assistant Secretary Miller, text, 553 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural workers agreement, U.S., signature, 313 
Air force mission agreement with U.S., signature, 76 
Claims convention (1941), 8th payment to U.S., 833 
International Commission for Scientific Inrestigation 
of Tuna, U.S. ratification, 355 
U.S. foreign aid programs, 866, 978 
U.S. Geological Survey (1940-9), summary of cooper- 
ative program, 978 
Visiting professor from U.S., 317 
Middle East : 

Developments and problems, U.S.-U.K. discussions, 467 
U.N. Survey (Clapp) Mission, text of 1st interim report, 
847a 
Militarized and nondemilitarized surplus war materiel 
sales, tables showing transfer, 156, 356, 479, 480, 481 ; 
correction, 679 
Military Committee (NAC) : 
Establishment, text of NAC communique, 470 
Personnel listed, 948 
Progress report, 869a 
Military Defense Assistance Program (MDAP). See 

Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 
Military Government of the U.S. zone (OMGUS). See 

Germany 
Military Mission agreement with Peru signed, 38 
Military obligations, U.S.-France agreement on persons 

with dual nationality, 279 
Military Production and Supply Board (NAC) : establish- 
ment, text of directive, 820 
Millar, F. R. Hoyer (U.K. Charge d'Affaires), British 
reply to U.S. note (Secretary of State) extending 
bizonal fusion agreement, 70 
Miller, Edward G. : 
Addresses : 

Ecuadoran earthquake, survey of ruin and relief, 
over NBC, 436 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Saialo Tranportation Company vs. Mexico, Secretary 
Acheson refutes Congressional charges, text, 553 



Miller, Edward G. — Continued 
Statements : 

Inter-American faith in U.N. before Pan American 

Society, New York, 466 
Panama coup d'etat, U.S. position, 910 
Mineral-resources survey, Thailand asks U.S. for, 277 
Missing persons. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Minorities. See Human rights 
Monetary Fund, International (IMF) : 

Activities mentioned in comparative review submitted 

by Secretary-General, 96 
Currency problems in Latin America, aid, 4(54 
Function, 401 
Mongolian People's Republic, U.N. membership application, 

15, 48, 459, 697, 817 
Mukden, China, U.S. consulate general : 
Espionage charges denied, 36 
Personnel listed, 957 

Release of staff requested, 759 ; release, 799 
Staff departure, arrangements made for, 907 
Stokes, Vice Consul, released, 907 
Visa requests refused, 482 

Ward, Consul General, summarizes detention experi- 
ences under Communists. 955 
Multilateral diplomacy, article by William Sanders, 163 
Munich relay station strengthens VOA European broad- 
casts, 403 
Munk, Dr. Ervin (Consul General of Czechoslovakia), 

U.S. demands recall, 790 
Murphy, Robert D., appointed as U.S. Ambassador to 

Belgium, 559 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 (MDA) : 

Foreign countries, report on U.S. aid since V-J Day, 479; 
tables listing sales and transfers, 156, 356, 4S0, 481 ; 
correction, 679 
Full aiipropriations asked by President Truman, 603 
Program (MDAP) : 

Analysis : aims and ob.iectives, 104 ; communism, 196 ; 
cost, 195; NAT, 196; reciprocity, 196; U.N. re- 
lationship, 195 ; U.S. policy objectives, 195 
Bilateral agreements with NAT countries : discus- 
sions with U.S. officials, 791; negotiations, 753 
Discus.sion by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 909 
Jessup, Philip C, 349 
Sargeant, Howard, 840a 
Smith, Lt. Gen., W. B., 874 
Truman, President, 344 
U.S.-Philippines, 951 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 791 
MDA Office, State Dept. : 

Appointment of officers: Director (Bruce), 639, 
791 ; European Director ( Bonesteel ) , 871a ; 
Belgium (Ludden), Denmark (Shantz), 791; 
France (Bohlen, Trueblood), 701, 950; Italy 
(Eichholz, Jacobs), 950; Netherlands (Hodg- 
son), Norway (O'Donogbue), 791 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 — Continued 
MDA Office State Dept. : establishment, text, 791 
Testimony before Congress for proposed legislation : 
Acheson, Secretary, 189, 264, 476 
Bay, Charles U., 299 



1020 



Department of State Bulletin 



Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 — Continued 
Testimony before Congress for proposed legislation — 
(\intinued 
Bruce, David K. E., 298. 1037 
Douglas, Lewis, 229, 358 
Dunn, James Clement, 296 
Grady, Henry F., 232 
Truman, Pres. Harry, message, 186 
U.S. officials in Western Euroiie, 295 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation responsibility 

under, 607 
Representative Lodse questions Secretary Acheson ; ex- 
change of letters, texts, 476 
Signature, statement by President Truman at time of 

signing, 603 
Text, 604 
Mutz, John L., report on reclamation problem in Venezuela, 

86 
McKay, Vernon, summary of 4th session of U.N. Trustee- 
ship Council, 123 
McCarran, Senator Pat, text of letter from Secretary 
Acheson on opposition to Immigration Act amend- 
ments (S. 1832), 516 
McCloy, John J. ; 

Appointment as U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 

78 ; responsibilities under charter, text. 28. 
Assumption of duties in Germany, 22 ; background, 22 
Consultation with U.S. officials over problems of trans- 
fer from military to civilian control in Germany, 
272 
Statements : 

Dismantling in Germany, 635 
Economic and political forces in Germany (over CBS), 
270; questions and answers, 271 
McCoy, MaJ. Gen. Frank : 

Resignation as U.S. representative on FEC, 906 
Statements : 

Japanese gold earmarked for France and Thailand 

released, 637 
Labor policy in Japan, 107, 1037 
McDermott, Michael J., statement on U. S. concern over 

political developments in Bolivia, 472 
McFall, Jack K. : appointment as Assistant Secretary, 
6.39; text of letter to Senator Gillette on U.S. visit of 
Herman V. Abs, 988 
McGhee, George C. : 
Addresses : 

Point 4 Program before Near East Colleges Associa- 
tion, 722 
"Stop Communism" is not enough — problems in Near 
East, South Asia, and Africa before National 
Convention of Young Democratic Clubs of 
America, Chattanooga, Tenn., 825 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary, 78 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

NARBA. See North American Regional Broadcasting 

Agreement 
Narcotic Drugs, U.N. Commission on, ECOSOC approval 

of 4th session recommendations, 768 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty : Organization 



Near East : 

Colleges, role in Point 4 Program discussed by George C. 

McGhee, 722 
Economic Survey Mission, U.N. : 

Clapp, Gordon It., appointed chairman, statement by 

President Truman, 333 
First interim report, text, 847a 
U.S. diplomats, conference (Istanbul) of, 835 
Nehru, Jawaharlal (Prime Minister of India) visits U.S., 

550 ; welcome by President Truman, 634 
Nepal: Ambassador (Shanker) to U.S., credentials, 558 
Netherlands : 

Common tariffs established by Benelux union, 203 
Educational exchange opportunities under Fulbright 

Act, 74, 675, 676 
Foreign crude oil production, discussions by U.K.-ECA- 

Netherlands, 102 
Indonesian dispute: 

Independence settlement at Hague conference: 
Official measures : 
Charter of Transfer of sovereignty, 958 
New Guinea problem, 959 
Provisional constitution, 958 
Transitional measures agreement, 960 
Union Statute, 959 
Statements by Secretary Acheson, 752 ; by Senator 
Frank P. Graham, 753 
Reviewed, 447 
Soviet policy, 973 

U.N. action, 181, 491, 493, 655, 902, 973 
U.S. policy, 447 
Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for 

restitution of, 790 
Treaties, agreements, etc. ; 

Council of Europe, signature, 231; text of statute, 

858a 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

683, 684 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
South Pacific Commission agreement, discussion, 839 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. Ambassador (Baruch), resignation, 319 
U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate reduction on, 829 
U.S. military assistance: 
Discussions with U.S. representatives, 791 
Treaty negotiations, 7,53 
Neurology, 4th International Congress; U.S. delegation, 

398 
New Guinea, Residency of: Indonesian-Netherlands com- 
promise, 959 
Newman, James R., statement at exhibition of returned 

collection of Berlin Museum masterpieces, 810 
New Zealand : 

Educational exchange opportunities under Fulbright 

Act, 155, 675, 676 
Microbiologist visits U.S., 155 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

South Pacific Commission agreement, discussion, 839 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Trust territory of Western Samoa, annual report to 

Trusteeship Council, 127 
Visiting professor from U.S., 155 



Index, July /o December 1949 



1021 



Niagara River, diversions of water from, negotiations for 

new treaty, delegations, 949 
Nicaragua : 

Costa Rican-Nicaraguan incident: 

Discussed by W. E. Barber, 924; Paul C. Daniels, 

921 
U.S. memorandum to Inter-American Peace Com- 
mittee, 453 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendsliip pact with Costa Rica, 453 
GATT, application for accession, 596, 774, 777 
Nine-power agreement (1922) in China today, 900 
Nitze, Paul H., appointed as Deputy Director of Policy 

Planning Staff, 279; as Director, 991 
Non-Governmental Organizations, ECOSOC Committee 
on: 
Reports, 331 

ECOSOC resolutions, text, 331, 332 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship 
North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement 
(NARBA) di.scussed by Willard F. Barber, 9S0; U.S. 
delegation to 3d conference, 460 
North Atlantic community as world peace power dis- 
cussed by Howland H. Sargeant, 839a 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements for air naviga- 
tion service ; action by ICAO Conference, 683 
North Atlantic Council (NAC) : 
First session : 

Arrangement for meeting, 399 
Organization, text of communique, 469 
Second session : 

Defense Financial and Economic Committee estab- 
lished, 819, 991 
Military Production and Supply Board established, 

820 ; 1st meeting, 948 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 821 
U.S. representative (Harriman) appointed to Defense 
Financial and Economic Committee, 991 
North Atlantic Treaty : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 196, 265 
Barber, Willard F., 151 
Bradley, General, S69a 
Peurifoy, John E., 672 
Smith, Lt. Gen. W. B., 874 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act. See Mutual Defense 

Assistance Act 
North Atlantic Council. See North Atlantic Council 
Organization for defense: 

Defense Committee: meetings, 869a, 909, 948; prog- 
ress report, 869a ; personnel, 948 
Military Committee: activity, 948; personnel, 948; 

progress report, 869a 
Progress report, VOA broadcast by General Bradley, 
869a 
Ratification : 

Entrance into force, statement by President Truman, 

355 
Senate approval, statements by Secretary Acheson, 

48 ; by President Truman, 199 
Senate debate, remarks by Senator Connally, 53 ; by 
Senator Vandenberg, 61 
Rio treaty, comparison with, 151, 152 



North Atlantic Treaty — Continued 

U.S. rejects Soviet charges on Italy's participation ; 
text of U.S. note to U.S.S.R. 238, 1037 
Norway : 

Defense plans, 478 

Educational exchange opportunities under Fulbright 

Act, 74, 675, 712 
Howard University students present plays, 442 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Council of Europe signature, 231 ; text of statute, 

858a 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

683, 684 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
U.S. military assistance : 

Discussions with MDAP representatives, 791 
Testimony before Congress by Ambassador Bay, 298 
Treaty negotiations, 753 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries convention, U.S. ratifica- 
tion, 355 
Noyes, Charles P., statement on U. S. approval to con- 
tinue Interim Committee, 251 
Nufer, Albert F., appointed as U.S. representative on 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, 98 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

Occupation Statute. See Germany 

O'Donoghue, Sidney, appointed as MDAP assistant 

(Netherlands), 791 
OEEC. See Organization for European Economic Coop- 
eration 
Oelsner, Warren J., detained by U.S.S.R.: U.S. note of 

protext, test, 592 
Office of Alien Property : control over former Japanese 

property, 37 
OFLC. Sec Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, Office of 
Oil production, foreign crude; discussions by U.K.-ECA- 

Netherlands, 102 
OMGUS. See Military Government of the U.S. zone, un- 
der Germany 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC) : 
Off-season travel promoted, 304 

Payments Plan: Council agreement on principles, 115; 
statement of ai^proval by ECA Administrator, 116 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 
Ambassadors to Council, meeting of : 

Reply to President Truman by Chairman Ambassa- 
dor Charles, 664 
Statement by President Truman, 664 
Caribbean situation : 

Discussed by Secretary Acheson, 463 ; by Paul C. 

Daniels, 920 
Inter-American Peace Committee action, 665 
U.S. memorandum (Daniels) to Inter-American Peace 
Committee, text, 450 
Illiteracy and Education of Adults in Americas, Confer- 
ence on Problems, 228 
Inter-American Council of Jurists, William Sanders 

appointed as U.S. representative, 599 
Inter-American Commission of Women, U.S. delegate 
( Cannon ) to .special assembly, 263 



1022 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



OrSiinization of American States — Continued 

Juridical Committee, Inter-American ; U.S. member 

(Freeman) appointed, 76 
Relationsliip with U.N., 150 
Osborn, Frederick H., statement on basic issues of atomic 
energy, 247 

Pacific islands, trust territory of: 
Procedure for Trusteeship Council supervision author- 
ized, 130 
U.S. report on administration : 

Discussion in Trusteeship Council : 

Fiske, Deputy High Commissioner, 47, 134 
Sayre, Francis B., 47, 133, 136 
Soviet criticisms, 47, 137 
Trusteeship Council resolution of approval, text, 253 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U.S.-Canada, Alvin 

Anderson named U.S. member, 184 
Pakistan : 
Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, U.K. 
extends invitation to Conference for Revision of, 261 
Far Eastern Commission, admission to, 822 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 370 
Kashmir dispute with India : 

Cease-fire line agreement, 143, 290 
U.N. action reviewed by Dean Rusk, 6.54 
U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) : 
Interim report to Security Council, 975 
Truce negotiations, 290, 399 
U.S. representative (Huddle), resignation, 639 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT), 
question of Indian excise duties on exports to 
Pakistan settled by, 776; request for renegotia- 
tions of Geneva schedules, 775 
U.S. consulate at Dacca opened, 519 
Palestine situation : 

Acting Mediator Bunche reports to Security Council 
on status of peace negotiations, 142, 181, 227 ; text 
of report, 223 
Conciliation Commission for Palestine, U.N. : 

Lausaime discussions, statements by Secretary Ache- 
son, 16, 148, 180 
U.S. representative, appointment of Ely E. Palmer, 
785 ; of Paul A. Porter, 98, 319 
Discussed by : 
Aeheson, Secretary, 490 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
McGhee, George, 826 
Rusk, Dean, 654 
Economic Survey Mission to Near East, U.N. : 

Clapp, Gordon R. appointed as chairman, statement 

by President Truman, 333 
Establishment, 849a 

Report on resettlement of refugees, 459 ; text, 847a 
Israeli-Syrian armistice agreement : statement by Sec- 
retary Aeheson, 180 ; text, 177 
Jerusalem statute, U.N. debate, 818, 903, 934 
Refugee relief, 490, 494, 654, 656, S47a, 902 
Security Council resolution (Aug. 11 ) , text, 280 
Palmer, Ely Eliot, appointed as U.S. representative on 
U.N. Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 785 



Panama : 

Boyd-Roo.sevelt (Trans-Isthmian) Highway from Col6n 

to Panama City completed, 39 
Coup d'(5tat, American action in, 868a ; statements on 
U.S. position by Secretary Aeheson, 911 ; by Assist- 
ant Secretary MiUer, 910 
U.S. recognition of Arias government; statement by 
Secretary Aeheson, 990 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, U.S. 

delegation and agenda, 401 
Pan American Railway Congress Association : 
Background and purposes, 51 

U.S. National Commission program, 21 ; report of 1st 
meeting by H. H. Kelly, 49 
Pan American Sanitary Organization : Directing Council, 

3d meeting, U.S. delegation and agenda, 589 
Paraguay : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Boettner), credentials, 278 
Cooperative programs with U.S., 923, 924 
U.S. continues diplomatic relations, 558 
Paris meeting of Foreign Ministers (Sehuman, Bevin, and 

Aclieson), communiqui?, 822 
Parkman, Henry appointed as U.S. representative to In- 
ternational Authority for Ruhr, 185 
Parson, Ruby A., article on radio development in U.S. 

zone in Germany, 83 
Passport agencies opened at Boston, S71a ; at Chicago, 991 
Passports. See Visas 

Patent rights for foreign nations and nationals in Ger- 
many, text of public law, 986 
Patterson, Richard S., article on seal of Department of 

State, 894; reproduction, 895 
Payments Plan, European : OEEC Council agreement on 
principles, 115 ; statement of approval by EGA Admin- 
istrator, IIG 
Peace resolution in General Assembly, Essentials. See 

Essentials of peace 
Perkins, George W., appointed as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Peru : 

Cultural leader visits U.S., 317 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military mission agreement with U.S., signature, 38 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. foreign aid programs, 866 
Petroleum, problems of production and distribution; 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada discussions, 468 
Peurifoy, John, Deputy Under Secretary, address on State 
Department : A Reflection of U.S. Leadership before 
Colleton County Press Assn., Waterboro, S. C, 671 
Philippines : 

Educational exchange opportunities under Fulbright 

Act, 155, 675, 676 
Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for resti- 
tution of, 790 
Quirino, President Elpidio, to visit U.S., 199 ; welcome 
by President Truman, 276; joint statement with 
President Truman on Philippine economy, 277 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
U.S. military aid, ISS, 191, 267, 480, 481, 608, 605, 951 
Visiting professors from U.S., 155 



Index, July to December 7949 



1023 



Point 4 Program. {Sec also Technical assistance) : 
Discussed by : 

Allen, Geo. V., 865 
Barber, Willard F.. 976. 
Greenwald, Joseph A., 646. 
Sargeant, Howland, 841a. 
Legislation proposed to Congress : 
President's recommendations, 862 
Testimony by James E. Webb before House Banking 
and Currency Committee, 305; House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 549 ; Senate Banking and Cur- 
rency Committee, 274 
Puerto Rican aid to other countries studied, 865a 
Poland : 
Attitude toward Greek problem, 407, 408, 412; toward 

former Italian colonies, 370, 373 
German Federal Republic, establishment of; Polish 

protest ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 634 
Soviet tactics in, 973 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

German-looted monetary gold, U.S.-U.K.-France- 
Poland agreement on distribution for reparations, 
signature, 71 
TJ.S. foreign office at Poznan elevate 1 to consulate, 78 
Population Commission, U.N., report of 4th session, 768 
Population Commission and Division, U.N. ; priority pro- 
gram reviewed, 90 
Port closures in China, exchange of notes between China 
and U.S., 34 ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 908 ; 
U.S. protests attack on American vessel, text of U.S. 
note, 557, 945 
Porter, Paul A., appointed to U.N. Palestine Conciliation 

Commission, 98, 319 
Portugal : 

Central and South African transportation problems, 
Lisbon conference on : report, 852 ; text of final act, 
854 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

684 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.N. membership, application, 15, 48, 459, 697, 745 
Postal Union, Universal (UPU), activities reviewed, 96 
Potato crop agreement (U.S.-Canada) terminated, 38 
Potsdam agreement : Soviet charge violation in establish- 
ment of Federal Republic of Germany ; statement of 
refutation by Acting Secretary Webb, 590 
Poznan, Poland, U.S. foreign office elevated to consulate, 

78 
Presidential Proclamations. See Proclamations, Presi- 
dential 
Press, freedom of. See Information, Freedom of 
Price, Arnold H., and Kirchheimer, Otto, article on an- 
alysis and effects of elections in Western Germany, 
563 ; tables, 564, 565, 566, 568, 571, 572 
Price Equivalents. International Wheat Council Advisory 

Committee on; U.S. delegation to 1st meeting, 228 
Proclamations, Presidential : 
Colombian trade agreement (1935) terminated, 865a 
Control of aliens, departure or entrance, text, 314 
Immigration quotas, text, 315 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreements on: 
Cuban concessions, supplementary, 947 



Proclamations, Presidential — Continued 

Tariffs and Trade, General Agreements on — Continued 

Haiti concessions, 946 
U.N. Day, text, 332 
Productivity, Anglo-American Council on, report of 2d 

session, 648 
Professional Workers (ILO), Advisory Committee on 
Salaried employees and; U.S. delegation to 1st ses- 
sion, G67 
Propaganda used in modem diplomacy, address by George 

V. Allen, 941 
Property : 

China, alien real property in : Communist notice for 

registration 760, 800, 957 ; time extension, 868a 
Germany : 

Alien property owners, public notices affecting, 983 

Foreign interests in Germany, Inter-governmental 

Group for Safeguarding: text of report, 575; 

text of recommendations, 579 ; text of U.S. 

memorandum, 573 

General claims law, 591 ; instructions for filing 

claims, 592 
Nazi-looted gold, U.S.-France-U.K.-Poland agreement 

on distribution, 71 
Restitution law for identifiable property of Nazi 
victims, text of Allied Kommandatura order, 273 
Revalidation of .securities demanded by Federal Re- 
public, 830 
Japan : 

Former Japanese Government, State Department 
control relinquished over certain property of, 37 
Looted property, FEC policy decision for restitution 
of, 790 
"Prospect House" leased by State Department as Gov- 
ernment guest house, 639 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 

Agricultural workers: Mexico-U.S. agricultural work- 
ers agreement, 313 
Allied-owned trade-marks, restoration and protection 

of, 308 ; text, 309 
Americans (Oelsner, Sellers, Sienkiewicz) detained by 

Soviets ; U.S. note of protest, 592 
Bulgaria, Americans with financial holdings in ; in- 
structions for conversion into U.S. dollars, 71 
China : 
Alien real property, Communists demand registration, 

760, 800, 957 
Attack on American vessel protested, text of U.S. 

note, 945 
Canton : 
Evacuation, 197, 318 

U.S. commercial vessel (Isbrandtsen Co.) detained, 
action taken for release, 557 
Mukden, U.S. consulate general : 
Espionage charges denied, 36 
Personnel listed, 957 

Release of staff requested, 759; release, 799 
Staff departure, 907 
Stokes, Vice Consul, released, 907 
Visa requests refused, 482 

Ward, Consul General, summarizes detention under 
Communists, 955 



1024 



Department of State Bulletin 



i'rotcction of U. S. nationals and property — Continued 
Cliina — Continued 
Slianghai : 
American sliips warned re entrance to port, 957 
Safe embarliatiou assured to Americans, 515 
U.S. protests siege of consulate general, 440 
Claims Commission, proposed International, 870 ; sup- 
plemental appropriation to Presidential fiscal 1950 
funds requested for, 118 
Germany : 
Alien property owners, public notices afEecting, 983 
Patent rights, text of public law, 986 
Humanitarian conventions : 

Geneva conventions of 1929, revision, 339 

Hague (hospital ships) convention of 1907, revision, 

339 
Civilian (wartime) convention, new draft, 340 
Ital.v-U.S. treaty of friendship, commerce, and naviga- 
tion ; provisions, 198 
Mexico pays Sth installment to U.S. under claims con- 
vention (1941), 833 
Sabalo Transportation Company claims against Mexi- 
can Government, 553 
U.S. merchant vessel on loan to Korea ; text of U.S. note 

requesting Soviet aid in locating, 636 
Yugoslavia, claims agreement with U.S. : 

Claims Commission, plans for proposed, 870 
Registration deadline fixed for war damage claims 

of U.S. citizens, 865a 
Terms of agreement, 869 
Protocol : what it is and what it does ; article by Stanley 

Woodward, 501 
Publications : 

AEC Contracting and Purchasing Offices and Types of 
Commodities Purchased released; a guide for small 
business, 639 
Building Roads to Peace (educational exchange) re- 
leased, 79 
Caribbean Commission releases: 
Dairy Products of Caribbean, 159 
Tobacco Trade of Caribbean, 159 
Year Book of Caribbean Research, 1.59 
China White Paper (U.S. Relations With China): 
Analysis of 16 charges of dishonesty, 351 
Criticisms, Secretary Acheson's refutation, 350 
Released, statement by President Truman, 237 
Documents on. German Foreign Policy, 1918-Ji5, release 
of: 
Vol. I. From Tfcurath to Ribbentrop, 1937-38, 158 
Vol. II, Germany and Czechoslovakia, 1937-38, 513 
ECA and Small Business released, 483 
Economic Survey of Asia and Far East 19^8, released 

by U.N., 396 
Information for American Businessmen on Marshall 

Plan published by ECA, 158 
Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Re- 
newable Natural Resources, proceedings released, 
483 
Isotopes- — A Three-Year Summary of U.S. Distribution, 

released, 834 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., legislation, 157, 318, 340, 519, 559, 639, 
847, 933 



Publications — Continued 
Lists — Continued 

State Department, 79, 119, 159, 319, 483, 559, 599, 755, 

S62a, 896, 951, 980 
United Nations documents, 71, 141, 226, 289, 396, 435, 
538, 690, 783 
Midyear Economic Report of the President released, 

159 
Participation of U.S. Government in International 

Conferences released, 159 
Territorial Papers of United States, vol. XIV (Louisi- 
ana-Missouri) released, 715 
The Far East, Foreign Relations vol. Ill, released, 359 
Trading Ideas With the World, 3d quarterly report of 
U.S. Educational Advisory Commission, released, 
summary, 074 
Treaty Developments, 3d section released, 714 
Public opinion and American foreign policy, address by 

President Truman, 145 
Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, U.S. foreign office elevated to 

consulate, 78 
Puerto Rico : 

Point 4 aid to other countries studied, 865a 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Farm labor migration agreement with U.S. discussed, 
45 

Quirino, Elpidio (President of Philippines) : 

Philippine economy, joint statement by Presidents Tru- 
man and Quirino, 277 
U.S. visit: 
Acceptance of President's invitation, 199 
Welcome from President Truman, 276 

Radio : 
Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference (ITU), 

U.S. delegation, 144 
"Free Greece" radio station, 425, 426 
Frequency plan for Western Hemisphere adopted, 104: 
Germany, radio development in U.S. zone discussed by 

Ruby A. Parson, 83 
Inter-American radio agreement replaces Santiago 

(1940) agreement, 258 
North American Regional Broadcasting Conference 3d ; 
U.S. delegation and agenda, 460; Agreement 
(NARBA) discussed, 980 
Radioactive materials. See Isotopes 
Voice of America. See Voice of America 
Radio development in U.S. zone in Germany discussed by 

Ruby A. Parson, 83 
Radioisotopes. See Isotope 
Railway Congress Association, Pan American : 
Appointment of U.S. Commission, 21 
Report of Commission meeting, 49 
Ravndal, Christian M., named U.S. Ambassador to 

Uruguay, 78 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, role in trade- 
agreements program, 593, 595 
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International 
Bank for: 
Activities mentioned in comparative review by U.N. 

Secretary-General, 96 
American Republics, loans, 464 



Index, July to December 1949 



1025 



Reconstruction and Development — Continued 
Function, 401 
India, loan, 334 

Underdeveloped areas, loans, 275, 306, 551, 720, SC4 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) : responsi- 
bility under Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, 
607 
Red Cross International organizations: 
Greek children, repatriation of: 
General Assembly resolution on further action, text, 

853a 
Report to U.N., 658 
Tracing Service, International, transfer or termina- 
tion, 342, 785 
Refugee Organization, International (IRO) : 
General Council and Executive Committee : 
Fourth session report, 784 
Third session report, 341 
U.S. delegations, 547 
High Commissioner for Refugees, establishment of 

Office, 938 
Program mentioned, 96 
Report to ECOSOC, 770 
Termination of operations, 341, 770, 939 
Refugees and Displaced Persons : 
Greek children, repatriation: 
Red Cross report, 658 
U.N. resolutions, 409, 412, 697, 780, 782, 816, 817, S53a, 

1037 
UNSCOB reports, 410, 411, 416, 422, 427, 429, 588, 781 
Greek citizens of Soviet origin deported to Asia, 670, 1037 
Missing persons, draft convention on declaration of, 

18, 771 
Palestine refugee problem : 

U.N. Relief for Palestine Refugees (UNRPR), recom- 
mendations by Economic Survey (Clapp) Mission, 
850a 
U.N. Survey (Clapp) Mission for Middle East, text 

of report, 847a 
U.S. attitude toward U.N. action, 490, 494 
Stateless persons : 
Convention on status of refugees to be drafted, 771 
Legal protection in U.N., ECOSOC action for con- 
tinuation of, 770 
Refugees, Office of High Commissioner for, 938 
Reinstein, Jacques J., appointed as chief of Division of 

German Economic Affairs, 714 
Reorganization in State Department, changes and ap- 
pointments, 78, 279, 677, 713, 835 
RFC. See Reconstruction Finance Corporation 
Rhine boatman, ILO Special Tripartite Conference on, 

U.S. observer, 824 
Rio treaty. See Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal 

Assistance (1947) 
Road and Motor Transport, U.N. Conference : 

Convention on road traffic discussed by H. H. Kelly, 

875a 
International treaty on automotive traffic, chief agenda 

item, 262 
U.S. delegation, 262 



Road traffic (International), convention on : 
Preparation, formulation, and signature, report by H. H. 

Kelly, 875a 
Summary of documents, 886 
Rodrick, Bertha S., reviews 48 years in Department in 

interview with Philip W. Carroll, 741 
Ross, John C, appointed as U.S. deputy representative to 

Security Council, 629 
Ruandi-Urandi, trust territory of. See Trusteeship Coun- 
cil 
Rubber problem, U.S. policy and Ceylon, discussed by 

J. C. Satterthwaite, 555 
Ruhr Authority, International (lAR) : 
Agreement creating lAR, 28, 185 
Functions, 23 

U.S. representative (Parkman) appointed, 185 
Rumania : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Magheru) , credentials, 558 
German Federal Republic, establishment of; Rumanian 

protest ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 634 
Greek problem (Balkan situation) : threats to political 
and territorial security : 
Aid to guerrillas, 459, 781 ; "Free Greece" radio sta- 
tion, 410, 420, 425, 426, 781 
Human-rights dispute over peace treaty (1947) vio- 
lations : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 456, 491 
Austin, Warren R., 541 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 540, 617, 659, 662, 691 
Jessup, Philip C, 495 
Rumanian action reviewed by Benjamin V. Cohen, 

619 
Soviet attitude, 29, 238, 491, 495, 541, 622, 659, 662, 

691 
U.N. action : 

Agenda item, 456, 618 
Debate, 459, 540, 617, 627, 659, 662, 691 
Resolution requesting International Court opinion, 
text, 692 
U.S. action: 

International Court opinion, attitude toward, 491, 

495, 540, 623 
Reply (June 30) to Soviet note, 29 
Reviewed in letter (Austin) to U.N. (Lie), 541 
Treaty Commission, request for : U.S. note to 
Balkans, 238; U.S. reply to Balkan refusals, 
514 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity; text 
of U.S. note, 832 
U.N. membership application, 13, 14, 15, 48, 459, 697 
Rusk, Deputy Under Secretary Dean : 
Addresses : 
American foreign policy and business before Boston 
Conference on Distribution, Boston, Mass., 630 
U.N. and American Security before Commonwealth 
Club of Calif., San Francisco, 652 
Correspondence : 
U.K. Charge d'Affaires (Millar) on extension of bi- 
zonal fusion agreement, 69 



1026 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sabalo Transportation Company vs Mexico case, Secre- 
tary Acheson's letter answering Wolverton's charges 
against Assistant Secretary Miller, text, 553 
Salaried Employees and Professional Workers, (ILO) 
Advisory Committee ; U.S. delegation to 1st session, 
667 
Salzburg, Austria, consular section of Vienna designated 

special purpose post with rank of consulate, 482 
Samoa, Western, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 

Council 
Sanders, William : 

Appointment as U.S. representative on Inter-American 

Council of Jurists ( OAS ) , 599 
Multilateral diplomacy, article based on remarks be- 
fore the Washington Students Citizenship Seminar, 
1U3 
Santiago radio agreement of 19i0 replaced by Inter- 
American Radio Agreement, 258 
Sanitary Organization, Pan American: Directing Council 

3d meeting, U.S. delegation and agenda, 589 
Sargeant, Howland H. : address on North Atlantic com- 
munity as world peace power before Christmas Carni- 
val, Birmingham, Ala., 839a 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C. : 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Ceylon, 559 
Rubber problem, U.S.-Ceylon, address before annual 
meeting of 330th Field Artillery Association, De- 
troit, Alich., 555 
Saudi Arabia : 
Italian colonies, attitude toward former, 371 
Palestine problem. See Palestine situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. consular otfice at Dhahran elevated to consulate 
general, 519 
Sayre, Francis B., remarks on U.S. 1st annual report on 

trust territory of Pacific Islands, 133, 136 
Scholarships and fellowships. See Educational Exchange 

Program 
Schwartz, Harry H., designation in State Department, .318 
Science Abstracting, International Conference on ; report 

by Verner W. Clapp, 292 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 
Committee on : foreign aid programs discussed by 
George V. Allen, 866 ; Willard F. Barber. 023 
Seal of Department of State, history by Richard S. Pat- 
terson, 894 ; reproduction, 895 
Seal of U.S., custody and use of Great, 503 
Security Council : 

Greek problem. See Greece 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir 
Membership in U.N. See United Nations 
Resolutions : 

Greek problem, 407 

Palestine question (Aug. 11), text, 286; discussion, 
223 
U.S. deputy representatives (Ross, Gross) appointed, 
629 
Sellers, Peter H., detained by V. S. S. R. : U. S. note of pro- 
test, text, 592 
Shanghai, China : 
Americans assured safe embarkation, 515 
American ships warned against entering port, 957 

Index, July fo December 1949 



Shanghai — Continued 
Consul general, U.S. protests siege by former alien em- 
ployees ; text of letter to Aliens Affairs Bureau, 440 
U.S. information service ordered closed, 152 
Shanker, Gen. Shum Shere Jung Bahadur Rana, creden- 
tials as Nepalese Minister to U.S., 558 
Shantz, Harold, appointed as MDAP assistant (Denmark), 

791 
Shaw, George P. : 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador, 78 
Report on 3d Inter-American Travel Congress, 889 
Siam. See Thailand 
Sienkiewicz, Pvt. John J., detained by U.S.S.R. ; U.S. note 

of protest, text, 592 
Simons, Savilla M., summary of ECOSOC action on social 

issues in 9th session, 765 
Simsarian, James, article on revised draft covenant of 

human rights, 3 
Sino-Soviet treaty (1945) of friendship and alliance, 

Chinese charges in U.N. against U.S.S.R., 899, 900 
Slavery, ECOSOC to survey existing forms of, 770 
Small business, AEC Contracting and Purchasing Offices 
and Types of Commodities Purchased released; publi- 
cation for guidance of, 639 
Small Business, EGA and, released, 483 
Smith, Lt. Gen. Walter Bedell : address on U.S. policy in 
Europe before Conference of Governors, Colorado 
Springs, Colo., 872 
Smith Memorial Foundation, Alfred E., address on for- 
eign policy problems Ijy Secretary Acheson before, 668 
Smith, William C, and Bender, Elmer C, detained by 
Chinese Communists, 442 ; statement by Secretary 
Acheson, 908 
Social Commission, U.N. : 
Recommendations, ECOSOC action on, 765 
Sessions, future, approved by U.N., 766 
U.S. delegation to 5th session, 906; agenda, 906 
Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Matters, Committee 
on (U.N. Third Committee) ; debate on international 
freedom of information conventions, 732 
Soule, Gen. Robt. B. (military attach^ in China), refused 

visa exit by Communists, 709 
South Africa, Union of : 
Ambassador to U.S. ( Jooste), credentials, 558 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 371, 374 
Smith-Mundt exchange person program (Information and 
Education Act of 1948, Public Law 402) : 
Application instructions, 794 
Government's role discussed, 927 
Greek writer receives 1st grant, 636 
Howard University dramatic production in Norway 

aided, 442, 928 
Objectives, 927 

U.S. activities reviewed in 3d quarterly report of U.S. 
Educational Advisory Commission, summary, 674 
Southern Rhodesia : Tariffs and trade, general agreement 
on (GATT), South African-Southern Rhodesian Cus- 
toms Union examined by Contracting Parties, 775 
South Pacific Commission: 
Progress report by Felix M. Keesing, 839 
Research Council : 
First meeting, 839, 841, 843 
Program 1949-50 adopted by Commission, 259 

1027 



South Pacific Commission — Continued 
Researcli Council — Continued 

Soutla Pacific Conference at Suva, 842 
U.S. Commissioners meet, 461 
U. S. delegation to 4th session ; agenda, 547 
State, Department of: 
Administration and organization discussed by Deputy 

Under Secretary Peurifoy, 671 
Appointments : 

Berliner, Lloyd V. as Consultant to Secretary of 

State, 754 
Bruce, James, as Director of MDA Office, 791 
Butterworth, W. Walton, as Assistant Secretary, 559 
Byroade, Col. Henry A., as Director of Office of Ger- 
man and Austrian Aifairs, 599, 639 : as Director 
of Bureau of German Affairs, 835 
Case, Everett, as Far Eastern Consultant, 279 
Cheseldine, Raymond M., as Special Assistant in Office 

of German and Austrian Affairs, 714 
Elliot, John C, as Chief, Munitions Division, 358 
Fisher, Adrian S., as Legal Adviser, 78 
Fosdick, Raymond Bland, as Far Eastern Consultant, 

279 
Gordon, Marcus J., as Chief, Division of Organization, 

950 
Greaves, Rex E., as Executive Assistant to Assistant 

Secretary for Congressional Relations, 78 
Hawkins, Harry C, as Director of Foreign Service 

Institute, 911 
Hickerson, John D., as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Hodgson, James F., as MDAP assistant (Norway), 

791 
Howard, John B., as Special Assistant to Secretary, 

792 
Kellerman, Henry J., as Chief, Division of German 
and Austrian Information and Reorientation 
Affairs, 714 
Kennan, George F., as Counselor, 78 
Kohler, Foy D., as Chief, International Broadcasting 

Division, 714 
Laukliuff, Perry, as Chief, Division of German 

Political Affairs, 714 
Ludden, Raymond P., as MDAP assistant (Belgium), 

791 
McFall, Jack K., as Assistant Secretary, 639 
McGhee, George C, as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Miller, Jr., Edward G., as As.sistant Secretary, 78 
Nitze, Paul H., as Deputy Director of Policy Planning 

Staff, 279 ; as Director, 991 
O'Donogliue, Sidney, as MDAP assistant (Belgium), 

791 
Perkins, George W., as Assistant Secretary, 78 
Reinstein, Jacques J., as Chief of Division of German 

Economic Affairs, 714 
Shantz, Harold, as MDAP assistant (Denmark), 791 
Trueblood, Edward G., as MDAP assistant (France), 

791 
Williamson, Francis T., as Chief of Division of Aus- 
trian Aifairs, 714 
Changes within 48 years reviewed by Bertha S. Rodrick 

in interview with Philip W. Carroll, 741 
Departmental and Foreign Service exchange program, 
1st appointment (Tibbetts), 358 



State, Department of — Continued 
Information anrrresearch facilities offered to public, 

listing of offices, 792 
Intern program, 1st official, started, 482 
Mutual Defense Assistance OflSce established, 791 
Passport agencies open at Boston, 871a ; at Chicago, 991 
"Prospect House" leased as Government guest house, 

639 
Reorganization changes, 78, 279, 677, 713, 835 
Seal of : history by Richard S. Patterson, 894 ; reproduc- 
tion, 895 
Supplemental appropriations from Presidential funds, 
117 
Statelessness of refugees. See Refugees and Displaced 

Persons 
Statistical Commission, U.N. ; priority program reviewed, 

90 
Statistical Institute, International, U.S. delegation to 

26th session, 398 
Stettinius, former Secretary of State : statement by Sec- 
retary Acheson on death of, 795 
Stokes, Vice Consul William H., detention by Commu- 
nists in Mukden, China, 907 
Stone, Shepard, appointed as information consultant in 

Germany, 951 
Strategic trust areas. See Pacific islands, trust territory 
Surplus war property, disposal of: 
Agreements under Fulbright Act (Public Law 584). 

See Educational Exchange programs 
Combat materiel, militarized and demilitarized sales of, 
tables showing, 156, 356, 479, 480, 481 ; correction 
679 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, Office of (OFLC), 

liquidated, 157 
Importations into U.S., text of Departmental regula- 
tion, 357 
Sales or transfers to foreign countries, 479; tables, 156, 
356, 480, 481 
Surrey, Walter S., designation in State Department, 318 
Sweden : 
Howard University students present plays, 442 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Council of Europe, discussed, 231 ; text of statute, 

858a 
GATT, application for accession. 596, 774, 777 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreements, signature, 

683, 684 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Trade (1935) with U.S. extended by exchange of 

memoranda, 31 
Wiieat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Switzerland : 

Swiss capital invested in Belgium, free transfer of, 

864a 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Syria : 
Italian colonies, attitude toward former, 374 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Israeli-Syrian armistice: annexes, 179; statement by 
Secretary Acheson, 180 ; text, 177 



1028 



Department of State Bulletin 



Syria — Continued 

U.S. reco,Knition of government, text of note, 515 

Tanganyilia, trust territory of. Sec Trusteeship Council 
Tariff Commission, U.S. : role in Trade Agreements Pro- 
gram, 593, 595 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT) : 
Annecy protocol of terms of accession to, open for sig- 
nature to acceding countries, 778 
Application for accession by Colombia, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, Finland, Greece, Haiti, Italy, 
Liberia, Nicaragua, Sweden, and Uruguay, 596, 
774 ; withdrawal by Colombia, 439, 777 
Bilateral tariff negotiations at Annecy completed, 439, 

596, 777 
Contracting parties to, 3d session action summarized by 

Woodbury Willoughby, 774 
Discussed by President Truman, 548 
Franco-Italian Customs Union, confromity with Agree- 
ment, 203, 206, 207, 215, 244 
Most-favored-uation treatment for Japan, U.S. proposal 

for, 776 
Proclamations putting into effect for: Haiti, 946 
Supplementary proclamation with Cuba, 947 
U.S.-Colombian negotiations not completed, 439 
U.S. concessions at Annecy, 596 
U.S.-Cuban renegotiations on potatoes, 77 
U.S. participation in 3d round (1950) of negotiations, 
821 
Taxation. Sec Double taxation 
Tax conventions with Canada, negotiations for revisions 

of, 153 
Technical assistance : 

Advisory Social Welfare Services, U.N. ; continuation 

of, 766 
Caribbean area, action of Caribbean Commission, 101 
German projects (thermal power and gas production) 

for bizone approved by ECA, 304 
Inter-American programs. See Institute of Inter-Amer- 
ican Affairs ; Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, 
Interdepartmental Committee on 
Latin American transportation problems, 50 
Standardization in production discussed by Joseph A. 

Greenwald, 646 
Trailing Ideas Wifli. the World, 3d quarterly report of 
U.S. Educational Advisory Commission, summary, 
674 
U.N. program : 
Administration : 

Technical Assistance Board (TAB), 257, 325, 918, 

930 
Technical Assistance Committee (TAC), 257, 325, 

918, 930 
Technical Assistance Conference, 326, 929 
Agenda item, 17. 3.34 

Capital investment discussed, 175, 274, 720 
Contributions or financing, 174, 257, 326, 330, 915, 918, 

929, 930 
Discussion, 142, 170, 257, 539, 915, 930, 974 
ECOSOC resolutions (Aug. 14-15), text, 325 
General Assembly action summarized by Haldore 

Hanson, 915 
Report of Secretary-General discussed, 172, 325, 916 



Technical assistance — Continued 
U. N. program — Continued 

U.S. support, 142, 170, 491, 494, 550, 044, 685, 720, 723, 
786, 865, 930 
U.S. program : 
Addresses : 

Acheson, Secretary, 719 
Hayes, Samuel P., 721 
McGhee, George C, 722 
Bilateral agreements, 14, 198, 723, 909, 929, S66a 
Capital investment di.scussed, 175, 274, 720 
International Technical Cooperation Act of 1949 

(draft), text, 72 
Legislation proposed to Congress : 

President's recommendations, 171 ; text, 862 
Testimony by James E. Webb before House Banking 
and Currency Committee, 305 ; House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 540 ; Senate Banking and 
Currency Committee, 274 
Discussed by Willard Thorp, 171 
Venezuelan reclamation projects, 86 
Technical Cooperation Act of 1949 (draft). International, 

text, 72 
Telecommunication Union, International (ITU) : 
Activities reviewed, 96 
Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference, U.S. 

delegation, 144 
Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, Con- 
ference for Revision of ; brief report on new rates, 
etc., 508; U.S. delegation, 261 
Radio frequency plan for Western Hemisphere adopted, 

i04 
Region 2 Fourth Inter-American Radio Conference : 
Radio Agreement, Inter-American, 2.58 
Regulations and Resolutions, 259 
Report to International Aeronautical Radio Confer- 
ence (lAARC), 259 
Telegraph and telephone conference (Paris), revision 
of rates and regulations, 905 
Telegraph and telephone conference (ITU), revision of 

rules and regulations, 905 
Territorial Papers of United States, vol. XIV, (Louisiana- 
Missouri ) , released, 715 
Thailand (Siam) : 

Japanese gold earmarked for Thailand, released: 
Amounts and dates, 638 
U.S. directive to SCAP, text, 637 

U.S. memorandum to FEC ; statement by Maj. Gen. 
Frank R. McCoy, 637 
U.S. mineral-re.sources survey requested, 277 
Thorp, Assistant Secretary Willard : 
Addresses : 
Basic need for ITO before Virginia Conference on 
World Trade, 827 
Statements : 

Economic development of underdeveloped countries 
before ECOSOC, 170 
Tibbetts, Margaret Joy, 1st appointment under department 

and Foreign Service exchange program, 358 
Tiger Air Force, Chinese not American, statement by 

consulate general ( Formosa ) , 515 
Tihwa, China, U.S. consulate closed, 519 



Index, July to December 1949 



1029 



Tin Study Group, Working Party meeting, U.S. delegation, 

701 
Toponymy, 3d International Congress ; U.S. delegation, 

106 
Tourism development discussed at 3d Inter-American 

Travel Congress, 890, S93 
Tracing Service, International (IRO) : termination or 

transfer, 342, 785 
Trade : 

Balance-of-payments problem. See Finance 

Common tariffs estabUshed by Benelux union as basis 

for customs union, 203 
Customs procedures discussed by Secretary Acheson, 750 
Customs Union. See Customs Union, Franco-Italian 
European Payments Plan : OEEC Council agreement on 
principles, 115; statement of approval by ECA ad- 
ministrator, 116 
Trade and payments agreement (Argentine-U.K.) 

studied, 37 
Trade agreements program : 
Administration of program, Ex. Or. 10082, text, 593, 

595 
Agreements with : 

American Republics discussed, 979 

Colombia terminated, text of U. S. note, 711 ; text 

of Presidential proclamation, 865a 
Sweden extended, text of memoranda, 31 
Trade Agreements Act (See also Tariffs and Trade, Gen- 
eral Agreement on) : 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1949 
extended : statement by President Truman, 548 ; 
by Secretary Acheson, 549 
Trade development, foreign, discussed by President Tru- 
man, 400 
Trade, domestic and international, international stand- 
ardization as an aid to ; discussed by Joseph A. 
Greenwald, 646 
Trade-marks in Japan, FEC policy decision on restoration 
and protection of Allied, 308 ; text of decision, 309 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 

Charter, Congressional action urged by President Tru- 
man, 549 
Discussed by : 

Barber, Willard F., 979 
Tliorp, Willard, 827 
Franco-Italian Customs Union, adherence to ITO 

standards, 215 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT) . See 
Tariffs and Trade. 
Trade unbalance, international, discussed by Deputy 

Under Secretary Rusk, 632 
Trade-union rights convention adopted by ILO Conference, 

103 
Tradin;/ Ideas With the World, 3d quarterly report of 
U.S. Educational Advisory Commission, summary, 674 
TrafHc in persons and exploitation of prostitution of 
others, draft convention on .suppression ; considera- 
tion by ECOSOC, 765 
Trans-Isthmian (Boyd-Roosevelt) Highway completed, 39 
Transitional Measures, Netherlands-Indonesian Agree- 
ment on ; provisions of, 960 
Transport and Communications Commission, U.N. ; pro- 
gram priorities reviewed, 90 



Transport and Communications Commission, ECOSOC 

requests advice on certain organizations, 331 
Transportation : 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, report on 

U.S. National Commission in, 49 
Trans-Isthmian (Boyd-Roosevelt) Highway completed, 

39 
Transportation problems, Lisbon confei-enoe on Central 
and South African : Johannesburg conference, 852 ; 
final act, text, 854 ; report by Harway Maxwell, 852 
Travel Congress, 3d Inter-American, report by Ambassa- 
dor George P. Shaw, 889 
Travers, Howard K., appointed as Director, Foreign 

Service Inspection Corps, 950 
Treaty Developments, United States; 3d section released, 

714 
Treaties and Other International Acts : 

Agricultural workers agreement, Mexico-U.S., signa- 
ture, 313 
Aircraft Rights, Convention of International Recogni- 
tion of, discussion, 938 
Air force mission agreements, Mexico-U.S., signature, 

76 
Air transport agreements, U.S. with : 

Burma, signature, 557 I 

Canada, consultation on suspension of Colonial Air- 
lines license, 949 
Dominican Republic, signature, 153, 279 | 

Antarctica, Argentina-Chile-U.K. agreement not to] 

send warships to, 833 
Argentine-U.K. trade and payments agreement studied, 

37 
Austrian peace treaty : 

CPM agreement at Paris, text of communique, 857; 
statements by President Truman, 858 ; by Secre- 
tary Acheson, 859, 860 
Deputy meetings, 9, 399, 509 
Tripartite discussion, 468 
Automotive traffic, preparation for proposed interna- 
tional treaty, 262 
Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity ; text of 
U.S. note, 832 
Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, re- 
vision, 508 
Bilateral agreements under Mutual Defense Assistance 
Act of 1949 with North Atlantic Treaty countries, 
negotiations started, 753, 791 
Bizonal Fusion agreement, U.S.-U.K. (1947) extended 

by exchange of notes, text, 69 
Bizonal (Germany) scrap agreement, suspending pro- 
vision in U.S.-U.K. Ferrous Scrap Agreement 
(1948), 114 
Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 (U.S.-Canada) dis- 
cussed, 949 
Broadcasting Agreement (1937), North American Reg- 
ional (NARBA), negotiations for new agreement, 
460, 980 
Brussels treaty (1948). See Brussels treaty 
Chicago Convention on international civil aviatioa 
(1944), discussion, 936 '• 

Civilians in wartime, new convention drafted, 340 I 



1030 



Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Treaties ami Other International Acts — Continued 
Commercial treaty with Italy, exchange of ratifications, 

198 
Congo Basin Treaty (1919), discussion of expansion, 

852 
Cultural cooperation, agreement establishing U.S.- 
Mexican Commission, signature, 868a 
Dismantling in Germany modified, text of protocol of 
agreements between Allied High Commission and 
Federal Republic for Germany, 863a 
Double taxation treaties, U.S. with : 
Cuba, discussions, 279 
France, exchange of ratifications, 710 
Ireland, signature, 518 
Economic cooperation agreement, Federal Republic of 
Germany-U.S., signature, 982 ; statement by John 
J. McCloy, 983 
European Payments Plan, OEEC Council agreement on 
principle.'*, 115 ; statement of approval by EGA ad- 
ministrator, 116 
Farm labor migration agreement, Puerto Rico-U.S., dis- 
cussed, 45 
France-U.S. military obligations of dual nations (1948) , 

effected by exchange of notes, 279 
Franco-Italian Customs Union (Mar. 26, 1949) : 
Documents leading to establishment : 

Declaration and Protocol (Sept. 13, 1947), 203; 

text, 243 
Franco-Italian Customs Union Commission, 203, 207 
Protocol of Mar. 20, 1948, 207 ; text, 244 ; correction, 

399 
Franco-Italian Customs Union Commission, 207 
GATT decision, 203, 206, 207, 215; text, 244 
Text of treaty, 245 
Freedom of Information convention, debate, 500, 662, 

727 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties : 

Countries with treaties under Immigration Act of 

1924 listed, 535 ; correction, 706 
Italy-U.S., exchange of ratifications, 198; statement 
by Secretary Acheson on entrance into effect, 
114 
Uruguay-U.S., background and signature, 86fia ; mes- 
sage to President Batlle from President Truman, 
910 ; statement by Secretary Acheson, 909 
Fulbright Act, educational exchange agreements under : 
Australia, signature, 870a 
Egypt, signature, 831 

France (1948), U.S. Educational Commission estab- 
lished in, 263 
Iran, signature. 443 
Genocide, convention on prevention and punishment of 
crime of (1948) : text of President's transmittal 
letter to Congress with Secretary of State's report, 
844 
German-looted gold, U.S.-U.K.-France-Poland agree- 
ment (July 6) on distribution for reparations, 
signature, 71 
Greco-American radio-transmitter project (Salonika) 
agreement, 829 



Treaties and Other International Acts — Continued 

Hague agreement, Netherlands-Indonesia, for Indo- 
nesian independence : discussion of charter of 
transfer of sovereignty, 958; of transitional meas- 
ures, 960; of Union statute, 959; statements by 
Secretary Acheson, 752; by Senator Frank P. 
Graham, 753 

Hospital ships, Hague convention of 1907, revision, 339 

Human Rights, International (draft) Covenant on, 
revision discussed by James Simsarian, 3 ; text, 9 

Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance : 
Discussed by : 
Acheson, Dean, 463 
Barber, Willard, 149, 151, 152, 924 
Daniels, Paul C, 920 
Disputes, effective application in settlement of: 
Costa Rican-Nicaraguan case reviewed, 921, 924 
Haitian-Dominican Republic case reviewed, 922 
North Atlantic Treaty, comparison with, 152 

International Transmission of News and Right of Cor- 
rection Convention, 500 ; background and U.N. 
debate summarized by Samuel De Palma, 724 

Israeli-Syrian armistice: annexes, 179; statement by 
Secretary Acheson, 180; text, 177 

Labor Organization, International : conventions 
adopted and revised at 32d meeting, 103 

Lend-lease, 28th report transmitted to Congress, text 
of President's message, 117 

Mexico-U.S. claims convention (1941), Mexican 8th 
payment, 833 

Military mission, U.S.-Peru, signature, 38 

Missing persons, ECOSOC action on draft convention 
on declaration of death of, 18, 771 

Nicagara River, diversions of water from ; negotiations 
for new treaty, 949 

Nine-power treaty (1922) in present China, 900 

North Atlantic ocean-station agreements (1946-49) 
for air navigation services ; ICAO Conference 
action, 683 

North Atlantic Treaty. See North Atlantic Treaty 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, ratification, 355 

Obsolete treaties withdrawn from Senate calendar of 
treaties by President ; text of letter to Senate, 316 

Peace treaties (1947) with Bulgaria, Hungary, and 
Rumania, human-rights dispute : 
Discussed by : 

Acheson, Secretary, 456, 491 
Austin, Warren R., 541 
Cohen, Benjamin V., 540, 617, G59, 602, 691 
Jessup, Philip C, 495 
Soviet attitude, 29, 238, 491, 495, 541, 622, 659, 662, 

691 
U.N. action, 456, 459, 540, 617, 618, 627, 659, 662, 691, 

692 
U.S. action, 29, 238, 491, 495, 514, 540, 541, 623 

Potato program agreement (1948), U.S.-Canada, termi- 
natetl, 38 

Potsdam agreement. See Potsdam agreement 

Prisoners of war and wounded and sick, Geneva con- 
vention of 1929, revision, 339 

Radio agreement, inter-American, replacement for San- 
tiago agreement of 1940, 258 

Refugees, convention to be drafted on status, 771 



Index, July fo December 7949 



1031 



Treaties and Other International Acts — Continued 

Rio treaty. See Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal 

Assistance 
Road traffic, international convention on : preparation 
and formulation reported by H. H. Kelly, 875a ; 
signatures, 886 ; summary of documents, 886 
Ruhr Authority, International; agreement (Apr. 28, 
1949) creating, 185. Sec also Ruhr Authority, 
International 
Santiago radio agreement (1940) replace<l, 258 
Sino-Soviet treaty (1945) of friendship and alliance, 
Chinese charges in U.N. against U.S.S.R., 899, 900 
South African-Southern Rhodesian Customs Union 

examined by GATT, 775 
South Pacific agreement (1948) establishing Commis- 
sion, 839 
Surplus property disposal agreements for educational 
exchange. See Fulbright Act or Educational Ex- 
change Program 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on. See Tariffs 

and Trade 
Tax conventions with Canada (1942, 1944), negotia- 
tions for revisions, 153 
Trade agreements : 

Administration of treaty program, text of Executive 

order, 593, 595 
Colombian-U.S. (1935) terminated by exchange of 
notes, text of U.S. note, 711 ; text of Presidential 
proclamation, 865a 
Sweden-U.S. (1935) extended by exchange of memo- 
randa, 31 
Traffic in persons and exploitation of prostitution of 
others, consideration of draft convention on sup- 
pression of, 765 
Tuna Commission (Costa Rica), Inter-American 
Tropical : convention transmitted to Congress, text 
of President's message, 77 ; ratification, 355 
Tuna, Mexico-U.S. International Commission for Sci- 
entific Investigation of, ratification, 355 
Vnitr/l States Treaty Developments, 3d .section re- 
leased, 714 
Visa fee, reciprocal agreements and arrangements, list- 
ing of countries and fees, 534 
Western Union. See Brussels treaty 
Wheat Agreement, International : 
Entrance into force, 75 
U.S. ratification, 21 
Yalta agreement (1945), U.S. views on Soviet viola- 
tions in China, 900 
Yugoslavia, claims agreement with U.S., 868; terms of 
agreement, 869 
Trieste : 

U.S. gift parcels, postal rate reduction on, 829 
Yugoslav currency conversion, text of U.S. note of pro- 
test, 113 
Tripolitania (Libya). Sec Italian colonies, disposition of 
Trueblood, Edward G., appointed as MDAP assistant 

(France), 791 
Truman, President : 
Addresses : 

Budget for national defense and international aid, 
excerpt from July 13 radio address, 118 



Truman, President — Continued 
Addresses — Continued 

Free nations, voluntary association of ; before Golden 

Jubilee Convention of VFW, Miami, Fla., 343 
International economic policy before annual conven- 
tion of American Legion, Phila., 400 
Public opinion and American foreign policy before 
Imperial Council Session of Shrine of North 
America, Chicago, 145 
Working in U. N. at cornerstone ceremonies, U.N. 

headquarters. New York, 643 
World abundance through PAO before FAO, 857a 
Bulletin of Jime 19, 1949, p. 772, correction, 851 
Correspondence : 

Chinese Acting President (Li Tsung-Jen) on national 

anniversary, 636 
Haitian President (Estim^), congratulations on Bi- 
centennial Exposition, 946 
Uruguayan president (Batlle) on signature of treaty 
of friendship, 910 
Executive Orders. See Executive orders 
Fiscal 1950, request for supplemental appropriation for 

Presidential funds, 117 
Greek officials (Tsaldaris and Venizelos) courtesy visit 

from, 829 
MDAP appropriations, request for full amount author- 
ized by Congress, 603 
Messages to Congress on : 
Lend-lease report, 28th, 117 
Military aid legislation, 186 
Technical assistance program, 682 
Messages to Senate on ; 

Costa Rica-U.S. tuna convention, 77 
Genocide convention, 844 
Withdrawal of obsolete treaties, 316 
Midyear Eeonomic Report of President transmitted to 

Congress, 159 
Proclamations. Sec Proclamations, Presidential 
Statements : 
Atomic energy discussions, U.K.-U.S.-Canada, 185, 

472, 507 
Atomic explosion in U.S.S.R., 487 
CFM Paris conference reports on German question 

and Austrian treaty, 858 
China White Paper, on release, 237 
Indian Prime Minister (Nehru) welcomed, 634 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, on signing, 

603 
North Atlantic pact. Senate approval, 199 
North Atlantic Treaty, entrance into force, 355 
OAS, effective international cooperation, 664 
Philippine economy, joint statement with President 

Quirino, 277 
Philippine President (Quirino), welcome, 276 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1949 

approved, 548 
Shah of Iran, visit of, 831 

U.N. Economic Mission to Near East, appointment 
of Gordon Clapp as chairman, 333 
Trusteeship : 

General Assembly's Special Committee on Information 
Transmitted under Article 73 (e), examination of 



1032 



Department of State Bulletin 



Triisteeshii) — Continued 

General Assembly's Special Co. — Continued 

summaries and analyses on non-self-governing ter- 
ritories, 335 
General Assembly's Trusteeship Committee considers 
Special Committee's report and adopts resolutions, 
627, 7-16. 787 
Indonesia. See Indonesia 
Italian colonies, former. See Italian colonies 
South Pacitie Commission : 
Program for Research Council, 259 
Progress report on non-self-governing territories in 

South Pacific. 839 
U.S. Commissioners, 2d meeting, 461 
U.S. delegation and agenda for 4th session, 547 
U.S. policy toward non-self-governing territories, 491, 
496 
Trusteeship Council. U.N. : 
Administrative Unions in trust territories : 
Investigation of, 129 
Resolution on, text, 132 
East Africa, Visiting Mission to Trust Territories, report, 

128 
Fifth session action, 143, 848 

Fourth session summarized by Vernon McKay, 123 
General Assembly action on Trusteeship Council re- 
ports, 786 
Reports of administering authorities on trust territories 
of: 
British Cameroons (U.K.), 125 
British Togoland (U.K.), 125 
French Cameroons (France), 125 
French Togoland (France), 125 
Nauru (Australia), 848 
Pacific Islands (U.S.), 47, 133, 253 
Western Samoa (New Zealand), 127 
Resolutions : 
Administrative unions (July 18), text, 132 
Collaboration with specialized agencies, 130 
Educational advancement (Nov. 18), 129 
Higher education in African trust territories (July 

19), text, 255 
Procedure for supervision of strategic trust terri- 
tories, 130 
Racial discrimination in Ruanda-Urandi, 127 ; in 
Tanganyika, 128 
Somaliland trusteeship agreement, committee estab- 
lished to draft, 934 
West Africa, Visiting Mission to trust territories : 
Plans for departure, 848 
Selection of members, 128 
Study of West Africa, 123 
Terms of reference, text of resolution, 16 
Tuna Commission, Inter-American (U.S.-Costa Rica) 
Tropical ; transmission of convention to Senate, 77 ; 
U.S. ratification, 355 
Tuna conventions, U.S. with : 

Costa Rica : Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 

transmission to Senate, 77 ; U. S. ratification, 355 
Mexico: International Commission for Scientific In- 
vestigation of Tuna, U.S. ratification, 355 
Turkey : 
American-Turkish relations discussed, 39, 707 



Turkey — Continued 
Soviet tactics, 826, 972 

U.S. military aid, 188, 191, 267, 479, 480, 481, 603, 605 
VOA broadcast inaugurated, 944 

Ukrainian S. S. R. : 
Italian colonies, attitude toward, 370 
VOA broadcast inaugurated, 944 
UNCFI. See Indonesia, U.N. Commission for 
UNCIP. See India and Pakistan, U.N. Commission for 
UNCOK. See Korea, U.N. Commission on Korea 
U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) : 
Public Education, Twelfth International Conference 

on, U.S. delegation, 20 
Scholarship information requested by Trusteeship 
Council for higher education in African trust ter- 
ritories, text of res., 256 
U.S. representatives to 4th session confirmed by Senate, 

546 
World peace, role in promotion of ; address by George 
V. Allen, 536 
Union of South Africa : 
Transportation problems, Lisbon conference on, report, 

852 ; text of final act, 854 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
TarifEs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT) : 
Consultation on import restrictions, 774 
South African-Southern Rhodesian Customs Union 
examined, 775 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
UNESCO. See U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization 
UNICEP. See Children's Emergency Fund, U.N. Inter- 
national 
Union Statute, Netherlands-Indonesia, provisions of, 959 
United Kingdom : 

Allied High Commission for Germany. See Germany 
Atomic energy : 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada consultations : ' 

AEC (U.S.) Reactor Safeguard Committee members 

attend U.K. meeting, 507 
Combined Policy Committee (1943), 472, 507, 581 
Declassification guides reviewed, 628 
Further discussions, 185, 472, 589 
Technical Cooperation Program (1948), 1&5. 507 
Statement of Principles adopted as U.N. AEC discus- 
sion basis, 680 ; text 689 
Balance-of -payments problem (Canada-U.S.-U.K.) : 
agreement, text of communique, 473; discussions, 
197, 307, 353, 473 
British exchange teachers indoctrination : address by 

Margaret Hicks Williams, 609 
Central and South African transportation problems, 
Lisbon Conference on : report, 852 ; text of final act, 
854 
Educational exchange opportunities under Fulbright 

Act, 74, 154, 609, 675, 676 
Essentials of peace resolution: 
Di.scussion, 786, 801, 855a, 970 
Soviet counterproposal, 970 
U.S.-U.K. draft, text, 807 



Index, July to December 1949 



1033 



United Kingdom — Continued 
Foreign crude oil production, discussions by U.K.-ECA- 

Netherlands, 102 
Foreign Ministers (Schuman, Bevin, Acheson) meet in 
Washington, 467 ; at Paris, 822 ; text of Paris 
communique, 822 
Italian colonies, attitude toward, 363, 364, 366, 373 ; U.K. 

draft resolution, 375 
Looted property in Japan, FEC policy decision for res- 
titution of, 790 
Petroleum problems in production and distribution, 

U.S.-U.K.-Canada discussions, 468 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Austrian peace treaty : deputy meetings, 19, 399, 509 ; 
CFM agreement, 858; statement by Secretary 
Acheson, 959, 860; by President Truman, 858 
Belgrade convention on control of Danube River, 
U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity; text of U.S. 
note, 832 
Bermuda Telecommunications Agreement of 1945, 
Conference for Revision of: brief report on new 
rates and circuits with U.S., 508; Ceylon and 
Pakistan invited, 261 
Bilateral treaty with U.S. under Mutual Defense As- 
sistance Act of 1949, negotiations started, 753, 
791 
Bizonal fusion agreement (1947) extended by ex- 
change of notes, text, 69 
Bizonal scrap agreement, suspending provision in 
U.S.-U.K. Ferrous Scrap Agreement (1948), 114 
Council of Europe, discussed, 231; text of statute, 

858a 
German-looted monetary gold, U.S.-U.K.-France- 
Poland agreement on distribution for reparations, 
71 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreement, signature, 

683, 684 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
South Pacific Commission agreement, discussion. 839 
Trade and payment agreement with Argentina 

studied, 37 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
Trust territories in Africa : 

Annual report on British Cameroons and Togoland 

to Trusteeship Council, 125 
British Cameroons and Togoland, Trusteeship Coun- 
cil resolution on terms of reference for visiting 
missions, text, 16 
Higher education, Trusteeship Council resolution on, 

text, 256 
Tanganyika, Trusteeship Council resolution on racial 
discrimination in, 128 
U.S. aid programs, 867 
U.S. gift parcels, postal-rate reduction on, 829 

Warships to Antarctic, Argentina-Chile-U.K. agree- 
ment (1949-50) not to send, 833 
United Nations : 
Activities and programs in economic and social fields, 
comparative review submitted to ECOSOC by 
Secretary-General, 88 
Assessments, scale of; General Assembly resolution 
(Oct. 20), text, 696 



United Nations — Continued 
Calendar of meetings of international organizations and 

conferences, 182, 336, 510, 099, 849, 904 
Children's Emergency Fund, International (ICBF). 

See Children's Emergency Fund 
Chinese situation. See China 
Discussed by : 
Austin, Warren R., 283, 543 
Fosdick, Dorothy, 709 
Jessup, Philip C, 347, 492 
Miller, Edward G., 466 
Peurifoy, John E., 672 
Rusk, Dean, 652 
Sanders, William, 163 
Documents listed, 71, 141, 226, 289. 396, 435, 538, 690, 

783 
Econoniio Survey of Asia and Far East 194S, released, 

396 
Freedom of press and information. See Information, 

freedom of 
Genocide. See Genocide 
Greek problem. See Greece 
Human Rights Commission. See Human Rights 
Interim Committee. See Interim Committee 
"Little Assembly". See Interim Committee 
Membership : 
Applications: Albania, 13, 14, 15, 459, 697; Austria, 
15, 459, 745; Bulgaria, 13, 14, 15, 48, 459, 697 
Ceylon, 15, 459, 745; Finland, 15, 459, 745 
Hungary, 13, 14, 15, 459, 697; Ireland, 15, 459, 
745; Italy, 15, 459, 745; Jordan, 15, 459, 745 
Mongolian People's Republic, 13, 14, 15, 459, 697 
Nepal, 334; Portugal, 15, 459; Rumania, 13, 14, 
15, 459, 647 ; 
Discussion by : 

Austin, Warren R., 13, 14 
Jessup, Philip C, 496 
Rusk, Dean, 652 

United Nations, 48, 334, 459, 486, 697, 745 
Near East, U.N. Economic Survey Mission to: Clapp, 
Gordon R., appointed as chairman, 333 ; First 
interim report, text, 847a 
News personnel, access to meetings; General Assembly 

resolution (Oct. 21), text, 696 
Palestine problem. See Palestine 

Technical Assistance program. See Technical assistance 
Trust territories. See Trusteeship Council 
United States in United Nations (weekly summary), 
17, 47, 100, 142, 181, 227, 257, 290, 334, 459, 499, 
539, 627, 662, 697, 745, 786, 817, 848, 855a, 902, 934, 
975, correction, 856a 
U.N. Day, observance of : 
Address by Secretary Acheson, 455 
Headquarters cornerstone ceremonies, address by 

President Truman, 643 
National Citizens Committee named, 99 
Presidential proclamation, text, 332 
U.N. Guard discussed, 100, 848; establishment of com- 
mittee, 289, 697, 817 
U.N. Secretariat, Secretary Acheson's letter to Byron 
Price on U.S. views on testimony concerning, 252. 



1034 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States in United Nations (weekly summary), 17, 
47, 100, 142, ISl, 227, 257, 290, 334, 459, 499, 539, 
627, 662, 697, 745, 786, 817, 848, 855a, 902, 934, 975 ; 
correction, 856a 
U.S. Commission for UNESCO : 
Executive Committee : 
Members listed, 20 

Priority program items selected, 19 ; listed, 20 
U. S. Great Seal, custody and use of, 503 
UNSCOB. See Balkans U.N. Special committee on 
Uranium shipments to U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary 

Aclieson, 944 
Uruguay : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, application for accession, 596, 774, 777 
Treaty of friendship, commerce, and economic devel- 
opment with U.S., 978 ; background and signa- 
tures, 866a ; statement by Secretary Aeheson, 909 ; 
message from President Truman to President 
Batlle, 910 
Wheat Agreement, International, signature, 75 
U.S. Ambassador (Ravndal), appointment, 78 
U.S. procurement negotiations for Uruguayan products ; 
joint U.S.-Uruguay statement, 278 
U.S.S.R. : 

Americans (Oelsner, Sellers, Sienkiewlcz) detained; 

text of U.S. note of protest, 592 
Atomic energy : 

Explosion in Russia, statements by : 
Aeheson, Secretary, 487 
Truman, President, 487 
Webb, Acting Secretary, 488 
Soviet proposals for international control, 248, 544, 

687, 932 ; text of proposals, 690 
Uranium, U.S. shipments of; statement by Secretary 

Aeheson, 944 
VOA corrects Pravda's reports on atomic develop- 
ments, 943 
Communist designs and tactics for world expansion 

reviewed by Warren R. Austin, 972, 973 
Disarmament policy discussed by Warren R. Austin, 649 
Forced labor study, U.N.-ILO, Soviet attitude, 769 
Germany. See Germany 
Greek citizens of Soviet origin deported to Asia, 670, 

1037 
Greek problem of political independence and territorial 
integrity, Soviet attitude toward, 407, 408, 412, 415, 
780, 782 
Human Rights Covenant, Soviet action on, S 
Italian colonies, Soviet attitude toward, 363, 364, 367, 

373 ; revised proposals, 377 
Japanese labor policy, Soviet charges against : 

McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank R., refutation, 107, 1037 
U.S. analysis, text of pertinent laws, 108 
Military power, 190, 193, 265 

Noncooperation in world-peace activities, 344, 490, 492, 
499, 590, 611, 615, 631, G33, 649, 653, 650, 659, 670 
703, 787, 801, 811, 818, 825, 839a, 855a, 897, 941, 970 
Obstructionist tactics, 23, 48, 58, 181, 252, 267, 269, 323, 
344, 347, 348, 399, 401, 459, 539, 544, 631, 655, 662, 
668, 673, 708, 727, 745, 769, 814, 902 
Soviet economic program discussed by Secretary Ache- 
son, 719 

Index, July to December 1949 



U.S.S.R.— Continued 

Treaties and agreements, etc. : 

Austrian peace treaty : deputy meetings, 19, 399, 509 ; 
CFM agreement, 858; statements by Secretary 
Aeheson, 959, 860 ; by President Truman, 858 
Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity ; text of 
U.S. note, 832 
Icebreakers and frigates, agreement with U.S. to 

return, 558 
Peace treaties (1947) with Bulgaria, Hungary, and 
Rumania human-rights dispute : Soviet action, 
29, 238, 407, 408, 410, 459, 490, 659, 662, 691, 813 
826 
Sino-Soviet treaty (1945) of friendship and alliance, 
Chinese charges in U.N., 899, 900 
U.N. membership, Soviet position discussed by Warren 

R. Austin, 14 
U.S. 1st annual report on trust territory of Pacific 

islands, Soviet criticisms of, 137 
U.S. merchant vessel on loan to Korea ; U.S. note re- 
questing Soviet aid in locating, 636 
U.S. rejects charges on Italy's participation in North 

Atlantic Treaty; text of U.S. note, 238, 1037 
Voice of America (VOA) , Soviet jamming of, 32, 310, 312 

Vandenberg, Sen. A. H., statement in Senate debate on 

North Atlantic Treaty, 61 
Venereal Disease, 26th General Assembly of International 

Union Against; U.S. delegation, 509 
Venezis, Elias (Greece), awarded 1st grant under Smith- 

Mundt Act program, 636 
Venezuela : 

Aid from U.S.: 

Irrigation problems, 86 ; table listing federal projects, 

87 
Technical cooperation achievement, 979 
Browder-Eisenhardt case discussed in U.S. memo- 
randum (Daniels) to Inter-American Peace Com- 
mittee, 450 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 77 ' 

Description of country, 86 

U.S. foreign office at Puerto la Cruz elevated to con- 
sulate, 78 
Veterinary Congress, 14th International, U.S. delegation, 

144 
Veto: 

Soviet policy, 656 

Use in membership applications, 817 
Vietnam, unification as state, 75 
Visas : 

Chinese Communists refuse U.S. foreign service per- 
sonnel exist visas, 482, 709 ; statement by Secretary 
Aeheson, 709 
Control of, discussed by Eliot B. Coulter, 523 
Ireland lifts visa restrictions, 314 
Passport Agencies, opening of: 
Boston, 871a 
Chicago, 991 
Reciprocal visa fee agreements and arrangements, list- 
ing of countries and fees, 534 
Tourist regulations, simplification discussed at 3d 
Inter-American Travel Congress, 890 

1035 



Vlt6ria, Brazil, U.S. consular office raised to consulate, 319 
VOA. See Voice of America 
Voice of America ( VOA ) : 

Additional appropriations requested for improvement 

of facilities, statement by Secretary Acheson, 312 
Chinese and Far Eastern broadcasts increased, 239 
General Bradley broadcasts on defense progress to North 

Atlantic nations, 869a 
Greco-American agreement for Salonika radio-trans- 
mitter project improves VOA service, 829 
History and activities by George V. Allen, 310 
Inter-American programs discussed by Willard F. Bar- 
ber, 924 
Munich relay station strengthens European broadcasts, 

403 
New programs inaugurated: 
Turkey, 707, 944 
Ukraine, 944 
Pravda reports on Soviet atomic developments corrected 

in broadcast, 943 
Soviet jamming campaign, 32, 310, 312 

Wainhouse, David W., joint (Mangano) report on problem 
of former Italian colonies in 3d session of General 
Assembly, 363 
War damage claims in Yugoslavia, registration deadline 

fixed, 865a 
Ward, Consul General (Mukden, China) : 
Espionage charges against staff denied, 36 
Experiences imder Communists summarized, 955 
Detention by Communists, release requested, 759 
Release, letter (Acheson) to 30 nations, 799 
Staff departure, arrangements for, 907 
Warren, George L. : 

IRO, report on 3d (special) session of General Council, 

341 
OfBce of High Commissioner for Refugees, article, 938 
Weather station expedition, joint (U.S.-Canada), 76, 443 
Webb, Under Secretary James E. : 
Correspondence : 

President Truman recommending genocide conven- 
tion, &14 
Statements : 
Atomic energy, recent developments in, 488; explora- 
tory talks by Combined Policy Committee, 589 
Costa Rican Government, new, 833 
MDAP, 1st U.S. groups depart for Europe, 791 
Point 4, proposed legislation : testimony before House 
Banlving and Currency Committee, 274, 305 ; 
House Foreign Affairs Committee, 549 
U.S. rejects Soviet charges against establishment of 
Federal Republic of Germany, 590 
West Africa, trust territories. See Trusteeship Council 
West Africa, Visiting Jlission to trust territories : 
Plans for departure, 848 
Selection of members, 128 
Study of West Africa, 123 
Terms of reference, text of resolution, 16 
Western Europe, Council of. See Council of Europe 
Western Samoa, trust territory of. See Trusteeship 
Council 



Western Union. See Brussels treaty \ 

Wheat Agreement, International : | 

Entrance into force, 75 ' 

U.S. ratification, 21 \ 

Wheat Council, International : j 

Committees, Executive and Price Equivalents, U.S. ! 

delegation to 1st meetings, 228 

First session, U.S. delegation, 52 : 

White, Ivan B., designation in State Department, 991 ; 

WHO. See World Health Organization ; 

Williams, Margaret Hicks, article on educational and i 

ideological task based on address before British ex- j 
change teachers, 609 
Williamson, Francis T., appointed as chief of Division of 

Austrian Affairs, 714 

Willoughby, Woodbury, report on 3d session of Con- I 

tracting parties to GATT and tariff negotiations at | 

Annecy, 774 i 

Wolverton, Representative, charges Assistant Secretary 1 

Miller re Sahalo Transportation Company vs Mexico ' 

case : Secretary Acheson's letter of refutation to ' 

Chairman (Kee) of House Foreign Affairs Committee '. 

text, 553 : 

Women, U.N. Commission on Status of: ECOSOC action 

on report, 768, 1037 ; priority program reviewed, 90 

Woodward, Stanley, article on protocol : what it is and , 

what it does, 501 

Wool Study Group, International, 3d meeting, U.S. dele- ' 

gation, 701 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Korean application for membership accepted, 17 i 
Malaria control, ECOSOC resolution based on WHO 

recommendation, 772 j 

Priorities in program reviewed, 95 ] 

Second World Health Assembly, summary, 17 j 

Technical assistance program, U.N., participation, 916, i 

931 I 

Yalta agreement (1945), Soviet violation in China, 900 | 
Yemen : j 

Palestine situation. See Palestine situation ■ 

Yugoslavia : 

Greeic problem (Balkan situation) : threats to political 
and territorial security : 
Aid to guerrillas, 407, 425, 430, 459, 489, 495, 588, 658, 

779, 813 
Attitude, 409, 410, 413, 418, 419, 425, 430, 779, 813 
Children and refugees, 408, 409, 410, 412, 416, 427, 

658, 697, 780, 781, 817, 853a, 1037 
Conciliation Committee, proposed, 499; U.S. support, 
500, 542 ; reports, 662, 779 ; suspension of activi- 
ties, 6.57 
Discussed by : 
Acheson, Dean, 489, 658 
Austin, Warren R., 972 
Cohen, Benjamin V., .542, 779, 813 
Howard, Harry N., 407 
Jessup, Philip C, 494 
Rusk, Dean, 654 

United Nations, 459, 662, 697, 745, 817 
Investigation, U.N. Commission of, 407, 411 
Soviet action, 407, 408, 410, 459, 490, 662, 813, 826 



1036 



Department of State Bulletin 



Yugoslavia — Continued 
Greeli Problem — Continued 

Suruuiary record (1046-49) in U.N. by Harry N. 

Howard, 407 
U.N. resolution (Nov. 19, 1949), text, 852a, 1037 
UNSCOB action. See Balkans, U.N. Special Com- 
mittee on 
Italian colonies, former, attitude toward, 370 
Soviet tactics summarized by Warren R. Austin, 973 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Belgrade convention (1948) on control of Danube 
River, U.S.-U.K.-France protest validity ; text 
of U.S. note, 832 



Yugoslavia — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Claims settlement with U.S., 868 ; terms of agreement, 

869 ; Claims Commission proposed, 870 
Road traffic convention, signature, 886 
U.S. Ambassador (Cannon), resignation, 714 
U.S. protests currency conversion in Trieste, text of 

U.S. note, 113 
War damage claims of U.S. citizens, registration dead- 
line fixed, 805a 

Zuleta-Angel, Dr. Don Eduardo, credentials as Colombian 
Ambassador to U.S., 558 



Index, July fo December 1949 



1037 



U, S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; |9S1 



CORRECTIONS IN VOLUME XXI 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call attention to the following errors: 

July 4: page 844, right-hand column, the heading should read "Report of the Acting Sec- 
retary of State." 

Due to an error in pagination from 837-876 in this issue, the pages in the December 5 
issue are marked 837a-876a. 

July 11: page 25, left-hand column, the item, "Charter of the Allied High Commission for 
Germany," was released to the press simultaneously in London, Paris, and Washington 
June 20. 

July 25: page 107, left-hand column, the item, "Labor Policy in Japan," was released to the 
press July 13. 

August IS: page 236, the statement by Secretary Acheson, entitled "Basic Principles of 
U. S. Policy Toward the Far East," was released to the press on August 5. 

page 238, the text of the U. S. Note to the U. S. S. R. on Soviet charges on 
Italy's adherence to the North Atlantic Treaty, was transmitted to the Soviet Union and 
released to the press on August 2. 

August 29: page 298, David K. E. Bruce, is American Ambassador to France, not James 
Bruce. 

September 26: page 456, right-hand column, the item "Resolutions on Relations with 
Intergovernmental Organizations," is United Nations document E/1532 of August 10, 1949. 

page 467, right-hand column, the subhead "France — Europe" should read 
"U.K.— Europe." 

October 17: page 588, right-hand column, the reference "temporarily absent" applies to 
Ali Haider Abbasi of Pakistan. 

October 31: page 670, left-hand column, the heading should read "Persons of Greek Origin 
Deported to Soviet Central Asia." 

November 14: page 725, in the article on freedom of the press, under the heading "Genesis 
of the United States Proposal," left-hand column, the second paragraph should read as 
follows: A persistent campaign on the part of American press agencies and organizations 
to promote world-wide freedom of news reporting culminated in the unanimous adoption by 
the House and Senate, on September 21, 1944, of the following resolution: 

November 21: page 767-68, the following transposition of material should be noted: On 
page 767, right-hand column, paragraphs 2, 3, 4, and 5 under the heading "Subcommission 
Report" should be inserted after the second paragraph under the heading "Status of Women", 
on page 768. 

page 773, left-hand column, fifth line, the final sentence in that paragraph 
should read as follows: The Council approved a number of specific recommendations 
made by the Committee, such as location of some of the agencies at the seat of the United 
Nations and consultation with ecosoc by the specialized agencies before they estabhsh 
regional offices. The Council decided that no revision need be made at this time in the 
agreements between the specialized agencies of the United Nations. 

November 28: page 822, left-hand column, the first heading should read "Foreign Ministers 
Meet at Paris." 

December 5: page 852a, the resolution entitled "Threats to the Political Independence and 
Territorial Integrity of Greece," A/1117, has been corrected by A/1117/Corr.l as follows: 
right-hand column, 10th line, "purpose" should read "purposes"; page 853a, left-hand 
column, 47th line should read "graphs 8, 9, and 11 of the present resolution, and upon." 

pages in this issue are marked 837a-876a due to an error in pagination in the 
July 4 issue. 



tJrie/ ^eha^tTitent/ ^^ t/tate^ 





TJIK rKhMDLM'S MESSAGE TO CONGRESS ON 

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE LEGISLATION . . 862 



RESULTS Ol llli; SIX I If SESSION OF THE 

COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS .... 857 



\^HERE DO WE STAND ON POINT FOUR? • % 



issistunl Srrrctary- Allrn 



. 86.5 



EUROPE AS A BULWARK FOR PEACE • tty It. 

Gen. Walter Bedell Smith 872 



THE SOUTH PACIFIC COMMISSION MAKES 

PROGRESS • By Felix M. Keeping 839 



For complrip c<mi-' 



roivr 



July 4, 1949 




^.»T o. 



tJ. s. 



■^■■'^ 16 1949 




%/^^ ~i}efia/3(im.€/ttt /:£ ^al^ V^ UL 1 JL Kj L 1 i 1 



Vol. XXI, No. 522 • Publication 3555 
July 4, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

52 issues, domestic $6. foreign $8.50 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (February IS, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the uork of the De- 
partment of State and tlie Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of internatioTUil relations, are listed 
currently. 



The South Pacific Coiuinission Makes Progress 



iy Felix M. Keesing, U. S. High Commissioner on the Commission 



The South Pacific Commission, the regional in- 
ternational organization created by agreement of 
the six governments administering non-self- 
governing territories in the South Pacific area, has 
now largely completed the initial organizational 
phases of its work. The first session was held at 
Sydney, Australia, from May 11-21, 1948, and the 
second session from October 25-November 2, 1948. 
At these meetings arrangements were made to 
establish the permanent headquarters at Noumea, 
New Caledonia; the organization of the Secre- 
tariat was completed; the permanent officers of 
the Secretariat were chosen; the South Pacific 
Research Council was established ; and a prelimi- 
nary work program was launched. 

The South Pacific Conmiission was established 
by the terms of an agreement worked out by repre- 
sentatives of the six powers concerned at the South 
Seas Conference which was held at Canberra, 
Australia, in January-February 1947.^ The par- 
ticipating governments are Australia, France, the 
Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States. Already a precedent ex- 
isted for such a regional oi-ganization in the work 
of the Caribbean Commission, which was estab- 
I lished in 1942 as the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission and was enlarged in 1945 to include 
France and the Netherlands.^ To a large extent 
the South Pacific Commission has followed the 
organizational patterns of the Caribbean Com- 
mission, benefiting by its experience to date. 

The agreement establishing the South Pacific 
Commission entei-ed into force on July 29, 1948, 
when acceptances by all six governments concerned 
were received by the Government of Australia. 
For the United States the President signed the in- 

Ju»y 4, 1949 



strument of acceptance of the agreement as of Jan- 
uary 28, 1948, after Congi-ess had given its author- 
ization for United States participation by enact- 
ment of Public Law 403 (80th Congress).^ The 
terms of this agreement constitute the working 
charter of the Commission. Article IV, para- 
graph 6, defines its general purpose as follows : 

The Commission sliall be a consultative and advisory 
bod.v to the participating Governments in matters affect- 
ing the economic and social development of the non-self- 
governing territories within the scope of the Commission 
and the welfare and advancement of their peoples. 

The 21 articles and 67 paragraphs comprising the 
agreement specify in considerable detail the scope, 
organization, powers, and functions of the Com- 
mission itself, its secretariat, and its auxiliary 
bodies, mainly comprising the South Pacific Re- 
search Coimcil and the South Pacific Conference, 
a periodic meeting of representatives of the terri- 
tories concerned.* Wliile having no organic rela- 
tions with the United Nations, the Commission is 
directed under article XV to cooperate as fully 
as possible with that body and with approiJriate 
specialized agencies on matters of mutual concern. 
The precise wording of the agreement, as provid- 
ing the legal basis for. the Commission's activities, 
necessarily underwent minute scrutiny at many 
points during the first two sessions. It says much 
for the wisdom and clarity of thought of those at- 
tending the 1947 South Seas Conference that al- 



' For a report on the Conference, see Buixetin of Mar. 
16, 1947, p. 459. 

= Buixetin of Dec. 23, 1945, p. 1023. 

'Public Law No. 403, 80th Congress 2d Sess. (62 Stat. 
15). 

* For the full text of the agreement, see South Seas Con- 
ference Papers, Doc. P/18, Feb. 6, 1947. 



most no obscurities or ambiguities appeared to 
require further interpretation by the governments 
involved. 

The South Pacific Commission itself consists of 
twelve commissioners, of whom each government 
has appointed two, with one designated as its senior 
commissioner. Alternate commissioners and ad- 
visers are also appointed as desired. Votes are 
cast by the senior commissioners only, and voting 
is in general on the basis of a two-thirds majority, 
though certain major budgetary and financial 
decisions require the concurrence of all senior com- 
missioners. The chairmanship rotates alphabeti- 
cally among governments from session to session. 
Two regular sessions are to be held each year, to- 
gether with any further sessions the Commission 
may consider necessary. For the present the 
agreed cycle of regular sessions in late April-early 
May and late October-early November. 

The first session of the Commission opened on 
May 11, 1948, with a personal welcome by the 
Australian Minister of External Affairs, Dr. Her- 
bert Vere Evatt. The main agenda items were as 
follows : 

(1) formulating rules of procedure to guide the 
Commission's work; (2) making preliminary 
arrangements for choosing a permanent seat; 
(3) defining procedures for filling the staff posi- 
tions in the secretariat; (4) deciding the organi- 
zation of the secretariat, including staff require- 
ments and regulations, terms of appointment, and 
a classification and salary plan; (5) planning the 
specific organization of the Research Council; 
(6) preparing an initial budget, together with 
provisional financial regulations and an account- 
ing system; (7) carrying forward from the South 
Seas Conference the formulation of a provisional 
work progi'am consisting of a list of desirable 
projects, with attention to priorities; (8) liqui- 
dating the interim organization carried on to this 
time jointly by the Australian and New Zealand 
Governments; and (9) setting up a Working Com- 
mittee consisting of representatives of all six gov- 
ernments to carry forward outstanding business 
between sessions.^ 

At the fii'st session a plan evolved naturally of 
dividing the Commission personnel — in all some 
30 persons — into two ad hoc committees. These 
conmiittees, labeled A and B, each with a com- 



' See Proceedings of the First Session (mimeographed). 



missioner and an adviser or advisers from each! 
participating government, met concurrently andl 
were allotted those agenda items not yet ready to, 
be handled directly in full Commission session.] 
In this way almost every knotty problem was; 
thrashed out in an informal committee setting, 
and a recommendation to which representatives; 
of all delegations had agreed could then be placed 
before the Commission in plenary session. This 
committee organization proved so successful that 
it was adopted without question at the outset of| 
the second session. In general. Committee B dealti 
with organizational, budgetary, and legal prob-i 
lems. Committee A dealt with the site, choice ofi 
personnel, the work program, the Research Coun-| 
cil, and the South Pacific Conference. | 

The second session convened on October 25, 1948.] 
In the interim period a small provisional secre-' 
tariat had carried on essential staff activities in- 
Sydney, mider the part-time direction of an Act-: 
ing Secretary-General, John R. Kerr, an Austra-! 
lian barrister, who had previously headed the in-' 
terim organization. The six governments and, 
their commissioners had also advanced the task of] 
selecting the permanent seat and the permanent] 
personnel, by authorizing the Working Committee i 
as their main agency for continuing inter-consulta-' 
tion. In early September 1948 the Working Com-, 
mittee visited the two sites proposed for the head- 
quarters, Noumea, New Caledonia, and Suva, Fiji; 
Islands, and examined in detail the local situation] 
as regards buildings, housing, and other relevant 
matters. The governments also gave wide pub- 
licity regarding the senior secretariat positions 
available, so that by September the commissioners! 
had before them the names of available candidates] 
for the posts of Secretary-General, Deputy Secre-i 
tary-General, and the full- and part-time members! 
of the Research Council. Furthermore, unani-j 
mous agreement had been reached on selections for' 
the two top administrative posts. 

With this effective preparatory work in hand,, 
the Commission at its second session was able to 
proceed rapidly with the completion of its major 
organizational tasks. On the evening of the first 
day, the decision was made by a majority vote to 
establish the permanent seat of the Commission at' 
Noumea. The Commission then proceeded tOi 
other agenda items, mainly working in committee, 
but holding periodic plenary sessions to pass upoU; 
committee resolutions and to check the accumulat- 
ing summary record. 



840 



Department of State Bulletin 



By resolution of the first session, meetings of 
the Commission are to be held in public when mat- 
ters directly relating to the economic and social 
welfare of the South Pacific peoples are under dis- 
cussion. Because the second session, like the first, 
was primarily concerned with establishing the in- 
ternal organization of the Commission, the meet- 
ings were, in general, not open to the press, though 
press statements were issued periodically. An ex- 
ception was made, however, on the fifth day of the 
session, when representatives of the press were in- 
vited to morning and afternoon plenary sessions 
dealing with the work program. 

The local French authorities offered exceedingly 
generous terms looking toward effective establish- 
ment of the Commission and its personnel at 
Noumea. Precise details as to financing the site 
will be worked out at the third session, but the 
costs of the initial development will be relatively 
small. The Commission has followed closely the 
system developed by the United Nations to cover 
"privileges and immunities," both at the head- 
quarters site and as relating to the territories of 
the participating governments. 

The Commission has been fortunate in securing 
highly competent personnel to fill its top adminis- 
trative and research posts. The Secretary-General 
is William D. Forsyth, Australian historian and 
diplomatic officer, who was serving as Australian 
member on the Trusteeship Council at the time of 
his appointment. Mr. Forsyth was able to be 
present during the second session and was sworn 
into office at one of the Commission's plenary ses- 
sions. Chosen for Deputy Secretary-General was 
an experienced officer of the British Colonial Serv- 
ice in the Pacific, H. E. Maude, who was Resident 
Commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands 
Colony, and is known to many Americans for his 
anthropological expertness as well as his adminis- 
trative capacities. Additional permanent secre- 
tariat posts will be made, in accordance with the 
terms of the agi-eement, from among residents of 
the South Pacific territories. 

The personnel of the Research Council was also 
named at the second session. The deputy chair- 
man, who is responsible for developing the research 
phases of the Commission's work, is Dr. L. G. M. 
Baas-Becking, Dutch botanist, with long experi- 
ence in research administration in Indonesia and 
previously in the United States, at Stanford Uni- 
versity. As the work of the Research Council will 
fall into three main categories, namely health, 

July 4, 1949 



economic development, and social development (in- 
cluding education), full-time members will be ap- 
pointed in each of these fields. At the second 
session, Maj. E. Massal, of the French Colonial 
Medical Service, who has had wide experience in 
the French Pacific territories, was chosen to head 
the program in health. For economic develop- 
ment, the full-time member is Dr. H. G. MacMillan, 
United States agricultural expert, who had a lead- 
ing role in the military farm projects in Pacific 
islands during the war and in the postwar research 
program on the United States Commercial Com- 
pany in the Micronesian Islands. The full-time 
member in the field of social development has not 
yet been named. In addition to the 4 full-time 
members, 13 part-time members have been named, 
as follows : 

Health— Dr. J. T. Gunther (Australia) , Dr. H. de 
Rook (Netherlands), Dr. J. C. Lopdell (New 
Zealand), Capt. W. P. Stephens, Medical 
Corps U.S.N. (United States) 

Ecoiwrrdc Development — The Director of the In- 
situt Franc^ais d'Oceanie (France), B. E. V. 
Parham (United Kingdom) , Dean K. A. Ryer- 
son (United States), J. G. Crawford 
(Australia) 

Social Development — Sir Peter Buck, Director of 
the Bishop Museum (Hawaii), Howard Hay- 
den (United Kingdom), "W. C. Groves (Aus- 
traliea) , Maurice Grangie (France) , Rev. I. S. 
Kijne (Netherlands) 

The Research Council held its first meeting 
at Noumea on April 30, 1949. Meanwhile the full- 
time members have visited the main administrative 
centers in the islands in order to consult with the 
local administrative and technical specialists, and 
otherwise to lay a basis for developing the research 
program. It is expected that the full Research 
Council will meet usually once a year. Among its 
powers, as defined by the agreement, is the author- 
ity to appoint technical standing committees to 
deal with particular .fields of research, and also 
(with Commission approval) ad hoc committees 
to handle special problems.' Special opportunity 
to advance the research work of the Commission 
was presented in February 1949 when observers 
from the Commission attended the seventh meet- 
ing of the Pacific Science Congress in New 
Zealand. 



' For the powers and functions of the Research Council 
see articles VI to VIII of the agreement. 

841 



\ 



Articles IX-XII of the agreement provide for 
periodic meetings of representatives of the terri- 
tories in a "South Pacific Conference." As with 
the West Indian Conference of the Caribbean 
Commission, this phase of the organization is 
designed to enable spokesmen for the resident 
populations to get together and discuss mutual 
problems. The following statements in the agree- 
ment define the functions of the Conference : 

Abticle IX 

In order to associate with the work of the Commission 
representatives of the local inhabitants of, and of official 
and non-offlclal institutions directly concerned with, the 
territories within the scope of the Commission, there shall 
be established a South Pacific Conference with advisory 
powers as a body auxiliary to the Commission. 

Article XII 

The Conference may discuss such matters of common 
interest as fall within the competence of the Commission, 
and may make recommendations to the Commission on 
any such matters. 

At the second session of the Commission the 
number of official delegates was fixed at 2 for each 
of 15 designated territories ' except 2 very small 
ones, Nauru and the Tokelaus, which will have 1 
each. If the Kingdom of Tonga accepts a prof- 
fered invitation to send 2 delegates this will make 
a total of 30 official delegates. In addition, alter- 
nates and advisers up to a total of 32 (or 34 with 
Tonga) have been authorized. 

The first meeting of the South Pacific Confer- 
ence, the Commission has decided, will be held in 
Suva during the last week in April 1950. Subse- 
quently it will meet, according to the terms of the 
agreement, at intervals not exceeding three years, 
and in different localities "with due regard to the 
principle of rotation." The gathering will be 
unique in that it will be the first time in the history 



' The Commission drew up for this purpose a list of 15 
territorial units, the .size, population, and ethnic character 
of which justified representation at the South Pacific Con- 
ference. They are as follows: Papua, New Guinea (Aus- 
tralian Trust Territory), Nauru, New Caledonia, French 
Establishments, Dutch New Guinea, Western Samoa, Tolie- 
lau Islands, Cook Islands (including Nine), Fiji, British 
Solomon Islands Protectorate, Gilbert Islands, Bllice 
Islands, American Samoa, New Hebrides Condominium. 
A possible sixteenth unit comprises the Kingdom of Tonga, 
which technically does not fall within the scope of the 
CommLssion, but which has been invited to participate in 
the Commission's activities. This list does not attribute 
the territorial units to specific countries and accordingly 
does not touch upon questions of sovereignty which in a 
few cases are still matters of International dispute. 



of the area that representatives of these scattered j 
island peoples will come together in such a manner, j 
Further planning of the agenda and other arrange- ; 
ments for the first Conference will be undertaken , 
at the next session of the Commission. 

One of the most complicated aspects of the Com- i 
mission's early work has been to prepare a budget 
and otherwise arrange its financial procedures. 
According to the agreement, the expenses of the 
Commission and its related bodies are to be appor- ' 
tioned among the participating governments as 
follows: Australia 30 percent; the Netherlands, 
New Zealand and the United Kingdom each 15 ' 
percent; France and the United States 121^ 1 
percent. I 

The first session worked out a provisional | 
budget of 36,340 pounds sterling to cover fiscal 1 
operations from May 1948 to the end of the first 
year (Dec. 31, 1948). This included the settle- j 
ment of certain financial obligations incurred pre- | 
viously by the interim organization. At this ses- 
sion it was also agreed to use an amount of 40,000 j 
pounds sterling which had been already contrib- 
uted proportionately by the participating govern- ; 
ments as a revolving fund to meet such future | 
obligations as may be incurred ahead of national : 
contributions being received by the Commission. ■ 
Because the Commission had merely a skeleton 
organization in the year 1948, the total expendi- 
tures have fallen far short of the provisional 
budget figures. The second session had the more 
difficult task of preparing a realistic budget for 
1949, covering both administrative and research 
operations as they were expected to develop with- 
in that fiscal year. The budget, as passed with j 
certain reservations, totaled 53,816 pounds sterl- 
ing. Of this amount about 45 percent is for sal- 
aries and 25 percent for travel. A provisional | 
amount of 6,000 pounds sterling has been allotted ' 
for research purposes, pending further clarifica- 
tion of the needs in this category. In Public Law j 
403, Congress set a maximum annual amount of 
$20,000 to meet the costs of United States partici- 
pation in the Commission. Considering the 
United States share as 12i/^ percent, this would 
automatically put a maximiun of approximately | 
$160,000, or 40,000 pounds sterling at the present ! 
exchange rate, as the upper limit of the Commis- 
sion's budget. The 1949 budget of 53,815 pounds j 
sterling has already exceeded this amount, even j 
though it was drawn up with the greatest strin- 
gency and economy, and represents little more 



842 



Department of State Bulletin 



tlian the regular administrative budget. Under 
present legislation, therefore, the United States 
faces the prospect of not being able to pay its full 
share of an increased budget. 

In addition to all these organizational problems, 
the Commission at both sessions devoted consider- 
able time to drafting a work program which would 
give preliminary definition to the tasks of welfare 
and development which the organization was estab- 
lished to handle. The South Seas Conference in 
1947 had already drafted a list of possible projects, 
with some suggestions as to those deserving im- 
mediate attention. At the first session in May 1948, 
Committee A reviewed again the potential work 
program of the Commission. The commissioners 
and their advisers put on the committee table many 
suggestions offered by their governments and by 
themselves, and these were evaluated in terms of 
how far they were of common concern and deserved 
high priority. A draft for a provisional work 
program was then presented to the Commission as 
a whole and accepted. In general, this May for- 
mulation was based upon the idea that the Com- 
mission should carry out a relatively small number 
of carefully selected projects which represented 
the most crucial needs of the area as a whole. 

At the second session this provisional work pro- 
gram was reviewed carefully, particularly to de- 
cide which projects could be initiated immediately 
by the full-time staff members as they assumed 
office and which might better be held over until the 
first meeting of the Research Council in April 1949. 
It was recognized that some projects could be car- 
ried forward rapidly by collecting and collating 
existing data. The Secretary-General was there- 
fore directed to get these under way as rapidly as 
feasible. Included are measures looking toward 
improvement of air and sea transport services in 
the region; coordination of human quarantine 
measures and exchange of epidemiological infor- 
mation; coordination of information on fisheries 
research ; pooling of information on expert assist- 
ance desired and available ; liaison with public and 
private agencies doing experimental work in agri- 
culture and industry with a view to disseminating 
information of their findings ; collection and dis- 
semination of information on technical training of 
islanders; development of a Commission library; 



preparation of a record file of scientists and of 
public and private agencies interested in the re- 
gion ; investigation of the possible use of radio and 
visual aids in education. 

A number of other projects, the Commission 
felt, called for new research, so that it was decided 
to postpone these items pending advice from the 
full-time members of the Research Council and 
the Research Council itself. Among such matters 
are improvement of the copra industry, including 
mechanization ; control of plant and animal pests 
and diseases; research into health problems, par- 
ticularly infant and maternal welfare; improve- 
ment of nutrition; stimulation and coordination 
of studies in vulcanology and seismology ; improve- 
ment of tropical pasture lands; problems of con- 
servation ; studies of the impact of modern civiliza- 
tion on the traditional societies; and studies of 
lalx)r conditions. 

The Commission itself has shown a considerable 
diffidence about carrying forward too specifically 
its formulation of research needs until it can re- 
ceive adequate technical advice from the Research 
Council. The work program is therefore still con- 
sidered to be highly flexible. 

The general future scope of the South Pacific 
Commission's activities may best be visualized by 
reference to article IV of the agreement. This de- 
fines its main powers and functions as follows: 

(a) to study, formulate and recommend measures for 
the development of, and where necessary the co-ordina- 
tion of services affecting, the economic and social rights 
and welfare of the inhabitants of the territories within 
the scope of the Commission, particularly in respect of 
agriculture (including animal husbandry), communica- 
tions, transport, fisheries, forestry, industry, labor, mar- 
keting, production, trade and finance, public works, 
education, health, housing and social welfare; 

(6) to provide for and facilitate research in technical, 
scientific, economic and social fields . . . ; 

(c) to make recommendations for the co-ordination of 
local projects . . . which have regional significance . . .; 

(d) to provide technical assistance, advice and informa- 
tion . . . for the participating Governments; 

(e) to promote co-operation with non-participating 
Governments and with non-governmental organisations 
of a public or quasi-public character having common inter- 
ests in the area . . . ; 

(/) to address inquiries to the participating Govern- 
ments on matters within its competence ; and to discharge 
such other functions as may be agreed upon by the partic- 
ipating Governments. 



July 4, J 949 



843 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Genocide Convention Transmitted to the Senate 



THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE' 



To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith 
a certified copy of the Convention on the Preven- 
tion and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 
adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of 
the United Nations in Paris on December 9, 1948, 
and signed on behalf of the United States on De- 
cember 11, 1948. 

The character of the Convention is explained in 
the enclosed report of the Acting Secretary of 
State. I endorse the recommendations of the 
Acting Secretary of State in his report and urge 
that the Senate advise and consent to my ratifica- 
tion of this Convention. 

In my letter of February 5, 1947, transmitting 
to the Congress my first annual report on the 
activities of the United Nations and the partici- 
pation of the United States therein, I pointed out 
that one of the important achievements of the 
General Assembly's First Session was the agree- 
ment of the Members of the United Nations that 
genocide constitutes a crime under international 
law. I also emphasized that America has long 
been a symbol of freedom and democratic progress 
to peoples less favored than we have been and 
that we must maintain their belief in us by our 
policies and our acts. 

By the leading part the United States has taken 
in the United Nations in producing an effective in- 
ternational legal instrument outlawing the world- 
shocking crime of genocide, we have established 
before the world our firm and clear policy toward 
that crime. By giving its advice and consent to 
my ratification of this Convention, which I urge, 
the Senate of the United States will demonstrate 
that the United States is prepared to take effective 
action on its part to contribute to the establish- 
ment of principles of law and justice. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 
Jmie 16, 1943. 

844 



The President, 

The White House: 

I have the honor to transmit to you a certified 
copy of the convention on the prevention and 
punishment of the crime of genocide, adopted 
unanimously by the General Assembly of the 
United Nations in Paris on December 9, 1948, 
with the recommendation that it be submitted to 
the Senate for its advice and consent to ratifi- 
cation. 

The convention defines genocide to mean cer- 
tain acts, enumerated in article II, committed with 
the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a na- 
tional, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such. 
These acts are discussed below. 

The basic purpose of the convention is the pre- 
vention of the destruction of a human group as 
such. The first resolution of the General Assem- 
bly on this subject, 9G (I), adopted unanimously 
by the members of the United Nations on Decem- 
ber 11, 1946, succinctly pointed out that — 

Genocide Is a denial of the right of existence of entire 
human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live 
of individual human beings. 

The resolution also pointed out that genocide 
shocks the conscience of mankind, results in great 
losses to humanity and is contrary to moral law. 
Of course, homicide also is shocking, results in 
losses to humanity and is contrary to moral law. 
The distinction between those two crimes, there- 
fore, is not a difference in underlying moral prin- 
ciples, because in the case of both crimes, moral 
principles are equally outraged. The distinction 
is that in homicide, the individual is the victim; 
in genocide, it is the group. 

The General Assembly declared in this resolu- 
tion that the physical extermination of human 
groups, as such, is of such grave and legitimate 

' S. Exec. O, June 16, 1949. 

Department of State Bulletin 



international concern that civilized society is justi- 
fied in branding; genocide as a crime under inter- 
national law. The extermination of entire human 
groups impairs the self-preservation of civiliza- 
tion itself. The recent genocidal acts committed 
by the Nazi Government have placed heavy bur- 
dens and responsibilities on other countries, in- 
cluding our own. The millions of dollars spent 
by the United States alone on refugees, many of 
them victims of genocide, and the special immi- 
gration laws designed to take care of such unfor- 
tunates illustrate how genocide can deeply affect 
other states. On September 23, 19-18, Secretary 
of State Marshall stated that — 

Governments wliieh systematicall.v disregard the rights 
of their own people are not liliely to respect the rights of 
otlier nations and other people and are likely to seek 
their objectives by coercion and force in the international 
field. 

It is not surprising, therefore, to find the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations unanimously 
declaring that genocide is a matter of intenia- 
tional concern. 

Thus, the heart of the convention is its recogni- 
tion of the principle that the prevention and pun- 
ishment of genocide requires international coop- 
eration. However, the convention does not sub- 
stitute international responsibility for state re- 
sponsibility. It leaves to states themselves the 
basic obligation to protect entire human groups in 
their right to live. On the other hand it is de- 
signed to insure international liability where state 
responsibility has not been properly discharged. 

The convention was carefully drafted and, in- 
deed, represents the culmination of more than 2 
years of thoughtful consideration and treatment in 
the United Nations, as the following important 
steps in its formulation demonstrate : 

The initial impetus came on November 2, 1946, 
■when the delegations of Cuba, India, and Panama 
requested the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions to include in the agenda of the General As- 
sembly an additional item: the prevention and 
punishment of the crime of genocide. The Assem- 
bly referred the item to its Sixth (Legal) Commit- 
tee for study. 

At its fifty-fifth plenary meeting on December 
11, 19-16, the Assembly adopted, without debate and 
unanimously, a draft resolution submitted by its 
Legal Committee. This resolution, referred to 
above, affirmed that "genocide is a crime under in- 
ternational law." It recommended international 
cooperation with a view to facilitating the pre- 
vention and punishment of genocide, and, to this 
end, it requested the Economic and Social Council 
of the United Nations to undertake the necessary 
studies to draw up a draft convention on the crime. 

Pursuant to this resolution a draft convention 
on genocide was prepared by the ad hoc Committee 
on Genocide in the spring of 1948, under the chair- 

July 4, 1949 



manship of the United States representative on 
this committee. This draft was again discussed by 
the Economic and Social Council in July and Au- 
gust 1948 in Geneva, and then in the Legal Com- 
mittee of the General Assembly at its third regular 
session in Paris, where again the United States 
delegation played an important role in the formu- 
lation of the draft convention. 

On December 9, 1948, the General Assembly 
unanimously adopted the convention to outlaw 
genocide, which was signed by the United States 
2 days later. When signing, the United States 
representative said, in part : 

I am privileged to sign this convention on behalf of my 
Government, -which has been proud to take an active part 
in the effort of the United Nations to bring this convention 
into being. 

The Government of the United States considers this an 
event of great importance in the development of interna- 
tional law and of cooperation among states for the purpose 
of eliminating practices offensive to all civilized mankind. 

Genocide is a crime which has been perpetrated 
by man against man throughout history. Al- 
though man has always expressed his horror of 
this heinous crime, little or no action had been 
taken to prevent and punish it. The years immedi- 
ately preceding World War II witnessed the most 
diabolically planned and executed series of geno- 
cidal acts ever before committed. This time there 
was to be more than mere condemnation. A feel- 
ing of general repulsion swept over the world, and 
following the war manifested itself in the General 
Assembly's resolution of December 1946. It is this 
resolution to which the Legal Committee gave full 
content by providing the General Assembly with a 
legal instrument designed not only to prevent 
geaiocidal acts but also to punish the guilty. 
'^ The o-enocide convention contains 19 articles. 
Of these, the first 9 are of a substantive character, 
and the remaining 10 are procedural in nature. 

The preamble is of a general and historical 

nature. . 

Article I carries into the convention the concept 
unanimously affirmed by the General Assembly m 
its 1946 resolution, that genocide is a crime under 
international law. In this article the parties un- 
dertake to prevent and to punish the crime. 

Article II specifies that any of the following five 
acts, if accompanied by the intent to destroy, in 
whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or 
religious group, constitutes the crime of genocide : 

(a) Killing members of the group; 
(h) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to 
members of the group ; 

(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group condi- 
tions of life calculated to bring about its physical 
destruction in whole or in part; 

(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent 
births within the group ; and 

845 



(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group 
to another group. 

This article, then, requires that there should be a 
specific intent to destroy a racial, religious, na- 
tional, or etlmical group as such in whole or in 
part. With respect to this article the United 
States representative on the Legal Committee 
said: 

I am not aware that anyone contends that the crime of 
genocide and the crime of homicide are onp and the same 
thing. If an individual is murdered by another individ- 
ual, or indeed by a government official of a state, a crime 
of homicide has been committed and a civilized com- 
munity will punish it as such. Such an act of homicide 
would not in itself be an international crime. To repeat 
the opening language of the resolution of the General 
Assembly of December 1946, "genocide is a denial of the 
right of existence of entire human groups." This remains 
the principle on which we are proceeding. 

However, if an individual is murdered by another indi- 
vidual, or by a group, whether composed of private citizens 
or government officials, as part of a plan or with the intent 
to destroy one of the groups enumerated in article 2, the 
international legal crime of genocide is committed as well 
as the municipal-law crime of homicide. 

The destruction of a group may be caused not 
only by killing. Bodily mutilation or disintegra- 
tion of the mind caused by the imposition of stupe- 
fying drugs may destroy a group. So may steril- 
ization of a group, as may the dispersal of its 
children. 

Article III of the convention specifies that five 
acts involving genocide shall be punishable. These 
five genocidal acts are — 

{a) The crime of genocide itself ; 
{h) Conspiracy to commit genocide; 
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit 
genocide ; 

{d) Attempt to commit genocide ; and 
(e) Complicity in genocide. 

The parties agree, in article TV, to punish guilty 
persons, irrespective of their status. 

In article V the parties undertake to enact, "in 
accordance with their respective constitutions", the 
legislation necessary to implement the provisions 
of the convention. The convention does not pur- 
port to require any party to enact such legisla- 
tion otherwise than in accordance with the coun- 
try's constitutional provisions. 

Article VI makes it clear that any person charged 
with the commission of any of the five genocidal 
acts enumerated in article III shall be tried by a 
court of the state in whose territory the act was 
committed, or by such international penal tribunal 
as may have jurisdiction with respect to those states 
accepting such jurisdiction. Thus, the commission 
in American territory of genocidal acts would be 
tried only in American courts. No international 
tribunal is authorized to try anyone for the crime 
of genocide. Should such a tribunal be estab- 
lished. Senate advice and consent to United States 
ratification of any agreement establishing it would 

846 



be necessary before such an agreement would be 
binding on the United States. 

By article VII the parties agree to extradite, in 
accordance with their laws and treaties persons 
accused of committing genocidal acts ; none of such 
acts is to be considered a political crime for the pur- 
pose of extradition. The United States repre- 
sentative on the Legal Committee, in voting in fa- 
vor of the convention December 2, 1948, said : 

With respect to article VII regarding extradition, I 
desire to state that until the Congress of the United States 
shall have enacted the necessary legislation to implement 
the convention, it will not be possible for the Government 
of the United States to surrender a person accused of a 
crime not already extraditable under existing laws. 

Existing United States law provides for extradi- 
tion only when there is a treaty therefor in force 
between the United States and the demanding gov- 
ernment. Only after Congress has defined, and 
provided for the punishment of, the crime of geno- 
cide, and authorized surrender therefor, will it be 
possible to give effect to the provisions of article 
VII. 

Article VIII recognizes the right of any party 
to call upon the organs of the United Nations for 
such action as may be appropriate under tlie Char- 
ter for the prevention and suppression of any of 
the acts enumerated in article III. This article 
merely affirms the right of the United Nations to 
call upon an organ of the United Nations in mat- 
ters within its jurisdiction. 

Article IX provides that disputes between the 
parties relating to the intepretation, application, 
or fulfillment of the convention, including disputes 
relating to the responsibility of a state for any of 
the acts enumerated in article III, shall be sub- 
mitted to the International Court of Justice, when 
any party to a dispute so requests. 

On December 2, 1948, in voting in favor of the 
genocide convention, the representative of the 
United States made the following statement be- 
fore the Legal Committee of the General 
Assembly : 

I wish that the following remarks be included in the 
record verbatim : 

Article IX provides that disputes between the con- 
tracting parties relating to the interpretation, applica- 
tion, or fulfillment of the present convention, "including 
those relating to the responsibility of a state for genocide 
or any of the other acts enumerated in article III," shall 
be submitted to the International Court of Justice. If 
"responsibility of a state" is used in the traditional sense 
of responsibility to another state for injuries sustained 
by nationals of the complaining state in violation of prin- 
ciples of international law and similarly, if "fulfillment" 
refers to disputes where interests of nationals of the 
complaining state are involved, these words would not 
appear to be objectionable. If, however, "responsibility of 
a state" is not used in the traditional sense and if these 
words are intended to mean that a state can be held liable 
in damages for injury inflicted by it on its own nationals, 
this provision is objectionable and my Government makes 
a reservation with respect to such an interpretation. 

Department of State Bulletin 



In view of this statement, I recommend that the 
Senate give its advice and consent to ratification 
of the convention — 

with the understamling that article IX shall be under- 
stood in the traditional sense of responsibility to another 
state for injuries sustained by nationals of the complain- 
ing state in violation of principles of International law, 
and shall not be understood as meaning that a state can 
be held liable in damages for injuries inflicted by it on 
its own nationals. 

The remaining articles are procedural in na- 
ture. By article XIV the convention is to be 
effective for an initial period of 10 years from the 
date it enters into force, and thereafter for suc- 
cessive i^eriods of 5 years with respect to those 
Parties which have not denounced the convention 
by written notification to the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations at least 6 months before the 
expiration of the current period. 

Article XV provides that if there are less than 
16 parties to the convention, as a result of denun- 
ciations, the convention shall cease to be in force 
from the effective date of the denunciation which 
reduces the number of parties to less than 16. 

Article XVI authorizes any party to request 
revision of the convention, by notification in writ- 
ing to the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions. The General Assembly shall decide upon 
the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such 
request. 

It is my firm belief that the American people 
together with the other peoples of the world will 
hail United States ratification of this convention 
as another concrete example of our repeatedly 
affirmed determination to make the United Nations 
the cornerstone of our foreign policy and a work- 
able institution for international peace and 
security. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

James E. Webb, 

Acting Secretary. 

(Enclosure: Certified copy of convention on the pre- 
vention and punishment of genocide.) " 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation 

Taxation Convention with Belgium. Message from the 
President of the United States transmitting the conven- 
tion between the United States of America and Belgium 
for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention 
of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, signed 
at Washington on October 28, 1948. S. Exec. I, 81st Cong., 
1st sess. 15 pp. 

Exchange of Notes with Canada Providing for Diver- 
sions of \Vater for Power Purposes from the Niagara 



River. Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting the texts of notes exchanged at Washington 
on December 23, 1948, between the Government of the 
United States of America and the Government of Canada, 
providing for temporary emergency diversions of water 
for power purposes from the Niagara River. S. Exec. J, 
81st Cong., 1st sess. 4 pp. 

Convention with Mexico for the Establishment of an 
International Commission for the Scientific Investigation 
of Tuna. Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting a convention between the United States of 
America and Mexico for the establishment of an inter- 
national commission for the scientific investigation of 
tuna, signed at Mexico City, January 25, 1949. S. Exec. 
K, 81st Cong., 1st sess. 7 pp. 

Study of Economic Concentration. S. Rept. 112, 81st 
Cong., 1st se.ss. Pinal Report pursuant to S. Res. 241, 
80th Cong. 2 pp. 

Noneitizens' Claims Against the United States. S. 
Rept. 117, 81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany S. 937. 6 pp. 

Extending Time for Filing Claims Under the War 
Claims Act of 1948. S. Rept. 131, 81st Cong., 1st sess. 
to accompany S. 326. 2 pp. 

ECA and Strategic Materials. Report of the Joint 
Committee on Foreign Economic Cooperation created 
pursuant to Section 124 of Public Law 472, Eightieth 
Congress. S. Rept. 140, 81st Cong., 1st sess. iii. 56 pp. 

Reports to the Congress by the Commission on Organi- 
zation of the Executive Branch of the Government. Re- 
ports of the Commission including appendixes and other 
supporting documents. S. Doc. 28, 81st Cong., 1st sess. 
5 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General had 
Suspended Deportation. S. Rept. 124, 81st Cong., 1st 
sess. to accompany S. Con. Res. 22. 2 pp. S. Rept. 134, 
81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany S. Con. Res. 23. 2 pp. 
S. Rept. 168, 81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany S. Con. Res. 
24. 2 pp. S. Rept. 169, 81st Cong., 1st sess. to accom- 
pany S. Con. Res. 25. 2 pp. 

Copper Import-Tax Suspension. H. Rept. 312, 81st 
Cong., 1st sess. to accomany H. R. 2313. 2 pp. 

Continuation of Exemption from the Tax on Trans- 
portation of Persons of Foreign Travel Via Newfound- 
land. H. Rept. 322, 81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany 
H. J. Res. 203. 2 pp. 

Extension of the European Recovery Program. Re- 
port of the Committee on Foreign Affairs on H. R. 3748, 
a bill to amend the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. 
H. Rept. 323, 81st Cong., 1st sess. iv, 77 pp. H. Rept. 323, 
Part 2, 81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany H. R. 3748^ 
7 pp. 

Amending the China Aid Act of 1948. H. Rept. 329, 
81st Cong., 1st sess. to accompany H. R. 3830. 6 pp. 

Amending Subsection (C) of Section 19 of the Immi- 
gration Act of 1917, as Amended, with Respect to Suspen- 
sion of Deportable Aliens. H. Rept. 362, 81st Cong., 1st 
sess. to accompany H. R. 3875. 3 pp. 

Reorganization Act of 1949. Hearings Before the Com- 
mittee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, 
United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress. First Ses- 
sion, on S. 526, a bill to provide for the reorganization of 
government agencies, and for other purposes. Feb. 2, 3, 
7, 9, 10, and 15, 1949. iv, 230 pp. 

Extension of European Recovery. Hearings before the 
Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 
Eighty-first Congress, First Session, on S. 833, a bill to 
amend the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. Feb. 8, 9, 
10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 28, 1949. v, 584 pp. 



' For text of the convention, see Bulletin of Dec. 19, 
1948, p. 756. 



July 4, 7949 



847 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



UN Guard 

[June 25-July 1] 

The United States announced full support for 
Secretary-General Lie's revised proposal for a 
United Nations Guard as presented to the 14- 
nation Special Committee established by the Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution of April 29 to study the 
subject. The Secretary-General's present plan 
calls for a "United Nations Field Service" of 300 
men recruited from national governments to carry 
out the day-to-day functions of security, transpor- 
tation, and communications for United Nations 
missions in the field. In addition there would be 
a Field Reserve Panel of 2,000 x^ersons, which 
would be called into service when needed on a tem- 
porary basis for such functions as observation of 
a truce, or supervision of plebiscites. 

The United States spokesman emphasized the 
importance of the early establishment of an effi- 
cient standing field service of moderate size. He 
further stated that the proposal made clear that 
no substitute for the armed forces contemplated 
in article 43 of the Charter was intended. The 
United States felt as strongly as other member 
states, he said, that there should be a clear under- 
standing that the proposed field service would be 
entirely distinct in nature and functions from the 
article 43 armed forces. 

Korea 

The Commission for Korea has reported to 
United Nations headquarters the departure of the 
last United States occupation forces from Korea 
on June 29. This withdrawal is in conformity 
with the General Assembly resolution of last De- 
cember calling for withdrawal of such forces from 
all Korea "as early as practicable." Although the 
U. S. S. R. has announced withdrawal of its forces 
from North Korea, the Commission has not been 
allowed to enter that territory for verification. 

Trusteeship Council 

The fifth session of the Trusteeship Council 
opened on June 1.5. Ambassador Roger Garreau 
of France was elected president, and Ambassador 
Padillo Nervo of Mexico, vice president. 

A suggestion submitted by Ambassador Fran- 
cis B. Sayre, United States representative, that 
the I'ules provide for annual meetings of the 
Trusteeship Council in January, with a second 
meeting in June "or at such time as the President 
and the Secretary-General might designate," was 
adopted. 

Plans were made by the Council for the depar- 
ture on November 1 of its Visiting Mission to 



"West Africa. The United States member on this 
4-man mission will be Benjamin Gerig, it was 
announced by Ambassador Sayre. The Mission 
was directed to observe developing political, eco- 
nomic, social, and educational conditions in the 
TrusteeshiiD Territories of West Africa, as well 
as progress toward self-government or independ- 
ence, and administration efforts to achieve basic 
Trusteeshi]) objectives. The Mission was also 
directed to consider petitions from the local 
populations. 

The Trusteeship Council devoted several ses- 
sions to a study of the effect of Administrative 
Unions in Trusteeship Territories, prepared by 
an interim committee. Ambassador Sayre, in the 
discussion, characterized the problem as a contin- 
uing one which required the "watchful gaze" of 
the Trusteeshi]) Council. Accordingly, a sugges- 
tion jointly submitted by the United States and 
Mexico, that the Trusteeship Council conduct a 
continuing study of the effects of existing or pro- 
posed Administrative Unions involving Trustee- 
ship Territories, was accepted as a basis for 
discussion. 

The Council then turned to consideration of 
Australia's annual report as administering au- 
thority of Nauru. Ambassador Sayre said that 
the report was "commendable" in both form and 
substance. Australia had conscientiously en- 
deavored to act in the interest of the inhabitants, 
he remarked. In view of the almost complete 
literacy of the indigenous population, he believed 
the Trusteeship Council could look forward to a 
rapid increase in their participation in the 
administration. i 

Protection of Minorities 

An extensive preliminary study of the problem 
of minorities and of measures designed to pro- 
tect them, and the adoption of six resolutions on 
the subject were the principal tasks performed by 
the twelve experts who compose the Subcommis- 
sion on the Prevention of Discrimination and the 
Protection of Minorities which ended its second 
session at Lake Success June 27. The resolutions 
dealt with (1) cooperation of non-governmental 1 
organizations, (2) documentation, (3) national | 
coordinating committees, (4) provision to be i 
added to the Draft International Covenant of | 
Human Rights, (5) information on the status of i 
minorities and (6) facilities to be provided f or | 
minorities. j 

The Subcommission plans to hold its next ses- ! 
sion in January 1950 in Geneva just prior to the ' 
meeting of the Human Rights Commission. 



848 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned during June 

United Nations: 


Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Habana 

Lake Success 

Geneva 

Geneva 


1949 

Apr. 12-June 9 

Mav 9-June 20 
May 29-Junel4 

May 31-June 14 

June 13- 

June 13- 


Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Commission on Human Rights: Fourth Session . . . 
Economic Commission for Latin America: Second 

Session. 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information and the 

Press: Third Session. 
Economic Commission for Europe: Inland Transport 
Committee. 
Permanent Central Opium Board: 53rd Session .... 
Diplomatic Conference for the Drawing up of a New Con- 
vention Intended to Protect War Victims. 
Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Region II-Fourth Inter-American Radio Conference . . 
IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

European Frequency Meeting: Second Session 

Council ' Seventh Session 


Geneva 

Washington 

Paris 

Montreal 


Apr. 21-June 

Apr. 25-June 

Apr. 26-June 
May 17— June 


Third Assembly 


Montreal 

Montreal 

Washington 

London 

Detroit 

Paris 

Geneva 


June 7- 


Legal Committee: Fourth Session 


June 7- 


Four-Power Discussions Regarding Swiss-Allied Accord . 
Organizational Meetings of the Council of the International 
Authority for the Ruhr. 

Inter- American Bar Association: Sixth Meeting 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Sixth Session 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 


May 10-June 
May 20-June 

Mav 22-June 1 
May 23-June 20 

Mav 27-June 


International Whaling Commission: First Meeting .... 

The President's Highway Safety Conference 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization) : 
Interim Committee for the Permanent Bureau to Coordi- 
nate International Congresses of Medical Sciences. 
Executive Board: Fifteenth Session 


London 

Washington 

Paris 

Paris 

Paris 

Brussels 

London 


May 30-June 
June 1-3 

June 9- 

June 9- ' 


International Conference on Science Abstracting .... 
Journtes M^dicales de Bruxelles (Medical Days of Brussels) : 
Twenty-third Session. 

International Tin Study Group: Fourth Meeting 

Caribbean Commission: Eighth Meeting 

Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Coimcil: Sixth Session 


June 20-25 
June 11-15 

June 13- 


Port-of-Spain, Trinidad . . . 

Paris 

Bangkok 

Elsinore, Denmark 

Noordwijk, Netherlands . . . 


June 13-18 
June 13-25 


Southeast Asia Conference on Rinderpest Control Prob- 
lems. 
Twelfth International Conference on Adult Education . . 
Fifth International Grassland Congress 


June 20-24 

June 16-25 
June 22-26 


Iro (International Refugee Organization) : 

General Council: Extraordinary Session 

International Sugar Council 


June 22- 


London 

Seoul 


June 23- 


In session as of July 1, 1949 

United Nations: 


1948 

Dec. 12- 






1949 

Jan. 3- 


Security Council 


Lake Success 

Haifa, Jerusalem, and Rhodes . 
Lake Success 


Jan. 7- 


Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and 

Protection of Minorities: Second Session. 
Permanent Central Opium Board: 53rd Session 


Jan. 28- 
June 13- 

June 13- 


Lake Success 

Geneva 


June 15- 


Narcotic Drugs Supervisory Body: 32nd Session .... 


June 20- 



July 4, 1949 



849 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



In Session as of July 1, 1949 — Continued 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 


Geneva 


1948 

Jan. 15- 


Reerion I Freauencv Conference 


Geneva 

Geneva 

Paris 

Annecy, France 

Geneva 


1949 

May 18- 


Region III Frequency Conference 

Meeting of the Technical Planning Committee of the 
International High Frequency Broadcasting Conference. 

Gatt: Third Session of Contracting Parties 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

/i2nd Tntprnational Labor Conference 


May 18- 
June 23- 

Apr. 8- 

June 8— 


Who (World Health Organization) : 




June 13- 






June 18- 


Second Inter-American Conference on Indian Life 

Cfm Deputies for Austria 

Imo (International Meteorological Organization) : 

Regional Commission VI (Europe) : Fourth Session . . . 

IcEF (International Children's Emergency Fund): 

Executive Board 


Cuzco, Peru 

London 

London 

Lake Success 

Brussels 

Paris 

Paris 


June 24^ 
June 25- 
June 27- 
June 27- 


Scheduled July 1 to September 30, 1949 

International Philatelic Exhibition 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization) : 

Meeting of Experts on Copyright 

Conference to Establish an International Coimcil on Arts 


July 1- 

July 4- 
July 18- 


in General Education. 
Meeting of Commission on Technical Needs in Press, 

Radio, and Films. 
Mass Illiteracy Seminar and Seminar for Teachers . . . 

Committee of F^xperts on Engineering Sciences 

Committee of Experts on Reproduction in Visual Art . . 
International Technical Conference on the Protection of 

Nature. 
Executive Board" 16th Session 


Paris 

Rio de Janeiro 

Paris 

Paris 


July 25- 

July 27- 
Aug. 16- 
Aug. 22- 


Lake Success 

Paris 

Paris 

Paris 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Lake Success 

Geneva 

Paris 

Geneva 

Lake Success 

Washington 

Lausanne 

Geneva 

Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro . 
Rio de Janeiro 

Helsinki 

Washington 

London 

Europe 

London 

Brussels 

Central America 

Washington 

Geneva 

Undetermined 


Aug. 22- 
Sept. 3-16 


Committee of Experts on Exchange of Persons Problems . 


Sept. 9- 
Sept. 19- 
July 4- 

July 5- 


Twelfth International Conference on Pubhc Education . . 
United Nations: 

Ecosoc (Economic and Social Council) : 

Ninth Session 


Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilization 

of Resources. 
Conference on Road and Motor Transport 


Aug. 17- 

Aug. 23- 
Sept. 19- 
Sept. 26- 
September 

July 5- 

July 6- 

July 8- 


Permanent Central Opium Board: 54th Session .... 

Interim Coordinating Committee for International Com- 
modity Arrangements. 

International Wheat Council: First Session 

Imo (International Meteorological Organization): 

Annual Session 

Who (World Health Organization): 


First Pan American Congress of Engineering 

Second Pan American Congress of Social Service 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization): 


July 8- 
July 10-17 

July 10-20 


Meeting of Farm Machinery Supply Countries 

Meeting of Specialists on Control of Pests and Diseases of 
Field Crops. 

Meeting of Specialists on Agricultural Extension .... 

Meeting of Specialists on Foot-and- Mouth-Disease Con- 
trol. 

Fourth Meeting of Technical Committee on Wood Chem- 
istry. 


July 25- 2 
July 

Aug. 1- 
Aug. 14- 

August 

September 


Meeting of Technical Committee on Food Composition . 

Meeting on Mechanical Wood Technology 

European Forestry and Forest Products Commission . . 


September 
September 
September 



£50 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled July 1 to September 30, 1949— Continued 

Ilo (International Lal)or Organization): 

Meeting of Executive Representatives of Governments 

and Specialized Agencies on Migration. 
Industrial Committee on Metal Trades: Third Session . . 
Permanent Agricultural Committee: Third Session . . . 
Technical Tripartite Conference on Safety in Coal Mines . 

Conference for the Revision of the 1945 Bermuda Tele- 
communications Agreement. 

International Penal and Penitentiary Commission: 

Meeting of the Executive Committee 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 
Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference: 

Second Session 

Fourth Meeting of the Administrative Council 

Meeting of the International Penal and Penitentiary Com- 
mission. 

XIV International Veterinary Congress 

Venice International Film Festival 

Twelfth International Dairy Congress 

Izmir International Fair 

International Seed Testing Association: Meeting of the 
Constitutional Committee. 

Tenth International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art . . 

Pan American Institute of Geography and History: 

First Pan American Consultation on Geography . . . . 

Diplomatic Conference on the Revision of the Convention 
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. 

Cannes Film Festival 

29th International Congress of Americanists 

International Statistical Institute: 26th Session 

Budapest International Fair 

Vienna International Fair 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; 
Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors 

International Monetary Fund: Fourth Annual Meeting of 
the Board of Governors. 

Third North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement 
Conference. 

Royal Netherlands Industry Fair 

XVII International Navigation Congress 

Iko General Council: Third Session 

International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar 
Analysis. 

First Session of the Inter- American Council of Jurists 



Geneva 



The Hague 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 
London . . 



Bern 



Paris . 
Geneva 
Bern . 



London . . . 
Venice . . . 
Stockholm . . 
Izmir, Turkey 
Belfast . . . 



Venice 



Santiago 
Switzerland 



Cannes . . 
New York-. 

Bern 

Budapest 

Vienna 

Washington. 

Washington. 

Ottawa 



Utrecht. 
Lisbon _ . 
Geneva. 
Prague.. 



Rio de Janeiro. 



July 18- 



1949 



Aug. 22- 

August or September 

Sept. 12- 

July 21- 



July 30- 



Aug. 1- 
Aug. 15- 
Aug. 1- 

Aug. 8- 
Aug. 11- 
Aug. 15- 
Aug. 20- 
Aug. 24- 

August 

August 

August or September 



Sept. 2- 
Sept. 5-12 
Sept. 3-10 
Sept. 3-18 
Sept. 11- 
Sept. 12- 

Sept. 12- 

Sept. 13- 

September 
September 
September 
September 

September 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
» Tentative. 



ADDRESS BY WILLARD L. THORP 

On June 23 Assistant Secretary Thorp 
delivered an address on the subject of The 
Church and International Kelations at the 
Sixth International Congregational Council, 
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass., June 23. 
Text was issued as press release 476. 



CORRECTIONS 

In the Bulletin of June 19, 1949, left col- 
umn, 4th line, the third word, '"path" should 
be "task". The sentence should read "The 
task is difficult and requires firm determina- 
tion and steadfast effort." In the same col- 
umn, tlie 32d line "peace. The task is difficult 
and requires firm de-" should be deleted. 

This correction applies also to the Bulle- 
tin Reprint of "Essential Elements of Last- 
ing Peace", publication 3553. 



July 4, J 949 



851 



The Lisbon Conference on Central and South African 
Transportation Problems 



by Maxwell Harway 



European colonial powers of Central Africa 
and the Union of South Africa have taken the first 
step toward the organization of a permanent re- 
gional council for the coordination of transport 
for Africa, south of the Equator. The fonnation 
of this permanent council ^ may result in expand- 
ing the Congo Basin treaty ^ to include a larger 
geogi-aphic area. 

This was the outstanding achievement of the 
Conference on Central African Transportation 
which met at Lisbon, Portugal, May 24 to May 31, 
1949, at the invitation of the Portuguese Govern- 
ment. Participating in the work of this Confer- 
ence were the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, 
Portugal, and the Union of South Africa.^ The 
United States of America was represented by 
observers.* 

The Conference, which had been convened pri- 
marily to fix a time and place and prepare an 
agenda for a subsequent meeting in Africa to 



' For the functions and structure of this permanent 
council see appendix VIII to Final Act, p. 856. 

^ Revision of the General Act of Berlin of February 26, 
1885, and the General Act and Declaration of Brussels of 
July 2, 1890 ; convention between United States of America 
and other powers — signed at Salnt-Germain-en-Laye, Sept. 
10, 1919 ( generally called the Congo Basin treaty ) . Treaty 
Series 877. 

^Chiefs of Delegation: 

United Kingdom : Sir Nigel Ronald, British Ambassador 
at Lislwn, 

Portugal : Dr. Ruy Ulrich, President of the Faculty of 
Law at University of Lisbon and Former Ambassador at 
London. 

France : M. Jean du Sault, French Ambassador at Lisbon. 

Belgium : M. Debacker, Royal Inspector of colonies. 

Union of South Africa : Dr. P. R. Botha, South African 
Minister at Lisbon. 

* The United States was represented by three observers : 

Abbot Low Moffat, Chief of Trade, Finance and Develop- 
ment Section, Eca Mission to London ; John E. Orchard, 
Special Adviser on Development of Overseas Territories, 
OSR, Paris; MaxweU Harway, Office of Transport and 
Communications, Department of State. 

' See p. 854. 
' Appendix VII to Final Act, p. 856. 

852 



promote the development of adequate transporta- 
tion resources in the region, was expanded during 
the course of its proceedings. The enlargement 
of the scope of the Conference took the form of 
recommendations to the participating govern- 
ments for immediate action and other recommen- 
dations for considei-ation by the Plenary Con- 
ference, which was designated to meet in Johannes- 
burg, South Africa, in October 1950. 

The recommendations of the Lisbon Conference 
were incorporated in a Final Act^ which recog- 
nizes the regional character of the transportation 
problems to be solved. This Final Act contains 
nine appendices, each covering a different aspect 
of the Conference deliberations. Wliile the Final 
Act consists of recommendations for considera- 
tion by the governments and for action by the 
Johannesburg Conference, it was adopted by 
unanimous agreement and, consequently, has a 
moral standing beyond the preliminary legal 
character of the document. 

The Lisbon Conference considered and referred 
for final action a series of general principles gov- 
erning international traffic which were drawn from 
the Congo Basin treaty." The Portuguese For- 
eign Minister, Dr. Caeiro da Mata, in opening the 
Conference, and the British Ambassador, in re- 
sponse to the Foreign Minister, both referred to 
the Congress of Berlin of 1885 and expressed their 
belief that this Conference was a continuation and 
an extension of the work of the Berlin Congress.'^ 
On another occasion, the presiding officer of the 
Conference, Dr. Ulrich, indicated that the gen- 
eral principles being referred to the Johannesburg 
Conference would extend the principles of the 
Congo Basin treaty to a larger geographic area. 

The Johannesburg Plenary Conference will 
have representatives from all the governments 
at the Lisbon Conference, plus Southern Rhodesia, 
East African High Commission, High Commission 
Territories in South Africa, Northern Rhodesia, 

Department of State Bulletin 



Yyasaland, General Government of Angola, Gen- 
eral Gnvornnicnt of Mozambique, tlie Aihniiiistra- 
tion of the Belgian Congo, and the Administration 
of French Equatorial Afi-ica. The United States 
has again been invited to send observers. 

During the period between the Lisbon and the 
Johannesburg Conferences, an interim organiza- 
tion will be established at Pretoria, South Africa, 
to act as a clearing house on transport questions 
and to prejiare for the Plenary Conference.^ 

The participating governments agreed to keep 
each other informed through the interim organi- 
zation of all changes and developments in inland 
transport facilities and operations and to take 
no action which might affect the transportation 
systems of neighboring territories without prior 
consultation with the affected countries. The 
problem of railway tariff structures received ex- 
amination by the delegations and the participat- 
ing governments were requested to "examine their 
railway rating systems with a view to establish- 
ing whether the development of the territories 
was being retarded or likely to be retarded by 
the railway tariff structure in operation." Fur- 
thermore, the governments will consider placing 
on the agenda of the Johannesburg Conference 
the question of interterritorial and international 
railway tariffs." A number of long-term port and 
railway projects were referred for subsequent con- 
sideration by the Plenary Conference.^" 

As an immediate measure for improving trans- 
port facilities in the region,^^ the Lisbon Confer- 
ence recommended "that the Government of Por- 
tugal should be urged to proceed immediately with 
the extension and improvement of the Port of 
Beira in Mozambique." It was further recom- 
mended that the Government of Southern Rho- 
desia should be urged to proceed immediately with 
the construction of a rail connection with Louren^o 
Marques. The establishment of a direct rail line 
between the Rhodesias and Louren^o Marques will 
provide an additional outlet for the important 
minerals being extracted in the interior and now 
dependent mainly on the overcrowded port of 
Beira. As a further improvement in transport 
from the interior to coastal points the Conference 
recommended consideration of increased use of the 
Benguela Railway and the port of Lobito, Portu- 
guese Angola, on the Atlantic. 

Incorporating the work of a highway subcom- 
mittee, the Final Act recommends development 
of standard vehicle-use regulations and traffic 
codes and agreement on construction and main- 
tenance standards for international road traffic 
for final consideration at the Plenary Conference.^^ 

The Lisbon Conference followed earlier confer- 
ences among European colonial powers in Africa 
on tropical medicine and agriculture. Conse- 
quently, it emphasized once again the willingness 
of these countries to cooperate in the common in- 

Ju/y 4, 7949 

843281 — 49 3 



terest. In recommending to their governments 
the permanent coordination of transport, tlie dele- 
gates were aware of the historical importance of 
such cooperation and all the final speeches took 
notice of the importance of joint action in Africa 
for European recovery, world trade, and the po- 
tentialities of African economic development. 

' From the opening remarks of the Portuguese Foreign 
Minister, May 24, 1949 : 

"Africa is a prolongation of Europe : the Mediterranean 
does not separate them ; on the contrary, it is the link 
between the two continents. Africa is the integration of 
Europe. The possibilities of Africa require a survey for 
the benefit of humankind 

"It has been the aim of Europe and America to co- 
operate in Africa on a large scale. The Conference of 
Berlin in 1SS5 was one of the first attempts to this effect. 
Great changes have taken place since then and many years 
will proliably have to lapse before this ideal is carried 
out. It is in order to remove as far as possible the ob- 
stacles to the free circulation of goods that the Con- 
ference meets in Lisbon today, and I feel sure that you 
will find a solution to the problem facing you. In the 
first international treaties relative to Africa or zones of 
Africa the principle of freedom of commerce, of estab- 
lishment, and of communications has been recognized as 
essential." 

From the remarks of the British Ambassador, May 24, 
1949: 

"Tour Excellency alluded to the Conference of Berlin. 
That Conference took place in 1885. For more than 60 
years we have been fiddling with the problem of how to 
bring some .sort of order into the transport system of 
Africa. Up to now, too many fine schemes have come to 
grief owing to the obtrusion of sectional interests of the 
shareholders ; the interests of the territorial authorities ; 
the interests of national price. Far too many people have 
thought first and foremost of the axes they themselves 
wished to grind. Indeed, there have grown up a series 
of agreements, which could almost be classed as agree- 
ments for restraint of trade. Agreements have been 
entered into to defiect the passage of goods away from 
obvious and natural economic channels. It has even 
been alleged that there have been failures to observe 
the spirit of international treaties. We cannot hope to go 
on, each of us regarding only his own interests. We find 
ourselves now under an impulsion which never previously 
existed. We have got to pull together if we are to hope 
to survive at all. We have got to see to it that Africa 
makes a really worth-while contribution to world 
recovery. 

"We cannot, of course, hope to build up over-night a new 
world center of heavy industry in Africa south of the 
Equator. Whatever else Africa has to give in the nest ten 
or fifteen years, we can be sure that disappointment will 
figure fairly prominently on the list of her exports. But 
we can at least hope to attain the more limited objective of 
building up in Africa those local centres of industry 
which will lessen the strains and stresses of having to 
import every manufactured article from overseas and of 
providing those auxiliary forward bases of heavy industry 
which are essential for quick development . . . But, one 
thing is quite certain, that is that none of those plans will 
come to fruition without a rational transport system." 

' Appendix I to Final .\ct p. 85.5. 

° Appendix IX to Final .\ct p. 8.56. 

"Appendix IV to Final Act p. 8.56. 

" Appendix II to Final Act p. 855. 

^- Appendix V to Final Act p. 856. 

853 



Final Act Conference on Central African Transportation Problems 



Lisbon, 31st May, 1949. 

Whereas the Governments of Belgium, France, Portugal, 
the Union of South Africa, and the United Kingdom recog- 
nise that the development of the economic resources of Cen- 
tral Africa is essential to the social and economic advance- 
ment of the peoples of this region, that this advancement 
is the constant preoccupation of the Governments con- 
cerned, wlio have already for several years cooperated 
successfully in technical matters concerning the territories 
for which they are responsible; 

Whereas the development of the resources of Central 
Africa should normally lead to an increased interchange 
with Europe, America and the other Continents and will 
therefore be in the interest of the entire world ; 

Whereas, they recognise that a sound and coordinated 
development of port and transport facilities in Central 
Africa is basic to such development; that such develop- 
ment must be directed to the benefit of the region as a 
whole; and that decisions regarding such development 
must be taken with that consideration in mind ; 

And whereas they have caused their delegates to as- 
semble at a preliminary conference in Lisbon at the invi- 
tation of the Portuguese Government to consider these 
problems within the framework of the following terms of 
reference : 

(o) To examine the present conditions of land and 
water transport in Africa in the areas referred to in (e) 
below, and their present state of efficiency and develop- 
ment ; 

( 6 ) To exchange information on the plans of the various 
territories concerned in relation to railway and port con- 
struction, development of inland waterways and extension 
of trunk roads serving inter-territorial functions : 

(c) To examine the possibility of inter-relating these 
plans in the best interests of the territories concerned as 
a whole; 

((/) To draft an agenda for a full-scale conference of 
governments with technical assistance to be held in Africa 
at a later date; to fix an approximate date for such a 
Conference and to decide its venue ; 

(p) To define the area witliin the scope of the Confer- 
ence as comprising Angola, Basutoland, Bechuanaland 
Protectorate, Belgian Congo, British East Africa, French 
Equatorial Africa, Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasa- 
land. Southern Rhodesia, South West Africa, Swaziland 
and the Union of South Africa. 

Be it Resolved by those assembled delegates to recom- 
mend to their respective Governments : — 

1. That the Governments should co-operate in the devel- 
opment of Central African port and transport facilities on 
a regional basis and work together to that end. 

2. That to carry out this policy of co-operation, a Plenary 
Conference should be convened at Johannesburg in Oc- 
tober, 1950 to consider fully the matters outlined in the 
agenda set forth in paragraph 9. 

3. That the following Governments and Administra- 
tions not represented at the Lisbon Conference should be 



invited to send representatives, including technical ex- 
perts, to the Plenary Conference ; Southern Rhodesia, 
East Africa High Commission, High Commission Terri- 
tories in South Africa, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, 
Government General of Angola, Government General of 
Mozambique, tlie Administration of the Belgian Congo 
and the Administration of French Equatorial Africa, and 
also that the United States of America be invited to send 
an observer or observers to such Plenary Conference. 

4. That an interim organisation should be established 
as soon as possible at Pretoria to deal with matters aris- 
ing prior to the Plenary Conference and to ensure that 
when the Plenary Conference meets it shall have before 
it all pertinent data. Detailed recommendations regard- 
ing the constitution and functions of such interim organ- 
isation are set forth in Appendix 1. 

5. That each Government should keep the interim organ- 
isation fully and currently informed, for prompt trans- 
mission to the other Governments, of all changes, im- 
provements and developments in inter-territorial or in- 
ternational port and transport facilities and operations 
within its territories. 

6. That each Government should take no action relat- 
ing to inter-territorial or international port or transport 
facilities or operations which might affect inter-territorial 
or international transportation or the intra-territorial 
transportation of other territories without prior consulta- 
tion with the country or countries affected thereby. 

7. That the Governments, between now and the Plenary 
Conference to be convened in Johannesburg examine their 
railway rating systems with a view to establishing 
whether the development of the territories served is being 
retarded or likely to be retarded by the railway tariff 
structure in operation. 

8. That each Government should proceed, without await- 
ing the Plenary Conference to be convened in Johannes- 
burg, with developments which will promote Central 
African inter-territorial and international port and trans- 
port facilities and operations. In particular the Govern- 
ments concerned should proceed with the specific develop- 
ments referred to in Appendix 11. 

9. That the following agenda should b& adopted by the 
Plenary Conference to be convened in Johannesburg: 

AGENDA 

(i) To receive and consider plans for the development 
of inter-territorial and international port and transport 
facilities. (Conference resolutions on this point will be 
found in appendices III, IV, V and VI.) 

(ii) To make recommendations for the correlation and 
co-ordination of the plans submitted to it. 

(iii) To consider and recommend the priorities to be 
allocated to the developments, in respect of their urgency 
from a regional viewpoint and of the availability of sup- 
plies and finance. 

(iv) To receive a report on the improvements effected 
in port and transport facilities and operations since the 
Lisbon Conference was held. 

(v) To examine proposals designed to facilitate the 



854 



Department of State Bulletin 



1 movement of inter-territorial and international traffic. 
I Conference resolution on this point will be found In 
Ajipendix VII.) 

(vi) To consider the settinir up of a permanent organi- 
sation for co-ordinating and advising: on tlie development 
and operation of inter-territorial and international trans- 
ptirt in the area within the purview of the Conference. 
(Conference resolution on this ixiint will be found in 
Appendix VIII.) 

(vii) Other business. (A Conference resolution perti- 
nent to this point will be found in Appendix IX.) 

10. That the Governments represented at Lisbon should 
signify through tlie usual diplomatic channels their appro- 
val of this Final Act to the other Governments concerned 
as soon as may be. 

APPENDIX I 

(To Final Act) 

Be It Resolved: That there should be immediately estab- 
lished at Pretoria ^ a small interim organisation on the 
following basis and with the following functions — 

(i) The interim organisation should be composed in the 
first instance of a secretary who would l)e provided with 
such clerical assistance as may be necessary ; 

(ii) The cost of tlie interim organisation should fall 
equally upon the participating Governments and Admin- 
istrations ; 

(ill) The functions of the interim organisation should 
be : — To receive and collate the information called for in 
items (i) and (iv) of the recommended Agenda for the 
Plenary Conference to be convened in Johannesburg ; To 
seek such further information as appears to the Secretary 
to be necessary for the deliberations of the Plenary Con- 
ference ; To circulate such information to tlie member 
Governments and Administrations ; 

(iv) If it appears to the Secretary that a decision re- 
quires to be taken on any matter Ijefore the meeting of 
the Plenary Conference, he should, with the consent of 
the participating Governments and Administrations, con- 
vene a meeting of suitable experts to be appointed by 
Governments and Administrations to advise on that 
question ; 

(v) When a decision has been taken as to the head- 
quarters of the permanent organisation, the interim or- 
ganisation should, if this proves to be necessary, be trans- 
ferred to the permanent venue and thus compose the 
nucleus of the permanent organisation. 

APPENDIX II 

(To Final Act) 

Whereas the Conference has considered the import 
and export traffic requirements of the Central African 
territories in relation to available port capacity, and 
has found : 

(1) That the total traffic requirements of Northern 
and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland are estimated to 
amount by 1952 to 2,950,000 short tons per annum (it be- 
ing understood that in view of the Portuguese Delegation 
it is unnecessary to provide in the estimate of traffic 
offering for local traffic requirements or the output from 
the Tete coalfield other than coal for ship bunkering 
purposes) ; 

(2) That the port of Beira has a capacity at present 
of 1,600,000 tons, which can be raised within a short pe- 
riod by 400,000 tons by extension of berthing, and by a 
further 400,000 tons by the installation of mechanical 
loading facilities for minerals, as recommended by the 
Joint Mission of Survey In their report dated 10th Octo- 
ber, 1947; 

(3) That there will thus remain a short-fall of port 
capacity lielow traffic offering of the order of 550,000 tons 

July 4, 1949 



and that adequate facilities for handling this traffic exist 
at Lourengo Marques ; 

Be It Resolved: That it is urgently necessary to provide 
additional facilities for the exi>ort and import traffic of 
Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland and 
to tbis end : 

(1) The Government of Portugal should be urged to 
proceed immediately with the extension and imijrovements 
of the Port of Beira to the capacity indicated above; 

(2) The Government of Southern Rhodesia should be 
urged to ijroceed immediately with the construction of a 
rail connection with Lourengo Marques. The line that can 
be built with the least delay is that linking West Nicholson 
with Beitbridge; 

(3) The improvements of capacity at Beira and the 
construction of the new railway link with Louren<;o 
Marques should be put in hand concurrently, and at the 
same time the Government of the Union of South Africa 
should make the improvements to the railway from 
Zoekmekaar to Komatipoort for the additional traffic 
which will have to be carried by this line ; 

(4) The possibility should be examined of making more 
use of the Benguela Railway and the Port of Lobito for 
traffic arising which it may be impracticable to convey by 
the other routes. 

APPENDIX III 

(Final Act) 

Be It Resolved: That each Government and Administra- 
tion should prepare and submit to the Plenary Conference 
to be convened in Johannesburg for its consideration in- 
formation on the following matters : 

Railways 

(1) Full statistics relating to existing systems and 

capacity ; 
(ii) Plans for the further development of existing routes ; 
(ill ) Proposed routes showing gauge to be used ; 
(iv) Connections with other .systems; 
(v) Estimates of capacity of proposed routes; 
(vi) Economic conditions and prospects in the country 

to be traversed ; 
(vii) Forecasts of tonnages of exports and imports and 

types of commodities; 
(viii) Internal traffic ; 
(ix) Diversion of traffic, if any, from other routes ; 
(x) Internal effect of construction of new lines, e. g. 
change of gauge, braking systems, etc. 
Ports 

(i) Full statistics relating to existing ports including 

details of existing capacity ; 
(ii) Proposals for new construction and equipment, in- 
cluding details of potential capacity; 
(iii) Forecasts of tonnages of exports and imports; 
(iv) Diversion of traffic, if any, from other routes. 
Roads 

(i) Full statistics relating to mileage and standards of 
existing international road systems; 
(ii) Diversion of traffic, if any, from other transport 
systems. 
Inland WatcJ-ways 

(i) Full statistics relating to existing systems; 
( ii ) Proposals for development ; 

(iii) Diversion of traffic, if any, from other transport 
systems. 
Maps 

All Statements should be accompanied by suitable 
maps and, where feasible, by suitable photographs. 



' Pursuant to a resolution of the Conference that "the 
question of the venue at which the provisional organisa- 
tion should be set up should be decided by the Government 
or Administration of the territory in which it is agreed 
that the Conference in Africa should be held." 

855 



APPENDIX IV 

(Final Act) 
Be It Resolved: That the following long-term port and 
railway projects should be considered by the Plenary 
Conference to be convened in Johannesburg — 

(1) The suggested connection from the Rhodesia Rail- 
way system to the East African system and the port of 
Mtwara. In this connection the Government of the 
United Kingdom is invited to conclude the necessary sur- 
veys and reconnaissances before the Plenary Conference; 

(2) The suggested connection from the Rhodesian sys- 
tem to Lourengo Marques via Parfuri ; 

(3) Tlie suggested connection from the port of Nacala 
to the Rhodesian Railway system at Broken Hill ; 

(4) The suggested construction of an additional port 
on the west coast together with a rail connection with 
the hinterland. 

APPENDIX V 

(Final Act) 

Whereas the Conference recognises that to cater ade- 
quately for road traffic, international as well as local, 
suitable construction and maintenance standards as well 
as vehicle use regulations and traffic codes are necessary ; 

Be It Resolved: That the Plenary Conference to be con- 
vened in Johannesburg should consider : 

1. The introduction of a system of designation by the 
Governments concerned of "international highways" in 
accordance with plans co-ordinated on an international 
basis; 

2. The setting up of minimum standards of construction 
and maintenance, as may be dictated by varying degrees 
of road and vehicle use, which should be applied by 
Governments along international highways ; 

3. Tlie preparation of uniform traffic regulations and 
traffic codes (including traffic signs appropriate to the 
African territories) and standards of highway amenities, 
to be commended to the Governments for general adop- 
tion; 

4. Measures for ensuring the full and free interchange 
of the results of research, experimentation and experience 
in highway and road transport matters. 

5. The fiscal regime to be applied to the international 
highways in respect to the circulation of vehicles, the 
supply of petrol and fuel oil, the facilities to be granted 
for the establishment of repair workshops along the roads, 
and telephone communications — as well as the taxes and 
charges for such services as may be available. 

APPENDIX VI 
(To Final Act) 
Be It Resolved: That the possibility of further utiliza- 
tion of tlie Zambesi River for transport should be con- 
sidered by the Plenary Conference to be convened in 
Johannesburg. 

APPENDIX VII 

(To Final Act) 

Be It Resolved: That the Plenary Conference to be con- 
vened in Johannesburg should examine the following pro- 
posals designed to facilitate the movement of inter-terri- 
torial and international traffic ; 

(a) That goods in transit should not be subjected to 
undue delay or to the payment of special taxes except 
those normally imposed for the maintenance of roads 
railways or inland waterways, or to any form of discrim- 
ination; 

(b) That existing customs facilities should be sim- 
plified ; 

(c) That steps should be taken to avoid unnecessary 
delay in the transit of passengers and that they should be 
free from the necessity to obtain visas for the purpose of 
crossing a country ; 

856 



(d) That the right to pass through a country under a 
different sovereignty in respect of persons, luggage and 
goods shall be freely afforded by Governments and Admin- 
istrations. Governments, in adopting measures for the 
proper enforcement of police customs and health regula- 
tions should take into consideration the necessity of facili- 
tating and expediting the transit of inter-territorial 
traffic ; 

(e) That carriages, wagons and rolling stock generally 
may be permitted to pass freely from one transport system 
to another by agreement between the Governments or 
Administrations concerned ; 

(f) That reasonable facilities should be given to the 
nationals of one country who by reason of their duties in 
connection with inter-territorial transport systems are 
obliged to reside in a neighbouring country. 

APPENDIX VIII 

(To Final Act) 

Whereas consideration of the statements and infor- 
mation submitted to the Lisbon Conference by the dele- 
gations has led the Conference to the conclusion that, 
if the transport problems of the territories with wliieh the 
Conference is concerned are to receive adequate and co- 
ordinated consideration, an inter-territorial transport 
council on a permanent basis should be established ; 

Be It Resolved: That the Lisbon Conference recom- 
mends that the Plenary Conference to be convened in Jo- 
hannesburg should consider the establishment of a per- 
manent inter-territorial council on the following basis and 
with the following functions : — 

(i) The Council should be composed of one delegate 
from each country or administration who should be an 
expert in transport matters ; 

(ii) The Council should have the power to co-opt fur- 
ther experts for the consideration of particular problems 
as required ; 

(iii) The Council should meet from time to time as 
may be required ; 

(iv) The Council should have a permanent secretariat 
financed jointly by member Governments and Administra- 
tions ; it should be housed at some convenient central 
point ; 

(v) The Council should — 

(o) consult upon any problems of transport brought to 
its notice by member Governments and Administrations 
and advise uixm their solution. The member Governments 
and Administrations would be empowered to bring to 
notice any problem affecting tran.sport within, or to or 
from their own territories, whether of a short term nature 
such as the congestion of a particular port or railway line, 
or of a long term nature involving, for example, expected 
future transport requirements ; in any question in dispute 
preference should be given to the claims of the land- 
locked territories ; 

(6) consider the systematic preparation and tabulation 
of information concerning inter-territorial transport facil- 
ities in Africa, and to prepare estimates of future require- 
ments for the information of member Governments ; 

(c) advise, as requested by member Governments and 
Administrations, upon the prima facie practicability of 
any designated inter-territorial route. 

APPENDIX IX 

(To Final Act) 

Be It Resolved: That the Governments represented at 
tlie Lisbon Conference should consider adding to the 
Agenda of the Plenary Conference to be convened in Jo- 
hannesburg the question of inter-territorial and interna- 
tional railway tariffs. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



The Paris Conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers 



COMMUNIQUE 

[Released to the Press June 21] 

The sixth session of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers attended by the Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs of France, Robert Schmnan; of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, A. Y. Vyshinsky; 
of the United Kingdom, Ernest Bevin; and of 
the United States of America, Dean Acheson, took 
place in Paris from May 23 to June 20, 1949. 
During this meeting the German question and the 
Austrian treaty were discussed. The Council of 
Foreign Ministers took the following decisions. 

I. The German Question 

Despite the inability at this session of the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers to reach agreement on 
the restoration of the economic and political unity 
of Germany, the Foreign Ministers of France, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States will continue 
their efforts to acliieve this result and in particu- 
lar now agree as follows: 

1. During the course of the fourth session of 
the General Assembly of the United Nations to 
be convened next September, the four govern- 
ments, through representatives at the Assembly, 
will exchange views regarding the date and other 
arrangements for the next session of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers on the German question. 

2. The occupation autliorities, in the light of the 
intention of the Ministers to continue their efforts 
to achieve the restoration of the economic and 
political unity of Germany, shall consult together 
in Berlin on a quadripartite basis. 

3. These consultations will have as their pur- 
pose, among others, to mitigate the effects of the 
present administrative division of Germany and 
of Berlin, notably in the matters listed below: 



( A ) Expansion of trade and development of the 
financial and economic relations between the West- 
ern zones and the Eastern zone and between Berlin 
and the zones. 

(B) Facilitation of the movement of persons 
and goods and the exchange of information be- 
tween the Western zones and the Eastern zone 
and between Berlin and the zones. 

(C) Consideration of questions of common in- 
terest relating to the administration of the four 
sectors in Berlin with a view to normalizing as 
far as possible the life of the city. 

4. In order to assist in the Avork envisaged in 
paragrajDh 3, the respective occupation authorities 
may call upon German experts and appropriate 
German organizations in their respective jurisdic- 
tions for assistance. Tlie Germans so called upon 
should exchange pertinent data, prepare reports 
and, if agi'eed between them, submit proposals to 
the occupation authorities. 

5. The Governments of France, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, 
and tlie United States agree that the New York 
agreement of May 4, 1949, shall be maintained.^ 
Moreover, in order to promote further the aims set 
forth in the preceding paragraphs and in order to 
improve and supplement this and other arrange- 
ments and agreements as regards the movement of 
persons and goods and communications between 
the Eastern zone and the Western zones and be- 
tween the zones and Berlin and also in regard to 
transit, the occupation authorities, eacli in his own 
zone, will have an obligation to take tlie measures 
necessary to insure the normal functioning and 
utilization of rail, water, and road transport for 
such movement of persons and goods and such 
communications by post, telephone, and telegraph. 

6. The occupation authorities will recommencl to 
the leading German economic bodies of the Eastern 
and Western zones to facilitate the establishment 
of closer economic ties between the zones and more 



• Bulletin of May 15, 1949, p. 631. 



July 4, 7949 



857 



effective implementation of trade and other eco- 
nomic agreements. 

II. The Austrian Treaty 

The Foreign Ministers have agreed : 

(A) That Austria's frontiers shall be those of 
January 1, 1938; 

(B) That the treaty for Austria shall provide 
that Austria shall guarantee to protect the rights 
of the Slovene and Croatian minorities in Austria ; 

(C) That reparations shall not be exacted from 
Austria, but that Yugoslavia shall have the right 
to seize, retain, or liquidate Austrian property, 
rights and interests within Yugoslav territory ; 

(D) That the Soviet Union shall receive from 
Austria $150,000,000 in freely convertible currency 
to be paid in six years ; 

( E ) That the definitive settlement shall include : 

( 1 ) The relinquishment to Austria of all prop- 
erty, rights or interests held or claimed as German 
assets and of war industrial enterprises, houses, 
and similar immovable property in Austria held or 
claimed as war booty, on the understanding that 
the deputies will be instructed to define more ac- 
curately the categories of war booty transferred to 
Austria (with the exception of those oil assets and 
DDSG— Danube Shipping Company — properties 
transferred to the Soviet Union under other para- 
graphs of article 35 of the treaty indicated in the 
U.S.S.R. proposals of January 24, 1948, asrevised, 
and retained in general under Austrian jurisdic- 
tion). Accordingly the assets of the DDSG in 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Eumania as well as 100 
percent of the assets of the company in eastern 
Austria in accordance with a list to be agreed upon 
by the deputies will be transferred to the U.S.S.R. 

(2) That the rights, properties, and interests 
transferred to the U.S.S.R. as well as the rights, 
properties, and interests which the U.S.S.R. cedes 
to Austria shall be transferred without any charges 
or claims on the part of the U.S.S.R. or on the part 
of Austria. At the same time it is understood 
that the words "charges or claims" mean not only 
creditor claims as arising out of the exercise of 
the Allied control of these rights, properties, and 
interests after May 8, 1945, but also all other 
claims including claims in respect of taxes. It is 
also miderstood that the reciprocal waivers by the 
U.S.S.R. and Austria of charges and claims apply 
to all such charges and claims as exist on the date 
when Austria formalizes the rights of the U.S.S.R. 
to the German assets transferred to it and on the 
date of the actual transfer to Austria of the assets 
ceded by the U.S.S.R. 

(F) That all former German assets which have 
become the property of the U.S.S.R. shall not be 
subject to alienation without the consent of the 
U.S.S.R. 



(G) That the deputies shall resume their work 
promptly for the purpose of reaching agreement 
not later than September 1, 1949, on the draft 
treaty as a whole. 

STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT TRUMAN 

[Released to the Press hy the White House June 21] 

The Secretary of State has given me daily re- 
ports, and now a final report, on the recently con- 
cluded session of the Council of Foreign Ministers 
in Paris. 

Genuine progress was made at this session 
toward the conclusion of the treaty with Austria. 
This is a development which I know will be most 
welcome to the people of Austria, who for 4 years 
since the end of hostilities have lived under a 
regime of occupation. Almost 6 years ago, at the 
first Moscow conference in 1943, it was solemnly 
declared that Austria was to be regarded not as 
an enemy country but as a liberated country, the 
first victim of Nazi aggression, and it has been the 
consistent effort of the United States Government 
and the Governments of the United Kingdom and 
France to honor the pledge made at that time. 
Yet previous meetings of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers and their deputies failed to remove the 
obstacles which certain Soviet claims concerning 
Austria placed in the way of a speedy conclusion 
of a treaty with the Austrian Republic. 

At the Paris session the more important of these 
obstacles were finally removed by a freely nego- 
tiated agreement among the Four Powers, and we 
have reason to hope that before the end of the year 
the treaty may be signed. Svich a positive achieve- 
ment would be very gratifying. The Austrian 
people will acclaim this progress, and they in turn 
should be commended for their attitude of patient 
understanding throughout the protracted nego- 
tiations. The Austrian Government has been cur- 
rently consulted during the negotiations in Paris, 
and the agreement reached preserves intact the 
vital interests of Austria. It can be said that the 
goal so important for Austria and her people is 
at last in sight. The United States Government 
wholeheartedly welcomes the results of the confer- 
ence on Austria. 

The same cannot be said regarding Germany. 
It must be frankly admitted that despite the for- 
ward-looking program sponsored by the Western 
powers as a basis for unification, little jirogress 
was made. The American delegatioon went to 
Paris with the serious intention of developing a 
constructive program which would meet the re- 
quirements for all of Germany and would safe- 
guard the interests of all Four Powers in insuring 
that Germany would achieve its reconstruction 
along peaceful and democratic lines. At the same 
time, the Western powers were determined not to 
compromise the democratic principles and the 
conditions which must be established throughout 



858 



Department of State Bulletin 



Germany before an economically sound and work- 
able solution can be found for German unity. 
They were equally determined not to jeopardize 
the basic freedoms as thej' now exist in Western 
Germany merely to obtain a nominal political 
unity. In these objectives they knew they had the 
support of the freely elected representatives of the 
majority of the German people. 

The Soviet Union, on the other hand, sought a 
return to Potsdam and its system, which the Rus- 
sians had rendered unworkable by their misuse 
of the unlimited veto. They refused to recognize 
the important progress which has been made in 
Western Germany since 1945. 

In these circumstances, real progress for the uni- 
fication of Germany and its people was impossible. 
The most that could be achieved was a working 
arrangement designed to mitigate the abnormal 
situation of a still divided Germany. This ar- 
rangement is no more nor less than what it pro- 
fesses to be — a means of dealing with what ac- 
tually exists. It reaffirms the lifting of the Ber- 
lin blockade and contains the recognition by the 
occupation authorities of their obligation to insure 
the movement of persons and goods between the 
Eastern and Western zones and between Berlin 
and the zones. 

In an effort to mitigate the economic conse- 
quences of tlie existing division of Germany, the 
arrangement provides for consultation among the 
Occupation authorities of the four Occupying 
Powers on practicable and useful measures which 
may be taken from time to time, particularly to 
facilitate and increase the flow of balanced trade 
between tlie different zones and the zones and 
sectors of Berlin in a manner advantageous to the 
Germans of the respective areas. To this end we 
are also prepared to call upon the expert assistance 
of the Germans in the Western zones and sectors. 
Since it proved impossible to establish a unified 
administration for Germany or even ^or Berlin, 
the present dual currency system must remain 
for the time being. 

We are hopeful that such consultations and 
efforts may be fruitful. We shall endeavor to 
make them so. 

Finally, our working arrangement calls for an 
exchange of views in the fall. Thus the door is 
left open to future efforts for a solution of the 
German problem and the achievement of peace in 
Europe. 

The Secretarj' of State has informed me of the 
close cooperation and understanding which char- 
acterized the relations of the three Western pow- 
ers througliout tlie conference. I take much satis- 
faction in this. It is a demonstration of the prog- 
ress made possible by the identity of ideals and 
values which are the common heritage of the peo- 
ples of the Atlantic community. 

I am convinced that the results of the Paris 
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers reveal 
the correctness of the policies this goverimient 



has been following in our foreign affairs. The 
results again underline the necessity of pursuing 
these policies with calmness and determination, 
as the only sure road to the establishment of con- 
ditions in the world where peace and freedom can 
live and endure. I am confident that the Ameri- 
can people see this as clearly as I do and that 
there will be no slackening of our efforts to achieve 
the great task which history has placed upon our 
country. 

REPORTS TO CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES 
ON RESULTS OF CONFERENCE 

Statements hy SecretaTy Acheson 

[Released to the Press June 22] 

Following his meeting with the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee, in executive session, on June 
22, Secretary of State Dean Acheson issued the fol- 
lowing statement : 

Prior to my departure for Paris to attend the 
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers, I met 
with the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 
executive session, outlining the problems we ex- 
pected to face and discussing our plans. I have 
just met again witli the members of the Committee. 
I reported upon the Conference and discussed with 
the Committee the possible effect of developments 
at the Conference on our plans for the future. 

I have taken this opportunity to express to the 
Committee my conviction that although some 
worthwhile progress was made at Paris in reach- 
ing agreement on a modus vivendi for Germany 
and on the principal points of difference on the 
Austrian treaty, the failure of the Conference to 
obtain satisfactory and firm agreement on the eco- 
nomic and political unification of Germany illus- 
trates the still widely divergent views on basic is- 
sues between the Soviet Union and the Western 
powers and reemphasizes the utmost imi^ortance of 
ratification of the North Atlantic pact and passage 
of the Military Assistance Program at this session 
of Congress. This is necessary in order that we 
may continue our firm policy in Europe and main- 
tain the momentum which has been stimulated by 
that policy. This momentum, in my opinion, was 
responsible for the lifting of the blockade, the con- 
vening of the Council of Foreign Ministers meet- 
ing, and the accomplishments at that meeting. 

I have expressed to the Committee my convic- 
tion that further progress toward our objective 
over the months ahead will depend on the action 
we take to maintain this momentum. 



[Released to the Press June 23] 

Following his meeting with the House Foreign 
Affairs Committee in executive session on June 
23, Secretary of State Dean Acheson issued the 
following statement : 



July 4, 7949 



859 



I have just met with the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee to report to them on the meeting of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers. I esiDressed to 
them, as I did to the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee yesterday, my conviction that the de- 
velopments at the Conference reemphasize the ut- 
most importance of ratification of the North At- 
lantic pact and passage of the Military Assistance 
Program at this session of Congress. 

EXTEMPORANEOUS REMARKS BY SECRETARY 
ACHESON CONCERNING HIS IMPRESSIONS 
OF THE CONFERENCE 

[Released to the press June 23] 

You have had a great deal of excellent report- 
ing from day to day as to what has been hap- 
pening at Paris with a good deal of interpreta- 
tion as we went along. The President has made a 
very full summary of the ultimate conclusions 
from it. I thought that perhaps the most helpful 
thing I could do today is to give you an impres- 
sion which was made on my mind as to what 
happened and why it happened and where we go 
from here. 

In the first place, I think it is important that 
everybody understands, and I am sure you do, 
although I doubt whether people throughout the 
country do, that these meetings of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers are not battles of individual 
champions where particularly bright ideas are 
whet or sharp maneuvers count for very much. 
It is not the personalities involved, it is not the 
ability of the individuals who represent coimtries, 
which makes a great deal of difference. I think 
the heart of the matter is somewhere else. 

You will recall that General Marshall, follow- 
ing his return from the London Council of Foreign 
Ministers meeting in December 1947, said that 
he did not think that the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters would get much further until there was 
some resolution of the great problem of Europe, 
which was: Is Western Europe going to recover 
and regain its strength, or is it not ? 

General Marshall at that time expressed his con- 
fidence that this would come about and that we 
were going to help. He mentioned the Soviet pre- 
diction that it would not occur. 

It is in the progress that has been achieved in 
the restoration of Western Europe that you should 
look for the explanation of what happened at 
Paris. It has been the success of the cooperative 
efforts in Western Europe to which the United 
States has so greatly contributed in the last two 
years that made this meeting of the Council of 
Foreign Ministers different from its predecessors. 
It was those progi'ams, plus the magnificent suc- 
cess, courage, and performance of the airlift which, 
in the first place, brought about the lifting of the 
blockade, and in the second place, brought about 
the situation which emerged from Paris. In other 
words, these conferences from now on seem to me 

860 



to be like the steam gauge on a boiler, the indicator 
on the steam boilei\ They indicate the pressure 
which has been built up. They indicate the var- 
ious gains or losses in position which have taken 
place between the meetings, and I think that the 
recording of this Conference is that the position of 
the West has grown greatly in strength, and that 
the position of the Soviet Union in regard to the 
struggle for the soul of Europe has changed from 
the offensive to the defensive. 

The significance of this is very important in 
explaining why no agreement was possible about 
Germany. Being on the defensive, the Soviet 
Union was forced to take, or did take at any rate, 
the attitude that it would not relax its hold in any 
way whatever upon any area which it controlled 
in Germany. It would not relax its hold on the 
Eastern zone of Germany or on tlie Eastern sec- 
tors of Berlin. That fact, in and of itself, made 
any agreement impossible because the whole es- 
sence of the Western program was to relax this 
iron grip of military government from the West- 
ern zones of Germany. The whole program of the 
Western powers has been to return as quickly as 
was safe responsibility to the Germans, respon- 
sibility for conducting their own affairs and for 
conducting their own affairs under a system which 
guaranteed the basic human freedoms and con- 
tained the safeguards necessary for the security 
of Europe and of the world. 

That was a program from which we could not 
retreat one single solitary inch. We did not. We 
never could consider it, and no agreement was pos- 
sible on the basis of our retreating from that 
position. 

The Soviet Union was totally unable to accept 
that position because that meant relaxing their 
hold upon what they had. It meant that they 
could no longer carry on this Sovietization, this 
domination of the life of Germany which they 
controlled. To do so they would have to give, 
as we have given, the Germans a large voice in 
the conduct of their own affairs. That the Soviets 
were apparently afraid to do. They knew that if 
they did that, they would no longer be able to 
control what they now hold in Germany. 

That, I think, is the heart of the whole con- 
ference so far as Germany is concerned and it is 
a very significant fact. It indicated that in the 
West we are not on the defensive. We feel that 
strength is returning, that recovery is coming. We 
are willing to say to the Germans, "You must take 
responsibility in your own country, and we want 
to bring you into the life of free Europe, we hope 
before long, as equals." The Russians can not 
say that. They dare not say that, because if they 
relax their hold upon the Eastern Germans, they 
know that they will be no longer able to control 
that area. 

Tliat is one of the central things which I wanted 
to bring up, so that, as I say, as a result of that, 
we refused to make any concessions of fundamental 
principles. We are going forward with our pro- 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



jrram without any hestitation of any sort. Not 
tlie slightest dehiy has been introduced into our 
program in any way whatever, and the program 
is in better sliape today than it ever was before. 
Now, that is a negative result from Paris but it is 
an important one. 

So far as the modus vivendi regarding Germany 
is concerned, that is a very modest document. The 
importance of the Conference is not in that docu- 
ment. It is in what I have been talking about. 
It is in what did not happen rather than in what 
did happen. The 7iiodus Vivendi relaxes the ten- 
sion in Germany. It establishes very clearly that 
the blockade is not to be reimposed. Now, don't 
think that I am naive enough to believe that 
simply because it has been agreed in the modus 
Vivendi that it would not be reimposed; that it, in 
fact, would not be reimposed if conditions seemed 
to warrant that action as a successful operation to 
the Russians. The point is that having consid- 
ered all the matters which in the past have been 
given as reasons for imposing the blockade, the 
currency reform, the London agreement, the for- 
mation of the West German Government — all 
those things — ^have been talked about. At the 
end of four weeks of talks, it is agreed that the 
blockade shall not be reimposed. That is some- 
thing, not much, but it is something. 

The other part of the communique on Germany 
provides for dealing with matters at administra- 
tive levels, so that ordinary difficulties and dis- 
putes may not rise to the levels of governmental 
crises. The High Commissioners, at their level, 
will deal with trade questions between East and 
West Germany if the desire is expressed to ex- 
pand those trade relations. Those trade rela- 
tions will have to be expanded on a balancing and 
equal basis. No one is going to extend credit to 
anyone else, therefore, exports must balance, and 
they must balance not only in terms of amount but 
in terms of essentiality. All those matters will be 
worked out if they can be worked out by the High 
Commissioners. But a forum is established, a 
place where meetings can take place between East 
and West so that these matters do not rise to the 
point of creating great issues between the govern- 
ments. Similarly, in Berlin, arrangements have 
been made so that the Commandants can meet and 
discuss the thousand and one problems of the split 
city. No power is given. No veto resides in any- 
body, but a forum again is created where people 
can meet and talk about the intensely irritating 
situation which would exist here in Washington if 
this city were split at Fourteenth Street and you 
had one government on one side with one cur- 
rency and another government on the other side 
with another currency, with troops on both sides, 
preventing the intercourse between the two parts 



of the city which was once bound completely to- 
gether. There are thousands of questions which 
might be eased by meetings of that sort. Here 
again, that is not much. It is simply a way of 
dealing sensibly with the established fact that the 
city is split and the country is split and they can 
not be put together at this time. 

So much for what happened on Germany. 
In regard to Austria, a substantial step forward 
was taken. There the principal problems which 
have been preventing the writing of a treaty were 
not completely solved, but the avenue toward 
solution was found. The matter of the Yugoslav 
claims as to territory and reparations is dis- 
posed of. That has been finished. That, of 
course, has been a gi'eat impediment. That is out 
of the way. 

The terribly complex and harassing problem of 
German property claimed by the Soviet Union 
has been solved in its major outlines. The Soviet 
Government will get 60 percent of the oil proper- 
ties as a concession for some 30 years, and 150 
million dollars over 6 years, and in return for that, 
it will release all other properties. 

There are a great many perplexing and technical 
questions involved in carrying that out but once 
you reach that solution, I think these other ques- 
tions can be worked out, and this arrangement is 
not a victory for anybody. It was a sharply bar- 
gained arrangement in which I think it is per- 
fectly fair to both sides and under which — when 
the treaty is written — a viable and independent 
Austria, which will have to scratch hard for its 
living but which will still be viable and independ- 
ent, can emerge and rejoin the community of free 
nations. 

To me, the main great lesson of the Paris meet- 
ing is that what has been done has been brouglit 
about largely by the efforts of the American people, 
by their will and by their determination. If that 
ground is to be held and if the advance is to be 
continued, those eiforts must be continued. There 
is no such thing as standing still in this operation. 
You either move forward or you move back. If we 
are going to move forward, we must move forward 
with new effort, with renewed determination. We 
must ratify the Atlantic pact. We must get on 
with the Military Assistance Program. We must 
do these other essential things which are now be- 
fore the Congress. It is my conviction that the 
people of Europe are prepared to move forward 
with great courage and great determination. 
They hope and expect that we will do likewise. 
If we do, then I think the power and influence of 
the West will continue to grow. This will result 
in a greater possibility of solving the questions we 
did not solve at Paris. If we don't, I think we are 
going to slip back. 



Ju/y 4, 1949 



861 



The President's Recommendations for Technical Assistance 
Program for Underdeveloped Areas Sent to the Congress ^ 



To the Congress of the United States : 

In order to enable the United States, in coopera- 
tion with other countries, to assist the peoples of 
economically underdeveloped areas to raise their 
standards of living, I recommend the enactment 
of legislation to authorize an expanded program 
of technical assistance for such areas, and an ex- 
perimental program for encouraging the outflow 
of private investment beneficial to their econoniic 
development. These measures are the essential 
first steps in an undertaking which will call upon 
private enterprise and voluntary organizations in 
the United States, as well as the government, to 
take part in a constantly growing effort to im- 
prove economic conditions in the less developed 
regions of the world. 

The grinding poverty and the lack of economic 
opportunity for many millions of people in the 
economically underdeveloped parts of Africa, the 
Near and Far East, and certain regions of Central 
and South America, constitute one of the greatest 
challenges of the world today. In spite of their 
age-old economic and social handicaps, the peoples 
in these areas have, in recent decades, been stirred 
and awakened. The spread of industrial civiliza- 
tion, the growing understanding of modern con- 
cepts of government, and the impact of two World 
Wars have changed their lives and their outlook. 
They are eager to play a greater part in the com- 
munity of nations. 

All these areas have a common problem. They 
must create a firm economic base for the demo- 
cratic aspirations of their citizens. Without such 
an economic base, they will be unable to meet the 
expectations which the modern world has aroused 
in their peoples. If they are frustrated and dis- 
appointed, they may turn to false doctrines which 
hold that the way of progress lies through tyranny. 

For the United States the great awakening of 
these peoples holds tremendous promise. It is 
not only a promise that new and stronger nations 
will be associated with us in the cause of human 
freedom, it is also a promise of new economic 
strength and growth for ourselves. 

With many of the economically underdeveloped 
areas of the world, we have long had ties of trade 

' H. Doc. 240, 81st Cong., 1st sess. 
862 



and commerce. In many instances today we 
greatly need the products of their labor and their 
resources. If the productivity and the purchas- 
ing power of these countries are expanded, our own 
industry and agriculture will benefit. Our ex- 
jDcrience shows that the volume of our foreign trade 
is far greater with highly developed countries 
than it is with countries having a low standard of 
living and inadequate industry. To increase the 
output and the national income of the less devel- 
oped regions is to increase our own economic 
stability. 

In addition, the development of these areas is 
of utmost importance to our efforts to restore the 
economies of the free European nations. As the 
economies of the underdeveloped areas expand, 
they will provide needed products for Europe and 
will offer a better market for European goods. 
Such expansion is an essential part of the grow- 
ing system of world trade which is necessary for 
European recovery. 

Furthermore, the development of these areas 
will strengthen the United Nations and the fabric 
of world peace. The preamble to the Charter 
of the United Nations states that the economic 
and social advancement of all people is an essen- 
tial bulwark of peace. Under article 56 of the 
Charter, we have promised to take separate action 
and to act jointly with other nations "to promote 
higher standards of living, full employment, and 
conditions of economic and social progress and 
development." 

For these various reasons, assistance in the de- 
velopment of the economically underdeveloped 
areas has become one of the major elements of 
our foreign policy. In my inaugural address, I 
outlined a program to help the peoples of these 
areas to attain greater production as a way to 
prosperity and peace. 

The major effort in such a program must be 
local in character ; it must be made by the people 
of the underdeveloped areas themselves. It is es- 
sential, however, to the success of their effort that 
there be help from abroad. In some cases, the 
peoples of these areas will be unable to begin their 
part of this great enterprise without initial aid 
from other countries. 

Deparfment of Sta/e Bulletin 



The aid that is needed falls roughly into two 
categories. The first is the technical, scientific, 
and managerial knowledge necessary to economic 
development. This category includes not only 
medical and educational knowledge, and assistance 
and advice in such basic fields as sanitation, com- 
munications, road building, and governmental 
services, but also, and perhaps most important, 
assistance in the survey of resources and in plan- 
ning for long-range economic development. 

The second category is production goods — ma- 
chinery and equipment — and financial assistance 
in the creation of productive enterprises. The 
underdeveloped areas need capital for port and 
harbor development, roads and communications, 
irrigation and drainage projects, as well as for 
public utilities and the whole range of extractive, 
processing, and manufacturing industries. Much 
of the capital required can be provided by these 
areas themselves, in spite of their low standards 
of living. But much must come from abroad. 

The two categories of aid are closely related. 
Technical assistance is necessary to lay the ground- 
work for productive investment. Investment, in 
turn, brings with it technical assistance. In gen- 
eral, however, technical surveys of resources and 
of the possibilities of economic development must 
precede substantial capital investment. Further- 
more, in many of the areas concerned, technical 
assistance in improving sanitation, communica- 
tions, or education is required to create conditions 
in which capital investment can be fruitful. 

This country, in recent years, has conducted 
relatively modest programs of technical coopera- 
tion with other countries. In the field of educa- 
tion, channels of exchange and communication 
have been ojiened between our citizens and those 
of other countries. To some extent, the expert 
assistance of a number of Federal agencies, such 
as the Public Health Service and the Department 
of Agriculture, has been made available to other 
countries. We have also participated in the ac- 
tivities of the United Nations, its specialized agen- 
cies, and other international organizations to 
disseminate useful techniques among nations. 

Through these various activities, we have gained 
considerable experience in rendering technical as- 
sistance to other countries. What is needed now 
is to expand and integrate these activities and to 
concentrate them particularly on the economic de- 
velopment of underdeveloped areas. 

Much of the aid that is needed can be provided 
most effectively through the United Nations. 
Shortly after my inaugm-al address, this govern- 
ment asked the Economic and Social Council of 
the United Nations to consider what the United 
Nations and the specialized international agencies 
could do in this progi-am. 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations 
thereupon asked the United Nations Secretariat 
and the Secretariats of the specialized interna- 

Jo/y 4, 1949 



tional agencies to draw up cooperative plans for 
technical assistance to underdeveloped areas. _ As 
a result, a survey was made of technical projects 
suitable for these agencies in such fields as in- 
dustry, labor, agriculture, scientific research with 
respect to natural resources, and fiscal manage- 
ment. The total cost of the program submitted 
as a result of this survey was estimated to be about 
35 million dollars for the first year. It is ex- 
pected that the United Nations and the specialized 
international agencies will shortly adopt pro- 
grams for carrying out projects of the type in- 
cluded in this survey. 

In addition to our participation in this work of 
the United Nations, much of the technical as- 
sistance required can be provided dii-ectly by the 
United States to countries needing it. A careful 
examination of the existing information concern- 
ing the underdeveloped countries shows particu- 
lar need for technicians and experts with United 
States training in plant and animal diseases, ma- 
laria and typhus control, water supply and sewer 
systems, metallurgy and mining, and nearly all 
phases of industry. 

It has already been shown that experts in these 
fields can bring about tremendous improvements. 
For example, the health of the people of many 
foreign communities has been greatly improved by 
the work of United States sanitary engineers in 
setting up modern water supply systems. The 
food supply of many areas has been increased as 
the result of the advice of United States agricul- 
tural experts in the control of animal diseases and 
the improvement of crops. These are only ex- 
amples of the wide range of benefits resulting from 
the careful application of modern techniques to 
local problems. The benefits which a comprehen- 
sive program of expert assistance will make pos- 
sible can only be revealed by studies and surveys 
undertaken as a part of the program itself. 

To inaugurate the pi'ogram, I recommend a first 
year appropriation of not to exceed 45 million dol- 
lars. This includes 10 million dollars already re- 
quested in the 1950 Budget for activities of this 
character. The sum recommended will cover both 
our participation in the programs of the inter- 
national agencies and the assistance to be provided 
directly by the United States. 

In every case, whether the operation is con- 
ducted through the United Nations, the other in- 
ternational agencies, or directly by the United 
States, the country receiving the benefit of the aid 
will be required to bear a substantial portion of the 
expense. 

The activities necessary to carry out our pro- 
gram of technical aid will be diverse in character 
and will have to be performed by a number of 
different government agencies and private instru- 
mentalities. It will be necessary to utilize not 
only the resources of international agencies and 
the United States Govermnent, but also the facili- 

863 



ties and the experience of the private business and 
nonprofit organizations tliat have long been active 
in this work. 

Since a number of Federal agencies will be in- 
volved in the program, I recommend that the ad- 
ministration of the program be vested in the Presi- 
dent, with authority to delegate to the Secretary of 
State and to other government officers, as may be 
appropriate. With such administrative flexibility, 
it will be possible to modify the management of 
the program as it expands and to meet the prac- 
tical problems that will arise in its administration 
in the future. 

The second category of outside aid needed by the 
underdeveloped areas is the provision of capital 
for the creation of productive enterprises. The 
International Bank for Keconstruction and Devel- 
opment and the Export-Import Bank have pro- 
vided some capital for underdeveloped areas, and, 
as the economic growth of these areas progresses, 
should be expected to provide a great deal more. 
In addition, private sources of funds must be en- 
couraged to provide a major part of the capital 
required. 

In view of the present troubled condition of the 
world— the distortion of world trade, the shortage 
of dollars, and other aftereffects of the war — the 
problem of substantially increasing the flow of 
American capital abroad presents serious difficul- 
ties. In all probability novel devices will have to 
he employed if the investment from this country is 
to reach proportions sufficient to carry out the ob- 
jectives of our program. 

All countries concerned with the program 
should work together to bring about conditions 
favorable to the flow of private capital. To this 
end we are negotiating agreements with other 
countries to protect the American investor from 
unwarranted or discriminatory treatment under 
the laws of the country in which he makes his 
investment. 

In negotiating such treaties we do not, of course, 
ask privileges for American capital gi-eater than 
those granted to other investors in underdeveloped 
countries or greater than we ourselves grant in 
this country. We believe that American enterprise 
should not waste local resources, should provide 
adequate wages and working conditions for local 
labor, and should bear an equitable share of the 
burden of local taxes. At the same time, we believe 
that investors will send their capital abroad on an 
increasing scale only if they are given assurance 
against risk of loss through expropriation without 
compensation, unfair or discriminatory treatment, 
destruction through war or rebellion, or the in- 
ability to convert their earnings into dollars. 

Although our investment treaties will be di- 
rected at mitigating such risks, they cannot elim- 
inate them entirely. With the best will in the 
world a foreign country, particularly an under- 
developed country, may not be able to obtain the 
dollar exchange necessary for the prompt remit- 



tance of earnings on dollar capital. Damage or 
loss resulting from internal and international vio- 
lence may be beyond the power of our treaty 
signatories to control.. 

Many of these conditions of instability in under- 
developed areas which deter foreign investment 
are themselves a consequence of the lack of eco- 
nomic development which only foreign investment 
can cure. Therefore, to wait until stable condi- 
tions are assured before encouraging the outflow 
of capital to underdeveloped areas would defer 
the attainment of our objectives indefinitely. It 
is necessary to take vigorous action now to break 
out of this vicious circle. 

Since the development of underdeveloped eco- 
nomic areas is of major importance in our foreign 
policy, it is appropriate to use the resources of the 
government to accelerate private efl^orts toward 
that end. I recommend, therefore, that the Ex- 
port-Import Bank be authorized to guarantee 
United States private capital, invested in produc- 
tive enterprises abroad which contribute to eco- 
nomic development in underdeveloped areas, 
against the risks peculiar to those investments. 

This guarantee activity will at the outset be 
largely experimental. Some investments may re- 
quire only a guarantee against the danger of in- 
convertibility, others may need protection against 
the danger of expropriation and other dangers as 
well. It is impossible at this time to write a stand- 
ard guarantee. The Bank will, of course, be able 
to require the payment of premiums for such pro- 
tection, but there is no way now to determine what 
premium rates will be most appropriate in the 
long run. Only experience can provide answers 
to these questions. 

The Bank has sufficient resources at the present 
time to begin the guarantee program and to carry 
on its lending activities as well without any in- 
crease in its authorized funds. If the demand for 
guarantees should prove large, and lending activ- 
ities continue on the scale expected, it will be 
necessary to request the Congress at a later date to 
increase the authorized funds of the Bank. 

The enactment of these two legislative pro- 
posals, the first pertaining to technical assistance 
and the second to the encouragement of foreign 
investment, will constitute a national endorsement 
of a program of major importance in our efforts 
for world peace and economic stability. Never- 
theless, these measures are only the first steps. 
We are here embarking on a venture that extends 
far into the future. We are at the beginnino: of 
a rising curve of activity, private, governmental, 
and international, that will continue for many 
years to come. It is all the more important, there- 
fore, that we start promptly. 

In the economically underdeveloped areas of the 
world today there are new creative energies. We 
look forward to the time when these countries will 
be stronger and more independent than they are 
now, and yet more closely bound to us and to other 



864 



Department of State Bulletin 



nations by ties of friendship and commerce, and by 
kindred ideals. On tlie other hand, unless we aid 
the newly awakened spirit in these peoples to find 
the course of fruitful development, they may fall 
under the control of those whose philosophy is 
hostile to human freedom, thereby prolonging the 
inisettlcd state of the world and postponing the 
achievement of permanent peace. 



Before the peoples of these areas we hold out the 
promise of a better future through the democratic 
way of life. It is vital that we move quickly to 
bring the meaning of that promise home to them 
in their daily lives. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 

June HJt, 19W- 



Where Do We Stand on Point Four? 



l)y George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary for Puhlic Affairs ' 



President Truman, you will recall, launched the 
planning of a world technical cooperation pro- 
gram, on a cooperative basis, with his declaration 
of policy at his inauguration last January 20. 

He said that tlie United States, in cooperation 
with the United Nations, and with other govern- 
ments, would attempt to pool the technical knowl- 
edge and skills of the more advanced countries to 
stimulate the progress of the underdeveloped 
countries. 

There was obviously both selfishness and altru- 
ism in Mr. Truman's proposal. It was selfish be- 
cause the United States does its greatest trade 
with the countries that are economically prosper- 
ous. It was selfish because an economy' of private 
enterprise can remain most healthy in a world- 
wide expanding economy. It was selfish because 
the peace of the world and the security of the 
United States depends upon the well-being of the 
underdeveloped nations. 

On the other hand, this plan was altruistic be- 
cause the United States was not seeking any po- 
litical favors. It was asking no privileges for 
American business greater than those accorded to 
businessmen from any other country. And the 
United States was willing to contribute more than 
its proportionate share in this program. 

The President called his plan "bold and new". 
It is bold because for the first time a major nation 
has made it a national concern to facilitate the 
development of lesser developed countries, which 
contain well over half the population of the world, 
and because the plan looks beyond the immediate 
political alarms and crises to a long-range pro- 
gram, extending over many decades. This pro- 
posal is a demonstration of confidence in the 
possibility of achieving world peace. 

The program is new in its world-wide scope. 
On a small scale, our government has had experi- 

July 4, 1949 



ence with this type of ^jrogram in Latin America. 

Now what has been happening on the plans for 
Point 4 since last January 20 ? 

The United Nations Organization has given 
active leadership. The Secretariats of the United 
Nations specialized agencies have had numerous 
meetings to discuss the work which their organiza- 
tions might undertake in the fields of agriculture, 
education, health, and general economic develop- 
ment. The Secretariats have now submitted their 
proposals to their various governing bodies. You 
may have seen a news story recently from New 
York, indicating that the total of these proposals 
would cost Si million dollars for the first two 
years. Next month at Geneva, the Economic and 
Social Council will review these proposals. 
Thereafter, the combined United Nations program 
will be examined by the United States and other 
members of the United Nations who are willing 
to contribute to the Point-4 program. As you 
know, the Point-4 program is a wholly voluntary 
contribution, over and above our membership 
assessment in the United Nations. 

Within the United States Government itself the 
Department of State has been given responsibil- 
ity for drafting the necessary legislation and rec- 
ommending a first year program. This work is 
now completed, and the President will probably be 
sending to Congress this week a message request- 
ing consideration of Point-4 legislation at this 
session. 

It is not possible to discuss the contents of the 
first year's program, because each project will 
have to be negotiated with another government, 
and part of the expense will be borne by the other 
government. 

' An address delivered before the American Society of 
Engineering Education at Troy, N. Y. on June 23, 1949, and 
released to the press on the same date. 

865 



However, I can assure you that engineering will 
play a prominent part in that program, and sub- 
ject to approval by the United States Congress, 
and by other countries which may contribute to 
this cooperative venture, hundreds of American 
and other engineers will be going annually to as- 
sist the governments of underdeveloped areas of 
the world. 

I do not mean to overemphasize the role of gov- 
ernment in this program, for it is likely that 
United States engineering firms and contractors 
will contribute a major share to the Point-4 
program. 

I am unable to give you details of the proposed 
program, but let me review some of our recent 
experiences in working with other governments 
on engineering matters. 

The government now has two programs of tech- 
nical assistance in Latin America. 

First, there is an Interdepartmental Commit- 
tee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, which 
draws upon the technical skills and personnel of 
all the federal agencies to supply technical assist- 
ance to other governments. I am chairman of 
that Committee, which has about 180 technicians 
working in Latin America today. 

Second, there is a government corporation, the 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, which is con- 
ducting programs for the improvement of the basic 
economy of Latin America. It works primarily 
in the fields of food supply, health, and educa- 
tion. I sit on the Board of Directors of that 
corporation. 

These two programs utilize engineering skills of 
many sorts in assisting other governments. Here 
are some examples: 

1. Mining. If you go to Mexico City today, 
you will find in the laboratories of the Mexican 
Government two mining engineers supplied by 
the United States Bureau of Mines. These are 
shirt-sleeves men who are helping the Mexicans 
work out processes for extracting or reducing 
ores, so as to make mining less expensive. The 
United States supplied these men primarily be- 
cause of our interest in lead, zinc, and other stra- 
tegic minerals. However, they are available to 
work on any mining or metallurgical process re- 
quested by the Mexican Government. 

Since 1942, the United States has sent to Brazil 
a number of geologists to assist that government 
in locating and mapping its strategic minerals. 
These American geologists and their Brazilian 
colleagues have uncovered the largest deposits of 
manganese in the Western Hemisphere. The 
United States, since its earliest development of 
iron and steel, has been forced to import man- 
ganese from the other side of the Atlantic and the 
Pacific. Now, for the first time, we may become 
self-sufficient within this hemisphere. United 
States Steel has entered into a contract with the 



866 



Brazilian Government for development of one 
of these manganese deposits. 

2. Irrigation. In Haiti, an engineering field 
party of the Institute of Inter- American Affairs 
has just completed a small concrete aqueduct 
carrying water out of the mountains into the arid 
coastal plain about 25 miles behind the capital of 
Port-au-Prince. This aqueduct is irrigating ap- 
proximately 1,500 acres of land that have been 
largely abandoned since French colonial days over 
a hundred years ago, and the irrigated area is 
now being expanded. Haiti, as you may know, 
has a severe food shortage. 

3. Drainage for Malaria Control. Engineers 
of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs were 
asked to tackle the malaria problem of the 
Santa Eiver Valley in Peru where 25 percent of 
the population were infected. The mosquitoes 
were breeding in marshes along the river. In one 
year the Institute engineers drained the area sur- 
rounding the mouth of the river, and the inci- 
dence of malaria dropped from 25 percent to 2 
percent. The cost of this project was supplied 
largely by the Peruvian Government, and the 
labor was Peruvian. The United States supplied 
the technical knowledge. 

4. Aviation. The Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration has field jDarties in five Latin American 
countries today, advising other governments on 
the location and construction of their airfields and 
the maintenance of their airways communica- 
tions. Many of the United States personnel are 
engineers. 

5. Brazilian Air Mission. In Brazil the United 
States has facilitated an entirely different kind of 
aviation mission. The Brazilian Government it- 
self has recruited 20 of the outstanding aviation 
technicians of the United States, employed di- 
rectly by the Brazilian Government to develop a 
national aviation progi'am. The staff is headed 
by Dr. C. I. Stanton, former deputy administrator 
of the United States Civil Aeronautics Adminis- 
tration, and Professor Richard H. Smith, former 
dean of Aeronautical Engineering at M.I.T, These 
men have organized a complete engineering school 
for the Brazilian Government. 

6. Mechanical Engineers. The Department of 
Agriculture has sent to Cuba several mechanical 
engineers who are helping to develop the neces- 
sary machinery for extracting fiber from the 
kenaf plant. Kenaf is an agricultural product 
developed by United States and Cuban scientists 
to replace jute. The agricultural phase of the 
work has been completed, but the machinery for 
processing the fiber is not yet satisfactory. Wlien 
this project is completed, the United States will 
no longer be dependent entirely on the Far East 
for this important type of fiber. 

7. Water Supply Engineers in the Amazon. The 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs engineers have 
supervised the construction of about 20 municipal 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



water supply plants in Brazilian towns along the 
Amazon. The Amazon Valley was completely 
lacking in pure water s,ystems, and water-borne 
parasites had become the principal national health 
problem. I recently heard an interesting anecdote 
about the first of these water systems in the Ama- 
zon, which was constructed in 1943. It was built 
in a town of 2,500 people, which served as a county 
capital. The engineers, in order to allow for pop- 
ulation expansion, built the system to supply 4,000 
people. Within 2 years after the water system was 
constructed, people had moved from miles around 
into this town, and its population had grown to 
6,000 people — 50 percent greater than the water 
supply capacity. The plant had since been en- 
larged. Moreover, this town had been located for 
centuries on the bank of the Amazon, because every- 
one had to carry water in buckets from the river 
bank. Within 1 year after the water system was 
constructed, the population began moving inland 
from the river and the center of town now is almost 
2 miles from the river, on higher and more health- 
ful ground. That is what one American engineer 
can contribute to one foreign community. 

8. Training Engineers in the United States. 
Many of our federal agencies are conducting classes 
and individual training courses for technicians 
from Latin America. More than 2,000 technicians 
and scientists have been brought to the United 
States under this program during the past 10 years. 
Approximately 400 of these were in various fields 
of engineering. Right now in Washington there 
are training courses going on for Latin American 
engineers in the Public Roads Administration, the 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, the National Bureau of Standards, 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Public 
Health Service. This last agency is training san- 
itarj^ engineers. 

9. LoTidon Science Staff. An entirely different 
kind of engineering activity is represented by the 
science staff in the United States Embassy at 
London. 

The Department of State has maintained a 
science staff in the London Embassy for almost 
2 years. This staff both acquires and gives infor- 
mation of a scientific and teclinical nature. 

Last year, from April 1948 to iVpril 1949, an 
engineer was the Chief Scientific Officer — Dean 
W. R. Woolrich, Dean of the College of Engineer- 
ing, University of Texas. His contribution to the 
work of the staff was considerable and is illustra- 
tive of the kind of assistance engineers will be giv- 
ing to the Point-4 program, as well as other U.S. 
foreign programs. He made a study of govern- 
ment sponsored research in the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research in Great 
Britain. He surveyed and appraised the whole 
system of engineering education, government and 
private, talking with officials in engineering schools 
and assessing the kinds of courses, methods of 

Jofy 4, T949 



teaching, requirements for degrees, selection of 
students, and organization and management of en- 
gineering colleges. While in London, Dean Wool- 
rich was a member of the U.S. Educational Com- 
mission in the U.K. administering the Fulbright 
program in Great Britain. 

Dean Woolrich also worked on a plan to pro- 
mote Western European interchange of unclassi- 
fied industrial and agricultural technology now in 
possession of the governments participating in 
ERP. He cooperated with ECA and Oeec and 
with British and French government officials in 
developing the plan which has been accepted by 
the Oeec. Arrangements are now underway to 
put the plan into effect. Exchange arrangements 
are to be carried out by the countries among them- 
selves. If successful, the project is likely to aid 
significantly in European economic recovery and 
to place the cooperating countries in a much 
stronger position to participate in the Point-4 pro- 
gram than they otherwise would be. 

The best example I can recall of how the govern- 
ment and private enterprise work together in this 
field of technical cooperation is a story that came 
out of Afghanistan. In 1935, the Afghanistan 
Government sent to the United States a student of 
engineering. After he had graduated from an 
American engineering school, the Bureau of Recla- 
mation took him into its laboratories at Denver for 
9 months of training. Shortly after this student 
returned to Afghanistan, he was appointed Minis- 
ter of Public Works. When consideration arose 
in 1942 for the construction of a major dam in Af- 
ghanistan, this former student asked the United 
States Government if it could send a survey engi- 
neer. The State Department arranged for a trip 
by Jack Savage of the Bureau of Reclamation, 
whom many ot you know as the designer of Boul- 
der Dam. Jack Savage spent only a month in 
Afghanistan, advising on the feasibility of the 
project. The Afghanistan Government then is- 
sued a series of contracts to United States engi- 
neering and construction firms, now aggregating 
many millions of dollars. 

Here in one sequence you can see the relation- 
ship of our program for foreign students, our 
training of foreign technicians in United States 
Govermnent agencies, our sending of technical ad- 
visers to other governments, and the role played 
by private American companies. 

As soon as these professional schools are estab- 
lished, it is found that the scientific training and 
particularly the laboratory work in the high 
schools is inadequate, and it is necessary to revise 
the high school curriculum. 

In many underdeveloped countries we find that 
education has been restricted to the wealthy fami- 
lies who have a social repugnance for hand labor. 
They lack what Harold Lasswell calls "the dignity 
of overalls." 

One of the methods which the United States has 
attempted to use in overcoming this attitude is to 

867 



recommend handicrafts and shop work in the pri- 
mary schools of a country. "We have tried to break 
down the social attitude towards manual labor at 
the youngest possible age. 

These educational problems are fundamental in 
any improvement to engineering services in most 
backward countries. 

This year the United States has had over 25,000 
foreign students enrolled in its universities. Ap- 
proximately 5,100 of these students were studying 
engineering. That is over 20 percent. Nearly 
all of these students have been assisted at one time 
or another by our cultural officers in the Ameri- 
can missions abroad or by our reception centers 
in the United States for assisting foreign visitors. 
The State Department is doing its best, within 
the limits of our university capacity to stimulate 
both the quantity and quality of the foreign stu- 
dents. The most important contribution to this 
program, however, has been the excellent fellow- 
shi}) program and counseling services of the vari- 
ous universities, including our engineering schools. 

I believe we have been more successful in aiding 
foreign students to come to the United States than 
we have been in supplying visiting professors to 
institutions abroad. Under the Point-4 program 
there will undoubtedly be a greater demand than 
at present for the sending of United States visit- 
ing professors of engineering to other countries. 

And this brings me to a subject of particular 
interest to members of your organization. 

I believe that the Point-4 program will put 
strain upon the available pool of skilled personnel 
in this country, including the engineering profes- 
sion. The government will be looking to its own 



staff, to private engineering companies and to uni- 
versities to determine what outstanding engineers 
are available for foreign assignment, and those 
who can be spared will be the first assigned. But 
I foresee in the second and third and ensuing years 
a demand for personnel which will compel the 
United States to turn to its young college gradu- 
ates to undertake assignments abroad. Many of 
our technicians in Latin America today are under 
30 years of age. I believe this is true of a ma- 
jority of our sanitary engineers. 

This is a problem which should be of concern 
to all of our professional schools. It means that 
some of our engineering students, to be properly 
prepared for their work, should have foreign lan- 
guages and some "area studies." It means that 
the counseling services of our universities must 
become more familiar with the overseas opportu- 
nities for college graduates. 

Such foreign assignments will be an all-round 
benefit to the Unitecl States and to the individual. 
The individual will be given experience far be- 
yond his years and beyond any opportunities he 
would have in the United States to exercise such 
broad authority at so young a period in his life. 
This in turn enriches the pool of trained man- 
power which the United States possesses and gives 
our nation a richer experience in world affaii'S, 
which will enable us better to fill our new role in 
world leadership. 

I have heard it said that engineers contributed 
more to the winning of the war than any other 
profession. 

I foresee that the role of engineers in the pro- 
gram for peace, as laid down by President 
Truman, will be equally important. 



Settlement of Claims Against Foreign Governments: Yugoslavia 



I. THE SETTLEMENT WITH YUGOSLAVIA 

The United States in its own right has two 
claims against Yugoslavia. The first is for alleged 
misappropriation of a jeep during the war period ; 
the second is for the destruction by Yugoslav fire 
of a United States Air Force transport plane dur- 
ing flight between Austria and Italy on August 
19, 1946. Yugoslavia paid $150,000 indemnity on 
October 7, 1946, for loss of lives in connection with 
the incident, but the loss of the plane remains 
unsettled. 



' Excerpts from H. Rept. 770, 81st Cong., 1st sess., June 
9, 1949. 



Although various claims for the taking of prop- 
erty arose after September 1, 1939, the claims of 
the United States against Yugoslavia on behalf 
of American nationals grow primarily out of poli- 
cies and actions of the postwar government of that 
country. The first of these was the so-called 
agrarian reform of August 1945, involving the 
nationalization and distribution of excess farm 
holdings. The second was the nationalization of 
basic industries under an enactment of the Yugo- 
slav Parliament of December 6, 1946. The third 
was the nationalization of small business enter- 
prises under an amendment of May 20, 1948, to 
the above-mentioned enactment. The fourth was 
the nationalization of virtually all remaining prop- 



868 



Department of State Bulletin 



erty in Yufjoslavia under a further amendment of 
June i23, U)4S, to the basic nationalization enact- 
ment. 

Concurrently with the above, the United States 
Government reserved American rights by diplo- 
matic action, formallj^ insisting on prompt, ade- 
quate, and effective compensation for divested 
American owners. 

Settlement negotiations began soon thereafter. 
Negotiations embraced a general economic settle- 
ment between the two governments. This involved 
compensation for nationalization of property, set- 
tlement of the lend-lease obligation of the Yugo- 
slav Government to this government, the unblock- 
ing of Yugoslav Government assets in this coun- 
ti-}% recognition of dollar bond obligations, and 
I similar issues. 

Two executive agreements embodying the sub- 
stance of the settlements were signed on July 19, 
19-1:8. As explained in a Department of State press 
release of that date : 

[Here appeared portions of that release which was 
printed together with the two agreements in the Bulletin 
of August 1, 1948, page 137.] 

Though the claims agreement alone is material 
to this bill, the substance of the concurrent agree- 
ment and the action of the Treasury Department 
in unfreezing Yugoslav assets are relevant. For 
it should be emphasized that the United States 
Government approached the question of settlement 
with Yugoslavia on a broad basis. The American 
claims were weighed not as an isolated issue but 
as a part of the whole range of financial relation- 
ships between the two governments. 

Interposition by the government in behalf of 
claimant Americans is obviously necessary. If 
such interposition were not made, the American 
whose position and interest are prejudiced by the 
acquisitive action of a foreign government would 
have recourse to local courts as his only oppor- 
tunity for relief. Obviously this would amount to 
no relief at all in an iron-curtain country. Even 
if a settlement in local currency were made, the 
money would be of no use to an American recipient. 

Since governmental interposition is necessary, 
the next question is what means is to be followed. 
To resort to the traditional procedure of establish- 
ing a claims tribunal and arguing the issues before 
it would be inadequate in such a situation as the 
instant one. 

The realistic course is the one followed by the 
United States in reaching the settlement with 
Yugoslavia — the consideration of issues on a broad 
enough basis to enable this government to press 
claims by economic or financial action on related 
issues. The government should be commended 
and encouraged in following a course which pro- 
tects the interests of nationals abroad with some- 
thing more substantial than the shield of reason 
and rhetoric. 

July 4, J 949 



II. TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT 

The settlement with Yugoslavia is the first of 
its kind in the postwar situation. Others may be 
expected. Negotiations are now in progress for a 
settlement M-ith Czechoslovakia of claims totaling 
about $80,000,000 growing out of the nationaliza- 
tion and other taking of American property inter- 
ests. Negotiations are expected to be opened with 
Poland concerning similar claims totaling $175,- 
000,000. The agreement with Yugoslavia there- 
fore is of particular interest as a possible pattern 
for other settlements. 

Article 1 of the agreement pledges Yugoslavia 
within 45 days after signature to pay the United 
States $17,000,000 in settlement of the claims. Any 
money left over after all awards have been made 
and the expenses of adjudication paid will be re- 
turned to Yugoslavia. 

Article 2 confines the claims affected to those 
involving property, rights, and interests which at 
the time of nationalization or other taking were 
directly or indirectly owned by a United States 
national, or an American corporation whose out- 
standing securities were at least one-fifth of Ameri- 
can ownership. 

Article 3 excludes from the settlement the claims 
of those who acquired United States nationality 
after deprivation. These persons must settle their 
claims with Yugoslavia directly. 

Article 4 specifies that Yugoslavia does not waive 
any possible claims against United States nation- 
als. It says that claimants compensated in pur- 
suance of the agreement will be foreclosed from 
other claims gi'owing out of the same circum- 
stances. It recognizes the obligation of national- 
ized industries as successors to the debts of the 
businesses nationalized, but debts which are the 
basis of claims settled in pursuance of the agree- 
ment will be regarded as settled. 

Article 5 obliges Yugoslavia to continue to gi'ant 
most-favored-nation treatment to Americans in 
ownership and acquisition of assets in Yugoslavia. 

Article 6 obliges Yugoslavia to avoid and ban 
the use within Yugoslavia of trade-marks, com- 
pany names, and trade names of nationalized 
American-owned companies Mhen such trade- 
marks, company names, and trade names are used 
in other countries. 

Article 7 provides that claims of United States 
nationals for war damage to property not national- 
ized will be treated no less favorably than such 
claims of Yugoslav or other nationals. 

Article 8 makes the distribution among claimants 
of the funds paid by Yugoslavia a concern of the 
United States alone and makes final the findings of 
the agency to be set up for that purpose. 

Article 9 obliges Yugoslavia to furnish to the 
United States, on request, information and docu- 
ments necessary to settle the individual claims. It 
obliges the United States to furnish Yugoslavia 

869 



certified copies of papers related to the adjudi- 
cation of claims. It authorizes Yugoslavia to file 
briefs as friend of the court on consent of the 
agency to be established by the United States to 
make awards. 

Article 10 obliges Yugoslavia to authorize per- 
sons in Yugoslavia to pay debts to United States 
nationals, firms, or agencies, and, so far as feasible, 
to permit dollar transfers for such purjaose. 

Article 11 contains Yugoslavia's agreement to 
give "sympathetic consideration" to applications 
for transfer from Yugoslavia to the United States 
of small bank deposits which in the circumstances 
are imi^ortant to the person requesting the 
transfer. 

Article 12 provides for the agreement to take 
effect upon signature. 

III. THE MAKING AND PAYMENT OF AWARDS 

No final estimate of the number of claimants 
against Yugoslavia is available. The number is 
believed to be about 1,500. Included, in addition 
to the United States Government itself, are Amer- 
ican corporations whose claims, while small in 
number, bulk largest in value, and recently natu- 
ralized United States citizens of fonner Yugoslav 
nationality. Virtually all types of ownership are 
represented. The intent of the agreement and the 
bill is to provide compensation for eligible Ameri- 
can property interests nationalized or otherwise 
taken by the Yugoslav Government, including in- 
terests in which American individuals or entities 
possessed direct ownership, or in which they pos- 
sessed indirect ownership through entities organ- 
ized in foreign countries. 

The United States has the money on hand. The 
problem is to get it to the deserving claimants. 
This requires the establishment of an agency and a 
procedure so that claims can be weighed consist- 
ently with a uniform standard. 

The instant bill will set up the agency and the 
procedure. 

The agency is to be an International Claims 
Commission within the Department of State. It 
should be noted that this will not be an independ- 
ent establishment. In this respect the bill is in 
keeping with the views of the Commission on Or- 
ganization of the Executive Branch of the Gov- 
ernment in its Report on General Management 
(pp. 335-336), generally criticizing the independ- 
ent status of numerous agencies now existing. It 
is consistent also with that Commission's final re- 
port, which makes various recommendations to re- 
duce further the number of agencies reporting to 
the President. As to the War Claims Commission, 
for example, its recommendation is that it be 
placed in the position of reporting to the Secre- 
tary of State. Regarding the Indian Claims Com- 
mission, it recommends that it be attached to the 
Indian Service of the Department of the Interior. 
The report does not recommend that any claims 



commission be maintained as an independent 
agency. 

In keeping with the Commission's status as a 
part of the Department of State, its three mem- 
bers are made subject to appointment by the Secre- 
tary of State rather than subject to Presidential 
appointment with Senatorial confirmation. In 
this respect, the proposed Commission will con- 
trast with the War Claims Commission provided 
for in the War Claims Act of 1948 (Public Law 
896, 80th Cong. ) and with the American Mexican 
Claims Commission established under the Settle- 
ment of Mexican Claims Act of 1942 (Public Law 
814, 77th Cong.). The difference is believed to 
be justified by the desirability of establishing this 
agency as a j^art of a regular executive department 
with a responsibility to specific authority. The 
need of insuring independent adjudication, how- 
ever, is recognized in the provision that the Secre- 
tary of State may remove a member only for neg- 
lect or malfeasance and upon notice and hearing. 

The technical character of the Commission's du- 
ties is recognized in a requirement that the Com- 
missioners must be members of the bar. The need 
of attracting talent of a high order so as to insure 
proper performance is recognized in the provision 
of $15,000 as the annual salary of the Commis- 
sioners. 

Since the time necessary to complete the work is 
unpredictable, the bill does not set a terminal date 
for the Commission. This is to be determined in 
the discretion of the Secretary of State and in 
the light of the circumstances. Termination of 
the Commission, however, will not affect the basic 
authority of the act. This will remain intact so 
that the mechanism may be reestablished in event 
that similar claims settlements in the future make 
it necessary to resume such adjudications. 

The committee, however, has written into the 
bill a provision (sec. 6) directing the completion 
within 4 years of the Commission's tasks under 
the Yugoslav claims agreement. This will allow 
ample time for the work ; the provision is desirable 
as a stimulus to efficient performance and as an 
indication of the purpose of this legislation to 
bring about a settlement and to avoid any unnec- 
essary deferment of the time when claimants will 
receive the measure of redress to which they are 
entitled. 

The Commission will settle claims of the United 
States Government and United States nationals 
(the latter defined as in the Nationality Act of 
1940) under the Yugoslav claims agreement and 
other possible claims agreements of the same char- 
acter. The possibility of other claims agreements 
whose terms would come within the Commis- 
sion's jurisdiction should be understood to include 
possible supplementary agreements with Yugo- 
slavia. It should be noted that the Commission 
will have no jurisdiction over any war claims 
against former enemy countries. These come 
within the jurisdiction of the War Claims Com- 



870 



Department of State Bulletin 



mission set up under the War Claims Act of 1948. 

The Commission ■will apply, in the order indi- 
cated, (a) the provisions of the applicable claims 
agreement (in the immediate instance, the Yugo- 
slav claims agreement), and (6) the applicable 
principles of international law, justice, and equity. 

The Commission's decision "shall constitute a 
full and final disposition of the case in which the 
decision is rendered." The bill states also that 
such decisions — 

shall be final and conclusive on all questions of law and 
fact and not subject to review by the Secretary of State 
or any other department, agency, or establishment of the 
United States or by any court by mandamus or otherwise. 

In its procedures the Commission will operate 
generally under the provisions of the Administra- 
tive Procedure Act (Public Law 404, 79th Cong.). 
This would presumably be true under the terms of 
the Administrative Procedure Act itself, but the 
committee has amended the bill so as to make this 
explicit. Internal procedure will be along judicial 
lines. Each claim will be adjudicated on an ad- 
versary basis. Awards will be made on the basis 
of a record. 

The Commission is to be staffed with attorneys, 
clerks, economic analysts, and investigators. A 
small field staff to gather evidence and proof will 
operate in Yugoslavia or in any other country with 
whose Government the United States may reach 
a similar agreement to settle claims. Such a staff 
will be necessary in order to insure proper adjudi- 
cation in many cases where documentary or other 
proof would not be otherwise obtainable. It should 
be noted in this connection that the agreement 
with Yugoslavia obligates that country, insofar 
as possible, to assist by making available informa- 
tion and documents necessary to proper adjudica- 
tion. 

The hiring of such personnel and other costs in- 
volved in the Commission's activities should not be 
a factor in the financial position of the Govern- 
ment. Appropriations authorized under this bill 
should be amply covered by money gathered into 
the Treasury in pursuance of a provision for a 
deduction of 3 percent from each award. The bill 
also provides, with respect to the money on hand 
for settlement of claims against Yugoslavia, that 
to the extent the 3-percent deductions may not 
cover all costs, additional deductions may be made 
from the residual funds left after all awards have 



been made. The balance, if any, will then be re- 
turned to Yugoslavia as required by the agree- 
ment. 

The bill recognizes that many of the claimants 
are in immediate need of compensation for depriv- 
ation of property. An amendment written into 
the bill by the committee allows the Commission 
to make awards on parts of individual claims when 
final action on other portions of the claims must 
be deferred. The bill also provides that awards of 
$1,000 or less in principal amount may be paid im- 
mediately. Immediate payment of $1,000 on 
awards of larger amount is authorized. Addi- 
tional payments of 25 percent of unpaid principal 
of awards of more than $1,000 are also permitted. 
Beyond this, awards will be satisfied only when 
all cases have been adjudicated. Interest, inso- 
far as allowed, will be paid on a pro rata basis 
only after all principal awards have been paid. 

The provisions of the bill relating to payment 
of awards after they have been entered follow gen- 
erally the practice of the United States Govei-n- 
ment in settling claims against itself and are mod- 
eled closely upon the Mexican Claims Act of 1942. 
The amendments approved by the committee make 
changes in detail rather than in substance. 

One amendment lowers from $1,000 to $500 the 
maximum limit on payments in which the Comp- 
troller General is to have discretion in deciding 
who is entitled to receive payment on an award to 
a deceased claimant. 

Another amendment eliminates as unnecessary 
a provision related to payments to the estate of a 
deceased claimant; it was the committee's view 
that the procedure for payment to persons en- 
titled to receive awards made to a deceased claim- 
ant would suffice with respect to payments to such 
estates. 

A third amendment gives the Secretary of the 
Treasury rather than the Comptroller General the 
discretion to make payments to the assignee in 
event of the assignment of an award. The com- 
mittee was informed that such an amendment was 
desirable in the view of the Treasury Department 
and was concurred in by the General Accounting 
Office. 

Another amendment eliminates as unnecessary 
a provision that failure to give or receive notice of 
the opportunity to file a claim should not give 
rise to a cause of action against the United States 
or against members of the Commission and their 
subordinates. 



July 4, 1949 



871 



Europe as a Bulwark of Peace 



ty Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, Former Ambassador to the Soviet Union ^ 



I appreciate the honor of being invited to ad- 
dress the governors of tlie United States at their 
annual conference. I consider it especially sig- 
nificant that our governors, preoccupied as they 
are witli the special problems and interests of 
the respective states, should turn their attention 
to a consideration of foreign affairs, which in 
our time have come to affect the lives of all Ameri- 
cans in the most personal and intimate way. 

The turn of events since the end of the war has 
placed upon the United States, as the citadel of 
freedom and the strongest of the free nations, the 
major responsibility for world recovery, world 
peace, and world progress, and at the same time 
has confronted this nation with potentially the 
gravest challenge ever offered to our principles 
and our way of life. This situation results from 
the decision of the leaders of Soviet Russia to 
turn away from the cooperation which we hoped 
would prevail after the war, and instead to seek 
to impose Communism upon the world. The conse- 
quent resistance of the free peoples of the world to 
subjugation and enslavement has brought about 
the world-wide struggle in which we are now 
engaged. 

ELEMENTS OF SOVIET COMMUNISM 

In any such conflict, the first requirement is to 
understand the nature of the opposing force. In 
analyzing Soviet Communism, we can distinguish 
certain basic characteristics or elements. The first 
element is a group of ruthless and ambitious men, 
animated by a lust for power and bound by a 
fanatical doctrine whicli holds that the end justi- 
fies the means, no matter liow brutal or unjust. 
The second element is the seizure by this group of 
absolute control of a lai'ge and powerful nation. 



'An address delivered at the Conference of Governors 
in Colorado Springs. Colo., on June 20, 1049, and released 
to the press on the same date by the National Military 
Establishment. General Smith is Commanding General 
of the First Army. 



whose strength and resources are used by the arbi- 
trary rulers to carry out their aggressive and ex- 
loansive policies. The tliird element is the control 
and manipulation by these rulers of subservient 
groups in other countries so as to subject those 
countries to the will of the dominant power, as 
has been done throughout Eastern Europe, as is 
being done in Cliina, and as will be done wherever 
freedom and democracy do not prove themselves 
strong enough to resist. 

STRENGTH OF THE DEMOCRACIES 

This combination of uni'estrained power, based 
in a vast and lusty country and reaching out in all 
directions tlironcli the mechanism of international 
Communism, makes Soviet Russia a formidable 
opponent. Yet tlie democracies, aroused to com- 
mon action and dedicated to tlie preservation of 
their liberties, are substantially stronger. 

I am convinced that the Soviets, although exas- 
peratingly difficult to deal with, do not want to risk 
war and will modify their aggressive policies when 
confronted witli firm resistance, backed by recog- 
nizable force. This opinion was not hastily arrived 
at but is based in large part on my experience as 
ambassador to Moscow. 

It is extremely important for the democracies, 
and especially the United States, never to lose 
sight of the fundamental fact that we are engaged 
in a constant, continuing, gruelling struggle for 
freedom and the American way of life that may 
extend over a period of many years. We must not 
be thrown off balance by temporary ups and downs, 
indecisive triumphs and failures. We must antici- 
pate that tlie Soviet tactic will be to attempt to 
wear us down, to exasperate us beyond endurance, 
to keep probing for weak spots they can exploit. 
Obviously the Russians believe they are playing 
a game of patience, in which they can outlast us. 

We need to keep reminding ourselves to take the 
long view, particularly at the conclusion of some 
dramatic or frustrating experience, whether it be 



872 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



the end of a blockade or the termination of a Con- 
ference of Foreign Ministers. We cannot allow 
ourselves to be swerved from our long-term pur- 
pose by the elations or the disappointments of the 
moment. 

Regardless of from what direction one ap- 
proaches' the prolilem, he must inevitably arrive at 
the conclusion that the best assurance of peace is 
our determination and strength to suppoi't our con- 
victions. It is not sufficient only to have strength 
to defend ourselves by military means if neces- 
sary. The potential must exist and by its very 
existence it serves its highest purpose, which is in 
preventing war. We all know now that while vic- 
tory in war saves us from the imposition of solu- 
tions we are determined to reject, victory itself 
raises grave new problems in turn. As one who 
has seen war, I am earnestly concerned with the 
creation of conditions that will assure peace. 

This is the object of this nation's policies in 
foreign affairs. As a member of the United Na- 
tions, we are pledged to the settlement of inter- 
national disputes by pacific means. We are con- 
scientiously trying to strengthen the United Na- 
tions as an effective instrument for preserving the 
peace. We are energetically working, both in- 
side and outside the United Nations, to promote 
the economic and social conditions throughout the 
world that will minimize conflicts and remove the 
causes of wars. If we continue to pursue these 
policies vigorously and steadfastly we will suc- 
ceed in throwing back the challenge of Commu- 
nism and at the same time preserving the peace. 

EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM 

One of the fundamental measures for achieving 
that purpose is the European Recovery Program, 
an essential and effective means of assuring peace. 
No one who has been in Europe for any length 
of time since the war can help but be profoundly 
impressed by the great change that has taken 
place since the Marshall Plan has been in opera- 
tion. Little more than a year ago. Western Eur- 
ope was disorganized economically, depleted 
phj'sicall}^, and depressed spiritually. The posi- 
tion of its free nations was precarious. It was a 
situation of crisis in which anything might hap- 
pen. The prospects for peace were anything but 
promising. 

The contrast between conditions in Europe then 
and today is remarkable. The free nations of 
Western Europe have literally taken a new lease 
on life. They are working together as never be- 
fore. The people have been given more than new 
hope, as important as that is. They have been 
given something to work with, and their produc- 
tion record proves that they not only are eager 
to work but that they also have the skill and the 
determination to reestablish themselves in the 
world. The Marshall Plan has not been the only 
factor in effecting this transformation, but it has 
been the major force in the stabilization of Eur- 

Ju/y 4, 1949 



ope. I am certain that history will confirm Pres- 
ident Truman's judgment that the Marshall Plan 
marked the turning point. 

In the marked increase of production achieved 
in Europe during the last year, the contributions 
of farm and labor groups both in this country and 
in Europe have been notable. The organized la- 
bor movement in this country and the non-Com- 
munist labor movements in the participating 
countries of Europe have strongly supported the 
Marshall Plan. These movements on both sides 
of the Atlantic joined in establishing a trade-union 
advisory committee to assist in carrying out the 
recovery program. The support of the labor 
groups is essential to success, since the workers 
hold the key to industrial production. Similarly, 
the representatives of farm organizations in this 
country have testified for the Marshall Plan in 
Congressional hearings and likewise have been 
active in an advisory committee to assist the EGA. 
The farmers of Europe, favored by the weather, 
have substantially increased the "production of 
food crops. Such interest and support is of great 
importance because it demonstrates that the Mar- 
shall Plan is not just an arrangement among gov- 
ernments but basically a cooperative effort among 
the peoples of the countries concerned. 

But we must not forget that the essence of the 
Marshall Plan is that it is not a relief program but 
a recovery program and that it is based on calcu- 
lations of the minimum requirements for recovery 
over a 4-year period. We knew this when we ac- 
cepted the plan in the first place. This means that 
we must be prepared to follow this program 
through to its logical conclusion if it is to accom- 
plish its purpose. If we turn back from the course 
we set ourselves little more than a year ago, or if 
we slacken our efforts, we not only risk losing the 
momentum achieved thus far, but we also run the 
danger of wasting what we have already invested 
in the program. Aside from the material factors 
involved, any sign of vacillation or indecision on 
our part will profoundly discourage our friends 
and strengthen the belief of the Communists that 
they have only to keep up the pressure until we 
grow tired and give up the struggle. We must un- 
derstand that we are engaged in a contest of indefi- 
nite duration and that we must decide our course 
and stick to it through thick and thin. 

The recovery of Europe is a primary requisite 
for the maintenance of the free way of life and 
the preservation of peace. But even European 
recovery is only part of a larger design. The 
economic revival of Western Europe is necessary 
to make the peoples of that continent self-sup- 
jiorting and to enable them to resume their proper 
place in world affairs. Economic recovery also 
will provide them in time with the strength to 
assume their own security. But they do not have 
that strength at present. 

All the nations of Western Europe that en- 
gaged in the recent war, with the exception of 

873 



Great Britain, emerged from that conflict prac- 
tically defenseless. Since VE-day they have be- 
gun rebuilding their defenses, but it is a slow, 
laborious process, particularly since economic re- 
covery has priority. The knowledge of their in- 
adequate defenses, in the face of the aggressive and 
expansive tendencies of the Soviet Union, has con- 
tributed to a pervading sense of insecurity that 
weighs heavily on Western Europe. Even while 
putting forth their utmost effort for recovery, the 
people have been haunted by the fear that they 
might be rebuilding only to have the fruits of their 
labor again usurped by an occupying army. 

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 

The sense of insecurity arising from these cir- 
cumstances is in itself a serious detriment to re- 
covery, stability, and peace. In order to achieve 
our objectives in Europe, the United States must 
use its own strength to shield the free nations of 
Europe from aggression while they rebuild their 
defenses, just as we are using our material resources 
to enable the people of Western Europe to revive 
their economies. This is the purpose of the North 
Atlantic Treaty, which the Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee of the Senate has unanimously recommended 
for ratification, and the legislation for military 
assistance, which the Administration is now pre- 
paring to submit to the Congress. 

The treaty, which is a pact for the mutual de- 
fense of the North Atlantic area against ai'med 
attack from any source, commits the 12 signatory 
countries to help each other to maintain and de- 
velop their individual and collective capacity to 
resist aggression. It is in partial fulfillment of 
that obligation that the Administration proposes 
to provide 1 billion, 130 million dollars of military 
assistance to the European members of the treaty 
during the next fiscal year. 

The purpose of this measure is to accelerate the 
rebuilding of the defenses of Western Europe, both 
to increase the faith of the free peoples of Europe 
in their own ability to resist aggression and to 
make more effective their pledge to contribute to 
the mutual defense of the North Atlantic area. 
The promise that all of the 12 nations signing the 
treaty naturally including the United States will 
come promptly to the aid of any one of them which 
is attacked is in itself a strong deterrent to ag- 
gression. From what we know of the nature of 
Soviet Communism, it is obvious tliat the effective- 
ness of that deterrent will be increased in propor- 
tion to the known ability of all 12 nations to resist 
and defeat an aggressor. 

The great, the priceless benefit we expect to gain 
from this treaty is peace. We seek that benefit 
by making clear in advance our determination and 
that of our partners in the treaty resolutely to 
resist armed attack with all the strength avail- 
able to us all. Determination is not enough; it 
must be backed by strength. 

874 



MILITARY ASSISTANCE 

If war should nevertheless come, the advantages 
of this arrangement would not by any means accrue 
solely to the European members of the treaty. 
With the experience of two World Wars in mind, I 
think it is clearly apparent that there are tre- 
mendous advantages to the United States in hav- 
ing strong and loyal friends on the continent of 
Europe. In the event of war, these advantages 
are greatly increased if our associates in Europe 
are able to maintain their position until we are able 
to join our forces with theirs oti the continent. 
Therefore, our assistance in strengthening the abil- 
ity of our Atlantic pact associates successfully to 
resist aggression in Europe is equivalent to 
strengthening the defenses of the United States. 

The conclusive reason for military assistance to 
the free nations of Europe is that it materially 
enhances the prospects for peace. The greatest 
single achievement leading to the creation of con- 
ditions that would assure lasting peace in the 
world would be the reestablishment in Europe of a 
group of strong, free, virile and progressive states, 
living together in harmony and cooperating closely 
in political, economic, and social matters for the 
good of their own people and the people of the 
world. This kind of Europe, no longer dependent 
on the United States ol* fearful of attack from the 
East, would be a stabilizing force with great influ- 
ence in world affairs. 

EUROPE AS A BULWARK OF PEACE 

This kind of Europe would contain a popula- 
tion greater than that of Russia, much further 
advanced in science and technology, with resources 
much better developed and an industrial organiza- 
tion much more efficient and productive. Such a 
Europe would be able effectively to resist the en- 
croacliments of Communism. By providing a liv- 
ing, dynamic demonstration of the superior values 
of the free way of life over totalitarian, such a 
Europe would inevitably exert a profound attrac- 
tion for the repressed and impoverished peoples 
under the Communist yoke. 

Above all, the kind of Europe envisioned as re- 
sulting from our pi'esent policies would be a great 
constructive force for peace. The free nations 
of Eurojie share our aversion for war. That aver- 
sion has been intensified by the tragic experiences 
of recent years. Strength in the hands of the free 
peoples of Europe will be strength dedicated to the 
defense of peace. We can make no better invest- 
ment for peace than the restoration of the strength 
of the free nations of Europe. 

We can help make Europe a bulwark of peace 
by doing three things : First, continuing the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program in full force until we 
have finished the job and attained the objective 
we set ourselves in the beginning. Second, enter- 
ing fully and wholeheartedly into the North At- 
lantic Treaty for the mutual defense of the vital 
centers of Western civilization. Third, providing 

Department of State BuUetin 



military assistance as an effective step toward re- 
constituting the strength of Western Europe as a 
positive force for peace. 

BIPARTISAN NATURE OF UNITED STATES 
POLICIES TOWARD EUROPE 

I sliould like to emphasize the bipartisan nature 
of these policies. The legislation providing aid 
for Greece and Turkey and for economic assist- 
ance to Europe and the Senate resolution which 
guided this government in negotiation of the treaty 
were all passed by a Republican Congress with a 
Democratic administration and by overwhelm- 
ingly bipartisan votes. To me this is clear proof 
that these measures far transcend partisan politics 
and are recognized as representing the true basic 
interests of the American people. 

In advocating these measures, I fully recognize 
that they are undertakings not to be lightly as- 
sumed. The continuance of the European Recov- 
ery Program and the initiation of the Military 
Assistance Program require large public expendi- 
tui'es at a time when our commitments are already 
heavy and economic adjustments apparently are 
in progress. I support these measures out of a 
deep conviction that they are essential in the na- 
tional interest. What is involved here is noth- 
ing less than the preservation of our way of life — 
the continued assertion of our right as free men 
to govern ourselves as we see fit and to live ac- 
cording to the dictates of our own conscience. 

SACRIFICES OF AMERICAN PEOPLE 

This being true, we should not hesitate to make 
whatever sacrifices are necessary to defend our 
free institutions. The American people have re- 
peatedly shown that they will willingly make great 
sacrifices for that purpose. Public opinion clearly 
favored the inauguration of the Marshall Plan 
at a time when it appeared that the shipment of 
the necessary foodstuffs and other materials to 
Europe might cut drastically into our own sup- 
plies. That danger no longer exists. In fact, the 
procurement program for European recovery 
might become a valuable stabilizing influence in 
our domestic economy when production is declin- 
ing. Certainly it is true that our foreign aid pro- 
grams and our domestic economy must be kept 
in balance as component parts of an integrated 
national policy. 

The time has passed when foreign affairs and 
domestic affairs could be regarded as separate and 
distinct. The borderline between the two has prac- 



tically ceased to exist. Henry L. Stimson, who has 
served both as Secretary of State and as Secre- 
tary of War, has summed it up this way : "No pri- 
vate program and no public policy, in any sector 
of our national life, can now escape from the com- 
pelling fact that if it is not framed with refer- 
ence to the world, it is framed with perfect 
futility." 

UNITED STATES RESPONSIBILITIES 
IN WORLD AFFAIRS 

Our great responsibilities in world affairs in- 
evitably have their effect on every aspect of our 
national life, and every element of our national 
life enters into our actions with respect to the rest 
of the world. The strength which we must have to 
overcome the dangers that threaten and to ac- 
complish the great task of achieving a just and 
decent peace is not military strength or economic 
strength alone, but the total stretigth of the na- 
tion. It is a strength that encompasses such things 
as education, public health, family life, and oppor- 
tunity and incentive for individual achievement. 
And basic to that strength is the passionate de- 
votion of our people to the free way of life. 
We can maintain the material, moral, and spirit- 
ual strength of America if our democratic faith 
remains strong. 

We in this country know that we can draw 
from this wellspring of faith the strength neces- 
sary to carry out the tremendous responsibilities 
of world leadership. We must express that 
strength in purposeful and resolute action. We 
must never give others cause to doubt our purpose 
and our resolution. The stakes are too high to af- 
ford even a suspicion of irresolution. 

In this critical period of history, the United 
States cannot have a "fair weather" foreign policy 
formulated under favorable conditions only to be 
abandoned or watered down when the going gets 
rough. We cannot embark on a certain course of 
action, advertised to the world, and then back 
down before the job is finished. 

We have made a good start on a policy that has 
achieved a considerable measure of success. We 
need to keep at it. Hesitancy or delay at this time 
would only hearten the enemies of democracy and 
weaken the confidence of the free peoples in the 
leadership of the United States which has brought 
the world thus far along the road to recovery and 
peace. We can't march up the hill one day and 
down again the next. We must go forward, step 
by step, to world peace and security. Only in such 
a world can our own peace and security be assured. 



July 4, 1949 



875 



wyyvt€/i^^!^ 



-.■,'^-vmm'ms9»fii ".■ 






General Policy Page 
The South Pacific Commission Makes Prog- 
ress. By Felix M. Keesing 839 

Address b^^ard L. Thorp 851 

Europe Al^^Bkark of Peace. By Lt. Gen. 

Walter^Hw Smith 872 

Treaty Information 

Genocide Convention Transmitted to the 
Senate: 
The President's Letter of Transmittal . . 844 
Report of the Secretary of State .... 844 

Economic Affairs 

The Lisbon Conference on Central and South 
African Transportation Problems. By 
Maxwell Harway 852 

Final Act Conference on Central African 

Transportation Problems 854 

Where Do We Stand on Point Four? By 

George V. Allen 865 

Calendar of International Meetings . . 849 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

The Paris Conference of the Council of For- 
eign Ministers: 



Council of Foreign Ministers — Con. page 

Communique 857 

Statement by President Truman 858 

Reports to Congressional Committees on 
Results of Conference. Statements by 

Secretary Acheson 859 

Extemporaneous Remarks by Secretary 
Acheson Concerning His Impressions of 
the Conference 860 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Genocide Convention Transmitted to the 
Senate : 
The President's Letter of Transmittal . . 844 
Report of the Secretary of State 844 

The United States in the United Nations . . 848 

Technical Assistance 

The President's Recommendations for Tech- 
nical Assistance Program for Under- 
developed Areas Sent to the Congress . . 862 

The Congress 

Legislation 847 

Settlement of Claims Against Foreign Gov- 
ernments: Yugoslavia 868 



Maxwell Harway, author of the article on the Lisbon Confer- 
eiice on Central and South African Transportation Problems, Is 
Assistant Adviser on Inland Transport, Office of Transport and 
Communications, Department of State. Mr. Harway served as 
Department of State Observer at this Conference. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



*J/i€/ ^eAa^tTnen^/ ^ tnute/ 





SI .M.MAKV OF I)EVEL()P>JENTS IN CHANGE- 
OVEK TO CIVILIAN CONTROL FOR THE Al,- 
LIED HIGH COMMISSION FOR GER.MAN^ . 



CHARTER FOR THE ALLIED HIGH COMMIS- 
SION FOR GERMANY 



•79 



III AL\N RIGHTS: DHAl T COVENANT REVISED 
AT FIFTH SESSION OF CO>LMISSION ON 
HUMAN RIGHTS 3 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXI, No. 52i 
July 11, 1949 




«. S, SUPERINlENiitNr UF DOCt ., 

JUL 26 1949 




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Vol. XXI, No. 523 • Publication 3561 
July 11, 1949 



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HUMAN RIGHTS: DRAFT COVENANT REVISED AT 
FIFTH SESSION OF COIVilVllSSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 



by James Simsarian 



The United Nations Commission on Human 
Rights revised the draft International Covenant 
on Human Rights, which sets forth basic civil and 
political rights, at its fifth session at Lake Success 
from May 9 to June 20, 1949. It also considered 
briefly questions of principle relating to tlie estab- 
lishment of international machinery for the imple- 
mentation of the Covenant. The draft Covenant 
and proposals for its implementation will now be 
transmitted to member governments of the United 
Nations for their comments, tlie Commission liav- 
ing fixed January 1, 1950, as the final date on 
wliicli all proposals concerning these drafts 
should be received by the Secretariat. The Com- 
mission will reconvene for its sixth session earlj' 
in 1950 to revise the documents in the light of 
comments received from governments, which when 
completed at the 1950 session will be forwarded to 
the Economic and Social Council and then to the 
General Assembly for its consideration in the fall 
of 1950. 

The Commission at its fifth session drastically 
streamlined the draft Covenant forwarded to it 
by the Drafting Committee, which had met at Lake 
Success the previous year. The draft Covenant 
now proposes safeguards with respect to some 15 
basic civil and political rights. The Drafting 
Committee of the Commission had rejected the in- 
clusion of economic, social, and cultural rights in 
the Covenant last year, and the Commission this 
year decided to postpone the further consid- 
eration of these additional rights until the 1950 
meeting. 

The basic civil and political rights provided in 
the draft Covenant relate to the right to life, pro- 

July 11, 7949 



tection against torture, slavery, forced labor, arbi- 
trary arrest or detention, protection against im- 
prisonment for inability to fulfill a contractual 
obligation, freedom of movement and residence, 
freedom to leave a country, freedom to return to 
one's country, right to a fair and public hearing 
before an independent and impartial tribunal, pro- 
tection against ex post facto laws, right to recog- 
nition as a person before the law, freedom of 
religion, assembly and association, and equal pro- 
tection of the law. 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
approved by the General Assembly in Paris on 
December 10, 1948, was not drafted in the form 
of a treaty and accordingly is not a legally bind- 
ing document. It enumerates civil, political, eco- 
nomic, social, and cultural rights. In contrast to 
the Declaration, the Covenant is being drafted in 
the form of a treaty and, after its approval by 
the General Assembly, will be submitted to gov- 
ernments for their ratification. The Covenant 
will be binding only on coimtries which ratify it 
through their regular constitutional procedure. 
In the United States, it would be submitted to 
the Senate for the approval of two thirds of that 
body. 



ARTICLES OF THE DRAFT COVENANT 
ON HUMAN RIGHTS 

Article 2, paragraph 1 

Article 2, paragraph 1, of the Covenant was re- 
vised to provide that each state party to the 



Covenant "undertakes to ensure to all individuals 
within its jurisdiction the rights defined in this 
Covenant." The article further provides that 
where the rights defined in the Covenant have not 
already been "provided by legislative or other 
measures, each state undertakes, in accordance 
with its constitutional processes and in accordance 
with the provisions of this Covenant, to adopt 
within a reasonable time such legislative or other 
measures (which are necessary) to give effect to 
the rights defined in this Covenant." 

The representative of the United States, Mrs. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, indicated that if the Cove- 
nant is signed and ratified by the United States the 
obligations of the Covenant should be carried out 
through legislative or other measures, existing or 
to be enacted, giving effect to the provisions of the 
Covenant, particularly with regard to articles 5 to 
22. She pointed out that under this procedure, 
these articles of the Covenant should not them- 
selves become operative as domestic law. 

The United States representative pointed out 
that the Constitution of the United States pro- 
vides — 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States 
which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Trea- 
ties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority 
of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the 
land; 

Constitutions of other countries have similar 
provisions; for example, Paraguay, Argentina, 
and Mexico. In many other countries, how- 
ever, a treaty does not become the supreme law of 
the land automatically, that is, it is necessary to 
adopt legislative or other measures to give effect 
to the provisions of the treaty. The provisions of 
the treaty themselves do not become operative as 
domestic law. 

The United States representative accordingly 
proposed that it should be made clear that the sub- 
stantive articles of the Covenant would not them- 
selves become effective as domestic law, and that 
each party to the Covenant should be placed on 
the same footing to take the necessary steps to 
carry out the provisions of the Covenant through 
appropriate legislative or other measures to the 
extend to which such measures have not already 
been enacted. 

Article 4 

Article 4 was approved to provide that "In 
time of war or other public emergency threaten- 



ing the interests of the people, a State may take 
measures derogating from its obligations under 
Part II of the Covenant to the extent strictly 
limited by the exigencies of the situation." The 
United Kingdom pressed for the inclusion of this 
provision in tlie Covenant. Upon the approval 
of this article, the French representative on the 
Commission argued that this exception should be 
applicable only to paragraph 5 of article 9 (relat- 
ing to habeas corpus), paragraph 1 of article 11 
(relating to freedom of movement and residence 
and freedom to leave one's country), and articles 
16 (religion), 18 (assembly) and 19 (association). 
The application of this exception to article 17 on 
freedom of speech and the press was not consid- 
ered since the approval of this article was post- 
poned. The British rep)resentative urged the 
api^lication of this exception to additional articles 
of the Covenant. The Commission decided to 
postpone until its next session the decision as to 
which of the articles of the Covenant the exception 
provided in article 4 should apply. 

Article 5 

The Commission considered the possibility of 
providing in the Covenant that "No one shall be 
deprived of his life," and then enumerated the 
various exceptions to this right as proposed by the 
Drafting Committee last year. It decided, how- 
ever, that it was doubtful that all possible excep- 
tions to this right could be enumerated in detail. 
Even if it could do so, the Commission felt that 
such an article would be far too complex. The 
United States representative agreed with this 
view. Considerable sentiment developed in the 
Commission for tlie article to provide that "No 
one shall be deprived of his life arbitrarily." 
Wlien this sentence was voted in parts, a majority 
of the members of the Conmiission voted for the 
first part of the sentence, "No one shall be deprived 
of his life," but a majority did not vote for the 
word "arbitrarily." Accordingly tlris article now 
provides "No one shall be deprived of his life," 
it being generally understood in the Commission, 
however, that it will have to be considered further 
at the next session of the Commission. The United 
States representative supported the addition of the 
word "arbitrarily." 

Some of the rights in the Covenant presumably 
provide for protection against state action only, 
as in the case of protection against ex post facto 



Department of State Bulletin 



laws in article 14. It was agreed in the Commis- 
sion that such provisions as in article 8 relating to 
slavery and servitude should provide protection 
against individual as well as state action. The 
United States representative expressed the view, 
however, that some of the rights enumerated in 
the Covenant, such as the right to life in article 5 
and freedom of movement and residence in article 
11, should provide protection against state action 
only, but the overwhelming sentiment in the Com- 
mission was that these articles should also provide 
for protection against individual as well as state 
action. For example, the Commission felt that in 
the case of the right to life in article 5, the Cove- 
nant should provide protection against violence 
by individuals or groups as well as the state. Mem- 
ber's of the Commission referred to the acts of 
mob violence by private groups in Germany dur- 
ing the Nazi regime where individuals had no pro- 
tection with respect to many of the rights now 
proposed to be safeguarded by the Covenant. 

In urging protection against individual as well 
as state action, members of the Commission did 
not, however, propose or contemplate any inter- 
national machinery for action agaiBst any indi- 
vidual who deprives another individual of any 
right being safeguarded by the Covenant. All 
international machinery for the implementation 
of the Covenant calls only for action against the 
country which fails to carry out its obligations 
under the Covenant. The proposed provisions of 
the Covenant leave the responsibility for enforce- 
ment with respect to the individual or group action 
derogating from the rights set forth in the Cove- 
nant, to the state itself. Under article 2 of the 
draft Covenant each state party to the Covenant 
vuidertakes the obligation to insure to all individ- 
uals within its jurisdiction the rights provided 
in the Covenant. The state agrees to adopt legis- 
lative or other measures in accordance with its 
constitutional processes to give effect to the rights 
defined in the Covenant, to the extent to which 
such measures have not aready been enacted. 

Article 7 

The Drafting Committee forwarded the follow- 
ing text for this article : "No one shall be subjected 
to any form of physical mutilation or medical or 
scientific experimentation against his will." The 
Commission decided to request the views of the 
World Health Organization with respect to this 
article before proceeding to its consideration. 



Article 8 

Paragraph 2 of article 8 provides "No one shall 
be held in servitude." The Commission in its dis- 
cussion of the word "servitude" defined the term 
narrowly as practically synonymous with "serf- 
dom" and accordingly felt that there should be 
no exception to this provision. The Commission 
did not consider the term "servitude" as synony- 
mous with the phrase "forced or compulsory 
labor." 

The Commission decided that the provisions in 
article 8 relating to forced or compulsory labor 
should be reviewed carefully at its next session 
after the completion of the present survey of 
forced labor by the International Labor Office and 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 

Article 9 

As in the case of article 5, the Drafting Com- 
mittee had prepared a draft of article 9 last year 
which listed 40 detailed illustrative exceptions to 
the provision "No one shall be deprived of his lib- 
erty." The Commission decided to omit this gen- 
eral statement with its many exceptions and to rely 
instead on the provision that "No one shall be sub- 
jected to arbitrary arrest or detention." The 
United States representative strongly supported 
this decision. 

Paragrajih 6 of article 9 provides that "Every 
person who has been the victim of imlawful arrest 
or deprivation of liberty shall have an enforce- 
able right to compensation." The United States 
representative urged the omission of this para- 
graph from the Covenant. 

Article 11 

Liberty of movement and freedom to choose 
one's residence were carefully defined to provide 
these freedoms within the borders of each state 
only. 

In including the provision in paragraph 2 of 
this article that anyone is free to return to the 
country of which he is a national, it was made clear 
that this article does not limit the right of a 
country to terminate the nationality of its citizens 
for specified reasons, as for example in the case of 
persons who swear allegiance to another country. 
This provision is limited to persons who do not 
lose their nationality after they leave their 
country. 



July 11, 1949 



Article 13 

Article 13 was revised to make it clear that the 
obligation to provide a fair and public hearing by 
an independent and impartial tribunal established 
by law relates only to the determination of a crim- 
inal charge and to the determination of rights and 
obligations in "a suit at law." By this phrase- 
ology administrative hearings are not covered by 
the article. 

The representative of the United States urged 
that paragraph 3 of article 13 concerning com- 
pensation should not be included in the Covenant. 

Article 15 

The text proposed for article 15 by the Drafting 
Committee was "No one shall be deprived of his 
juridical personality." The revised article pro- 
vides that "Every one has the right to recognition 
everywhere as a person before the law." Members 
of the Conmaission thought that this article was 
needed to provide protection against the Nazi 
practice of depriving members of certain gi-oups 
of their legal personality so that their rights could 
be completely ignored. 

Article 16 

The Commission agreed that freedom to mani- 
fest one's religion or belief should be subject to 
certain limitations but that the right to freedom 
of thought, conscience, and religion itself and free- 
dom to change one's religion or belief should not 
be subject to any restrictions. 

Article 17 

Consideration of article 17 of the Covenant 
relating to freedom of information was postponed 
since the next session of the General Assembly will 
consider a draft Convention on Freedom of In- 
formation. The Commission decided to request 
the views of governments as to whether an article 
on freedom of information should be included 
in the Covenant even though there may also be 
a Convention on Freedom of Information. 

Article 21 

The representative of the United States pointed 
out that the proposals of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics and France concerning propa- 
ganda for article 21 should not be included in the 
Covenant, since the language proposed would en- 
courage the enactment of legislation limiting free- 
dom of speech and the press. 



Article 22 

Paragraph 1 of article 22 undertakes to make 
it clear that the rights and freedoms defined in 
the Covenant should not be limited to a greater 
extent than already provided in the Covenant. 
Paragraph 2 of this article expressly provides that 
nothing in the Covenant "may be construed as 
limiting or derogating from any of the rights and 
freedoms which may be guaranteed to all under 
the laws of any contracting State or any conven- 
tions to which it is a party." 

Article 23 

The representative of the United States pro- 
posed that the Covenant should come into force 
when 15 states have deposited their instruments 
of ratification or accession to the Covenant, point- 
ing out, however, that she had no objection to any 
other substantial number. No decision, however, 
was reached by the Commission as to the number 
of states which should become party to the Cove- 
nant before it comes into force. 

Article 24 

The United States representative reconunended 
that the Drafting Committee text for article 24 
should be retained in the Covenant with the inclu- 
sion of a reference to "under its constitutional 
system" in paragraph (a). 

The representative of the United States stressed 
the importance of including such an article in 
the Covenant to make it possible for federal states 
to adhere to the Covenant. She stated that the 
obligations to be undertaken by the United States 
Federal Government under the Covenant should 
be limited to the areas of federal law and federal 
law enforcement which it regards as appropriate 
for federal action under our constitutional system. 
She stressed the extreme difficulty of spelling out 
in the Covenant what matters are appropriate for 
federal action and what are appropriate for state 
action under our constitutional system, and that 
in general. Congress and the courts have deter- 
mined the line between federal and state jurisdic- 
tion on a case-by-case basis. 

The Commission decided to postpone the draft- 
ing of this article. 

Economic and Social Articles 

The representatives of Australia and the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics proposed that the 



Departmenf of Sfafe BuUetin 



Covenant on Human Eights should include ar- 
ticles on economic and social rights as well as on 
civil and political rights. A number of other 
delegations, however, expressed their view that 
the initial Covenant on Human Rights should be 
limited to civil and political matters, and, in fact, 
should not include any rights in addition to those 
already included in the draft Covenant. The 
Commission decided not to take a final decision on 
this question at its fifth session. It instead ap- 
pi-oved a resolution requesting the Secretary- 
General to prepare, before the next session of the 
Commission, a survey of the activities of bodies of 
the United Nations and specialized agencies in the 
economic and social field for the purpose of ena- 
bling the Commission to determine what action 
it should take in these fields, in particular with 
reference to the inclusion of these subjects either 
in the Covenant on Human Rights or in later con- 
ventions. The Commission thus left open the 
question of whether provisions on economic and 
social matters should be included in the Covenant 
on Human Rights or in later conventions. 



IMPLEMENTATION OF COVENANT 

Three views relating to international machinery 
for the implementation of the draft Covenant on 
Human Rights developed in the fifth session. 
One view was that provision should be made at 
this time to provide the right to individuals and 
organizations to file petitions relating to viola- 
tions by states under the Covenant on Human 
Rights. This view was supported by Australia, 
France, Guatemala, India, Lebanon, Philippines, 
and Uruguay. 

The second view — supported by China, Egypt, 
Iran, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States — was that provision should not be made at 
this time for individuals and organizations to file 
petitions with respect to violations of the Cove- 
nant but that instead provision should only be 
made initially for states to file complaints against 
other states with respect to violations under the 
Covenant. This group felt that further experi- 
ence was needed before developing provisions for 
individual petitions. 

The third position, which was supported by the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Ukraine, 
and Yugoslavia, was that no provision should be 
made for implementation whatsoever, mainly on 

July 11, 1949 



the ground that to' do so would interfere with na- 
tional sovereignty. 

The Commission did not have sufficient time to 
complete both the Covenant and the measures of 
implementation at the past session and accord- 
ingly decided to complete its preliminary revision 
of the Covenant rather than the measures of imple- 
mentation. It did, however, take several votes as 
to matters of principle relating to implementation. 
The first vote was on a negative proposal, that is, 
the provisions for individual and group petitions 
should not be included in measures of implemen- 
tation at this time. This proposal was rejected by 
a vote of 8 to 8. The Commission then voted on 
the proposal that provisions for individual and 
group petitions should be included in measures 
of implementation at this time. This proposal was 
also rejected by a vote of 8 to 8. The 8 countries 
favoring individual and group petitions were 
Australia, Denmark, France, Guatemala, India, 
Lebanon, Philippines, and Uruguay. The 8 coun- 
tries which did not favor individual and group 
petitions were China, Egypt, Iran, Ukraine, 
United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, United States, and Yugoslavia. The rep- 
resentatives of Belgium and Chile were not pres- 
ent. 

Following these two votes, the Conmiission 
voted on whether the Covenant on Human Rights 
should at this time include provisions for indi- 
vidual and group petitions. This proposal was 
rejected by a vote of 7 to 8, with Denmark abstain- 
ing. The stress in this proposal was whether the 
Covenant itself should include provisions for indi- 
vidual and group petitions. 

The Commission decided in principle, by a vote 
of 10 to 2, that in any event states parties to the 
Covenant should have the right to enter com- 
plaints against other states with respect to viola- 
tions under the Covenant. Only the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and the Ukraine voted 
against this decision. Yugoslavia was not 
present. 

Five draft texts on implementation before the 
Commission were those of India, Guatemala, 
France, and Australia and a joint proposal by the 
United Kingdom and the United States. These 
texts, together with a statement by the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics against all measures of 
implementation, are being referred to govern- 
ments for their comments. 



United Kingdom-United States Proposal 
for Impiententation 

The joint proposal of the United Kingdom and 
the United States proposes that an article on im- 
plementation be included in the Covenant to pro- 
vide as follows : 

A panel would be established by the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations of persons of high 
moral character and of suitable ability and quali- 
fications to be designated by states parties to the 
Covenant from among their nationals, to serve on 
Human Rights Committees in their personal ca- 
pacity. In the event one state pai-ty to the Cove- 
nant considers another state party to the Cove- 
nant is not giving effect to the provisions of the 
Covenant, and the matter is not adjusted between 
them within 6 months, either state would have the 
right to refer it to a Human Rights Committee to 
be selected from the panel. Five members would 
be selected from the panel to serve on a Human 
Rights Committee to consider a dispute between 
two or more states relating to the observance of the 
provisions of the Covenant. One member of the 
Coimnittee would be selected by one party and an- 
other member by the other party and three mem- 
bers by agreement between them, or in the event 
there is no agreement between them, by the Secre- 
tary-General. The Coimnittee would hold hear- 
ings, and the states concerned would have the 
right to be represented at these hearings and to 
make submissions to it orally and in writing. Each 
state would be under an obligation to supply such 
relevant information as is requested of it by the 
Committee. The Committee would be authorized 
to ask the United Nations Commission on Human 
Rights to request the International Court of Jus- 
tice for an advisory opinion on legal questions. 
To include this provision it would be necessary 
for the General Assembly to authorize the Com- 
mission on Human Rights to request advisory 
opinions of the International Court of Justice in 
accordance with article 96 of the Charter of the 
United Nations. The Committee would report its 
findings of fact within 6 months of its first meeting 
to the states concerned and to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral for publication. It is expressly provided that 
nothing in the proposal would preclude the refer- 
ence of a dispute to the International Court of Jus- 
tice for decision if the states concerned agreed to 
do so. 



Other Proposals Concerning implementation 

The proposals of Guatemala, France, and India 
provide for an International Committee or Com- 
mission to consider petitions filed by individuals 
and organizations as well as by states with refer- 
ence to violations by states of provisions of the 
Covenant. The proposal of Australia calls for the 
establishment of an International Court of Human 
Rights to consider the petitions of individuals and 
organizations as well as states with respect to vio- 
lations of the Covenant. 

The Soviet representative on the Commission 
opposed all the proposals for implementation sub- 
mitted to the Commission. He felt that the im- 
plementation proposed "may become a means of 
interfering in the internal affairs of a state party 
to the Convention, and of undermining the sov- 
ereignty and independence of particular states." 



UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST 
REPUBLICS ACTION 

The Soviet representative, A. P. Pavlov, on the 
Commission, who abstained when the Commis- 
sion voted to approve the report of its work, par- , 
ticipated actively throughout its fifth session in 
the redrafting of the Covenant on Human Rights. 
He repeatedly sought to include provisions in the 
Covenant which would weaken the effectiveness of 
the rights and freedoms being safeguarded. The i 
other members of the Commission, however, re- 
jected his amendments to the Covenant just as they ' 
had rejected similar amendments he had proposed \ 
to the Declaration of Human Rights last year. Mr. 
Pavlov was also the representative of the Soviet i 
Union in the Commission and the General As- i 
senibly in 1948. He abstained both in the Com- | 
mission and the General Assembly last year when ' 
the Declaration of Human Rights was approved, i 

The non-Slav members of the Commission re- i 
fused to compromise with the effective provisions 
they were undertaking to draft for the Covenant 
merely to reach agreement with the Soviet Union 
on the phraseology of the particular articles. The 
representative of the Ukraine voted with the 
Soviet representative in every instance in the fifth 
session of the Commission. The representative of 
Yugoslavia voted with the representative of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics except in a 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



few instances. The following proposals which the 
Soviet representative submitted to the fifth ses- 
sion are illustrative of his eiforts to weaken the 
articles of the Covenant. 

With respect to article 11 concerning freedom 
of movement and residence and freedom to leave 
a country, he proposed that these freedoms be sub- 
ject to the laws of the country. It was pointed out 
by the other members of the Commission that to 
include such a limitation on these rights would 
obviouslj' negate them. Only the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and the Ukraine voted for the 
amendment. 

He projjosed that the freedom of religion article 
read ''Every person shall have the right to free- 
dom of thought and freedom to practice religious 
observances in accoi'dance with the laws of the 
country and the dictates of public morality." This 
amendment was also rejected by the Commission. 

The proposal to limit freedom of assembly in 
ai'ticle 18 bj' inserting "in the interest of democ- 
racy" was rejected by the Commission. 

He also proposed that the following be included 
in the article on freedom of assembly, "AH socie- 
ties, unions, and other organizations of a Fascist 
or anti-democratic nature and their activity in 
whatever form shall be forbidden by law on pain 
of punishment." This language was rejected by 
the Commission. 

With respect to article 19 concerning freedom 
of association, he sought to limit this freedom to 
only such associations as are permitted by the laws 
of the country, but he was unsuccessful in this 
move. 



CHAIRMAN OF COMMISSION 

Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the representative 
of the United States on the Commission, was 
elected chairman of the fifth session. She has been 
elected chairman of each session of the Commission 
on Human Rights since its establishment early in 

1947. She was also elected chairman of the two 
sessions of the Drafting Committee in 1947 and 

1948. On her insistence, the practice has devel- 
oped in this Commission that representatives on 
the Commission are not to attack other countries in 
their remarks, since the drafting of the Covenant 
would be seriously jeopardized if time is wasted in 
unnecessary propaganda attacks and counter- 
attacks. Wlien any representative begins to at- 



tack another country or is critical of the internal 
conditions of another country, he is interrupted 
and ruled out of order by the chairman. 

At the close of the fifth session, members of the 
Commission paid tribute to Mrs. Roosevelt's lead- 
ership in the Commission and to the effective and 
able manner in which she had conducted its 
meetings. 



DRAFT INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON 
HUMAN RIGHTS 

[As revised by tlie United Nations Commission on 
Human Rights at its fiftli session at Lake Success from 
May 9 to June 20, 1949 — Tlie Commission is expected to 
reconvene for its sixth session early in 1950 to complete its 
revision of the Draft Covenant] 

Preamble 

[Consideration of the Preamble was jwstponed — the 
United States proposed that the Preamble read as fol- 
lows : "The States parties hereto, bearing in mind the 
general principles proclaimed in tlie United Nations Char- 
ter and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 
approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations 
on 10 December 1948, agree upon the following articles 
with respect to certain human rights and fundamental 
freedoms :"] 

Article 1 

[Consideration of Article 1 was postponed. It provides : 
"The States parties hereto declare that they recognize 
the rights and freedoms set forth in Part II hereof as 
being among the human rights and fundamental freedoms 
founded on the general principles of law recognized by 
civilized nations."] 

Article 2 

1. Each State party hereto undertakes to ensure to all 
individuals within its jurisdiction the rights defined in this 
Covenant. Where not already provided by legislative or 
other measures, each State undertakes, in accordance with 
its constitutional processes and in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this Covenant, to adopt within a reasonable 
time such legislative or other measures to give effect 
to the rights defined in this Covenant. 

2. Each State party hereto undertakes to ensure that 
any person whose rights or freedoms as herein defined are 
violated shall have an effective remedy before the com- 
petent national tribunals notwithstanding that the vio- 
lation has been committed by persons acting in an official 
capacity. 

Article 3 

[Consideration of Article 3 was postponed for considera- 
tion with implementation at the next session of the Com- 



Ju/y J J, 7949 



mission. Article 3 provides : "On receipt of a request to 
this effect from the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions made under the authority of a resolution of the 
General Assembly, the Government of any party to this 
Covenant shall supply an explanation as to the manner 
in vsfhich the law of that State gives effect to any of the 
provisions of this Covenant."] 

Article i 

1. In time of war or other public emergency, threatening 
the interests of the people, a State may take measures 
derogating from its obligations under Part II of the Cove- 
nant to the extent strictly limited by the exigencies of the 
situation. 

2. No derogation from Articles can be made 

under this provision. 

3. Any State party hereto availing Itself of this right 
of derogation shall inform the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations fully of the measures which it has thus 
enacted and the reasons therefor. It shall also inform 
him as and when such measures cease to operate and 
the provisions of Part II of the Covenant are being fully 
executed. 

Article 5 

1. No one shall be deprived of his life. (United States 
proposed the addition of the word "arbitrarily" at the end 
of this sentence — the Commission will undertake to com- 
plete this sentence at its next session.) 

2. In countries where capital punishment exists, sen- 
tence of death may be imposed only as a penalty for the 
most serious crimes. 

3. No one may be executed save in virtue of the sen- 
tence of a competent court and in accordance with a law 
in force and not contrary to the principles expressed in 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

4. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence 
of death may be granted in all cases. 

Article 6 

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman 
or degrading treatment or punishment. 

Article 7 

[Consideration of Article 7 was postponed. The views 
of the World Health Organization concerning this Article 
were requested by the Commission. It provides : "No one 
shall be subjected to any form of physical mutilation or 
medical or scientific experimentation against his will."] 



Article 8 



the 



1. No one shall be held in slavery ; slavery and 
slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. 

2. No one shall be held in servitude. 

3. No one shall be required to perform forced or com- 
pulsory labour except pursuant to a sentence to such pun- 
ishment for a crime by a competent court. 

4. For the purposes of this Article, the term "forced 
or compulsory labour" shall not include: 

(a) any work, not amounting to hard labour, required 
10 



to be done in the ordinary course of prison routine by a 
person undergoing detention imposed by the lawful order 
of a court ; 

(b) any service of a military character or, in the case 
of conscientious objectors, in countries where they are 
recognized, exacted in virtue of laws requiring compulsory 
national service; 

(c) any service exacted in cases of emergencies or 
calamities threatening the life or well-being of the 
community ; 

(d) any work or service which forms part of the nor- 
mal civil obligations. 

Article 9 

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or deten- 
tion. 

2. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such 
grounds and in accordance with such procedure as estab- 
lished by law. 

3. Any one who is arrested shall be informed promptly 
of the reasons for his arrest and of any charges against 
him. 

4. Any one arrested or detained on the charge of having 
committed a crime or of preparing to commit a crime shall 
be brought promptly before a judge or other officer author- 
ized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled 
to trial within a reasonable time or to release. Pending 
trial, release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear 
for trial. 

5. Every one who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or 
detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which 
the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily 
by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not 
lawful. 

6. Every person who has been the victim of unlawful 
arrest or deprivation of liberty shall have an enforceable 
right to compensation. " 

Article 10 

No one shall be imprisoned merely on the grounds of 
inability to fulfill a contractual obligation. 

Article 11 

1. Subject to any general law, adopted for specific rea- 
sons of national security, public safety or health : 

(a) everyone has the right to liberty of movement and 
is free to choose his residence within the borders of each 
State ; 

(b) any one shall be free to leave any country including 
his own. 

2. Any one is free to return to the country of which he 
is a national. 

Article 12 

No alien legally admitted to the territory of a State 
shall be expelled therefrom except on such grounds and 
according to such procedure and safeguards as are provided 
by law. 

Article IS 

1. In the determination of any criminal charge against 
Department of State Bulletin 



him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, every 
one is entitled to a fair and public hearing, by an inde- 
pendent and Impartial tribunal established by law. Judg- 
ment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and pub- 
lic may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the 
interest of morals, public order or national security, or 
where the Interest of juveniles or incapacitated persons 
so require. 

2. Every one charged with a penal offence has the right 
to be presumed innocent, until proved guilty according 
to law. In the determination of any criminal charge 
against him, every one is entitled to the following mini- 
mum guarantees, in full equality : 

(a) to be informed promptly of the nature and cause 
of the accusation against him ; 

(b) to defend himself in i)erson or through legal as- 
sistance which shall include the right to legal assistance 
of his own choosing, or if he does not have such, to be 
informed of his right and, if unobtainable by him, to have 
legal assistance assigned ; 

(c) to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against 
him and to obtain compulsory attendance of witnesses in 
his behalf; 

(d) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he 
cannot understand or speak the language used in court. 

3. Every one who has undergone punishment as a result 
of an erroneous conviction of crime shall have an en- 
forceable right to compensation. This right shall accrue 
to the heirs of a person executed by virtue of an erroneous 
sentence. 

Article H 

No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on ac- 
count of any act or omission which did not constitute a 
penal offence, under national or international law, at the 
time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty 
be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time 
the i)enal offence was committed. 

Article 15 

Every one has the right to recognition everywhere as a 
person before the law. 

Article 16 

1. Every one has the right to freedom of thought, con- 
science, and religion; this right includes freedom to change 
his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in com- 
munity with others and in public or private, to manifest 
his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and 
observance. 

2. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall 
be subject only to such limitations as are pursuant to 
law and are reasonable and necessary to protect public 
safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights 
and freedoms of others. 

Article n 

[Freedom of speech and the press — the consideration of 
this Article was postponed since the General Assembly in 
the fall of 1949 is scheduled to consider a separate con- 
vention on freedom of information.] 



Article 18 

Every one has the right to freedom of peaceful assem- 
bly. No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of 
this right other than those prescribed by law and which 
are necessary to ensure national security, public order, 
the protection of health or morals, or the protection of 
the rights and freedoms of others. 

Article 19 

1. Every one has the right to freedom of association 
with others. 

2. This freedom shall be subject only to such limita- 
tions as are pursuant to law and which are necessary 
for the protection of national security, public order, public 
safety, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and 
freedoms of others. 

3. National legislation shall neither prejudice, nor be 
applied in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees 
provided for in the International Convention on Freedom 
of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize, 
in so far as States parties to that Convention are concerned. 

Article 20 

1. All are equal before the law and shall be accorded 
equal protection of the law. 

2. Every one shall be accorded all the rights and free- 
doms defined in this Covenant without discrimination on 
any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, 
political or other opinion, national or social origin, prop- 
erty, birth or other status. 

3. Every one shall be accorded equal protection against 
any incitement to such discrimination. 

Article Zl 

[Propaganda — the consideration of this Article was post- 
poned until Article 17 on freedom of speech and the press 
is considered by the Commission at its next session.] / 

Article 22 

1. Nothing in this Covenant may be interpreted as im- 
plying for any State, group or person any right to engage 
in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruc- 
tion of any of the rights and freedoms defined herein or 
at their limitation to a greater extent than is already 
provided for in this Covenant. 

2. Nothing in this Covenant may be construed as limit- 
ing or derogating from any of the rights and freedoms 
which may be guaranteed to all under the laws of any 
contracting State or any conventions to which it is a 
party. 

Article 23 

1. This Covenant shall be open for signature or acces- 
sion on behalf of any State Member of tlie United Nations 
or of any non-Member State to which an invitation has 
been extended by the General Assembly. 

2. Ratification of or accession to this Covenant shall 
be effected by the deposit of an instrument of ratification 



July 7 7, 7949 



11 



or accession with the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations, and as soon as ... . States have deposited such 
instruments, the Covenant shall come into force between 
them. As regards any State which ratifies or accedes 
thereafter, the Covenant shall come into force on the 
date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or 
accession. 

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall 
inform all Members of the United Nations and other States 
which have ratified or acceded, of the deposit of each in- 
strument of ratification or accession. 

Article 24 

[Federal state — consideration of this Article was post- 
poned. The United States proposed that this Article read 
as follows : 

"In the case of a Federal State, the following provisions 
shall apply : 

(a) With respect to any Articles of this Covenant which 
the Federal Government regards as appropriate under its 
constitutional system, in whole or in part, for federal ac- 
tion, the obligations of the Federal Government shall to 
this extent, be the same as those of parties which are not 
Federal States ; 

(b) In respect of Articles which the Federal Govern- 
ment regards as appropriate under its constitutional sys- 
tem, in whole or in part, for action by the constituent 
states, provinces, or cantons, the Federal Government shall 
bring such provisions, with favourable recommendation, 
to the notice of the appropriate authorities of the states, 
provinces or cantons at the earliest possible moment."] 

Article 25 

[Extension of the provisions of the Covenant to non-self- 
governing territories — consideration of this Article was 
postponed.] 

Article 26 

[Amendments to the Covenant — consideration of this 
Article was postponed.] 

Article on Implementation 

[The consideration of proposals for an article on im- 
plementation was postponed — the United Kingdom and 
the United States proposed the following article for in- 
clusion in the Covenant for the implementation of the 
Covenant : 

"1. If a State Party to the Covenant considers that 
another State Party is not giving effect to a provision 
of the Covenant, it may bring the matter to the attention 
of that State. If the matter Is not adjusted between 



them within six months, either State sliall have the right 
to refer it, by notice to the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations and to the other State, to a Human Rights 
Committee to be established in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this Article. 

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall 
establish a panel of persons of high moral character and 
of suitable ability and qualifications, designated by States 
Parties to the Covenant from among their nationals, to 
serve on Human Rights Committees in their personal 
capacity. Each State Party to the Covenant may desig- 
nate two persons for periods of five years. 

3. Upon notice being given to the Secretary-General, a 
Human Rights Couunittee shall be established of five 
members selected from the panel, one member by the 
State or States referring the matter, one member by the 
other States and three by agreement between them. If 
any place on the Committee has not been filled within 
three months, the Secretary-General shall select a person 
from the panel to fill it. 

4. The Committee shall meet at the Headquarters of 
the United Nations in the absence of agreement to the con- 
trary between the Parties to the dispute and the Secre- 
tary-General, and shall establish its own rules of proce- 
dure provided that : 

(a) the States concerned shall have the right to be 
represented at the hearings of the Committee and to mal^e 
submissions to it orally and in writing ; and 

(b) the Committee shall hold its hearings and other 
meetings in closed session. 

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall 
provide the necessary services and facilities for the Com- 
mittee and its members. 

6. The Committee may call for relevant information 
from any State concerned and such State shall supply the 
information requested. 

7. The Committee may ask the United Nations Com- 
mission on Human Rights ' to request the International 
Court of Justice for an advisory opinion on legal questions. 

8. The Committee shall within six months of its first 
meeting report its findings of fact to the States concerned, 
and to the Secretary-General for publication. 

The record of the Committee shall be deposited with 
the Secretary-General. 

9. Nothing in this Article shall preclude reference of 
the matter to the International Court of Justice for de- 
cision if the States referred to in paragraph 1 so agree."] 



' [It will be necessary for the General Assembly to au- 
thorize the Commission on Human Rights to request ad- 
visory opinions of the International Court of Justice in 
accordance with Article 96 of the Charter of the United 
Nations.] 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



U.S. Will Not Support Membership of States Unwilling 
To Fulfill Charter Obligations 



Statement by Arrvbassador Warren R. Austin ^ 



We have now heai'd the views of most of the 
members of the Council on the various apphca- 
tions which are before us, as well as on the various 
resolutions which have been submitted. It seems 
quite clear that the positions of the members of the 
Security Council have for tlie most part not 
changed, and tliat none of the applications before 
us will receive a favorable recommendation from 
the Security Council if we proceed to a vote at the 
present time. It would seem to me wiser for us 
to accept this position. If we follow the sugges- 
tion of our chairman, made at the beginning of the 
consideration of this matter, we sliall avoid 
further lengthy discussions. 

The United States supported the Swedish reso- 
lution in the General Assembly after it was 
clarified to indicate that the Assembly favored 
admission only of those states eligible under ar- 
ticle 4 of the Charter; that is what the General 
Assembly intended when it noted the general 
sentiment in favor of the universality of the 
United Nations. The United States continues to 
strive toward the objective of universality of 
membership in the United Nations. The moral 
force and effectiveness of the United Nations de- 
pend upon the actions of its members in the spirit 
of the Charter. Member states have the obliga- 
tion to welcome to their ranks every eligible 
candidate. If this were done the organization 
would eventually achieve substantial universality. 
We shall continue in our efforts toward insuring 



' Made hpfore the Security Council on .Tune 24, 1949, 
and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the United 
Xations on the same date. 



the admission of every qualified state to this 
organization. 

As I stated the other day, my government does 
not believe that the Governments of Albania, Bul- 
garia, Hungary, Mongolian Peoples' Republic, 
and Rumania have given proof that they are 
peace-loving states, able and willing to fulfill the 
obligations of the Charter. Certain policies 
wliich these states are now following, and to which 
I have already referred, render them in our view 
ineligible for membership. We should be very 
pleased to support the admission of these appli- 
cants if they would change their policies in ques- 
tion and give evidence of tlieir willingness to abide 
by the Charter. 

I am glad to see from the statement and resolu- 
tion of my colleague from the Soviet Union that 
his government has apparently revised its opinion 
as to the qualifications of the admission of several 
states, which the General As-sembly and the ma- 
jority of the Council have long supported for ad- 
mission and now considers tliem fully qualified 
for membership. We should like to believe that 
this signifies that the Soviet Union is now pre- 
pared to settle membership questions on the basis 
of the Charter, but we cannot overlook the fact 
that the Soviet resolution calls for the admission 
of 5 applicants which the General Assembly and 
the majority of the Council have consistently 
found to be not qualified for membership. From 
the statement of my Soviet Union colleague, it 
would appear that he is making his support for 
the admission of the 7 states whose applications 
his government has previously vetoed conditional 
upon Security Council approval of the 5 states 
which he desires to see admitted. As the Inter- 



Jo/y n, J 949 



13 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



national Court has held, such a course of action is 
illegal and inconsistent with the Charter. 

The Soviet Union, if it wishes to settle the mem- 
bership problem on the basis of the Charter, is in 
a position to encourage some applicants to take 
steps to qualify themselves. The Soviet Union is 
not without influence with respect to the Govern- 
ments of Albania, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hun- 
gary. The Soviet Union could use this influence 
to the end that Albania and Bulgaria cease ren- 
dering assistance to the guerrillas in Greece and 
comply with the terms of the General Assembly 
resolution on the Greek question. It could also 
use its influence to the end that Rumania, Hun- 
gary, and Bulgaria should take steps to comply 
with the provisions of the recent treaties of peace, 
particularly with regard to the maintenance of 
fundamental human rights and freedoms. 

In this connection, the Soviet Union is at the 
present moment in a position to contribute to the 
solution of this question. The proceedings under 
the peace treaties have been brought by certain 
nations in an effort to insure the proper imple- 
mentation of the peace treaties by these three 
States. Under the treaty provisions, the heads 
of the missions of the Soviet Union, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States in the three coun- 
tries in question are required to consider a dis- 
pute. The Soviet Union, which has so far de- 
clined to let its chiefs of mission participate in 
this conciliation machinery could very easily con- 
tribute to a solution of this question by loyally 



carrying out its obligation under the treaty in 
this respect. 

While the present actions and policies of these 
states are in our view a bar to their eligibility to 
membership in the United Nations, it is entirely 
within their power to take the necessary stej^s to 
change that situation. We hope that they will 
see the advantages of such a course of action. 

At the present moment, however, we cannot 
support their applications. I gather from their 
statements that the majority of the members of 
the Council will be unable to support their appli- 
cations. The delegate of the Soviet Union has 
indicated that under these circumstances he 
would again veto the applications of the 7 
states which the General Assembly has recom- 
mended to us for admission. I should be glad to 
be corrected if I have misunderstood his inten- 
tions. Othei'wise, I wish to support the recom- 
mendations of the chairman that we should, at 
this time, simply take note of our inability at the 
present time to make a favorable recommenda- 
tion on any of the applications before us. 

My government, and I assiune the Security 
Council also, would be prepared to reconsider 
this question at any time if it should appear that 
further developments cast new light on the quali- 
fications for membership, under article 4, of Al- 
bania, Bulgaria, The Mongolian Peoples' Repub- 
lic, Hungary, and Rumania, or if as a result of 
changes in the positions of any members of the 
Security Council there appears any likelihood of 
the Council taking affirmative action on any of 
these applications. 



The Question of Membership in the United Nations 



Statement by Ambassador Warren R. Austin ^ 



The distinguished representative of Argentina 
last Thursday [June 16] again put before the 
Security Council his view regarding admission to 
membership in the United Nations. 

The United States sees the underlying purpose 
of the representative of Ai'gentina as expressing 



* Made before the Security Council on June 21, 1949, and 
released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the United 
Nations on the same date. 



his dissatisfaction with Soviet obstruction to the 
admission of qualified applicants. My govern- 
ment, of course, shares that dissatisfaction. It 
has attempted to reach agreement with all the per- 
manent members of the Security Council on pro- 
cedures which would bring an end to the deadlock 
on this question, and it is continuing its efforts to 
reach such a result. The United States has stated 
at the second regular session and at the third regu- 
lar session of the Assembly that it would not exer- 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



cise its right of veto in the Security Council to 
exclude from the United Nations any applicant 
then under consideration which the Assembly de- 
termined to be qualified for membership. I may 
amplify that statement of policy now and say that 
we have no intention in the future of permitting 
our vote to prevent the admission to membership 
of any applicant receiving 7 affirmative votes in 
this Council. Furthermore, I would recall that 
our privileged vote has not in any instance ex- 
cluded an applicant from United Nations mem- 
bership. I shall return later to this point. 

Therefore, we seek a purpose identical with that 
of the representative of Argentina. The last two 
Assemblies have heard learned discussions in the 
Political Committee by the distinguished repre- 
sentative of Argentina on the constitutional his- 
tory of the process of the admission of new mem- 
bers to the United Nations. Upon such occasion, 
we have carefully considered the position which 
he has presented. However, we have not been 
able to accept the method of procedure for which 
he has so long been an advocate. 

The willingness of my government to refrain 
from blocking by its veto the decision of any 7 
members of the Security Council that an applicant 
is qualified for membership does not mean the 
United States thinks that the Council or its mem- 
bers should ignore the requirements of article 4. 
To be admitted into the organized community of 
nations, states should by their conduct prior to 
admission give proof of their readiness and will- 
ingness not to use force as an instrument of 
national policy, to respect the laws of nations, 
and to assist in their development and enforce- 
ment. Any political entity which possesses the 
essential attributes of statehood can easily conform 
its policies to the requirements of article 4, but 
while these requirements are simple, they are 
serious and basic. They may not be fulfilled by 
paper assurances that as of the date of admission 
an applicant will accept the obligations of the 
Charter. The organization is entitled to reason- 
able proof of a desire for membership based on a 
full understanding and respect for article 4. 

I take it that this discussion will be limited to 
the 12 nations whose applications were considered 
in the Security Council and did not obtain the 
Council's recommendation in the autumn session 
of the Third General Assembly in Paris. Other- 
wise I should not fail to manifest again the warm 
support my government gives to the application 
of Korea. 

The applications of Austria, Ceylon, Finland, 
Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Jordan have consist- 
ently received the support of my government. We 
continued to support fully the admission of these 
states. Everyone received in the Council at least 8 
and some of them 9 favorable votes, and in each 

July 11, 1949 



case it was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
that cast the negative vote which excluded the as- 
piring state from membership. It is not forgotten 
that the Soviet representative said of Italy that his 
government considered that country qualified to 
become a member of the United Nations but voted 
against its admission in consideration of the fact 
that Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary had not 
been recommended for admission. I need not re- 
call that the Third General Assembly meeting in 
Paris last autumn, by large majorities reaffirmed 
its view that the opposition of the Soviet Union 
to their applications was based on grounds not in- 
cluded in article 4 of the Charter and determined 
again that in its judgment they were peace-loving 
states within the meaning of article 4 of the Charter 
and should therefore be admitted to membership 
in the United Nations. The Security Council has 
been requested to reconsider these applications in 
the light of the General Assembly's determination 
and the court's opinion. The advisory opinion of 
the International Court of Justice dated May 28, 
1948, held that the conditions for membership de- 
scribed in article 4 of the Charter are "exhaustive", 
that a member of the United Nations is not juridi- 
cally entitled to make its consent to the admission 
of a state to membei-ship dependent on condi- 
tions not expressly provided for by paragraph 1 
of that ai'ticle, and that in particidar a member 
cannot, while it recognizes the conditions set forth 
in article 4 to be fulfilled by the applicant state, 
subject its affirmative vote to the additional con- 
dition that other states be admitted to membership 
in the United Nations together with that state. 
The General Assembly has also recommended that 
every member of the Security Council should act 
in accordance with the court's opinion in exercising 
its vote on the admission of new members. 

We are meeting here today in compliance with 
the various requests of the General Assembly on 
this subject. We hope that all the members of the 
Security Council will give full weight to the recom- 
mendations and determinations of the General As- 
sembly as well as to the opinion of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice. 

The position of my government with respect to 
the applications of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, 
Mongolian People's Republic, and Rumania re- 
mains the same as before. We are unable to sup- 
port these applications. We could not vote for the 
admission of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania in 
1947 and 1948 and cannot do so now when the three 
governments stand charged with systematic sup- 
pression of human rights and the violation of tlieir 
peace treaties with the Allied nations. Further- 
more, both Bulgaria and Albania continue to give 
material assistance and comfort to the rebels seek- 
ing to overthrow the constituted government of a 
member of the United Nations, Greece. 

Finally, I agi'ee with you, Mr. President, that 
if the present views of the members of the Security 
Council indicate that there will be no change in the 

15 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



results of voting on these twelve applications, no 
useful purpose would be served by bringing the 
present matter to a vote. 

If votes should be taken on the resolutions by Dr. 
Arce, I characterize the vote of the United States 
as free from commitment to the understanding, 
stated by Dr. Arce, of the procedure which sliould 
be followed in arriving at a recommendation by 
the Security Council or a decision by the General 
Assembly. 



Terms of Reference for the United 
Nations Visiting Mission to Trust 
Territories in West Africa 

U.N. doc. T/348, June 23, 1949 
Adopted June 20, 1949 

The Trusteeship Council, 

Having appointed a visiting mission composed of Mr. 
Pierre Ryclimans of Belgium, Mr. Awni Khalid.v of Iraq, 
Mr. Abelardo Ponce Sotelo of Mexico and Mr. Benjamin 
Gerig of the United States of America, assisted by mem- 
bers of the Secretariat and by such representatives of 
the local administrations as the mission may determine 
necessary, 

Having decided that tlie visiting mission should depart 
on 1 November 1949 and visit the Trust Territories of the 
Cameroons under French administration, the Cameroons 
under British administration, Togoland under French 
administration and Togoland under British administra- 
tion in accordance with rules 84, 89, 94, 96, and 98 of the 
rules of procedure for the Trusteeship Council, 

Directs the visiting mission to observe the developing 
political, economic, social and educational conditions in 
the four above-mentioned Trust Territories, their progress 
towards self-government or independence, and the efforts 
of their respective Administering Authorities to achieve 
this and other basic objectives of the International Trus- 
teeship System ; 

Directs tlie visiting mission to give attention, as may be 
appropriate in the light of discussions in the Trusteeship 
Council and resolutions adopted by the Council, to issues 
raised in connection with the annual reports on the admin- 
istration of the four Trust Territories concerned and in 
petitions received by the Trusteeship Council relating to 
those Trust Territories, and in particular the petitions 
relating to the Ewe problem in Togoland under French 
and Togoland under British administration and the peti- 
tion from the Baliweri Land Committee relating to the 
Cameroons under British administration ; 

Directs the visiting mission to accept or receive petitions 
and, without prejudice to its acting in accordance with 
rules 84 and 89 of the rules of procedure, to investigate 
on the spot, after consultation with the local representa- 



tive of the Administering Authority concerned, such peti- 
tions dealing with the conditions of tlie indigenous inhab- 
itants as are in its opinion, sufficiently important to war- 
rant special investigation ; 

Requests the visiting mission to transmit to the Trus- 
teeship Council as soon as possible in accordance vnth 
rule 99 of the rules of procedure for the Trusteeship Coun- 
cil a report, on the findings of the mission with such obser- 
vations and conclusions as the mission may wish to make. 



Conciliation Commission Seeks Basis 
for Settlement Between Arab and 
Israeli Representatives 

StateTnent hy Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the Press June 23] 

The Palestine Conciliation Commission in Lau- 
sanne is now trying to develop in as much detail as 
possible the position of Arab and Israeli repre- 
sentatives on the principal questions which re- 
main unsolved. This effort is designed to discover 
whether there is at present any basis for agree- 
ment and, if not, exactly what the points of dif- 
ference are. 

It may become necessary for the Commission to 
adjouin its work for a brief period in order to 
permit the several delegations to consult their 
governments and to give an opportunity for fur- 
ther informal discussions. In any event, the work 
of the Commission itself would continue through 
its general political committee, its technical com- 
mittee on refugees, and its Jerusalem committee. 

Since these discussions are now going on with 
the Palestine Conciliation Commission, I do not 
wish to try to deal with the merits of particular 
issues. As a member of the Commission, the 
United States will do everything it can to find a 
basis for a settlement. 



Documents and State Papers for June 1949 

CONTENTS: 

International Protection of Works of Art 
and Historic Monuments 

U.S. Delegation Report on FAD: Novem- 
ber 1948 

Calendar of International Meetings, with 
Annotations 

Cumulative Contents: April 1948-May 1949 

Copies of this publication are for sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D. C, at SOfS a copy. 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



[July 2-8] 

Economic and Social Council 

The 18-nation Economic and Social Council 
(Ecosoc) convened at Geneva on July 5 for its 
ninth session and in less than 4 hours adopted a 
47-item agenda. James Thorn, of New Zealand, 
President of Ecosoc, in his opening speech said he 
hoped the Council would be able to comjDlete its 
heavy agenda in 6 weeks. 

One of the priority items on the agenda, the 
United Nations program for technical assistance 
to underdeveloped countries, was delayed until 
after July 21 at the request of the United States 
representative. He explained that the United 
States delegation could not yet state its views since 
the subject is pending before Congress. 

Other items on the agenda are measures to in- 
crease the availability of food and to protect state- 
less jiersons; a study of the iJroblem of forced 
labor, possible means and methods of enforcing 
trade-union rights ; and resolutions from the Final 
, Act of the United Nations Conference on Freedom 
of Information. 

The first item considered by the plenary was the 
report of the Narcotics Commission. The United 
States representative called attention to the state- 
ment in the report on the volume of illicit traffic. 
The Economic Commitee considered the reports 
of the Fiscal Commission and of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization. The United States 
representative protested a U.S.S.E. proposal to 
abolish the Fiscal Commission as a measure of 
economy, and stated that the Commission is use- 
ful, tliough unglamorous, and should not be abol- 
ished. A United States resolution noting meas- 
ures of the Fag to increase food availability was 
adopted. 

World Health Assembly 

The Second World Health Assembly concluded 
its three-week session in Rome on July 2, during 
which experts from almost 80 countries and terri- 
tories examined a short- and long-term program 
designed to improve the health of peojiles all over 
the world. Plans for a dozen expanded health 
progi'ams in 1950 were approved. 

There will be expansion in the fight against 
malaria, tuberculosis, and venereal disease. Pro- 



motion of maternal and child health will get in- 
creased attention, as well as environmental sani- 
tation and nutrition. A new program will be 
started in mental health. A series of epidemiolog- 
ical studies will be conducted, including work on 
poliomyelitis, trachoma, rabies, smallpox and yel- 
low fever. A campaign to control disease in the 
food-producing areas where the production of food 
can be increased greatly by dealing efl'ectively with 
such diseases as malaria will be carried out with the 
Food and Agriculture Organization. Six areas 
will be chosen for development under the plan. 

The United States delegate, in supporting the 
plan for work in the field of environmental sani- 
tation, called attention to a World Health Organi- 
zation (Who) estimate that "more than three- 
quarters of the world's population, covering vast 
areas in all regions, are still the victims of diseases 
resulting from poor excreta disposal, unsafe water 
supplies, uncontrolled insects and inadequate pro- 
tection of milk and food." The United States 
delegate also stressed the vital importance of work 
by Who in mental health and said that all other 
Who programs would benefit from the proposed 
mental health activities. 

The Assembly approved a supplemental budget 
of 10 million dollars for 1950 to be used for a 
United Nations cooperative program of technical 
assistance for economic development of under- 
developed areas. Nations will be invited to con- 
tribute voluntarily to this program. This special 
budget for technical assistance supplements a reg- 
ular budget of 7.5 million dollars, .36 percent of 
whicli is to be contributed by the United States. 
The United States delegate requested a revision of 
the assessment plan whereby the United States was 
expected to pay 38.8 percent of the total budget. 
Agreement was reached tliat tlie Who would work 
toward a gi-adual modification of the scale of ' 
assessments with the aim that no member state 
would contribute more thaii one third of the reeu- 
lar budget of any year. 

The Assembly agreed to ask the U.S.S.R., Bye- 
lorussian S.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. to re- 
consider their decisions to withdraw from Who 
and renew their participation in the work of the 
organization. The Assembly also agreed to accept 
Korea's application for membership, over a strong 
protest from delegates of Eastern European 
countries. 



July 11, 1949 



17 



THE UNITED STATES IN THE UNITED NATIONS 



Continued 



International Children's Emergency Fund 

Congi-ess lias extended the time allowed for 
matching the United States contribution to the 
International Cliildren's Emergency Fund (Icef) . 
The Senate and the House of Representatives 
agreed to extend for another year, through June 
1950, the period in which a total of 100 million 
dollars can be used to match the contribution of 
other governments under the matching formula by 
which the United States contributes $2.57 for 
every $1 received from other governments. 



Declaration of Death of Missing Persons 

The special committee established by the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council to deal with the declara- 
tions of death of missing persons who disappeared 
during the war as a result of national, religious, 
political, and racial persecutions, completed its 
session in Geneva on June 21. The Committee 
adopted a draft convention aimed at facilitating 
the pronouncement of the declaration of death of 
missing persons, and to obtain recognition of these 
declarations by all states parties to the convention. 
The final vote for the convention was 5 in favor, 
including the United States, and 2 opposed (Po- 
land and theU.S.S.R.). 

Atomic Energy Commission Working 
Committee Resolutions 

U.N. doc. AEC/C.1/85 
Adopted June 15, 1949 

2'he Working Committee has considered, at the 
request of the Atomic Energy Commission, the 
proposal of the representative of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics (AEC/37) that the 
Atomic Energy Commission begin immediately to 
prepare a draft convention for the prohibition of 
atomic weapons and a draft convention for the con- 
trol of atomic energy proceeding from the prin- 
ciple that both conventions must be concluded and 
put into effect simultaneously, 

Has noted the statement of the representative of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at its 45th 
meeting on Wednesday, 1 June 1949, that the pro- 
posals submitted by the representative of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on atomic 
energy in June 1946 and June 1947, should be 
taken as a basis for the elaboration of these draft 
conventions, 

Recalls that these same proposals, particularly 
those of 11 June 1947, have already been analysed 
in detail and rejected in April 1948 on the grounds 
that "they ignore the existing technical knowledge 
of the problem of atomic energy control, do not 
provide an adequate basis for the effective inter- 

18 



national control of atomic energy and the elimi- 
nation from national armaments of atomic weap- 
ons, and therefore, do not conform to the terms 
of reference of the Atomic Energy Commission" ; 

And recalls that the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics proposal for the preparation of a draft 
convention for the prohibition of atomic weapons 
and a draft convention for the control of atomic 
energy to be concluded and brought into effect 
simultaneously was rejected by the General As- 
sembly at the 157th plenary meeting in its third 
session on 4 November 1948, by a vote of 40 votes 
to 6 with 5 abstentions, 

And recalls also that at the same time the Gen- 
eral Assembly approved the General Findings 
(Part II C) and Recommendations (Part III) of 
the First Report and the Specific Proposals of Part 
II of the Second Report of the Commission, as 
constituting the necessary basis for establishing an 
effective system of international control of atomic 
energy to ensure its use only for peaceful purjooses 
and for the elimination from national armaments 
of atomic weapons in accordance with the terms 
of reference of the Atomic Energy Commission, 

The Working Committee observes that no mate- 
rial has been presented additional to that previ- 
ously submitted to the General Assembly, the Com- 
mission or the Working Committee, 

The Working Committee therefore concludes 
that no useful purpose can be served by further 
discussions in the Working Committee of those 
proposals which have already been considered and 
rejected by the appropriate organs of the United 
Nations. The Working Committee reports to the 
Atomic Energy Commission accordingly. 

U.N. doe. ABC/C.1/86 
Adopted June 15, 1949 

Having Observed the nature of the discussions 
that have taken place in the Working Committee 
and 

Considering paragraph 3 of the resolution 
adopted by the General Assembly on 4 November j 
1948 (document AEC/33), ] 

The Working Committee resolves: \ 

That further study in the Working Committee is ! 
not useful until such time as the six sponsors of ; 
the resolution of the General Assembly have met 
and reported that there exists basis for agreement. 

Editor's Note: In the Bulletin of June 19, 
1949, page 780, the first sentence under "Atomic j 
Energy" should read as follows: "The Atomic I 
Energy Commission's working committee resolved ; 
that further study by the working committee of its | 
program of work is useless until the Big Five and 
Canada report that some basis for agreement ,| 
exists." j 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



Council of Foreign Ministers Deputies for Austria 

The Department of State announced on June 
25 the United States Delegation to the meeting of 
the Council of Foreign Ministers Deputies for 
Austria, scheduled to open at London, June 30, 
1949. The Delegation is as follows : 

United States Deputy for Austria 

Samuel Beber, United States Deputy for Austria, De- 
partment of State 

Advisers 

Michael R. Gannett, Foreign Service OflScer, American 
Legation, Vienna 

Col. Charles E. Hixon, Assistant Deputy, U. S. Commis- 
sion. Allied Council for Austria, Vienna 

Monroe Karasik, Acting A.ssistant Chief, Division of Econ- 
omic Property Policy, Department of State 

Coburn B. Kidd, Division of Austrian Affairs, Department 
of State 

Leonard C. Meeker, OflSce of the Legal Adviser, Depart- 
ment of State 

Edwin G. Moline, Petroleum Division, Department of 
State 

Lt. Colonel J. D. Lawler, Plans and Operations Division, 
General Staff, United States Army 

Administrative Assistant 

Mary Louise Zarger, Office of Financial and Development 
Policy, Department of State 

Archivist 

Mrs. Helen Skouland, American Embassy, London 

The Council of Foreign Ministers, which ad- 
journed at Paris June 20, instructed the Deputies 
for Austria to resume their work promptly for 
the purjwse of reaching agreement not later than 
September 1, 1949, on the Austrian draft treaty as 
a whole. 

Negotiations on the Austrian treaty have been 
in progress since January 1947. At the forth- 
coming meeting the Deputies will continue dis- 
cussions conducted at London from February 9 
to Mav 5, 1949. which were discontinued during 



the Sixth Session of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers. 

Committee To Pick Priorities of U.S. 
Program for UNESCO 

A proposal to select six priority items from the 
UxEsco program for emphasis in securing public 
support for the coming year has been considered 
by the Executive Committee of the United States 
Commission for Unesco, which has been meeting 
in Washington, D.C. 

Under the chairmanship of Milton S. Eisen- 
hower, president of Kansas State College of Agri- 
culture and Applied Science, the Committee is ex- 
pected to blueprint a work program to forward the 
purposes of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization in the LTnited 
States during the fiscal year July 1, 1949, through 
June 30, 1950. 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State 
for Economic Affairs, outlined contemplated 
United States participation in an expanded inter- 
national program of technical assistance for the 
economic development of backward areas. The 
Committee discussed the aims and resources of 
UNESCO and of the United States National Com- 
mission, in relation to this program. 

Plans for the United States delegation to the 
Fourth General Conference of Unesco in Paris this 
September will be taken up with George V. Allen, 
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. 

The United States National Commission, an ad- 
visory body to the Department of State on matters 
pertaining to Uxesco, is also charged with the task 
of carrj'ing out the L^nesco program in the United 
States. The Commission will seek increased co- 
operation, along lines suggested by the Executive 
Committee's priority projects, from community, 
church, labor, and women's groups as well as from 
specialized bodies representing L'xesco's educa- 
tional, scientific, and cultural interests. 



July 11, 1949 



19 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



The six projects upon which the Committee is 
expected to take action are : 

An educational campaign to make known the 
tenets and responsibilities of the Universal Dec- 
laration of Human Rights. 

Interchange of persons for the promotion of 
better understanding among nations. 

Educational reconstruction and aid for schools, 
museums, libraries, and laboratories in countries 
recovering from the devastation of war. 

An information program on relationships be- 
tween food supply and population pressure and 
the recurrence of war. 

Improvement of textbooks and teaching mate- 
rials. 

Education on the United Nations and its special- 
ized agencies. 

Members of the Executive Committee, in addi- 
tion to Mr. Eisenhower, are : 

Detlev Bronk, President of Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore 

Erwin D. Canham, President of the American Society of 
Newspaper Editors and editor of the Christian Science 
Monitor, Boston 

William G. Carr, Associate Secretary of the National Edu- 
cation Association, Washington, D.C. 

Ben M. Cherrington, Director of the Social Science Foun- 
dation at the University of Denver, Denver 

Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director of Social Insurance Ac- 
tivities for the American Federation of Labor, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Lutlier H. Evans, Librarian of Congress, Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. Douglas Horton, President of Wellesley College, 
Wellesley, Mass. 

Charles S. Johnson, President of Fisk University, Nash- 
ville 

Archibald MacLeish, Winner of the Pulitzer Poetry Award 
in 1932, Boylston Professor at Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Charles J. McLanahan, Educational Director of the Co- 
operative League, Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. Anna M. Rosenberg, Public and Labor Relations Con- 
sultant, New York 

George N. Shuster, President of Hunter College, New York 

Robert S. Smitli, Vice President of the U.S. National Stu- 
dent Assn., New York 

Merle A. Tuve, Carnegie Institute of Washington, D.C. 

Howard E. Wilson, Associate Director, Division of Educa- 
tion, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 
and member of the National Council for the Social 
Studies, New York 

Mrs. Louise Wright, Executive Secretary of the Chicago 
Council on Foreign Relations, Chicago 

The meeting was held in a Department of State 
conference room at 1778 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Friday and Saturday, June 24 and 25. 



Twelfth International Conference on Public 
Education 

Dr. Rail I. Grigsby, Deputy Commissioner of 
Education, United States Office of Education, has 
been named chairman of the United States del- 
egation to the Twelfth International Conference 
on Public Education scheduled to be held at Ge- 
neva, July 4-12, 1949. Kendric N. Marshall, Di- 
rector of the Division of International Relations, 
United States Office of Education, and Dr. Ruth 
E. McMurry, Unesco Relations Staff, Depart- 
ment of State have been appointed to serve as 
delegates to this meeting. 

The Education Conference is sponsored jointly 
by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (Unesco) and the Inter- 
national Bureau of Education (Ibe). Its pur- 
pose is to enable the attending delegations to ex- 
change information on recent developments in 
education in their countries and to afford an op- 
portunity for studying on an international level 
a number of educational problems of current 
interest. 

The agenda of the Conference will include the 
following four points: (1) Consideration of con- 
cise reports from the Ministries of Education on 
educational developments during the school year 
1948-49; (2) the introduction to natural science 
in primary schools; (3) the teaching of reading; 
and (4) the teaching of geography as a means 
of developing international understanding. 

Unesco and Ibe have invited 73 nations and 5 
international organizations to participate in the 
meeting. The Eleventh International Confer- 
ence on Public Education was held at Geneva 
last summer. 

Twelfth International Dairy Congress 

The Dei^artment of State announced on June 1 
the United States delegation to the Twelfth Inter- 
national Dairy Congress, which is scheduled to be 
held at Stockholm August 15-19, 1949. The dele- 
gation is as follows : 

Chairman 

Dr. Ollie E. Reed, Chief, Bureau of Dairy Industry, Agri- 
cultural Research Administration. Department of 
Agriculture 

Delegates 

Dr. G. M. Trout, Professor of Dairy Manufacturing, Michi- 
gan State College, and President, American Dairy 
Science Association 

Dr. Sherman Johnson, Associate Chief, Bureau of Agri- 
cultural Economics, Dep-T'tnient nf Agriculture 

Don Anderson, Assistant Director, Dairy Brancli, Produc- 
tion and Marketing Administration, Department of 
Agriculture 

Dr. George E. Holm, Head, Dairy Products Research Lab- 
oratories, Bureau of Dairy Industry, Agricultural 
Research Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Ethel Austin Martin, Director of Nutrition Service, Na- 
tional Dairy Council, Chicago, Illinois 

Dr. I.eland Spencer. Profcssiir uf Marketing, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, New York 

Dr. Hugo H. Sonimer, Dairy Industry Department, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



Dr. William E. Krauss, Associate Director, Ohio Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio 

Arthur W. Farrall, Head, Agricultural Engineering De- 
partment, Michigan State College, East Lansing, 
Michigan 

Secretary of Delegation 

Dr. Eric Englund, Agricultural Attache, American Em- 
bassy, Stockholm, Sweden 

The purpose of the Congress will be to review 
developments and exchange technical information 
in the field of dairy research. Scientific papers on 
the following subjects will be presented by dele- 
gates from the various countries: (1) milk pro- 
duction, hygiene, and control, (2) physics, chem- 
istr}', and microbiology, (3) dairy industrial tech- 
nique, (4) economics and trade, (5) organization 
of the dairy industry, and (6) tropical dairying. 
In addition to the scientific sessions, there will be 
tours to the important dairying sections of 
Sweden. 

The invitation to attend the Congress was ex- 
tended to tliis government by the Government of 
Sweden in behalf of the International Dairy Fed- 
eration. The United States is not a member of 
the Federation but Itas attended the last three con- 
gresses. The eleventh in the series was held at 
Berlin in 1937. 



Pan American Railway Congress 

The United States Commission, appointed June 
14 by President Truman, discussed on June 21 a 
program of work which includes establishment of 
close relationship with the headquarters of the 
Association in Buenos Aires and preparations for 
its seventh congress to be held in Mexico City, 
October 10-20, 1950.i 

Decision was made to assist the Association in 
studying improved methods of accounting for all 
Latin American railroads, in which the practices 
developed by United States railroads and the re- 
quirements of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion are expected to constitute important prece- 
dents. Interest of the United States Commission 
in the Government's technical assistance program 
was also shown. 

The Commission members reviewed the current 
work of the Association and appointed two officers 
who are at present government officials, who will 
serve without additional salary : Walter S. Aber- 
nathy, Special Assistant, Transportation and 
Communications Branch, Office of International 
Trade, Department of Commerce, as executive 
secretary; and Kenneth N. Hynes, attache in the 
United States Embassy at Buenos Aires, who will 
be resident member of the Association's permanent 
commission. 



Ratification of tlie international 
Wiieat Agreement 

[Released to the Press June 17^ 

The President signed on June 17, 1949, the 
United States instrument of ratification of the 
International Wheat Agreement which was open 
for signature in Washington from March 23 to 
April 15, 1949, and which was signed during that 
period on behalf of the Government of the United 
States of America and the governments of 40 
other countries. The Senate, by a resolution of 
June 13, 1949, gave its advice and consent to the 
ratification of the agreement. 

The objectives of the agreement, as stated in 
article I thereof, "are to assure supplies of wheat 
to importing countries and markets for wheat to 
exporting countries at equitable and stable 
]3rices." - The agreement, upon its entry into 
force, would establish an International Wlieat 
Council to administer the provisions of the agree- 
ment during the 4-year period of its effectiveness. 

It is provided in article XX that the agreement 
shall be subject to acceptance by the signatory 
governments in accordance with their respective 
constitutional procedures, that instruments of ac- 
ceptance shall be deposited with the United States 
Government not later than July 1, 1949, except in 
cases where the Council, after it comes into being, 
may grant an extension of time, and that the 
agreement, except part 2 thereof, shall enter into 
force on July 1, 1949, provided the agreement has 
by that date been accepted by "the Governments 
of countries listed in Annex A to Article III 
resjionsible for not less than seventy percent of 
the guaranteed purchases and the Governments 
of countries listed in Annex B to Article III 
responsible for not less than eighty percent qi 
the guaranteed sales." 

The 5 signatory exporting countries (the 
United States, Canada, Australia, France, and 
Uruguay) are listed in annex B to article III. 
Tlie 36 signatory importing countries are listed 
in annex A to article III. 

The United States and Canada together account 
for more than 80 percent of the guaranteed sales. 
The Canadian instrument of acceptance was de- 
posited on May 12, 1949. The United States in- 
strument of ratification, constituting acceptance 
of the agreement, was deposited on June 17, 1949. 
Consequently, the requirement of the agi-eement 
with respect to exporting countries responsible 
for not less than 80 percent of the guaranteed 
sales has been satisfied. 

(Continued on page SO) 



' Bulletin of June 26, 1949 p. 818. 
July 11, 1949 



' For an article by Edward G. Cale on the International 
Wheat Agreement see Bulletin of Apr. 24, 1949, p. 507; 
the text of the agreement was printed in Documents and 
State Papers for May 1949, p. 784. 

21 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Summary of Major Developments in Change-Over 
to Civilian Control of Germany 

[Released to the Press June 30] 



The Department of State announced on June 
30 that John J. McCloy left, by air for Germany 
on that date preparatory to his assumption of 
authority in the American zone of Germany. 

Mr. McCloy ^yill stop in Paris on July 1 for a 
conference with EGA Administrator Harriman 
and Ambassador Bruce and then proceed to Ber- 
lin for consultations with the United States Mili- 
tary Government authorities. Mr. McCloy will 
assume the position of the United States Military 
Governor, a post he will hold until a AVest German 
Government is created after the August 14 elec- 
tions. Upon formation of a West German Gov- 
ernment and the establishment of the Allied High 
Commission, he will then assume the position of 
United States High Commissioner in Germany. 

The following summarizes major developments 
in the change-over to civilian control of Germany : 

As John J. McCloy, former president of the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment, assumes the post of United States au- 
thority for Germany, civilian administration of 
occupied Germany will take form for the first time 
since the end of World War II. 

The change from military control to civilian . 
administration is the culmination of measures of 
progress, both political and economic, which have 
been made in Germany in the past few years. It 
is evidence also, of the desire of the Western pow- 
ers to return to the German people a greater voice 
in their own destiny. 

Under the proclamation of President Truman, 
Mr. McCloy will serve as Military Governor (re- 

gorting to the Secretary of Army) until the Allied 
[igh Commission for Germany has been estab- 
lished. Creation of the latter is planned at about 
the same time as the establishment of the new 
Western German Government, following the Ger- 
man elections on August 14. Upon assuming the 



post of High Commissioner, McCloy will report to 
the Secretary of State. 

Mr. McCloy meanwhile will serve also as chief 
of the Economic Cooperation Administration Mis- 
sion to Germany. In his function as High Com- 
missioner and ECA Mission chief, he will exer- 
cise full authority over all political and economic 
issues. 

Mr. McCloy brings to his new post a varied ex- 
perience in law, government, finance, and Euro- 
jjean affairs. As president of the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development from 
March 1947 until his present appointment he has 
been acutely familiar with the interrelationship 
of economic problems throughout the world. 
During the war years, as Assistant Secretary of 
War, he observed the destruction of war and rec- 
ognized the problems of recovery. 

By centralizing authority in one man, the United 
States aims at simplifying the implementation of 
its German policy. At the same time, the United 
States intends to broaden the area of resijonsibil- 
ity vested in the Germans themselves. 

The United States is determined to pursue a 
policy of positive, constructive action in Western 
Germany designed to revive the country economi- 
cally, politically, and socially, while at the same 
time taking every precaution necessary to prevent 
the restoration of a Germany which might become 
militarily dangerous to Europe and the world. 

Within these limits, therefore, the Germans are 
being encouraged to become responsible arbiters of 
their own future and gradually to assume the task 
of governing themselves democratically. In ad- 
dition, the way is open for the Germans to bal- 
ance their economy and finances and to expand 
their trade. 

German participation in the organization for 
European Economic Cooperation, the council of 



22 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



European nations i-eceiving Marshall Plan aid, is 
anticipated f oHowino: the establishment of the new 
Western German Government. 

Germany, traditionally the second largest buyer 
and seller in Western Europe, must play a key role 
in the over-all economic recovery of Europe which 
is the goal of the Marshall Plan. To the other 
European nations participating in the ERP, Ger- 
many must again become a market for their prod- 
ucts. To be able to buy their goods, Germany in 
turn must find new markets for her own exports. 
This is the cycle of trade which was interrupted 
first by Nazi autarchical policy and then by the 
war, and which is being restored through Mar- 
shall Plan assistance, it is the cycle in which Ger- 
many must take her place, not only for her own 
recovery but for the recovery of Europe as a 
whole and the revival and expansion of world 
trade. 

In the field of political achievement Germany 
has taken several steps toward ultimate self-gov- 
ernment. Under the Occupation Statute, only the 
minimum controls necessary for security and for 
the fulfillment of Allied objectives in Germany 
are reserved to the Western powere. This statute 
is described as a bridge between military govern- 
ment and the peace treaty. 

The Western Germans have a constitution, 
which was drafted, approved, and legally effected 
bj' themselves. This constitution has been ratified 
by 10 of the 11 Western German states, and, all 
are expected to join when elections have been held 
and the new government actually comes into being. 

In June 1948, the foundations for this politi- 
cal development were laid in the London agree- 
ments between the three Western powers, the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and France, 
and the Benelux countries, Belgium, the Nether- 
lands, and Luxembourg. 

The London agreements provided for 1) even- 
tual fusion of the three Western zones; 2) the set- 
ting up of a provisional German Government in 
the west; 3) the Occupation Statute, which was to 
define those powers to be reserved to the Allied 
authorities against the new German Government, 
while giving it as much power as possible; 4) the 
International Authority of the Ruhr; and 5) 
agreement on minor territorial adjustments of 
Germany's western frontiers. 

Beginning last fall, the Bonn Constitutional A9-- 
sembly held meetings to draft the constitution 
which will be the basis for the new German Gov- 
ernment. During the fall and winter, also, the 
three Western powers were working on arrange- 
ments to carry out the London agreements. 

The Washington agreements, negotiated by Sec- 
retary Acheson with United Kingdom and French 
Foreign Ministers this spring following the sign- 
ing of the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington, 

July 11, 1949 



represent another step in the implementation of 
the London agreements. 

At that time, the Foreign Ministers of the three 
Western powers agreed to a trizonal fusion plan 
and to the text of an occupation statute. These 
agreements cleared the way for rapid progress in 
carrying out the London agreements. 

Throughout these negotiations, the goal of giv- 
ing hope and confidence to the Germans under 
continuing and necessary restraints was kept in 
sight. 

One such restraint is the Military Security 
Board. This is the military agency responsible 
for the disarmament and demilitarization of Ger- 
many. 

The rapid progress which has followed the 
Washington talks is apparent in the projected de- 
parture of Mr. McCloy late this month, and, even 
more significantly, in the plans for establishment 
of the new German Government some time this 
fall. 

Hope for quadripartite control of Germany, 
which had been agreed to in the Potsdam agree- 
ments of 1945, was virtually nullified by the Rus- 
sians when they walked out of the Control Council 
in March 1948. Their walk-out followed a period 
of consistent refusal to carry out the provisions of 
Potsdam which called for German economic unity. 
When, in December of that year, Soviet Foreign 
Minister Molotov in London made the Russian 
intransigence on the subject even more clear, the 
Western powers had no alternative but to proceed 
to carry out the spirit of Potsdam in the trizone 
as effectively as possible. The three Western na- 
tions therefore began, in February 1948, the Lon- 
don talks which led, ultimately, to the formation 
of a German Government which is now in process. 

United States economic policy in Germany en- 
visages the reestablishment of that country as a 
vital factor in the economic life of Europe as a 
whole while at the same time safeguarding Ger- 
many's neighbors from a revival of war industries. 
It is not possible to achieve European economic 
health without Germany, which for many years 
has served Europe both as a market and as a source 
of imports. 

There are three major agreements affecting this 
economic policy : 

First, the International Authority of the Ruhr 
(Iar), which went into effect April 28, 1949, be- 
tween the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, and the Benelux countries. This organi- 
zation will seek to utilize the resources of the Ruhr 
in the common interests of both the Geiunany econ- 
omy and the economies of the other European 
countries cooperating in the conunon economic 
good, while leaving operations, management, and 
production in German hands. It will attempt to 
provide effective insurance against unilateral use 
by Germany of key Ruhr resources. The agi'ee- 
ment assures the fair and nondiscriminatory allo- 

23 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



cation of Ruhr coal, coke, and steel between domes- 
tic use and export. It anticipates, also, that after 
the occupation, arrangements will be made to pre- 
vent use of Ruhr resources for German rearma- 
ment purposes. 

The Iar is designed also to protect the German 
economy. It is expected to be ratified by the Ger- 
man Federal Republic when the latter is estab- 
lished, and Germany will have the opportunity 
to appoint representatives to attend all Iar meet- 
ings. Following German ratification of the 
agreement, German}' will have an equal vote with 
France, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States in determining the actions of the Iak. 

The second example of United States economic 
polic}- in Germany is the Reparations agreement 
among the three "\Vestern powers. In accordance 
with that agreement those plants which would 
constitute a security risk have been eliminated. 
However, the number of plants dismantled has 
been lielcl to a minimum in order to permit Ger- 
man industry to contribute to recovery. 

The third basic agreement underlining United 
States economic actions in Germany is the Pro- 
hibited and Restricted Industries Policy, an 
agreement between the three "Western powers. It 
provides for selective bans on certain industries 
and prohibits for security reasons the manufac- 
ture of certain products. 

The change from military government in Ger- 
many to civilian administration will not mean a 
change in the democratization effort. The United 
States and the other occupying powers intend to 
let nothing prevent the continuation of their xero- 
gram for democratization of German life. 

Official figures on trade indicate that Germany 
is already making a substantial contribution to 
over-all European recovery. A sharp increase 
in German imports from other Marshall Plan 
countries points to the reestablishment of Ger- 
many as one of Europe's most important markets. 
As an outlet for her neighbors' products, Ger- 
many is a key factor in the expansion of trade 
■which is necessary for Europe's economic 
recovery. 

Total import deliveries to bizone during the 
first quarter of 1949 averaged about 1-3 million 
dollars per month greater than the monthly aver- 
age during 1948. Xearly one third of bizone's 
imports during the first quarter of 1949 came from 
ERP countries. Marked increase in the rate of 
imports from Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, and 
Luxembourg, Denmark, and France were 
reported. 

In addition, Germany is essential as an exporter 
of "hard" goods to her European neighbors. 
Figures show that bizone exports during the first 
calendar quarter of 1949 were 77.5 percent greater 
than the average reported for the calendar year 



1948. Of these exports — which were largely 
"hard goods" — more than 80 percent of the total 
went to ERP countries. 

The currency reform, which was effected in 
June 1948, has had a pronounced influence in 
stabilizing the German economj', increasing pro- 
duction, improving distribution systems, and re- 
viving incentive. 

Reported bizone industrial production in 
March 1949, was 90 percent of the 1936 level. 
This figure compares with the May 1948 level, 
which was only 47 percent of 1936. 

Agricultural production in 1948 was ajjprox- 
imately up to the average of the good years 1935- 
38. It is true, however, that the population of 
bizone has increased by nearly a third over pre- 
war levels — due to the vast influx of refugees 
from the Eastern zone. Therefore its food re- 
quirements are considerabh' higher than in pre- 
war years. 

For the same reason, employment and unem- 
ploj'ment are both increasing in Germany. There 
was an increase of 800,000 persons in the registered 
labor force in bizone between the end of 1947 and 
the end of 1948. 

The importance of Germany as a market for 
other nations of Europe is shown by the scope 
of imports from ERP countries. Germany im- 
ports from Sweden, pulp; from Italy, fruits and 
vegetables ; from Denmark, meat, eggs, dairy prod- 
ucts; from Belgium and the Xetherlands, vege- 
tables and products from dependent overseas ter- 
ritories, such as fibers, oilseeds, ores, rubber, and 
medicinal herbs; from Austria, hides and skins, 
lumber, and building materials ; from France and 
its territories, vegetables, seeds, and copper; and 
from Xorway, fish and fish oils, iron and copper 
ores, and concentrates. 

The marked increase in imports from ERP 
countries is shown in the following figures which 
compare German imports during the entire year 
1948 with her imports during the first 2 months 
of 1949 in terms of dollar value; from Belgium, 
1948, total 18.5 million dollars, January and 
February 1949, 15.4 million dollars; froni Den- 
mark, 1948, total 3.8 million dollars, January and 
February 1949, 5.2 million dollars; from France, 
1948, total 1.2 million dollars, January and Febru- 
ary 1949, 3.5 million dollars; from Luxembourg, 
1948, total 1.7 million dollars, January and Febru- 
ary 1949, 2 million dollars; from Netherlands, 
1948, total 29.5 million dollars, January and 
February 1949, 8 million dollars; and from 
Sweden, 1948, total 27.1 million dollars, January 
and February 1949, 10 million dollars. 

The same comparison reveals a sharp increase 
in bizone trade with Eastern Europe — which is 
encouraged by the United States and EGA within 
the limits of security : 

In 1948, Germany's trade with Poland had a 
total dollar value of $166,500. In the first 2 
months of 1949, the value had risen to about 4 



24 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



million dollars. Trade with Hungary, in 1948, 
amounted to $756.800 ; during the first 2 months 
of 1949 it rose to -l.S million dollars. Bizone trade 
with Czechoslovakia increased from an over-all 
1948 total of 9.6 million dollars to 3.2 million dol- 
lars for the first 2 months of 1949. 

Trade with Finland and the Soviet Union, on 
the other hand, dropped in this period of compari- 
son. The substantial increase in German-East 
Europe trade indicated by these figures was made 
possible by the trade agreements signed late last 
year between the American and British military 
authorities and the Eastern European govern- 
ments. 

Expanded trade is a basic goal of the American 
program for Germany, to enable it to support it- 
self as well as to take its place as part of an inte- 
grated Europe, fimctioning in its important capac- 
ity as a buyer as well as a seller. 

Bizone industrial production has made remark- 
able improvement in the past year in all fields, 
reaching in April 1949 an over-all volume equal 
to 82 percent of 1936. This compares with 79 per- 
cent in December 1948 and 51 percent in March 
194S. In temis of commodities the improvement 
is shown below : 

Coal: Mav 1948, 66% of 1936; April 1949, 86%. 
Iron and steel: May 1948, 27 % of 1936; April 1949, 

58%. 
Nonferrous metals: May 1948, 35 %of 1936; April 1949, 

78%. 
Machinerv and optical goods: Mav 1948. 41% of 1936; 

April 1949, 84%. 
Motor vehicles: May 1948, 22% of 1936; April 1949, 

79%. 
Electrical equipment: Mav 1948, 72% of 1936; AprO 

1949, 169%. 
Textiles and clothing: May 1948, 38% of 1936; April 

1949. 85%. 
Electricitv and gas: May 1948, 108% of 1936; April 

1949, 130%. 

United States aid, which has been in large 
measure responsible for this revitalization of Ger- 



manj' in the economic framework of European 
recovery, has been in the form of GAKIOA (Gov- 
ernment and Relief in Occupied Areas) and EGA 
(Economic Cooperation Administration). 

GARIOA aid through the fiscal year ending 
June 1949 is estimated in the bizone at 573.4 million 
dollars. 

As of the end of May 1949, the bizone area re- 
ceived EGA aid amoimting to 484.3 million dollars 
of which 82.6 million dollars represented condi- 
tional grants. This was for the 15-month period 
ending June 30, 1949. 

For the same period, the French zone received 
ECA aid amounting to 116.6 million dollars of 
which 14.8 million dollars was in conditional 
grants. 

The close cooperation which already exists be- 
tween United States-United Kingdom adminis- 
tration of the bizone and French administration 
of the French zone is expected to be even more 
firmly established under the Allied High Com- 
mission. Trizonal fusion will then become an 
accomplished fact in the determination of German 
activities. 

Indicative of the rapport which characterizes 
relations betweeen France, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States today is the enthusiasm 
with which the French have greeted the appoint- 
ment of Mr. McCloy as United States High Com- 
missioner. 

The French zone imports practically all its 
grains and foodstuffs, causing a dollar imbalance 
which the EKP is designed to relieve. 

Exports from the French zone include wine to 
the United States and other countries, electricity 
to Switzerland, newsprint to France, and coal to 
France and other areas of Germany. 

Although statistics for French zone trade are 
not available, in general the trade patterns of the 
French zone follow those of the bizone. Since 
October 18, 194S, all foreign trade of the three 
Western zones has been under the auspices of the 
Joint Export-Import Agency (JEIA), tripartite 
body. 



Charter of the Allied High Commission for Germany 

[Releoied to the Press simultaneoutln in London, Paris, and Washington} 



I. ESTABLISHMENT OF ALLIED HIGH COM- 
MISSION AND TRANSFER OF CONTROL 

1. An Allied High Commission (hereinafter referred 
to as the High Commission) is hereby established for the 
exercise of Supreme Allied Authority in the Federal Re- 
public of Germany. The High Commission shall be headed 
by three High Commissioners, one designated by each of 
the three powers signatory hereto. 



2. As from the date of the entry into force of the Occu- 
pation Statute all authority with respect to the control 
of Germany or over any governmental authority thereof, 
vested in or exercised by the respective Commanders-in- 
Chief of the forces of occupation of the three jjowers 
in Germany, from whatever soturce derived and however 
exercised, will be transferred to the three High Commis- 
sioners respectively, to be exercised in accordance with 
the provisions hereof and of the Occupation Statute. 



July 11, 1949 



25 



THE'RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



3. The forces of occupation of the three powers in 
Germany shall remain stationed in their respective zones 
of occupation. Command of the forces of occupation in 
each zone and control of their related military establish- 
ments shall remain with the resiiective Commanders of 
the forces of occupation in such zones. 

4. Legislation of the occupation authorities enacted be- 
fore the effective date of the Occupation Statute shall re- 
main in force until repealed or amended or otherwise re- 
placed as provided in the Occupation Statute. 

■ ■.^FUNCTIONS OF THE HIGH COMMISSION 

1. The High Commission shall exercise control over 
the Federal Government and the Governments of its con- 
stituent Laender as provided in the Occupation Statute. 
In the exercise of the powers reserved to the occupation 
authorities under said Statute, the High Commission shall 
reach its decisions in accordance with the provisions of 
the "Agreement as to Tripartite Controls" ' among the 
Three Powers dated 8 April 1949 and attached hereto 
and made a part of this instrument as Annex A. These 
decisions shall constitute a joint exercise of the authority 
of all of the three High Commissioners. 

2. Tlie High Commission shall act only through the 
Federal or appropriate Land Government except where 
direct action or legislation by the High Commission is 
necessary or appropriate for the due exercise of any of 
the powers reserved to the occupation authorities under 
the Occupation Statute. 

3. The Headquarters of the High Commission shall be 
at the seat of the German Federal Government which, 
together with a surrounding area to be defined, will con- 
stitute a special area directly under the High Commis- 
sion and excluded from any individual zone of occupa- 
tion. The necessary special arrangements in connec- 
tion with the definition and administration of this area 
in as far as they concern the Allies will be determined 
subsequently by the High Commission. 

III. ORGANIZATION OF THE HIGH 
COMMISSION 

1. The organization of the High Commission at its 
headquarters shall be tripartite in character and shall 
consist of : 

A. An Allied Council (hereinafter referred to as "The 
Council") composed of the three High Commissioners. 
Each High Commissioner shall nominate a Deputy or 
permanent representative who will take his place on 
the Council in his absence. The Deputies or permanent 
representatives of the respective High Commissioners 
acting together may function as an Executive Commit- 
tee of the Council if the Council so decides ; 

B. Such committees or bodies as the Council may 
from time to time establish. These committees and 
bodies shall advise the Council in their respective spheres 



' BuiXETiN of May 8, 1949, p. 590. 



26 



and shall exercise such executive functions as the Coun- 
cil may delegate to them. The number, functions, and 
organization of such committees or bodies may be 
changed, adjusted, or eliminated entirely by the Coun- 
cil in liglit of experience. Subject to the above, in order 
to ensure continuity of operation, the Council initially 
shall be assisted by Committees respectively for Political 
Affairs, Foreign Trade and Exchange, Finance, Eco- 
nomics, Law and by the Military Security Board. Each 
Committee shall be assisted by such associated staff as 
it may require and as the Council approves. 

C. Allied General Secretariat. 

2. The Council 

A. The Council shall constitute the supreme authority 
of the High Commission. The Council shall meet as fre- 
quently as it considers necessary and at any time upon 
the request of any of its members. The Chairmanship 
of the Council and its various committees shall be held in 
monthly rotation by each of its members. The Council 
shall fix the time and place of its meetings and shall 
establish appropriate rules and procedures for the con- 
duct of its business. Decisions of the Council shall be 
reached in accordance with Annex A hereof. 

3. Committees 

The composition of each Committee and its terms of 
reference shall be fixed by the Council. Initially, such 
Committees, together with their respective terms of ref- 
erence, shall be as follows : 

A. The Political Affairs Committee, consisting of the 
three Political Advisers to the respective High Commis- 
sioners will be concerned with all political and foreign 
affairs of the German Federal and Land Governments 
coming with the competence of the Council. 

B. A Foreign Trade and Exchange Committee consist- 
ing of the respective Economic and Finance Advisers of 
each of the High Commissioners. 

(1) The Committee shall observe the economic, finan- 
cial and foreign trade policies of the German au- 
thorities and shall advise the Council if such pol- 
icies or any action taken or proposed to be taken 
pursuant thereto is likely to have such adverse 
effect on the foreign trade or foreign exchange 
resources of the German Government as is likely 
to increase its need for external assistance. 

(2) The members of the Committee shall automati- 
cally be members of the Board of Directors of 
the Joint Export-Import Agency (hereinafter re- 
ferred to as "JBIA") and in conjunction with the 
other Directors shaU be cliarged with the orderly 
liquidation of JEIA at the earliest practicable date. 
The Committee shall assume any control func- 
tions pre.sently exercised by JEIA as may warrant 
I'etention when the liquidation of JEIA is 
completed. 

(3) It is understood that the German Federal Repub- 
lic will become party to the convention for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation and will execute a bi- 
lateral agreement with the Government of the 
United States. It is further understood that there- 
after the functions of the High Commission in 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



respect of tbe matters referred to in (I) will be 
appropriately modified. 

C. The Economics Committee, consisting of the three 
Economics Advisers to the respective High Commissioners, 
shall observe the general economic policies of tlie Ger- 
man authorities and shall advise the Council as to the 
exercise of its powers in this connection reserved under 
the Occupation Statute. The Committee shall advise 
the Council on all matters relating to the Decarteliza- 
tion and Deconcentration of German Industr.v. 

D. The Finance Committee, consisting of the three 
Finance Advisers to the respective High Commissioners, 
shall observe the general financial policies of the Ger- 
man authorities, and shall advise the Council as to the 
exercise of its powers in this connection reserved under 
the Occupation Statute. To the extent necessary within 
the limits of the provisions of the Occupation Statute 
the Finance Committee shall succeed to and shall as- 
sume the functions heretofore exercised by the Allied 
Bank Commission. 

E. The Law Committee, consisting of the Legal Ad- 
visers to the respective High Commissioners, shall ad- 
vise the Council and its committees on all legal and 
judicial affairs arising out of the work of the High 
Commission. 

F. The Military Security Board shall deal with all mat- 
ters of demilitarization, disarmament, industrial prohibi- 
tions and limitations, and scientific research, in accord- 
ance with its existing terms of reference. 

4. Committee Staffs and Swhordinate Oroups 

A. Within numerical limitations established by the 
Council, each of the committees designated pursuant to 
paragraph 3 of this Article III shall establish such tri- 
partite subordinate committees or other groups as may be 
necessary to the performance of its functions and as the 
Council may approve. 

B. Except as specifically otherwise provided in sub- 
paragraph C of this paragraph 4, personnel for such sub- 
ordinate committees or groups shall be appointed by each 
of the High Commissioners on a basis of parity among the 
three AUied nations. They may include military person- 
nel. The number, functions and organization of such 
subordinate committees or groups may be changed, ad- 
justed or eliminated entirely by the Council in the light of 
experience. Each subordinate committee or group shall 
be answerable to the committee responsible for its creation 
and shall report to the Council through such committee. 
Each subordinate agency shall be physically located at 
the headquarters of the High Commission except as may 
be otherwise determined by the Council. 

C. The subordinate committees and groups established 
pursuant to subparagraph A of this paragraph 4 shall 
Include : 

(1) Joint Export-Import Agency which, until liquidated 
as provided in subparagraph B of paragraph 3 
hereof, shall function under Its existing terms of 
reference with an integrated staff and shall report 
to the Committee on Foreign Trade and Exchange 

July II, 1949 



through its Director General who, together with the 
Deputy Directors-General, shall he members of the 
Board of Directors of JEIA. 

(2) The Decartelization and Industrial Deconcentration 
Group, the Coal Control Group and the Steel Con- 
trol Group, all of which shall report through the 
Economics Committee. 

(3) The Combined Travel Board which shall report 
through the Political Affairs Committee. 

(4) Civil Aviation Board which shall report as deter- 
mined by the Council. 

(5) Information and Cultural Affairs Suljcommittee 
which shall report through the Political Affairs 
Committee. 

(6) A subcommittee on foreign Interests which shall re- 
port as determined by the Council. 

5. Allied General Secretariat 

The High Commission shall be served by a Tripartite 
General Secretariat. The Secretariat will receive and 
dispatch all communications to or from the High Commis- 
sion, prepare the agenda and materials for the meetings 
of the Council and shall keep the minutes of their meet- 
ings. The Secretariat or its appropriate branches shall 
act as the channel of communication between the High 
Commission and the agencies of the Federal Government, 
and between the Council and the several Land Commis- 
sioners with respect to matters affecting said Land Gov- 
ernments. The Secretariat shall maintain the records of 
the High Commission and be responsible for such other 
tasks as the Council may decide. 

IV. LAND COMMISSIONERS 

1. All powers of the High Commission shall be uniformly 
exercised in the constituent Laender of the Federal Repub- 
lic, in accordance with tripartite policies and the directions 
of the Council. 

2. To achieve uniformity in the exercise of its powers, 
the High Commission shall be represented at the seat of 
government of each of the constituent Laender by an 
Allied Land Commissioner who shall be solely responsible 
to the Council for ensuring due compliance on the part of 
the Land authorities with the Council's decisions and 
directives. The Land Commissiouer shall report and be 
solely responsible to the Council for all matters of tri- 
partite concern in the Land and shall be the exclusive 
channel of communication and liaison between the Coun- 
cil and the Land Government with respect to such matters. 

3. In particular, eacli Land Commissioner shall be re- 
sponsible to the Council for : 

A. Initial consideration and prompt transmittal to the 
Council of Land legislation, together with his recommen- 
dations thereon ; 

B. observing and ensuring due compliance on the part 
of the Land Government with the provisions of the Fed- 
eral and Land constitutions, the Occupation Statute and 
the laws of the occupation autliorities in force; 

C. providing information as required by the Military 
Security Board and giving all necessary assistance to the 
inspectorate of the Military Security Board and such other 
bodies as may be authorized by the Council; 



27 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



D. the preparation of such periodic or special reports 
as the Council may request. 

4. Each Land Commissioner and the members of his 
staff shall be nationals of the Power in whose zone tlie 
Land is situated, and shall be appointed by and adminis- 
tratively responsible to the High Commissioner designated 
by such Power. Each Land Commissioner shall be ac- 
countable exclusively to his High Commissioner and shall 
be his channel of communication and liaison with the Land 
Government with respect to : 

A. All matters which are listed in Article V, para- 
graph 2; 

B. conduct of all relationships between tlie forces of 
occupation stationed in the Land and the governmental 
agencies thereof except to the extent that direct commu- 
nications and relations may be authorized by him. 

5. Each High Commissioner shall designate an observer 
together with a small personal stafE to be agreed in each 
case by the High Commissioners concerned, to each of the 
Land Commissioners outside of his own Zone for purposes 
of consultation and information. 

INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE 
HIGH COMMISSIONERS 

1. Each Higli Commissioner shall maintain at the seat 
of government of each of the Laender in his zone a Land 
Commissioner with the minimum staff and facilities re- 
quired for the purposes set forth in Articles IV and V 
hereof. He shall ensure the due implementation by each 
of said Land Commissioners of the decisions and di- 
rections of tlie Council. He shall also ensure that all 
powers of the High Commission are uniformly exercised 
within said Laender in accordance with tripartite policy 
and the decisions of the Council. 

2. Each High Commissioner shall be responsible to his 
government with respect to the Laender of his zone for 
the matters in fields reserved to the occupation authori- 
ties listed below. Nevertheless, so far as possible, he shall 
coordinate the general policies which he may pursue in 
these fields with those of the other High Commissioners 
and exercise these powers in accordance witli such tri- 
partite legislation or policies as the Council may adopt. 

A. Maintenance of law and order if the responsible 
German authorities are unable to do so ; 

B. ensuring the protection, prestige, security and im- 
munities of the Allied forces of occupation, of tlie Allied 
occupation authorities, their dependents, employees and 
ofiicial representatives ; 

O. the delivery of reparations and restitutable property ; 

D. care and administration of displaced pensons; 

E. the disposition of war criminals ; 

F. administration of justice in cases falling within the 
jurisdiction of Allied courts ; 

G. control of the care and treatment in German prisons 
of persons charged before or sentenced by the courts or 
tribunals of the occupation authorities, over the carrying 
out of sentences imposed on them and over question of 
amnesty, pardon or release in relation to them. 



28 



3. Each High Commissioner shall be individually re- 
sponsible for the formulation annually in accordance with 
tripartite policies and criteria, of a budget of occupation i 
costs and other requirements within bis zone. Sucli bud- 
get shall be formulated and submitted to the Council on 
a date to be determined by it for consideration and ap- 
proval by the Council and for consolidation in a total 
budget of the occupation authorities for transmission to j 
the German Government. Each High Commissioner shall I 
be responsible to the Council for control of the approved 
budget for his zone in accordance with accounting stand- 
ards and procedures established by the Council. 

VI. DECISIONS OF THE COUNCIL i 

1. Formal decisions and directions of the Council affect- i 
ing the Federal Government or any agency thereof shall ' 
be in writing and shall be communicated to the Chancellor ! 
by or on behalf of the Council. ] 

2. Formal communications involving matters of lesser I 
import or of a routine character may be addressed to the 
Minister concerned by the appropriate organ of the ' 
Council. ' 

3. Formal decisions or directions of the Council affect- 
ing a Land Government or any agency thereof shall be in 
writing and shall be communicated to its Minister Presi- I 
dent through the Land Commissioner, in the name of the 
Council. 

4. Formal decisions of the Council shall be recorded in 
an official gazette maintained b.y the High Commission I 
at the Allied seat of control in Germany, which shall be | 
published in the English, French, and German languages. ; 
Publication of any sucli decision in the official gazette of 
the High Commission shall be conclusive evidence that the 
recorded action or decision was talven pursuant to the 
powers vested in the occupation authorities under the ' 
Occupation Statute. 

VII. INTERNATIONAL AUTHORITY FOR j 
THE RUHR I 

The High Commission shall take all necessary steps i 
to give effect to Article XXII of the agreement establish- I 
ing the International Authority for the Ruhr of April 28, 
1949. 

VIII. FOREIGN MISSIONS IN GERMANY 

The necessary liaison with the governments of other 
nations especially interested will be ensured by the ap- ' 
pointment by such governments of appropriate missions I 
to the Council of the High Commission having access, by ' 
procedures to be determined, to its subordinate bodies 
and to the German Government. , 

IX. UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATIONS i 
IN GERMANY I 

United Nations organizations and specialized agencies \ 

may operate in the Federal Republic of Germany on such | 

terms as may be agreed by the Council. | 

( Contimied on page 38) \ 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. Insists That Disputes Over Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Rumanian 
Violations of Human Rights Be Settled by Peace Treaties' Procedures 



[Released to the Press July i] 

On June 30, 19-19. the Department of State re- 
plied to the Soviet Government's note of June 11 
refusinor to cooperate in tlie oeace trcatv proce- 
dures for the settlement of disputes which have 
arisen between the United States, the United King- 
dom, and several of the Dominions, on the one 
hand, and Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania on 
the other. 

On May 31 the United States and United King- 
dom invoked those clauses of the peace treaties 
providing for consideration of these disputes by 
the three heads of mission (American, British, and 
Soviet) in Sofia, Budapest, and Buchai'est.^ The 
Soviet note of June 11 stated the view that no vio- 
lations have occurred, that these matters are with- 
in the domestic jurisdiction of Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania, and that the Soviet Government 
sees no reason for the three heads of mission in 
each of those countries to discuss the matter. 

The Department's note of June 30 reaffirms the 
existence of disputes for the settlement of which 
precise procedures are laid down in the peace 
treaties. The attitude of the Soviet Government, 
indicated by its note of June 11, shows disregard 
for the stipulations of the treaties and represents 
an obstacle to the settlement of the disputes. In- 
stead of cooperating in the search for a settlement 
under procedures laid down in the treaties, the 
Soviet Government has chosen to give its com- 
plete support to the position taken by Bulgaria, 
Himgary, and Rumania and thus to condone their 
violation of the treaty provisions guaranteeing to 
their citizens the enjoyment of human rights and 
fundamental freedoms. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE OF JUNE 30, 1949 

[Released to the Press July i] 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His Excellency the Ambassador of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and has the honor 
to acknowledge receipt of the Embassy's note No. 
74 of June 11, 1949. The Embassy's'note stated 

' BuiiETiN of June 12, 1949, p. 755. 



July 11, 1949 



the views of the Soviet Government with refer- 
ence to (1) the Acting Secretary of State's note 
of May 31, 1949 transmitting for the information 
of the Governments of the Byelorussian Soviet 
Socialist Republic and of the Ukrainian Soviet 
Socialist Republic, as signatories to the treaties of 
peace with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, 
copies of notes exchanged between the United 
States Government and the Governments of Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania concerning disputes 
arising out of violations of the clauses of the re- 
spective treaties of peace which guarantee the en- 
joyment of human rights to all persons under the 
jurisdiction of those three states; and (2) the 
letters sent on May 31, 1949 by the American 
Chiefs of Mission in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Ru- 
mania to their Soviet colleagues requesting that the 
Heads of Mission of the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics in those three countries meet, in accordance 
with the terms of the peace treaties, to consider 
the disputes which have arisen concerning the 
interpretation and execution of the treaties. 

It is noted that no direct reply has been made 
by the Soviet Ambassadors in Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania to the above-mentioned letters of 
the American Chiefs of Mission. 

The United States Government regrets that the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, by its refusal to cooperate in the considera- 
tion of the disputes by the three heads of mission 
in 13ulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, has itself 
shown disregard for the stipulations of the peace 
treaties providing explicitly that any dispute con- 
cerning the interpretation or execution of the 
treaties which is not settled by direct diplomatic 
negotiations shall be referred to the three heads 
of mission. 

The existence of disputes between the United 
States Government and the Governments of Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania respectively cannot 
be questioned. According to notes exchanged 
with these three governments, the United States 
Government has charged them with repeated and 
systematic violations of certain clauses of the 
treaties of peace, and they have replied asserting 
that their acts do not constitute such violations. 
The Soviet Government, in the Embassy's note of 

29 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



June 11, 1949, has associated itself with the posi- 
tion of the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Eumania in denying that the treaties have 
been violated. This interpretation is disputed by 
the United States and by other signatories of the 
treaties of peace. The procedures set forth in 
article 36 of the treaty of peace with Bulgaria, 
article 40 of the treaty of peace with Hungary, 
and article 38 of the treaty of peace with Ru- 
mania are precisely applicable to these disputes. 

The opinion of the Soviet Government on the 
merits of the disputes, as expressed in the Em- 
bassy's note of June 11, deserve full consideration. 
They are, however, irrelevant to the question 
whether or not disputes exist and to the matter 
of instituting the procedures called for by the 
above-mentioned articles of the treaties of peace. 

The Embassy's note states that "it is self-evi- 
dent that the measures carried out by Bulgaria, 
Hungary and Rumania with the aim of fulfilling 
the articles of the Treaties of Peace rest wholly 
within the internal competence of these countries 
as sovereign states." The United States Govern- 
ment cannot agree that the fulfillment of inter- 
national treaty obligations can be considered as a 
purely domestic affair. The application of such 
a theory would not only permit the total cir- 
cumvention of treaty obligations but would de- 
stroy the very basis of international law. 

At the 190th plenary meeting of the third ses- 
sion of the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions, April 12, 1949, the delegate of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, in objecting to consid- 
eration by the General Assembly of charges of 
violation of human rights in Bulgaria and Hun- 
gary, cited article 36 of the treaty of peace with 
Bulgaria and articles 40 of the treaty of peace with 
Hungary and stated: "Even if there were any 
violation of the Peace Treaties by Bulgaria and 
Hungary, the states alleging such violations 
should adhere to the procedures stipulated in the 
Peace Treaties themselves." Whether there have 
been such violations is in dispute. The United 
States, as a signatory power making such allega- 
tions, had already, on April 2, 1949, initiated 
measures with a view to the application of the 
treaty clauses cited by the Soviet delegate. The 
resolution of the General Assembly on the subject, 
adopted on April 30, 1949, noted these measures 
with satisfaction, expressed the hope that they 
would be diligently applied, and most urgently 
drew the attention of the Governments of Bul- 
garia and Hungary to their obligations under the 
peace treaties, including the obligation to co- 
operate in the settlement of disputes. The Soviet 
Government, however, by its present attitude, 
shows that it is unwilling itself to act in accord- 
ance with these treaty procedures. This attitude 
of the Soviet Government represents an obstacle 



to the settlement of disputes which have arisen 
under the treaties of peace. 

In the light of the foregoing, the United States 
Government hopes that, on further reflection, the 
Soviet Government will see fit to reconsider its de- 
cision as conveyed in the Embassy's note of June 
11, 1949, and will instruct its representatives at 
Sofia, Budapest, and Bucharest to meet with their 
respective American and British colleagues as the 
latter requested in their letters delivered on May 
31, 1949. 



Undermining of Religious Faith in 
Czeclioslovakia 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the Press June 23] 

The present attack by the Czechoslovak author- 
ities on the position of Archbishop Josef Beran is 
recognized as a critical point in the calculated 
campaign of a totalitarian dictatorship to make 
impossible the preservation of the freedom and 
rights of religious organizations in Czechoslo- 
vakia. The United States has not failed to note 
the series of steps taken by the present regime in 
Czechoslovakia during the past year to undermine 
religious faith while it cynically professes to ac- 
knowledge religious liberty. Restrictions have 
been imposed on the freedom of assembly, asso- 
ciation, expression, communication, and instruc- 
tion in an attempt to subject religious organiza- 
tions to the rule of an intolerant police state. 

These measures violate the rights of conscience 
and the decencies of civilization. They ignore 
the religious freedom which should be an inalien- 
able right of the Czechoslovak people and which 
was supposedly guaranteed by the constitution 
proclaimed by the present Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment itself. The systematic effort to subvert re- 
ligious organizations follows the pattern of 
I'epression already established in Hungary, Bul- 
garia, and other countries of Eastern Europe 
under authoritarian Communist regimes. 



Wheat Agreement — Continued Jrom page 21 

The instrument of acceptance of Belgium was 
deposited on June 17, 1949. There has not been 
deposited up to this time an instrument of ac- 
ceptance on behalf of any other importing coun- 
try. It will be necessary for such instriunent on 
behalf of importing countries representing not 
less than 70 pei'cent of the guaranteed purchases 
to be deposited by July 1 in order for any of the 
provisions of the agreement to enter into force 
and foi- the International Wlieat Council to be 
established thereby. 



30 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Understanding Arrived at With Sweden To Correct Its Present 
Imbalance of Trade and To Conserve Its Foreign Exchange 

[Released to the Press June 29] 



The Department of State announced on June 29 
that discussions have recently been held between 
representatives of the United States and Swedish 
Governments regarding Sweden's continuing need 
to prevent further serious losses of gold and for- 
eign exchange holdings caused bj' the substantial 
deficit in Sweden's trade with the hard-currency 
areas of the world. 

The drastic reduction of Sweden's holdings of 
hard currencies since the close of the war necessi- 
tated temporary modifications of the quantitative 
and nondiscriminatory commitments of the trade 
agreement of 1935 between the two countries. 
Understandings regarding such modifications 
were reached on June 24, 1947, Februarv 11, 1948,^ 
and June 12, 1948.^ 

Due to Sweden's continued shortage of hard 
curi-ency, it was agreed on June 27 to extend tlie 
arrangements embodied in the aforementioned 
understandings until June 30, 1950, or until 
Sweden becomes a contracting party to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, whichever 
is the earlier date. The understanding of June 
27 may be terminated by either government on 
60 days' written notice, after consultation as to 
the justification for its continuance. 

Text of the memoranda exchanged on June 27 
follows. 

Embasst of Sweden 
Washington, D. G. 

Menwrandwrn 

The Government of Sweden wishes to refer to 
discussions which have been held between its rep- 
resentatives in Washmgton and representatives 
of the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica concerning the problems faced by the Govern- 
ment of Sweden as the result of the serious loss 
of its gold and dollar exchange. These discus- 
sions have resulted in a mutual understanding be- 
tween the two governments as follows : 

' Bulletin of Feb. 22, 1948, p. 251. 
' Bulletin of July 11, 1948, p. 53. 

Jo/y ?I, 1949 



1. Because of the large deficit in the Swedish 
balance or payments witTi the hard currency areas 
of the world, it is recognized that the Government 
of Sweden continues to be faced with the necessity 
of taking measures to correct its present imbalance 
of trade and to conserve its foreign exchange. 
The import restrictions imposed by the Govern- 
ment of Sweden on March 15, 1947, as presently 
applied, are understood to serve these purposes. 

2. It is therefore agreed that the provisions con- 
tained in the exchange of aide-memoire between 
the two governments dated June 24, 1947, as modi- 
fied by the excliange of memoranda dated Febru- 
ary 11, 1948, and June 12, 1948, shall continue to 
be applied after June 30, 1949, until the Govern- 
ment of Sweden becomes a contracting party to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade con- 
cluded at Geneva, Switzerland on October 30, 1947, 
or until June 30, 1950, whichever is the earlier. 
The Government of Sweden is now engaged in 
tariff negotiations in Annecy, France, looking 
toward its eventual accession to that Agreement. 
If, however, Sweden has not adhered to the Gen- 
ei"al Agreement on Tariffs and Trade by May 1, 
1950, the two governments agree to review the 
situation for the purpose of considering such ac- 
tions as the circumstances may demand. 

It is further agreed that either government after 
consultation as to the continued justification for 
this understanding may terminate it on 60 days 
written notice. 

Washington, D. C, June 27, 19Jf9. 

Memorandum 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica wishes to refer to discussions which have been 
held between its representatives and representa- 
tives of the Government of Sweden concerning 
the problems faced by the Government of Sweden 
as the result of its serious loss of gold and dollar 
exchange, and to the memorandum of today's date 
from the Embassy of Sweden setting fortli the 
understanding reached in these discussions. The 

31 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Government of the United States of America takes 
note of the fact that the Government of Sweden 
acknowledges the current validity of the 1947 and 
1948 understandings between the two govern- 
ments. The Government of the United States of 
America confirms the understanding reached in 
recent discussions as set forth in the memorandum 
from the Embassy of Sweden. 

Department of State, 

Washington, June 27, 191,9. 



Efforts of Soviet Union To Jam 
Voice of America Programs 

Assistant Secretary Allen at his news conference 
on June 13 said that the United States technical 
experts are convinced that the Soviet Union re- 
quired 3 months to build up their equipment for 
the present jamming campaign. 

The intensified jamming was initiated in April 
at about the time when the United States and the 
U.S.S.R. representatives were discussing in New 
York the possibility of lifting the 10-month-old 
blockade. Mr. Allen expressed the belief, how- 
ever, that in view of the 3 months needed for 
preparation, the timing of the jamming operations 
may have been overemphasized. 

Mr. Allen estimated that between 25 to 30 
percent of the VOA broadcasts are getting 
through to the Eussian people. He said that the 
"Voice of America" and the British Broadcasting 
Company (BBC) have used as many as 101 trans- 
mitters on as many wave lengths to beam broad- 
casts to the U.S.S.R. on a single occasion. 

According to present estimates, there are about 
five million radio receivers in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Allen said that the Soviet Government is 
doing everything possible to keep from the people 
news of the jamming activities. He said that they 
have been jamming us sporadically for 15 months 
or more and that the decision they made to put 
this terrific amount of equipment, time, and energy 
into the jamming operation was the result of their 
"increased realization of the effectiveness of our 
Voice operation in general and their determina- 
tion to do everything they possibly could to pre- 
vent the Russian people from hearing what we had 
to say." 

In describing the one outstanding difference 
between what we are saying to the Russian people 
and what the Soviet Government is saying to 
them, Mr. Allen said that the "Soviet Government 
is trying to make every effort it can to convince 
not only its own people, but all the satellite 
people and everybody else in the world they can 



reach that the progi-am of the United States is 
thoroughly reactionary, backward-looking, and a 
return to the pre-1914 days, if you will." He 
said that they know that if they can sell that idea 
that it is a very effective one for them. They 
also know that what we are offering and what 
we hope for the peoples of the world and par- 
ticularly those behind the Iron Curtain is "some- 
thing a great deal better than those people have 
ever known, eitlier in 1914 under the Czai's and 
the previous regimes in eastern Europe, or what 
they know today." They are determined, Mr. 
Allen said, "to try to prevent their people from 
hearing our true program and keep dinning in 
their ears every day that the only thing that the 
United States has to offer is almost what amounts 
to tlie absentee landlord system, corrupt ecclesias- 
tical authority under people like Rasputin, and 
the decadent aristocracy of the old days." 

Asked whether the United States was consider- 
ing methods to coimter Soviet jamming, Mr. Allen 
answered affirmatively but did not go into details. 

He said that as a result of the equipment needed 
for jamming ])urposes, the Soviets suspended for 
a while their entire Latin American program and 
that the domestic broadcasts have been reduced. 
The Latin American broadcasts have been 
resumed. 

Mr. Allen explained that only the VOA broad- 
casts to the U.S.S.R. and not those to the satellite 
countries have been jammed. 



Report on tlie European Recovery 
Program 

[Released to the Press by EGA July i] 

Wliile industrial production in Western Europe 
is flowing at an increasing rate, Marshall Plan 
countries face complex problems of economic bal- 
ance, the Economic Cooperation Administration 
said on July 1 in releasing a report on the recovei-y 
program. 

"Over-all trade volume is being sustained at 
high levels, industrial production continues toi 
expand, and the threat of inflation seems to have 
eased," ECA said. "At the same time, however, 
weaknesses in the pattern of economic develop- 
ment are coming to the fore. 

"Trade volume among the participating coun- 
tries continues to lag, and there are signs of diffi- 
culties in sustaining domestic demand and in ab- 
sorbing the labor force freed by increasing 
productivity. 

"Problems of markets, trade, prices, and dis- 
tribution are taking the place of those of produc- 
tion, allocation, and rationing." 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



On the bright side, EGA reported that: 

Industrial output during the first 1949 quarter 
was 113 percent of pre\Yar. This was li percent 
above the corresponding quarter a year ago. A 
further increase in over-all output is indicated 
for the second quarter, in the light of the prelim- 
inary April and May reports on output in major 
industries, such as coal, steel, and textiles. 

Steel output rose above the prewar average for 
the first time in the opening quarter of 1949, steel 
continuing to set the ]:)ace in production expan- 
sion. Preliminary figures for April and May re- 
flect no slackening. Coking coal and steel scrap 
are becoming more abundant. Coal output in the 
first 1949 quarter increased 10 percent over a year 
ago, although still below prewar. Textile output, 
measured by yarn production, was about 15 per- 
cent greater; I'ayon production was 35 percent 
greater. 

Construction activities continued to expand. 
Cement output was 16 percent above the same 
period of last year, and brick output also was up. 

Rains which followed the spring drought have 
improved prospects for agricultural production, 
and indications are that output of grains will not 
be far behind the 1948 harvest. 

Prices have been stable or have declined slightly 
in all countries except Turkey. Budgets are on 
the way to balance. Revenue from taxation is 
more than sufficient to cover the regular expendi- 
tures of governments in all countries except 
Greece and Austria. "\Miere current revenues are 
not sufficient also to finance in full investment ex- 
penditures by governments, these are being 
largely covered from noninflationary sources such 
as long-term internal loans and ECA counterpart 
funds. 

On the other hand, the ECA report showed the 
following weaknesses in recent trends : 

There is evidence that, with the turn from a 
sellers' to a buyers' market in the United States, 
European exports to North America are encoun- 
tering resistance. Preliminary data indicate that 
first quarter exports to the Western Hemisphere 
were somewhat smaller than in the preceding 
period. Exports to the United States declined to 
65 million dollars in April from an average of 83 
million dollare per month in the first quarter and 
91 million dollars in the last 1948 quarter. 

Intra-ERP trade, which is considered impera- 
tive to the economic recovery of Western Europe, 
has lagged behind the postwar expansion of total 
trade. Excluding Western Germany's depressed 
trade, the total export volume in the first quarter 
was 119 percent of prewar, while exports among 
participating countries was only 105 percent of 
prewar. 

Changing price levels, particularly in the hard- 



currency areas, seem to call for adjustments so 
that an adequate volume of output may be directed 
to these areas which provide the needed imports. 

Electric power supply in the first quarter showed 
a smaller increase than in the previous quarter, 
the decline reflecting the shortage of thermal gen- 
erating equipment and the severe drought which 
reduced the hydroelectric power supply of France, 
Italy, and Austria. 

The labor situation during the first quarter was 
featured by a small general increase in unemploy- 
ment and a continued increase in output per 
worker. Unemployment in the German bizone 
rose to 1.2 million in March, from 750,000 in De- 
cember. Belgian unemployment, though still se- 
rious, declined from 300,000 at the first of the year 
to 230,000 at the first of April. Unemployment in 
Italy was almost 2 million in the first quarter, and 
the problem may be further aggravated. 

The tempo of further production increases, the 
ECA report concludes, seems to hinge in part on 
establishing a basis for relating the economies of 
the participating countries so that the increased 
output can flow into economically desirable chan- 
nels. 

Comprehensive data on ERP economic develop- 
ments underlying this summary are charted in the 
ECA bimonthly report, Recovery Guides. 



Secretary Acheson Welcomes 
Latvian Envoy 

[Released to the Press June 28] 

The Secretary of State on June 28 received Jules 
Feldmans, a career diplomat with the rank of 
Minister in the Latvian diplomatic service, who 
presented his letter of appointment as Charge 
d'Affaires of Latvia in Washington. Mr. Feld- 
mans becomes chief of the Latvian diplomatic mis- 
sion in the United States, in succession to the late 
Latvian Minister, Dr. Alfred Bilmanis, who died 
here last July. 

Remarks of Mr. Feldmans to the 
Secretary of State 

Sir, I have the honor to present to Your Ex- 
cellency the letter of Mr. Charles Zarine, Latvian 
Minister in London and bearer of the Special 
Emergency Power of the last legal Government 
of Latvia, introducing me to Your Excellency as 
Charge d'Affaires of Latvia in the United States, 
and thus charging me to continue the work of 
my predecessor, the late Latvian Minister Dr. 
Alfred Bilmanis, who during his twelve years of 
service in Washington until his death discharged 
his duties with honor and distinction. 

On assuming my duties in this responsible post 



Jo/y J?, 1949 



33 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



SO important for the Latvian nation, I wish to ex- 
press the deep gi-atitude which my people feel 
toward the United States Government for its 
friendly attitude in accepting a new Latvian Rep- 
resentative Plenipotentiary in the United States, 
and acceptance especially significant in times so 
trying and difficult for my country. By not rec- 
ognizing either de facto or de jur'e the annexation 
of Latvia proclaimed by a foreigii power and 
brutally carried out in breach of the existing 
treaties and international law, the United States 
Govei'nment not only continued to maintain its 
traditional benevolent attitude toward the small 
nations, but also assumed the role of the most 
powerful guardian of international justice and 
true Christian morals, upon which the entire West- 
ern civilization is based. This attitude gives me 
great encouragement to assume my duties, and I 
beg Your Excellency to accord me his assistance 
in the fulfillment of my mission. 

Remarks of the Secretary of State to Mr. Feldmans 

SiK : I have received from your hands the letter 
of April 20, 1949 from Mr. Charles Zarine, the 



Latvian Minister in London and bearer of the 
special emergency powers of the last independent 
Government of Latvia, presenting you to me as 
Charge d'Affaires of Latvia in the United States 
in succession to the late Latvian Minister, Dr. 
Alfred Bilmanis, whose untimely death last year 
ended a long period of distinguished service for 
his country in Washington. Dr. Bilmanis' co- 
operation with this government was always full 
and wholehearted. 

In accepting you as the chief of the Latvian 
Mission in Washington in the capacity of charge 
d'affaires an occasion is afforded my government 
to demonstrate its continuing interest in the wel- 
fare of the Latvian nation. I am therefore par- 
ticularly happy to welcome you to Washington, 
and am sui'e we will establish and maintain with 
you the same close cooperation and mutual under- 
standing as we had with your predecessor. 

I wish you happiness and success in 3'our new 
mission and assure you that my associates in the 
Department and I will always be ready to help in 
every way we can. 

I would also ask you to thank Minister Zarine 
for his expression of good wishes, which are 
warmly reciprocated, on behalf of the Latvian 
nation and himself for the welfare of the United 
States. 



Regions in Cliina Closed to Foreign Vessels 



Note From Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
to American Embassy in G canton, dated 
Jime 20, 19Jt9 

{Released to the Press June 23] 
[Translation] 

The IMinistry of Foreign Affairs presents its 
compliments to the American Embassy and has 
the honor to state that the Government of China 
has now decided that the following regions from 
the north bank of the mouth of tne Slin River, 
longitude 119 degrees, 40 minutes east and latitude 
26 degrees, 15 minutes north to the mouth of the 
Liao River, longitude 122 degrees, 20 minutes east 
and latitude 40 degrees, 30 minutes north, which 
lie along the coast and within the territorial water 
of China shall be temporarily closed, and entry 
therein of foreign vessels shall be strictly for- 
bidden. Instructions have already been issued 
by the Government of China that, beginning from 



midnight of June 25 of this year, prompt actions 
shall be taken to prevent violations of this deci- 
sion by foreign vessels. All foreign vessels shall 
themselves be responsible for any danger result- 
ing from their violation of this decision. 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also wishes to 
call the Embassy's attention to the fact that, dur- 
ing the period of rebellion suppression, the Gov- 
ernment of China decided on June 18 of this year 
to close all ports originally declared open but no 
longer under the actual control of the Govern- 
ment of China. Included in this category are 
Yungchia [Wenchow], Ningpo, Shanghai, Tient- 
sin and Chinghuangtao [Chinwano;tao], where 
no commercial shipping by sea shall be permitted. 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs requests the 
Embassy to give due consideration to this matter 
and to transmit the contents of this note to the 
American Government, and promptly notify the 
American shipping companies concerned to act 
accordingly. 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Note From U.S. Embassy at Canton to the Chinese 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, dated June 28, IQlfi 

[Released to the Press June 29] 

The Embass.y of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to tlie Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Eepublic of China and has the 
honor to refer to the latter's note No. 5938 of June 
20 stating tliat the Government of China has now 
decided that the regions from the north banli of 
the mouth of the Min River, longitude 119 degrees 
40 minutes east and latitude 26 degrees 15 minutes 
north, to the mouth of the Liao River, longitude 
122 degrees 20 minutes east and latitude 40 de- 
grees 30 minutes north, which lie along the coast 
and within the territorial waters of China shall 
be temporarily closed, and entry therein of foreign 
vessels shall be strictly forbidden. The note under 
reference adds that instructions have been issued 
by the Government of China for the enforcement 
of this decision beginning from midnight June 25, 
1949, and calls attention to a decision by the Gov- 
ernment of China on June 18, 1949, to close all 
ports originally declared open but no longer under 
the actual control of the Government of China. 

As requested therein, the Ministry's note was 
transmitted to Washington. The Embassy is now 
instructed to state in i-eply that, despite the friend- 
liest feelings toward the Chinese Government, the 
United States Government cannot admit the legal- 
ity of any action on the part of the Chinese Gov- 
ernment in declaring such ports and the territorial 
waters adjacent thereto closed to foreign vessels 
unless the Chinese Government declares and main- 
tains an effective blockade of them. In taking this 
position, the United States Government has been 
guided by numerous precedents in international 
law with which the Chinese Government is doubt- 
less familiar and has noted that the ports referred 
to are not under the actual control of the Chinese 
Government.^ 



'On Nov. 21, 1908, the Government of Haiti declared 
the port of Aux Cayes blockaded. Upon receipt of the 
telegram Secretary of State Root directed the American 
Minister to Haiti (Furniss) "to convey to the Haitian 
Government the usual notice that blockade must be pro- 
claimed and maintained bv an adequate force in order 
to be respected." (1908 For. Rel., p. 439.) 

The Department of State was informed in 1912 that the 
port of Veracruz, Mexico, which was in the hands of insur- 
gents, had been ordered closed by the Federal Govern- 
ment. It thereupon instructed the American Charge 
d'Affaires to inform the Mexican Foreign Office as 
follows : 

"As a general principle a decree by a sovereign power 

closing to neutral commerce ports held by its enemies, 

whether foreign or domestic, can have no international 

validity and no extraterritorial effect in the direction of 

; imposing any obligation upon the governments of neutral 

July 71, J 949 



Note From Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to 
American Eir\bassy at Canton, dated June 30, 19Jt9 

[Translation] 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Re- 
public of China presents its compliments to the 
Embassy of the United States of America, and has 
the honor to refer to the latter's note, No. 265, of 
June 28, 1949, setting forth the position of the 
United States Government with regard to the 
closure by the Chinese Government of certain 
parts of its territorial waters and the ports therein. 

In reply, the Ministry has the honor to state 
that the Chinese Government deems it within the 
sovereign right of a state to declare open or closed 
any part of its territories, whenever conditions 
necessitate. In fact, the Chinese Government has 
exercised in the past on more than one occasion 
the right to close some of its ports, and no question 
of legality has been raised by any government, in- 
cluding that of the United States. Port Dairen, 
for instance, was declared closed at a time when it 
was not under the actual control of the Chinese 
Government. The closure order under reference 
is, in effect, of a similar nature and is, therefore, 
enforceable independently of a declaration of 
blockade, which has never been, and is not, vmder 
the contemplation of the Chinese Government. 

In stating its position, the Chinese Govermnent 
also wishes to assure the United States Govern- 
ment that in the execution of the closure order it 
will undertake to do its best to avoid any unneces- 
sary hardship or loss to the nationals of the United 
States. The Chinese Government hopes, there- 
fore that in view of the friendly feelings happily 
existing between the two peoples, the United 
State Government will see its way to cooperate 
with it so as to prevent any untoward incident. 

The Chinese Government has the honor to re- 
quest the Embassy of the United States of America 
to be good enough to transmit at its earliest con- 
venience the above reply to the Govermnent of the 
United States. 



powers to recognize it or to contribute toward its enforce- 
ment by any domestic action on their part. If the sov- 
ereign decreeing such a closure have a naval force suffi- 
cient to maintain such a blockade, then he may seize, sub- 
ject to the adjudication of a prize court, vessels which 
may attempt to run the blockade. But his decree or acts 
closing ports which are held adversely to him are by 
themselves entitled to no international respect. The Gov- 
ernment of the United States must therefore regard as 
utterly nugatory such decrees or acts closing ports which 
the United States of Slexico do not possess, unless such 
proclamations are enforced by an effective blockade." 
(VII Hackworth, Digest of International Law, 1943, p. 

im.) 

When the Mexican Government decreed that in addi- 
tion to the ports of Veracruz and Manzanillo, in the 
hands of insurgents, the ports of Frontera and Puerto 
Mexico were closed and notified the United States of its 

35 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Allegations of Espionage 
in Mukden Denied 

[Released to the Press June 22] 

The Department of State fully endorses the 
statements issued on June 19 by the American 
Embassy, Nanking, and on June 20 ^ by the Office 
of the American Embassy, Canton, denying Chi- 
nese Communist allegations that the American 
Consulate eGneral at Mukden served as an espio- 
nage organ. With respect to these allegations, 
which appeared in a North China News Agency re- 
port datelined Mukden June 18, the Department 
states categorically that no member of the staff of 
the Consulate General is or has been involved in es- 
pionage activities. Specifically they are not and 
have not been involved in any way with the indi- 
viduals or alleged activities mentioned in the North 
China News Agency report. 

As the Department had announced previously,^ 



all communications between the American Con- 
sulate General at Mukden and the outside world 
were severed by order of the Chinese Communists 
on November 18, 1948, 16 days after Mukden was 
occupied by Chinese Communist forces. From un- 
official reports it appears that members of the 
staff of the Consulate General have been confined 
to their compounds since November 20. Only 
since June 13 have the Chinese Communists re- 
laxed their communications blockade of the Amer- 
ican Consulate, Mukden, to the extent of permit- 
ting it to exchange Chinese language telegrams on 
administrative matters with the American Em- 
bassy at Nanking and with the American Con- 
sulate General at Peiping. 

This propaganda attack, coming as it does a 
month after the United States Government in- 
formed the Chinese Communists that the Consulate 
General at Mukden was being closed and its staff 
withdrawn, appears explicable only as an effort 
to excuse the unjustifiable treatment accorded per- 
sonnel of the Consulate General by the Chinese 
Communist authorities, contrary to generally ac- 
cepted standards of international law and comity. 



action, Secretary of States Hughes replied, February 1, 
1924, that— 

". . . this Government, with the friendliest disposition 
toward the Mexican Government, feels obliged, follow- 
ing a long line of precedents, to respect what are believed 
to be the requirements of International law, to the effect 
that a port of a foreign country declared by the govern- 
ment tliereof to be outside of its control, cannot be closed 
by such government save by an effective blockade main- 
tained bv it." (VII Hackworth, Digest of International 
Laii), 1943, p. 167.) 

During the revolution in Sao Paulo in 1932, the Brazil- 
ian Government closed all ports of that State to foreign 
and domestic shipping. On July 16, 1932, Secretary of 
State Stimson instructed the Embassy in Rio de Janeiro : 

"If Santos is in the control of insurgents the Brazilian 
Government would have no right to close this port by 
decree as reported . . . unless this decree is enforced 
by an effective blockade." (VII Hackworth, Digest of 
International Law, 1943, p. 168. ) 

In reply to a note verbale of August 20, 19.36, from the 
Spanish Foreign Otfice to the American Embassy advising 
the Embassy that certain ports in the possession of the 
Government had "been declared a war zone" and that 
consequently entry into them by merchant ships would 
not be permitted, the Department of State instructed the 
Embassy on August 25 to reply as follows : 

"My Government directs me to inform you in reply that, 
with the friendliest feelings toward the Spanish Govern- 
ment, it cannot admit the legality of any action on the 
part of the Spanish Government in declaring such ports 
closed unless that Government declares and maintains an 
effective blockade of such port. In taking this position my 
Government is guided by a long line of precedents in in- 
ternational law with which the Spanish Government is 
doubtless familiar." Department of State, XV Press Re- 
leases, weekly issue 361, pp. 192-193 (Aug. 27, 1936). 



^ Communist charges that the American Consulate Gen- 
eral in Mukden was engaged in espionage are ridiculous 
and absolutely false. The Communists may have levelled 
such charges in order to distract attention from the fact 
that they have held the American Consul General and 
his staff incommunicado for the past 7 months in violation 
of international law and custom. 

° The Department of State made the following announce- 
ment on May 31 : 

In view of the arbitrary restrictions imposed on the 
United States Consulate General in Mukden by the local 
Communist authorities, the Department of State has issued 
instructions that the Consulate General be closed and its 
staff withdrawn. 

On November 18, 194S — 18 days after the occupation of 
Mukden — the Chinese Communist authorities forced the 
closure of the Consulate General'.s radio facilities, and 
despite innumerable subsequent attempts to restore com- 
munications, no direct word has been received from Con- 
sul General Ward or his staff. There have been indirect 
reports that the Consul General and his staff, while safe 
and well, have been confined to their compounds and 
have been prohibited from carrying on the normal func- 
tions customarily performed by consular officials with 
the sanction of recognized international practice. 

When it proved impossil)le to establish connnunications 
with the Consul General in Mukden, even after restora- 
tion of ordinary mail and telegraph communications be- 
tween Mukden and cities in north China, Chinese Com- 
munist authorities in Nanking and north China were 
notified that unless the arbitrary restrictions were removed 
and the Consulate General permitted to carry on normal 
consular functions the Consulate General would be 
closed and the staff withdrawn. 

No change having followed this notification. Consul 
General O. Edmund Clubb in Peiping was instructed on 
May 17 to notify the Chinese Communist authorities there 
that the Consulate General in Mukden was being closed 
and to request facilities for the withdrawal of the staff. 



36 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Aid to Korea 



Statement hy Secretary Arheson on his Meeting 
With the House Foreign Affairs Committee 

[Released to the Press June 23] 

I also discussed with the Committee the bill au- 
thorizing aid to the Government of the Republic 
of Korea which the Committee is now considering. 
I urged an early report so tliat final action can be 
taken by June 30, when the present progi-am of aid 
to Korea will terminate. I stressed the fact that 
the Government of the Republic of Korea, which 
has been recognized as the only legal government 
in Korea by the General Assembly of the United 
Nations, stands as a symbol of hope to tliose people 
in the surrounding area who have fallen under the 
oppressive yoke of Communism, and that without 
the proposed assistance the people and the govern- 
ment in south Korea will have an almost in- 
superable task in maintaining freedom and in- 
dependence. 



Control Over Certain Property of 
Former Japanese Government 
Relinquished^ 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Exec- 
utive Order 97G0 (11 F. R. 7999), as amended by 
Executive Order 9788 (11 F. R. 11981), and pur- 
suant to law (R. S. 161 ; 5 U. S. C. 22) , the under- 
signed, after appropriate investigation and con- 
sultation, deeming it necessary in the national 
interest : 

Herebj' waives any autliority which he may have 
to exercise control and supervision over certain 
property consisting of funds deposited as check- 
ing or commercial accounts at the National City 
Bank of New York, Fifty-first Street Branch, 
New York, New York; Wliitney National Bank 
of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana ; Second 
National Bank of Houston, Houston, Texas; First 
National Bank of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; 
Northern Trust Company, 50 South La Salle 
Street, Chicago 90, Illinois; Union Trust Com- 
pany of the District of Columbia, Fifteenth and H 
Streets NW., Washington 5, D. C. ; National Met- 
ropolitan Bank of Washington, (513 Fifteenth 
Street NW., Washington 13, D. C. ; Riggs National 
Bank of Washington, D. C; Sumitomo Bank of 
Seattle, Seattle, Washington, and the former 
branch offices of the Yokohama Specie Bank, Lim- 
ited, in California and New York, respectively, in 
the names of various former diplomatic and con- 

July 11, 1949 



sular establishments of the Japanese Government 
which were situated at the cities wherein these 
banks are located. The custody of this property 
is relinquished to the Office of Alien Property of 
the Department of Justice, and a notification in 
writing to the Office of Alien Property of this 
action is hereby authorized. 

This release shall become effective on the date of 
publication in the Federal Register of a vesting 
order issued by the Office of Alien Property cover- 
ing the property described herein. 

In connection herewith reference is made to the 
antepenultimate paragraph of Department of 
State Public Notice DA 170 of August 1, 1946. 



[seal] 

May 11, 19Ji9. 



Dean Acheson, 
Secretary of State. 



Provisions of Argentine-U.K. Trade 
and Payments Agreement Studied 

[Released to the Press June 2T\ 

During the course of the negotiations between 
the British and Argentine Governments which led 
to the adoption of the Trade and Payments Agree- 
ment, representatives of tlie Department of State 
engaged in a number of discussions with British 
and Argentine representatives regarding the pro- 
posed agreement. The circumstances leading to 
the proposed agreement and the terms under con- 
templation were fully explored. On studying the 
final tej'ms, the Department is gratified to observe 
that substantially more flexibility is incorporated 
in its provisions than had at first been rnformally 
reported. 

The agreement constitutes an effort on the part 
of the United Kingdom and Argentina to expand 
their trade with each other witliout risking further 
loss of dollars and gold of which both countries 
are short. The agreement will permit transac- 
tions between the United Kingdom and Argentina 
to be settled in sterling, and an effort will be made 
to achieve a balance of payments at the highest 
possible level of trade. 

The agi'eement provides that the British Gov- 
ernment will buy very substantial quantities of 
meat products from the Argentine Government 
over tlie next 5 years. It provides also that Brit- 
ish-controlled companies will offer substantial 
quantities of petroleum and petroleum products 
to importers in Argentina. Stated minimum quan- 
tities of other products are listed in the agreement 
which the Governments will permit to be bought 
and sold througli the customery cliannels, provided 
buyers and sellers reach agreements on the terms. 
Therefore, apart from the firm contract for the 
purchase of meat products, the purchase or sale 



'■ [Public Notice 7] 14 Fed. Reg. 2590. 



37 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



of other commodities will depend upon the future 
decisions of British or Argentine buyers or sellers. 

In discussions with British representatives, the 
United States has recognized the fact that as long 
as the British dollar shortage continues, the Brit- 
ish Government will have no choice but to seek 
arrangements with other countries designed to 
avoid a loss of dollars, while maintaining its essen- 
tial imports. The United States has stressed that 
these arrangements should be of a sufficiently flex- 
ible character so that they would not continue 
beyond the period in which they were made neces- 
sary by the dollar shortage. The United States 
notes that the United Kingdom-Argentine ar- 
rangements provide for the right of termination 
of the Trade and Payments Agreement at the end 
of any year by either party, that prices contained 
in the meat contracts are subject to annual agree- 
ment by the parties, and that the export and import 
of otlier products, including petroleum products, 
depends upon the subsequent negotiations of 
buyers and sellers. The agreement by its terms 
may therefore be adapted to changing circum- 
stances. 

The United States is pleased to note the United 
Kingdom's reaffirmation of its basic objective of 
returning to convertibility and multilateralisni and 
its disavowal of an intention to discriminate 
against the trade of third countries. The United 
States also notes that neither the United King- 
dom nor Argentina is obliged by the terms of the 
agreement to purchase goods from the other at 
prices in excess of those available in other markets, 
and that the United Kingdom does not propose 
that its capacity for exporting goods to the dollar 
area will be affected by the agreement. 

The United States proposes to discuss periodi- 
cally with the United Kingdom the nature of ac- 
tual operations under the agreement, having in 
mind the ultimate objectives of both governments. 



Charter of the Allied High Commission — Continued 
from page 2S 

X. OFFECDAL LANGUAGES 

The official languages of the High Commission shall be 
English and French. Authoritative German texts of 
documents shall be provided as necessary. 

In witness whereof the foregoing agreement has been 
duly executed by the respective representatives there- 
unto duly authorized of the Governments of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, the United States of America 
and the Republic of France, In triplicate in the French 
and English languages, each text being equally authentic 
and shall come into effect on the date of the entry into 
force of the Occupation Statute. 
Pakis 

20th June, 191,9. 

[Signed at Paris by Secretary of State Aeheson. Foreign Min- 
ister Bevin, and Foreign Minister Sehuman on behalf of their 
governments.] 

38 



Agreement With Canada Relating 
to 1948 Potato Crop Terminated 

Through an exchange of notes on June 20, 1949, 
the United States and Canada terminated an 
agreement of November 23, 1948, under which 
the Canadian Government instituted a price- 
support and export-permit program for the 1948 
Canadian potato crop.^ Under this program 
Canada ceased exporting table-stock potatoes to 
the United States and controlled the export of 
certified seed potatoes in a manner designed to 
channel them exclusively into seed outlets in the 
United States. 

The agreement was negotiated for the purpose 
of avoiding certain problems which would con- 
front the United States Government in the opera- 
tion of its price-support and other programs for 
potatoes if imports of Canadian potatoes during 
the then current crop year were to continue to be 
unrestricted. Since the 1948 potato marketing 
season is practically ended and stocks of old pota- 
toes are relatively low, the termination of the 
agreement is considered to be in the mutual inter- 
est of both countries. 

Canada's prompt and effective cooperation with 
the United States in entering into and carrying 
out the agreement has provided another instance 
of the readiness of the two countries to take joint 
action to meet problems of mutual concern. 

For text of the exchange of notes, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 472 of June 21, 1949. 



Military IVIission Agreement 
With Peru Signed 

[Released to the Press June 20] 

There was signed on June 20, 1949, by James E. 
Webb, Acting Secretary of State, and Fernando 
Berckemeyer, Ambassador of Peru to the United 
States, an agreement providing for the detail of 
officers and enlisted men of the United States 
Army as an advisory mission to serve in Peru. 
The agreement, which replaces an almost identi- 
cal agreement in force since July 10, 1944, is to 
continue in force for 4 years from the date of 
signature, and may be extended beyond that pe- 
riod at the request of the Government of Peru. 

The agreement is similar to numerous other 
agreements in force between the United States and 
certain other American Republics providing for 
the detail of officers and enlisted men of the United 
States Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps 
to advise the armed forces of those countries. 



1 

1 



1 Bulletin of Dec. 12, 1948, p. 744. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



the provisions of the agreement pertain to the 
duties, rank, and precedence of the personnel of 
the mission, the travel accommodations to be pro- 
vided for the members of the mission and their 
families, and other related matters. 

Boyd-Roosevelt Highway From Colon 
to Panama City Completed 

[Released to the Press June 2-}] 

The Department of State announced on June 24 
that the United States Government had com- 
pleted the construction, at its expense, of a first- 
class highway in Panama from Colon to Panama 
City. The Boyd-Roosevelt Highway, about 50 
miles in length, crosses the Isthmus from the 
Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It is located 
almost entirely within the Republic of Panama, 
and ties in with existing transportation facilities 
in the Canal Zone. The highway was opened to 
traffic in April 1943 and, except for a stretch of 
approximately 1000 feet, was completely paved 
by 1944. The paving of this short stretch of the 
highway near Colon on June 13, 1949, was the 
last step necessary to complete the project. This 
stretch was previously left unfinished, pending a 
recent decision of the Panamanian Government 
that it did not now wish to construct an overpass 
at the intersection with Randolph Road. Inas- 
much as this is the last of the construction called 
for by the pertinent agreements between Panama 
and the United States, and as the obligations of the 
United States to perform post construction opera- 
tions pending the stabilization of the highway 
have been duly discharged, the United States Em- 
bassy in Panama has accordingly notified the 
Government of the Republic of Panama that fur- 
ther responsibility of the United States Govern- 
ment for performance of work under such agree- 
ments will terminate on June 30, 1949. 

The Boyd-Roosevelt (Trans-Isthmian) High- 
way was constructed in three sections. The first 
comprised that part between its junction with Fort 
Randolph Road near Colon on the Atlantic side 
to the Canal Zone boundary near Cativa, which 
was a commitment under the original Trans- 
Isthmian Highway Convention of March 2, 1936. 
The second was the adjoining sector which ex- 
tended to the boundary of the Madden Dam area, 
and was carried out by the United States Govern- 
ment pursuant to an exchange of notes dated 
August 31 and September 6, 1940. The third and 
last sector extended from a point near the termina- 



tion of the second section to Panama City, which 
was an obligation undertaken under Article V of 
the General Relations Agreement effected by an 
exchange of notes dated May 18, 1942. The total 
cost of construction was approximately 9,785,000 
dollars. 

The standards to which Trans-Isthmian High- 
way was finally constructed are substantially 
better than those stipulated in the original high- 
way convention of March 2, 1936 in that the road 
constructed is 24 feet wide with maximum grades 
of five percent while the convention called for a 
highway only 18 feet in width with eight percent 
maximum grades. The highway was originally 
intended to accommodate Panamanian commercial 
and normal Canal Zone requirements, but by 
1940 it became evident that the higher standards 
would be more adequate to handle increasing mili- 
tary needs on the Isthmus of Panama. 



American-Turkish Association 
Furthers Cultural Relations 

Statement hy Assistant Secretary Allen ^ 

The interchange of cultural relations and the 
increase in knowledge of one nation about another 
are essential elements in the establishment of peace 
and security in the world. To this end private 
citizens and private organizations in America are 
making a fundamental contribution. Today, you 
who are founding the American-Turkish Associa- 
tion are forging a f urthet link in the chain of cul- 
tural contacts between the United States and other 
nations. Our links with Turkey include the 
worthy traditions established by American educa- 
tional and medical institutions in Turkey for more 
than a century, a growing appreciation in the 
United States for Turkish art, literature, and cul- 
ture, and recognition of the common bonds of in- 
terest between peoples striving to safeguard 
human rights and liberties. 

Your association will provide a meeting ground 
for Americans of widely varied interests but with 
a common bond of friendship for Turkey and a 
common desire to promote better understanding 
of Turkey in the United States. On the occasion 
of the founding of this Association, I take special 
pleasure in extending my very best wishes and 
sincere hopes for the success of your undertaking. 

' Made on the occasion of the founfiing of the Ainerican- 
Turkisli Association in New York on June 7. 1949, and 
released to the press on the same date. Mr. Allen is 
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. 



July 11, 7949 



39 




The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Human Rights: Draft Covenant Revised at 
Fifth Session of Commission on Human 
Rights. Bv James Simsarian 

U.S. Will Not Support Membership of States 
Unwilling To Fulfill Charter Obligations. 
Statement by Ambassador Warren R. 
Austin 

The Question of Membership in the United 
Nations. Statement by Ambassador War- 
ren R. Austin 

Conciliation Commission Seeks Basis for Settle- 
ment Between Arab and Israeli Represent- 
atives. Statement by Secretary Acheson . 

Terms of Reference for the United Nations 
Visiting Mission to Trust Territories in 
West Africa 

The United States in the United Nations . . . 

Committee To Pick Priorities of U.S. Program 
for UNESCO 



Page 



13 



14 



16 



16 
17 

19 



General Policy 

Undermining of Religious Faith in Czechoslo- 
vakia. Statement by Secretary Acheson . 30 
Secretary Acheson Welcomes Latvian Envoy . 33 
Regions in China Closed to Foreign Vessels . . 34 
Allegations of Espionage in Mukden Denied . . 36 
Aid to Korea. Statement By Secretary Ache- 
son 37 

Treaty Information 

Ratification of the International Wheat Agree- 
ment 21 

U.S. Insists That Disputes Over Bulgarian, 
Hungarian, and Rumanian Violations of 
Human Rights Be Settled by Peace 
Treaties' Procedures 29 



Treaty Information — Continued Page 

Understanding Arrived at With Sweden To 
Correct Its Present Imbalance of Trade 
and To Conserve Its Foreign E.xchange . . 31 

Provisions of Argentine-U.K. Trade and Pay- 
ments Agreement Studied 37 

Agreement With Canada Relating to 1948 

Potato Crop Terminated 38 

Military Mission Agreement With Peru Signed . 38 

Occupation Matters 

Summary of Major Developments in Change- 

Over to Civilian Control of Germany . . 22 

Charter of the Allied High Commission for 

Germany 25 

Control Over Certain Property of Former Jap- 
anese Government Relinquished 37 

Economic Affairs 

U. S. Delegations: 

Twelfth International Dairy Congress ... 20 

Pan American Railway Congress 21 

Report on the European Recovery Program . 32 
Boyd-Roosevelt Highway From Col6n to Pan- 
ama City Completed 39 

International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Twelfth International Conference on Public 

FJducation, U. S. Delegation 20 

Efforts of Soviet Union to Jam Voice of America 

Programs 32 

American-Turkish Association Furthers Cul- 
tural Relations. Statement by George V. 
Allen 39 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

Council of Foreign Ministers Deputies for Aus- 
tria, U. S. Delegation 19 



%(m/&mtd(yM 



James Simsarian, author of the article on the Draft Covenant 
on Human Rights, is Acting Assistant Chief of the Division of 
United Nations Economic and Social Affairs, Department of 
State. Mr. Simsarian served as Adviser to the United States 
Representative at the Third and Fifth Sessions of the United 
Nations Commission on Human Rights. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1949 



tJne^ z/)efia/ylmenC^ /o^ ^ate^ 




SENATE DEBATE ON THE NORTH ATLANTIC 

TREATY • By SerMXx>r Connolly and Senator Vandenberg . 53 

EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN UNITED 

STATES AGRICULTURE • By Daniel Goott 43 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXI, No. 524 
July 18, 1949 





^.^^^^y... bulletin 



Vol. XXI, No. 524 • Publication 3575 
July 18, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $6. Foreign $8.60 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget (February 18, 1949). 

note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE 



hy Daniel Goott 



% ^ i«fUiilNTEMi)tNr OF DOCyMENTb 

%■■ MGi Sa. 1349 



The movement of workers across national bound- 
aries for purposes of employment has been an 
important factor in the recovery efforts of many 
European countries since the end of the war. It is 
perhaps not as generally recognized, however, that 
the United States has during this period been 
engaged in a temporary foreign migratory labor 
progi-am of its own. This program has not as- 
sumed the same relative proportions, nor the 
economic significance that manpower movements 
have assumed abroad. It has, nevertheless, been 
fulfilling what the United States Employment 
Service determines to be a continuing need for 
seasonal agricultural workers by American 
farmers. It is also serving as a source of employ- 
ment for workers who would probably otherwise 
be unemployed and is providing much needed dol- 
lar exchange for the countries of emigration. 
Authoritative but unofficial estimates show that 
approximately 48,000 foreign migrant workers 
were legally employed in United States agi'icul- 
ture during the peak employment periods of the 
3'ear 1948. About 43,000 of these were Mexican 
nationals and some 5,000 were British West Indian 
nationals from Jamaica, the Bahamas, and 
Barbados. There were, in addition, several thou- 
sand Canadian workers, who were engaged in the 
harvesting of crops along our northern border. 

This country's experience in recent yeai'S with 
the temporary employment of foreign migratory 
workers in agi'icultural activities may be con- 
veniently divided into two periods. The first 
period may be considered to date from 1942 when, 
as an emergency measure, substantial numbers of 
foreign workers were brought into this country to 
help alleviate the severe wartime shortage of 

iuly 18, 1949 



domestic agricultural labor. It extended through 
the end of 1947, when the wartime legislative au- 
thority expired. The second and current period 
may be viewed as one representing a continuation 
of the program beyond the expiration of the war- 
time legislation but under significantly modified 
conditions. 

In the latter part of 1942, the United States 
Government negotiated its first formal agreement 
with Mexico providing for the temporary employ- 
ment of Mexican nationals in United States agri- 
culture. At about the same time arrangements 
w^ere worked out for the recruitment and employ- 
ment of British West Indians, Newfoundlanders, 
and Canadians, the latter being employed mainly 
along the Canadian border. It has been estimated 
that by 1945 the number of foreign workers em- 
ployed in agricultural jobs in this country had 
risen to a peak of nearly 120,000, with Mexicans 
constituting by far the gi-eatest proportion. The 
average annual number from 1942 through 1947 
was approximately 68,000. 

The program commencing in 1942 was given 
its impetus by the pressing wartime need for man- 
power on the Nation's farms. Implementation 
of the program was facilitated under the broad 
provisions of the special statutory authority 
which was then enacted. This authority made 
possible direct participation by the United States 
Government in the varied operations which a pro- 
gram of that character and magnitude required. 
United States Government participation not only 
involved administrative and supervisory func- 
tions performed through the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture but even extended to the 
subsidization of many of the costs incidental to 

43 



the movement and the care of the workers. 
Among the costs so subsidized were those for 
transportation of the workers to and from the 
United States, housing and recreational facilities, 
and health and medical services. The United 
States Government, in addition, participated in 
the determination of the terms and conditions 
under which these workers were to be employed 
and was a' signatory to the work contracts which 
incorporated these terms. The significance of 
the United States Goverimient's role in the pro- 
gram during this period lay in the fact that it, in 
effect, was a guardian of these workers and as- 
sumed responsibility for effectuating the protec- 
tive safeguards established in the work contracts. 

In April 1947, the 80th Congress enacted Pub- 
lic Law 40 which provided for the liquidation of 
the wartime program and for the repatriation by 
December 31 of that year of all the foreign 
workers who had entered the United States under 
that program. This legislation also marked the 
return of the authority for farm labor recruit- 
ment and placement to the United States Employ- 
ment Service. 

With the enactment of Public Law 40, it became 
evident that the foreign migratory labor program 
was not to be continued in its original form. 
Numerous United States agricultural employers 
who had been utilizing Mexican and British West 
Indian workers applied to the United States 
Immigi"ation and Naturalization Service for per- 
mission to retain many of their foreign workers 
beyond December 31, 1947. These applications 
were predicated upon an alleged continuing short- 
age of domestic agricultural workers. Upon cer- 
tification by the United States Employment Serv- 
ice in each case that domestic agricultural 
workers were unavailable for recruitment at pre- 
vailing wage rates to fill the jobs in the areas 
involved, the United States Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service extended the authority of sev- 
eral thousand Jamaicans, Bahamians, and Bar- 
badians to remain in agricultural employment in 
this country for limited periods of time ranging 
up to one year. The employment of these 
workers and additional ones subsequently brought 
in has continued up to the present time on the 
basis of this certification procedure. 

The over-all features of the program during the 
present period differ in several significant respects 
from that of the previous period. One of the more 
significant distinctions is that the United States 



Government no longer subsidizes any of the trans- 
portation, housing, subsistence, health, and othei 
costs. Since existing legislation does not provide 
for the expenditure of public funds for such pur- 
poses, these costs must now be borne in one way oi 
another by the participating private groups. The 
precise method of distributing these costs varies 
with the terms of the contractual agreement 
reached between the parties. Thus in the case oi 
the British West Indian workers, the United 
States employers, and the respective island gov- 
ernments have worked out an arrangement undei 
which the costs of transportation to and from the 
United States are shared by the employers and the 
workers. The Mexican work contracts, on the 
other hand, have required that the employers as- 
sume the cost of transportation from the contract- 
ing centers in Mexico to the place of employment 
in the United States and return. 

Another significant distinction which serves tc 
demarcate the two periods is one which is relevant 
for the British West Indian phase of the program 
but not for the Mexican phase. Since the end ol 
1947, the United States Government has not offi- 
cially participated in the formulation of the wort 
contracts governing the employment of British 
West Indian nationals, nor has it been a signatory 
to these contracts, as it was prior to that time. 
These contracts are now developed through direct 
negotiations between private United States agri- 
cultural employers, on the one hand, and the re- 
spective British West Indian Governments, on the 
other. The terms of employment for these work- 
ers are thus essentially a reflection of the relative 
bargaining strength of these two groups. There 
is, furthermore, no formal agreement now in effect 
between the United States and the respective Brit- 
ish West Indian Governments with regard to the 
over-all scope or operation of this phase of the 
program. 

In contrast with this latter situation, the special 
considerations peculiar to the Mexican phase of 
the program have led to the renegotiation and 
renewal of formal executive agreements between 
the United States and Mexican Governments. 
The most recent of these was the agreement of 
February 21, 1948. This agreement remained op- 
erative until the middle of October 1948, when the 
illegal entry into the United States of a large num- 
ber of Mexicans and their employment outside the 
scope of the agreement led to its abrogation. Ne- 
gotiations with the Mexican Government for a 



Department of State Bulletin 



new agreement have been under way since early 
1949, and it is anticipated that they will be suc- 
cessfully concluded in the near future. 

Any comment on the Mexican phase of the pro- 
gram would be incomplete without some reference 
to the "wetback" problem, one of its most per- 
sistently difficult and disturbing aspects. The 
term "wetback" is commonly used to describe the 
Mexican national who illegally crosses the border 
into the United States, often by swimming or wad- 
ing across the shallow waters of the Eio Grande. 
These "wetbacks" normally find their way into 
agricultural employment, but it has been charged 
that they are also to be found employed in such 
nonagi'icultural jobs as the building and service 
trades. Although the number of "wetbacks" now 
in this country is difficult to estimate with any 
precision, it is generally conceded that it substan- 
tially exceeds the number brought in legally under 
the formal program. Estimates range from 100,- 
000 to a high of about 400,000. This condition 
prevails despite the fact that large numbers are 
regularly deported by the United States Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service. 

The presence in the United States of these il- 
legal entrants represents what in many respects 
is the most formidable problem confronting the 
United States and Mexican Governments in con- 
nection with the migratory labor program. Not 
only does the practice of illegal border crossings 
constitute a violation of United States immigra- 
tion laws, but it also exerts a seriously detrimental 
impact on the effectiveness of the formal program. 
It is important to note in this regard that the 
"wetbacks" represent a source of foreign labor 
which is utilized outside the scope of the formal 
agreements between the two governments. These 
workers are, therefore, not subject to the pro- 
tective provisions incorporated in the agreements 
and work contracts, as are the legally recruited 
Mexican workers. The availability of Mexican 
workers for employment under these circum- 
stances presents an almost inevitable economic in- 
ducement to United States employers to recruit 
them. This inducement has been further accentu- 
ated by the fact that the Mexican Government in 
the past has refused to permit its nationals to be 
legally contracted in certain areas in this country 
where anti-Mexican discrimination has been prac- 
ticed. United States agricultural employers in 
these areas have thus been deprived of the oppor- 
tunity for recruiting Mexican workers under the 

July 18, 7949 



formal program. Faced with the necessity for 
securing seasonal workers to harvest their crops, 
many of these employers, presumably in the ab- 
sence of local labor, have resorted to the use of 
"wetbacks." The agreement which is now under 
negotiation with the Mexican Government is de- 
signed to cope with this problem and, it is to be 
hoped, will make a significant contribution to- 
wards alleviating it. 

Apart from the arrangements for the temporary 
employment of foreign workers, systematic proce- 
dures have recently been developed for the re- 
cruitment of workers from Puerto Rico. As citi- 
zens of the United States, Puerto Eicans are, of 
course, free to travel to and from the mainland for 
purposes of employment or otherwise. In a re- 
cent agreement with the Puerto Rican Commis- 
sioner of Labor, however, the Bureau of Employ- 
ment Security of the Federal Security Agency 
clarified its policy under which Puerto Rico would 
be included in the clearance procedures for the 
determination of the need for foreign agricultural 
workei-s. This agreement, as explained by the 
United States Employment Service, was designed 
to provide an orderly means for employers to re- 
cruit Puerto Ricans when local labor supplies are 
inadequate and to assure consideration of Puerto 
Rican f ann workers in preference to foreign work- 
ers. It is thus intended by the United States 
Employment Service that, whenever circum- 
stances permit, Puerto Rican workers should be 
offered agricultural employment opportunities in 
the United States prior to any foreign nationals. 

Experience with the foreign migratory labor 
program since its inception as an emergency meas- 
ure in 1942 has revealed numerous areas of poten- 
tial and actual friction. These have in the past 
led to diplomatic representations to the United 
States Government and to strong criticism by pri- 
vate groups in this country. The nature of the 
problems which have given rise to these frictions 
are varied and can only be touched upon briefly 
here. Problems related to the determination of 
prevailing wage rates and their effective applica- 
tion to foreign migratory workers have been a 
relatively frequent source of difficulty. The prac- 
tice of social discrimination in certain localities, 
against Mexican nationals particularly, has been 
an issue of extremely delicate character. Points of 
conflict with the activities of United States trade 
unions in the fields of organization and collective 
bargaining have on occasion led to particularly 



45 



heated protestations by trade-union leaders in this 
country as well as to diplomatic representations. 
The solution to each of these issues is by no means 
an easy one and continues to present a challenge 
for those dealing with the program. 

The general problem of the progi-am's potential 
impact on United States labor standards is one in 
which United States agencies other than the De- 
partment of State have a more direct and imme- 
diate responsibility. It is a problem, however, 
which the Department of State cannot ignore. 
Apart from its general responsibilities, the De- 
partment of State must concern itself with the 
possibility that derogatory attitudes toward these 
foreign nationals may develop among American 
workers should they come to view the former as 
competitors who are undermining labor standards 
in this country. In addition, the program must 
be kept consistent with broader foreign-policy ob- 
jectives as they are reflected, for example, in this 
government's responsibilities as a member of the 
Caribbean Commission and in its obligations as a 
member of the International Labor Organization. 

The bulk of the criticism which has been di- 
rected at the general conduct of the program dur- 
ing the last 2 years has come from organized labor. 
The Department of State has been subjected to 
some criticism for the part it has played in con- 
nection with the negotiation of the agreements 
with the Mexican Government. Much of the criti- 
cism of the Department's role in this respect, it 
appears, arises from a general misconception of 
the purpose which these agreements serve. For- 
eign workers are admitted into the United States 
by the United States Immigration and Naturali- 
zation Service of the Department of Justice pur- 
suant to the discretionary authority vested in the 
Attorney General under existing immigi'ation stat- 
utes. Public Law 893, 80th Congress, enacted 
for a period of 1 year, ending June 30, 1949, more- 
over, specifically authorized the recruitment of 
workers from the Western Hemisphere when it is 
determined by the United States Employment 
Service that adequate members of domestic agri- 
cultural workers are unavailable. It is upon the 



exercise of their respective authorities by these 
two agencies that foreign nationals are admitted 
into the United States for temporary agricultural 
employment. Negotiation of an agreement with 
Mexico is not the action which determines whether 
foreign workers shall be brought into this country. 
The agreement represents an effort only to assure 
that those workers who are legally admitted into 
the United States pursuant to the action taken by 
the United States Employment Service and the 
United States Immigration and Naturalization 
Service are employed under principles and jiro- 
cedures acceptable to both the Mexican and the 
United States Governments. It represents an ef- 
fort also to place the admission and employment of 
these workers on an orderly and controlled basis 
and thereby to meet the needs of the United States 
Emi)loyment Service in its over-all responsibilities 
for farm labor placement. 

The alternative to an agreement with Mexico 
would be a situation in which Mexican nationals 
could, under existing statutes, be legally admitted 
into the United States even without the consent 
or approval of the Mexican Govermnent. A situ- 
ation of this kind would be likely both to jeop- 
ardize our good relations with the Mexican Gov- 
ernment and to impair the standards already 
achieved. 

Despite the frictions which have emerged in the 
past and the problems which still underlie the 
program, notable success has, in general, been 
achieved in meeting our own more immediate 
needs as well as those of the other participating 
governments. While there is considerable room 
for improvement in the conduct of the program, 
it should at the same time be recognized that many 
of the frictions to which it has given rise are per- 
haps inevitable under a program of this kind in 
which the unpredictable human factor looms so 
large. It is to be hoped that the future availa- 
bility of employment opportunities in this country 
will continue to make this program possible on a 
basis of mutual advantage to all concerned and as 
a constructive contribution to United States for- 
eign-policy interests. 



46 



Deparlment of Slate Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



The United States in the United Nations 



July 9-15 

Report on United States Trust Territory 

The 12-member Trusteeship Council spent the 
past week examining the first annual report, sub- 
mitted by the United States as the administering 
authority, on its administration of the strategic 
trust territory of the Pacific Islands covering the 
year ended July 17, 1948. Along with the report, 
the Council members considered the written re- 
plies of the United States to 122 questions of 
Trusteeship Council members. 

Ambassador Francis B. Sayre, the United States 
representative pointed out that the trust territory 
of the Pacific Islands, comprising the Marshalls, 
Marianas, and Carolines, covered a sea area of 
around 3 million square miles and contained a 
comparatively small population of not more than 
53 thousand people, widely scattered among 64 
different island groups. The territoi'y presented 
unique problems of transport and communications, 
said Ambassador Sayre, upon which the political 
economic, social, and eclucational progress of the 
multitude of far-flung islands largely dejDended. 
He stressed that the United States sought no fi- 
nancial gain or advantage for itself but was trying 
in every practicable way possible to assist the 
inhabitants. 

The United States Deputy High Commissioner 
for the territory explained some of the difficulties 
which faced the United States. He emphasized 
that at least eight distinct cultural groups had 
developed, each with its own language and cus- 
toms. The effect of the war and conflicting poli- 
cies under previous administrations by the Span- 
ish, Germans and Japanese had left the natives 
confused, without loyalties and without ambition 
or initiative. The United States has had to build 
an educational program from the bottom up. He 
further explained the problems of rehabilitating 
agriculture, transportation, and public health. 

The reaction of Council Members, with the ex- 
ception of the U.S.S.R. representative, during 

July 78. 1949 



the detailed discussion of the report, was one of 
praise for United States policies in the Trust Ter- 
ritory. The form of the report and the "forth- 
right" nature of United States replies to Members' 
questions were also commended. The U.S.S.R. 
rejDresentative attacked United States policies in 
the Trust Territory, contending that no steps had 
been taken to bring the natives into administra- 
tive, legislative and judicial organs. He criticized 
continuance of the ancient tribal system, alleged 
that racial discriminatory policies practiced in the 
United States had been carried into the Trust Ter- 
ritory, and called for a new tax system and in- 
creased funds for educational and health services. 

xVmbassador Sayre expressed apiDreciation for 
the comments and suggestions "which, with the 
exception of one member, have been for the most 
part helpful and constructive." He replied in de- 
tail to the U.S.S.R. criticisms, stressing that the 
United States Government was content to let its 
record speak for itself. The aims of the adminis- 
tering authority, he stressed, were to promote as 
rapidly as jsossible the progress and advancement 
of the people of the territory toward self-govern- 
ment or independence. He said the Unitecl States 
would be happy to welcome the Visiting Mission 
to the United States Trust Territoiy next year. 

Turning to discussion of tlie Mission which will 
visit the trust territories of the Pacific Islands, 
New Guinea, Western Samoa, and Nauru in 1950, 
the Council agi-eed that the Mission should consist 
of four Trusteeship Council members and that the 
maximum duration of the visit should be 110 days. 
The U.S.S.R. representative told the Council that 
his delegation "would not find it possible to take 
part in the Mission." 



Economic and Social Council 

The Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) in 
the second week of the ninth session, meeting in 

47 



Geneva, adopted resolutions noting the reports of 
the Economic Commission for Europe, the Inter- 
national Telecommunications Union, the Universal 
Postal Union, and the International Labor Or- 
ganization. Each of these reports contained a 
number of resolutions submitted for Ecosoc ap- 
proval. Also approved was a joint resolution of 
which the United States was one of the sponsors 
on the question of availability of insecticides for 
combatting malaria in agricultural areas. The 
resolution recommends that the import of insecti- 
cides by those countries needing them should be 
facilitated by the adoption of measures affecting 
tariff, export and import restrictions. 

In the discussion of the report of the Economic 
Commission for Europe, the United States Rep- 
resentative declared that the Commission is ful- 
filling its mandate in a "thoroughly satisfactory 
manner." He added that his country also ex- 
pected that the work being done by the Ece Trade 
Committee would prove useful. In reply to Soviet 
criticisms of the European Recovery Program, 
United States foreign trade policies and controls, 
the United States representative called attention 
to previous United States replies to similar attacks 
and said that repetition of the charges did not 
make them true. 

Interim Committee 

A subcommittee of the Interim Committee on 
July 12 began discussion of the question of extend- 
ing the duration of the Interim Committee, which 
was reestablished by the General Assembly last 
December for a second experimental year, and of 
the question of the Interim Committee's terms of 
reference. Discussion centered on a Turkish pro- 
posal which called for reestablishment of the In- 
terim Committee for an indefinite period, unless 
the General Assembly decided otherwise. The 
United States, Bolivian, French, Chinese, South 
Africa, United Kingdom, and Uruguayan repre- 
sentatives indicated support for the Turkish pro- 
posal, but there was some variance of opinion over 
possible revision of the terms of reference. 

The United States representative called the 
"very existence" of a year-round body like the 
Interim Committee "an important factor in assur- 
ing general stability." He supported the "con- 
tinued availability" of the Interim Committee to 
carry on its present tasks, with the present terms 
of reference. 

Korea 

The Commission on Korea (Uncok) is making 
another effort to carry out the task of verification 



of the withdrawal of the occupation forces from 
all of Korea, assigned to it by the General Assem- 
bly resolution of last December. The Commission 
has sent a communication in respect to withdrawal 
of Soviet troops to the United Nations Secretariat 
for transmission to the U. S. S. R. The message 
points out that Uncok is now verifying final with- 
drawal of United States occupation forces from 
South Korea and states it is ready "whenever 
proper facilities are afforded for the purpose" to 
carry out this task in respect to Soviet troops in 
the north. The U. S. S. R. announced withdrawal 
of its forces from North Korea last December, but 
Uncok has never been able to enter the northern 
part of the country to verify this. 

Membership 

The Security Council on July 11 resumed the 
general discussion on the reexamination of twelve 
applications for membership in the United Na- 
tions. The U.S.S.R., Ukraine, and United States 
delegates restated their positions but no decision 
was reached. 

The U.S.S.R. delegate stated that earlier argu- 
ments expressed by Ambassador Austin in opposi- 
tion to admission of Albania, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
Hungary and Mongolia were "false". He charged 
that the United States opposed the entry of cer- 
tain states because their policies and internal struc- 
ture were not to the liking of the United States. 
He was "hardly surprised", he said, at United 
States opposition to the U.S.S.R. proposal of 
simultaneous approval of all twelve applications. 

In reply, Ambassador Austin pointed to the need 
for applicants to be peace-loving and able and 
willing to abide by the Charter. He also men- 
tioned the necessity of decision as to whether the 
applicant was a state and that Mongolia posed cer- 
tain difficulties in this regard. He said that the 
United States motion for separate action on each 
application was necessary because of the varying 
circumstances surrounding the individual applica- 
tions. Depending on the conduct of certain appli- 
cants in regard to human rights and aid to the 
Greek guerrillas, the United States attitude could 
change, but using Charter obligations as a "yard- 
stick of qualifications", it was not difficult for the 
United States to decide, Ambassador Austin con- 
cluded. 

The Norwegian Delegate reiterated his endorse- 
ment of the previous statement by the United 
States Delegate that the United States would not 
permit its vote to prevent approval of an applica- 
tion which had received seven affirmative votes in 
the Security Council. 



48 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United States Participation In Pan American 
Railway Congress Association 



by H. H. Kelly 



The United States National Commission in the 
Pan American Railway Congress Association met 
for the first time on June 21, 1949, at Washing- 
ton. In effect, its inaugural session opened a new 
and commodious room in the expanding structure 
of technical cooperation between the United 
States and the other American Republics. 

Created under authority of an act of Congress 
(Public Law 794, 80th Congress), the Commis- 
sion assembled under promising auspices and 
with the official cooperation of the Department 
of State, the Department of Commerce, and the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. The eight 
members, at appropriate ceremonies incident to 
administration of oaths of office, i-eceived com- 
missions signed by the President of the United 
States and the Acting Secretary of State. Im- 
mediately thereafter, they began consideration of 
a program of work which envisages in general 
the improvement of transportation systems in the 
Western Hemisphere and, in particular, the de- 
velopment and progress of railways. 



MEMBERSHIP AND OFFICERS 

The members of the Commission, who col- 
lectively represent the broadest governmental and 
private interests in rail transportation, are as 
follows : 

William T. Faricy, Chairman, President, Association of 
American Railroads, Washington, D.C. 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Charles Sawyer, Secretary of Commerce, Washington, 
D.C. 

Jo/y 78, 1949 

844948 — 49 2 



Charles D. MahaflBe, Chairman, Interstate Commerce 
Commission, Washington, D.C. 

George P. Baker, l^rofessor of Transportation, Graduate 
School of Business Administration, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Mass. ; and United States Member, 
Transport and Communications Commission, United 
Nations 

J. M. Hood, President, American Short Line Railroad 
Association, Washington, D. C. 

James G. Lyne, President, Simmons-Boardman Publish- 
ing Corporation, and Editor, Railway Age, l>ew 
Yorl£ 

Arlon E. Lyon. Executive Secretary, Railway Labor Exec- 
utives Association, Washington, D.C. 

As one of its fii-st actions, the Commission ap- 
pointed Walter S. Abernathy, specialist in the 
Transportation and Communications Branch, Of- 
fice of International Trade, Department of Com- 
merce, as executive secretary; and Kenneth N. 
Hynes, assistant attache at the United States Em- 
bassy in Buenos Aires, as resident member for the 
United States on the Permanent Commission of 
the Association in Buenos Aires. Both of these 
men, who have been active in the organization 
stages of the United States Cornmission, will 
handle their new responsibilities in connection 
with their regular duties and without additional 
compensation. The Commission also decided to 
use the executive secretary's office as its mailing 
address: Room 1868-A, Commerce Building, 
Washington 25, D. C. 



INITIAL WORK 

The keynote of the Commission's activities was 
sounded by Assistant Secretary Thorp in his 
opening remarks at the Commission's first meet- 

49 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



ing. He emphasized the official interest of the 
United States Govermnent in the Pan American 
Kailway Congress Association, as expressed by 
act of Congress (Public Law 794, 80th Congress), 
by Presidential designation of the Commission 
members and by the cooperative endeavors of the 
Departments of State and Commerce and the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission. He also said 
that while the Commission will report to the 
Secretary of State in accordance with precedent, 
it is to be independent in its thinking, with full 
freedom to examine facts, express opinions, and 
make recommendations. He reminded the mem- 
bers of the all-pervasive importance of transpor- 
tation in modern life, and expressed the hope tnat, 
although the special interest of the Commission 
is in the field of railways, the broader problems 
of transportation as a whole would not be ignored 
in its deliberations. 

Two of the various resolutions adopted by the 
Association at its latest (sixth) congress held at 
Habana March 28-April 7. 1948, and which had 
been referred to the United States Commission for 
attention, were discussed. The first (paper no. 28 
of the Habana agenda) set forth in generalized 
terms the objectives of railroad unification and 
coordination and proposed the establisliment of 
a bureau within the Permanent Commission of the 
Association to carry out these objectives. In the 
absence of complete documentation on this pro- 
posal, and with some question as to whether or not 
a special bureau could be justified in any case, the 
Commission instructed its resident representative 
at Buenos Aires to obtain more specific 
information. 

The second (paper no. 58 of the Habana 
agenda) related to the desirability of establishing 
a uniform system of railroad accounts, statistics, 
and terminology, and established a committee of 
five members (representatives of Argentina, Bra- 
zil, Colombia, Chile, and Mexico) to prepare 
definite proposals for the next congress of the 
Association. This committee was subsequently ex- 
panded by the Executive Committee of the Asso- 
ciation to include the United States. In their 
discussion of this item, the United States Com- 
mission members expressed appreciation of the 
high regard in which the Interstate Commerce 
Commission regulations appeared to be held in the 
Latin American countries but recognized the 
widely varying conditions which exist in the other 
countries and which may require much more sim- 
plified methods. They instructed the resident 
representative at Buenos Aires to maintain con- 
tact with the Permanent Commission on the mat- 
ter and to obtain advice as to any specific 
assistance needed at present. Mr. Mahaffie was 
designated as the United States Commission mem- 
ber to give special attention to the problem. 



The need for translation from Spanish into 
English of the Association documents, including 
its bimonthly bulletin, was pointed up by the dis- 
cussion of the two Habana resolutions. Since the 
United States is the first English-speaking nation 
to become a member of the Association, the lan- 
guage problem will now take on added importance. 
Decision was made to request the Permanent Com- 
mission at Buenos Aires to provide a brief digest 
in English of the articles in the bimonthly bulletin 
and to arrange when necessary for appropriate 
translation into English of other documents, as 
initial steps. 

The United States technical assistance progi-am 
was cited as a promising means for providing help 
on transportation problems in the Latin American 
Republics, through sending experts there to make 
investigations and recommendations and bringing 
trainees to this country. The United States Com- 
mission, with its direct participation in the affairs 
of the Association, was recognized as an ideal 
channel for consideration of projects in the rail- 
road field. Comments by various members showed 
tliat this activity may well prove to be one of the 
most important items in the Commission's entire 
program of work. 

Consideration was given to the possibility of 
forming an advisory committee representing asso- 
ciations of railroad-equipment manufacturers, to 
assist the Commission in its study of technical and 
trade problems, but action was deferred until a 
time when the Commission has a clearer picture of 
its responsibililities and activities. 

The question of establishing a budget for the 
Commission, as authorized by the enabling legis- 
lation, revealed a unanimous desire on the part of 
the members to keep expenditures to a minimum 
and to rely so far as possible upon the resources of 
the various governmental and private agencies 
represented by the membership. No budget will 
be established for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 
1949. It was explained that the expenses of dele- 
gations attending the periodic railway congresses 
will be covered out of government funds, especially 
provided for United States participation in inter- 
national conferences, and will not be charged 
against the Commission. 

The chairman was authorized to assign to mem- 
bers of the Commission or other persons the 
preparation of any papers which may be requested 
by the Association for presentation at the next 
(seventh) Congress to be held in Mexico City, 
October 10-20, 1950. Recommendations on the 
membership of the United States delegation to 
that congress will be made by the Commission 
later. In this connection, it was reported that the 
Association may wish to hold its eighth congress in 
the United States, possibly in 1952 or 1953. 

The next meeting of the United States Com- 
mission will be held at the call of the chairman, 
and the tentative date was indicated as January 
1950. 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



All members of the Commission were present at 
the initial meeting except Mr. Mahaffie, who was 
unavoidably prevented from attending by partici- 
pation in an Interstate Commerce Commission 
hearing. 



BACKGROUND DATA 

In 1907, in connection with a railway exhibition 
held at Buenos Aires to celebrate the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the first railway built in the Argen- 
tine Kepublic, decision was made to establish a 
South American Railway Congress. This organi- 
zation held its first assembly in 1910 at Buenos 
Aires, upon invitation of the Argentine Govern- 
ment, and with representatives of Argentina, Bra- 
zil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Vene- 
zuela in attendance. 

In 1941, at a congress in Bogota, the name was 
changed to the Pan American Railway Congress 
Association, and invitations to join were extended 
to countries of Central and North America. 

Six congi-esses in all have been held — in 1910 at 
Buenos Aires, 1922 at Rio de Janeiro, 1929 at San- 
tiago, 1941 at Bogota, 1946 at Montevideo, and 
1948 at Habana. 



United States Participation 

United States membership in the Association 
first was considered by the Department of State 
in 1941, when membership was opened to countries 
of Central and North America, but no action was 
taken at that time because of the war. At the first 
postwar congress in 1946, United States participa- 
tion was limited to sending two observers. 

The matter was further considered during 1947 
by interested organizations. On February 28 of 
that year the SuDcommittee on Transportation of 
the Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific 
and Cultural Cooperation urged that the United 
States Government become a member of the Asso- 
ciation and tluit legislation to this end be intro- 
duced in the 80th Congress. On April 17, Com- 
mittee III on Transportation, Communications 
and Tourism of the Inter- American Economic and 
Social Council recommended that all governments 
of the American Republics adhere to the Associa- 
tion. 

On January 26, 1948, Senator Vandenberg in- 
troduced S. J. Res. 177 in the United States Sen- 
ate "providing for participation by the Govern- 
ment of the United States in the Pan American 
Railway Congress, and authorizing an appropri- 
ation therefor." This resolution, after receiving 
favorable reports from the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations (Report no. 1036, Calendar no. 



1078, March 30, 1948) and from the House of 
Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
together with the support of Government depart- 
ments and industrial interests, was enacted as 
Public Law 794 of the 80th Congress, and was ap- 
proved by the President on June 28, 1948. 

Meanwhile, the United States had been repre- 
sented at the Habana Congress of the Association, 
March 27-April 7, 1948, by three observers : Wil- 
liam T. Faricy, president of the Association of 
American Railroads (who became the first chair- 
man of the United States National Commission 
this year) ; Dr. Julian Duncan, economist of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission; and Seymour 
T. R. Abt, stafi' officer of the Department of Com- 
merce. A number of railroad representatives also 
were present in their private capacity. It should 
be added here that several individual American 
railroads have held membership in the Associa- 
tion for a number of years. The Association of 
American Railroads became a member after the 
Habana Congress in 1948. 

In October 1948, initial payment of the United 
States contribution to the Association was made in 
the amount of $2,500, covering the second half of 
the calendar year 1948. 

The constitution and bylaws of the Association, 
as approved at the Uruguay Congress in 1946 
(subsequently designated as the "Charter" of the 
organization and api^roved by the sixth congress 
in Habana in 1948), provides, in articles 12 and 
13, that a national commission shall be formed in 
each adhering country. Action to this end was 
begun in the latter part of 1948 by officers of the 
Departments of State and Commerce and the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission, in consultation 
with railroad representatives, and resulted in 
recommendations to the White House early in 
1949. Final approval of the membership was 
given by President Truman on June 14, and the 
first meeting was immediately set for June 21. 



Purposes and Character of the Association 

The aims of the Association, according to its 
charter, are "to promote the development and 
progress of railways in the American continent," 
and these aims are carried out by means of (a) 
periodic congresses ; (b) publication of works and 
documents related to the Association's objects, and 
an official Bulletin; and (c) maintenance of in- 
formative services and the studies of topics of gen- 
eral interest. 

The Association is an international organiza- 
tion, with rights of membership extended not only 
to governments but also to railway companies, 
public institutions, and interested private indi- 
viduals. Voting rights, however, are limited to 
governments and railways, and each national dele- 
gation has a total of four votes in the congresses. 



July 18, 1949 



51 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



D 



Continued 



As of June 1949, the following 17 governments 
were members of the Association : Argentina, Bo- 
livia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Mexico, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uru- 
guay, and Venezuela. 

The work of the congress is carried out by a 
permanent commission and its executive commit- 
tee, with headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina 
(Paseo Colon No. 185, R. 44), and by national 
commissions established in the aifiliated countries. 

Assessments to member governments are fixed by 
the Permanent Commission at the rate of $.05 
United States currency per kilometer of railroad 
lines in operation, up to a maximum assessment of 
$5,000. The United States Government contrib- 
utes the latter amount. 

The Pan American Railway Congress provides 
a forum for discussion of technical economic and 
administrative problems of railways and the for- 
mulation of recommendations leading to the im- 
provement of the transportation systems of the 
Americas. Recommendations of past meetings 
have been concerned with problems of railway 
organization, the technical and economic aspects 
of railway operation, including construction, 
maintenance, materials and traction, standardiza- 
tion of equipment and identity of gauge, account- 
ing and statistics, and appropriate legislative and 
administrative questions. 

The United States Government, through mem- 
bership in the Association, may now give further 
assistance in the development of inter- American 
agreement and action on : 

1. Improvement, standardization, and expansion 
of inland-transportation systems in the American 
Republics. 

2. Establishment of adequate and efficient land- 
transport facilities as a means to improved inter- 
American economic development and increased 
trade and conmierce. 

3. Reduction of inter-American frontier bar- 
riers and facilitation of the movement of freight 
and passengers throughout the American Re- 
publics. 



4. Standardization of equipment, gauges, and 
operating methods, and the introduction of the 
highest technical standards through the applica- 
tion of advanced railway techniques. 

5. Improvement of hemispheric defense and 
security through the coordination of inter- 
American transportation facilities. 

6. Interchange of technical data and knowledge 
among all the American Republics as a means of 
advancing hemispheric cooperation in the field 
of transportation. 



First Session International 
Wheat Council 

[Released to the press July 5] 

Albert J. Loveland, Under Secretary of Agri- 
culture, will be chairman of the United States 
delegation to the first session of the International 
Wheat Council which convened at Washington 
on July 6.^ Appointed as delegates were Ralph 
S. Trigg, administrator, Production and Market- 
ing Administration, Department of Agriculture; 
Fred J. Rossiter, associate director, Office of 
Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department of 
Agriculture ; Edward G. Cale, associate chief, In- 
ternational Resources Division, Department of 
State; and James C. Foster, assistant director, 
Commodities Division, Office of International 
Trade, Department of Commerce. Ursula H. 
Duffus, Division of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State, is serving as 
adviser to the delegation. 

The first session of the International Wheat 
Council is an organizational meeting concerned 
with administrative and other arrangements nec- 
essary to carry out the functions of the Council 
as provided for by the International Wheat Agree- 
ment. 

The Preparatory Committee of the Wheat 
Council, composed of representatives of Australia, 
Benelux, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, India, 
Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States, 
lias been meeting at Washington since June 27. 

' The Council on July 7 selected London as the site of 
its permanent headquarters and elected F. Sheed Anderson, 
U. K. Minister of Food, as its permanent chairman. 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Senate Debate on the North Atlantic Treaty 



Excerfts From Statement by 
Senator Tom ConnaHy ^ 

We are approaching one of those momentous 
hours in our Nation's history when we must make 
a decision that will have a tremendous impact 
upon world events for generations. I refer to 
the ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty. 

The Committee on Foreign Relations has just 
completed a systematic and painstaking study of 
the treaty, and now I present it for the considera- 
tion and, I hope, the overwhelming approval of 
the Senate. We have reached the unanimous con- 
clusion that it is a vital forward step in the main- 
tenance of world peace. We urge its ratification 
at an early date. 

The treaty is a defensive pact. In it the 12 sig- 
natory nations, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, 
France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Nether- 
lands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States, undertake to exercise their 
inherent right of collective or individual self- 
defense against an armed attack, in accordance 
with the provisions of the United Nations Char- 
ter. The treaty makes clear the determination 
of the peoples of the North Atlantic area to do 
their utmost to maintain peace with justice and to 
take such action as they may deem necessary in 
the event the peace is broken. 

In a word, the Atlantic Pact is an agreement 
among free nations who earnestly desire peace 
and who plan through united action to safeguard 
their common heritage of freedom by exercising 
their inherent right of self-defense against armed 
attack. 

Tragic events since the outbreak of World War 
I have taught us that we cannot achieve peace 
by acting alone. The world has shrunk far too 

' Made before the Senate of the United States on July 
5, 1949, and printed from the Congressional Record of 
July 5, 1949, p. 8984. 

July 18, 7949 



much for that. Distance has been annihilated, 
and seas which were once moats are now ocean 
highways that no longer protect us from attack. 

Even more important is the simple fact that if 
we really want peace we will have to work for it. 

The Atlantic Pact is still another indication of 
our determination to work constructively for 
world peace. 

Given these factors, and given the present feel- 
ing of insecurity in the world, there is no practical 
alternative for the Atlantic Pact. The only al- 
ternative, and I repeat, it is not a practical or ac- 
ceptable one, is uncertainty, indecision, and lack 
of unity on the part of the free nations of the 
world. That would be an open invitation to 
aggression and to national disaster. 

In the course of my discussion I do not intend to 
examine in detail the various articles of the treaty. 
That is done in the committee report which is on 
the desk of every Senator. I desire to direct the 
attention of the Senate, however, to these basic 
questions: First, how was the treaty formulated? 
Second, what does the treaty do? Third, what 
does the treaty not do ? Fourth, why do we need 
the treaty ? And fifth, what are the benefits of the 
treaty to the United States? 



HOW THE TREATY WAS NEGOTIATED 

The treaty which is now before the Senate was 
not hastily put together. It is not the result of a 
momentary impulse. It was carefully considered 
and negotiated over a long period of time. 

Moreover, the treaty is the product of extremely 
close executive-legislative cooperation. Last year, 
it will be recalled, a number of Senators, properly 
concerned over the inability of the United Nations 
to function effectively, introduced resolutions 
which were designed to strengthen that organiza- 

53 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



tion. The Foreign Relations Committee, in con- 
sultation with the Department of State, decided 
that those legitimate aspirations could best be 
channeled into constructive action through Senate 
Resolution 239. 

That resolution was adopted by the Senate last 
June by the overwhelming vote of 64 to 4. It ex- 
pressed the view of the Senate that the President 
should do what he could to strengthen the United 
Nations in a variety of ways, including the de- 
velopment of regional and other collective arrange- 
ments for individual and collective self-defense 
under the Charter. The resolution also provided 
for the following : 

(3) Association of tlie United States, by constitutional 
process — 

I wish to emphasize the words "by constitutional 
process" — 

with sucli regional and ottier collective arrangements as 
are based on continuous and effective self-help and mutual 
aid, and as affect its national security. 

I wish to stress that also. 

(4) Contributing to the maintenance of peace by mailing 
clear its determination to exercise the right of individual 
or collective self-defense under article 51 should any 
armed attack occur affecting its national security. 

I want to emphasize that the pact was not 
brought to us in final form on a take-it-or-leave-it 
basis. During the negotiations, Secretary Ache- 
son met with the Foreign Relations Committee on 
two occasions to discuss, article by article, the 
terms of the treaty. Consultations were also held 
from time to time with ranking members of the 
committee about specific language changes. The 
committee thus played an important and effective 
role in formulating the terms of the treaty. 

I want to linger on this point, Mr. President, 
for it is highly significant. Secretary Acheson 
and former Under Secretary of State Robert A. 
Lovett were, of course, the chief architects for the 
United States in building the treaty structure. 
But I think it is safe to say that the Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee and the Senate furnished some 
of the stone and mixed some of the mortar to com- 
plete its symmetry and strength. 

Surely no member of the Senate can criticize 
the President or the Secretary of State for this 
kind of executive-legislative teamwork. First we 
give them our advice as to the course they should 
pursue. They then negotiate the treaty, consult- 
ing with us from time to time. Now they are ask- 
ing for consent to ratify the treaty, which is, in 
effect, our joint handiwork. 

In the course of our deliberations the committee 
heard 97 witnesses — which almost sets a record for 
the number of witnesses to appear before us on 

54 



any particular bill or treaty. We take pride in 
the fact that we heard everyone who asked to ap- 
pear. We concluded from the hearings that the 
great majority of the American people strongly 
support the treaty and the principles upon which 
it is based. 



WHAT DOES THE TREATY DO? 

The treaty seeks peace and security by establish- 
ing a collective defense arrangement for the North 
Atlantic area. It operates within the framework 
of the United Nations Charter and is based upon 
the inherent right of individual or collective self- 
defense recognized by article 51 of the Charter. 

Perhaps we can best understand the objectives 
of the treaty by summarizing at the outset the new 
obligations undertaken by the United States. 

Fii-st. To maintain and develop, separately and 
jointly and by means of continuous and effective 
self-help and mutual aid, the individual and col- 
lective capacity of the parties to resist armed 
attack. 

Second. To consult whenever, in the opinion 
of any of the parties, the territorial integrity, po- 
litical independence, or security of any of them is 
threatened ; 

Third. To consider an armed attack upon any 
of the parties in the North Atlantic area an at- 
tack against them all ; and 

Fourth. In the event of such an attack, to take 
forthwith, individually and in concert with the 
other parties, such action as the United States 
deems necessary, including the use of armed force, 
to restore and maintain the security of the North 
Atlantic area. 

"Including the use of armed force" simply 
means that it is among the things which may be 
employed — not that it has to be employed, but that 
it is available if necessary to be employed. 

Article 5 is the heart of the treaty. If the 
treaty fails to maintain peace and security, if the 
deterrent effects of articles 3, 4, and 5 fail, if an 
armed attack against any of us in Europe or 
North America does occur, then article 5 comes 
into operation. 

In article 5 the parties have agreed to meet 
an armed attack by the exercise of the inherent 
right of individual and collective self-defense rec- 
ognized by article 51 of the Charter. Let me 
emphasize that this is an inherent right possessed 
by every state. It is not conferred upon them by 
the Charter. The Charter simply recognizes the 
inherent right of all states to defend themselves 
collectively or individually. 

Article 51 of the Charter provides : 

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the in- 
herent right of individual or collective self-defense if an 
armed attack occurs against a member of the United 
Nations. 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



In other words, the Charter recognizes that 
right, and does not invade the jurisdiction of the 
states with respect thereto. 

• • 

The use of the word "impair" recognizes the 
existence of that right. This means that every 
member of the United Nations agrees to the right 
of the members of the North Atlantic Pact to pro- 
vide for collective self-defense if an armed at- 
tack occurs. Each and every member of the 
United Nations is obligated to respect that right. 
Article 51 is also assurance that the treaty does 
not conflict with the Charter, since it specifically 
provides that nothing in the Charter shall impair 
the right of self-defense. Since the treaty is an 
exercise of this right, the Charter makes clear that 
it does not interfere with the United Nations. 
There can be no cause of complaint from any 
member of the United Nations at the course out- 
lined in tlie treaty. 

Ai'ticle 5 is based upon the fundamental propo- 
sition that an armed attack against any one of us 
is to be considered an attack against all. The 
parties thus publicly underline a basic truth which 
recent history has so vividly demonstrated; an 
attack in the North Atlantic area places all of us 
in such grave jeopardy that it immediately be- 
comes a matter of collective concern and calls for 
collective action. It is up to the signatories to de- 
termine whether an attack has occurred. Internal 
disorders and revolutions will not ordinarily be 
considered armed attacks — and, Mr. President, 
mark this — unless they are aided and abetted by 
an outside power to such an extent that the parties 
decide that an armed attack has in fact taken 
place. 

Nor will attacks of a minor character bring into 
full jjlay the obligations contained in article 5. 
We did not go to war in 1937 when the Japanese 
sank our gunboat, the Panay, on the Yangtze 
River. We did not go to war in 1946 when Ameri- 
can planes were shot down over Yugoslavia. Those 
incidents were settled through normal channels 
of diplomacy. 

Article 5 obviously contemplates aggressions of 
a more formidable character. I doubt very much 
if any state which it attacked would call upon 
the United States for assistance unless the attack 
is of such magnitude and importance that its in- 
dependence and integrity are threatened. 

Once this original determination is made that an 
armed attack has occurred, then each party must 
forthwith take such action as it deems necessary in 
order to restore and maintain the security of the 
North Atlantic area. How far each state will go 
and what action it will take to fulfill its obliga- 
tions will be determined by each state in the light 
of existing circumstances. It is possible that a 
diplomatic protest may suffice. On the other hand, 

July 18, 1949 



in the face of an all-out attack, it might be neces- 
sary to bring into full play the whole weiglit of 
the partnership and the ultimate decision of war. 
We shall not be neutral in the face of aggression. 

• • • • 

Already we see that the treaty is not typical of 
the ad hoc alliances, used so extensively in modern 
European history, to meet a particular crisis or 
to wage a particular war; nor is it typical of the 
treaties which were designed to achieve a delicate 
balancing of power. Alliances and coalitions have 
usually been directed against or have sought pro- 
tection from a definite opponent. The North At- 
lantic Treaty is directed against any armed attack 
within a specified area. 

Together we are seeking to increase the measure 
of our own security by self-help and mutual aid 
pledged in article 3. We are determined to knit 
our separate and otherwise isolated strengths into 
a single protective cloak capable of resisting any 
aggressive attack. We have a common heritage to 
defend and a single purpose to serve. It is natural 
that we should unite to strengthen our hands to 
ward off annihilation through disunity. 

• • • • 

I would not wish to underestimate the efforts 
required of all of us to build a suitable defense 
capacity, nor the difficulty of maintaining the pri- 
ority of economic recovery in the face of these in- 
tolerable burdens put upon peaceful nations. But 
I am certain that article 3 will enable all of us to 
consider defense measures on a very practical basis, 
to comprehend rational arrangements that will in 
the long run help to reduce the burdens of arma- 
ments. In this connection, one should note the 
North Atlantic Council and Defense Committee 
set up by article 9 on which all members are equally 
represented, the small states and the great states 
alike. This machinery for collective consultation 
and collective recommendations on our common 
responsibilities should prove highly heljiful on 
such matters. 

What obligations does the United States assume 
under article 3 ? Wliat is the relationship between 
the treaty and military-assistance program * The 
military-assistance program has not yet been sub- 
mitted to the Congress, but it is in the discussions 
and in the thoughts of Senators, no doubt. If a 
Senator votes for the treaty does that mean he is 
obligated to vote for the military-assistance pro- 
gram ? These pointed questions have been raised 
by Members of the Senate and they deserve a 
candid reply. 

The United States — like all the other signa- 
tories — has assumed an important obligation under 
article 3. We have committed ourselves to the 
principle of self-help and mutual aid. We have 
agreed to work together in building up the ca- 
pacities of all the signatories to defend themselves 
against attack. But we have not committed our- 
selves to any particular type of military-assistance 
program. There were no secret agreements at the 

55 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



negotiation of this pact. Tliere were no under- 
cover commitments. Everything that is com- 
mitted is written into the face of the treaty. 

It is true that the treaty and the military-as- 
sistance program are closely related. But they are 
not Siamese twins; they are not inseparable. 
Each program should be passed upon separately 
by the Congress; each should be accepted or re- 
jected on its own merits. 

. My own view is that we should proceed forth- 
with to ratify the treaty and implement it by ap- 
proving the military-assistance program during 
the present session of the Congress. Time is 
highly important in this great enterprise, and we 
must let our partners know, as soon as we can, that 
not only words but deeds are a part of our policy. 

It is entirely possible, however, that even a 
strong supporter of the treaty might find good and 
legitimate reasons for opposing the military-as- 
sistance program. That is a matter for each 
Senator to decide as he searches his own conscience 
and exercises his own honest judgment. 

Many partnerships in history brought the 
weaker ally or allies into complete bondage to a 
greater power. The North Atlantic Treaty does 
not do this. Never in peacetime have signatories 
to a treaty attempted so extensively and with such 
evidence of good faith in each other's intents and 
interests to strengthen one another through mutual 
aid. This becomes especially noteworthy in that 
not even the weakest nation in the pact has come 
under servitude to its stronger partners or has lost 
its parity, its independence, or its sovereignty. 

Right at this point let me draw attention to arti- 
cle 2 which makes perfectly clear that the treaty is 
not exclusively military in its implications. The 
signatories have recognized, and have demon- 
strated their conviction, that economic collabora- 
tion and well-being help to lessen international 
tensions among themselves and with the rest of the 
world, and help to destroy the seeds of war. This 
is an exceptionally important element in the 
treaty : the existence as well as the cultivation of 
the prerequisites for peaceful change. 

Like articles 2 and 3, article 4 underlines the 
preventive character of the treaty. I think that 
article 4 goes a long way to emphasize that the 
period of dividing and conquering has come to 
an end. The consultation provided for in that 
article addresses itself to the threatening of the 
territorial integrity, the political independence, 
or the security of any of the parties. 

I draw the attention of the Senate now to 
articles 12 and 13 which provide for the indefi- 
nite duration of the treaty and for its review after 
10 years. Review and amendment may of course 



take place earlier by unanimous consent. A party 
may cease to be a member after 20 years. These 
time periods seem reasonable, since it is impos- 
sible to bring security and stability to the North 
Atlantic area under a treaty of short duration. 

Will the partnership endure that long? Ob- 
viously, the treaty is not yet in force and has 
not been tested by time. But I think there can 
be no doubt that the partnership will last, reso- 
lutely, until the menace of aggression has dis- 
appeared and until the United Nations is able to 
give adequate assurance of world security. This 

f)articular document does not need to last any 
onger than that. I am confident that the signa- 
tories would be only too willing to permit it to 
lapse when that happy time arrives. 



WHAT DOES THE TREATY NOT DO? 

I should like Senators to give attention to what 
the treaty does not do. Let us consider that point. 
To make the record perfectly clear, it is just as 
important to understand what it does not do as 
what it actually does. 

As I sat through the hearings and listened to 
97 different witnesses it seemed to me the five main 
criticisms emerged. Some argued that the treaty 
involves a commitment for the United States to 
go to war without congressional approval ; that it 
runs counter to our obligations under the United 
Nations Charter; that it is an old-fashioned mil- 
itary alliance; that it is directed against the 
Soviet Union; and that it places our stamp of 
approval on the colonial policies of Great Britain, 
France, Holland, afnd the other signatory states. 

Mr. President, the committee examined these 
criticisms very precisely and very thoroughly. 
Our considered answer to each one of them is a 
categorical "No." 

The treaty does not involve any commitment 
to go to war nor does it change the relative au- 
thority of the President and the Congress with 
respect to the use of the armed forces. 

I am fully aware of the fact that this latter 
problem might well stir up endless days of de- 
Ijate on the Senate floor. It is true that the Presi- 
dent as Commander in Chief of the Army and 
Navy has always possessed considerable authority 
to use the armed forces without congressional ap- 
proval ; but the line of authority between the Pres- 
ident and Congress has never been clearly drawn, 
except it is clear, I think, that a state of war, 
which is something more than the use of armies, 
must be declared by the Congi'ess of the United 
States. 

Moreover, it is neither necessary nor desirable 
for us to attempt to draw that line during this 
debate. It would be foolhardy for us to assume 
that we could do in a few days' time what our 
forefathei-s have been unable to do in a century 



56 



Departmenf of State Bulletio 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



and a half of our national existence. It is suffi- 
cient for our purposes to underline the basic prin- 
ciple that nothing in the treaty either increases 
or decreases the constitution^^! powers of either 
the President or the Congress with respect to the 
use of the armed forces. 

Wliile the treatj' was being drafted rumors cir- 
culated about AVashington that article 5 carried 
with it a commitment which would bind the 
United States automatically to go to war in the 
event of an armed attack. I challenge anyone to 
find such a connnitment. The words of article 
11 — that the provisions of the treaty will be car- 
ried out by the parties "in accordance with their 
respective constitutional processes" — are unequiv- 
ocally clear on this point. That nails it down ab- 
solutely. Xot only must we ratify the treaty by 
constitutional processes, but it will be carried out 
under the provisions of the Constitution of the 
United States. The full authority of the Con- 
gress to declare war, with all the discretion that 
power implies, remains unimpaired. 

We have a further important safeguard in the 
phrase "such action as it deems necessary" found 
in article 5. These words mean that, in event of 
an armed attack, the United States will be free to 
decide for itself what measures it will take to 
restore the peace and security of the North Atlan- 
tic area. We will have full opportunity to exercise 
our judgment in each case that arises. 

It might be well to repeat at this point the far- 
reaching nature of those obligations. If an 
armed attack should occur in the North Atlantic 
area the action we would take would depend, of 
course, upon the location, nature, and scale of the 
attack. In the face of an all-out attack we might 
decide that war would be necessary to restore the 
peace and security of the North Atlantic area. 

On the other hand there are many effective 
measures short of the use of armed force which 
might suffice, depending upon the circumstances. 
Wliatever we do will have to be done in accord- 
ance with our established constitutional pro- 
cedures. 



Totalitarian and communistic powers have pub- 
licly announced their policy to be a conquest of the 
entire globe and its subjection to their economic 
and political theory. Will free nations and free 
men blind their eyes to this hostile threat ? Will 
they close their ears to this brutal demand that 
they be doomed to slavery I With this bold and 
savage announcement, it is fundamental that free 
nations of Europe and North America should be 
determined to preserve the institutions of their 
free governments as against the ambitions and 
conquest by these sinister and ruthless forces. 

July 18, 1949 

844948 — 49 3 



The processes by which strong military im- 
perialistic countries have in recent years picked 
off country by country are distinct and clear in 
the minds of the people of the United States. 
Hitler by arms seized Austria and incorporated 
it into the Reich. Sudetenland was annexed. 
When war with all of its blood and terror burst 
upon tlie world, Poland was subdued, Czechoslo- 
vakia fell to the arms of Hitler, France was over- 
run, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and 
other defenseless and weakened nations were con- 
quered and placed under the iron heel of Hitler. 
Their institutions were overthrown, their liberty 
was destroyed, their territory was violated, and 
cruel and galling tyranny was inflicted upon them. 
Such a riot of arms and blood must not occur 
again. The united strength of peaceful and 
peace-loving peoples can prevent the violation of 
their rights and the dismemberment of their na- 
tions, if their strength is united and made effective 
against aggressors and despots. 

This area is dedicated to peace and to security. 
It must not become the lair of the armies of greedy 
nations anxious for conquest. It must not become 
the nest of totalitarian jjowers who seek to subvert, 
not alone the peace and security, but the traditions 
of this magnificent territory. These things all 
shine through the treaty and give it life and vi- 
tality and vigor. 

The treaty does not run counter to any of our 
obligations under the United Nations. Quite the 
contrary, it has been conceived within the frame- 
work of that organization and in its preamble the 
contracting parties solemnly reaffirm their dedi- 
cation to the high purposes and principles of the 
Charter. It is soundly and solidly based on 
article 51 of the Charter which specifically recog- 
nizes the inherent right of states to defend them- 
selves, either individually or collectively, against 
armed attack. 



Mr. President, I stand second to none in my de- 
sire to preserve the vitality and the integrity of 
the United Nations. I firmly believe the treaty 
is entirely consistent with the Charter and will 
greatly assist in maintaining peace and security — 
which is the primary purpose of the United 
Nations. 

The treaty is not directed against the Soviet 
Union nor its satellite states. What a splendid 
thing it would be if the millions of people behind 
the iron curtain had the same opportunity as the 
people of the free world to read the committee 
report on the Atlantic Pact. They would see 
that the pact is not aimed at them or any other 
group of states; it is aimed only against aggres- 
sion and war. 



Certainly no one has any grounds whatsoever 

57 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



for accusing the United States of any aggressive 
intent. Our rapid and extensive demobilization 
following World War II and our persistent efforts 
to bring about world peace make that perfectly 
clear. 

If the Soviet Union really believes the pact is 
aimed at her, then I suggest that she demonstrate 
her peaceful intentions and embrace a policy of 
full cooperation with the North Atlantic coun- 
tries within the framework of the United Nations. 
Such a course would return rich dividends to the 
Soviet people and to the rest of the world, both 
in terms of increased security and general well- 
being. 

The treaty is not an old-fashioned military al- 
liance comparable to those which characterized 
European power politics in bygone centuries. 

The Atlantic Pact is not aggressive ; it is purely 
defensive in character. It is not the design of 
a few monarchs, but has the popular support of 
the nearly 300,000,000 people of the North At- 
lantic area. It does not contain any commitment 
to go to war. It is not aimed at aggrandizement 
and is surrounded by all the solemn obligations 
against aggression which the United Nations 
Charter im])oses upon its members. It conies into 
operation only when a nation has committed a 
criminal act by launching an attack against a 
party to the treaty. It does not carry with it any 
secret additional protocols. 

It may be stated authoritatively, without any 
equivocation whatever — and the Secretary of State 
and his assistants and all connected with the treaty 
give us the most solemn assurances to that effect — 
that no commitments, no promises, no secret agi'ee- 
ments were made; and, Mr. President, if they 
had been made they would have no effect, because 
the Congress stands here on guai'd. There is no 
obligation of any kind except what is written in 
the treaty itself. 

Upon reflection it is unthinkable that 12 nations, 
who have traditionally supported democratic prin- 
ciples, could ever conspire together to negotiate 
any of the notorious secret deals which were often 
associated with traditional bilateral alliances. 



I repeat what I said during the hearings. If the 
Atlantic Pact is an alliance, then it is an alliance 
only against war itself. 

Finally, the treaty does not constitute, in any 
fashion, any endorsement on the part of the United 
States of the colonial policies of any of the signa- 
tory states. 

Mr. President, I think I can dispose of this 
point in short order. I agree 100 percent with 
those who argue that this treaty should not be 
either the front door, the side door, or the back 

58 



door through which the United States might be 
drawn into family quarrels between the signatory 
parties and their overseas territories in Africa, the 
Far East, or other parts of the world. 



WHY DO WE NEED THE TREATY? 

The answer to the question, Wliy do we need 
the treaty ? can be found in the history of our times. 
I recall vividly the San Francisco Conference 
where the victorious powers with unbounded faith 
and hope signed the Charter of the United 
Nations. We signed that document with the hope 
that it gave us at least the foundations upon which 
to build a future of peace, freedom, and human 
happiness. 

■ • • ^ • 

Yet here we stand, 4 years away from San Fran- 
cisco, with undiminished belief in the Charter, in 
the correctness of its work and spirit, and in the 
fundamental need for a univei'sal United Nations. 
But no sincere and realistic person can blind him- 
self to the fact that peace is still remote and the 
security we long for is yet to be attained. The 
long catalog of 30 Soviet vetoes and the frustrated 
efforts to write a peace treaty with Germany bear 
eloquent witness of how effectively the peace and 
security machinery of the world has been ham- 
pered. 

We have become painfully aware that the tech- 
nique of "divide and conquer" is not a thing of the 
past but a part of the insecure present. It has 
been given fresh life and application during the 
past 4 years in country after country. The cata- 
log of its victims is even more imposing than that 
compiled by aggressor nations before World 
War II. 

There was once a Republic of Estonia. Where 
now is Estonia? Its soil remains, but its democ- 
racy has been ruthlessly destroyed. It has been 
transformed into a police state. 

There was once a Lithuania. Where is that na- 
tion today ? The basic freedoms of its people have 
been brutally usurped. It has been absorbed into 
a vast communistic system. 

There was once a Latvia. Wliere now is the fair 
land we Imew as Latvia ? Its boundaries have dis- 
appeared. It has been incorporated into the to- 
talitarian network of eastern Europe. 

There was once a democratic Czechoslovakia. 
Over the centuries its people have stood for free- 
dom and self-government. All the world knows 
what has happened in that unhappy land. De- 
mocracy has been routed. Tyranny hasbeen en- 
throned. Free government has been banished. 

The same tragedy has taken place in differing 
degree in other countries. Where is the freedom 
of the so-called liberated peoples of Rumania, Bul- 
garia, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Al- 

Deparlment of Stafe Bullefin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



bania^ Ovcrshaelowed by the might of their 
eastern neighbor, and alone, one by one, they have 
been subjugated by aggression from within and 
from without. 

Let us be perfectly frank. Such a situation, 
which breeds fear and suspicion and distrust, is a 
constant threat to world peace. It is a threat to 
the security of peaceful peoples who desire to lead 
their own lives and to direct their own future, free 
from the destructive impact of infiltration, and 
free from the menacing arms of a hostile power. 

The security of the North Atlantic area is neces- 
sary to the security of the United States. I em- 
phasize that statement. Iceland, Greenland, and 
Canada are our front door. That door must be 
guarded and defended. 



Mr. President, I am completely convinced that 
if the Kaiser had known in 1914 that his ruthless 
attack upon Belgium and France would have led 
Great Britain and the United States to hurl their 
armed might against him, he never would have 
crossed the Belgian frontier. 

I am completely convinced, too, that if Hitler 
had known in 1939 that the United States and the 
other United Nations would have stood together 
against his marching millions, he never would have 
launched World War II. 

The unwillingness on the part of the free nations 
of the world to make clear in advance their de- 
termination effectively to oppose aggression was in 
large measure responsible for the two great wars 
of our time. 

All during the 1930's the League of Nations was 
plagued with this same doubt and uncertainty. 
Manchuria, Ethiopia, Austria, Czechoslovakia — 
all were victories for the aggressor because League 
members failed to stand united in defense of the 
Covenant. 

Last year this committee in its report on Senate 
Eesolution 239 commented as follows : 

The committee is convinced that the horrors of another 
world war can be avoided with certainty, only by pre- 
venting war from starting. The experience of World 
War I and World War II suggest that the best deterrent 
to aggression is the certainty that immediate and effective 
countermeasures will be taken against those who violate! 
the peace. 

President Truman has this same lesson in mind 
when he delivered his inaugural address last Jan- 
uary. "If we can make it sufficiently clear, in 
advance," he said, "that any armed attack affect- 
ing our national security would be met with over- 
whelming force, the armed attack might never 
occur." 
»-- The main objective of the North Atlantic Treaty 
is to erase any possible doubt and uncertainty that 
may be lurking in the minds of potential aggres- 
sors. We must provide unmistakable proof this 

July 18, 1949 



time that the free nations will stand together to 
resist armed attack from any quarter. History 
must not be allowed to repeat itself. War is not 
inevitable. 

It is confidently believed that the ratification of 
the treaty will exert a tremendous deterrent in 
preventing armed attack. The knowledge of any 
nation with criminal designs to absorb or conquer 
a small or weak nation that an armed attack by it 
upon such nation would meet with united resist- 
ance of the signatories to the pact would discour- 
age that nation and probably prevent its criminal 
enterprise. 

The deterring effect of a warning in advance is 
clearly illustrated by the Monroe Doctrine. I 
digress to observe that in this Chamber the Senate 
of that time, 1823, had presented to it and had 
read the stirring lines of the Monroe Doctrine. 
In 1823, when President Monroe made his famous 
proclamation, he did so in order to arrest the 
scheming of Spain and the Holy Alliance. The 
Holy Alliance, composed of the sovereigns of Rus- 
sia, Prussia, and Austria in 1823 plotted the de- 
struction of the republics in South and Central 
America and the reinstatement of monarchies in 
those lands. Their designs upon Spain's former 
colonies in the New World were forestalled by 
Monroe's firm declaration that the United States 
would "consider any attempt on their part to ex- 
tend their system to any portion of this hemisphere 
as dangerous to our peace and safety." In the face 
of those stirring words, the Holy Alliance aban- 
doned its designs, and the Western Hemisphere 
was saved. 

While the United States was involved in the 
War Between the States in 1861, imperialists in 
France conceived an enterprise against the integ- 
rity and sovereignty of Mexico. The United 
States registered its opposition. French forces 
invaded Mexico and captured the capitol on June 
7, 1863. The French proclaimed Mexico a mon- 
archy and installed Maximilian as emperor with 
the support of the French troops. 

The United States had to content itself with 
sending diplomatic notes since she could neither 
drive out the French nor help Juarez to do so. 
Upon the termination of the War Between the 
States, the attitude of the United States toward 
the French in Mexico became firm and determined. 
Secretary of State Seward, whose portrait looks 
down upon ns in this Chamber, warned France 
against any permanent occupation of Mexico. 

The War Between the States having come to an 
end, the United States was free to dislodge the 
French from Mexico. In 1867, Napoleon III 
withdrew his troops from Mexico, and abandoned 
Maximilian to the fury of Juarez. 

The mere announcement of the Monroe Doc- 
trine deterred the Holy Alliance in its plans of con- 
quest. The announcement that the United States 
would maintain the Monroe Doctrine in Mexico 
ousted the French from Mexico and dethroned 

59 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



the usurper Maximilian. Not a gun was fired, not 
a cannon was discharged, not an act of the mili- 
tary was necessary to invoke the principles and 
precepts of the Monroe Doctrine. 

Through more than a century of dynamic ap- 
plication the Monroe Doctrine kept aggression 
from the doorstep of the New World and preserved 
the territorial integrity of that entire area. Not 
a gun was fired in maintaining that Doctrine — 
not even when it was applied in bringing to an 
end the ill-starred empire of Maximilian in Mex- 
ico. For almost a century and a quarter, it grew 
in strength and power and played an important 
role in assuring peace and security in the New 
World. No clearer proof exists that security lies 
in letting the aggressor know in advance that re- 
sistance awaits his criminal act. 



We know, too, that a momentum of confidence has 
been building up in Europe as a direct result of 
our assistance. 

But that is not enough. The greatest obstacle 
that stands in the way of complete recovery is the 
pervading and paralyzing sense of insecurity. 
The treaty is a powerful antidote to this poison. 
It will go far in dispelling the fear that has 
plagued Europe since the war. 

The North Atlantic Treaty is designed to give 
encouragement and a tougher and more enduring 
quality to the morale of tlie people of these lands. 
Its purpose is to rehabilitate their courage and 
strength and their determination to preserve their 
traditional attachment to the institutions of liberty 
and to the basic principles and civilizations of 
their peoples. These are the mighty forces which 
the pact is intended to invigorate and revive. 



WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS TO THE 
UNITED STATES? 

Every citizen of this country, and especially 
every elected representative of the people, must 
ask himself this fundamental question : How does 
the treaty benefit my country ? There is nothing 
mean, narrow, or ignoble in using this yardstick — 
a yardstick that all the signatory powers also use — 
because in this treaty, the advantages gained by 
the other members are also our benefits, and our 
gains coincide with their own. I will go even 
further: The benefits of this pact will be reaped 
by peace-loving nations everywhere. 

The principal benefit to this United States is 
the great promise this treaty holds for an endur- 
ing world peace. Certainly the United States, as 
much as any other country, has a tremendously 
high stake in the kind of peace and security which 
give opportunity for the full application of our 
vast energies for the promotion of greater well- 
being, strong democratic institutions and prin- 
ciples, and the maintenance of our way of life. 

It is obvious that the United States gains much 
by declaring now, in this written pact, the course 
of action we would follow even if the treaty did 
not exist. Without a treaty, we were drawn into 
two world wars to preserve the security of the 
North Atlantic community. Can anyone doubt 
that we would become involved in a third world 
conflict if it should ever come ? 



The treaty, in thus encouraging a feeling of 
confidence and security, will provide an atmos- 
phere in which the European recovery program 
can move forward with new vitality. We know 
that encouraging progress has already been made. 

60 



There is one final benefit which, in all candor, 
should not be overlooked. If our efforts for 
peace fail and war is thrust upon us we shall not 
stand alone. Our strategic positions will be 
greatly improved and we shall have a much better 
opportunity to make effective use of our armed 
strength. Eleven friendly nations, with a vigor- 
ous population and vast industrial production, 
pledge to stand with us and to resist the attack 
from whatever quarter it may come. This means 
for all parties a greater confidence that any in- 
ternational criminal, who violates the charter and 
uses armed force against us, can be successfully 
resisted and ultimately defeated. 



President Monroe warned the aggressor that 
an attack upon any state in the New World would 
be considered an attack against us and would 
meet with our determined resistance. Let me re- 
peat, for over a century this doctrine has re- 
mained a source of great security to us and to our 
southern neighbors. It kept Spain from embark- 
ing upon a reconquest of her lost South American 
colonies and prevented Russia from extending her 
domain to California. It drove the Emperor 
Maximilian from the throne of Mexico, and it 
turned the German Navy from Venezuela's door. 
The treaty which the Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations now presents for favorable Senate action 
is but the logical extension of the principle of 
the Monroe Doctrine to the North Atlantic area. 

Finally, we do not lightly disregard the past, 
nor shirk the present, nor prophesy the future. 
But in ratifying this treaty, the Senate of the 
United States heeds the voice and successful 
statesmanship of our glorious past. The Senate 
realistically and courageously applies to the pres- 
ent the force of our matured responsibility and 
world leadership. By this action, the Senate 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



does not prophesy the future; it guarantees there 
is one for free nations. 

Recent developments, includino; the results of 
the Paris meeting of the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters, convince me that our present foreign policy 
is based on sound principles. The Soviet Union 
undei-stands firmness; they understand what we 
mean when we say with conviction that we are 
going to stand on what is right and what is just. 

A wide chasm of differences still yawns be- 
tween the east and the west. Any weakness or 
vacillation on our part will be thoroughly ex- 
ploited by the Soviet Union and will broaden the 
chasm, rather than narrow it. We are on the 
right road. We shall move firmly and resolutely 
toward our goal. 

In some totalitarian quarters the charge is made 
that the United States seeks to employ the North 
Atlantic Treaty as an instrument of imperialist 
policy. The United States is assailed as the sym- 
bol of imperialism with the purpose of subordi- 
nating the signatories to the treaty to its will 
and to control their affairs and policy. A more 
false charge was never advanced in modern 
history. 

The course of the United States in the field of 
foreign policy is well-known in every country in 
the world. They are aware of our power and re- 
sources; of our industrial preeminence; of our 
naval and military command of the oceans and the 
air. They know that these superb resources have 
not been emploj'ed to establish an empire. They 
respect our world influence and leadership in the 
cause of peace and international cooperation. 
They remember our part in establishing the 
United Nations and advancing its objectives of 
preventing war and the settlement of international 
disputes by peaceful means rather than by the 
sword. They know that ambition for dominion 
is not the motive of our policy. 



We stand before the bar of history. We shall 
face its judgment without fear. We strive to 
strengthen liberty and security to the free nations 
of the world. We await the verdict of the years 
with supreme confidence. Our motives and our 
conduct will be vindicated and will receive the 
plaudits of grateful nations and of their people. 

We do not covet empire. We do not covet con- 
trol of any other nation. We abhor tyranny, 
whether by arms or by devious and secret pressure, 
with the threat of grim force behind them. We 
do covet peace. We do covet security. We do 
covet freedom. We do covet the right of free 
nations and freemen to live without the fear of 
conquest or subjugation. 

Under the Atlantic Pact no sword leaps from 



its scabbard ; no plane drops its bombs ; no soldier 
marches with a gun in his hand, until an armed 
attack, in violation of international law, is made 
upon a peaceful member of the pact. 

As Senatoi*s drive around Washington, they 
may observe at the entrance to certain streets and 
areaways a sign erected by the police, reading "Do 
not enter." 

The North Atlantic Treaty is a flaming sign to 
any aggressor, to any nation that contemplates 
armed attack upon a peaceful and law-abiding 
nation — "Do not enter" the North Atlantic area. 
The North Atlantic area must be a sanctuary 
against armed attack, against the violation of the 
security of peaceful nations. 

Excerpts From Statement hy 
Senator Arthur H. Vandenherg ^ 

No one can say he knows the answer to the peace 
conundrum which jslagues this world. As one 
witness before our committee rightly said : "We 
live in unsatisfactory times and must make un- 
satisfactory choices." Peace is in flux. We are 
denied the luxury of perfecting our own righteous 
designs because, while one nation can make war, 
it takes two or more to plan and keep the peace. 
I do not know that I am right. But at least I 
know, as a result of our committee hearings, that 
my convictions seem to be supported by a great 
majority of the organized citizenship of the coun- 
try as expressed by spokesmen for most of our 
groups in every field of life. 

My view is that this treaty is the most sensible, 
powerful, practicable, and economical step the 
United States can now take in the realistic interest 
of its own security ; in the effective discouragement 
of aggressive conquest which would touch off 
world war three; in the stabilization of western 
Germany; and, as declared by its own preamble, 
in peacefully safegiiarding the freedoms and the 
civilization founded on the principles of democ- 
racy, individual liberty, and the rule of law. 
These things, Mr. President, I shall undertake to 
prove. 

Only those without ej^es to see and ears to hear 
can deny that these precious values — far dearer 
than life itself — are in jeopardy in today's tortured 
world. It is the overriding fact of life. Sooner 
or later every other problem is overshadowed by 
it. It is a condition, not a theory. It must be 
met as such. That is what this pending treaty 
undertakes to do. 

This jeopardy does not stem from us. On the 
contrary, the greatest tribute ever paid to the good 
faith of any government is the shining fact that, 
though we are the sole custodians of atomic bombs, 



' Made before the Senate of the United States on July 6, 
1949 and printed from the Congressional Record of July 6, 
1949, p. 9065. 



Jo/y 78, 1949 



61 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



no nations anywhere on earth this afternoon, in- 
cluding the Soviet group which so violently libels 
our motives, has the slightest fear that the United 
States of America will misuse its present lethal 
monopoly. They all know they are safe unless and 
until they strike first. So patent is this fact that 
I am at a loss to understand how some of our own 
citizens — God save the mark — can join the war- 
mongering charges that are made against us by 
those who nourish futile dreams of our de- 
struction. 

The jeopardy to which I have referred does not 
stem from us. It does not stem from those over- 
whelming majorities of peace-living states which 
constantly make common cause with us on the roll 
calls in the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions. It does not stem from the North Atlantic 
community where western civilization was cradled 
and where its survival is at stake. No, Mr. Presi- 
dent, it stems from embattled, greedy communism 
abroad and at home ; from open conspiracies which 
have frankly sought to wreck the brave self-help 
and mutual aid which would restore independent 
peoples to their heritage, with our American co- 
operation; from kindred saboteurs in the United 
Nations; from those who have repelled and 
thwarted our American designs and aspirations for 
a live-and-let-live world. 

I repeat : The jeopardy does not stem from us. 
But it inevitably involves us. Indeed, we are its 
heart and core. It is aimed ultimately at us. We 
cannot run away from it. There it is, pact or no 
pact. Every vigilant American knows this is 
true. We are the final target, though other inde- 
pendent peoples are in nearer jeopardy. We may 
argue ourselves out of ratifying the pact. But 
we cannot thereby argue ourselves out of the jeop- 
ardy which the pact seeks to minimize. 

Is it not elementary common sense, Mr. Presi- 
dent, for those who share this jeopardy also to 
share vigilance against it? That is what this 
treaty does. It reduces the jeopardy by anticipat- 
ing it. It reduces the jeopardy by sharing it. 
Indeed, it may well extinguish the jeopardy — and 
I believe it will — by the clear demonstration that 
this united self-defense against aggression will be 
invincible. Upon two previous occasions the 
Kaiser and the Fuehrer found this out the hard 
way. This treaty ought to make a renewal of the 
lesson, in blood and sweat and tears, unnecessary. 
Certainly it is worth the chance. 

We must undertake to mitigate this jeopardy 
by every possible, pacific means. This treaty is 
not a substitute for other major efforts to push 
back the shadows of war and to integrate what I 
shall repeatedly describe as a "live and let live 
world." With firm patience these efforts must 
continue in the United Nations. With complete 
good faith they must continue at the council tables 



m Paris and elsewhere, regardless of discourage- 
ments. They must never surrender to the hope- 
less defeatism which presumes that war is inevi- 
table. Rather, they must presume that peace is 
inevitable, sooner or later, if we persist in trailing 
it. But they must never fail to recognize that 
appeasement is surrender on the installment plan. 
There is no hypothesis of honorable peace, Mr. 
President, into which the North Atlantic Treaty 
does not fit. It stands in the way of nothing but 
armed aggression and nobody but armed aggres- 
sors. It cannot possibly handicap any successful 
peace efforts in other directions. It can only sup- 
plement and strengthen them — always and forever 
a reserve reliance, and nothing else — always and 
forever subordinate to the happy evolution of de- 
pendable progress in the United Nations, in the 
Councils of Foreign Ministers, and in the friend- 
lier habits of presently dangerous neighbors. 

The treaty is here for another reason. We have 
not finished World AVar II until the German prob- 
lem is settled. There can be neither peace nor 
economic stability in western Europe until the 
German problem is liquidated. There can be no 
release for us from our own burdensome occupa- 
tional responsibilities in western Germany until 
free and self-sufficient government is reestablished 
in these areas. This means, on the one hand, that 
the Germans must have a reasonable and hopeful 
opportunity to build a sound and healthy economy 
for themselves and to resume their place in the 
family of nations. But it requires, on the other 
hand, that this recovery shall not restore the ag- 
gressive military potential which, twice in our 
lives, has plunged the world in war. 

This time there must be no mistakes upon this 
score. Germany's immediate neighbors cannot 
be blamed for special solicitude in this respect. 
They cannot be blamed for insisting that Ger- 
man recovery must be subordinate to these pro- 
tections. To meet this elementary need, we of- 
fered our Allies, including the Soviets, a 40-year 
treaty of support in the event of Axis resurgence. 
The Soviets spurned the proposal. I assume it 
is still open to them. In lieu thereof, we have 
now signed this pending 20-year pact with our 
western allies. For them and us it accomplishes, 
among other things, the same result. It would 
apply just as promptly and effectively to a Ger- 
man aggressor as it does to a Communist aggressor. 
But by the same token it also is a powerful and 
well-nigh indispensable aid to maximum German 
recovery — and therefore to European recovery — 
because it permits greater recovery latitudes than 
Germany's twice-ravished neighbors would other- 
wise tolerate. 



It is purely a self-defensive compact which 
serves advance notice upon any aggressor that 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



300.000.000 people in the North Atlantic com- 
munity propose neither to appease nor surrender 
to aggression against the 'rich heritage of the 
Weste'rn World," as one analyst has put it; that 
"brilliant civilization based on Greek humanism, 
Roman legal thinking. Christian ethics, and the 
great common experience of the Renaissance, all 
binding us together in a peace-loving community 
of free thought and free endeavor'* which we mean 
to uphold and, if it should be necessary, to defend. 

There is not one aggressive syllable in the en- 
tire contract. There is nothing but peace in the 
aspirations which give it being and in the self- 
help and mutual aid which give it life. It is not 
built to stop a war after it starts — although its 
potentialities in this regard are infinite. It is 
built to stop wars before they start. With great- 
est respect for the counter views of sincere Ameri- 
cans who argue otherwise — but with complete con- 
tempt for the hostile, self-serving, self -confessing 
hysteria against it by communism everywhere — 
I shall urge the Senate that this is the logical 
evolution of one of our greatest American idioms, 
"United we stand, divided we fall." 

I want to come back. Mr. President, to the 
charge that this North Atlantic Pact is a repeti- 
tion of the old military alliances as menacingly 
known to history, and that it thus flies in the face 
of all our own precious national tradition. I sub- 
mit one exhibit bearing upon both and answering 
both. 

Perhaps the most significant of all the old, 
orthodox military alliances was the Holy Alli- 
ance of 1815. Perhaps the most significant of all 
our own American doctrines was the Monroe Doc- 
trine of 1823, which was first announced to the 
world within these very hallowed walls where we 
now meet. The Holy Alliance and the Monroe 
Doctrine were just 8 years apart. The latter was 
substantially stimulated by the threats to Amer- 
ica inherent in the former. I think by a very 
brief analysis of the two I can indicate conclusively 
whj' there is not a scintilla of justification for con- 
fusing tlie thing we are here asked to do with this 
thing of ancient menace. 

Let me read one tell-tale, controlling sentence 
from the Holy Alliance : "The three contracting 
monarchs will remain united by the bonds of a true 
and indissoluble fraternity, and, considering each 
other as fellow countrymen, they will on all oc- 
casions and in all places lend each other aid and 
assistance." 

It was a contract for weal or woe — on all oc- 
casions and in all places — regardless of provoca- 
tions — regardless of right or wrong — to stand and 
fight together for the survival of these monarchies. 
It was a self-serving alliance against the world. 
It was both defensive and aggressive. It was a 
contract not only for survival but for domination. 

July 18, 1949 



Can you find any remote semblance of a parallel 
'in the North Atlantic Treaty which is dedicated 
solely to peace ; which applies solely to mutual re- 
sistance against an aggressor's armed attack; 
which is devoid of a single imperialistic obligation ; 
and which is instantly null and void when tlie con- 
science of the world is prepared to function 
through the Security Council of the United Na- 
tions? This is not a military alliance in any his- 
torical and orthodox meaning of that phrase. 

Then let me read, on the other hand, two sen- 
tences from the Monroe Doctrine 

We owe it to candor — 

And when that phrase was used it was simply 
the forerunner of what we now mean when we so 
often indicate that in conducting the public foreign 
policy of the United States the Government 
should say what it means and mean what it says. 

We owe it to candor and to the amicable relations exist- 
ing between the United States and those powers (referring 
to contemplated American colonization by European pow- 
ers) to declare that we should consider any attempt on 
their part to extend their system to any portion of this 
hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and security. . . . 
With the governments who have declared their independ- 
ence and maintained it, and whose Independence we have, 
on great consideration and on just principles, acknowl- 
edged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose 
of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner 
their destiny ... in any other light than as the mani- 
festation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States. 



Mr. President, the North Atlantic Pact may be 
a literal departure from orthodox American 
diplomacy although George Washington's justly 
revered Farewell Address visualized temporary 
alliances for extraordinary emergencies — and I 
do not know how any emergency could be more 
extraordinary than our dire need to stop total 
atomic war before it starts again, and I think a 
treaty which is subject to review in 10 years is 
relatively temporary compared with the decades 
of inexpressible grief which the failure of peace 
would grind into our broken lives. But I deny 
that the treaty is a departure from a philosophy 
of preventive action against aggression which was 
bravely and wisely and successfully launched by 
our own prescient forebears 126 years ago in, 
Washington, D.C. I deny that it has any kin- 
ship with military alliances as they were kiaown in 
the old and ominous sense. I assert, on the basis 
of our own American experience with candor 
under the Monroe Doctrine that it is more cal- 
culated to encourage peace and to prevent the in- 
sane events which would make peace impossible, 
pact or no pact, than any other recourse which 
we could presently embrace. 

I know, Mr. President, there are many friends 
of this great peace adventure who are inclined to 
put their overriding emphasis upon the subse- 
quent physical implementation of the pact. 

63 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



There are those who count it disingenuous to take 
any other view. 

I do not agree. Frankly, I should have much 
less interest in this treaty if I thought its re- 
pressive influence for peace is measured by or 
dependent on any such implementation. It is not 
the military forces in being which measure the 
impact of this "knock-out" admonition. In my 
view its invincible power for peace is the awe- 
some fact that any aggressor upon the North At- 
lantic community knows in advance that from the 
very moment he launches his conquest he will 
forthwith face whatever cumulative opposition 
these united allies in their own wisdom deem nec- 
essary to beat him to his knees and to restore peace 
and security. 



will every Senator, the right to pass independent 
judgment on the nature and extent of this supple- 
mentary legislation. 

Just what is our obligation at this point? I 
take it no one would pretend that the ratification 
of the pact does not make some sort of alteration 
in the situation as it exists without the pact. Its 
articles are not meaningless. But the timing and 
the nature and extent of implementing legislation, 
in this or any other year, are, in my opinion, wide 
open to the free decision of all Senators as to what 
they believe the objectives of the pact and the na- 
tional security require. The Secretary of State's 
statement is : 

The pact does not dictate the conclusion of honest 
judgment ... it does preclude repudiation of the principle 
or of the obligation of making that honest judgment . . . 
there is an obligation to help, but the extent, the manner, 
and the timing is up to the honest judgment of the 
parties. 



Article 3 is elementary common sense in that 
the parties to this treaty propose, separately and 
jointly, by means of continuous self-help and 
mutual aid, to develop their individual and col- 
lective potentials to resist armed attack. It is 
common sense to put these common interests in 
gear in the exercise of common vigilance. The 
better they are integrated the less the need for 
their expansion and the less likelihood of their 
subsequent use. 

"Wliat is proposed under article 3 for the next 
year? I do not know except by general infor- 
mation, that we may be asked for something like 
$1,000,000,000 of arms aid to supplement six or 
seven billions which our associated nations have 
already provided in their own budgets. The im- 
mediate objective, I understand, is substantially 
to make existing forces more efficient — to stand- 
ardize rather than to expand. 

By no stretch of the imagination can such a 
prospectus be deemed aggressive. Nor can it be 
deemed competitive. Nor can it be deemed a plan 
to turn western Europe into an armed camp. Nor 
can it be deemed to contemplate new American 
manpower overseas. Nor, Mr. President, can it be 
deemed — and this is the vital thing to me — to 
measure the final authority which this agreement 
shall exercise to dissuade aggressors from their 
crimes. The supreme authority for peace is in the 
potentials of the treaty itself. It is in article V 
and not in article III. 

I want to repeat again, however, that I under- 
stand that article III has its very definite and 
unavoidable importance. It builds no illusory 
Maginot lines. But it steps up the defense facili- 
ties in being. It contributes to security and to 
the sense of security. It certainly discourages 
armed aggression by proxy, which is to say by in- 
ternal treason. It betokens the fact that the 
treaty "means business" in its mutual purpose to 
prevent aggression. But I reserve to myself, as 

64 



Much the same sort of question arises under 
article 5. Senators will observe that I am now 
seeking to survey the moot points that have arisen. 
Since this article says that "an armed attack upon 
one shall be considered an armed attack upon all," 
does this automatically commit us to war? It 
commits us, according to the text to take forth- 
with, individually and in concert with the other 
parties, "such action as we deem necessary, in- 
cluding the use of armed force, to restore and 
maintain the security of the North Atlantic area." 
A commitment to take notice and to do something 
about it is automatic. A commitment to war is 
not. Indeed, the textual phrase "including the 
use of armed force" obviously indicates that there 
are many other alternatives, just as there are in 
the United Nations Charter. 

Everything depends upon the natui'e of the 
event. A minor aggression might be stopped by 
a vigorous warning. An instant appeal to the 
Security Council of the United Nations might suc- 
ceed and suffice. If the Security Council de- 
faults, the so-called pacific sanctions described in 
the Charter might be applied by the partners un- 
der the pact. In other words, what might be 
called an "aggressive incident," or perhaps a "pro- 
voked incident" as some fear, as distinguished 
from an all-out, clearly deliberate act of conquest, 
could be met with a multitude and variety of de- 
vices far short of war. This is important because 
these so-called "incidents" have often historically 
led to war. At such a moment, the pact's poten- 
tials should exercise incalculable influence for 
peace. 

But suppose the event is obviously of major and 
deliberate magnitude and clearly discloses a crim- 
inal aggressor deliberately on the march — as Hit- 
ler entered Poland or as the Kaiser entered Bel- 
gium. Let us say tliat it is clearly the dread 
thing which threatens the life and freedom of one 
of our associated nations, if not ourselves directly. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



If it is, it tlireatens the life and freedom of every 
other associated nation, including our own. If it 
is, it threatens total war or total surrender, pact or 
no pact. If it is, our commitment is clear as crys- 
tal. It is to take whatever action we deem neces- 
sary to maintain the security of the North Atlan- 
tic area, which vividly includes the security of the 
United States. If the only action adequate is 
war, then it means war. If it does mean war, I 
venture to assert that, pact or no pact, it would 
mean war for us anyway in this foreshortened 
world. If it does mean war, I venture to say that 
we would be infinitely better off for having instant 
and competent Allies. But if it does mean war, 
only Congress itself, under the specific terms of 
the pact, can declare it. 

But then comes the next question. Who would 
decide for us what we would deem to be necessary 
under such bitter circumstances? The Constitu- 
tion says that only Congress can declare war. The 
Constitution also makes the President the Com- 
mander in Chief of our armed forces. As such, 
he can use — and many times has used — the armed 
forces to defend American life and property and 
security, without a declaration of war. Since 
treaties are the supreme law of the land, would it 
not be his duty, under the extreme circumstances 
last indicated, to act instantly in defense of that 
pledge ? I think the answer is "Yes." But he has 
a wide area of discretion, always short of war, in 
which to act, and he can only act within his con- 
stitutional authority, which is neither increased 
nor diminished by this pact. Whatever it has 
been, there it still is. He could, for example, im- 
mediately alert our armed defense and summon 
Congress to its own swift constitutional decision. 
His immediate action, like his power and his re- 
sponsibility, would depend upon the nature and 
circumstances of the event. So long as his action 
"forthwith'' honorably recognized the basic obli- 
gation, he certainly would not be under compul- 
sion to take any impetuous decision which might 
handicap or damage the sustained strategy ulti- 
mately necessary to the pledged objective, namely, 
the restoration of over-all security for the North 
Atlantic area. 

The committee report answers an even more spe- 
cific question on this score. Would he, the Presi- 
dent, or the Congress, be obligated to react to an 
attack on Paris or Copenhagen in the same precise 
manner as to an attack on New York? The an- 
swer is "No." An armed attack upon our home- 
land involves an imminent physical need and an 
imminent constitutional obligation for instant and 
maximum physical response which does not, and 
cannot, by the very nature of the case, exist else- 
where, or under other circumstances. Turn the 
example around. In the event of an armed at- 



tack upon Alaska, would we, or could we, expect 
France or Denmark to react in the same manner 
as to an attack upon Paris or Copenhagen ? Cer- 
tainly not ; obviously not. It would be impossible. 
But that does not dilute the "forthwith" pledge 
of "all for one and one for all" if an international 
assassin strikes. The pledge dependably means 
that whoever is attacked will have dependable 
allies who will do their dependable part, by con- 
stitutional process, as swiftly as possible to defeat 
the aggressors by whatever means each deems 
necessary. 

Let us not make the fatal error of deserting the 
treaty because of our preoccupation with con- 
tingencies which we are far more likely to confront 
without the treaty than with it. The prevention 
of the next war is more important even than the 
winning of it because not even the winner will be 
able to afford his victory. 

This leads me to one more observation in this 
connection. The prevention of war is human- 
kind's supreme objective. The way must be found. 
Like the United Nations to which it is subordinate, 
the North Atlantic Pact strives toward this goal. 
Yet, until the goal is reached, the pact must re- 
luctantly but realistically face the existence of 
arms and armaments in the hands of potential 
foes. Peace will never escape this final hazard 
until universal disarmament, under absolutely de- 
pendable and automatic guaranties against bad 
faith, has spiked all gims for keeps. This is the 
supreme Christian aspiration. I proudly remind 
the Senate that Senate Resolution 239, which was 
the clear forerunner of this pact, asked not only 
for the pact, but also, and with equal emphasis, 
for maximum American efforts "to obtain agree- 
ments" among United Nations members, "upon 
universal regulation and reduction of armaments 
under adequate and dependable guaranty against 
violation." 

The same Senate which asked, in Senate Reso- 
lution 2.39, for collective self-defense under arti- 
cle 51 of the Charter — as envisioned in the pending 
treaty — also asked, and in the same breath, for 
universal disarmament. Let that stand Mr. Presi- 
dent, as an incontestable answer to those malignant 
critics who cry out that the North Atlantic Pact 
is borne of warmongers harboring evil, armed de- 
signs upon their fellow men. 

I could wish, Mr. President, that if and when 
this pact is ratified, the President of the United 
States might address the world upon this score. 
I could wish that he might remind the world of 
all six of the objectives of Senate Resolution 239 
from which this pact springs ; and that he might 
call the peoples of the earth to a new crusade in 
behalf of these peace truths in the so-called Van- 
denberg resolution. I could wish that he might 
underscore our good-faith dedication, and plead 
for good-faith recruits. 



July 18, J 949 



65 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



It is peace which dominates our souls. Peace 
and righteousness— the only kind of peace that is 
worth the price we are prepared to pay for it. 

• • • * 

The inherent right of collective defense— those 
are Charter words— clearly includes the inherent 
right of collective preparation for defense. But 
there is neither preparation nor ultimate action 
against anything, Mr. President, unless an armed 
aggressor rapes the Charter, and then only until 
the Charter's principles and purposes are re- 
deemed. How can such defense of the Charter 
possibly be construed as hostile to the Charter? 
How can it hurt the Charter to make the Charter 
work? 

We are members of the Charter. If the Char- 
ter had not been nullified in vital ways by the 
Communist group, we would already be doing 
everything, against armed aggression, which we 
would do under the regional pact. Our obligation 
under the pact is nothing new. It exists in the 
whole spirit of the Charter. How can it be pos- 
sible that we undermine the Charter when we keep 
its olDligation alive — when we keep its spirit 
alive — by acts of new and effective allegiance? 

. • • • ■ 

Mr. President, I shall now briefly, but I hope 
firmly, deal with other interpretative issues that 
have arisen in the course of the committee's hear- 
ings and the public discussion of the pact. The^e 
hearings and this discussion have been useful. 
We dare leave no twilight zones of fuzzy under- 
standing in respect to what we here do — not only 
for our own sakes, but also lest there be those 
among our friends abroad who might one day ac- 
cuse us of keeping the word of promise to the 
ear and breaking it to the hope. Regardless of 
whether we find ourselves in final agreement, I 
commend the vigilant and critical scrutiny which 
the distinguished Senator from Missouri [Mr. 
i3onnell] and the distinguished Senator from 
Utah [Mr. Watkins] have focused upon the pact 
throughout its consideration. I also commend to 
all Senators the careful and comprehensive re- 
port of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
which speaks with recognized authority and with 
controlling probity in respect to implications and 
interpretations. 

The question arises whether articles IV and V 
of the pact cover armed aggression against 
colonial or dependent or otherwise related areas 
of the signatories outside the area of the North 
Atlantic community as geographically defined in 
article VI. My own understanding is clear and 
unequivocal. The answer is "No." There can be 
no other logical answer. The doubts seem to 
have arisen because article IV, relating solely to 

66 



consultations, is unlimited in the circumference 
of these consultations. But there is not a word 
of obligation in it except to talk things over. 

The obligations are spelled out in articles III 
and V. It is significant, in this connection, that 
when article IX establishes a council to implement 
the treaty, it directs the council's attention spe- 
cifically to articles III and V. It omits article 
IV in this connection. This is as it should be. 
It is by significant design. Our pledge of action 
under the United Nations Charter is general. 
That pledge is 4 years old. Nothing we do here 
can change it. But our pledge of action under 
the North Atlantic Pact is limited and specific. 
It applies only to armed aggression in the area 
clearly defined in article VI which is the North 
Atlantic community, set up by metes and bounds. 

A corollary question asks how nonmembers of 
the United Nations, namely, Italy and Portugal, 
can be included in a United Nations arrangement 
and in collective security under article 51 of the 
Charter. The first answer is that article 51 is 
not the source of the right of individual and col- 
lective self-defense. It does not establish this 
right ; it merely recognizes its sovereign existence 
in all states whether in or out of the United Na- 
tions. The second answer is that the Charter of 
the United Nations clearly calls for collaboration 
with nonmember states whenever mutual interest 
requires. Indeed, article II, paragraph VI, speci- 
fically asserts that "the organization shall insure 
that states not members of the United Nations act 
in accordance with these principles so far as may 
be necessary for the maintenance of international 
peace and security." This doctrine is basic. It 
came to San Francisco from Dumbarton Oaks. 
It is perfectly clear that this article deals with 
aggression against any state whether a member 
of the United Nations or not. 

Other provisions of the Charter similarly rec- 
ognize the need to permit nonmember states to 
participate to some extent in the United Nations 
system for maintaining peace and security. If 
this were not so, I doubt whether Israel would 
now be an independent nation and now a member 
of the United Nations. If this were not so, cer- 
tainly Switzerland would not now be a member 
of the World Court. The Charter does not pro- 
hibit member states from entering into mutual 
defense treaties with nonmember states. On the 
contrary, it contemplates just such arrangements 
by requiring that they be consistent with the 
Charter. 

Italy and Portugal have sought membership in 
the United Nations and have been prohibited by 
veto. Italy is historically indispensable to the 
individual and collective self-defense of France. 
Portugal is obviously indispensable to the defense 
of the North Atlantic community. Portugal may 
lack our sense of democracy, but it lacks no de- 
votion to our sense of peace as proven through 
the years. Both adhere to the principles and pur- 

Departmenf of State Bvlletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



poses of the United Nations Charter through ad- 
herence to tliis pact. 

Two other questions arise in this connection. 
I respond to both. 

First. How can we rearm Italy under article 
III of the pact wlien our peace treaty with Italy 
puts a sharp limitation upon Italy's armaments^ 
The answer is that we have no purpose to rearm 
Italy in excess of treaty limitations. Through 
self-help and mutual aid we shall increase the 
efficiency of this brave, young Italian Republic 
to resist armed aggression within treaty limita- 
tions. 

Second. Can other nonmember European states 
be admitted to the North Atlantic community 
hereafter? Under article X, the answer is "Yes," 
but only by unanimous consent of the existing 
signatories. 'Wlio gives this consent for the United 
States? The Secretary of State has quoted the 
President, categorically and unequivocally, that 
he will do so only with the advice and consent of 
the Senate. The Secretary of State has further 
asserted that this pledge is binding upon the pres- 
ent President's successors. In my opinion any 
Presidential successor who might do otherwise 
would be impeached. This is fundamental. The 
character of this pact and the nature and extent 
of our obligations under it are governed by the 
character and the nature and the extent of its 
membership. When we ratify this pact we accept 
its existing membership and none other. When 
we ratif}^ this pact that is all we shall have ratified. 
To enlarge the membership is basically to alter the 
pact. This must require the consent of the Senate 
just as definitely in the second instance as in the 
first. The record is clear and unmistakable. 

Still another question really answers itself at 
this point. Wliat happens if one of the existing 
signatories itself fundamentally changes character 
within the textual life of the pact? Wliat hap- 
pens, for example, if one of them succumbs to 
communism? Are we still bound by these 
pledges? The answer is that we are not. Any 
adverse change in basic character would repre- 
sent a new signatory to all intents and purposes. 
We are making no commitments to any such new 
signatories. 

But how do we expel them ? We do not. Under 
such circumstance the pact simply ceases to be 
operative in respect to them. They expel them- 
selves in reality by erasing their own eligibility 
under the terms of the pact. Cooperation would 
be impossible from their point of view or from 
ours. These facts would mutually serve to termi- 
nate the actyal relationship. 

Are we bound to support a member state against 
internal attack which seeks to overthrow the gov- 
ernment? We are not bound, directly or in- 
directly, to take sides in civil wars. We are 



pledged only against armed aggression by one 
state against another. If civil war should include 
external armed aggression, identified by us as 
such, we would be obligated to take such steps 
against the external armed aggression as we would 
deem necessary to restore and maintain the secu- 
rity of the North Atlantic area. But this treaty 
is not a contract for the perpetuation of the in- 
ternal status quo and cannot be used as such any 
more than can its parent, the United Nations 
Charter, which under article II, paragi-aph VII, 
is prohibited from intervening in matters which 
are essentially within domestic jurisdiction. 

Many questions have been asked about the gen- 
eral engagements in article II, the "further de- 
velopment of peaceful and friendly international 
relations" and particularly the quest for the elim- 
ination of conflict in international relations and 
the encouragement of economic collaboration. 
This is simply a restatement of the general 
philosophy of self-help and mutual aid which 
underlies every international enterprise upon 
which we have embarked. It simply reempha- 
sizes our constant theme that needless economic 
conflict is a barrier to progressive stabilities. I 
should say it is particularly addressed to the need 
for larger western European unities. 

Under it, do we accept any tariff commitments? 
We do not. Does it obligate us in any way, for 
example, in respect to the pending Ito, the Inter- 
national Trade Organization ? It does not. Does 
it leave us free to consult our own economic neces- 
sities as we believe them to be ? It does. It is a 
general expression of economic good will, along 
with its other emphasis upon mutually promoting 
free institutions and conditions of staoility and 
well-being. It is a broad assertion, like the pre- 
amble, of an ideology. It is an abstract objective 
m keeping with the spirit of cooperation in the 
North Atlantic community. It is not by any 
stretch of the imagination a mandate. 

This leads to yet another frequent query. By 
this pact do we tacitly exclude from our concern 
those nations which we do not include in the com- 
munity? We do not. Our engagements to all 
member states in the United Nations remain 
specifically unimpaired. No jot or tittle is sub- 
tracted. Specific proofs of this truth abound. 
For example, the Eio pact remains impregnably 
intact, and always will. That includes more mem- 
ber states than does this treaty. Again we are 
concurrently demonstrating that our direct con- 
cern with Greece and Turkey and with western 
Germany and with Korea and with kindred trou- 
ble spots is just as acute today as it was before the 
Senate ever thought of its resolution 239, which 
started this pact upon its way. The resolution 
sought, among other things, the strengthening of 
the United Nations as a vital whole. Under its 
directive we are today seeking these United Na- 
tions strength just as vigorously in the General As- 
sembly and in the Security Council as we are seek- 



July 78, J 949 



67 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



ing new strength for it through regional facilities 
to help it meet its responsibility for peace and 
security in the world. 

One final point, Mr. President. It is a legiti- 
mate source of widespread anxiety that we shall 
not overstrain our own resources in any of these 
commitments lest we ourselves collapse, pursuant 
to Soviet prayers, and take the peace hopes of the 
world down with us. Unquestionably we confront 
fiscal limitations which we dare not ignore. We 
must be provident. Yet, even in the matter of 
prudence, it is the fact of life that "without vision 
the people perish." 

The surest way — the only largely effective 
way — for us to cut our budgets in the years to 
come is to find a dependable formula for peace. 
Exactly one-half of our budget for the next fis- 
cal year is required for national security through 
defense and foreign aid. This percentage is con- 
tinuously geared to the progress we can make to- 
ward peace. It inevitably and unavoidably 
reflects the degree of menace we confront. One 
dare not even think what it would be in the event 
of another war. We truly spend to save — taxes 
as well as lives and liberties — when we invest in 
peace. This is not an easy equation to evaluate 
in the midst of these uncertain economic days. 
But let realists remember, when they strike their 
balance, that short-sighted economy can be as 
costly and as deadly as rash extravagance under 
some circumstances. 

Now Mr. President, I summarize; and I leave 
my colleagues to their fateful judgments. This 
is my estimate of the total situation we here face. 

When the Senate, by a vote of 64 to 4 on June 
11, 1948, adopted Senate Resolution 239, I be- 
lieve it proposed the wisest and the safest peace 
procedures available to us and to western 
civilization. 

It advised the President of the United States to 
strive toward strengthening the sinews of the 
United Nations in behalf of the collective peace 
and fellowship to which we rededicated our hearts 
and hopes. In particular, we advised him to seek 
regional and collective arrangements and to asso- 
ciate with them, in behalf of individual and col- 
lective self-defense through self-help and mutual 
aid against armed aggression. 

The country well-nigh universally approved 
the Senate's action at that time. The percentage 
of dissent on the outside was apparently as small 
as it was on the inside. 



The President has acted upon the Senate's all 
but unanimous advice. He has sent us precisely 
that for which we asked — and in the tailoring 
of which we have had a constant hand. Indeed, 
I would not know what it was I was asking for on 
that historic day last June if this pact is not it. 
Furthermore, the need has not lessened with the 
intervening months, nor have the signs that this 
increased and final unity in the North Atlantic 
community will strongly maintain the peace 
momentum, in this area, which has been making 
such vivid strides against its obvious adversaries. 

I earnestly submit that this is no time to let 
this peace momentum lag or lapse. Let us main- 
tain this sanctuary of realistic hope. This is no 
time to let the relatively little risks, if such there 
be, blind us to the larger risks which we here 
mitigate and which can involve the very survival 
of free society. Let us not get so close to the 
trees that we lose sight of the forest. While we 
must frankly assess the liabilities, lest we dream 
ourselves and others into delusions, let us just 
as frankly assess the supreme and potent and, I 
believe, dominant advantages which destiny here 
invites us to embrace for the sake of our own 
national security in our own precious land. 

This pact is a fraternity of peace. It involves 
us in no obligation not already implicit in our 
signature to the United Nations Charter. It 
simply makes the obligation plain and dependable 
for us and others. It binds potential and indis- 
pensable allies to us as well as us to them. It 
spells it out. This candor can be as powerful as 
an atomic bomb. This is its terrific authority for 
peace. It spells out, beyond any shadow of any 
doubt, the conclusive warning that 300,000,000 
people, united in competent self-defense, will 
never allow an armed aggressor to divide and con- 
quer them pursuant to the pattern of the rapes of 
yesterday. It spells out the conclusive warning 
that independent freedom is not an orphan in this 
western world, and that no armed aggression will 
have a chance to win. 

Thus we crystallize the most practical deterrent 
and discouragement to war which the wit of man 
has yet devised. 

We have done our best — for peace. But we 
recognize our frailty. The wit of man alone is 
not enough. I quote the final sentence from the 
findings of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations : 

In tendering the unanimous report on the North 
Atlantic Treaty, we do so in furtherance of our Nation's 
most precious heritage — shared in common with the other 
signatories — continuing faith in our dependence upon 
Almighty God and His guidance in the affairs of men 
and nations. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S.-U.K.-Fusion Agreement Extended 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES 



[Released to the press July 8] 



Attached is the text of an exchange of notes 
between the Governments of the United States 
and the United Kingdom extending the bizonal 
fusion agreement for a 3-month period. They 
were signed in Washington on June 30. 

According to the terms of the extension, the 
United Kingdom will continue its support of the 
civilian pepulation of Western Germany by con- 
tributing supplies and services from the sterling 
area in a value of approximately 4.4 million 
pounds or the equivalent of 17.5 million dollars. 
This constitutes a contribution of goods and serv- 
ices at an annual rate of aproximately 70 million 
dollars, the same rate at which the British have 
been supplying the German economy since Decem- 
ber 1947. Before the termination of this exten- 
sion, it is anticipated that the Federal German 
Government will be established and that a tri- 
partite agreement covering the contribution and 
financial aspects for the whole of Western Ger- 
many will have been negotiated by the United 
States, United Kingdom, and France. 

The fusion agreement signed in December 1947 
covered several aspects of the financial and eco- 
nomic problems of the bizonal area. One part 
dealt with the contribution which the United 
Kingdom was to make to the bizonal area, another 
part constituted trade and payments arrange- 
ments between the United Kingdom and the bi- 
zone. During discussions concerning recent 
extensions of this fusion agreement, it was thought 
desirable to separate these two aspects. Conse- 
quently, the United States and the United King- 
dom representatives in Germany were instructed 
to negotiate an arrangement to cover trade and 
payments between the bizone and the United 
Kingdom within the general framework of the 
European Recovery Program to supersede the 
trade and payments clauses of the fusion agree- 
ment. Negotiations in this connection have been 
taking place in Frankfurt and are now nearing 
completion. These arangements are not con- 
cerned with the United Kingdom's contribution 
to the bizonal area but merely establish the condi- 

July 18, 1949 



tions governing trade and payments between the 
United Kingdom and Western Germany. 

Text of United States Note of June 30, 1949 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to the 
discussions which have taken place between the 
Government of the United Kingdom and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States on the subject of the 
extension of the Agreement between the two Gov- 
ernments concerning the British and American 
Zones of Occupation in Germany. 

By their exchange of notes of March 31, 1949 
the two Governments agreed to extend the Bizonal 
Fusion Agreement to June 30, 1949, and to consult 
together before June 1, 1949 to consider the terms 
and conditions of a new Agreement for a further 
period. 

At the time of this exchange of notes it was 
thought that, prior to June 30, a German Govern- 
ment would be in existence, that the Occupation 
Statute would be in operation and that the Tri- 
partite Agreement on Control Machinery, cover- 
ing a substantial part of the field of Trizonal 
Fusion, would have come into force simultaneously 
with the Occupation Statute, thus rendering un- 
necessary a further extension of the Bizonal 
Fusion Agreement. Since these arrangements 
have not yet matured, the Government of the 
United States believes that the most practical 
arrangement is the extension for a further period 
of three months of such parts of the present Fusion 
Agreement as have not already been replaced by 
other agreements or arrangements. 

I therefore have the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing proposals for the consideration of the 
Government of the United Kingdom : 

(A) The Fusion Agreement of December 2, 
1946, as amended on December 17, 1947 and as 
further amended by the exchange of notes of De- 
cember 31, 1948 and March 31, 1949 shall, unless 
sooner terminated by mutual agreement or by the 
conclusion of a Trizonal Fusion Agreement, be 



69 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



extended until September 30, 1949 subject to the 
following amendments. 

(B) During the period for which the existing 
Fusion Agreement is extended, the Government 
of the United Kingdom will continue their contri- 
bution of supplies and services to Germany at the 
existing basic rate of iTi/o million pounds per an- 
num (approximately the equivalent of 70 million 
dollars). The type and value of specific cate- 
gories of goods and services to be supplied by the 
Government of the United Kingdom will be agreed 
upon in separate discussions between the United 
Kingdom and the Bizonal Area. Pending such 
agreement, the Government of the United King- 
dom will supply appropriate quantities of the 
goods and services specified in the Annex to the 
Agreement of December 17, 1947, amending the 
Fusion Agreenient. The Government of the 
United States will use its best endeavors to secure 
the full utilization by the Bizonal Area of the 
offer of supplies and services which the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom will make to fulfill 
its obligation under this provision. If after the 
termination of the present agreement it should 
appear that tlie Bizonal Area has not received the 
full amount of the contribution envisaged, the two 
Governments will consult together for the purpose 
of seeking an acceptable method of settling the 
balance. 

(C) Moneys made available by the Government 
of the United Kingdom for the supply of goods 
and services in accordance with paragraph B of 
the exchange of notes of March 31 last amending 
and extending the Eevised Fusion Agreement 
will, to the extent that they have not been fully 
spent by June 30, 1949, be used for the purchase 
of Category A supplies and services for delivery 
after that date in accordance with existing ar- 
rangements and procedures. 

(D) Upon the conclusion of a Payments Agree- 
ment between the United Kingdom and Western 
Germany, as envisaged in sub-paragraph (A) of 
the exchange of notes of March 31, 1949, para- 
graph 3 of the Agreement signed in Washington 
on December 17, 1947 shall terminate and its pro- 
visions shall be replaced by the Payments Agree- 
ment to be concluded between the Government of 
the United Kingdom and Western Germany. 
Until conclusion of such a Payments Agreement 
the figure of 1^2 million pounds in paragraph 3 
(6) (vi) and (vii) of the Agi-eement of Decem- 
ber 17, 1947 will be increased to 71/2 million 
pounds, provided, however, that any credit for 
accounting of unused drawing rights out of fiscal 
year 1948/49 will be excluded from a credit bal- 
ance of the Bizonal Area for purposes of calcu- 
lating the excess which would necessitate pay- 
ments in United States dollars. 



(E) The liability of the Government of the 
United Kingdom to convert sterling into dollars 
in accordance with the provisions of sub-para- 
graph (b) of paragraph 4 of the Agreement signed 
in Washington on December 17, 1947 shall be lim- 
ited to the sterling held on July 1, 1949 in the 
No. 2 account of the Bank Deutscher Laender 
with the Bank of England, or due to be paid into 
that account in fulfillment of arrangements con- 
cluded before the first of July, 1949. During the 
period of the present agreement the sterling neld 
in the No. 2 account of the Bank Deutscher Laen- 
der with the Bank of England will not be con- 
verted into dollars. 

(F) At the time of the liquidation of JEIA as 
provided for in the charter of the Allied High 
Commission for Germany the capital funds of 
JEIA, resulting from the capital contributions 
made by the Governments of the United States 
and United Kingdom in accordance with the 
Agreement of December 2, 1946, will be made 
available to the German Government for pur- 
poses of financing the foreign trade of Germany, 
provided, however, that the sterling assets of 
JEIA transferred under these arrangements will 
be blocked until June 30, 1950, or until agree- 
ment has been reached between the Governments 
of the United Kingdom and the United States as 
to how their release is to be effected, whichever 
date is the sooner. 

Should these proposals commend themselves to 
the Government of the United Kingdom, I have 
the honor to suggest that tliis note and your reply 
should constitute an Agreement between our two 
Governments. 
Accept, [etc.]. 

For the Secretary of State : 

Dean Rusk. 



Text of the United Kingdom Reply 

June 30, 1949. 

Sir : I have the honour to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of your note of today's date, the terms of 
which are as follows : 

[Here follows text of United States note printed 
above.] 

In reply, I have the honour to inform you that 
His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom 
accept the proposals set forth in your note and, in 
accordance with the suggestion contained therein, 
your note and this reply shall be regarded as con- 
stituting an Agreement between our two Govern- 
ments in this matter, 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
you the assurance of my highest consideration, 

F. R. HOTER MlLL.\R 

Charge d^ Affaires 



70 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Agreement by U.S., France, U.K., and 
Poland on Distribution of Monetary 
Gold Looted by Germany 

[Released to the press July 6] 

A protocol was signed on July G in London 
in behalf of tlie Governments of the United States, 
the Fi-ench Republic, the United Kingdom, and 
Poland by Julius Holmes, Rene Massigli, Ernest 
Bevin, and Jerzy Michalowski, whereby Poland 
is permitted to participate in the distribution of 
monetary gold looted by Germany. 

This agreement has been signed in accordance 
with that provision of part III of the Paris agree- 
ment on reparation from Germany of January 
14, 1946, which reserved the question of eventual 
participation in the restitution of monetary gold 
of countries not represented at the conference 
which drew up the agreement. 



American Nationals Holding Bank De- 
posits in Bulgaria Should Communicate 
With Department of State 

[Released to the press July G] 

The Department of State announced on July 6 
that it is interested in communicating with Amer- 
ican nationals (natural persons or corporations, 
partnerships, or other forms of association) who 
hold leva deposits or credit balances with baitks 
or other financial institutions, including the postal 
savings system, in Bulgaria and matured Bulgar- 
ian State leva bonds or other matured leva olsli- 
gations of the Government of Bulgaria. 

Such persons who are interested in converting 
their holdings of this nature into United States 
dollars are requested to write immediately to the 
Department of State, Division of Financial Af- 
fairs, Washington 25, D.C, for further particu- 
lars. The communication to the Department in 
this respect should consist of a sworn statement, 
in duplicate, containing a full description of the 
holdings and should indicate the time and man- 
ner of the acquisition of the ownership or other 
interests in the funds. In the case of deposits 
the name and address of the Bulgarian bank or 
other depository should be stated, as well as the 
type of deposit or credit balance involved and the 
present or last known leva balance. In the case of 
matured leva bonds of the Government of Bul- 
garia the statement should indicate the present 
location of the securities. The statement also 
should contain a specific reference to the nation- 



native-born citizens the place and date of birth 
in the United States supported by a certified copy 
of birth certificate, and in the case of naturalized 
citizens the date and place of birth, the date and 
place of naturalization, the designation of the 
court in which naturalized and the number of the 
naturalization certificate. An American corpora- 
tion, partnership, or other form of association 
should furnish (1) a certified copy of charter or 
articles of incorjDoration, including amendments, 
or a certified copy of partnership agreement, in- 
cluding amendments, (2) proof of citizenship of 
officers and directors of the corporation or of the 
partners, (3) affidavit of an officer of the corpora- 
tion as to citizenship of stockholders as far as 
known. 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliograpliy ' 

Security Council 

Official Records, Second Year 

190th and 191st meetings : 21 August 1947. No. 81 

24 pp. printed. 250. 

192nd and 193rd meetings: 22 August 1947. No. 

82. 45 pp. printed. 450. 

194th meeting: 25 August 1947. No. 83. 24 pp. 

printed. 250. 

• 195tli and 196th meetings : 26 August 1947. No 

84. 42 pp. printed. 450. 

197th meeting: 27 August 1947. No. 85. 27 pp, 

printed. 300. 

200th meeting: 29 August 1947. No. 87. 23 pp. 

printed. 250. 

201st meeting: 10 September 1947. No. 88. 22 

pp. printed. 250. 

203rd and 204th meetings: 24 and 25 September 

1947. No. 90.- 20 pp. printed. 200. 

205th meeting: 29 September 1947. No. 91. 23 

pp. printed. 250. 

207th meeting : 3 October 1947. No. 93. 21 pp. 

printed. 200. 

209th meeting: 9 October 1947. No. 95. 20 pp. 

printed. 20e. 

212th meeting: 20 October 1947. No. 98. 5 pp. 

printed. 100. 

Supplement No. 18. 2 pp. printed. 10^. 

Supplement No. 20. 6 pp. printed. 100. 

Official Records, Third Year 

384th meeting: 15 December 1948. No. 129. 42 

pp. printed. 400. 

388th and 389th meetings: 22 December 1&48. 

No. 132. printed. 500. 

390th and 391st meetings : 23 December 1948. 

No. 133. 41 pp. printed. 400. 
■ 392d meeting: 24 December 1948. No. 134. 59 pp. 

printed. 600. 

393d meeting: 27 December 1948. No. 135. 39 

pp. printed. 400. 

— — Erratum. No. 98. 



^ Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 29C0 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted as certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



(u// 18, 1949 



71 



Draft International Technical Cooperation Act off 1949 



A Bill To promote the foreign policy of the Dnited States and to 
authorize participation in a cooperative endeavor for assist- 
ing in the development of economically underderaloped areas 
of the world. 

Be it Enacted hy the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress Assem- 
bled, That this Act may be cited as the "International 
Technical Cooperation Act of 1949." 

Section 2. The United States and other nations of the 
world have a common interest In the material progress 
of all peoples, both as an end in itself and because such 
progress will further the advance of human freedom, the 
secure growth of democratic ways of life, the expansion 
of mutually beneficial commerce and the development of 
international understanding and good will. The mem- 
bers of the United Nations have covenanted to promote 
higher standards of living and conditions of economic 
and social progress and development. Many peoples liv- 
ing In economically underdeveloped areas of the world 
are seeking a fuller life and are striving to realize their 
full capabilities and to develop the resources of the lands 
in which they live. These efforts can be furthered 
through the cooperative endeavor of all nations to assist 
in such development. 

It is, therefore, declared to be the policy of the United 
States, in the interest of its people, as well as that of 
other peoples, to promote the development of economically 
underdeveloped areas of the world. 

Section 3. It is the objective of this Act to effectuate 
this policy by enabling the Government of the United 
States to participate in programs, in cooperation with 
other interested governments, for the interchange of 
technical knowledge and skills which contribute to the 
balanced and integrated development of the economic re- 
sources and productive capacities of economically under- 
developed areas. 

Section 4. In carrying out the objective set forth in 
Section 3 of this Act, the participation of the United 
Nations, the Organization of American States, their re- 
lated organizations, and of any other international or- 
ganization shall be sought wherever practicable. 

Section 5. The participation of private agencies and 
persons shall be encouraged in carrying out the objectire 
of this Act. 

Section 6. As used In this Act, 

(a) The term "technical cooperation programs" means 
activities serving as a means for the international inter- 
change of technical knowledge and skills which are de- 



signed primarily to contribute to the balanced and 
Integrated development of the economic resources and 
productive capacities of economically underdeveloped 
areas. Such activities may include but need not be 
limited to economic, engineering, medical, educational, 
and fiscal surveys, demonstration, training, and similar 
projects that serve the purpose of promoting the develop- 
ment of economic resources and productive capacities of 
underdeveloped areas. The term "technical cooperation 
programs" does not include such activities authorized by 
the United States Information and Educational Exchange 
Act of 1948 (62 Stat. 6) as are not primarily related to 
economic development, nor activities undertaken now or 
hereafter pursuant to the International Aviation Facilities 
Act, 1948 (62 Stat. 450), nor pursuant to the Philippine 
Rehabilitation Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 128), as amended, 
nor pursuant to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 
(62 Stat. 137), as amended, nor activities undertaken now 
or hereafter in the administration of areas occupied by 
the United States armed forces ; 

(b) The term "United States Government agency" 
means any department, agency, board, wholly or partly 
owned corporation or instrumentality, commission, or in- 
dependent establishment of the United States Gtovernment ; 

(c) The term "international organization" means any 
intergovernmental organization and subordinate bodies 
thereof, of which the United States is a member. 

Section 7. In order to carry out the objective of this 
Act, the President is authorized to plan, undertake, ad- 
minister, and execute technical cooperation programs and, 
in so doing, to : 

(a) Prescribe such rules and regulations as may be 
necessary and proper to carry out any of the provisions 
of this Act ; 

(b) Coordinate and direct existing and new technical 
cooperation programs carried on by any United States 
Government Agency; 

(c) Utilize the services and facilities of private agen- 
cies and persons; 

(d) Make advances and grants to any person, corpora- 
tion, or other body of persons, or to any foreign govern- 
ment or foreign government agency or to any international 
organization ; 

(e) Make and perform contracts or agreements on be- 
half of the United States Government with any person, 
corporation, or other body of persons however designated 
whether within or without the United States of America, 
or with any foreign government or foreign government 
agency or with any international organization ; 



73 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



(f) Enter into contracts, within the limits of appropria- 
tions or contract authorizations hereafter made available, 
that may run for not to exceed three years in any one 
case; 

(g) Acquire or accept in the name of the United States 
Government by purchase, devise, bequest, gift, grant, or 
otherwise, any money, services, and property, both real 
and personal, as he finds to be necessary and in any 
manner dispose of all property so acquired except property 
declared to be surplus. Receipts arising from the dispo- 
sition of property not acquired with appropriated funds, 
except surplus property, shall be available for expenditure 
for the purposes of this Act in the country in which the 
property is located. Any money acquired hereunder shall 
be received and accounted for under such regulations 
as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe; 

(h) Provide for printing and binding outside the con- 
tinental limits of the United States, without regard to 
SecUon II of the Act of March 1, 1919 (44 U. S. C. Ill) ; 

(i) Appoint such advisory committees as he may de- 
termine to be necessary or desirable. 

Section 8. The President shall terminate United States 
support for and participation in technical cooperation 
programs whenever he determines that such support and 
participation no longer contribute effectively to the ob- 
jective of this Act. 

Section 9. The President may exercise any power or 
authority conferred on him by this Act tlirough the Sec- 
retary of State or through any other officer or official 
of the United States Government. 

Section 10. To further the objective of this Act, the 
Secretary of State may establish an Institute of Inter- 
national Technical Cooperation within the Department of 
State. 

Section 11. In order to carry out the objective of this 
Act: 

(a) Officers, employees, agents, and attorneys may be 
employed for duty within the continental limits of the 
United States in accordance with the provisions of the 
dvU service laws and the Classification Act of 1923, as 
amended, except that the President may, without regard 
to the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, appoint 
and fix the compensation of one person at a rate not to 
exceed $16,000 per annum ; 

(b) Persons employed for duty out.side the continental 
limits of the United States shall receive compensation 
at any of the rates provided for the Foreign Service Re- 
serve and Staff by the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (60 
Stat. 999) together with allowances and benefits estab- 
lished thereunder and may be appointed to any class in 
the Foreign Service Reserve or Staff in accordance with 
the provisions of said Act. Alien clerks and employees 
may be employed in accordance with the provisions of 
said Act; 

(c) Officers and employees of the United States Gov- 
ertunent may be detailed to offices or positions to which 
no compensation is attached with any foreign govern- 
ment or foreign government agency or with any inter- 



national organization : Provided, That while so detailed 
any such person shall be considered, for the purpose of 
preserving his privileges, rights, seniority or other bene- 
fits, an officer or employee of the United States Gov- 
ernment and of the United States Government agency 
from which detailed and shall continue to receive there- 
from his regular compensation, which shall be reim- 
bursed to such agency from funds available under this 
Act: Provided further. That such acceptance of office 
shall in no case involve the taking of an oath of allegiance 
to another government ; 

(d) Experts and consultants or organizations thereof 
may be employed as authorized by Section 15 of the Act 
of August 2, 1946 (5 U. S. C. 55a), and persons so em- 
ployed may be compensated at a rate not in excess of 
$50 per diem. 

(e) Such additional civilian personnel may be em- 
ployed without regard to Section 14 (a) of the Federal 
Employees Pay Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 219), as amended, 
as may be necessary to carry out the policies and pur- 
I)o.ses of this Act. 

Section 12. The President shall transmit to the Con- 
gress an annual report of operations under this Act. 

Section 13. 

(a) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such 
sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of 
this Act. Activities provided for under this Act may be 
prosecuted under such appropriations or under authority 
granted in appropriation acts to enter into contracts pend- 
ing enactment of such appropriations. Unobligated bal- 
ances of such appropriations for any fiscal year may, 
when so specified in the appropriation act concerned, be 
carried over to any succeeding fiscal year or years. The 
President may allocate to any United States Government 
agency any part of any appropriation available for carry- 
ing out the purposes of this Act. Such funds shall be 
available for obligation and expenditure for the purposes 
of this Act in accordance with authority granted here- 
under or under authority governing the activities of the 
Government agencies to which such funds are allocated ; 

(b) Nothing in this Act is intended nor shall it be 
construed as an expressed or implied commitment to pro- 
vide any specific assistance, whether of funds, commo- 
dities, or services, to any country or countries, or to any 
international organization. 

Section 14. If any provision of this Act or the appli- 
cation of any provision to any circumstances or persons 
shall be held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the 
Act and the applicability of such provision to other cir- 
cumstances or persons shall not be affected thereby. 



ADDRESS BY CHARLES E. BOHLEN 

On July 7 Charles E. Bohlen, Counselor 
of the Department of State, delivered an 
address on the subject of The Problems of 
Foreign Affairs before the Veterans of For- 
eign Wars of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. 
Text was issued as press release 521. 



July 18, 1949 



73 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Research and Teaching Opportunities 



Netherlands and Norway 

[Released to the press June 7] 

Ninety opportunities for Americans to under- 
take graduate study, advanced research, or teach- 
ing in the Netherlands and Norway were an- 
nounced on June 7 by the Department of State. 

The awards, which are the first offered for these 
two countries under the provisions of the Ful- 
bright Act, are payable in Netherlands and Nor- 
wegian currency. Graduate scholarships under 
this program ordinarily cover the round-trip 
travel, maintenance, tuition, and necessary books 
and equipment of the grantees. Grants to visiting 
professors and research scholars ordinarily include 
round-trip travel, a stipend, a supplemental living 
allowance, and an allowance for purchase of neces- 
sary books and equipment. 

Fifty awards are offered to American graduate 
students, twenty-five for study in each country. 

Twelve grants are available for Americans to 
serve as visiting professors or research scholars in 
Netherlands universities. There are 20 similar 
opiDortunities, 10 for visiting professors and 10 
for research specialists, for work under the spon- 
sorship of Norwegian institutions of learning. 

Opportunities are provided also for eight 
Americans to serve as visiting teachers in primary 
and secondary schools in the Netherlands. 

In addition grants for round-trip travel to and 
from the United States will be made available to 
more than 200 Norwegian and Netherlands citizens 
desiring to teach, study, or do research in this 
country. These awards will not cover expenses in 
the United States, which must be met from other 
sources. 

Candidates for all grants will be selected upon 
the basis of merit by the Board of Foreign Scholar- 
ships. Veterans will be given preference pro- 
vided their other qualifications are approximately 
equal to those of other candidates. Final selec- 
tion of visiting professors and research scholars 
and their assignment to Norwegian and Nether- 
lands universities and institutions will be made 
also upon the basis of the appropriateness of their 
fields of teaching or study to the needs of the two 
countries and the facilities available there for 
their research. 

The awards are offered under Public Law 584 
(79th Congress) , the Fulbright Act, which author- 
izes the Department of State to use foreign curren- 
cies and credits acquired through the sale of 
surplus property abroad for programs of educa- 
tional exchange with other nations. Agreements 

74 



have been signed with the following countries: 
China, Burma, Greece, the Philippines, New Zea- 
land, Belgium and Luxembourg, the United King- 
dom, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Norway. 
The Fulbright program is expected ultimately to 
embrace more than 20 countries and may involve 
an expenditure in foreign currencies of 140 million 
dollars during the next 20 years. 

Graduate students interested in the possibilities 
for study in Norway or the Netherlands should 
make application to the Institute of International 
Education, 2 West 45th Street, New York 19, New 
York, before July 15, 1949. 

Persons interested in the opportunities listed 
above for visiting professors and research scholars 
should write immediately to the Conference Board 
of Associated Research Councils, 2101 Constitu- 
tion Avenue, Washington 25, D. C, for application 
forms and additional information concerning 
fields of teaching and research, sponsoring institu- 
tions, and conditions of award. 

United Kingdom 

The Department of State announced on June 16 
that a limited number of grants for research in 
the field of British postwar economy will be made 
available under the Fulbright Act to Americans 
in the United Kingdom. These awards are in 
addition to the previously announced program for 
1949-50 in the United Kingdom. The grants, 
which are paid in pounds sterling, ordinarily in- 
clude round-trip travel, a stipend in lieu of salary, 
a supplemental living allowance, and an allowance 
for purchase of necessary books and equipment. 

Advanced research scholars whose professional 
training and experience qualify them for an inde- 
pendent study of economic problems are eligible 
to apply for awards. Candidates will be selected 
on the basis of merit by the Board of Foreign 
ScholarshijDs. Veterans will be given preference 
provided their qualifications are approximately 
equal to those of other candidates. No limitation 
is placed upon the nature of the research studies, 
which may be proposed within the general field 
of British postwar economy, including the educa- 
tional and administrative aspects of the subject. 
Individuals selected for awards will be attached 
to British universities for the purpose of conduct- 
ing their research. Opportunities will be pro- 
vided for considtation with government officials 
and leaders in industry as well as with univei-sity 
specialists. 

Requests for further information regarding 
these openings or for application forms should be 
addressed to the Committee on International Ex- 
change of Persons, Conference Board of Associ- 
ated Research Councils, 2101 Constitution Avenue, 
Washington 25, D.C. Applications should be sub- 
mitted as promptly as possible and to insure con- 
sideration must be mailed not later than midnight, 
July 10, 1949. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



International Wheat Agreement 
Enters Into Force 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The International Wlieat Agreement, which 
was drawn up at the International Wheat Con- 
ference held in Washington early in 1949 and 
was signed between March 23 and April 15 on 
behalf of 41 governments, entered into force on 
July 1, 1949, in accordance with article XX 
thereof. 

Article XX of the agreement provides for ac- 
ceptance by the signatory governments, their re- 
spective instruments of acceptance to be deposited 
with the United States Government. It is pro- 
vided furtlier that the agreement, with the excep- 
tion of part 2, shall enter into force on July 1 
provided that the governments of countries re- 
sponsible for not less than 70 percent of the 
guaranteed purchases (i. e., the importing coun- 
tries listed in annex A to article III) and the 
govermnents of countries responsible for not less 
than 80 percent of the guaranteed sales (i. e., 
the exporting countries listed in annex B to article 
III) have accepted the agreement by that date. 
Part 2, relating to rights and obligations, will 
enter into force on a date, not later than Sep- 
tember 1, to be fixed by the International Wheat 
Council establislied under tlie agreement. 

Annex A to article III lists 37 importing coun- 
tries (one of which did not become a signatory) 
with guaranteed quantities totaling 456,283,389 
busliels for each crop j-ear. Instruments of ac- 
ceptance liave been deposited by the following 
signatory governments, responsible for well over 
the required 70 percent of that total: Austria, 
Belgium, Ceylon, Denmark, Greece, India, Ire- 
land, Israel, Lebanon, the Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, Peru, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, 
Switzerland, the Union of South Africa, and the 
United Kingdom. 

Annex B to article III lists five exporting 
countries (the United States, Canada, Australia, 
France, and Uruguay) with guaranteed quanti- 
ties totaling 456,283,389 bushels for each crop year. 
Instruments of acceptance have been deposited by 
the following signatory governments, responsible 
for well over tlie required 80 percent of tliat total : 
Australia, Canada, France, and the United States. 

Under article XX any signatory government 
which has not accepted the agreement by July 1 
may be granted by the Council an extension of 
time after that date for depositing its instrument 
of acceptance. 

The objectives of the agreement, as set forth in 
article I thereof, are to assure supplies of wheat 
to importing countries and markets for wheat to 

July 18, 1949 



exporting countries at equitable and stable prices. 
The agreement will have an effective duration of 
4 years, applying to the 4 crop years 1949-53. 

The agreement specifies certain guaranteed 
quantities and also maximmn (ceiling) and mini- 
mum (floor) prices. The importing countries 
which become parties to the agreement guarantee 
to purchase from the participating exporting 
countries, when requested by the latter, designated 
quantities of wheat at the minimum prices estab- 
lished by the agreement. Conversely, the export- 
ing countries parties to the agi'eement guarahtee 
to sell to the participating importing countries, 
when requested by the latter, designated quanti- 
ties of wheat at the maximum prices established 
by the agreement. Provision is made in the agree- 
ment for the adjustment of guaranteed quantities 
under specified conditions. 

The International Wheat Council is established 
to administer the agreement, with each party to 
the agreement being a voting member of the Coun- 
cil, the votes being distributed in proportion to the 
respective guaranteed purchases or guaranteed 
sales for the current crop year during each of the 
4 crop years, with tlie total votes of the importing 
countries equal to the total votes of the exporting 
countries. 

It is provided in article III of the agreement that 
the participating countries shall be free to fulfill 
their guaranteed quantities through private trade 
channels or otherwise and that nothing in the 
agreement shall be construed to exempt any pri- 
vate trader from any laws or regulations to which 
he is otherwise subject. 

Except to the extent necessary to fulfill the 
guaranteed quantities, transactions for the sale 
and purchase of wheat, whether between private 
traders, between governments, or between any pri- 
vate trader and a government, are not affected in 
any way by the agreement. 



New Unified State of Vietnam 
Formed 

[Released to the press June 21] 

The formation of the new unified state of Viet- 
nam and the recent announcement by Bao Dai that 
the future constitution will be decided by the 
Vietnamese people are welcome developments 
which should serve to hasten the reestablishment 
of peace in that country and the attainment of 
Vietnam's rightful place in the family of nations. 

The United States Government hopes that the 
agreements of March 8 between President Auriol 
and Bao Dai, who is making sincere efforts to 
unite all truly nationalist elements within Viet- 
nam, will form the basis for the progressive reali- 
zation of the legitimate aspirations of the Viet- 
namese people. 

75 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Inter-American Juridical Committee 
Member Appointed 

On June 9, 1949, the President appointed Alwyn 
V. Freeman to serve as a member of the Int«r- 
American Juridical Committee at Rio de Janeiro. 
He will fill the vacancy created by the resignation 
of Dr. Charles Fenwick to become director of the 
Department of International Law and Organiza- 
tion of the Pan American Union. It is expected 
that Dr. Freeman will depart for Rio de Janeiro 
on July 15. 

The Inter- American Juridical Committee grew 
out of the Inter-American Neutrality Committee, 
which was established in 1939 by the First Con- 
sultative Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics of Panama. It was given its 
present name by the Third Consultative Meeting 
of Foreign Ministers held at Rio de Janeiro in 
1942. 

The Ninth International Conference of Ameri- 
can States, held at Bogota in 1948, provided that 
the Inter- American Juridical Committee should 
be the permanent committee of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Council of Jurists.^ The Juridical Commit- 
tee has been requested by the Council of the Or- 
ganization of American States to do necessary 
preparatory work on proposals that will be con- 
sidered by the Council of Jurists, which is sched- 
uled to hold its first meeting in September of this 
year. 



The expedition will carry north the yearly stock 
of Canadian and United States supplies required 
by the four joint weather stations now in opera- 
tion at Prince Patrick Island, Ellef Ringnes 
Island, Cornwallis Island, and Ellesmere Island. 
If conditions are favorable, the icebreaker may 
also endeavor to land additional supplies at Alert, 
the site near Cape Sheridan (northern Ellesmere 
Island) chosen last summer for a weather station 
to be put into operation at some future date. 
This site has been given its name in honor of 
H.M.S. Alert, one of the ships of the British ex- 
plorer. Sir George Nares, who in 1875-6 carried 
out the first survey of the north coast of Ellesmere 
Island. 

The U.S.S. Edisto will carry helicopters to 
facilitate navigation through the ice and, if time 
permits, will investigate routes to and sites for 
possible future weather stations. 

The Edisto will be commanded by Commander 
W. F. Morrison, USN, the U.S.S. Wyandot by 
Commander T. S. Webb, USN, and the U.S.S. 
LST-S3S by Lt. J. E. Vautrot, USN. The senior 
Canadian representative will be J. W. Burton of 
the Northwest Territories Administration, De- 
partment of Mines and Resources, Ottawa. 



Air Force Mission Agreement 
With Mexico 



Expedition to Joint Weather Stations 
in Canadian Arctic 

[Released to the press June 29] 

Sailing from United States and Canadian east 
coast ports in July, three United States ships will 
spend about 2 months in northern waters this 
summer supplying fuel and provisions for the 
joint weather stations in the Canadian Arctic that 
have been established there since 1947. The sta- 
tions are maintained by the Canadian and United 
States Governments and representatives of Cana- 
dian Departments will take part in the expedition. 

The ships, the U.S.S. Edisto, an icebreaker, the 
U.S.S. Wyandot, a transport, and the U.S.S. 
LST-533, serving as a cargo vessel, will be under 
the command of Capt. Basil N. Rittenhouse, USN, 
embarked in the Edisto. 

' BULUETiN of Nov. 14, 1948, p. 591. 



[Released to the press July 5] 

There was signed on July 5, 1949, by Dean 
Acheson, Secretary of State, and Rafael de la 
Colina, Ambassador of Mexico to the United 
States, an agreement providing for the detail of 
officers of the United States Air Force, to serve as 
liaison officers to the Secretary of National De- 
fense of the United Mexican States. The agree- 
ment was also signed on behalf of their respective 
governments by Maj. Gen. Robert L. Walsh, 
Senior United States Air Force Member, United 
States Section, Joint Mexican-United States De- 
fense Commission, and Lt. Gen. Leobardo C. Ruiz, 
Chief, Mexican Section, Joint Mexican-United 
States Defense Commission. 

The agreement is similar to numerous other 
agreements in force between the United States and 
certain other American Republics providing for 
the detail of officers and enlisted men of the United 
States Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps 
to advise the armed forces of those countries. The 
provisions of the agreement pertain to the duties, 
rank, and precedence of the liaison officers. 



76 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



U.S.-Costa Rican Tuna Convention 
Transmitted to the Senate 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith 
a convention between the United States of America 
and Costa Rica for the establishment of an Inter- 
American Tropical Tuna Commission, signed at 
Washington May 31, 1949. 

I transmit also, for the information of the 
Senate, the report which the Acting Secretary of 
State has addressed to fne in regard to this con- 
vention.^ 

The purpose of this convention has my approval 
and I recommend the convention to the favorable 
consideration of the Senate. 

H.vRKT S. Truman 

The White House, 
June 22, 191,9. 



Tariff Rates on Potatoes From Cuba 
Amended 

[Released to the press June SO] 

Pursuant to the Cuban request announced by 
the Department of State on June 11, 1949,* the 
United States, Canada, and Cuba have renego- 
tiated the Cuban tariff rate on potatoes at the third 
session of the Contracting Parties to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt) now 
being held at iVnnecy, France, and have agreed on 
certain changes in the Cuban rates. 

Effective July 1, the duty on potatoes imported 
into Cuba from the United States during July 
will be increased by $1 per hundred kilograms, 
bringing the total duty to $3. In return, a re- 
duction of $1 per hundred kilograms will be 
made on potatoes shipped to Cuba during October 
and November, making the rates $1 instead of $2 
during October and $3 instead of $4 during No- 
vember. These changes in the Cuban preferen- 
tial tariff schedule (schedule IX, part 2 of Gatt) 
were negotiated by the United States delegation. 

Similar changes were agreed to between the 
Cuban and the Canadian delegations at Annecy, 
and corresponding adjustments will be made in 
the Cuban general tariff schedule (schedule IX, 
part 1 of Gatt). These changes will also become 
effective on July 1, 1949. 

' Not printed. 

' Bulletin of June 19, 1949, p. 803. 



Jo/y 78, J 949 



Excliange of Visitors Witii Latin 
America 

Venezuelan Treasury Officials 

Antonio Delgado Gomez, Secretary of the Tariff 
Classification Board, and Pablo Romero Diaz, 
Consultant to the Commission for Financial and 
Administrative Studies, both of the Ministry of 
the Treasury of Venezuela, have arrived in Wash- 
ington for a 2-month visit for the purpose of con- 
sulting with officials of the Bureau of the Budget 
and attending the special training course to be 
given by the Bureau in June. Their visit has been 
arranged in cooperation with the Bureau of the 
Budget. 

Argentine Editor-Publisher 

Roberto Jorge Noble, editor and publisher of 
Clarin, one of Buenos Aires leading daily news- 

Eapers, has been invited by the Department of 
tate to visit the United States for three months 
to study modern trends in the field of journalism. 
Dr. Noble, who is scheduled to arrive in Wash- 
ington the first of July, plans to visit New York, 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, 
Philadelphia, and other cities during his stay in 
the United States. 

Haitian Entomologist-Zoologist 

Leonce Bonnefil, Chief of the Section of Zoology 
and Entomology, Department of Agriculture, 
Haiti, has arrived in Washington for a three- 
months visit in the United States for the purpose 
of studying problems of fish and wildlife conser- 
vation. He is especially interested in studying 
the hunting laws of this country as a preliminary 
step in a proposed plan for formulating similar 
laws for Haiti. His visit has been made possible 
through a grant-in-aid from the Department of 
State awarded in cooperation with the Fish and 
Wildlife Service of the Department of the 
Interior. 



Communications Engineer To Visit Argentina 

Leo L. Beranek, Associate Professor of Engi- 
neering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
has been awarded a grant-in-aid to enable him to 
accept an invitation to lecture on electro-acoustics 
at the Institute of Radio Technology, Buenos 
Aires, during June, July, and August. 

Agricultural Economist Visits El Salvador 

William E. Schenk, Associate Professor of Eco- 
nomics, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, has been awarded a grant-in-aid to enable 
him to serve for a year as visiting professor at 
the University of El Salvador. Professor Schenk 
left Washington for San Salvador on June 4. 

77 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Reorganization Clianges 

[Released to the press July 8] 

Effective immediately, the Secretary of State 
has reassigned responsihility for several existing 
areas of the Department to Assistant Secretaries. 
Appointments as Deputy Assistant Secretary and 
Executive Director have also been made. They 
are: 
Ofjlce of European Affairs 

George W. Perkins, Assistant Secretary for European 

Afffiirs 
Llewellyn E. Thompson, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
Arthur G. Stevens, Executive Director 

Office of Near East and African Affairs 

George C. McGhee, Assistant Secretary for Near East 

and African Affairs 
Raymond A. Hare, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
John W. Jago, Executive Director 

Office of American Republic Affairs 

Edward G. Miller, Jr., Assistant Secretary for American 

Republic Affairs 
Willard P. Barber, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
William P. Hughes, Executive Director 

Office of United Nations Affairs 

John D. Hickerson, Assistant Secretary for International 

Organization Affairs 
Durward V. Sandifer, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
Calvin J. Nichols, Executive Director 

Messrs. Perkins and Hickerson are on leave, and 
their deputies will act in their absence. 

In addition to their responsibilities for the 
above activities, the Assistant Secretaries will 
work with the Deputy Under Secretary for Ad- 
ministration, John E. Peurifoy, to carry out 
the approved plan of reorganization for the 
Department. 



Confirmations 

On June 23, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nominations 
of John D. Hickerson, George C. McGhee, Edward G. 
Miller, Jr., and George W. Perkins to be Assistant Secre- 
taries ; George F. Kennan to be Counselor ; and Adrian S. 
Fisher to be Legal Adviser of the Department of State. 
The oaths of office were administered by Stanley Wood- 
ward, Chief of Protocol on June 28. 

On June 13, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of John J. McCloy to be United States High Commis- 
sioner for Germany and Chief of Mission. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

On July 5, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Mrs. Perle Mesta to be American Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary to Luxembourg. 

On July 8, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Jefferson Caffery to be American Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary to Egypt. 

On June 13, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Milton Katz to be Deputy United States special repre- 
sentative in Europe, with the rank of Ambassador Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary. 

On June 23, 1949, the Senate confirmed the nominations 
of Joseph Plack, George P. Shaw and Christian M. Kavn- 
dal to be American Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plen- 
ipotentiary to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Uruguay, re- 
si)ectively. 



Appointment of Officers 

On June 30, the White House announced the resignation 
of Stanton GriflSs as United States Ambassador to Egypt 
effective June 30, 1949. For the texts of Mr. Griffis' 
letter to tlie President and the President's reply, see 
Wliite House press release of June 30, 1949. 

President Truman has named Jefferson Caffery, former 
Ambassador to Finance, to succeed Mr. Griffis. The Presi- 
dent sent the nomination to the Senate on June 30, for 
confirmation. 



Appointment of Officers 

On July 7 the White House announced the resignation 
of Richard Porter Butrick as United States Minister to 
Iceland to accept the po.sition of Director General of the 
Foreign Service. Mr. Butrick will transfer to Washing- 
ton to replace Christian M. Ravndal, who was recently 
named tlie new United States Ambassador to Uruguay. 
In his new duties, Mr. Butrick will serve as staff ad- 
viser to Deputy Under Secretary John E. Peurifoy on 
matters pertaining to the administration and organization 
of the Foreign Service. 

Rex E. Greaves as Executive Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary for Congressional Relations, effective May 26, 
1949. 

78 



Embassy and Consular Offices 

The oflice at Poznan, Poland, was raised to the rank 
of Consulate, eft'ective June 6, 1949. This is in accord- 
ance with the Department's policy of eliminating tlie post 
category of Vice Consulate. 

The office at Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, was raised to 
the rank of Consulate, effective May 16, 1949, in accord- 
ance with Departmental policy of eliminating tlie post 
category of Vice Consulate. 

The ofl3ce at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was raised to the 
rank of Embassy, effective June 28, 1949. 

Department of State Bulletin 



PUBLICATIONS 



Booklet on Exchange of Persons Released 

[Released to the press July 6] 

The Department of State announced on July 6 
the release of a 72-page booklet entitled Building 
Roads to Peace. 

The publication is designed to show the average 
citizen how he as an individual or a member of 
an organization can best further the exchange of 
students, teachers, and other leaders between the 
United States and other countries as a means of 
promoting mutual understanding among the 
peoples of the world. Such private exchange pro- 
grams are encouraged by the Department of State 
as implementing the aims of the United States 
Government's program of educational exchange 
and those of international organizations such as 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (Unesco). 

In discussing the publication of Building Roads 
to Peace George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary for 
Public Affairs, said : 

"I know from the thousands of letters and in- 
quiries which come to my area of the Department 
how keenly interested the American public is in 
promoting peace through personal contacts with 
the peoples of other lands. I hope that this hand- 
book will provide a practical guide to the many 
people who wish to take advantage of these oppor- 
tunities themselves or who desire to help others 
to do so." 

The booklet was prepared by the Institute of 
International Education for the OfBce of Educa- 
tional Exchange of the Department of State. 
Copies of the booklet may be obtained from the 
Division of Publications, Department of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, Oovernment 
Printing Office, Wasli,ington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may be obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Proceedings of the International Civil Aviation Con- 
ference, Chicago, Illinois, November 1-December 7, 1944. 

International Organization and Conference Series IV, In- 
ternational Civil Aviation Organization 3. Pub. 2820. In 
two volumes : vol. I, 774 pp. ; vol. II, 774-1509 pp. $2.50 
(Buckram) each. 

Complete list of all documents issued at the Confer- 
ence with specific references to those that have been 

July 18, 1949 



tensive index to both volumes follows at the end of 
vol. II. 

Military Obligations of Certain Persons Having Dual 
Nationality. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1876. Pub. 3435. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and France 
Superseding Agreement of Feb. 25, 194S— Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Paris Dec. 22, 1948 ; 
entered into force Dec. 22, 1948. 

International Labor Organization: Amendment of the 
Constitution. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 1868. Pub. 3436. 104 pp. 250. 

Instrument of Amendment adopted at Montreal, Oct. 
9, 1940, by tlie General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization — Acceptance by the United 
States deposited with the International Labor Office, 
Aug. 2, 1948. 

United States Educational Commission for France. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1877. Pub 
3439. 11 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and France — 
Signed at Paris Oct. 22, 1948 ; entered into force Nov. 
18, 1948. 

Recruitment of Voluntary Labor for France in the United 
States Zone of Germany. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 1878. Pub. 3444. 5 pp. 5(t. 

Agreement between the United States and France — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Paris Oct. 
25, 1947 ; entered into force Oct. 25, 1947. 

Mineral Resources: Cooperative Survey Program in 
Brazil. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1880. Pub. 3448. 10 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Rio de Janeiro 
Nov. 26, 1948 ; entered into force Nov. 26, 1948. 

Germany: Economic Fusion of American and British 
Zones of Occupation. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1883. Pub. 3456. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ex- 
tending the Agreement of Dec. 2, 1946, as amended— 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
Dec. 31, 1948 ; entered into force Dec. 31, 1948. 

Trade: Application of Most-Favored-Nation Treatment to 
Areas of Western Germany Under Occupation or Control. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1886 Pub 
3460. 11pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Other Gov- 
ernments, Western Germany— Dated at Geneva Sept. 
14, 1948 ; entered into force, with respect to the United 
States, Oct. 14, 1948. 

Passport Visas: Waiver for American Citizens and Ex- 
tension of Period of Validity for Belgian Citizens 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1891 Pub' 
3468. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium 

Effected by exchange of notes dated at Washington 
Oct. 12 and 26, 1948 ; entered into force Oct. 26, 1948. 

Army Mission to Colombia. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 1892. Pub. 3469. 12 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Colombia- 
Signed at Washington Feb. 21, 1949; entered into force 
Feb. 21, 1949. 



79 




'-,r!9iJi'«y.-H-:ig-'' 



Economic Affairs Pago 

Employment of Foreign Workers in United 

States Agriculture. By Daniel Goott ... 43 

United States Participation in Pan American 
Railway Congress Association. By H. H. 
Kelly 49 

First Session International Wheat Council . . 52 

American Nationals Holding Bank Deposits 
in Bulgaria Should Communicate With 
Department of State 71 

Expedition to Joint Weather Stations in Cana- 
dian Arctic 76 

Treaty information 

U.S.-U.K. Fusion-Agreement Extended. Ex- 
change of Notes 69 

Agreement by U.S., France, U.K., and Poland 
on Distribution of Monetary Gold Looted 
by Germany 71 

International Wheat Agreement Enters Into 

Force 75 

Inter-American Juridical Committee Member 

Appointed 76 

Air Force Mission Agreement With Mexico . . 76 

U.S.-Costa Rican Tuna Convention Transmit- 
ted to the Senate 77 

Tariff Rates on Potatoes From Cuba Amended. 77 

Tlie Congress 

Senate Debate on the North Atlantic Treaty: 
Excerpts From Statement by Senator Tom 

Connally 53 

Excerpts From Statement by Senator Arthur 

H. Vandenberg 61 

Occupation IVIatters 

U.S.-U.K. Fusion Agreement Extended. Ex- 
change of Notes ... 69 



Generai Poiicy Psge 

Draft International Technical Cooperation Act 

of 1949 72 

New Unified State of Vietnam Formed ... 75 
Inter-American Juridical Committee Member 

Appointed 76 

Tlie United Nations and 
Speclaiized Agencies 

The United States in the United Nations ... 47 
U. N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography . 71 

The Department 

Reorganization Changes 78 

Appointment of Officers 78 

Confirmations 78 

Tlie Foreign Service 

Confirmations 78 

Appointment of Officers 78 

Embassy and Consular Offices 78 

internationai Information and 
Cultural Affairs 

Research and Teaching Opportunities: 

Netherlands and Norway 74 

United Kingdom 74 

Exchange of Visitors With Latin America: 

Venezuelan Treasury Officials 77 

Argentine Editor-Publisher 77 

Haitian Entomologist-Zoologist 77 

Communications Engineer to visit Argentina . 77 

Agricultural Economist Visits El Salvador . 77 

Publications 

Booklet on Exchange of Persons Released . . 79 
Recent Releases 79 



%<>rdnmd(yy^ 



Daniel Ooott, author of the article on EJmployment of Foreign 
Workers in United States Agriculture, is an International Labor 
Economist in the Division of International Labor and Social 
Affairs, Office of International Trade Policy, Department of 
State. 

H. H. Kelly, author of the article on United States Participa- 
tion in Pan American Railway Congress Association, is Assistant 
Director of the Office of Transport and Communications, Depart- 
ment of State. Mr. Kelly served as Adviser on the United States 
Commission to this meeting. 



U. S. COVERHHEHT PRINTINS OFFICE: t94S 



^Ae^ ^eha/y^tm0ni/ ^ trtaie^ 




LABOR POLICY IN JAPAN • Statement by Major General 

Frank R. McCoy ..< 107 



VENEZUELA— "LITTLE VENICE" OF SOUTH 

AMERICA • Article by John L. Mats 86 



RADIO IN U.S. ZONE OF GERMANY • ArticU by Ruby 

A. Parson, Information Services Division, OMGVS .... 83 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXI, No. 525 
July 25, 1949 




^e~T o» 




***n» <" ' 



\/Ae 



zlJefia/y^merU ^^ i/ia^ VJ H X 1 \j L X 1 x 



Vol. XXI, No. 525 • Publicatiow 3588 
July 25, 1949 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Oflice 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peick: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (February 18, 1940). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
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United States is or may become a 
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Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
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currently. 






RADIO IN U.S. ZONE OF GERMANY 



Stations Achieving Independence 



Buiy A. Parson, Deputy Chief, Radio Branch Information Services Division, OMGTJS 



With the turnover of Radio Stuttgart to Ger- 
man management on June 30, one of the major 
tasks of the occupation in the information field 
■went into its final phase. Independent commu- 
nity radio ■will have been established by law in 
every state of the US Zone, with German man- 
agement in control. American radio officers will 
continue liaison with the stations only as consult- 
ants and observers to watch the progress of free, 
democratic radio in the new Germany. 

Some of these Americans are the same men who 
came into Germany with the army and began the 
work of rebuilding German radio while battles 
were still being fought. It was imperative then 
to get radio going as a medium through which oc- 
cupation officials could reach the German people 
with instruction and information. There was no 
time for leisurely surveys, planning and construc- 
tion. 

The radio teams who came in with the US Army 
moved first to locate the former German stations 
and decide what could be done with them. Some 
of them they found without difficulty in various 
stages of damage from total destruction to "ex- 
tensive but superficial damage." 

The studio building of Radio Munich, for in- 
stance, was bombed out, without windows and roof 
and with all the delicate studio equipment shat- 
tered. The transmitter, however, was found some 
15 miles out of town, virtually undamaged. The 
US radio men wheeled up a portable studio van, 



'Reprinted from Information Bulletin of U.S. Military 
Government in Germany, July 12, 1949. 

My 25, 1949 



built for use by the Psychological Warfare Divi- 
sion, SHEAF, got the lines to the transmitter 
hooked up and in two days Radio Munich was 
on the air. 

There was somewhat similar luck at Stuttgart 
where the transmitter, also located out of the city 
was found with "extensive but superfieial dam- 
age" and was quickly patched and restored to 
use. Once again, however, the studios were gone. 
They had been stripped first by the Germans as 
they got out and then taken over as a bivouac by 
Moroccan occupation troops. Nothing but the 
walls was left. 

So another army studio van was brought up 
for use and '45 old timers at Radio Stuttgart like 
to tell now how at one time they had developed 
the technique of jackknifing performers into this 
cell-like studio until they managed a broadcast 
with 16 participants in the 6-by-8-foot box. That, 
they agreed, was the full capacity. Today Radio 
Stuttgart has modern roomy studios not only at 
Stuttgart but at Heidelberg as well. 

Radio for Frankfurt proved the knottiest prob- 
lem. For a time, the former studios couldn't be 
found at all. After several months they were 
discovered buried under the ruins of what had 
been the office building of the radio station. To- 
day that studio building has been restored and 
is in full use, although at first, studios were im- 
provised in a house in Bad Nauheim. 

The transmitter in the meantime had been lo- 
cated but it lay in jagged ruins. No amoimt of 
improvising with string, wire and scrounged 

83 



equipment would put that together again. So this 
time a mobile transmitter was moved in — a United 
States one kilowatt transmitter built on six vans. 
This was later supplemented with a powerful 
sender which had been installed in a train for pro- 
jected use by the German army. The latter is still 
in use at Radio Frankfurt and is emitting 60 kilo- 
watts, 18 hours a day. 

So the three big stations in the US Zone grew 
up out of war ruins. Today they are modern, 
smoothly operating installations, each with more 
broadcast power than any individual transmitter 
in the United States. A smaller station also was 
set up under US auspices to service the state of 
Bremen. And at the same time, RIAS — Radio in 
American Sector, Berlin ^ was being developed 
from its modest Drahtfunk (wire service) begin- 
ning into the powerful multiple transmitter sta- 
tion which is now the only remaining MG sta- 
tion and the only United States outlet in "iron 
curtain" country. 

These are the foreshortened facts of the phy- 
sical reconstruction of radio in the US Zone of 
Germany. The full story, which could fill a book 
and probably will one day, is a saga of scroung- 
ing, adapting, improvising and getting on with 
a big job. It has been a new kind of American 
pioneering, with German help. 

In this hurly-burly of repair and construction, 
the major task of radio — the reorientation of a 
demoralized people — went forward. Originally 
all stations were manned with German-speaking 
Americans, but very early in the occupation began 
the task of training German newscasters and an- 
nouncers. (No one worried about entertainment 
in those days.) The problem was where to find 
Germans with some radio experience, but politi- 
cally unobjectionable. 

There was no desire to go back into business 
with the Goebbels clan but obviously unless a radio 
man belonged to that persuasion he hadn't been 
getting any experience in radio in Germany in 
the last dozen years. Many came, protested purity 
and were hired. Almost as many, as quickly 
as their Fragebogen (political questionnaires) 
were received, were fired again. For a time it 
was 100 percent turnover with the American 
radio team scrambling to gain a little ground — 
and staflF. 



' See "RIAS" in Information Bulletin, Issue No. 146, 
Oct. 19, 1948. 



Eventually the new German news and commen- 
tators' staffs were built up largely of men and 
women without previous experience in these fields. 
Even so they have been trained by experienced 
American news and radio men serving with mili- 
tary government and are now stout champions 
of objective news presentation, of freedom of the 
air for all responsible opinions, of on-the-spot 
broadcasting of community activities and of in- 
dependent radio stations. 

These men and women are perhaps the most 
important product of four years of occupation in 
radio. They must constitute the nucleus of future 
free radio, taking the place of tradition, profes- 
sional books and college courses in educating the 
next crop of radio workers in the democratic con- 
cept of free information. 

An attempt has been made to write the free, 
independent character of these stations into law. 
With the encouragement of American Military 
Government, each state has adopted a radio law 
which sets up a public radio council to be respon- 
sible for broadcasting. The laws all aim to keep 
the council free from domination by government 
or any special interest and to provide full repre- 
sentation of all the significant elements of com- 
munity life — politics, culture, religion, agricul- 
ture, industry, labor and special youths' and 
women's groups. 

Broadcasting codes stipulate the obligation to 
present news objectively and to afford equable air- 
time for divergent views on public matters. With 
reservations only to protect the security of occu- 
pying powers and to prevent advocacy of militant 
nationalism or totalitarianism, commentators are 
assured the right to air their views. Thus a legal 
skeleton for free radio has been provided. 
Wliether or not it takes on flesh and blood depends, 
of course, on how much value is placed on free- 
dom of expression by the Germans themselves and 
how vigilant minorities will be to protect their 
legally granted rights. 

The "community" character of radio has like- 
wise been given a legal basis in the laws enacted 
in the US Zone. Since the first days of the occu- 
pation, it has been the goal of American Military 
Government, to see established a decentralized 
broadcasting system which would be difficult for a 
central regime to seize, as the Nazis did, for a 
one-voiced propaganda instrument. 

Ideally, from an American point of view, there 
should be numerous, independently-owned sta- 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



tions. Bvit )ip to now this has not been possible in 
postwar Germany. In addition to the difficulty of 
securing equipment and the expense of operating 
individual stations, the basic limiting factor has 
been and will continue to be shortage of frequen- 
cies. Establishment of state stations consumed all 
frequencies available and there is furthermore 
some question if all of these wavelengths can be 
retained. 

The Copenhagen conference on European fre- 
quencies held last simimer proposed drastic cuts in 
the facilities now in use in Germany. The United 
States entered into the record a formal reservation 
stating it would not be bound by this agreement 
threatening the high-powei'ed transmitters in the 
US occupation areas in Germany. 

While holding firmly to the reservation and 
making no preparations to conform with the Co- 
penhagen agi'eement, US radio officials have en- 
couraged the development of Frequency Modula- 
tion as the only solution of the frequency shortage 
problem. US-sponsored stations are already op- 
erating experimental FM transmitters to test their 
suitability for wide use and German manufactur- 
ers are studying the prospects for providing both 
transmitters and receivers necessary for such de- 
velopment. If this is the turn German radio 
takes, it opens the possibility of expanding and 
diversifying the present radio setup along a num- 
ber of lines, including that of financing. 

At present, German stations with the exception 
of those in Berlin are financed by the collection of 
listener fees as is customary in European coim- 
tries. This fee system is conducted on a state basis 
and the public radio council in each state admin- 
isters the funds for radio uses. It is apparent that 
such a system, while it has ardent proponents in 
Europe and has worked out admirably in many 
cases as the British Broadcasting Company 
(BBC), lacks the incentive which is provided by 
commercial competition in American radio. 

It is too early to say if commercial radio will 
ever come to Germany. "With Frequency Modula- 
tion opening up more frequencies, perhaps it will 
be possible to grant licenses to small commercial 
stations which will furnish competition to the state 
radio system and to each other. There is consid- 
erable interest evident among Germans anxious to 
experiment in such a venture. 

There is also a constant stream of requests for 
installations to be subsidized and used by special 



: 



July 25, 1949 



groups, i. e. labor, political parties, religious or- 
ganizations, etc. These requests have been re- 
fused by Military Government, which still retains 
responsibility for frequency allocation, because of 
the lack of frequencies and the feeling that if one 
or two low power channels should become avail- 
able, so powerful an advantage should not be given 
to any one special interest. 

If however, commercial radio does become feasi- 
ble in Germany through development in FM, it 
will not only offer the advantage of opening up the 
field to a "multiplicity of voices" but will probably 
be regulated under the public radio council to serve 
the general public interest. These, however, are 
still questions of the future. 

At present, Americans who work in the field of 
radio feel that there is considerable ground for 
satisfaction with the progress that has been made 
in four years toward sound, democratic radio in 
the US Zone of Germany. (There is no illusion, 
however, that it has the stability, the toughness 
and the deep roots which support the structure of 
free radio in the United States.) The present 
staff's are those who have been schooled with West- 
ern democratic concepts of free expression. An 
attempt has been made in these years also to edu- 
cate the community to what it should demand of 
its radio station. And courees of indoctrination 
were jjrovided for newly-elected members of the 
public radio councils. 

As a result of these measures and probably be- 
cause of some genuine German desire and respect 
for unrestricted information, free radio is operat- 
ing well and apparently with public approval. 
Nevertheless, there are occasional signals of future 
problems, such as a high German official requesting 
that a commentator be prohibited from criticizing 
a current policy of the government. "We might 
want to change this policy," he explained, "and we 
wouldn't want it to appear that we had done so as 
the result of public pressure." 

But that incident reveals a basic weakness in the 
German attitude that affects much more than mer- 
ely democratic radio. On the other hand it is 
known that one German commentator, vigorous 
and effective in his attacks on Communism, stub- 
bornly remains on the air though one member of 
his family in the East Zone has been imprisoned 
as a result and he himself has been both threatened 
and offered bribes to stop his broadcasts. 
(Continued on page 115) 

85 



VENEZUELA: "LITTLE VENICE" OF SOUTH AMERICA 



J>y John L. Mutz 



On May 14, 1948, the Commissioner of Rec- 
lamation forwarded a letter to "All Regional 
Directors" advising that the Department of State 
had received a request from the Venezuelan Am- 
bassador, Seiior Dr. Gonzalo Carnevali, for the 
services of an engineer. The assignment would 
be for a period of 2 months ; the purpose to assist 
in the study and determination of the most ade- 
quate and economical method for the conservation 
and maintenance of canals in his country and to aid 
in the selection of the type of equipment and ma- 
chinery required in connection therewith. 

The author was selected for the assignment and 
arrived at Caracas, Venezuela, on October 29, 1948. 

As is the case with many "Norte Americanos," I 
had only a very general conception of what lay 
ahead because, after all, is not Venezuela in the 
tropics and is it not a country of plentiful rainfall 
where bananas, coifee, sugar cane, and other crops 
requiring rather moist conditions are grown? 
Also, does not the name Venezuela mean "Little 
Venice," which in itself implies many lakes, which 
exist only where there is ample precipitation? 

Venezuela is a country of many contrasts and 
only two well defined seasons. The annual pre- 
cipitation varies from 10 inches along the northern 
seacoast to 140 inches in some of the jungle areas 
in the southern part of the country. It has a 
definitely dry season known as "Verano" and a 
wet season known as "Invierno." The wet season 
is from April to October, and the dry season is 
from November through March. In many areas 
there are extended periods during which the rain- 
fall is less than 0.2 of an inch. Because of this low 
rainfall, a plant for distilling fresh water from sea 
water is being constructed on the Peninsula de 



Paraguana by the Caribbean Oil Company, in 
connection with a refinery it is building. Fresh 
water shortage also is a problem on the island of 
Margarita, located off the northeast coast of Ven- 
ezuela and noted for its pearls and native artwork. 
Here, water is provided by tankers from the main- 
land. With a 12-month growing season and er- 
ratic precipitation, it was evident immediately 
why there is a need for irrigation in Venezuela. 

The country has a total area of 352,000 square 
miles with a population of 3,500,000. The area is 
slightly less than that contained in the states of 
Texas and New Mexico and has a population 
density about that of Colorado. Nearly two- 
thirds of the country is mountainous, leaving only 
one-third which is sufficiently level for farming. 

The Venezuelan Government is well supplied 
with funds derived largely from its fabulous oil 
resources — and it has the world's greatest oil pro- 
ducing reserve. The Government has recognized 
the need for developing the irrigation potential- 
ities and is now pursuing a well-planned course 
of action in carrying out a much needed irrigated 
agricultural program by using funds which are 
obtained from a fifty-fifty split of the oil produced. 

During the past 8 years a niunber of American 
technicians have been employed to aid in develop- 
ing Venezuelan irrigated agriculture. Among 
them are W. L. Powers, Department of Soils, Ore- 
gon State College; J. B. Bond, consulting engi- 
neer; A. W. Newcomer, Bureau of Reclamation; 
and M. R. Lewis. Many Venezuelans have visited 
the United States to study our irrigation and con- 
servation methods. Some of whom are Dr. Gus- 
tavo Padilla, chief of the Division of Agroecono- 
mica ; Pedro Castillo, head of operation and main- 



66 



Deparfmen/ of Sfafe Bulletin 



tenance; and Henry Delgado, head of conserva- 
tion, all in the Ministry of Public Works. 

The Venezuelans have made detailed and semi- 
detailed land classification studies on several hun- 
dred thousand acres of land, and interestingly 
enough the Bureau of Reclamation standards are 
used as well as its Land Classification Manual. 

The table below lists the projects completed 
by the Government, those under construction, and 
some of those under study. 

The crops which are and can be grown are 
numerous. In part they are bananas (about 14 
varieties), sugar cane, coffee, corn, tobacco, cot- 
ton, rice, many citrus fruits, practically all types 
of vegetables, with the exception of head lettuce, 
and many tropical fruits and vegetables such as, 
oyster plant, soursop (the fruit is pear-shaped 
with a slightly acid, fibrous pulp), guava, sapo- 
dilla (its latex yields chicle and the fruit has a 
sweet brownish pulp), avocado, mango, papaya 
(oblong fruit has a pulpy flesh eaten raw, but is 
boiled and used as vegetable), cacao, and bread 
fruit. 

In addition to the work undertaken directly 
by the Venezuelan Government in the production 



of food, the Venezuela Basic Economy Corpora- 
tion has been established by Nelson Rockefeller. 
This corporation obtains conti'ibutions from Cre- 
ole, Caribbean, and Mene Grande Oil Companies 
for the production and distribution of fish, poultry, 
cattle, and agi'icultural products. 

The particular purpose of this visit in Venezuela 
was to assist in determining the proper type and 
amount of equipment required to mechanize the 
operation and maintenance of the irrigation proj- 
ects of Tuy, Suata, San Carlos, Cumana, and El 
Cenizo in order to reduce the operation and main- 
tenance costs. Contracts have been made between 
the national government and individual land 
owners within the irrigation projects for the re- 
imbursement of construction costs and payment of 
operation and maintenance costs. As the main- 
tenance is largely accomplished by hand labor, 
the cost is now running between 65 and 90 bolivares 
(a bolivar is worth about 30^) per hectare, or be- 
tween $8.00 and $11.00 per acre. At the same 
time, the operation and maintenance contract in 
one case provides for a payment of 12 bolivares 

{Continued on page 118) 



July 25, 1949 



Name 


Location 


Acres 


Type of works 


Construction: 

Tuy 


Miranda 


3,700 
8,500 

12, 000 
6,200 

63, 700 


Direct diversion. 


Suata 


Aragua 


Storage. 


San Carlos 


Cojedes 


Direct diversion. 


Cumana 

Guanare 


Sucre 

Portuguesa 


Direct diversion. 
Dii-ect diversion. 


Subtotal 


34, 100 






Aragua 




Under construction: 

Taguaiguai 


22, 000 
7,500 

20, 000 
3,500 


Off-stream storage. 


Guataparo 

El Cenizo 


Carabobo 

Trujillo 

Anzoatequi 


Storage. 

Direct diversion. 


Neveri 


Du"ect diversion. 


Subtotal 


53, 000 






Lara 

TrujUlo 




Under study: 

Carora 

El Cenizo 


15,000 
200, 000 


Direct diversion. 
Storage. 


Subtotal 


215,000 










Total 


302, 100 









87 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Excerpts From Comparative Review of Activities and Woric Programmes of the 
U.N. and tlie Specialized Agencies in tlie Economic and Social Fields 



submitted hy the Secretary-General 



U.N. doc. E/1351 
Dated June 7, 1949 

PART I 
Introduction 

A Comparative Review of the Activities and 
Work Programmes of the United Nations and the 
Specialized Agencies in the Economic and Social 
Fields (E/848 and E/848/Add. 1) was presented 
to the seventh session of the Economic and Social 
Council in accordance with a proposal made by the 
Administrative Committee on Co-ordination at its 
third session.^ 

The twofold purpose of the review was stated 
as follows : 

1. to assist the Economic and Social Council, 
under General Assembly resolution 125 (II) "to 
give constant attention to the factor of the relative 
priority of proposals, and to consider as a matter 
of urgency the further steps which should be taken 
to develop effective co-ordination of the pro- 
grammes of the United Nations and its subsidiary 
organs on the one hand and the specialized agen- 
cies on the other" : 



[Editor's Note; Part II of the review includes an 
analytical outline of the principal questions in the eco- 
nomic and social fields and the worlj of the U.N. and 
specialized agencies related to each ; Part III is made up 
of three annexes, including documents, resolutions, and 
organizational structure of the agencies and the U.N. 
commissions and departments included in the review.] 

' Second report of the Co-ordination Committee to the 
Economic and Social Council, E/625, chapter V. The new 
title of this committee. Administrative Committee on Co- 
ordination, was adopted at its sixth session, Nov. 12, 1&48, 
(see E/1076, p. 3). 



"to promote the most efficient and practical use 
of the resources of the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies by recommendations concern- 
ing the definition of responsibility for specific 
projects and concerning priorities for action"; 

2. to assist the Co-ordination Committee, under 
Economic and Social Council resolution 128 (VI) 
"to draw the attention of the Council to any appar- 
ent overlapping or duplication of activities of the 
United Nations and of the specialized agencies in 
the economic, social, cultural, educational, health 
and related fields" ; 

The Council at its seventh session ^ considered 
the review and agreed that the Secreary-General 
should prepare the Comparative Review for the 
ninth session in a smilar form as a reference 
document, with an indication of priorities, where- 
ever possible, specific questions requiring the 
special attention of the Council to be treated in 
separate documents. 

This Comparative Review is based ' primarily on 
the statements regarding work programmes in 
(a) the reports of the specialized agencies sub- 
mitted in pursuance of the agreements between the 
United Nations and the specialized agencies, (b) 
the reports of the Commissions of the Economic 
and Social Council'' and (c) the report of the 
Secretary-General on the Work Programmes of 
the Commissions of the Council 1919 and 1950 



" Report of the Economic and Social Council to the 
General Assembly, A/625, pp. 69 and 70. 

3 See annex I for a list of documents used in the prepara- 
tion of this review. 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



(E/13-i4 and E/1344/Add. 1) .* This information 
has been supplemented by material from the Cata- 
logue of Economic aivd Social Projects, from 
budget statements supplied by some of the agencies 
and from other documents dealing with specific 
subjects and with inter-relationships of the United 
Nations and specialized agencies. Representa- 
tives of specialized agencies have also supplied 
additional information and informal memoranda 
and have given innumerable suggestions regarding 
the interpretation and organization of the material. 

A comparison of the work programmes of the 
various commissions and specialized agencies is 
difficult, parti}' because the information provided 
in tlieir reports to the Council is not comparable. 

The agencies are requested in Council resolution 
128 (VI) to provide in their reports an account of 

(a) activities of the agency for the past year, in- 
cluding conferences and meetings, actions taken 
(conventions, recommendations, expert assistance 
rendered, studies and publications), and relations 
with United Nations and its various organs, mat- 
ters referred by agencies to United Nations, par- 
ticipation in meetings and co-operative projects, 

(b) activities and work progrannnes for the cur- 
rent calendar year, including the items mentioned 
above, and an indication of priorities, if any, or 
major modifications of previously submitted work 
programmes, and (c) as far as possible, an account 
of the proposed activities and work programmes 
for the subsequent year. 

Concerning the Commissions of the Council and 
the Divisions of the Economic and Social Council, 
the same resolution requests from the Secretary- 
General an account of the current work pro- 
grammes, with a description, where applicable, of 
their relationship to similar activities carried on 
by the specialized agencies and by other organs of 
the United Nations. 

Thus the periods of time to be covered in the 
various reports are not specified in comparable 
terms. Furthermore the reports of the agencies 
deal largely with past activities and vary greatly in 
the extent to which they meet the Council's re- 
quest for information in terms of the current calen- 
dar year, and of the subsequent year, or distinguish 
clearly among completed, continuing or future ac- 
tivities. The reports of the commissions review 
the activities of the past year but they, as well as 
the work programmes of the Commissions and cor- 
responding secretariat divisions," present outlines 

*Note: Since a nuinbpr of the commissions do not com- 
plete their sessions and submit their reports until shortly 
before the opening of the ninth session of the Council, the 
report listed under (c) and the final version of this review 
(to be issued as E/1351/Rev. 1) cannot be completed until 
early in July. 

• E/1344 and E/1344/Add. 1. 

My 25, 1949 



of work somewhat generally in terms of 1949 and 

1950. 

The Administrative Committee on Co-ordina- 
tion in its report to the seventh session of the Coun- 
cil " stated that in the Comparative Review special 
attention would be devoted to the future work pro- 
grammes contained in the reports of the various 
agencies and to the information available concern- 
ing any priorities within agencies. This review, 
therefore, does not describe the 1948 activities re- 
ported by the agencies, United Nations Commis- 
sions and divisions of the secretariat, except when 
these past activities are part of a continuing pro- 
gramme. It is concerned with 1949 and 1950, in- 
cluding all continuing work and new work in pro- 
gress or to be undertaken during those periods. 

The Commissions of the Council, like the spe- 
cialized agencies, are requested in section D of 
Council resolution 128 (VI) "to establish prior- 
ities of work, in their respective programmes, based 
on the urgency and importance of projects in ful- 
filling the purposes of Article 55 of the Charter and 
to indicate these priorities in their reports to the 
Council." 

Again the agencies and the Commissions vary in 
their interpretation and application of the term 
"priorities." In some work programmes priori- 
ties or major emphases are indicated in terms of 
broad divisions of their respective total fields ; in 
others priorities are expressed in terms of specific 
projects within each division of the over-all pro- 
gramme. 

In the following sections of this review the 
manner in which each agency or commission has 
dealt with the problem of priorities will be briefly 
described and the general areas or specific projects 
selected for special emphasis will be indicated. 

General Review of Programmes and Priorities 

A. UNITED NATIONS COMMISSIONS AND DIVISIONS 

A final statement regarding the programmes 
and priorities of all the United Nations commis- 
sions and divisions cannot be made at this time 
because the reports of several commissions which 
have recently met are not yet available and other 
commissions have not yet had their pre-council 
session. For the convenience of Council Mem- 
bers, this document, though necessarily incom- 
plete, is being circulated before the opening of the 
ninth session of the Council and a revision of this 
document including changes, wlien necessary, and 
new information not now available will be dis- 
tributed at the beginning of the ninth session. 

Since the work programmes of the Commissions 
of the Council and the Economic and Social Af- 
fairs Departments will be found in the Secretary- 
General's report, E/1344, the following para- 
graphs will only review briefly the information 
now at hand on the manner in which certain com- 
missions deal with priorities. 



• E/846, p. 6. 



89 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



1. Transport and Communications Commission 

and Division 
The Transport and Communications Commis- 
sion at its third session refrained from trying to 
establisli an order of priority among the various 
matters on its work programme as this was not 
considered practicable.' Tlie difficulties prevent- 
ing the establishment of an order of priorities as 
pointed out in the Commission's report on its sec- 
ond session, are inherent in the character of its 
activities which are advisory, stimulative, co- 
ordinating and organizing. No priority, in the 
opinion of the Commission, could be given to work 
in connexion with any of these functions, nor to 
one region over another nor to one means of trans- 
port or communications over another. 

2. The Fiscal Commission and Division 

The Fiscal Commission in its report on its sec- 
ond session * stated that the limited resources 
available require the establishment of an order 
of priority. The items of the work programme 
were listed in the order considered appropriate, 
an order to be followed, as far as practicable, by 
the Secretariat, with due regard to the needs of 
other organs of the Secretariat. The items were 
given in the following order: 

(a) the rendering of technical assistance to 
Governments as and when required (par. 19) ; 

(b) the work of collation and synthesis covered 
in paragraphs 15-18 and paragraph 20j with par- 
ticular reference imder 18 to extra-territorial tax- 
ation (par. 30) ; 

(c) the study of the effects of taxation on inter- 
national trade and investment (par. 23) ; 

(d) the examination of the Model Conventions 
of Mexico and London (par. 29) and, in particu- 
lar, the problems arising on the taxation of com- 
pany profits and dividends and problems arising 
from dual domicile in estate taxes (par. 27) ; 

(e) the study of the scope of arrangements for 
reciprocal administrative assistance between rev- 
enue authorities in tax matters (par. 31) ; 

(f ) at the instance of, and in co-operation with, 
other organs of the United Nations, the study of 
the economic influences of taxation (in addition 
to the work proposed at (c) above) continuing 
the work of the League of Nations Fiscal Com- 
mittee in this field (par. 24) with particular ref- 
erence to : 

(i) fiscal measures to prevent depressions 
(par. 33), 

(ii) the influence of taxes upon consumption, 
the standard of living and production. 



' E/CN.2/65/Rev. 1, par. 12 (h). 
' E/1104, pars. 36 and 37. 



90 



3. The Statistical Commission and Statistical 

Office 
The Report of the Statistical Commission on its 
fourth session ° does not specifically set forth an 
order of priorities in the work programme to be 
dealt with by the Commission and the Office. 
However, at its 1949 session special attention was 
given to the revision of the international classifi- 
cation for international trade statistics, the prog- 
ress of plans for the 1950 census of agriculture 
and population and the development of an inter- 
national standard classification of occupations. 
Looking toward the improvement of international 
statistics, specific recommendations were made on 
measures to be taken to remedy deficiencies in na- 
tional statistical services. 

4. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East 
At its fourth session the Ecafe took no action 
to establish priorities.^" Its programme as a 
whole is given in the Secretary-General's report 
on work programmes, E/1344. 

5. Population Cormnission and Division 

The report of the fourth session of the Popula- 
tion Commission '^ recalled that the Commission 
at its second session had given priority to the de- 
velopment of basic population data and stated that 
this work should be continued together with work 
on international census plans. The Commission 
also considered that increased emphasis should 
now be laid on the provision to Ecosoc of the 
basic information and analyses necessary for tak- 
ing demographic factors into account in the devel- 
opment of economic and social policies, with work 
on the inter-relationship of economic, social and 
population changes receiving first priority. Stud- 
ies directly related to the above in the fields of 
migration, the population of Trust Territories, 
infant mortality and recent trends in birth rates 
should also have high priority. 

6. Commission on the Status of Women 

At its third session,^^ the Commission on the 
Status of Women decided to request the Secretary- 
General to give priority, in the preparation of his 
work programme, to the following projects in the 
order listed : 

(1) Collection of supplementary information 
on nationality (Part C (b) of resolution 154 
(VII) of the Economic and Social Council), and 
prei^aratory measures for a Draft Convention on 
the Nationality of Married Women. 

(2) Preparation of documentation on the Prop- 
erty Eights of Married Women (E/615, para- 
graph 25), including the preparation of sections 
of the Questionnaire which are pertinent to the 
projierty rights of married women. 

• E/1312. 

" E/1329, par. 42. 
" E/1313, pars. 38 fl. 
" E/1316, par. 59. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 






(3) Study of access of women to education in 
various countries, in law and practice, in collab- 
oration with UNESCO. 

(4) Report on posts in the Secretariat, and dele- 
gations to organs and agencies of the United Na- 
tions, occupied by women. 

(5) Examination of the possibility of proposing 
a Convention on the Granting of Political Rights 
to Women. 

(6) Preparation of materials, from govern- 
mental and non-governmental sources, on the ap- 
plication to women of penal law, police statutes, 
and prison administration. 

(7) Publication and dissemination of biogra- 
phies of women. 

(8) Preparation and publication of a quarterly 
account of pertinent activities of the various or- 
gans of the United Nations and its Specialized 
Agencies relating to the status of women. 

7. Intcrmation-al Children's Emergency Fund 

The ICEF is an emergency organization with an 
operational programme in which it is not possible 
to establish in advance priorities for specific parts. 
Allocation of funds is made on the application 
of countries on the basis of need, in view of the 
terms of General Assembly resolution 57 (I) under 
which ICEF was created "to be utilized for the 
benefit of children and adolescents of countries 
which were the victims of aggi-ession. . . .". 

(a) "For the benefit of children and adolescents 
of countries which were victims of aggression and 
in order to assist in their rehabilitation ; 

(b) "For the benefit of children and adolescents 
of countries at present receiving assistance from 
the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration ; 

(c) "For child health purposes generally, giv- 
ing high priority to the children of countries vic- 
tims of aggression." 

B. SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

1. International Labour Organisation 

The three reports of Ilo to United Nations 
have covered virtually the entire field of action 
of Ilo." The first report included topics which 
it considered of immediate concern to United Na- 
tions at the time : employment and unemployment, 
social security, the protection of children and 
young persons, women's work, labour inspection, 
maritime labour, social policy in non-metropolitan 
territories and migration. The second report con- 
tained chapters on industrial safety, agricultural 
labour and statistics. 

The third report of Ilo to the United Nations 
covers the period from April 1948 to February 
1949 and indicates under the subjects dealt with 

" E/586, E/586/Add. 1 and 2 and B)/1362. 

Jofy 25, 1949 



the activities to continue during the remainder of 
1949 and, insofar as possible, those to be extended 
or undertaken in 1950. 

It brings up-to-date the account of the activities 
of Ilo in the principal fields included in the pre- 
vious reports and deals with additional topics, thus 
covering manpower, wages, freedom of association 
and industrial relations, social security, industrial 
safety, maritime labour, agriculture, co-operation 
(co-operative organizations), the protection of 
children and young persons, women's work, the 
functioning and plans of Ilo's industrial com- 
mittees, statistics, publications of Ilo, regional 
activities, advisory missions, administrative ques- 
tions and relations with other international or- 
ganizations. It points out that there still remain 
other fields, in which Ilo has been and will con- 
tinue to be active, to be covered in future reports, 
such as industrial health and welfare, the protec- 
tion of salaried and professional workers, and 
working conditions in genei'al. 

The Ilo has provided the following statement 
regarding the process by which the content of their 
work programme and the items for the agenda of 
the International Labour Conferences are deter- 
mined : 

"In the case of the International Labour Organ- 
isation, tlie Constitution, the Standing Orders and 
the constitutional practice of the Organisation 
to a large extent preclude a situation in which 
precedence should be awarded among simultane- 
ous and rival claims of subjects requiring treat- 
ment by its representative organs. 

"The scope of the activities of the organization 
is defined by its Constitution and by the Declara- 
tion of Philadelphia. 

"Although this scope is wide, the number of 
subjects which can practically be selected for treat- 
ment at the same time is more limited. 

"The main task of the International Labour 
Conference is the consideration of these subjects 
with a view to the establishment of international 
standards embodied in conventions which tend to 
restrict the number of subjects which may be se- 
lected for simultaneous treatment. 

"The first is that the adoption of international 
instruments is regulated by the Constitution and 
the Standing Orders which provide for a number 
of consecutive stages of the process between each 
of which a prescribed interval should elapse. 
Therefore, the agenda of each session of the Con- 
ference includes the continuation or the conclu- 
sion of work already initiated. 

"The second is that the action of the Organisa- 
tion is of a continuing character. Each conven- 
tion is subject to periodical revision. In addition, 
each session of tlie International Labour Confer- 
ence is called upon to study information and re- 
ports on the application of conventions and rec- 
ommendations. As an illustration attention might 
be drawn to the fact that the Governing Body has 
decided to instruct the Ofiice to request States 

91 



i 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



Members to submit in 1950 reports under Arti- 
cle 19 of the Constitution on the following con- 
ventions and recommendations : 

Protection against accidents (dockers) Conven- 
tion ( revised ) , 1932 ( No. 32 ) 

Protection against accidents (dockers) Keci- 
procity Recommendation, 1932 (No. 40) 

Vocational Training Recommendation, 1939 

(No. 57) 
Apprenticeship Recommendation, 1939 (No. 60) 
Labour Inspection Convention, 1917 (No. 81) 
Labour Inspection Recommendation, 1947 (No. 

81) 
Labour Inspection (mining and transport) 

Recommendation, 1947 (No. 82) 

Labour Inspectorates (Non-Metropolitan Ter- 
ritories) Convention, 1947 (No. 85) 

"Besides, as the Oi'ganisation has already 
studied a considerable number of subjects coming 
within its scope, it is not faced with an entii-ely 
unexplored field. Rather, it is called upon to con- 
solidate, widen and adapt to changed circum- 
stances its achievements by treating new but re- 
lated subjects, with a view to ensuring in the light 
of experience, the existence of a coherent body of 
international standards. 

"Therefore, the agenda of the sessions of the In- 
ternational Labour Conference also comprises 
items relating to questions which, in the judgment 
of the Governing Body, have reached a stage at 
which international action is deemed feasible and 
desirable and for the study of which enough in- 
formation on the experience already acquired in 
the field has been accumulated and sound prelimi- 
nary work has been undertaken. 

"As an illustration of these processes, atten- 
tion should be called to the agenda of the forth- 
coming sessions of the International Labour 
Conference which includes items which have been 
placed upon it either in accordance with the 
Standing Orders, such as the discussion of the 
Director-General's Report, the discussion of fi- 
nancial and budgetary questions and information 
and reports on the application of conventions 
and recommendations, or items concerning the 
completion of work already undertaken, or again 
the study of questions which are of such a nature 
that their consideration by the International 
Labour Conference will contribute to the effective 
development of the existing body of international 
standards. The items so included on the agenda 
of forthcoming sessions of the International 
Labour Conference are as follows : 

32nd Session, 1949 

I. Director-General's Report. 

II. Financial and budgetary questions. 

III. Reports on the application of Conventions. 

92 



IV. Application of the principles of the right 
to organize and to bargain collectively (second 
discussion). 

V. Industrial relations, comprising collective 
agreements, conciliation and arbitration, and co- 
operation between public authorities and em- 
ployers' and workers' organizations (first 
discussion). 

VI. Labour clauses in public contracts (second 
discussion). 

VII. Protection of wages (second discussion). 

VIII. Wages: General Report. 

IX. Vocational guidance (second discussion). 

X. Revision of the Fee-Charging Employment 
Agencies Convention, 1933. 

XI. Migration for employment: Revision of 
the Migration for Employment Convention, 1939, 
the Migration for Employment Recommendation, 
1939, and the Migration for Employment (Co- 
operation between States) Recommendation, 1939. 

XII. Partial Revision of the Social Security 
(Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 70), the Paid 
Vacations (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 72), 
the Accommodation of Crews Convention, 1946 
(No. 75), and the Wages, Hours of Work and 
Manning (Sea) Convention, 1946 (No. 76^- 

33rd Session, 1950 

1. Report of the Director-General. 

2. Financial and Budgetary Questions. 

3. Information and Reports on the application 
of Conventions and Recommendations. 

(These three items will be included in the agenda 
in accordance with the Standing Orders of the 
Conference) 

4. Industrial Relations (an item which the 32nd 
Session of the Conference will probably place on 
the agenda of the 33rd Session for second dis- 
cussion). 

5. Equal remuneration for men and women 
workers for work of equal value (first discussion) . 

6. Agricultural labour: General report. 

7. Minimum wage regulation in agriculture 
(first discussion). 

8. Holidays with pay in agriculture (first dis- 
cussion). 

9. Vocational training of adults, including dis- 
abled persons (single discussion, preceded by a 
preparatory technical tripartite conference) . 

34th Session, 1951 

"The following items will necessarily be in- 
cluded in the agenda of the 34th Session of the 
Conference : 

Report of the Director-General 
Financial and Budgetary Questions 
Information and Reports on the Application of 
Conventions and Recommendations. 

"The 33rd Session of the Conference has on its 
agenda for first discussion the following questions 
which the Conference may be expected, under 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



Article IG, paragraph 3, of the Constitution, to 
place upon the agenda of the 34th Session for 
second discussion : 

Equal remuneration for men and women 

workers for work of equal value. 
Minimum wage regulation in agriculture. 
Holidays with pay in agriculture. 

"In addition, the Governing Body has been in- 
vited to consider the possibility of including in the 
agenda, to be dealt with under the double dis- 
cussion procedure : The revision of the conventions 
and recommendations relating to social security, 
with a view to the adoption of such new conven- 
tions as may be found necessary, the guaranteed 
wage, the status and conditions of employment of 
domestic workers. 

"All suggestions of subsidiary organs are made 
to or through the Governing Body and the latter, 
in light of the above consideration is in a position 
to decide in what manner, and which of these 
suggestions can best be given effect tp and be in- 
corporated in the overall programme of the Or- 
ganisation, as circumstances and experience may 
warrant. 

"By the same token, the Governing Body is also 
in a position to seek the advice of the advisory 
bodies of the Organisation on those specific ques- 
tions which are brought to the attention of the 
Conference, or the consideration of which is part 
of the continuing work of the Ilo. 

"Furthermore, the activities of the Interna- 
tional Labour Office are under the control of the 
Governing Body. A number of these are directly 
related to the preparation of the work of the 
representative organs and therefore follow 
exactly the same pattern. 

"Other activities are undertaken in accordance 
with the provisions of the Constitution or of 
International Labour Conventions which vest 
specific tasks of a permanent character with the 
International Labour Office. 

"Tasks which do not derive from the prepara- 
tion of the work of the principal or suosidiary 
organs of the ILO or from specific statutory pro- 
visions are undertaken where and as in the judg- 
ment of the Director-General, they are likely to 
round out the work of representative organs, to 
pave the way for future action by these oi'gans or 
to fulfill a function which a representative organ 
may not be equipped to fulfill. 

"In view of these facts, the International La- 
bour Organisation, in the establishment of its 
programme of work, is not faced witji problem of 
choosing among a number of new subjects of equal 
importance and urgency which categories shall 
be treated first as, in view of the limitations of 
a physical, technical, financial or political char- 
acter which attend upon international organiza- 



tions, they cannot all be treated at the same time, 
or cannot be so treated with reasonable expecta- 
tion of success, but rather to endeavour so to 
subordinate each activity to the main purposes 
and aims of an enduring character as to bolster 
the effectiveness of the iLO's action and thereby 
to enable it to discharge the functions which 
have been entrusted to it by its constituent 
instruments." 

2. Food and Agricultural Organization 

Information on the work programme of Fag 
utilized in this review is taken from the Fao Pro- 
gramme of Work for 1949 and Activities of Fao 
in the Field of Economic Development both of 
which are appended to the Report of Fao to the 
United Nations prepared for the ninth session of 
the Economic and Social Council." Access was 
also had to a draft of the as yet unpublished 
Programme of Work for 1950. 

The Programme of W^ork for 1949 points out 
that the specific proposals therein included are 
not limited to that year but are framed in the 
light of a policy covering periods from three to 
five years. The 1950 programme is, therefore, 
largely a continuation and extension of that for 
1949. 

The wide range of Fao's activities is indicated 
in the 1949 programme in a detailed list of the 
projects of the Fao divisions : economics, market- 
ing and statistics, nutrition, agriculture (includ- 
ing agricultural services, animal industry, land 
use, plant industry, rural welfare, fisheries, for- 
estry and forest products, distribution and in- 
formation). A separate section indicates plans 
for regional representatives. 

This year, as last year, Fao has based its pro- 
gramme on a series of specific projects rigorously 
selected from a very large number of recommen- 
dations made by its annual conferences. The< 
criterion for this selection has been which proj- 
ects, in terms of Fao's resources, can be most ef- 
fective in assisting member Governments in the 
solution of the production and distribution prob- 
lems with which they are confronted. The main 
objectives of its work remain essentially the same 
as previously outlined : 

(1) assisting member Governments to increase 
the production of food, fibers and timber — the 
primary goal ; 

(2) improving distribution, particularly doing 
what it can to see that food surpluses in one coun- 
try are made available to the hungry in another; 
this includes the promotion of the adoption of 
international policies with respect to commodity 
arrangements ; 

(3) bettering the conditions of rural 
populations. 

Its work in measures to deal with losses caused 
by insects, pests and other diseases including 

" E/1321. 



Jw/y 25, 7949 



93 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



losses in storage and transit is related to both 
(1) and (2) above. 

The report further points out that Fao's three- 
fold task in working toward its main objectives is : 

(1) the collection, analysis and dissemination 
of information including statistical, factual, 
technical and educational information; 

(2) the promotion of international consultation 
and co-operation ; 

(3) the provision of technical assistance to 
member Governments. 

3. United Nations Educational^ Scientific and 
Cultural Organisations 

TJnesco has submitted to the United Nations 
its regular report ^^ on activities covering the year 
1948, and, in its Annex IV, the year 1949. In 
addition, the Director-General of Unesco has 
communicated to the Secretary-General a state- 
ment on its "Priorities within the programme 
for 1949." The latter points out that the pro- 
gramme adopted in Beirut is comparatively per- 
manent, and that the Executive Board has marked 
out within the permanent programme certain 
activities on which the Organization should con- 
centrate its main energies during the coming 
months. The selection of these priorities has 
been based upon their value in raising general ed- 
ucational, scientific and cultural standards and 
their appeal to those whose co-operation is neces- 
sary for carrying them out, and upon the likeli- 
hood of achieving tangible results fairly quickly. 

Priorities thus determined are as follows: 

RECONSTRUCTION : "Siucc the ruins of the world 
have not yet been rebuilt," Unesco again this 
year gives priority to the whole of its reconstruc- 
tion programme, while listing certain activities in 
the Middle East, such as relief to refugees, as par- 
ticularly urgent. 

EDUCATION : In this field, emphasis is laid on the 
following projects : 

Clearing house, with educational missions to be 
sent, as a new experiment, to four countries during 
1949 (Afghanistan, the Philippines, Siam and 
Syria) . 

Educational seminars (one in Brazil, one in 
India). 

Imjirovement of textbooks and teaching mate- 
rials. 

Fundamental education, including pilot and as- 
sociated projects. 

Education for international understanding, 
with special stress laid on the "Universal Declara- 
tion of Human Rights". 

International Charter for Youth. 



' E/1349. 



94 



Adult education (International Conference in 
Denmark). 

War-handicapped childi'en. 

NATURAL sciences: The following projects re- 
ceive priority : 

Field science co-operation offices. 

Collaboration with the United Nations, particu- 
larly in connection with the project on "Interna- 
tional Research Laboratories". 

Assistance, with Wuo's collaboration, in the 
establishment of a Permanent Bureau for the Co- 
ordination of International Confei'ences of Medi- 
cal Science. 

Conservation of natural resources and the pro- 
tection of nature, in collaboration with the United 
Nations. 

International Institute of the Hylean Amazon, 
and possible establishment of an adult institute for 
arid zones. 

Social and international implications of science. 

SOCIAL sciences: The following projects re- 
ceive priority : 

Establishment of international organizations 
concerned with social sciences. 

Studies on tensions affecting international un- 
derstanding. 

Study by social scientists of methods and prob- 
lems in international collaboration. 

PHILOSOPHT AND HUMANISTIC STUDIES: In this 

field, priority is given to the following projects: 

Co-operation with non-governmental organiza- 
tions in the field of philosophy and humanistic 
studies. 

Philosophic round-tables. 

Human rights (essays and pamphlets). 

CULTURAL ACTIVITIES : In this field, the following 
projects receive priority : 

Reproductions in visual arts and music. 

Translations. 

Copyright problems. 

Service for cultural liaison in the Middle East. 

International Book Coupon Scheme. 

EXCHANGE OF PERSONS : Priority attention will be 
given here to : 

(a) the collection, compilation and publication 
of information about the availability and condi- 
tions of scholarship and fellowship areas and sim- 
ilar facilities ; 

(b) the analysis of obstacles to the free move- 
ment of persons between countries, and the sending 
of recommendations to member States for elim- 
inating these obstacles; 

(c) the stimulation of additional governmental 
and private fellowships and the administration of 
the limited number of fellowships financed and 
sponsored from Unesco's funds. 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



MASS COMMUNICATION : 111 this field, the whole 
programme of Unesco receives priority, with 
special emphasis laid on the technical needs of 
press, radio and film, the removal of obstacles to 
the free flow of information, and action through 
radio, films and press to popularize subjects of an 
educational, scientific and cultural character or re- 
lated to the work of the United Nations. 

The documents submitted by Unesco indicate 
that the 1950 programme will again be based on 
the permanent programmes adopted at Beirut. 
Possibly the question of priorities will again be 
reviewed and restated for 1950. 

4. Infernafianal Civil Aviation Organization 

"Report of Council to the Assembly" (volume 
I), covers Icao's activities from March 1948 to 
March 1949. In addition, "Budget Estimates 
1950" (volimie II), presenting Icao's future ac- 
tivities has provided information used in this 
review. 

As last j-ear's Comparative Review pointed out, 
the work of the Icao is both technical and economic 
in its scope. Again this year, no series of specific 
priorities has been given, but some indications have 
been found in Icao's first two documents (Volumes 
I and II) as to the particular importance of cer- 
tain projects. 

In the field of Air Navigation, priority has been 
given : 

(a) to a continuing review of the implementa- 
tion of the eight sets of International Standards 
and Recommended Practices (designated as An- 
nexes to the Convention on International Civil 
Aviation) which were adopted by the Icao Council 
in March 1949. (These annexes pertain to (1) 
personnel licensing (2) rules of the air (3) mete- 
orological codes (4) aeronautical charts (5) di- 
mensional units to be used in air-ground com- 
munications (6) operation of aircraft-scheduled 
international air services (7) aircraft nationality 
and registration marks and (8) airworthiness of 
aircraft;) 

(b) to the provision of assistance to member 
States concerning problems of implementation, 
and 

(c) to the co-ordination of proposals for the 
amendment of the ^\jmexes." 

The major economic studies of the Air Trans- 
port Bureau are the development of multilateral 
agreements on commercial rights in air transport, 
international air mail, the economics of air navi- 
gation facilities, air transport statistics, study of 
technical training for increasing safety of flight, 
study of multiple taxation, study of burdensome 
insurance requirements, study on an "Interna- 
tional agency for communications facilities and 
ground aids," study on the "Provision and 

" See vol. II Bvdget Estimates 1950, p. 8 and p. 16. 

July 25, 7949 



Manning of indispensable air navigation facili- 
ties", studies of custom procedures, sanitary health 
and quarantine regulations, financial and monetary 
regulations, police and immigration requirements 
and regulations of national and international 
aeronautical charts. Though no specific priority 
has been given to any of these projects, the "Study 
of the economics of Air Navigation Facilities" has 
been emphasized as of an urgent nature," and work 
on "Multiple taxation," and likewise work on 
"Burdensome insurance requirements" have been 
recognized by the Icao Council as of major 
importance.^^ 

The principal task of the Legal Bureau is assist- 
ance in the development of aviation law. Among 
the studies to be pursued in 1949-1950 are the con- 
sideration of proposed amendments to the Chicago 
Convention, the revision of the Warsaw Conven- 
tion and the revision of the Rome Convention. As 
stated in last year's Comparative Review, the 
Bureau is also responsible for filing agreements 
concluded between States or airlines which the 
Contracting States of Icao are obligated to regis- 
ter with the Council. The Bureau also handles the 
legal work required by any organ of Icao. 

5. World Health Organization 

The report of Who to the Ninth Session of the 
Council consists of two documents : 

(1) Official Records of the World Health Or- 
ganization No. 16, Annual Report of the Director- 
General to the World Health Assembly and to the 
United Nations 1948 (April 1949). 

(2) Official Records of the World Health Or- 
ganization No. 18, Programme and Budget Esti- 
mates for 1950. Budget Estimates for the Regular 
Ojierating Programmes and the Supplemental 
Operating Programme of Advisory and Technical 
Service for the Financial Year 1 January-31 
December 1950 (April 1949). 

These j^resent the Who programmes in great 
detail. 

The following statement prepared by Who re- 
garding its priorities, however, is based on the 
third report of the Progi'amme Committee." 

"The First World Health Assembly in adopting 
the third report of its Programme Committee, 
gave the same top priority already given to ma- 
laria, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, and 
venereal diseases, to nutrition and environmental 
sanitation (sanitary engineering). 

"The Assembly further agreed to give the fol- 
lowing priorities to certain other outstanding 
problems of public health. 

"Second priority was given to public health ad- 
ministration, which includes : 

" See vol. I Report of the Council to the General Asseni- 
Wy. p. 24. 

" See vol. II Budget Estimates 1950, p. 17. 

" Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 
13, pp. 306-10. 

95 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



( 1 ) hospital and clinics, medical care, and medi- 
cal rehabilitation 

(2^ medical social work 

(3) nursing 

(4) public health administration, health edu- 
cation and industrial hygiene, and 

(5) hygiene of seafarers. 

"Third priority was given to work on the para- 
sitic diseases, including ankylostomiasis, filariasis, 
leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis 

"Fourth priority was given to the group of virus 
diseases including : 

( 1 ) poliomyelitis 

(2) influenza 

(3) rabies 

(4) trachoma 

"Fifth priority went to mental health, which in 
addition to mental health proper, includes the 
problems of alcoholism and drug addiction. 

"Certain other subjects including cancer, rheu- 
matoid diseases, leprosy, technical education, bru- 
cellosis, a proposed bureau of medical supplies, 
and work on penicillin and insulin, received sixth 
priority. This action was taken on the advice of 
the expert committees established by the Interim 
Commission of the World Health Organization, 
and on the recommendation of the Assembly's 
Programme Committee. It was felt that the pub- 
lic health problems of the world of interest to the 
Who outnumbered those listed. Nevertheless, 
the World Health Organization, in view of the 
prevalence and effects of these problems, the means 
of combating them at the disposal of public health 
authorities and the degree to which the Who 
could be of assistance, felt that it could contribute 
most widely to the achievement of early and endur- 
ing results through such a priority programme." 

6. The International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development and the International Monetary 
Fvm,d 

The Bank and Fund cannot draw up "work pro- 
grammes" nor establish "priorities" in the sense 
that these terms might apply to other specialized 
agencies and to United Nations divisions. Their 
principal function is, of course, the carrying 
through of financial transactions. In connexion 
with these transactions they have extensive activi- 
ties in research and in providing missions and tech- 
nical assistance as indicated in the analytical out- 
line in Annex I. 

7. The Universal Postal Union and the Interna- 
tional Telecom7nunications Unioii. 

The work of Upu and Itu is highly specialized 
and technical. Although some of their activities 
touch upon those of other bodies in the field of 



transport and communications they present no 
problems relating to priorities from the point of 
view of this review. 

The Upu deals with the clearance of postal ac- 
counts, publishes VUnion Postale and various 
technical publications, statistical summaries and 
mapSj and continues the study of the rights of 
transit and calculation of fees. 

The Itu deals with the establishment of regula- 
tions in the field of telephone, telegraph and radio 
communications and publishes the Jounval, various 
statistical series and other technical materials. 

8. International Refugee Organization 

The International Refugee Organization, a non- 
permanent operational agency, presents no sepa- 
rate list of priorities because its entire programme 
is concentrated on fulfilling the purposes of its Con- 
stitution, namely the care, protection, and repatria- 
tion or resettlement of the displaced persons and 
refugees under its jurisdiction. 

Procedure for Classification of Activities 

Possibly the most useful function of this Com- 
parative Review is to provide in convenient form, 
within the compass of one document a compact but 
comprehensive outline of the work programmes 
contained in the reports of twelve commissions 
and ten specialized agencies, and to classify and 
bring together under headings representing the 
main sectors of the economic and social fields the 
work of the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies related to each sector. The analytical 
outline, found in Part II, presents such a classi- 
fication and constitutes the principal part of this 
review. 

The series of subject headings under which ac- 
tivities are listed in this outline has been drawn up 
after consultation with representatives of the spe- 
cialized agencies and with directors of divisions 
within the Department of Economic Affairs and 
the Department of Social Affairs of United Na- 
tions. It is difficult to devise a list of categories 
for the classification of so vast an array of activi- 
ties which will be entirely satisfactory from the 
point of view of all agencies concerned. The 
present list, which represents a compromise and 
remains experimental, is as follows: 

A. Economic Questions 

1. Economic Surveys 

2. Economic Stability and Employment 

3. Economic Development and Reconstruction 

4. Industry and Raw Materials 

5. Food and Agriculture 

6. International Trade 

7. Monetary and Financial Questions 

8. Fiscal and Public Finance Questions 

9. Transport and Conununications 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATCONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



B. Social Questions 

1. Human Eights 

2. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Activi- 
ties 

3. Health (including nutrition) 

4. Social Security (unemployment, old age, 
disabilitj', sickness insurance) 

5. Social Welfare (including rural welfare and 
standards of living) 

6. Narcotics (international control) 

7. Prevention of Crime 

8. Relief and Refugees 

C. General Questions 

1. Statistics 

2. Industrial Relations (including labour legis- 
lation, and conditions of work) 

3. Wages and Other Forms of Remuneration 

4. Population (including demography, migra- 
tion and manpower) 

6. Housing and Town and Country Planning 

6. Technical Assistance 

It is obvious that many of the above headings 
are closely interrelated and it is often difficult to 
draw a line between them. Furthermore many 
activities or projects touch upon more than one 
field. Wherever possible, relationships of proj- 
ects to several fields are indicated by cross ref- 
erences, but occasionally, for the sake of clarity, 
the same project will be found listed under a num- 
ber of headings. A certain amount of repetition 
is inevitable and even desirable in an analysis of 
this kind and those making use of this outline are 
cautioned not to mistake this repetition in listing 
for duplication of work. Furthermore, when 
similar items for two or more organizations ap- 
pear under any one heading, these projects usually 
complement rather than duplicate each other. 

The determination of the proper classification 
projects frequently requires more intimate knowl- 
edge of their nature than is given in the reports. 
The assistance of representatives of the agencies 
and divisions concerned has, therefore, been 
sought, in grouping activities under the various 
subject headings. Nevertheless it has not been 
feasible to check all entries, and it cannot be as- 
sumed that the agencies have concurred in all de- 
cisions made. 

Since the General Assembly in resolution 125 
fll) requests the Economic and Social Council 
to promote the most efficient and practical use of 
the resources of United Nations and the special- 
ized agencies by recommendations concerning the 
definition of responsibility for specific projects", 
this review lists the items appearing in the work 
programmes, insofar as possible, in terms of spe- 
cific projects. This, again, is difficult, because of 
the variation among agencies and United Nations 
units in the definition of the term "project" and in 
the degree of detail with which their respective 

July 25, 1949 

845608 — i9 3 



work programmes are described. One agency 
may report in general terms and as a single pi'oject 
work analogous to that reported in detail by an- 
other as two or three separate but related projects. 

It is not the purpose of this document, nor 
would it be possible, to give a full description of 
each project listed. This review is a key to, not 
a substitute for, the reports of the agencies and 
commissions in which further information regard- 
ing the work programmes can be found. For 
many of the projects mentioned here, detailed 
descriptions, including statements concerning 
their origin and scope, and the content of resulting 
reports or publications, as well as information 
on the i^rocedure for obtaining such published or 
mimeographed material as is available, are given 
in the Catalogue of Economic and Social Proj- 
ects, No. 1, March 1949.=° 

The Catalogue and the Comparative Review are 
designed along different lines to serve quite dif- 
ferent purposes. The Catalogue lists the studies 
and projects under the relevant secretariat divi- 
sions of various organizations, gives much more 
detailed information (obtained by questionnaires) 
regarding each project than can be found in the 
annual reports to the Council, but makes no at- 
tempt to analyze the work programmes or classify 
the projects; Part II of the Comparative Review 
classifies the activities of the woi-k programmes 
reviewed bringing together all the work of the 
various bodies concerned with each subject, in or- 
der to show where these activities touch upon or 
are related to each other; but it provides only a 
brief reference to each project mentioned in the 
work programmes in the annual reports to the 
Council. The first issue of the Catalogue includes 
all work completed, undertaken, or planned by the 
various bodies as of January 1949 and thus gives 
descriptions of many continuing projects which 
constitute part of the 1949, 1950 and longer range 
programmes of United Nations and the specialized 
agencies and which are listed in this review. 

For purposes of convenience. United Nations 
undertakings for which the Secretary-General is 
responsible are listed under the secretariat divi- 
sions where the work is primarily done. 

At the end of the section under each subject in 
the outline in Part II are brief lists of co-operative 
action ^^ taking place among the United Nations 

'" Sales no. 1949. II. D. 1., 271 pp. 

" A number of documents prepared for the Council de- 
scribe the co-ordination aspects of certain problems of in- 
terest to several specialized agencies. Documents pre- 
sented to the ninth session include : report by the 
Secretary-General on Housing and Town and Country 
Planning, E/134.3 ; report of the Secretary-General on Co- 
ordination of Fellowship Programmes, E/1342 ; report of 
the Secretary-General on Co-ordination of Migration Ac- 
tivities, E/1341 ; report of the Secretary-General on Tech- 
nical Assistance for Economic Development, E/1327; 
commusication from the Director-General of the Inter- 
national Labour Office on Manpower Programmes, E/1347 
and measures devised by the Economic and Social Council 
and the specialized agencies to promote economic develop- 
ment and raise standards of living of under-developed 
countries, E/1345. 

97 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 

and the specialized agencies. Joint or co-opera- 
tive actions on the part of two or more bodies in 
any given field are usually listed here as one item, 
instead of being shown separately under each of 
the organizations concerned. Exceptions are 
made when chief responsibility for undertakings 
falls clearly on one organization or United Na- 
tions department. In these cases the item is 
listed under the body bearing main responsibility 
and the entry imder "co-operative action" lists 
other participating or contributing organizations. 
These outlines omit countless secretariat contacts, 
exchange of documents, and the representation of 
various organizations at the meetings and confer- 
ences of the others, but they indicate the types of 
joint committees, joint studies, surveys, and mis- 
sions through which constant efforts are being 
made to co-ordinate work in fields where two or 
more bodies share interest and responsibilities.^- 

It should be noted that the first category "Eco- 
nomic Surveys" includes only those surveys which 
deal with so many economic problems that, if not 
grouped under a separate heading, they would re- 
quire listing under virtually all of the economic 
subject headings. General surveys in specific 
fields, but less bi'oad in scope than those listed here, 
are grouped under the appropriate headings. 

It should also be noted that the final section, 
entitled "Technical Assistance", does not cover the 
co-operative programme of the United Nations 
and the specialized agencies under Economic and 
Social Council resolution 180 (VIII) in the field 
of technical assistance for economic development. 
This large and interrelated programme is set forth 
in the special report of the Secretary-General on 
this subject to the ninth session of the Council.^^ 

A number of the resolutions of the General As- 
sembly and the Council include recommendations 
or requests to the United Nations commissions or 
the Secretary-General or of the specialized agen- 
cies to undertake certain tasks, provide informa- 
tion or submit reports in the economic and social 
fields. These resolutions, which thus influence to 
a considerable extent the various work pro- 
grammes, are listed in Annex II under subject 
headings corresponding to those used for classify- 
ing the work projects in the outline in Part II. 

Although the preparation for the meetings of its 
regular bodies constitute a large part of the pro- 
gramme of each organization, such regular work is 
not included among the projects listed in Annex I. 

^ This review tbus provides information on the relation- 
ship between the current work programmes of tlie Eco- 
nomic and Social Departments and Council Commissions 
with similar activities of specialized agencies, as requested 
In Council resolution 128 (VI) B. C. 2. 

"^ Technical assistance for Economic Development : Plan 
for an expanded co-operative programme through the 
United Nations and the specialized agencies, B/1327/- 
Add.l and Sales no. 1949.II.B.1. 

98 



Special conferences organized to deal with prob- 
lems under the main subject headings, however, 
are listed as separate undertakings. 

Lists of the councils, commissions and commit- 
tees in which the various bodies are organized and 
the departments and divisions of their secretariats 
cast considerable light on the nature and scope of 
their work programmes. Annex III contains such 
lists for each agency and the United Nations De- 
partment included in this review. 



U.S. Representative on Inter- American 
Economic and Social Council Appointed 

The Secretary of State announced on July 15 
the appointment of Albert F. Nufer as repre- 
sentative of the United States on the Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council. He as- 
sumes the duties of this position from Willard 
L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary for Economic Af- 
fairs, who formerly served in this capacity. 

H. Gerald Smith will continue as alternate to 
the United States representative on the Inter- 
American Economic and Social Comicil. 



Paul A. Porter Appointed to Palestine 
Conciliation Commission 

The appointment of Paul A. Porter as United 
States representative of the United Nations Pal- 
estine Conciliation Commission was announced by 
the White House on July 16, 1949. Mr. Porter 
recently served as Chief of the American Eco- 
nomic Mission to Greece with the personal rank of 
Ambassador. 

The Palestine Conciliation Commission is 
charged with the task of facilitating settlement of 
all issues outstanding between Israel and the Arab 
States under the General Assembly resolution of 
December 11, 1948.^ This government attaches 
great importance to a speedy solution of these is- 
sues and offers its unqualified support in the ful- 
fillment of the Commission's task. 

This government welcomes the resumption of 
the Lausanne meetings, which represent a further 
advance in the direction of peace between Israel 
and the Arab States. The recent discussions at 
Lausanne were of material benefit in clarifying 
the resfjective positions of the two parties. In the 
opinion of the United States as a participating 
member of the Commission, the groundwork has 
now been laid for constructive negotiations in 
which both parties must cooperate to the full if the 
area of disagreement is to be progressively nar- 
rowed and a final settlement obtained. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 26. 1948, p. 793. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



National Citizens Committee for U.N. Day Named 



[Released to the press July 14] 



The Secretary of State on July 14 announced 
the formation of the National Citizens Committee 
for United Nations Day. He called for wide- 
spread participation by the American people in 
observing United Nations Day on October 24. 

Malcolm W. Davis has accepted Secretary 
Acheson's invitation to serve as chairman of the 
Committee. Mr. Davis is Executive Associate 
of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace in New York. 

The National Citizens Committee for United 
Nations Day, with offices at 700 Jackson Place, 
N.W., Washington, D.C., will coordinate the ac- 
tivities of private citizens, organizations, and 
groups in promoting Nation-wide observance of 
the fourth birtliday of the United Nations. 

In a statement issued on his acceptance of the 
chairmansliip at a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee on July 14, Mr. Davis said : 

We look forward to the cooperation of all Americans 
in making of United Nations Day, next October 24, a time 
for increasing our understanding of the United Nations 
idea and of the achievements of international organization 
in the four short but crowded years since the United Na- 
tions came into being. We are too often prone to criti- 
cize the shortcomings and mistakes of the past and to ex- 
pect too many results in a very brief time. For the sake 
of world peace, and for the sake of security and progress, 
it is essential that we acquaint ourselves with the positive 
achievements of the United Nations and its specialized 
agencies. 

For this reason, we hope that all Americans of many 
varied heritages and in every walk of life — both individ- 
ually and through their organizations — will join with us 
in making this year's United Nations Day a dramatic and 
meaningful anniversary. 

United Nations Day was officially established in 
1947 by a unanimous resolution of the General As- 
sembly of the United Nations, which invited all 
member govermnents to cooperate in giving their 
citizens an opportunity to take part in the observ- 
ance. This resolution stated that the day "shall be 
devoted to making known to the peoples of the 
world the aims and achievements of the United 
Nations and to gaining their support for the work 
of the United Nations." 

The first such observance on an international 

July 25, 1949 



scale was held in 1948. In the United States, the 
President issued a proclamation setting aside Oc- 
tober 24 as United Nations Day, and the National 
Citizens Committee developed a widespread pro- 
gram for meetings and special events throughout 
the country. 

Certain organizations and groups are joining to- 
gether to devote the preceding month's activity to a 
better understanding of the United Nations, cul- 
minating their activities on October 24. The De- 
partment of State believes that all such efforts 
will strengthen national and world-wide under- 
standing of the importance of the United Nations 
in building a constructive and peaceful world. 
. This year the National Citizens Committee for 
United Nations Day plans to intensify and 
broaden its program by encouraging numerous ac- 
tivities in communities in every state, by churches, 
schools, labor organizations, farm groups, busi- 
ness institutions, and many other organizations, 
as well as in the press, radio, television, and mo- 
tion pictures. 

The Department of State, which will coordinate 
governmental activities on United Nations Day, 
believes that the United States role in furthering 
the work and solving the problems of the United 
Nations will be strengthened by the participation 
of private citizens and groups in the anniversary 
observance. 

Serving as vice-chairmen of the Committee are 
Mrs. Anne Hartwell Johnstone of the National 
League of Women Voters, W. R. Ogg, Director of 
International Relations, American Farm Bureau 
Federation, and Frank Frederick, lawyer, Boston. 
The Right Reverend Monsignor Frederick C. 
HochwaTt of the National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference, is treasurer. Members of the Executive 
Committee include : 

Finance Committee — Thomas C. Boushall, President, Bank 
of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia 

Press and Publications Committee — Miss Christine Sadler, 
Washington Editor, McCall's Magazine 

Radio and Television Committee — A. D. Wlllard, Execu- 
tive-Vice President, National Association of Broad- 
casters 

(Continued on page 105) 

99 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



[July 16-22, 1949] 
Atomic Energy 

A proposal for suspension of further discussion 
in the Atomic Energy Commission until the six 
permanent members report that there exists a basis 
for agreement was presented by the United States 
Deputy Representative to tliat Commission on 
July 20. The United States resolution pointed out 
that the impasse as analyzed in the third report of 
the Commission between the U.S.S.R. and the 
Ukrainian S.S.R. and the other members of the 
Commission still exists, that these differences are 
irreconcilable at the Commission level, and further 
discussion would be neither practicable or useful 
and would only tend to harden these differences. 

The resolution refers to the Soviet proposals, 
"which provide among other things for national 
ownership of dangerous and explosive atomic ma- 
terials, and for national ownership, operation and 
management of dangerous atomic facilities. Tliis, 
in the opinion of the other members of the Com- 
mission, would not remove causes for suspicion, 
fear and distrust among nations, would render in- 
effective the prohibition of atomic weapons and 
would continue dangerous national rivalries in the 
field of atomic energy." These proposals have 
been repeatedly rejected by the Atomic Energy 
Commission and by the General Assembly last 
M ovember. 

Reference is also made to the majority plan of 
the Commission endorsed by the General Assembly 
"as constituting the necessary basis for an effective 
system of international control of atomic energy 
to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and for 
the elimination from national armaments of 
atomic weapons in accordance with the terms of 
reference of the Atomic Energy Conunission." 

The Commission will discuss this draft resolu- 
tion at its next meeting July 29. 

United Nations Field Service 

The Special Committee established to consider 
the Secretary-General's revised proposals for a 



Field Service and Panel, in two meetings during 
the week, considered in detail the legal aspects of 
the proposal and began point-by-point considera- 
tion of the rapporteur's working paper. The Pol- 
ish representative gave an hour-long analysis of 
the plan during which he criticized its legal basis, 
stating among other things, that the Field Service 
was really an "international gendarmerie" which 
it would be illegal to introduce into any state. The 
Secretariat rei^iesentative refuted his detailed ar- 
guments, denying that the Field Service was a 
"police force," and adding that in any case "police 
forces" are not barred by the Charter. 

The United States representative fully endorsed 
the Secretariat representative's refutation of the 
Polish charges of illegality and suggested that a 
statement be added to the working paper that the 
Committee's majority felt the Panel was entirely 
distinct in nature and function from, forces en- 
visaged in article 43. 

In the point-by-point consideration of the work- 
ing paper, the United States representative pro- 
posed that the Field Service personnel should be 
recruited in accordance with usual secretariat 
practice rather than by secondment from member 
governments. With regard to interchangeability 
between the Field Service and Field Resei've Panel, 
the United States representative explained that 
flexibility rather than interchangeability was in- 
tended, since it was clear different qualifications 
were necessary for both services. 

As to the possibility of merging of the Field 
Service and Headquarters Security Service, the 
United States representative felt that the Commit- 
tee should recommend no decision on merging, but 
should leave this to further careful study by the 
Secretary-General. The question of the use of 
security forces of member states elicited the com- 
ment of the United States representative that the 
Secretary-General should always recruit as many 
local personnel as possible, but that past experience 
showed many difficulties. 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Technical Cooperation and Economic Development in Caribbean Area 

RESULTS OF EIGHTH MEETING OF THE CARIBBEAN COMMISSION 



The eighth meeting of the Caribbean Commis- 
sion was held at Port-of -Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I., 
on June 13-18, 191:9. Sir Hubert Ranee, co- 
chairman of the Britisli Section, presided in ac- 
cordance with tlie establislied system of rotation. 
The Commission agreed upon several new fields of 
major activities and authorized the continuance 
or extension of reporting services in the fields of 
plant, animal, and human diseases and issuance of 
a series of publications dealing with research, 
trade statistics, population and migration, and 
other subjects of importance in the economic and 
social life of the Caribbean area. 

All sessions of the Commission were open to the 
public with the exception of those involving ad- 
ministrative arrangements within the Secretariat. 
Trinidad is the seat of the general headquarters 
of the Commission, and this meeting afforded new 
commissioners their first opportunity to observe 
at first-hand the functioning of the Secretariat. 

Major fields in wliich the Commission will con- 
centrate its energies were outlined by the Com- 
mission, and the Secretary General was authorized 
to proceed. The Commission has developed a plan 
for the development of primary and secondary 
industries as supplementary to the improvement 
and increased efficiency of the basic agricultural 
activities of the region, the development of forestry 
and fisheries, and the application of modern tech- 
nologj^ to the primarj' processing of the organic 
resources on which the economy of the Caribbean 
is based. Under this plan, the Commission among 
other things will collect and distribute informa- 
tion on markets, marketing opportunities, sup- 
plies and equipment; will develop special panels 
to which scientific and technical inquiries may be 
referred; develop records relating to efficiency in 
organization, management, operations, and pro- 

Jw/y 25, 1949 



ductivity of industries; and sponsor interchange 
of visits from one territory to another for detailed 
studies of well-organized and operated industries. 
In carrying out these activities, the Commission 
will be assisted by an industrial consultant who 
was added to the staff of the Secretariat. 

Recording its complete agreement with Presi- 
dent Truman's program for technical cooperation 
and the encouragement of the investment of pri- 
vate capital in the underdeveloped areas of the 
world, the Commission requested each national 
section to consult with its government at the earli- 
est possible moment as to the role which the Com- 
mission might play in such a program. Further, 
the Secretary General was authorized to prepare a 
report with suggested orders of priorities on tech- 
nical cooperation assistance required in the area 
on matters within the scope of the Commission's 
activities. It was felt that problems of agricul- 
tural diversification and mechanization, soil con- 
servation, land settlement, water control, indus- 
trial development, and basic problems affecting 
the socioeconomic conditions of the Caribbean 
could well be within the scope of the Point-4 pro- 
gram and of practical benefit to this underdevel- 
oped area. 

In the field of fundamental and long-range re- 
search, the Commission authorized the undertak- 
ing of socioeconomic surveys, covering such basic 
studies as costs and levels of living in the various 
territories, the Caribbean employment pattern and 
factors affecting industrial productivity, popula- 
tion trends, and national incomes. The Commis- 
sion recognized that the existence in the Carib- 
bean area today of an articulate demand for a 
higher standard of living, coupled with its limited 
natural resources, the pressure of population, and 
the failure to achieve a satisfactory social pattern, 

101 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



presents a socioeconomic problem of magnitude. 
With these studies, the Commission will begin the 
collection of basic and comparable data on social 
and economic conditions for the area. 

Another important item on the agenda of the 
eighth meeting dealt with the recommendations 
of the Caribbean Research Council, an auxiliary 
body to the Commission, which held its second 
annual meeting in Trinidad May 27-30. Tech- 
nical research committees, reconstituted to meet 
the requirements of the present program of the 
Commission, were authorized in the following 
fields: (1) agriculture, fish, wildlife and forestry, 
(2) medicine, public health and nutrition, (3) 
sociology and education, (4) economics and statis- 
tics, (5) engineering, and (6) industrial develop- 
ment. A series of recommendations concerning 
research and technical services was approved. 
These include the publication of trade bulletins 
and economic leaflets, the circulation of educa- 
tional films, a reporting service for animal pests 
and diseases, all of which are now functioning, and 
the approval of the inauguration of new report- 
ing services on plant pests and diseases. It was 
also agreed to establish similar services on human 
diseases to coordinate information on the com- 
municable and noncommunicable diseases occur- 
ring in Caribbean territories, on medical facilities 
available within the territories, and the collection, 
collation, and publication of annual statements of 
diseases and causes of death, following a uniform 
classification such as that prescribed for adoption 
by the World Health Organization. 

The Commission gave final consideration to the 
recommendations of the West Indian Conference 
(third session) which had been held in Guade- 
loupe, F.W.I., in December 1948, most of which 
had been acted upon by the Commission. One 
recommendation which had been deferred for fur- 
ther study called for the establishment of a co- 
ordinated hurricane warning system in the Carib- 
bean. The Commission requested the Secretary 
General to solicit the International Meteorological 
Organization, through its Regional Commission 
IV, to convene a meeting of meteorological and 
telecommunication experts, preferably before the 
1949 hurricane season, for the purpose of improv- 
ing and coordinating the hurricane warning sys- 
tem in the eastern Caribbean area. Another con- 
ference resolution urged territoi'ial governments 
to expand programs for vocational education and 
to coordinate systems of apprenticeship with vo- 
cational training. The United States Section an- 
nounced that the Government of Puerto Rico had 
already implemented this recommendation with 
the award of 30 scholarships to students of other 
pai'ts of the Caribbean region to pursue vocational 
studies in the School of Industrial Arts of the Uni- 

102 



versity of Puerto Rico. Ten of the scholarships, 
offered to the most meritorious cases, will carry 
in addition to the tuition a subsistence allowance 
of $300 a year. The Commission is working out 
arrangements for the first group of these scholar- 
ship students to enter the university's summer 
classes. Puei-to Rico's generous action may well 
form the nucleus of a trained corps of skilled 
workers in the rest of the Caribbean region. 

Appointments were made in the posts of three 
senior offices. Dr. Eric Williams of Trinidad was 
named to the post of Deputy Chairman of the 
Caribbean Research Council. Clovis Beauregard 
of Guadeloupe was appointed as Deputy Secretai-y 
General and Jan Eliza Heesterman of Surinam 
was appointed to the recently created post of in- 
dustrial consultant. 

The Commission accepted an invitation from 
the Government of the Virgin Islands of the 
United States to hold its next meeting there in 
December 1949. 



ECA, U.K., and The Netherlands Dis- 
cuss Expansions of Foreign Crude Oil 
Production 

[Released to the press by EGA July 7] 

Officials of the Economic Cooperation Admin- 
istration and the British and The Nethei'lands 
Governments have launched a series of exploratory 
meetings to discuss the estimated expansion of for- 
eign crude oil production and refining facilities in 
the next few years and the resulting increased sup- 
l^ly of petroleum. 

The meetings, first of which was held this week, 
will assist the interested agencies of the govern- 
ments concerned in obtaining a comprehensive pic- 
ture of oil developments. The estimates also will 
help ECA in considering petroleum programs of 
the Marshall Plan countries. 

Representing the British Government at the 
meetings are Keith Stock of the Ministry of Fuel 
and Power, London, and Edward Jones, Petro- 
leum Attache of the British Embassy, Washington. 
Representing The Netherlands Government are 
Evert Green, of The Netherlands Ministry of Eco- 
nomic Affairs, The Hague, and Max Moerel, Ad- 
viser to The Netherlands Embassy, Washington. 
The meetings are being conducted by Walter J. 
Levy, Chief of the ECA Petroleum Branch. 

Representatives of the United States State, 
Treasury, Interior, and Commerce Departments, 
the Munitions Board Petroleum Committee, and 
the National Security Resources Board were pres- 
ent at the initial meeting and will collaborate with 
ECA as the work progresses. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Major Steps Taken at ILO Conference on Trade-Union Rights 
and industrial Relations^ 



SUMMARY OF THIRTY-SECOND SESSION OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE 

When the International Labor Organization's 
32nd general conference closed on July 2, it left 
behind a volume of work unequalled in the Ilo's 
30-year history. The conference opened its session 
at Geneva on June 8. 

In three and a half weeks of deliberations, the 
650 delegates and advisers from 50 countries 
adopted three new international labor conventions 
and revised five others. It approved three new 
recommendations and revised another, and voted 
resolutions charting Ilo policy in several fields. 

The conference approved a budget of $5,983,526 
to finance the Organization's operations in 1950 
and scrutinized the manner in which countries 
are applying the Ilo conventions they have ratified. 
The delegates also debated at length the report of 
Director-General David A. Morse on economic and 
social trends and on the work of the Organization. 

The three new conventions and the five revised 
conventions, approved by the session, brought to 
98 the total number of such international instru- 
ments adopted to date. The new and revised rec- 
ommendations voted by the meeting raised to 90 
the total of these texts. 

Among the conference resolutions was one au- 
thorizing the Ilo's Governing Body to make any 
necessary arrangements to enable the Organization 
to initiate an expanded program of technical assist- 
ance for the economic development of underdevel- 
oped areas, and to obtain the funds for it. This 
expanded program would be part of the coopera- 
tive program of the United Nations and its asso- 
ciated specialized agencies now under considera- 
tion b}' the United Xations Economic and Social 
Council. 

Regarded by many delegates as the most im- 
portant of the three new international labor con- 
ventions was one which will require ratifying 
countries to assure to workers the right to organ- 
ize into trade unions without interference and to 

^ Printed from Ilo News Service of July 8, 1949, pre- 
pared by the Washington Branch of the International 
Labor Office. 



bargain collectively. This convention comple- 
ments the Convention on Freedom of Association 
and Protection of the Right to Organize adopted 
by the 1948 session of the conference in San Fran- 
cisco. 

These two instruments constitute major parts 
of the program of action in the field of trade-union 
rights and industrial relations upon which the Or- 
ganization embarked two years ago. 

Another step forward in this program was taken 
during the conference by the Governing Body 
when it went on record as aj^proving the establish- 
ment of "a fact-finding and conciliation commis- 
sion on freedom of association for the purpose of 
international supervision of freedom of associa- 
tion." At the same time, the Governing Body re- 
quested Director-General Morse to continue con- 
sultations with Trygve Lie, Secretary-General of 
the United Nations, "with regard to the manner in 
which such a commission can most appropriately 
be established." 

The conference also adopted new conventions 
designed : ( 1) to assure that workers employed in 
the execution of contracts entered into by public 
authorities shall have wages, hours of work and 
working conditions not less favorable than those 
generally prevailing in the industry; (2) to pi'o- 
tect wages by assuring that they are paid in cash, 
promptly, in full, and directly to the workers. 

The revised conventions ajaproved by the ses- 
sion: (1) Established international minimum 
standards to protect persons migrating from one 
country to take employment in another. This re- 
placed a convention adopted in 1939. (2) Pro- 
vided for the gradual abolition or, alternatively, 
the regulation of employment agencies which 
charge fees and are operated with a view to profit. 
This replaced a convention adopted in 1933. (3) 
Established vacation holidays with pay for sea- 
farers. (4) Set standards for the accommodation 
of crews on board ship. (5) Fixed minimum 
wages for seafarers, established maximum hours, 
and set requirements for the manning of ships. 
These last three replaced conventions adopted at 
the Seattle Maritime Session of the conference in 
1946. 



July 25, J 949 



103 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Continued 



The revision of these five conventions was de- 
signed to meet objections to them which have im- 
peded their ratification by governments and the 
application of their provisions. 

Tlie new recommendations adopted by the con- 
ference: (1) Supplemented the convention on 
labor clauses in public contracts, (2) supple- 
mented the convention on the protection of wages, 
and (3) recommended standards governing voca- 
tional guidance for young persons and employ- 
ment counseling for adults. The revised recom- 
mendation approved by the delegates supple- 
mented the revised convention on migration for 
employment. 

In addition to the decisions it took in the form 
of new and revised conventions and recommenda- 
tions, the conference approved resolutions which : 
(1) Requested the Governing Body to instruct 
the International Labor Office — the Ilo's secre- 
tariat — to prepare reports on laws and practices 
throughout the world governing paid annual holi- 
days and on physical and cultural recreation fa- 
cilities for workers; (2) requested the Governing 
Body to consider instructing Mr. Morse to pre- 
pare without delay a report on the pi'oblem of un- 
employment and to consider the desirability of 
placing the question of unemployment on the 
agenda of an early .session of the conference. 

Delegations from the following countries at- 
tended the conference : Afghanistan, Argentina, 
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, 
Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, 
Egypt, Ecuador, Finland, France, Greece, Haiti, 
Hungary, India, Iran, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlancls, New 
Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Siam, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, United Kingdom, 
United States, Union of South Africa, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela. 

Also attending the conference as official ob- 
servers were a representative of the Supreme 
Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan and a 
complete Japanese delegation comprising govern- 
ment, employer, and worker representatives. 
Official international organizations represented in- 
cluded the United Nations, the Food and Agri- 
cultural Organization, the International Monetary 
Fund, the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, the World Health 
Organization and the International Refugee 
Organization. 

THE GOVERNING BODY 

The Governing Body of the International Labor 
Office at its 109th session, which was held before 
and during the conference, took affirmative action 



on a lengthy agenda which included setting the 
dates of future meetings : 

Technical Conference on Vocational Training, 

Singapore, September, 1949. 
Third Session, Metal Trades Committee, 

Geneva, October, 1949. 
Third Session, Iron and Steel Committee, 

Geneva, November, 1949. 
110th Session, Governing Body, 

Mysore, India, December, 1949. 
First Asian Regional Conference, 

Ceylon, Jan. ^14, 1950. 
Tripartite Preparatory Conference on Technical 
Training for Adults, 

Geneva, Late Jan., 1950. 
33d Session, International Labor Conference, 

Geneva, June, 1950. 

Dates late in 1949 and early 1950 were set for 
meetings of the following expert committees : In- 
digenous Labor, Women's Work, Juvenile Employ- 
ment, and Recreation. 

In other decisions, the Governing Body au- 
thorized the Director-General to open a manpower 
field office in Latin America and to undertake a 
fellowship program in 1950 in fields covered by 
the Ilo. 

It adopted a United Kingdom proposal instruct- 
ing the Director-General to take all appropriate 
steps to associate representatives of Germany, in- 
cluding employers and workers, with those Ilo 
activities and meetings which are of interest and 
concern to Germany. 

The Governing Body also decided that the in- 
vestigation of forced labor lay within its compe- 
tence but agreed that this matter was also one of 
concern to the United Nations and therefore in- 
structed Director-General Morse to establish close 
contact with Secretary-General Trygve Lie of the 
United Nations with a view to setting up an im- 
partial commission of inquiry as soon as possible. 



Radio Frequency Plan for 
Western Hemisphere Adopted 

[Released to the press July 11] 

A radio-frequency regional assignment plan for 
the entire Western Hemisphere was adopted at the 
joint meeting of the International Telecommuni- 
cation Union Region II and the Fourth Inter- 
American Radio Conference, which ended in 
Washington July 9, 1949. This is the first complete 
radio-frequency-assignment plan under the pro- 
visions of the international radio regulations of 
Atlantic City, 1947, for any region of the world, 
and its adoption is regarded as an important step 
forward in world-wide efforts, under the auspices 



104 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ANO CONFERENCES 



Continued 



of the International Telecommunication Union, to 
effect an orderly registration and utilization of 
frequencies throughout the radio spectrum. The 
conference also adopted a strong declaration of 
principles on freedom of information in the Amer- 
ican i-egion. Representatives of 24 nations partici- 
pated in this conference, which has been underway 
since March 15. All delegations signed the inter- 
American radio agreement, report on frequency 
allotment for the aeronautical mobile service, and 
a resolution with respect to the preparation of 
national station lists at the final plenary se.ssion 
July 9, 1949. 

The Western-Hemisphere plan covers assign- 
ments to bands of services including aeronautical, 
maritime mobile, standard-band broadcasting, 
tropical broadcasting, and amateur services in the 
portion of the radio spectrum from 10 to 4000 
kcs. It is based on allocations made at the Atlan- 
tic City Telecommunication conferences in 1947, 
where over-all frequency assignments wei'e made 
for the three regions of the world — covering 
Europe, the Western Hemisphere, and the Asia- 
Australasian area. The Region II phase of the 
conference was one of a series of regional confer- 
ences provided for at the Atlantic City meetings 
to formulate a plan of frequency assignments for 
all users of the radio spectrum in the American 
region. The plan it has completed will form the 
basis for incorporating American region-fre- 
quency requirements in the new International Fre- 
quency List to be prepared by the International 
Telecommunication Union at a special administra- 
tive conference scheduled to be convened in Geneva 
in October. Tlie Fourth Inter-American Radio 
Conference continued the series of inter-American 
sjjecialized conferences on this subject initiated at 
Habana in 1937. 

Strong emphasis was placed on the principles of 
fi-eedom of information in the American Region. 
The conference adopted resolutions covering the 
interchange and retransmission of radio broadcast 
programs and reaffirmed the Rio resolution on 
liberty of information in radio communications. 
A resolution urging liberalization of regulations 
for transmission of news for press was referred to 
the next inter-American conference for further 
study. One of these resolutions strongly appealed 
to the administrations and broadcasting organiza- 
tions of the American nations, as a contribution 
to the culture and solidarity between their peoples, 
to adopt the necessary and appropriate measures 
to intensify as soon as possible the exchange and 
retransmission of cultural broadcasting programs 
and program materials of an artistic, educational, 



scientific, historical, and informative nature of 
both national and international interest. Member 
states were urged to promulgate the necessary 
measures to extend freedom of radio expression 
similar to freedom enjoyed by the press. 

The adoption of an aeronautical frequency-al- 
lotment plan for the exclusive HF aeronautical 
mobile frequencies was generally regarded as a 
major accomplishment of the conference. It is a 
significant step leading toward improved safety 
of human life in aircraft. The International 
Civil Aviation Organization collaborated in its 
preparation. The plan will be sent to the second 
session of the International Administrative Aero- 
nautical Radio Conference, which is to meet in 
Geneva on August 1, 1949, to consider a world- 
wide aeronautical radio-frequency plan. The 
first meeting of this group last summer had to be 
recessed to permit further work within the Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union regions in de- 
termining their specific frequency requirements. 
In the meantime, the International Civil Aviation 
Organization has coordinated the plan adopted 
for the Western Hemisphere (International Tele- 
communication Union Region II) with similar 
plans prepared by different regional conferences 
in the Eastern Hemisi^here. It will be repre- 
sented at Geneva, where the final coordination will 
be made. 

Inasmuch as the next world-wide telecommuni- 
cation conference is to be held in Buenos Aires in 
1952, it was decided, upon the invitation of the 
Government of Uruguay, that the Fifth Inter- 
American Radio Conference will be convened in 
Montevideo 15 days following the adjournment of 
the Buenos Aires meeting. 

Committee for U. N. Day — Continued from page 99 

Speakers Committee — Mrs. Virginia Parker, Director of 
Publicatious, National Planning Association 

Motion Picture Committee — Francis S. Harmon, Vice- 
President of the New York Office of tlie Motion Pic- 
ture Association 

Program Committee — Frank L. Weil, President, National 
Social Welfare Assembly and National Jewish Wel- 
fare Board 

Nationality Oroiips — Reed Lewis, Executive Director, 
Common Council for American Unity 

Advertisinfj Committee — Sam Gale, Vice-President, Gen- 
eral Mills 

The National Citizens Committee will depend on 
private voluntary contributions for its support. 
Mr. Davis has announced the appointment of Da- 
vid Bernstein, author and former special adviser 
to the President of the Philippines, as executive 
director. 



iuly 25, T949 



105 



U.S. Delegations to International Conference 



Ninth Session of ECOSOC 

The United States delegation to the ninth ses- 
sion of the United Nations Economic and Social 
Council, which convened at Geneva, July 5, 1949, 
is as follows : 

United States Representative 

Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs, Department of State 

Deputy United States representatives 

Leroy D. Stlnebower, Special Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary for Economic Affairs, Department of State 

Walter Kotschnig, Chief, Division of United Nations 
Economic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

M. Kathleen Bell, Division of United Nations Economic 
and Social Affairs, Department of State 

John W. Gibson, Assistant Secretary of Labor, Department 
of Labor 

Haldore Hanson, Inter-Departmental Committee on 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Department of 
State 

Dr. H. Van Zile Hyde, Division of United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Louis K. Hyde, Jr., Adviser on Economic and Social Coun- 
cil Affairs, United States Mission to the United 
Nations, New York 

Frances K. Kernohan, Chief, Social Branch, Division of 
International Labor and Social Affairs, Department 
of State 

Lewis L. Lorwin, Economic Adviser, Office of International 
Trade, Department of Commerce 

Van R. Lorwin, International Labor Economist, Division 
of International Labor and Social Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Iver Olsen, Economist, Division of Monetary Research, 
Treasury Department 

Paul R. Porter, Alternate United States Representative 
to the Economic Commission for Europe, American 
Consulate, Geneva 

Keene A. Roadman, Office of International Labor Affairs, 
Department of Labor 

Alvin Roseman, United States Representative for Spe- 
cialized Agency Affairs, American Consulate, Geneva 

Robert B. Schwenger, Acting Chief, Regional Investiga- 
tions Branch, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 
Department of Agriculture 

Savilla M. Simons, Assistant Director, Office of Inter- 
Agency and International Relations, Federal Security 
Agency 



Administrative Assistant 

Marie Florence Rodgers, United States Mission to the 
United Nations, New York 

Reporting Officers 

Dan D. Levin, United States Mission to the United Na- 
tions, New York 

Charles J. Merritt, United States Mission to the United 
Nations, New York 

Press Officer 

Gilbert W. Stewart, Jr., United States Mission to the 
United Nations, New York 

Public Information Officer 

Howard J. Garnish, Policy Information Specialist, Inter- 
national Broadcasting Division, Office of Interna- 
tional Information, Department of State, New York 

An officer from the Department of Agriculture 
will be named at a later date to serve as an adviser. 



Tliird International Congress of Toponymy 

The Department of State announced on July 8 
that Meredith F. Burrill, director of the Division 
of Geography, Department of the Interior, and 
executive secretary of the Board on Geographic 
Names, and John G. Mutziger, chief linguist of 
the Division of Geography, Department of the 
Interior, have been named U.S. delegates to the 
Third International Congress of Toponymy and 
Anthroponymy. The Congress is scheduled to 
be held at Brussels July 15-19, 1949. 

The purpose of the meeting is to discuss the 
latest developments in the field of toponymy 
(names of places) and of anthroponymy (names 
of jDersons). The Congress will bring together 
outstanding experts on the scientific study of no- 
menclature from more than 35 countries. These 
experts and specialists representing governments 
are meeting to arrange cooperative agreements for 
stimulating consistent name work. 

The necessity for international cooperation and 
uniformity in the field of toponymy is indicated 
by the fact that the maps of all areas of the world 
now being produced in the United States require 
hundreds of thousands of place names which are 
new to the English language. 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Labor Policy in Japan 



Statement hy Major General Frank R. McCoy, 
U.S. Member of the Far Eastei^ Commission 

In response to press inquiries arising from the 
statement on the Japanese labor situation, made 
by Ambassador Panyushkin at the Far Eastern 
Commission this morning [July 13] and subse- 
quently released by him to the press, I feel com- 
pelled to release the following statement which I 
made this morning on the same general subject. 
My statement preceded that of the Soviet repre- 
sentative and was addressed to a speech made by 
him 2 weeks ago. 

At the meeting of the Commission on June 23 
the Soviet member made a series of sweeping, mis- 
leading charges against the manner in which 
ScAP and the Japanese Government are handling 
the labor situation in Japan. The Soviet member 
specifically denounced the revisions of the Japa- 
nese labor laws enacted at the last Diet session and 
the action taken by the Japanese authorities in 
coping with the recent labor demonstrations at the 
Tokyo JNIunicipal Assembly Building on May 30 
and at the Hiroshima plant of the Japan Steel 
Company on June 12. It has not been — nor will it 
be — the practice of my government to answer 
charges of this nature which are so clearly of the 
propaganda variety. However, in order that this 
Commission may have the full benefit of the facts, 
there is being circulated to the members of the 
Commission a memorandum prepared by my gov- 
ernment analyzing each of the specific charges 
made by the Soviet member, as they relate to the 
revisions of the Japanese labor laws. 

I wish to point out at this time that the revi- 
sions of the Japanese labor laws enacted in the last 
Diet session are a direct implementation of 
Fec-045/5 (Principles for Japanese Trade 
Unions) which was issued after the original labor 
laws were enacted. In line with Fec-045/5, the 

July -25, 7949 



revisions of the laws have strengthened the demo- 
cratic character of Japanese trade unions through 
such measures as ensuring that the unions observe 
direct secret elections, annual general meetings, 
open financial reports, and protection of individual 
members against discrimination within the union. 
Special emphasis was placed on the practical work- 
ability of administrative procedures so as to pre- 
clude a breakdown which would prevent peaceful 
settlement of labor disputes. In many instances 
labor's interests have been further clarified and 
the rights of individual workers safeguarded. 

The Soviet representative has attempted to as- 
sociate the revisions of these labor laws with the 
incidents at Tokyo and Hiroshima. However, in 
neither incident were any labor laws involved and 
in the Tokyo case no trade union issues of any kind 
were at stake. 

These and other recent incidents of the same 
nature have been characterized by certain features 
of disturbing implication. Seizing upon any pre- 
text whatsoever, lawless elements have organized 
demonstrations for the purpose of exerting mass 
pressure to intimidate government authorities and 
others into doing the bidding of the demonstra- 
tors. The participants in these affairs have also 
sought to provoke the authorities into acts of force 
which could then be denounced as "repressive 
measures," "police brutality," or, to quote the 
Soviet member's phrase, "brutal mobbing by the 
police". In contrast to the acts of violence com- 
mitted by the demonstrators — -including illegal 
seizures, intimidation, and bodily attacks on com- 
pany officials — the Japanese authorities have exer- 
cised care and resti'aint. Police have been used 
only when necessary to clear public buildings so 
that governmental functions could go on, to protect 
property and maintain order. Arrests have been 
made only where demonstrators resisted or even 
attacked policemen. In the Tokyo incident police 
action was not taken until after 5 hours of con- 
tinued disruption of the Tokyo Municipal As- 

107 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



sembly proceedings by a militant mob. At Hiro- 
shima, there was no resort to police action until 
48 hours after the steel plant had been illegally 
seized by the demonstrators. 

It appears to us that these cases of mob violence 
are not designed to protect the rights of labor or 
to advance democratic tendencies, despite the use 
of democratic phrases by Soviet representatives 
here and in the Allied Council for Japan. On the 
contrary, it is clear to us that this is a centrally 
directed campaign to create fear, social unrest, 
confusion and disorder, which is intended to un- 
dermine the authority of the government, in the 
hope of creating a condition favorable to the seiz- 
ure of political power. 

It would appear to my government that the 
primary and central issue raised by the Soviet 
member at the June 23 meeting of the Commission 
is whether the legitimate rights and interests of 
the Japanese people are to be protected by duly 
constituted authority or to be placed at the mercy 
of a lawless few. 



UNITED STATES ANALYSIS OF SOVIET STATE- 
MENT, 158TH FEC MEETING 

Revised Labor Relations Adjustment Law 

U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

10. First, the Prime Minister was given the 
right to include additional enterprises in the cate- 
gory of "public utilities" enterprises in order to 
restrict the rights of the workers in such enter- 
prises in regard to acts connected with labor dis- 
putes. As a result of this revision, the Prime 
Minister had received the right to include any en- 
terprise or any industry in the category of "public 
utilities" enterprises and to declare the labor con- 
flicts of the workers in such enterprises illegal. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The new procedure for the designation of 
emergency public welfare industries is not an 
additional provision but replaces the old proce- 
dure which was unworkable in practice. The au- 
thority of the Prime Minister to designate such 
industries is strictly limited to those "the stoppage 
of which will seriously affect the national economy 
or seriously endanger the daily life of the general 
public" and may be exercised only with approval 
of the National Diet. Even after such design.a- 
tion, work stoppages are forbidden only for a 30- 
day period after a request for mediation to the 
labor relations committee. 



REFERENCE : REVISED LABOR RELATIONS 
ADJUSTMENT LAW 

Article 8 

In this law public welfare work shall mean the follow- 
ing work which provides the services essential to daily 
life of the general public : 

a. Transportation work 

b. Post, telegraph or telephone work 

c. Worli for supplying water, gas or electricity 

d. Medical treatment and public health work 

The Prime Minister shall have power to designate, other 
than the work in any item, of the preceding paragraph, 
any work the stoppage of which will seriously affect the 
national economy or seriously endanger the daily life 
of the general, public for a specified period of time not 
exceeding one year with approval of the Diet. . . . 

Article S7 

In public welfare works acts of dispute by the parties 
concerned should be disallowed until request for media- 
tion under the provision of article 18, paragraph 1, items 
1 to 3 has been made and 30 days have elapsed from the 
day the said request has been made or from the dav 
the decision under item 4 of the same paragraph or request 
under item 5 of the same paragraph has been made, pro- 
vided that such disallowance shall not apply to act of 
dispute at the works where acts of dispute have already 
been in progress even if the said works be designated as 
public welfare works pursuant to the provisions of article 
8, paragraph 2. 

As regards a public welfare work, in the event that a 
mutually acceptable proposal for settlement provides for 
continued negotiation on various issues, acts of dispute 
concerning the issues shall be disallowed until the pre- 
requisites set forth in paragraph 1 have again been met. 

U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

11. Secondly, a very important provision pro- 
hibiting the employer from discharging workers 
or discriminating against them from taking part in 
labor conflicts had been deleted from the Labor 
Relations Adjustment Law. Thus employers had 
received the right to discharge workei's or dis- 
criminate against them because of their participa- 
tion in labor conflicts. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The statement of the Soviet representative is 
completely misleading. The elimination of the 
blanket exemption in the Labor Relations Adjust- 
ment Law simply removes special protection from 
illegal or violent strike actions. Article 7 of the 
revised Trade Union Law now states "the employer 
shall be disallowed ... to discharge or give dis- 
criminatory treatment to a worker . . . for his 
having performed proper acts of a trade union." 
It is clearly understood in Japanese law that a 
legal strike is contained within the category of 
"proper acts of a trade union." 



108 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



REFERENCE: REVISED LABOR RELATIONS 
ADJUSTMENT LAW 

Article 40 

The employer shall be disallowed to discharge or give 
discriminatory treatment to worker fej- having performed 
eteie ef disptrte ef for^the testimony he made at the pro- 
ceedings of adjustment of labor dispute under this law, 
provided *hftt t4«ij shali »e% ftpply whea agreed to by the 
Labor Rolationo Committee . (Deletions referred to in 
Soviet statement arejndicated by canceled type.) 

REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 7 

The employer shall be disallowed to do the following 
practices : 

(1) To discharge or give discriminatory treatment to 
a worker by reason of his being a member of a trade 
union, for his having tried to join or organize a trade 
union or for his having performed proper acts of a trade 
union ; or to make it a condition of employment that the 
worker must not join or must withdraw from a trade 
union. . . . 



U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

12. Third, tliere had been introduced additional 
provisions prohibiting workers from engaging in 
labor conflicts during a jjeriod established for the 
settlement of the differences with the employer in 
respect to the interpretation of the agreement 
readied, as well as a number of other restrictive 
provisions. 



UNITED STATES REPLY 

This statement apparently refers to article 37 
of the revised Labor Relations Adjustment Law 
which provides that in the event that the 30-day 
"cooling off" period in a public welfare industry 
has resulted in an agreement, any conflict on in- 
terpretation or in further negotiation shall be 
treated as a new dispute with an additional 30- 
day "cooling off"' period required prior to acts of 
dispute. This provision is aimed at preventing 
continuous dispute tactics which have been utilized 
by minority elements in the past to keep industrial 
relations in a constant state of turmoil and should 
assist the achievement and maintenance of stable 
labor-management agreements. This provision 
may be invoked only by prior mutual agreement of 
both parties. 

REFERENCE: REVISED LABOR RELATIONS 
ADJUSTMENT LAW 

Article 37 

In public welfare works acts of dispute by the parties 
concerned should be disallowed until request for media- 



tion under the provision of article 18, parasraph 1, items 
1 to 3 has been made and 30 days have elapsed from the 
day the said request has been made or from the day the 
decision under item 4 of the same paragraph or request 
under item 5 of the same paragraph has been made, pro- 
vided that such disallowance shall not apply to act of 
dispute at the works where acts of dispute have already 
been in progress even if the said works be designated as 
public welfare works pursuant to the provisions of article 
8, paragraph 2. 

As regards a public welfare work, in the event that a 
mutually acceptable proposal for settlement provides for 
continued negotiation on various issues, acts of dispute 
concerning the i-ssues shall be disallowed until the pre- 
requisites set forth in paragraph 1 have again been met. 

U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

13. Fourth, besides other repressions, a worker 
who did not abide by these provisions might be 
subjected to a fine of ¥100,000, that is a sum ex- 
ceeding the yearly wage of a Japanese worker. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

There is no provision in the Labor Relations 
Adjustment Law for penalizing individual work- 
ers ¥100,000. Such penalty, which is provided in 
article 39, applies only to employers, labor or em- 
ployer organizations, and outsiders who violate the 
30-day "cooling off" required in public welfare in- 
dustries. It cannot be contended that this fine is 
onerous when applicable to a labor organization as 
a whole. 



REFERENCE: REVISED LABOR RELATIONS 
ADJUSTMENT LAW 

Article 39 

In case there is a contravention as under article 37, the 
employer or his organization, or the laborers' organiza- 
tion or other persons or organization who are responsible 
for such contravention shall be subject to a fine not exceed- 
ing 100,000 yen. 

The regulations of the preceding paragraph shall when 
such employer or such organization or such labor organi- 
zation who are responsible are juridical persons, apply to 
the trustees or directors or other officials discharging 
official duties of a juridical person. In case such persons, 
parties, or organizations are not juridical persons, the 
regulations shall apply to the representatives or some 
other officials discharging official duties. 

The total line imposed for one case of dispute shall not 
exceed 100,000 yen. 

When applying the regulations of Paragraph 1 the 
dissolved juridicial persons, or the employer's organiza- 
tion or the labor union who are not juridical persons, or 
organizations of the parties in dispute, or other bodies, 
shall be considered as still in existence. 



July 25, 1949 



109 



THe RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Revised Trade Union Law 



U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 



15. As regards the revised Trade Union Law, 
Mr. Panyushkin continued, the new law had in- 
troduced pi-ovisions regarding the structure of the 
Labor Relations Committees as a result of which 
these Committees had been turned into government 
agencies under the Labor Ministry (chapter 4, 
article 19, and other articles) .... 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The functions of the Labor Relations Committee 
are twofold : Peaceful settlement of disputes and 
enforcement of the protective provisions of the 
Trade Union and Labor Relations Adjustment 
Laws. In the former function, the tripartite char- 
acter of the committee has been fully maintained 
and labor's interests are completely safeguarded. 
In the latter function, its quasi judicial and opera- 
tional nature have required a governmental rather 
than the tripartisan approach. In both functions, 
the committees are operationally independent and 
camiot be overruled by the Labor Ministry. 



REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 19 

1. Labor Relations Committees shall be set up consist- 
ing of equal number of persons representing employers, 
workers and public interest. 

2. The Labor Relations Committee shall consist of the 
Central Labor Relations Committee, the Maritime Central 
Labor Relations Committee, Prefectural Labor Relations 
Committees and Local Maritime Labor Relations Com- 
mittees. 

3. The members and the staffs of a Labor Relations 
Committee as provided in this Law shall be regarded as 
staffs engaged in official business under laws and ordi- 
nances. 

4. Matters relating to Labor Relations Committees 
other than those laid down in this Law shall be fixed 
by a Cabinet Ordinance. 

5. The Central Labor Relations Committee shall be 
under the jurisdiction of the Labor Minister. 

6. The Central Labor Relations Committee shall be 
composed of seven members representing employer (here- 
inafter referred to as "employer members"), seven mem- 
bers representing labor (hereinafter referred to as "labor 
members"), and seven members representing the public 
interest (hereinafter referred to as "public members"). 

7. The Labor Minister shall appoint the employer mem- 
bers in accordance with the recommendations of the em- 
ployers' organizations, the labor members with the rec- 
ommendations of trade unions and the public members 
with the agreement of the employer members and the 
labor members. 



8. Incompetent and quasi-incompetent persons and one 
who has been sentenced to penal servitude or imprisonment 
and still under the execution of the sentence cannot be a 
member. When a member shall become disqualified as a 
result of this provision, he shall automatically be retired. 

9. As to appointment of the public members, three or 
more of them shall not belong to the same political party. 
When a public member shall have by his own actions dis- 
qualified himself as a result of this provision, he shall 
automatically be retired. 

10. In case the Labor Minister recognizes that a mem- 
ber of the Central Labor Relations Committee cannot per- 
form his duties by reason of mental and physical defects 
or that a member has violated his duties in performing his 
functions or is guilty of misconduct as a member, the Labor 
Minister may discharge the said member with the ap- 
proval of the Central Labor Relations Committee. 

11. The term of office of the members shall be one year, 
provided that substitute members filling a vacancy shall 
remain in office during the remaining term of the 
predecessor. 

12. The members may be re-appointed. 

13. The members shall continue to perform their duties 
until their successor has been appointed. 

14. Members shall receive such salaries, allowances and 
other pays as are fixed separately by laws and compensa- 
tion for expenses necessary to perform their duties as 
fixed by a Cabinet Ordinance. 

15. There shall be chairmen in the Central Labor Rela- 
tions Committee. 

16. The chairman shall be elected by all members from 
among the public members. 

17. The chairman shall preside over the businesses of 
the Central Labor Relations Committee. 

18. When the chairman has been prevented from per- 
forming his duties, one who has been elected according to 
the provision of Paragraph 16 shall perform the businesses 
of the chairman in lieu of the chairman, and when the 
chair has become vacant, a new chairman shall be elected 
in accordance with the provision of the same paragraph. 

19. A Business Bureau shall be established in the Cen- 
tral Labor Relations Committee to handle the administra- 
tive affairs of the Committee, and the Business Bureau 
shall have a Director and necessary staffs appointed by 
the Labor Minister with approval of the chairman. 

20. The provisions of this Article shall be applied mu- 
tatis mutandis to the Prefectural Labor Relations Com- 
mittees ; provided that the authorities of the Labor 
Minister shall be performed by the Governor and the 
Committee shall be composed of five employer members, 
five labor members and five public members ; and two or 
more of the public members shall uot belong to the same 
political party. 

21. As regards the seamen covered by the Seamen's 
Law (Law No. 100, 1947), the functions of the Central 
Labor Relations Committee, the Prefectural Labor Rela- 
tions Committee, and the Labor Minister or the Prefec- 
tiu'al Governor as provided for in this Law shall be per- 
formed respectively by the Maritime Central Labor Rela- 
tions Committee, the Maritime Local Labor Relations 
Committee and the Transportation Minister ; and the 
provisions concerning the Central Labor Relations Com- 



110 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



mittee and the Prefectural Labor Relations Committee 
sliall be applied mutatis mutandis to the Maritime Cen- 
tral Labor Relations Committee and the Maritime Local 
Labor Relations Committee ; provided, however, that 
"Prefectures" shall read as "Areas under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Maritime Transportation Bureaus". 

Article 24 

Only the public members of the Labor Relations Com- 
mittee shall participate in the adjudication of cases 
arising imder Articles 5, 7, 11 and 27 and Article 42 of 
the Labor Relations Adjustment Law ; provided, how- 
ever, that this shall not preclude labor members and 
employer members from participating in hearings held 
prior to a decision. 



U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

15. . . . These government labor committees 
had received the right to interfere directly and 
control all the activities of trade unions and, be- 
sides that, to determine the question of the "con- 
stitutionality" of trade unions. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The statement that these conunittees have the 
"right to interfere directly and control all activi- 
ties of trade unions and, besides that, to determine 
the question of 'constitutionality' of trade unions" 
is utter misrepresentation. The committees 
merely have the function of inspecting the written 
constitution of each union to assure that the re- 
quirements of FEC-045/5 ensuring democratic 
internal practices are contained therein, namely a 
provision for the election of officers and stand- 
ing committeemen by direct secret elections, an- 
nual general meetings, open financial reports, pro- 
tection of individual members against discrimina- 
tion within the union, secret ballot for strike votes, 
and majority vote for revision of the union con- 
stitution. In these matters the committees do not 
go beyond the union constitution, the enforcement 
of which is left to the members themselves, with 
court action on the members' initiative only where 
their constitutional rights have been violated. 
The only other function of the committees is to 
investigate compliance with the requirement that 
the union is not dominated by the employer. 

REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 5 

Unless the trade union has submitted evidence to the 
Labor Relations Committee and proved that it is in com- 
pliance with the provisions of Article 2 and Paragraph 2 
of this Article, the trade union shall not be eligible to 
participate in the formal procedures provided in this 



Law and the Labor Relations Adjustment Law (Law No. 
2.5, 1948) and to avail itself of the remedies provided 
therein. Provided that nothing herein shall be construed 
so as to deny any individual worker the protection 
accorded by Clause 1 of Article 7. 

2. The constitution of the trade union shall include 
provisions provided for in each of the following clauses : 

(1) Name. 

(2) Address of the main office. 

(3) Members of a trade union besides a federated 
trade union (hereinafter referred to as "local union") 
shall have the right to participate in all affairs of the 
trade union and the right to be rendered equal treatment. 

(4) In no event shall any one be disqualified for 
union membership because of race, religion, sex, social 
status or family origin. 

(5) The officials of a local union shall be elected by 
secret ballot directly by the members, and the officials of a 
federation or a national union may be elected by secret 
ballot directly by the members of the local union or by 
delegates elected directly by secret ballot of the members 
of the local union. 

(6) General meeting shall be held at least once every 
year. 

(7) Financial report showing all sources of revenues 
and expenses, names of main contributors and present 
financial status shall be made public to the members at 
least once every year, together with certification of its 
accuracy by a professionally competent auditor appointed 
by the members. 

(8) No strike action shall be started without the de- 
cision made by secret ballot either directly by a majority 
of members voting or directly by a majority of delegates 
voting directly elected by secret ballot by all members. 

(9) No constitution of a local union shall be revised 
except by a majority support by direct secret ballot of the 
members. No constitution of a national union or a fed- 
eration shall be revised except by a majority support by 
direct secret ballot of the members of the local union or 
of the delegates directly elected by secret ballot by all 
members. 

U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

16. According to the new law, the Central Labor 
Relations Committee, which was directly imder 
the Labor Ministry, had received the right to re- 
ject and modify the decisions adopted by the local 
labor relations committees. It was absolutely 
clear that this new system of organization for 
labor relations committees, in which the role of 
the representatives of the workers' organizations 
had been reduced to nothing, could not secure 
the protection of the workers' interests. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The Central Committee can overrule local com- 
mittees only on judicial questions, a provision 
which is indispensable if uniform interpretation 
of labor law is to be fostered and legal chaos 
avoided. 



July 25, 1949 



111 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 25 

The Central Labor Relations Committee shall have 
authority to perform the functions prescribed under the 
provisions of Articles 18, 20, 26, and 27. The Central 
Labor Relations Committee may assume initial jurisdic- 
tion in all cases of conciliation, mediation, arbitration, 
and adjudication of cases which cover tvFO or more pre- 
fectures or which present issues of national import. 

2. The Central Labor Relations Committee may review 
the adjudications of the Prefectural Labor Relations Com- 
mittee pursuant to the provisions of Articles 5, 7 and 27 
with full authority to reverse, accept, or modify such 
adjudications, or it may reject appeal for review. Such 
review shall be initiated by the Central Labor Relations 
Committee or by appeal of either party from the adjudica- 
tion of the Prefectural Labor Relations Committee. 



U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

18. Furthermore, according to Article 2, Sec- 
tion 1, several categories of Japanese workers were 
prohibited from joining trade unions. According 
to press rejiorts, the adoption of this amendment 
to the law had deprived 30,000 workers of their 
right to join trade unions. 



UNITED STATES REPLY 

The "workers" prohibited from joining trade 
unions by the revision noted are supervisory 
employees. Such exclusion is necessary to 
prevent employer domination of the workers' 
organizations. 

REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 2 

Trade unions under the present law shall be those or- 
ganizations, or federations thereof, formed autonomously 
and substantially by the workers for the main purpose of 
maintaining and improving the conditions of work and 
for raising the economic status of the workers, provided 
that tills rule shall not apply to those : 

(1) Which admit to membership officers, workers at 
the supervisory post having direct authority to liire, fire, 
promote or transfer, workers at the supervisory post hav- 
ing access to confidential information relating to the em- 
ployers' labor relations plans and policies so that their 
official duties and obligations directly conflict with their 
loyalties and obligations as members of the trade union 
concerned and other persons who represent the interest of 
the employer. 

(2) Which receive tlie employers' financial support in 
defraying the organizations' operational expenditures. 
Provided that this shall not prevent the employer from 
permitting workers to confer or negotiate with him during 
working hours without loss of time or pay or to the em- 



ployer's contribution for welfare funds; or benefit and 
similar funds which are actually used for payments to 
prevent or relieve economic misfortune or accident ; or to 
the furnishing of minimum office space. 

(3) Whose objects are confined to mutual aid work 
or other welfare work. 

(4) Which principally aim at carrying on political or 
special movement. 

U.S.S.R. STATEMENT 

19. Moreover, for the violation of the provisions 
of this law severe repression measures had been 
established, including imprisonment for a period 
up to one year, and a fine up to ¥100,000. 

UNITED STATES REPLY 

The citation of the penal provisions in the Trade 
Union Law is completely inaccurate. None of the 
penal provisions in this law, whether fine or im- 
prisonment, apply to workers or unions, but apply 
to government officials who violate official secrets, 
persons who interfere with Labor Relations Com- 
mittee proceedings and employers who violate fair 
I^ractice provisions of the law. Method of en- 
forcement for unions violating the law is through 
their disqualification for assistance or protection 
through procedures established by the law. 

REFERENCE: REVISED TRADE UNION LAW 

Article 27 

Whenever a complaint is filed that an employer has 
violated the provision of Article 7 with a Labor Relations 
Committee, the Labor Relations Committee shall make 
an immediate investigation and if it is deemed necessary 
shall have a hearing of the issues on the merits of the 
complaint. Such investigation and hearing shall follow 
the Rules of Procedures prescribed by the Central Labor 
Relations Committee in accordance with the provision of 
the preceding Article, and at such hearing, sufficient op- 
portunity to present evidence and cross-examine the wit- 
nesses shall be given to the employer concerned as well 
as the complainants. 

2. At the conclusion of the hearing provided for in the 
preceding paragraph, the Labor Relations Committee 
shall make a finding of fact and issue its order in ac- 
cordance therewith either granting in full or in part the 
relief sought by the complainants or dismissing the com- 
Ijlaint. Such findings of facts and such order shall be in 
writing, and a copy thereof shall be served on the em- 
ployer concerned and the complainants. Such order shall 
be in full force and effect from the date of service. Pro- 
ceeding under the provisions of this paragraph shall be in 
accordance with the Rules of Procedures prescribed by the 
Central Labor Relations Committee as provided for in the 
preceding Article. 

3. In case the employer received the order of the Pre- 
fectural Labor Relations Committee according to the pro- 
vision of the preceding paragraph, he may within a period 
of 15 days file a request for review by the Central Labor 
Relations Committee. However, such request shall not 



112 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



have the effect of staying the order and it shall lose its 
force and effect only when the Central Labor Relations 
Committee reverses or modifies it as a result of review in 
accordance with the provision of Article 25. 

Article S8 

In case of violation of the order of the Labor Relations 
Committee when all or a part of the said order has been 
sustained by the fixed judgment of the court in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the preceding Article, those 
who commit such violation shall be liable to imprison- 
ment not exceeding one year or to a fine not exceeding 
one hundred thousand yen, or to both. 



Article 33 

The liquidator of a trade union which Is a juridical per- 
son who has violated any of the provisions of the Civil 
Code which are set out in Article 12 of this Law and 
violations of which are made punishable by Article 84 of 
the Civil Code shall be subject to the same fine of the same 
extent and amount as provided for in the said Article of 
the Civil Code. 

2. The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be 
applied mutatis mutandis to the representative of a trade 
union which is a juridical person when such representative 
failed to register changes In the matters registered con- 
cerning the said juridical person as provided in ordinance 
as set out In Paragraph 2 of Article 11 of this Law. 



Article 29 

Those who contravene the provision of Article 23 shall 
be liable to imprisonment not exceeding one year or to a 
tine not exceeding thirty thousand yen. 

Article SO 

Those who contravene the provisions of Article 22 and 
fail to present reports or make false reports or fail to 
submit the books or papers or contravene the provisions 
of the same Article and fail to present themselves or 
refuse, obstruct or evade the Inspection under the provi- 
sion of the same Article shall be liable to a fine not exceed- 
ing thirty thousand yen. 

Article 31 

1. When the deputy, co-habitant, employees, or others 
engaged for work of a juridical person or a person con- 
travene the provisions of the first portion of the preceding 
Article, in connection with the business of a juridical per- 
son or of a person, the said juridical person or person shall 
not be immune from penalty on the ground of not having 
given order for such contravention. 

2. The provisions of the first portion of the preceding 
Article shall apply to the directors, managers or other of- 
ficers who execute the business of the juridical person in 
case the employer Is a juridical person and to the legally 
fixed deputy in case the employer is a minor or a person 
adjudged incompetent ; provided that this rule shall not 
apply to a minor that has the same capacity as an adult in 
the performance of business. 

Article 32 

In case an employer has violated the order of the Court 
under the provision of Paragraph 5 of Article 27, he shall 
be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand yen 
(if the order concerned requires for positive action, the 
total amount of money made by multiplying one hundred 
thousand yen by the number of days of noncompliance, 
may be assessed as a fine). The same rule shall apply to 
the case when an employer has violated the order of the 
Labor Relations Committee which has become fixed accord- 
ing to the provision of Paragraph 7 of Article 27. 



U.S. Protests Yugoslav 
Currency Conversion in Trieste 

[Released to the press July H] 

Text of note from the Secretary of State to the 
Charge (PAffaires ad interim of the Federal 
People's Repiiblic^ Mr. Milenko Filipovic^ handed 
to him hy Mr. Lleicellyn E. Thompson., Deputy 
Assistant Secretary of State, July H, 191^9: ^ 

July IJf, 1949 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of tlie Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia and refers to the 
letter dated July 2, 1949, and transmitted by the 
Yugoslav Government to the Secretary General 
of the United Nations on July 6, 1949, concerning 
the loan by the Yugoslav Government of five 
hundred million dinars to the military administra- 
tion of the Yugoslav Army for the Yugoslav Zone 
of the Free Territory of Trieste for the purpose 
of replacing the medium of exchange of the Zone 
with Yugoslav dinars. 

The United States Government must again re- 
ject the Yugoslav allegations that the Allied Mili- 
tary Government in the United States-United 
Kingdom Zone of the Free Territory of Trieste 
has violated the Italian Peace Treaty through the 
conclusion of certain agreements with the Italian 
Government. These and similar charges have 
been made by the Yugoslav Government on previ- 
ous occasions and have been brought to the atten- 
tion of the Security Council of the United Nations 
which failed to sustain them. The United States 
and the United Kingdom Governments have set 
forth in detail and explained at length the nature 
of the agreements between Allied Militai-y Gov- 

'■ Text of U.S. note was also released as U.N. doc. S/1350 
of Julv 14, 1949 ; the Yugoslav note of July 2, 1949, was 
released as U.N. doc. S/1348 of July 5, 1949. 



July 25, 1949 



113 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 

ernment of the United States-United Kingdom 
Zone and the Italian Government. These agree- 
ments have been demonstrated to be in conformity 
with the provisions of the Italian Peace Treaty 
and indispensable to assure the well-being of the 
inhabitants of the United States-United Kingdom 
Zone. The United States Government deplores 
the fact that the Yugoslav Government continues 
to put forward these charges which upon objective 
examination have been demonstrated to be ground- 
less. 

In the course of the earlier discussion of the 
Yugoslav charges concerning the administration 
of the United States-United Kingdom Zone it was 
pointed out on several occasions that it is, in fact, 
the Military Administration in the Yugoslav Zone 
of the Free Territory that has violated the Treaty 
and has followed a policy clearly calculated to tie 
the Yugoslav Zone ever more closely to Yugo- 
slavia. The recently announced currency con- 
version represents an additional move in this di- 
rection which can have the result only of further 
integrating the Yugoslav Zone into the Yugoslav 
economy. 

The United States Government has not failed to 
note the statement of the Yugoslav authorities that 
they have been unable to reach agreement with the 
Italian Government upon the supply of Italian lira 
to the Yugoslav Zone, Free Territory of Trieste, 
in accordance with Article 11 of Annex VII of 
the Peace Treaty. Inasmuch as the Yugoslav 
authorities have not followed the procedures pro- 
vided in the Treaty of Peace for the settlement of 
such questions, this statement cannot be accepted 
as a valid explanation for their unilateral action 
in introducing the dinar into the Zone under their 
temporary military administration. 

The United States Government has previously 
recommended a solution of the Trieste question in 
the interests of international stability and the well- 
being of the inhabitants of the area and deplores 
any action which adds to the difficulty of achieving 
such a solution. 



Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and 
Navigation With Italy Enters Into Force 

Statetnent hy Secretary Acheson 

[Released to the press July IS] 

The treaty of friendship, commerce, and naviga- 
tion with Italy is expected to enter into force 
within the next few days. This treaty, concluded 
in conformity with the Department's general pro- 

114 



gram for governing economic relations with other 
countries through new and comprehensive instru- 
ments responsive to modern economic conditions, 
was signed at Rome on February 2, 1948. It was 
approved by the Senate on June 2, 1948, and rati- 
fied by the President on June 16, 1949. Two days 
later, on June 18, 1949, President Einaudi of Italy 
signed a law approving the treaty on behalf of his 
govermnent. It is expected that the ratifications 
will be exchanged at Rome on or about July 15. 
I have no doubt that this treaty will contribute 
effectively to the development of closer relations 
with Italy. It is based firmly upon the liberal 
principles of economic intercourse which we up- 
hold and contains sound and reasonable provisions 
well designed to stimulate a mutually advantage- 
ous flow of capital and technology, which is in line 
with the basic objectives of the Point-4 progi-am. 



Bizonal Scrap Agreement 

[Released to the press July 15] 

The Department of State announced on July 
15 that an agreement was recently concluded be- 
tween the United States and the United Kingdom 
authorizing their Military Governors in Germany 
to suspend from time to time the provision that 
the price of scrap exported from Western Ger- 
many shall be uniform to all buyers, which is 
contained in paragi-aph 11 of article II of the 
U.S.-U.K. Ferrous Scrap Agreement of Septem- 
ber 30, 1948.' Under this authority, the Military 
Governors have lifted their control over the ex- 
port price of steel scrap, effective July 13, 1949, 
and until further notice. This change will not 
affect current contracts except insofar as such con- 
tracts may provide for renegotiation of price. 



Location for Allied High Commission 

[Released to the press in Berlin hy British Military 
Government Headquarters July 8] 

The following joint communique was issued 
after a meeting held at Bonn on Friday, July 8, 
1949, at which General Sir Brian Robertson was 
in the chair and the following were present with 
their advisers. 

Mr. John McCloy, United States Military Gov- 
ernor and High Commissioner designate. 

Lieut. General F. J. C. Noiret, French Deputy 
Military Governor. 

M. Rivain, representing M. Francois Poncet, 
French High Commissioner designate. 



' BuixETiN of Oct. 10, IMS, p. 467. 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



Tlie following decisions were taken : 

One. The decision of the Parliamentary Coun- 
cil that the provisional seat of the federal govern- 
ment shall be at Bonn was noted. It was recog- 
nized that the choice of the seat of the federal 
government is matter for German decision. 

Two. In view of this decision, immediate prep- 
arations will be made to provide accommodation, 
communications and other necessaz'y facilities for 
the Allied High Commission in the area adjacent 
to Bonn. 

Three. Provisionally and subject to confirma- 
tion by the Allied High Commission, the follow- 
ing limits will define the area to be fixed in accord- 
ance with Article Two, Paragraph 3 of the Charter 
of the Allied High Commission : 

Sieg River from its jimctions with the Rhine to 
autobahn bridge S. E. of Siegburg-Frankfurt- 
Cologne autobahn from Sieg River bridge to 
French zonal border near Rederscheid — zonal bor- 
der to Adendorf — Stadt Meckenheim — thence 
north along railway to its junction with border 
of Stadtkreis Bonn just north of Duisdorf — 
border of Stadtkreis Bonn to Rhine River. 

Four. In view of the preparations to be made 
the meeting expressed its appreciation for the 
announcement made by the Belgian Government 
on 13th June, 1949 and confirmed the exception 
made regarding the residence of the General com- 
manding the Belgian Corps and six houses re- 
quired for his immediate staff. 

Five. A small joint staff will be established 
forthwith in the area to take charge of the admin- 
istrative preparations. The principal representa- 
tives will be : 

U.K. : Brigadier C. H. Montague, OBE ; 

U.S. : F. Herman Schroeder ; 

French : Lt. Col. Gridel. 

Six. The area will not be subdivided into sec- 
tors — for convenience accommodation will be ar- 
ranged as far as possible in a certain general area 
with Stadtkreis Bonn generally reserved for Gei'- 
man facilities and accommodation. The Hotel 
Petersberg, at least for the initial period, will be 
the site of the Headquarters Allied High Com- 
mission. 

Seven. Preparations will be made at Whan 
Airfield to enable it to take the air traffic required 
for the federal capital. 

Radio in U.S. Zone of Germany — Contmuedjrom -page 85 

Where some men exist who will thus fight to get 
facts to the public, there is hope that the idea of 
responsible freedom of expression will take deep 
root and that democratic radio will be protected 
by the Germans themselves as one of the means by 
which men remain free. 

Ju/y 25, 7949 



Agreement on Principles of Intra- 
European Payments System for 1949-50 

[Released to the press hy EGA July 7] 
Features of the Agreement 

The Council of the Organization for European 
Economic Cooperation, on July 2, reached unani- 
mous agreement on the principles upon which the 
intra-European payments system for 1949-50 
shall be based. The Council has directed the Joint 
Trade and Intra-European Payments Committee 
of the Oeec to submit to the Council, by July 20, 
1949, a draft of an agreement based on these prin- 
ciples. W. Averell Harriman, United States spe- 
cial representative, participated in the delibera- 
tions of the Oeec which led to the present agree- 
ment in principle and presented during the course 
of these deliberations the views of the Economic 
Cooperation Administration. 

It is the view of ECA that the principles upon 
which agreement has been reached make possible 
an advance towards breaking down the bilateral 
trade and payments practices which have become 
so prevalent in the postwar economic relations of 
the participating countries. It is also expected 
that increased flexibility in intra-European pay- 
ments arrangements will increase the competitive 
efforts of the participating countries in their trade 
with one another with all the attendant advan- 
tages which such a philosophy implies. 

The principal features of the agreement reached 
by the Oeec are as follows : 

1. Twenty-five percent of all drawing rights 
extended by the European creditors to their debt- 
ors will be freely usable anywhere in the ERP 
area. The actual use of these drawing rights will 
determine the distribution of the corresponding 
ECA conditional aid. The remaining 75 percent 
of drawing rights will have characteristics sim- 
ilar to those of the drawing rights established 
under the plan for the year 1948-49. 

2. Provision has been made for the extension of 
$87.5 million of long-term credits by Belgium to 
the United Kingdom, France, and The Nether- 
lands in the event that these credits are needed. 
Tliis represents a significant and important con- 
tribution on the part of Belgium, which has al- 
ready extended important credits to other par- 
ticipants in the postwar period. 

3. The Council has also requested that safe- 
guards be provided in the draft agreement for a 
healthy expansion of intra-European trade. It is 
the purpose of this provision to insure the aban- 
donment of those restrictive trade practices which 
do not correspond to the increasing degi'ee of free- 
dom to be achieved in the payments system for 
1949-50. 

In the opinion of ECA, the principles upon 
which the intra-European payments system for 

115 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



1949-50 is to be based represent substantial prog- 
ress over the principles and methods employed in 
the year 1948^9. The adoption of last year's 
plan was dictated by the necessity of maintaining 
and expanding a useful trade among the partici- 
pants. The urgency and importance of the task 
were such that it was necessary to devise a scheme 
which corresponded to the trade and payments 
policies and practices prevailing at that time. It 
was recognized, however, that these policies and 
practices were not those suitable to a multilateral 
trade and payments system which it is the purpose 
of EGA to foster. At this juncture in the recovery 
progress of Europe, EGA and the participating 
nations believed that a first step should be taken 
to break away from the rigid bilateralism of the 
first year's plan. It has been possible with the 
cooperation and understanding of all participants 
to take this first step towards the goal of multi- 
lateralizing of trade and payments within Europe. 
The Administrator on July 7 formally advised 
the Oeec of his willingness to extend conditional 
aid in accordance with the principles agreed upon 
by the Oeec. The text of the Administrator's 
statement is as follows : 

Statement by the Administrator for 
Economic Cooperation 

7 July mo 

The Administrator for Economic Gooperation 
is pleased to take note of the decision of the Coun- 
cil of the Oeec regarding a new Intra-European 
Payments Plan, and believes that this decision 
constitutes a significant step toward the reestab- 
lishment of European trade on a sound basis. 
Last April the Organization was advised that this 
Administration attaches great importance to the 
encouragement and intensification of competition 
among European sellers and that the new pay- 
ments agreement should be designed to contribute 
to this result. The decision of the Gouncil that a 
quarter of the drawing rights received by each 
country will be made available in the form of 
whatever European currencies that country de- 
sires means that the pattern of trade need not be 
rigidly determined in advance by governmental 
decisions. Buyers can be given broader freedom 
than they have hitherto possessed to choose 
freely between competing sellers. This broader 
freedom of choice for buyers is a necessary con- 
dition for competition among sellers. It "is the 
profound conviction of this Administration that 
more intensive competition, if it materializes, will 
exert a healthy downward pressure on costs and 
prices and will thus contribute both to the increase 
of European productivity and to the improvement 
of Eui-ope's ability to earn dollars. 

The achievement of freer competition within 



Europe requires not only that monetary arrange- 
ments permit buyers to exercise freedom of choice 
but also that narrow quantitative restrictions of 
trade be eliminated. The Administrator is 
pleased to note that this principle is recognized in 
the decision of the Gouncil which paves the way 
for prompt drastic action to eliminate these bar- 
riers to European trade. Such action is especially 
necessary with respect to restrictions of imports by 
those countries that are creditors in their trade 
with Europe and the sterling area. 

The Administrator is well aware that these 
creditor countries of Europe will be exposed to a 
real risk both by the new payments arrangements 
and by measures to remove the quantitative limita- 
tions on imports. Broadly, the risk is that if such 
a country turns out to have a weak competitive 
position in relation to the other participants, it 
will fail to receive the expected amount of condi- 
tional aid from this Administration. Such eco- 
nomic risk necessarily accompanies effective com- 
petition and, in the judgment of this Administra- 
tion, the Gouncil made a wise decision when it de- 
cided that these risks should be assumed. 

Europe's most intractable economic problem is 
its dollar deficit. The deficit can be eliminated 
only if the participating countries earn more dol- 
lars from the nations of the Western Hemisphere. 
Accordingly this Administration's statement to the 
Organization concerning the broadening of com- 
petition through the payments plan also empha- 
sized the necessity of providing the participating 
countries with the incentive to earn dollars from 
the Western Hemisphere rather than from one an- 
other. The new payments plan makes it possible 
for any participating country, by expanding its 
European exports or, in some cases, by restricting 
its European imports, to increase its EGA aid by as 
many dollars as it could earn from a corresponding 
increase of exports to the dollar area. For this 
reason, it is essential that efforts to develop sur- 
pluses in their trade with the rest of Western 
Europe and the sterling area should not divert the 
participating countries from the basic task of ex- 
panding exports to the Western Hemisphere. 

The Administrator attaches especial importance 
to the provision in the Gouncil's decision for a 
periodic review of the operation of the payments 
plan. The objectives referred to above define two 
criteria that should be applied in these reviews. 
The first is the extent to which, and the rapidity 
with which, the greater flexibility of the payments 
plan and the removal of quantitative restrictions 
on trade are successful in creating a far freer and 
more competitive European market. The second 
is the effectiveness of freer trade and payments 
within Europe in promoting European exports to 
the dollar area. Accordingly, the periodic re- 
view should cover not only the machinery of the 
payments plan but the commercial policies of the 
several governments, as well. It is hoped that the 
Organization will be satisfied with nothing less 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



than a drastic freeing of trade within Europe, the 
end of efforts by governments to protect or increase 
their European trade surpluses, and the intensifica- 
tion of tlie drive to export to the Western Hemis- 
phere. 

It is in the light of the foregoing considerations 
that the Administrator agrees to grant an appro- 
priate proportion of EGA aid to the participating 
countries during the forthcoming year in the foi-m 
of conditional aid in accordance with the principles 
adopted by the Council. In making this decision 
it is the Administrator's understanding that the 
Organization's periodic review of the working of 
the plan will be searching and that action will be 
taken to correct defects and weaknesses that may 
appear. 



Distinguished Service of Bert Huien as 
Newspaper Correspondent ^ 

Statement by Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the press July IS] 

I think it might be appropriate for me to say a 
special word about one of these distinguished men 
because he was what might be called the dean of 
the State Department Corps — Bert Hulen. He 
was also a friend of many years standing and a 
neighbor in Georgetown. As a friend, he was a 
gentle and kindly person. I think all of us in 
Georgetown will find it very difficult to get used to 
missing that familiar figure of Bert with his 
peaked cap and his walking stick and his husky 
dog pulling him along when he took his walk in 
the morning. Almost every day on my way to 
the Department, I used to stop and chat with him, 
and I shall sadly miss those morning talks. 

As a correspondent, he was able, thorough, and 
conscientious, and a true servant of the American 
public. I think the word that will come to the 
lips of most of you when you speak of Bert Hulen 
is the word "honorable." He was an outstand- 
ingly honorable person. He pursued his profes- 
sion in a relentless pursuit of facts and the publi- 
cation of facts with no desire for the limelight and 
with no tendency of any sort to be spectacular, and 
without allowing at any moment in his long career 
any shadow to fall over the integi'ity and honor of 
his character. I think I speak for all of you when 
I say we sadly miss him. I think he stands for 
the ideal of the newspaper correspondent. 

^ Mr. Hulen was killed on July 12 in India In an air- 
plane accident. 



Twenty-eighth Lend-Lease Report 
Transmitted to Congress 

I'o the Congress of the United States: 

I am transmitting herewith the Twenty-eighth 
Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Operations. 

This Report contains in Appendix V a "Report 
on Lend-Lease Fiscal Operations" prepared by the 
Treasury Department and submitted to the Secre- 
tary of State in accordance with Executive Order 
9726. The period covered is from March 11, 1941 
through March 31, 1949. 

A settlement agreement was signed with Czecho- 
slovakia on September 16, 1948, and appears in 
this Report as Appendix I. 

Two agreements with France relating in part to 
Lend-Lease matters were signed on March 14, 1949. 
The texts appear in this Report as Appendices II 
and III. Under the terms of these agreements 
residual financial accounts and shipping matters 
arising out of Lend-Lease and other operations 
during and immediately after the war were finally 
agreed upon and settled in accordance with the 
principles set forth in the Memorandum of Under- 
standing between France and the United States 
Regarding Settlement for Lend-Lease, Reciprocal 
Aid, Surplus War Property and Claims, signed on 
May 28, 1946, and published in the Twenty-third 
Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Operations. 

A settlement of wartime claims and accounts 
between the United States and Canada was signed 
on March 14, 1949 by means of an agreement con- 
tained in an exchange of notes, which appear in 
this Report as Ajapendix IV. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House, July 15, 1949. 



Supplemental Estimate of Appropria- 
tion for Fiscal 1950 ' 

Of the funds appropriated to the President, 
$125,000,000 is estimated for continued assistance 
to the Republic of Korea. Legislation authoriz- 
ing a progi-am of assistance to Korea in the fiscal 
year 1950 is now before the Congress. 

For the Department of State $30,800,000. This 
request includes $14,800,000 for the settlement of 
Swiss war damage claims ; and $12,830,000 for in- 
ternational information and educational activi- 
ties, the major part of which is for the construc- 
tion and improvement of facilities for interna- 
tional radio broadcasting. Estimates of $3,150,- 
000 are submitted to cover costs of retroactive 

' Excerpts from a summary released to the press by 
the White House on .July 12, 1949. 



July 25, J 949 



117 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Continued 



salary increases for Foreigji Service eniployees, 
and to pay salary differentials to Foreign Serv- 
ice Staff Officers and employees serving at posts 
at which extraordinarily difficult living conditions 
exist. The sum of $200,000 is requested for the 
proposed International Claims Commission for 
expenses in connection -with, the settlement of 
claims of the United States Government and 
American nationals against foreign governments, 
involving property which has been nationalized 
or otherwise expropriated. 



tional aid, add up to 21 billion dollars — more than 
half the budget. These are the expenditures we 
are making to prevent future wars. If anybody 
thinks it extravagant to maintain the peace, let him 
remember that it cost us not 21 billion dollars a 
year but 100 billion dollars a year to conduct the 
last war. 

I do not believe that our defense and interna- 
tional expenditures will have to remain at their 
present high level indefinitely. I hope that they 
may be reduced as our program for peace takes 
effect. But, as of today, I regard these expendi- 
tures as the most valuable insurance we can take 
out against the enormous expense and the terrible 
loss of another war. 



Budget for National Defense and 
International Aid 

Excerpt From an Address of the President ^ 

If we examine the items in the budget, we see, 
in dollar figures, the magnitude of the task which 
confronts this Nation in protecting the cause of 
peace and freedom. Over three-fourths of the 
budget is due to international events. Less than 
one-fourth arises from the domestic functions of 
the Government. 

Let me explain to you why this is so. 

The total of the whole budget today is about 
42 billion dollars. Of this total, 32 billion dollars 
is the result either of past wars or our efforts to 
prevent another war. Three big items make up 
this 32 billion dollars. 

The first is the national defense. That accounts 
for over 14 billion dollars. The armed services, at 
the start of this year, wanted a much bigger smn 
than that, but I cut it down to the minimum neces- 
sary for our protection and for the preservation of 
peace in this troubled world. It is expensive to 
keep up the forces necessary to prevent war, but in 
the long run it could be a lot more expensive not 
to have them. 

The second big item is the cost of our interna- 
tional programs. They will cost this year about 
7 billion dollars, and they are worth every penny 
of it. This sum includes the cost of the European 
recovery program and our occupation responsibili- 
ties. These programs have kept Western Europe 
out of the hands of the communists, and are help- 
ing to restore the economic and social strength of 
the free nations. If we were to cut these pro- 
grams, it would weaken our efforts to bring about 
peace. That is a risk we must not take. 

These two items, national defense and interna- 

' Delivered over the radio from the White House on 
July 13, 1949, and released to the press by the White House 
on the same date. 



Venezuela: "Little Venice" of South America — Con- 
tinued from page 87 

per hectare, or about $1.50 per acre. In spite of 
this fact, the government is doing an excellent 
job in maintaining the works. In some cases it 
was found that the canals and laterals were of 
inadequate size because of failure to anticipate 
the peak demands of crops for water. This is not 
an uncommon error and corrections can be made 
at a nominal cost. 

I prepared individual reports and recommenda- 
tions for equipment and operation organizations 
for the consideration of the "Direccion de Obras 
de Kiego." These reports summarized my anal- 
yses of canal and lateral capacity requirements 
and made recommendations on means of making 
imjjrovements. I also prepared an outline for 
drainage studies in an area of valuable lands 
which are highly impregnated with salts. This is 
a particularly interesting matter because it dem- 
onstrates the farsightedness reclamation of lands 
susceptible of irrigation. 

It was my impression that the Venezuelans 
look upon technicians from the United States 
with considerable respect and wish to adopt our 
methods in so far as possible. I also found them 
not lacking in ingenuity in utilizing native plants 
and trees in erosion and sediment-control works. 
For example, a nursery has been developed for 
mahogany trees which will be transplanted to 
watershed areas for erosion control and utilized 
as a source of lumber of which there is a scarcity 
in the northern part of the country. 

I left Venezuela with the feeling that my efforts 
were very much appreciated and that my recom- 
mendations would be given full consideration and 
probably would be carried out. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale iy the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, which may tie obtained from the 
Department of State. 

Air Force Mission to Colombia. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 1S93. Pub. 3470. 12 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Colombia — 
Signed at Washington Feb. 21, 1949 ; entered into force 
Feb. 21, 1949. 

Biographic Register of the Department of State, April 1, 
1949. Pub. 3471. 423 pp. $1.50 (paper cover). 

Biographies of Department (including U.S. Mission to 
United Nations) and Foreign Service personnel. 

Establishment of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1895. Pub. 
3473. 7 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Other Gov- 
ernments — Formulated at Baguio Feb. 26, 1948; en- 
tered into force Nov. 9, 1948. 

Potatoes: Control of Exports from Canada to the United 
States. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1896. 
Pub. 3474. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Canada — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
Nov. 23, 1948; entered into force Nov. 23, 1948. 

Economic Cooperation With France Under Public Law 
472--80th Congress. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1897. Pub. 3475. 6 pp. 50. 

Agreements between the United States and France 
Amending Agreement of June 28, 1948 — Effected by 
exchange of notes dated at Paris Sept. 21 and Oct. 8, 
1948 ; entered into force Oct. 8, 1948 ; and exchange 
of notes signed at Paris Nov. 17 and 20, 1948 ; entered 
into force Nov. 20, 1948. 

Headquarters of the United Nations: Loan for Construc- 
tion and Furnishing. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 1899. Pub. 3477. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Nations — Signed at Lake Success, New York, Mar. 
23, 1948; entered into force Aug. 30, 1948. 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 1888. Pub. 3482. 8 pp. 
50. 

Between the United States and Other Governments, 
Second Protocol of Rectifications to the Agreement of 
October 30, 1947— signed at Geneva Sept. 14, 1948; 
entered into force Sept. 14, 1948. 

Report of the Joint Brazil-United States Technical Com- 
mission, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, February 7, 1949. Inter- 
national Organization and Conference Series II, Ameri- 
can Republics 5. Pub. 3487. 321 pp. $1.00. 



July 25, 1949 



Analysis of the factors in Brazil which tend to pro- 
mote or retard its economic development. 

National Commission News, April-May 1949. Pub. 3494. 
14 pp. 10^ a copy; $1 a year domestic, $1.35 a year 

foreign. 

The monthly publication of the United States Na- 
tional Commission for Unesco. 

Foreign Service List, April 1, 1949. Pub. 3496. 110 pp. 
300 a copy ; $1.50 a year domestic, $2 a year foreign. 

Includes the posts of assignment, the index of persons, 
and the geographic index. 

The "Point Four" Program. Foreign Affairs Outline no. 
21. Pub. 3498. 6 pp. Free. 

Discussion of the philosophy, objectives, practical 
aspects of the Point Four program and current pro- 
grams of cooperative technical assistance. 

Diplomatic List, May 1949. Pub. 3504. 158 pp. 300 a 
copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

The Current Situation in Germany. European and 
British Commonwealth Series 7. [Bulletin Reprint] 
Pub. 3506. 4 pp. 50. 

Address by Secretary Acheson made before the Ameri- 
can Society of Newspaper Publishers on April 28, 
1949. 

The U.S. Military Assistance Program. Foreign Affairs 
Outline no. 22. Pub. 3507. 7 pp. Free. 

Gives the background of the United States policy and 
details of the military aid program. 

Economic Policy and the ITO Charter. Economic Co- 
operation Series 19. [Bulletin Reprint.] Pub. 3511. 
5 pp. Free. 

Address by Secretary Acheson made before the Na- 
tional Convention of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce 
on May 3, 1949. 

Documents and State Papers, June 1949. Pub. 3525. 74 
pp. 30«f. 

With this issue. Documents and State Papers is being 
discontinued and is being combined with the Bulletin 
beginning with the issue of July 4. 

The Bonn Constitution: Basic Law for the Federal Re- 
public of Germany. European and British Common- 
wealth Series 8. Pub. 3526. 52 pp. 150. 

The text of the constitution is the agreed Anglo- 
American translation. 

The Diplomatic List, June 1949. Pub. 3531. 159 pp. 
300 a copy ; $3.25 a year domestic, $4.50 a year foreign. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

Essential Elements of Lasting Peace. General Foreign 
Policy Series 12. [Bulletin Reprint.] Pub. 3553. 3 pp. 
Free. 

Address delivered in Little Rock, Ark., by President 
Truman on June 11, 1949. 



119 




Occupation Matters p^^^ 

Radio in U. S. Zone of Germany: Stations 

Achieving Independence. By Ruby A. 

Parson 83 

Labor Policy in Japan. Statement by Major 

General Frank R. McCoy 107 

U. S. Protests Yugoslav Currency Conversion 

in Trieste 113 

Location for Allied High Commission ... 114 

The United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies 

Excerpts From Comparative Review of Ac- 
tivities and Work Programmes of the 
U. N. and the Specialized Agencies in the 
Economic and Social Fields 88 

U. S. Representative on Inter-American Eco- 
nomic and Social Council Appointed . . 98 

Paul A. Porter Appointed to Palestine Con- 
ciliation Commission 98 

National Citizens Committee for U.N. Day 

Named 99 

The United States in the United Nations . . 100 

Major Steps Taken at Ilo Conference on 
Trade Union Rights and Industrial Rela- 
tions 103 

U. S. Delegation to Ninth Session of 

Ecosoc 106 

Economic Affairs 

Technical Cooperation and Economic Devel- 
opment in the Caribbean Area; Eighth 
meeting of the Caribbean Commission . 101 

ECA., U.K., and The Netherlands Discuss 
Expansions of Foreign Crude Oil Pro- 
duction 102 

Third International Congress of Toponymy . 106 



Economic Affairs — Continued p^^g 
Twenty-eighth Lend-Lease Report Trans- 
mitted to Congress 117 

Budget for National Defense and Interna- 
tional Aid. Excerpt From an Address of 
the President 118 

Treaty Information 

Radio Frequency Plan for Western Hemis- 

sphere Adopted 104 

U. S. Protests Yugoslav Currency Conver- 
sion in Trieste 113 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navi- 
: ■ gation With Italy Enters Into Force. 

Statement by Secretary Acheson. ... 114 

Bizonal Scrap Agreement 114 

Agreement on Principles for Intra-European 
Payments System for 1949-50: 

Features of the Agreement 115 

Statement by the Administrator for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation 116 

Technical Assistance 

Venezuela: "Little Venice" of South America. 

By John L. Mutz 86 

General Policy 

Distinguished Service of Bert Hulen as News- 
paper Correspondent. Statement by 
Secretary Acheson 117 

The Congress 

Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation for 

Fiscal 1950 117 

Publications 

Recent Releases 119 



^cm/trmvoto/M 



John L. Mute, author of the article on Venezuela— "Little 
Venice" of South America, is an area engineer with the Future 
Planning Program of the Bureau of Reclamation. 



U, S, GOVERMHEHT PRINTING OFFICE; 1949 



tJ/i€/ ^eAa^mmtl/ <w t/tcUe^ 





PUBLIC OPINION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN 

POLICY • Address fay the President 145 

THE INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM IN; THE 

WORLD SCENE TODAY 9 By Willard F. Barber . 149 

U. S. REPORT ON TRUST TERRITORY OF THE 
PACIFIC ISLANDS: 

• Discussion in the Trusteeship Council .... 133 

THE 4TH SESSION OF THE TRUSTEESHIP 

COUNCIL • Article by Vernon McKay . . . .'^ \ 123 



For complete contents see back cover 




Vol. XXI, No. 526 
August 1, 1949 



^B.NT Ofr 




'atks o 



^«HTO, 




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bulletin 

Vol. XXI, No. 526 • Publication 3595 
August 1, 1949 



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Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (February 13, 
1949). 

iVotc; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tveekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relationx and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
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ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
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articles on various phases of inter- 
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.artRiNif'''^ 



,iu>m 



THE FOURTH SESSION OF THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 



l>y Vernon McKay 



During the 48 meetings of its 9-week fourth 
session, held at Lake Success from January 24 to 
March 25, 1949, the United Nations Trusteeship 
Council adopted 40 resolutions ^ concerning the ten 
trust territories and the 17 million peopl^ under its 
supervision. A full agenda and a number of pro- 
cedural snarls made the fourth session the longest 
thus far held. The Council completed its first 
general examination of five trust territories, dealt 
with 30 petitions, undertook a preliminary exami- 
nation of the report of its first visiting mission to 
East Africa, and reached decisions on several ad- 
ditional problems. At the end of the fourth ses- 
sion, only two of the ten trust territories, Nauru 
and the Pacific Islands, were still unexamined. 

STUDY OF WEST AFRICA 

Although the Council devoted considerable at- 
tention to Western Samoa, Kuanda-Urundi, and 
Tanganyika, the main area of concentration at the 
fourth session was the humid, tropical region of 
West Africa lying just north of the equator. The 
four trust territories in this area — British Cam- 
eroons, British Togoland, French Cameroons, and 
French Togoland — are the homeland of approxi- 
mately 5 million Africans. Formerly united in 
the two German colonies of Kamerun and 
Togo, these four territories were divided between 
the British and the French at the end of World 
War I. 

While many similarities mark these West Afri- 
can countries, they are at the same time lands of 
contrast. They contain peoples of many lan- 



■ U.X. doc. T/328. 
August 7, 7949 



guages and customs, including highly educated 
Christians in the coastal towns, primitive tribes- 
men in the pagan interior, and Africans of Mos- 
lem culture in the north. Primarily an agricul- 
tural people who raise their own food, the West 
Africans now produce for export a number of trop- 
ical rain-forest crops including rubber, cocoa 
beans, hardwoods, palm kernels and palm oil, and 
bananas. 

A unique sight in the widely varied scenery of 
the four trust territories is the Cameroon Moun- 
tain, which rises abruptly from the sea to a height 
of 13,350 feet within 14 miles of the British Cam- 
eroons coast — a volcano which was in active erup- 
tion as recently as 1922. Debunscha, on the south- 
western side of the mountain, had 494 inches of 
rain in 1946.= It is one of the wettest places in the 
world. In contrast, the Sudan area in the north- 
ern section of the Cameroons usually has less than 
30 inches of rain a year. Kain falls in West 
Africa when it is summer at Lake Success; the 
winter months are a long and often difficult dry 
season. 



MEMBERSHIP 

The 12 council representatives who tackled 
trust-territory problems in this area were pre- 
sided over by Ambassador Liu Chieh of China, 
who served as President. When Ambassador Liu 
Chieh was absent, Vice President Sir Alan C. M. 
Burns, of the United Kingdom, took the chair. 



^Report on the Administration of the Cameroons Under 
United Kingdom Trusteeship for the year 19^7 (London, 
H.M.S.O., 1948), pp. 1-3. 



123 



The remaining representatives were : 

J. D. L. Hood Australia 

Pierre Rjcliinans Belgium 

Alberto Canas Escalante . . . Costa Rica 
Ambassador Koger Garreau . France 

AbduUali Bakr Iraq 

Ambassador Luis Padilla 

Nervo Mexico 

Sir Carl A. Berendsen .... New Zealand 

Judge Jose D. Ingles Philippines 

Aleksander A. Soldatov . . . Union of Soviet 

Socialist Repub- 
lics 
Ambassador Francis B. 

Sayre United States ' 

During its discussions, the Council benefited from 
the ^participation of a number of special repre- 
sentatives, officials from the trust territories under 
consideration. Governor J. H. Cedile answered 
questions on French Togoland, Charles-Marie 
Watier on French Cameroons, D. A. F. Shute on 
British Cameroons, D. A. Sutherland on British 
Togoland, F. J. H. Grattan on Western Samoa, 
and Sir George R. Sandford on Tanganyika. 
Representatives of six specialized agencies of the 
United Nations also attended some of the Coun- 
cil's meetings.* 

The membership of the Trusteeship Council, in 
accordance with article 86 (c) of the United 
Nations Charter, "is equally divided between 
tho.se Members of the United Nations which ad- 
minister trust territories and those which do not." 
At the fourth session the six administering mem- 
bers were Australia, Belgium, France, New Zea- 
land, the United Kingdom, and the United States ; 
the six nonadministering members were China 
and the Soviet Union, which are permanent mem- 
bers, and Costa Rica, Iraq, Mexico, and the Phil- 
ippines, which are elected for 3-year terms by the 
General Assembly. The terms of Iraq and Mex- 
ico expire in 1949, and those of Costa Rica and the 
Philippines in 1950. 



DECISIONS OF THE COUNCIL 

The Council's work was impeded by numerous 
tie votes in which the six administering members 
lined up on one side of a proposal and the six non- 
administering members on the other. In such 



= In addition to Ambassador Sayre, the U.S. delegation 
was composed of Deputy Representative Benjamin Gerig 
and Advisers Vernon McKay and William L. Yeomans. 

' U.N. doc. T/262. 



instances, in accordance with the Council's rules 
of procedure,"^ a second vote was taken after a 
brief recess. The cleavage between the two sides, 
however, was so sharp at the fourth session that 
the second ballot was almost a useless formality. 

Despite this difficulty, the members of the Coun- 
cil were able to agree upon many forward-looking 
and constructive recommendations. The three 
principal functions of the Council, under the au- 
thority of the General Assembly, are (1) to ex- 
amine annual reports on the trust territories 
submitted by the administering authorities on the 
basis of a questionnaire formulated by the Coun- 
cil, (2) to accept and examine in consultation with 
the administering authority oral or written peti- 
tions concerning the trust territories, and (3) to 
send periodic visiting missions to the trust terri- 
tories at times agreed upon with the administering 
authority. On the basis of these detailed exami- 
nations the Trusteeship Council, like the Perma- 
nent Mandates Commission, makes recommenda- 
tions to the administering authorities with the aim 
of promoting the political, economic, social, and 
educational advancement of the trust territories. 
The Council submits its own annual report to the 
General Assembly, where the work of the Council 
is regidarly reviewed in the Fourth Committee. 

Reports of the Administering Authorities 

Ambassador Francis B. Sayre, of the United 
States delegation, on February 25 opened the gen- 
eral discussion of the five annual reports submitted 
by the administering authorities. Repeating a 
remark he had made at the third session. Ambassa- 
dor Sayre commented that the Council's report to 
the General Assembly could "gain strengtli 
through brevity. "'' 

The United States delegation hoped that the 
Council would limit its conclusions and recommen- 
dations to a small number of major problems, thus 
giving the administering authorities specific and 
practicable goals to work toward during the com- 
ing year. This hope was unrealized, however, for 
each delegation had observations, conclusions, and 
recommendations which it wished to include in the 
report. The Coimcil consequently adopted 15 con- 
clusions and recommendations concerning the Brit- 
ish Cameroons, 14 on British Togoland, 24 on 

"U.N. doc. T/l/Rev. 1. 
' U.N. doc. T/P.V. 142. 



124 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



French Cameroons, 20 on French Togoland, and 11 
on Western Samoa. In addition the report, to the 
General Assembly contains a long section of com- 
ments and observations by individual representa- 
tives on each territory. In the drafting committee 
the administering members had attempted unsuc- 
cessfully to prevent the inclusion of these individ- 
ual observations in the report. They believed that 
it M'as proper to include in the report to the As- 
sembly only those conclusions and recommenda- 
tions adopted by majority vote. Individual ob- 
servations, they pointed out, were available in the 
CounciTs records. 



and increase educational facilities, particularly in 
the Northern Provinces. 

The Council found that the examination of con- 
ditions in the British Cameroons was complicated 
by the fact that the trust territory was integrated 
for administrative purposes with the neighboring 
British territory of Nigeria. As a result, the 
Council recommended that, pending a final solu- 
tion of the question of this administrative arrange- 
ment, the administering authority institute meas- 
ures such as budgetary autonomy for the trust ter- 
ritory and provide more precise and separate data 
on its administration. 



BRITISH CAMEROONS 

Adopted on Jlarch 25 by a vote of 8 to 0, the 
Council's report to the Assembly on the annual 
report on the British Cameroons made 15 recom- 
mendations to the administering authority to im- 
prove the political, economic, social, and educa- 
tional life of the inhabitants.' 

In the political field the Council recommended 
that the administering authority consider the pos- 
sibility of establishing as soon as practicable such 
democratic reforms as would eventually give the 
people the right of suffrage and an increasing de- 
gree of participation in the executive, legislative, 
and judicial organs of government preparatory to 
self-government or independence. With regard 
to economic advancement, the Council was prima- 
rily concerned with the operations of the Cam- 
eroons Development Corporation, a government 
corporation which administers "for the use and 
common benefit of the inhabitants" certain lands 
formerly owned by Germans. In particular the 
Council recommended that the administering au- 
thority consider the possibility of shortening the 
period of 35 years during which, under present 
arrangements, the earnings of the corporation are 
partly employed to liquidate the purchase price of 
the lands. In the sphere of social advancement, 
the Council adopted a number of recommendations 
on the abolition of child marriage, the raising of 
wages and standards of living, the abolition of 
corporal punishment, the halting of deportation of 
indigenous inhabitants, and the increase of medi- 
cal and health facilities. In the educational field, 
the Council urged the administering authority to 
pi'ess forward vigorously in its efforts to develop 

'U.N. doc. T/SR 164, p. 14. For text of report as 
adopted by the drafting committee, see U.N. doc. T/286. 



BRITISH TOGOLAND 

The Council's report on British Togoland was 
adopted on March 25 by a vote of 9 to 0.^ Since 
administrative arrangements and general condi- 
tions in British Togoland are similar to those in 
the British Cameroons, the Council's 14 conclu- 
sions and recommendations to the administering 
authority were largely identical with those adopted 
for the latter territory. By a vote of 8 to 2 the 
Council did add one recommendation to those al- 
ready adopted by its drafting committee of the 
whole. Introduced by the representative of the 
Philippines, this proposal, as amended and 
adopted, recommended that the administering au- 
thority "review from time to time its policy with 
respect to the cocoa industry to the end that the 
cocoa producer may get the most direct benefits 
out of his cocoa produce." Cocoa beans are the 
main export in British Togoland. This was the 
only recommendation which the Council added to 
any of the five territorial reports formulated by 
its drafting committee of the whole. 

FRENCH CAMEROONS 

The two annual reports submitted by France 
reveal many differences between British and 
French policy in West Africa. The Council's re- 
port on the French Cameroons was adopted on 
March 25 by a vote of 7 to 0." 

Of its 24 conclusions and recommendations, 8 
cover the subject of political advancement. The 
Council commended France for taking steps to 

* Ibid., p. 20. For text of report as adopted by the draft- 
ing committee, see U.N. doc. T/287. 

' Ibid., p. 35. For text of report, as adopted by the draft- 
ing committee, see U.N. doc. T/277. 



4ugusf T, 1949 



125 



bring about universal suffrage and for establish- 
ing a representative assembly in the territory. The 
Council welcomed the assurance that the inhabi- 
tants would have the right at the appropriate time 
to determine for themselves whether they should 
remain in the French Union or assume a status of 
independence outside the Union. The administer- 
ing authority was also commended for abolishing 
in 1946 the indigenat, a system under which admin- 
istrative officers, rather than judges, sentenced 
Africans to fines or imprisonment for certain of- 
fenses. The administering authority was asked, 
however, to intensify its efforts to bring about 
greater participation of the indigenous popula- 
tion in responsible posts in the administrative and 
judicial services. 

The Council expressed greater concern about 
economic conditions in the territory and recom- 
mended that the administering authority do every- 
thing in its power, by making grants and loans or 
giving other forms of assistance, to encourage and 
enable Africans to take a full part in industrial de- 
velopment. It also noted with concern that wage 
rates were frequently low and sometimes did not 
exceed the minimum subsistence level and recom- 
mended that the administering authority carry out 
a special study of wages and standards of living 
and take all possible measures to raise them. At 
the same time the Council expressed its apprecia- 
tion for the administering authority's 10-year plan 
to improve economic and social conditions. 

In the social field, the Council passed recommen- 
dations concerning the movement of population in 
the trust territory, the implementation of the ad- 
ministration's policy of eliminating racial discrim- 
ination, the enactment of suitable labor legislation, 
the need for doctors and nurses, and the prison 
system. 

With regard to educational advancement, the 
Council commended the administering authority 
for establishing free public schools, but expressed 
the opinion that "the development of public edu- 
cation, permanent literacy, and higher education 
should be further intensified." The administering 
authority was also urged to study the possibility 
of relaxing the requirement of a knowledge of 
the French language for a holder of public office. 

FRENCH TOGOLAND 

By a vote of 6 to 6 the Trusteeship Council failed 
to adopt the report of its drafting committee on 



French Togoland.'" The drafting committee's 
20 conclusions and recommendations on French 
Togoland were very similar to those already adopt- 
ed for the French Cameroons report. The Coun- 
cil's failure to approve a report on French 
Togoland, therefore, was not caused by any con- 
troversy over conclusions and recommendations. 
It was the result of a complicated procedural dis- 
pute which arose out of the action of the French 
and Soviet delegations. The French delegation, 
in protest against a number of sweeping Soviet 
allegations included in the individual observa- 
tions in the report, submitted certain observations 
which in strong language contradicted the Soviet 
views. The Soviet representative then an- 
nounced that if the Council decided to include 
these French observations in the report, he wished 
to formulate a number of counterobservations. 
However, when the nonadministering members 
voted against the French observations they failed 
to pass by a 6 to 6 ballot." 

The Council then voted on part II of the draft- 
ing committee's report, which contained the indi- 
vidual Soviet observations to which the French 
objected. This time it was the six administering 
authorities who voted "no," thereby rejecting part 
II and striking all individual observations out of 
the report. In retaliation the nonadministering 
authorities then united in voting down 6 to 6 the 
report as a whole since it contained only parts I 
and III.^^ In this connection, it should be noted 
that on the preceding day, March 24, the Council 
had voted 9 to 1 to reverse the order of parts II 
and III in the reports. In the future, part II will 
be the "Conclusions and Recommendations of the 
Council", and part III the "Observations of Indi- 
vidual Representatives." Part I is an "Outline of 
General Conditions as stated in the report of the 
Administering Authority and by the Special 
Representative." This change had been made as 
part of a compromise over the disagreement as 
to whether individual observations should be in- 
cluded in the Council's report. A further element 
in this compromise is contained in a statement by 
the President that the new part III could include 
"any counterobservations or corrections that mem- 
bers might deem necessary for accuracy . . . 

'°/6id., p. 37. For text of report, as adopted by the 
drafting committee, see U.N. doc. T/278. 
"Ibid., p. 36. 
"/ftid., p. 37. 



126 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



even if they were not immediately available, 
so long as the Council decided to include them." " 

From what occurred later, it appears that the 
nonadministering members interpreted this state- 
ment to mean that both the French and the Soviet 
counterobservations would be included. In a pre- 
vious vote on the French Cameroons report, how- 
ever, the administering members voted to reject 
the Soviet counterobservations after the nonad- 
ministering members agreed to admit the French 
observations. It was this action which caused the 
nonadministering members to reject the French 
counterobservations on the French Togoland re- 
port, thereby precipitating the impasse which i-e- 
sulted in the Council's failure to adopt this report. 

The administering members had a different 
understanding of the compromise. They had 
agreed to leave individual observations in the re- 
port, but felt that in return the nonadministering 
members should allow an administering authority, 
in this case France, to answer charges against its 
administration. 

WESTERN SAMOA 

The annual report of New Zealand on the ad- 
ministration of Western Samoa was more favor- 
abl,y received in the Ti'usteeship Council than the 
reports on the four West African trust territories. 
By a vote of 10 to 0, the Trusteeship Council on 
March 25 adopted 11 conclusions and recommen- 
dations expressing general satisfaction with con- 
ditions in the territory." The Council recom- 
mended that consideration be given to the intro- 
duction of a system of universal suffrage in West- 
ern Samoa, that secondary industries be introduced 
in the territory, and that an over-all plan of eco- 
nomic development be elaborated. It requested 
the administering authority to intensify efforts to 
increase health and educational facilities. 

SOVIET RECOMMENDATIONS 

During the Council's voting on the conclusions 
and recommendations adopted by the drafting 
committee of the whole, the Soviet representative 
sought to add to each of the five reports a number 
of recommendations which had already been voted 
down in the drafting committee. All of these rec- 
ommendations, 24 in number, were voted down by 
the Council. The six administering authorities 

" U.X. doc. T/SR 162, p. 14. 

"U.N. doc. T/SR 164, p. 14. For text of report, as 
adopted by the drafting committee, see U.N. doc. T/275. 



voted against every Soviet proposal. On only one 
of the 24 proposals did a nonadministering au- 
thority vote with the six administering authorities. 
On seven of the Soviet recommendations, however, 
the other five nonadministering authorities joined 
the Soviet Union, thus making the vote 6 to 6.^^ 
The nonadministering vote on the remaining 16 
proposals varied. 

Decisions on Petitions 

At its fourth session the Council adopted resolu- 
tions on 30 petitions for the improvement of con- 
ditions in trust territories. The Council took 
action on two of these petitions, decided that no 
action was called for on eleven others, and post- 
poned action on the remainder. Two petitions 
were referred to the 1949 Visiting Mission to West 
Africa for further investigation. The two peti- 
tions on which the Council made recommendations 
to the administering authority were from Asians 
in the trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi under Bel- 
gian administration. Alleging that Belgian au- 
thorities practiced racial discrimination against 
Asians, both petitioners protested against admin- 
istrative orders to deport them from the trust ter- 
ritory. The first petitioner, MuUa Atta Muham- 
mad, stated that he had been a resident of 
Ruanda-Urundi for over 16 years,^" and the second 
petitioner, Mussa Kackesset bin Kalimba, asserted 
that he had lived in the territory for 8 years." 
The observations of the administering authority, 
however, made it clear that both petitioners had 
been convicted by competent courts for offenses 
against the law. 

The Council nonetheless recommended that the 
case of Mulla Atta Muhammad "be re-examined 
by the administering authority in a spirit of leni- 
ency," and that the case of Mussa Kackesset bin 
Kalimba "be re-examined with a view to determin- 
ing whether it would be possible to allow the peti- 
tioner to return to the trust territory." ^^ More- 
over, at the thirty-eighth meeting on March 18, 
1949, the Council by a vote of 7 to adopted a 
joint Philippines-United Kingdom resolution 
recommending that Belgium "should review all 



'" In certain Instances tlie Soviet representative sub- 
mitted the same proposals for different territories. For 
text of these Soviet recommendations, see U.N. doc. T/SR 
163, pp. 2-11 and T/SR 164, pp. 7-10, 23-24. 

" U.N. doc. T/PET. 3/2. 

"U.N. doc. T/PET. 3/10. 

" U.N. doc. T/328, pp. 13-14, 17. 



August 7, 7949 



127 



legislation involving racial discrimination, par- 
ticularly the law on residents, land tenure, alco- 
holic beverages, firearms, and the penitentiary 
system." ^^ 

In reply to a question of the Philippine delegate, 
the President stated that every petitioner who had 
raised the question of racial discrimination would 
be furnished a copy of this resolution. The Coun- 
cil also adopted, on March 23, a resolution urging 
the United Kingdom to further intensify its efforts 
to eliminate racial discrimination in Tangan- 
yika.-" 

The Council's work on petitions at the fourth 
session was complicated by the fact that 22 peti- 
tions were included in the report of the Visiting 
Mission to East Africa. Since the final examina- 
tion of this report was postponed until the fiftli 
session, the problem arose as to whether or not peti- 
tions concerning Ruanda-Urundi and Tanganyika 
should also be postponed. In general the Council 
decided to take action on personal requests in those 
jjetitions included in the report of the Visiting Mis- 
sion, but to postpone action on general questions 
raised by the petitioners. 

Report of Visiting Mission 
to East Africa 

Considerable disagreement arose at the fourth 
session over the action to be taken by the Council 
on the report of the Visiting Mission to East 
Africa. At the opening meeting, on January 24, 
the representative of the United Kingdom reserved 
the right to move at a later date that the examina- 
tion of this report be deferred until the fifth ses- 
sion. The President, however, commented that in 
the interests of the international trusteeship sys- 
tem, reports of visiting missions should be consid- 
ered at the earliest possible time. He also pointed 
out that a number of petitions examined by the 
visiting mission were included in the report and 
were now on the Council's agenda. After other 
delegates had expressed conflicting opinions on 
this question, the Council decided to accept the 
suggestion of the United States delegation that 
the Council should give the report of the visiting 
mission a preliminary examination during the 
fourth session and withhold its conclusions until 
the fifth session.'! The observations of the admin- 

" U.N. doc. T/P.V. 154. 

'" U.N. doc. T/328, pp. 9-10. 

•^ U.N. doc. T/SR 126, pp. 6-10. 



istering authorities concerning the report might 
then be available to the Council. In accordance 
with this decision, the Council therefore gave the 
report a preliminary examination during eight 
meetings between March 3 and March 18." 



Selection of Visiting Mission 
to West Africa 

In keeping with its practice of sending a visiting 
mission to certain trust territories each year, the 
Council selected four members of a 1949 visiting 
mission to the four trust territories in West Africa. 
When the United Kingdom and French repre- 
sentatives pointed out that the only period during 
which the territories to be visited could be trav- 
ersed without difficulty was the dry season begin- 
ning: in November, the Council decided that the 
visiting mission should leave for West Africa at 
the beginning of November 1949.-^ 

After a statement from the Secretariat that the 
budget did not allow for more than four members 
of the visiting mission. Sir Alan Burns, of the 
United Kingdom, nominated Ambassador Saj're, 
of the United States, Ambassador Nervo, of 
Mexico, Mr. Ryckmans, of Belgium, and Mr. 
Khalidy, of Iraq. Mr. Soldatov, of the Soviet 
Union, then requested that his country be repre- 
sented on the Mission. When Ambassador Nervo 
declined the nomination. Sir Alan, supported by 
the rei^resentative of France, suggested Mr. 
Noriega of Mexico. Ambassador Nervo explained 
that Mr. Noriega would also be unable to go but 
that, if the Council wished, the Mexican delegation 
would consult its government about the possibility 
of suggesting another Mexican for appointment 
to the Mission.^* The election was then postponed 
until March 21, when Mr. Soldatov asserted that 
as the representative of France seemed to object 
to having a Soviet national on the mi.ssion, the 
U. S. S. R. would not insist on its candidacy. The 
Council then voted 10 to to elect Ambassador 
Sayre or Benjamin Gerig, of the United States, 
Mr. Ryckmans, of Belgium, Mr. Khalidy, of Iraq, 
and Mr. Abelardo Ponce Sotelo, of Mexico.^' 



■^ U.N. docs. T/SR 147, 148, 149, 150, 154, 155, 156, 157. 

"V.N. doc. T/SR 121, p. 16. 

"IMd., p. 18. 

=" U.N. doc. T/SR 158, p. 18. 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



KroDiems Keierrea to ine council 
by the General Assembly 

The agenda of the fourth session also included 
three matters referred to the Council in resolutions 
adopted on November 18, 19-18, by the third ses- 
sion of the General Assembly. 

INVESTIGATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNIONS 

Kesolution 224 (III) of the General Assembly 
called upon the Trusteeship Council to investigate 
customs, fiscal, or administrative unions or feder- 
ations between trust territories and adjacent ter- 
ritories under the sovereignty or control of admin- 
istering authorities. The Assembly asked the 
Council to recommend safeguards to preserve the 
distinct political status of the trust territories and 
to request whenever appropriate advisory opinions 
of the International Court of Justice as to whether 
such unions are within the scope of, and compatible 
with, the stipulations of the Charter and the terms 
of the Trusteeship agreements as approved by the 
General Assembly.-^ 

To deal with this resolution the Council on Jan- 
uary' 27 appointed a six-member conmiittee on ad- 
ministrative unions made up of France, New Zea- 
land, the United States, China, Mexico, and the 
U.S.S.R. This conunittee was asked to "draw up 
an outline of the various aspects of the problem." 
By March 1 it was to give the Council the docu- 
mentation then available and was to "report to the 
Council not later than three weeks before the open- 
ing of the Fifth Session." " On March 8, 9, and 
10 the Council discussed the committee's Interim 
Report on available documentation.^ 

The United Kingdom brought a special repre- 
sentative, Sir George Sandford, to answer ques- 
tions on the East Africa Inter-Territorial Organ- 
ization which links Kenya, Uganda, and Tangan- 
yika in an administrative union. The Interim 
Report also presented material on administrative 
arrangements affecting British Cameroons, Brit- 
ish Togoland, Ruanda-Uruiidi, and New Guinea. 
On March 10, the Council authorized the commit- 
tee to study "the relations between France and the 
territories under French administration, as defined 
by French laws within the French Union." -^ 
Holding a total of 17 meetings, the committee con- 



■"' U.X. doc. A/SIO, pp. 8G-87. 
'^ U.N. doc. T/.328, p. 25. 
"U.X. doc. T/2G.3. 
" U.N. doc. T/.328, pp. 25-26. 



Linuea ro cuscuss iiie prouiein aiter uie eiuse ui. uic 
fourth session. On June 3, it adopted a report 
which was a factual study of the problem and did 
not conunit the delegations represented on the 
committee to any position on the question of ad- 
ministrative unions.^" Any decisions and recom- 
mendations to be made were left to the Council. 

EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT 
IN TRUST TERRITORIES 

A second of the three General Assembly resolu- 
tions of November 18, 1948, Resolution 225 (III), 
recommended that the Trusteeship Council request 
the administering authorities to intensify their 
efforts to increase educational facilities and to 
study the financial and technical implications of 
expanding higher education, "including the pos- 
sibility of establishing in 1952 and maintaining a 
university." ^' Since this Assembly recommenda- 
tion jDroved to be a controversial subject, it was 
dealt with in two parts. On February 9, by a vote 
of 10 to 0, the Council adopted a resolution trans- 
mitting to the administering authorities all the 
Assembly recommendations except that regarding 
the university.^- To deal with the imiversity 
problem, the United States delegation on February 
17 submitted a draft resolution for the appoint- 
ment of a four-member committee to make a pre- 
liminary study. ^^ The delegate of the United 
Kingdom informed the Council that British, 
French, and Belgian representatives would discuss 
educational problems in their trust territories at a 
meeting in Paris in March. He felt that the pro- 
jjosed committee could do little good. If the Coun- 
cil wanted information regarding the proposal to 
establish a university, he suggested, the three pow- 
ers could be asked to give it special attention at the 
Paris meeting.'* 

On March 1, however, the United States draft 
resolution was adojited 9 to 1 with two amend- 
ments accepted by Ambassador Sayre.^^ 

The Committee was authorized to consult with 
the administering authorities concerned and "to 
call upon such technical experts as it may find de- 
sirable." It was asked to "report its findings and 
any recommendations before the end of the Fifth 

""U.N. doc. T/338. 

" U.N. doc. A/810, pp. 87-88. 

" U.N. doc. T/SR 129, pp. 25-26. 

"U.N. doc. T/259. 

" U.N. doc. T/SR 145, p. 12. 

" IhU., p. 16. 



Augus/ 7, 1949 



129 



Session." ^^ On March 25 the Council selected 
the United States, Australia, Mexico, and the 
Philippines for membership on this committee. 

COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS 
OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

A third Assembly Kesolution, 223 (HI), was 
disposed of more easily. It asked the Council to 
take into account the comments and suggestions 
made by Assembly members during the discussion 
of the Trusteeship Council's report to the As- 
sembly. In accordance with this resolution, the 
Secretary-General submitted to the Council a 
document listing comments made in the Assembly 
on the report of the Trusteeship Council." 

By a vote of 5 to the Council adopted a resolu- 
tion taking note of these comments and suggestions 
and agreeing to take them into account during 
the consideration of agenda items to which they 
were related.^^ 

Strategic Trust Territories 

After the Security Council approved on April 2, 
1947, the strategic area trusteeship agreement 
submitted by the United States for the former 
Japanese mandated Pacific islands, the Marshalls, 
Marianas, and Carolines, the Trusteeship Council 
and the Security Council held consultations on a 
working relationship for the supervision of this 
Trust Territory in accordance with paragraph 3 
of article 83 of the Charter. On March 24 the 
Trusteeship Council adopted by a vote of 8 to 
a procedure agreed upon with the Security Coun- 
cil which authorized the Trusteeship Council to 
undertake in strategic areas under trusteeship 
the examination of annual reports and petitions 
and the sending of visiting missions, subject to the 
terms of the relevant trusteeship agreement.^^ 
This action prepared the way for the Trusteeship 
Council to examine at its fifth session the Trust 
Territory of the Pacific islands under the admin- 
istration of the United States. The United States 
had already submitted to the Secretary-General its 
first annual report on the Trust Territory.*" 



" U.N. doc. T/328, pp. 26-27. 

^'U.N. doe. T/230. 

"» U.N. doc. T/SR 121, p. 12. 

'" U.N. doc. T/SR 162, p. 13. 

'^ Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (OP NAV-P22- 
lOOE), U.S. Navy Department, Washington, D.C., July 
1948. 



130 



Relations With Specialized Agencies 

Means of collaboration between the Trusteeship 
Council and the specialized agencies were dis- 
cussed at the fourth session of the Trusteeship 
Council. Kepresentatives of the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 
the World Health Organization, and the Interna- 
tiona] Labor Organization appeared at the Coun- 
cil table to make statements on this matter. On 
March 1 the Council adopted by a vote of 8 to a 
draft resolution introduced by the Philippine dele- 
gation inviting the specialized agencies "to study 
the annual reports on the administration of trust 
territories with a view to making such observations 
and suggestions as they may consider proper in 
order to facilitate the work of the Trusteeship 
Council." The resolution also requested the Sec- 
retary-General to "keep in close touch with the 
specialized agencies with a view to seeking their 
counsel and assistance in regard to matters with 
which they were concerned." ^ 

Rules of Procedure and Provisional Questionnaire 

The Council also devoted attention to the prob- 
lem of revising its rules of procedure and the pro- 
visional questionnaire which it submits to admin- 
istering authorities as a basis for providing infor- 
mation in the annual reports. On January 26 it 
agreed to revise rule 72 in order to give the admin- 
istering authority 6 months instead of 4 months 
in which to submit annual reports to the Council. 
Since the Council had decided earlier to make sum- 
mary rather than verbatim records its oiRcial rec- 
ords, it also decided to strike out the word "ver- 
batim" from rules 32, 46, 47, and 48.^ 

During this discussion of rules of procedure, the 
Council adopted four suggestions to guide the 
Secretariat in dealing with petitions. The first 
suggestion concerned confidential petitions. The 
Council decided that a petitioner asking for con- 
fidential treatment of his petition should be in- 
formed that normally his identity should be made 
known. If the petitioner still insisted that his 
name be withheld, the petition might be referred 
to the Council's ad hoc committee on petitions. If 
the committee felt that the subject matter should 
be considered, it would transmit the petition to the 
Council but withhold the name of the petitioner. 



" U.N. doc. T/328, p. 2. 
*" U.N. doc. T/SR 119, p. 9. 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



The second suggestion adopted dealt with lengthy 
petitions. It was decided that the Secretariat 
should first circulate a summary of a lengthy pe- 
tition. The original petition should be circulated 
only if so decided by the Council, or by the Presi- 
dent during the recess of the Council. The time 
limit for observations on petitions by the adminis- 
tering authorities was the subject of a third sug- 
gestion adopted by the Council. It was agreed, in 
order to allow more time to the administering au- 
thorities in the formulation of observations, to 
send copies of petitions received by the Secretary- 
General to the local authorities concerned as well 
as to the metropolitan governments.'*^ The fourth 
suggestion discussed by the Council concerned 
anonj'mous petitions. It was decided that anony- 
mous communications sent in as petitions should 
not be circulated as unrestricted documents, unless 
the Council decided otherwise." 

The Council devoted several meetings to a long 
discussion precipitated by an unsuccessful Soviet 
proposal for a new rule which would have enabled 
representatives of the indigenous population to 
participate in the Council's examination of annual 
reports. Modified versions of this proposal were 
introduced by the representatives of the Philip- 
pines. China, and Mexico, but all were defeated.*' 

On March 25 the Council decided to defer the 
revision of its questionnaire until the fifth session. 



PROCEDURE OF THE COUNCIL 

Conscious of the growing length of its discus- 
sions, the Council attempted at the fourth session 
to devise a time-saving procedure which would 
also improve the quality of its examination of an- 
nual reports. Previously the examination of re- 
ports had been conducted by oral questioning. By 
a vote of 8 to 1 the Council decided on January 
25 to authorize its members to submit written 
questions which were to be classified by the Secre- 
tariat and transmitted to the special representative 
from each trust territory who appeared at the 
Council table during the examination of the re- 
port. Under this system, the special representa- 
tive was required to submit written answers to 
these written questions. In order to reassure cer- 
tain representatives who feared the plan might 



" U.N. doc. T/SR 122, pp. 5-10. 
" Ihid., p. 13. 

''- U.N. docs. T/SR 122, 12.3, 124, 125. For text of Soviet 
proposal, see U.N. doc. T/235. 



restrict the examination of the annual reports, the 
President pointed out that members might still 
ask the special representative oral questions. 

At the fourth session, therefore, the procedure 
for exami^iation of each annual report on the trust 
territories included seven steps: (1) an opening 
statement by the special representative; (2) the 
submission of written questions to the special rep- 
resentative ; (3) the submission of written answers 
by the special representative ; (4) supplementary 
oral questioning of the special representative; (5) 
general discussion of the annual report, including 
the expression by Council members of their in- 
dividual observations, conclusions, and recommen- 
dations; (6) preparation by a drafting committee 
of the whole of separate reports on each trust ter- 
ritory, (7) approval by the Council of the draft- 
ing committee's reports for incorporation in the 
report of the Council to the General Assembly.*^ 

It is perhaps too early to decide whether the 
new procedure will accomplish its objectives of 
saving time and improving the quality of the 
Council's work. During the examination of the 
report on the French Cameroons, the special rep- 
resentative submitted replies to 133 written ques- 
tions, many of which had several parts. In 
addition, on February 10, 11, and 14, he answered 
more than 90 oral questions, some in several parts. 
The result was a detailed examination although the 
new procedure may not have saved time. There 
was little uniformity, moreover, in the conduct of 
Council members. The Soviet delegation, for 
example, submitted no written questions, but asked 
many oral questions of each special representative. 

At the final meeting of the fourth session, on 
March 25, the Belgian representative proposed 
that written questions be submitted to the admin- 
istering authority in the future through the Sec- 
retary-General as soon as possible after receipt 
of the anmial reports. This change might speed 
up the Council's work. The President expressed 
the hope that members of the Council would follow 
the procedure proposed by the delegate of Bel- 
gium, but suggested that discussion of the pro- 
posal be postponed until the next session.*' 

New Type of Drafting Committee 

In drafting reports to the Assembly on the 
trust territories of Ruanda-Urundi, New Guinea, 



" U.N. doc. T/SR 118, pp. 3-14. 
" U.N. doc. T/SR 164, p. 38. 



August I, J949 



131 



and Tanganyika, the Council at its third session 
had employed small drafting committees of four 
members for each report. At its fourth session, 
however, the Council decided to form a drafting 
committee of the whole to prepare repo^rts to the 
Assembly on each trust territory.*^ As a result, 
the 12 members of the Council, for three weeks 
during the month of March, met in the mornings 
as a drafting committee and in the afternoons at 
the Council table. This procedure gave every 
member of the Council an opportunity to express 
his view on each territory during the meetings 
of the drafting committee. The reports there- 
fore took less time when they came before the 
Council for final adoption. 



ACHIEVEMENTS 

Despite controversies between administering 
and nonadministering members, the four sessions 
thus far held have demonstrated the Trusteeship 
Council's ability to improve conditions in the 
trust territories. As an agency which focuses 
world opinion on the problems of dependent 
peoples, the Council commands the attention of 
the administering authorities. Among construc- 
tive steps taken in response to Council recom- 
mendations are the granting of additional politi- 
cal rights to Western Samoans by New Zealand, 
and the beginning of steps to eliminate certain 
economic and cultural barriers dividing the Ewe 
people of French Togoland and British Togoland. 
Another promising development is the discussion 
of plans to improve higher educational facilities 
in the African trust territories, which took place 
at a conference of Belgian, British, and French 
representatives in Paris in March 1949. 

The United States delegation has consistently 
endeavored to promote harmonious relations in the 
Council and to maintain a constructive, moderate 
position between the conflicting views of certain 
administering and nonadministering members. 
Other delegations have also expressed concern over 
the Council's tendency to split into two groups. 
As Ambassador Sayre remarked on February 3, 
"If the members of the Council sincerely desire to 
promote the progress of the population of the 
Trust Territories in an objective manner, they 
should not permit such a tendency to develop." *' 



The danger in such a split is well illustrated by 
the Council's failure to adopt a report on French 
Togoland. Perhaps the growing realization of 
this danger may lead, in future sessions, to a par- 
tial restoration of the atmosphere of harmony 
which characterized the Council's first session. 



Resolution on Administrative Unions 

U. N. doc. T/379 
Adopted July 18, 1949 

The Trusteeship Council, 

Having Received General Assembly resolution 224 (III) 
of 18 November 1948, 

Having Estabushed in accordance with this resolution 
a Committee on administrative unions. 

Having Received an interim report' and a report' 
from this Committee and having examined these reports 
at its fourth and fifth sessions ; 

Transmits to the General Assembly the report of the 
Committee, the replies of the administering authorities to 
questions prepared by the Committee^ and other docu- 
mentation collected by the Committee during its study ; 

Informs the General Assembly that in accordance with 
the penultimate paragraph of this resolution it will con- 
tinue to study and examine the operation of existing or 
future administrative unions in all their aspects; 

Recalling that the General Assembly approved the 
Trusteeship Agreements upon the assurance of the Admin- 
istering Powers that they do not consider the terms of the 
relevant articles in the Trusteeship Agreements "as giving 
powers to the Administering Authority to establish any 
form of political association between the Trust Territories 
respectively administered by them and adjacent territo- 
ries which would involve annexation of the Trust Terri- 
tories in any sense or would have the effect of extinguish- 
ing their status as Trust Territories",' 

Notes the assurances by the Administering Authorities 
that the administrative arrangements under consideration 
do not extinguish the political identity of the Trust Terri- 
tories ; 

Takes note of the assurances by the Administering Au- 
thorities that the administrative arrangements under con- 
sideration by the Council are not inconsistent with the 
objectives of the International Trusteeship System or 
with the terms of the Trusteeship Agreements : 

Decides that In order to safeguard the identity and 
status of the Trust Territories, the Council should con- 
tinue to study during its regular examination of condi- 
tions in Trust Territories the effects of existing or pro- 
posed administrative unions on the political, economic, 
educational and S(jcial advancement of the inhabitants, 
on the status of the Trust Territories as such and on their 
separate development as distinct entities ; 

Requests the Administering Authorities concerned to 
make the fullest possible effort to furnish in their annual 
reports separate records, statistics, and other information 
on each Trust Territory in order to safeguard the effec- 
tive exercise of the Council's supervisory functions. 



' U.N. doc. T/SE 118, pp. 10, 13-14. 
' U.N. doc. T/SR 125, p. 2. 



' T/263. 

"T/338, T/33S/Add. 1. 

" T/333, T/361/Add. 1. 

■* See Official Records of the second part of the first 
session of the General Assembly, Fourth Committee, i)art 
I, p. 300. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



U.S. Report on Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 



DISCUSSION IN THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 



Remarks hy Airibassador Francis B. Sayre ^ 

SIr. President, in opening the discussion of the 
first report submitted by my government on the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Ishxnds, I should 
like to say just a word, if I may, as to the general 
nature of the problem before us. 

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, in 
physical and geographical characteristics, is un- 
like that of any other trust territory. The out- 
standing problem is one of immense distances by 
sea. From Tobi Island in the extreme west of the 
Carolines to Mill Island in the extreme east of the 
Marshalls is a distance of some 2,700 miles. The 
Trust Territory covers a sea area of some 3 million 
square miles — approximately as great as that of 
continental United States. In this vast archi- 
pelago lives a comparatively small population — 
not more than 53 thousand people — but widely 
scattered among some 64 different island groups. 

Problems of transport and communication as- 
sume, therefore, a unique importance. Upon as- 
sured means of transport for island imports of 
living necessities and exports of copra and other 
island products, standards of living directly de- 
pend. Without assured means of transport and 
communication, schools cannot be established and 
coordinated and educational programs main- 
tained; adequate sanitary standards cannot be 
enforced and disease successfully fought; social 
progress will be imperiled and emergency needs 
cannot be properly met. In other words, political, 
economic, educational, and social progi-ess in this 
vast domain of scattered and far-flung islands is 
quite dependent upon adequate means of trans- 
portation and communication. 

' Made on July 8, 1940, and released to the press by 
the U.S. Mission to the United Nations on the same date. 



You see the physical nature of the task, then. 
It must be accomplished largely by means of ships 
and planes and barges and boats. In that sense 
it is essentially a maritime task, a sea job. It 
means the administration, not of a single land 
mass like Tanganyika or Togoland or the Came- 
roons, but of a multitude of far-flung islands, some 
large, some tiny, some mountainous with rugged 
scenery and considerable land areas, some low 
coral atolls, some with several thousand inhabi- 
tants, and others with only a few dozen, some 
characterized by a very primitive culture, othere 
by a culture considerably more advanced. 

The immense distances separating these vari- 
ous island populations make naturally for sharp 
diversities in language, in ways of living, in pat- 
terns of thought. Island groups separated 
through the centuries by great distances from each 
other are bound to develop diverse individual 
characteristics and peculiarities. As a result, as 
a study of the report makes clearly apparent, it 
is almost impossible to make generalizations ap- 
plicable alike to all those island peoples. Each 
island people is a problem unto itself. Each 
island must be studied and understood individ- 
ually. Also, as a result, the present natural loy- 
alties and understandings of the people are dis- 
tinctly local in character. 

Nevertheless, all these island peoples have one 
general and common characteristic. They are 
likable. In spite of the succession of foreign rul- 
ers who have invaded their homes — Spanish, Ger- 
man, Japanese, and now American, each advanc- 
ing new ideas of civilization — the people remain 
kindly, tolerant, patient of foreign ways, not re- 
sentful, but responsive and friendly. During my 
visit with them last month, everywhere I found 
unmistakable friendliness, a sincere appreciation 



Aiigusf 1, 1949 



133 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



of American efforts and a ready response to the 
new vistas being opened up. I talked to the chil- 
dren in many of the schools and put questions 
to them ; always I found them alert and eager and 
not slow of intellect. In the Teacher Training 
School at Truk and in the medical and nurses 
schools at Guam, I found again the same intellec- 
tual and friendly alertness. The people are to 
my mind of great promise. 

The United States administration in setting out 
upon the task in hand seeks no financial gain or 
advantage for itself or its nationals. Under the 
trusteeship system — and I am sure I voice the 
thought of all of us — there is no room for colonial 
exploitation. The United States is seeking in 
every practicable way possible to assist the in- 
habitants in achieving through their own efforts 
a self-respecting position in the world and in- 
dividual lives of increased personal -dignity and 
broader individual opportunity. 

During my recent trip to the Pacific Islands, I 
found in all the islands I visited faces turned 
toward the future and a prevailing atmosphere of 
hope. New things are astir. Directing and in- 
spiring the work, under Admiral Radford, the 
High Commissioner, is Eear Admiral Leon S. 
Fiske, the Deputy High Commissioner of the 
Trust Territory, who, with his staff, is immedi- 
ately responsible for the work. It makes me 
happy that he has been able to come to Lake Suc- 
cess, as the special representative of the United 
States, to make clear the picture and answer ques- 
tions about the Trust Territory. It gives me 
great pleasure to introduce Admiral Fiske to the 
members of the Council. Mr. President, I sug- 
gest that as we now enter upon a discussion of 
the Trust Territory Admiral Fiske be invited to 
take a seat with us at the Council table. 

Remarks ly Rear Admiral Leon S. Fiske ^ 

Me. President and Members of the Trustee- 
ship Council : It is a pleasure for me to meet the 
members of the Trusteeship Council as the United 
States special representative for the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands and to discuss with you 
some of the background and problems of the area. 

Geographically, the islands present a series of 
incongruous figures. The total area contained 
within the j^erimeter of the islands is appi-oxi- 
mately the area of the United States— nearly three 
million square miles, of which, however, only 687 
square miles are land, the rest being the extensive 
stretches of the Pacific Ocean separating the 96 
distinct island groups. Of these 96 island units, 

^Made on July 7, 1949, and released to the press by the 
U.S. Mission to the United Nations on the same "date. 
Admiral Fiske is Deputy High Commissioner of the Trust 
Territories of the Pacific Isles. 

134 



64 are inhabited ; most of the rest are too small or 
lacking in resources to support a permanent popu- 
lation though they may be visited by neighbors 
from surrounding islands to gather coconuts, to 
fish, or to catch birds. 

The islands constitute the major portion of 
Micronesia, literally, tiny islands. The name 
Micronesia distinguishes this area from Malaysia 
or Indonesia further west, Melanesia (black 
islands) to the south, and Polynesia (many is- 
lands) to the east. These distinctions are based 
not only on geography, but also on racial, lin- 
guistic, and ethnological factors. 

The geology of the islands is very interesting. 
A vast submarine volcanic ridge stretches south- 
ward from Ja])an through the Bonins and Mari- 
anas, Yap, Palaus, and the southwest islands to 
the western edge of New Guinea. A branch from 
this ridge extends through the eastern Carolines. 
The highest peaks emerge from the ocean in the 
form of islands and island clusters. Along the 
east side of this ridge there are trenches with depths 
up to some 30,000 feet. On the west side of this 
ridge the depths range to 12,000 feet. The islands 
of the Trust Territory formed by this volcanic 
ridge are usually referred to as the high islands, 
as contrasted to the islands of coral, which are 
called the low islands. The Marianas are high is- 
lands; the Carolines contain both high and low 
islands; the Marshalls are all low islands. 

The climate and weather of these islands are, in 
general, tropical and rainy, characterized by small 
seasonal changes of the various climatic factors. 
Both the temperature and barometric pressure 
are remarkably uniform throughout the year. 
The maximum temperature seldom ranges above 
90° or below 70°. The relative humidity will vary 
from 85 percent to 75 percent. This humidity, plus 
the tropical temperature, combine to provide an 
area of heavy rainfall. Over 100 inches of rain 
per year is not uncommon. 

The total indigenous population of the Trust 
Territory is approximately 52,000, primarily lo- 
cated on the seven pi'incipal island units of Sai- 
pan, Palau, Yap, Truk, Ponape, Kusaie and 
Majuro. In most of the island groups the people 
are relatively nongregarious, and are scattered in 
small settlements along the coast and to some ex- 
tent in the interior of the islands, thus making 
visits from field officers to these individual people 
an arduous and time-consuming task. It has been 
difficult to determine the exact population. How- 
ever, under United States administration, vital 
statistics are being kept and figures are being re- 
vised constantly. The densitv of the population 
does not present a serious pro"blem at present, ex- 
cept on a few small islands. The shortage of 
arable land is particularly acute in parts of the 
eastern Carolines. For example, Pmgelap has 
685 people on a land area of a little over two 
thirds (0.676) of a square mile and Kapingama- 
rangi has 511 people on one-half (0.521) square 

Deparfmenf oi State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



mile. The importance of this problem is intensi- 
fied by the fact that traditionally and by force 
of circumstances the inhabitants are dependent to 
a izreat extent for their food upon agricultural 
products produced locally. This land problem is 
one that will shortly have to be faced by the ad- 
ministering agency, especially in view of the high 
survival and birth rate now in existence. Trans- 
ferring parts of the population to less densely 
settled areas may well have to be considered in 
the forthcoming years. Fortunately, Ponape, 
Truk, the Palaus, and Marianas will accommo- 
date tens of thousands of additional inhabitants 
in a good agricultural environment. 

The people of these islands, separated as they 
are by vast distances and often living in inacces- 
sible areas, have developed a number of local 
diiferences in physical characteristics, language, 
and customs. At least eight distinct cultural 
groups have developed, each witli its own lan- 
guage. Several of these contain subdivisions 
which differ so widely it is a question whether 
some of them should not be considei-ed as sep- 
arate groups. Those eight are the Chamorros in 
the northern Marianas, the Palauans, the Yapese, 
the Trukese, the Ponapians, the Polynesians in 
Kapingamarangi and Hukmoro, the Kuseians, and 
the Marshallese. While there is visiting back 
and forth and several colonies of people from one 
group exist in areas predominately populated by 
another, each group tends strongly to preserve 
its own identity to an extent closely approximat- 
ing a national continent. These separate group- 
ings must be constantly borne in mind in consid- 
ering the problems of the Territory. It is not as 
yet in any sense a cultural or social unit. Physi- 
cally the average Micronesian is of medium stat- 
ure — 5 feet 4 inches to 5 feet 5 inches for the 
males — with brown skin, straight to wavy hair, 
relatively little face ancl body hair, and rather 
high cheek bones. People in the western and 
central districts (Palaus, Ponape, and Truk) tend 
to have Mongoloid type characteristics. By con- 
trast, those in the Marshalls to the east appear 
to resemble their Polynesian neighbors, with 
longer and narrower hands and faces and nar- 
rower noses and lips. Of these various combi- 
nations, which characterize the various island 
groups, there are many examples of intermediate 
mixtures. 

The entire population of the islands are thought 
by scientists to have descended from canoe- 
voyaging immigrants who came from the mar- 
ginal islands in Malaysia, possibly before the 
Christian era. Some may have made purposeful 
voyages of exploration, others were probably car- 
ried eastward by westerly winds and storms, or 
by the counter equatorial current which runs east- 
wai-d throughout southern Micronesia. This 

August 1, 1949 



Malaysian origin is clearly shown by the racial 
inheritance, language affiliations, and customs. 
It is also apparent from the useful plants and 
animals which the voyagers undoubtedly brought 
with them. The time of these migrations is ob- 
scure and even the islanders themselves have no 
clear knowledge of such migrations in their oral 
histories. Their myths and legends generally 
picture the people as originating in the areas they 
now occupy. 

It takes very little imagination to picture the 
confused scene which existed in these islands upon 
their occupation by the United States. The con- 
flicting and often diametrically opposed philoso- 
phies of the Spanish, the Germans, and the Jap- 
anese had been imposed on the native life in com- 
paratively rapid succession. With each change of 
administration came new laws, new restrictions, 
and a different code of administrative principles; 
these changes and the effects of the war left the 
native mind confused, without loyalties, and cer- 
tainly without ambition or initiative. It is easy 
to understand that, with these frequent uproot- 
ings of the accepted and the replanting of newef, 
untried philosophies, skepticism was the order of 
the day. With the inhabitants in this state of 
mind, ideas of industry, agriculture, transporta- 
tion, and other sources of income were undevel- 
oped and neglected. The people began to depend 
on foreign nationals who assumed control of the 
basic industries, and when the Orientals were i-e- 
patriated and lifted from the economic scene, it 
left a vacuum which the inhabitants were not pre- 
pared to fill. 

The Trust Territory is a land of anomalies and 
incongruities. Virtually any generalization con- 
cerning the peoples and conditions in the area has 
exceptions. A few people are highly educated. 
A few have surprising accumulations of wealth. 
Many have absorbed varj^ing degrees of modern 
civilization. Predominantly, however, both the 
social and economic life of most of the inhabitants 
is organized on a clan, lineage, or extended family 
basis, each such group being largely self-sufficient, 
living close to nature and free of the complexities 
introduced by the industrial revolution. Under 
these conditions, the profit motive which stimu- 
lates action under a system of free enterprise, is 
looked upon with suspicion and disfavor and has 
little effect. 

The Japanese added confusion to the normal 
easy tenor of the native existence by transplant- 
ing large numbers of inhabitants from their home 
islands to other areas. This was true of the 
Chamorros, about 250 of whom were moved from 
Saipan to Yap to act as labor supervisors and be- 
came an intermediate group working between the 
Japanese administrators and the less advanced 
Yapese. These displaced persons have recently 
voluntarily resettled on Tinian, an island adjacent 
to Saipan. 

Educational problems were legion. Japanese 

135 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 



Continued 



was the "lingua franca" of the ishmds. No text- 
books existed in the native tongues. Under the 
Japanese, native instructors were not allowed to 
teach — they were merely glorified monitors — thus 
there were no trained staffs with which to reacti- 
vate an educational program. In addition, the 
schools and equipment had in most instances been 
destroyed by the war. Hence, the United States 
has been faced with building an educational pro- 
gram from the bottom up, including the restora- 
tion of scliool buildings, the training of teachers, 
and the printing and distribution of books and 
teaching aids. A curriculum had to be devised 
to fit the needs of the people and instructions is- 
sued to set tlie whole new educational system in 
motion. 

During the Japanese regime, native agriculture 
suffered setbacks from which the inhabitants have 
not yet fully recovered. The Japanese took over 
the operation and management of the best lands 
and employed the Micronesians as laborers. 
Aside from copra production, agriculture was 
never an extensive source of income, but during 
the years prior to the war, the efforts of the local 
inhabitants degenerated into purely "subsistence 
farming." The breadfruit and banana trees, 
which required little attention, fortiniately pro- 
vided the bulk of the diet. The problems of re- 
habilitating devastated and neglected Japanese 
plantations, of reviving interest on the part of the 
inhabitants in commercial agricultural pursuits, 
of experiments in agronomy and plant selection 
have all been recognized and experienced per- 
sonnel procured to provide the answers. In this 
connection it should be noted that a very intensive 
biological control program has been operating 
for approximately 2 years. This investigation 
into the control of injurious pests and insects by 
the importation of natural enemies was prompted 
by the very extensive damage done to the coconut 
trees by the coconut beetles. Wasps were bi'ought 
by airplane from Zanzibar and the Malaysian 
peninsula in the hope that they would destroy the 
beetle grubs. A small beetle has been imported 
to counteract a scale which damages the bread- 
fruit trees. 

Another pest of the area is the giant African 
snail. This voracious destroyer, introduced by 
the Japanese, has damaged many of the crops upon 
which the local inhabitants depend. Breadfruit, 
papayas, vegetables of all kinds, in fact nearly 
all green foilage, fall to the appetite of this pest. 
It is a prolific breeder. Chemical measures of 
control have not proved entirely satisfactory due 
to the heavy rainfall. The importation of a small 
carniverous snail, thought to be capable of control- 
ling the African snail, has been under study in 
Honolulu to determine whether it would accom- 
plish the desired results without in turn becoming 



a pest. Controlled tests are being undertaken this 
summer. 

All of these pests and many more, including 
mosquitoes and flies, are a problem which is con- 
stantly being attacked by quarantine officials, en- 
tomologists, and field scientists. 

Another urgent problem faced by the civil ad- 
ministrators is the obviously important one of 
transportation. Before the war, the islanders en- 
joyed a great deal of freedom of movement 
through the media of their own outrigger sailing 
and paddle canoes. After the war, the islands 
were isolated because nearly all of their canoes 
had been destroyed. The administration is meet- 
ing the problem by furnishing surplus navy boat 
hulls to the inhabitants at a very nominal cost 
and assisting them to repair the boats and get 
them into operation. The canoe-building industry 
has been revived, and it is hoped that with some 
assistance from the administration, the islanders 
will eventually be able to transport the bulk of the 
copra, supplies, handicraft, and passengers now 
being carried in Navy bottoms within the terri- 
tory. 

Public health has received major attention from 
the administration. The inhabitants were found 
to be afflicted with many disease