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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"




Given By 
U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



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TV . 23a 



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fHE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



ULLETIN 




Qontents 



APRIL 6, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 41 — Publication 14^0 




The American Republics: page 

Inter-American professor exchanges 357 

Inter-American student exchanges 359 

Death of the wife of the President of Argentina .... 362 
Europe: 

German White Book 362 

Visit of Sumner Welles to Europe 362 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc.: 
International Commission, United States and Union of 

South Africa 362 

Departmental Service: 

Appointment of Raymond H. Geist as Chief of the 

Division of Commercial Affairs 363 

Appointment of Donald W. Corrick as Chief and Fred 
R. Young as Assistant Chief of Division of 

. Accounts 363 

Commercial Policy: 

Statement by the Secretary of State on the extension 

of the Trade Agreements Act 364 

Foreign Service of the United States: 

Personnel changes 364 

Treaty Information: 

Arbitration, Conciliation, and Judicial Settlement: 
Treaty with the Union of South Africa Amending the 
Treaty for the Advancement of Peace Between the 
United States and Great Britain (Treaty Series 

No. 602) 365 

[Over] 



I). S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCllMtNT! 

MAY 2 1940 



Treaty Information — Continued. 

Arbitration, Conciliation, and Judicial Settlement — 

Continued. Page 

Permanent Court of International Justice 366 

Organization: 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Preamble, of 
Articles 1 , 4, and 5, and of the Annex to the Cove- 
nant of the League of Nations 366 

Education: 

Convention for the Promotion of Inter-American 

Cultural Relations (Treaty Series No. 928) .... 366 
Labor: 

Conventions of the International Labor Conference . . 366 
Telecommunications: 

International Telecommunication Convention 

(Treaty Series No. 867) 367 

Inter-American Radiocommunioation Convention 
(Treaty Series No. 938) and Inter-American Ar- 
rangement Concerning Radiocommunications . . . 367 
North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement . . 368 

Legislation 368 

Publications 368 



The American Republics 



INTER-AMERICAN PROFESSOR EXCHANGES 



[Released to tbe press April 5] 

The names of 35 United States piofessoi's 
available for exchange service in the othei- 
American republics have been formally pre- 
sented by the Department of State to the Gov- 
ermnents of Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, the 
Dominican Republic, Guatemala. H a i t i, 
Honduras, Nicaragua. Panama, Peru, and 
Venezuela. The panels of professors were 
communicated to these governments in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Convention for 
the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural 
Relations.^ which has been ratified by the 
United States and these countries. 

The convention, signed by each of the 21 
American republics at the Inter- American Con- 
ference for the Maintenance of Peace, held in 
Buenos Aires in 1936, provides for the annual 
exchange of one professor between each of the 
ratifying countries. From the list of United 
States professors submitted each of the 11 
American republics which have entered into the 
exchange agreement with this country will 
select a visiting professor who will either give 
lectures in various centers of the country 
visited, conduct regular courses of instruction 
at one or more institutions of higher learning 
designated by the government receiving him, 
or pursue some special research project. 

The list of professors whose names were sub- 
mitted in identical panels presented to each of 



> Treaty Series No. 928. 
222.-. 13— 40 



the 11 American republics which have entered 
into the exchange agi-eement with tlie United 
States follows: 

.\rthur Scott Aitoii, professor of history, I'liivensity of 
Jllchigan 

•lolin Ashtou. associate professor of agricultural jour- 
nalism, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College 

Ralph Steele Boggs, associate professor of Spanish. 
University of North Carolina 

Carolyn G. Bradley, associate professor of fine arts, 
Ohio State University 

David Causey, professor of zoology. University of 
Arkansas 

.Mercer Cook, professor of l<')'ench and chairman of the 
Department of French, Atlanta University 

Isaac Joslin Cox, AVilliam Smith Ma.son profe.s.sor of 
history, Northwestern University 

William Rex Crawford, professor of sociology and 
eliairman of the Department of Sociology, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania 

Bailey W. Diffie, assistant professor of historv, College 
of the City of New York 

Carroll William Dodge, professor of botany. Washing- 
ton University of St. Louis 

Rnrique E. Ecker, associate profcss(n' of immunology. 
Western Reserve University 

.John E. Englekirk, associate professor of Spanish and 
acting head of the Department of Spanish, Tnlane 
University 

P^sther Allen Gaw. dean of women and professor of 
ps.vchology, Ohio State University 

Eugene Allen Gilmore, president, the State University 
of Iowa 

Charles C. Griffin, assistant profes.sor of history. Vassar 
College 

Maurice Halperin, associate professor of romance lan- 
guages. University of Oklahoma 

Robert Willard Hodgson, profe.ssor of subtropical 
horticulture. Agricultural Experiment Station, Col- 
lege of Agriculture, University of California 

Urban Tigner Holmes, .Jr., professor of romance phi- 
lology. University of North Carolina 

Samuel Guy Inman, professor of Latin American rela- 
tions. University of Pennsylvania 

Gordon Ireland, professor of law, Portia Law School 
of Boston 

357 



358 

Herman G. James, president, Ohio University 

Louis Cleveland Jordy, professor of chemistry and 
head of the Department of Chemistry, Brothers Col- 
lege, Drew University 

Erwin Kempton Mapes, professor of romance lan- 
guages. State University of Iowa 

George Willard Martin, professor of botany. State 
University of Iowa 

Dudley Maynard Phelps, associate professor of market- 
ing. University of Michigan 

Francis Samuel Philbrick, professor of law, University 
of Pennsylvania 

Walter Rice Sharp, professor of political science, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin 

Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., professor of economic geology, 
the Johns Hopkins University 

Roger C. Smith, professor of entomology, Kansas 
State College of Agriculture and Applied Science 

Graham H. Stuart, professor of political science, Stan- 
ford University 

William Lonsdale Tayler, assistant professor of social 
science. Queens College 

Kliseo Vivas, assistant professor of philosophy. Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin 

Arthur P. Whitaker, professor of Latin American his- 
tory. University of Pennsylvania 

John B. Whitton, associate professor of polities, 
Princeton University 

Arthur Franklin Zimmerman, professor of history and 
director of the Graduate School, Colorado State 
College of Education. 

It is expected that each of the 11 countries to 
which the panels of United States professors 
were submitted will in turn communicate to 
this country lists of professors available for 
exchange sei'vice here. From these lists of 
professors one will be selected from each coun- 
try to visit the United States and will engage 
in lecturing, teaching, or research activities 
similar to the work done by United States 
professors in these countries. 

Expenses involved in the exchange program 
are borne by the participating governments. 
The sending government will provide the ex- 
penses of travel to and from the countries to 
which its professors are sent as well as main- 
tenance and local travel costs during their 
period of residence in the countries in which 
they are selected for exchange service. The 
term of an exchange professor is for 2 years. 
By common consent between the participating 
governments and the professor involved the 
term may be for a shorter or longer period. 
An act of Congress making available to the 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Department of State an appropriation of 
$75,000 for the student- and professor-exchange 
program was approved on June 29, 1939. 

The exchange program is designed to ^ring 
about mutual knowledge and understanding 
of the people and institutions of the countries 
I^articipating and promote a more consistent 
educational solidarity on the American Con- 
tinent. 

The United States Office of Education, Fed- 
eral Security Agency, which collaborates with 
the Department of State in the administration 
of the treaty, receives all applications for the 
exchange professorships. From each applica- 
tion received, the Office of Education prepares 
an abstract of the data given. This includes 
the scholastic background of the applicant; a 
resume of his published books and articles ; the 
country for which application is made; the 
applicant's ability to lecture in the language of 
that country ; the courses of instruction the ap- 
plicant is prepared to give; the fields to be 
covered by scholarly, technical, and popular 
lectures; the special field of research he pro- 
poses to pursue ; and the periods during which 
the applicant will be available for exchange 
service. Copies of this abstract are then sub- 
mitted by the Office of Education to an ad- 
visory subcommittee on exchange fellowships 
and professorships appointed by the Secretary 
of State to advise and assist in the administra- 
tion of the convention. Selection of nominees 
is made by the subcommittee upon the basis of 
this material. Applicants must occupy a 
position of professorial rank in a college, uni- 
versity, or technical institution ; must possess a 
thorough knowledge of the language of the 
country for which application is made; must 
be citizens of the United States; and must 
have done scholarly work in some specialized 
field. The professorships are available to pro- 
fessors in the humanities, natural sciences, 
social sciences, law, medicine, journalism, tech- 
nology, engineering, art, music, and the 
theater. 



APRIL 6, 1940 



359 



INTER-AMERICAN STUDENT EXCHANGES 



[Keleased to the press April 6] 

Opportunity for United States students and 
teachers to spend a year of study and research 
in 7 Caribbean countries has been opened as a 
result of the presentation by the Department of 
State of the names of 35 candidates to the 
Governments of Costa Rica, the Dominican 
Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Panama. This action has been 
taken in accordance with the Convention for 
the Promotion of Int«r- American Cultural Re- 
lations,^ which provides for the annual ex- 
change of two graduate students or teachers 
between the United States and the other 
American republics which have ratified this 
instrument. 

The panels of students prepared by the 
United States which have just been presented 
to each of the Central American and West In- 
dian republics participating in the exchange 
program have been drawn from approximately 
150 applications received from students and 
teachers from all parts of the United States, 
Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. An act of 
Congress making available to the Department 
of State an appropriation of $75,000 for the 
exchange program was approved on June 29, 
1939. 

Every year, according to the provisions of 
the treaty, each government nominates and 
presents to each of the other ratifying countries 
a panel containing the names of five graduate 
students or teachers together with such sup- 
plemental information concerning them as the 
receiving government shall deem necessary. 
From the panel of five names submitted by the 
nominating government, the receiving govern- 
ment will select two persons to whom awards 
will be made for a year of study in that 
country. 



' Treaty Series No. 928. 



Panels which have just been presented to the 
Central American and West Indian republics 
follow : 

To Costa Rica: 

Joseph Randle Bailey, of Toledo, Ohio. Mr. Bailey 
is at present attending the University of Michigan, 
where he is working toward the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy. 

Edith Alida Bronson, of Evanston, III. Miss Bron- 
son Is secretary of the Department of Romance 
Languages at Northwestern University. 

.Juliette Virginia Phifer, of Knoxville, Tenn. Miss 
Phifer is principal of the Laboratory School and 
Director of Student Practise at the Fayetteville 
State Teachers College of North Carolina. 

Floyd Hiatt Ross, of Mount Pleasant, Iowa. Dr. 
Ross is head of the Department of Philosophy and 
Religion at Iowa Wesleyan College. 

Don H. Waither, of Hamilton, Ohio. Mr. Walther 
is now a teaching follow at the University of 
North Carolina. 

To the Dominican Republic: 
Dwight LeMerton Bolinger, of Topeka, Kans. Mr. 

Bolinger is associate professor of Spanish at 

Washburn College. 
Charles Christian Hauch, of Chiciigo, 111. Mr. Hauch 

is a graduate student at the University of Chicago. 
Walter Carl Kraft, of Corvallis, Oreg. Mr. Kraft is a 

graduate assistant in German at the University of 

Oregon. 
Joseph John Montllor, of Elmhurst, Long Island. 

N. Y. Jlr. Montllor is a graduate student of Co- 
lumbia University. 
Nestor Ortiz, of Los Angeles, Calif. Mr. Ortiz is a 

graduate student at the University of California. 

To Guatemala: 

William Howard Dusenberry, of Carmichaels, Pa. 
Mr. Dusenberry is at present attending tUe Uni- 
versity of Michigan, where he is working toward 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Hermione H. Hamlett, of Greensboro, N. C. Miss 
Hamlett is an instructor in fine arts at the Wom- 
an's College of the University of North Carolina. 

Jack Chalmers Herman, of New Orleans, La. Mr. 
Herman is an assistant at Tulane University. 

Alan Carson Rankin, of Syracuse, N. Y. Mr. Rankin 
is at present doing graduate work at American 
University and is serving as an intern in the Na- 
tional Institute of Public Affairs assigned to the 
United States Housing Authority. 

Theodore Lawrence White, of Falfurrias, Tex. Mr. 
White is at present attending the University of 
Texas, where he is working toward the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

To Haiti: 
Julia Alberta Brooks, of Washington, D. C. Miss 
Brooks is a graduate student at Howard Uni- 
versity. 



360 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Fninces Kthlyuile Johnson, of Atlanta, Ga. Miss 
Johnson is an instructor in history at Bennett 
College of (Ireensboro, N. C. 

Wniiaiu .Mackey. of Boulder, Colo. Mr. ilackey is 
a teacher in the adult education program in the 
public schools cil' Boulder, Colo. 

Ruth Kllie Siuipkins, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Miss 
Siuipkins is a teacher at StlUman Institute, Tus- 
caloosa. .\la., in charge of teacher training. 

Harold A. Sleeper, of South Groveland, Mass. Mr. 
Sleeper is n gi-aduate student at Brown University. 

7'o Hondiiiuix: 
John Tatlock Black, of Washington, D. C. Mr. 

Black is a graduate student at Harvard Uni- 
versity. 
Frederick Haven Henslei'. of Seattle. Wash. Mr. 

Hensler is a music instructor in the public school 

at Redmond, Wash. 
R. Kenneth Ho.ssom, of Long Beach, Calif. Mr. 

Hossom is a graduate student at Princeton 

University. 
Virginia Lynn Lamm, of George West, Tex. Miss 

Lamm is a teacher of Spanish and English in the 

senior high school at Ballinger, Tex. 
William Sylvane Stokes, of Montebello, Calif. Mr. 

Stokes is a graduate .student in political science 

at tlie University of California at Los Angeles. 

'I'o Sharayua: 

Jon. Richard Ashton, of Pomeroy, Wash. Mr. Ash- 
ton is temporarily residing in Mexico City. 

Ira Ettinger Cliart, of Dorchester, Mass. Mr. Chart 
is a graduate student at Harvard University. 

Bessie Winifred Stanford, of Rochester, N. Y. 
Miss Stanford is a graduate student at North- 
western Univer.sity. 

Kmilio Tejada. of Taos, N. Mex. Mr. Tejada is a 
county agricultural extension agent at Santa 
Rosa, N. Mex. 

Minter Wood, of Conway. Ark. Mr. Wood is a 
graduate student at the University of Texas. 

'In Panuina: 

Betty Adler, of Baltimore, Md. Miss Adler is an 
assistant in the history, travel, and biography de- 
partment of the Enoch Pratt Free Library of 
Baltimore. 

Jo.seph Hyson Alii, of Ann Arbor, Mich. Dr. AUi 
has been director of the laboratory for a health 
center in Albaniu under the International Health 
Division of the Jtockefeller Foundation. 

Patterson Hiddle Land, Jr., of Miami, Fla. Mr. 
Laml has been a junior officer in the Civilian 
Onservation Corps at Fort Bragg, N. C. 

James C. Triolo, Jr., of Alameda. Calif. Mr. Triolo 
is at in-e.sent employed by the Government of 
Pamima as an athletic director. 

George Wilson Willoughby, of Iowa City, Iowa. 
Mr. Willoughby is at present attending the State 
University of Iowa, where he is working toward 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Acc()rdin<r to the provisions of tiic treaty. 
ptuiL'Ls are to be prepared and submitted to 
the participating governments of South 
America on or before November 30 iind to all 
other participtiting governments on or before 
March 31 of each year. Of the four panels 



transmitted on November 30 by the United 
States to the four countries of South America 
which to date have ratified the convention, 
Chile was the first to make its selection. On 
March 4, 1940, that Government annoiinced 
the selection of Miss Dorothy Field, of Phil- 
lips, Maine, and Miss Esther Bernice Mathews, 
of Denver, Colo., to whom exchange fellow- 
ships were awarded for a year of study in that 
country.^ j 

Panels previously submitted to the Sottth 
American countries on November 30, 1939, 
were : | 

To Brazil: 

Edward Sherman Beadle, of Glastonbury. Conn. 
Mr. Beadle is an instructor in French and Span- 
ish at the University of Tennessee. 

Biirbara Ballon Hadley, of Slielburne Falls, Mass. 
Miss Hadley is doing graduate work at the Uni- 
versity of California. 

Mary Louise Libby, of Jamaica Plain, Mass. Miss 
Libby is at present attending Radcliffe College 
working toward the degree of Doctor of Phi- 
losophy. 

Alexander Nelson De Arniond ihuchant, of Bal- 
timore. Md. Mr. Marchant is a lecturer in South 
American history in the C<illege for Teachers of 
the Johns Hopkins University. 

Clifton Brooke Mcintosh, of Greenville, S. C. Dr. 
Mcintosh is associate professor of modern lan- 
guages at Furman University. 

7'o Chile: 

ion. Richard Ashton, Pomeroy. Wash. (Following 
selection by Chile of its two students, Mr. Ashton 
was nominated on the panel presented to 
Nicaragua. ) 

Dwight LeMerton Bollnger, of Topeka, Kans. (Fol- 
lowing selection by Chile of its two students. Dr. 
Bolinger was nominated on the panel presented 
to the Dominican Republic.) 

Edith Alida Brous(m, of Evanston, 111. (Following 
selection by Chile of its two students, Miss Bronson 
was nominated on the panel presented to Costa 
Rica.) 

Dorothy May Field, of Phillips, Maine. Miss Field 
was selected by the Government of Chile and is 
attending the National University of Santiago. 

Esther Bernice Mathews, of Denver, Colo. Miss 
Mathews was selected by the Government of Chile 
and will leave the United States for Chile in the 
near future. 

To Peru: 

Lois Marie Beckett, of Cheney, Kans. Miss Beckett 

is a teacher of Spanish in the Albuquer(iue Senior 

High School, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

Anthony Delia Rezza, of Philadelphia. Pa. Mr. 

Rezza has been engaged as a substitute teacher of 



' See the Bulletin of March 9. 1940 (Vol. II, No. 37), 
pp. 279-281. 



APRIL 6, 1940 



361 



Spanish in various senior high schools of Phila- 
delphia and vicinity. 

Claudia DeWolf, of Bristol, R. I. Dr. DeWolf is a 
teacher of Latin, French, and Medieval History 
at the St. Andrew's School for Boys in Bristol, K. I. 

Alyce Mae Hawk, of Albuquerque, X. Mex. Miss 
Hawk is doing graduate work at the University 
of New Jlexico. 

Roger Meldrum Hughes, of Omaha, Nebr. Mr. 
Hughes is doing graduate work at the University 
of Nebraska. 

To Venezuela: 

Ralph Kenneth Brakke, of Norfolk, Va. Mr. Brakke 
is a graduate student and teaching fellow at Bos- 
ton University. 

Dorothy Conzeleman, of St. Louis, Mo. Miss Con- 
zeleiuan is secretary to the dean of the Schools of 
Engineering and Architecture of Washington Uni- 
versity of St. Louis. 

\'oit Gilmore, of Winston Salem, N. C. Mr. Gilmore 
is a graduate student in public administration at 
the American University. 

George William Luttermoser, of Detroit, Mich. Dr. 
Luttermoser is a parasitologist in the Bureau of 
Animal Industry of the United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

Virgil Alexander Warren, of JeflCerson City, Tenn. 
Dr. Warren is professor and head of the Depart- 
ment of Modern Languages at Carson-Newman 
College. 

Expenses involved in the exchange program 
are shared by the participating governments. 
The nominating government will pay the 
round-trip travel costs of its students together 
with other incidental expenses. The receiving 
government will pay tuition, subsidiary ex- 
penses, as well as board and lodging at the insii- 
tutions in which the visiting students are 
enrolled. 

The convention was signed by the 21 Ameri- 
can republics at the Inter-American Confer- 
ence for the Maintenance of Peace held in 
Buenos Aires in 1936. To date the treat,y has 
been ratified by the Governments of Brazil, 
Chile, Coata Rica, the Dominican Republic, 
Guatemala. Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Pan- 
ama, Peru, Venezuela, and the United States. 
The Government of Paraguay has recently rati- 
fied the convention and will probably put into 
operation the exchange of students and profes- 
sors next year. The Government of Mexico 
has also ratified the convention but has not as 
yet deposited its ratification with the Pan 
American Union. 

The convention does not limit the field of in- 
tellectual activity in which the student or 



teacher may engage. The widest possible lati- 
tude has been allowed to encourage applications 
from those interested in any field of learning, 
facilities for which may exist in the country in 
which the applicant is interested. No limita- 
tion as to color, sex, or creed has been made in 
the nominations for the exchange posts. The 
fellowships are available for graduate students 
or teachers in the humanities, natural sciences, 
social sciences, law, medicine, public health, 
pharmacy, nursing, agriculture, journalism, 
technology, engineering, art, music, the theater, 
and any otiier legitimate field of investigation 
or study. The exchange fellowships cover a 
single academic year. 

Applicants nominated by this Government 
must prove United States citizenship; must 
have completed a curriculum which normally 
requires 5 years beyond the secondary school; 
and must have a practical reading, writing, and 
speaking knowledge of the language of the 
country for which application is made. The 
applicants must indicate a particular project 
for research or study in the country indicated 
and must possess ability to do independent study 
or research, attested to by statements from 
qualified professors. 

The United States Office of Education, Fed- 
eral Security Agency, which collaborates with 
the Department of State in the administration 
of the treaty, receives all applications for the 
exchange fellowships. From each application 
received, the Office of Education prepares an 
ab.stract of the data given. This includes the 
educational and occupational background of the 
applicant, the research project proposed, the 
country in which the work is to be done, and 
the applicant's ability to read, write, and speak 
the language of the country for which appli- 
cation is made. Copies of this abstract are 
then submitted by the Office of Education to 
an advisory subcommittee on exchange fellow- 
ships and professorships appointed by the Sec- 
retary of State to advise and assist in the 
administration of the convention. Selection of 
nominees is made by this subcommittee upon the 
basis of this material. 



362 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



DEATH OF THE WIFE OF THE PRESI- 
DENT OF ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press April 3] 

The President and the Secretary of State 
sent the following telegrams of condolence to 
the President of Argentina, Roberto M. Ortiz : 

"The WnnE House, April 3, 19^0. 
"I am profoundly grieved to learn of the 
death of Seiiora de Ortiz. Mrs. Roosevelt and 
I extend to you our deepest sympathy in your 
great bereavement. 

Fbankhn D. Roosevelt" 

"April 3, 1940. 
"I have learned with the greatest sorrow of 
the death of Seiiora de Ortiz and I extend to 
you my deepest sympathy, in which my wife 
joins me. Cordell Hull" 



Europe 



GERMAN WHITE BOOK 

[Released to the press April 2] 

Following is the text of a letter from the 
Secretary of State to the Honorable Hamilton 
Fish, House of Representatives: 

"April 2, 1940. 
"Mt Dear Congressman : 

"I have received your letter of April 2 in 
which you request that Ambassador William C. 
Bullitt be asked to remain in this country for 
another two weeks in order to be able to testify 
before a committee of either branch of Con- 
gress relative to data contained in the German 
White Paper recently issued. 

"I may say in tlie first place that Ambassador 
Bullitt has succinctly and categorically denied 
any imputations relating to himself as con- 
tained in that published matter. The Execu- 
tive Department of the Government has ac- 
cepted that denial without question. Further- 
more, Ambassador Bullitt has been delayed by 
the illness of his daughter in returning to his 
post where he is needed. 



"In the foregoing circumstances, it is not felt 
that the public interest would be served by 
delaying more or less indefinitely the departure 
of Ambassador Bullitt as planned. 
"Sincerely yours, 

Cordell Hull" 

^ ^ -*■ 

VISIT OF SUMNER WELLES TO 
EUROPE 

[Released to the press April 4] 

The Under Secretary of State, Mr. Sumner 
Welles, answered allegations on April 4 that 
a map which appears in a photograph taken 
in the course of an interview which he had in 
Paris with Premier Paul Reynaud served as 
the basis for Mr. Welles' discussions with 
Monsieur Reynaud. Mr. Welles stated: 

"Various allegations concerning a map which 
is shown in the photograph of Monsieur Rey- 
naud and of myself are fantastic nonsense. At 
no time during the course of my interviews in 
Paris or in any other capital I visited was any 
reference made to any maps. I never even 
looked at any map which may have been in 
Monsieur Reynaud's office." 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, etc. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION, 
UNITED STATES AND UNION OF 
SOUTH AFRICA 

An announcement regarding the signing on 
April 2, 1940, of a treaty between the United 
States and the Union of South Africa, amend- 
ing the Treaty for the Advancement of Peace 
Between the United States and Great Britain, 
signed September 15, 1914, with respect to the 
organization of an international commission 
to settle disputes between the United States 
and the Union of South Africa, appears in this 
BuJhtin under the heading "Treaty Infor- 
mation." 



Departmental Service 



APPOINTMENT OF RAYMOND H. GEIST AS CHIEF OF THE 
DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS 



[Released to the press April 2] 

The Secretary of State issued on April 1 a 
departmental order designating Mr. Raymond 
H. Geist, a Foreign Service officer of class III 
on detail in the Department, as Chief of the 
Division of Commercial Affairs. 

Mr. Geist's biography is as follows : 

Geist, Raymond Herman. — Born in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, August 19, 1885; Oberlin College 
1906-9; Western Reserve University, A.B. 
1910; Columbia University 1910-11; Harvard, 
A.M. 1916, Ph.D. 1918; with newspaper 1900-2; 
chemical company 1902-5; lecturer on New 
York public lecture courses 1910-12; United 
States Navy 1918 ; with American Commission 
to Negotiate Peace, Paris, 1918-19; food com- 
missioner in Austria and adviser to the Austrian 
Government in matters of public feeding 1919- 
20; lecturer in English at Harvard 1920-21; 



appointed, after examination, vice consul of 
career of class three October 26, 1921; as- 
signed to Buenos Aires December 14, 1921 ; to 
Montevideo December 6. 1922; to Port Said 
September 6, 1923; to Alexandria November 
22, 1923; class two November 23, 1923; class 
one May 10, 1924; Foreign Service officer un- 
classified July 1, 1924; class nine and consul 
September 20, 1924; assigned to Alexandria 
September 20, 1924; class eight February 24, 
1925; class seven May 17, 1928; assigned to 
Berlin November 19, 1929; class six July 24, 
1930; class five October 1, 1935; secretary in 
the Diplomatic Service December 1, 1937 ; class 
four January 3, 1938; first secretary' at Berlin 
in addition to duties as consul April 5, 1938; 
representative, Tenth Congress of Interna- 
tional Chamber of Commerce, Copenhagen, 
1939 ; class three March 1, 1940. 



+ -♦- -f ■♦- + -f 



APPOINTMENT OF DONALD W. CORRICK AS CHIEF AND FRED R. 
YOUNG AS ASSISTANT CHIEF OF DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS 



[Released to the press April 2] 

The Secretary of State, on March 30, 1940, 
issued a departmental order designating Mr. 
Donald W. Corrick as Chief of the Division of 
Accounts, and designating Mr. Fred R. Young 
as Assistant Chief, effective as of April 1. 

Mr. Corrick's and Mr. Young's biographies 
are as follows : 

Corrick, Donald Wheatlet. — Born in Ken- 
sington, Maryland, August 15, 1897; high 
school graduate; Southeastern University, D.C. 
S. 1926; American University, 1939- ; United 
States Navj', 1917-19 ; clerk, Navy Department, 
1919-23; assistant general office manager, de- 
partment store, 1923-24 ; chief of an accounting 



section, Department of Agriculture, 1924-34; 
appointed administrative assistant in the De- 
partment of State November 1, 1934; acting 
assistant chief, Division of Accounts, February 
6, 1939; assistant chief June 1, 1939; acting 
chief September 5, 1939. 

Young, Fred Rex. — Born in Defiance, Iowa, 
April 12, 1886; high school graduate; Iowa 
State Teachers' College, summer 1904; studied 
accountancy; teacher in public school 1904-10; 
assistant postmaster 1910-17; deputy county 
treasurer 1917-18; clerk. "War Department, 
1918; appointed clerk in the Department of 
State December 17, 1918; chief of audit section, 
Bureau of Accounts, March 15, 1930. 

3(53 



Commercial Policy 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE ON THE EXTENSION 
OF THE TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT 



I Released to the press April 3] 

The passage through Congress of the act con- 
tinuing the trade-agreements program in force 
for the next 3 years will afford profound satis- 
faction to all those who have been observing 
and appraising the operation of the program 
from the standpoint of our best national inter- 
est. They know that the three high objectives 
of the trade-agreements policy and of the prin- 
ciples whicli underlie it are: (1) To promote 
the fullest practicable development of both our 
domestic and foreign markets, thereby achiev- 
ing increased production and employment; (2) 
to help in creating a solid foundation for any 
stable peace structure to follow the war; and 
(3) to safeguard free enterprise in this country 
against ever-expanding regimentation which 
would be the inescapable result of extreme 
foreign-trade controls of the kind that would be 
rendered necessary by a reversion to the Hawlej'- 
Smoot embargo doctrine. 



The progress toward attaining these objec- 
tives, made in the last 6 years under conditions 
of unprecedented difficulty, has brought marked 
benefits alike to our agriculture, our industi'y, 
and our labor — without injury to anyone. The 
policy embodied in the 22 trade agreements 
already negotiated is an assurance that in the 
future operation of the program the interests 
of all sections of the country — w'est and east, 
south and north — and of all groups of the popu- 
lation will be as vigorously promoted and as 
scrupulously safeguarded as heretofore. 

This countrj' and all other countries inter- 
ested in the three great objectives of the trade- 
agreements program are giving increased sup- 
port to the program and to the principles which 
underlie it. These principles must prevail in 
economic relations among nations at the end of 
present hostilities if our Nation and other na- 
tions are to have stable peace and satisfactory 
economic progress. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



[ KeleuHed to the press April 6] 

Changes in the Foreign Seroi^'e of the United 
States since March 10. 19]fl: 

George A. Makinson, of San Anselmo, Calif., 
consul general at Osaka, Japan, has been desig- 
nated first secretary of embassy at Tokyo. 
Japan. 

Walter H. Slides, of Oklahoma City, Okla., 
consul general at Milan, Italy, has been as- 
signed as consul general at Salonika, Greece. 
364 



Ilo C. Funk, of Boulder, Colo., consul at 
Hull, England, has been assigned as consul at 
Barbados, British West Indies. 

Phil H. Hubbard, of Poultney, Vt., consul 
at Dundee, Scotland, has been assigned as con- 
sul at Milan, Italy. 

Harold B. Minor, of Holton, Kans., consul 
at Jerusalem, Palestine, has been designated 
second secretary' of legation and consul at 
Tehran, Iran, and will serve in dual capacity. 



APRIL 6, 19 40 

Lloyd D. Yates, of Washington, D. C, con- 
sul at Montreal, Canada, has been designated 
second secretary of embassy and consul a( 
Berlin, Germany, and will serve in dual 
capacity. 

Carl H. Boehringer, of Bay City, Mich., vice 
consul at Tokyo, Japan, has been assigned as 
vice consul at Osaka, Japan. 

B. Miles Hammond, of South Carolina, For- 
eign Service officer, assigned to the Department 
of State, has been assigned as vice consul at 
Naples, Italy. 

Francis B. Stevens, of Schenectady, N. Y.. 
third secretary of legation at Pretoria, Union 
of South Africa, has been assigned for duty 
in the Department of State. 

Andrew G. Lynch, of Utica, N. Y., third 
secretary of legation and consul at Tehran. 
Iran, has been assigned as consul at Montreal, 
Canada. 

Fred K. Salter, of Sandersville, Ga., third 
secretary of legation and vice consul at Teguci- 
galpa, Honduras, has been assigned as vice con- 
sul at Frankfort on the Main, Germany. 



365 

Aubrey E. Lippincott, of Tucson, Ariz., vice 
consul at Madras, India, has been assigned as 
vice consul at Jerusalem, Palestine. 

Raj' L. Thurston, of Madison. Wis., vice con- 
sul at Naples. Italy, has been assigned for duty 
in the Department of State. 

John K. Emmerson, of Caium City, Colo., 
vice consul at Osaka, Japan, has been desig- 
nated third secretary of embassy at Tokyo, 
Japan. 

The assignment of Richard D. Gatewood. of 
New York, N. Y.. as vice consul at Prague, Bo- 
licmia. has been canceled. Mr. Gatewood has 
now been designated third secretary of legation 
and vice consul at Tegucigalpa. Honduras, and 
will .serve in dual capacity. 

Adrian B. Colquitt, of Savannah, Ga.. vice 
consul at Panama, Panama, has lieen designated 
third secretary of embassy at Panama, and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

The American Consulate at Hull, England, 
will b<' closed April 30, 1940. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION, CONCILIATION, AND 
JUDICIAL SETTLEMENT 

Treaty With the Union of South Africa 
Amending the Treaty for the Advance- 
ment of Peace Between the United States 
and Great Britain (Treaty Series No. 602) 

A treuty between the United States and the 
Union of South Africa amending in their ap- 
plication to the Union of South Africa the pro- 
visions which concern the organization of com- 
missions for the settlement of disputes contained 
in the Treaty for the Advancement of Peace 
between the United States and Great Britain, 



signed at Washington Septembi-r 15, 1914, was 
signed at noon on April 2, 1940, by Mr. Cordell 
Hull, Secretary of State, and Mr. Ralph Wil- 
liam Close, Minister of the Union of South 
Africa at Washing'ton. 'Ilie duties of the com- 
mission under the treaty with the Union of 
South Africa, as well as under the treaty of 
1914 with Great Britain, are to make investiga- 
tions and reports to the Governments with ref- 
erence to disputes arising between them. 

The treaty of 1914 between the United States 
and Great Britain provided for the establish- 
ment of an international commission of five 
members, one member to be chosen from each 
country by the Govermnent of the country, one 



366 

member to be chosen by each Government from 
some third country, and a fifth member to be 
chosen by agreement between the two Govern- 
ments from a country of which no other mem- 
ber of the commission is a citizen. It also 
provided that in the event the interests affected 
by the dispute to be investigated should be 
mainly interests of one of the self-governing 
dominions of the British Empire the dominion 
concerned might furnish a list of persons from 
which a member of the coimnission would be 
appointed to serve in place of the British 
national member. 

The amendatory treaty provides for the 
establishment of a separate commission between 
the United States and the Union of South 
Africa consisting of five members: One mem- 
ber to be chosen from the United States by the 
Government of the United States; one member 
to be chosen from the Union of South Africa 
by the Government of the Union ; one member 
to be chosen by each Government from a thii'd 
country; and a fifth member to be chosen by 
agreement between the Government of the 
United States and the Government of the Union 
of South Africa from a country of which no 
other member of the commission is a citizen. 

The substantive provisions of the treaty of 
1914 between the United States and Great 
Britain are made an integral part of the treaty 
between the United States and the Union of 
South Africa for observance and fulfillment 
between them. 

Amendatory treaties similar to the one signed 
by the United States with the Union of South 
Africa are under negotiation with Canada, 
Australia, and New Zealand. 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

Belgium, 

In regard to the declaration made by Canada 
that it will not regard its acceptance of the 
Optional Clause as covering disputes arising out 
of events occurring during the present war, 
the Belgian Government informed the Secretary 
General of tlie I^eague of Nations by a letter 
dated FebruarA' fl. 1940, that it calls for the same 
reservation on lx>half of the Belgian Govem- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ment as that made on November 20, 1939, in 
regard to similar communications from var- 
ious states which were sent to it previously. 

The reservation made by the Belgian Govern- 
ment on November 20, 1939, reads in transla- 
tion as follows : 

"The Belgian Government, which has itself 
accepted the Optional Clause, takes not« of these 
communications, while reserving its own point 
of view." 

ORGANIZATION 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Pre- 
amble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the 
Annex to the Covenant of the League of 
Nations 

Lithvania 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 11, 1940, the 
instrument of ratification by Lithuania of the 
Protocol for the Amendment of the Preamble, 
of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the Annex to 
the Covenant of the League of Nations, which 
was opened for signature at Geneva on Sep- 
tember 30, 1938, was deposited with the Secre- 
tariat on February 20, 1940. 

EDUCATION 

Convention for the Promotion of Inter- 
American Cultural Relations (Treaty 
Series No. 928) 

Announcements regarding the exchanges of 
students and professors with the other Ameri- 
can republics, as provided by the Convention 
for the Promotion of Inter- American Cultural 
Relations, signed at Buenos Aires December 
23, 1936, appear in this BuUetin under the 
heading "The American Republics." 

LABOR 

Conventions of the International Labor 
Conference 

China 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 11, 1940, the 
instrument of ratification by China of the Con- 



APRIL 6, 1940 



367 



vention Fixing the Minimum Age for Ad- 
mission of Children to Industrial Employ- 
ment (revised 1937), adopted by the Interna- 
tional Labor Conference at its twenty-third 
session (Geneva, June 3-23, 1937), was regis- 
tered with the Secretariat on February 21, 
1940. 

The letter adds that the convention will come 
into force, in accordance with its article 11, 
twelve months after the date of the registra- 
tion of the ratification by China, it having al- 
ready received one previous ratification, that of 
Norway, on August 26, 1938. 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion (Treaty Series No. 867) 

Dominicam, Republic 

The American Legation at Ciudad Trujillo 
reported by a despatch dated March 29, 194:0, 
that the Dominican Congress, by law No. 206 
of December 30, 1939, published in the Gaceta 
Oficial No. 5421 of February 29, 1940, ratified 
the following revisions of the regulations and 
protocols annexed to the International Tele- 
communication Convention of December 9, 
1932, as signed at Cairo April 4 and 8, 1938: 

General Radio Regulations and Final Pro- 
tocol (Revision of Cairo, 1938) 

Additional Radio Regulations (Revision of 
Cairo, 1938) 

Additional Protocol to the Minutes of the 
International Radiocommunications Con- 
ference at Cairo, 1938. 

Inter-American Radiocommunication Con- 
vention (Treaty Series No. 938) and 
Inter-American Arrangement Concerning 
Radiocommunications 

Brazil 

The Cuban Ambassador at Washington 
transmitted to the Secretary of State with a 
note dated March 23, 1940, a communication 
addressed to him by the Secretary of State of 



Cuba informing this Goverimient of the de- 
posit, on November 29, 1939, of the instru- 
ments of ratification by Brazil of the Inter- 
American Radiocommunication Convention 
and the Inter-American Arrangement Con- 
cerning Radioconnnunications, both signed at 
Habana on December 13, 1937. The reserva- 
tions made by Brazil when ratifying the 
convention and the arrangement are printed 
below in translation: 

"Convention — Article 11, Paragraph A, Part 
Three : 'Special Provisions.' 

"Does not agree to the provision of Para- 
graph A, Article 11, respecting existing chan- 
nels in the frequency band from 550 to 1500 
kc/s intended for radio broadcasting on 
medium waves, as it conflicts with the South 
American Agreement of Buenos Aires (re- 
vised at Rio de Janeiro), which grants to each 
signatory country the exclusive right of using 
certain channels. 

"Art. 29, Part Four: 'General Provisions.' 

"Agrees to the provisions of tliis article, 
subject, however, to the complete eflFectiveness 
of the South American Agreement of Buenos 
Aires (revised at Rio de Janeiro, 1937). 

'■'■Annex 2 to the Corwention (Internal Regu- 
lations of the Inter-American Radio Office) : 

"Art. 7. Does not agree to its inclusion in 
the third category of contributors, wishing to 
be classified in the sixth." 

"Arrangement. 

"Section 2. 

"a) Table 3 — Frequencies between 1600 and 
IfiO isic. 4000] Kcs. 

"Declares that it will use in its territory the 
bands from 3265 to 3320 and from 3500 to 4000 
Kcs., in accordance with the distribution made 
in the Cairo General Regulations. 

"b) Table 4 — Frequencies between 4000 and 
25,000 Kcs. 

"In accordance with the special note, in- 
serted at the end of this table, reserves the 
right to adopt the assignments made in this 
band by the Cairo Regulations. Agrees to 
note 3, on condition that a regional meeting is 
held, in order to settle by common agreement 



368 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the question mentioned there, in conformity 
witli the real needs of the countries concerned. 

'^Sectwn 4. 

"Does not accept the first part relative to 
the table of toleninces and instabilities of 
frequencies, which is prejudicial in view of the 
new table adopted by the Cairo General Radio 
Refrulations. 

'■'■Section 7. 

'•Ratifies the provisions of this part on the 
understanding that the new technical terminol- 
ogy api>earing in the Cairo Regulation will 
prevail over that adopted at Habana. 

''Section 8. 

"Does not agiee to the provisions contained 
in Paragraph 3, conforming to recommenda- 
tion no. 10 of the South American Agreement. 

"Fails to ratify the provisions of paragraphs 
4 to 6, as it does not agree to the exclusive use, 
granted to amateurs by the present agreement, 
of the band between 3.500 and 4000 kcs. 

^•Section 9. 

"Does not agree to the provisions contained in 
this part." 

North American Regional Broadcasting 
Agreement 

Meon'/;o 

The American Ambassador to Cuba reported 
l)y a teli'grani dated March 29, 1940, that the 
instrument of ratification by Mejcico of the 
North American Regional Broadcasting Agree- 
ment, signed at Habana on December 13, 1937, 
was deposited with the Cuban Government on 
March 29, 1940. 

The agreement under its terms was not to 
l)ecome effective mitil ratified by Canada, Cuba, 
Mexico, and the United States of America. 
The ratification by Mexico was the last required 
to make the agreement effective. In addition 
to the above-named countries the agreement 
has also been ratified by Haiti. 

The iigreement will become operative after 
the necessary technical studies have been com- 
pleted In' the various (lovernments. 



Legislation 



\n Act To Amend the Act entitled "An Act to punish 
ads of interference with the foreign relations, the 
neutrality, and the foreign commerce of the United 
States, to punish espionage, and better to enforce 
the criminal laws of the United States, and for other 
purposes", approved June l.'j, 1917, as amended, to in- 
crease the penalties for peacetime violations of sueli 
Act. Approved March 28, 1940. (Public No. 443. 
76th Cong., .3d sess.) 2 pp. 50. 

Extension of Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act : Hear- 
ings Before the Committee on Ways and Means, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-sixth Congress, 
Third Session, on H. J. Res. 407. a joint resolution to 
extend the authority of the President under section 
3.^)0 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. 

Vol. 1: .Tan. 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18. and 19, 1940. 
pp. 1-1001. $1.25. 

Vol. 2: Jan. 20, 22. 23, 24. 25. and 26, 1940. pp. 
1003-1975. $1.25. 

Vol. 3: Jan. 27, 29. 30, .31, Feb. 1. 2. and 3, 1940. 
pp. 1977-2893. $1.25. 

Vol. 4 : Containing General Index for Volumes 1, 2. 
and 3. 112 pp. 1.5e. 

Extension of Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act : Hear- 
ings Before the Committee on Finance, United States 
Senate, Seventy-sixth Congress, Third Session, on 
H. J. Res. 407, a joint resolution to extend the author- 
itv of the President under section 3.50 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended. Feb. 26, 27, 28, and 29. 
Mar. 1, 2. 4, 5, and 6, 1940. (Revised print.) 867 
pp. .$1. 



Publications 



Go^jernmpnt publications of interest to readers 
of the ''BuUetin''': 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association 
for the year 1938. (Smithsonian Institution.) (H. 
Doc. 12, 76th Cong.. 1st .tess.) xxvi. 115 pp. 750 
(cloth). 

China's Trade Under Wartime Conditions. Jan. 1940. 
(Department of Commerce: Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, Division of Regional Informa- 
tion.) Far Eastern Series 173: Special Circular 402. 
9 pp. Processed. 5e. 

Commercial and Industrial Position of Finland, by 
Archibald E. Gray. Nov. 1939. (Department of 
('onunerce : Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Division of Regional Information, European 
Section.) Special Circular 401. 20 pp. Processed. 50. 

Twenty Years of Soviet Trade, by B. C. Ropes. Nov. 
1939. (Department of Commerce: Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, Division of Regional In- 



APRIL 6. 1940 369 

formation, Russian Section.) Special Circular 399. Exwutive Order [No. 8aS2] : Amendment of Executive 

22 pp. Processed. 50. Order No. 8234 of September r,. 193!). Prescrihing 

Executive Order [No. 8381] Defining Certain Vital Regulations Governing the Passage and fdntrol of 

Military and Naval Installations and Equipmenl. Vessels Through the Panama Canal in Ariy War in 

Federal Register, Vol. 5, No. 59, March 26, 1940, pp. Which the United States I.s Neutral. Federal Regis- 

1147-1148 (The National Archives of the United ter. Vol. 5. No. tU), .March 27, 1940, p. llSi (The 

States). National Archives of the United States). 



S. COVERNMEHT PHIHTING OFFICE; 1t40 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington. D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PCBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE PIRKCTOR OF THE BCRKAU OF THE BUDOirr 



1 



oK . 2ZZ, /j-zc 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




J J 



L^ 



ETIN 

APRIL 13, 1940 
Fo/. II: No. 42 — Publication 1454 



Qontents 




Europe: 

German invasion of Denmark and Norway: Page 

Statement by the President 373 

Statement by the Secretary of State 373 

Reports from American Foreign Service officers in 

Denmark and Norway 373 

American personnel at diplomatic and consular es- 
tablishments in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden . 37G 
FaciUties for evacuation of Americans from Scandi- 
navia 377 

Departure of American vessels from Norwegian ports . 377 

Proclamation defining combat area 378 

Regulation relating to travel in combat area 379 

The American Republics: 

Expropriation of American oil properties by Mexico: 
Note from the Secretary of State to the Ambassador 

of Mexico 380 

Arbitration and Other Aspects of Inter- American Re- 
lations: Address by Spruille Braden 383 

First Inter-American Congress on Indian Life .... 389 
Death of the wife of the President of Argentina . . . 390 

{Over\ 



-'-'' "^ 1940 



Commercial Policy: Page 

Statement by the President on the extension of the 

Trade Agreements Act 390 

The Reciprocal Trade Agreements as an Evolution m 

Tariff Policy: Address by Assistant Secretary Grady . 391 
Departmental Service: 

Proposed transfer of Dominican Customs Receivership 

to Department of State 397 

Legislation 397 

Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicial Settlement: 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 398 

Permanent Court of International Justice 398 

Restriction of War: 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of Prisoners 

of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 398 

Commerce : 

Trade Agreements Act 398 

Postal: 
Universal Postal Convention of 1939 399 



Europe 



GERMAN INVASION OF DENMARK AND NORWAY 

Statement by the President 



[Released to the piess by tlie White House April IS] 

Force and military aggression are once more 
on tlie march against small nations, in this in- 
stance through the invasion of Denmark and 
Norway. These two nations have won and main- 
tained during a period of many generations the 
respect and regard not only of the American 
people, but of all peoples, because of their ob- 
servance of the highest standards of national 
and international conduct. 



The Government of the United States has on 
tiie occasion of recent invasions stroiiglj^ ex- 
pressed its disapprobation of such unlawful ex- 
ercise of force. It here reiterates, with un- 
diminished emphasis, its point of view as ex- 
pressed on tiiose occasions. If civilization is to 
survive, the rights of the smaller nations to in- 
dependence, to their (erritoriul integrity, and to 
the unimpeded opportunity foi' self-government 
must be respected by their more powerful 
neighbors. 



I 



Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press .\pril 9] 

I think we are all aware by this time of the 
extension to another area of the military activ- 
ities that have been going on in Europe since 
September. This Government is observing very 
closely and diligently all of the new develop- 
ments and as nearly as possible ascertaining 
their nature and significance. It is likewise pro- 
ceeding with the same diligence and accuracy 
it has exercised since September in applying our 
neutrality and combat-area law and other 



pertinent policies to the European military 
situation. 

I would not undertake now to speak conclu- 
sively about the extent and natui'e of any steps 
that may be called for relating to the extension 
of the combat area or other provisions of our 
neutrality law, or proclamations declaring cer- 
tain additional or new areas in a state of war. 
AVe are assembling as rapidly as possible all of 
the facts and circumstances pertaining to these 
two phases as well as all other aspects of this 
new military situation. 



Reports From American Foreign Service Officers in Denmark and Norway 



[Released to the press April 9] 

The American Minister to Norway, Mrs. 
Florence Jaffray Harriman, telegraphed the 
State Department the moi'ning of April 9 that 



the Foreign Miiiistei' has informed her that the 
Norwegians have fired on four German wai-ships 
coming up Oslo Fjord and that Norway is at 
war with Germany. In response to a request 

373 



374 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



by the British Minister to Norway, the Ameri- 
can Legation at Oslo has been authorized to 
take over British interests in Norway in case he 
has to evacuate. 

(Released to the press April 9] 

In a telegram received by the State Depart- 
ment at 8 a. m., easteni standard time, Minister 
Harriman reported as follows : 

"Norwegian Government left for Hamar, 
three hours inland from Oslo, at 7 a. m. I am 
proceeding there by motor with other heads of 
missions. All Foreign Service Officers remain- 
ing in Oslo. At request of British and French 
Ministers this Legation has taken over British 
and French interests. Oslo is quiet. Foreign 
Office states tluit Norwegian forces are resisting 
the German advance." 

Mr. Raymond E. Cox, First Secretary of Le- 
gation at Oslo, Nor\vay, reported to the Depart- 
ment at 11 a. m., Norwegian time: 

"Minister Harriman left 10 a. m. for Hamar. 
Wives and children of Foreign Service Officers 
have left Oslo for inland. German aeroplanes 
have been circling over city during last two 
hours. The Norwegian anti-aircraft batteries 
have been active. So far as Legation knows, no 
bombing has occurred." 

First Secretary Cox, in a telegram to the De- 
partment which was despatched from Oslo at 
noon (Norwegian time), reported that the 
Royal family was believed to have accompanied 
the Government; that the British, French, and 
Danish Ministers were requested to follow the 
Government to Hamar; that the Swedes were 
representing Norwegian interests in Berlin; 
that Oslo continues quiet with the streets filled 
with people leaving the city, and that German 
planes were not at tliat time over the city. 

[Released to the press April 9] 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, reported to the Department 
April y at 11 a. m. (Berlin time) that a special 
communique of the German Army High Com- 
mand hiui just been read on the Berlin radio. 



The special communique stated that the Ger- 
man Army since early that moniing "had taken 
over the protection of Denmark and Norway, 
that all branches of the German armed- forces 
were being employed, that landings had been 
made and extensive mine barrages laid." 

Mr. Kirk also reported that the Embassy 
was unable to communicate with the American 
Legation at Copenhagen, Denmark. 

The Department of State received on April 

9 the following telegram, which is self-explana- 
tory : 

"Oslo, Ap7il 9, 1940—3 p. m. 

[Received April 9 — 11 a. m.] 
"Secretary of State, 

Washington. 
"Rush 

"From Cox : Foreign Office states that Ger- 
man Ministry at 1 p. m. informed it that Ger- 
many had no intention to violate territorial in- 
tegrity and political independence of Norway 
now or in future and advised not to resist. Its 
information from Norwegian . . ." 

(Please note from New York — at end of 
this page Oslo operator Norway said "Fly 
raid have to run away". He stopped send- 
ing. Rest of message will follow as soon 
as received.) 

Unsigned 

[Released to the press April 9) 

The Department of State has received official 
infoi-mation from Copenhagen to the effect that 
that city is being patrolled by German soldiers 
and that the city is quiet. 

The American Minister to Denmark, Mr. Ray 
Atherton, has been requested by the British 
Minister to Denmark to assume charge of Brit- 
ish intei-ests. The Department has authorized 
him to do so. 

[Released to the press April 10] 

The American Minister to Denmark in a 
communication received the afternoon of April 

10 from Copenhagen by way of Berlin, reported 
that he and the members of the Legation staff' 
were well, that he had assumed charge of the 
British and French interests in Denmark, and 
that the situation in tlie city seemed nonnal. 



APRIL 13, 1940 



375 



[Released to the press April 11] 

The American Minister to Norway reported 
to tlie Department of State last nijjht, April 
10, from an interior point in Norway. Mrs. 
Harriman accompanied the Norwegian Govern- 
ment when that Government evacuated Oslo 
and Hamar and is remaining near that Gov- 
ernment. She has had difficulty in communi- 
cating with Oslo and cannot telegraph Wash- 
ington directly. She therefore telephoned the 
American Legation at Stockholm. 

Mr. Raymond E. Cox, First Secretary of the 
American Ix'gation at Oslo, Norway, reported 
to the Depai-tment of State at 9 p. m. (Nor- 
wegian time) last night that the American Le- 
gation had arranged for the departure at 8 
p. m. last night (Norwegian time) by rail to 
Stockholm of members of the British Legation 
and Consulate staff, including their families, 
totaling 18 people, and 1 member of the French 
Legation staff. 

The last previous telegram from Mr. Cox was 
received at the Department of State at 11 a. m., 
April 9. There was a period between April 9 
and April 10 of 18 hours during which Mr. Cox 
filed a dozen telegrams to the Department of 
State which have not yet i-eached Washington. 

Last night, April 10, the American Embassy 
at Berlin spoke with a member of the Ameri- 
can Legation at Oslo and was informed that 
so far as the legation at Oslo knows, all the 
Americans at that place are well. 

The American Minister to Denmark reported 
to the Department last night that the city is 
contimiing calm and that all American citizens 
are safe and well. He has assumed charge of 
French and British interests in Denmark and 
states that the personnel of the British and 
French Legations are expected to be evacuated 
through Holland by rail within tlie next few 
days. Telegrams previously filed by Mr. Ather- 
ton have not yet reached the Department. 

[Released to tlip press Api-il 12] 

The American Minister to Norway was in 
telephonic communication M'ith the American 
Minister to Sweden, Mr. Frederick A. Sterling, 
late yesterday afternoon. She said that she 
was remaining with the Norwegian Govern- 



ment. She was unable to telejilione or telegraph 
Oslo. In relaying this information. Minister 
Sterling informed tlie Department that Maj. 
Frank B. Hayne, Military Attache, and Capt. 
Robert M. Losey, Assistant Military Attache 
and Military Attache for Air, had reported to 
tlie Legation at Stockholm yesterday. Mr. 
Sterling advised Captain Losey to report to 
Mrs. Harriman in Norway immediately. 

Major Hayiie and Caj^tain Losey liave until 
now been in Finland. 

[Released to the press April 12] 

The American Minister to Norway reported 
to the Department of State tonight, April 12, 
through the American Minister to Sweden. 
Mrs. Harriman telephoned the Legation at 
Stockholm at 4:30 p. m. (Stockholm time) 
from the town of Holjes just within Swedish 
territory. Following is a resume of her tele- 
phone conversation with Minister Sterling as 
reported by the latter to the Department : 

Mrs. Harriman reported that she had been 

on the outskirts of Elvernm when it was 
bombed. She had gone there with the Nor- 
wegian Government. She had stayed out of 
town a little way. Tlie Government had moved 
the night before last to Nybergsund. She was 
in contact with the Foreign Minister of Nor- 
way yesterday afternoon at 3 p. m. He had 
told her to come to Nybergsund if she could get 
there. The only route was through Elverum 
but the Germans were bombing that town, so 
she could not get through last night to Ny- 
bergsund. She went to a farmhouse, where she 
spent last night. 

This morning, with the help of the farmer, 
Mrs. Harriman, together with Miss Lindgren, 
who is her private secretary, her maid, and 
chauffeur, got through the Elverum barricades 
and reached Holjes. Thereafter air bombing 
destroyed the whole town of Elverum except 
the church and Red Cross hospital. There were 
50 casualties among the civilian population at 
Elverum. 

The hotel in Nybergsund where the King and 
Government were in conference was bombed 
and completely destroyed after they had left 



376 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the building. The King and Government had 
escaped by going out into the woods. Mrs. Har- 
riman does not know where they are now but 
hopes to return to join the Government in Nor- 
way tomorrow. 

[Relpased to the press April 1.3] 

The American Minister to Norway reported 
again to the Depai-tment of State through the 
American Minister to Sweden. Mi's. Harriman 
talked with Minister Sterling by telephone at 11 
a. m., April 13. She reported that Captain 
Losey had joined her at Holjes at 3 o'clock the 
morning of April 13. 

Minister Sterling asked Mrs. Harriman con- 
cerning her health, particularly because of ru- 
mors which have been in circulation that she 



was not well. Mrs. Han-iman said, "I have 
never been better in my life." Mr. Sterling said 
that she sounded very cheerful and full of 
energy. 

[Released to file press April 1.3] 

The Secretary of State on April 13 sent the 
following communication to the American Min- 
ister to Norway : 

"I am greatly relieved to learn that you and 
your party are safe and in good health. I con- 
gi-atulate you on the courage, energy and 
efficiency with which you are perfoiining your 
duties under such trying and dangei'ous condi- 
tions. It is in the best traditions of our diplo- 
matic service." 



American Personnel at Diplomatic and Consular Estalishments in Norway, Denmark, 

and Sweden 



[Released to the press April 0] 

Following is the American personnel in the 
American diplomatic and consular establish- 
ments in Norway : 

Oslo 

Legation : 

Mrs. Florence Jatfray Hairiman, Minister, 

of Washington, D. C. 
Raymond E. Cox, First Secretary, of New 

York City. 
Thormod O. Klath, Commercial Attache, of 

Sioux City, Iowa. 
Joseph A. St. Onge, Clerk, of Bremerton, 

Wash. 
Marie Thorescn, Clerk, of Minneapolis, Minn. 
Ii-ja E. Lindgren, Clerk, of Hibbing, Minn. 
Nils AV. Thoresen, Messenger, of Minneapolis, 

Minn. 

Consulate General: 
Austin R. Preston, Consul, of Buffalo, N. Y. 
East on T. Kclscy, Vice Consul, of Ann Arbor, 

Midi. 
Brigg A. Perkins, Vice Consul— Clerk, of 

Berkeley. Culif. 
Ragnhild Uunker, Clerk, of Boston, Mass. 
Mrs. Ethel B. Fjelle, Clerk, of Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Mi-s. Edith Johansen, Clerk, of Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 



Bergen 

Consulate : 
Maurice P. Dunlap, Consul, of St. Paul, 

Minn. 
Arnlioth G. Heltberg, Vice Consul — Clerk, 

of Oaldand, Calif. 

[Released to the press .\pril 9] 

Following is the American personnel in the 
American diplomatic and consular establish- 
ments in Denmark and Sweden : 

Copenhagen 

Legation: 

Ray Atherton, Minister, of Chicago, 111. 
Mahlon Fay Perkins, Counselor, of Berkeley, 

Calif. 
Julian B. Foster, Commercial Attache, of 

University, Ala. 
Tlioma- C. Smith. Clerk, of North Lubbock, 

Tex. 
Anna Ostergaard. Clerk, of St. Paul, Minn. 
Dorothy D. Dunham, Clerk, of Cinchinati, 

OQiio. 
Edna U. Hage, Clerk, of New York City. 

Conmdate General: 
Lucien Memminger, Consul General, of 

Charleston, S. C. 
Elizabeth Humes, Consul, of Memphis, Tenn. 



APRIL 13, 104 



377 



Jule B. Sniitli, Cunssul. of Fort Wortli, Tex. 
R. Borden Reams, Consul, of Lutliersburg. 

Pa. 
J. Stanford Edwards, Vice Consul— Clerk, 

of Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Catherine Anderson, Clerk, of Chicafro. Til. 
Mrs. Ma<ijj;ie I. Carlson, Clerk, of Cliicafro, 

III. 
.John A. Lehrs, Clerk, of Maryland (no city 

given). 

Stockholm 

Legation : 

Frederick A. Sterling, Minister, of Seymour, 

Tex. 
Hallett Johnson, Counselor (and Consid Gen- 
eral), of South Orange, N. J. 
Winthrop S. Greene, Second Secretary, of 

Worcester, Mass. 
Douglas Jenkins, Jr., Third Secretary, of 

Charleston, S. C. 
George C. Howard, Commercial Attache, of 

AVashingtou, D. C. 
Elsa Joim, Clerk, of New York (no city 

named). 
Emma Messing, Clerk, of Indianapolis, Ind. 
Carroll W. Holmes, Clerk, of Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Sigrid Johnson, Clerk, of Seattle, Wash. 
Ethel Elmore Moline, Clerk, of Thief Kiver 

Falls, Minn. 
Richard Birchman, Messenger, of New York 

City. 

CoyiMiJatc General: 

Hallett Johnson. Consul General (and Coun- 
selor), of South Orange, N. J. 

Lynn W. Franklin, Consul, of Bothesda, Md. 

Fritz A. M. Alfsen, Vice Consul, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

William P. Snow, Vice Consul, of Bangor, 
Maine. 

Harold Carlson, Vice Consul — Clerk, of Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Frithjof C. Signumd, Vice Consul — Clerk, of 
Oregon (no city named). 

Mrs. Helen L. Ilagstrom, Clerk, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Herman Lindstrom, Clerk, of Trenton. N. J. 

Florence Olive Anderson, Clerk, of Quincy, 
Mass. 

Vivian Borgstrom. Messenger, of New York 
City. 

GoTEBORG 

Comtdate : 
William W. Corcoran, Consul, of Springfield, 
Mass. 



Stanley R. r>awson, Vice Consul — Clerk, of 

New York City. 
Jeamiette L. Pohlman. Clerk, of Buffalo, 

N. Y. 

Facilities for Evacuation of Americans 
From Scandinavia 

f Released to the pn^ss April 11 I 

In view of the dangers attending jiassenger 
transportatifin thi'oiigh northern waters, it has 
heeii decided that Americans desiring return 
from the Scandinavian countries must proceed 
south to eiuhark from Mediterranean ports. 
Passports may therefore be validated only for 
such travel for Americans desiring to return to 
the United States. Arrangements for passages 
on the Scantic Line freighters Fli/hir/ Fish and 
Monnacxea have been canceled, and the vessels 
ai-e entireh' at the disposition of the line. The 
vessels may carry no American passengers but 
may complete their voyages and return to the 
United States with crews without validation of 
passports for American members thereof, under 
|)rovisions of additional regulations issued pur- 
suant to the Pi'esideiit's neutrality proclama- 
tion of April 10 redefining the combat area. 

Departure of American Vessels From 
Norwegian Ports 

[Released to the press April V.',\ 

The Secretary of Slate last night instnu'ted 
the American Embassies at Berlin and London 
and the American Legation at Oslo to please no- 
tify the Governments to which they are accred- 
ited to the following effect : 

The following ships of American registry, the 
Flying Fixh and Charles R. McCormick, are ro- 
j)orted to be at Bergen. Noiway. and the Mor- 
maesea is reported to be at Trondheim. The 
Mormacsea is i)artially unladen aiifl i-eadj' to 
sail. The Flying Fish is partially unladen and 
is jjrobably read}' to sail. Owners and char- 
terers report the Charles R. McCormick arrived 
Bergen, April 8, fully laden, destined to Bergen 
and Narvik. Her present position not reported. 
Ail tlu-ee .ships are liable to leave the ports in 



378 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which they may now lie for return voyage to 
United States. En route they will fly the United 
States flag and have the flag conspicuously 
painted on their sides and at night will proceed 
fully lighted. The Government of the United 
States expects that every assistance will be given 
each of these vessels to proceed safely through 



mine fields and that they will not be molested 
in any way by any belligerent naval unit. 

As far as possible official notification will be 
given to the governmental agencies in control of 
the ports before their departure. The time of 
departure has been left entirely to the discretion 
of each captain. 



■f -f -f -f ■♦■ -f -f 



PROCLAMATION DEFINING COMBAT AREA 



[Released to tho press April 10] 

Definition of a Combat Area 
bt the president of the tjnited states of 

AMERICA 

A Prodaination 

Whereas section 3 of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, provides 
as follows: 

"(a) Whenever the President shall have is- 
sued a proclamation under the authority of sec- 
tion 1 (a), and lie shall thereafter find that the 
protection of citizens of the United States so 
requires, he shidl. by proclamation, define com- 
bat areas, and thereafter it shall be unlawful, 
except under such rules and regulations as may 
be prescribed, for any citizen of the United 
States or any American vessel to proceed into 
or through any such combat area. The combat 
areas so defined may be made to apply to sur- 
face vessels or aircraft, or both. 

"(b) In case of the vioLation of any of the 
provisions of tliis section by any American ves- 
sel, or any owner or (iflicor thereof, such vessel, 
owner, or officer sliall be fined not more than 
$50,000 or imprisoned for not more than five 
years, or both. Should the owner of such vessel 
be a corporation, organization, or association, 
each officer or director piirticipaf ing in the vio- 
lation shall be liable to the penalty hereinabove 



prescribed. In case of the violation of this sec- 
tion by any citizen traveling as a passenger, 
such passenger may be fined not more than 
$10,000 or imprisoned for not more than two 
years, or both. 

"(c) The President may from time to time 
modify or extend any proclamation issued 
under the authority of this section, and when 
the conditions which shall have caused him to 
issue any such proclamation shall have ceased 
to exist he shall revoke such proclamation and 
the provisions of this section shall thereupon 
cease to apply, except as to offenses committed 
prior to such revocation." 

And whereas it is further provided by sec- 
tion 13 of the said joint resolution that 

"The President may, fi'om time to time, pro- 
mulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and proper 
to carry out any of the provisions of this joint 
resolution; and he may exercise any jjower or 
authority conferred on him by this joint reso- 
lution through such officer or officers, or agency 
or agencies, as he shall direct." 

And aviiereas on November 4, 1939, 1 issued a 
proclamation in accordance with the provision 
of law quoted above defining a combat area.^ 



' See the Bulletin of Noreniber 4, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 
19), pp. 454-455. 



379 



Now, THEREFORE, I. Franklin D. RoosE\'Ei;r, 
President of the United States of America, 
acting under and by virtue of the authority 
conferred on me by section 3 of the joint reso- 
hition of Congress approved November 4, 1939, 
do hereby find that the protection of citizens of 
the United States requires that there be an 
extension of the combat area defined in my 
proclamation of November 4, 1939, through or 
into which extended combat area it shall be 
unlawful, except under such rules and regula- 
tions as may be jirescribed, for any citizen of 
the United States or any American vessel, 
whether a surface vessel or an aircraft, to 
proceed. 

And I do hereby define the extended combat 
area as follows: 

All the navigable waters within the limits set 
forth hereafter. 

Beginning at the intersection of the North 
Coast of Spain with the meridian of 2°45' 
longitude west of Greenwich ; 

Thence due north to a point in 43°54' north 
latitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 45° 
north latitude, 20° west longitude; 

Thence due north to 58° north latitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 76°30' 
north latitude. 16°35' east longitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 70° 
noi-th latitude. 44° east longitude ; 

Thence due south to the mainland of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 

Thence along the coastline of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, Finland, Norway, 
Sweden, the Baltic Sea and dependent waters 
thereof, Germany. Denmark, the Netherlands, 
Belgium. France, and Spain to the ix)int of 
beginning. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in pre- 
venting violations of the said joint resolution 
and in bringing to trial and punishment any 
offenders against the same. 



And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary of 
State the power to e.xercise any power or au- 
thority conferred on me by the said joint reso- 
lution as made effective by this my proclama- 
tion issued thereunder, which is not specifically 
delegated by Executive order to some other 
officer or agency of this Government, and the 
power to promulgate such rules and regulations 
not inconsistent with law as may be necessary 
and proper to cari-y out any of its provisions. 
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this tenth 
day of April, in the year of our Lord 
[seal] nineteen hundred and forty, and of 
the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and sixty- 
fourth. 

Franklin D. Roose^'elt 
By the President: 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 8389] 



■f + -f 



REGULATION RELATING TO TRAVEL 
IN COMBAT AREA 

On April 10 the Secretary of State issued 
regulations relating to travel into or through 
the combat area defined in the President's proc- 
lamation No. 8389, of April 10, 1940. The 
signed text of these regulations, as codified in 
accordance with the requirements of the Fed- 
eral Register and the Code of Federal Regula- 
tions, appears in the Federal Register for April 
12, 1940 (Vol. 5, No. 72), page 1401. 



224112—40 2 



The American Republics 



EXPROPRIATION OF AMERICAN OIL PROPERTIES BY MEXICO 

Note from the Secretary of State to the Ambassador of Mexico 



[Released to the press April 9] 

Following is the text of a note from the Sec- 
retary of State to the Ambassador of Mexico, 
Senor Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Najera : 

"April 3, 1940. 
"Excellency : 

"During the course of the past years there 
have arisen between the Government of the 
United States and the Government of Mexico 
many questions for which no fi-iendly and fair 
solution, satisfactory to both Governments, has 
been found. Certam of these problems are of 
outstanding importance and their equitable so- 
lution would redound to the innnediate benefit 
of the peoples of both of our countries. 

"Animated by the desire to find such an ad- 
justment of all of these pending matters, this 
Government proposed some two years ago an 
immediate and comprehensive study by repre- 
sentatives of the Government of the United 
States and of the Government of Mexico, for 
the purpose of preparing the way for an expe- 
ditious settlement of these controversial ques- 
tions, the just solution of which would undoubt- 
edly do much to cement the friendly relations 
between our neighboring peoples. 

"At that very moment the Government of 
Mexico by an executive decree expropriated 
large holdings of oil properties, amounting in 
value to many millions of dollars and belonging 
to American nationals, for which no payment 
has been made and for which there is no jjresent 
prospect of payment. At various times the 
Government of Mexico has indicated its ability 
and readiness to pay. But the fact remains 
that no payments have been made. 

"The Government of the United States 
readily recognizes the right of a sovereign state 
to expropriate property for public purposes. 

880 



This view has been stated in a number of com- 
munications addressed to your Government 
during the past two years and in conversations 
had with you during that same period regard- 
ing the expropriation by your Government of 
property belonging to American nationals. On 
each occasion, however, it has been stated with 
equal emphasis that the right to expropriate 
property is coupled with and conditioned on 
the obligation to make adequate, effective and 
prompt compensation. The legality of an 
expropriation is in fact dependent upon the 
obsen'ance of this requirement. 

"In my note to you dated July 21, 1938== T 
stated that the whole structure of friendly inter- 
course, of international trade and commerce, 
and many other vital and mutually desirable re- 
lations between nations, indispensable to their 
progress, rest upon respect on the part of gov- 
ernments and of peoples for each other's rights 
mider international law. I stated that the right 
of prompt and just compensation for expropri- 
ated property was a part of this structure ; that 
it was a principle to wliich the Goverimient of 
the United States and most governments of the 
world have emphatically subscribed, and wliich 
they have practiced and which must be main- 
tained. The Government of Mexico has pro- 
fessed support of this principle of law. 

"The Government of Mexico has, however, 
unfortunately, not carried this principle into 
practice. 

"Because of its conviction that untU this fun- 
damental question be solved in accordance witli 
the recognized principles of equity and of in- 
ternational law, there could not exist an appro- 



" See the Press Releases of July 23, 1838 (Vol. XIX, 
No. 460), pp. 50-53. 



APRIL 13, 1940 



381 



priate or favorable opportunity for the solu- 
tion of all of the other questions pending be- 
tween the two Governments, and which my Gov- 
eriunent had been most desirous of adjusting, 
the Government of the United States has been 
prevented from proceeding with the negotia- 
tions which it had initiated. 

"On March 16, 1940 you were good enough to 
hand to me an informal memorandum ' pur- 
suant to our earlier discussions of the difficul- 
ties arising out of the expropriation by your 
Government of the oil properties belonging to 
American nationals. AVithout undertaking to 
pass in any way upon the memorandum as a 
whole, it is important to have a clarification of 
two or three of the points raised therein. 

"It is stated (a) that 'the Mexican Govern- 
ment judges that the right of expropriation is 
beyond discussion', and (b) that 'there exists 
no divergence of opinion between the Govern- 
ment of the United States and that of Mexico 
regarding the right of the Mexican State to ex- 
propriate any private property by payment of 
a just compensation, as Mexico is agreeable to 
paying such indemnity to the expropriated 
companies.' 

"I am compelled to take exception to the 
statements that the 'right of expropriation is 
beyond discussion' and that 'there exists no di- 
vergence of opinion between the Government o f 
the United States and that of Mexico' in this 
respect. 

"As above stated, in the opinion of the Go\- 
ernment of the United States the legality of an 
expropriation is contingent upon adequate, ef- 
fective and prompt compensation. 

"The difference between our two Govern- 
ments with respect to this principle lies in the 
fact that the Government of Mexico has assumed 
and continues to assume to exercise a right 
without compliance with the condition neces- 
sary to give such exercise a recognizable status 
of legality. 

"Expropriation of property by the Mexican 
Government has been taking place on a large 
scale since 1915 under the so-called agrarian 



' Not printed. 



progiam. Wliile there are now under way ef- 
forts looking to a settlement of agrarian claims 
arising since August 30, 1927, the large number 
of such claims which arose prior to that date 
and which were filed with the General Claims 
Commission under the Convention of 1923, as 
well as a very much larger group of general 
claims, some of which date back over a period of 
approximately seventy yeai-s, remain unadjudi- 
cated and not a single dollar has been realized 
by any of the owners of the properties or by 
any of the other general claimants. 

•'Accordingly, it is incorrect to state that 
there is 'no divergence of opinion between the 
Government of the United States and that of 
Mexico' on the subject of expropriation. As 
stated in my note to you of July iil, 1938, in 
which I was dis-cussing the expropriation of 
agrarian properties, the taking of property 
without ailequate, eti'ective and prompt com- 
pensation is not expropriation but is confisca- 
tion, and as also .stated in that note, it is no 
less confiscation because there may be an ex- 
jn-essed intent to pay at some time in the future. 

"It is also stated in your memorandum of 
Marcli 16 that 'since the Governments of Mex- 
ico and of the United States have not expressed 
their respective points of view as to what should 
constitute a prompt, equitable and adequate 
indenmity to compensate the American oil com- 
panies ... it would be prenuiture to propose 
the possibility of arbitration", and that the 
Mexican Government feels that 'in order to de- 
termine the amount of the indemnity, the de- 
cision of the Mexican courts should be awaited'. 

"It is difficult to imagine in what way this 
Government could have made plainer its point 
of view as to the compensation owing the Amer- 
ican petroleum companies. Our records show 
that the obligation of the Mexican Government 
to make compensation has been kept before the 
Mexican Government constantly since the tak- 
ing of the property. No stone has been left un- 
turned by this Government to bring about a 
satisfactory arrangement for compensation. 
Moreover, the statement of your Govenmient 
is not in the nature of things an adequate an- 
swer to the suggestion that arbitration would 



382 

be an appropriate method of settling the dif- 
ferences between our two countries; nor is the 
statement that the decision of the Mexican 
courts should be awaited by any means reas- 
suring. 

"You further indicate in your memorandum 
that your Goveniment would be disposed to 
accept the good offices of my Govemment in 
order to discuss with the companies the ques- 
tion of compensation, or, in the alternative, to 
join with the United States in the designation 
of one or more experts to 'present and discuss 
their points of view regai'ding the calculation 
of the value of the expropriated properties and 
regarding the form and guarantee of payment 
of the indemnity'. 

"My Government has already used its good 
offices in tlie promotion of discussions between 
the American companies and the Mexican Gov- 
ernment, and those discussions, as stated in your 
memorandum, came to naught. I am therefore 
unable to perceive that there would be any pur- 
pose in reverting to a procedure that has al- 
ready resulted in a complete failure, nor do I 
perceive how the designation of experts for the 
purposes stated in the memorandum would pro- 
mote a satisfactory solution of the problem. 
The designation of experts merely to 'discuss 
their points of view' and without authority to 
receive and consider evidence systematically 
prepared and presented, to hear arguments 'pro 
and contra^ and to render decisions of a final 
and binding character would merely postpone 
an effective solution which has already been too 
long delayed. 

"During the last twenty-five years, one Amer- 
ican interest in Mexico after another has suf- 
fered at the hands of the Mexican Government. 
It is recognized that the Mexican Government 
is making payments on the Special Claims 
which have to do solely with damages caused 
by revolutionary disturbances between 1910 and 
1920, and has started payments for fann lands 
expropriated since August 30, 1927. But the 
Mexican Government has made no compensa- 
tion for the large number of General Claims of 
long standing which include an extensive group 
of claims for the expropriation of farm lands 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

prior to August 30, 1927. It has made no ad- 
justment either of the foreign debt or of the 
railroad debt both long in default and in both 
of which American citizens hold important in- 
vestments. Moreover, the question of the rail- 
road debt was further complicated by the expro- 
priation of the Mexican National Railways on 
June 23, 1937. Finally, on March 18, 1938, the 
Mexican Government took over American- 
OMued petroleum property to the value of many 
millions of dollars, and although two years have 
elapsed, not one cent of compensation has been 
paid. 

"This treatment of American citizens, wholly 
unjustifiable under any principle of equity or 
international law, is a matter of grave concern 
to this Government. These long-standing mat- 
ters must of necessity be adjusted if the rela- 
tions between our two countries are to be 
conducted on a sound and mutually cooperative 
basis of respect and helpfulness. 

"As an important step towards placing rela- 
tions between the two countries on this basis, I 
suggest resorting to the appropriate, fair and 
honorable procedure of arbitration. Accord- 
ingly, I suggest that the two Governments agree 
(1) to submit to impartial ai-bitration all the 
questions involved in the oil controversy and to 
clothe a tribunal with authority not only to de- 
termine the amount to be paid to American 
nationals who have been deprived of their prop- 
erties, but also the means by which its decision 
shall be executed to make certain that adequate 
and effective compensation shall promptly be 
paid, and (2) either to submit to an umpire, as 
contemplated by the General Claims Protocol of 
1934, the unadjudicated claims falling under the 
Convention of 1923, or proceed immediately to 
the negotiation of an en bloc settlement in ac- 
cordance with that Protocol. 

"There exists at this time a complete solidar- 
ity on the part of all the American Republics 
in upholding the principle that international 
differences of a justiciable character, which it 
has not been found possible to adjust by diplo- 
macy, .shall be submitted to arbitration. I 
think that the questions here involved fall 
within this category. At a period when in 



APRIL 13, 1940 



383 



other parts of the world there is seemingly a 
growing disregard for the established prin- 
ciples of international law and orderly proc- 
esses and an increasing tendency to substitute 
force for pacific methods of settling contro- 
versies, it is all the more desirable that the Gov- 
ernments of Mexico and the United States, firm 
in their adherence to the enlightened principles 
advanced and supported by all the American 
Republics, should signify their willingness to 
settle the differences between them mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph in the friendly 
manner indicated. 

"With the submission to arbitration of the oil 
controversy and the adjustment of the General 



Claims matter, the two Governments would 
then be in a position to go forward at the same 
time with the negotiations interrupted by the 
oil expropriation for a general settlement of all 
other pending matters. This Government earn- 
estly urges this course, as it has consistently 
done in the past. 

"I shall be glad to learn whether your Gov- 
ernment is favorably disposed to proceed along 
these lines. 

"Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull" 

"His Excellency 

Senor Dr. Don Fr.\ncisco 
Castillo Najeea, 

Ambassador of Mexico^'' 



■f ■♦• -f -f -f -f 4- 



ARBITRATION AND OTHER ASPECTS OF INTER- AMERICAN RELATIONS 

Address by Spruille Braden « 



(Released to the press April H] 

Ladies and Gentlemen : The honor I feel in 
addressing this distinguished company, assem- 
bled under the auspices of the Herald-Tnhime 
Forum, is very high ; and it is singularly grat- 
ifying because of my close association Avith the 
Inter-American Commercial Arbitration Com- 
mission from its birth about 6 years ago until 
now, when I am privileged to join with you all 
in this, the first celebration of "Arbitration 
Day.-' 

The occasion is auspicious, and for their dis- 
tinguished accomplishment I wai-mly congratu- 
late each and all of my coworkers throughout 
the 21 American republics, who, by their intelli- 
gent and patient labors, have brought the com- 
mission so far along toward the fulfillment of 
its lofty objectives. 

In a world elsewhere tragically disrupted by 
wars and the menace of even greater strife, it is 
significant and very encouraging that the West- 



' Delivered at the ficiv York Hcral^Trihunc Forum, 
New York City, April 11, ISMO. Mr. Braden is the 
American Ambassador to Colombia. 



em Hemisphere dedicates this day to the great 
work of inter-American arbitration. 

It is momentous that our neighbors to the 
south and we have slowly but surely established 
an American peace sj'stem, which now functions 
effectively with immeasurable benefits to ap- 
proximately one-quarter of a billion souls who 
dwell in the Western Hemisphere. 

The occasions — I would call them excuses — 
for international dissensions in the New World 
have been no less frequent, potent, and acute 
than in the Old. Yet within the period of in- 
dependence of these countries, there have been 
only four major inter-American wars, whereas 
Europe in this same time has been torn, racked, 
and thrown into confusion and despair by one 
conflict after the other. 

It is claimed that on this hemisphere we easily 
can keep the peace because of our great, unoc- 
cupied land expanses, our wealth of raw mate- 
rials, and our freedom from overpopulation or 
any need for colonies. These claims are spe- 
cious. The four major American wars, and for 
that matter probably most of our other inter- 



384 

national dissensions, have been caused by ter- 
ritorial differences. For the rest, as Norman 
Angell, in his Nobel prize winning book, The 
Great Illusion, has convincmgly demonstrated — 
and it must be apparent to every sound think- 
ing man or "ivoman — wealth is the result of a 
process and not merely the possession of raw 
materials ; the most populated areas frequently 
are the most prosperous and contented ; and the 
real pi'oblem of modern economy is not a dis- 
tressing shortage of basic materials, necessai-y 
for living in times of peace, but rather disloca- 
tions of productive processes; and, finally, cit- 
ing Great Britain as the most successful col- 
onizer, possessing, as it does, one-fifth of the 
earth's surface and a quarter of its population, 
Augell concludes that colonies really benefit 
the parent nation neither in emigration nor in 
trade. 

In presenting these considerations, I do not, 
in the slightest degree, deprecate the many 
sound principles and methods of the Old World, 
from which so much of our culture is derived. 
On the contrary, civilized peoples everywhere, 
if not misdirected and if guided by reason 
rather than emotion, desire security and tran- 
quillity and abhor war just as ardently as do 
the people of this hemisphere. 

What then is the new element or catalytic 
agent that has created and sustains the new- 
bom American peace system? It is that our 
peoples have so ingrained a passion for collec- 
tive and individual freedom as will not will- 
ingly brook for long selfish appetites of an mi- 
principled leader nor accept the untruths of 
pernicious and poisonous propaganda. Our 
yearning for peace and the brotherhood of man 
may not be denied to us. These 21 republics, 
in the crucible of their international relation- 
ships, have fused together such ingredients as 
good faith, tolerance, collaboration, and the will 
for liberty and democracy. Hence, just as an 
atom of oxygen added to two of hydrogen re- 
sults in a totally dissimilar and far more essen- 
tial substance, so these ingredients do combine 
sympathetically to form an indispensable sys- 
tem, which, by happy inspiration, is called the 
"good neighbor policy." 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

A fundamental of that policy is the pacific 
adjustment of all disputes, large and small, 
since many disputes, apparently inconsequen- 
tial, if not stopped at their beginnings can, like 
the virus of some dread disease, spread to dan- 
gerous and even destructive proportions. 
Therefore, arbitration, which has so generally 
proven a most valuable and efficient instniment, 
is now commonly accepted and employed 
thi'oughout the Americas. Its principles re- 
peatedly have been analyzed and advanced in 
pan-American conferences since the one called 
at Panama by Simon Bolivar in 1826. Three 
of the southern republics, in their constitutions, 
provide for the arbitration of international 
disputes before recourse may be had to arms. 

Arbitration provisions form an essential part 
in the imposing series of multilatei-al agree- 
ments which implement the American peace 
system. They are included in most of the more 
important bilateral ti-eaties between many of 
the countries, as, for instance, the Treaty of 
Nonaggression, Conciliation. Arbitration, and 
Judicial Settlement solemnly concluded by 
Colombia and Venezuela on December 16, 1939. 
They have played a role in many of the negoti- 
ated settlements of inter-American differences 
in recent times, such as those of the Chaco and 
Tacna-Arica. 

The arbitration of political dissensions 
among countries of the New World furnishes 
a long record of constiiictive accomplishment, 
measurable in terms of the human lives saved 
and of happiness created. That record, in 
spite of some faults and mistakes that have ap- 
peared, amply justifies the policies we have pur- 
sued and warrants their continuance with 
improvements and corrections as we go along, 
for our common benefit and for the example we 
give to the world, so constantly growing 
smaller. 

Less spectacular and less inmiediately dan- 
gerous than discords between governments are 
those arising between persons, firms, and cor- 
porations of our different countries. Neverthe- 
less, it would be unwise and even perilous, 
perhaps, to neglect their accommodation, since 
they too can grow to serious proportions, and 



APRIL 13, 1940 



385 



in any case they may spawn resentments and 
animosities which prejudice the broader re- 
lations and friendships between our peoples. 
This latter contingency becomes increasingly 
possible in our day, when international affairs 
are so closely tied to commerce, finance, and 
economics. Therefore, sincere and serious ef- 
forts looking to the solution of business dissen- 
sions and misunderstandings among our peoples 
are necessary to that mutual prosperity, good 
will, respect, and trust between nations that we 
so ardently desire. 

For its successful endeavore in tliis field of 
arbitration, the Inter-American Commercial 
Arbitration Commission merits our hearty 
thanks and applause for what they already 
have achieved and our own best wishes for their 
progress continuously toward even higher and 
broader planes of action. 

Created by the Seventh International Con- 
ference of American States at Montevideo, 
Uruguay, in 1933, the Commission lists among 
its members distmguished men of large experi- 
ence and responsibility drafted from each 
American republic. Arbitral panels have been 
named in every American counti-y. Quite com- 
plete and effective regulations and an arbitral 
clause have been worked out and tested by prac- 
tical application in a great number of cases. 
Legislation making arbitral decisions enforce- 
able has been adojjted in Colombia and either 
already exists or is on the way in the other 
American republics. The cooperation of bar 
associations and law schools has been enlisted, 
and there is now fimctioning on this continent 
a system of conunercial arbitration which, with- 
out publicity but with speed in a friendly at- 
mosphere and at low cost, is settling trade dis- 
putes which othei-wise would be impossible of 
adjustment because of the impediment of differ- 
ing languages, customs, court jurisdictions, and 
the geographical remoteness of the contenders. 
Thus is the peace organization of America 
further integrated and strengthened. 

The procedure of international arbitration 
requires that there be: (1) Agreements to arbi- 
trate; (2) selections of impartial and com- 
petent persons or commissions to serve; (3) 



opportunities for the parties to be heard; (4) 
just decisions; and (5) adherence by all con- 
cerned to the international law of civilized na- 
tions. These essentials, under the multilateral 
pacts of the American peace system, are fully 
implemented and are closely linked to the 
processes of mediation and conciliation. Thus, 
clearly, for the operation of our design for 
pacific adjustment of disputes, there must exist 
observance of treaties, integrity by the parties 
and of the arbitrators, cooperation between the 
three, and with a spirit of tolerance, respect 
for law and a renouncement of violent acts or 
gestures. 

The degree in which these requirements are 
accepted and binding on this hemisphei'e is, in 
itself, a measure of the vitality and sincerity 
of our inter A.merican relations. This subject 
therefore warrants more detailed consideration. 

My experience with arbitration, in both the 
political and commercial fields, has taught, 
among other valuable lessons, that there are at 
least two sides to every question ; and that even 
when justice appears to be all on the side of 
A, nevertheless, B may, in entire good faith, 
be convinced that the right or much of it is 
with him. There are few cases of nations, in- 
dividuals, or causes in conflict where one side 
or the other may be adjudged as all white or 
all black. When from a distance, either may 
appear to be grey, actually they are a combina- 
tion of white and of black. Their true colors 
only show clearly upon close examination by 
an impartial observer. 

In this connection, I recall a conversation I 
had while serving as a mediator in the settle- 
ment of the Chaco War between Bolivia and 
Paraguay. The President of one of the ex- 
belligerent states expounded to me his coimtry's 
juridical thesis and inquired if I was convinced. 
I replied that I probably would have been had 
I not also heard the other party's case. As a 
result, I concluded for myself that as both sides 
seemed to be right when taken separately, each 
might be measurably wrong when weighed in 
the balance. The President laughed, acknowl- 
edged the weaknesses in his pleading, and by 
pointing to deficiencies in his opponent's cause, 



386 

proved that noither was all white or all black. 
With such frank recognitions, the contenders 
finally, after more than 3 years of intensive ne- 
gotiations, made and signed a peace treaty that 
has proved mutually satisfactory and enduring. 

When differences arise with our neighbors, 
it will be well for us all to keep in mind the 
black and white rule, not to leap to critical or 
emotional conclusions, and not to injure both 
them and ourselves by substituting prejudice 
and animosity for comprehension and friend- 
ship. 

There is no finer press than that of the 
United States. I personally have been greatly 
aided in my work for international peace by 
the newspapei-s and press associations. They 
have brought to us with speed and detail crucial 
information from far and wide. It is unrea- 
sonable to expect from them the entire history 
and background of every event, and they them- 
selves expect their readers, before passing judg- 
ment, carefully and independently, so far as 
possible, to learn and understand the ante- 
cedents and the facets of the many problems 
they undertake to solve. 

This is not the easy course to follow. It 
entails the labor of investigation and the exer- 
cise of discrimination and tolerance. Genuine 
tolerance in public matters requires uncommon 
strength of mind, character, and purpose be- 
cause the inij>etuous will misrepresent and de- 
nounce measured forbearance as spinelessness. 
Underlying facts are not readily obtainable, 
and there arc altogether too few authoritative 
lK)oks in English on the lands, lives, and his- 
tories of our Central and South American 
neighbors. Far too often the authors sacrifice 
accuracy, breadth and depth of view, and sym- 
pathetic understanding of the peoples they 
write about in order to feature the spectacular, 
and with patronizing disparagement if not defi- 
nitely unjust animadversions they demonstrate 
utter incomprehension or an unexplainable mis- 
interpretation. 

Our friends in these countries do not relish, 
any more than would we under like circum- 
stances, these objectionable and superficial 
disquisitions. In fact, as amply corroborated 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

by editorial comment in the other American 
republics, some of these works, apparently pub- 
lished only with an eye to sales appeal, def- 
initely hinder the progress of our friendly 
relations. 

I, also, would ask my fellow citizens who 
travel southward to put themselves in their 
neighbor's shoes, to be objective, to look for 
the white, make allowance for the black, and 
not to call the tout en-scnihie grey. True, they 
will find povertj', inexperience, and other fail- 
ings that exist throughout the world. In this 
connection, I would recall an eminent student of 
social matters and a keen observer, who, having 
visited the slums of two South American 
capitals, remarked to me: ''Conditions here 
are almost as bad as some in our own cities." 

That our good-neighbor states have demon- 
strated good faith toward each other in their 
observance of treaties and their adherence to 
international law may be illustrated by the 
following : 

Eight years ago Colombia and Peru stopped 
a war at its inception through mediation and 
conciliation. 

Chile, by similar procedures and through 
arbitration, adjusted its long-standing dispute 
with Peru. 

Argentina and Chile recently agreed to sub- 
mit to arbitration their territorial differences 
over the Beagle Canal Islands. 

Colombia and Panama, in 1938, permanently 
and pacifically settled a troublesome frontier 
dispute. 

The cruel and ferocious Chaco war between 
Paraguay and Bolivia thus was brought to an 
end in June 1935. It was then declared that 
there was neither victor nor vanquished. There- 
after, as a result of more than 3 years of 
patient and intensive negotiations by the ex- 
belligerents and the six mediatory sister 
republics, a Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and 
Boundaries was consummated on July 21, 1938. 
That treat}-, signed by both parties and by the 
mediators and under the moral guaranty and 
auspices of the latter, is just. It has given 
singular security against another war. It pi'o- 
vided for the arbitration of a limited zone, and 
the arbitral award was promptly announced 



APRIL i; 



19 10 



387 



and accepted without reservation by the former 
contenders. 

As examples of good faith, it siiould be noted 
that several times during the protracted Chaco 
deliberations either one side or the other as- 
sented to interpretations which were contrary 
to their own undei-standings of the governing 
pacts and of international law. This they did 
in order to avoid even the implicit charge of 
evasion. 

In each of these instances, the nations in- 
volved, entirely renouncing the slightest vestige 
of rancor or revenge, have now become warm 
and lasting friends. 

Thus, with rectitude and tolerance, do our 
associates in the American peace system com- 
port themselves in respect to their major in- 
ternational duties and obligations. 

There are those, however, who hold that 
these governments have not been so meticulous 
in their handling of less vital but still very 
important commercial or financial luidertak- 
ings. Admittedly there have been such cases, 
but most often there is right and wrong on both 
sides. Moreover, allowance must be made for 
the overwhelming pi-essure of the world-wide 
economic distortion and confusion of the last 
decade. But I should also say that some of 
these pi'oblems would have been solved with 
mutual satisfaction had they been approached 
more tactfully and skillfully. Here again I 
urge that all the factors, in each instance, i)e 
carefully explored and mustered before con- 
demnation be made. 

It is opportune to affirm that fewer obstruc- 
tions, embarrassments, and losses would be en- 
countered in our businesses in and with other 
countries of this hemisphere if the managers 
of those enterprises, who are on the ground, 
who know in detail local conditions, person- 
alities, and psychology, who are intimately 
acquainted with the local details and personali- 
ties, and who have wide contacts, were entrusted 
with commensurate authority and correspond- 
ing accountability. If these representatives 
are incompetent, they should be replaced ; if not, 
they should be given more power respecting 
large as well as small decisions. Matters of 



broad policy, of course, must be set by the home 
executives and directorates who, however, 
should keep in mind (hat some of them may 
have too little knowledge of the problems in- 
volved and too narrow an understanding of the 
nature of the peoples with whom their corpo- 
rations have to deal. Furthermore, circum- 
stances arise which make quick determinations 
and action imperative. Serious consequences 
may ensue from delays, brief though they may 
be. The static of remote control may niin a 
transaction and cau.se lasting damage to a given 
enterprise as well as to other American 
interests. 

Of late years there has been improvement in 
such particulars, but yet not enough. Too fre- 
quently a foreign government or otlier entity 
is blamed for misunilerstaiidings. whereas, in 
reality, the fault may be ours or due to uncon- 
trollable circumstances. Numerous exaspera- 
tions and recriminations would be averted if 
more workable procedures were followed and if 
competent representatives abroad were not un- 
duly interfered with or misdirected from head- 
quarters. 

In this connection, it also should be noted 
tliat the arbitrary and arrogant "go-getter" 
who often succeeds in the United States will not 
do so well elsewhere as will the resourceful, 
patient gentleman, whose efficiency and de- 
termination are in no wise diminished because 
of his easier patience, courtesy, and timing. 
Neitlier will the corner-cutting adventurer 
prosper in these neighboring lands. The 
American administrators of firms operating in 
Central and South America require, in addi- 
tion to the characteristics making for success 
at home, such additional qualifications as flu- 
ency in Spanisli or Portuguese, an ability (o 
get along in and with diiferent conditions and 
methods, and a poi.se and tact not generally 
necessary here. They nnist form sincere friend- 
ships and quite intimate associations socially 
and otherwise with the nationals where they 
work. From this there will result mutual 
esteem and confidence. I am happy to say that 
by and large the caliber of the managers of 
American businesses in foreign fields is high, 



388 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and they generally merit the confidence of their 
principals. 

To the })roper]y trained and equipped youth 
of America, I say, "Go south young man," but 
I also admonish him to learn and abide by local 
customs, rigidly obey the letter and the spirit of 
the laws, and in every other way, at work or in 
society, to lean backward in his purpose to com- 
port himself not merely correctly but with tnie 
civic responsibility and respect for his tempo- 
rarily adopted home. If he cannot do these 
things, he will be less welcome by his fellow 
citizens abroad than by his hosts. 

Formerly collaboration between governments 
was largely restricted to military alliances; co- 
operation such as in the Postal Unions; agree- 
ments to control drug and obnoxious commerce 
in general and shipping, lighthouse, radio, and 
other regulations. But a new and most im- 
portant measui-e, unanimously accepted by the 
21 American republics, is that if their peace be 
menaced they "shall consult together for the 
purpose of finding and adopting methods of 
peaceful cooperation." This procedure under 
test has proven flexible, expeditious, and ef- 
ficacious. It was employed to imique ad- 
vantage at I lie Conference of Foreign Ministers, 
held in Panama last October, and it has already 
become a valuable insti-ument in American 
diplomacy. 

Similarly, and to a great extent as a result 
of our reciprocal trade agreements, which were 
so wisely extended last week, economic coop- 
eration has been developed along mutually bene- 
ficial lines. A two-way flow of commerce has 
been created where previously, for several years, 
relatively little or none existed. To say more 
on this to[)ic to a New York audience is, per- 
haps, inappropriate, since it is peculiarly true 
of this metropolis that its arteries of sliipping, 
commerce, industry, and finance would soon 
atrophy if uimourishcd by the life blood of 
foreign trade. 

Effective collaboration has, at long last, been 
initiated on cultural matters. At the Main- 
tenance of Peace Conference in Buenos Aires, 
there was approved a convention providing for 
the interchange, with governmental assistance, 



of professors and students between the several 
American republics. This is a highly construc- 
tive move, which will increasingly ease the way 
for further cooperation in the fostering of wider 
understanding and augmentation of friend- 
ships between our respective citizens. I have 
yet to see a South American who has lived and 
studied here, nor one of my compatriots who 
similarly has gone to a university in Argentina, 
Chile, Colombia, or in some other neighboring 
republic who has not become an enthusiastic 
admirer of the nation where he lived and 
studied. 

Mutually beneficial trade is a great solidifier 
of nations, but the development of cultural 
relations is no less effective. The newly created 
Division of Cultural Kelations in the State De- 
partment will assist substantially in this en- 
deavor, but the ultimate success of our trenchant 
initiative to pi'omote cultural relations rests on 
unofficial organizations and individuals; espe- 
cially is this so in the United States, where 
education and related matters are under mu- 
nicipal or private direction. 

In this awful moment of world travail, from 
which each and every one of us will suffer, it is 
timely and entirely beneficial to repeat the 
definition of the good-neighbor policy. 

"The neighbor who resolutely respects him- 
self and, because he does so, respects the rights 
of others, the neighbor who respects his obli- 
gations and respects the sanctity of his agree- 
ments in and with a world of neighbors." 

Seven years have passed since President 
Roosevelt uttered those words. The principles 
he then enunciated have been tested by war, 
intrigue, and darkest depression and yet they 
synthesize — as truly today as when they were 
first said — the spirit of cooperation and com- 
munity of interest which characterize these 
New World nations. In fact, the most captious 
critics have raised but one stricture; that the 
good-neighbor policy is one-sided because, they 
would insinuate, we alone have given but re- 
ceived nothing in return. Apparently they 
would have us barter our friendship, hawk the 
integrity of our foreign policy, and put a price 



I 



APRIL 13, 1940 



389 



tag on the Golden Rule ! Their animadver- 
sions are as false as they are harmful. As ex- 
amples they cite isolated cases on which judg- 
ment cannot be passed, because the books are 
not yet closed. Fortunately, these critics are 
few in number and the good-neighbor policy, 
wholeheartedly endorsed by the vast majority 
of our citizens, is a fmidament of our pi-esent 
and future conduct in international affairs. 

The underlying ideal and virtue of this 
policy is that it is and will be a living progi'am 
replete with solid accomplishment and that it 
rests on the principles of liberty and democ- 
racy. It promotes reciprocal sympathy and 
fellowship between equals, each of whom, how- 
ever confident of himself, allows for the short- 
comings of others and with dignity respects the 
other's rights and person, proclaims his virtues. 
and, with head erect, declares to all the world 
the staunch friendship which binds them 
together. 

It is on such bases that we desii'e to treat with 
all other American nations; more specifically, 
it is thus that I, as the Ambassador of the 
United States to Colombia, endeavor to deal 
with the Government and people of that great 
republic. The courteous and warm hospitality 
and the sincere spirit of cooperation with which 
my fellow citizens and I are received there 
testify to tlie wholeheartedness of the good- 
neighbor policy as practiced in Colombia. I 
need only cite the informed and inspiring mes- 
sage delivered by that true statesman. Presi- 
dent Santos, to the Colombian Congi-ess last 
July when he laid down a policy of intei"- Amer- 
ican solidarity and friendsliip for the Unite<l 
States. Furtliermore, in this address, he mo- 
mentously declared that no attack on the Pan- 
ama Canal would ever be permitted to be 
launched from Colombian soil. 

Such a forthright affirmation, freely given by 
this great leader of a sovereign state, proves 
the advances already made, confirms the happy 
relations now prevailing, and is full of promise 
for the future. All of us should be proud to 
have such a friend and to be honored by his 
confidence. 



Ladies and gentlemen, the limited time at my 
disposal prevents my submission to you of a 
more detailed exposition or my touching on 
other phases of the subjects we are met to con- 
sider. 

I trust, however, that this summary accouiit 
may confiim to you the verj' important signifi- 
cance of Arbitration Day and the high desira- 
bility of its enthusiastic cek'l)ration throughout 
this hemispliere. On the foundation of genuine 
achievement, already laid, there must be con- 
tinued, with ever-greater acceleration, the con- 
struction of an edifice of lasting peace and 
popular prosjjerity. designed and woven by 
these sister republics for their advance to- 
gether. The cornerstone of that structure is 
collaboration, mediation, conciliation, and arbi- 
tration; its framework, stronger than steel, is 
made of a tolerance, reciprocal respect, and un- 
derstanding closely tied to law and compliance 
with the jjledged word. 

A building made of these materials will en- 
dure, and I firmly believe that tlie development 
of the American peace system marks the be- 
ginning of a new and happier oiwcli in the 
evolutionary progress of humanity. 

-f -f ■♦• 

FIRST INTER-AMERICAN CONGRESS 
ON INDIAN LIFE 

(Released to the press April 8) 

This Govpi)iment has accepted the invitation 
of the Mexican Govermnent to participate in 
the First Inter-Amerii-an Congress on Indian 
Life, which will be held at Patzcuaro, Michoa- 
csin, Mexico, from April 14 to 24, 1940. The 
Congress is being convened pursuant to resolu- 
tions of the Seventh and Eighth International 
Conferences of American States. The purpose 
of the Congress is the interchange of informa- 
tion and opinions concerning the protection of 
the indigenous peoples, and the meeting will 
consider questions in regard to their education, 
medical care, housing, biology, and economic 
and social problems. 



390 

The President has approved the designation 

of the following persons as the delegation to 

the Congress : 

The Honorable Elmer Thomas, United States 
Senator from Oklahoma, chairman of the 
dehgation 

The Honorable Oscar Chapman, Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Interior, vice clMii^man of the 
delegation 

Mr. Pierre de L. Boal, Counselor of the Ameri- 
can Embassy, Mexico City 

Mr. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs, Department of the Interior 

Mr. Morris L. Cooke, former Administrator, 
Rural Electrification Administration, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Dr. John A. Cooper, Catholic University of 
America, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. M. AV. Stirling, Chief, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution 

Mr. Huston Thompson, former Chairman, Fed- 
eral Trade Commission, Washington, D. C. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Mr. M. L. Wilson, Director, Extension Service, 

Department of Agriculture 
Mr. Robert G. McGregor, American Consul, 

Mexico City, secretary of the delegation. 

■f -f -f 

DEATH OF THE WIFE OF THE 
PRESIDENT OF ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press April 9] 

Following is a translation of a message sent 
to President Roosevelt by the President of 
Argentina, Roberto M. Ortiz : 

"Buenos Aires, 

Api'il 6, 19Jfi. 
"The President. 

"I warmly thank Your Excellency and dis- 
tinguished wife for the sentiments of grief 
which you express to me thus associating your- 
selves with my great sorrow. 

Roberto M. Ortiz" 



Commercial Policy 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT ON THE EXTENSION OF THE TRADE 

AGREEMENTS ACT 

(Released to the pres.s by the White House April 12] 



Following is a statement made by the Presi- 
dent after signing the joint resolution of Con- 
gi-ess extending the Trade Agreements Act for 
3 years : 

"The action of the Congress in continuing the 
operation of the trade-agreements program is 
expressive of the determination on the part of 
our people to retain unimpaired, for the next 3 
years, this powei'ful instrument for promoting 
our national economic well-being and for 
sti-cngthening the foundations of stable peace. 

"I was very glad that, in the course of ex- 
tended hearings and exhaustive debate, the 
Congress subjected to a most thorough exami- 
nation the objectives and the underlying prin- 



ciples of the program, the results of its opera- 
tion over nearly 6 years, and the procedures 
used to achieve these results. The facts brought 
out by that searching scnitiny should leave no 
room for doubt in the mind of any fair-minded 
person that the trade-agreements program has 
brought demonstrable benefits to our Nation as 
a whole and to every interest directly con- 
cerned and has not inflicted injury on any group 
of producers. 

"What was particularly striking was that, in 
the absence of any proof of actual injury, much 
of the opposition seemed to be based on unwar- 
ranted fears as to what might happen in the 
future. There is nothing more destructive of 
public welfare than the conjuring up of ground- 
less fears for the sole purpose of discrediting a 



APRIL 13, 1940 



391 



constructive policy which is invulnerable to 
iittack on any legitimate basis. 

"The record of the trade-agreements program 
is in large measure the result of the procedure 
which has been employed. It cannot be too 
strongly emphasized that the formulation and 
negotiation of the agreements, down to the 
smallest details, involves the cooperative effort 
of the Secretaries of State, Agriculture, Com- 
merce, and the Treasury, and of responsible 
officials of their respective departments, as well 
as of the United States Tariff Commission and, 
as occasion warrants, of other appropriate 
agencies of the Government. Each of these 
agencies contributes its specialized knowledge 
and judgment to the work. For example, all 
questions relating to agriculture are passed 
upon by the Department of Agriculture. Hear- 



ings before the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information afford an opportunity for all in- 
terested parties to present their views, which 
are given the most careful consideration. 

"Under this procedure, all recommendations 
made to me with regard to trade agreements 
represent the collective judgment of all agencies 
of the Government concerned with any phase of 
the matter, based upon most painstaking study 
of all pertinent information. I have never 
known an example of more effective collabora- 
tion among the various divisions of the Govern- 
ment and between the Government and the 
general public for the good of the entire Nation. 

"Needless to say, this procedure which has 
worked so well in the past should be continued 
in the future." 



-♦■ -f -f -f -f -f -f 



THE RECIPROCAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AS AN EVOLUTION IN TARIFF 

POLICY 



Address by Assistant 

[Released to the press April 11] 

The reciprocal-trade-agreements program of 
the United States is now approaching the end 
of its sixth year of existence. In this period 
of administration its basic characteristics and 
principles have become well defined and estab- 
lished. All of its essential elements are to be 
found in principles, methods, and procedures 
which individually have characterized our 
tariff making at one time or another, and it may 
be of some interest to note the nonpartisan 
character of these pi'ecedents in that they are 
to be found in legislation enacted under Re- 
publican as well as Democratic administrations. 

In the combination of these elements into a 
balanced, coherent, and rational tariff and com- 
mercial policy, however, as has been ac- 
complished through the reciprocal-trade-agree- 
ments program, they have attained a new sig- 



° Delivered at the morning session of the semiannual 
meeting (sixtieth year) of the Academy of Political 
Science, New York Citv, April 11, 1940. 



Secretary Grady ' 

nificance which i-eflects a new development in 
our national consciousness. 

The trade-agreements program was inaugu- 
rated in 1934 by an amendment to the Tariff 
Act of 1930, for an initial period of 3 years and 
has twice been extended for similar periods. 
This amendment, known as the Trade Agree- 
ments Act, authorizes the President to enter 
into trade agreements with foreign govern- 
ments with a view to obtaining improved mar- 
ket opportunities abi'oad for American products 
and pursuant thereto to proclaim modifications 
in our own rates of import duty, or other im- 
port restrictions, on foreign goods entering our 
markets. It provides, furthermore, that duties 
or restrictions proclaimed pursuant to such 
agreements shall apply to imports of the speci- 
fied products, not only from the country with 
which the agreement is concluded, but also from 
all other countries which do not discriminate 
against American trade. It also requires that 
public notice shall be given of intention to nego- 



392 

tiate a trade agreement in order that interested 
persons may have opportunity to present their 
views; and that, before conchiding trade agree- 
ments, information and advice shall be sought 
from the Tariff' Commission, the Departments 
of State, Agriculture, and Commerce and from 
all other appropriate sources. 

The foregoing sets forth very briefly the 
substance of the basic elements on which this 
program is founded. Each of them would in 
more complete presentation require qualifica- 
tion and amplification, but in the following we 
may see the six essential phases of this com- 
mercial policy, namely : 

1. Reciprocity: 

2. The most-favored-nation principle of 

equality of treatment; 

3. Taritf -bargaining proceduie; 

4. Delegation of authority by Congress; 

5. Receijjt and consideration of the views of 

private interests; 

6. Fornuilation of proposals on the basis of 

expert research and analysis. 

Reciprocity as a factor in tariff making con- 
sists in the granting of favorable or improved 
customs treatment of foreign products in re- 
turn for similar treatment by foreign countries 
of domestic products. It was under the Re- 
publican tariff acts of 1890 and 1897 that the 
principle of reciprocity first appeared in our 
tariff history. Two different procedures were 
involved in tliese acts. With reference to a 
small list of specified, noncompetitive imports, 
the terms of reciprocity were definitely pre- 
scribed by law and might be put into effect by 
(he President without further action by Con- 
gress. A mnnl)er of reciprocity agreements 
were entered into with foreign governments 
under provisions of this nature. However, the 
scope of t lade co\ered thereby was very narrow 
and the benefits resulting therefrom corre- 
spondingly limited. 

In respect of other imports, including those 
of a competitive nature, the provisions for rec- 
iprocity contained in the act of 1897 did not 
prescribe specifically, except for certain limits, 
the treatment to be accorded but did require 
that action taken by the President thereunder 
be subject to congressional approval and Senate 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

latification. Although a number of reciprocity 
agreements were concluded under these pro- 
visions, none obtained Senate ratification, and 
none therefore ever came into effect. 

The failure of this reciprocity to achieve 
notable success under a regime of aggi'essive 
protectionism may be readily imderstood if we 
contrast the principle of reciprocity with the 
cost-of-production principle which was later 
explicitly adopted as the basis of Republican 
high-tariff policy. Reciprocity is a trade-pro- 
moting principle ; it secui'es increased opportu- 
nities for export trade by providing reciprocal 
oppoi-tunities for import trade. Under the 
cost-of-production principle, the stated func- 
tion of import duties is to equalize the differ- 
ences between production costs at home and 
abroad, and thereby to offset advantages of 
foreign producers over domestic producei-s in 
selling in the domestic market. 

Differences in costs and prices constitute, of 
course, the fundamental basis of trade. The 
fact that American costs of producing many 
agricultural, mining, and manufactured prod- 3^ 
ucts are lower than foreign costs accounts for " 
the existence of our export trade. A principle 
which envisages the international equalization 
of production costs may lead to the most ex- 
treme type of protectionism, and, if foUow^ed 
with logical thoroughness in application to all 
commodities, it would result in a virtual break- 
down of our foreign trade. In actual practice, 
however, it has not been followed with such 
consistent thoroughness. 

In application the principle may be qualified 
by restricting it to duties on so-called competi- \ 
five products. This apparently clear-cut dis- 
tinction becomes more ideological than real, 
however, when the task of classifying the actual 
commodities of trade into competitive and non- 
competitive is essayed. There are some prod- 
ucts, including especially certain raw materials, 
with respect to which the imposition or increase 
of duties would be strenuously opposed by the 
industries requiring them, even though in some 
cases such industries may enjoy tariff protection 
for their finished products. There are, as a 
matter of fact, relatively few articles which 



APRIL 13, 1940 



393 



could not be produced in this coimtry, or at 
least domestic substitutes found for them, if 
the import duties are suflSciently high. 

Our import duties are high enough in some 
instances to permit the growth of certain hot- 
house fruits and vegetables for sale in the home 
market during the "off season," and imports 
during that season of naturally grown prod- 
ucts from warmer countries are, of course, re- 
garded as competitive with those of the Ameri- 
can hot-house industry. Import duties on 
bananas have been advocated, not to encourage 
banana growing in the United States, but to 
discourage the eating of bananas by Americans 
in order that they might eat more apples. 

The ti'uth is that the significance of the dis- 
tinction between "competitive" and "noncom- 
petitive" products depends, in application, upon 
the degree and directness or indirectness of com- 
petition which is taken as a criterion, and ihis 
is not easily defined as a general principle. In 
fact, it is in some cases perhaps not too far 
from the truth to conclude that the real dis- 
tinction, as applied under higli-tariff policies, is 
little more than a segregation of products for 
whicli there is no strong interest demanding 
protection, or for which the opposition to pro- 
tection or increased protection is strong enough 
to prevent it. 

The limits to which tariff protection can be 
carried under a so-called equalizing of cost-of- 
production policy, even distinguishing competi- 
tive and noncompetitive products, are vague 
and indefinite and appear to be determined not 
by considerations of what is good for the Nation 
as a whole but by the energy and political influ- 
ence of individual interests. In circumstances 
in which an effort is made to pursue a program 
of reciprocity in conjunction with an aggres- 
sive tariff policy, to which the principle of cost 
equalization gives rise, reciprocity is relegated 
to a restricted and i-elatively unimportant field 
of operation. It may be pursued only in re- 
spect of so-called noncompetitive imports. In 
other words, it is limited to a field in respect of 
which there is no effective demand for the exist- 
ence of tariff protection or in respect of which 



the extension of such protection is strongly 
opposed by domestic interests. Foreign coun- 
tries are not likely to provide substantially in- 
creased export opportunities for our products 
in return for a promise from us not to raise bar- 
riers which it would be to no one's interest to 



raise. 



On the other hand, the principle of recipro- 
cal-tariff' adjustment provides a much broader 
and sounder basis for protection of American 
production and trade than that which rests on 
the basis of excessive tariffs framed only from 
the point of view of the individual domestic 
interests demanding protection. In addition to 
providing for the protection and expansion of 
foreign markets for American products, it en- 
visages also reatsonahle protection of the home 
market for home producei-s. In the determina- 
tion of what is reasonable in this respect, it is 
jxtssible to take into account under reciprocity 
uot only the problems of the high-cost indus- 
tries but also those of other industries, together 
with the general interests of the nation as a 
whole. All of these aspects are taken into full 
account in the adjustments of import duties 
effected under the present reciprocity program 
of the Government. 

Another element of the trade-agreements pro- 
gram is the reciprocal and unconditional most- 
favored-nation principle, under which we 
extend to, and receive from, other countries 
automatically and miconditionally customs 
treatment which is no less favorable than that 
accorded to the most-favored-nation. In other 
words, it provides that each country shall gi-ant 
the other treatment as favorable as that granted 
to any third country with respect to each of its 
products. 

The most-favored-nation pi-inciple is neces- 
sary in order that the benefits obtained under 
reciprocity may be safeguarded and preserved. 
Suppose, for example, we obtain in an agree- 
ment a reduction in a foreign country's duty on, 
say, lard from 50 percent ad valorem to 25 per- 
cent ad valorem. If, after our agreement is 
concluded, the foreign country should make 
an agi-eement ^vith a third country and reduce 
the rat« to 10 percent, while we continued to 



394 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



pay our contractual rate of 25 percent, the 
value of the concession would be destroyed be- 
cause our competitors would take the market. 
Most-favored-nation assurances prevent this by 
requiring: that the rate of 10 percent be immedi- 
ately extended to us. Thus, the most-favored- 
nation clause prevents the concessions we ob- 
tain from beino; undermined by the extension of 
gi-eater concessions to our competitors which are 
withheld from us. 

Not only is provision made in trade agree- 
ments for reciprocal most-favored-nation treat- 
ment in respect of trade between the United 
States and the other countries with which 
agreements are concluded, but also the Trade 
Agreements Act requires that the concessions 
granted to these countries under reciprocity 
agreements be extended to third countries which 
do not discriminate against our trade; any other 
course would impel nonagreement countries to 
resort to retaliatory discriminations against us 
and thus contribute to the process of discrimina- 
tion and retaliation which constitutes a large 
measure of the international commercial break- 
down of recent years. 

The provision for unconditional most-fav- 
ored-nation treatment under the trade-agree- 
ments program does not represent a depai'ture 
from the established practice in our interna- 
tional commercial relations. The principle was 
formally adopted in 1923 during the Harding 
administration. This princii)le is, moreover, 
one phase of the basic concept upon which our 
trading policies are founded. George Wash- 
ington, in his Farewell Address, advocated 
equality of treatment toward all nations. He 
said: 

"Harmony, liberal intercourse with all na- 
tions are reconnnended by policy, humanity, 
and interest. But even our commercial policy 
should hold an etjual and im])artial hand, nei- 
ther seeking nor granting exclusive favors or 
pi-ci'ei'ences; consulting the natural course of 
things; diffusing antl diversifying by gentle 
means the streams of connnerce, but forcing 
nothing." 



In order to use our tariff-bargaining power to 
the greatest advantage under the most-favored- 
- nation principle, it has been our general prac- 
tice to grant to another country in a ti'ade 
agreement concessions on those products of 
which that country is the chief or an important 
supplier in our import trade. A concession on 
an imported product ordinarily means more 
to the major supplier of that product than to 
any other supplier and therefore usually repre- 
sents the most effective use of our bargaining 
power with respect to the commodity in ques- 
tion. Not even the chief-supplier rule is alto- 
gether new. A precedent for it may be found 
in the Republican Tariff Acts of 1922 and 1930. 
The "flexible provisions" of those acts require 
that the differences in costs at home and abroad 
shall be determined with reference to the pro- 
duction costs of the chief competing country or 
chief supplier. 

A system of reciprocity might be conducted 
on the basis of a detailed specification by Con- 
gress of the precise treatment to be conceded 
in reciprocity agreements. This was done, as I 
have stated, in certain reciprocity provisions of 
the Tariff Acts of 1890 and 1897. Such pro- 
cedure, however, seriously limits the degree and 
flexibility of action and therefore the extent of 
benefit to be secured for our exports, since it 
restricts the extent of adjustment to the other 
country's needs and desires which may be ef- 
fected by negotiations. 

The more satisfactory procedure is that of 
tariff bargaining, whereby, within the limits 
authorized by law, the concessions to be granted 
the other country are fixed in the process of 
negotiation, in accordance M'ith that country's 
needs and desires and in consideration for the 
reciprocal concessions obtained from that coun- 
try. This makes possible the most flexible and 
effective use of our bargaining power, maintain- 
ing on the one hand due regard for the posi- 
tion of domestic protected interests by avoiding 
any concessions involving tariff reductions more 
extensive than the circumstances justify but 
permitting the actual concessions to be formu- 



APRIL 13, 1940 



395 



lilted in the light of what the other country 
is most willing to pay for. 

Tariff bargaining is, of course, not new in our 
tariff policy. It was provided for in the 
reciprocity provisions of the Tariff Act of 1897, 
pertaining to imported products not specified, 
including competitive imports. Since the re- 
sults of bargaining under those provisions were 
subject to congressional approval and since such 
approval was not obtained in the case of a 
single agreement, the benefits to be derived by 
this method were never realized. 

Under our system of political institutions and 
procedure, a limited but adequate measure of 
congressional delegation to the Executive of 
authority to make tariff adjustments is a prac- 
tical essential to a successful working policy of 
tariff reciprocity. The alternative, the re- 
quirement of subsequent congressional approval 
of agreements reached, has been shown by ex- 
perience not to be practicable and effective. 

The delegation of authority to adjust tariff 
rates within prescribed limits and by prescribed 
procedure does, however, involve important con- 
siderations which have lately been receiving 
much attention. Under the Constitution, the 
President conducts negotiations with foreign 
governments, whereas the formulation of tariff 
policy is a legislative matter. The bridging of 
this division of powers between the legislative 
and Executive branches of the Government is 
effected in the Trade Agreements Act by Con- 
gress delegating to the President authority to 
adjust rates of import duty, within prescribed 
limits and in accordance with prescribed prin- 
ciples, and invoking the power of the Presi- 
dent to enter into international agreements in 
connection with the exercise of this delegated 
authority. The question of constitutionality 
which has been raised with reference to the 
Trade Agreements Act involves the congres- 
sional delegation of authority to adjust tariff 
rates. 

Congressional delegation of authoritj- to fix 
tariff rates is not new. It is provided for in 
the flexible tariff provisions of the Republican 
Tariff Acts of 1922 and 1930 and has been up- 



held by the iSujireme Court of the United 
States. With refeience to this question in the 
case of Ilamfton Co. v. U. S., Mr. Chief Justice 
Taft said : 

"If Congress shall lay down by legislative 
act an intelligible pi-inciple to which the per- 
son or body authoi'ized to fix such rates is di- 
rected to conform, .such legislative action 
is not a forbidden delegation of legislative 
l)ower." 

In its report of March S, 1940, reconnnending 
the passage of the joint resolution to extend 
the Trade Agreements Act for another 3-year 
period, the Connnittee on Finance of the Senate 
stated : 

"The limitations and policies presci'ibed in 
the Trade Agreements Act constitute an 'intel- 
ligible principle' or standard for the guidance 
of the Executive which is in no degree less pre- 
cise than the standards contained in the 'flexible 
provisions' of the Tariff Acts of 1922 and 1930, 
and the prior recipi-ocity statutory authoriza- 
tions, all of which have been sustained by the 
couits." 

The procedure provided for in the Trade 
Agreements Act for effecting tariff adjustments 
is in accordance with long-established practices 
of democratic govermnent. As in the case of 
the fixing of tariff rates by legislation or by 
executive proclamation under the "flexible tar- 
iff provisions" of the law, an opportunity is 
given to all interested pei-sons to present their 
views before any action is taken. 

Moreover, in view of the growing complexity 
of our economy and the highly intricate and 
technical problems involved in tariff changes, 
the provision under the trade-agreements pro- 
cedure for expert stud}' and analysis in the 
formulation of detailed recommendations is of 
high imjiortance. Such expert study and as- 
sistance has, of course, been available in the 
present Tariff Commission since its establish- 
ment in 1917 under a Democratic administra- 
tion. Somewhat similar organizations had 
been established before that time under Re- 
publican administrations. In 1882 Congress 



396 

passed an act foi' I lie appointment, of a tariff 
commission. A tariff board was also provided 
for in 1909. 

Tlie Trade Agreements Act provides, how- 
ever, that before anj' agreement is conchided, 
information and advice shall be sought not only 
from tlie Tarit!' Commission but also from the 
Departments of State, Agriculture, and Com- 
merce and from other appropriate sources. 
The technical i)roblems of the taritf lying 
within the purview of the Tariff Commission 
constitute only one group of problems involved 
in tariff adjustments under the principle of 
reciprocity. There are also many other types 
of problems requiring consideration, such as 
those involving export trade, foreign commer- 
cial policies, international relations, and re- 
lationships between various incbistries and 
branches of our economy. An interdepartmen- 
tal trade-agreements organization, composed 
of representatives of the various departments 
and agencies of the Government concerned in 
such problems was established to carry out the 
work of the trade-agreements program. Ma- 
cliinery has been established for making readily 
available to this organization information, ad- 
vice, and technical assistance from Government 
sources and information and views from pri- 
vate interests, in order that all may be brought 
to beai- in a coordinated and expert fashion on 
the i)roblems arising for consideration. The 
need and provision for such guidance testify to 
the broad basis of national interest on which 
this program rests. 

The trade-agreements pi'ogram seeks, of 
course, to reduce excessive rates of duty on im- 
l)()rts into this country. This is not the first 
time, however, (hat such a purpose has been 
pursued in our tariff history. It has been fol- 
lowed under previous Democratic administra- 
tions, which have traditionally been opposed to 
excessive tariff protection. 

A great development has occurred in our na- 
tional economic comi)lexion since the founding 
of this Republic, and tariff making has become 
a vei7 intricate and complex matter since the 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN" 

enactment of the first Tariff Act of July 4, 
1789. Congress has found rate fixing an in- 
creasingly difficult task and has introduced into 
tariff making over a period of years a number 
of elements to improve and facilitate the work. 
The writing of tariff' schedules has, however, 
become far too unwieldy and technical for Con- 
gress to undertake. 

Concern for the preservation of democratic 
processes under the complexities of modern 
industrialism has compelled increasing recog- 
nition by legislatures of the necessity of con- 
centrating their attention more and more upon 
the pi-oblem of determining general policy and 
the establishment of broad rules of guidance 
for its execution. The details of administration 
are necessarily left to the executive branches 
of government. The effective operation of the 
trade-agreements program has been established 
on a practical evolution of this principle. 

I have pointed out that none of the essential 
elements involved in the principles, method, and 
procedure of tariff making under the trade- 
agreements program is new. Reciprocity itself 
is an old principle. The selection of other ele- 
ments which in combination with it form the 
trade-agreements program was made with a 
view to giving the fullest effect jjossible to 
the principle of reci^Jrocity. However, tlie 
combination of these various elements repre- 
sents a new development in our tariff history. 
Congress has provided in the law principles 
and procedure for adjusting tariff rates within 
specified linuts, but the technical woi-k of fixing 
specific rates in accordance with these direc- 
tions is turned over to the Executive bi-ancli of 
the Government. Since the Executive, ill the 
exercise of his authority, is required to follow 
the provisions of the law, logrolling and sec- 
tional pressure are no longer determining 
factors in rate fixing. 

By the so-called flexible tariff prt)visions of 
1922 and 1930, based upon the Republican cost- 
of-production principle, it Avas hoped to ac- 
complish such an objective, but, owing in large 
measure to the defective nature of this principle, 
the effective scope of these provisions has in 



APRIL 13, 1940 



397 



practice been extremely limited. According to 
Thomas Walker Page, former Chairman of the 
Tariff Commission, "The conclusion cannot be 
escaped that it is rarelj' possible to ascertain 
accurately the differences in cost of production 
at home and abroad." Experience has shown 
that the cost-of-production findings cannot be 
completed shoi't of months, sometimes a year. 
During the 8 years in wliich the act of 1922 
was in force, out of several thousands of items 
in the tariff schedules, only 36 tariff adjust- 
ments were made and only 62 have been made 
under the "flexible provisions" of the act of 
1930. Under the trade-agreements program, 
however, the means which has been found foi- 
freeing tariff making from the influence of tariff 
lobbies has actually been applied in a broad field 
of operation. 

While this achievement represents a marked 
advance in tariff making, its great significance 
lies in the circumstances out of which this 
change grew. This country has at last come 
to recognize that tariff making is not solely a 
matter of domestic policy but involves our rela- 
tions with the rest of the world. We came to 
realize from the shock of the depression of 
1930-1932 that the world is economicallj' inter- 
dependent, that our prosperity is dependent on 
the prosperity of other countries and on reason- 
able opportunities for mutually profitable 
international trade, and, finally, that peace, as 
well as prosperity, can exist only on a sound 
basis of international cooperation. Apprecia- 
tion of the fact tliat tariff' making affects our 
national livelihood and political security has 
raised it to a place of utmost importance in 
the minds of serious-thinking Americans, and 
accounts for the establishment of the trade- 
agreements program. In view of its new u.se 
under that pi-ogram as an instrument for co- 
ordinating our national and foreign policies 
for tlie attainment of prosperity and world 
peace, tariff making must not again be per- 
mitted to serve as a plaything of politics. 



Departmental Service 



PROPOSED TRANSFER OF DOMINICAN 
CUSTOMS RECEIVERSHIP TO DE- 
PARTMENT OF STATE 

The following is an excerpt from the mes- 
sage of the President of the United States to 
the Congress, Ai)ril 11, 1940, tiansmitting Re- 
organization Plan No. IV, which provides for a 
number of interdepartmental reorganizations: 

"Department of State. — The Dominican Cus- 
toms Receiveiship is transferred to the Depai-t- 
ment of State from the Division of Territories 
and Island Possessions in the Department of the 
Interior. The State Department is the most 
ai)propriate agency to supervise this activity 
which involves relations with a foreign 
government." 

The following is quoted from Reorganization 
Plan No. IV : 

"Department of State 
"Section 1. Transfer of Dominican Customs 
Receirri.sh/p. — The fmictions of the Division of 
Territories and Island Possessions in the De- 
partment of the Interior relating to the 
Dominican Customs Receivership are trans- 
ferred to the Department of State and shall 
be administered by the Secretary of State or 
under his direction and supervision by such 
agency in the Department of State as he shall 
designate." 



Legislation 



Fcimtli riiin oil GovoniiiKMit IScni-KiinizMlidM : Mcsshko 
fidiii tlio I'rcsidPiit (if tlic rint('<l Sl.ili-s tijiii.-iiiiittiii); 
RcorKiiiiiziilioii riiiii No. IV wliicli provides for ;i iinin- 
1mm- of iiitcidopMitmi'iilal icoiKiiiiizalioiis (April II, 
1!MU) iinchuliiiK transfer of Dominican Customs Re- 
ceiversjii)) to supervision of Department of State]. 
( 11. Doc. 6d2, 78th Cong., 3d sess. ) 10 pp. 50. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 

United States of America 

Tlie Secretary General of (he Permanent 
Court of Arbitration has informed the powers 
signatory to the Convention for the Pacific Set- 
tlement of International Disputes that the 
United States of America has renewed the ap- 
pointment of Prof. Manley O. Hudson as a 
member of the Permanent Court of Arbi- 
tration. 

Colomhia 

Atrording to a conuniinication from the 
Seci-etary General of the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration dated February 21, 1940, the Co- 
lombian Government has appointed Mr. Dario 
Echandia, Doctor of Laws ; Mr. Roberto Urdan- 
eta-Arbelaez, Doctor of Laws; and Mr. Rai- 
mundo Ri\as, Doctor of Laws, as members of 
the Permanent Court of Arbitration. 

Denmark 

According to a letter from the Secretary Gen- 
eral of the Permanent Court of Arbitration 
dated February 1, 1940, the Danish Government 
has leiiewed the api)ointmcnt of Mr. Herluf 
Zahle as a member of the Court. 

Switzerland 

A letter from the Secretary tieueral of the 
Permanent Court of Arbitration dated Feb- 
ruary "it). 1910, announces the death of Prof. 
Walter Burckhardt, a member of the Court 
designated by the Swiss Confederation. 



Permanent Court of International Justice 



Greece 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 5, 1940, the in- 
strument of ratification of the declaration of the 
renewal of the acceptance by the Greek Gov- 
ernment of the Optional Clause of the Statute 
of the Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice,^ was deposited with the Secretai'iat on 
February 20, 1940. 

RESTRICTION OF WAR 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of 
Prisoners of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 

France 

In confoniiit}' with the provisions of ai'ticle 
85 of the Convention Relating to the Treatment 
of Prisoners of War, signed at Geneva on 
July 27, 1929, the Swiss Minister at Washington 
transmitted to the Secretary of State with a 
note dated March 19, 1940, a copy of the regu- 
lations concerning prisoners of war Avhich were 
issued on November 6, 1939, by the French 
Slinistry of National Defense and War. 

COMMERCE 
Trade Agreements Act 

A statement by the President regarding the 
extension of the Trade Agreements Act by- 
Congress appears in tliis Bulletin under the 
heading "'Commercial Policy.'' 



' See the KiiUciin of October 21, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 17), 
p. 422. 



398 



APRIL 13, 194 399 

POSTAL enuut'iiL ol' the Swiss Confederation, in accord- 

TT • 1 n * 1 r^ *• t moo si»ce witli paragraph 1, article 9, of the Uni- 

Universal Postal Convention of 1939 i « , w. .■ • i fT!„„. „ a;..»o 

versa! Postal C onvention signed at Uuenos Aires 

By a note dated April 6, 1940, the Swiss on May 23, 1939, that the acceptance of the said 

Minister at Washington informed the Secretary convention by Australia includes the territories 

of State that by a note dated March 2, 1940, of Papua and Norfolk Island, as well as the 

the British Legation at Bern nolitied (he Gov- mandated territories of New Guinea and Nauru. 



U, 5. fiOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1940 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLE 



TI 




APRIL 20, 1940 
Fo/. II: No. 4 J — Publication 14SS 



Qontents 



The American Republics: 

Pan American Day: Page 

Address by the President 403 

Address by Laurence Duggan 405 

Fire at Col6n, Panama 409 

Departure from the United States of the President- 
elect of Costa Rica and Senora de Calder6n Guardia . 410 

Floods in Buenos Aires, Argentina 410 

The Far East: 

Maintenance of the status quo of the Netherlands In- 
dies: Statement by the Secretary of State 411 

Bombing of American missions in China 412 

Europe: 

German invasion of Denmark and Norway 412 

Establishment of direct relations with Iceland .... 414 
Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc : 

Monthly statistics 414 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc.: 

International Institute of Agriculture at Rome .... 422 
Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 422 

[Over] 







Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicial Settlement: Page 
General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Interna- 
tional Disputes 423 

Permanent Court of International Justice 423 

Legal Assistance: 

Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of Attorney Which 

Are To Be Utilized Abroad 424 

Aviation: 

Arrangement with New Zealand for the Importation 

of Aircraft (Executive Agreement Series No. 167) . 424 
Labor: 

Convention of the International Labor Conference . 425 
Postal: 

Universal Postal Convention of 1939 425 

Publications 425 



The American Republics 



PAN AMERICAN DAY 

Address by the President ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House April 15] 

In the year 1890, on April fourteenth, and 
without fanfare of trumpets, an inter-Ameri- 
ean conference unanimously adopted a resolu- 
tion providing that "there shall be formed by 
the countries represented in this Conference an 
association under the title of the International 
Union of American Republics." 

The tasks of the new organization were sim- 
ple. They were to collect and distribute com- 
mercial information, to publish a bulletin, to 
provide trade information, and to carry for- 
ward the work of promoting sound business 
relations. 

But behind these prosaic words there was 
the driving force of a great American con- 
ception which had been gathering headway 
for 60 years. 

'i'he ideal originated in the mind of Simon 
Bolivar; and a kindly history has preserved 
for us the draft he had written in 1825, sketch- 
ing his purpose and objective. 

His aim was peace for the Americas. His 
hope was that the American example might 
eventually give peace to the entire world. His 
plan was stated in a single, brilliant sentence : 
"The New World takes shape in the form of 
independent nations, all joined by a common 
law which would control their foreign rela- 
tions and would offer them the stabilizing force 
of a general and permanent Congress." The 



' Delivered before the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union, Washington, D. C, April 15, 1940, 
and broadcast. 



result, as you know, was the calling of the 
Conference of Panama in 1826. 

At that time, it took bold minds even to 
dream of universal peace. And yet, the Con- 
gress of Panama gave clear expression to pre- 
cisely that aspiration. Before that time, there 
had been but two systems of peace known to 
the world. One of them had been the peace 
of universal conquest, whicli Rome had 
achieved and lost and which Xapoleon had 
vainly endeavored to imitate. The other was 
the dangerous and temporary peace of balance 
of powei' — which even in 1826 was plainly no 
permanent solution. 

At the Congress of Panama, the American 
nations proclaimed the ideal of a Cooperative 
Peace: the peace of free equals, freely agree- 
ing to settle whatever differences might arise 
among them by none but pacific means — deter- 
mined to cooperate with each other for the 
greater good of all. 

Never before had any group of nations been 
asked to renounce tlie splendors of indefinite 
conquest and to achieve their true grandeur by 
peaceful cooperation. Yet that was precisely 
what the Americas were considering. 

The dream of Bolivar was not realized at the 
Congress of Panama. But it did remain a 
hope, an inspiration. To the writers, the poets, 
the dreamers, who kept the ideal of Cooperative 
Peace alive through the imperialist nineteenth 
century we owe an everlasting debt of grati- 
tude. 

403 



404 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In spite of several attempts to bring to a 
realization the ideal of inter-American unity, 
more than 6 decades went by before the seed 
began to grow. I am proud of the fact that 
on that occasion the initiative came from the 
United States. In 1888, President Cleveland 
approved an act of Congress authorizing him 
to call a conference of the American countries 
in order that there might be worked out a 
peaceful plan for the settling of disagi-ee- 
ments and disputes and a means of encourag- 
ing such reciprocal relations as would benefit 
all. 

It was that inter-American conference, 50 
years ago, that set up the International Union 
of the American Republics, the anniversary of 
which we are observing today. In opening the 
conference, James G. Blaine expressed its high 
purpose in the following words: "We believe 
that a spirit of justice, of common and equal 
interest between the American states, will leave 
no room for an artificial balance of power like 
unto that which has led to wars abroad and 
drenched Europe in blood." 

Fifty years of unremitting effort have 
brought our republics far along the road that 
leads to this goal. Today, as never before, our 
nations have reason to appreciate the fruits of 
that progress. For today we are again face to 
face with the old problem. 

Universal and stable peace remains a dream. 
War, more horrible and destructive than ever, 
has laid its blighting hand on many parts of 
the earth. Peace among our American nations 
remains secure because of the instruments we 
have succeeded in creating. They embody, in 
great measure at least, the principles upon 
which, I believe, enduring peace must be based 
throughout the world. 

Peace reigns today in the Western Hemi- 
sphere because our nations have liberated them- 
selves from fear. No nation is truly at peace if 
it lives under the shadow of coercion or inva- 
sion. By the simple process of agreeing that 
each nation sliall respect tlie integrity and in- 
dependence of the others, the New World has 
freed itself of the greatest and simplest cause 
of war. Self-restraint and the acceptance of 



the equal rights of our neighbors as an act of 
effective will has given us the peace we have 
had and will preserve that peace so long as we 
abide by this ultimate moral law. 

Peace reigns among us today because we have 
agreed, as neighbors should, to mind our own 
businesses. We have renounced, each and all 
of us, any right to intervene in each other's do- 
mestic affairs, recognizing that free and inde- 
pendent nations must shape their own destinies 
and find their own ways of life. 

Peace reigns among us today because we have 
resolved to settle any dispute that should arise 
among us by friendly negotiation in accordance 
with justice and equity, rather than by force. 
We have created effective machinery for this 
purpose and we have demonstrated our willing- 
ness to have full recourse to that method. 

Peace reigns among us because we have rec- 
ognized the principle that only through vigor- 
ous and mutually beneficial international eco- 
nomic relations can each of us have adequate 
access to materials and opportunities necessary 
to a rising level of economic well-being for our 
peoples. In every practicable way we are seek- 
ing to bring this vital principle to its realiza- 
tion. 

We of this hemisphere have no need to seek 
a new international order; we have already 
found it. This was not won by hysterical out- 
cries or violent movements of troops. We did 
not stamp out nations, capture governments, or 
uproot innocent people from the homes they 
had built. We did not invent absurd doctrines 
of race supremacy or claim dictatorship 
through universal revolution. 

The inter-American order was not built by 
hatred and terror. It has been paved by the 
endless and effective work of men of good will. 
We have built a foundation for the lives of 
hundreds of millions. We have unified these 
lives by a common devotion to a moral order. 

The Cooperative Peace in the Western Hem- 
isphere was not created by wishing ; and it will 
require more than words to maintain it. In 
this association of nations, whoever touches 
any one of us touches all of us. We have only 
asked that the world go with us in the path of 



APKIL 20, 1940 



405 



peace. But we shall be able to keep that way 
open only if we are prepared to meet force with 
force if challenge is ever made. 

Today we can have no illusions. Old dreams 
of universal empire are again rampant. We 
hear of races which claim the right of mastery. 
We learn of groups which insist they have the 
right to impose their way of life on other na- 
tions. We encounter economic compulsions 
shrewdly devised to force gi-eat areas into polit- 
ical spheres of influence. 

All of this is not of mere academic interest. 
We know that what happens in the Old World 
directly and powerfully affects the peace and 
well-being of the New. It was for this very 
reason that we have adopted procedures that 
enable us to meet any eventuality. At Buenos 
Aires we agreed that we would consult should 
our peace be threatened. At Lima we agreed 
to stand together to defend and maintain the 
absolute integrity of every American nation 
from any attack, direct or indirect, from be- 
yond the seas. At Panama we worked out 
ways and means for keeping war away from 
this hemisphere. I pray God that we shall not 
have to do more than that; but should it be 
necessary, I am convinced that we should be 
wholly successful. The inner strength of a 
group of free people is irresistible when they 
are prepared to act. 

In my conception, the whole world now is 



struggling to find the basis of its life in com- 
ing centuries. 

I affirm that that life must be based on posi- 
tive values. 

The value of love will always be stronger 
than the value of hate, since any nation or 
group of nations which employs hatred even- 
tually is torn to pieces by hatred within itself. 

The value of a belief in humanity and jus- 
tice is always stronger than the value of be- 
lief in force, because force at last turns inward, 
and if that occurs each man or group of men 
is finally compelled to measure his strength 
against his own brother. 

The value of truth and sincerity is always 
stronger than the value of lies and cynicism. 
No process has yet been invented which can 
permanently separate men from their hearts 
and consciences or can prevent them from see- 
ing the results of their ideas as time rolls by. 
You cannot make men believe that a way of 
life is good when it spreads poverty, misery, 
disease, and death. Men cannot be everlast- 
ingly loyal unless they are free. 

We acclaim today the symbol of 50 years of 
the American way. We are determined to con- 
tinue on that way in friendship. AVe are de- 
termined that our mutual relations be built upon 
honor and good faith. We are determined to 
live in peace and to make that peace secure. We 
are determined to follow the path of free peoples 
to a civilization worthy of free men. 



Address by Laurence Duggan ^ 



[Released to the press April 15] 

Fifty years ago the young republics of our 
western world established a physical and 
spiritual center to symbolize the unity of the 
Americas. That landmark in history was the 
institution which we all know as the Pan 
American Union. Little did its founders im- 
agine that they were establishing what is today 

'Delivered In the National Radio Foruro of the 
Washington Evening Star, over the blue network of 
the National Broadcasting Co., Washington. D. C, 
April 15, 1940. Mr. Duggan is Chief of the Division 
of the American Republics, Department of State. 



the oldest and most successful association of 
sovereign governments which exists in the 
world. It is to this association that we pay 
honor today. 

The conception of a covenant among the 
nations of the New World is as old as their 
independence. That intrepid and gallant sol- 
dier and statesman, Simon Bolivar, who 
brought freedom to so many countries, had a 
vision of the Americas working together to 
promote their common civilization under guar- 
anties of peace. The dream of Bolivar was 



406 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



not immediately realized. The Conference at 
Panama in 1826, called at his inspiration, failed 
to establish an association of nations. But it 
did provide a goal. It was a happy accident 
of history that the greatest demonstration of 
the unity of the Americas should have taken 
place last year in the same city at which the 
first inter-American meeting took place over 
a hundred years ago. I feel sui'e Bolivar 
would have agreed that his dream was ap- 
proaching realization because never was the 
solidarity of the New World more strong or 
dynamic; never was there a greater determi- 
nation to work together for the attainment of 
mutual ideals, to protect the New World from 
the ravages of war in the Old. I cannot think 
of any more fitting tribute to that profound 
thinker than the homage paid him by the dele- 
gates who gathered in the flickering candle- 
light in the same room where the first inter- 
American conference was held. Here in si- 
lence and in reverence representatives from 
every country paid honor to this man who had 
the vision of the cooperative and peaceful 
relationship which today characterizes the 
Americas. 

The attainment of the goal of Bolivar has 
been a slow process of careful building. Grad- 
ual progress rather than overnight change has 
been our way. I think this was both natural 
and desirable. As young countries we were 
all faced with immense responsibilities — the 
necessity of hammering out of experience the 
forms of government best fitted to individual 
needs, the task of putting new fields under the 
plow, of opening new mines to production, and 
of creating new industries. Our energies were 
fully occupied in overcoming pres.sing internal 
problems. There was little time to consider 
the basis of relations with one another. 

Increasing political stability and expanding 
commerce brought a quickening awareness of 
the existence of other countries. This was fol- 
lowed by a perception that many interests 
were common to all and that these interests 
might best be furthered through joint action. 
Out of this recognition of a community of 
interests and of joint responsibilities came the 



establishment 50 years ago of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union. 

Today the Pan American Union is perform- 
ing a vital and indispensable role. From the 
office of limited functions in commerce which 
it was in 1889, it has grown in stature and im- 
portance to be the center of manifold activ- 
ities of mutual interest to all of us. Each year, 
as it demonstrates its ability to perform the 
tasks already assigned to it, it is given new 
tasks. Indeed, there is scarcely any limit to 
the worthwhile and useful assistance it can 
render with advantage to our American col- 
lectivity as a whole. 

I should like to contrast briefly the situation 
of 50 years ago with that of today in several 
respects. 

At the first inter-American conference in 
1890, education, literature, the arts, and the 
sciences were not even discussed; nor at suc- 
ceeding conferences, except in certain narrow 
commercial aspects, until after the World War. 
This is an interesting commentary on the early 
emphasis in inter-American relations. The 
several countries were ready to enter into in- 
ternational agreements that would aid the ex- 
change of peace and the maintenance of peace. 
But apparently they did not consider it as im- 
portant to encourage knowledge and under- 
standing among each other. It is undeniable 
that commerce has the inevitable result of 
widening general knowledge. But it is also 
undeniable that our scant knowledge of the 
countries south of us is a result of what has 
been a predominant commercial interest in 
them. Our businessmen have been too occupied 
in their own affairs to appreciate the ciiltural 
and spiritual values of the other American re- 
publics. Too frequently they have fallen into 
the lamentable error of judging a country by 
its physical conveniences or lack of them. 
They have arrived at the country of their new 
home with fixed and preconceived ideas that 
because the local way of life is different it is 
not so good. They have often made no attempt 
to learn the language, to make friends, to read 
the local literature, to study its folkways, in 
short to identify their lives with the country 
where they found themselves. 



APRIL 20, 1940 



407 



This closed way of life, bad as it is for our 
business representatives, has other and per- 
haps more harmful effects. A country is 
judged by the behavior, the ideas, the habits, 
and customs of its citizens. If its citizens 
abroad are representatives solely of one seg- 
ment of its life, and the interests of that seg- 
ment do not include music, painting, books, 
the theater, it is inevitable that the appraisal 
of that country will be far from flattering. 

That is exactly how the United States has 
been judged by the other American countries 
and why that appraisal is critical. We have 
been considered crude, severe, and materialis- 
tic, a people afraid of leisure, lacking in sensi- 
tivity, and devoid of soul. Undeniably there 
are people who answer to these characteristics. 
But we all know that they are not representa- 
tive of the people of the United States as a 
whole. 

Fortunately tliis appraisal is changing. 
American business is becoming aware that it 
is not enough for its representatives abroad 
to sit in their offices and handle their affairs 
through interpreters. It is at last recognizing 
that a knowledge of local habits and customs is 
indispensable, that ability to speak Spanish or 
Portuguese is useful, and that an interest in 
local affairs brings appreciation. 

Moreover, throughout our country there is a 
quickening interest in our neighbors to the 
south of us. This intei'est arises from some- 
thing more than a desire to expand commerce. 
It is an interest of our people, of farmers, ar- 
tists, musicians, workers, school children — a 
desire that springs from a deep inner convic- 
tion that it is important that we know our 
neighbors better. This is thoroughly hearten- 
ing, but it also gives some pause. It is one of 
our traits to throw ourselves into some new 
interest or cause with energy and enthusiasm. 
New committees are formed, new activities or- 
ganized. Sometimes these new interests par- 
take of a fad. It is also a characteristic that 
we switch interests quickly. Nothing would 
be more disastrous than such a course to inter- 
American understanding. If the present 
white-hot zeal is followed by the chill of in- 



difference and casualness, the friendly rela- 
tions now so earnestly talked about might be 
set back for generations. 

Happily most of the present interest is solid 
and deep-rooted in a gradual development. 
Seeds sown years ago and carefully nurtured 
by years of patient effort are now bearing fruit. 
A few examples will make this clear. The 
courses offered by our colleges and universities 
on the civilization of the other American coun- 
tries have increased in number and attendance 
since 1895, when the University of California 
established a course on history and institutions, 
considered then a great novelty. Today the 
number of such courses, excluding those de- 
voted to the Spanish and Portuguese lan- 
guages, reaches nearly a thousand. Turn to 
the publication of books on the other American 
countries. During the 5 years between 1919 
and 1923, 66 books were published ; during the 
5 years between 1934 and 1938, 603 books were 
published. The stimulus for much of this 
activity came from the Pan American Union. 
Its Division of Intellectual Cooperation has 
been performing a magnificent service to all of 
the American countries. 

The 50 years of the Pan American Union 
have seen an intensification of commerce be- 
tween the Americas. The volume of commerce 
has expanded, as well as the variety of products 
exchanged. This increase in trade continued 
almost without interruption until the world 
economic depression, which caused great hard- 
ship for all but particularly for small nations 
largely dependent upon export markets for 
one or two principal raw material products. 
With the purpose of protecting their economies, 
many countries adopted restrictive measures 
which still further diminished trade. Just 
when most nations were beginning to enjoy a 
resumption of trade, powerful overseas nations 
began to impose trade techniques to gain politi- 
cal objectives. This was recognized by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt in his Pan American Day speech 
of last year when he stated : 

"Should the method of attack be that of eco- 
nomic pressui-e, I pledge that my own country 
will also give economic support, so that no 



408 

American nation need surrender any fraction 
of its sovereign freedom to maintain its eco- 
nomic welfare. Tliis is the spirit and intent 
of the Declaration of Lima: the solidarity of 
the continent." 

The policies of our Government have been 
directed forwards, forestalling the arise of any 
such contingency as that contemplated by the 
President. 

Under the authority of the Trade Agree- 
ments Act, which happily has just been ex- 
tended for 3 years more, agreements have been 
signed with 11 of the other American coun- 
tries designed to increase the flow of trade. 
The Congress has enacted legislation authoriz- 
ing the President to detail officers of this Gov- 
ernment to assist and advise the governments 
of the other American republics. Under this 
authority, highway engineers, public health 
specialists, customs and statistical experts, tax 
and fisheries experts, and financial and eco- 
nomic analysts have assisted several of our 
neighbors. 

Closely allied to this work has been the en- 
couragement given by the Department of Com- 
merce to the importation into this country from 
tlie other American republics of products for- 
merly obtained in Central Europe and other 
sources no longer available. In addition, the 
Department of Agriculture has for several 
years been carrying on detailed studies looking 
forward to obtaining from the countries south 
of us assured supplies of noncompetitive agri- 
cultural products to fill our essential needs. 
Kubber, quinine, and Manila hemp are three 
of the products under investigation. Finally, 
our Government has implemented the carrying 
out of programs of development of the national 
economies and natural resources of our neiffh- 
bors by certain carefully considered, modest 
credits extended by the Export-Import Bank 
in cooperation with United States manufac- 
turers and exporters. 

The outbreak of widespread war in Europe 
last fall engendered grave economic problems 
for the Americas. An Inter-American Com- 
mittee was established, with its seat at Wash- 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ington, to study and advise upon these 
problems. The most important outcome of its 
deliberations is the proposal for the establish- 
ment by the governments of the American 
republics of an Inter-American Bank. Such 
an institution has been under study for 50 
years. It was suggested at the first inter- 
American conference and later was recom- 
mended for study to our Congress by Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison. The definitive proj- 
ect for the establishment of an Inter- American 
Bank which the Secretary of State has char- 
acterized as "a step of major importance in 
the development of inter-American financial 
and economic cooperation" is rapidly nearing 
completion. It is expected that an inter- 
American convention regarding it will be 
signed by a number of the 21 countries within 
a few weeks. It is provided that the bank 
shall come into existence upon the ratification 
of the convention by at least five nations. 

Fifty years ago when our fathers founded 
the Pan American Union, the world was at 
peace. The first years that followed nourished 
the high hopes entertained by all men of good 
■will that that peace would endure. Various 
steps to insure that peace were taken. At two 
international conferences at The Hague the 
processes of conciliation and arbitration re- 
ceived impetus and definition. At several 
inter-American conferences peace treaties were 
signed providing for the peaceful adjustment 
of differences. This progress was blasted by 
the World War. From that holocaust none of 
us have ever fully recovered and out of its 
festering wounds, which two decades could not 
heal, there has emerged another war in Europe, 
the consequences of which are far beyond 
man's power to predict. 

We of the New World owe profound grati- 
tude to the Old. Our civilization has its origin 
in Europe. Our thought, our art and music, 
our science, has always been deeply influenced 
by Eui'ope. We learned from Europe that lib- 
ertj' meant opportunity to develop man's in- 
finite creative potentialities. We learned from 
Europe that the state was a servant to assist 
the fullest expression of the individual, not a 



I 
I 



APKIL 20, 1940 



409 



master to dominate and regiment his action 
and thought. We learned from Europe what 
it meant to give and keep the pledged word. 

And now we are faced with the terrible spec- 
tacle of attack after attack upon this civiliza- 
tion. We have seen the individual crushed 
under the military heel of state domination; 
we have seen freedom of thought, of worship, 
and of assembly denied with a sneer; we have 
seen the pledged word discarded like scraps of 
paper; we have seen lightning attacks upon 
countries whose only efforts have been to re- 
main neutral; we have seen the total extinc- 
tion of independent, peace-loving peoples; we 
have seen militarism gone rampant — all of this 
has happened within the memory of a 7-year- 
old child. 

We in the Americas cherish our independ- 
ence. Our forefathers gave their lives to ob- 
tain it, our fathers have fought to maintain it, 
and we are determined to preserve it for our 
children. We will preserve the peace of this 
hemisphere, and we will not permit it to be 
endangered by aggression, however disguised, 
coming from outside this hemisphere. We will 
provide a sanctuary here where freedom and 
liberty and the culture of the Old World may 
take refuge and be strengthened until peace is 
restored. 

We are prepared to shoulder these responsi- 
bilities. Years of working together have laid 
a firm foundation. Here in the Americas we 
have undertaken to settle diffei-ences by peace- 
ful processes. The solution of many disputed 
boundaries gives gi'ound for belief that the 
remaining difficulties of a similar character 
will soon be removed from the realm of dis- 
pute. We have decided that every American 
nation shall be free to live its own life in its 
own way. We have agreed not to intervene in 
the internal affairs of our neighbors. We seek 
mutual benefit from mutually advantageous 
trade. We are conscientiously striving 
through the development of our resources, the 
expansion of our agricultural and mining 
activities and of our industries to raise the 
standard of living of all Americans to higher 
levels. We are finding increasing time and 

225644 — 40 2 



opportunity for the encouragement of the 
sciences, of literature, of music, of the arts, 
which will strengthen the foundations of our 
civilization. 

Thus, then, is the inter-American way. It 
is the way of peace and of civilization. Let 
us strengthen and preserve it forever. 

■f -f -f 

FIRE AT COLON, PANAMA 

[Released to the press April 15] 

The American Ambassador to Panama, Mr. 
William Dawson, on April 14, 1940, sent the 
Department the following message: 

"Fire destroyed yesteixJay twenty-two blocks 

in Colon leaving ten thousand people homeless. 
Only one death and relatively few minor in- 
juries reported. American army has suj^plied 
tents and is operating kitchens. General Van 
Voorhis with whom 1 flew to Colon this morn- 
ing has telegraphed War Department recom- 
mending that American Red Ci'oss make funds 
available for emergency relief work during 
next few days to be conducted by Army and 
Canal Zone agencies of American Red Cross in 
cooperation with Panamanian authorities and 
Panamanian Red Cross. 

"I heartily endorse his rccoiiinicndatioiis. 
In combating fire and in emergency and relief 
work Army, Navy and Canal officials have co- 
0}5erated splendidly with Panamanian authori- 
ties in every respect. President Boyd and 
other Panamanian officials whom we saw in 
Colon expressed their wann appreciation for 
assistance given and contemplated relief work 
which General Van Voorhis discussed with 
them." 

[Released to tlie press AprU 16) 

Following is a telegiam from the Secretary 
of State to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
Panama, Dr. Narciso Garay: 

"April 15, 1940. 
'T am deepl}- distressed by the catastrophe 
which befell Your Excellency's country in the 
fire at Colon. 

CoRDELL Hull" 



410 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



DEPARTURE FROM THE UNITED 
STATES OF THE PRESIDENT-ELECT 
OF COSTA RICA AND SESORA DE 
CALDERON GUARDIA 

[Released to the press April 17] 

Followinn^ are a translation of a message re- 
ceived by the President from the President- 
elect of Costa Rica, Senor Dr. Rafael A. Cal- 
deron Guardia, and President Roosevelt's 
reply : 

"New York, N. Y., 

Apnl 13, 1940. 
"Before beginning the return journey to my 
country let me be permitted to express to Your 
Excellency and your distinguished wife the 
sentiments of my warmest and most enduring 
gratitude for the honoi-s and thovightful atten- 
tions which have been shown us both by you 
and by your enlightened Government. In de- 
parting from this model Republic, governed 
by a statesman of your exceptional moral and 
intellectual stature, I have the feeling that I 
may one day be able to return, even though 
only in part, the debt of gratitude which we 
have contracted. 

R. A. Calderon Gxjardia" 

"The White House, 

April 16, 19Jfl. 
"I have received with deep appreciation your 
Excellency's gracious message. It was a great 
pleasure to receive you and the distinguished 
members of your party. Please be assured that 
you have my sincere wishes for your personal 
welfare and a successful administration. Mrs. 
Roosevelt joins me in wishing you and Senora 
de Calderon Guardia a pleasant voyage. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



Following are a translation of a message re- 
ceived by the Secretary of State from the 
President-elect of Costa Rica, and Secretary 
Hull's reply : 



"New York, N. Y., 

April 13, 1940. 
"In leaving your noble country I feel that 
it is an honor to express my profound gratitude 
for the many attentions which you lavished on 
me and to send you my wishes for your urif ail- 
ing personal happiness. 

R. A. Calderon Guardia" 

"April 15, 1940. 
"Your thoughtful message is deeply appreci- 
ated. It was sincerely gratifying to have the 
opportunity to receive you in this country. 
You have my very best wishes for your per- 
sonal welfare and the prosperity of the people 
of Costa Rica. 

CoRDELL Hull" 

-f -f -f 

FLOODS IN BUENOS AIRES, 
ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press April 20] 

The President sent the following telegram 
to the President of the Argentine Republic, 
Dr. Roberto M. Ortiz: 

"The White House, 

April 19, 1940. 
"I am deeply distressed by the reports which 
have reached me of the disastrous floods in 
Buenos Aires and I extend to you, and through 
you to the people of Argentina, my deepest 
sympathy. 

Franklin D. RoosE^'ELT" 



The Secretary of State sent the following 
telegram to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of 
Argentina, Dr. Jose Maria Cantilo: 

"April 19, 1940. 
"Please accept my most profound sympathy 
for the losses occasioned by floods in Buenos 
Aires. 

CoRDELL Hull" 



The Far East 



MAINTENANCE OF THE "STATUS QUO" OF THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES 

Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press April 17] 

In response to inquiries by press correspond- 
ents, the Secretary of State made tlie following 
statement : 

"I have noted with interest the statement by 
the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs ex- 
pressing concern on the part of the Japanese 
Government for the maintenance of the status 
quo of the Netherlands Indies. 

"Any change in the status of the Netherlands 
Indies would directly affect the interests of 
many countries. 

"The Netherlands Indies are very important 
in the international relationships of the whole 
Pacific Ocean. Tlie islands themselves extend 
for a distance of approximately 3,200 miles 
east and west astride of the Equator, from the 
Indian Ocean on the west far into the Pacific 
Ocean on the east. They are also an important 
factor in the commerce of the whole world. 
They produce considerable portions of the 
world's supplies of important essential com- 
modities such as rubber, tin, quinine, copra, et 
cetera. Many countries, including the United 
Statea, depend substantially upon them for 
some of these commodities. 

"Intervention in the domestic affairs of the 
Netherlands Indies or any alteration of their 
status quo by other than peaceful processes 
would be prejudicial to the cause of stability, 
peace, and security not only in the region of 
the Netherlands Indies but in the entire Pacific 
area. 

"This conclusion, based on a doctrine which 
has universal application and for which the 
United States unequivocally stands, is em- 
bodied in notes exchanged on November 30, 



1908,= between the United States and Japan 
in which each of the two Governments stated 
that its policy was directed to the maintenance 
of the existing status quo in the region of the 
Pacific Ocean. It is reaffirmed in the notes 
which the United States, the British Empire, 
France, and Japan — as parties to the treaty 
signed at Washington on December 13, 1921,* 
relating to their insular possessions and their 
insular dominions in the region of the Pacific 
Ocean — sent to the Netherlands Government 
on February 4. 1922. in which each of those 
Govenunents declared that 'it is firmly re- 
solved to respect the rights of the Netherlands 
in relation to their insular possessions in the 
region of the Pacific Ocean.' 

"All peaceful nations have dui'ing recent 
years been earnestly urging that policies of 
force be abandoned and that peace be main- 
tained on the basis of fundamental principles, 
among which are respect by every nation for 
the rights of other nations and nonintervention 
in their domestic affairs, the according of 
equality of fair and just treatment, and the 
faithful observance of treaty pledges, with 
modification thereof, when needful, by orderly 
processes. 

"It is the constant hope of the Government 
of the United States — as it is no doubt that of 
all peacefully inclined governments — that the 
attitudes and policies of all governments will 
be based upon these principles and that these 
principles will be applied not only in every 
part of the Pacific area, but also in every part 
of the world." 



'Treaty Series No. 511%. 

'Treaty Series No. 669 (43 Stat. 1646). 



411 



412 

BOMBING OF AMERICAN MISSIONS 
IN CHINA 

t Released to the press April 15] 

The Aiaericaii Ambassador tv China, Mr. 
Nelson T. Johnson, has reported to the De- 
partment of State that he has received infor- 
mation that Chihkiang was heavily bombed 
on April 12 and that the Catholic Mission 
Hospital there was demolished. There were 
no casualties. 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Ambassador Jolmson has also received in- 
formation that the Catholic Mission at Linch- 
wan, Kiangsi, was bombed by Japanese planes 
on April 13. A building housing refugees was 
hit, causing many casualties. All Americans 
were reported safe. The material damage was 
reported to have been heavy. There was a 
large American flag painted on the roof of 
the church, and white crosses marked the other 
buildings. 




GERMAN INVASION OF DENMARK AND NORWAY 



[Released to the press April 15] 

Mr. Raymond E. Cox, first secretary of the 
American Legation at Oslo, Norway, tele- 
graphed the Department on April 13 that the 
families of five Foreign Service officers are 
believed well and secure at the Sjusjoen Hotel, 
about 20 kilometers northeast of Lillehammer. 
They are the families of the following Foreign 
Sei'vice oflScers, who have remained at Oslo: 
First Secretary Raymond E. Cox, Commercial 
Attache Thormod O. Klath, Consul Austin R. 
Preston, Vice Consul Easton T. Kelsey, and 
Vice Consul Brigg A. Perkins. 

The families of Second Secretary James W. 
Riddleberger, Second Secretaiy Joel C. Hud- 
son, and Vice Consul Cyrus B. FoUmer are now 
in Stockholm, having left Oslo on April 11. 
The wife and daughter of Vice Consul Carl 
Birkeland arrived in Oslo on April 13 from 
Draininen, Norway. These Foreign Service 
officers are on duty in Berlin. 

Mr. Cox informed the Department on April 
14, with regard to welfare telegrams i-eceived 
from the State Department and elsewhere, tliat 
the Legation was putting forth every effort to 
expedite replies but that these efforts were ren- 
dered difficult by the fact that communication 
by telephone, post, and telegraph to nearly 
every part of Norway except the environs of 



the capital had been interrupted and that this 
situation seemed likely to continued for some 
time to come. Mr. Cox added that the where- 
abouts of many persons was unknown even to 
their immediate relatives, because great num- 
bers had left the capital. In consequence, he 
said that negative replies might therefore be 
expected to a considerable number of the De- 
partment's inquiries for the present and that 
if the situation became no worse, there would 
be at least long delays before the persons re- 
ferred to in many inquiries could be located. 

[Released to the press April 15] 

The American Minister to Sweden, Mr. 
Frederick A. Sterling, reported to the Depart- 
ment of State on April 14 that he is in touch 
with the American Legation at Oslo twice 
daily. Mr. Cox informed him April 14 that 
there were no communications from Oslo by 
rail to interior points. Thus there is no rail- 
way communication between Oslo and Stock- 
holm. 

Mr. Sterling reported further that direct 
passenger communication between SVeden and 
Denmark is cut off. Telegraphic communica- 
tion between Stockholm and Copenhagen is 
now open via Germany on the responsibility 
of the sender. 



APRIL 20, 1940 



413 



Mr. Sterling reported to the Department on 
April 11 that it was very difficult to estimate 
the number of Americans in Sweden who 
would desire repatriation to the United States 
but that the niunber would probably be between 
one hundred and two hundred. Mr. Sterling 
said that it is true that there are 1,500 Ameri- 
cans in Sweden but that most of them have 
long been married to Swedes and in all proba- 
bility will not wish to leave Sweden. 

[Released to the press April 15] 

The American Minister to Sweden reported 
to the Department of State that the following 
wives and minor children of officers of the Le- 
gation and Consulate General have been 
ordered evacuated to the United States: 

Mi's. Ethel Snow, wife, and Charles and Chris- 
tine, children, of Vice Consul William P. 
Snow. 

Mrs. Helen Jenkins, wife, and Douglas, 3d, son, 
of Third Secretary Douglas Jenkins, Jr. 

Mrs. Lillian Alfsen, wife of Vice Consul Fritz 
A. M. Alfsen. 

Consul Lynn W. Franklin, his wife, and four 
children, proceeding on leave of absence, are 
accompanying the above. 

It is understood that they left Stockholm on 
the night of April 13 for Genoa via Berlin, to 
sail on the Washington April 20. 

It is assumed that they crossed from Sweden 
to Germany on the Tralleborg-Sassnitz ferry. 

(Released to the press AprU 17] 

First Secretary Cox at Oslo, reported to the 
Department of State on April 17 that every 
effort is being made to do everything possible 
at Oslo to arrange evacuation facilities for 
Americans. 

Mr. Cox added that so far as it is known to 
the Legation, all Americans located in the area 
of Oslo and vicinity are well. 

[Released to the press April 18] 

The American Minister to Sweden reports 
that the women and children of the staff of the 
Oslo Legation and Consulate General who are 
now at the Hotel Sjusjoen, near Lillehammer, 
will be evacuated to Sweden on April 19 or 20 

225644—40 3 



by Lt. Comdr. Ole O. Hagen, Naval Attache. 
They are waiting until the roads are clear of 

snow. 

[Released to the press April 19] 

First Secretary Cox at Oslo, Norway, re- 
ported on the night of April 18 to the De- 
partment of State as follows : 

Oslo and the adjacent occupied areas remain 
quiet. 

The first train connection over the Komsjo 
route to Swedish stations left in the afternoon 
of April 18. 

A considerable proportion of Americans 
who so far have registered state that they do 
not wish to leave Norway immediately. The 
situation regarding formalities required for 
Americans to leave Norway, regulations on 
withdrawal of funds from banks, and avail- 
ability of foreign exchange is not yet clarified. 
Exit visas must be obtained from the German 
passport office which cooperates with the mili- 
tary authorities, but such visas have not yet 
been given to Americans. The local agent of 
the United States Lines and some travel 
agencies now state that they can accept Nor- 
wegian kroner in payment of transportation to 
Genoa only. This situation is subject to quick 
changes. 

The American Legation is in contact with 
the German and Swedish Legations regarding 
visa and "repatriation problems. 

At the present time, the American Legation 
at Oslo caimot communicate with Americans 
located outside of the occupied districts in 
southern Norway. 

In another telegram, Mr. Cox reported that 
the German Legation has stated orally that it 
has received instructions from the Foreign 
Office in Berlin to take necessary steps to facil- 
itate departure of American ships, the Flying 
Fish and Charles R. McCormick, believed to 
be at Bergen, and to try to communicate these 
instructions to German consuls at Bergen and 
Trondheim. Mr. Cox has asked the German 
Legation to inform the American consul at 
Bergen that the vessels may complete their 
voyages and return to the United States with- 



414 

out validation of passports for crew members 
and that they must carry no American 
passengers. 

(Released to the press April 20] 

The First Secretary at Oslo reported to the 
Department the receipt of a message from 
Maurice P. Diinlap, American consul at Ber- 
gen, through the German Legation, of which 
the following is a translation : "All Americans 
at Bergen including officers and crew of the 
Flying Fish and Charles McGormick have 
shifted locality and are in neighboring, safer 
places, cargo intact, information received from 
Trondheim that all well." 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIRECT 
RELATIONS WITH ICELAND 

IReleased to the press April 16] 

The Secretary of State is in receipt of a tele- 
gram from the Prime Minister of Iceland, Mr. 
Hermann Jonasson, informing him that the 
Icelandic Government is anxious to enter into 
direct relations with the United States. Mr. 
Hull has replied that this Government is agree- 
able in the existing circumstances to the estab- 
lishment of Icelandic representation and hopes 
itself to open a consular office at Reykjavik in 
the near future. 



Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plat e Scrap, etc. 



MONTHLY STATISTICS 



[Released to the press April 18] 

Note: The figures relating to arms, tlie licenses for 
the export of which were revoked before they were 
used, have been subtracted from the figures appearing 
in the cumulative column of the table below in regard 
to arms export licenses issued. These latter figures 
are therefore net figures. They are not yet final and 
definitive since licenses may be amended or revolied at 
any time before being used. They are, however, accu- 
rate as of the date of this press release. 

The statistics of actual exports in these releases are 
believed to be substantially complete. It is possible, 
however, that some shipments are not included. If 
tliis proves to be the fact, statistics in regard to such 
shipments will be Included in the cumulative figures 
in later releases. 



Arms Export Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of 
the arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
licensed for export by the Secretary of State 
during the year 1940 up to and including the 
month of March: 





Category 


Value 


Country oJ destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Angola 


I 

v 


(4) 
(2) 


$24.00 


$24.00 




435.00 








Total 


24.00 


469.00 




I 

m 

IV 
V 

vn 


(5) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 








2,300.00 






10.00 




" 


602. 00 




2,074.00 

2. 900. 00 

422.00 

7.53 


2,720.00 
23, 800. 00 
38. 652. 48 
16, 007. 53 


Total-. 


5. 403. 63 


83, 092. 01 




I 

ni 

rv 

V 


a? 

(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Australia - - 


221. 80 
23.68 


333. 25 




341.68 
1,319,830.00 




92.00 


167.00 
469. 00 




"315,826.60 
1,358,720.00 


5,020.00 

368,660.60 

1,384,898.00 


Total - 


1,674,877.18 


3, 079, 619. 43 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 






17.29 
1.87 


17.29 




1.87 


Total 


19.16 


19.16 




I 
III 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 






217.00 
181.00 


217.00 




181.00 
2,292,000.00 




69,66 


69,00 



APRIL 20, 1940 



415 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


Marcii 1940 


3 month,s 

cndinK 

March 31, 

1940 


Bolgium— Continued. 


V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




$20,746.00 
243,957.00 
419,400.00 




$6,957.00 






Total 


7,424.00 


2,976,669.00 




I (4) 

I (4) 

IV (2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

Vn (1) 






16.00 






Bolivia 


68.00 


445.00 






64 60 






4.'), 384. 00 
1. 202 32 




252.32 


Total 


310. 32 


47, 356. 92 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

lU (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 


Brazil . . ._ _ 




606.00 
5,438.00 
2,001.00 
203, 216. 00 
5,863.00 
19,728.00 
26,100.00 
71 707 16 




5,438.00 








3, 000. 00 

104.00 

2, 800. 00 




7,000.00 


34,347.00 


Total - - 


18. 342. 00 


368, 006. 16 




V (1) 

VII (1) 

(2) 


British Guiana... 




2,500.00 






British Honduras . 




129 20 






108 30 








Total 




237 .50 




I (4) 
I (4) 

rv (1) 

(2) 






British North Borneo . 




2 43 








Burma ... 




73 02 




472. 00 


472. 00 
43.22 








Total 


472.00 


688.24 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(5) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (2) 

VU (1) 

(2) 




Canada.. 


7,889.10 


12 122 34 




340. 00 




115, 595. 84 


125,514.41 
90, 000. 00 




15,467,000.00 

607. 50 

491. 49 

115.600.00 

45, 040. 30 

8,967.00 


15, 457, 000. 00 

2, 516. 54 

702. 52 

160,900.00 

124,933.40 

646,056.35 

36. 000. 00 




14,732.97 
1.65 


35,824.58 
6, 307. 75 


Total 


16,765,916.86 


16.698,217.89 




I (4) 

IV (2) 

V (1) 
(2) 

VII (2) 




Chile 


8.00 
4,097.00 


338 00 




4,873.00 
3,500.00 






34.00 






12,607.15 








Total 


4,105.00 


21,352.15 




I (2) 

III (1) 
(2) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 




China 




342, 830. 00 

2,410,134.62 

91,736.00 

117.60 

6.00 

90,000.00 




2, 244, 422. 62 

72, 490. 00 

78.00 

6.00 




694, 675. 87 
137, 674. 72 


1,766,319.74 

2, 050, 876. 35 

632, 672. 00 








Total 


3, 149, 346. 21 


7 274, 690 31 




I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Colombia 




46.00 




1, 042. 20 
167. 76 


1,711.90 

411.76 

35, 000. 00 




1,161.00 
16,636.00 


1,161.00 
26,036.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Colombia— Continued. 


vri 


(I) 

(2) 


$601.31 


$801.31 
285 00 








Total 


19, 607. 27 


64,250.97 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 

h) 

(2) 
(2) 
(3) 

(1) 


Costa Rica 




4 00 






20.00 






3.00 
436 62 






4.868.00 
1,211.24 




251.64 


Total 


251.54 


6,641.86 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 

(') 
2) 
(3) 

(2) 


Cuba 


196.00 


235.00 
17 60 






1.546.00 

1,700.00 

700.00 


1,969.00 
1,700.00 
2,600.00 
2,000 00 






704 28 




11.00 


19.00 


Total 


4,153.00 






IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




Curacao. 




6.00 
30 00 








6,260.00 
17.50 


31,550.00 
17.60 


Total 


6, 267. 60 


31,603.60 




V 

IV 

V 
VII 


(3) 

(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 




2.040.00 


2.040.00 




Dominican Republic 




13 00 






506 00 




500.00 
170,00 


1,250.00 
618.80 


Total 


670.00 


2,387.80 




I 

IV 

vn 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 




90.00 
22.00 






180.00 
123 00 




1,374.00 


7.128.00 








Total 


1,486.00 


8,456.00 




I 
rv 

V 


(3) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 




3,310.00 
14.00 


3, 310. 00 
31.00 
315 80 
















Total 


3, 324. 00 


3,716.80 




III 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 


El Salvador 


18,200.00 
1,750.00 


18,200.00 
1,750.00 




Total 


19.950.00 






I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 




Finland 


144. 85 

951.50 

4, 639. 25 

318,000.00 


3,356,897.86 

951.60 

22,334.25 

318,000.00 




Total... 


323,635.60 






I 

III 

IV 
V 


(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




France 


626,000.00 


625 000 00 




28, 308. 00 
1.617,685.00 




85.00 






16,237.80 

30.00 

367 500 00 




30.00 




7,030.00 
14,000.00 


6,462,455.73 
60,098,270.00 


Total 


546,146.00 


124,854,518.23 




I 

IV 


W 
(I) 
(2) 


Frencb Indochina 




61.00 




3,836.00 


6, 876. 00 
398.00 








Total. 


3,836.00 


6,325.00 



416 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





CatcKory 


Value 


Coiiiilry of (Icstinaliun 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


areat Britain and Northern 
Ireland. 


I 

III 
IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


$135,702.88 
104.00 


$135, 702. 88 

907, 876. OO 

800.90 




1, 861, 400. 00 


1,861,400.00 
132.00 






8, 000. flfl 




223,300.00 


308, 083. 50 
2, 779. 00 




3,715.00 


3, 715. 00 
400, 000. 00 








Total .- - 


2, 22i 221. 88 


3, 628, 489. 28 




I 


(3) 
(4) 
(6) 


150.00 
50.00 


150.00 




50.00 
90, 900. 00 








Total. . --- 


200.00 


91, 100, 00 




IV 
VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 




169.00 




1, 280. 00 
194.40 


1,284.00 

194.40 

3, 064. 00 








Total -- 


1, 474. 40 


4, 701. 40 


Haiti..-- 


V 

I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 




7,000.00 






123.00 




71.00 

23.00 

2, 870. 00 


71.00 

109. 00 

3, 170. 00 


Total 


2,964.00 


3, 473. 00 




I 

IV 

V 
VI 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 




Hone Kone 




2,017.75 




240.00 
2,127.00 


1, 123. 10 

5, 783. 00 

67.76 




462.00 


1,962.00 
40.00 








Total 


2,829.00 


10, 993. 60 




IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 






1,920.00 

94.00 

7,890.00 

763.00 


1,920.00 




94.00 

7,890.00 

763.00 


Total 


10,667.00 


10,667.00 




I 

IV 
V 

VI 


(1) 
(4) 

2) 
0) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




India 


270. 62 
1, 048. 21 
1,183.25 

221.00 


270. 52 




3, 079. 19 

2,689.24 

345.00 

20, 500. 00 




30.00 


962. 00 
1,000.00 






695.00 








Total 


2,762.98 


29, 874. 60 




V 


(2) 
(3) 




Ireland 




116,823.00 

3,270.60 

21,221.00 




3,270.60 
21,221.00 


Total 


24,491.60 


141,314 60 




V 
IV 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 




Italy 


13,610.00 


13,610.00 






75.00 
27.60 


123. 00 




27.60 


Total... 


102. 60 


160.60 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 








96.00 


96.00 
145 00 








Total 


96.00 


343.00 


Leeward Islands 


VII (2) 

I (4) 


162. 46 


163.46 


Mauritius 




89.00 





Category 


Val 


ue 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 




I 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 


(1) 

(5) 

(1) 
(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 


$52.85 


$108. 85 




112.50 




638.00 

64, 7.50. 00 

1, 165. 00 

2, 380. 00 


2,118.00 
201, 500. 00 
2,938.00 
7, 280. 00 
1 112. 50 






2, 639. 50 




750.00 


20,180.00 


Total 


69, 735. 85 


236, 989. 35 




I 

V 


(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(2) 
(3) 






10, 681. 00 


12, 866. 00 




47.50 






155.00 




8, 759. 69 


16, 360. 19 
44, 600. 00 








Total 


19,440.69 


74, 028. 69 




I 
III 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Netherlands Indies 


129.00 


158. 74 




3,200.00 






222, 250. 10 




22, 476. 50 

158.00 

417, 106. 12 


34,457.90 

279.00 

417, 106. 12 

7, 739. 00 






145, 510. 79 








Total 


439,868.62 


830, 701. 65 




I 
I 

IV 


(4) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




New Caledonia 




203.00 












51.00 






82.24 




383.00 


383.00 
31.00 








Total 


383.00 


547.24 




III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 




New Zealand 


1,916,870.00 


1,916,870.00 




202.00 






1,600.00 






2.390.00 






6. 125. 00 








Total 


1,916,870.00 


1,927,187.00 




VII 

I 
III 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(I) 
(2) 
(3) 




Nicaragua 


1,292.00 


1,292.00 






Norway . 


414.83 

51,606.00 

33.71 


484.83 




52. 031. 00 
36. 659. 71 
712,000.00 






280.00 




192.00 
62.00 


222.00 

203.00 

2, 200. 00 






39, 854. 00 




1,616.00 


1, 515. 00 


Total.... 


53,813.54 


845, 349. 54 


Pfin*i"i« 


I 

IV 
VII 


(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 




3,900.00 




104.00 
8.20 


156.00 

8.20 

800.00 








Total 


112.20 


4,864.20 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 




Paraguay 




283.00 






7. 614. 00 








Total 




7,897.00 




rv 

V 
VII 


h 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 










64.00 






30, 138. 60 




172.00 


3.647.00 
60, 160. 00 




600.00 


1,000.00 


Total 


772.00 


85, 009. 60 



APRIL 2 0, 1940 



417 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Portugal 


I (1) 
(4) 

IV (2) 

V (1) 

vn (1) 




$51.80 








$68.00 
1,900.00 


80.00 

4.300.00 

355^70 








Total 


1.968.00 


4.831.56 




V 

I 
rv 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 


^\■^mftTtiA 




600.00 






Soutbem Rhodesia 




180 OO 






227 50 




5100 


125. OO 
82 00 








Total 


54.00 


614.50 




I 
I 


(1) 

(2) 
(4) 
(2) 


Straits Settlements - 












RnpTiATTi 


9.997.00 
1.64 
2.47 


9.997.00 
1.64 
2.47 




Total 


laOOl. 11 


la 001.11 


Sweden 


I 

III 
rv 
v 


(2) 
(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 


8,000.00 
5,222.00 
4.000.00 

233.625.00 
7. 524. 03 

329.400.00 


108.000 no 




128.047.00 

4.000.00 

233.625.00 

101. 617. .W 

1.472.520.00 


Total 


587.771.03 


(UT cnQ M 




rv 

V 


(1) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Thailand 


2. 679. 40 


8.705.40 
5. 300 00 






9,420.00 


12. 320. 00 
156. 000. 00 








Total.- 


12,099.40 






V 


(2) 
(3) 




Trinidad... 




294 00 




i.soaoo 


6.00O.0O 


Total 


i.5oaoo 


6^294.00 




m 
rv 

V 


(2) 

(2) 


Turkey... 




5,610 00 

33.00 

620 

115. 76a OO 




3a 00 

6.20 
33.234.00 


Total _. 


33.273.20 


121.409.20 


Union of South Africa. 


I 
ra 

IV 
V 

vrr 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 

'S 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 




108. 10 






171.88 






173.600.00 




328.20 


1891528.20 
9 00 




1, 753. 00 
8,460.08 


3.553.00 
9,058.15 
6,000.00 






156.00 






40.228.00 








Total 


la Ml. 28 


422 412.33 




r 
rv 

V 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 




Crugoay 


131.00 


131.00 




433.00 




555.00 

2.900.00 
100,40 


555.00 

2,90a00 

100.40 


Total 


3.6S6.40 


4.119.40 


Venezuela 


r 

m 
rv 

V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 

h 

(3) 


61.40 
22.x 00 
36.00 


100.24 




225.00 

68.93 

24.000.00 




3,411.00 
140.20 

s,9oaoo 

l,366i00 


4,339.00 

19a 20 

14,90a00 

8,966l00 
11.000 00 




1,33a 61 
168.00 


3.017.68 
11.927.40 


Total 


12,628.21 


78,734.45 





Category 


Value 


Country of destinatioo 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Yugoslavia 


V (3) 




$301780:00 








Orand total 


$27,016,887 50 


170,125,821.83 







During the month of March, 334 arms ex- 
port licenses were issued, making a total of 
989 such licenses issued during the current 
year. 

Arms Exported 

The table printed below irrdicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of 
the arms, anununition, and implements of war 
exported during the j-ear 19i0, up to and in- 
cluding the month of March, under export 
licenses issued by the Secretary of State : 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


MarxJil940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Angola . 


'v U 


$24.00 
400.00 


$24.00 
435.00 




Total 


434.00 459 00 




TV (1) 

V (1) 
(2) 

(3) 

vn to 




Argentina . 


4.00 
3; 418. 00 


70 00 




2,418.00 
642.00 




783.00 
18,900.00 

iai5i.oo 

29,165.00 
7.53 


806.00 

23.800.00 

13.745.48 

24a 416.00 

7.53 


TotaL 


61.428.53 


281 905 01 




r (1) 

{*^ 
m (1) 
rv (2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Australia 


45.00 

39.00 

1.138,140.00 

15.00 

5,468.00 

52.467.00 

13a 890. 00 


536.75 




318.00 

6, 948, 53a 00 

460.00 

9.968.00 

129. 329. 00 

183.246.00 


Total 


1,327.064.00 


7 272.396.75 




I (4) 

IV to 






17.29 
1.87 


17 29 




1.87 


Total 


19 16 1 19 16 




'y 81 




n«1;inin 




3a 79 




as. 496. 00 


65,997.00 


Total 


28,496.00 


66,027.79 



418 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 




I (1) 
(4) 




$48.00 






16.00 












64.00 




I (4) 

V (1) 

(2) 

(3) 






Bolivia 


$39.00 
12,500.00 


39.00 




12, 500. 00 
1, 041. 69 






9,600.00 










12, 539. 00 


23, 180. 69 




I (1) 

(4) 

HI (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(31 

VII (2) 




Braiil - 


67.00 

210.00 

81,360.00 

3,000.00 

3,385.00 


605.00 




4,612.00 
255, 240. 00 

5,633.00 
19, 878. 00 
139, 864. 00 




6, 770. 00 
15. 820. 00 


52, 983. 75 

28, 288. 75 

2.00 










109, 612. 00 


507, 106. 50 




IV (1) 
(2) 

VII (1) 
(2) 








15.00 






18.00 




129.20 
108. 30 


129.20 
108.30 


Total - -- 


237.50 


270.50 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (2) 

VII (I) 
(2) 




Canada 


3, 803. 28 

10.00 

4, 481. 03 


7, 060. 38 




10.00 

7, 160. 84 

1, 207, 233. 00 




745.00 
133. 70 
21.564.00 
42, 674. 29 
22, 489. 40 
36, 000. 00 
14, 304. 00 
17, 481. 00 


2, 861. 30 
358. 69 
94, 589. 00 
64, 031. 70 
160, 645. 90 
36, 000. 00 

35, 243. 86 

36. 363. 70 


Total - 


163,685.70 






I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 

VII (2) 






338.00 


386 00 




1,491.00 

1,309.00 

3,500.00 

34 00 




900.00 










22, 143 00 






12 600 00 








Total -. .-. 


1, 238. 00 


41,463.00 




I (1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V CD 
(2) 
(3) 


China 








2,900.00 


117,925.00 
850 00 












306,650.00 








6,600.00 


6,644.00 
110,000.00 
111,669.00 
221, 370. 00 




26,343.00 
2, 640. 00 


Total 


37.383.00 


899, 234. 60 




I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

vn (1) 

(2) 


Colombia 




55.00 








603.00 


1, 166. 00 

112,600.00 

5, 678. 00 

4,000.00 

601.00 

285.00 




1,163.00 




601.00 
286.00 


Total 


2, 552. 00 


124,972.00 




I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 


Costs Rica 


4.00 

20.00 

3.00 


4.00 

20.00 

3.00 

14, 675. 00 

3, 300. 00 











Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Costa Rica— Continued. 


VII 


(1) 


$1,211.24 


$1,851.24 


Total 


1,238.24 


19, 853. 24 




I 
IV 

V 
VII 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


Cuba 


39.00 


123 00 








120.00 
1.700.00 
1,800.00 
3,876.00 

829.28 
8.00 


3, 264. 00 

1.700.00 

fi, 195. 00 

12, 876. 00 

829.28 

8.00 


Total 


8, 372. 28 


25, 012. 78 




rv 

V 


(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 


Curasao - - 


6.00 


6 00 




1, 500. 00 

30.00 

21,000.00 




30.00 
14,000.00 


Total 


14,036.00 


22. 536. 00 




IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(2) 
(1) 


Dominican Republic 




506 00 




500.00 

618.80 


500.00 
618. 80 


Total 


1,118.80 


1. 624. 80 




I 

IV 
VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 












183 00 










2,065.00 
900.00 


4, 510. 00 
900.00 


Total 


2,965.00 


6.949.00 




IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(2) 


Egypt - 




3,619.00 










60 00 








Total 




4,131.80 




I 

VII 


(4) 
(2) 








122 00 




1,750.00 


1,750.00 


Total - .- 


1,760.00 


1,872.00 




I 
in 

IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 






164,650.00 

742,065.00 

2,289,147.00 

933.00 

69, 199. 00 

450, 903. 00 

63,000.00 




474, .562. 66 

177,660.00 

933.00 

3.706.00 

160, 595. 00 

53.000.00 


Total -.- --- 


870.456.00 


3, 769, 897. 00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 


(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 






227,500.00 

9,981.00 

12.350.00 

10, 183. 369. 00 

13. 208. 00 

18, 375. 00 

641, 249. 00 

777,022.00 


234, 142 00 




23,820.00 

12,350.00 

24,780,180.00 

13,208.00 

18,375.00 

1,885,856.00 

3.759.425.00 


Total . 


11,883,054.00 


30 727 356 00 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 




French Indochina 


51.00 
11.00 


51.00 




11.00 


Total 


62.00 


62 00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 

CD 

(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 




Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland. 


337.50 


337.50 
24 566.00 




49.00 
600.00 


397.00 

800.90 

6. 209. 800. 00 






132 00 




8.000.00 
211.403.50 
332.690.00 

1. 978. 00 
40.000.00 


8.000.00 

600. 439. 50 

1,373,803.00 

1,978.00 

40,000.00 


Total. ._ 


694,968.00 


3,260,243.90 



APRIL 30, 1940 



419 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


8 months 

cndins 

March 31, 

1940 


Greece 


I 


(3) 

(4) 


$160. 00 
50.00 


$150. 00 
60.00 




Total 


200.00 


200. 00 




I 

IV 

VII 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 
(2) 












12 OO 










639.00 


639.00 
3,060.00 






Total 


639.00 


3, 907. 00 




vn 

I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 

(4) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 


Haiti 




6 00 








Honduras.. 




123 00 






86.00 






50,000 00 






260.00 








Total.... 




50 469 00 




IV 

I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 








2,127.00 


5, 783, 00 






572 75 
972 74 
2, 006. 24 
158.00 
20,500.00 
672.00 






3,641.56 
2, 195. 24 

668.31 
20, 500. 00 

922.00 
1,000 00 








Total 


24,881.73 


29,675.64 




V 
IV 


(1) 

(1) 
(2) 


Ireland . 


116,823.00 


116,823.00 




Jamaica 


75.00 
27.60 


346 00 




27.60 


Total 


102.60 


373 50 




V 
V 

I 


(2) 

(3) 

(1) 
(4) 




Japan 




1,651 00 








Latvia 




18,077 00 








Mauritius 




261 46 




89.00 


289.28 


Total 


89.00 


640.73 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
CI) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 








66.00 




1,480.00 

49, 760. 00 

113.00 

980.00 

351.00 

16,939.00 


1,480.00 

174, 360. 00 

1,288.00 

1, 580. 00 

10, 543. 26 

17,819.00 


Total.. 


68,613 00 


207,116.25 




I 
III 

V 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 






Netherlands... 




16, 972. 00 






47. ,50 






155.00 




1,312.00 
60,841.00 
30, 515. 00 


9, 674. 00 
157,216.50 
136, 279. 50 


Total 


82, 668. 00 


319, 343. 50 




I 
III 

IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 

(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




Netherlands Indies 




1, 868. 00 






681.77 




133,200.00 


281,076.00 
388, 2M. 00 




18. 66 


11,406.40 
441. 17 




27,290.00 

6,246.00 

138, 000. 00 


37, 062 00 

6, 246. 00 

138, 000. 00 


Total 


304,764.00 


865. 044. 34 




I 
I 


(4) 

(1) 
(4) 




New Caledonia... 




203.00 








Newfoundland 




51.00 






82.24 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Newfoundland— Continued. 


IV 


(I) 

(2) 


$383.00 
31.00 


$383.00 
31.00 


Total 


414.00 


647 24 




V 

IV 
V 


(2) 

<'! 

(2 
(3) 




New Guinea, Territory of. 




1,500.00 








New Zealand . .. 




202.00 






1 971.16 






2, 540. 00 






Total 




4 713.16 




I 

IV 

VII 

I 

III 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(2) 

(1) 
(1) 

(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 






Nicaragua, 




1,264.00 






4,035.00 
1.292.00 




1,292.00 


Total.. 


1,292.00 


6,591.00 


Norway.. 




70.00 






285 00 




30,200.00 

1,014,076.00 

280.00 

121.00 

2,200.00 

644.00 


36, 493. 20 

1,354,114.00 

280.00 

137.00 

2,200.00 

644.00 


Total 


1,053,521.00 


1,394,223 20 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 

(1) 
(1) 
(1) 




Panama. , . 




3, 900 00 






2 100 00 






,52.00 






1,441. 13 






1,467 60 








Total 




8,950.73 




IV 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 

(1) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 




Paraguay.. . . 


2,112.00 


2 112 00 






Peru.... 




64 00 




28,610.00 
3,8,54.00 

25. 386. 00 
1,000.00 


31,310.00 

10,376.00 

26, 386. 00 

1,000.00 


Total 


58,850.00 


68 136 00 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 








SI. 80 






44.00 






12.00 






2,400 00 






33.00 






355. 76 








Total. 




2 896 66 




V 

I 

IV 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 






RiimAnin 




600 00 










180.00 

7i.00 

82.00 


180 00 




227.50 
71.00 
82 00 
60.62 








Total 


333.00 


621. 02 




I 
I 

IV 
VII 


(1) 

(4) 
(2) 
(1) 




Straits Settlements... 




9 12 










1.64 
2.47 


1.64 




2.47 
193.80 








Total 


4.11 


197 91 




I 
III 

V 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 






8,000.00 

16, 247. 00 

350, 900. 00 






16. 307. 00 

I, 659, 900. 00 

65,000.00 




3, 261. 00 


111,172.96 


Total 


378,408.00 


1, 860, 379 95 




I 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 




Thailand 




17.65 






1.93 




i. 282.00 


6.983.00 



420 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


March 1940 


3 months 

ending 

March 31, 

1940 


Thailand— Contlnaed. 


V 


(3) 


$5,300.00 


$5. 300. 00 
2, 637. 00 




156, 000. 00 


193, 120. 00 


Total 


162, 682. 00 


208, 059. 68 


TriniHad 


IV 
V 


(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




18.00 




294.00 


3, 094. 00 
4,500.00 








Total 


294.00 


7, 612. 00 




I 

III 
IV 
V 


(2) 
(6) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




148,136.00 


1 urKGy . 




168, 760. 00 




2,100.00 

8, 820. 00 

33.00 

6.20 

26,389.00 


1,184.184.00 
8,820.00 
14.236.00 
1, 306. 20 
65, 216. UP 
41,034.00 








Total - 


36, 348. 20 


1,611,681.30 




I 

III 
IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
0) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
CD 
(2) 




61. 10 




127. 76 


136. 88 
17.3,600.00 






7.00 




1,850.00 
1,616.88 


1,860.00 
3,422.90 
6, 000. 00 






166.00 






40,064.00 








Total 


3,694.63 


226, 297. 94 




V 

I 

IV 


(3) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 




120,512.00 


publics. 










39.00 






433. 00 






243. 00 








Total- 




715.00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 






Venezuela 


61.40 
246.00 
36.00 
28,000.00 
2, 289. 00 
143. 20 


61.40 




246.00 

39.00 

28, 000. 00 

2,820.00 

190.20 

9,000.00 




3,500.00 

17,000.00 

162. 70 

168.00 


15.044.00 

35,000.00 

4,781.22 

8, 640. 40 


Total 


61, 606. 30 


103 72'' 22 




V 


(1) 
(2) 




Yugoslavia . 




63 000 00 




9,046.00 


23, 315. 00 


Total 


9,045.00 


86,315.00 






Grand totfll . - 


17,481,900.68 


61,041,791.67 









Arms Impokt Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
iicter, value, and countries of origin of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
licensed for import by the Secretary of State 
during the month of March 1940 : 



Country of origin 


Category 


Value 


Total 


Brazil -- 


V (3) 
I (1) 

(4) 
IV (2) 

V (21 
I (1) 

(2) 

I (2) 

(3) 

(4) 

(5) 

III (2) 

VII (1) 

V (2) 

V CD 

V C2) 


$1,000.00 

50.00 

36.36 

9.00 

36.00 

10.00 

6.00 

1,679.00 

3,245.00 

18, 924. 00 

242.00 

10.00 

1, 350. 00 

265. 00 

1, 500, CO 

280.00 


$1,000.00 


Canada 






129.36 
• 15.00 




India - - 


26,460.00 
266.00 




1,500.00 




280.00 






Total . . 




28,639.36 











During the month of March, 18 arms import 
licenses were issued, making a total of 51 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 

Categories of Arms, Ammunition, and Im- 
plements OF War 

The categories of arms, ammunition, and 
implements of war in the appropriate column 
of the tables printed above are the categories 
into which those articles were divided in the 
President's proclamation of May 1, 1937, 
enumerating the articles which would be con- 
sidered as arms, ammunition, and implements 
of war for the purposes of section 5 of the joint 
resolution of May 1, 1937 [see pages 119-120 
of the Bullet m of January 27, 1940 (Vol. II, 
No. 31)]. 

Special Statistics in Regard to Arms Ex- 
ports TO Cuba 

In compliance with article II of the conven- 
tion between the United States and Cuba to 
suppress smuggling, signed at Habana, March 
11, 1926, which reads in part as follows: 

"The High Contracting Parties agree that 
clearance of shipments of merchandise by 
water, air, or land, from any of the ports of 
either country to a port of entry of the other 
country, shall be denied when such shipment 
comprises articles the importation of which is 
prohibited or restricted in the country to which 
such shipment is destined, unless in this last 
case there has been a compliance with the req- 
uisites demanded by the laws of both coun- 
tries." 



1 



APRIL 2 0, 194 



421 



and in compliance with the laws of Cuba which 
restrict the importation of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war of all kinds by requir- 
ing an import permit for each shipment, ex- 
port licenses for shipments of arms, ammuni- 
tion, and implements of war to Cuba are re- 
quired for the articles enumerated below in 
addition to the articles enumerated in the 
President's proclamation of May 1, 1937: 

(1) Arms and small arms using ammunition 
of caliber .22 or less, other than those classed as 
toys. 

(2) Spare parts of arms and small arms of 
all kinds and calibers, other than those classed 
as toys, and of guns and machine guns. 

(3) Ammunition for the arms and small 
arms under ( 1 ) above. 

(4) Sabers, swords, and military machetes 
with cross-guard hilts. 

(5) Explosives as follows: explosive pow- 
iers of all kinds for all purposes; nitrocellu- 
lose having a nitrogen content of 12 percent or 
less; diphenylamine; dynamite of all kinds; 
nitroglycerine; alkaline nitrates (ammonium, 
potassium, and sodium nitrate); nitric acid; 
nitrobenzene (essence or oil of mirbane) ; sul- 
phur; sulphuric acid; chlorate of potash; and 
icetones. 

(6) Tear gas (CeHsCOCH^Cl) and other 
dmilar nontoxic gases and apparatus designed 
for the storage or projection of such gases. 

The table printed below indicates, in respect 
to licenses authorizing the exportation to Cuba 
af the articles and commodities listed in the 
preceding paragraph, issued by the Secretary 
af State during March 1940, the number of 
licenses and the value of the articles and com- 
modities desci'ibed in the licenses: 



Number of licenses 


Section 


Value 


Total 


7 


(I) 
(2) 
(3) 
6) 


$1, 737. 50 
1, 253. 00 
5, 603. 00 

85, 072. 24 






■ $93, 665. 74 



The table printed below indicates the value 
3f the articles and commodities listed above 



exported to Cuba during March 1940 under 
licenses issued by the Secretary of State: 



Section 



(I) 
(3) 
(5) 



Value 



$354. 20 

7, 825. 60 

38. 328. 80 



Total 



$46, 906. SO 



Tin-Plate Scrap 

The table printed below indicates the number 
of licenses issued during the year 1940, up to 
and including the month of March, authorizing 
the export of tin-plate scrap under the pro- 
visions of the act approved February 15, 1936, 
and the regulations issued pursuant thereto, 
together with the number of tons authorized to 
be exported and the value thereof: 





March 1940 


3 months ending 
March 31. 1940 


Country of destination 


Quantity 
In long 

tons 


Total 
value 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total 
value 




293 


$5, 456. 50 


2,429 


$46, 893. 38 







During the month of March, 8 tin-plate scrap 
licenses were issued, making a total of 36 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 

Heliitm 

The table printed below gives the essential 
information in regard to the licenses issued 
during the month of March 1940 authorizing 
the exportation of helium gas under the pro- 
visions of the act approved on September 1, 
1937, and the regulations issued pursuant 
thereto : 



Applicant for license 


Purchaser in for- 
eign country 


Country 
of desti- 
nation 


Quantity 

In cuhic 

feet 


Total 
value 


The Linde Air Prod- 
ucts Co. 


The 0. H. Johns 
Glass Co. 


Canada. 


.353 


$48.00 



422 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, etc. 



Foreign Service 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURE AT ROME 

[Released to the press April 20] 

The Internation;il Institute of Agriculture 
at Rome will convene its Fifteenth General As- 
sembly at that city on May 20, 1940. The 
President has approved the appointment of the 
following persons to represent the United 
States at the meeting: 

Chairman of the delegation: 
Mr. J. Clyde Marquis, American Member of 
the Permanent Committee of the Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture at Rome, 
and Vice President of the Institute 

Delegates on the part of the Government of the 
United States: 

Mr. Loyd V. Steere, Agricultural Attache, 
American Embassy, London 

Mr. John L. Stewart, Senior Agricultural 
Economist and Chief, Information Section, 
Foreign Agricultural Relations, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Mrs. Laura Lubin Saqui, New York, N. Y. 

Delegate to represent the Commo-nioealth of 
the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and 
the Virgin Islands: 
Mr. J. Clyde Marquis 

Secretary of the delegation: 

Mr. Walter C. Dowling, Third Secretary, 
American Embassy, Rome. 

The International Institute of Agriculture at 
Rome is a permanent organization which acts 
as a clearinghouse for information on economic, 
scientific, and technical problems as they affect 
agriculture. It also supplies national organi- 
zations with information on production, prices, 
and international trade in agricultural prod- 
ucts. This (lovernment is a member of the 
In.stitute and contributes an annual sum for 
American pai-ticipation in its work. 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to the press April 20] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States sinxse April 6, 1940: 

Frank P. Lockhart, of Pittsburg, Tex., 
counselor of embassy at Peiping, China, has 
been assigned as consul general at Shanghai, 
China. 

David McK. Key, of Chattanooga, Tenn., 
second secretary of legation and consul at 
Ottawa, Canada, has been designated second 
secretary of embassy at Rome, Italy. 

Bertel E. Kuniholm, of Gardner, Mass., con- 
sul at Zurich, Switzerland, has been assigned 
as consul at Reykjavik, Iceland, where an 
American Consulate will be established. 

Edward G. Trueblood, of Evanston, 111., sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Santiago, Chile, 
has been assigned for duty in the Department 
of State. 

Rolland Welch, of Texas, Foreign Service 
officer, designated as assistant commercial at- 
tache at The Hague, Netherlands, has been 
designated third secretary of embassy and vice 
consul at Panama, Panama, and will serve in 
dual capacity. 

The following have been appointed Foreign 
Service officers, unclassified; vice consuls of 
career; and secretaries in the diplomatic serv- 
ice of the United States; and they have been 
assigned as vice consuls at the posts indicated : 

Donald B. Calder, of New York, N. T., to Zurich 
Lewis E. Gleecli, Jr., of Chicago, III., to Vancouver 
Clarlj E. Husted, Jr., of Toledo, Ohio, to Naples 
Richard A. Johnson, of Jloline, 111., to Barcelona 
M. Garden Knox, of Baltimore, Md., to Vienna 
Alfred H. Lovell, Jr., of Ann Arbor, Mich., to 

Montreal 
Lee D. Randall, of Highland Park, 111., to Marseille 
Byron B. Snyder, of Los Angeles, Calif., to Genoa 
Wallace W. Stuart, of Greeneville, Tenn., to Halifax 
Joseph J. Wagner, of Jamaica Park, N. Y., to Habana. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes 

Belgiimi 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 11, 1940, the 
Secretary General received on February 20, 
1940, a communication from the Belgian Gov- 
ernment informing him in regard to the decla- 
rations made by Australia and Canada when 
adhering to the General Act for the Pacific 
Settlement of International Disputes of Sep- 
tember 26, 1928, that, while taking note of 
these declarations, the Belgian Government 
reserves its point of view. 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

Great Britain 

There is quoted below a circular letter from 
the League of Nations dated March 29, 1940, 
regarding the termination by Great Britain of 
its acceptance of the Optional Clause of the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice and its acceptance thereof on new 
conditions : 

"I have the honour to inform you that His 
Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreigii Af- 
fairs in the United Kingdom, by a communica- 
tion dated February 28th, 1940, has trans- 
mitted to me a declaration of the same date 
terminating the acceptance hy His Majesty's 
Govermnent in the LTnited Kingdom of the com- 
pulsory jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of 
International Justice (Article 36, paragraph 2, 
of the Statute of the Court). 

"This declaration reads as follows : 



"•On the 19th September, 1929, the Right 
Honourable Artluu- Henderson, M. P., at that 
time His Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, made the following 
declaration on behalf of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment in the United Kingdom. The declaration 
was ratified on February 5th, 1930: 

" 'On behalf of His Majesty's Government in 
the United Kingdom and subject to ratification, 
I accept as compulsory ipso facto and without 
special convention, on condition of reciprocity, 
the jurisdiction of the Court in conformity 
with Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute of 
the Court, for a pei-iod of ten years and there- 
after until such time as notice may be given 
to terminate the acceptance, over all disputes 
arising after the ratification of the present dec- 
laration with regard to situations or facts 
subsequent to the said ratification, other than : 

" 'Disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 
recourse to some otlier method of peaceful set- 
tlement; and 

" 'Disputes with the Government of any other 
Member of the League which is a Member of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, all of 
which disputes shall be settled in such manner 
as the parties have agreed or shall agree; and 

" 'Disputes with regard to questions which by 
international law fall exclusively within the 
jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. 

" 'and subject to the condition that His Maj- 
esty's Government reserve the right to require 
that proceedings in the Court siiall be sus- 
pended in respect of any dispute which has 
been submitted to and is under consideration 
by the Council of the League of Nations, pro- 
vided that notice to suspend is given after the 
dispute luis been submitted to the Council and 
is given within ten days of the notification of 
the initiation of the proceedings in the Court, 
and provided also that such suspension shall 
be limited to a period of twelve montlis or such 
longer period as may be agreed by the parties 
to tlie dispute or determined by a decision of 
all the Members of the Councirother than the 
parties to the dispute. 

" 'On behalf of His Majesty's Government in 
the United Kingdom, I, Viscount Halifax, His 

423 



424 

Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs, hereby terminate their acceptance 
of the jurisdiction of the Court in conformity 
with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute. 
" 'London. 28th February, IBltO. 

Halifax.' 

"By the same communication, His Majesty's 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs trans- 
mitted to me a further declaration dated 
February 28th, 1940, by which, subject to the 
reservations therein set out, His Majesty's 
Government in the United Kingdom accepted 
the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court for 
a further period. 

"This second declaration reads as follows : 

" 'In my declaration of today's date, I, Vis- 
count Halifax, His Majesty's Principal Sec- 
retary of State for Foreign Affairs, announced 
the termination by His Majesty's Government 
in the United Kingdom of their acceptance of 
the jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of In- 
ternational Justice in conformity with para- 
graph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute of the 
Court. 

" 'On behalf of His Majesty's Government in 
the United Kingdom I now declare that they 
accept as compulsory if so facto and without 
special convention, on condition of reciprocity, 
the jurisdiction of the Court, in conformity 
with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute 
of the Court, for a period of five years from 
today's date and thereafter until such time as 
notice may be given to terminate the accept- 
ance, over all disputes arising after February 
5th, 1930, with regard to situations or facts 
subsequent to the same date ; other than : — 

" 'Disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 
recourse to some other method of peaceful 
settlement ; 

" 'Dis^Jutes with the Government of any 
other Member of the League which is a Mem- 
ber of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 
ail of whicli disputes shall be settled in such 
manner as the parties have agreed or shall 
agree ; 

"'Disputes with regard to questions which 
by international law fall exclusively within the 
jurisdiction of United Kingdom; and 

'"Disputes arising out of events occurring at 
a time when His Majesty's Government in the 
United Kingdom were involved in hostilities; 

"'and subject to the condition that His 
Majesty's Government reserve the right to re- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 

quire that proceedings in the Court shall be 
suspended in respect of any dispute which has 
been submitted to and is under consideration 
by the Council of the League of Nations, pro- 
vided that notice to suspend is given after the 
dispute has been submitted to the Council and 
is given within ten days of the notification of 
the initiation of the proceedings in the Court, 
and provided also that such suspension shall 
be limited to a period of twelve months or 
such longer period as may be agreed by the 
parties to the dispute or determined by a deci- 
sion of all the Members of the Council other 
than the parties to the dispute. 
"'London. 28th Februwry, WIfi. 

Halifax.' " 

LEGAL ASSISTANCE 

Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of Attor- 
ney Which Are To Be Utilized Abroad 

Panama 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a 
letter dated April 11, 1940, that on April 10, 
1940, the Ambassador of Panama at Washing- 
ton, signed ad refereTidvmi on behalf of his 
Government the Protocol on Uniformity of 
Powers of Attorney Which Are To Be Utilized 
Abroad, which was opened for signature at 
the Union on February 17, 1940. 

AVIATION 

Arrangement With New Zealand for the 
Importation of Aircraft (Executive Agree- 
ment Series No. 167) 

By an exchange of notes dated January 30 
and February 28, 1940, between the American 
Consul General at Wellington and the Prime 
Minister of New Zealand, the United States 
and New Zealand entered into an arrangement 
relating to the importation into New Zealand 
of aircraft and aircraft components manufac- 
tured in the United States. The arrangement 
applies to civil aircraft and aircraft com- 
ponents constructed in the continental United 
States, including Alaska, and exported to New 
Zealand as merchandise. The arrangement 
provides that the competent aeronautical au- 



J 



APRIL 2 0, 194 



425 



thorities of New Zealand will, upon certain 
conditions, confer the same validity upon cer- 
tificates of airworthiness for export issued by 
the competent aeronautical authorities of the 
United States for complete aircraft subse- 
quently to be registered in New Zealand and 
for certain components imported into New 
Zealand as if such certificates had been issued 
pursuant to regulations in force on the subject 
in New Zealand. 

The conditions upon which the aeronautical 
authorities of New Zealand will approve the 
importation and use of components for which 
a certificate of airworthiness is not issued are 
also set forth in the arrangement. 

The arrangement became effective on March 
1, 1940. 

LABOR 

Convention of the International Labor 
Conference 

The Netherlands 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 21, 1940, the 
instrument of ratification by the Netherlands 
of the Convention Concerning Statistics of 
Wages and Hours of Work in the Principal 
Mining and Manufacturing Industries, Includ- 
ing Building and Construction, and in Agri- 
culture, adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its twenty-fourth session 
(Geneva, June 2-22, 1938), was registered with 
the Secretariat on March 9, 1940. 



The convention has been ratified by the 
Union of South Africa, Denmark, the Nether- 
lands, and Sweden. 

POSTAL 

Universal Postal Convention of 1939 

Philip p'lTie Islands 

The United States High Commissioner to the 
Philippine Islands transmitted to the Secretary 
of State with a communication dated March 8, 
1940, the instrument of ratification by the 
Commonwealth of the Philippines of the Uni- 
versal Postal Convention, the regulations for 
its execution, the provisions for air-mail 
transportation, and tlieir final protocols, signed 
at Buenos Aires on May 23, 1939. The instru- 
ment of ratification, signed by the Director of 
Posts on January 10, 1940, and by the Secre- 
tary of Public Works and Communications on 
February 26, 1940, will be transmitted to the 
American Ambassador to Argentina for de- 
posit with the Argentine Government. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Air Navigation: Arrangement Between the United 
States of America and Liberia. — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed June 14, 1939 ; effective Juiie 15, 1939. 
Executive Agreement Series No. 166. Publication 
1444. 3 pp. 50. 

Diplomatic List, April 1940. Publication 1447. 
ii, 88 pp. Subscription, $1 a year; single copy, 100. 



0. S. eoVERNMEHT PRINTINC OFFICE: 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIIIECTOB OP THE BDBBAD OF THE BCOOBT 



^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



APRIL 27, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 44 — Publication 1 456 

Qontents 

Europe: 

Proclamations and regulations concerning neutrality Pagt 
of the United States in the war between Germany and 

Norway 429 

Proclamation defining combat area 432 

Death of American military attache in Norway . . . 433 

Evacuation of Americans from Norway 433 

Exchange of consular representatives with Iceland . . 434 
Conversations mth French and British representatives 

on war trade policies 434 

Contributions for rehef in belligerent countries: 

Tabulation of contributions 435 

List of registrants 443 

The American Republics: 

Floods in Buenos Aires, Argentina 450 

United States mihtary aviation mission to Chile . . . 450 
International Conferences, Commissions, etc.: 

Eighth American Scientific Congress 450 

Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 451 

Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicial Settlement: 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Inter- 
national Disputes 451 

Permanent Court of International Justice 451 

Aviation: 

United States military aviation mission to Chile . . 453 
Peace: 

Treaty of Peace between the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics and Finland, and Protocol .... 453 
Legislation 456 




MAY 10 1940 



Europe 



ROCLAMATIONS AND REGULATIONS CONCERNING NEUTRALITY OF 
THE UNITED STATES IN THE WAR BETWEEN GERMANY AND 
NORWAY 



Eleleased to the press April 25] 

Proclamation of a State of War Between 
Germany and Norway 

BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMEIUCA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas section 1 of the joint resolution of 
]!ongress approved November 4, 1939, provides 
n part as follows: 

"That whenever the President, or the Con- 
gress by concurrent resolution, shall find that 
here exists a state of war between foreign 
tates, and that it is necessary to promote the 
lecurity or preserve the peace of the United 
States or to protect the lives of citizens of the 
Jnited States, the President shall issue a proc- 
amation naming the states involved; and he 
;hall, from time to time, by proclamation, name 
)ther states as and when they may become in- 
ralved in the war." 

And whereas it is further provided by sec- 
ion 13 of the said joint resolution that 

"The President may, from time to time, pro- 
nulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and 
Droper to carry out any of the provisions of 
;his joint resolution ; and he may exercise any 
power or authority conferred on him by this 
joint resolution through such officer or officers, 
3r agency or agencies, as he shall direct." 

Now, therefore, I, Frankun D. Roosevt:lt, 
President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority con- 



ferred on me by the said joint resolution, do 
hereby proclaim that a state of war unhappily 
exists between Germany and Norway, and that 
it is necessary to promote the security and pre- 
serve the peace of the United States and to pro- 
tect the lives of citizens of the United States. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in 
preventing violations of the said joint resolu- 
tion and in bringing to trial and punishment 
any offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary of 
State the power to exercise any power or au- 
thority conferred on me by the said joint res- 
olution, as made effective by this my procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not specifi- 
cally delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regu- 
lations not inconsistent with law as may be 
necessary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 25" 
day of April, in the year of our 

[se-al] Lord nineteen hundred and forty, 
and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundi-ed and 
sixty-fourth. 

Franklin D. Roose\'elt 

By the President : 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 

[No. 2398] 

429 



430 

[Released to tbe press April 25] 

Proclaiming the Xectbality of the United 
States in the War Between Germany, on 
the One Hand, and Norwat, on the Other 
Hand 

Br the president of the united states of 

AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas a state of war unhappily exists be- 
tween Germany, on the one hand, and Norway, 
on the other hand ; 

Now. therefore, I, Frankxin D. Roosevelt, 
President of the United States of America, in 
order to preserve the neutrality of the United 
States and of its citizens and of persons within 
its territory and jurisdiction, and to enforce its 
laws and treaties, and in order that all persons, 
being warned of the general tenor of the laws 
and treaties of the United States in this behalf, 
and of the law of nations, may thus be pre- 
vented from any violation of the same, do here- 
by declare and proclaim that all of the provi- 
sions of my proclamation of September 5, 1939, 
proclaiming the neutrality of the United States 
in a war between Germany and France; Po- 
land; and the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand apply equally in 
respect to Norway. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washuigton this 25" 
day of April, in the year of our 

[seal] Lord nineteen hundred and forty, 
and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred 
and sixty-fourth. 

Franklin D. RoosE^■ELT 

By the President : 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 

[No. 2399] 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 
[Released to tbe press April 25] 

Use of Ports or Territorial Waters of the 
United States by Submabines of Foreign 
Belligerent States 

BY the president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamaiion 

Whereas section 11 of the Joint Resolution 
approved November 4, 1939, provides : 

"Whenever, during any war in which the 
United States is neutral, the President shall find 
that special restrictions placed on the use of the 
ports and territorial waters of the United States 
by the submarines or armed merchant vessels of 
a foreign state, will serve to maintain peace 
between the United States and foreign states, 
or to protect the commercial interests of the 
United States and its citizens, or to promote the 
security of the United States, and shall make 
proclamation thereof, it shall thereafter be un- 
lawful for any such submarine or armed mer- 
chant vessel to enter a port or the territorial 
waters of the United States or to depart there- 
from, except under such conditions and subject 
to such limitations as the President may pre- 
scribe. TVTienever, in his judgment, the condi- 
tions which have caused him to issue his procla- 
mation have ceased to exist, he shall revoke his 
proclamation and the provisions of this section 
shall thereupon cease to apply, except as to 
offenses committed prior to such revocation." 

Whereas there exists a state of war between 
Germany and Norway ; 

Whereas the United States of America is 
neutral in such war; 

Whereas by my proclamation of November 
4. 1939, issued pursuant to the provision of law 
quoted above, I placed special restrictions on the 
use of ports and territorial waters of the United 
States by the submarines of France; Germany; 
Poland ; and the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 
tralia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 
South Africa : 



LPRIL 27, 1940 



431 



Now, THERETORE. I, FraNKLIN D. RoOSE^•ELT. 

j'resident of the United States of America, 
icting under and by virtue of the authority 
rested in me by the foregoing provision of sec- 
ion 11 of the Joint Resolution approved No- 
•ember 4, 1939, do by this proclamation declare 
md proclaim that the provisions of my proc- 
amation of November 4. 1939. in regard to the 
ise of the ports and territorial waters of the 
Jnited States, exclusive of the Canal Zone, by 
he submarines of France; Germany; Poland; 
md the United Kingdom, India, Australia, 
>nada. New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa, shall also apply to the use of the ports 
ind territorial waters of the United States, ex- 
lusive of the Canal Zone, by the submarines of 
iforway. 

And I do herebj' enjoin upon all officers of 
he United States, charged with the execution 
pf the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in pre- 
•enting violations of the said Joint Resolution, 
md this my proclamation issued thereunder, 
md in bringing to trial and punishment any 
iffenders against the same. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
land and caused the Seal of the United States 
pf America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of "Washington this 25" day 
of April, in the year of our Lord 

[sEAii] nineteen hundred and forty, and of 
the Independence of the United 
5tates of America the one hundred and sixty- 
burth. 

Franklin D. RoosE^"ELT 

By the President : 

CORDELL HtTLL 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2400] 

Released to the press April 25] 

ExEciJTi\-E Order 

Prescribing RegiJati»ns Govoming the En- 
forcement of the Neutrality of the United 
States 

Where^\8. under the treaties of the United 
states and the law of nations it is the duty of 



the United States, in any war in which the 
United States is a neutral, not to permit the 
commission of unneutral acts within the juris- 
diction of the United States; 

And whereas, a proclamation was issued by 
me on the 25th day of April declaring the neu- 
trality of the United States of America in the 
war now existing between Germany, on the one 
hand, and Norway, on the other hand : 

Now, therefore, in order to make more effec- 
tive the enforcement of the i)rovisions of said 
treaties, law of nations, and proclamation, I 
hereby prescribe that the provisions of my Ex- 
ecutive Order No. 8233 of September 5, 1939. 
prescribing regulations governing the enforce- 
ment of the neutrality of the United States, 
apply equally in respect to Norwaj'. 

Franklin D. Roose\telt 

The White House 
April 25, 19Jfi. 

[No. 8398] 

The following regulations have been codified 
under Title 22: Foreign Relations; Chapter I: 
Department of State ; and Subchapter A : The 
Department, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Federal Register and the Code, of 
Federal Regxdations : 

"Part 55C— Travel 

"Pursuant to the provisions of section 5 of the 
joint resolution of Congress, approved Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, and of the President's Proclama- 
tion of April 10, 1940. the regulations in 22 CFR 
55C.1 and 55C.2 of November 6, 1939, as 
amended November 17, 1939, are hereby 
amended to read as follows : 

"§ 55C.1 American diplomatic, consular, mili- 
tary, and naval officers. American diplomatic 
and consular officers and their families, members 
of their staffs and their families, and American 
military and naval officers and personnel and 
their families may travel pursuant to orders on 
vessels of France; Germany; Poland; or the 
United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand, tlie Union of South Africa, and 



i 



432 

Norway if the public service requires. (Sec. 5, 
Public Ees. 54. 76th Cong., 2d sess., approved 
Nov. 4, 1939; Proc. No. 2398, April 25, 1940.) 

"§ 55C.2 Other American citizens. Other 
American citizens may travel on vessels of 
France ; Germany ; Poland ; or the United King- 
dom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, 
the Union of South Africa, and Norway : Pro- 
vided, however. That travel on or over the north 
Atlantic Ocean, north of 35 degrees north lati- 
tude and east of 66 degrees west longitude or on 
or over other waters adjacent to Europe or over 
the continent of Europe or adjacent islands shall 
not be permitted except when specifically au- 
thorized by the Passport Division of the Depart- 
ment of State or an American Diplomatic or 
Consular officer abroad in each case. (Sec. 5, 
Public Ees. 54, 76th Cong., 2d sess., approved 
Nov. 4, 1939; Proc. No. 2398, April 25, 1940.) 

CoRDELL Hull 
Secretary of State. 

"April 25, 1940." 

''Part 12 — Commerce With States Engaged in 
Armed Conflict 

"§ 12.1 Exportation or transportation of 
articles or materials — (f) Norway. The regu- 
lations under section 2 (c) and (i) of the joint 
resolution of Congress approved November 4, 
1939, which the Secretary of State promulgated 
on November 10 (22 CFR 12.1 (a)-(d))i and 
November 25 (22 CFR 12.1 (e)),= 1939, hence- 
forth apply equally in respect to the export or 

'Regulations (l)-(4) in "Regulations under section 
2 (f) and (i) of the joint resolution of Congress ap- 
proved Noveml)er 4, 1939," wliich was published in the 
Federal Rcj/iKler of November 16, 1939 (4 P. R. 4598 
DI), have been designated as 22 CFR 12.1 (a) -(d) 

'Regulation (5) (4 F. R. 4701 DI) has been desig- 
nated as 22 CFR 12.1(e). 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

transport of articles and materials to Norway. 
(Sees. 2 (c), (i), Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 
2d sess., approved Nov! 4, 1939 ; Proc. No. 2398, 
April 25, 1940.) 

CoRDELL Hull 
Secretary of State. 
"April 25, 1940." 

"Part 40 — Solicitation and Collection of 
Contributions for Use in Certain 
Countries 

"§ 40.17 Contributions for use in Norway. 
The rules and regulations (22 CFR 40.1-16) 
under section 8 of the joint resolution of Con- 
gress approved November 4, 1939, which the 
Secretary of State promulgated on November 
6, 1939,^ henceforth apply equally to the solici- 
tation and collection of contributions for use in 
Norway. (Sec. 8, Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 
2d sess., approved Nov. 4, 1939 ; Proc. No. 2398, 
April 25, 1940.) 

Cordell Hull 
Secretary of State. 

"April 25, 1940." 

-f -f -f 

PROCLAMATION DEFINING COMBAT 
AREA 

Erratum 

On page 379 of the Bulletin for April 13, 
1940 (Vol. II, No. 42), the number of the 
President's proclamation of April 10, 1940, 
should be No. 2394 rather than No. 8389. The 
correction should also be made in the para- 
graph which follows the proclamation. 



' 4 F. R. 4510 DI. 



433 



DEATH OF AMERICAN MILITARY 
ATTACHE IN NORWAY 

(Released to the press April 22] 

Tlie American Minister to Sweden, Mr. 
Frederick A. Sterling, reported to the Depart- 
ment at 1 p. m., April 22 (Stockholm time), 
that he had just received a telegram from Op- 
dal, Norway, dated April 21, and signed 
"Major Yssiim," presumably a Norwegian 
Army officer, which reads as follows : 

"American Military Attache Captain Losey 
was killed by German bomber plane at Dombas 
today. Inform Mrs. Harriman. He will be 
sent tomorrow Monday via Eoros to Fjallnas 
where instructions from Legation are awaited." 

Minister Sterling has told the American 
naval attache, Lt. Comdr. Ole O. Hagen, who is 
now near Fjallnas, Sweden, to receive remains 
and await further instructions. The Depart- 
ment has instructed the American Legation at 
Stockholm to obtain all possible information 
on the circumstances of Captain Losey's death. 

Capt. Robert M. Losey, the American assist- 
ant military attache for air, was reported by 
the American Minister to Norway, Mrs. Flor- 
ence Jaffray Harriman, on April 20, to have 
gone into Norway to meet the group of Ameri- 
cans who were presumed to be en route to 
Sarna, Sweden, over the northern road from 
Lillehammer, Norway. 

This group was under the escort of Lt. 
Comdr. Ole O. Hagen, American naval at- 
tache. Minister Sterling in Stockholm reports 
that the party crossed the Norwegian frontier 
to the Swedish town of Fjallnas on April 21. 
All were well. 

[Released to the press April 23] 

The American Minister to Sweden tele- 
graphed the Department this afternoon that 
Mrs. Harriman's chauffeur, who was with 
Capt. Robert M. Losey when he was killed, had 
telephoned the Legation at Stockholm at 4 : 30 
p. m. (Swedish time), from Hede, Sweden. 
The chauffeur had accompanied the body to 



Hede from Norway and on Minister Sterling's 
instructions was also accompanying it to Stock- 
holm on the first available train, which is 
scheduled to arrive in Stockholm at 9 a. m., 
April 25. 

Minister Sterling stated that Mrs. Harri- 
man's chauffeur had informed him over the 
telephone that he and Captain Losey came 
into Dombas on a special train; that while the 
train was in the station there was an air raid 
alarm, and he and Captain Losey went into a 
tunnel about 150 yards from the station. Cap- 
tain Losey was standing near the entrance to 
the tunnel when he was struck in the heart by a 
bomb splinter and killed instantly. He stated 
that 5 or 6 other people were killed and about 
14 were wounded. 

Minister Sterling later reported that the 
Swedish General Staff was sending a special 
car and military escort to bring the body of 
Captain Losey from Hede to Stockholm. 

He further reported that in accordance with 
instructions received from the War Depart- 
ment, he was making arrangements to send the 
remains to the L^nited States. 

■f -♦■ -f 

EVACUATION OF AMERICANS FROM 
NORWAY 

[Released to the press April 24] 

The American Minister to Sweden reported 
to the Department the morning of April 24 that 
the American Minister to Norway arrived 
safely in Stockholm on the night of April 23. 

Minister Sterling also reported that the party 
of Americans who had been evacuated from 
Oslo to the interior of Norway and who later 
were brought across the Swedish border under 
the escort of Lt. Comdr. Ole O. Hagen, Ameri- 
can naval attache, had arrived in Stockholm 
the morning of April 24 and that all were well. 
The names of the party follow : 

Mrs. Raymond Cox and son 
Mrs. Thormod Klath and child 
Mrs. Austin Preston and child and her mother, 
Mrs. Powell 



434 

Mrs. Brigg Perkins and child 
Mrs. Easton Kelsey and child 
Prof. Andreas Ronhovde, of Columbia Uni- 
versity, wife, and two children. 

■f ♦ ♦ 

EXCHANGE OF CONSULAR REPRE- 
SENTATIVES WITH ICELAND 

[Released to the press April 25] 

Through an exchange of telegrams on April 
23 and 24, 1940, between the Secretary of State, 
the Honorable Cordell Hull, and the Minister 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of Foreign Affairs of Iceland, the Honorable 
Stefan Job. Stefansson, the Government of the 
United States accorded provisional recognition 
to Mr. Vilhjalmur Thor as Consul General for 
Iceland in New York with jurisdiction to cover 
the United States, its territories, and posses- 
sions, including the Philippine Islands and the 
Canal Zone; and the Government of Iceland 
accorded to Mr. Bertil E. Kuniholm provisional 
recognition as American Consul at Reykjavik, 
whose consular district will include all of Ice- 
land. 



•f ■♦- -f -f + ^ -f 



CONVERSATIONS WITH FRENCH AND BRITISH REPRESENTATIVES 

ON WAR TRADE POLICIES 



[Released to the press April 26] 

On March G last, Prof. Charles Rist, former 
Deputy-Governor of the Bank of France and 
at present acting as economic adviser to the 
French Ministry of Blockade, and Mr. F. 
Ashton-Gwatkin, adviser on policy to the 
British Ministry of Economic Warfare, ar- 
rived in Washington to assist the French and 
British Ambassadors in examining current 
problems growing out of measures in the eco- 
nomic field adopted by the French and the 
Britisli Governments in the war in Europe. 

A number of conversations have taken place 
since that time in the Department of State be- 
tween representatives of the American Govern- 
ment and representatives of the French and the 
British Embassies in which Messrs. Rist and 
Ashton-Gwatkin have participated. The rep- 
resentatives of the French and the British Em- 
bassies have stated in these conversations that 
their Govei'iimonts desire to diminish the in- 
conveniences caused to neutral trade and in- 
terests in every practicable way so long as this 
(ItH's not lessen the effect of the contraband con- 
trol in all its branches which the United King- 
dom and France consider an absolutely neces- 



sary part of the war in which the two countries 
are at present engaged. The representatives of 
the American Government on their part made 
it clear that in discussing individual cases with 
the view to mitigating the inconvenience to 
American interests it must be understood that 
the Government of the United States reserves 
all of its rights under international law and is 
not to be understood as accepting any principle 
of interference with bona fide neutral trade. 

During the conversations, there has been ex- 
tended discussion of various difficulties caused 
to American importers by the measures taken 
by the French and the British Governments 
in respect of expoi-ts from Germany. The 
French and the British representatives stated 
that they recognized that these measures had 
created hard cases and that there is every de- 
sire to redress such grievances where their 
genuine character is proved. They have accord- 
ingly indicated to the Department of State 
that their Governments are prepared, in the 
light of these discussions, to reexamine those 
applications of American importers on which 
unfavorable decisions have been given. They 
stated that applications for reexamination 



APRIL 27, 1940 



435 



should be lodged with French or British con- 
sular officers in the United States before June 
1, 1940. 

As regards the future, the French and the 
British representatives stated that applica- 
tions would be received by French or British 
consular officers for exemption in respect of 
categories of goods which afford matter for 
special consideration and are unobtainable 
elsewhei'e than in Germany. 

The American representatives took ad- 
vantage of the presence of Professor Rist and 
Mr. Ashton-Gwatkin in Washington to draw 
attention to the effect of Anglo-French war 
trade policies on exports of certain American 
products to France and Great Britain and 
their colonial territories. The French and 
the British representatives pointed to the large 
increases in exports to their respective coun- 
tries from the United States. In particular, 
they stated that there is every expectation 
that the total amount of imports froni the 
United States into their countries will con- 
tinue to increase, and that in consequence 
products essential to the conduct of the war 
must necessarily be given preference by their 
Governments in the matter of availability of 
foreign exchange and shipping. While this 
has led to a curtailment of purchases of cer- 
tain other American products, the French and 
the Britisli representatives assured the Ameri- 
can representatives that every effort would be 
made by their respective Governments to 
maintain their purchases of these American 
products at as high a level as is compatible 
with the circumstances in which they are 



placed. The whole question of French and 
British purchases of American commodities 
will continue to 1)0 Die subject of discussions 
in Paris, London, and Wusliington. 

As regards the long-term trade policies of 
the French and the British Governments, the 
representatives of the Frencli and the British 
Embassies stated categorically that the re- 
strictive measures rendered necessary by the 
war were of an entirely temporary character 
and that at the earliest possible moment the 
French and the British Governments would 
return to liberal connnercial policies based on 
the principle of the progressive reduction of 
trade barriers and to world trade conducted 
on a multilateral basis. They stressed the 
fact that the long-term commercial objectives 
of France and Great Britain are in full accord 
with the trade-agreements program which has 
been in progress in the United States since 
1934. In this connection the British repre- 
sentatives renewed tiie assurance given by 
Prime Minister Chamberlain in a speech on 
January 31, 1940, to tlie effect that the British 
Government had no intention whatever of 
using restrictions which it has been compelled 
to impose upon imports from the United 
States for the pur2:)ose of altering permanent 
channels of trade and that it intends as soon 
as may be possible to return to its normal 
peace-time commercial policy as laid down in 
the trade agreement between the two coun- 
tries. The French representatives drew 
attention to public statements of M. Edouard 
Daladier and M. Paul Reynaud in favor of a 
speedy return to a sound economic policy. 



-f -f -f -f -f + + 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES 

Tabulation of Contributions 



[Released to the press April 24] 

Following is a tabulation of contributions 
collected and disbursed during the period Sep- 
tember 6, 1939, through March 31, 1940, as 
shown in the reports submitted by persons and 

227456 — 40 2 



organizations registered with the Secretary of 
State for the solicitation and collection of con- 
tributions to be used for relief in belligerent 
countries, in conformity with the regulations 
issued pursuant to section 8 of the act of No- 



436 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BUTJ.KTIIT 



vember 4, 1939, as made effective by the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of the same date. 

This tabulation has reference only to contri- 
butions solicited and collected for relief in bel- 
ligerent countries (France; Germany; Poland; 
and the United Kingdom, India, Austi-alia, 
Canada, Xew Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa) or for the relief of refugees driven 
out of these countries by the present war. The 
statistics set forth in the tabulation do not 
include information regarding relief activities 
■which a number of organizations registered 
with the Secretary of State may be carrying 
on in nonbelligerent countries but for which 



registration is not required under the Neutral- 
ity Act of 1939. 

The American National Red Cross is re- 
quired by law to submit to the Secretary of 
"War for audit "a full, complete, and itemized 
report of receipts and expenditures of what- 
ever kind." In order to avoid an unnecessary 
duplication of work, this organization is not 
required to conform to the provisions of the 
regulations governing the solicitation and col- 
lection of contributions for relief in belligerent 
countries, and the tabulation does not, there- 
fore, include information in regard to its 
activities. 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries 



Name of registrant, location, date nf registration, and destination of 
contributions 



Funds 
received 


Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 


Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 


Unexpended 
balance as of 
Mar. 31. 1940, 

including 

cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 


Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 


Estimated 
value of 
contribu- 
tions in 
kind now 
on band 


$453. 24 


$154. 10 


$98.54 


$200. 60 


None 


None 


4, 442. 75 


2, 659. 24 


1,019.76 


763.75 


$899.27 


None 


4.802.08 


2,411.91 


424.19 


1,96.';. 98 


714.27 


None 


3, 129. 56 


620. 41 


6.677.74 


None 


63.00 


None 


8,537.72 


8, 637. 72 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


3,543.30 


None 


309.62 


3, 233. 68 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 
65. 166. 11 


None 
24.745.97 


None 
2,510.91 


None 
37, 899. 23 


None 
None 


None 
None 


16,967.68 


10, 408. 63 


710.09 


6, 848. 96 


15,547.17 


$5, 084. 25 


4,843.50 


2,4B8.07 


1, 887. 59 


487. 84 


15,225.00 


None 


1, 357. 00 


1.357.00 


None 


None 


None 


None 


90, 870. 97 


61,645.41 


6,253.07 


22, 772. 49 


6,801.60 


86.36 


19, 526. 80 


17,620.19 


1, 876. 70 


30.00 


5, 526. 20 


497.00 


3, 628. 76 


2, 522. 26 


143. 16 


963. 35 


1, 377. 01 


88.42 


200.00 


None 


None 


200,00 


None 


None 


1, 705. 74 


None 


314.90 


1, 390. 84 


None 


None 


2,089,156.99 
14Z75 


1,959,713.83 
142. 75 


129, 443. 16 
None 


None 
None 


61.00 
None 


None 
25.00 


134,664.22 


65, 578. 16 


7,346.27 


61, 639. 79 


2. 256. 99 


164.60 


132,378.61 


69, 087. 33 


7, 308. 81 


66, 982. 47 


8,007.98 


112.25 



American and French Students' Correspondence Exchange, New 

York, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1939. France.., 

American Association for Assistance to French Artists, Inc., New 

York, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1940. France 

American Auxiliary Committee de L'Union des Femmes de France, 

New York, N. Y.. Nov. 8, 1939. France 

American Committee for Aid to British Medical Societies, New York, 

N. Y., .'Sept. 21. 1939." United Kingdom 

American Committee for Christian Refugees, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 26, 1939. Germany and France 

American Committee for the German Relief Fund, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Mar. 27, 1940. Germany and Poland 



American Committee for the Polish -Ambulance Fund, Chicago, nj., 

Feb. 12, 1910. France and Poland 

American Dental Ambulance Committee, New York, N. Y., Mar. 12, 

1940. United Kingdom 

American Emergency Volunteer .\mbulance Corps, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Jan. 25, 1940. Great Britain and France 

American Field Service, New York, N. Y., Sept. 27. 1939. I'rance 
American-French War Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1939. 

France 

American Friends of Czechoslovakia, New York, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939 

Great Britain, France, and Bohemia-Moravia 
American Friends of the Daily Sketch War Relief Fund, New York 

N. Y., Dec. 1, 1939. Great Britain 

American Friends of France, Ice, New York, N. Y., Sept. 2i' 1939. 

France 

American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov 9, 1939 

United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, and France... 
American Fund for French Wounded, Inc., Boston, Mass , Jan 3 

1940. France 

American Fund lor Wounded in France, Inc., Worcester, Mass i Dec 

15. 1939.» France 

American German Aid Society, Los Angeles, Calif", Nov." 16" V939" 

Germany 

The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Inc New 

York, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1939.< United Kingdom, Poland, Germany 

and France 

American McAll Association, New York, S'.Y.rJan '3' V9'4'o"' France 
American Society for British Medical and Civilian Aid, Inc New' 

York, N. Y., Oct. 19. 1939. Great Britain and France 
American Society for French Medical and Civilian Aid Inc "'N"e'w' 

York, .N. Y., Oct. 13, 1939. France 



• The registration of this organi/.at on was revoked on Apr. 2. 1940, for failure to observe rules and regulations. 
>-o report for the month of .March 1im< hfen received Irom this organization. 

• fltotlstlcs given are tor Sept. 6, 1939. through January 1940 only. Later figures are not yet avaUable. 



APRIL 2 7, 1940 



437 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries— Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 



American Volunteer Ambulance Corps, New York. N Y Dec 12 
1939. France. ' " ' 



American War Godmothers, Pittsburgh, Pa., Mar. 6, 1940. France 
American Women's Hospitals, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14. 1939 

France and England 

American Women's Unit for War Relief, Inc., New York. N Y Jan 

15, 1940. France. 



American Women's Voluntary Services, New York, N. Y.. Feb'l's' 
1940. Eneland ' 



Les .\mis de la France 4 Puerto Rico, San Juan, P. R., Dec. 2o[ 1939. 

France _ 

Les Amitife FJminines de la France, New York, N. Y., Dec. 19^ 1939. 

France 

Les Anciens Combattants Francais de la Grande Guerre, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Oct. 26, 1939. France 

Mrs. Lar?. Anderson. Bo.>iton, Mass., Dec. 12. 1939. France 
Anthracite Relief Committee, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Sept. 8, 1939 (Poiand 
Associated Polish Societies Relief Committee of Webster ^Iass 
Webster, Mass., Sept, 21, 1939. Poland 



Associated Polish Societies' Relief Committee of Worcester Mass 
Worcester. Mass., Sept. 14, 1939. Poland _. .. ..', 



Association of Former Juniors in France of Smith College, New York 
N. Y.. Dec. 18, 1939. France- 



Association of Former Russian Naval Officers in America, New York 
N. Y., Feb. 21, 1940. France _' 



Association of Joint Polish-American Societies of Chelsea, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass., Sept. 15, 1939. Poland,. _ ___ 

L'Atelier, San Francisco, Calif., Jan. 29, 1940. France 

Mrs. Mark Baldwin, New York, N. Y., Mar. 4, 1940. France 
Basque Dclceation in the United States of America, New York, N. Y. 

Dec. 19, 1939. France 

The Benedict Bureau Unit, Inc., New York, N. Y., Nov. 29,' 1939" 

France _ 

Beth-Lechem, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. Poland. ..T 
Bethel Mission of Poland, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., Nov. 27, 1939 

Poland _ 

Bishops' Committee for Polish Relief, Washincton, D. C., Dec 19 

1939. Poland : 

Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United 

States of America, New York, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1939. Great Britain, 

France, and Germany 

British-American Comfort League, Ouincy, Mass., Feb. 21, 1940. 

Encland 

British-American War Relief Association, Seattle, Wash., Nov. 17, 

1939. United Kingdom and allied countries - 

British War Relief Association of Northern California, San Francisco. 

Calif., Oct. 20, 1939. Great Britain and France 

The British War Relief Association of Southern California, Los An- 

pelcs. Calif., Dec. 8, 1939. Great Britain 

British War Relief Society, Inc., New York, N. Y., Dec. 4, 1939."i 

Ore.it Britain 

Bundlis for Britain, New York, N. Y., Dec. 23, 1939. Great Britain 

and dominions - . - 

Caledonian Club of Idaho, Boise, Idaho, Jan. 2.i, 1940. Scotland 
The Catholic Leader. New Britain, Conn.. Sept. 2.5, 1939. Poland. -. 
Catholic Medical Mission Board, Inc., New York, N. Y., Jan. 17, 

1940.* India, Australia. Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 

South A frica 

The Catholic Student War Relief of Pa.x Romana, Washincton, D. C., 

Dec. 13. 1939. Poland, France, Germany, and Great Britain ._ 

Central Citizens Committee. Detroit. Mich.. Sept. 14, 1939.' Poland 
Central Committee lor Polish Relief, Toledo, Ohio, Feb. 29, 1940. 

Poland .. 

Central Committee Knesseth Israel, New York, N. Y., Oct. 27, 1939. 

Palestine 

Central Committee of the United Polish Societies, Bridgeport, Conn., 

Sept. 14, 1939. Poland- - 

Central Council of Polish Organizations, New Castle, Pa., Nov. 7, 

1939. England, Poland, and France 

Central Council of Polish Organizations in Pittsburgh, Pa., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939. Poland - 

Central Spanish Committee tor Relief of Refugees, Washington, D.C., 

Sept, 21, 1939.' France - - 



Funds 
received 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



S79, 133, 28 
82.41 

1. 026. 47 

705.96 

4. 540, 79 

6, 157, 97 

360.15 

6.227,11 
6.801,95 
10,018,53 

2, 758. 27 

7, 827. 85 

198.50 

135. 57 

1.542,83 

1.645.65 

279,00 

870,30 

1,585,00 
1, 731, 86 

4, 3,30, 91 

246. 572, 43 

6. 201. 75 

54.00 
4, 222. 28 

7. 964, 77 

12,104.85 

32, 676, 77 

9, 199, 27 

477,64 

1,719.84 



151.15 
536.59 

703. 00 

14, 469, 65 

4. 357, 23 

1. 610, 96 

24. 323. 31 

4, 381. 24 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns. 

etc. 



$74, 918. 25 
40.63 

1. 000. 00 
286,03 
101. 74 

3. 000, 00 

101.00 

3. 198, &S 
4. 7TO, 00 
2.000,00 

1,500,00 

4. 266. 45 

150.00 

S.'i.OO 

1. 000, 00 
852, 29 
212 00 

775,00 

None 
316. 40 

3,600.00 

166,324.31 

3, 770. 50 

None 

2, 750. 00 

5.254.00 

6, 106, 06 

4, 052. 10 

4, 008. 84 

300.30 

1.719,84 



100.00 

536.59 

500.00 

8, .337. 36 

3, 256. 70 

500.00 

23, 956, 09 

1,638,10 



$1, 864, 97 
41,78 

26,47 

229.23 

4,053.25 

89.79 

88.36 

170.64 
None 
288.45 

7.50 

453.10 

None 

1.67 

85.67 
82.50 
42.00 

80,36 

113,54 
1,189.39 

358,22 

42,98 

635,01 

None 

810.93 

405. 67 

2, 171. 28 

4,996.04 

1, 674. 30 
162.87 
None 



Unexpended 

balance as of 
Mar. 31. 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

hand 



44.40 
None 

67.84 

6,132.29 

48.40 

19.55 

367.22 

2,478.63 



$2, 35a 06 
None 

None 

190.70 

385.80 

3, 088. 18 

170.79 

2, 857. 59 
2.081,95 
7, 730. OS 

I, 250. 77 

3, 108. 30 

48.50 

48,90 

457. 16 
710.88 
25.00 

14.94 

1,471.48 
226.07 

472, 69 

90, 205, 14 

1. 796, 24 

54.00 

66L35 

2,305.10 

3. S27. 51 

23,628.63 

3, 616. 13 
14.47 
None 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind .sent 
to coun- 
tries named 



(■..75 
None 

136. 16 

None 

1, 052. 13 

991.41 

None 

268.51 



None 
None 

None 

None 

$3, 107. 15 

79.00 

30.00 

575, 00 
None 
None 

None 

1,430.00 

None 

None 

None 
257,68 
30,00 

None 

None 

Nune 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

2.141.11 

15,00 

135.50 

4, 980. 25 
None 

None 



None 
None 

None 

None 

1,011.95 

None 

8, 321. 69 

1, 200, 00 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on band 



None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

$73.00 

15.00 

None 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
26.25 
None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

13.52 

2Z23 

3, 039, 25 
None 
None 



None 
None 

None 

None 

450.00 

None 

900.00 

None 



^ No complete report for the month of March has been received from this organization. 

• No complete report has been received from this organization. 

' The registration of this organisation was revoked on Mar. 31, 19!f), at the request of registrant. 

' The registration of this organization was revoked on Feb. 29, 1940, at the request of registrant. 



438 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

CONTKIBTJTIONS FOR RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES— Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 


Funds 
received 


Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 


Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 


Unexpended 
balance as of 
Mar. 31, 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 


Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 


Estimated 
value of 
contribu- 
tions in 
kind now 
on hand 


Centrala Passaic N J , Oct 12, 1939. Poland 


$1,338.83 
1, 842. 95 
5, 520. 77 

26,567.30 

3, 554. 71 
305, 291. 33 

4,898.40 

4, 308. 03 

2, 404. 23 

5, 843. 80 

3, 940. 17 
7, 752. 05 

21,375.35 

142.00 

2, 162, 65 

3, 219. 75 
4, 062. 75 
5, 247. 04 

4, 385. 62 
1, 752. 65 
1, 375. 70 
1, 551. 08 

345.33 

574. 21 
25.55 


$848.60 

58.28 

4, 433. 10 

None 
3, 545. 66 
83, 634. 73 
3, 365. 63 
2. 500. 00 
2, 148. 52 
4, 655. 89 
2,891.00 
4, 637. 40 
8,540.00 

142.00 
1, 662, 51 
1.060,87 

None 
3. 292, 45 
4.200.00 

168, 05 

694. 69 
1, 832. 27 

301,00 

519, 21 
None 


$11. 65 

421.15 

377. 63 

25, 201. 65 

9.05 

33, 688. 15 

None 

1,805.60 

255. 71 

722. 91 

217. 78 

302. 18 

3, 274. 11 

None 

24.64 

1, 074. 16 

2, 119. 35 

120.54 

108.47 

262. 47 

2.60 

137. 29 

27.00 

None 
None 


$478. 68 

1, 363. 52 

710. 04 

1, 365. 75 

None 

188,168.45 

1, 632. 77 

2.43 

None 

465. 00 

831.39 

2,812.47 

9. 661. 24 

None 

476. 50 

1, 084. 72 

1,943.40 

1. 834. 05 

77.15 

1, 332. 13 

678. 61 

None 

17.33 

55.00 
25.66 


$1,100.00 

None 

1, 648. 60 

None 

None 

1, 500. 00 

None 

None 

None 

2, 000. 00 

2, 873. 60 

940.00 

150.00 

None 

None 

1,059.05 

None 

1,894.95 

None 

100.00 

331. 70 

7, 651. 43 

None 

None 
None 


$260.00 


Ccrcle Francais de Seattle, Seattle, Wash., Nov. 2, 1939. France and 




Chester (Delaware Co., Pa.) Polish Relief Committee, Chester, Pa., 




Children's Crusade for Children, New York, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1940. 




Circle of Poles of St. Hedwig, Polish American Citizens' Committee, 




Commission for Polish Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 12, 1939.* 




Committee for Aid to Children of Mobilized Men of the XX" Arron- 

dissement of Paris, New York, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1940. France 

Committee for Reliel in Allied Countries, Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, 


None 


Committee for the Relief for Poland, Seattle, Wash., Nov. 24, 1939. 
Poland 


None 


Committee for the Relief of War Sufferers in Poland, St. Louis, Mo., 
Oct. 16, 1939. Poland _ _ .... 


None 


Committee of the American Fund for Breton Relief, New York, N. Y., 
Oct. 31, 1939. France 

Committee of French-.\merican Wives, New York, N. Y., Nov. 15, 
1939. France 


None 
110. 00 


Committee of Mercy, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 16, 1939. France, 
Great Britain, and their allies... .. 




Committee Representing Polish Organizations and Polish People in 
Perry, N. Y., Perry, N.Y., Oct. 23, 1939. Poland 




East Chicago Citizens' Committee for Polish War Sufferers and 
Refugees, East Chicago, Ind., Oct. 16, 1939. Poland 




The Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 13, 1939. 
England and France 


None 


Mar. 13, 1940. Poland 


None 


English-Speaking Union of the United States, New York, N. Y., Dec. 
26, 1939. Great Britain, possibly France 


336. 55 


Federated Council of Polish Societies of Grand Rapids, Mich., Qrand 
Rapids, Mich., Sept. 16, 1939. Poland 


500.00 


Federation of Franco-Belgian Clubs of Rhode Island, Woonsocket, 
R. I.. Nov. 15, 1939. France.. 


100 98 


Federation of French Veterans of the Great War, Inc., New York, 
N. Y., Oct. 11, 1939. France. 


333.00 


Federation of Polish Jews in America, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 
14. 1939. Poland 


None 


The Federation of Polish Societies, Little FaUs, N. Y., Oct. 9, 1939. 
Poland 


None 


Fellow.ihip of Reconciliation, New York, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1940. France, 
England, and possibly Germany 








Fortra, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., Mar. 7, 1940.' Germany and 
Poland 




Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 
21. 1939. France..-. 


51, 542, 08 
1, 659, 20 

909. 57 

483, 60 

10,011.05 

161,00 

8, 896. 66 
1, 698. 50 
1,088.40 

728.45 

1.142.69 

203.62 

279. 81 


27, 276. 85 
None 

463.34 

150. M 

4, 175. 49 

107. 75 

92.50 
600.00 
200.00 

250.00 

1.071.90 

None 

264. 04 


10,805.43 
68.14 

94.44 

88.14 

2, 163. 24 

None 

3, 486. 53 
160.00 
66.87 

321.29 

20.79 

None 

6.02 


13.459.80 
1, 601. 06 

351.79 

244.82 

3.682.32 

53.25 

5, 317. 53 
938. 60 
832. 63 

167. 16 
50 00 

203.62 
19.76 


None 
None 

687.85 
158.15 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

80.00 

None 

None 




Foyers du Soldat, New York, New York, N.Y., Mar. 2, 1940. France 
French Committee for Relief in France, Detroit, Mich., Oct. 17, 
1939. France 


None 
783 05 


French Relief Associalion. Kansas City. Mo., Feb. 3, 1940, France 
French War Relief. Inc., Los Angeles. Calif., Nov. 16, 1939. France 
French War Veterans, Los Angeles, Calif.. Dec. 5. 1939. France 
The Friends of Israel Refugee Relief Committee. Inc., Philadelphia, 
Pa., Oct. 2?, 1039. Canada, France, and England 


69.85 
None 
None 


The Friends of Normandy, New York, N. Y., Dec. 18, l'939. France 
Friend.s of Poland. Chicago. 111.. Dec. 6, 1939. Poland 


None 


General Gustav Orlicz Dreszer Foundation (or Aid to Polish Children. 
Washington, D. C, Nov, 3. 1939. Poland 


None 


General Taufflleb Memorial Relief Committee for France, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif., Nov. 17. 1939, France and England 


None 


Golden Rule Foundation, New York, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939. Poland 
and Palestine 




The Grand Duke 'Vladimir Benevolent Fund Association, New York, 
N. Y.,Jan. 8, 1940. France . 


None 



» The registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31, 1940. at the request of registrant. 

' The administrative expenses of this organization were incurred not only in connection with the contributions 'received 
connection with the contnbutmn.s transmitted to it by other registrants in this country to be used for relief purposes in 
Polish refugees In nclghbonng countries. 

' No complete report has been received from this organization. 



directly by it 
Poland, or for 



but also in 
the relief of 



APRIL 2 7, 1940 



439 



CoNTHiBUTioNs FOR Rblief IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 



Orand Lodge, Daughters of Scotia, Hartford, Conn., Feb. 16, 1940. 
Scotland 

Greater New Bedford British War Eelief Corps, New Bedford Mass 
Dec. 19. 1939. Great Britain. 



Margaret-Greble Greenough (Mrs. Carroll Greenough), WashiiiEton 
D. C, Nov. 21, 1930. France ' 



Hadassah, Inc., New York, N. Y., Nov. 15, 1939. Palestine 
Hamburg-Bremen Steamship Agency, Inc., New York. N. Y., Mar 

21, 1940. Germany and Poland 

Hebrew Christian Alliance of America, Chicago, UL, Jan. 'sV'lWO. 

England, Germany, and Poland _ ' 

Holy Cross Eelief Fund Association of New Britain, Conn New 

Britain, Conn.. Sept. 27, 1939. Poland 

Holy Rosary PoUsh Roman Catholic Church, Passaic, N. J., Sept 15. 

1939. Poland ... 

A. Seymour Houghton, Jr., et al., New York, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1939. 

France _ _._ 

Humanitarian Work Committee, Glen Cove, N. Y., Sept. 30, 1939 

Poland 

Independent Kinsker Aid Association, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1940 

Poland , 

International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations, 

New York, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland, France, and India 

International Relief Association for Victims of Fascism, New York, 

N. Y., Sept. 25, 1939. France, England, and Germany 

Joint Committee of the United Scottish Clans of Greater New York 

and New Jersey, New York, N. Y., Jan. 30, 1910. Scotland 

The Kindergarten Unit. Inc., Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 3. 1939. France. 

Poland, United Kingdom, India, Australia, and New Zealand 

Kuryer Publishing Company, Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 16, 1939. Po- 
land 



Der KyShaeuserbund, League of German War Veterans in U. S. A., 

Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 27, 1939. Poland and Germany 

Lackawanna County Committee for Polish Relief, Scranton, Pa., Sept. 

15, 1939. Poland... _ . .. 

Lafayette Fund, Washington, D. C, Jan. 2, 1940. France. 

LaFayette Preventorium, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. 

France 

La France Post, American Legion, New York, N. Y., Feb. 7, 1940. 

France 

Mrs. Nancy Bartlett Laughlin, New York, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1940. 

France 

League of Pohsh Societies of New Kensington, Arnold and vicinity, 

New Kensington. Pa., Nov. 17, 1939. Poland 

Legion of Young Polish Women. Chicago, III., Oct. 2, 1939. Poland.. 
The Little House of Saint Pantaleon, Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 30, 1939. 

France 

The Maryland Committee for the Relief of Poland's War Victims, 

Baltimore, Md., Oct. 21, 1939. Poland 

Massachusetts Relief Committee for Poland, Worcester, Mass., Nov. 

9, 1939. Poland 

Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, Pa., Feb. 13, 1940. Great 

Britain, Poland, Germany, and France 

Milford, Connecticut, Polish Relief Fund Committee, Milford, Conn., 

Nov. 6, 1939. Poland 

Kate R. Miller, New York, N. Y., Feb. 19, '940. France.. 

Modjeska Educational League Welfare Club at the International In- 
stitute. Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 1-5, 1939* Poland 

Emily Morris (Mrs. Lewis Spencer Morris), New York, N. Y., Jan. 

13, 1940. France 

Fernanda Wanamaker Munn (Mrs. Ector Munn), New York, N. Y., 

Nov. 25. 1939. France 

New Jersey Broadcasting Corporation, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 13, 

1939. Poland 

North Side Polish Council, Relief Committee, of Milwaukee, Wis., 

Milwaukee, Wis., Dec. 5, 1939. Poland... 

Nowe-Dworer Ladies Benevolent Association, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Oct. 25, 1939. Poland 

Nowmy Publishing Apostolate, Inc., Milwatikee, Wis., Sept. 26, 1939. 

Poland.. 

Nowy Swiat Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 11, 1939. 

Poland and France 

> Order of Scottish Clans. Boston, Mass., Jan. 25, 1940. Scotland 

Paderewski Fund for Polish Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Feb. 23, 

1940. Poland, France, and Great Britain 

LePaquetau Front, New York, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1939. France 

The Paryski Publishmg Co., Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 15, 1939. Poland. 



Funds 
received 



$560.65 

1,229.18 

945.00 
887, 332. 22 

20,464.09 

78.89 

1, 258. 65 
1, 109. 69 

16, 256. 44 

2, 870. 89 

402.00 

18, 611. 00 
6. 693. 78 

2. 296. 68 
274. 85 

5. 513. 85 

4, 368. 12 

8, 599. 46 
690. 00 

10, 972. 97 

325.00 

186.91 

I, 085. 95 
13, 071. 08 

11,652.94 

6, 799. 09 

4, 311. 60 

3,336.99 

338.87 
HI. 00 

4, 037. 92 

None 

6,099.78 

1, 210. 55 

1, 338. 82 

450.61 

4, 887. 21 

25, 245. 44 
974. 71 

12, 179. 50 
55, 894. 76 
5, 671. 16 



Funds spent 

for relief In 

countries 

named 



None 

$673. 31 

220,00 
422.318.09 

15.914.71 

75.00 

None 

1,049.00 

None 

700.00 

None 

12,600.00 

3, 472. 96 

None 

37.85 

5, 336. 29 

3. 835. 00 

7, 225. 56 
None 

7. 977. 63 

None 

103.00 

504. 67 

6, 842. 00 

1, 085. 60 

3.500.00 

3,406.50 

1,902.00 

None 
61.00 

3, 727. 46 

None 

2, 970. 00 

826.17 

810.00 

None 

4, 689. 86 

21,966.70 
None 

None 
41,807.48 
6,437.95 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns. 

etc. 



'The registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31. 1940, at the request of registrant, 



None 

$54.33 

None 
17, 395. 27 

None 

3.89 

None 

None 

73.02 

61.63 

None 

613.08 
3, 013. 36 

603.90 

237. 00 
13.56 

239.44 

775. 40 
None 

2. 446. 24 

75.67 

None 

50.55 

1. 852. 46 

36.26 

2. 396. 47 

None 

295.19 

79.37 
None 

310. 46 

None 

2, 129. 78 

384.38 

19.18 

47.60 

None 

103. 39 
None 

3. 520. 10 

24, 835. 43 

None 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Mar. 31,1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

hand 



$560.66 

601.64 

725. 00 
457, 618. 86 

4, 549. 38 

None 

1, 268. 65 

60.59 

16, 183. 42 

2, 109. 26 

402 00 

5, 497. 92 
207 46 

1,692.78 

None 

164. 00 

293. 68 

.598. 50 
690. 00 

549.10 

249.33 

83.91 

530. 73 
5, 376. 63 

10,431.08 

902.62 

905.00 

1, l.W, 80 

259.50 
50.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

603.64 

403.01 

297.36 

3,176.35 
974. 71 

8, 669. 40 
None 
233.20 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 



None 

None 

None 
$22, 177. 20 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

100.00 

None 

None 

1,760.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

1, 846. 06 
None 

1, 723. 70 
None 
None 

2, 249. 25 

None 
None 

None 

None 

1, 765. 36 
None 

1,300.00 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

2, 376. 19 

None 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions lo 

kind now 
on band 



None 

None 

None 
$679.20 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

120.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

303.96 
None 

200.00 

None 

None 

1.737.00 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 
202.91 
None 



440 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 
Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of reRistratloo, and destination of 
contributions 



Tiie Pawtucket and Blackstone Valley British Relief Society of Rbode 

Island, Pawtucket, R. I.. Feb. 26. 1940. Great Britain- 

Poland War Sufferers Aid Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 16, 1939. 

Polish Aid Fund Committee of Federation of Elizabeth Polish Organ- 
izations, Elizabeth, N. J., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland :---v- 

Polish Aid Fund Committee of St. Casimir's Roman Catholic Church 
oftheCity of Albany, N. Y., Alban.v, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1940. Poland- 
Polish- American Associations of Middlesex County, N. J., Sayreville, 

N. J., Jan. 22, 1940. Poland- - 

Polish-American Central Civic Committee of South Bend, Ind., 

South Bend, Ind., Sept. 19. 1939 • Poland 

Poli'ih-Amerlcan Citizens Relief Fund Committee, Shirley, Mass., 

Dec. 16, 1939. Poland - - 

Polish-American Council, Chicago. 111., Sept. 15, 1939. Poland 

PolLsh-American Forwarding Committee, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Mar. 2S, 1940. Poland and Germany - -- 

Polish-American Volunteer Ambulance Section (Pavas), Washington, 

D. C Feb. 13, 1940. France... -..- -- 

Polish Broadcasting Corporation, New York, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1939. 

Poland - -- 

Polish Business and Professional Men's Club, Los Angeles, Calif., 

Nov. 17, 1939. Poland - - 

Polish Central Committee of New London, Conn., New London, 

Conn., Oct. 13, 1939. Poland-- 

Polish Central Council of New Haven, New Haven, Conn., Sept. 29, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Civic League of Mercer County, Trenton, N. J., Sept. 19, 1939. 

Poland --- 

Polish Civilian Relief Fund, Passaic, N. J., Oct. 27, 1939. Poland.... 
Polish Emergency Council of Essex County, N. J., Newark, N. J., 

Sept. 14, 1939.* Poland - 

Polish Episcopal Church In the Diocese of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 

Pa., Sept. 25, 1939.' Poland -.. 

Polish Falcons Alliance of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., Sept. 20, 1939. 

Poland - 

Polish Inter-Organization "Centrala" of Waterbury, Waterbufy, 

Conn., Feb. 28, 1940. Poland 

Polish Interorganl^ation Council, Detroit, Mich., Oct. 11, 1939. 

Poland ._ 

Polish Literary Guild of New Britain, Conn., New Britain, Conn., 

Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Polish Medical Relief Fund of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Bar Harbor, 

Maine, Sept. 25. 1939." Poland 

The Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, United States of America, 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Alliance of the United States of North America, Chi- 

caeo. Ml., Sept. 27, 19.39. Poland 

Polish National Council of Montgomery County, Amsterdam, N. Y., 

Oct. 12, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Council of New York, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 

1939. Poland .. 

The Polish Naturalization Independent Club, Worcester, Mass., 

Sept. 20, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief of Carteret, N. J. Carteret, N. J.. Oct. ii 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Committee of Boston, Boston. Mass., Sept. 14. 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Brockton. Mass., Brockton, Mass., Sept. 

2.5.1939. Poland ._ 

Polish Relief Committee of Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge. Mass . 

Sept. 10. 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Columbia County, Hudson, N. Y.. Mar' 

15,1910. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Delaware, Wiimington, Del., Sept. 22, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee, Flint, Mich., Sept. 18. i93'9.'"PoTand 
Polish Relief Committee of Gardner, Mass., Gardner. Mass Sent 

2«. 1939. Poland ■ h- 

Polish Relief Committee of Holyoke, Mass., Holyoke. Mass Nov 

4.1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Jackson, Mich., Jackson, Mich "Nov 9 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Nassau County'.' NY 
N. Y., Oct. 28, 1939.' Poland 



Hempstead, 



Funds 
received 



$277. 97 

23, 155. 18 

7,115.43 

757. 03 

663.25 

11,922.61 

354. 06 
217, 103. 63 

None 
7, 400. 00 
1, 813. 08 

472.50 

1, 113. 10 

2, 217. 71 

5,435.21 
3, 289. 96 

11,644.01 

200.00 

8,151.71 

10.00 

13, 046. 61 

2, 342. 15 

3, 413. 15 
6, 030. 86 

247, 764. 81 

2, 695. 21 

62, 177. 86 

2, 215. 71 
891.00 

6, 847. 27 

1,214.30 

1,370.67 

None 

6, 096. 13 

2, 401. 27 

2, 861. 86 

3, 267. 33 
1, 286. 37 
1, 428. OO 



Funds spent 

for relief In 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



None 

$23, 075. 72 

5, 345. 00 

84.68 

400.00 

9. 258. 11 

150.31 
78. 152. 55 

None 

6, 670. 02 

None 

None 

369.24 

1,331.00 

4. 787. 26 
2, 000. 00 

10, 161. 61 

200.00 

7, 522. 23 

None 

11. 171. 20 

1,000.00 

3, 126. 80 

4,000.00 

181, 065. 00 

1, 694. 00 

28, 875. 38 

1, 800. 00 
500.00 

4, 085. 44 

800.00 

911.15 

None 

4, 008. 66 
1, 900. 00 

1, 879. 20 

2, 319. 23 

600.00 

1,400.00 



$0.35 

79.46 

None 

7.00 

18.73 

419. 93 

17.70 
2, 870. 86 

None 

10.00 

35.30 

15S.27 

14S. 57 

51.26 

.35 
137.00 

138.68 
None 
20.00 
5.50 
51.30 
13.00 

278.71 
None 

433.56 

81.41 

5,850.46 

8.65 
13.00 

386.64 

169. 65 

41.76 

None 

168.57 
414. 84 

620.19 

76.93 

86.99 

28.00 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Mar. 31,1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

hand 



$277. 62 

None 

1,770.43 

665. 35 

244.52 

2. 244. 57 

186. 05 
136, 080. 22 

None 

719. 98 

1, 777. 78 

314. 23 

595. 29 

835. 45 

647.60 
1, 162. 96 

1,343.72 

None 

609.48 

4.50 

1, 824. 11 

1, 329. 15 

7.64 

2, 030. 86 

66, 266. 25 

919.80 

27, 452. 02 

407.06 
378.00 

2, 375. 19 
244.65 
417. 77 

None 

1,918.90 
86.43 

362. 47 

872. 17 

699.38 

None 



Estimated 
value of 
contribu- 
tions in 
kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 



None 

None 

$1, 500. 00 

sot'. 00 

None 

None 

350.00 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

75.00 

800.00 

4, 000. 00 
None 

1,638.50 
None 
None 
None 
116.22 
None 
None 
None 
None 

5,000.00 

289, 633. 50 

None 
46.00 

1,000.00 

None 

500.00 

None 

850.00 

None 

1, 307. 05 
400.00 
None 
None 



- The rcKlstratlon of this organization was revoked on Nov. 28. 1939. at the request of registrant. 
• The registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31, 1940, at the request of registra 



registrant. 



APRIL 



441 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countbibs— Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 



Funds 
received 



Polish Relief Committee, New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 31, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Committee of Philadelphia and vicinity, PhiladelDhia 

Pa.. Sent. 12. 1939. Poland . 

Polish Relief Committee of the Polish National Home A^ociation 

Lowell, Ma,ss., Nov. 27, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee, Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Committee, Taunton, Mass., Dec. 13, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Fund, Detroit, Mich., Sept. II. 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Fund of Fall River, Mass., Fall River, Mass., Nov 8 

1939. Poland _ ' ' 

Polish Relief Fund of Irvington, N. J., Irvington, N. J., Sept. 26. 1939 

Poland 

Polish Relief Fund, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 12, 1939.» Poland 
Polish Relief Fund, Jewett City, Conn., Oct. 3, 1939. Poland.. . 
Polish Relief Fund of Meriden, Meriden, Conn., Oct.l2, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Fund, Middletown. Conn., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Fund, Niagara Falls, N. Y., Oct. 26, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Fund of Palmer, Mass., Three Rivers, Mass., Oct. 20, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund of Syracuse, N. Y., and vicinity, Syracuse, N. Y., 

Oct. 31, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund Committee, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 13, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Rehef Fund Committee of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 

26, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund Committee of Passaic and Bergen Counties, Inc., 

Passaic, N. J., Sent. 22, 1939. Poland 

Polish Roman Catholic Priests Union. Group No. 3 of New York 

Archdiocese, New York, N. Y., Jan. 25, 1940. Poland and France.. 
Polish Union of the United States of North America, Wilkes-Barre, 

Pa., Sept. S. 1939. Poland 

Polish United Societies of Holy Trinity Parish, Lowell, Mass., Sept. 

20, 1939. Poland 

Polish War Sufferers Relief Committee (Fourth Ward), Toledo, Ohio, 

Sept. 21, 1939. Poland... 

Polish Welfare Association, Hyde Park, Mass., Sept. 16, 1939. Poland. 
Polish Welfare Council, Schenectady, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland 
Polish White Cross Club of West Utica, Utica, N. Y., Oct. 20, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish ■\\'omen's Fund to Fatherland, Lawrence, Mass., Sept. 23, 

19.39. Poland.. 

Polish Women's Relief Committee, New York, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1939. 

France, Poland, and Germany 

Polski Komitet Ratunkowy (Polish Relief Fund), Binghamton, 

N. Y., Sept. 25, 1939. Poland 

Polsko Narodowy Komitet w Ameryce, Scranton, Pa., Sept. 8. 1939. 

Poland 

Pulaski Civic League of Middlesex County, N. J., South River, N. J., 

Sept. 30, 1939. Poland 

Pulaski League of Queens County, Inc., Jamaica, N. Y., Oct. 21, 

1939. Poland 

Refugies D'Alsace Lorraine en Dordogne, San Francisco, Calif., Nov. 

9,I939.» France 

Eekord Printing and Publishing Co., Shamokin, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939.' 

Poland 

Relief Agency for Polish War Sufferers, Willimantic, Conn., Sept. 29, 

1939. Poland 

Relief Committee of United Polish Societies, Chicopee, Mass., Oct. 

1939. Poland. 

Relief Coordination Service, New York, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1940. « France. 
Relief Fund for Sufferers in Poland Committee, Kenosha, Wis., Sept. 

26, 1939. Poland 

Relief Society for Jews in Lublin, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 13, 1939. 

Poland 

Helena Rubenstein-Titus, New York, N. Y., Mar. 1, 1940. Poland . . . 
Russian Refugee Children's Welfare Society, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 29, 1939. Germany, France, and Poland . 

The Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church, Little Falls, N. Y., Little 

Falls, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939. Poland 

Saint Adalbert's Polish Relief Association, Thompsonville, Conn., 

Nov. 2, 1939.' Poland 

St. Stephens Polish Relief Fund of Perth Amboy, N. J., Perth Amboy, 

N. J., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland 



$6, 661. 91 $5, 298. 41 

28, 510. 79 21, 775. 50 

1, 765. 28 900. 00 
4, 172. 99 3, 6:17. 46 

2, 248. 66 1, 047. 00 
121, 790 42 62, 879. 13 

827. 95 600. 00 

3, 046. 24 2, 232. 60 
27, 150 24 20, 784. 50 

783. 56 742. 90 

I, 292. 17 None 

3,538.55 1.119.00 

1.821.80 1,000.00 

1. 062. 81 559. 41 
6, 294. 15 4, 254. 00 

359.40 153.00 

11,912.57 10,232.72 

8, 832. 75 7, 518. 92 

312. 50 None 

1, 092. 35 None 

3,982.09 1.788.31 

4, 605. 38 4, 517. 29 
434. 85 350. 00 

4, 469. 35 3, 961. 65 

5. 046. 57 3, 244. 53 

3, 786. 43 1, 637. 10 

6. 607. 14 269. 72 
3, 148. 76 2, 254. 04 

19, 183. 80 17, 164. 93 

437. 75 None 

6, 027. 52 5. 500. 00 

1,524.60 1,524.60 

938. 40 898. 58 

2, 543. 45 I, 744. 21 

2,485.21 2,162.64 

None None 

2, 098. 18 2. 000. 00 

587. 63 None 

5.365.15 1,365.15 

6, 351. 42 3, 239. 67 

209. 05 200. 00 

686. 92 656. 92 

2, 606. 77 None 

" No report for the month of March has been received from this organization. 
« The registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31, 1940, at the request of registrant. 
' The registration of this organization was revoked on Feb. 29, 1940, at the request of registrant. 
• The registration of this organization was revoked on Jan. 31, 1940, at the request of registrant. 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



$495. 88 

291.82 

149.84 

65.80 

16.60 

I, 966. 62 

30.10 

32.00 
665.07 
37.73 
27.90 
18.20 
21.80 

38.27 

66.25 

84.64 

317.77 

289.63 

None 

None 

157. 65 

88.09 
None 
57.32 

156.09 

382.92 

2.103.92 

217. 72 

273.88 

86.00 

167.25 

None 

10.00 

146. 72 

None 

None 

42.06 

250.21 
4,000.00 

1, 129. 73 

1. 00 

None 

None 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
-Mar. 31, 1940. 

including 

cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 



»S67.62 

6. 443. 47 

715.42 

479 73 

1, 186. 06 

66, 964. 67 

197.86 

781.64 

5, 700. 67 

2.93 

1, 284. 27 

2,401.35 

800.00 

466.13 

1,973.90 
121. 76 

1, 362. OS 
744. 30 
312.60 

1,092 36 

2 036. 13 

None 

84.85 
4S0. 48 

1,645.95 

1, 766. 41 

4,233.60 

677.00 
1,744.99 

352 75 

370.27 
None 
29.82 

663.62 

322.67 
None 

66.13 

337.42 
None 

982. 02 

8.06 

130.00 

2,606.77 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 



SI, 8.W. 00 

None 

None 

I, 235. 00 

450 00 

20, 800. 00 

None 

500.00 
1,125.00 

400.00 
None 
None 
None 

4,050.00 

360.00 

150.00 

7,00L75 

2 540.50 

660.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

6.160.00 

1,200.00 

1,800.00 

869.00 

780.00 

IB, 047. 00 

None 

None 

None 

725.00 

296.05 

1, 342. 50 
None 

450.00 

None 
None 

1, I8«. 20 

None 

625.00 

Nona 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind aaw 
on band 



None 

None 

None 
None 
None 
None 

None 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

$1. 800. 00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 
None 

300.00 
None 

638.25 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

54.00 

None 

None 

None 



442 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 
Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries — Continued 



Name o( registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 



Save the Children Federation, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1939. 

England and Poland 

Schuylkill and Carbon Counties Relief Committee for Poland, Frack- 

ville, Pa., Sept. 15, 1939. Poland... 

Secours Franco-Am^ricain— War Relief, Pittsburgh, Pa., Nov. 20, 

1939. France 

Share A Smoke Club, Inc., Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1939. England and 

France 

Socicdades Hispanas Confederadas, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1940. 

France - -- 

Soci6t6 Francaise de St. Louis, Inc., St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 15, 1939. 

France 

Society of the Devotees of Jerusalem, Inc., New York, N. Y., Dec. 18, 

1939 Palestine .... - 

Southbridge Allied Committee for Relief in Poland, Southbridge, 

Mass., Nov. 9. 1939. Poland 

Spanish Committee Pro-Masonic Refugees in France, New York, 

N. Y., Feb. 20, 1940. France 

Spanish Refugee Relief Campaign, New York, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1939. 

France 

Springfield and Vicinity Polish Relief Fund Committee, Springfield, 

Mass., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 

Toledo Committee for Relief of War Victims, Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 19, 

1939. Poland 

Tolstoy Foundation for Russian Welfare and Culture, New York, 

N. Y., Oct. 17, 1939. France, Poland, and England.... 

Mrs. Walter R. Tuekerman, Bethesda, Md., Nov. 24, 1939. Great 

Britain 

Edmund Tyszka, Hamtramck, Mich., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

L'Union Alsacienne, Inc., New York, N. Y., Oct. 28, 1939. France 

United American Polish Organizations, South River, N. J., South 

River, N. J., Oct. 20. 1939. Poland 

United Bilgorayer Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Mar. 21, 1940.' 

Poland 



Funds 
received 



$1, 943. 95 

3, 909. 05 

612. 60 

107.00 

44, 581. 43 

210. 05 

5, 548. 04 

712. 23 

None 

26, 144. 47 

943. 78 

4, 134. 40 

16, 733. 60 

305. 60 
2, 839. 89 

1, 143. 16 

2, 313. 41 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



$1, 308. 25 

3, 010. 05 

2.17 

None 

17, 401. 62 

200.99 

3. 000. 00 

None 

None 

6, 694. 99 

500.00 

3,750.00 

7, 334. 20 

266. 84 

2, 839. 89 

400. 27 

1,200.00 



Funds 

spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



$464. 48 

None 

60.15 

56.90 

6, 502. 59 

9.06 

2, 338. 28 

20.91 

None 

17, 915. 17 

21.25 

213.20 

2, 226. 21 

1.30 

None 
118. 87 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Mar. 31. 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

hand 



Estimated 
value of 
contribu- 
tions in 
kind sent 
to coun- 
tries named 



$171. 22 

899.00 

450. 18 

50.10 

20, 677. 22 

None 

209.76 

691. 32 

None 

1, 634. 31 

422.53 

171. 20 

7, 173. 19 

37.46 
None 
624. 02 

1,056.36 



None 

None 

$185. 00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

10, 036. 00 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 
315.00 

None 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on hand 



United Charity Institutions of Jerusalem, New York, N. Y., Oct. 13, 

1939. Palestine 

United Committee for French Relief, New York, N. Y., Oct. 26, 1939. 

France 

United German Societies, Inc., Portland, Oreg., Portland, Oreg., Jan. 

8, 1940. Germany 

United Nowv Dworer ReUef Committee, New York, N. Y., Jan. 3, 

1940. Poland 

United Opoler Relief of New York, New York, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1939. 

Poland 

United Polish Central Council of Connecticut, Bridgeport, Conn., 

Oct. 16, 1939. Poland... 

United Polish Committees in Racine, Wis., Racine, Wis., Nov. 2, 1939. 

Poland.. 

United Polish Organizations of Salem, Mass., Salem, Mass., Oct. 20, 

1939. " Poland 



United Polish Roman Catholic Parish Societies of Greenpoint, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 13, 1939. Poland 

United Polish Societies of Bristol, Conn., Bristol, Conn., Sept. 29, 
1939. Poland 

United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Sept. 
27, 1939. Poland __ ...... 

United Polish Societies of Immaculate Conception Church, South- 
ington. Conn., Oct. 13, 1939. Poland 

United Polish Societies of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct. 21. 
1939. Poland 



United Polish Societies of Manchester, Manchester, Conn., Nov.' 9! 
1939.' Poland- 



United Reading Appeal for Polish War Sufferers, Reading, PaVsept 

22,1939. Poland 

Urgent Relief for France, Washington, D. C., i5ec. 26^1939.' France ' 
Mrs. Paul Verdicr Fund. San Francisco, Calif., Oct. II, 1939. France 
Ware Polish Relief Fund, Ware, Mass., Nov. 4, 1939." Poland 
Woman's Auxiliary Board of the Scots' Charitable Society, Inc., 

Waverley. Mass., Feb. 2S, 1940. Scotland 

Women's Allied War Relief Association of St. Louis, Clayton, Mo 

Dec. 18, 1939. Great Britain and France 

Registrants whose registrations were revoked prior to Mar' 1, 1940 

and who had no balance on hand as of that date 



22, 388. 66 

15, 319. 60 

1, 134. 13 

721. 67 

629. 16 

6, 858. 98 

1, 312. 91 

1, 701. 70 

2, 278. 63 
799.87 

3, 173. 93 
635.74 

2, 199. 37 

382. 16 

5, 962. 43 
6,150.99 

3, 965. 72 
1, 691. 44 

168. 70 

1,071.67 

45, 586. 80 



10, 689. 67 

9, 427. 49 

600.00 

None 

None 

3, 962. 42 

1, 160. 00 

1, 065. 27 

1, 800. 00 

604.00 

2, 084. 42 
460.00 

1, 818. 26 
185.00 

4, 568. 64 

3, 396. 19 
3, 897. 31 
1, 184. 80 

100.00 

431.38 

39,127.24 



Total' 



5, 972, 646. 83 



4, 028, 322. 24 



10, 886. 64 

792. 41 

100.74 

162. 36 

36.21 

166. 67 

116.00 

96.01 

60.00 

None 

109.00 

19.00 

302.29 

18.06 

138. 34 

375.00 

40.45 

96.31 

11.10 

8.02 

6, 459. 66 



420, 179. 35 



812.44 

6, 099. 70 

533. 39 

659. 31 

593. 94 

1, 729. 89 

47.91 

641. 42 

418.63 

296. 87 

980. 61 

166. 74 

78.82 

179. 11 

1, 256. 66 

2, 379. 80 

27.96 

410. 33 

57.60 

632.27 

None 



None 
1,386.16 
None 
None 
None 

2, 240. 00 
None 

596. 00 
None 

100.00 

6, 918. 70 

None 

None 

None 

None 
870. 26 

3, 282. 00 
1, 600. 00 

None 

421.60 

1,060.00 



1, 538, 480. 46 



649, 361. 66 



' No report has been received from this organization. 

"No report for the month of March has been received from this organization. 

• "Tho registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31, 1940, at the request of registrant. 

- rbe registration of this organization was revoked on Fob. 29, 1940, at the request of registrant. 
1™ ' ' i""' possible to strike an eiact balance In these published totals, since some registrants have included in their expenditures monies available from 
loans or advances, which are not considered by the Department to be "funds received" and hence are not reported as such. 



443 



List of Registrants 



[Released to the press April 25] 

The following persons and organizations are 
now registered with the Secretary of State, 
pursuant to section 8 of the Neutrality Act of 
1939, for the solicitation and collection of con- 
tributions to be used in belligerent countries for 
medical aid and assistance or for food and 
clothing to relieve human suffering. The coun- 
tries to which contributions are being sent are 
given in parentheses : 

1. Polsko Narodowy Komitet w Ameryce, 1002 Pittston 
Avenue, Scranton, Pa. (Poland) 

2. Save the Children Federation, Inc., 1 Madison 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (formerly International 
Save the Children Fund of America, Inc.) (Great 
Britain and Poland) 

3. Anthracite Relief Committee, 53-59 North Main 
Street, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. (Poland) 

4. Polish Union of the United States of North 
America, 53-59 North Main Street, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. (Poland) 

5. Polish Relief Fund, 1550 East Canfield Avenue, De- 
troit, Mich. (Poland) 

6. Nowy Swiat Publishing Co., Inc., 380 Second Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

7. Polish Relief Committee of Philadelphia and vicinity, 
3111 Richmond Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Poland) 

" 8. Walter Golan.ski and Edmund P. Krotkiewicz, co- 
partners of Polish Radio Programs Bureau, 11301 
Joseph Campau Avenue, Hamtramck, Mich. (Po- 
land) 

9. Polish Relief Fund, Hotel Plaza, Jersey City, N. J. 
(Poland) 

10. Commission for Polish Relief, Inc., 420 Lexington 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (formerly American Com- 
mittee for Relief of Polish Noncombatant Women, 
Children, Refugees.) (Poland) 

11. New Jersey Broadcasting Corporation, 2866 Hud- 
son Boulevard, Jersey City, N. J. (Poland) 

12. Federation of Polish Jews in America, Inc., 225 
West Thirty-fourth Street, New York, N. T. (Po- 
land) 

" 13. Rekord Printing & Publishing Company, 603-605 
North Shamokiu Street, Shanwkin, Pa. (Poland) 

14. Central Council of Polish Organizations in Pitts- 
burgh, 3509 Butler Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. ( Poland ) 

15. American Women's Hospitals, 50 West Fiftieth 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France and Great 
Britain) 

" 16. American Committee for Civilian Relief in Po- 
land, 401 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 



" 17. Polish Club of Washington, Stansbury Hall, 5832 
Georgia Avenue, NW., Washington, D. C. (Poland) 

18. American French War Relief, Inc., 229 East Sixty- 
flrst Street, New York, N. Y. (formerly French and 
American Association for the Relief of War Suf- 
ferers.) (France) 

" 19. Polish Emergency Council of Esi5ex County, N. J., 
Room 619, 790 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. (Po- 
land) 

20. Central Committee of the United Polish Societies, 
Bridgeport, Conn., 405 Barnum Avenue, Bridgeport, 
Conn. (Poland) 

21. Associated Polish Societies' Relief Committee of 
Worcester, Mass., 15 Richland Street, Worcester, 
Mass. (Poland) 

22. Polish National CouncU of New York, 25 St. Mark's 
Place, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

23. Polish Relief Committee of Boston, Room 303, 11 
Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. (Poland) 

"24. Central Citizens Committee, Room 3, Edwin 
Building, 9701 Joseph Campau Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
(Poland) 

25. Lackawanna County Committee for Polish Relief, 
1213 Prospect Avenue, Scranton, Pa. (Poland) 

26. Polish American Council, 1018 Noble Street, Chi- 
cago, 111. (formerly the Council of Polish Organiza- 
tions in the United States of America, 1200 North 
Ashland Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Poland) 

" 27. James F. Hopkins, Inc., 6559 Hamilton Avenue, 
Detroit, Mich. (Poland) 

28. Chester (Delaware Co., Pa.) Polish Relief Com- 
mittee, 2718 West Third Street, Chester, Pa. (Po- 
land) 

29. Federated CouncU of Polish Societies of Grand 
Rapids, Mich., in care of Sigmund S. Zamierowski, 
Attorney, 908 G. R. Trust Building, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. (Poland) 

30. The Paryski Publishing Co., 1154 Nebraska Ave- 
nue, Toledo, Ohio. (Poland) 

"31. Modjeska Educational League Welfare Club at 
the International Institute, 303 Condley Drive, To- 
ledo, Ohio. (Poland) 

32. Schuylkill and Carbon Counties Relief Committee 
for Poland, Spring and Line Streets, Frackville, 
Pa. (Poland) 

33. Holy Rosary Polish Roman Catholic Church, 
6 Wall Street, Passaic, N. J. (Poland) 

,S4. A.ssociation of Joint Polish-American Societies of 
Chelsea, Mass., in care of St. Stanislaus Roman 
Catholic Rectory, 163 Chestnut Street, Chelsea, 
Mass. (Poland) 

" 35. Club Amical Frangais, International Center of 
the Y. W. C. A., 2431 East Grand Boulevard, De- 
troit, Mich. (France, Poland, and Great Britain) 



444 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"36. Polish National Catholic of The Holy Saviour 
Church, 500 North Main Street, Union City, Conn. 
(Poland) 

37. Committee of Mercy, Inc., 254 Fourth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. (France and Great Britain) 

38. Kuryor Publishing Company, 747 North Broadway, 
Milwaukee, Wis. (Poland) 

039. Polish Falcons of America, First District, Inc., 
188 Grand Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Poland) 

40. Polish Relief Committee of Cambridge, Mass., 210 
Columbia Street, Cambridge, Mass. (Poland) 

41. Poland War Sufferers Aid Committee, 6968 Broad- 
way, Cleveland, Ohio (formerly Polish Committee 
to Aid Poland's War Sufferers.) (Poland) 

42. Polish Welfare Association, 1450 River Street, 
Hyde Park, Mass. (Poland) 

43. Polish Relief Committee, 3809 Industrial Ave- 
nue, Flint, Mich. (Poland) 

44. The Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, United 
States of America, 142 Grand Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. (Poland) 

45. Polish Civic League of Mercer County, 822 Ohio 
Avenue, Trenton, N. J. (Poland) 

"46. Polish American Central Civic Committee of 
South Bend, Ind., 1101-07 Western Avenue, South 
Bend, Ind. (Poland) 

47. Toledo Committee for Relief of War Victims, 
1116 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio. (Poland) 

48. Edmund Tyszka, 11403 Joseph Campau Avenue, 
Hamtramck, Mich. (Poland) 

49. The Poli.sh Naturalization Independent Club, 45 
Millbury Street, Worcester, Mass. (Poland) 

50. Polish Falcons Alliance of America, 97-99 South 
Eighteenth Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Poland) 

"51. Circle of Poles of St. Hedwig, Polish American 
Citizens' Committee, 17 Orange Street, New Britain, 
Conn. (Poland) 

52. Spanish Refugee ReUef Campaign, 381 Fourth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (France) 

53. Polish United Societies of Holy Trinity Parish, 
340 High Street, Lowell, Mass. (Poland) 

54. American Friends of France, Inc., 3 Sutton Place, 
New York, N. Y. (France) 

' 55. American Committee for Aid to British Medical 
Societies, Empire State Building, New York, N. Y. 
(formerly American Committee for Aid to British 
Medical Society, 1060 Crotona Park Eacit, Kew 
York, N. Y.) (Great Britain) 

56. Associated Polish Societies Relief Committee of 
Webster, Mass., 51 Whitcomb Street, Webster, 
Mass. (Poland) 

57. Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, Inc., 55 
West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

58. LaFayette Preventorium. Inc., 254 Fourth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. (France) 



59. Beth-Lechem, Inc., 321 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. (Poland) 

60. Polish War Sufferers Relief Committee (Fourth 
Ward, Toledo, Ohio), 345 East Oakland Street, 
Toledo, Ohio. (Poland) 

" 61. Central Spanish Committee for Relief of 
Refugees, 647 Earle Building, Washington, D. C. 
(France) 

62. Polish Literary Guild of New Britain, Conn., 
corner Broad and Washington Streets, New 
Britain, Conn. (Poland) 

63. Polish Relief Fund Committee of Passaic and 
Bergen Counties, in care of Stanley J. Polack, Esq., 
145 Passaic Street, Passaic, N. ,7. (Poland) 

64. United Reading Appeal for Polish War Sufferers, 
518 Penn Street, Reading, Pa. (Poland) 

65. International Committee of Young Men's Christian 
Associations, 347 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland, Prance, and India) 

" 66. Medem Committee, Inc., 175 East Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

67. Polish Welfare Council, 233 Broadway, Sche- 
nectady, N. Y. (Poland) 

68. Polish Relief Committee of Delaware, 1205 Beech 
Street, Wilmington, Del. (Poland) 

69. Polish Women's Fund to Fatherland, 31 Basswood 
Street, Lawrence, Mass. (Poland) 

70. Polish Relief Fund, 164 Court Street, Middletown, 
Conn. (Poland) 

71. Polish Broadcasting Corporation, 260 East One 
Hundred and Sixty-first Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

72. Polish Aid Fund Committee of Federation of 
Elizabeth Polish Organizations, 111-115 First 
Street, Elizabeth, N. J. (Poland) 

73. Springfield and Vicinity Polish Relief Fund Com- 
mittee, 91 Charles Street, Springfield, Mass. 
(Poland) 

74. International Relief Association for Victims of 
Fascism, Room 310, 20 Vesey Street, New York, 
N. Y. (France, Great Britain, and Germany) 

"75. Polish Medical Relief Fund of Mt. Desert Is- 
land, Maine, Bar Harbor, Maine. (Poland) 

76. Polish Relief Committee of Brockton, Mass., 40 
Emerson Avenue, Brockton, Mass. (Poland) 

" 77. Polish Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Penn- 
sylvania, 2961 Richmond Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Poland) 

78. The Catholic Leader, 480 Burritt Street, New Brit- 
ain, Conn. (Poland) 

79. Relief Fund for Sufferers, 5009 Seventh Avenue. 
Kenosha, Wis. (Poland) 

SO. Polski Komitet Ratunkowy (Polish Relief Fund), 
25 Miles Street, care of Peter Majka, Binghamton, 
N. Y. (Poland) 

"81. Scott Park Mothers and Daughters Club, 712 
Detroit Avenue, Toledo, Ohio. (Poland) 



APRIL 27, 1940 



445 



"82. California State Committee for Polish Relief, 
10202 Washington Boulevard, Culver City, Calif. 
(Poland) 

83. Polish Relief Fund Committee of Milvcaukee, care 
of Mr. J. P. Mlchalski, 703 W. Mitchell Street, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. (Poland) 

"84. Ruth Stanley de Luze (Baroness de Luze), 
"Luthany", Pleasantville Road, Briarcliff Manor, 
N. Y. (France) 

85. Polish Relief Committee of Gardner, Mass., Gard- 
ner Trust Building, 32 Pleasant Street, Gardner, 
Mass. (Poland) 

86. Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Great Britain, France, 
and Germany) 

87. American Committee for Christian Refugees, Inc., 
287 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (formerly 
American Committee for Christian German Refu- 
gees). (Germany and France) 

88. Nowiny Publishing Apostolate, Inc., 1226 W. 
Mitchell Street, Milwaukee, Wis. (Poland) 

89. Polish Relief Fund of Irvington, N. J., 415 Six- 
teenth Avenue, Irvington, N. J. (Poland) 

90. St. Stephens Polish Relief Fund of Perth Amboy, 
N. J., 490 State Street, Perth Amboy, N. J. (Po- 
land) 

"91. Polish Army Veterans Association of America, 
Inc., 56 St. Mark's Place, New York, N. Y. (Po- 
land) 

92. Holy Cross Relief Fund Association of New Brit- 
ain, Conn.. Holy Cross Rectory, Biruta Street, New 
Britain, Conn. (Poland) 

93. United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn., Polish 
National Home, 100 Governor Street, Hartford, 
Conn. (Poland) 

94. American Field Service, Room 1531, 120 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. (France) 

95. Polish National Alliance of the United States of 
North America, 1514-20 West Division Street, Chi- 
cago, 111. (Poland) 

"96. Reverend John Wieloch, 5 Church Street, MUlers 

Falls, Mass. (Poland.) 
" 97. Orrin S. Good, 1410 Old National Bank Building, 

Spokane, Wa,sh. (Great Britain) 

98. United Polish Societies of Bristol, Conn., 462 
North Main Street, Bristol, Conn. (Poland) 

99. Russian Refugee Children's Welfare Society, Inc., 
51 East One Hundred and Twenty-first Street, New 
York, N. Y. (Germany, France, and Poland) 

100. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Commit- 
tee, Inc., 100 East Forty-second Street, New York, 
N. T. (All belligerent countries) 

101. Polish Central Council of New Haven, St. Stanis- 
laus School Building, 9 Eld Street, New Haven, 
Conn. (Poland) 

102. Relief Agency for Polish War Sufferers, Polish 
National Home, Ives Street, WillimanUc, Conn. 
(Poland) 



103. The Little House of Saint Pantaleon, 2201 

Delancey Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (France) 
" 104. Connecticut Radio Bureau, 185 Sherman Avenue, 

Meriden, Conn. (Poland) 
lOo. Pulaski Civic League of Middlesex County, N. J., 

13 Miller Street, South River, N. J. (Poland) 
106. Humanitarian Work Committee, Polish National 

Home, 10 Hendrick Avenue, Glen Cove, N. Y. 

(Poland) 
" 107. Mrs. W. Forbes Morgan, 320 Park Avenue, New 

York, N. Y. (Poland) 
' 108. Association Franco-.\mericainc des Parruins et 

Marraines de Guerre des U. S. A., llaleigh Hotel, 

Wa.shington, D. C. (France) 

109. Legion of Young Polish Women, 1263 North 
Paulina Street, Chicago, 111. (I'ohind) 

110. Polish Relief Fund, 10 Main Street, Jewett City, 
Conn. (Poland) 

111. The Kindergarten Unit, Inc., 128 East Avenue, 
Norwalk, Conn. (France, Poland, Great Britain, 
India, Australia, and New Zealand) 

112. Le Paquet au Front, 745 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. (France) 

" 113. International Artists' Community Club, 701 Barr 
Building, Washington, D. C. (Poland) 

114. The Federation of I'oli.sh Societies, 45 Furnace 
Street, Little Falls, N. Y. (Poland) 

115. Polish Interorganization Council, 5090 Lonyo 
Avenue, Detroit, Mich. (Poland) 

" 116. Mrs. Bradford Norman, Jr., in care of Mr. 
Bradford Norman, Jr., Comn>ercial National Bank 
and Trust Company, 56 Wall Street, New York, 
N. Y. (France) 

117. Polish Relief of Carteret, N. J., 42 Hudson 
Street, Carteret, N. J. (Poland) 

118. Federation of French Veterans of the Great War, 
Inc., 610 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (France) 

119. Mrs. Paul Verdier Fund, 199 Geary Street, City of 
Paris Dry Goods Stores Company, San Francisco, 
Calif. (France) 

120. Polish National Council of Montgomery County, 
54 Cornell Street, Amsterdam, N. Y. (Poland) 

121. Centrala, 1-3 Monroe Street, Passaic, N. J. 
(Poland) 

122. Polish Relief Fund of Meriden, West Main 
Street, Meriden, Conn. (Poland) 

123. United Charity Institutions of Jerusalem, 207 
East Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Palestine) 

124. United Polish Societies of Immaculate Conception 
Church, in care of Mr. Klcmous Markowski, 36 Hill 
Street, Southington, Conn. (Poland) 

125. American Society for French Medical and Civilian 
Aid, Incorporated, 46 Cedar Street, New York, N. Y. 
(formerly Friends of the American Hospital of 
Paris, Incorporated.) (France) 

"126. Polish Welfare Association of the Archdiocese 
of Chicago, 203 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 
lU. (Poland) 



446 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



127. Polish Central Committee of New London, Conn., 
362 Main Street, New London, Conn. (Poland) 

128. The Emorgency Aid of Pennsylvania. Twentieth 
and Sansoni Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. (Great 
Britain and France) 

129. United I'olish Roman Catholic Parish Societies 
of Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N. Y., St. Stanislaus 
Kostka Roman Catholic Church, 607 Humboldt 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Poland) 

130. East Chicago Citizens' Committee for Polish 
War Sufferers and Refugees, 4902 Indianapolis 
Boulevard, East Chicago, Ind. (Poland) 

131. Committee for the Relief of War Sufferers in 
Poland, 1505 Cass Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. (for- 
merly Citizens Committee for Relief of War Suf- 
ferers in Poland.) (Poland) 

132. United Polish Central Council of Connecticut, 
471 Park Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. (Poland) 

133. French Committee for Relief in France, 12245 
Abington Avenue, Detroit, Mich. (France) 

134. Tolstoy Foundation for Russian Welfare and 
Culture, Room 54, 289 Fourth Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. (France and Poland) 

" 135. Polish Relief Association, Town of North 
Hempstead, 120 Jericho Turnpike, Mineola, Long 
Island, N. Y. (Poland) 

136. American Society for British Medical and 
Civilian Aid, Incorporated, 46 Cedar Street, New 
York, N. Y. (formerly American Society for British 
Medical and Hospital Aid, Incorporated.) (Great 
Britain and France) 

137. United American Polish Organizations, South 
River, N. J., 219 Turnpike, South River, N. J. 
(Poland) 

138. United Polish Organizations of Salem, Mass., 
care of Mr. Alphonse S. Bachorowski, 285 Essex 
Street, Salem, Mass. (Poland) 

139. British War Relief Association of N'orthern 
California, 316-322 Shell Building, San Francisco, 
Calif. (Great Britain and France) 

140. Polish Relief Fund of Palmer, Mass., 20 Oak 
Street, Three Rivers, Mass. (Poland) 

141. Polish White Cross Club of West Utica, 1416 
Martin Street, Utica, N. Y. (Poland) 

"142. Fund fur the Relief of Scientists. Men of Let- 
ters, and Artists of Moscow, in care of Eitingon 
Schlld Co., Inc., 224 West Thirtieth Street, New 
York, N. Y. (France and Great Britain) 

"143. St. Michael's Roman Catholic Parish, 75 Derby 
Avenue, Derby, Conn. (Poland) 

" 144. The Polish Relief Committee, 11 East Lexing- 
ton Street, Baltimore, Md. (Poland) 

145. The Maryland Committee for the Relief of 
Poland's War Victims, 11 Bast Lexington Street, 
Baltimore, Md. (Poland) 

146. Pulaski League of Queens County, Inc., 108-111 
Sutphin Boulevard, Jamaica, Queens County, N. Y. 
(Poland) 



147. Relief Committee of United Polish Societies, 142 
Cabot Street, Chicopee, Mass. (Poland) 

148. United Polish Societies of Los Angeles, 4200 
Avalon Boulevard, Los Angeles, Calif. (Poland) 

149. Committee Representing Polish Organizations 
and Polish People in Perry, N. Y., 18 Elm Street, 
Perry, N. Y. (Poland) 

150. The Friends of Israel Refugee Relief Conunittee, 
Inc., 710 Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Canada, France, and Great Britain) 

151. Nowe-Dworer Ladies Benevolent Association, 
Inc., care of Beatrice Stone, 203-205 Lafayette 
Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

152. Les Anciens Combattants Frangais de la Grande 
Guerre, Room 313, War Memorial Building, San 
Francisco, Calif. (France) 

153. Polish Relief Fund, Echo Club, 341 Portage Road, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. (Poland) 

154. United Committee for French Relief, 330 West 
Thirtieth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

155. Polish Civilian Relief Fund, St. Joseph's School 
Hall, Monroe Street, Passaic, N. J. (Poland) 

" 156. Polish Aid Association of the Sixth Congres- 
sional District, including Perham and BrowerviUe, 
Minn., Little Falls, Minn. (Poland) 

157. Central Committee Knesseth Israel, 214 East 
Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Palestine) 

" 158. Polish Relief Committee of Nassau County, 
N. Y., 450 Front Street, Hempstead, N. Y. (Po- 
land) 

159. L'Union Alsacienne Inc., 28 West Thirty-ninth 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

160. Committee of the American Fund for Breton Re- 
lief, care of Mrs. W. Kennedy Boone, Jr., 21 East 
Tenth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

161. Polish Relief Fund of Syracuse, N. Y., and vi- 
cinity, 1411 West Genesee Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

162. Polish Relief Committee, 1680 Acushnet Avenue, 
New Bedford, Mass. (Poland) 

163. American Friends of Czechoslovakia, Room 2213, 
8 West Fortieth Street, New York, N. Y. (Great 
Britain, France, and Bohemia and Moravia) 

164. The Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church, Lit- 
tle Falls, N. Y., Sacred Heart Rectory, Furnace 
Street, Little Falls, N. Y. (Poland) 

165. Golden Rule Foundation, 60 East Forty-second 
Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland and Palestine) 

166. United Polish Committees in Racine, Wis., 1809 
Howe Street, Racine, Wis. (Poland) 

" 167. Saint Adalbert's Polish Relief Association, Pol- 
ish National Home, Thompsonville, Conn. (Poland) 

168. Cercle Francais de Seattle, 308 Marion Street, 
Seattle, Wash. (France and Great Britain) 

169. General Gustav Orlicz Dreszer Foundation for 
Aid to Polish Children, Kennedy-Warren, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (Poland) 



APRIL 2 I 



1940 



447 



170. Polish Relief Committee of Holyoke, Mass., 200 
Main Street, Holyoke, Mass. (Poland) 

" 171. Ware Polish Relief Fund, Pulaski Street, Ware, 
Mass. (Poland) 

172. Milford, Connecticut, Polish Relief Fund Com- 
mittee, 61 Lafayette Street, Milford, Conn. (Po- 
land) 

173. Central (3oimcil of Polish Organizations, 103 
West Miller Street, New Castle, Pa. (Great Brit- 
ain, Poland, and France) 

174. Polish Relief Committee, 138 Bernard Street, 
Rochester, N. Y. (Poland) 

175. Polish Relief Fund of Fall River, Mass., 827 
Globe Street, Fall River, Mass. (Poland) 

176. American Auxiliary Committee de L'Dnion des 
Femmes de France, 56 East Sixty-eighth Street, 
New York, N. T. (France) 

177. Massachusetts Relief Committee for Poland, 340 
Main Street, Worcester, Mass. (Poland) 

178. Southbridge Allied Committee for Relief in Po- 
land, 18 Ballard Court, Southbridge, Mass. (Po- 
land) 

179. American Friends Service Committee, 20 South 
Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Great Britain, 
Poland, Germany, and France) 

* 180. Refugies d'Alsace-Lorraine en Dordogne, 486 
California Street, San Francisco, Calif. (France) 

"181. United Polish Societies of Manchester, 158 
Eldridge Street, Manchester, Conn. (Poland) 

182. Polish Relief Committee of Jackson, Micliigan, 
1425 Joy Avenue, Jackson, Mich. (Poland) 

183. Share A Smoke Club, Inc., 504 Stewart Avenue. 
Ithaca, N. Y. (Great Britain and France) 

184. Committee of French-American Wives, 18 East 
Forty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

185. Hadassah, Inc., 1860 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
(Palestine) 

■ 186. Federation of Franco-Belgian Clubs of Rhode 
Island, Sampson Street, Woonsocket, R. I. (France) 

187. Soci6t4 Francaise de St. Louis, Inc., care of Miss 
Irma Ponscarme, 5630 Pershing Avenue, St. Louis, 
Mo. (France) 

188. American German Aid Society, 2206 West Twenty- 
first Street, Los Angeles, CaUf. (Germany) 

189. French War Relief, Inc., 1209 Pershing Square 
Building, 448 South Hill Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 
(France) 

190. General Taufflieb Memorial Relief Committee for 
France, 265 Miramar Avenue, Santa Barbara, 
Calif. (France and Great Britain) 

191. Polish Business and Professional Men's Club, 
Inc., 5252 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Calif. (Po- 
land) 

192. League of Polish Societies of New Kensington, 
Arnold, and vicinity, 8-57 Kenneth Avenue, New 
Kensington, Pa. (Poland) 

193. British- American War Relief Association, in care 



of Dr. Ira L. Neill, Cobb Building, Seattle, Wash. 
(Great Britain) 
"194. The Fashion Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York, N. Y. (France) 

195. Secours Franco-Americain — War Relief, 2555 
Woodward Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. (France) 

196. Mrs. Carroll Greenough, 1408 Thirty-first Street, 
NW., Washington, D. C. (France) 

" 197. The United Polish Societies of Bronx County, 
705-709 Courtlandt Avenue, Bronx, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

198. Committee for the Relief for Poland, care of 
Mr. Stephen F. Kluck, 946 Twentieth North, Se- 
attle, Wash. (Poland) 

199. Polish Women's Relief Committee, 149 East 
Sixty-seventh Street. New York, N. Y. (France, 
Poland, and Germany) 

200. Mrs. Walter R. Tuokerman, Edgemoor, Bethesda, 
Md. (Great Britain) 

201. Fernanda Wanamaker Munn, 17 East Ninetieth 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

202. Der Kyftiiaeuserbund, League of German War 
Veterans in U. S. A., 3827 North Thirteenth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. (Poland and Germany) 

203. Bethel Mission of Poland, Inc., 2316 West Fifty- 
fourth Street, Minneapolis, Minn. (Poland) 

204. Polish Relief Committee of the Polish National 
Home Association, 10 Coburn Street, Lowell, Mass. 
(Poland) 

205. A. Seymour Houghton, Jr., 30 Broad Street, New 
York, N. Y. (France) 

206. The Benedict Bureau Unit, Inc., care of Mr. J. 
Henry Harper, 30 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

207. American Friends of the Daily Sketch War Relief 
Fund, 15 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. (Great 
Britain) 

208. British War Relief Society, Inc., 620 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. (Great Britain) 

209. French War Veterans, 5722 Benner Street, Los 
Angeles, CaUf. (France) 

210. North Side Polish Council, Relief Committee of 
Milwaukee, Wis.. 2;t62 North Bremen Street, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. (Poland) 

211. Friends of Poland, 5.t58 South Fairfield Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. (Poland) 

212. The British War Relief Association of Southern 
California, 212 Bradbury Building, Los Angeles, 
Calif. (Great Britain) 

213. United Opoler Relief of New York, care of Joe 
Grossman, 790 Dawson Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

214. American Volunteer Ambulance Corps, 610 Fifth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (formerly American 
Volunteers Ambulance) (France) 

215. Mrs. Larz Anderson, 19 Congress Street, Boston, 
Mass. (France) 



448 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



216. The Catholic Student War Relief of Pax Romana, 
Pax Romana Office, Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. C. (Poland, France, Germany, and 
Great Britain) 

217. Polish Relief Fund Committee, 604 East Forty- 
second Street, Los Angeles, Calif. (Poland) 

218. Polish Relief Committee, 30 Chandler Avenue. 
Taunton, Mass. (Poland) 

219. Relief Society for Jews in Lublin, 1206 South 
Lacionega Boulevard, Los Angeles, Calif. (Poland) 

220. American Fund for Wounded in France, Inc., 72 
Pearl Street, Worcester, Mass. (France) 

221. Polish American Citizens Relief Fund Committee, 
H. F. D. Box No. 42A, Shirley, Mass. (Poland) 

"222. Irvin McD. Garfield. 30 State Street, Boston, 
Mass. (Great Britain) 

223. Society of the Devotees of Jerusalem, Inc., 400 
East Houston Street, New York, N. T. (Palestine) 

224. Association of Former Juniors in France of 
Smith College, care of Smith College Club, 34 East 
Fiftieth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

225. The Friends of Normandy, 993 Park Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. (France) 

226. Women's Allied War Relief Association of St. 
Louis, 21 Dartford Avenue, Clayton, Mo. (France and 
Great Britain) 

227. Basque Delegation in the United States of 
America, 60 East Fifty-fourth Street, New York, 
N. Y. (France) 

228. Greater New Bedford British War Relief Corps, 
74 Penniman Street, New Bedford, Mass. (Great 
Britain) 

229. Les Amities Feminines de la France, care of Miss 
B. A. Weill, 315 East Sixty-eighth Street, New York, 
N. Y. (France) 

230. Bishop.s" Committee for Polish Relief, 1312 Mas- 
sachusetts Avenue, NW., Washington, D. C. (Po- 
land) 

231. American and French Students' Correspondence 
Exchange, care of Prof. H. C. Olinger, School of 
Education, New York University, Washington 
Square, New York, N. Y. (France) 

232. Les Amis de la France a Puerto Rico, Ponce de 
Leon Avenue and Cuervillas Street, San Juan, P. R. 
(France) 

233. English Speaking Union of the United States, 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N. Y. (France 
and Great Britain) 

234. Urgent Relief for France, care of Mrs. B. P. 
Du Bui.s, 3317 Rowland Place, Washington, D. C. 
(France) 

235. Bundles for Britain, care of John Delafleld, 
20 Exchange Place, New York, N. Y. (Great Britain 
and d(imiiiions) 

230. American Fimd for French Wounded, Inc., 256 

Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. (France) 
237. Hebrew Christian Alliance of America, 3508 Ogden 



Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Poland, Germany, and Great 
Britain) 

238. United Nowy Dworer Relief Committee, care of 
Mr. Louis Kirstein, 2528 Cruger Avenue, Bronx, New 
York, N. Y. (Poland) 

239. American Association for Assistance to French 
Artists, Inc., care of Mrs. David Randall-Maclver, 
535 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (France) 

240. Independent Kinsker Aid Association, care of 
Benj. W. Salzman, Secretary, 3815 Sea Gate Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. (Poland) 

241. American McAU Association, 297 Fourth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. (France) 

242. Lafayette B\ind, care of Miss Susan W. Street, 
275 E. Seventy-third Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

243. The Grand Duke Vladimir Benevolent Fund 
Association, 562 West One Hundred and Forty- 
fourth Street (Apartment 63), New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

244. United German Societies, Inc., 222 American Bank 
Building, Portland, Oreg. (Germany) 

245. Emily Morris (Mrs. Lewis Spencer Morris), 116 
East Eightieth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

246. American Women's Unit for War Relief, Inc., 
in care of Comtesse de Janze, 888 Park Avenue, 
New York, N'. Y. (formerly American Unit for 
War Relief Association). (France) 

247. Committee for Aid to Children of Mobilized 
Men of the XX" Arrondissement of Paris, in care 
of Bernard Douglas, 35 West Thirty-fourth Street, 
New York, N. Y. (France) 

248. Catholic Medical Mission Board, Inc., 8 West 
Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (India, Aus- 
tralia, Canada, New Zealand, and Union of South 
Africa) 

" 249. Polish Young Men's Club, Danielson, Conn. 
(Poland) 

250. Fellowship of Reconciliation, 2929 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. (Prance, England, and possibly 
Germany) 

251. Sociedades Hispanas Confederadas, 59-61 Henry 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (France) 

252. Polish American Associations of Middlesex 
County, N. J., St. Stanislaus Kostka Rectory, Sand- 
fleld Road, Sayreville, N. J. (Poland) 

253. Polish Aid Fund Committee of St. Casimir's 
Roman Catholic Church of the City of Albany, N. Y., 
care of Miss Valeria C. Sowek, 111 Central Avenue, 
Albany, N. Y. (Poland) 

254. American Emergency Volunteer Ambulance 
Corps, Inc., 60 Wall Tower, New York, N. Y. (Great 
Britain and France) 

255. Polish Roman Catholic Priests Union, Group 
No. 3, of New York Archdiocese, care of The 
Reverend Felix P. Burant, 101 East Seventh Street, 
New York, N. Y. (Poland and France) 



APRIL 2 7, 1940 



449 



256. Caledonian Club of Idaho, 418 North Fifth 
Street. Boise, Idaho. (Scotland) 

257. Order of Scottisli Clans, 150 Causeway Street, 
Boston, Mass. (Scotland) 

258. L'Atelier, Room 806. DeYoung Building, San 
Francisco, Calif. (France) 

259. Joint Committee of the United Scottish Clans 
of Greater New York and New Jersey, care of Mr. 
Alex McF. Malcolm, 1880 De Kalb Avenue, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. (Scotland) 

260. Mrs. Nancy Bartlett Laughlin, 139 East Sixty- 
sixth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

"261. Relief Coordination Service, 315 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. (France) 

262. Committee for Relief in Allied Countries, Dum- 
barton Oaks, Georgetown, Washington, D. C. 
(France, Great Britain, and Poland) 

2G3. Children's Crusade for Children, Empire State 
Building. New York, N. Y. (France and Poland) 

264. French Relief Association, in care of Lathrop, 
Crane, Reynolds, Sawyer & Mersereau, 911 Walnut 
Street, Kansas City, Mo. (France) 

265. La France Post American Legion, 610 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. (France) 

266. American Committee for the Polish Ambulance 
Fund, in care of Dr. Peter F. Czwalinski, Wicker 
Park Jledical Center, 1530 North Damen Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. (France) 

267. Polish-American Volunteer Ambulance Section 
(Pavas), 1400 Thirty-fourth Street, NW., Washing- 
ton, D. C. (France) 

268. American Women's Voluntary Services, 17 East 
Seventieth Street, New York, N. Y. (England) 

269. Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, Pa. (Great 
Britain, Poland, Germany, and France) 

270. Grand Lodge Daughters of Scotia, 17 Cabot 
Street, Hartford, Conn. (Scotland) 

271. Kate R. Miller, 277 Park Avenue, Apartment 
12-D, New York. N. Y. (France) 

272. Spanish Committee Pro-Masonic Refugees, 95 
Roosevelt Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

273. Association of Former Russian Naval Officers In 
America, 634 West One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

274. British American Comfort League, 2 Thompson 
Street, Quincy, Mass. (England) 

275. Paderewski Fund for Polish Relief, Inc., 37 East 
Thirty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland, 
France, and Great Britain) 

1276. The Pawtucket and Blackstone Valley British 
Relief Society of Rhode Island, American-British 
Hall, 69 High Street, Pawtucket, R. L (Great 
Britain) 

1277. Five for France, Box 267, Atlanta University, 
Atlanta, Ga. (France) 

1278. Woman's Auxiliary Board of the Scots' Chari- 
table Society, Inc., Post Office Box C, Waverley, 
Mass. (Scotland) 



279. Polish Inter-Organization "Centrala" of Water- 
bury, 87 Oak Street, Waterbury, Conn. (Poland) 

280. Central Committee for Polish Relief, 224 Se- 
curity Bank Building, Toledo, Ohio. (Poland) 

281. Helena Rubenstein-Titus, 300 Park Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. (Poland) 

282. Foyers du Soldat, Savoy Plaza, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

2.S3. Mrs. Mark Baldwin, 2r> Claremont Avenue, 
Apartment 5 A, New York, N. Y. (France) 

284. American War Godmothers, 601 Clyde Street, 
Pitt.sburgh, Pa. (France) 

285. Fortra, Incorporated, Suite 312, 61 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. (Germany and Poland) 

■J86. American Dental Ambulance Committee, care of 
Mr. Benjamin L. Burriiiger, 32 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. (United Kingdom) 

287. Emergency Relief Committee for Kolbusznwa, 40 
East Seventh Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

288. Polish Relief Committee of Columbia County, 
Sacred Heart Church Rectory, 75 North Second 
Street, Hudson, N. Y. (Poland) 

289. Hamburg-Bremen Steamship Agency, Inc., 218 
East Eighty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. (Ger- 
many and Poland) 

290. United Bilgorayer Relief, Inc., care of Frankel 
and Frankel, 305 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

291. American Committee for the German Relief Fund, 
Inc., 10 East Fortieth Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Germany and Poland) 

292. Polish-American Forwarding Committee, Inc., 542 
Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Poland and 
Germany) 

293. Polish Relief Committee of Fltchburg, 167 Sum- 
mer Street. Fltchburg, Mass. (Poland) 

294. Accifln Dem6crata Espaiiola, 831 Broadway, San 
Francisco, Calif. (France) 

295. Sociedades Ilispanas Aliadas, 831 Broadway, San 
Francisco, Calif. (France) 

296. Allied Relief Ball, Inc., Hotel Astor, New York, 
N. Y. (Great Britain and France) 

237. Greater New York Committee to Save Spanish 
Refugees, Room 1004, 55 West Forty-second Street, 
New York, N. Y. (France and United Kingdom) 

298. Superior Council of the Society of St. Vincent de 
Paul, 289 Fourth Avenue, New York. N. Y. ( France) 

299. The British War Relief Association of the Phil- 
ippine.s, care of Fleming and Williamson, Post Office 
Box 214, Manila, I'. I. (All belligerent countries) 

300. Marthe Th. Kahn, 390 Riverside Drive, New York, 
N. Y. (France) 

301. Club des Femmes de France, 190 Beacon Street, 
Boston, Ma.ss. (France) 

302. German American Relief Committee for Victims 
of Fascism, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
(France and Great Britain) 

303. The Maple Leaf Fund, Inc., Room 1216, 350 



450 

Madison Avenue, New York, N. T. (Canada, United 
Kingdom, and France) 

304. Erste Pincliover Kranken Unterstuzungs Verein, 
Inc., 40 East Seventh Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Poland) 

305. American Association of Teachers of French, 
Washington Chapter, care of Mrs. Corrington Gill, 
2630 Adams Mill Road, NW., Washington, D. C. 
(France) 

306. The Somerset Workroom, Far HiUs, N. J. (Great 
Britain and France) 

307. The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, 
Scientist, in Boston, U. S. A., 107 Falmouth Street, 
Boston, Mass. (Canada, France, and the United 
Kingdom) 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 






" Revoked at request of registrant. 
''Revoked for failure to observe rules and 
regulations. 



The American Republics 



FLOODS IN BUENOS AIRES, 
ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press April 25] 

Following is the translation of a telegram 
to the Secretary of State from the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of Argentina, Eh'. Jose 
Maria Cantilo : 

"Buenos Aires, 

AfHl 20, IBlfi. 
"I thank Your Excellency cordially for the 
sentiments which you are so good as to ex- 
press to me because of the recent flood. 

Jose Maria Cantilo" 

^ -f -f 

UNITED STATES MILITARY AVIATION 

MISSION TO CHILE 

An announcement regarding an agreement 
between Chile and the United States, signed 
April 23, 1940, providing for a United States 
military aviation mission to Chile, appears 
in this Bulletin under the heading "Treaty 
Information." 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, etc. 



EIGHTH AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC 
CONGRESS 



[Released to the press April 25] 

Arrangements have been made for a special 
symphony concert by the NBC orchestra un- 
der the direction of Arturo Toscanini on the 
evening of May 14 in honor of the delegates 
attending the Eighth American Scientific 
Congress. The concert will be given in Con- 
stitution Hall, Washington, D. C, and will 
be an outstanding event of the Congress. It 
will also be one of the outstanding musical 
events of the year. 

The Congress is being held under the 
auspices of the Government of the United 
States and will constitute the most significant 
contribution by this Government to the cele- 
bration of the fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of the Pan American Union. The 
Department has already received notifications 
from more than 300 prominent scientists from 
the other American republics and over 500 
from the United States that they plan to 
participate as delegates, and there is every 
reason to believe that this conference will be 
one of the largest inter-American meetings 
ever held in this country. The Congress will 
be divided into 11 separate inter-American 
conferences and will be attended by official 
delegates and delegates from outstanding edu- 
cational and scientific organizations throughout 
all of the 21 American republics. 

The concert in honor of the Eighth Ameri- 
can Scientific Congress on May 14 takes on 
additional significance in view of the fact that 
the orchestra, on May 31, sails on a concert 
tour to Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina under 
the dii'ection of Dr. Toscanini. 



I 



APRIL 2 7, 1940 



451 



Foreign Service 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to the press April 27] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since April 20, 19!fl: 

David Williamson, of Colorado Springs, 
Colo., second secretary of embassy at Rome, 
Italy, has been assigned for duty in the De- 
partment of State. 

John B. Ocheltree, of Reno, Nev., third sec- 
retary of legation and consul at San Jose, 
Costa Rica, has been assigned as consul at 
Habana, Cuba. 



Carlos C. Hall, of Kingman, Ariz., consul 
at Cartagena, Colombia, has been assigned as 
consul at Medellin, Colombia, where an Amer- 
ican consuhitc will be e.stablishcd. 

David H. Buffum, of Rockland, Maine, con- 
sul at Leipzig, Germany, has been assigned as 
consul at Trieste, Italy. 

Merritt N. Cootes. of Ft. Myer. Va., third 
secretary of legation and vice consul at Port- 
au-Prince, Haiti, has been designated third 
secretary of embassy at Rome, Italy. 

Wales W. Signor, of Ypsiianti, Mich., vice 
consul at Melbourne, Australia, lias been 
assigned as vice consul at Guadalajara, Mexico. 

T. Muldnip Forsyth, of Esinont, Va., vice 
consul at Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been assigned 
as vice consul at Cartagena, Colombia. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes 

Xorway 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 21, 1940. the 
Norwegian Government has informed the Sec- 
retary General in regard to the declaration 
made by the Canadian Government when ad- 
hering to the General Act for the Pacific Set- 
tlement of International Disputes of Septem- 
ber 26, 1928, that it is obliged to make the 
same reservations in regard thereto as it made 
in regard to the denunciation by various states 
of the Optional Clause of article 36 of the 
' Statute of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice (see the Bulletin, of February 
17, 1940, Vol. II, No. 34, p. 190). 



Permanent Court of International Justice 

India 

There is quoted below the text of a circular 
letter from the League of Nations dated March 
29, 1940, regarding the termination of the ac- 
ceptance of the Optional Clause of the Statute 
of the Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice by India and the acceptance thereof on 
new conditions: 

"I have the honour to inform you that His 
Majesty's Secretary of State for India, by a 
communication dated February 28th, 1940, has 
transmitted to me a declaration of the same 
date terminating the acceptance by the Gov- 
ernment of India of the compulsoi-y jurisdic- 
tion of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice (Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute 
of the Court). 

"This declaration reads as follows: 



452 

" 'On September 19th, 1929, Sir Muhammad 
Habibullah. at that time a member of the 
Executive Council of the Governor-General of 
India, made the following declaration on be- 
half of the Government of India. The decla- 
ration was ratified on February 5th, 1930: 

"'On behalf of the Government of India 
and subject to ratification, I accept as compul- 
sory ipso facto and without special convention, 
on condition of reciprocity, the jurisdiction 
of the Court in conformity with Article 36, 
paragraph 2 of the Statute of the Court for 
a period of 10 years and thereafter until such 
time as notice may be given to terminate the 
acceptance, over all disputes arising after the 
ratification of the present declaration with re- 
gard to situations or facts subsequent to the 
said ratification, other than:— 

" 'Disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 
recourse to some other method of peaceful 
settlement; and 

" 'Disputes with the Government of any other 
Member of the League which is a Member of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, all of 
which disputes shall be settled in such manner 
as the parties have agreed or shall agree; and 
" 'Disputes with regard to questions which 
by international law fall exclusively within the 
jurisdiction of India; 

" 'and subject to the condition that the Gov- 
ernment of India reserve the right to require 
that proceedings in the Court shall be sus- 
pended in respect of any dispute which has been 
submitted to and is under consideration by the 
Council of the League of Nations, provided that 
notice to suspend is given after the dispute has 
been submitted to the Council and is given 
within 10 days of the notification of the initia- 
tion of the proceedings in the Court, and pro- 
vided also that such suspension shall be limited 
to a period of 12 months or such longer period 
as may be agreed by the parties to the dispute 
or determined by a decision of all the Members 
of the Council other than the parties to the 
dispute. 

"^'On belialf of the Government of India, I, 
the Marquess of Zetland, His Majesty's Princi- 
pal Secretary of State for India, hereby termi- 
nate their accejitance of the jurisdiction of the 
Court in conformity with paragraph 2 of 
Article 36 of the Statute of the Court. 



" 'London, February 28th, 19!fi. 



Zetland 



i 



"By the same communication. His Majesty's 
Secretary of State for India transmitted to me 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

a further declaration dated February 28th, 
1940, by which, subject to the reservations 
therein set out, the Government of India ac- 
cepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court 
for a further period. 
"This second declaration reads as follows: 

"'In my declaration of today's date, I, the 
Marquess of Zetland, His Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State for India, announced the ter- 
mination by the Government of India of their 
acceptance of the jurisdiction of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice in conformity 
with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute 
of the Court. 

" 'On behalf of the Government of India I 
now declare that they accept as compulsory 
ipso facto and without special convention, on 
condition of reciprocity, the jurisdiction of the 
Court, in confonnity with paragraph 2 of 
Article 36 of the Statute of the Court for a 
period of 5 years from today's date and there- 
after until such time as notice may be given 
to terminate the acceptance, over all disputes 
arising after February 5th, 1930, with regard 
to situations or facts subsequent to the same 
date; other than: — 

" 'Disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 
recourse to some other method of peaceful 
settlement. 

" 'Disputes with the Government of any 
other Member of the League which is a Mem- 
ber of the British Commonwlealth of Nations, 
all of which disputes shall be. settled in such 
manner as the parties have agreed or shall 
agree ; 

"'Disputes with regard to questions which 
by international law faD exclusively within 
the jurisdiction of India; and 

" 'Disputes arising out of events occurring 
at a time when the Government of India were 
involved in hostilities; 

" 'and subject to the condition that the Gov- 
ernment of India reserve the right to require 
that proceedings in the Court shall be sus- 
pended in respect of any dispute which has 
been submitted to and is under consideration 
by the Council of the League of Nations, pro- 
vided that notice to suspend is given after the 
dispute has been submitted to the Council and 
is given within 10 days of the notification of 
the initiation of the proceedings in the Court, 
and provided also that such suspension shall be 
limited to a period of 12 months or such longer 
period as may be agreed by the parties to the 
dispute or determined by a decision of all the 



APBIL 27, 1940 

Members of the Council other than the parties 
to the dispute. 

"'London, February 28th, 1940. 

Zetland.' 
"I have [etc.] 

"For the Secretary-General : 

H McK Wood 

Acting Legal Adviser 

of the Secretariat." 

Norway 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated March 21, 1940, the 
Secretary General received on March 6, 1940, a 
communication from the Norwegian Govern- 
ment infoi-ming him in regard to the declara- 
tion made by the Canadian Government that 
it will not regard its acceptance of the 
Optional Clause of article 36 of the Statute 
of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice as covering disputes arising out of 
events accruing during the present war, that 
while taking note of the Canadian Govern- 
ment's communication, the Norwegian Govern- 
ment desires to refer to the declaration made 
in its note of December 19, 1939, in regard to 
similar communications from the Governments 
of Australia, the United Kingdom, India, New 
Zealand, and the Union of South Africa (see 
the Bulletin of February 17, 1940, Vol. II, 
No. 34, p. 190). 

AVIATION 

United States Military Aviation Mission to 
Chile 

I In response to the request of the Government 
of the Republic of Chile an agreement between 
the United States and Chile was signed on 
April 23, 1940, providing for the furnishing 
by the United States of a military aviation 
mission to cooperate with the Ministry of 
National Defense of the Republic of Chile. 

' The mission will function in an advisory 
capacity to the Chilean air force. 

At the outset the mission will be composed 
of three officers, a major (temporary lieutenant 
colonel), a captain, and a first lieutenant. The 



453 

term of the contract for the mission is for 3 
years. Other provisions follow the general 
lines of previous agreements between the 
Government of the United States and the 
governments of certain other American 
republics. 

PEACE 

Treaty of Peace Between the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and Finland, 
and Protocol 

There is printed below the text of the Treaty 
of Peace Between the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics and Finland signed on March 
12, 1940. The text was transmitted to the De- 
partment by the American Embassy at Mos- 
cow as translated from the Russian text pub- 
lished in The Pravda of March 13, 1940 : 

"Treaty of Peace Bet\veen the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and Finland 

"The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the 
one hand and the President of the Finnish Re- 
public on the other hand, motivated by the 
desire to cease the military operations which 
have arisen between the two countries and to 
create enduring peaceful mutual relations, and 
being convinced that the interests of the two 
Contracting Parties correspond to the deter- 
mination of the exact conditions for guaran- 
teeing mutual security including the guaran- 
tee of the security of the cities of Leningrad 
and Murmansk as well as the Murmansk rail- 
way, have deemed it necessary to conclude a 
Peace Treaty for these purposes and have ap- 
pointed as their plenipotentiary representa- 
tives 

"the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

"Vtacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov — Pres- 
ident of the Soviet of People's Commissars of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and 
People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs; 

"Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov — member 
of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 



454 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 

"Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevski— 
Brigade Commander; 

"the President of the Finnish Republic: 

"RisTO Rtti— the Prime Minister of the 
Cabinet of the Finnish Republic ; 

"YuKHO* KusTi* Paasikivi — Minister; 

"Karl Rudolf Valden*— General; 

"Vtaine* Voionmaa — Professor. 

"The said plenipotentiary representatives, 
fifter reciprocal presentation of their plenipo- 
tentiary documents which were acknowledged 
to have been drawn up in the appropriate form 
and in complete order, have agreed with regard 
to the following : 

^'■Article 1. 

"Military operations between the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and Finland shall 
cease immediately in accordance with the pro- 
cedure provided in the Protocol attached to the 
present Treaty. 

^'Article 2. 

"The national boundary between the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Finnish 
Republic shall be established along a new line 
in accordance with which the entire Karelian 
isthmus with the city of Viborg (Viipuri) and 
Viborg bay with its islands; the western and 
northern shores of Lake Ladoga with the cities 
of Kexholm, Sortavala, and Suojiirvi ; a number 
of islands in the Gulf of Finland ; territory to 
the east of Merkjiirvi with the city of Kuola- 
jarvi; and part of the Rybachi and Sredny 
peninsulas — in accordance with the map at- 
tached to the present Treaty — shall be included 
within the territory of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 

"A more detailed delineation of the bound- 
ary line shall be established by a mixed com- 
mission of representatives of the Contracting 
Parties, and such a commission must be 



* TransllteniteU from the Russian. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

appointed within ten days from the date of 
signature of the present Treaty. 

''Article 3. 

"The two Contracting Parties undertake to 
refrain mutually from any attack upon each 
other, and not to conclude any alliance or 
participate in coalitions directed against one 
of the Contracting Parties. 

'■'■Article 1^. 

"The Finnish Republic agrees to rent to the 
Soviet Union for a period of thirty years, with 
the annual payment of eight million Finmarks 
by the Soviet Union, Hango peninsula and 
its surrounding waters within a radius of five 
miles to the south and east and of three miles 
to the west and north of the peninsula, as well 
as a number of islands adjacent to the penin- 
sula — in accordance with the attached map — 
for the establishment of a naval base there 
capable of defending the entrance to the Gulf 
of Finland from aggression, and the Soviet 
Union shall be granted the right to maintain 
the requisite number of land and air armed 
forces there at its own expense for the purpose 
of defending the naval base. 

"Within ten days from the moment that the 
present Treaty shall enter into effect, the Fin- 
nish Government shall withdraw all of its 
troops from Hango peninsula, and Hango 
peninsula with the adjacent islands shall be 
transferred to the administration of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, in accordance 
with the present article of the Ti-eaty. 

"Article 5. 

"The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
undertakes to withdraw its troops from Pet- 
samo province, which the Soviet state volun- 
tarily ceded to Finland according to the Peace 
Treaty of 1920. 

"Finland undertakes — as was provided in the 
Treaty of 1920 — not to maintain warships and 
other armed ships in the waters along the Fin- 
nish coast of the Arctic Ocean, with the ex- 
ception of armed ships of less than one him- 



APRIL 27, 1940 



455 



dred tons displacement, of which Finland shall 
have the right to maintain an unlimited num- 
ber, as well as to maintain not moi-e than 
fifteen warships and other armed ships the 
tonnage of which may not exceed four hundred 
tons each. 

"Finland undertakes — as was provided by 
the same Treaty — not to maintain submarines 
and armed aircraft in the said watere. 

"Likewise Finland undertakes — as was pro- 
vided by the same Treaty — not to construct 
naval ports, bases for a naval fleet or naval 
repair shops on this coast on a larger scale 
than is required for the above-mentioned ships 
and their armaments. 

^'■Article 6. 

"The Soviet Union and its citizens — as was 
provided by the Treaty of 1920 — shall be 
granted the right of unrestricted transit 
through Petsamo province to Norway and re- 
turn, and the Soviet Union shall be granted 
the right to establish a consulate in Petsamo 
province. 

"Freight, which is transported through Pet- 
samo province from the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics to Norway, as well as freight 
which is transported from Norway to the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics through the 
same province, shall not be subject to insi^ec- 
tion and control, with the exception of that 
control which is necessary for regulation of 
transit communication, and shall be exempt 
from customs duties, transit, and other fees. 

"The above-mentioned control of freight in 
transit shall be permitted only in the manner 
observed in such cases by the established prac- 
tices of international communication. 

"Citizens of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics traveling to Norway or returning 
from Norway to the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics through Petsamo province, shall 
, liave the right of unrestricted travel on the 
basis of passports issued by the appropriate 
Soviet organs. 

"Upon observation of the genera! regula- 
tions in effect, Soviet unanned aircraft shall 
luive the right to aerial communication be- 



tween the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and Norway across Petsamo province. 

"■Article T. 

"The Finnish Government shall grant to the 
Soviet Union the right of transit for freight 
between the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
jjublics and Sweden, and for the purixjse of 
the development of this transit along the short- 
est railway route the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and P^inland consider it necessary 
for each Party to construct, if possible during 
1940, on its own territory a railway uniting the 
city of Kandalakska with the city of 
Kemijarvi. 

''Article 8. 

"Upon the entry of the present treaty into 
force, trade relations between the Contracting 
Parties shall be restored and for this purpose 
the Contracting Parties shall enter into 
negotiations for conclusion of a trade 



agreement. 



"Article 9. 



"Tlie present Peace Treaty shall enter into 
effect immediately upon its signature and shall 
be subject to subsequent ratification. 

"The exchange of instruments of ratification 
shall take place within ten days in tlie city of 
Moscow. 

"The present Treaty is drawn up in two 
originals, each of which are in the Russian, 
Finnish, and Swedish languages, in the city 
of Moscow on March 12, 1940. 

"V. M()U)TOV 

"A. Zhdanov 
"A. Vasilevski 
"RisTo* Kyti 
"Yu. Paasikivi* 
"R. Valden* 

"Vtaine* Voionmaa" 

"Protocol to the Peace Treaty of March 12, 
1940, Between the Unhon of Soviet Social- 
ist Repubucs and Finland 

"The Contracting Parties shall establish the 
following order of cessation of military opera- 

* Transliterated from the Russian. 



456 

tions and of removal of troops across the state 
boundary established by the Treaty: 

"1. Both sides shall cease military opera- 
tions at 12 o'clock, Leningrad time, on March 
13. 1940. 

"2. Beginning at the time fixed for the ces- 
sation of military operations a neutral zone 
one kilometre wide shall be established be- 
tween the positions of the advance detach- 
ments, and under this arrangement a military 
unit of one side which is on the territory of 
the other side, according to the new state 
boundary, shall be removed to the distance of 
one kilometre during the course of the first day. 

"3. The removal of troops across the new 
state boundary and the advance of troops of 
the other side up to the boundary shall begin 
at 10 o'clock on March 15, 1940, along the en- 
tire length of the boundary from the Finnish 
gulf to Lieksa and at 10 o'clock on March 16 
north of Lieksa. The removal shall be ef- 
fected by daily marches of not less than seven 
kilometres in twenty-four hours, and the ad- 
vance of troops of the other side shall proceed 
on the basis of a reckoning whereby there shall 
be a space of not less than seven kilometres 
between the rear units of the retreating troops 
and the advance units of the troops of the 
other side, moving up to the new boundary. 

"4. The terms of removal on separate sectors 
of the state boundary shall be established, in 
accordance with paragraph 3, as follows: 

"a) in the sector from the sources of the 
river Tuntsajoki to Kuolajarvi, to Takala,* 
and to the eastern shore of Lake Juokomojarvi, 
the removal of troops of both sides shall be 
completed by 20 o'clock on March 20, 1940 ; 

"b) in the sector to the south of Kuhmonieni 
in the region of Latva* the removal of troops 
shall be completed by 20 o'clock on March 22, 
1940; 

"c) in the sector from Lopgavaara* to Var- 
tsila to the station Matkaselka, the removal of 
troops of both sides shall be completed by 20 
o'clock on March 26, 1940; 

"d) in the sector from the station Matka- 
selka to Koitsanlahti, the removal of troops 
shall be completed by 20 o'clock on March 22, 
1940: 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

"e) in the sector from Koitsanlahti to the 
station Enso, the removal of troops shall be 
completed by 20 o'clock on March 25, 1940; 

"f) in the sector from the station Enso to 
the island Bate* the removal of troops shall be 
completed by 20 o'clock on March 19, 1940. ■ 

"5. The evacuation of the troops of the Red ' 
Army from the region of Petsamo shall be 
completed by April 10, 1940. ■ 

"6. In the removal of troops across the state 
frontier, the military authorities of both sides 
shall be obliged to take the necessary measures 
in the towns and localities transferred to the 
other side for their preservation, and to take 
suitable measures to ensure that the towns, 
villages, military and economic structures 
(bridges, dams, airdromes, arsenals, ware- 
houses, railroad jimctions, manufacturing en- 
terprises, telegraph, electric stations) shall be 
safeguarded against damage and destruction. 

"7. All questions which may arise from the 
transfer from one side to the other of regions, 
points, towns, and other objects indicated in 
point six of the present Protocol, shall be de- 
cided by representatives of both sides on the 
Spot, for which purpose special delegates shall 
be designated by the military authorities on 
each basic line of movement of both armies. 

"8. The exchange of military prisoners shall 
be conducted in as short a time as possible 
after the cessation of military operations, on 
the basis of a special agreement. 

"V. MOLOTOV 

"A. Zhdanov 
"A. Vasilevski 
"RiSTO* Rtti 
"Ytj. Paasikxvi* 
"R. Valden* 
"Vyaine* Voionmaa" 



Legislation 



All Act Authorizing the adoption for the Foreign Serv- 
ice of an accounting procedure in the matter of dis- 
bursement of funds appropriated for the Department 
of State. (Public, No. 483, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) 
2 pp. 50. 



* Transliterated from the Russian. 



I 



APRIL 27, 1940 



457 

An Act Making appropriations for the Esecutive Office American republics on the Pan Ainerican Highway, 

and sundry independent esecutive bureaus, boards, signed at Buenos Aires December 23, 19;«i- and ll.aSO,- 

commi^ions and offices, for the fiscal year ending 000 for foreign-service pay adjustment <,f officers and 

e-^°^ ;' K ;•,?"'! ■ °*^". PwrP^ses [including employees of the United States in foreign countries 

$(5,000 to be utilized m connection with the construe- due to appreciation of foreign currencies]. (Public, 

tion of the Pan American Highway provided under the No. 459, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) 34 pp. 100 

Convention between the United States and the other i vv y^- 



0. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19 40 



?or sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PnBLISHBD WS:£1EL.Y WITH THE APPROVAL OP THE DIRECTOR OF THE BCKEAU OF THE BUDGET 



>3its^K 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.O vLJ JL/JL/Jlli 



^ 



TIN 



MAY 4, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 4^ — Publication 14^9 

Qontents 

General: Page 
Economic foreign policy of the United States: Memo- 
randum by the Under Secretary 461 

Foreign Policy: Address by Assistant Secretary Long . 462 
The American- Republics: 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle before the Pan 

American Sanitary Bureau 464 

Expropriation of American oU properties by Mexico: 
Note from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Mexico 

to the American Ambassador to Mexico 465 

A New Symbol of Pan American Unity: Address by 

Charles G. Fenwick 470 

Awards by the United States to members of the Bra- 
zilian Navy 472 

Europe: 

Evacuation of Americans from Norway 473 

Provisional establishment of American consulate in 

Greenland 473 

Commercial Policy: 

Address by Raymond H. Geist 473 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc: 
Fourth Pan American Conference of National Directors 

of Health 479 

Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 479 

[Ot'cr] 




Treaty Information: 
Telecommunications : 

International Telecommunication Convention (Treaty 

Series No. 867) 480 

Postal: 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 481 

Labor: 

Conventions of the International Labor Conference . 481 
Legislation 482 



General 



ECONOMIC FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES 



Memorandum by the Under Secretary 



[Released to the press May 3] 

Following is the complete and accurate text 
of the memorandum left by Mr. Sumner Welles 
with M. Paul Reynaud, French Minister of Fi- 
nance, on March 9. 1940. Excerpts and various 
translated texts of the memorandum have ap- 
peared in the European press. 

"The base of the economic foreign policy of 
the United States is as follows : 

"One. Sound international trade relations 
are an indispensable foundation of economic 
wellbeing within nations and of enduring jaeace 
among nations. International trade can fulfill 
this vital role satisfactorily only when it enables 
each nation to have an adequate access to the re- 
sources of the entire world, rather than merely 
to those confined within its frontiers, and to 
find outlets for its surplus production, on terms 
of mutual benefit and on the basis of nondis- 
criminatory treatment. 

"Two. International trade cannot prosper 
when its flow is diverted and distorted by at- 
tempts at exclusive bilateralism or discrimina- 
tory arrangements. 

"It camiot prosper when its flow is obstructed 



by the barrien- of excessive tarifFs, of quantitive 
regulation, and of controls of foreign exchange 
transactions. All these are instruments of eco- 
nomic warfare. The world's recent experience 
has clearly demonstrated their destructive 
effects on peacetime international commerce — 
and hence, their depressive influence on stand- 
ards of li\"ing and general economic wellbeing 
within nations, as well as their significance as 
breeders of international ill-will, animosity and 
conflict. 

"Three. If. after the termination of present 
hostilities, the world is to build the foundation 
of stability and peace, which would eliminate 
resentments and fears and open the way to eco- 
nomic progress, the process of international 
trade must be restored to a sound basis. 

"This will require a gradual elimination of 
excessive and unreasonable barriers to the flow 
of goods across national frontiers: the accept- 
ance of the rule of nondiscrimination in com- 
mercial treatment through the implementation 
of the most-favored-nation principle; and the 
creation of conditions in the fields of foreign 
exchanges and of credit necessary to a multi- 
lateral fimctioning of the trade process." 

461 



"• ^' SUPERINTFNOENT OF DOCUMENT? 



462 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXTLLETIN 



FOREIGN POLICY 

Address by Assistant Secretary Long ■ 



[Released to the press May 2] 

As you know, the Department of State is the 
agency wliich carries out the foreign policy of 
the United States for the President. At the 
very outset I would like to state that the primary 
policy of the United States is to keep out of this 
war in Europe. Every single act of the Depart- 
ment of State has been directed to that end. 
That is the policy today, and that has been the 
policy since the war started last September. 

The specific steps taken to effectuate that 
policy have been numerous. The first was to 
get American citizens out of the danger zone 
and to bring back to the United States just as 
many of them as wanted to come. The regular 
passenger boats were utilized, and five addi- 
tional boats were diverted from their regular 
rmis and sent to Europe for them. Approx- 
imately 80,000 persons were repatriated in the 
first 6 weeks of the war. 

The second step followed immediately. As 
soon as the Congress passed the neutrality law 
the President defined danger zones into which 
American ships were prohibited to enter. The 
zone, as first established, ran from a point on 
the northern coast of Spain well out to sea, then 
up north of the British Isles and across to the 
coast of Norway below Bergen. 

As other war areas developed, first in Finland 
and subsequently in Denmark and Norway, the 
efforts of the Department were directed to get- 
ting American citizens out of those danger zones 
and returning them to the United States. And, 
as the waters in those regions became infested 
with naval and air activities, the President en- 
larged the danger zone to cover the whole coast 
of Norway, extending as far north as Spitz- 
bergen and down tlirough the Arctic Ocean to 
the northern coast of Russia. 



Delivered before the Forum on Foreign Policy and 
National Defense at tlie National Institute of Govern- 
ment, Washington, and broadcast over the network of 
the Columbia Broadcasting Co., May 2, 1940. 



Complementary to those two steps, in the first 
days of the war, when it seemed possible' that 
there might be belligerent air activity directed 
at the centers of population and industry scat- 
tered through the countries at war, American 
citizens, particularly women and children, were 
advised to leave such centers and to seek places 
of refuge in smaller towns, pending the time 
they could be accommodated aboard ship. The 
object of each of these activities was to guard 
the safety of Americans abroad and to elimi- 
nate, as far as possible, political complications 
which might follow if a number of Americans 
should be killed or wounded. 

Furthermore, in conference at Panama with 
all the other American republics, a complete 
understanding was arrived at. It was the unan- 
imous decision of that conference to follow a 
similar standard of neutral conduct and with 
the same objective — that is, not only to keep out 
of the war but to keep the war away from us. 
With that object a "neutral zone" was declared. 
Belligerents were requested to keep their naval 
warfare out of that zone and away from Amer- 
ican shores. 

The prosecution of the war in Europe be- 
tween three or four of the most powerful nations 
has had its repercussions in all parts of the 
world. Complicated situations have developed 
not only in Europe but in other continents and 
in the islands of the seven seas and on the broad 
highways of the oceans. American interests 
have received the attention of the Government 
wherever and whenever they have been involved 
and whether they have concerned the lives of 
American citizens or properties of American 
ownership. 

In a brief few minutes it is impossible to give 
more than a most generalized statement of 
American foreign policy. That largely con- 
cerns political and economic matters. It is 
these which give rise to complications between 
nations — these, and the unjustifiable use of force 



to solve them. As many of these complications 
have their bases in some injury to our citizens, 
we have taken steps to have our citizens leave 
dangerous areas and to prevent others from 
entering those areas. This does not apply to 
officers of the Government who are stationed at 
posts of duty abroad — like those who went 
through the siege of Warsaw ; like those in Fin- 
land and Norway; like those in Paris, London, 
Berlin, and many other points in belligerent 
territory — who remain at their posts of duty — 
outposts of our policy of peace and at the same 
time our first line of defense. 

As you have heard from the officers respon- 
sible for the activities of the Army and tlie 
Navy, the Government is preparing against any 
possible eventuality. The Department of State 
is following the paths of peace and tlie difficult 
and tortuous course of neutrality. We want to 
keep out of the war. We are planning to keep 
out of it. We have surrendered none of the 
rights of any individual American. However, 
for the benefit of the country as a whole and in 
pursuance of the desire of the American people 
to keep out of the war, we have refrained from 
the exercise of certain rights because the exer- 
cise of those rights would take American citi- 
zens and American property into combat areas. 

While the war in Europe is claiming constant 
public attention and interest, it is important 
that we do not lose sight of the fact that hos- 
tilities are also in progi-ess in the Far East. 

In the Far East, as in Europe, this Govern- 
ment has sought by a reasoned approach and 
by peaceful measures to protect American rights 
and interests and to uphold fundamental prin- 
ciples of this country's foreign policy — and 
continues so to do. There, as in Europe, it has 
acquiesced in certain situations but it has re- 
served its rights in every instance when they 
have been challenged. 

In this way we hope to prevent incidents from 
arising which might otherwise lead to compli- 
cations. However, this waiver of the exercise 
of rights, and the desire of the United States 
to keep out of war, should not be misconstrued 
by any person in this country, or by any govern- 
ment abroad, as a supine acquiescence in the 



463 

face of any injury to the American people or 
as supreme indifference to any threat at the 
freedom and independence of this or any other 
American republic. 

Our voluntary decision not to exercise cer- 
tain of our rights is predicated on our desire 
for peace — an orderly, decent peace. It is that 
kind of a world we desire to live in. An or- 
derly and decent peace presupposes the observ- 
ance of treaties and international commercial 
relations on a basis of reciprocity and fair deal- 
ing. One of tlie most important of the Gov- 
ernment's functions involves the protection of 
our foreign trade. But the performance of this 
function does not require that we proceed liy 
the law of the jungle. On the contrary, in the 
short run as well as in the long run, our own 
interests will be best served if we adhere faith- 
fully to a policy of fair dealing in our com- 
mercial relations with other countries and, in 
collaboration rather than in conflict with them, 
work toward lowering tlie manj* obstacles to 
peaceful trade among nations. The policy of 
equality of treatment in international commer- 
cial relations is traditionally one of the corner- 
stones of American foreign policy. Upon this 
foundation we have been building, during the 
last 6 years, effectuating a commercial program 
which has as one of its principal objectives the 
firm establishment of the conditions necessary 
to a peaceful world. 

The relationship of the trade-agreements pro- 
gram to peace and order in the world is simple. 
Through trade agreements in a peaceful world 
nations can increase their commerce with other 
nations. They can procure the materials they 
lack in their own country. They ma)- sell the 
products which they may have in abundance for 
the things they do not have and provide for 
the commercial and industrial prosperity of 
their citizens. When these citizens are happily 
emploj-ed, when commerce thrives, when {jeople 
are contented, and when governments are using 
the peaceful processes of orderly commerce to 
provide for the prosperity of their citizens, then 
there is less likelihood that those citizens can 
be led into the snares and delusions of ag- 
gressive warfare — either economic or actual. 



464 



DEPABTIMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIIT 



We deplore the existence of war today and 
foresee in its trail major difficulties of many 
kinds if it long continues, if normal trade is 
further impeded by military activity, if ave- 
nues of commerce are continuingly disrupted by 
artificial barriers, if financial structures are 
more seriously impaired, if discontent is rife, 
and injustice heavy-handed. 

To obviate those consequences so unpleasant 
to contemplate our foreign policy is — 

First, to keep out of war; 



Second, to keep alive and preserve all Ameri- 
can rights; 

Third, to minimize during its course the evil 
effects of war upon commerce and industry; 
and — 

Fourth, to plan with the hope that after the 
war conditions will be so stabilized that in 
peaceful pursuits, established under a broad 
program of trade agreements, nations will be 
prosperous, peoples contented, and the causes 
of war reduced to a minimum. 



The American Republics 



ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE BEFORE THE PAN 
AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU ' 



[Released to the press May 1] 

There are many agencies of inter-American 
cooperation, but none stands higher in the affec- 
tions of the United States than the Pan Amer- 
ican Sanitary Bureau. The defense of public 
health must be a major concern of the American 
family of nations, whatever the international 
situation. 

It seems to me that defense against disease is 
probably the most appropriate theme for an in- 
ternational conference. Disease, when you stop 
to think, is perhaps the most international sub- 
ject in the world. It knows no frontiers. It 
has no particular prejudices against anyone 
based on race, or creed, or color, or nationality, 
but attacks them all with an impersonal enmity. 
It travels without passports and is subject to 
little, if any, visa control. Its attack operates 
on land, at sea, and in the air; and it finds fifth 
columns to act as host and transmitting agents 
in all quarters, high and low. Its warfare can 
be total ; and occasionally it can develop its at- 
tack with lightning speed. 



Delivered at a meeting of the Pan American Sani- 
tary Bureau, at the Pan American Union, Washington 
May 1, 1940. 



Against that continuous struggle there are 
aligned the organized forces of civilized com- 
mon sense, here represented by yourselves. You 
too have developed the modem tecliniques of 
defense. You have to understand the counter- 
propaganda of disease, which we call health 
education; the defense of the internal front 
which we call organization ; the controls which 
are possible only when men recognize a common 
foe and agree to act together with entire under- 
standing and good will. To the extent that you 
can unify effort, you can be successful. Your 
achievements in the all-too-short years of your 
organized existence have already been notable; 
they have opened to the friendly intercourse of 
the Americas great areas which once were ap- 
proached with fear. 

I am convinced that the organizations of 
public health and sanitary regulations will be 
a part of the common machinery of nations, 
even if every other form of intercourse breaks 
down. Whatever divisions might take place, I 
can imagine two public health doctors crossing 
almost any lines to speak in a common tongue, 
to deal with a common objective, and to work 
toward a common end. 



The discovery of the New World itself 
brought an international exchange of disease; 
and the New World in like measure has had to 
create its machinery for controlling that disease. 
Foreign stowaways came on the ships of the 
discoverers and the conquistadores : the names 
of some of them were syphilis, measles, small- 
pox, and other diseases not then known to this 
continent. If now. through your efforts, we 
control the activities of some of these stow- 
aways, we shall merely be doing our plain duty 
in this hemisphere. 

Let me congi-atulate you on having one of 
the happiest tasks known to international bodies. 
There is complete agreement as to the neces- 
sity of your work; there is none to question 
the validity of your objects. You have, it 
seems to me, the luxurious part of intema- 



465 

tional intercourse. Through your efforts, men 
live and do not die; populations are healthy, 
instead of being sick. I confess to a feeling of 
great envy. P'or hanng achieved this, you turn 
over problems less capable of solution to other 
government agencies. It remains for other 
public bodies to work toward a civilization in 
which men shall act intelligently and not fool- 
ishlj'. I wish you could show us how the life 
you safeguard can be given greater meaning 
and finer content, and how the efforts released 
by the health which you protect can be ex- 
pended profitably and usefully. I think, diflB- 
cult, dangerous, and dramatic as your profes- 
sion is. you still have the best of the bargain. 
In closing let me, on behalf of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, welcome you here 
and wish you all success in your deliberations. 



■f ■♦• -f -f -f -f -f 



EXPROPRIATION OF AMERICAN OIL PROPERTIES BY BIEXICO 

Note From the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Mexico to the American Ambassador to Mexico 



[Released to the press May 4] 

I Following is the translation of a note from 
the Jlexican ilinister for Foreign Affairs, the 
Honorable Eduardo Hay, to the American 
Ambassador to Mexico, the Honorable Josephus 
Daniels : 

Mexico, D. F., 

I May 7, 19Jfi. 

Me. Ambassador : 

I have the honor to refer to the courteous 
note addressed on the third of April last by 
Your Excellency's Government to the Ambassa- 
dor of Alexico at Washington.^ In it Your 
Excellencj"['s Government] is good enough to 

I state that during the course of the past j'ears 
various matteis have arisen between the Gov- 
ernment of Mexico and that of the United 

, States, some of outstanding importance, the 
equitable and friendly solution of which would 
benefit the peoples of the two countries and 



'See the BuUetin of April 13, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 42), 
pp. 38t)-383. 



that, attempting to reach a solution of these 
matters and for the purpose of preparing a way 
for their expeditious settlement, your Govern- 
ment had suggested a comprehensive and im- 
mediate study thereof. 

It is added that at that very moment the ex- 
propriation of the oil properties belonging to 
American nationals took place, for which no 
payment has been made, nor is there any pros- 
pect therefor, although the Government of 
Mexico has declared on various occasions its 
readiness to pay, as well as its ability to do so. 
The Government of the United States once more 
admits the right of expropriation which for 
reasons of public utility belongs to every sov- 
ereign state, adding that that right is coupled 
with and conditioned on the obligation to make 
effective, prompt and adequate compensation. 
For this reason it is recalled that in a previous 
note Your Excellency's Government stated that 
the structure of international relations in their 
various phases rests on the respect of Govern- 



466 

merits and peoples for each other's rights under 
international law. and that prompt and jnst 
compensation was part of this structure ; a prin- 
ciple professed by all governments of the world 
and to which that of Mexico has given its 
support. 

This decision originates in the attitude of the 
companies which, by all means at their disposal, 
have prevented the attainment of a knowledge 
of the amount of the indemnity, an absolutely 
indispensable requisite for being able to effect 
payment. Both by certain activities of the com- 
panies, and by publications which they have 
distributed, it becomes obvious that their efforts 
have ever been directed towards delaying the 
settlement of the dispute, by which means they 
have caused serious economic injury to Mexico 
and to the commercial relations between our 
two countries, the said companies even going 
so far as to cherish the hope that these differ- 
ences, which ought not to exceed the bounds of 
a dispute between the Government and a group 
of private companies, should weaken the bonds 
of friendship which unite our two peoples. 

On the basis of the irrefutable facts given 
above, it is indisputable that my Government 
has shown to the point of obviousness its ad- 
herence, as provided in its laws, to the princi- 
ple of compensation, as well as its determi- 
nation to put it into practice. In a spirit of 
conciliation, it has refused again to introduce 
into this affair the point of view authorized 
and confirmed by numerous examples, that is, 
that there is no rule in international law uni- 
versally accepted in tlieory or in practice which 
makes obligatory the payment of immediate 
compensation, immediate indemnization there- 
fore not constituting an inherent element or a 
condition to the right of expropriation. Never- 
theless, and although on other grounds, it is a 
pleasure for my Government to recognize that 
there is no divergence with the Government of 
your country with respect to the obligation, im- 
posed on the Mexican nation by its own laws, 
to make the payment of the proper indemni- 
zation. 

In referring, in the note to which I reply, to 
the affirmation that the statement that the de-. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

cision of Mexican courts should be awaited 
cannot be reassuring, I assume that it is only 
meant to allude to the length of time that the 
progress of the valuation proceedings would 
be delayed. Your Excellency's [Government's] 
note likewise observes that two years have 
elapsed since the expropriation of the oil prop- 
erties was effected and that no agreement has 
been reached to date. It is true that there have 
been delays in the legal proceedings seeking to 
determine the value of the expropriated proper- 
ties, but it is to be noted that such delays have 
been due to the fact that my Government has 
had to wait for the expiration of the periods 
which the law grants and the occasion for which 
has been the various omissions, petitions and 
appeals of the companies themselves before the 
courts, for which reason the latter, until a few 
days ago, were [not] able to render their de- 
cisions as to the legal recourses availed of by 
the companies. Nevertheless, I must state in 
this respect that, notwithstanding the forego- 
ing, the judicial valuation proceedings have 
jjrogressed considerably during the legal pe- 
riods and will shortly be concluded. 

It is true, as is affirmed in the note to which 
I reply, that expropriation of the properties 
of the petroleum companies occurred precisely 
when there appeared to be presenting itself a 
jn-ospect of an adjustment regarding some pend- 
ing questions, but the time was not chosen by 
the Government of Mexico, which was obliged 
to act in view of well-known circumstances. 

Notwithstanding that in the note to which 
I am replying, all the matters awaiting settle- 
ment to which reference is made above are not 
detailed, it must be recognized that there exist 
important questions between the two govern- 
ments, for the immediate and equitable adjust- 
ment of which the Government of Mexico has 
shown particular zeal; their solution might be 
attempted at once, since no justifiable reason 
exists for considering it necessarily indispen- 
sable to subject the settlement of other im- 
portant questions to that of the oil case. 

It is imputed to Mexico that in spite of hav- 
ing declared its support to the principle of 
"right to an equitable and prompt compensa- 



MAY 4, 1940 



467 



tion for the expropriated properties", it has 
not carried it out in practice. 

With respect to this, my Government sees 
itself obliged, once more, to insist upon what 
it has repeated continually and in all forms, 
that is to say, its determination to pay the in- 
demnity which is proper, it appearing to be un- 
just to maintain that Mexico has not complied 
with the obligation involved in that principle, 
only because it requires, as is obvious, that the 
total of the amount which it must pay be pre- 
viously fixed. The frequent settlements in daily 
transactions between private individuals; the 
decisions on the multiple controversies which 
are taken before the local courts, in the judg- 
ments on compensation, among which there can 
be pointed out some very important ones ren- 
dered, for example, by the courts of the United 
States and the arbitral decisions on differences 
between states, prove overwhelmingly that the 
obligation to pay camiot be exacted until after, 
by some means, the total of the amomit which 
must be paid may be learned and established. 

The fact that the said obligation has not been 
liquidated is to be attributed to the companies 
themselves which have systematically refused 
to allow the value of their properties to be de- 
termined, whether in the friendly manner pro- 
posed by Mexico thi'ough private negotiations 
or before the competent courts, to which my 
Government, more desirous than the other inter- 
ested parties to terminate this matter, has en- 
trusted, in compliance with the law, the task 
of determining through experts the value of the 
said properties. 

Furthermore, the good offices of your Govern- 
ment had been employed in seeking other forms 
of settlement suggested by the companies which 
excluded payment and, therefore, the determi- 
nation of the value of the expropriated proper- 
ties, since the companies have, in substance and 
invariably, sought the illegal return of their 
properties. 

Your Excellency's Government insists, as on 
other occasions, in maintaining the opinion that 
to expropriate, without a just and prompt com- 
pensation, is confiscation and does not cease to 
be so because there may be the express desire 

229178 — 40 2 



to pay at some time in the future. Mexico con- 
siders that it is not in such a situation, since it 
not only has manifested its desire to pay, but 
also has expressed unequivocally its readiness 
to do so, having done everj-thing that it should 
in accordance with its own laws, in order that 
ultimately the total amount may be fixed that 
is to be paid. 

In the note signed by His Excellency the Sec- 
retary of State allusion is made to the fact that 
during the last twenty-five years American in- 
terests in Mexico have suffered at the hands of 
the Government of my country, mentioning in 
that connection, in addition to the cases cited 
previously therein, that the services on the for- 
eign debt and on that of the railroads are not 
up to date. I consider that the suspension of 
the said services does not constitute an excep- 
tional case in the world, since the i)henomenon 
is due to causes of a general character, but, still 
further as I must point out, to the fact that the 
possible resumption of the same was, before tlie 
expropriation, subject to negotiations which 
were alread}' well advanced and if tliey were sus- 
pended, it was due to the campaign undertaken 
against Mexico by the oil companies, with tlie 
aid of certain Governments, using, among other 
means, the boj'cott to prevent all sales of our 
oil in foreign countries or else restricting it con- 
siderably by the adoption of tariff barriers, 
especially tlie so-called quotas, producing an ap- 
preciable limitation of the possibilities of pay- 
ment by Mexico. 

Your Excellency's Government concludes by 
proposing that the two Governments agree to 
submit to arbitration the oil question, investing 
a tribunal with the necessary authority, not 
only to determine the amount that is to be paid 
to the American nationals deprived of their 
property, "but also the means by which its de- 
cision shall be executed to make certain that 
adequate and effective compensation shall 
promptly be paid." 

For this reason Your Excellency's Govern- 
ment makes an appeal to continental solidarity 
in support of the principle of arbitration, its use 
being all the more to be recommended because 
a period is involved in which a growing disre- 



468 



DEPARTMEKT OF STATE BULLETIN 



gard for order appears to prevail and an aim 
to substitute force for pacific methods of set- 
tling these questions in a friendly manner. 

I take pleasure in recognizing that Mexico 
concurs in the ideas of Your Excellency's Gov- 
ernment, making a declaration of its faith, 
firmly renewed, that the time will come when 
force will be eliminated as an instniment for 
settling conflicts between states, only the pacific 
methods adopted by our continent being em- 
ployed. If any country of America has con- 
stantly maintained its trust in arbitration, it 
has been Mexico, which has always scrupulously 
complied with arbitral decisions, even in cases 
in which the decision has been adverse to it, 
such as the recent Clipperton Island one, nor 
has it failed to recognize the advisability of 
availing itself of this method for settling in- 
ternational diflFerences, although in the case of 
Chamizal, a decision that was favorable to it 
has been pending execution by Your Excel- 
lency's Government since the year 1911. 

However, my Government considers that ar- 
bitration must not be admitted except when the 
nation has put into practice in fuU its rights of 
sovereignty through the action of its courts and 
the existence of a denial of justice can be 
proved. 

In support of this principle, the status of 
aliens, with respect to the protection of their 
interests, has been clearly defined, not only by 
the authorities of highest repute of the conti- 
nent, but also by their assent in principle [asen- 
timiento normativo] recorded in international 
treaties. 

In the convention relative to the rights of 
foreigners of January 29, 1902, there M-as sol- 
emnized the principle of the exhaustion of local 
recourses and the [consequent] propriety of the 
diplomatic channel, that is to say, the inter- 
vention of a government, only in cases of mani- 
fest denial of justia;, abnormal delay or evident 
violation of the principles of international law. 
In the convention on status of aliens, of Febru- 
ary 20, 1928, signed at Habana, the principle 
was clearly establislied of the subjection of 
aliens to national jurisdiction and local laws. 



In the reservation to the Arbitration Treaty 
signed at Washington in 1939 [1929?], Mexico 
maintained that the differences which fall under 
the jurisdiction of the courts shall not be the 
subject of arbitration proceedings, except be- 
cause of denial of justice, and until the decision 
rendered by the competent national authority 
passes into the category of res judicata. Mexico 
was accompanied in this attitude by a large 
group of American countries, among which may 
be named Colombia, which maintained that with 
the exception of a case of denial of justice, ar- 
bitration is not applicable when the judges and 
courts of the state are, in accord with its legis- 
lation, competent to settle the controversy. 
Ecuador considered as excepted from arbitra- 
tion financial claims of foreigners who had not 
previously exhausted their recourses before the 
courts of justice of the country. El Salvador 
declared that pecuniary claims against the na- 
tion shall be decided by its judges and courts 
because to them pertains cognizance thereof and 
that resort would be had to international arbi- 
tration only on account of denial of justice. 
The Dominican RejJublic considered that con- 
troversies relative to questions which are within 
the competence of its courts shall not be referred 
to arbitral jurisdiction except in conformity 
with the principles of international law. Ven- 
ezuela maintained that there were excluded from 
arbitration matters which, according to the con- 
stitution or laws of Venezuela, pertain to the 
jurisdiction of its courts and particularly those 
relative to pecuniary claims of aliens, arbitra- 
tion not being proper in these cases except when, 
after the claimant has exhausted legal recourses, 
it is apparent that there has been a denial of 
justice. 

Chile did not accept obligatory arbitration 
for those questions which, being witliin the ex- 
clusive competence of the national jurisdiction, 
the interested parties may seek to withdraw 
from the cognizance of the established judicial 
authorities, unless such authorities should re- 
fuse to decide upon any action or exception 
which any foreign natural or legal person may 
present to them in the form established by the 



469 



laws of the country. Bolivia held that there 
may be excepted from the provisions of the 
arbitration agi'eement questions which, in con- 
formity with international law, pertain to the 
competence of the State, and Uruguay stated 
that arbitration is only proj^er in cases of denial 
of justice, when the national courts are com- 
petent, under their own legislation. 

The foregoing shows that the unanimous will 
of the continent has been exhibited in the sense 
that international action in favor of foreigners 
is only proper when, domestic legal recourses 
having been exhausted, a case of denial of 
justice can be shown. 

In accordance with the criterion above set 
forth, the treaty of arbitration, signed in Wash- 
ington, which expresses the conviction of the 
American States on this matter, indicates dif- 
ferences of an international character to be sub- 
ject to arbitration and expressly excludes those 
of a domestic character, that is, those which may 
be considered and decided by the local courts. 

Because of the foregoing, and faithful to the 
principles which my Government has always 
maintained, it considers arbitration incompati- 
ble therewith, since the matter in dispute is 
domestic in nature and is near solution by the 
authorities of Mexico. I make known to Your 
Excellency that my Government lias authorized 
a private and direct arrangement with the 
"Sinclair" group, which represents approxi- 
mately forty per cent of the investments of 
American nationals in the oil industry, and 
which, accepting the expropriation as definitive, 
will limit itself to discussing the amount of the 
indemnity and the conditions of payment, in 
reasonable instalments, recognizing the justi- 
fication of the Mexican point of view. With 
resjaect to the rest of the American companies, 
my Government repeats its readiness to arrive 
as soon as possible at a just and suitable settle- 
ment in case they should prefer, before the de- 
cision of the Mexican courts, to enter into direct 
arrangements on the indemnification which is to 
be allowed them and the conditions of payment 
and, therefore, they may follow the same pro- 
cedure, if they are really disposed to settle this 
question; with the understanding that, my Gov- 



ernment taking into account that it follows 
from Your Excellency's [(jovernment's] same 
note that a chief point of interest of the Ameri- 
can oil companies is that they be given securi- 
ties for the payment of the indemnity my own 
Government is disposed to accomplisii the said 
payment immediately after reaching an agree- 
ment as to the amount of the corresponding 
indemnity. 

With respect to the question of lands, Your 
Excellency's Government calls attention to the 
fact that the expropriation of property lias been 
carried on on a large scale since 1915 under the 
agrarian progi-am ; that, for tlie claims presented 
to the General Conunission, the persons whose 
lands have been taken have received nothing, 
but that efforts are now being made to settle 
the [claims that have] arisen since 1927. I 
wish to call attention, with respect to these lat- 
ter claims, to the fact that my Government hav- 
ing delivered a considerable sum for their pay- 
ment, up to this moment the American Com- 
missioner has not submitted a single demand 
duly proved that could be discussed and decided 
by the two Conmiissioners. 

With respect to the claims prior to 1927 which 
have been presented bj- the Government of 
Mexico and that of the United States in the 
name of the Mexican and American claimants, 
respectively, they are submitted to a procedure 
agi-eed upon by the two Governments and which 
appears in agreements that set dates which have 
undergone various postponements, requested by 
[the Government of] Your Excellency, and if 
the American claimants have not yet received 
any comj^ensation under this head, as the Mex- 
ican claimants have not either, it is due to the 
fact that the arbitral commission has not yet 
passed on the said claims. Tliis is not a mat- 
ter, therefore, of obligations that are due on de- 
mand [exigibies] but of credits in litigation the 
appraisal of which it has not been possible to 
terminate, so that it is not known which of the 
two countries is going to turn out to be the cred- 
itor and which one the debtor. 

It cannot be maintained, therefore, that Mex- 
ico has in any way hindered the settlement of 
the claims before the General Commission, be- 



470 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cause since the beginning of its labors my Gov- 
ernment has been able to demonstrate, on 
numerous occasions, its desire to reach as soon 
as possible the appraisal of all the claims filed. 

Because of all the foregoing it is established 
with evident clarity that in both cases, that of 
the petroleum properties and that of the Gen- 
eral Claims Commission causes alien to the will 
of my Government have prevented the carrying 
out of its obligation to compensate American 
nationals. 

Your Excellency's Government makes the pro- 
posal of submitting to an arbitrator, as indi- 
cated by the protocol of 1934, the non-adjudi- 
cated demands which are subject to the 
Convention of 1923, or to proceed immediately 
to the negotiation of a global settlement in 
c>rder to settle the land claims, in accordance 
with the protocol. On this subject I may state 
to Your Excellency that my Government is 
in accord in the sense of proceeding immediately 
to the negotiation of a global settlement. It 
believes, nevertheless, that the protocol in force 
is not applicable to the present situation, since 



the said protocol contemplated the case where 
the commissioners could not agree, but not that 
of the claims not being discussed nor judged. 
The said settlement therefore might be negoti- 
ated by the Conamissioners referred to 'with 
absolute liberty and with the desire of reaching 
a rapid understanding and if a result should 
not be reached, my Government, in advance, 
is disposed to negotiate the terms of a procedure 
permitting the rapid and definitive solution of 
this matter. 

My Government expresses to Your Excel- 
lency's Government the desirability of renew- 
ing the conversations, which were suspended 
when the petroleum case arose, in order to make 
an endeavor to settle the matters relative to the 
other subjects which are pending between the 
two Governments since the Government of Mex- 
ico believes that the rapid solution of them all 
Avill contribute favorably to drawing closer the 
good relations between the two comitries. 
I renew [etc.] Eduardo Hay 

His Excellency Josephus Daniels, 
American Ambassador. 



■f -♦- -f -f -f ^ -f 



A NEW SYMBOL OF PAN AMERICAN UNITY 

Address by Charles G. Fenwick " 



It is singularly fitting that the Inter-Amer- 
ican Neutrality Committee should participate 
in the celebrations attending the commemora- 
tion of the fiftieth anniversary of the establish- 
ment of the Pan American Union. 

For the Committee itself is a symbol of the 
unity of the American republics in the pres- 
ence of a common danger to their peace and se- 
curity. The situation with which the American 
republics are now confronted was clearly fore- 
seen at the time of the adoption of the Conven- 
tion for the Maintenance, Preservation, and Ke- 
establishment of Peace at the conference held at 
Buenos Aires in 1936. In this convention it 



* Dplivered in Spanish before the Rotary Club of Rio 
de Janeiro, Brnzll, April 12, 1940. Dr. Fenwick is a 
member of tlie Intcr-Amerlcan Neutrality Committee. 



was provided that in the event that the peace 
of the American republics should be menaced 
there should be consultation for the purpose of 
finding and adopting methods of peaceful co- 
operation ; and it was further provided that in 
the event of an international war outside Amer- 
ica, which might menace the peace of the Amer- 
ican republics, such consultation should also 
take place to determine in what way the Ameri- 
can republics might cooperate in order to pre- 
serve the peace of the American Continent. It 
is indeed an unhappy event which has brought 
the provisions of this treaty into operation. 
But we are foi'tunate that, if such an event was 
to come, the American republics had already 
made provision for it. 



* 



MAY 4, 1940 



471 



At the Eighth International Conference of 
American States held at Lima in 1938, the 
American republics reaffirmed the principles 
upon which their continental solidarity was 
based and their collective determination to de- 
fend those principles against all foreign inter- 
vention and activity that might threaten them. 
They proclaimed anew their common concern 
as a group for the peace and security of eacli 
individual state; and they made provision for 
machinery of consultation by means of a meet- 
ing of their Foreign Ministers or of specially 
designated representatives of their Foreign 
Ministers. Thus was laid the basis for the 
Meeting at Panama last September, when, in 
the presence of a common danger from the war 
in Europe, it was clear that the time had come 
for the American republics to put into effect 
the principles by which their conduct was to 
be guided. 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers at 
Panama took prompt action to meet the situ- 
ation. A General Declaration of the Neutrality 
of the American Republics was adopted, which 
set forth the standards of neutral conduct which 
the American republics proposed to observe in 
order to maintain their status as neutral states 
both in respect to the fulfillment of their neutral 
duties and in respect to the maintenance of their 
neutral rights. It was in the closing paragi'aph 
of this declaration that the Inter-American 
Neutrality Committee was established, whose 
object it should be to study and forniulat« 
recommendations with respect to the problems 
of neutrality in the light of experience and 
changing circumstances. 

In addition to making provision for the ob- 
servance of the standards of conduct incumbent 
upon them as neutrals the American republics 
found it necessary to establish a "zone of se- 
curity" around the American Continent to be 
kept free of belligerent operations. Here was 
a question not of following established rules 
of international law but of creating a new rule. 
The preamble of the Declaration called at- 
tention to the unusual character of the war in 
its effects upon the fundamental interests of 
America and to the absence of any justifica- 



tion that the interests of tlie belligerents should 
prevail over the rights of neutrals. For these 
reasons tlie governments of the American re- 
publics declared that as a measure of conti- 
nental self-protection they were, "as of inherent 
right," entitled to have the waters adjacent to 
the American Continent free from the com- 
mission of any hostile act by any non- American 
belligerent nation. On March 2 it was an- 
nounced by the Pan American Union that the 
American republics desired the Inter- American 
Neutrality Committee to take competence of the 
problem. 

In his opening address at the Inaugural Ses- 
sion of the Inter-American Neutrality Commit- 
tee on January 15 of this j^ear, His Excellency 
Dr. Getulio Vargas, President of the Rejjublic 
of Brazil, nfter referring to the ideal of the 
great Bolivar in respect to an American con- 
gress at Panama which might discuss with other 
nations the high interests of peace and of war, 
went on to express the belief that this Com- 
mittee, created by the American Republics at 
Panama little more than a century after the 
prophetic words of the Liberator, would con- 
tinue the work of unification foreseen by him 
by formulating common rules of action for the 
defense of the resolutions of the conference 
which created it. 

Such is the part which the Inter-American 
Neutrality Committee seems destined to play in 
contributing its scientific work to the solution 
of tlie problems of neutrality with which the 
American governments are confronted. The 
functions of the Committee are strictly limited. 
Tiie recommendations which it has already made 
and those whicli it exfjects to make in the future 
can have merely the character of advisory opin- 
ions. There is no question of judicial decisions 
or of administrative mandates. The Commit- 
tee is seeking to build up a unified policy of neu- 
trality for the American states in the matters 
that ai-e referred to it for its investigation. 
Whether such a unified policy will result from 
its recommendations is a matter for the Ameri- 
can republics to decide. Each in the exercise of 
its sovereignty and independence must deter- 
mine for itself whether the recommendations of 



472 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Committee are a wise rule to be followed. 
Thus the establishment of the Committee is fully 
in harmony with the principles of American 
solidarity declared by the American republics 
at their recent conferences. 

It is of the greatest importance to observe 
that the Inter- American Neutrality Committee 
represents not the particular states of which its 
7 members happen to be citizens, but the whole 
21 American republics collectively. A small 
committee was deemed advisable in order to 
permit more intimate discussions and to facili- 
tate decisions upon difficult technical points. Ob- 
viously such a conamittee must be in touch with 
the problems which confront the American re- 
publics and with the special conditions which 
each of them must meet. But in taking its de- 
cisions the conmiittee has sought to bear always 
in mind that its purpose is to meet the needs 
not only of a particular state or states but of 
the whole American community, from which it 
derives its competence and to which it owes its 
primary responsibility. In that sense the com- 
mittee is indeed a symbol of the miity of 
America. 

The unity of America! That was the ideal 
of the gi'eat Liberator, Simon Bolivar, more 
than 100 years ago. It is the ideal that we are 
seeking to realize in the daily life of the Amer- 
ican republics more and more as each year goes 
by. It is a unity which is based upon our rec- 
ognition that the things which we have in com- 
mon are more important than our mutual 
differences. It is a unity due, not to the oblit- 
eration of our distinct national characters, but 
to a realization that over and above our indi- 
vidual interests are the larger interests of the 
whole community, in the advancement of which 
each individual state finds its welfare in the 
common welfare of all. 

Let us face the future, therefore, with confi- 
dence. The record of the last 50 years has 
taught us valuable lessons. We have learned 
that the visions of statesmen of the past can 
become a living reality in the present. We have 
come to see that what was deemed almost im- 
possible 50 years ago has not only become pos- 
sible today, but, having become possible, is giv- 



ing us promise of still greater tilings to come. 
Let us forget the mistakes of the past. If at 
times we have lost sight of our ideals and al- 
lowed the spirit of nationalism to dominate our 
policies, we have happily come now to realise 
how much more there is to gain from coopera- 
tion than from controversy. The task before us 
is to build the world of the future. In the ac- 
complishment of that noble work we are each of 
us called to contribute the best that we have to 
give. 

One word more. We look across the ocean 
and behold the great tragedy through which 
Europe is passing. None of us can be indiffer- 
ent to the fate of nations from whose civilization 
our own has been derived. It must be our hope 
that some day it may be possible to bring the 
nations of Europe together again on the basis of 
the same principles upon which our own conti- 
nental solidarity has been developed. The noble 
conception of a great family of all the nations, 
a civitas maxima, bound together by its moral 
ideals and its social and economic interests, must 
not be allowed to die out in the world. It is 
the only alternative to international anarchy. 
For it is certain that if the intensified national- 
ism, which has been fostered in certain coun- 
tries of recent years, should come to prevail in 
Europe, not only will it destroy European civili- 
zation, but its disruptive effects would be almost 
certain to spread to our Western Hemisphere. 
Let us hope, therefore, that our reaffirmation 
here in America of the principles of law and 
order, of peace and justice, of mutual respect 
and friendly cooperation will help to keep alive 
those conceptions in Europe even during the 
dark hours through which it is passing; and 
that when the war comes to an end we may 
all be partners in rebuilding the shattered world 
upon stronger and more lasting foundations. 

■¥ ^ ^ 

AWARDS BY THE UNITED STATES 
TO MEMBERS OF THE BRAZILIAN 

NAVY 

[Released to the press May 2] 

The American Ambassador to Brazil, the 
Honorable Jefferson Caffery, informed the De- 



MAY 4, 1940 



473 



partment May 2 that he had presented five offi- 
cers and men of the Brazilian Navy with binocu- 
lars and medals as tokens of this Government's 
gratitude for their courageous participation in 
the rescue of victims from the wreck of a Pan 
American Airways plane in the harbor at Rio de 
Janeiro on August 13, 1939. 

The awards were made as follows : 

To Seaman Raymundo Gualberto de Santa 
Brigida, gold medal for "heroic services" 

To Prinieiro Tenente Carlos Arthur da Silva 
Moura and Segundo Tenente Ernesto 
Mourao de Sa, binocular glasses for their 
"courageous services" 

To Primeiro Sargento Luiz da Silva Gayoso 
and Seaman Lourival Correa, gold medals 
for their "courageous services." 



Europe 



EVACUATION OF AMERICANS FROM 
NORWAY 

[Released to the press April 29] 

The First Secretary of the American Lega- 
tion at Oslo, Mr. Raymond E. Cox, reported to 



the Department that under arrangements made 
by the Amei'ican consulate general at Oslo, a 
party of 32 Americans left Oslo on April 27 via 
Sweden and Gemiany for Genoa to connect 
there with the S. S. Manhattan sailing May 4. 

■f -f -f 

PROVISIONAL ESTABLISHMENT OF 
AMERICAN CONSULATE IN GREEN- 
LAND 

[ Released to the press May 1] 

Announcement is made by the State Depart- 
ment of the provisional establishment of an 
American consulate at Godthaab, Greenland. 
Mr. James K. Penfield has been designated con- 
sul ; he will be assisted by Mr. George L. West, 
Jr., as vice consul. 

It is exi)ected that Mr. Penfield \\ill sail on 
the Coast Guard cutter Comanche on May 10. 

Since communication between Copenhagen 
and Greenland has been interrupted, direct con- 
sular representation has been deemed advisable 
by the United States and by the Greenland 
authorities. 



1 



Commercial Policy 



ADDRESS BY RAYMOND H. GEIST 



[Released to the press April 30] 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : A few 
weeks after assuming my new duties in the De- 
partment of State I have been asked to speak 
at this dinner and give my views as to the out- 
look for the foreign trade of the United States, 
particularly from the point of view of the Gov- 
ernment and private trade-promotive instru- 
mentalities overseas. 



'Delivered at a dinner of the annual meeting of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Wa.sh- 
ington, April 30, 1940. Mr. Gei.st is Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Commercial Affairs, Department of State. 



You are hearing views expressed on the out- 
look for the development of our foreign trade 
by many competent pei-sons. Some of these 
views are based upon knowledge, some on ex- 
perience, and some on theory. It is almost safe 
to say that it lies hardly within the competence 
of any person to foresee these developments; 
and any calculations, no matter how well based 
on knowledge, experience, or theory, run the 
danger of being inaccurate and, it may be, even 
misleading. 

One thing is certain and that is that thus far 



474 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULX,ETIN 



we have progressed along sound lines in the 
conduct of our foreign trade. Events -which 
have taken place in most of the civilized world 
have caused measures to be introduced by other 
governments in connection with the interna- 
tional exchange of goods which we would not 
like to establish here. To pursue a sound policy 
in foreign trade at this juncture of the world's 
history is not only a necessity for our well-being 
but also an achievement of the first order. 

During my long experience abroad and par- 
ticularly during the last 10 years I have had 
direct expei'ience with what we might define as 
"trade in a strait jacket." It is not enough 
to emphasize the disastrous eilect such methods 
have had upon the interchange of goods with 
the United States, but the disastrous effect these 
systems have had in the countries where they 
have been practiced. For while the ultimate 
purpose in autarchic countries has been to com- 
pel exports and imports to implement and subsi- 
dize the national economy, the stability of which 
has been threatened by various causes, the meas- 
ures adopted have extended far beyond mere 
licensing control. 

I observed in studying these developments 
that such governments had to set up controls 
more numerous and complex than we in this 
country know anything about. In fact such 
controls extend very far and penetrate with 
their uncertain effects not only the commercial 
life of the nation, but the financial, agricul- 
tural, and even social. Besides, when a country 
starts along the path of dislodging itself from 
the usual channels of international commercial 
intercourse, the measures adopted, prompted 
often by the necessity of overcoming some 
temporary shortage, lead to a rapid multiplica- 
tion of all kinds of controls, which shortly re- 
sults in perplexing vicious circles. The gov- 
ernments of these countries were, of course, 
faced by economic conditions and problems in- 
volving shortages in essential raw materials, ade- 
quate foodstuffs, and international medium of 
monetary exchange. These shortages were, for 
the most part, accentuated by the direction na- 
tional economy took and by the adoption of 
political aims which were regarded as of para- 



mount importance. But it was not foreseen 
in the early stages of this process how one 
restriction and one control would lead to others. 
Schemes of a restrictive character were adopted 
which, it was thought, would meet the national 
need and overcome the immediate problem 
which was pressing. In some countries the first 
measures adopted arose through lack of ex- 
change; and the authorities, believing that by 
pushing exports and restricting imports the 
favorable balance of trade thus accruing would 
set the ship back on an even keel, began by allot- 
ting quotas of imports based upon the normal 
business of certain years; but this system once 
begun had its repercussions and soon affected the 
exports of the restricting country. 

These simple introductory measures proved 
by no means adequate to strengthen the na- 
tional economy; and other further restrictions 
on imports had to be made, and the amount of 
exchange available sank successively to zero. 
When that point was reached the whole range 
of commodities and materials became subject to 
export licenses with an ever-growing bureau- 
cratic system of control from which there was 
no escape. Naturally one of the results of these 
measures was a shortage of basic materials, and 
soon the authorities had to turn their attention 
to the system of controls designed to husband 
and conserve dwindling supplies. But it must 
be remembered that with every new control a 
large organization had to be installed with suffi- 
cient personnel to discharge the functions effec- 
tively. Manufacturing plants were no longer 
able to obtain the supplies which they needed, 
and the endless system of applications and in- 
terviews with officials became the order of the 
day. Sometimes costlier substitutes had to be 
used in the manufacturing process with the con- 
comitant increase in the production costs. Here 
again new difficulties arose, and the govern- 
ments concerned had to set up new forms of 
control with all the necessary official apparatus 
and a huge personnel. There was first of all 
control over labor costs, control over wages, and 
then the inevitable price fixing not only of food- 
stuffs but other daily necessities. 

However, the most important phase of these 
autarchic developments took place in the field 



MAY 4, 1940 

of foreign trade. Countries that had departed 
from the broad and generous system of inter- 
national trade Avith its free exchange of goods 
had to begin to find partners with wliom special 
arrangements could be made. The long-estab- 
lished channels of trade were abandoned, and a 
system of bargaining took place which induced 
certain countries to enter into schemes for the 
exchange of goods which ignored the funda- 
mental principles of free trading. Naturally 
no such bargains could be made between firms 
engaged in foreign trade; the arrangements 
were begun and consummated by the govern- 
ments concerned, and when the pattern was set 
those firms who desired to continue trading hud 
to fit into the strait-jacket scheme which such 
trade agreements offered. 

But schemes of this sort do not develop in 
orderly fashion. Often prices over and above 
world-market levels had to be paid for goods, 
and often sales had to be made under the price 
which other traders were getting in the open 
market. The difficulties which arise under such 
a system multiply so fast that the whole busi- 
ness of foreign trading passes over to govern- 
ment control. But even traders might find 
such a scheme tolerable if the results justified 
the measures. Vicissitudes of all sorts arose 
in the conduct of business. Firms, for instance, 
which had been in the business of importing 
wholesale fruits found that the connections and 
channels of trade which had been built over a 
period of years had been deflected by govern- 
mental control into avenues which now and then 
dried up. There were times when such busi- 
ness ceased entirely with the consequent despair 
of the firms involved and often the disruption of 
their business organizations, discharge of per- 
sonnel, and eventually liquidation. 

It is impossible to describe in a few words the 
vast changes which come about in business 
methods which fall so completely under an 
autarchic control. The inevitable consequence, 
and that which undoubtedly transforms free 
enterprise into government-controlled business, 
is the final fixing of profits. This arises largely 
through the fact that business in many com- 
modities and articles could not be conducted 



475 

without governmental subsidies, which were so 
calculated as to aflFord the enterprise a minimum 
profit. 

It must never be imagined that business con- 
ducted along these lines afforded a basis for 
mutual confidence and satisfaction. The gov- 
ernments made the arrangements, and the trad- 
ers had to fit their contracts and exchange of 
goods into the scheme. Hard bargaining was 
resorted to, often with the mininmm satisfac- 
tion and confidence in the results. No steady 
business was built up in this way. Exchange 
of goods was effected ; but more frequently than 
not the contracting parties had to take what 
they could get ; and often goods were imported 
by one of the partners for which no ready mar- 
ket was found. The terms of such contracts 
were not left freely to the wishes and interests 
of tlie contracting parties. When goods were 
exchanged contracts did not become valid until 
the approval was received from the governments 
of the contracting parties ; and this process was 
more or less onerous and exasperating accord- 
ing to the extent of the control exercised. 

But on the whole in its larger aspects over a 
period of years I have observed that the making 
and carrying out of these trade-exchange agi-ee- 
ments provoked between the governments mak- 
ing them as much hard feeling, insecurity, and 
annoyance as between the traders who carried 
out the details of the transactions. Certain 
countries were led to enter into these arrange- 
ments with less foresight and caution than the 
nature of the agreemtuits warranted. They sent 
their grains, oils, fruits, and other products in 
large quantities at apparently good prices only 
to find that in the partner country huge credit 
balances were piled up for which no payment 
could be received except in manufactured goods 
which were little wanted or for which an ex- 
ceedingly small market existed. 

This system of exchanire of goods reveals verv' 
clearly the tendency to tlieorize about trade and 
to entertain methods which should work out well 
but which in practice are a delusion and a 
failure. 

It is well before leaving consideration of this 
subject to suggest that if there had been any 



476 

hope in such a system it would have produced 
happy results and led to the well-being and con- 
tentment of the peoples of the nations which 
have developed their international trade along 
the lines which I have described. The reverse, 
however, has been true. The system has not 
worked smoothly from the day of its inception, 
and the difficulties which were inaugurated with 
the first restrictions have multiplied in propor- 
tion to its development. The course interna- 
tional affairs have taken in recent years indi- 
cates how trading systems can contribute to in- 
ternational discord and even catastrophe. 

This brings me to consideration of the policy 
in foreign trade which our own Government 
has so steadily and successfully pursued. We 
have avoided imitating or having any share in 
the kind of exchange of goods which I have 
mentioned. Never having been treaty partners 
in such schemes our exporters and merchants 
engaged in trade abroad have not contributed 
to its establishment or helped in any way to ex- 
tend its scope. At the same time, being non- 
participants in any autarchic schemes, we have 
avoided injuring our prestige in international, 
commercial intercourse, which fact, in my 
opinion, is an asset of great value and will prove 
itself such in the future. Eight along through 
these difficult times we have conducted our for- 
eign trade along substantial lines, and this has 
contributed to the strengthening of the position 
of our commerce in foreign fields. 

The opposite of the autarchic scheme which 
is bound up with rampant and destructive na- 
tionalism has been incorporated in the trade- 
agreements program so successfully pursued by 
our Government. While this program was con- 
ceived and can'ied through primarily for the 
purposes named in the act: 

(1) expanding the foreign markets for the 

products of the United States; 

(2) assisting in the present emergency in re- 

storing the American standard of liv- 
ing; 

(3) in overcoming domestic unemployment; 

(4) in increasing the purchasing power of 

the American public ; 

(5) in establishing and maintaining a better 

relationship among various branches 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of American agriculture, industry, mining, 
and commerce; 

it is most striking that some of its achieve- 
ments which in the long ran may prove of -last- 
ing importance have not been expressed in aims 
of the act ; and we may attribute these achieve- 
ments to the fundamental statesmanship of the 
author who, as I believe the facts well prove, 
was building more solidly and lastingly than 
he thought. Over against the destructive policy 
pursued by narrow nationalism the course fol- 
lowed by the United States m international 
trade has demonstrated to the world the sound- 
ness of our position. The other system has dis- 
astrously foundered and is embroiled in the toils 
of war, which it fostered and fomented from 
the day of the system's foundation. 

The Secretary of State has pointed out that 
the establishment of sound international trade 
relations will be an essential problem of post- 
war construction. The necessity for sound 
international trade relations has been a neces- 
sity in the past, and I am convinced that dur- 
ing the last few years, and since the advent of 
the depression when many countries have been 
struggling to put their houses in order, the 
United States, by pursuing a liberal and 
healthy policy in international trade, has 
slowed up the tempo toward destruction of 
those forces abroad which deliberately chose to 
head in that direction. 

I am sure that American exporters have not 
been unconscious of the advantages they have 
gained by being partners in carrying out an 
international trade policy which has not foun- 
dered and which has not set up all sorts of 
governmental controls and handicaps as mer- 
chants abroad have endured. 

Again this position becomes more real viewed 
in the light of the statement made by the Sec- 
retary of State when he said : 

"The experience of the two decades which 
elapsed between the end of the World War and 
the outbreak of a new war in Europe has 
brought out in sharp relief the validity of 
two basic propositions. The first of these is 
that our Nation, and every nation, can enjoy 
sustained prosperity only in a world which is 



477 



at peace. The second is that a peaceful world is 
possible only when there exists for it a solid 
economic foundation, an indispensable part of 
which is active and mutually beneficial trade 
among the nations. The creation of such a 
foundation is the second of the two primary 
objectives of the trade-agreements program, 
which seeks the advancement of our domestic 
prosperity and the promotion of world peace." ^ 

I must not fail to emphasize, in view of the 
experience I have had during the last 10 years 
in Europe, that the Secretary of State was right 
when he warned against "destroying the only 
policy which stood in the recent past, and can 
stand in the immediate future, as a bulwark 
against a complete reversion to policies under 
which the channels of trade will become more 
and more blocked and the nations of the world 
will continue their disastrous march toward in- 
creasing economic nationalism, regimentation, 
economic distress, the dole on an ever-growing 
scale, social instability, and recurrent warfare. 
Under such conditions, there can be no endur- 
ing peace and no sustained prosperity for our 
Nation." * 

There has been probably no tune in the history 
of our country when so many controversial 
subjects have come to the foreground. There 
is sharp divergence of opinion as to the best 
methods to pursue in combating the difficulties 
of our times. And in no sphere are the argu- 
ments more vehement and insistent than in that 
of industry' and trade. Among these problems 
that of foreign trade has also been uppermost. 

We stand in the midst of events which may 
have very serious and prolonged effect upon our 
exports and imports. One thing is certain, 
and that is if the course of events should 
persuade nations to collaborate on a reestablish- 
ment of international good will, the principles 
adopted and pursued by American business and 
by our Government in foreign trade must find 
general acceptance, for the march along the road 
of progress. 

I shall not attempt in this brief talk to give a 
statistical picture of the course which our com- 



°See the Bulletin of January 13, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 
29), p. 37. 



merce abroad lias taken since the outbreak of 
war. The figures are published monthly by the 
Department of Commerce, and the trends are 
there interpreted. We are well aware of the 
effects which the shifting scene is having upon 
our exchange of goods with foreign countries, 
the effect which it is having upon our agricul- 
tural exports not only on account of war restric- 
tions but too on account of the actual cutting 
off of markets by military measures. It would 
seem prudent in the face of this surcease for 
American businessmen not to be over hasty 
in wiping out the contacts and the good will 
which has been established with clients abroad 
in countries where trade has now become im- 
possible, or where, on account of national emer- 
gency measures tliat trade has become almost 
completely restrained or put in abeyance. It is 
better policy to maintain such contacts at least 
until world events have become so far clarified 
that definite situations are established, and we 
know how extensive our foreign markets are 
going to be and with what countries we can 
labor together for the rebuilding of world trade. 

Wliat concerns us most is the interruption of 
our normal trade which has been built up over a 
long period of years. And no matter what 
policy wisdom shall eventually persuade us to 
follow we shall have little comfort in showing 
a favorable balance of trade during this unset- 
tled period. What we want are the normal 
peace-time results. On these we can count and 
on these base our pi-osperity. 

Another observation may be well worth mak- 
ing. It has been our habit of muid in the past 
to think of American foreign trade almost ex- 
clusively in the light of exports. We liave had 
large agricultural surpluses to send abroad, and 
we have expended a great deal of energy and 
industry in doing so. Doubtless we «liall have 
to continue to seek foreign markets for these 
products likewise in the future. We shall prob- 
ably continue to have nothing more important 
to sell abroad than our agricultural surpluses. 
At the same time we must bear in mind the im- 
portant facts which have come more vividly (o 
light since the inauguration of the trade-agree- 
ments program and that is the role of imports. 



478 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



It was not an accident in connection with this 
program tliat a way was sought to admit foreign 
goods into this country while at the same time 
markets were sought abroad. It is hardly to 
be expected that any successful program of in- 
ternational trade in the future can be founded 
on any other principle. The fact alone that 
the United States has become a great creditor 
nation will determine this policy. Businessmen 
are always more energetic about selling their 
product than they are to buy. When we go 
out as buyers we adopt an attitude quite differ- 
ent from that which we assiune as sellers. We 
are not as interested in the profit which tlie 
other fellow makes as that which we can assure 
to ourselves. This attitude is understandable 
and is the way of the world. But the problem 
of foreign trade and our position vis-a-vis other 
nations require at last that we become, as some 
economists have recently put it, import minded. 

The vitality which exists in American busi- 
ness enterprise I am convinced in the long run 
will assure its success, not only at home but 
abroad. In accordance with our gi-eat demo- 
cratic system enterprise in this country is free 
and on its own. It must set its own pace and 
forge ahead. But I am not sure that we have 
put enough real energy in making our place 
in foreign markets. 

During the many years I have been abroad 
stationed in important business and commercial 
centers I li:ive been struck by the relatively few 
American firms which had first-class agents in 
those countries. Traveling salesmen and agents 
have made flying trips abroad getting a super- 
ficial knowledge of the business methods in 
foreign countries; and a vast number of firms 
attempt lo do business with foreign houses by 
conducting correspondence. It is true that 
many exporters are not in the position to send 
agents abroad ; but this indicates that we have 
not attempted heretofore to obtain knowledge 
of markets in other parts of the world in pro- 
portion to our economic strength or the oppor- 
tunities existing. 

In this connection I must not fail to mention 
the recent strengthening of our Foreign Serv- 
ice abroad, which at last under the President's 



Reorganization Plan No. II has become a re- 
ality. This reorganization has completely uni- 
fied all the trade-promotion talent and personnel 
which we have stationed in foreign countries. 
The commercial attaches and the agricultural 
attaches now incorporated into the long-estab- 
lished Foreign Service of the United States, 
with our consuls in all important commercial 
cities, constitute a phalanx of trade promotion 
stronger than that possessed by any other na- 
tion. These men with specialized experience 
and knowledge, working in conjunction with the 
three great executive departments of our Gov- 
ernment — State, Commerce, and Agriculture — 
are daily exploring every possibility and chance 
to extend our foreign trade. The vast amount 
of information which these officers gather re- 
garding markets and profitable contacts abroad, 
flashing in over the wires every minute of the 
day and night, and the unending flow of re- 
ports and despatches coming in with every post, 
from all corners of the earth, are disseminated 
through the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Conunerce and the Department of Agriculture 
to business all over the United States. The com- 
mercial and agricultural attaches have not only 
been invested with a firmer diplomatic status 
which increases their effectiveness and unifies 
their efforts, but they have, at the same time, 
been placed at the head of ottr trade-reporting, 
trade-fromotion, and trade-protection activities 
in nearly every important country abroad. This 
is an asset to American business, the strength 
and importance of wliich should not be under- 
estimated. It is particularly indicative of the 
far-seeing policy of the Government, which has 
now taken every practical step to meet the prob- 
lems which the chaotic international situation 
has created for our foreign trade. I have no 
doubt that these problems will be met. 

For not only has American business contin- 
ued to conduct its foreign trade along lines of 
soimd principles and fair and honest dealings; 
but the Government has maintained and pro- 
mulgated a commercial policy of nondiscrimi- 
nation vis-a-vis those nations who have been 
willing to cooperate, not only in enhancing their 
own trade position, but in setting up a better 



MAY 4, 1940 



479 



world order in which international trade and 
the general exchange of goods can tlu'ive. 

Finally let me revert in closing these remarks 
to the words of George Washington, whose 
views on national questions, though spoken 150 
years ago, are as patent as thougli they were 
pronounced tonight : 

''Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations 
are recommended by policy, humanity, and in- 
terest. But even our conmiercial policy should 
hold an equal and impartial hand, neither seek- 
ing nor granting exclusive favors or prefer- 
ences; consulting the natural course of things; 
diti'using and diversifying by gentle means the 
streams of commerce, but forcing nothing." 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, etc. 



FOURTH PAN AMERICAN CONFER- 
ENCE OF NATIONAL DIRECTORS OF 
HEALTH 

[ Released to the press May 2 ] 

Pursuant to resolutions of the Fifth Inter- 
national Conference of American States and 
Ihe Tenth Pan American Sanitary Conference, 
Dr. Hugh S. Gumming, Director of the Pan 
American Sanitary Bureau, Washington, D. C, 
has called the Fourth Pan American Conference 
of National Directors of Health to meet at 
jj AVashington, D. C, from May 1 to 8, 1940. The 
President has approved the designation of the 
following persons to represent the United States 
of America at the meeting: 

Surg. Gen. Thomas Parran, United States 
Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency, chairman of the delegation 

Asst. Surg. Gen. C. V. Akin, United States 
Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency 

Dr. William DeKleine, Medical Assistant to 
Vice Chairman, American National Red Cross 

Dr. Martha M. Eliot, Assistant Chief, Chil- 
di-en's Bureau, Department of Labor 

Dr. William B. Grayson, President, Conference 
of State and Provincial Health Authorities 
of North America, Little Rock, Ark. 



Maj. Gen. M. W. Ireland, United States Army, 
Retired 

Medical Director James P. Leake, United States 
Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency 

Dr. E. V. McCollum, Professor of Biochem- 
istry, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Asst. Surg. Gen. Joseph W. Mountin, United 
States Public Health Service, Federal Secur- 
ity Agency 

Dr. Royd R. Sayers, Acting Director, Bureau 
of Mines, Department of the Interior 

Surg. William H. Sobrell, Jr., United States 
Public Healtii Service, Federal Security 
Agency 

Lt. Col. James S. Simmons, Medical Corps, 
United States Army 

Comdr. Ciiailes S. Stephenson, Medical Corps, 
United States Navy 

Asst. Surg. Gen. R. A. Vonderlehr, United 
States Public Health Service, Federal Secur- 
ity Agency 

Aast. Surg. Gen. C. D. Williams, United States 
Public Health Service, Federal Security 
Agency 

Sr. Surg. L. L. Williams, United States Public 
Health Service, Federal Security Agency. 



Foreign Service 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to the press May 4] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the Vrdted 
States since April 20, IQJfi: 

John D. Johnson, of Highgate, Vt., consul at 
Lyon, France, has been assigned as consul at 
Salonika, Greece. 

The assignment of Walter H. Sholes, of Okla- 
homa City, Okla., as consul general at Salonika, 
Greece, has been canceled. Mr. Sholes has now 
been assigned as consul general at Lyon, France. 

Louis H. Gourley, of Springfield, 111., consul 
at Kobe, Japan, has been assigned as consul at 
Harbin, Manchuria, China. 

Samuel Sokobin, of Newark, N. J., consul at 
Tsmgtao, Chhia, has been assigned as consul at 
Kobe, Japan. 



480 

Paul W. Meyer, of Denver, Colo., consul at 
Yunnanfu, China, has been assigned as consul 
at Tsingtao, China. 

Archer Woodford, of Paris, Ky., consul at 
Maracaibo, Venezuela, has been assigned as 
consul at Hamburg, Germany. 

Bernard Gotlieb, of New York, N. Y., con- 
sul at Trieste, Italy, has been assigned as consul 
at Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. 

Troy L. Perkins, of Lexington, Ky., vice con- 
sul at Shanghai, China, has been assigned as 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

vice consul at Yunnanfu, China. 

Joseph F. Burt, of Fairfield, 111., second sec- 
retary of embassy at Mexico City, Mexico, has 
been assigned as consul at Prague, Bohemia. 

H. Francis Cunningham, Jr., of Lincoln, 
Nebr., vice consul at Vigo, Spain, has been as- 
signed as vice consul at Berlin, Germany. 

Hungerford B. Howard, of Los Angeles, 
Calif., vice consul at Shanghai, China, has been 
assigned as language officer at the American 
Embassy, Peiping, China. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion (Treaty Series No. 867) 

Dominican Republic 

According to notification No. 356 dated April 
16, 1940, from the Bureau of the International 
Telecommunication Union at Bern the Bureau 
received on April 4, 1940, a communication from 
the Government of the Dominican Republic 
stating that it had approved the following re- 
visions of the regulations and protocols an- 
nexed to the International Telecommunication 
Convention of December 9, 1932, as signed at 
Cairo on April 4 and 8, 1938 : 

General Radio Regulations and Final Proto- 
col (revision of Cairo, 1938) 

Additional Radio Regulations (revision of 
Cairo, 1938). 

Great Britavm 

According to notification No. 354, dated 
March 16, 1940, from the Bureau of the Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union at Bern, the 
Bureau received on March 9, 1940, a communi- 
cation from the General Post Office, London, 
listing the British colonies and territories un- 



der mandate, etc., which have approved the acts 
of the Cairo conferences of 1938. The notifi- 
cation states that the Telegraph Regulations 
and the Final Telegraph Protocol (revision of 
Cairo, 1938) have been accepted, together with 
the reservation made by Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, by the following colonies, 
etc.: 

British Guiana ; British Honduras ; Protectorate 
of the British Solomon Islands; Ceylon; Cy- 
prus ; Fiji ; Gibraltar ; Colony of the Gilbert and 
Ellice Islands; Gold Coast (colony, Ashanti, 
Northern Territories, and Togoland under Brit- 
ish mandate) ; Hong Kong; Jamaica (including 
Turk's Islands, Caicos Islands, and Cayman 
Islands) ; Kenya (colony and protectorate) ; 
Malaya : Straits Settlements and Federated 
Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sem- 
bilan and Paliang (comprising the Postal 
Union of Malaj-a) , and the Nonfederated Malay 
States of Johore, Kedah (with the telegi-aph 
services of Perils), Kelantan, Trengganu, Bru- 
nei ; Malta ; Mauritius ; State of Northern Bor- 
neo ; Northern Rhodesia ; Nyasaland Protector- 
ate; Palestine; St. Helena and Ascension; 
Sarawak; Seychelle; Sierra Leone (colony and 
protectorate); Tanganyika Territory; Tonga; 
Transjordania; Uganda Protectorate. 

The (jreneral Radio Regulations and Final 
Radio Protocol and Additional Radio Regula- 



MAY 4, 1940 



481 



tions (revision of Cairo, 1938), have been ac- 
cepted Ijy the following colonies, etc. : 

Aden ; Bahamas ; Barbados ; Basutoland ; Bech- 
uanaland Protectorate; Bermuda; British 
Guiana; British Honduras; Protectorate of I he 
British Solomon Islands; Ceylon; Cyprus; 
Falkland Islands and dependencies; Fiji; Gam- 
bia (colony and protectorate) ; Gibraltar; Col- 
ony of the Gilbert and EUice Islands; Gold 
Coast (colony, Ashanti, Northern Territories, 
and Togoland under British mandate) ; Hong 
Kong; Jamaica (including Turk's Islands, Cai- 
cos Islands and Cayman Islands) ; Kenya (col- 
ony and protectorate) ; Leeward Isles (Antigua, 
Montserrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, Virgin 
Islands) ; Malaya: Straits Settlements and Fed- 
erated Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negri 
Sembilan and Pahang (comprising the Postal 
Union of Malaya) , and the Nonfederated Malay 
States of Johore, Kedah (with the telegraph 
sei'vices of Perlis), Kelantan, Trenggaim, 
Brunei; Malta; Mauritius; Nigeria (colony, 
protectorate, Cameroon under British man- 
date) ; State of Northern Borneo; Northern 
Rhodesia; Nyasaland Protectorate; Palestine 
(excluding Transjordania) ; St. Helena and As- 
cension; Sarawak; Seychelle; Sierra Leone 
(colony and protectorate) ; Somaliland Pro- 
tectorate; Swaziland; Tanganyika Territory; 
Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda Pro- 
tectorate; Windward Isles (Grenada, St. Lucia, 
St. Vincent, Dominica) ; Protectorate of Zan- 
zibar. 

The notification states also that the New 
Hebrides have accepted the Telegraph Eegula- 
tions, the General Radio Regulations, and the 
Additional Radio Regulations (revision of 
Cairo, 1938), that a similar notification will 
be addressed to the Bureau by the French Gov- 
ernment, and that the present notification will 
take effect from the date of receipt by the 
Bureau of the Union of the second of the two 
notifications concerned. 

India 

According to notification No. 341 dated Oc- 
tober 1, 1939, from the Bureau of the Interna- 
tional Telecommunication Union the Bureau 
received on September 19, 1939, the notification 
of the acceptance by India of the revisions of 
the regulations annexed to the International 



Telecommunication Convention of December 9, 
1932, as signed at Cairo on April 4 and 8, 1938. 

Thailand 

According to notification No. 355 dated April 
1, 1940, from the Bureau of tlie International 
Telecomnuuiicatioii Union at Bern the Bureau 
received on June 2, 1939, the notice of the ad- 
herence by Thailand to the International Tele- 
communication Convention signed at Madrid 
on December 9, 1932, and also to the following 
revisions of the regulations annexed to the con- 
vention as adopted at Cairo in 1938: 

General Radio Regulations (revision of Cairo, 

1938) 
Additional Radio Regulations (revision of 

Cairo, 1938) 
Telegraph Regulations (revision of Cairo, 

1938) 
Telephone Regulations (revision of Cairo, 

1938). 

POSTAL 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 

United States 

The American Ambassador to Argentina 
transmitted to the Secretary of State with a 
despatch dated April 18, 1940, a copy and trans- 
lation of a note received from the Foreign Office 
dated April 12, 1940, which states that the in- 
struments of ratification and approval by the 
United States of the Universal Postal Conven- 
tion, the Final Protocol, the Regulations of 
Execution, the Air-mail Regulations, and the 
Protocol relating thereto, signed at Buenos 
Aires on May 23, 1939, were deposited with the 
Argentine Government on February 24, 1940. 

LABOR 

Conventions of the International Labor 
Conference 

Norway 

According to information received from the 
League of Nations in circular letters dated April 
10, 1940, the instruments of ratification by Nor- 
way of the following conventions adopted by 



482 

the International Labor Conference were regis- 
tered with the Secretariat on March 29, 1940: 

Convention Concerning Seamen's Articles of 
Agreement (ninth session, Geneva, June 
7-24, 1926) 

Convention Concerning Statistics of Wages 
and Hours of Work in the Principal Mni- 
ing and Manufacturing Industi-ies, Includ- 
ing Building and Construction, and in Ag- 
riculture (twenty-fourth session, Geneva, 
June 2-22, 1938). 

In regard to the last-named convention, the 
ratification by Norway excludes part III in 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

accordance with the first paragraph of article 2 
of the convention. 



Legislation 



An Act To amend the Act entitled "An Act for the 
grading and classification of clerks in the Foreign 
Service of the United States of America, and providing 
compensation therefor", approved February 23, 1931, 
as amended [making certain amendments in section 
26 (e) of said act, which section deals with annuities 
of retired Foreign Service officers]. (Public, No. 464, 
76th Cong., 3d sess.) 2 pp. 5^. 



N 



tl. S, GOVERN M0KT PR I STING OFFICE. 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OP THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



^^=c^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

MAY II, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 46 — Publication I461 

Qontents 

Europe : 

German invasion of Belgium, Luxemburg, and the 
Netherlands : 

Reports of American Foreign Service officers 485 

Proclamations and regulations concerning neutrality 
of the United States in the war between Germany 
and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands ... 489 
Exchange of correspondence between President Roose- 
velt and King Leopold of Belgium 492 

Executive order regarding property of Belgium, Luxem- 
burg, and the Netherlands in the United States .... 493 

Consular convention with Lithuania 493 

The Far East : 

Maintenance of the ntatus quo of the Netherlands 

Indies: Statement by the Secretary of State .... 493 
The American Republics : 
Eighth American Scientific Congress : 

Address by the President of the United States 494 

United States delegation 496 

General program 497 

The Inter-American Bank 499 

General : 
Liberty, Law, and the War: Address by Joseph E. 

Davies 499 

Treaties and Their Legal Effects: Address by William 

V. Whittington 502 

Commercial Policy : 
Foreign Trade of the United States : Address by Henry 
L. Deimel, Jr 506 

\.Ovcr\ 




Treaty Information: Page 

Arbitration : 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 511 

Kestriction of War : 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of 
the Wounded and the Sick of Armies in the Field 

(Treaty Series No. 847) 511 

Education : 

International Act Concerning Intellectual Coopera- 
tion 511 

Health: 

Convention Modifying the Sanitary Convention of 

June 21, 1926 511 

Aviation : 

Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Re- 
lating to Assistance and Salvage of Aircraft or by 

Aircraft at Sea 512 

Consular : 

Consular Convention with Lithuania 512 

Finance : 
Convention for the Establishment of an Inter- 
American Bank 512 

Postal: 

Universal Postal Convention of 1939 525 

Publications 526 

Ini'ernational Conferences, Commissions, etc. : 

Second Pan American Conference of Commercial 
Agents 526 



Europe 



GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM, LUXEMBURG, AND THE 

NETHERLANDS 

Reports of American Foreign Service OfiBcers 



[Released to the press May 10] 

On the evening of May 9, between 8 : 30 and 9 
p. m., the American Ambassador to Belgium, 
Mr. John Cudahy, telephoned from Brussels to 
the President at the White House stating that 
the Belgian Cabinet was in session and that a 
Belgian official had said that he anticipated that 
there might be trouble before morning. 

At 10 : 50 p. m., eastern standard time, Am- 
bassador Cudahy telephoned Secretary Hull at 
his residence, stating that he was informed by a 
high Belgian official that one German and one 
Luxemburg citizen were reported to have been 
killed in Luxemburg and that heavy German 
air forces were then over Luxemburg and flying 
into Belgium and were also reported over the 
Netherlands. The official stated that there had 
been large concentrations of land forces on all 
three frontiers — Belgium, Luxemburg, and the 
Netherlands — and that the Belgians were ex- 
pecting that the land forces would attack on all 
three fronts at any time, probably at daybreak. 
The Government of Luxemburg had left Lux- 
emburg with the exception of the Foreign 
Minister. 

Following the foregoing telephone conversa- 
tion, Secretary Hull called the President and 
Department officers and left his residence for 
the Department. He was the first to arrive at 
his office (at about 11 p. m., eastern standard 
time) and was followed by Assistant Secretary 
Berle ; Mr. James Clement Dunn, Political Ad- 

231053 — 10 1 



viser; Mr. J. Pierrepont Moifat, Chief of the 
Division of European Affairs; and Assistant 
Secretary Long. Others who reported for duty 
were Mr. Michael J. McDermott, Chief, Divi- 
sion of Current Information; Mr. Cecil W. 
Gray, Assistant to Secretary Hull ; Mr. Hugh S. 
Cumming of the European Division; and Mi'. 
Sheldon Thomas, Assistant Chief, Division of 
Current Information. The Secretaiy immedi- 
ately put in telephone calls for a number of 
European capitals. 

Communications were effected with Brussels 
at about 1 a. m., eastern standard time, when 
Ambassador Cudahy informed Secretary Hull 
that Luxemburg had been invaded by land and 
by air. The Ambassador reported that Ger- 
man planes continued to cross the border and 
were bombing the airport near Brussels. He 
told Secretary Hull that there seemed to be a 
German attack on all three countries — Belgium, 
Luxemburg, and the Netherlands. 

Up to 1 a. m., it had been impossible to reach 
American Ambassador William C. Bullitt in 
Paris by telei)lu)ne or American Minister 
George A. Gordon at The Hague. A call to 
American Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy in 
London was completed shortly after 1 a. m., 
eastern standard time, but at that time he had 
no important information. 

A telegram received at 2 : 50 a. m., eastern 
standard time, from the American Minister to 
the Netherlands, Mr. George A. Gordon, stated 

485 



U. S. SL: NT OF DOCUMENTS 

MAY 25 1940 



486 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



that the Netherlands Foreign Minister had 
informed him that the German Minister had 
paid liim a visit during which he stated that 
the Gennan Government was in possession of 
irrefutable evidence that the Allies were about 
to attack Germany through Belgium, the 
Netherlands, and Luxemburg, and that this 
attack had been long in preparation with the 
knowledge of Belgium and the Netherlands. 
The telegram also stated that according to the 
Netherlands Foreign Minister, Brussels was 
being heavily bombed at that time. 

Minister Gordon at The Hague informed the 
Department by a telegram received at 3 a. m., 
eastern standard time, that the Netherlands 
Foreign Office had informed him that the 
Netherlands Government considered itself to 
be in a state of war with Germany and had 
asked aid from Britain and France; that the 
Netherlands fi-ontier had been crossed by the 
Germans, who had bombed military objectives, 
including the airfield at Waalhaven. Minister 
Gordon stated that Dutch antiaircraft fire 
began at 4 a. m. (Netherlands time) ; and that 
the American commercial attache saw two 
bombs dropped on the outskirts of The Hague. 

The Under Secretary of State, Mr. Sumner 
Welles, arrived at the Department sometime 
after 1 a. m., eastern standard time, and Secre- 
tary Hull left the Department for his resi- 
dence at about 2 a. m. 

In a telephone conversation between Ambas- 
sador Joseph P. Kennedy at London and 
Under Secretary Welles at 3:45 a. m., Am- 
bassador Kennedy reported that he had just 
talked by telephone with Ambassador Cudahy 
in Brussels. Ambassador Cudahy informed 
Ambassador Kennedy that Brussels was 
bombed at about 5:30 a. m. (Brussels time) 
and that a house near the Embassy had been 
hit. 

Ambassador Kennedy stated that the Bel- 
gian Foreign Minister had asked Ambassador 
Cudahy to request the American Government 
to inform the German Government that Brus- 
sels was an open city and that no troops were 
stationed there. Immediately upon receiving 



this request from the Belgian Government, 
through Ambassadors Cudahy and Kennedy, 
Under Secretary Welles communicated the 
message to the German Foreign Office through 
our Embassy in Berlin. 

Telephone communications were effected 
with Paris at 4 a. m., eastern standard time, 
when Ambassador Bullitt informed Under 
Secretary Welles that he had information con- 
firming what Ambassador Cudahy had re- 
ported about the bombing of Brussels and that 
the air attack on Brussels had occurred at 
about 5:15 a. m. (Brussels time). Ambas- 
sador Bullitt also reported that the German 
Government's notification to the Belgian Gov- 
ernment was not delivered by the German 
Minister until 8:40 a. m. (Brussels time). 
(The notification referred to here was to the 
effect that Germany had irrefutable evidence 
that the Allies were about to attack Germany.) 
Ambassador Bullitt also reported that a num- 
ber of towns in France had been bombed by 
the German air forces. 

In a telephone conversation from The Hague 
at 4 : 25 a. m., Minister Gordon informed Under 
Secretary Welles that all Americans in The 
Hague district had been brought in and were 
safe except one family on the outskirts; and 
that the military attache had gone to bring in 
this family. Minister Gordon also reported 
that in telephone calls to the consulates gen- 
eral at Amsterdam and Rotterdam about an 
hour earlier, all Americans in those consular 
districts were believed to be safe. During this 
conversation. Minister Gordon told Mr. Welles 
that the antiaircraft and machine-gun fire was 
so loud that he could hardly hear himself talk. 

Consul General Frank C. Lee at Amsterdam 
called Mr. Welles at 4 : 35 a. m., eastern stand- 
ard time, and said that the Americans in the 
Amsterdam consular district were all believed 
safe and that because of the closing of the bor- 
ders he had advised the Americans to sit tight 
and keep in touch with the consulate general. 
Mr. Lee reported that while Amsterdam was 
quiet, he had heard that there was firing going 
on in the streets of Rotterdam. 



MAY 11, 1940 

[Released to the press May 10] 

Ambassador John Cudahy in Brussels tele- 
phoned Ambassador William C. Bullitt at 
Paris at 11:15 a. m. (Brussels time), May 10, 
and informed him that the German forces had 
already overrun the whole of Luxemburg and 
the whole of Limburg. There was heavy fight- 
ing in the Ardennes. Ambassador Cudahy 
added that he had almost been knocked down 
by the force of a bomb which fell 300 feet from 
the American Embassy and that one of his 
ears had been deafened by it and was still deaf. 
A number of windows in the Embassy had been 
shattered. 

The American Minister to the Netherlands, 
Mr. George A. Gordon, reported at 6 a. m. 
(Netherlands time) that he had been informed 
by officials that German ground forces had at- 
tacked along the entire eastern frontier. Ger- 
man air forces bombed all airports; parachute 
troops had attempted to land near Delft. From 
the chancery of the Legation, three planes had 
been seen shot down within the hour. One of 
them crashed within a few hundred yards of 
the chancery. Mr. Gordon reported at noon 
(Netherlands time) that bombs had been 
dropped right in The Hague. TMiile he was 
at the Foreign Office, one fell just behind it, and 
another falling near the General Staff Head- 
quarters shattered windows in the Legation, 
which is in that immediate vicinity. 

Ambassador Cudahy. in Brussels, telephoned 
Ambassador Bullitt in Paris at 8 : -45 a. m., May 
10. He said that without presenting any note 
and without giving any warning, a large fleet 
of German bombers had bombed Brussels at 
5 : 15 that morning. One of the bombs had 
dropped 300 feet from the American Embassy, 
which is in the residential quarter of the city. 
Ambassador Cudahy said that he had called 
on the Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs at 
6 o'clock the same morning. The Belgian Min- 
ister said that he had received no ultimatum 
of any kind from Germany. The German Am- 
bassador in Brussels had not yet called on the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Ambassador Cudahy said that he had been 
talking with Luxemburg at 2 o'clock the morn- 



487 

ing of May 10 and had been informed that the 
Germans had fired across the Luxemburg fron- 
tier and that the Luxemburg Government ex- 
pected a German invasion at any minute. His 
telephone connection had been cut off, and he 
had been unable to reestablish communications 
with Luxemburg. Ambassador Cudahy had 
received information that German forces had 
invaded the Netherlands without warning at 
i o'clock the morning of May 10. He had also 
received unofficial information that there was 
heavy fighting m progress on the Meuse and 
the Canal Albert. 

[Released to the press May 10] 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, reported to the Department of 
State on the morning of May 10 that he has 
canceled his leave of absence and returned to 
Berlin to resume charge. 

The Department of State early the same 
mornmg instructed the American Embassy at 
Berlin to convey the following message imme- 
diately to the Foreign Office: "The Department 
of State is informed that the Belgian Govern- 
ment has requested this Government, through 
the American Embassy in Brussels, to inform 
the German Government that the city of 
Brussels is an open city and that no troops 
are situated there." 

The American Charge in Berlin reported 
to the Department at 5 p. m. (German time), 
May 10, that a copy of the message was handed 
to L"'^nder State Secretary Woermaim at the 
Foreign Office, who said that he would place 
it unmediately before the Foreign Minister. 
A note verbale containing the substance of the 
telegram had also been forwarded to the 
Foreign Office. 

Ambassador Bullitt reported from Paris at 
3 p. m. (Paris time). May 10, that the air- 
dromes at Chartres and Lyon had been bombed 
by the Germans, and the town of Pontoise also 
had been bombed. 

According to information he had received, 
the Luxemburg frontier was encircled by 
German troops who landed from airplanes by 
parachutes. 



488 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Ambassador Cudahy reported from Brussels 
at 11 a. m. (Brussels time), May 10, that he 
had received a memorandum from the Foreign 
Minister with the information that it had been 
put in the hands of the German Ambassador 
in Brussels at the Belgian Foreign Office at 
8 : 40 a. m. The memorandum in translation 
reads : "The Belgian Government declares that 
Brussels is an open city, that there are no 
troops stationed in the city, and none will pass 
through it." 

Ambassador Bullitt reported from Paris 
that American Consul James G. Carter had 
reported from Calais, France, that a German 
air attack had been made on that town be- 
ginning at 3:55 a. m. (Paris time). May 10, 
and that the German planes circled over the 
city. It was believed that 7 bombs were 
dropped and that 10 people were killed and 
an unknown number wounded. 

Ambassador Bullitt reported at noon 
(French time). May 10, that he was informed 
by authoritative Swiss sources that in the early 
hours of the morning, a German plane dropped 
bombs in Swiss territory on the main railway 
line, which connects France and Switzerland, 
at Courrendlin at a point close to one of the 
main tunnels in the Jura Mountains. The 
railroad line was partly destroyed, and traffic 
has been interrupted. A responsible Swiss 
official expressed the opinion that this bomb 
might have been dropped by mistake on Swiss 
territory. 

The American Minister to the Netherlands, 
Mr. George A. Gordon, cabled at 10 a. m., May 
10, that he was glad to report that the Legation 
had managed to get four American families 
living in Wassenaar into town and that fight- 
ing in that district had not yet materialized. 

The American consul at Curasao, Mr. John 
F. Huddleston, has informed the Department 



that this morning martial law was declared in 
Curasao. There are seven German merchant 
vessels in port, the crews of which are being 
held. 

[Released to the press May 11] 

The American consul at Bergen, Mr. Maurice 
P. Dunlap, has informed the Legation at Oslo, 
Norway, that all Americans, including those 
married to Norwegians in Bergen and sur- 
rounding districts, are well. This is the first 
direct communication our people at Oslo have 
had with our people at Bergen. 

The American consul at Antwerp, Mr. Louis 
Sussdorff, Jr., has been informed that build- 
ings of the Ford Company plant in Antwerp 
were hit by three small bombs launched from 
a German airplane at 2 : 30 the afternoon of 
May 10. No Americans were hurt but four 
Belgian employees were wounded. The dam- 
age to the plant was principally broken glass. 
The Ford Company is in proximity to the Gen- 
eral Motors plant. 

Ambassador Cudahy reported late the night 
of May 10 that throughout the day German 
airplanes had flown over Brussels from time 
to time and had dropped many incendiary 
bombs without starting any serious fires. 

Mr. Leland Harrison, the American Minister 
to Switzerland, reported that on May 10 there 
were numerous violations of Swiss territory by 
German airplanes. The German planes were 
reported to have dropped 17 bombs in Switzer- 
land near Courrendlin between Dellemont and 
Moutier at 5 : 20 a. m., May 10. 

Ambassador Gordon reported that further 
bombs were dropped in The Hague the after- 
noon of May 10. 

At Paramaribo, Surinam (Dutch Guiana), 
the German ship Goslar was scuttled. All 
German citizens at Paramaribo were interned. 



MAY 11, 1940 



489 

Proclamations and Regulations Concerning Neutrality of the United States in the War 
Between Germany and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands 



[Released to the press May 11] 

PBOCIiAMATIOlSr OF A StATB OF W.VR BeTAVEEN 

Germany, on the One Hand, and Bei/}ium. 
Luxemburg, and the Netherlands, on the 
Other Hand 

BT THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Pi'oclaraation 

Whereas section 1 of the joint resolution of 
Congress appi'oved November 4, 1939, provides 
in part as follows : 

"That whenever the President, or the Con- 
gi-ess by concurrent resolution, shall find that 
there exists a state of war between foreign 
states, and that it is necessary to promote the 
security or preserve the peace of the United 
States or to protect the lives of citizens of the 
United States, the President shall issue a procla- 
mation naming the states involved ; and he shall, 
from time to time, by proclamation, name other 
states as and when they may become involved 
in the war." 

And whereas it is further provided by section 
13 of the said joint resolution that 

"The President may, from time to time, pro- 
mulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and proper 
to carry out any of the provisions of this joint 
resolution; and he may exercise any power or 
authority conferred on him by this joint reso- 
lution through such officer or officers, or agency 
or agencies, as he shall direct." 

Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. RoOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority con- 
ferred on me by the said joint resolution, do 



hereby proclaim that a state of war unhappily 
exists between Germany, on the one hand, and 
Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands, on 
the other hand, and that it is necessary to pro- 
mote the security and preserve the peace of the 
United States and to protect the lives of citizens 
of the United States. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in 
preventing violations of the said joint resolu- 
tion and in bringing to trial and punislmient 
any offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power or 
authority conferred on me by the said joint 
resolution, as made effective by this ray procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not spe- 
cifically delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regu- 
lations not inconsistent with law as may be 
necessary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the Seal of the United 
States of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 

eleventh day of May, in the year of our Lord 

nineteen hundred and forty, and of 

[seal] the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred 
and sixty-fourth. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

By the President: 
CoRDELL Hull, 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2404] 



490 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Released to the press May 11] 

Proclaiming the Nedtralitt of the United 
States in the War Between Germant, on 
THE One Hand, and Belgium, Luxemburg, 
and THE Netherlands, on the Other Hand 

BT THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas a state of war unhappily exists be- 
tween Germany, on the one hand, and Belgium, 
Luxemburg, and the Netherlands, on the other 
hand; 

Now, THEREFORE, 1, FRANKLIN D. EoOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, in 
order to preserve the neutrality of the United 
States and of its citizens and of persons within 
its territory and jurisdiction, and to enforce 
its laws and treaties, and in order that all per- 
sons, being warned of the general tenor of the 
laws and treaties of the United States in this 
behalf, and of the law of nations, may thus be 
prevented from any violation of the same, do 
hereby declare and proclaim that all of the 
provisions of my proclamation of September 
5, 1939, proclaiming the neutrality of the 
United States in a war between Germany and 
France; Poland; and the United Kingdom, 
India, Australia and New Zealand apply 
equally in respect to Belgium, Luxemburg, and 
the Netherlands. 

In witness avhereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the Seal of the United 
States of America to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this elev- 
enth day of May, in the year of our Lord 
nineteen hundred and forty, and of 

[seal] the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred 
and sixty-fourth. 

Franklin D. Koosevelt 

By the President : 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2405] 



[Released to the press May 11] 

Use of Ports or Territorial Waters of the 
United States by Submarines of Foreign 
Belligerent States 

BY the president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas section 11 of the Joint Kesolution 
approved November 4, 1939, provides : 

"Whenever, during any war in which the 
United States is neutral, the President shall 
find that special restrictions placed on the use 
of the ports and territorial waters of the 
United States by the submarines or armed mer- 
chant vessels of a foreign state, will serve to 
maintain peace between the United States and 
foreign states, or to protect the commercial 
interests of the United States and its citizens, 
or to promote the security of the United States, 
and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall 
thereafter be unlawful for any such submarine 
or armed merchant vessel to enter a port or the 
territorial waters of the United States or to 
depart therefrom, except under such conditions 
and subject to such limitations as the President 
may prescribe. Whenever, in his judgment, 
the conditions which have caused him to issue 
his proclamation have ceased to exist, he shall 
revoke his proclamation and the provisions of 
this section shall thereupon cease to apply, ex- 
cept as to offenses committed prior to such 
revocation." 

Whereas there exists a state of war between 
Germany on the one hand and Belgium and the 
Netherlands on the other hand ; 

Whereas the United States of America is 
neutral in such war; 

Whereas by my proclamation of November 
4, 1939, issued pursuant to the provision of law 
quoted above, I placed special restrictions on 
the use of ports and territorial waters of the 
United States by the submarines of France; 
Germany; Poland; and the United Kingdom, 
India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and 
the Union of South Africa; 



MAY 11, 1940 



491 



Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. RoOSEVTLT, 

President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority vested 
in me by the foregoing provision of section 11 
of the Joint Resolution approved November 4, 
1939, do by this proclamation declare and pro- 
claim that the provisions of my proclamation of 
November 4, 1939, in regard to the use of the 
ports and territorial waters of the United 
States, exclusive of the Canal Zone, by the 
submarines of France ; Germany ; Poland ; and 
the United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa, 
shall also apjjly to the use of the ports and ter- 
ritorial waters of the United States, exclusive 
of the Canal Zone, by the submarines of Bel- 
gium and the Netherlands. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in pi-e- 
venting violations of the said Joint Resolution, 
and this my proclamation issued thereunder, 
and in bringing to trial and punishment any 
offenders against the same. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and cavised the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the Cit j' of AVashington this eleventh 

day of May, in the year of our Lord nineteen 

hundred and foi'ty, and of the 

[seal] Independence of the United States 
of America the one hundred and 
sixty-fourth. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

By the President: 
CoEDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2406] 

[Released to the press May 11] 

ExEcxnrvE Order 

Prescribing Regulations Governing the En- 
forcement of the Neutrality of the United 
States 

Whereas, under the treaties of the United 
States and the law of nations it is the duty of 
the United States, in any war in which the 

2.il053 — iO 2 



United States is a neutral, not to permit the 
commission of unneutral acts within the juris- 
diction of the United States; 

And whereas, a proclamation was issued by 
me on tlie eleventh day of May declaring the 
neutrality of the United States of America in 
the war now existing between Germany, on the 
one hand, and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the 
Netlierlands, on the other hand: 

Now, therefore, in order to make more effec- 
tive the enforcement of the provisions of said 
treaties, law of nations, and proclamation, I 
hereby prescribe that the provisions of my 
Executive Order No. 8233 of September 5, 1939, 
prescribing regulations governing the enfoi-ce- 
ment of the neutrality of the United States, 
apply equally in respect to Belgium, Luxem- 
burg, and tlie Netherlands. 

Franklin D. Roosevei-t 

The White House 
May 11, 1940. 

[No. 840G] 

The following regulations have been codified 
under Title 22: Foreign Relations; Chapter I: 
Department of State; and Subchapter A: The 
Department, in accordance with the requii'e- 
ments of the Federal Register and the Code of 
Federal Regulations: 

Part 12 — Commerce With States Engaged in 
Armed Conflict 

§ 12.1 Exportation or transportation of arti- 
cles or materials — (g) Belgimn, Luxemburg, 
and the Netherlands. The regulations under 
section 2 (c) and (i) of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, which 
the Secretary of State promulgated on Novem- 
ber 10 (22 CFR 12.1 (a)-(d))i and November 
25 (22 CFR 12.1 (e)),= 1939, henceforth apply 
equally in respect to the export or transport of 
articles and materials to Belgium, Luxemburg, 



' Ilegulations (l)-(4) in "Regulations under section 
2 (c) and (1) of the joint resolution of ('ongiess ai>- 
proved November 4, 1039." which were published In 
the Federal Reyister of November IG, 19H9 (4 F. K. 
4598 Dl), have been designated as 22 CFR 12.1 (a)- 
(d). 

'Regulation (5) (4 F. R. 4701 DI) has been desig- 
nated as 22 CFR 12.1 (e). 



492 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and the Netherlands. (Sees. 2 (c), (i), Public 
Res. 54, 76th Cong., 2d sess., approved Nov. 4, 
1939 ; Proc. No. 2404, May 11, 1940) 

CoRDELL Hull, 
Secretary of State. 
May 11, 1940. 

Part 40 — Solicitation and Collection of 
Contributions for Use in Certain Coun- 
tries 

§ 40.18 Contributions for use in Belgvwm, 
Lmcemhurg, and the Netherlands. The rules 
and regulations (22 CFR 40.1-16) under sec- 
tion 8 of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November 4, 1939, which the Secre- 
tary of State promulgated on November 6, 
1939,' henceforth apply equally to the solicita- 
tion and collection of contributions for use in 
Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands. 
(Sec. 8, Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 2d sess., 
approved Nov. 4, 1939; Proc. No. 2404, May 
11, 1940) 

CoKDELL Hull, 

Secretary of State. 

Mat 11, 1940. 

Part 55C— Travel 

Pursuant to the provisions of section 5 of 
the joint resolution of Congress, approved No- 
\ ember 4, 1939, and of the President's procla- 
mation of April 10, 1940, the regulations in 22 
CFR 55C.1 and 55C.2 of November 6, 1939,* 
as amended November 17, 1939,^ and April 25, 
1940," are hereby amended to read as follows: 

§ 55C.1 American diplomatic, consular, mili- 
tary, and naval officers. American diplomatic 
and consular officers and their families, mem- 
bers of their staffs and their families, and 
American military and naval officers and per- 
sonnel and their families may travel pursuant 



' 4 F. R. 4510 DI. 
* 4 F. R. 4.509. 
"4 F. R. 4640. 
° 5 F. R. 1597. 



to orders on vessels of France; Gennany; Po- 
land; or the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 
tralia, Canada, New Zealand, the Union oi 
South Africa; Norway; Belgium; and the 
Netherlands, if the public service requires. 
(Sec. 5, Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 2d sess., 
approved Nov. 4, 1939; Proc. No. 2404, May 
11, 1940) 

§ 55C.2 Other American citizens. Other 
American citizens may travel on vessels of 
France; Germany; Poland; or the United 
Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, the Union of South Africa; Norway; 
Belgium ; and the Netherlands : Provided, how- 
ever. That travel on or over the north Atlantic 
Ocean, north of 35 degrees north latitude and 
east of 66 degrees west longitude or on or over 
other waters adjacent to Europe or over the 
continent of Europe or adjacent islands shall 
not be permitted except when specifically 
authorized by the Passport Division of the 
Department of State or an American diplo- 
matic or consular officer abroad in each case. 
(Sec. 5, Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 2d sess., 
approved Nov. 4, 1939; Proc. No. 2404, May 

II, 1940) 

Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State. 
May 11, 1940. 

Exchange of Correspondence Between 
President Roosevelt and King Leopold 
of Belgium 

[Released to the press May 11] 

Following is an exchange of telegrams be- 
tween the President and His Majesty Leopold 

III, King of the Belgians : 

"Brutally attacked by Germany which had 
entered into the most solemn engagements with 
her, Belgium will defend herself with all of 
her strength against the invader. In these 
tragic hours which my country is undergoing, 
I am addressing myself to Your Excellency, 
who so often has demonstrated towards 



MAY 11, 1940 



493 



Belgium an affectionate interest, in the cer- 
tainty that you will support with all of your 
moral authority the efforts which we are now 
firmly decided to make in order to preserve 
our independence. 

Leopold" 



"The White House, 

May 11, 19!fi. 
"I have received Your Majesty's telegram. 
As I stated in an address which I delivered 
last night to representatives of the twenty- 
one American Republics, the cruel invasion by 
force of arms of the independent nations of 
Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg has 
shocked and angered the people of the United 
States and, I feel sure, their neighbors in the 
Western Hemisphere. The people of the 
United States hope, as do I, that policies 
which seek to dominate peaceful and inde- 
pendent peoples through force and military 
aggression may be arrested, and that the Gov- 
ernment and people of Belgium may preserve 
their integrity and their freedom. As an old 
personal friend I send you my warm personal 
legards. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



EXECUTIVE ORDER REGARDING 
PROPERTY OF BELGIUM, LUXEM- 
BURG, AND THE NETHERLANDS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

On May 10, 1940, the President signed Exec- 
utive Order No. 8405 prohibiting certain trans- 
actions in foreign e.xchange, transfers of credit, 
and export of coin and currency which involve 
property in M-hich Belgium. Luxemburg, and 
the Netherlands on or since May 10, 1940. have 
had any interest whatsoever. An Executive or- 
der [No. 8389] of April 10. 1940, made the same 
prohibitions in behalf of Norway and Den- 
mark. The text of Executive Order No. 8405 
appears in the Federal Register for May 11, 
1940 (Vol. 5, No. 93), pages 1G77-1678. 'The 
regulations of the Treasury Department issued 
on May 10, 1940, under authority of this order, 
appear in the same issue of the Federal Reg- 
ister, pages 1680-1682. 

■♦■ -f -f 

CONSULAR CONVENTION WITH 
LITHUANIA 

An announcement regarding the signing on 
May 10, 1940, of a consular convention with 
Lithuania, appears in this BuUetin under the 
heading "Treaty Information." 



The Far East 



MAINTENANCE OF THE "STATUS QUO" OF THE NETHERLANDS INDIES 

Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press May 11] 

In response to inquiries by correspondents 
concerning press reports from Tokyo relative 
to the status quo of the Netherlands East 
Indies, the Secretary of State made the follow- 
ing statement : 

"I have no full report about the matter re- 
ferred to in the press despatches from Tokyo. 
During recent weeks a number of governments. 



including Great Britain, Japan, and the 
United States, have made clear in ollicial public 
utterances their attitude of continued respect 
for the status quo of the Netherlands East 
Indies. This was in harmony with definite 
commitments formally made in writing in 
1922. This Government assumes that each of 
the governments which has made commitments 



494 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



will continue to abide by those commitments. 
On April 17, 1940, in a public statement, I 
said: 

" 'Intervention in the domestic affairs of the 
Netherlands Indies or any alteration of their 
status qwo by other than peaceful processes 
would be prejudicial to the cause of stability, 
peace, and security not only in the region of 



the Netherlands Indies but in the entire Pacific 



area. 



"In view of these facts, commitments and ex- 
pressions of intention to respect the status quo 
of the Netherlands East Indies cannot be, too 
often reiterated." 



'See the Bulletin of April 20, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 
43), p. 41L 



The American Republics 



EIGHTH AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS 

Address by the President of the United States 



(Released to the press by the White House May 10] 

Fellow Servants of the Americas : 

All of the men and women of this Pan 
American Scientific Congress have come here 
tonight with heavy hearts. During the past 
few years we have seen event follow event, 
each and every one of them a shock to our 
hopes for the peaceful development of modern 
civilization. This very day three more inde- 
pendent nations have been cruelly invaded by 
force of arms. 

In some human affairs the mind of man 
grows accustomed to unusual actions if they 
are oft repeated. That is not so in the world 
happenings of today — and I am proud that it 
is not so. I am glad that we are shocked and 
angered by the tragic news from Belgium and 
the Netherliuids and Luxemburg. 

The overwhelmingly greater part of the 
population of the world abhors conquest and 
war and bloodshed — prays that the hand of 
neighbor shall not be lifted against neighbor. 
The whole world has seen attack follow threat 
on so many occasions and in so many places 
during these later years. We have come, there- 
fore, to the reluctant conclusion that a con- 
tinuance of these processes of arms presents a 
definite challenge to the continuation of the 
type of civilization to which all of us in the 
three Americas have been accustomed. 



I use this Pan American Scientific Congress 
as one of many similar illustrations. It is no 
accident that this meeting takes place in the 
New World. In fact, this hemisphere is now 
almost the only part of the earth in which such 
a gathering can take place. Elsewhere war or 
politics has compelled teachers and scholars to 
leave their great calling and to become agents 
of destruction. 

We, and most people in the world, believe in 
a civilization of construction and not of de- 
struction. We, and most people in the world, 
believe that men and women have an inherent 
right to hew t)ut the patterns of their own 
individual lives, just so long as they as indi- 
viduals do not harm their fellow beings. We 
call this by many synonymous terms — indi- 
vidual liberty, civil liberty, democTacy. 

Until now we permit ourselves by common 
consent to search for truth, to teach the truth 
as we see it — and by learning a little here and 
a little there, and teaching a little here and a 
little there to allow the normal processes of 
truth to keep growing for the well-being of our 
fellow men. In our search and in our teach- 
ing we are a part of a great adventure — an 
exciting adventure — which gives to us a larger 
satisfaction even than did the adventure of 
settling the Americas give to our Founding 
Fathers. We feel that we are building human 



MAY 11, 1940 



495 



progress by conquering disease and poverty and 
discomfort, and by improving science and 
culture, removing one by one the cruelty, the 
crudity, and the barbarism of less civilized 
eras. 

In contrast, in other parts of the world, 
teachers and scholars are not permitted to 
search for truth lest the truth when made 
known might not suit the designs of their 
masters. Too often they are not allowed to 
teach the truth as they see it, for truth might 
make men free. They become objects of 
suspicion if they speak openly, if they show an 
interest in new truth, for their very tongues 
and minds are supposed to be mobilized for 
other ends. 

This has not hapj^ened in the New World. 
God willing, it shall not happen in the New 
World. 

At the pan-American conference at Buenos 
Aires, and again at Lima, we discussed a dim 
and unpleasant possibility. We feared that 
other continents might become so' involved in 
wars brought on by the school of destruction 
that the Americas might have to become the 
guardian of western culture, the protector of 
Christian civilization. 

In those days it was merely a fear. Today 
the fear has become a fact. 

The inheritance which we had hoped to share 
with every nation in the world is, for the 
moment, left largely in our keeping; and it is 
our compelling duty to guard and enrich that 
legacy, to preserve it for a world wliich must 
be reborn from the ashes of the present disaster. 

Today we know that until recent weeks too 
many citizens of the American republics be- 
lieved themselves wholly safe — physically and 
economically and socially — from the impact of 
the attacks on civilization which are in prog- 
ress elsewhere. Perhaps this mistaken idea 
was based on the false teaching of geography — 
the thought that a distance of several 
thousand miles from a war-torn Europe gave 
to us some form of mystic immunity which 
could never be violated. 

Yet, speaking in terms of timetables, in 
terms of the moving of men and gims and 



planes and bombs, every acre — every hectare — 
of the Americas from the Arctic to the Ant- 
arctic is closer to the homes of modern con- 
querors and the scenes of attacks in Europe 
than was the case in historic efforts to domi- 
nate the world in bygone centuries. From the 
point of view of concjuests, it is a shorter dis- 
tance from the center of Europe to Santiago 
dp Chile tlian it was for the chariots of Alex- 
ander to I'oU from Macedonia to Persia. In 
modem terms it is a shorter distance from 
Europe to San Francisco than it was for the 
ships and legions of Caesar to move from 
Rome to Spain or Britain. Today it is 4 or 
.") hours froui the Continent of Africa to the 
Continent of South America, where it was 4 
or 5 weeks for the armies of Napoleon to move 
from Paris to Rome or Paris to Poland. 

You who are scientists may be told that you 
are respcjnsible because of the processes of in- 
vention for the annihilation of time and space, 
but I assure you that it is not the scientists of 
the world who are responsible, because the 
objectives which you have had have looked 
toward closer and more peaceful relations be- 
tween all nations through the spirit of coopera- 
tion and the interchange of knowledge. What 
has come about has been caused solely by those 
\\ho would use, and are using, your inventions 
of peace in a wholly different cause — those who 
stek to dominate hundreds of millions of peo- 
ple in A^ast continental areas — those who. if 
successful in that aim will, we must now admit, 
enlarge their wild dream to encompass every 
human being and every mile of the earth's 
surface. 

The great achievements of science and even 
of art can be used to destroy as well as create; 
they are only instruments by which men try to 
do the things they most want to do. If death 
is desired, science can do that. If a full life is 
sought, science can do that also. Happily for 
us that question is solved — for in the New 
World we live for each other and in the service 
of a Christian faith. 

Is this solution — our solution — permanent or 
safe if it is solved for us alone ? That it seems 
to me is the most immediate i.ssue that the 



496 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



Americas face. Can we continue our peaceful 
construction if all the other continents embrace 
by preference or by compulsion a wholly dif- 
ferent principle of life? 

Surely it is time for our republics to spread 
that problem before us in the cold light of day, 
to analyze it, to ask questions, to demand 
answers, to use every knowledge, every science 
we possess, to apply common sense, and espe- 



cially to act with unanimity and singleness of 
purpose. 

1 am a pacifist. You, my fellow citizens of 
21 American republics, are pacifists. 

But I believe that by overwhelming ma- 
jorities you and I, in the long run and if it be 
necessary, will act together to protect and de- 
fend by every means our science, our culture, 
our freedom, and our civilization. 



United States Delegation 



[Released to the press May 6] 

The President has approved the designation 
of the following officers and members of the 
United States delegation to the Eighth Ameri- 
can Scientific Congress, which will be held in 
Washington from May 10 to 18, 1940 : 

Chairman: 
The Honorable Sumner Welles, Under Secre- 
tary of State; teniporary president of the 
Congress 

Vice chairmen: 
Dr. Frank B. Jewett, President, National 

Academy of Sciences 
Dr. Roland S. Morris, President, American 
Philosophical Society 

Delegates : 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution 

Dr. Hugh H. Bennett, Chief, Soil Conserva- 
tion Service, Department of Agriculture 

Dr. Isaiah Bowman, President, Johns Hop- 
kins University 

Dr. Lyman J. Briggs, Director, National 
Bureau of Standards 

Dr. Vannevar Bush, President, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington 

Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, President, 
Columbia University 

Dr. Ben M. Cherrington, Chief, Division of 
Cultural Relations, Department of State 

Dr. Edwin G. Conklin, Emeritus Professor 
of Zoology, Princeton University; Execu- 
tive Officer, American Philosophical 
Society 

Dr. Edwin D. Dickinson, Dean of the School 
of Jurisprudence, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley, Calif. 



Mr. Laurence Duggan, Chief, Division of 
the American Republics, Department of 
State 

Dr. Simon Flexner, Emeritus Director of 
Laboratories, Rockefeller Institute for 
Medical Research, New York, N. Y. 

Dr. Raymond B. Fosdick, President, Rocke- 
feller Foundation 

Mr. Green H. Hackworth, Legal Adviser, 
Departinent of State 

Dr. Clarence H. Haring, Professor of Latin 
American History and Economics, Har- 
vard University 

Dr. Ross G. Harrison, Chairman, National 
Research Council 

Dr. Preston E. James, University of Michi- 
gan; Secretary of the Association of 
American Geographers 

Dr. Warren Kelclmer, Chief, Division of In- 
ternational Conferences, Department of 
State; executive vice president of the 
Congress 

Dr. Waldo G. Leland, Director, American 
Council of Learned Societies 

Dr. Frank R. Lillie, Emeritus Professor of 
Embryology, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, lU. 

Dr. Leo Loeb, Emeritus Professor of Pa- 
thology, Washington University, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

The Reverend James Bernard Macelwane, 
S. J., Professor of Geophysics and Di- 
rector of Department, St. Louis Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Archibald MacLeish, Librarian of Con- 
gress 

Dr. Harold G. Moulton, President of the 
Brookings Institution 

Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, 
United States Public Health Service 



MAY 11, 1940 



497 



Dr. Stuart A. Rice, Chairman of the Central 
Statistical Board 

Dr. James Brown Scott, Trustee and Secre- 
tary, Carnegie Endowment for Interna- 
tional Peace 

Dr. Herbert J. Spinden, Curator, Division 
of American Indian Art and Primitive 
Cultures, Brooklyn Museum 

Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, President of the 
Geological Society of America, 1939 

Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secre- 
tary, Smithsonian Institution; secretary 
ge7ieral of the Congress. 

[Released to the press May 6] 

Mr. Michael J. McDermott, Chief of the 
Division of Current Information of the De- 
partment of State, has been designated as 
Public Relations Director of the Eighth 
American Scientific Congress, which will be 



held in Washington from May 10 to 18, 1940. 
Mr. McDermott will have charge of the dis- 
semination of general information concerning 
the Congress and of arrangements for radio 
broadcasts. 

Mr. Austin H. Clark, Curator of Echi- 
noderms of the Smithsonian Institution, has 
been designated as Press Relations Officer of 
the Congi-ess and will supervise the assembling 
and distribution among science writers of in- 
formation concerning the technical work of the 
several sections of the Congress. 

Detailed information concerning the Con- 
gress will be available to the representatives of 
the press at the Division of Current Informa- 
tion of the Department of State and at the 
office of the Press Relations Officer, Room 94, 
Department of State Building. 



General Program 



[Released to the press May 6] 

Wednesday, Mat 8 
All day: 
Registration — Pan American Building 

Thursday, May 9 

All day: 

Registration continued 

Friday, ISIay 10 

Morning : 

Registration continued 
Afternoon: 

Registration continued and meetings of some 
of the Sections 
Evening : 

Formal inaugural session — Constitution Hall 
Music — Marine Orchestra 
Presentation of the flags 
Address by the Pi"esident of the United 

States 
National anthem 

Saturday, May 11 
Morning: 
9:30 — Organization of Sections and Section 

meetings 
12:00 — Meeting of chairmen of official dele- 
gations — Pan American Building 



Afternoon: 
3:00 — Leave Pan American Building for 

Mount Vernon 
6:00 — Return to Pan American Building 
Evening: 
9:00 — Official reception by the Secretary of 
State and Mrs. Hull — Pan American 
Building 

Suxd.\y, Mat 12 
All day: 
9:30 a. m,. — Leave Pan American Building 
for Luray Caverns, Luray, Va. ; lunch- 
eon at Luray; return via Skyline Drive 
6: 00 p. m. — Arrive at Pan American Build- 
ing 

Monday, Mat 13 
Morning: 

11:00 — First plenary session — Pan Ameri- 
can Building 
Address of welcome by the Honorable Cor- 

dell Hull, Secretary of State 
Responses on behalf of delegations 
Address by the Honorable L. S. Rowe, 
Director General of the Pan American 
Union 
Election of permanent president 
Announcements by secretary general 



498 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Afternoon: 

1:00 — Official luncheon — Mayflower Hotel 

1i:30 — Section meetings 
Evening : 

Open 

Tuesday, Mat 14 
Moi'ning: 

9:30 — Section meetings 
Afternoon: 

2: 30 — Section meetings or tours by Sections 
Evening: 
0:00 — Special concert — NBC Symphony 
Orchestra, Arturoi Toscanini conduct- 
ing — Constitution Hall (through the 
courtesy of the Radio Corporation of 
America and the National Broadcasting 
Co.) 

Wednesday, May 15 
Morning : 

9:30 — Section meetings 
Afternoon: 
2:30 — Section meetings 
5:00-7:00 — Garden party by Assistant Sec- 
retary of State and Mrs. Adolf A. Berle, 
Jr.— "Woodley," 3000 Cathedral Ave- 
nue 
Evening: 
Open 

Thursday, May 16 
Morning: 

9:30 — Section meetings 
Afternoon: 

2:30 — Section meetings 
5:00-6:30 — Visit to gardens of the Honor- 
able Robert Woods Bliss and Mrs. 
Bliss— "Dumbarton Oaks," 3101 R Street 
Evening: 

5;6'0— Official banquet— Mayflower Hotel 

Friday, May 17 
Morning: 

9:30 — Section meetings 
Afternoon: 

3:00 — Final plenary session — Pan American 
Building 
Report of Resolutions Committee 
Addres.s on behalf of delegates 
Farewell address by President of the 
Congress 
Evening: 

7:00— 1jC^\& Norfolk and Washington 
Steamship Co. pier, Seventh Street and 



Maine Avenue, SW., by steamer for 
Old Point Comfort, Va. 

Saturday, Mat 18 
Morning : 
8:00— AxviYQ Old Point Comfort, Va., for 
breakfast. Visit to Yorktown and in- 
spection of restoration of Colonial 
Williamsburg 
Afternoon: 

1: 00 — Luncheon 

If.: 00 — Reception and tea at College of Wil- 
liam and Mary 
Evening: 

6: 30 — Dinner, New Chamberlain Hotel, Old 

Point Comfort, Va. 
8:00 — Depart for Washington, via same 
steamer 

Sunday, May 19 
Morning: 
8:00 — ^Arrive in Washington. 

Monday, May 20 
Morning: 

0:06 (eastern standard time) — Depart for 
Philadelphia by special Pennsylvania 
Railroad train from Union Station 

12:35 (daylight saving time) — Arrive Phil- 
adelphia — Broad Street Station 
Afternoon: 

1:00 (daylight saving time) — Luncheon — 
the delegates from the other American 
republics will be the guests of the 
American Philosophical Society 
Reception and visits to places of in- 
terest 

5:30 (daylight saving time) — Depart for 
New York by siJecial train from Thir- 
tieth Street Station 

7:05 (daylight saving time) — Arrive at New 
York — Pennsylvania Station 

Tuesday, May 21 

Eiglith American Scientific Congress 
Day at the New York World's Fair. 
The delegates from the other Amer- 
ican republics will be the guests of 
the Fair tln'oughout the entire day. 
Mojming: 

10:30 — Assemble at Hotel New Yorker, 
Eighth Avenue and Thirty-fourth Street 

11:00 — Depart on special Long Island Rail- 
road train from Pennsylvania Station 



MAY 11, 1940 

11:15 — Arrive at Ne^sv York World's Fair. 
Tour of the grounds, luncheon, special 
tours of scientific interest, reception, 
dinner, and evening entertainment 
Evening: 

11:30 — Depart on special Long Island Rail- 
road train 

ii ; 4<5— Arrive at Pennsylvania Station. 



499 

THE INTER-AMERICAN BANK 

An announcement regarding the signing of 
the Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank, together with the text 
of the Convention, appears in this Bulletin 
under the heading "Treaty Information." 



General 



LIBERTY, LAW, AND THE WAR 

Address by Joseph E. Dalies ' 



[Released to the press May 5] 

It is a great pleasure to be here for the dedi- 
cation of the law library at my old Alma 
Mater, the University of Wisconsin, and to 
speak to you tonight on ''Liberty, Law, and 
the War." 

Civilization, in its development from the 
cave man to the present day, has contributed 
to mankind no more priceless benefits than 
liberty under law — the onlj' kind of freedom 
that remains secure rather than destroys itself 
through its own excesses. Law under our sys- 
tem is ordered libertj'. It is liberty under law 
which assures us freedom to worship God as 
conscience dictates, security in our lives and 
in our homes, freedom to think, speak, write, 
or act in a conscious effort to mold conditions 
of life under wliich we and our children wish 
to live. Blest is that govermnent or people 
which has this citadel of freedom, for tyranny 
begins where law ends. 

During my stay in Europe I saw the stark 
tragedy of men and women who have been 
denied these protections. Liberty under law 
takes on a very vital significance when you 
see men tried and condemned to die because 
of the lack of these privileges. Concentration 



' Delivered at a banquet given in connection with 
ceremonies at tlie dedication of the new law library 
of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Wis., and 
broadcast by the National Broadcasting Co., May 5, 
1940. Mr. Davies is Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State. 

231053 — 40 3 



camps, secret police, forced emigration of 
peoples, mass starvation, economic, industrial, 
financial, and journalistic slavery, where the 
state is master of men, and men exist only for 
the state and those small groups that control 
the state — these among other things are con- 
ditions which make the liberties which we en- 
joy the envy of millions of people in the world. 

World Forces axd Their Effect on Us 

All peoples have the right to determine their 
own political and national ideology and policy. 
That is their own business, respectively, and 
none of our affair. But it is our vital duty to 
see, know, and understand the forces which 
are at work in the world and to guard jealously 
our own beliefs and our own institutions, that 
the kind of life which we think is worth living 
shall be preserved. 

The fact is that the world has reached a 
most critical stage in the crisis which con- 
fronts a threatened civilization. It is a fact 
that in many parts of this earth absolutist 
political creeds, read}- to crush all opposition 
without pity or remorse, are doing battle 
against our concepts of law and liberty. Our 
constitutional system under which individual 
rights are guaranteed is the mother of our eco- 
nomic, social, and political life. We citizens 
of the United States cannot conceive of living 
in a society in which rights of the individual, 



500 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which are the essence of our ideas of religion 
and life itself, can be systematically denied in 
the name of a state or a party or a race. It 
shocks our sense of justice and right that the 
moral unity of international society should be 
shattered by wars — declared and undeclared — 
in which both primitive and progressive peace- 
ful nations, who desire only to be left alone, 
should be subjected to force, intrigue, sabo- 
tage, and invasion. 

We, here, are innocent bystanders in what 
may be the greatest war ever waged. All 
about us there exist now and are developing 
further, tremendous upheavals in religious, 
social, and political concepts. It is intelligent 
and wise that we should assess these facts and 
the impact which these forces might have upon 
our life — upon the well-being of our farmers, 
businessmen, manufacturers, wage earners, our 
churches, and possibly even upon the form of 
government which we cherish. 

Effect of Wab Conditions 

It would be manifestly improper for me to 
discuss political or military aspects of, or to 
take sides in, this military conflict. Our Gov- 
ernment is maintaining a strict neutrality. It 
is entii"ely proper, however, that we should 
study and discuss some of the possible effects 
which are threatening or may threaten our 
country. Due to Providence, we are secure 
from any possibility of armed invasion. We 
can and will protect ourselves and will main- 
tain the security and freedom of this hemi- 
sphere against outside intervention. Under the 
leadership of the President, the Government of 
the United States is taking far-reaching naval 
and military precautions to guarantee that 
security. Protection from the indirect conse- 
quences of this war on world economy and 
upon our own life, however, is more difficult. 

Fiscal Repercussions 

Even though the war were to be settled to- 
morrow, forces already exist which will have 
far-reaching effects upon us. I need not re- 
call that the artificial skyrocketing of farm 
prices and farm values in 1914 and thereafter 



left disastrous results here, from which we 
still suffer today. The business boom which 
may be created here by this war will have its 
accompanying disastrous reaction unless we 
exercise the highest quality of wisdom. ■ 

A prolongation of the war, on the other 
hand, will inevitably create even more devas- 
tating forces in the world. Each year, en- 
tirely apart from the human life and values 
being destroyed, the belligerent nations are 
spending for nonproductive purposes — for de- 
structive purposes — an amount of goods and 
effort costing more than the total gold supply 
of the world. Whether this war, therefore, 
results in an "all out victory" for either side, 
with a peace imposed by the will of the con- 
queror, or whether it results in a stalemate, the 
effect upon the daily lives of our people will be 
enormous. It will be a new world in which 
we will live, and elements that may be beyond 
our control will influence the life and the 
political thought of our children and their 
children. 

No man can foretell now what the outcome 
of this war will be. An accident might deter- 
mine the result. But for the rain that fell on 
the fields of Waterloo the night before the 
battle, the history of Europe might have been 
different. 

Even though no foreign military plane, war- 
ship, or soldier ever touches our shores, the 
forces which this struggle has unleashed seem 
sure to affect us vitally. Some of these are 
the new economic alignments now being forged 
across the seas. 

The outlet for our agricultural, mineral, and 
industrial products in foreign trade already 
has been clogged, and the regular channels of 
peaceful intercourse between nations have been 
disrupted. 

Hundreds of years of experience has taught 
mankind that the largest volume of trade is 
induced by having as a basis of their monetary 
systems a medium of exchange which is 
convenient, small in compass, reasonably stable 
in supply and universally acceptable. The best 
medium which civilization has found through 
this experience has been gold. It is the use 



MAY 11, 1940 

of this system and tins metal which has 
facilitated the growth of trade and increased 
its velocity manyfold over the primitive 
methods of barter. This system brought at- 
tendant greater prosperity, higher standards 
of living, and better conditions of living to the 
peoples of the earth. That system has now 
been challenged as obsolete over a large part 
of the world by a so-called "new and scientific" 
system of barter and exchange where the me- 
dium is not gold, or a currency based upon 
gold, but which involved the highly controlled 
and restricted barter of commodities induced 
by necessity, force, or fear. 

Political, Economic, and Industrial Effects 

Our greatest foreign market and the great- 
est foreign market of all the Americas is Eu- 
rope. Nearly 40 percent of Brazil's coffee crop 
alone is sold in Europe; about four-fifths of 
Argentina's meat and hides are sold in Europe ; 
nearly half of our agricultural products and 
more than half of our nonagricultural products 
are sold in Europe. With Europe denuded of 
gold, this great market might possibly be tem- 
porarily excluded from American goods except 
on the terms which the buyers would impose; 
to wit, on a basis of exchange of commodities 
in such quantities and of such character as the 
buyer would desire. Such a situation might 
involve serious dependence of the Americas 
upon European control, or the alternative of 
finding other markets, which do not exist, in 
order to keep the standard of living of their 
peoples consistent with national well-being. 

European markets for our manufactured 
goods may be lost; South American and other 
markets now friendly to us might be closed by 
preferential barter; and it is entirely possible 
that we might be faced with a financial and 
industrial crisis compared with which the 1930 
depression would rank as a period of pros- 
perity. 

The liberal thought of the world cleaves to 
the hope that following this terrible military 
destruction in Europe, America will still have 
the strength and power to help recreate our 
civilization and heal a stricken world. That 



501 

hope we believe will be fulfilled. To safeguard 
its fulfillment, however, we should think the 
matter through and envisage potentialities of 
the situation. We should not overlook the 
possibility that these high hopes might be 
thwarted by the fact that we might be rele- 
gated to the position of a minority stockholder 
in a going world concern in which we would 
have little to say. 

Effect on Social and Political Conditions 

These are some of the conditions which con- 
front us and which might bring us face to 
face with far-reaching and serious effects upon 
our agriculture, our manufacture, and the 
standard of workers' wage; with an unemploy- 
ment situation on such a scale and social in- 
security of such intensity that the foundation 
of our social and political order might be 
shaken. Despair knows no law. The contin- 
ued existence of our individualistic system 
might possibly be threatened. 

These things I do not say will happen. It 
is, nevei'theless, prudent and wise, is it not, 
that we should apj^reciate and foresee the 
forces now existing in the world which affect 
us, the consequences of which we and our chil- 
dren might have to confront. 

There is, of course, another side to the pic- 
ture. We should not look through a glass too 
darkly. There are great strengths in our peo- 
ple which are inherent in democracy. James 
Bryce said 20 years ago: "No government de- 
mands so much from the citizen as Democracy 
and none gives so much back." 

These conditions which I have suggested to 
you are now being met by American business 
and by the American Government. It is in- 
nate in the genius of our countiy to meet 
emergencies and find their solution sanely and 
practically, and, as our President recently said, 
with our feet on the ground. It is essential, 
however, that the facts should be seen and their 
possible significance understood. 

Thus, in conclusion, I would stress again 
liberty and law as the foundation of our life. 
Our pioneer forebears left to us precious values 
as a heritage which we must guard jealously. 



502 

Whatever the result of the world conflict, our 
form of government must never be translated 
from a government of, by, and for the people 
to a government of, by, and for a dictatorship. 
Our civil liberties must never be abridged to 
deny us the equal protection of the law, liberty 
to worship God freely as conscience dictates, 
the right to fair trial, against which no writ 
can ever run, and that form of life in which 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

men are not slaves to a state but where the state 
is the servant of mankind, where the dignity of 
the human spirit shall be preserved as the most 
priceless attribute with which God has invested 
mankind. To deserve these blessings, we must 
be vigilant in their protection. 

So, my fellow citizens, I recommend that you 
give these few thoughts and suggestions your 
consideration. This is our America. 






■f -f -f -f -f -f -f 

TREATIES AND THEIR LEGAL EFFECTS 

Address by William V. Whittington ° 



[Released to the press May 8] 

Within recent months the American people 
have followed with increasing interest the 
critical international situation. There has been 
a coi-responding increase of interest in the 
treaty relations of this country. 

The Department of State has been besieged 
with problems involving the application of 
treaty provisions. We cannot undertake here 
to discuss these problems, but I shall attempt, 
more or less at random, to answer a few of the 
more frequent inquiries made by persons hav- 
ing a general interest in treaties. What are 
treaties, and what is their purpose? Wlio 
makes treaties, and how are they made? Who 
intei-prets treaties? What is their binding 
force? The subject is, of course, too broad to 
allow for much detail within the time allotted. 



Treaties are defined most briefly and con- 
veniently as contracts or agreements between 
two or more sovereign states or governments 
concerning matters of common interest to 
them. Generally speaking, a treaty is not a 
legislative enactment which of itself carries 
into effect or accomplishes a desired object. 
The obligation of executing the terms of the 



' Delivered at a luncheon of the Federal Bar Associa- 
tion, Washington, May 8, 1»40. Mr. Whittington is 
in the Treaty Division, Department of State. 



treaty rests upon the sovereign authority of 
each of the contracting parties in accordance 
with their constitutional or customary pro- 
cedures. In the United States, our Constitu- 
tion expressly declares that the treaties of the 
United States are part of the supreme law of 
the land. Accordingly, the treaties of this 
country are recognized in the courts of the 
States and of the United States as being equiv- 
alent in force to the Federal Constitution and 
the constitutional laws of the United States. 

The requirements of intercourse among 
nations make treaties between them essential. 
The conception of an international law of gen- 
eral application to all nations is comparatively 
modern. Long before the development of a 
so-called law of nations, sovereign states en- 
tered into agreements or treaties for the pur- 
pose of defining their respective claims or 
rights. In those earlier days, international in- 
tercourse was not as complex as it is today; 
treaties were concluded or entered into, not 
with any idea of creating or establishing an 
international law, but solely because the con- 
tracting parties perceived the mutual benefit to 
be derived from such agreements. Eventually, 
the usefulness of treaties as a means of re- 
solving problems or establishing proper re- 
straints which might not otherwise be accom- 
plished without force came to be appreciated, 
and the sovereign powers undertook to make 



MAY 11, 1940 

such agreements because of a confidence in the 
probability that the stipuhitions would be 
carried out. 

As the field of international relations has 
expanded and the common interests of nations 
have increased, so has the number of treaties 
increased. Those of you who have had the 
occasion to examine treaty provisions could 
not help but be impressed with the variety of 
subject matter covered by them. Attempts 
have been made to classify the treaties of the 
United States according to general types; for 
example, treaties for the promotion of peace 
and those relating to political, humanitarian, 
economic, consular, and other matters. Such 
a classification gives no real conception of the 
great variety of treaty provisions; collectively 
they cover almost every phase of the political, 
social, economic, and commercial relations of 
the United States with foreign countries. 



II 



Onl}^ sovereign states have the treaty-mak- 
ing power. Probably it would be more correct 
to say that governments have the treaty-mak- 
ing power to the extent that they are sovereign 
or autonomous. 

In the case of the United States, as with cer- 
tain other federal states, the constitution or 
fundamental law sets forth the stipulations 
under which the central governing authority 
shall have the power to make treaties. As you 
know, it is provided in article II of the United 
States Constitution that the President "shall 
have power, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided 
two-thirds of the Senators present concur." 

There is no fixed formula, as far as inter- 
national law is concerned, for the conclusion 
of agreements between nations, either as to 
form or content. Usually, however — and 
under the constitutional procedure of the 
United States this is always the case — treaties 
are written documents, signed and sealed by 
duly empowered representatives of the con- 
tracting parties. 

231063—40 4 



503 

The international agreements of the United 
States are now generally referred to either as 
treaties or as Executive agreements. Those 
agreements which are made and ratified by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate are 
classified as treaties, although the instrument 
itself may bear the title of agreement, or act, or 
convention, or protocol, or some other desig- 
nation. 

Many other agreements to which the United 
States is a party may not be projjerly referred 
to as treaties, in the constitutional .sense. Such 
agreements are made under the authority of 
the President, and usually, but not necessarily, 
under express authority or direction of Con- 
gress. There are various methods by which 
these Executive agreements may be made, and 
the instrument itself may be called an agree- 
ment, arrangement, protocol, modus vivendi, 
or by some other name. The simple excliange 
of diplomatic notes is probably the most fre- 
quently used method. The reciprocal trade 
agreements negotiated vuider the act of 1934, or 
under that act as extended, constitute a notable 
percentage of the Executive agreements made 
during the past 10 years. 

Ill 

Questions frequently asked are those which 
have to do with the interpretation of treaties. 

International law does not oblige the con- 
tracting parties to adhere to any fixed or con- 
ventional rules for the interpretation of 
treaties. It is true, however, that many princi- 
ples have become generally accepted and ap- 
plied. Such principles have reference to the 
reasonableness, the usual meanings as applied 
to particular circumstances, the comparison of 
prior treaties of a similar nature, and other 
factors. 

If the contracting parties have agreed upon 
a special interpretation, then that interpreta- 
tion governs. The interpretation of treaty 
provisions is primarily a matter for detei-nii- 
natiou by the contracting parties, by mutual 
consent or acquiescence. AVlien the parties 
disagree, the way is open for the application 
of other rules or pi-inciples. 



504 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Many treaties provide specifically for arbi- 
tration or some other procedure in the event the 
parties are not able to agree on the application 
or the proper interpretation of the provisions 
of the treaty. Sometimes provisions have been 
interpreted by a later supplementary treaty 
formally concluded for that purpose. 

The Department of State is continually being 
requested to give its interpretation of treaty 
provisions. The usual response made by the 
Department to persons who make inquiries of 
this sort is that, as a matter of general prac- 
tice, the Department refrains from expressing 
views as to the interpretation of treaty pro- 
visions except in connection with their appli- 
cation to matters requiring official action by the 
Department. It considers that decisions with 
respect to legal questions of treaty interpreta- 
tion should, as a rule, be left to the court in 
which each case arises. The Department will, 
however, in a proper case and at the instance 
of the proper authorities, undertake to state 
its interpretation of treaty provisions. The 
Department's views, when so expressed, usually 
carry great weight. If the case appears to 
require it, the matter may even be the subject 
of diplomatic correspondence. In one recent 
instance, the Department was requested by 
the foreign office of another government to 
state its views concerning the interpretation 
of the expression "High Contracting Party" 
as affecting the binding force of a certain 
treaty. The Department furnished the foreign 
government with a statement of its opinion 
on the subject. 

IV 

It may seem to be a statement of simple 
truth to say that treaties are binding upon 
the contracting parties. This understanding 
has become accepted among nations as a basic 
rule of that great body of international cus- 
toms and practices we call international law. 
There are some interesting corollaries to that 
principle. 

Changes in the government — even in the 
form of government — of one of the contracting 
parties do not, as a rule, affect the binding 



force of the treaty, unless the stipulations pre- 
suppose and require the continuance of a cer- 
tain form of government and would become 
impossible of execution in the event of a change 
from that form. A treaty entered into by a 
constitutional government will continue in 
force despite changes in the ministry or the 
administration. When a republic becomes a 
monarchy, or a monarchy becomes a republic, 
the international obligations of the country 
under its treaties will usually continue. 

There is a different situation in the case of 
a change in the international status of a nation. 
For instance, if one sovereign state is merged 
into another sovereign state, the rule of the 
succession of states will customarily apply. 

You may be interested in a few examples of 
the effect which governmental changes do or 
do not have upon treaty obligations. 

The treaty of peace, amity, navigation, and 
commerce signed in 1846, and the consular con- 
vention signed in 1850, between the United 
States and New Granada, have continued in 
force despite the several constitutional changes 
by which the Republic of New Granada be- 
came the Confederation Granadina, then the 
United States of New Granada, and later the 
United States or the Republic of Colombia. 

The ti'eaties which were in force between this 
country and Serbia (or Servia) at the time of 
the formation of the new Kingdom of the 
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes following the 
World War in 1918, became applicable to those 
parts of the new Kingdom which were not com- 
prised within the territories of the former 
Kingdom of Serbia. The adoption of the 
name "The Kingdom of Yugoslavia" in 1929 as 
the official title of that Kingdom did not affect 
treaty relations. 

The adoption of the name "Eire" or "Ire- 
land" in 1937 to replace "Irish Free State" as 
the official title of the State, and the adoption 
of the name "Thailand" in 1939 to replace the 
name "Siam" as the official title of the King- 
dom, did not affect the treaty relations of the 
United States with those countries. 

Recent events afford us some outstanding ex- 
amples of territorial changes affecting treaty 



MAY 11, 1940 

relations. It is a general principle of inter- 
national law that certain types of treaties, par- 
ticularly treaties of commerce, are extended in 
their application to annexed contiguous terri- 
tory. In other words, a treaty of commerce of 
a sovereign power becomes applicable, as a rule, 
to contiguous territory annexed by that sover- 
eign power, provided the annexation is recog- 
nized by the other party or parties to the 
treaty. 

Prior to the annexation of Austria by (ier- 
many and the incorporation of Austria into the 
territories of the German Reich on March 13, 
1938, there was in force between each of those 
countries and the United States a treaty of 
friendship, commerce, and consular rights. 
The treaty with Austria is regarded as having 
ceased to be in force as a result of Austria's 
incorporation into the territories of Germany, 
and the treaty with Germany became appli- 
cable to the annexed Austrian territory. 

The same treaty between the United States 
and Germany became applicable to the Sudeten 
areas formerly a part of Czechoslovakia, with 
which the United States did not have such a 
treaty, and incorporated into the territories of 
the German Reich pursuant to the terms of 
the Munich agreement of September 29, 1938, 
with the consent of the Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment. Not so, however, with respect to other 
parts of Czechoslovakia. While observing 
that the provinces of Boliemia and Moravia are 
under the de facto administration of the Ger- 
man authorities, this Government does not 
recognize that any legal basis exists for such a 
status. This Government has not recognized 
the so-called Republic of Slovakia. Treaties 
between the United States and Czechoslovakia 
are regarded as being still in force between 
the United States and Czechoslovakia. 

As to Poland, it is a well-known fact that the 
Polish Government was obliged to leave Polish 
territory as a result of the occupation of Po- 
land by German and Soviet forces, and that 
there are not at the present time any Polish 
Government officials functioning within Po- 
land. Nevertheless, this Government continues 
to recognize the accredited Ambassador of Po- 



505 

land at Wa.shington, as well as Polish consular 
officers in this country, and considers that the 
treaties between the United States and Poland 
continue in force between the United States 
and Poland. 

The continued effectiveness of a number of 
this country's existing treaties appears to be 
hanging in the balance at this time. 



Treaties serve a very useful purpose, a very 
practical purpose, in regulating the conduct of 
nations in their relations with each other. 
Treaties may have a paramount importance in 
defining the rights of nations and their na- 
tionals, either in time of peace or in time of 
war. But treaties will not, of and by them- 
selves, perpetuate peace or prevent war. 

Some persons are inclined to blame the in- 
ternational difficulties upon the alleged oppres- 
siveness or immorality of certain treaties. It 
cannot be denied that there have been bad 
treaties, and it is true that when a spirit of 
oppressiveness or tyranny is given expression 
or made manifest or crystallized in the terms 
of a treaty the difficulties may be aggravated 
and made less easy of solution. But we must 
not oversimplify. It is altogether too easy and 
naive to declare that the catastrophes and 
tragic events which afflict the world are due to 
the words contained in a written document. 

Consider the long periods of peaceful rela- 
tionships existing between this country and 
various other countries. These periods of peace 
and good M-ill have been the result, not of 
signed and ratified treaties, but of a condition 
of mind and heart — an attitude — a subtle some- 
thing within the people which has made iJeace 
and understanding a habit of thought and 
action. 

Treaties may not always be ideal — they may 
in fact be far from good — but treaties will not, 
as a rule, either prevent wars or cause them. 
Treaties are the result of a state of mind and 
deliberate thought, just as war is a residt of a 
state of mind and emotion. Wlien the psychol- 



506 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ogy of a people and of their leaders is con- 
ducive to a continuing condition of peace, then 
treaties and agreements are of great value in 
promoting mutual aims. So long, however, as 
the psychology of a people or of their leaders 
is directed toward hostilities, because of fear or 
hatred or envy or covetousness or any of the 
negative emotions of mankind, there is little 
or no incentive for the peaceful processes of 
treaty negotiation. 

If, in the course of preparations for hostil- 
ities, there should arise circumstances which 
convince the would-be adversaries that their 
best interests would be served by getting to- 
gether around the conference table, then there 
is a probability that a treaty concluded be- 
tween them may have the appearance of pre- 
venting war. It is not the treaty, however, 
which brings about a condition of peace. It 
is the change within the people themselves, 
the change in their psychological reactions, in 
their mental and emotional viewpoint, in their 
moral vision. 

Treaties are valuable in the development of 
international law. The embodiment in trea- 
ties of certain well-established rules of inter- 



national conduct may even sei-Ve to restrain 
in some measure the emotional inclinations of 
a provoked people, or at least to clarify the 
issues in the event of hostilities. But we must 
not expect that treaties will govern the situa- 
tion independently of the will of the contract- 
ing powers. 

It should be the aim of all peoples to exer- 
cise that measure of self-restraint, bom of 
tolerance and kindliness and love of humanity, 
that will make war unthinkable. If mankind 
were motivated solely by those constructive 
emotions, there would then probably be little 
need for certain treaties or international agree- 
ments — no more than it would be necessary 
for you and your next-door neighbor to enter 
into a solemn, formal compact to treat each 
other with kindness and consideration. 

War is a futile thing. We have only to 
study history to learn that it rarely, if ever, 
settles an issue. We should, of course, do all 
that we reasonably can to enforce our deter- 
mination not to be drawn into the present 
conflict — but more than that, let us earnestly 
hope that the nations now at war may soon 
return to a condition of peace — a just peace. 



Commercial Policy 



FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES 

Address by Henry L. Deimel, Jr.^" 



[Released to the press May 9] 

Much controversy surrounds the discussion 
of foreign trade. Mostly this controversy 
arises out of questions of government policy 
relating to foreign trade and particularly to 
imports. But as is usual with controversial 
matters, the argument is pursued down byways 
and to the fringes of the subject, minor and 
secondary aspects are magnified and distorted. 



"Delivered in Philadelphia, May 9, 1940, before the 
Purchasing Agents Association of Philadelphia. Mr. 
Deimel is Assistant Chief of the Division of Trade 
Agreements, Department of .State. 



and the whole subject is seen in false perspec- 
tive. It is therefore a welconae opportunity to 
be asked to speak on "just plain foreign trade," 
an ojjportunity to seek to present the subject in 
matter-of-fact and balanced proportion. 

Our foreign trade has always been an im- 
portant part of our activity. It is enough to 
mention, by way of example, the tobacco trade 
of the southern colonies, the early trade of New 
England with the West Indies, the later and 
continuing importance to the South of cotton 
growing and cotton exports, the clipper-ship 



MAY 11, 1940 



507 



trade to the Far East, the contribution to the 
opening up of our Middle West afforded by 
foreign investment in our railroad construc- 
tion and foreign markets for our wheat. 

Today our foreign trade constitutes a size- 
able piece of our national business. At its 
peak in 1929, exports and imports together 
reached a value of almost 10 billions of dol- 
lars, fell to just below 3 billions in 1932, and 
rose to 6.4 billions in 1937. In 1939 it stood 
at 5.5 billions. This compares with cash farm 
income from marketings estimated at 7.7 bil- 
lions for 1939, operating revenues of Class I 
railroads of not quite 4 billions in 1939, and 
production in 1937 of textile-mill products 
valued at nearly 4 billion dollars, of steel-works 
and rolling-mill products of 3.3 billions, of 
electrical machinery and apparatus of 1.6 
billions. 

Sizeable as our foreign business is, it forms, 
of course, a relatively small proportion of our 
total national business. The value of our ex- 
ports for 1937 is estimated at 7.8 percent of 
our production of movable goods. This fact 
is often used in argument against policies de- 
signed to foster our foreign trade. Why, it is 
asked, should we bother so much with this rela- 
tively small part of our business, when the 
purely domestic business is so much more 
important ? 

There are two basic fallacies involved in this 
line of argument ; one is, that our foreign trade 
is done at the cost of our domestic trade ; and 
the other is, that our foreign trade is distinct 
and separable from the rest of our business 
activity. 

The fact is that our foreign trade fluctuates 
very consistently with our general economic 
activity. In 1929, when the value of o>ir 
foreign trade was at its peak, our national in- 
come was also at a peak, estimated at over 82 
billions of dollars; the national income also 
reached its low of 40 billions in 1932, and 
stood at about 72 billions in 1937 and 68i/^ bil- 
lions in 1939. In relative size, the value of our 
foreign trade stood to our national income in 
proportion of nearly 12 to 100 in 1929, 7.3 to 
100 in 1932, 9 to 100 in 1937, and 8 to 100 in 



1938. Interestingly enough, the proportion 
was highest in our most active years ! 

The idea that foreign trade is promoted at 
the expense of domestic trade rests mainly, 
however, on the belief that imports displace 
domestic production. Of course it would be 
possible to find instances where, if a certain 
foreign product had not been available at a 
competitive price, a similar domestic product 
would have been purchased. Looking at the 
total situation, however, it is noticeable that 
our import trade fluctuates closely with our 
general business activity, so much so, in fact, 
that the value of our import trade affords one 
of the significant indices to the state of our 
business activity. A tabulation of index num- 
bers for our industrial production, and the 
value of our imports is as follows: 





Index Numbers (1923-25 = 100) 




Year 


Industrial 
' production 


Value of 
imports 


1929 


119 

64 

110 


113 


1932 


34 


1937 


79 







While the value of our imports has fluctuated 
in greater degree than our production, it is 
significant that the two fluctuate in the same 
direction. When times are good, imports are 
heavy. It would be absurd to conclude that 
heavy imports make good times, but it must 
be clear that they are part and parcel of good 
times. 

It should also be clear that our foreign trade 
as a whole is an integral part of our general 
business activity. The character of our im- 
ports, much of which consist of crude ma- 
terials not produced in the United States such 
as rubber, cocoa, silk, tin, jute, coffee, or raw 
materials not produced at home in sufficient 
quantities for our consumption, such as hides, 
wool, sugar, and wood pulp, suggests the close 
interrelation between our imports and our 
domestic activity. As to our exports, many 
important branches of our production depend 
on foreign markets to dispose of a far greater 



508 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



proportion than the average. In recent years 
we exported as much as 30 percent of our pro- 
duction of leaf tobacco, cotton, canned sar- 
dines, lubricating oil, and sewing machines, 36 
percent of our dried fruits, more than 20 per- 
cent of our rice, sulphur, mining, well and 
pumping machinery, and power-driven metal- 
working machinery. 

To producers of these and many other com- 
modities, the state of their export markets is 
of significant concern. The consequences ram- 
ify until in some measure they affect all of us. 
The difficult national problem in our cotton 
situation is symbolized in the fact that we 
exported, in 1938, only 30.5 percent of our 
production as compared with 48.7 percent in 
1923 and 54.8 percent in 1929. Loss of foreign 
markets, low prices, reduced purchasing power 
in the cotton-growing South, and consequent 
loss of business for other sections of the coun- 
try, accumulation of cotton surpluses, pressure 
on other sections due to diversion from cotton 
growing to other farm activities such as dairy- 
ing, government programs to restrict produc- 
tion, government expenditures for loans on 
surplus accumulations and for relief, are all 
links in the far-spreading network of conse- 
quences which affect all of us. 

In many ways our foreign trade affords a 
significant contribution to our business activity. 
Thus, accoi'ding to the report of the Chief of 
Engineers, United States Army, of the water- 
borne traffic of the port of Philadelphia which 
amounted to about 20 million tons in 1938, some 
4 million tons was in foreign trade. 

There is no purpose to be served in exag- 
gerating the importance of our foreign trade. 
It is sufficient to realize simply that it con- 
stitutes not only a substantial volume of busi- 
ness, but of business that constitutes an inte- 
gral part of our general activity and permeates 
through the whole of our economic system. 

Fundamentally, of course, foreign trade is 
similar to domestic trade, in that it consists of 
the exchange between different regions of the 
goods each finds it can best produce. But there 



is of course also a fundamental distinction, in 
that foreign trade constitutes exchanges be- 
tween areas subject to separate sovereign gov- 
ernments, and so involves their policies relat- 
ing to import tariffs and other trade restric- 
tions, to their monetary systems and foreign- 
exchange situation, and to foreign investments. 
It is out of this distinction that the controver- 
sies over our foreign trade arise, for they are 
essentially controversies over our international 
economic policies, and currently with us the 
controversies have been most vigorous over our 
tariff policy. 

There is a long historic background to the 
debate between the principles of free trade and 
protection, and much of the less-informed dis- 
cussion of tariff policy is impregnated with 
the ideas and phrases of this debate. But to- 
day this debate is largely academic, for import- 
tariff systems have over many decades become 
such established institutions, with ourselves 
and with other countries, as to be essentially a 
matter of accepted fact. The real and signifi- 
cant questions relate primarily to individual 
commodities on the one hand, as to which shall 
be subject to import duties and what individual 
rates shall be levied, and to the method and 
procedure by which a government determines 
these dutiable schedules and rates of duty. 
Today, moreover, these questions relate njot 
only to tariff rates but to various other forms 
of ti'ade restriction, such as import-quota limi- 
tations. 

Continually, however, arguments of a general 
nature survive, because of their plausibility, 
to becloud the real issues. Thus a favorite of 
old vintage is that our industries, employing 
American labor at American wages and stand- 
ards of living, cannot compete with the pro- 
ducts of foreign peon labor. This argument, 
which is standard in most appeals for increased 
tariff protection, ignores the fact that peon 
labor does peon work on peon products, and 
that our exports of fully manufactured articles, 
which amounted to one and one-half billions 
of dollars in 1939, and included products of 



MAY 11, 1940 

many of our highest-wage industries, demon- 
strate the ability of American labor at Ameri- 
can standards of living to compete with peon 
and other foreign labor in foreign markets, 
where the American products are not protected 
by American tariff schedules but more often 
have foreign tariff schedules to surmount. 

The truth is, of course, that it is the pro- 
ductivity of American workers employed in 
our most typical industries under the Ameri- 
can conditions to which they are best adapted, 
that is responsible for the high wage rates and 
living standards. Of course there are domestic 
industries which could not maintain compar- 
able wage standards without tariff protection, 
but in each case this becomes a question of the 
amount of tariff protection which it is reason- 
able to accord, a question which can be reason- 
ably settled only on the basis of individual 
analysis of the pertinent facts in the case of 
each industry. 

A second stock argument used in favor of 
tariff increases or against tariff reductions 
points to the size of our duty-free importations, 
which constitute about 60 percent of our im- 
ports. It is inferred that obviously our tariff 
schedules must therefore be exceedingly liberal, 
and there is, therefore, no occasion for us to 
make tariff reductions. The obvious answer 
is, of course, to point out that the opposite in- 
ference is more correct, that the relatively 
small proportion of dutiable imports is due to 
the restrictive height of our tariff levels; that 
if these were raised further the percentage of 
duty-free imports would increase until, under 
completely prohibitive tariff schedules, our im- 
ports would be limited to the free list, and 100 
percent of our imports would be duty-free. 

Increasing understanding is being given in 
recent years to the relation of our total im- 
ports to our total exports, and to the importance 
of finding ways to encourage the expansion of 
imports, without injury to our established pro- 
tected domestic industries, as a means of pro- 
viding purchasing power for increased exports 
of our agricultural and industrial surpluses. 
It is most encouraging to note the increasingly 
widespread recognition of this circumstance, 



509 

the facts of which are apparent in the statistics 
of our balance of trade and balance of pay- 
ments. 

The foreign purchasers of our goods can 
acquire the dollars to pay our exporters as a 
result of our purchases of foreign goods and 
services, of our purchases of gold and silver, 
and of our loans and investments abroad. 
International capital movements have in past 
history played an important part in the growth 
of international trade, and presumably will 
again in some future and happier day, but it 
is hardly necessary today to i)oint out that the 
existing world situation is hardly one to en- 
courage large-scale international capital in- 
vestments. 

As to the precious metals, we are coming to 
see the fruitlessness and disadvantages of ac- 
cumulating and sterilizing a major pro^jortion 
of the world's gold. As for the service item.s, 
the net amounts of dollars we pay out on ac- 
count of freight, travel, and noncommercial 
contributions such as immigrant remittances, 
over the payments made to us on similar ac- 
count, are considerable; for 1938 these net 
receipts totaled, by the Department of Com- 
merce estimates, over half a billion dollars; 
but these were offset by excess receipts over 
payments of interest and dividends on foreign 
investment account, of more than 330 millions 
of dollars. The balance left is obviously small 
in the face of an excess of merchandise exports 
over imports in excess of 1,100 million dollars 
in 1938 and 800 million dollars in 1939. 

Presumably we are interested in getting paid 
for our exports as well as selling them, but our 
foreign customer's task of finding the dollars 
for that purpose has not been easy ; in fact his 
difficulties in so doing, in face of his ardent 
desire for many of the products such as we are 
most anxious to sell him, have been an im- 
portant factor in the development of trade 
controls and discriminations, foreign exchange 
restrictions, clearing agreements, and various 
other policies of international commercial ag- 
gression which have not been to our comfort or 
liking. 



510 

Of course since last September the outbreak 
of war in Europe has seriously changed the 
picture. It would be as difficult and foolhardy 
to attempt to predict the nature and scope of 
the changes as to predict the future course of 
the hostilities themselves. Some things are 
reasonably clear, however, and among them, 
that the effects will be of a mixed nature. 
Some lines of industry will undoubtedly be 
stimulated and some available foreign-owned 
assets in this country liquidated, which other- 
wise would not have been, to pay for them. 
Some neutral foreign markets have turned in- 
creasingly to us for products in the supply of 
which the belligerents have been our competi- 
tors, but the problem of finding the dollars 
with which to pay our exporters will not 
thereby be diminished except to the extent that 
our own recovering activity, by augmenting 
our imports, will increase the flow of dollar 
exchange available to pay for our exports. 
Some branches of our activity, including 
branches in which the problem of foreign 
markets has been most acute, are finding their 
difficulties intensified. According to a recent 
statement by our Department of Agriculture, 
it was expected that the outbreak of hostilities 
would have a mixed effect upon our agricul- 
tural exports, that sales of some, such as fresh 
fruits and grains, would diminish, but others, 
such as dried fruit and pork, increase; statis- 
tics for the first 6 months from September 
1939 indicate confirmation of the unfavorable 
but not of the favorable expectations. Owing 
to export infreases of cotton and soybeans due 
to other causes than war the total quantity of 
our agricultural exports increased in these 6 
months 4 percent over average exports for 
corresponding months in the preceding 10 
years, but if cotton is excluded we find a 16- 
percent decrease, especially severe in wheat, 
fruit, and tobacco. 

Whatever the incidental stimulating effects 
of these hostilities may be upon certain lines 
of our activity, the fact remains that warfare, 
certainly of the modern kind, is destructive, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

and hostilities of the scale and character of 
those now current in Europe cannot fail to have 
their repercussions upon our economy. The 
last great European war left us with profound 
maladjustments, many of which had not been 
readjusted when depression came late in 1929 
and have left their heritage today. We need 
to observe and study the consequences of to- 
day's misfortunes upon our welfare, so that 
we can act intelligently to follow sound 
policies. 

Certainly such policies will not be those of 
isolation. Our foreign trade continues, as in 
the past, to constitute so substantial and in- 
tegral a part of our activity, permeating so 
thoroughly all phases of our economic life, that 
we could not afford to cut it off. The policies 
we need to follow are those which will foster 
a mutually profitable interchange of goods and 
services, conducted by private enterprise under 
reasonable rules and conditions imposed by the 
govenmients concerned, avoidmg excessive re- 
strictions and aggressive discriminations. 
Our economic stature in the world has become 
so great that the influence of our trade and 
our policies, when more peaceful conditions 
have once more returned in foreign parts, will 
have a major effect on the course of events and 
in turn reflect back ujion our own welfare. 

Such policies as are involved in this of course 
go beyond simply our tariff and commercial 
policies. This has been a talk on our foreign 
trade, not on our international economic poli- 
cies. It would be difficult to close, however, 
without pointing out that the policy of recip- 
rocal trade agi'eeraents formulated and con- 
ducted under the Secretary of State, Cordell 
Hull, involves the essential principles of re- 
ciprocal moderation of tariffs and trade re- 
strictions, with due regard for the situation of 
individual protected industries, and of equal 
treatment for all on a basis of reciprocity, 
which must form the essence of our future 
commercial policy if our trade with the world 
is to flourish on a basis of private enterprise. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled hy the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 

Japan 

By a communication dated March 16, 1940. 
tlae Secretary General of the League of Na- 
tions informed the Secretary of State that the 
Japanese Government has renewed tlie mandate 
of Jlr. Yorozu Oda as a member of tlie Perma- 
nent Court of Arbitration. 

RESTRICTION OF WAR 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Con- 
dition of the Wounded and the Sick of 
Armies in the Field (Treaty Series No. 
847) 

Canada 

Tlie Canadian Minister at Washington, re- 
ferring to article 10 of the Convention for the 
Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded 
and the Sick of Armies in the Field, signed at 
Geneva on July 27, 1929, requested the Secre- 
tary of State, by a note dated May 6. 1940. to 
notify- the German Government, pursuant to 
article 10 of the convention, that the Canadian 
Government has recognized the Canadian Red 
Cross Society as a Voluntary- Aid Society and 
that the Society is authorized to render assist- 
ance to the regular medical services of the 
Canadian armed forces. 

EDUCATION 

International Act Concerning Intellectual 
Cooperation 

The American Embassy at Paris transmitted 
to the Department with a despatch dated 
March 21, 1940, copies of the International 
Act Concerning Intellectual Cooperation, 
signed December 3, 1938, as published in the 



Journal Ofjiclel of March 1, 1940, with a cor- 
rection as published in the Journal Ofjiciel of 
March 7, 1940. 

The act was signed by the following coun- 
tries: Albania. Argentina ad referendum, 
Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Domini- 
can Republic. Ecuador. Egypt. France. Mon- 
aco. Netherlands, Paragiuiy, Peru, Poland, 
Portugal, Rumania ad referendum. Spain, 
Switzerland, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 

The act entered into force on January 31, 
1940, the date of the deposit of the eighth in- 
strument of ratification. The countries which 
have deposited instruments of ratification are 
as follows: France, August 17, 1939; Latvia, 
October 17. 1939: Netherlands, January 31, 
1940; Norway, Jime 9, 1939: Poland, Novemlier 
4, 1939: Portugal, August 10, 1939; Rumania, 
August 3, 1939: and Switzerland, July 22. 1939. 

The American Legation at Ciudad Trujillo 
reported by a despatch dated April 5, 1940, 
that the Dominican Republic had ratified the 
act by law No. 233, of March 9, 1940. pub- 
lished in the Gaceta Oficial No. 5427, of March 
15, 1940. 

The American Embassj- at Mexico reported 
by a despatch dated April 20, 1940, that the 
Diario Oficial No. 42, of April 18. 1940, pub- 
lishes a decree signed by the President of 
Mexico on December 30. 1939. approving the 
International Act Concerning Intellectual Co- 
operation, signed at Paris on December 3, 
1938. 

HEALTH 

Convention Modifying the Sanitary 
Convention of June 21, 1926 

ifexico 

According to a despatch from the American 
Ambassador to Mexico the Convention, signed 
at Paris on October 31, 1938, Modifying the 

511 



512 

Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926, was ap- 
proved by the Mexican Government and pro- 
mulgated by the President of Mexico on De- 
cember 30, 1939. The decree was published in 
the Diario Ofidal No. 43, of April 19, 1940. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the convention has been ratified by Aus- 
tralia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Great Britain, 
Greece, Italy, and Sweden, and adhered to by 
Belgium, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa. 

AVIATION 

Convention for the Unification of Certain 
Rules Relating to Assistance and Salvage 
of Aircraft or by Aircraft at Sea 

Mexico 

The American Ambassador to Mexico re- 
ported by a despatch dated April 24, 1940, that 
the decree approving on behalf of Mexico the 
Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules 
Relating to Assistance and Salvage of Aircraft 
or by Aircraft at Sea, signed at Brussels on 
September 29, 1938, was published in the 
Diario Q-ficial No. 46, of April 23, 1940. The 
President of Mexico signed the decree on De- 
cember 30, 1939. 

CONSULAR 

Consular Convention with Lithuania 

A consular convention between the United 
States and Lithuania was signed on May 10, 
1940, by Mr. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, 
and Mr. Povilas 2adeikis, Lithuanian Minister 
in Washington. The convention establishes 
the rights, privileges, and immunities of con- 
sular officers of each country in the territories 
of the other country. It will enter into force 
30 days from the date of the exchange of ratifi- 
cations and will remain in force for an initial 
period of 10 years. 

FINANCE 

Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank 

The Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank, drafted by the Inter- 



DBPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN" 

American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee and submitted for the approval of 
the governments of the American republics, 
was deposited at the Pan American Uniofi on 
May 10, 1940, by the Honorable Sumner Welles, 
Chairman of the Committee, and opened for 
signature on behalf of the American republics. 

The convention was signed on behalf of their 
respective governments by the Minister of 
Bolivia, Seiior Don Fernando Guachalla; the 
Ambassador of Colombia, Senor Dr. Don Ga- | 
briel Turbay; the Minister of the Dominican 
Republic, Seiior Don Andres Pastoriza; the 
Ambassador of Ecuador, Seiior Capitan Colon 
Eloy Alfaro; the Ambassador of Mexico, Seiior 
Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Najera ; the Minis- 
ter of Nicaragua, Seiior Dr. Don Leon De 
Bayle; the Minister of Paraguay, Senor Dr. 
Don Horacio A. Fernandez; and the Under 
Secretary of State of the United States, the 
Honorable Sumner Welles. 

The convention will remain open to the 
adherence of other American republics. 

The Governments of El Salvador and 
Panama notified the Chairman of the Commit- 
tee that at present they are unable to par- 
ticipate in the Bank. The convention is now 
under study by the other governments which 
as yet have not made definitive replies. 

In accordance with the provisions of the con- 
vention, the Bank will be organized when the 
convention is ratified by at least five govern- 
ments which shall agree to subscribe for a 
minimum of 145 shares of stock of the Bank. 
At that time, an organizing committee will 
meet to proceed with the arrangements neces- 
sary for the organization of the Bank. 

The text of the convention follows : 

Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank 

The Governments of the American Republics 
Considering 

First, that economic and financial coopera- 
tion among the American Republics is an 
essential factor in fostering the welfare of and 
maintaining solidarity among these Republics ; 



MAY 11, 1940 



513 



Second, that such cooperation would be 
greatly facilitated by the establishment of an 
Inter- American Bank; 

have resolved to conclude a Convention as 
follows : 

Article I 

The High Contracting Parties agi-ee to the 
creation of an institution to be known as the 
"Inter-American Bank" for the purposes and 
with the powers stated in the proposed Charter 
and By-Laws annex6d hereto. The High Con- 
tracting Parties agree that the Bank shall be 
accorded the powers, rights and privileges to 
engage in the various activities, transactions 
and operations envisaged in such Charter and 
By-Laws and further agree to enact any legis- 
lation and to take any other action necessary to 
effectuate and protect such powers, rights and 
privileges to the Bank. The United States of 
America also agrees to grant to the Bank a 
Charter substantially in accordance with the 
proposed Charter annexed hereto. Each High 
Contracting Party hereby agrees to subscribe 
for the minimum number of shares required of 
such Party for participation in the Bank as 
provided in the annexed By-Laws. 

Article II 

The High Contracting Parties grant, within 
their respective territories, in time of peace or 
war and in any period of emergency and in any 
other situation, the rights, privileges, immuni- 
ties and exemptions enumerated in this Arti- 
cle ; and agree also to enact any legislation and 
to take any other action necessary to effectuate 
and protect such rights, privileges, immunities 
and exemptions. 

A. The Bank, its assets, obligations to it and 
its real and personal property of whatsoever 
nature, including any property deposited with 
it on a custody basis or otherwise, shall where- 
soever located and by whomsoever held, be 
exempt and immune from (1) requisition, 
seizure, attachment, execution, confiscation, 
mora toria and expropriation ; (2) prohibitions, 
restrictions, regulations and controls of with- 
drawal, transfer, or export; (3) currency, 



monetary, exchange and debt regulation and 
control, by the High Contracting Parties or 
any political subdivision thereof, whether or 
not compensation is offered; provided, how- 
ever, that nothing in this paragraph shall pre- 
vent a High Contracting Party or political 
subdivision thereof from attaching or levying 
execution, subject to any prior lien or claim 
of the Bank, upon admitted or adjudicated 
claims of its nationals against the Bank or upon 
property admitted or adjudicated to be held by 
the Bank for such nationals. 

B. Where restrictions, regulations, prohibi- 
tions or controls exist or are hereafter imposed 
in the territory of a High Contracting Party 
in regard to the conversion or exchange of its 
currency into foreign currencies, the High 
Contracting Party shall make available to the 
Bank, by sale or otlierwise, as provided in the 
next sentence, foreign exchange and precious 
metals, requested by the Bank, for such local 
currency acquired by the Bank as a result of 
loans, discounts, extensions of credit (includ- 
ing those in the form of deposits), guaranties 
thereof, or investments, made by tlie bank to 
such High Contracting Party, in its securities 
and obligations, or with its guarantee, express 
approval or consent, or to which it has made no 
timely objection as defined in and when ex- 
pressly provided for by the by-laws of the 
Bank, including principal, interest, and other 
returns thereon. Such foreign exchange and 
precious metals shall be so made available to 
the Bank on a basis, as to amount, rate, and 
all other factors, no less favorable than the 
most favored treatment extended under any 
circumstances by the High Contracting Party 
to any government including its own or to any 
political subdivision, individual, partnership, 
association, corporation or other oi'ganization 
or entity of whatsoever nature. 

C. The Bank and its assets and real and per- 
sonal property of whatsoever nature, including, 
without limitation of the foregoing, its 
Charter, franchise, capital, reserves, sui-plus, 
income and profits; its activities, transactions 
and operations; its shares of stock and all 
notes, debentures, bonds and other such obliga- 



514 

tions issued by the Bank, including dividends 
and interest thereon, by whomsoever held ; any 
remunerations or salaries paid by the Bank; 
and any individual, partnership, corporation, 
association or other entity in its dealings and 
relations with the Bank in any of the foregoing 
matters and in its acquisitions, holdings, trans- 
fers or dispositions of any such shares and ob- 
ligations of the Bank, shall be exempt and 
immune from all taxation by a High Con- 
tracting Party or a political subdivision thereof 
now or hereafter imix)sed and by whatever 
name described, including, without limitation 
of the foregoing, excises, duties and imposts; 
provided, liowever, that the foregoing shall not 
be construed as preventing the imposition by 
a High Contracting Party or any political sub- 
division thereof of non-discriminatoi-y taxes 
upon nationals of such High Contracting 
Party with respect to any of the foregoing. 
Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, neither 
a High Contracting Party nor any political 
subdivision thereof shall impose any tax on or 
mesisured by salaries or remunerations paid 
by the Bank to its ofRcers or employees who 
are citizens of any other High Contracting 
Party. Nothing in this paragraph shall make 
the Bank or any other party referred to above 
exempt or immune from any customs duties 
or imposts or other taxation imposed on or in 
connection with the importation or exporta- 
tion of any article; provided, however, that 
the exportation of (1) coin, currency and of 
intangible property, including, without limita- 
tion of the foregoing, shares of stock, credit in- 
struments, securities, and evidences of indebt- 
edness, and (2) precious metals, other than pre- 
cious metals produced in the territory of the 
High Contracting Party and being exported 
for the first time, owned or held by the Bank, 
or deposited with it on a custody basis or other- 
Avise, and by whomsoever held, shall be exempt 
and immune from any customs duties or im- 
posts or other taxation. The provisions of this 
paragraph shall not be construed to restrict in 
any manner any exemption, deduction, credit 
or other allowance accorded by the laws of any 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of the High Contracting Parties in the determi- 
nation of a tax imposed by such party. 

D. The Bank, its assets, obligations to it and 
its real and personal property of whatsoever 
nature, shall, wheresoever located and by 
whomsoever held, be subject to attachment or 
execution by a private party only after final 
judgment or decree in a suit, action, or pro- 
ceeding in a court of a High Contracting Party 
or political subdivision tliereof. 

E. The shares of stock and the notes, deben- 
tures, bonds and other securities and obliga- 
tions issued by the Bank shall be exempt and 
inmiune from prohibitions, restrictions, regula- 
tions, or controls now or hereafter imposed by 
any High Contracting Party or any political 
subdivision thereof, with respect to the regis- 
tration, issue and sale of stock, notes, deben- 
tures, bonds and other securities and obliga- 
tions; provided that notes, debentures, bonds 
and other securities and obligations issued by 
the Bank shall not be issued or sold by the 
Bank in the territory of a High Contracting 
Party which makes a timely objection, as pro- 
vided in the By-Laws of the Bank. 

Article III 

As used in this Convention and the annexed 
By-Laws of the Inter-American Bank "na- 
tionals" of a High Contracting Party or of a 
participating country or government shall in- 
clude any person who is domiciled in, or a citi- 
zen or resident of, such High Contracting 
Partj' or such participating country or gov- 
ei'nment; and shall also include any individual, 
partnership, association, corporation or other 
entity organized under the laws of such High 
Contracting Party or such participating coun- 
try or government or political subdivision 
thereof or having a permanent establishment, 
such as a branch, office, agency or other fixed 
place of business, in the territory of such High 
Contracting Party or of such participating 
country or government; but shall not include 
the Bank. 

As used in this Convention and the annexed 
By-Laws of the Inter-American Bank, "po- 



MAY 11, 1940 

litical subdivision" shall include territories, de- 
pendencies, possessions, states, departments, 
provinces, counties, municipalities, districts, 
and other smiilar governmental organizations 
and bodies and agencies and instrumentalities 
thereof. 

Article IV 

The original of the present Convention in 
English, Spanish, Portuguese and French shall 
be deposited in the Pan American Union, in 
AVashington, and opened for signature on be- 
half of the American Republics. 

Article V 

The present Convention shall be ratified and 
effectuated by the High Contracting Parties in 
conformity with their respective constitutional 
methods. The Pan American Union shall 
transmit authentic certified copies of the orig- 
inal of the Convention to the High Contracting 
Parties for tlie purpose of ratification. Tlie 
instruments of ratification shall also be depos- 
ited in the archives of the Pan American 
Union, which shall notify the signatory gov- 
ernments of such deposit. Such notification 
shall be considered as an exchange of ratifica- 
tions. 

ArficJe T7 

The present Convention shall come into 
effect as between such ratifying High Con- 
tracting Parties if and when ratifications of 
this Convention shall have been deposited with 
the Pan American Union by at least five of the 
Higli Contracting Paities which have agreed 
to subscribe for at least a total of 145 shares 
of stock of the Bank. Each deposit of ratifi- 
cation shall be accompanied by the designation 
of a person to serve on the Organizing Com- 
mittee of the Bank, which Committee shall 
meet forthwith after the Convention shall have 
come into effect as provided herein and proceed 
with all arrangements necessary for prompt 
organization of the Bank. 

Artich VII 

Each High Contracting Party shall remain 
bound under this Convention for one year after 



515 

such Party ceases to participate in the Bank 
and ceases to be in any way obligated to the 
Bank. 

Article VIII 

This Convention shall remain open to the 
adherence of American Republics which are 
not original signatories. The corresponding 
instruments shall be deposited in the archives 
of the Pan American Union which shall com- 
municate them to the other High Contracting 
Parties. 

In witness whekeof: the undersigned pleni- 
potentiaries, having dejwsited their fidl powers 
found to be in due and proper form, sign this 
Convention on beiialf of their respective Gov- 
ernments, and affix thereto their seals on the 
dates appearing opposite their signatures. 

Proposed Ch.\rter of the Inter- American 
Bank 

Sec. 1. There is hereby created a body cor- 
porate with the name "Inter-American Bank", 
hereinafter referred to as "the Bank". 

Sec. 2. The structure, operations and activi- 
ties of the Bank shall be as defined by the By- 
Laws, which are annexed to the Convention 
relating to the establishment of the Bank. The 
Bank shall also have all incidental powes's 
necessary and proper to carry t)Ut the powers 
now or hereafter expressly authorized herein 
or in the By-Laws of the Bank. 

Sec. 3. The Bank may begin operations when 
at least a total of 145 shares of stock of the 
Bank are subscribed for by at least five govern- 
ments which have also deposited their ratifica- 
tions of the aforementioned Convention with 
the Pan American Union. 

Sec. 4. The Bank shall have succession for 
a period of twenty years from the date of 
enactment hereof or until such earlier time as 
it shall be lawfully dissolved. The United 
States agrees not to repeal or amend this char- 
ter except upon the request of the Bank pur- 
suant to a four-fifths majority vote of the 
Board of Directors of the Bank. The United 
States may extend the charter for additional 
twenty year periods upon the request of the 



516 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



Bank pursuant to a four-fifths majority vote 
of the Board of Directors of the Bank. 

Sec. 5. Amendments to the By-Laws of the 
Bank, consistent with the aforementioned Con- 
vention, this Charter, and the purposes of the 
Bank as now set out in Article 5 A of the By- 
Laws of the Bank, may be adopted by the 
Bank pursuant to a four-fifths majority vote 
of the Board of Directors, provided, however, 
that Article 5 A of the By-Laws may not be 
amended, and provided further, that a unani- 
mous vote of the representatives of all the 
participating governments (and not merely 
unanimity of the votes cast) shall be required 
to increase or deci'ease the minimum holdings 
of participating governments in the stock of 
the bank and to amend the provisions of the 
By-Laws relating to the manner and effect of 
the making of a timely objection by a partici- 
pating government. As used in this act four- 
fifths majority vote of the Board of Directors 
shall mean four-fifths of the votes cast. 

Sec. 6. The Bank shall have power to adopt, 
alter and use a corporate seal; and to make 
such contracts and to acquire, own, hold, use 
or dispose of such real and personal property, 
as may be necessary for the transaction of its 
business. 

Sec. 7. The Bank may sue and be sued, com- 
plain and defend, in any court of competent 
jurisdiction. Any civil suit at law or at equity, 
brought within the United States, its terri- 
tories and possessions, to which the Bank shall 
be a party shall be deemed to arise under the 
laws of the United States, and the district 
courts of the United States shall have original 
jurisdiction of all such suits; and the Bank in 
any such suit may, at any time before the trial 
thereof, remove such suit into the district court 
of the United States for the proper district by 
following the procedure for the removal of 
causes otherwise provided by law. 

By-Laws of the Inter-American Bank 

1. Location 

The principal office of the Bank shall be in 
the United States of America and at least one 
branch or agency of the Bank shall be estab- 



lished in the territory of every other partici- 
pating government. Additional branches and 
agencies may also be established. 

2. Capital stricture asnd particifation , 

A. The capital stock shall be expressed in 
United States dollars (hereafter referred to as 
dollars) and shall be authorized in the amount 
of $100,000,000 consisting of 1000 shares hav- 
ing a par value of $100,000 each, to be paid for 
in gold or in dollars. Fifty percent of the 
issue price of each share shall be paid up at 
the time of subscription for such share and the 
balance may be called up at a later date or 
dates at the discretion of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Bank; provided, however, that 
with respect to the minimum shares of gov- 
ernments in groups A, B, and C, 25 percent of 
the issue price of each share shall be paid up at 
the time of subscription, an additional 25 per- 
cent of the issue price shall be paid up within 
12 months thereafter, and no calling up of 
balances shall require any government in such 
groups to pay more than 25 percent of the issue 
price of such minimum shares within any 12- 
month period. Three months' notice shall be 
given of any calling up of any balance on any 
shares. Upon the formation of the Bank the 
shares of stock shall be sold at par. There- 
after the issue price of shares shall be fixed by 
a four-fifths majority vote of the Board of 
Directors. 

B. Stock shall be available for subscription 
only to the Governments of the American Re- 
publics which have subscribed or adhered to 
the Convention relating to the Bank. For a 
Government to participate in the Bank it must 
subscribe for a minimum number of shares, 
determined in relation to the dollar value of 
the total foreign trade of each of the Ameri- 
can Republics during the year 1938, as follows : 

Group A : Up to 25 million dollars : 
Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and 
Paraguay 5 shares 

Group B: Over 25 million dollars 
and up to 50 million dollars: 



MAY 11, 1940 

Dominican Republic, Guatemala 

and Panama 10 shares 

Group C : Over 50 million dollars 
and up to 75 million dollars: 
Bolivia 15 shares 

Group D: Over 75 million dollars 
and up to 100 million dollars: 
Uruguay 20 shares 

Group E : Over 100 million dollars 
and up to 150 million dollars: 
Peru 25 shares 

Group F: Over 150 million dollars 
and up to 250 million dollai-s: 
Chile, Colombia and Cuba 30 shares 

Group G: Over 250 million dollars 
and up to 500 million dollars: 
Mexico and Venezuela 35 shares 

Group H: Over 500 million dollars: 
Argentina, Brazil and United 
States of America 50 shares 

Each participating government may sub- 
scribe for stock in addition to the minimum. 
Where the demand for such additional stock 
exceeds the amount available for issue by the 
Bank, such demand will be met on an equal 
basis from such available shares. 

C. Governments of American Republics 
which do not participate in the Bank at the 
time of its formation or which shall have at 
any time ceased to participate in the Bank, 
shall be permitted to participate in the Bank 
upon adhering to the Convention relating 
to the Bank, subscribing for the minimum 
number of shares, and complying with any 
other terms and conditions designated in regu- 
lations of the Bank. 

D. Liability of a shareholder on its shares 
shall be limited to the issue price of the shares 
held by it. 

E. (1) The shares of stock held by each gov- 
enmient shall be security for all the obligations 
of such government to the Bank and shall not 
be otherwise pledged or encumbered by the 
shareholder. 

(2) If a government fails to make payment 
on a share on the day appointed for such pay- 
ment, the Bank may, after giving reasonable 
notice to such government, vest in itself title 



517 

to such share, paying to the defaulting share- 
holder an amount equal to the fair value of 
such share as determined by the Bank less any 
amount which the Bank considers necessary as 
additional collateral for any outstanding obli- 
gation or liability of such government to the 
Bank. Failure to make payment on a share 
on the day appointed for such payment shall 
deprive the defaulting government of its right 
to exercise a vote in respect of such share so 
long as such government remains in default, 
provided that the failure of a government to 
make payment on the minimum number of 
shares required to be subscribed by it shall de- 
prive such government of the right to exercise 
any voting power during the period of default. 

(3) If a government defaults on any other 
obligation to the Bank, the Bank may, after 
taking reasonable action to realize on any other 
collateral given to secure such obligation and 
after giving reasonable notice to such govern- 
ment, vest in itself title to an appropriate num- 
ber of shares belonging to such government 
and apply to the defaulted obligation the fair 
value of such shares, as determined by the 
Bank. Any amount remaining, less any 
amount which the Bank considers necessary as 
additional collateral for any outstanding obli- 
gation or liability of such government to the 
Bank, shall be paid by the Bank to the default- 
ing government. 

(4) If, after a government has had a reason- 
able opportunity to present its position to the 
Board of Directors, the Board bj- a four-fifths 
majority vote finds that such government has 
violated any provision of the Convention re- 
lating to the Bank, such government shall cease 
to participate in the Bank, but its obligations 
and duties with respect to the Bank shall con- 
tinue and the Bank may vest in itself title to 
an appropriate number of shares belonging to 
such government and apply the fair value of 
such shares as determined by the Bank to com- 
pensate the Bank for such damages as the 
Bank detennines it suffered by reason of such 
violation. Any amount remaining, less any 
amount which the Bank considers necessary as 
additional collateral for any outstanding loan 
or liability of such government to the Bank 



518 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



shall be paid by the Bank to such government. 

F. Shares of stock may be transferred only 
to the Bank or to other participating govern- 
ments at a price to be agreed upon between the 
parties and upon the approval of the transfer 
by a four-fifths majority vote of the Board of 
Directors. If, as a result of the transfer of 
shares of stock or acquisition by the Bank, or 
for any other reason, a government holds less 
than the minimum amount of shares of stock 
required of it, such government shall cease to 
participate in the Bank, but its obligations and 
duties with respect to the Bank shall continue. 

G. The capital structure of the Bank, in- 
cluding the number and par value of shares 
may be increased or decreased by a four-fifths 
majority vote of the Board of Directors, except 
that a unanimous vote of the representatives of 
all the participating governments (and not 
merely unanimity of the votes cast) shall be 
required to increase or decrease the minimum 
holdings of participating governments. 

H. The voting power of the participating 
governments on the Board of Directors shall be 
distributed as follows: 20 votes for each gov- 
ernment for its minimum shares, and 1 vote 
for each additional share. However, i-egard- 
less of the amount of stock owned by it, no 
government shall have a voting power in excess 
of 50 percent of the total voting power of all 
the other participating governments. 

3. Management 

A. The administration of the Bank shall be 
vested in the Board of Directors composed of 
one director and one alternate appointed by 
each participating govermnent. Each govern- 
ment shall appoint its director and alternate 
and any nominee or proxy in a manner to be 
determined by it. Such director shall serve 
for a period of two years, subject to the pleas- 
ure of his government. An alternate and a 
nominee or proxy shall serve for such period 
as shall be determined by his govei'nment. The 
Bank shall pay such reascmable expenses as 
are incurred by the directors and alternates 
and nominees or proxies in attending any meet- 
ings of the Board or any committee of the 



Bank. The voting power held by a participat- 
ing government shall be exercised by the di- 
rector and in his absence by the alternate and 
in the absence of both the director and alter- 
nate by the nominee or proxy of such govern- 
ment in such manner as the Board may pro- 
vide by regulations. The alternate may other- 
wise participate in the activities of the Board. 

B. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall 
be held not less than four times a year and 
may be held either at the principal or any 
branch office or at any other city in a partici- 
pating country as the Board may determine. 
The president may call special or extraordi- 
nary meetings of the Board at any time. All 
meetings, regular, special or extraordinary, 
shall be held upon such reasonable notice as 
the Board may provide by regulations. 

C. The Board of Directors shall select a 
president of the Bank who shall be the chief 
of the operating staff of the Bank and who 
also shall be ex-officio chairman of the Board, 
and one or more vice presidents, who shall be 
ex-officio vice chairman of the Board. The 
president and vice presidents of the Bank shall 
hold office for two years, shall be eligible for 
reelection and may be removed for cause at any 
time by the Board. The Board of Directors 
shall determine the order in which vice presi- 
dents shall serve as acting president and. chair- 
man in the absence of the president. 

D. The departmental organization of the 
Bank shall be determined by the Boai'd of Di- 
rectors. The heads of departments and other 
similar officers shall be appointed by the Board 
on the recommendation of the president. The 
remainder of the staff shall be appointed by 
the president. 

E. The Board of Directors may also appoint 
from among its members an executive com- 
mittee. The Board may at any meeting, by a 
four-fifths majority vote, authorize the pi'esi- 
dent or the executive committee or any other 
committee of the Bank to exercise any speci- 
fied powers of the Board; provided, however, 
that such powers shall be exercised only until 
the next meeting of the Board and shall be 
exercised in a maimer consistent with the gen- 



eral policies and practices of the Board. The 
Board may also, by a four-fifths majority vote, 
delegate to designated officers and committees 
of the Bank, for such periods as it may deter- 
mine, power to make loans and extend credit 
in such small amounts as may be fixed by the 
Board. 

F. The Board of Directors may appoint ad- 
visory coimnittees chosen wholly or partially 
from persons not regularly employed by the 
Bank. 

G. The Board of Directors, within a year 
after its first meeting, shall by regulations 
prescribe the reserves to be established and 
maintained against demand deposits and other 
obligations of the Bank and shall prescribe a 
limitation on the amount of intermediate and 
long-term assets in relation to capital and sur- 
plus; and such regulations shall not be 
amended, modified or revoked except by a 
four-fifths majority vote of the Board. 

H. Before the Bank finally approves an in- 
termediate or long-term loan or extension of 
credit, a full written report on the merits of 
the proposed transaction shall be prepared by 
a committee of experts which may include 
persons other than officers and employees of the 
Bank. 

I. Except as herein otherwise provided, 
decisions of the Board of Directors shall be by 
simple majority of the votes cast. In the case 
of equality of votes, the chairman, or in his 
absence the vice chairman serving in his stead, 
shall have a deciding vote. When deemed by 
the president to be in the best interests of the 
Bank, decisions of the Board may be made, 
without a meeting, by polling the directors on 
specific questions submitted to them in such 
manner as the Board shall by regulations pro- 
vide. The Board shall by regulations deter- 
mine what constitutes a quorum for a meeting. 

J. Authorization or approval by four-fifths 
majority vote of the Board of Directors shall 
be required for the making and granting of 
intermediate and long-term loans and credits, 
including the assumption of the obligation of 
a guarantor on intermediate and long-term 
loans and credits; the acquisition and sale of, 



519 

and dealing in intermediate and long-term ob- 
ligations and securities; the discounting and re- 
discounting of intermediate and long-term 
paper; engaging in bullion and foreign ex- 
change transactions and guaranteeing the 
availability and the rates of exchange of the 
cuiTencies of participating governments; the 
issuance of debentures and other securities and 
obligations of the Bank; the payment of in- 
terest on deposits of governments, fiscal agen- 
cies and political subdivisions thereof and cen- 
tral banks; the selection or removal of a presi- 
dent, the vice presidents, heads of departments 
and other similar officers of the Bank; the de- 
termination of the departmental organization 
of the Bank and of the functions and duties 
of the officers and principal employees of the 
Bank and the executive and other committees; 
the calling up of the balances due on stock; 
the establishment, creation, change or discon- 
tinuance of the principal office and branches 
and agencies of the Bank, and for amending 
the By-Laws, except that Article 5A of these 
By-Laws may not be amended, and except that 
the provisions of these By-Laws relating to 
the manner and effect of the making of a 
timely objection by a participating govern- 
ment may not be amended except by a unani- 
mous vote of the representatives of all the 
participating governments (and not merely 
unanimity of the votes cast). 

K. Authorization or approval of specified 
series, classes, groups or other categories of 
transactions may be made in advance by the 
Board of Directors by the vote required in such 
cases by these By-Laws. 

4. Accounts and Profits 

A. The financial year of the Bank shall end 
on December 31. 

B. The books and accounts of the Bank shall 
be expressed in terms of dollars. 

C. The Bank shall publish an annual report 
and at least once a month a statement of ac- 
count in such form as the Board of Directors 
may prescribe. The Board shall cause to be 
prepared a profit and loss account and a bal- 
ance sheet for each financial year. All pub- 
lished documents shall be printed in the official 



520 

languages of the participating governments. 
The Board shall designate a committee of Di- 
rectors to arrange for examination, at least 
once a year, of the books and accounts of the 
Bank by competent experts to be selected by 
the committee. 

D. The yearly net profits of the Bank shall 
be applied as follows: 

1. Not less than 25 percent of such net profits 
shall be paid into surplus until the surplus is 
equal in amount to the par value of the au- 
thorized capital stock of the Bank. 

2. The remainder of such net profits shall be 
applied towards the payment of a dividend of 
not more than 3 percent per annum on the paid 
up amount of the stock of the Bank ; provided, 
however, that dividends shall be noncumula- 
tive and no dividends shall be paid so long as 
the capital of the Bank is impaired. 

3. The balance of such profits shall be paid 
into surplus and be designated a dividend 
reserve. 

E. The Board of Directors by a four-fifths 
majority vote may declare dividends out of the 
dividend reserve in surplus of the Bank, pro- 
vided, however, that total dividends in any one 
year, including dividends paid pursuant to 
paragraph D2 above, shall not be more than 3 
percent of the paid-up amount of the stock. 

F. The Bank may not be liquidated except 
by a four-fifths majority vote of the Board of 
Directors. Upon liquidation of the Bank and 
after discharge of all the liabilities of the 
Bank, the assets remaining shall be divided 
among the shareholders. 

G. The shares shall carry equal rights to 
participate in the profits of the Bank and in 
any distributions of assets upon liquidation of 
the Bank. 

5. Purposes and Powers 

A. The Bank is created by the American 
Republics to carry out the following purposes: 

(1) Facilitate the prudent investment of 
funds and stimulate the full productive use of 
capital and credit. 

(2) Assist in stabilizing the currencies of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

American Republics; encourage general direct 
exchanges of the currencies of American Re- 
publics ; encourage the maintenance of adequate 
monetary resei-ves; promote the use an4 dis- 
tribution of gold and silver; and facilitate 
monetary equilibrium. 

(3) Function as a clearing house for, and in 
other ways facilitate, the transfer of inter- 
national payments. 

(4) Increase international trade, travel and 
exchange of services in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. 

(5) Promote the development of industry, 
public utilities, mining, agriculture, commerce 
and finance in the Western Hemisphere. 

(6) Foster cooperation among the American 
Republics in the fields of agriculture, industry, 
public utilities, mining, marketing, commerce, 
transportation and related economic and finan- 
cial matters. 

(7) Encourage and promote research in the 
technology of agriculture, industry, public 
utilities, mining and commerce. 

(8) Engage in research and contribute ex- 
pert advice on problems of public finance, ex- 
change, banking and money as they relate 
specifically to the problems of American Re- 
publics. 

(9) Promote publication of data and in- 
formation relating to the purposes of the 
Bank. 

B. In order to carry out the foregoing pur- 
poses, the Bank shall have specific power to : 

(1) Make and grant short-term, intermediate 
and long-term loans and credits in any currency 
and in precious metals to participating govern- 
ments and to fiscal agencies, central banks, 
political subdivisions and nationals thereof; 
provided that any such loan or credit having a 
maturity exceeding two years to any such fiscal 
agency, central bank, political subdivision or 
national shall be guaranteed by the government 
thereof, and provided further that any such 
loan or credit having a maturity not exceeding 
two years shall not be made or granted by the 
Bank to any such fiscal agency, central bank, 
political subdivision or national if the govern- 
ment thereof makes a timely objection. 



MAY 11, 1940 

(2) Buy, sell, hold and deal in the obliga- 
tions and securities of any participating gov- 
ernment and of fiscal agencies, central banks, 
political subdivisions and nationals thereof, 
unless such government makes a timely objec- 
tion to the purchase thereof; provided that 
such obligations and securities having ma- 
turities exceeding two years as are not the di- 
rect liability of such government are guaran- 
teed by such government; and provided, 
further, that the Bank shall not buy obliga- 
tions and securitiete that are in default in 
whole or in part as to principal or interest. 

(3) Guarantee in whole or in part credits 
and loans made from any source to any par- 
ticipating government and to fiscal agencies, 
central banks, political subdivisions and na- 
tionals thereof, provided that such credits 
and loans having maturities exceeding two 
years as are not direct obligations of such gov- 
ernment are guaranteed by such government, 
and provided further that such credits and 
loans having maturities not exceeding two 
years as are not direct obligations of such gov- 
ernment shall not be guaranteed by the Bank 
if such government makes a timely objection. 

(4) Act as a clearing house of funds, 
balances, checks, drafts and acceptances. 

(5) Buy, sell, hold and deal in precious 
metals, currencies and foreign exchange for 
its own account and for the account of others ; 
provided, however, that no such transaction 
shall be entered into with a fiscal agency, cen- 
tral bank, political subdivision, or national of 
a participating government, if such govern- 
ment makes a timely objection ; and guarantee 
the availability and the rates of exchange of 
the currencies of participating governments. 

(6) Issue or sell debentures and other se- 
curities and obligations of the Bank to obtain 
assets for the purposes of the Bank, provided 
that such debentures and other securities and 
obligations shall not be issued or sold by the 
Bank in the territory of any participating gov- 
ernment which makes a timely objection. The 
Bank may also borrow in any other manner 
from participating governments, and from 
political subdivisions and banking institutions 



521 

thereof unless the government of the lender 
makes a timely objection. 

(7) Accept demand, time, and custody de- 
posits and accounts from others, including par- 
ticipating governments and fiscal agencies, 
central banks, political subdivisions and na- 
tionals thereof unless the participating govern- 
ment makes a timely objection; provided that 
the Bank shall pay interest, if any, only on 
deposits of governments, fiscal agencies and 
political subdivisions thereof and central 
banks. 

(8) Discount and rediscount bills, accept- 
ances and other obligations and instruments of 
credit of participating governments and fiscal 
agencies, central banks, political subdivisions 
and nationals thereof, provided that such paper 
having maturity exceeding two j-ears as is not 
the direct obligation of such government is 
guaranteed by the government, and provided 
further that such paper having a maturity not 
exceeding two j'ears as is not the direct obliga- 
tion of such government shall not be discounted 
or rediscounted by the Bank if such govern- 
ment makes a timely objection. 

(9) Rediscount with any government, fiscal 
agency or banking institution bills, acceptances 
and instruments of credit taken from the 
Bank's portfolio; provided, however, that llio 
Bank may not rediscount with a fiscal agency 
or a banking institution in the territory of a 
participating government which makes a timely 
objection. 

(10) Open and maintain demand, time, and 
custody deposits and accounts with govern- 
ments and banking institutions and arrange 
with govenmients and banking institutions to 
act as agent or correspondent for the Bank, 
unless such banking institution is situated in 
the territory of a participating govenmient 
and such government makes a timely objection. 

(11) Act as agent or correspondent for any 
participating government and for fiscal agen- 
cies, central banks and political subdivisions 
thereof, unless the government makes a timely 
objection. 

(12) Engage in financial and economic 
studies and publish reports thereof. 



522 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(13) Buy, sell and deal in cable transfers, 
accejjt bills and drafts drawn upon the Bank, 
and issue letters of credit; all subject to the 
limitations herein provided with respect to 
loans, extensions of credit, discounting and re- 
discounting of paper, and dealing in obliga- 
tions and securities. 

(14) Adopt, alter and use a corporate seal; 
acquire, own, hold, use or dispose of such real 
and personal property as may be necessary for 
the transaction of its business; and make con- 
tracts subject to the limitations herein pro- 
vided. 

(15) Exercise incidental powers necessary 
and proper to carry out the powers expressly 
authorized herein. 

C. The Board of Directors shall determine 
the nature of the operations which may be 
undertaken by the Bank in the exercise of its 
powers and in order to effectuate its purposes. 
The operations of the Bank shall at all times 
be conducted in conformity with the laws of 
the territory where the Bank is acting and, so 
far as possible, be conducted in conformity 
with the policies of the participating govern- 
ment directly concerned. 

6. InterpretMtioTis and Definitions 

As used herein : 

A. Four-fifths majority vote of the Board of 
Directors shall mean four-fifths of the votes 
cast. 

B. "Short-term" shall mean a period less 
than one year; "intermediate" shall mean a 
period from one to five years ; and "long-term" 
shall mean a period longer than five years; 
and the period applicable to any outstanding 
obligation shall be the period remaining to 
its maturity rather than the period from its 
issuance to maturity. 

C. A government shall be deemed to make a 
timely objection only if such government, after 
its director is notified by the Bank of the 
Bank's proposed action or course of action, pre- 
sents to the Bank within the reasonable period 
of time fixed by the Board, through such gov- 
ernment's director, alternate, nominee or proxy 
its objection to such action or course of action. 



The Bank shall notify the directors represent- 
ing the governments concerned when the 
Bank contemplates action or a course of action 
as to which provision for such timely objection 
is made in these By-Laws. 

[Released to the press May 9] 

The Secretary of State in a letter dated 
March 13, 1940,^^ informed the Chairman of 
the Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee that the Government of 
the United States is prepared to sign a pro- 
posed convention for the establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank. The Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee 
on April 16 approved a resolution adopting 
definitive texts of convention, charter, and by- 
laws for the establishment of such bank, fixed 
May 10, 1940, as the date for the signature of 
the convention, and requested the nomination 
of plenipotentiaries for the purpose. 

The Secretary of State has announced that 
the convention in its definitive text as adopted 
by the Inter-American Committee on April 16 
will be signed on behalf of the United States 
by the Under Seci-etary of State, the Honorable 
Sumner Welles, on Friday, May 10, at noon, at 
the Pan American Union. 

History or the Project 

The present project for the establishment of 
an Inter-American Bank is the result of sev- 
eral months of intensive work in the Inter- 
American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee and is the outcome of many years 
of discussion of the desirability of creating 
such an institution. The First International 
Conference of American States discussed the 
matter of providing adequate inter-American 
banking facilities, and on April 14, 1890, 
adopted a resolution recommending that the 
governments grant liberal concessions to facili- 
tate inter-American banking and especially 
such as might be necessary for the establish- 
ment of an international American bank. 



"See the Bulletin of March 16, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 
38), pp. 305-306. 



MAT 11, 1940 

This resolution was approved by a vote of 14 
to 0, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colom- 
bia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, 
Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, 
and Venezuela all indicating their concurrence. 
The Secretary of State, James G. Blaine, in 
transmitting the resolution to President Harri- 
son indicated his approval of passage of a law 
by the United States incorporating such an 
international American bank, and President 
Harrison transmitted the resolution and letter 
of Secretary Blaine to the Congress for ap- 
propriate action. 

The Second International Conference of 
American States on January 21, 1902, recom- 
mended that a powerful inter-American bank 
be set up in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, 
New Orleans, Buenos Aires, or any other im- 
portant mercantile center and that it be as- 
sisted in every manner compatible with the 
internal legislation of each of the American 
republics. This resolution was signed by 
Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nica- 
ragua, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, and 
Uruguay. 

The provision of inter-American banking 
facilities, especially in view of the dislocations 
occasioned by the European war, was discussed 
at length at the First Pan American Financial 
Conference which met from May 24 to 29, 1915. 

In 1933, the Seventh International Con- 
ference of American States, upon the initiative 
especially of the delegations of Peru and Uru- 
guay, unanimously adopted a resolution rec- 
ommending the creation of an inter-American 
bank to establish and promote inter-American 
credit and the interchange of capital, to collab- 
orate in the reconstruction of national mone- 
tary conditions, and to perform such other tasks 
as the Third Pan American Financial Con- 
ference might entrust to it. The Third Pan 
American Financial Conference did not take 
place, and the Eighth International Conference 
of American States in 1938 considered a num- 
ber of resolutions which had been presented to 



523 

the Seventh Conference and to the Inter- 
American Conference for the Maintenance of 
Peace. It resolved to request the Pan Ameri- 
can Union to study the possibilities of estab- 
lishing an organization to carry out the pur- 
poses envisaged. 

In 1939, the Meeting of the Foreign Minis- 
ters of the American Republics at Panama 
adopted a resolution creating the Inter-Ameri- 
can Financial and Economic Advisory Com- 
mittee to study, among other things, the need, 
form, and conditions for the establishment of 
an inter-American banking institution. Later 
in the same year the P'irst Meeting of Finance 
Ministers of the American Republics at Guate- 
mala recommended to the urgent attention of 
the Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Conmiittee a study of the desirability 
of creating such a bank. 

The Inter-American Financial and Eco- 
nomic Advisory Committee began its work in 
Wasliington on November 15, 1939, and imme- 
diately turned its attention to the matter of an 
inter-American bank. After several months of 
intensive effort in which the delegates repre- 
senting the 21 American republics were as- 
sisted by a group of experts from the United 
States Departments of State and Treasury, the 
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System, and the Federal Loan Agency, the In- 
ter-American Committee on February 7 adopted 
a resolution recommending to the governments 
of the American republics the establishment of 
such a bank and submitted for their considera- 
tion drafts of a convention, charter, and bylaws 
for its establislmient. Comments and sugges- 
tions were received from a immber of the 
governments and were carefully studied, and 
on April 16 the Inter-American Committee 
approved the final texts mentioned above. 

Motives for and Purposes of the Proposed 
Bank 

The establislmient of an inter-American 
bank would be a step of major importance in 
the development of inter-American financial 
and economic cooperation and the economic 
implementation of the "good neighbor" policy. 



524 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXILLETIN 



It has been apparent for some time that there 
has existed a wide zone of economic and 
financial activity among the American re- 
publics for which the existing machinery of 
cooperation has been inadequate. 

The Bank, generally speaking, is designed 
to promote the fuller exploitation of tlie 
natural resources of the Americas, to intensify 
economic and financial relations among the 
American republics, and to mobilize for the so- 
lution of economic problems the best thought 
and experience in the Americas. The pur- 
poses of the Bank are enumerated in more 
detail in section 5-A of the bylaws. 

Organization of the Bank 

The charter and sections 2 and 3 of the by- 
laws provide in considerable detail for the 
organization of the proposed Bank. The Bank 
is to be an intergovernmental organization. 
All of the shares are to be subscribed by gov- 
ernments of the American republics, and none 
of the shares may pass to others than govern- 
ments of the American republics. The mini- 
mum number of shares to be subscribed by each 
of the American republics in order to partici- 
pate in the Bank is specified in section 2-B of 
the bylaws; this schedule is based upon the 
foreign trade of each of the American re- 
publics in the year 1938. According to this 
schedule the United States is in group H with 
Argentina and Brazil; the members of this 
group are required to subscribe to a minimum 
of 50 shares, or $5,000,000 each. The liability 
of shareholding governments on their shares 
is limited to the issue price thereof. 

Voting among participating nations is dis- 
tributed as follows, in accordance with section 
2-H of the bylaws: 20 votes for each govern- 
ment for its minimum shares and 1 vote for 
each additional share which it may subscribe. 
Important decisions require a four-fifths vote. 
It is thus possible that one or more govern- 
ments may acquire sufficient shares to possess 
more than 20 percent of the total vote and thus 
be able to exercise a veto power on important 
decisions. 



The directors of the Bank are all to be ap- 
pointed by the shareholding governments and 
are to be responsible to them alone. Gener- 
ally speaking, moreover, the Bank may take no 
action which may affect a particular 'nation 
until after that nation has been given an op- 
portunity to object to, or to give its consent, 
approval, or guaranty to the operation. This 
safeguard of the interests of individual na- 
tions is inherent in the entire plan and appears 
throughout the drafting. In addition, it is 
specifically provided in section 5-C that: 

"The operations of the Bank shall at all 
times be conducted in conformity with the laws 
of the territory where the Bank is acting and, 
so far as possible, be conducted in conformity 
with the policies of the participating govern- 
ment directly concerned." 

United States Participation in the Estab- 
lishment OF THE Bank 

The appropriate convention will be signed 
on behalf of the United States on May 10, 
1940. Ratification of this convention by the 
United States will of course depend on the 
advice and consent of the United States Senate 
by a two-thirds vote. In addition, since the 
proposed Bank would be set up under a Federal 
charter granted by the United States, Congress 
will in accordance with the convention be re- 
quested to issue such a charter. Moreover;, 
certain additional legislation will be necessary 
in order to permit the participation of this 
Government in the Bank. Specifically, the 
United States must subscribe to at least the 
minimum number of shares required for par- 
ticipation by a country in gi-oup H. Consid- 
eration of all these matters in the Senate and 
the House of Representatives will provide 
ample opportunity for a full discussion of the 
proposal. 

Section 4 of the proposed charter provides 
that the Bank sliall have succession for a 
period of 20 years, which may be extended, or 
until such earlier time as it shall be lawfully 
dissolved, in accordance with the terms of the 
bylaws, and that the United States agrees not 
to repeal or amend the charter except upon the 



MAY 11, 1940 

request of the Bank pursuant to a four-fifths 
majority vote of the Board of Directors of the 
Bank. This charter and the bylaws of the pro- 
posed institution are to be annexed to the con- 
vention and to be integral parts of it. It is 
obviously not feasible to permit one party to 
an international convention ratified in each 
country according to its constitutional pro- 
cedure to be free to change an integral part of 
the convention without the agreement of all of 
the other parties thereto. 

Powers of the Bank 

The powers with which it is proposed to en- 
dow tlie projected institution are specified in 
section 5-B of the bylaws. In general it may 
be said that the Bank is given rather broad 
powers, subject to restrictions which will be 
mentioned immediately below, to engage in all 
usual banking operations. In keeping with 
the intergovernmental character of the insti- 
tution, it is specified that all extensions of 
credit by the Bank, either direct or indirect, 
must be to a participating government or to a 
fiscal agency, central bank, political subdi- 
vision, or national of a participating govern- 
ment with the guaranty of that government, or, 
in the case of extensions of credit having a 
maturity not exceeding 2 years to any such 
fiscal agency, central bank, political subdi- 
vision, or national, only if the government 
thereof does not make a timely objection. In 
this way, and in accordance with the provisions 
of section 5-C of the bylaws, which was quoted 
above, special care has been taken to ensure to 
each country the ability to bar any activity of 
the Bank within its territory which such coun- 
try may deem undesirable. 

While the purposes and powers of the pro- 
jected Bank have been stated in fairly broad 
and elastic tenns, as is both customary and es- 
sential in the organic laws of such institutions, 
discussions during the drafting of the conven- 
tion and bylaws indicated that it was the in- 
tention of the Inter-American Financial and 
Economic Advisory Committee to complement 
existing financial institutions rather than to 
provide a substitute for them. 



525 

Rights, Prtvileges, Immunities, and Exesip- 
TioNs Gr.\nted to the Bank 

In view of the intergovernmental character 
of the Bank, arising especially from the fact 
that all the participants are sovereign gov- 
ernments, article II of the convention would 
grant to the proposed Bank certain riglits, 
privileges, immunities, and exemptions which 
would permit the Bank to carry on any opera- 
tions to which the governments concerned have 
indicated no objection without being liable to 
subsequent imilateral action against the Bank 
by any of the goverimients. Special care has 
been taken in the drafting to concede such 
rights, privileges, immunities, and exemptions 
which are essential to the proper functioning 
of the Bank without permitting abuses to oc- 
cur. Thus article II, A and D, of the con- 
vention permits legal action in regard to ad- 
judicated claims against the Bank and its de- 
positors. Similarly, article II C specifically 
excludes general nondiscrimmatory taxation, 
such as income taxation, upon individuals 
dealing with the Banlc from any tax exemption 
accorded by the convention. Moreover, article 
II B assures the Bank that, where exchange 
restrictions or controls exist, it shall be ac- 
corded facilities for transferring out from a 
country, on the most favorable basis, amortiza- 
tion, interest, and other returns only from 
loans and investments of funds to which the 
government concerned had not previously made 
the timely objection which it is privileged to 
make. 

POSTAL 

Universal Postal Convention of 1939 

Mexico 

According to a despatch from the American 
Ambassador to Mexico dated April 23, 1940, the 
President of Mexico signed on December 30, 
1939, a decree approving the Universal Postal 
Convention, the Regulations of Execution, the 
Provisions Regarding Air Mail, and the Ar- 



526 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUU^ETIK 



rangemeiit Concerning Parcel Post, signed at 
Buenos Aires on May 23, 1939. The decree 
was published in the Diario Oftcial No. 45, of 
April 22, 1940. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, etc. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Regional Radio : Convention Between the United 
States of America (in Behalf of the Canal Zone) and 
Other Powers. — Signed at Guatemala City December 
8, 193S; proclaimed September 18, 1939. Treaty 
Series No. 949. 9 pp. 50. 



SECOND PAN AMERICAN CONFER- 
ENCE OF COMMERCIAL AGENTS 

[Released to the press May 8] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Brazilian Government to participate in 
the Second Pan American Congress of Com- 
mercial Agents, which will be held at Rio de 
Janeiro from May 25 to June 1, 1940. The 
President has approved the designation of Mr. 
Walter J. Donnelly, commercial attache, 
American Embassy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
as delegate on the part of the United States. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT rRINTING OFFICE: 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBMSUED WEEKLT WITH THE APPROVAL OP THE DIRECTOE OP THE BUREAU OP THE BDDOET 



i 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




LETIN 



MAY i8, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 4'j — Publication 1 464 



Qontents 




General: Paee 

Message of the President to the Cotigress 529 

Address by the Secretary of State before the American 

Society of International Law 532 

Address by Joseph E. Davies 536 

The American Republics: 

Eighth American Scientific Congress: 

Address of welcome by the Secretary of State . . . 537 

Address by the Under Secretary of State 539 

Proposed joint declaration by the American republics 

protesting violation of neutrality in Europe .... 541 

Paraguay: National aimiversary 542 

Europe: 

Warnings to American citizens to evacuate southern 

Europe, Great Britain, Switzerland, and France . . 542 
Representation of foreign uitercsts by American diplo- 
matic missions in Europe 543 

Portuguese celebrations on national anniversary. . . 544 
Reports on American citizens in the Netherlands and 

Belgium 544 

Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc.: 

Monthly statistics 544 

Foreign Service of the United States: 

Persomiel changes 552 

Legislation 553 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
JUN 10 1940 



Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicial Settlement: Pagi 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 554 

Permanent Court of International Justice 554 

Education: 

Proces-Verbal Concerning the Application of Articles 
IV, V, VL VII, IX, XII, and XIII of the Conven- 
tion of October 11, 1933, for Facilitating the Inter- 
national Circulation of Films of an Educational 

Character 555 

Convention for Facilitating the International Circu- 
lation of Films of an Educational Character . . . 555 
Slavery: 

International Slavery Convention (Treaty Series No. 

778) 556 

Publications 556 



General 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS 



[Released to the press by the White House May 16] 

To THE Congress of the United States : 

These are ominous days — days whose swift 
and shocking developments force every neutral 
nation to look to its defenses in the light of new 
factors. The brutal force of modern offensive 
war has been loosed in all its horror. New 
powers of destruction, incredibly swift and 
deadly, have been developed; and those who 
wield them are ruthless and daring. No old 
defense is so strong that it requires no further 
strengthening, and no attack is so unlikely or 
impossible that it may be ignored. 

Let us examine, without self-deception, the 
dangers which confront us. Let us measure 
our strength and our defense without self- 
delusion. 

The clear fact is that the American people 
must recast their thinking about national 
protection. 

Motorized armies can now sweep through 
enemy territories at the rate of 200 miles a 
day. Parachute troops are dropped from air- 
planes in large numbers behind enemy lines. 
Troops are landed from planes in open fields, on 
wide highways, and at local civil airj^orts. 

We have seen the treacherous use of the "fifth 
column" by which i:)ersons supposed to be peace- 
ful visitors were actually a part of an enemy 
unit of occupation. Lightning attacks, capa- 
ble of destroying airplane factories and muni- 
tion works hundreds of miles behind the lines, 
are part of the new technique of modern war. 

The element of surprise whicli has ever been 
an important tactic in warfare has become the 

232708 — 40 



more dangerous because of tiie amazing speed 
with which modern equipment can reach and 
attack the enemy's country. 

Our own vital interests are widespread. 
More than ever the protection of the wliole 
American Hemisphere against invasion or con- 
trol or domination by non-American nations 
has the united support of the 21 American re- 
publics, including the United States. More 
than ever tliis protection calls for ready-at-hand 
weapons capable of great mobility because of 
the potential speed of modern attack. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were rea- 
sonably adequate defensive barriers when fleets 
under sail could move at an average speed of 5 
miles an hour. Even then by a sudden foray 
it was possible for an opponent actually to burn 
our National Capitol. Later, the oceans still 
gave strength to our defense when fleets and 
convoys propelled by steam could sail the oceans 
at 15 or 20 miles an hour. 

But the new element — air navigation — steps 
up the speed of possible attack to tiOO, to 300 
miles an hour. 

Furthermore, it brings the new possibilities 
of the use of nearer bases from which an attack 
or attacks on the American Continents could be 
made. From the fiords of Gi'eenland it is 4 
hours by air to Newfoundland: 5 hours to Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec; and only 
6 hours to New England. 

The Azores are only 2,000 miles from parts 
of our eastern seaboard, and if Bermuda fell 
into hostile hands it is a matter of less than 3 
hours for modern bombers to reach our shores. 

529 



530 

From a base in the outer West Indies, the 
coast of Florida could be reached in 200 
minutes. 

The islands off the west coast of Africa are 
only 1,500 miles from Brazil. Modern planes 
starting from the Cape Verde Islands can be 
over Brazil in 7 hours. 

And Para, Brazil, is but 4 flying hours to 
Caracas, Venezuela; and Venezuela but 2i/^ 
hours to Cuba and the Canal Zone; and Cuba 
and the Canal Zone are 2^4 hours to Tampico, 
Mexico ; and Tampico is 2^4 hours to St. Louis, 
Kansas City, and Omaha. 

On the other side of the continent, Alaska, 
with a white population of only 30,000 people, is 
within 4 or 5 hours of flying distance to Van- 
couver, Seattle, Tacoma, and Portland. The 
islands of the southern Pacific are not too far 
removed from the west coast of South America 
to prevent them from becoming bases of enor- 
mous strategic advantage to attacking forces. 

Surely, the developments of the past few 
weeks have made it clear to all of our citizens 
that the possibility of attack on vital American 
zones ought to make it essential that we have 
the physical, the ready ability to meet those 
attacks and to prevent them from reaching their 
objectives. 

This means military implements — not on 
paper — which are ready and available to meet 
any lightning offensive against our American 
interest. It means also that facilities for pro- 
duction must be ready to turn out munitions 
and equipment at top speed. 

We have had the lesson before us over and 
over again — nations that were not ready and 
were unable to get ready fomid themselves over- 
run by the enemy. So-called impregnable forti- 
fications no longer exist. A defense which 
allows an enemy to consolidate his approach 
without hindrance will lose. A defense which 
makes no effective effort to destroy the lines of 
supplies and communications of the enemy will 
lose. 

An effective defense by its very nature re- 
quires the equipment to attack an aggressor on 
his route before he can establish strong bases 
within the territory of American vital interests. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Loose talking and thinking on the part of 
some may give the false impression that our 
own Army and Navy are not first-rate, or that 
money has been wasted on them. 

Nothing could be further from the truth. 

In recent years the defensive power of our 
Army, Navy, and Marine Corps has been very 
greatly improved. 

The Navy is stronger today than at any time 
in the Nation's history. Today also a large pro- 
gram of new construction is well under way. 
Ship for ship, ours are equal to, or better than, 
the vessels of any foreign power. 

The Army likewise is at its greatest peace- 
time strength. Its equipment in quality and 
quantity has been greatly increased and 
improved. 

The National Guard and the reserve strength 
of the two services are better equipped and bet- 
ter prepared than during any other peace-time 
period. 

On the other side of the picture we must visu- 
alize the outstanding fact that since the first 
day of September 1939, every week that has 
passed has brought new lessons learned from 
actual combat on land and sea. 

I cite examples. Where naval ships have 
operated without adequate protection by de- 
fending aircraft, their vulnerability to air at- 
tack has increased. All nations are hard at 
work studying the need of additional antiair- 
craft protection. 

Several months ago the use of a new type of 
magnetic mine made many unthinking people 
believe that all surface ships were doomed. 
Within a few weeks a successful defensive de- 
vice against these mines was placed in opera- 
tion ; and it is a fact that the sinkings of mer- 
chant ships by torpedo, by mine, or by airplane 
are definitely much lower than during the simi- 
lar period in 1915. 

Combat conditions have changed even more 
rapidly in the air. With the amazing progi-ess 
in the design of planes and engines, the airplane 
of a year ago is out of date now. It is too slow, 
it is improperly protected, it is too weak in gun 
power. 

In types of planes, we are not behind the other ; 



MAT 18, 1940 

nations of the world. Many of the planes of 
the belligerent powers are at this moment not 
of the latest models. But one belligerent power 
not only has many more planes than all their 
opponents combined, but also appears to have a 
weekly production capacity at the moment that 
is far greater than that of their opponents. 

From the point of view of our own defense, 
therefore, great additional production capacity 
is our principal air requisite. 

For the permanent record, I ask the Congress 
not to take any action which would in any way 
hamper or delay the delivery of American-made 
planes to foreign nations which have ordered 
them or seek to purchase more planes. Tliat, 
from the point of view of our own national 
defense, would be extremely short-sighted. 

During the past year American production 
capacity for war planes, including engines, has 
risen from approximately 6,000 planes a year 
to more than double that number, due in greater 
part to the placing of foreign orders. 

Our immediate problem is to superimpose on 
this production capacity a greatly increased ad- 
ditional production capacity. I should like to 
see this Nation geared up to the ability to turn 
out at least 50,000 planes a year. Furthermore, 
I believe that this Nation should plan at this 
time a program that would provide us with 
50,000 military and naval planes. 

The ground forces of the Army require the 
immediate speeding up of last winter's program 
to procure equipment of all kinds, including 
motor transport and artillery, including anti- 
aircraft gims and full ammunition supplies. 
It had been planned to spread these require- 
ments over the next 3 or 4 years. We should 
fill them at once. 

At this time I am asking the immediate ap- 
propriation by the Congress of a large sum of 
money for four primary purposes : 

First, to procure the essential equipment of 
all kinds for a larger and thoroughly rounded- 
out Army; 

Second, to replace or modernize all old Army 
and Navy equipment with the latest type of 
equipment; 



531 

Third, to increase production facilities for 
everything needed for the Army and Navy for 
national defense. We require the ability to 
turn out quickly infinitely greater supplies; 

Fourth, to speed up to a 24-hour basis all 
existing Army and Navy contracts and all new 
contracts to be awarded. 

I ask for an immediate appropriation of 
$896,000,000, divided approximately as follows: 

1. For the Army $546,000,000 

2. For the Navy and Marine 

Corps 250,000,000 

3. To the President to provide 

for emergencies affecting 
the national security and 
defense 100, 000, 000 

In addition to the above sum, I ask for au- 
thorizations for the Army, Navy, and Marine 
Corps to make contract obligations in the fur- 
ther sum of $186,000,000. 

And to the President an additional authori- 
zation to make contract obligations for $100,- 
000,000. 

The total of authorizations is, therefore, 
$286,000,000. 

It is my belief that a large part of the re- 
quested appropriation of $100,000,000, and the 
requested authorization of $100,000,000 to the 
President will be used principally for the in- 
crease of production of airplanes, antiaircraft 
guns, and the training of additional personnel 
for tliese weapons. This would be in addition 
to the direct estimates for these purposes in the 
other items requested. 

The proposed details of the appropriations 
and authorizations asked for will be given to the 
Committees of the Congress. 

These estimates do not, of course, duplicate 
any item now in the pending War and Navy 
appropriation bills for the j'ear 1941. Nor do 
they include supplemental or deficiency esti- 
mates which may become necessary by reason 
of pending legislation or shortage of funds 
under existing programs. 

There are some who say that democracy can- 
not cope with the new techniques of govern- 



532 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ineiit developed in recent years by a few 
countries — by a few countries which deny the 
freedoms which we maintain are essential to 
our democratic way of life. This I reject. 

I know fhat our trained officers and men know 
more about fighting and the weapons and equip- 
ment needed for fighting than any of us lay- 
men ; and I have confidence in them. 

I know that to cope with present dangers we 
must be strong in heart and hand; strong in 
our faith — strong in faith in our way of living. 

I, too, pray for peace — that the ways of 
aggression and force may be banished from the 
earth — but I am determined to face the fact 
realistically that this Nation requires a tough- 
ness of moral and physical fiber. Those quali- 
ties, I am convinced, the American people hold 
to a high degree. 

Our task is plain. The road we must take is 
clearly indicated. Our defenses must be in- 
vulnerable, our security absolute. But our 
defense as it was yesterday, or even as it is today, 
does not provide security against potential de- 
velopments and dangers of the future. 

Defense cannot be static. Defense must gi'ow 
and change from day to day. Defense must be 
dynamic and flexible, an expression of the vital 



forces of the Nation and of its resolute will to 
meet whatever challenge the future may hold. 
For these reasons, I need hardly assure you that 
after the adjournment of this session of the 
Congress, I will not hesitate to call the Con- 
gress into special session if at any time the 
situation of the national defense requires it. 
The Congress and the Chief Executive consti- 
tute a team where the defense of the land is 
concerned. 

Our ideal, our objective is still peace — peace 
at home and peace abroad. Nevertheless, we 
stand ready not only to spend millions for de- 
fense but to give our service and even our lives 
for the maintenance of our American liberties. 

Our security is not a matter of weapons alone. 
The arm that wields them must be strong, the 
eye that gviides them clear, the will that directs 
them indomitable. 

These are the characteristics of a free people, 
a people devoted to the institutions they them- 
selves have built, a people willing to defend a 
way of life that is precious to them all, a people 
who put their faith in God. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 
The White House, 

May 16, IQJfi. 



■f -f + -f -f -f -f 



ADDRESS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE BEFORE THE AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW ' 



[Released to the press May 13] 

Fellow Members and Guests of the Ameri- 
can Society of International Law : I am 
deeply appreciative of the privilege of serving 
as President of this Society and of opening its 
thirty-fourth annual meeting. 

All of us who, as students or practitioners, 
are interested in this particular branch of juris- 
prudence, are profoundly conscious of the fact 
that today the subject of international law has 

•Delivered at the thirty-fourth annual meeting of 
the American Society of International Law, Washing- 
ton, and broadcast <iver the liliie network of the Na- 
tional BroadcasthiK Co., May 13, 1940. Mr. Hull is 
president of the Society. 



an extraordinary significance. It is no exag- 
geration to say that never before, in the entire 
history of the human race, has the problem of 
the preservation and development of order un- 
der law presented itself with such urgent acute- 
ness. Never before has it been so fraught with 
import for the future of mankind. 

The concept and the structure of a law of 
nations rose and evolved out of a spirit of pro- 
test again.-^t the ravages of international an- 
archy. In the ancient world and during the 
Dark Ages of the modern world, there widely 
prevailed a concept that each nation was a law 
unto itself, the sole arbiter of its international 
conduct, fully entitled— if it possessed sufficient 



I 



MAY 18, 1940 



533 



strength — to engage in aggi'ession and ag- 
grandizement, to destroy by armed force the 
independence of other nations, and to subju- 
gate other peoi^les. Force reigned supreme. 
Human liberty, national independence, confi- 
dence in safety and security on the part of na- 
tions and individuals, were in constant 
jeopardy. 

Over long centuries, voices raised in protest 
against the nightmare of international lawless- 
ness grew in strength and influence, and ideas 
of how to achieve a law-governed world 
emerged more and more. Three hundred years 
ago the genius of Hugo Grotius gathered these 
scattered voices and ideas into a sharp focus 
and gave a powerful impetus to a new spirit, to 
a more and more insistent demand that rela- 
tions among nations be based upon acceptance 
and application of well-defined rules of inter- 
national conduct — upon a body of international 
law. 

Since then, enormous advances have been 
made in the character of relations among na- 
tions. There has been an ever-deepening and 
ever more widespread i-ecognition of the ines- 
capable fact that an attitude of unbridled license 
on the part of nations — in the same way that 
such an attitude on the part of individuals or 
groups within nations — is bound, sooner or 
later, to impair their own well-being and, in 
the end, lead them to destruction. There has 
been a wider and wider acceptance and appli- 
cation of the all-important fact that true social 
progress is possible only when nations in their 
relations with each other, as well as individuals 
and groups within nations, are willing to prac- 
tice self-restraint and to cooperate for the 
greater good of all. Only thus can orderly 
processes exist and provide that social stability, 
security, and confidence without which indi- 
vidual liberty and a free play of creative forces 
must necessarily be precarious and the onward 
march of man must be halting if not altogether 
impossible. 

Institutions have been built up to give effect 
and reality to order under law within and among 
nations. They have been largely responsible 
for the flowering of our modern civilization in 



the spheres of political security, social justice, 
scientific progress, and economic betterment. 

This progress has not been achieved without 
stupendous effort. There have been interrup- 
tions and set-backs. Frequently, forces have 
arisen which have challenged the very concept 
of order under law. especially in the sphere of 
international relations, and have plunged na- 
tions into war, the greatest of all deterrents to 
human progress. 

That these challenges and the conditions of 
international lawlessness which they created 
have not been permanent set-backs is proof of 
the inherent vitality and virility of the great 
principles underlying the whole concept of 
world order under international law. These 
facts attest the indomitable strength of the 
spirit which has lieen the great driving force be- 
hind the determination of the human race to 
rise from the darkness of lawlessness to the 
light of law. 

Today, mankind is the unhappy victim of an- 
other challenge of this sort — a powerful chal- 
lenge which threatens to wipe out the achieve- 
ments of centuries in the development of inter- 
national law and to destroy the very founda- 
tions of orderly international relationships. In 
the face of this challenge, it is of the utmost 
importance that every citizen visualize clearly 
the cardinal features of international law and 
of order based on law, as well as the conditions 
which would prevail if they were destroj'ed. 

Order under law in the relations between and 
among nations requires scrupulous respect for 
the pledged word. It requires fulfillment of 
obligations. Without these, the whole fabric 
of mutual trust and, in fact, of civilized exist- 
ence must crash to the ground. Without con- 
fidence that a promise made by a nation will be 
kept and that an obligation assumed by a nation 
will be honored, international relationships be- 
come reduced to the level of the jungle. 

Order under law in international relations 
requires that nations respect each other's in- 
dependence. Unless all nations — large and 
small — can consider themselves secure in this 
respect, they must continually live in fear of 
being confronted with the tragic alternatives 



534 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of abject submission or armed resistance. Na- 
tional effort must then either be half-hearted in 
the shadow of ever-present dread or be increas- 
ingly diverted from activities for the advance- 
ment of national welfare to the intensive crea- 
tion of means of defense. 

Order under law in international relations 
requires that disputes among nations be settled 
by none but pacific means, and that treaties and 
agreements, once entered into, be revised by none 
but methods of peaceful adjustment. It is nec- 
essary, as all right-thinking people agree, to the 
peace and tranquillity of the body politic of a 
well-ordered state that individuals shall refrain 
from self-help and the employment of force and 
shall settle their differences by peaceful methods 
and, when necessary, by the judicial process. 
It is no less necessary, if we are to have an 
orderly international society — a society capable 
of rendering the gi-eatest amount of good to the 
greatest number of people — that members of the 
family of nations shall be governed by similar 
processes for the settlement of their differences. 
For centuries, efforts have been made to banish 
the use of armed force as an instrument for 
settling disputes and revising treaties and agree- 
ments. Extensive machinery of judicial pro- 
cedure, of conciliation, of mediation, and of 
arbitration has been built up for this purpose. 
The efficacy of this machinery has been amply 
demonstrated. It would suffice, if all nations 
would but resolve to have full recourse to it. 
Only by sincere determination to perfect it and 
to use it can mankind hope to relegate the inter- 
national anarchy of war to the limbo of things 
forgotten. 

Finally, if order under law is to be stable and 
effective, it is essential that trade and other 
economic relationships among nations be con- 
ducted on the principles of fair dealing and 
equal treatment. Disregard of these principles 
leads to economic warfare, which undermines 
the foundations of peaceful and orderly inter- 
national relations. Search for national eco- 
nomic self-sufficiency, discriminatory trade ar- 
rangements, failure to practice the doctrine of 



equality of commercial treatment are among the 
most powerful instruments of such warfare. 
Tliese and other similar policies have the effect 
of disrupting the channels of trade, of reducing 
the volume of mutually beneficial interchange 
among nations of useful goods and services, and 
of impoverishing all nations. The resulting 
economic strain and distress create social unrest 
within nations and lead to resentment and con- 
flict among nations. 

In recent years, there have been truly terri- 
fying developments in contravention of each of 
these essential conditions for the effective func- 
tioning of an orderly world. There has been 
a staggering multiplication of instances in 
which solemn contractual obligations have been 
brushed aside with contemptuous gestures and 
destructive action. Powerful nations have built 
up vast armaments for the avowed purpose of 
attaining their national aims by force ; and their 
action has compelled other nations — even those 
most sincerely devoted to the cause of peace 
under a rule of law, including our own — to in- 
crease to immense proportions their own arma- 
ments. Peaceful nations have been deprived of 
their independence by the use of armed force or 
threat of force, combined with the exercise of 
fraud and treachery. Conquered populations 
have been subjected to new refinements of op- 
pression and cnielty. Economic warfare on an 
unprecedented scale and unparalleled in its in- 
tensity has come to dominate the foreign trade 
and other economic policies of many nations, 
causing immense material losses to all nations 
and a marked lowering of the standards of liv- 
ing everywhere. 

The specter of a new descent into the condi- 
tions of international anarchy which character- 
ized the Dark Ages looms on the horizon today. 
I am profoundly convinced that it menaces the 
civilized existence of mankind — of every nation 
and of every individual. Every nation and 
every individual should be actively on guard. 

Our own Nation — powerful as it is and de- 
termined as it is to remain at peace, to preserve 
its cherished institutions, and to promote the 



535 



welfare of its citizens — is not secure against 
that menace. We cannot shut it out by at- 
tempting to isohite and insulate ourselves. We 
cannot be certain of safety and security when 
a large part of the world outside our borders 
is dominated by the forces of international 
lawlessness. 

We cannot close our eyes to what is going 
on elsewhere in the world and delude ourselves 
with the mere hope that somehow — somehow — 
all this will pass us by. Never in our national 
history has there been a more desperate need for 
a clear understanding by every responsible citi- 
zen of our country of what is taking place in the 
world and of how it affects us. Such under- 
standing is essential to a wise charting and 
application of our national policies. Under our 
system of government, it is the most effective 
safeguard for the maintenance and promotion 
of the national interest. 

The world is today torn by conflicts, the out- 
come of which will affect the lives of the future 
generations in all countries. The world is to- 
day threatened with an orgy of destruction — 
not only of life and projjerty, but of religion, 
of morality, of the very bases of civilized so- 
ciety. The spread of international anarchy 
not only undermines law, justice, and morality 
among nations, but also inevitably imj^airs, 
within nations, these essential foundations of 
civilized existence. 

In the face of existing conditions, we have 
no choice but to expand our program of arma- 
ment construction to a degree necessary to pro- 
vide fully adequate means of defending this 
country's secui-ity and its rightful interests. 
But if mankind is to avoid a long-continuing 
period of chaos and retrogression, it can only 
be through the firm establishment of order un- 
der law. Never before has there been a gi-eater 
need for our people to place the support of a 
wholly united public opinion behind our Na- 



tion's efforts to exert the gi-eat weight of its 
moral influence in favor of a revindication and 
revitalization of the basic principles of order 
under law, which alone can give lasting assur- 
ance of safety, security, and peace. 

Upon those of us who devote their lives to the 
impiovement and application of international 
law there devolves today a special duty. It is 
our task to help our fellow citizens to a better 
realization of the crucial importance which 
preservation of international law and of order 
based on law has for them and for their coun- 
try. It is our task to make the inunense sig- 
nificance of international law a living reality 
in the mind and heart of every American. 

AVliile doing this, we should constantly and 
persistently search for ways and means of 
strengthening the structure of international law 
and of making more effective the translation of 
its principles into firmly established interna- 
tional practice. We should spare no effort to 
demonstrate that the spirit which has made pos- 
sible, over the centuries, immense forward 
strides in the development of international law 
still lives. 

Stunned by the cruel events which unfold all 
around them, millions of men and women have 
become a prey to doubt, hoj^elessness, and de- 
spair. It is all the more necessary for us, who 
believe in the eternal vitality of international 
law and of international morality, to hold fast 
to the conviction that law and morality will 
triumph over the forces of lawlessness and 
chaos which have again risen to challenge the 
very concept of order under law — just as they 
have, in the past, triumphed over similar chal- 
lenges. I am certain of that triumph. I am 
certain that we and others who hold our beliefs 
will not falter in that faith or fail to do every- 
thing possible to restore and extend the full 
sway of effective international law over rela- 
tions among nations. 



232708—40- 



536 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ADDRESS BY JOSEPH E. DAVIES ' 



[Released to the press May 18] 

In these terrible, tragic days the heart of 
America and of the liberty-loving world aches 
for Belgium, its gallant King, its great people. 
I am but one of millions of Americans wlio have 
been shocked and saddened by the cruel disaster 
which has befallen the brave people of Belgium. 
What makes this disaster all the more horrify- 
ing is the realization that it was no act of its 
own, either of the Belgian Government or the 
Belgian people, which brought upon their 
lovely country the horrors of war. 

For me it is particularly painful to give wit- 
ness to my own emotions in the face of this 
catastrophe, for I came to know Belgium well 
and to love it. As Ambassador of the United 
States I came into contact with the strength of 
Government and people and made many warm 
and lasting friendships. I know, personally, of 
the thrift, courage, energy. Christian faith of 
the Belgians. I traveled through the country 
extensively. I saw the boys and men who made 
up their army. I came into contact with the 
peasants who cultivate their farms — the same 
families for many generations — and I respected 
their love for their soil and their pride in their 
civilization. Belgium is to me more than a 
beautiful country — it is a country of friends. 
Belgium has always had a warm place in the 
heart of the American people and today more 
than ever before. 

Under the wise and far-sighted leadership of 
King Leopold, 3 years ago Belgium gave its 
honorable commitment that it would remain 
neutral between the gi'eat nations of Europe. 
Belgium then gave its solemn word that it would 
prevent the territory of Belgium from being 
used by either belligerent as a passage or as a 
basis of operation by land, sea, and air in case 
of any aggression by another state. This 
pledge, in turn, was met by the voluntary formal 
agreement on the part of all the three warring 
powers that they would respect Belgium's sov- 
ereignty, the inviolability and integrity of its 



'Delivered on the occasion of the opening of the 
Belgian Pavilion at the New York World's Fair and 
broadcast over a national hookup, May 18, 1940. Mr. 
Davies is Special Assistant to the Secretary of State 
and former Ambassador to Belgium. 



territory, and each gave formal promise of as- 
sistance to Belgium in case Belgium were- at- 
tacked or invaded. 

When war broke in September, at backbreak- 
ing cost to itself, Belgium prepared to honorably 
fulfill its pledge of strict neutrality. One- 
tenth of its entire population was mobilized 
into an army to safeguard this promise which 
Belgium had given to both sides. Despite great 
pressure, the plighted word of Belgium was 
sacredly held and scrupulously maintained as 
a matter of the personal honor of the King, his 
Government, and the Belgian people. Until 
the very moment when their country was in- 
vaded, Belgium maintained scrupulous and sin- ■ 
cere neutrality in the belief that it could rely 
on the pledged word of governments and upon 
the traditions of morality in the European 
civilization. 

Whatever else may be said, the honor of Bel- 
gium has been kept clean and high. Never did 
knight in shining armor go forth to do battle 
for honor more nobly than did King Leopold, 
his Government, his troops, and his people. 

If to be worthy of life as a nation is to be 
capable of fighting for the preservation of its 
existence, for its peace, and for its honor, then 
the Belgian nation has demonstrated that 
worthiness a millionfold. 

And so in conclusion I say to you : 

Belgium: The heart of America and of the 
entire Christian and liberty-loving world aches 
for you in these sad days. You and we are 
sustained by the faith that man was created in 
the image of his Maker, and so we know that 
love of liberty and honor will never die in the 
hearts of men. Whatever else may come, the 
names of Albert of Belgium, his great and noble 
son, Leopold, and that of the Belgian people 
will live while civilization lasts to inspire the 
hope, courage, and faith of free men. Liberty- 
loving men and women everywhere are hoping 
and praying that the day may soon come when 
peace, justice, and the rule of law shall again be 
restored to a free, independent, self-respecting 
nation of God-fearing men and women — 
Belgium. 

Belgium, we salute you. 



The American Republics 



EIGHTH AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS 

Address of Welcome by the Secretary of State => 



[Released to the press May 13] 

On behalf of the Government and people of 
the United States, I take great pleasure in 
extending the warmest welcome to the Eighth 
American Scientific Congi-ess. Your selection 
of Wasliington as the seat of your meetings is 
an honor of which the United States is proud. 
We hope that the distinguished delegates from 
our sister republics will find their stay in this 
country wholly pleasurable. We are confident 
that your deliberations will be useful and stimu- 
lating to you and productive of results bene- 
ficial to the American nations and to the whole 
of mankind. 

Individually, you represent various branches 
of science which have evolved into distinct and 
rigorous disciplines through the unremitting 
labors of succeeding generations of scientists. 
Collectively, you represent the entire body of 
science, which has been one of the most power- 
ful forces in the advancement of the human 
race. 

No single mind can grasp the entirety of 
scientific achievement that has already become 
the heritage of mankind. No human mind can 
envisage all the possibilities of further achieve- 
ment. Meetings like this, with the opportuni- 
ties which they provide for impact of mind on 
mind and of branch of science upon branch of 
science, are of immense value for appraising 
and correlating the results attained and for 
stimulating further advances. 

We cannot foresee the limits of scientific 
progress. But we do know, through records of 
the past and through our own experience, that 
each new discovery opens new vistas and jDossi- 
bilities. We do know that things have been 
discovered, invented, and developed — and are 



' Delivered at the first plenary session of the Con- 
gress at the Pan American Union, Washington, May 
13, 1940. 



today being taken for granted — which, not long 
ago, belonged in the realm of fantasy or were 
not revealed to the human mind even in the 
shadowy province of dreams. One of the most 
substantial bases for hope in the future is 
the never-ending onward march of scientific 
achievement. 

You, scientists, place at the disposal of so- 
ciety the means wherewith life can be made 
fuller and richer. From your physical, chem- 
ical, biological, and other laboratories come the 
discoveries which enable mankind to multiplj- 
the production of useful goods and services, to 
make it possible for the luxuries of yesterday 
to become the standard necessities of today ; to 
imi^rove living conditions; to conserve health; 
to make life more worth living. From your 
halls of learning and from your workshops of 
study and research come the ideas which enable 
society to understand and to master its own 
ever-increasing complexities, to develop the sci- 
ence of government, and to achieve social prog- 
ress in general. 

Unfortunately, scientific progi-ess does not al- 
ways go hand in hand with social and moral 
progress. The results of the scientist's quest 
for truth become sometimes the instrument of 
ignoble or selfish aims and sometimes the means 
of promoting human welfare and happiness. 
Secrets wrested from nature by the devotees of 
the physical sciences may serve to create means 
of destruction or may serve to raise and improve 
the standards of life. The laws of human be- 
havior and the techniques of social organiza- 
tion discovered and expounded by social scien- 
tists maj' be made to serve destructive or to 
serve constructive ends. 

Today we witness a stark demonstration of 
the possibilities of antisocial and antimoral use 

537 



538 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of the achievements of science. Weapons made 
possible by great scientific discoveries and by 
marvelous technological development have been 
created and are being created and wielded by 
some nations in pursuit of policies of aggression 
and aggi-andizement. This compels other na- 
tions to create and wield similar weapons in de- 
fense or in preparation for defense. In some 
nations, science has been reduced to the sorry 
estate of a handmaiden of oppression and brute 
force. 

This is not your fault. This should not — and, 
I am certain, will not — impair the vigor or di- 
minish the scope of scientific endeavor. But 
this creates problems for mankind which must 
be faced squarely and courageously. 

The creation of conditions in which the prog- 
ress of science will — at least predominantly — 
serve constructive rather than destructive social 
and moral ends is the task of responsible citizen- 
ship. This is a task for all mankind. For 
neither social organization directed toward in- 
suring the greatest good for the gi-eatest num- 
bers, nor the cultural and spiritual values which 
the overwhelming majority of mankind prizes 
and cherishes, nor science itself can be expected 
to survive a too protracted and too widespread 
abuse of the achievements of science for anti- 
social and antimoral ends. 

Such abuse inevitably creates conditions in 
which thought is shackled — and science cannot 
flourish where freedom of thought does not 
exist. Science cannot advance when it is not 
permitted to extend its exploratory activities 
wherever the quest for truth may lead. Human 
progress is impossible without a strong moral 
and spiritual foundation. A nation which 
curbs freedom of thought or denies the dignity 
of the human soul dooms itself inevitably to 
decadence. 

Science cannot flourish when it is forced into 
the narrow confines of national frontiers. Its 
progress is founded upon a universal fellowship 
that knows no distinctions of race or creed or 
nationality, of class or of group. That fellow- 
ship is one of the finest and most striking 



examples of the numerous and varied interna- 
tional relationships, in every phase of life, 
which have so enriched the human race — ma- 
terially, intellectually, and spiritually. 

Your Congress is a part of the observance 
throughout the Americas of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the Pan American Union. Together 
with the other phases of that observance, it sym- 
bolizes the unity of purpose which actuates the 
American nations : Preservation of peace within 
and without; untiring concern for the well- 
being of the individual; unshakeable determi- 
nation to safeguard personal freedom and to 
preserve the dignity of the human soul; full 
recognition of the gi'eat mutual benefits to be 
secured from fruitful relationships between gov- 
ernment and government, group and group, in- 
dividual and individual, who, though separated 
by national frontiers, have much to learn from 
each other and much to contribute to the whole 
of mankind. 

For half a century, through the Pan Ameri- 
can Union and through numerous other agen- 
cies, our nations have sought to give substance 
and reality to these great purposes. We are 
determined to go forward along these paths. 

We deeply deplore the fact that a blighting 
shadow of cultural eclipse has temporarily 
fallen on so many countries in other parts of 
the world. We are supremely fortunate that 
in this hemisphere thought is still free, and 
science is still untrammeled. It is for us to see 
to it that they remain so — for our own sakes and 
for the sake of all humanity. 

Each of our nations has its own problems and 
its own preoccupations. Each of you, as a citi- 
zen, has a loyalty to your own country and a 
concern for its needs and problems. But as 
scientists, in your quest for truth, you have one 
great common loyalty — loyalty to the human 
race and to the destiny of man. It is in the 
spirit of this loyalty, I am confident, that you, 
free scientists of the free Americas, will ap- 
proach the work of your Congress. 

Permit me, again, to bid you welcome and to 
wish you outstanding success. 



MAY 18, 1940 



539 



Address by the Under Secretary of State * 



[Released to the press May 17] 

I feel that I can, without hesitation, express 
the conviction that this Congress now about to 
adjourn has not only advanced the cause of 
science but has strengthened the entire fabric 
of inter- American relations. 

We all of us realize that modern scientific 
thought had its origin in the magnificent 
achievements of the Renaissance, that period 
when the mind of man was released from the 
prison confines of the Dark Ages. 

During those earlier dread years, the con- 
tributions of former civilizations had been sub- 
merged as the four horsemen of the apocalypse 
passed over the nations of Europe and left be- 
hind them the inevitable aftennath of war: 
pestilence, famine, hatred, and ruin. 

It is no wonder that for a long time there- 
after man could not understand the world 
aix)und him. The spirit of free inquiry among 
scholars and the right of free discussion in open 
forum had been banished, and in their place 
there had arisen a universal fear of the un- 
known. Superstition and ignorance had re- 
placed knowledge gained from free thought, 
free experimentation, and free observation. 

It is unnecessary in addressing you, the 
leaders in all forms of scientific development, to 
recount the additions to knowledge made during 
the Renaissance, but it is not amiss to emphasize 
again that those contributions were made pos- 
sible by the free exercise of the human mind 
through its unfettered initiative and activity. 

You scientists have been free to seek the truth 
for the sake of that truth. You have been free 
to use your great powers without hindrance. 
You have been free to publish the results of 
your quiet study in your laboratories or your 
often hazardous observations, sometimes at the 
far ends of the earth, without fear that because 
these results might differ from accepted con- 
cepts, you, and even your families, would be 

' Delivered at the final plenary session of the Con- 
gress at the Pan American Union, Washington, May 
17, 1940. Mr. WeUes is president of the Congi-ess. 



subjected to the control and the oppression of 
the state. 

The suppression in .some parts of the world 
today of the right of free inquiry and tlie en- 
deavor to control the tiioughts of men is there- 
fore of intimate concern not only to all scien- 
tists but likewise to all persons who believe that 
science has within its grasp the capacity to 
remedy in great part tlie ills of our present civ- 
ilization. We cannot but speculate whether, in 
those parts of the world wliere free inquirj' is 
no longer possible, there will not be, at least 
insofar as the things of tlie mind and the spirit 
are concerned, a return to the Dark Ages. 
Wliat hope is there for future generations in 
coiuitries where the state by fiat has declared 
that all persons must believe glaring distortions 
of the truth ; where evil is declared to be good ; 
where falsehood is paraded as the truth; and 
where aggression, pure and simple, is repre- 
sented as self-defense? 

Many of you have already remarked upon 
the striking parallel of the present Congress 
to the same Congress lield in this same city in 
1915. On that occasion we were celebrating the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of tlie 
Pan American Union, just as today we are 
celebrating the fiftieth annivei-sary of the 
founding of that great organization. At 
that time the world was plunged in a great war. 
Today, the world is torn with an even greater 
strife. We all of us know tliat our civilization 
emerged weakened from that war of 25 years 
ago. We need hardly call in evidence the com- 
plete denial of civil liberties and the subordina- 
tion of individual initiative to the dictation of 
the state, which are the characteri.stics of some 
countries of today. It may be that the present 
war will bring about in Europe changes which 
will even more radically assail the fundamentals 
of our civilization. 

We of the Western World owe much to the 
Old World. We owe the discovery of our hem- 
isphere to the intrepid mariners who, confident 
in the calculations of philosophers and scien- 



540 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



lists, set out for distant lands," believing con- 
jBdently that the earth was round. And dur- 
ing following centuries, when our forefathers 
were busy exploring this hemisphere, were 
clearing its forests, and were breaking its virgin 
soil, we received from the Old World a con- 
tinuous stream of new ideas and of ideals in 
political theory, in philosophy, in literature, in 
art, and in science. We drew deeply upon the 
thought, the discoveries, and the achievements 
of the Old World for the forging of a richer 
and a freer way of living in the New. 

Upon us now devolves the duty to hold west- 
ern civilization in trust until a real peace shall 
have been restored. But if we are to be true to 
that civilization, we must exercise our knowl- 
edge and our creative capacity to enrich the 
products of our own and of others' thought and 
efforts. This Congress has held its sessions in 
the best tradition of western civilization. We 
have met here as scientists, friends, and neigh- 
bors. We have discussed around the common 
conference table developments in scientific 
thought. We have exchanged ideas and infor- 
mation for the purpose of making known, each 
to all, our individual achievements. Here there 
has been no thought by the delegates of one 
country of withholding scientific knowledge in 
order to gain advantage over others. On the 
contrary, there has been the fullest exchange of 
concepts and of knowledge in order that not 
only we ourselves, but the whole of mankind, 
may thereby enjoy the fullest benefits. 

We can rightly, then, regard this Congress, 
not as an isolated event, but rather as a chapter 
in a continuing and cooperative process of edu- 
cation. Its acliievements will not be confined 
to reports which will be consigned to and be 
kept upon library shelves. They will bear fruit 
in the enthusiasm with which men of letters and 
science in the New World search for truth and 
its utilization in ways which set men free. 

During the days when our forefathers were 
struggling to establish and maintain the vari- 
ous groups to which they belonged as free 
sovereign states, Simon Bolivar had a vision 
of an association of American nations based 
upon peace and tolerance and understanding. 



Through the steady and patient efforts of several 
generations, the dream of the Great Liberator 
has become a fact. We are this year celebrating 
the oldest and most successful association of 
nations. We have a community of interests. 
We have attained a solidarity of intent to pro- 
mote and to protect these interests. We are, 
therefore, in a far better position to face the 
difficult days that confront us than were any 
of us 25 years ago. Today not only are we able 
to safeguard our rights and to obtain respect 
for our position as neutral nations desiring to 
live at peace with each other and with the world, 
but the entire world knows of our capacity and 
of our intention to defend our New World and 
our institutions. 

However, a community of interests among 
governments alone is not enough. The people 
of each country must recognize the value of the 
strength that comes from working together and 
with the peoples of other countries toward a 
common goal of mutual benefit. In this the 
scientists of this hemisphere have been doing 
their part by their common and collective devo- 
tion to truth and by conferences of this char- 
acter in which the results of study and research 
are made freely available to all. 

We have thus achieved — even if we have not 
perfected — a regional international organiza- 
tion. The continued growth of this organi- 
zation calls for a continued identity of policies 
and of objectives on the part of all of our sov- 
ereign nations. Any breach in our unity in 
these anarchic days can but result in a weaken- 
ing of our individual and our combined mate- 
rial and moral force. 

I believe — as firmly as I believe that the sun 
will rise once more tomorrow — that the present 
menace to civilization will pass and that the day 
will come when the now destructive forces of 
evil which men themselves have created will be 
vanquished. I believe that mankind will again 
be afforded opportunity to lay the foundations 
of a better world — a world in which freedom 
from fear will be established for all mankind 
and the right of every person to worship God, 
to think, to speak, to know the truth and to 
search for the truth will be made sure. 



MAY 18, 1940 



541 



That day may not come in our time, but it 
will come. Then will be presented to the scien- 
tists of the world — to you and to your col- 
leagues — the greatest opportunity that will have 
been presented in many centuries. For you 
have the capacity and you have the training to 
see objectively. For these reasons you can, and 
you must, shoulder the great responsibility of 
making your knowledge and your initiative gain 
practical application in the world of the future. 

You can, and you must, persuade men of good 
will everywhere that the leaders of govern- 
ments must be compelled to avoid the mistakes 
of the past and, learning by the tragic experience 
of the past two decades, to plan a new world 
order based upon justice and fair dealing in 
which all may share. Only by that process can 
the world be made to achieve a real and a last- 
ing peace. 

One of the greatest men of our times, a man 
who had a great vision of an ordered world 
and who laid down his life in effort toward 
realization of that vision, said shortly before 
his death : 



"I am not one of those wlio have the least 
anxiety about the triumph of the principles I 
have stood for. I have seen fools resist Provi- 
dence before, and I liave seen their destruction, 
as will come upon these again — utter destruc- 
tion and contempt." 

Continuing, and in liis final sentence, this 
man, Woodrow Wilson, expressed the view that 
the efforts of men who, like you, stand for a 
better world order, "shall prevail, is as sure as 
that God reigns." I am as confident as was 
he that the efforts of such men, men such as 
was he, men such as are you, for a better world 
order, will prevail. 

In wishing you Godspeed and happiness, may 
I ask that you please accept the thanks of the 
Government of the United States for your hav- 
ing contributed so splendidly to making this 
Congress a landmark in the progress of scien- 
tific collaboration in the Americas. 

I hereby declare the Eighth American Scien- 
tific Congress formally adjourned. 



-f >- -f -f > + + 



PROPOSED JOINT DECLARATION BY THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 
PROTESTING VIOLATION OF NEUTRALITY IN EUROPE 



[Released to the press May 14] 

Following is the translation of a telegram 
received on May 13 by the Secretary of State 
from the Secretary of Foreign Relations and 
Communications of Panama, Dr. Narciso 
Garay : 

"The President of the Republic has received 
from the Ministry of Foreign Relations of 
Uruguay the following cablegram which I have 
the honor to transmit to Your Excellency : 'The 
Government of Uruguay has learned with keen 
emotion of the attack on sovereignty and vio- 
lation of neutrality suffered by Belgium, Hol- 
land, and Luxemburg. The Government of the 
Republic believes that respect for the rights of 
neutrality is an international principle which 
should be firmly maintained, whatever the cir- 



cumstances may be in which the belligei-ents 
find themselves. I take the liberty of invoking 
articles IV and V of the 9th resolution approved 
at Panama to the end that the otlier American 
governments be consulted concerning the possi- 
bilities of a joint declaration on this subject. 
I respectfully request Your Excellency that on 
transmitting the contents of this despatch to the 
other governments of America you be good 
enough to inform them that they like the Gov- 
ernment of Your Excellency will receive a draft 
text which this Chancellery will send.' Please 
be good enough, Excellency, to consider the pro- 
posal of the Uruguayan Government and ad- 
vise me of your agreement or nonagreement. 

Narciso Garay" 

The Department of State has infonned the 



542 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULX.ETIN 



Uruguayan Government and the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Panama that the Govern- 
ment of the United States will be glad to join 
with Uruguay and the other American republics 
in such a declaration and is in full agreement 
with the draft text proposed by the Uruguayan 
Government. 

There is quoted below the ninth resolution 
of the final meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics for Consultation under 
the Inter-American Agreements of Buenos 
Aires and Lima at Panama, September 23 to 
Octobers, 1939: 

"Maintenance of Internationai, Activities 
IN Accordance With Christian Morautt 

"The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics, represented at the First Meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers of the American Republics 

Declare 

"1. That they reaffirm their faith in the prin- 
ciples of Christian civilization, and their con- 
fidence that, in the light of these principles, the 
influence of international law will be strength- 
ened among nations ; 

"2. That they condemn attempts to place in- 
ternational I'elations and the conduct of war- 
fare outside the realm of morality; 



"3. That they reject all methods for the solu- 
tion of controversies between nations based on 
force, on the violation of treaties, or on their 
unilateral abrogation; 

"4. That they consider the violation of the 
neutrality or the invasion of weaker nations as 
an unjustifiable measure in the conduct and 
success of war ; and 

"5. That they undertake to protest against any 
warlike act which does not conform to interna- 
tional law and the dictates of justice. (Ap- 
proved, October 3, 1939) " 

-f -f -f 

PARAGUAY: NATIONAL ANNI- 
VERSARY 

[Released to the press May 14] 

Following is a telegram from President 
Roosevelt to the President of Paraguay, Gen. 
Jose Felix Estigarribia : 

"The White House, 

May U, 19^. 
"I take great pleasure in conveying to Your 
Excellency on this national anniversary of 
Paraguay my most cordial greetings and my 
best wishes for the continued welfare and pros- 
perity of the people of Paraguay. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



Europe 



WARNINGS TO AMERICAN CITIZENS TO EVACUATE SOUTHERN EUROPE, 
GREAT BRITAIN, SWITZERLAND, AND FRANCE 



[Released to the press May 15] 

Commencing sometime before the outbreak of 
hostilities in Europe last September, the De- 
partment's officials in Europe, acting under the 
discretionary authority which they have of 
warning Americans of dangerous situations and 
inviting them to leave, have generally and con- 
tinually so invited Americans to leave war areas 



in Europe unless they have compelling reason to 
remain. 

The duty of the Government toward its citi- 
zens in a war area is accomplished when it has 
advised them of the dangers of the situation and 
invited them to leave, while affording those who 
choose to go every possible assistance in obtain- 
ing transportation and those who choose to re- 



MAY 18, 19-40 

main such protection as may be possible. There 
can be no insistence upon the departure of our 
citizens since the Government may not compel 
the return of its citizens, and the decision 
whether to remain or to depart is one the indi- 
vidual himself must make. 

Exercising the discretionary authority re- 
ferred to above, the Department's officers in 
southern European countries, in view of recent 
developments and the possible spread of hostili- 
ties, have invited citizens within their respec- 
tive districts to return to the United States. The 
Department's officers in Great Britain and 
France are also renewing their invitations to 
Americans to leave and to proceed to the 
Bordeaux region in southwest France. They 
may also proceed to Spain or Portugal. The 
Department will then consider the making of 
arrangements for their evacuation by American 
vessels from those areas. The Department's 
officials in Switzerland are giving similar ad- 
vice to Americans who wish to leave. 

[Released to the press May 16] 

The Department has repeatedly and during 
many months advised Americans in belligerent 
areas to return to the United States. Every 
facility has been afforded them to do so. Ships 
were sent to Europe to be available for their 
repatriation, and funds were loaned to those 
who were destitute or financially embarrassed. 

In spite of these warnings many Americans 
chose to stay, and the Department is today faced 
with another emergency in lieljjing them return 
to the United States. 

Advice was given yesterday that Americans 
in Great Britain, France, and Switzerland who 
wish to return home should congregate in the 
Bordeaux region in southwest France, Spain, 
or Portugal and that the Department would 
then consider the making of arrangements for 
their evacuation by American vessels from those 
areas. As it now appears that there are in- 
creasing difficulties in passenger services from 
England to France, Americans in England have 
been advised on the recommendation of Mr. 



543 

Kennedy to proceed to Ireland, and the appro- 
priate officers of the Government will consider 
the possibility of sending to the west coast of 
Ireland a vessel for use of those desiring to 
return to the United States. 

Other citizens of tlie United Stales in ail 
affected areas have also been warned. 

+ -♦■■♦- 

REPRESENTATION OF FOREIGN IN- 
TERESTS BY AMERICAN DIPLO- 
MATIC MISSIONS IN EUROPE 

[Released to the press May 14] 

Since the outbreak of hostilities, American 
diplomatic missions in Europe have assumed, 
or liave been authorized to assume, the repre- 
sentation of foreign interests as indicated below : 

1. ArneTican Embassy at Berlin (covering Ger- 

many and German-occupied Poland, Bo- 
hemia, and Moravia) 

(a) Great Britain, including overseas posses- 
sions 
(6) Australia 
((?) New Zealand 

(d) Canada 

(e) France 
(/) Belgium 
(p') Luxemburg 

2. American Embassy at Bt-mseh 

(a) Great Britain, including overseas posses- 

sions 

(b) South Africa 

(c) France 
id) Egypt 

3. American Legation at The Hague 

(ff) Great Britain, including overseas posses- 
sions 
{b) Australia 
{c) South Africa 
(«?) France 
(e) Belgium 
(/) Eg>pt 

4. A merican Legation at Copenhagen 

(a) Great Britain, including overseas posses- 

sions 

(b) Australia 
ic) Caiuida 

(d) South Africa 

(e) France 



544 

5. American Legation at Oslo 

(a) Great Bi'itain, including overseas posses- 

sions 

(b) Australia 

(c) Canada 

(d) South Africa 

(e) France. 

■♦- + >■ 

PORTUGUESE CELEBRATIONS ON 
NATIONAL ANNIVERSARY 

[Released to the press May 18] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Portuguese Government to send a special 
diplomatic mission to represent the United 
States at the Portuguese Celebrations during 
the week June 22-30, 1940. The President has 
approved the designation of the following per- 
sons to represent the United States on the 
special diplomatic mission : 

The Honorable Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., 
American Ambassador to Poland, Chief of 
the Mission with rank of Ambassador Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary 

Rear Admiral Charles Edward Courtney, 
United States Navy, Representative on the 
Special Diplomatic Mission with rank of 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary 

Mr. Paul T. Culbertson, Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of European Affairs, Department of 
State, Representative on the Special Diplo- 
matic Mission 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Dr. Robert C. Smith, Hispanic Foundation, 
Library of Congress, Representative on the 
Special Diplomatic Mission. 

The Portuguese Celebrations, which will be 
held in Portugal this year, commemorate the 
eighth centenary of the existence of Portugal as 
a nation and the third centennial of her restora- 
tion. The week of June 22-30, 1940, has been 
set aside for the commemoration of Portuguese 
efforts in the world, and foreign governments 
are invited to participate in the celebrations 



during that week. 



-f > -f 



REPORTS ON AMERICAN CITIZENS IN 
THE NETHERLANDS AND BELGIUM 

[Released to the press May 15] 

The American Minister to the Netherlands, 
Mr. George A. Gordon, reported to the Depart- 
ment of State at 8 p. m., May 14 (Netherlands 
time) , that there had been no casualties among 
the Americans in Holland so far as is known. 

The American Ambassador to Belgium, Mr. 
John Cudahy, reported at 4 p. m.. May 14, that 
several parties of Americans had left Brussels 
by automobile for Paris on May 13 and that 
word had been received from the American 
Embassy in Paris that they had all arrived 
safely. Others were leaving on May 14. 



Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plat e Scrap, etc. 



MONTHLY STATISTICS 



[Released to the press May 18] 

Notk: Tlie figures relating to arms, the licenses lor 
the export of which were revolsed before they were 
used, have been subtracted from the figures appear- 
ing in the cumulative column of the table below in 
regard to arms export licenses issued. These latter 
figures are therefore net figures. They are not yet final 
and definitive since licenses may be amended or re- 



voked at any time before being used. They are, how- 
ever, accurate as of the date of this press release. 

The statistics of actual exports in these releases are 
believed' to be substantially complete. It Is possible, 
however, that some shipments are not included. If 
this proves to be the fact, statistics in regard to such 
shipments will be included in the cumulative figures 
in later releases. 



MAY 18, 1940 

Arms Export Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
licensed for export by the Secretary of State 
during the year 1940 up to and including the 
month of April : 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 




I 

V 


(4) 
(2) 




$24.00 






436.00 








Total 




469. 00 




I 

ni 

IV 
V 

vn 


(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 






Argentina , . 


$23,211.60 
170.00 


23,211 60 




170.00 
2,300 00 




6,131.84 


6,141.84 
602.00 






2, 720. 00 






23, 800. 00 




94,668.23 

10.00 

49,001.98 


133, 320. 71 

10.00 

64,009.51 


Total 


172,193.66 


266, 285. 56 




I 
m 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 

^') 
(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 




Australia 


10.00 


343.25 




341. 68 




189,690.00 


1, 609, 520. 00 
167. 00 






469.00 




3,328.00 

218, 159.60 

24, 707. 00 

18, 274. 86 


8, 348. 00 

693, 672. 10 

1, 409, 605. 00 

18, 274. 86 


Total 


464, 169. 46 


3, 540, 740. 89 




IV 

I 

IV 


(1) 

(4) 
(2) 






136.00 


136.00 






Belgian Congo 




17.29 






1.87 








Total 




19.16 




I 
in 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 










217.00 




103,200.00 


103, 200. 00 
181.00 






2, 292, 000. 00 






69.00 






20, 74,1. 00 






243. 957. 00 






419, 400. 00 








Total 


103, 200. 00 


3,079,769.00 




I 

V 


(4) 
(1) 




Bermuda 




16.00 




4,000.00 


iOOO.OO 


Total 


4,000.00 


4,016.00 




I (4) 

rv (2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

vm (1) 






464.00 

187.00 

6,500.00 


909.00 




448.00 

6, 500. 00 

64.60 






45, 384. 00 






1, 202. 32 








Total... 


7,151.00 


64, 607. 92 




I 

m 

IV 


(1) 
(2) 
(4 
(iS 
(1) 
(2) 




Brazil .. .. 




605.00 






5,438.00 




162.00 


2, 163. 00 
249. 200. 00 




46.76 


6, 909. 75 
19,728.00 



545 



Country of destination 



Brazil— Continued. 



Total 

British Quiana 

British Honduras.. 



Total 

British North Borneo. 
Burma.. 



Total. 
Canada 



Total. 



Chile., 



Total. 



China. 



Total. 
Colombia... 



Total. 
Costa Rica.. 



Total.. 



Cuba. 



Total. 



Category 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 



V (1) 
VII (1) 



g? 



I (4) 

I (4) 

IV (iS 

(2) 



(2) 



III \f 
(2) 

rv (1) 

b) 

V (1 
(2 
(3) 

VI (2) 

VII (I) 
(2) 



I (4) 

IV (2) 

V h) 
(2) 

VII (2) 



I (2 

m (1 

(2; 

IV (1) 

9i 

V (1 
(2) 
(3) 

vn (1) 



IV (1) 
(2) 



VII 



I 

IV 



(4) 
1) 
2) 
V <1) 
(2) 
(3 
VII (1) 
(2) 



Value 



AprU 1940 



K 263. DO 
6.20&63 
1,000.00 



11,670.38 



3,628.01 
'l,'825.'65' 



3.791.00 

631.04 

81.41 

63, 134. 60 

84, 469. 00 

6, 288. 00 



17, 164. 24 
27,011.00 



198, 023. 76 



131.00 



61.00 



369,314.63 
73, 040. 00 



432,416.63 



73, 260. 00 
"13,' 400." 66 



1,680.00 



2.00 

32.00 

3,300.00 



4 months end- 

ing April 30, 

1940 



$29,353.00 
83.014.78 
3.'>, 347. 00 



430, 758. 53 



2,500.00 



129.20 
108.30 



237.50 



2.43 



73.02 
472 00 
43.22 



588.24 

15,803.28 

340.00 

127, 339. 96 

90,000.00 

16, 457, 000. 00 

3, 791. 00 

3, 147. 68 

783.93 

214, 034. 60 

209, 583. 00 

652. 344. 36 

36,000.00 

52, 988. 82 

33. 318. 75 



16, 896. 475. 17 



338.00 

5. 004. 00 

3,500.00 

34.00 

12. 607. 16 



21.483.15 



342, 830. 00 

2, 410, 134. 62 

91, 736. 00 

178.60 

6.00 

90,000.00 

2,116,634.37 

2,123,916.36 

632, 672. 00 



7, 707, 105. 94 



45.00 

1,711.90 

411.76 

108, 250. 00 

1,161.00 

38, 436. 00 

601.31 

1,965.00 



152,580.97 



4.00 

20.00 

6.00 

467. 62 

8, 168. 00 

1.211.24 



3, 334. 00 



29.00 
'3,"i98."66' 



732.00 
3,859.00 



9,875.86 



284.00 

17.60 

6, 167. 00 

1,700.00 

2,500.00 

2,000.00 

704.28 

751.00 

13, 103. 78 



546 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 




IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 








$716. 00 
6, 500. 00 


74H. 00 
38, O.W. 00 








Total - 


7, 216. 00 


38, 819. 50 




V 

IV 

V 
VII 


(3) 

(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 






2, 040. 00 






Dominican Republic. . ... 




13 00 












500 00 














Total 








I 

IV 
VII 


(1) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 






Ecuador 




125 00 




21.00 


201.00 
12.3 00 




2, 077. 00 


9, 205. 00 








Total __ 


2, 098. 00 


10, 554. 00 




I 

IV 
V 


(3) 

(4) 
CD 
(2) 
(2) 


Egypt 




3,310.00 
19.46 
31 00 




19.46 




436.51 


752. 31 
60.00 








Total _. 


455. 97 


4,172.77 




I 

III 

rv 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 


El Salvador 


52.00 
27.00 






27. 00 

18, 200. 00 

76. 00 

1 750 00 




76.00 








Total 


155. 00 


20 105 00 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 




Finland 


1, 985. 00 
2,678,489.00 


1 085 00 




3, 910, 386. 85 
951. ,50 






22. 334. 25 




142, 000. 00 


460. oon. 00 


Total 


2,822.474.00 


4 395 657 60 




I 
m 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






338. 00 

495, 000. 00 

33, 260. 00 

1, 122, 030. 50 

14, 009, 156. 00 






1, 020, 000. 00 

61, ,568. 00 

2, 739, 615. 50 
71,341.7,57.70 

16, 237. 80 
30.00 








246.66 

276. 000. 00 

1, 376, 585. 70 

4,610,940.00 


367, 740. 00 

276, 000. 00 

7,829,041.43 

64, 709. 210. 00 


Total 


21,923,650.20 


148. 361, 538. 43 




I 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




78.50 






51.00 






3, 836 no 






11.00 








Total 


78.50 


3, 976. .50 




I 
in 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(2) 

h) 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


Great Britain and Norfhern 
Ireland. 


3, 506. 25 
169, 500. 00 
74, 000. 00 


139, 209. 13 

169, 500. 00 

981, 876. 00 

800. 90 




9, 850, 000. 00 
36, 000. 00 


11, 711, 400. 00 

36, 000. on 

132 00 






8,000.00 




310. 252. 75 
712, 842. 60 


611, 384. 25 

715, 621. 60 

3 716 00 






400, 000. no 








Total 


11, 156, 101. 60 


14, 777, 638. 88 




I 


(3) 


Greece 




150 00 






50 00 






90,900.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
r940 


Greece — Continued. 


IV 


(1) 


$21.00 


$21.00 


Total 


21.00 


91, 121. 00 




IV 

vn 


m 

(2) 

(1) 

(2) 




Guatemala 




169. 00 






1, 284. on 

194 40 










3,064.00 






Total 




4, 701. 40 




IV 

V 
VII 


(I) 

(2) 
(1) 
(1) 






Haiti 


253.30 
15.00 


263. 30 




15.00 

7, 000. 00 

24.30 




24.30 


Total.. 


292. 60 


7, 292. en 




I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 






203.00 
317. 00 
858. 00 


326. on 




388. 00 

967.00 

3, 170. 00 






Total 


1,378.00 


4,851.00 




I 

IV 

V 
VI 


(1) 
(4) 
(15 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 




Hong Kong 




2,017 75 






1, 123. in 




1,580.00 


". 363. on 

67. 75 




7, 500. 00 


9, 462. 00 








Total 


9, 080. on 


20 073 60 




IV 
V 


(I) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 




Iceland 




1 920 00 






94 00 






7, 890. 00 
703 00 












Total. 




10 667 00 




I 

IV 
V 

VI 


(1) 
'4) 
(1) 
(2) 






India . 


423 nn 
435 on 

269. 25 

24S, on 


1 037 07 




3.514.19 

2, 958. 49 

593. 00 

20 600 00 




460. 00 


1, 412. 00 
1, 000. 00 




702. 00 


702. 00 


Total 


2, 537. 26 


31. 716. 75 




III 

V 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Iraq - - - 


27, 165. 00 


27 165 00 






Ireland 




iifi 823 no 






3 270 60 






21,221 00 








Total 




141,314 60 




V 
IV 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 






Italy 




13 610 no 








Jamaica 




123 no 






27.50 








Total 




15n 50 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
















96.00 






145. 00 








Total 








vn (2) 

I (4) 

I (1) 

(5) 

IV fl) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (2) 

VII {!) 
(2) 










162 4."; 








Mauritius . . . 


48.00 


137 00 










108 85 






112. 60 




1,944.00 

39,540.00 

2, 499. 00 

1, 500. 00 


4,062.00 

241, 040. 00 

5, 437. 00 

8, 780. 00 

112. 50 




3, .560. 50 
7, 500. 00 


6,200.00 

27, 680. nn 


Total 


66, 643. 60 


293,532.86 



MAY 18, 1940 



547 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Mozambique - - -. - 


I 
V 


(1) 

(4) 
CD 


$116.00 

154.61 

282, 000. 00 


$110.00 

VA. 81 

282, 000. 00 




Total 


282, 270. 61 


282, 270. 61 




I 
V 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(2) 
(3) 


Netherlands 


7, 120. 00 


19, 986. 00 
47.50 






155 00 




325.00 
10, 800. 00 


16. 685. 19 
55, 400. 00 


Total 


18,245.00 


92, 273. 69 




I 
III 

IV 
V 


(!) 
(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 


Netherlands Indies 


75.00 

70, 475. 00 

1,825.00 


75 00 




70. 475. 00 
1.9H3. 74 
3 200 00 




1, 250, 000. 00 

11,325.00 

39.00 


1,472,250.10 

45, 782. 90 

318. 00 

417, 106 12 




142,274.00 
68,000.00 


150,013.00 
213, 510. 79 


Total . 


1.544,013.00 


2, 374, 714 65 




I 
I 

IV 


(4) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




New Caledonia 


720. 82 


923 82 






NfiWfntindlj^rid 


22.50 


73.50 




82.24 






383.00 






31.00 








Total 


22.50 


569. 74 




III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 








1,916,870.00 






202.00 






1.600.00 






2, 390. 00 






6,125.00 








Total...- 




1, 927, 187. 00 




V 
VII 


(2) 
(1) 








400.00 


400.00 




1, 292. 00 








Total.. 


400.00 


1,692.00 




I 

I 

in 

IV 
V 


(4) 

(1) 
(2) 

(4) 
(8) 
(!) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Nigeria .. . 


21.00 


21.00 






Norway — 




1 368.00 




225.00 

65.00 

31,600.00 


52,056.00 
36,591.00 
31,600.00 
712,000.00 






280.00 






222.00 






151.00 






2,200.00 






39, 854. 00 






1,615.00 








Total. .- 


31,890.00 


876, 837. 00 




V 

I 

IV 
VII 


(3) 

(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 




Palestine 


400.00 


400.00 










3,900.00 






156.00 






8.20 




729.60 


1, 629. 60 


Total 


729.60 


6,593.80 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 








283.00 




215.00 


7,829.00 


Total 


215.00 


8,112.00 




IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 




Peru 


21.00 

363,000.00 

688.00 


85.00 




393, 138. 50 

4, 235. 00 

60,160.00 

1,000.00 




1, 130. 50 


1, 130. 60 


Total 


364,739.60 


449, 749. 00 





Cati 


gory 


Value 


Country ol deslinution 


Aiiril 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Portugal 


I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 

^" 
(2) 
(1) 




$51.80 






44.00 






80.00 






4, 300. 00 




$403.03 
486.00 


403.03 
841.76 


Total 


889.03 


6, 720. 59 




V 

I 

IV 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 








600.00 












180.00 






227.50 




139.00 


264.00 
82.00 








Total 


139.00 


753.60 




I 
I 

IV 


(1) 

(2) 
(4) 
(2) 




Straits Settlements 




9. 12 








Surinam 




9, 997. 00 






1.64 






2.47 








Total 




10,001.11 




r 

III 

IV 
V 


(2) 

(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 






Sweden . . _ 




108. ono. 00 






128,047.00 






4.000.00 







233, 625. 00 






101.617.53 




293,660.00 


1,766,180.00 


Total 


293. 660. 00 


2,341,469.53 




IV 

III 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(2) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






20.00 


20.00 






Thailand.. 


1,543.84 
1, 774. 81 


1, 543. 84 




10, 4.80. 21 
5,300.00 






12,320.00 






156.000.00 








Total 


3,318.65 


186, 644. 05 




V 


(2) 
(3) 




Trinidad 




294.00 






6,000.00 








Total 




6,294.00 




III 

IV 
V 


(2) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 










6, 610. 00 






33.00 






6.20 






115,760.00 








Total 




121,409.20 




I 
HI 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 

(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 

(1) 

(2) 






Union of South Africa 


49.90 


123.00 
136. 88 






173,600.00 






189, 528. 20 






7.00 






3,553.00 






9, 068. 16 






6,000.00 






156.00 






40,228.00 








Tot!j 


49.90 


422,390.23 




I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 






129.00 

744.00 

1,771.00 


260.00 




1,177.00 
2,326.00 
2,900.00 






100.40 








Total 


2,644.00 


6. 763. 40 




I 

III 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 

(2) 
(3) 








61.40 






226.00 






36.00 




99, 120. 00 

42.25 

1.26 


123, 120. 00 

4, 381. 25 

191. 45 

14, 900. 00 




8,948.00 
8,600.00 


17,912.00 
16,500.00 



548 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BITLLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Venezuela— Continued. 


VII (1) 

(2) 


$1, 116. 40 
7, 360. 00 


$4,133.08 
19,277.40 


Total - 


122, 074. 90 


200, 737. 58 




V (2) 
(3) 




Yugoslavia 


6, 920. 00 


5, 920. 00 




30, 780. 00 








Total 


6,920.00 


36, 700. 00 










40, 160, 290. 90 


209, 791, 480. 96 









During the month of April, 324 arms export 
licenses were issued, making a total of 1,313 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 

Arms Exported 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war ex- 
ported during the year 1940 up to and including 
the month of April under export licenses issued 
by the Secretary of State : 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Angola 


I 

v 


(4) 
(2) 




$24.00 






435. 00 








Total 




469.00 




I 

rv 
v 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 








$23, 160. 00 


23, 150. 00 




70.00 






2,418.00 






642.00 




1,937.00 


2.743.00 
23, 800. 00 




li 644. 00 


28. 289. 48 
240, 416. 00 




10.00 


10.00 
7.63 








Total 


39, 641. 00 


321. 646. 01 




I 
III 

IV 
V 




(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
CD 
(2) 
(3) 




Australia 


176. 60 


713. 26 




318.00 






6, 948. 630. 00 






32.00 






469.00 






9, 9G8. 00 




62, 358. 00 
25, 500. 00 


191,687.00 
208,746.00 


Total 


88, 034. .TO 


7, 360, 463. 26 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 








17.29 






1.87 








Total . .. 




19 16 




I 
in 

IV 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 






Belgium -. . .. 




30 79 




67, 300. 00 
69.00 


67,300.00 
69.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
IBiO 


Belgium— Continued. 


V 


(1) 

(2) 
(3) 


$20, 746. 00 
2, 950. 00 
54, 000. 00 


$20,745.00 

2, 950. 00 

119, 997. 00 


Total 


135, 064. 00 


201,091.79 




I 
V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 








48.00 






16.00 




4, 000. 00 


4,000.00 


Total 


4,000.00 


4, 064. 00 




I 

IV 
V 

vu 


1 

(1) 






793. 00 
448.00 


832. 00 




448. 00 
12, 500. 00 






1,041.69 






9, 600. 00 




960. 00 


950. 00 


Total 


2,191.00 


25, 371. 69 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




Brazil 


6,"438.'6o" 


606. 00 




6,438.00 
4, 612. 00 






256, 240 00 




230.00 


6,863.00 
19,878 00 




1, 197. 00 

600. 00 

16,997.00 


141,061.00 

53, 583. 76 

45, 285. 76 

2.00 








Total 


24,462.00 


631, 668. 60 




IV 
VII 


(2) 
(1) 
(2) 








16.00 






18.00 






129. 20 






108. 30 








Total 




270. 50 




I 

rv 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 






Burma - 


90.00 
169.02 
472.00 

49.22 


90.00 




169. 02 

472.00 

49.22 


Total... 


780. 24 


780. 24 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 


(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 

(2) 
(3) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 




Canada _ 


4, 532. 62 


11,593.00 




10.00 




1, 662. 44 
32, 600. 00 


8, 813, 28 

32, 500. 00 

1, 207, 233. 00 




177,480.46 

975. 10 

343. 44 

1, 234. 50 

44, 859. 80 

123,368.00 


177, 480. 46 
3, 826. 40 
702. 03 
117,612.60 
109, 030. 50 
284,013.90 
36, 000. 00 




6, 283. 21 
17, 365. 65 


41, 527. 07 
53, 729. 36 


Total 


410,696.22 


2,084,071.49 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(4) 

(2) 




Chile 




386.00 






1,491.00 




84.00 


1,393.00 
3, 500. 00 






34.00 






22, 143. 00 




7.15 


12, 607. 15 


Total . ... 


91.15 


41, 554. 16 




I 

m 

rv 

V 


(1) 
(2) 

\^ 
(1) 
(2) 

(3) 




China... 




1, 344. 00 




126,608.00 


243, 533. 00 
850. 00 






23, 753. 00 




99, 636. 97 
9, 666. 00 


408, 186. 97 

9,656.00 

129. 60 






6, 644. OO 






110,000.00 




140, 686. 00 


252,165.00 
221, 370. 00 








Total 


376,386.97 


1, 276, 620. 67 



MAY 18, 1940 



549 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing AprU 30, 
1940 


Oolombia - 


I (4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

vn (1) 

(2) 




$55 00 




$1,042.20 
167.76 


1, 629. 20 

1, 333. 76 

112 600 00 




161.00 
6,230.00 


6,839.00 

10, 230. 00 

601 00 






285.00 








Total -- 


7, 600. 96 


132,572.96 




I (4) 

IV (I) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 






4.00 






20.00 






3.00 




32.00 
4, 840. 00 


14,707.00 
8,140.00 
1,861.24 






Total 


4,872.00 


24, 725. 24 




I (4) 
m (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (I) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
C2) 






196.00 
43, 350. 00 


319. 00 




43, 350. 00 
17.50 




4,733.00 


7, 997. 00 
1, 700. 00 






6, 195. 00 






12, 876. 00 




75.00 
732.00 


904.28 
740.00 


Total 


49,086.00 


74, 098. 78 




IV (2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 








6.00 






1,600.00 




687.00 

11,750.00 

17.50 


717.00 

32, 760. 00 

17.50 


Total 


12, 454. 50 


34,990.50 




IV (2) 

V (2) 

vn (1) 




Dominican Republic 




606.00 




600.00 






618. 80 








Total 




1,624.80 




I CD 

(4) 
IV (1) 

(2) 
VII (2) 






Ecuador 




35.00 






183.00 






191.00 




2,034.00 


6,674.00 
900.00 








Total 


2,034.00 


7,983.00 




I (3) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 






2,680.00 


2,680.00 




3, 619. 00 






652.80 






60.00 








Total 


2, 680. 00 


6,811.80 




I (1) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
VII (2) 




El Salvador 


62.00 

27.00 

18, 200. 00 

76.00 


62.00 




149.00 

18, 200. 00 

76.00 

1,750.00 








Total 


18, 365. 00 


20,227.00 




I (2) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 




164,650.00 






742, Of.6. 00 






2,289,147.00 






933. 00 






69,199.00 






460, 903. 00 






63,000.00 








Total 




3,769,897.00 


France 


I (1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

III (1) 
(2) 

IV (2) 


78.00 

197,150.00 

3. 445. 00 

89,872.00 

9, 658, 759. 00 


78.00 




431,292.00 
27, 265. 00 

102, 222. 00 

34,338,939.00 

13,208.00 




167, 376. 66 


176,760.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


AprU 1S40 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


France— Continued. 


V 


(2) 
(3) 


$814,729.00 
1, 900, 259. 00 


$2,700,585.00 
5, 659, 684. 00 


Total 


12,721,667.00 


43,449,023.00 




I 
IV 


(2) 








SI. 00 




3,836.00 


3,836.00 
11.00 








Total 


3,836.00 


3,898.00 




I 

III 
IV 
V 

vn 


(2) 

(3) 

^) 
6) 

(» 
(1) 

l^} 
(3) 

(I) 
(2) 




Great Britain and Northern 


45,272.00 


46,609.50 
24,656.00 




130,566.00 


130,953.00 
800.90 




2,139,000.00 


8, 348, 800. 00 
132.00 






8,000.00 




122.017.00 

203,913.00 

1,500.00 

80,000.00 


722,456.50 

1,577,716.00 

3,478.00 

120, 000. 00 


Total 


2, 722, 258. 00 


10,982,601.90 




I 


(3) 
(4) 








160.00 






60.00 








Total 




200.00 




I 

IV 
VII 


^1) 
(4) 
(0 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 






niifit.f>mAlft 




37.00 






12.00 






169.00 




641.00 

194.40 

4.00 


1,280.00 

I»(.40 

3, 064. 00 


Total 


839.40 


4, 746. 40 




IV 

vn 


(1' 
(2) 




Haiti 


244.80 


244.80 




6.00 








Total 


244.80 


250.80 




I 

IV 
V 

vn 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 








123.00 




71.00 

23.00 

50.000.00 

3,145.00 


71.00 

109.00 

100,000.00 

3, 146. 00 

260.00 








Total 


53,239.00 


103, 708. 00 


Hong Kong 


IV 
IV 


(1) 

(1) 
(2) 




6,783.00 


Iceland . 


1,920.00 
83.00 


1,920.00 




83.00 


Total 


2, 003. 00 


2,003.00 


India _ - 


I 

TV 

V 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 

!»' 
2J 

(3) 


96.00 

1,122.00 

288.00 

221.00 


944.63 




4,763.86 

2,483.24 

789. 31 

20,500.00 




30.00 


952.00 
1,000.00 








Total 


I, 767. 00 


31.432.64 




in 

IV 


(li 
(2) 


289, 568. 00 
94.37 
25.85 


289,568.00 




94.37 
25.85 


Total 


289, 688. 22 


289,688.22 


Ireland 


V 

rv 


(1) 
(2) 




116,823.00 






346.00 






27.50 








Total 




373.50 


Japan 


V 
V 


(2) 
(3) 


2, 492. 00 


4, 143. 00 


Latvia 


1 = 

1 18,077.00 



550 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Mauritius 


I 


(1) 

(4) 




$251. 45 






289. 28 








Total 




510. 73 




I 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 


(1) 

(5) 

(1) 
(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 










66.00 




$112. 50 

1, 944. 00 

42, 790. 00 

65.00 

800.00 

112.50 

668. 60 

760. 00 


112.60 
3, 424. 00 
217.140.00 
2. 363. 00 
6, 280. 00 
112. 60 
11,211.76 
18, 669. 00 


Total 


47, 242. 60 


268, 268. 75 




I 
III 

V 


(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 








16, 972. 00 






47.50 






156.00 






9. 674. 00 




6,267.00 
50, 868. 00 


163,472.60 
187, 137. 60 


Total 


57,116.00 


376, 458. 60 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 








1, 868. 00 




41.00 


722. 77 
281,075.00 






488, 658. 00 




12, 457. 00 

121.00 

129,727.00 

63,769.00 
105, 578. 00 


23, 863. 40 
662. 17 
129,727.00 
100, 831. 00 
111,824.00 
138,000.00 








Total 


311,693.00 


1, 277, 131. 34 




I 
I 

IV 


(4) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 








203.00 








TNrpwfnnndland 


22.50 


73.50 




82.24 






383. 00 






31.00 


Total 


22.50 


569.74 




V 

IV 
V 


(2) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 








1,600.00 








New Zealand 




202. 00 






1,971.15 






2,640.00 








Total.. 




4,713.15 




I 

IV 
VII 


(4) 
(2) 
(1) 










1,264.00 






4, 036. 00 






1,292.00 








Total. 




6,591.00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
1) 
(2) 
(2) 

{2) 










70.00 






285. 00 






36, 493. 20 






1,364,114.00 






280. 00 






137.00 






2, 200. 00 






644.00 








Total 




1,394,223.20 




V 

I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(3) 

a', 






Palestine 


400.00 


400.00 






Panama 




3,900 00 






2, 100. 00 






52.00 






1,441.13 






1,467.60 








Total 




8, 950. 73 




I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 






Paraguay _ 


283.00 
2,922.00 


283.00 




6,034.00 


Total.. 


3,205.00 


6,317.00 





Category 


Value 


Country ot destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing -A.pril 30, 
1940 


Peru 


IV 
V 

VII 


0) 

(I) 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


$21.00 

2,600.00 

3,970.00 

25,182.00 


$85.00 




33,810.00 

14,346.00 

50, 568. 00 

1,000.00 




1,131.00 


1,131.00 


Total 


32,804.00 


100, 940. 00 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 




Portugal 




51.80 






44.00 




68.00 

2,263.00 

336. 00 


80.00 

4,663.00 

369. 00 

365. 76 








Total 


2,667.00 


6, 663. 56 




V 

I 

IV 


(2) 

(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 








600. 00 












180.00 






227. 50 






71.00 






82.00 






60.62 








Total 




621.02 




I 
I 

IV 
VII 


(1) 

(4) 
(2) 
(1) 










9.12 








SiirinftTTi 




1.64 






2.47 






193. 80 








Total 




197.91 




I 
III 

V 


(2) 
(4) 

Hi 

(2) 










100, 000. 00 






16, 986. 00 






1,659,900.00 






66.000.00 






111,172.95 








Total 




1,852,057.95 




I r 

IV 
V 


0) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 










17.65 






1.93 




3, 448. 53 


to. 431. 53 
6.300.00 






2, 637. 00 






193,120.00 








Total 


3, 448. 53 


211,508.11 




IV 

V 


C2) 
(2) 
(3) 




Trinidad 




18.00 






3, 094. 00 




1,500.00 


6.000 00 


Total .. 


1,500.00 


9.112.00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 


(2) 
(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 








148,135.00 






15.S,750.00 




6,900.00 
8,260.00 


1,191,084.00 
17,070.00 
14,236.00 






1,306.20 




46, 955. 00 
29, 310. 00 


102. 171. 10 
70, 344. 00 


Total 


91,415.00 


1, 703, 096. 30 




I 
ni 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 




Union of South Africa 




61.10 






136. 88 






173, 600. 00 




88.20 


328.20 
7.00 




263.00 


2,103.00 
3,422.96 






6,000.00 






156.00 






40. 064. 00 








Total 


341. 20 


225, 879. 14 


Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 


V 


(3) 




120, 612. 00 


publics. 







MAY 18, 1940 



551 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


April 1940 


4 months end- 
ing April 30, 
1940 


Uruguay 


I (4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 


$192. 00 

744.00 

1, 898. 00 


$231.00 
1,177.00 
2.141.00 




Total 


2, 834. 00 


3, 549. 00 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(31 

VII (1) 
(2) 


Venezuela 










246 00 












28 0{X) 00 




42.25 

1.25 

6,900.00 


2, 862. 25 

191.45 

14,900.00 

15 044 00 




2,011.00 
1, 139. 78 


37,011.00 
5,921.00 
8,540 40 








Total _ 


9,094.28 


112.818 50 




V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Yugoslavia 




63,000 00 






23 315 00 




31, 080. 00 


31,080.00 


Total. 


31,080.00 


117 395 00 








Grand total 


17,570,213.97 


78,732,177.64 







Akms Import Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of origin of the arms, 
ammunition, and imiDlements of war licensed 
for import by the Secretary of State during the 
month of April 1940 : 



Country of origin 


Category 


Value 


Total 




V (2) 

V (3) 
I (4) 
VII (1) 
I (2) 

(4) 

V (2) 

V (2) 

V (2) 


.«ilO. 00 
.500. 00 
575. 36 

3. 625. 00 

4. 660 00 
41.00 

3, 474. 00 
550.00 

3,840.00 


$10.00 


BrazU 


500 00 




} 4, 100. 36 

[• 8,165.00 
650.00 


Great Britain 

Mexico 


XJnionofSouthAfrica 


3, 840, 00 


Total 




17, 165. 36 











During the month of March, 16 arms import 
licenses were issued, making a total of 67 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 

Categories of Arms, Ammunition, and 
Implements or War 

The categories of arms, ammunition, and im- 
plements of war in the api^ropriate column of 
the tables printed above are the categories into 
which those articles were divided in the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of May 1, 1937, enumerat- 
ing the articles which would be considered as 



arms, ammunition, and implements of war for 
the purposes of section 5 of the joint resolution 
of May 1, 1937 [see pages 119-120 of the Bulle- 
tin of January 27, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 31)]. 

Special Statistics in Regard to Arms Exports 
TO Cuba 

In compliance with article II of the conven- 
tion between the United States and Cuba to 
suppress smuggling, signed at Habana, March 
11, 1926, which reads in part as follows: 

"The High Contracting Parties agree that 
clearance of shipments of merchandise by water, 
air, or land, from any of the ports of either 
country to a port of entry of the otiier country, 
shall be denied when such shipment comprises 
articles the importation of which is prohibited 
or restricted in the countiy to which such ship- 
ment is destined, unless in this last case there 
has been a compliance with the requisites de- 
manded by the laws of both countries." 

and in compliance with the laws of Cuba which 
restrict the importation of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war of all kinds by requiring 
an import permit for each shipment, export 
licenses for shipments of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war to Cuba are required 
for the articles enumerated below in addition 
to the articles enumerated in the President's 
proclamation of May 1, 1937 : 

(1) Arms and small arms using ammunition 
of caliber .22 or less, other than those classed 
as toys. 

(2) Spare parts of arms and small arms of 
all kinds and calibers, other than those classed 
as toys, and of guns and machine guns. 

(3) Ammunition for the arms and small arms 
under (1) above, 

(4) Sabers, swords, and military machetes 
with cross-guard hilts. 

(.5) Explosives as follows : explosive powders 
of all kinds for all purposes; nitrocellulose hav- 
ing a nitrogen content of 12 percent or less; 
diphenylamnie; dynamite of ail kinds; nitro- 
glycerine; alkaline nitrates (ammonium, i)otas- 
sium, and sodium nitrate); nitric acid; nitro- 
benzene (essence or oil of mirbane) ; sulphur; 
sulphuric acid ; chlorate of potasli ; and acetones. 

(6) Tear gas (CeH,COCH,Cl) and other 
similar nontoxic gases and apparatus designed 
for the storage or projection of such gases. 



552 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The tabic ])rinted below indicates, in respect 
to licenses authorizing the exportation to Cuba 
of the articles and commodities listed in the 
preceding paragraph, issued by the Secretary of 
State during April 1940, the number of licenses 
and the value of the articles and commodities 
described in the licenses : 



Number of licenses 


Section 


Value 


Total 


34 


(1)- — 

(2)--- — - 

(3) 

(5) - 


$480.85 

133.00 

3, 618. 00 

18, 481. 68 


1 




1 $22, 693. 53 



The table i)rinted below indicates the value 
of the articles and commodities listed above ex- 
ported to Cuba during April 1940 under licenses 
issued by the Secretary of State : 



Section 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(5) 



Value 



$1,859.00 

1,294.00 

10, 096. 00 

24, 119. 70 



Total 



$37, 368. 70 



Tin-Plate Scrap 

The table printed below indicates the number 
of licenses issued during the year 1940, up to 
and including the month of April, authorizing 
the export of tin-plate scrap under the provi- 
sions of the act approved February 15, 11)36, 



and the regulations issued pursuant thereto, to- 
gether with the number of tons authorized to 
be exported and the value thereof: 





AprU 1940 


4 months ending 
April 30, 1940 


Country of destination 


Quantity 

in long 
tons 


Total value 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total value 


Japan . 


160 


$2,960.00 


2,589 


$49, 853. 38 







During the month of April, 4 tin-plate scrap 
licenses were issued, making a total of 40 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 

Helium 

The table printed below gives the essential 
information in regard to the licenses issued dur- 
ing the month of April 1940, authorizing the 
exportation of helium gas under the provisions 
of the act approved on September 1, 1937, and 
the regulations issued pursuant thereto : 



Applicant for license 


Purchaser in for- 
eign country 


Coimtry of 
destination 


Quantity 

in cubic 

feet 


Total 
value 


The Ohio Chemical 
& Mfg. Co. 

The Linde Air Prod- 
ucts Co. 


College of 
France. 

"The Lui So- 
lar" Araalfi & 
Cia., Ltda. 


France 

Uruguay 


2 
0.0706 


$6.38 
13.50 



Foreign Service of the United States 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



{Released to the press May 18] 

Changes in the Foreign Service since May Ji, 
1940: 

Monnett B. Davis, of Boulder, Colo., consul 
general at Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been 
designated first secretary of embassy at Buenos 
Aires and will serve in dual capacity. 



Christian M. Ravndal, of Decorah, Iowa, con- 
sul at Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been desig- 
nated second secretary of embassy at Buenos 
Aires and will serve in dual capacity. 

William Barnes, of Belmont, Mass., vice con- 
sul at Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been desig- 
nated third secretary of embassy at Buenos 
Aires and will serve in dual capacity. 



MAY 18, 1940 



553 



Han-isoii Lewis, of Beverley Hills, Calif., 
vice consul at Calcutta, India, has been assigned 
for duty in the Department of State. 

Howard Bucknell, Jr., of Atlanta, Ga., first 
secretary of embassy at Madrid, Spain, has been 
assigned as consul general at Madrid and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

John H. Morgan, of Watertown, Mass., sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Madrid, Spain, has 
been assigned as consul at Madrid and will serve 
in dual capacity. 

Earl T. Crain, of Huntsville, 111., third secre- 
tary of embassy at Madrid, Spain, has been 
assigned as vice consul at Madrid and will serve 
in dual capacity. 

Robert F. Fernald, of Ellsworth, Maine, con- 
sul at Madrid, Spain, has been designated sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Madrid and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

Montgomery H. Colladay, of Hartford, Conn., 
third secretary of legation and consul at Tallinn, 
Estonia, has been designated second secretary 
of legation at Tallinn and will continue to serve 
in dual capacity. 

William E. Scotten, of Pasadena, Calif., third 
secretary of legation and consul at Bucharest, 
Rumania, has been designated second secretary 
of legation at Bucharest and will continue to 
serve in dual capacity. 

George F. Keini;m, of Milwaukee, Wis., sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Berlin, Germany, 
has been designated first secretary of embassy 
at Berlin. 

Robert Lacy Smyth, of Berkeley, Calif., sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Peiping, China, has 
been designated first secretary of embassy at 
Peiping. 

Angus I. Ward, of Chassell, Mich., second 
secretary of embassy and consul at Moscow, 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, has been 
designated first secretary of embassy at Moscow 
and will continue to serve in dual capacity. 

William S. Farrell, of Miller Place, Long 
Island, N. Y., third secretary of legation and 
consul at Baghdad, Iraq, has been designated 
second secretai-y of legation at Baghdad and 
will continue to serve in dual capacity. 



James H. AVright, of Chiilicothe, Mo., third 
secretary of embassy and consul at Bogota, Co- 
lombia, has been designated second secretary of 
embassy at Bogota and will continue to serve 
in dual capacity. 

James K. Penfield, of San Francisco. Calif., 
now serving in the Department of State, has 
been assigned as consul at Godthaab, Greenland, 
where an American consulate will be established. 

George Lybrook West, Jr., of San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., now serving in the Department of 
State, has been assigned as vice consul at 
Godthaab, CJreenland. 

Glion Curtis, Jr., of Webster Groves, Mo., 
vice consul at Wellington, New Zealand, has 
been designated third secretary of legation and 
vice consul at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

David K. Newman, of St. Louis, Mo., clerk 
at Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, has been ap- 
pointed vice consul at Leopoldville. 



Legislation 



An Act MiikinR appropriations for tho Departments 
of State, Commerce, and Justice, and for The .Judiciary, 
for tlie fiscal year ending .June :W, 1!)41, and for other 
purposes. (PubUc, No. 508, 7tjth Cong., 3d scss.) 
35 pp. 100. 

Tliree .Supplcnipntal Estimates of Appropriations for 
tlie Department of State : Fiscal Years 10-10 and 1941 : 
Communication from tlie President of tho United States 
transmitting three supplemental estimates of appro- 
priations for the Department of State, for the fiscal 
years 1940 and 1941, amounting to .5"J8,.')(X), and five 
drafts of proposed provisions iwrtaining to existing 
appropriations for that department. (H. Doc. TM, 
Tfith I'ong., 3d sess.) 4 pp. 5^. 

l>raft of Proposed I^rovisiim, Contingent Expenses, 
Foreign Service, Department of State, 1940 and 1941 : 
Communication fi'om the President of the United 
States transmitting a draft of a proposed provision 
pertaining to the appropriations "Contingent expenses. 
Foreign Service," Department of State, for the fiscal 
years 1940 and 1941. (H. Doc. 745, 76th Cong., 3d 
sess.) - pp. 5^. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 

The Netherlarids 

By a communication dated April 22, 1940, the 
Secretary General of the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration informed the Secretary of State 
that Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands 
has renewed the mandate of Mr. A. Anema as 
a member of the Permanent Court of Arbi- 
tration. 

Switzerland 

By a communication dated April 15, 1940, the 
Secretary General of the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration informed the Secretary of State 
that the Swiss Federal Council has appointed 
Mr. Robert Haab, Doctor of Laws, professor of 
civil law and commercial law in the University 
of Basel, as a member of the Permanent Court 
of Arbitration, to take the place of Mr. Walter 
Burckhardt, deceased. 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

Neto Zealand 

There is quoted below the text of a circular 
letter from the League of Nations dated April 
24, 1940, regarding the termination of the ac- 
ceptance of the Optional Clause of the Statute 
of the Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice by New Zealand and the acceptance thereof 
on new conditions : 

"I have the honour to inform you that the 
High Commissioner for New Zealand in Lon- 
don, by a communication dated March 30th, 
1940, has notified me of the termination by the 
New Zealand Government of their acceptance 
of the compulsory jurisdiction of the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice (Article 36, 
554 



paragraph 2, of the Statute of the Court), 
which was effected by a Declaration made in 
September 1929 and ratified by an instrument 
deposited with the Secretariat of the League of 
Nations on March 29th, 1930, subject to the 
exceptions and conditions contained in the said 
Declaration, for a period of ten years from the 
date of ratification, and thereafter until notice 
was given to terminate the acceptance (see C. L. 
252.1929.V. of October 5th, 1929, and C. L. 55. 
1930. V. of April 8th, 1930). 

"By a further communication dated April 1st, 
1940, the High Commissioner for New Zealand 
in London notified me of the acceptance of the 
compulsory jurisdiction of the Court by His 
Majesty's Government in New Zealand, for a fur- 
ther period. This communication reads as 
follows : 

'"I refer to my letter of the 30th March I 
notifying you of the termination by His ' ' 
Majesty's Government in New Zealand of their 
acceptance of the jurisdiction of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice in conformity 
with paragraph 2 of Article 36 of the Statute 
of the Court. 

" 'I have now the honour to inform you that 
the New Zealand Government have been con- 
sidering the conditions under which they would 
be prepared to accept the Optional Clause for 
a further period, and, in accordance with the 
directions I have received, I hereby, on behalf 
of His Majesty's Government in the Dominion 
of New Zealand, accept as compulsory ipso 
facto and without special convention, on con- 
dition of reciprocity, the jurisdiction of the 
Court, in conformity with paragi-aph 2 of Ar- 
ticle 36 of the Statute of the Court, for a period 
of five years from to-day's date and thereafter 
until such time as notice may be given to termi- 
nate the acceptance, over all disputes arising 
after the 29th March, 1930, with regard to situ- 
ations or facts subsequent to the said date, other 
than : — 

" 'Disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 



MAT 18, 1940 



555 



recourse to some other method of peaceful 
settlement ; 

" "Disputes with the Government of any other 
Member of the League which is a member of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, all of 
which disputes shall be settled in such manner 
as the parties have agreed or shall agree : 

" "Disputes with regard to questions which by 
international law fall exclusively within the 
jurisdiction of Xew Zealand : and 

'" 'Disputes arising out of events occurring at 
a time when His Majesty's Government in Xew 
Zealand were involved in hostilities. 

" "And subject to the condition that His 
Majesty's Government in the Dominion of Xew 
Zealand reserve the right to require that pro- 
ceedings in the Court shall be suspended in 
respect of any dispute which has been submitted 
to and is under consideration by the Council of 
the League of Xations. provided that notice to 
suspend is given after the dispute has been sub- 
mitted to the Coimcil and is given within ten 
days of the notification of the initiation of the 
proceedings in the Court, and provided also that 
such suspension shall be limited to a period of 
twelve months or such longer period as may be 
agreed by the parties to the dispute or deter- 
mined by a decision of all the Members of the 
Council other than the parties to the dispute.' " 

EDUCATION 

Proces-Verbal Concerning the Application 
of Articles IV, V, VI, VII, IX, XII, and 
XIII of the Convention of October 11. 
1933, for Facilitating the International 
Circulation of Films of an Educational 
Character 

Burma 

According to a circular letter from the League 
of Xations dated April 19, 1940, the British 
Government notified to the Secretary General, 
in accordance with the provisions of article LS', 
paragraph 2 of the Proces-Verbal of Septem- 
ber 12. 1938. Concerning the Application of 
Articles JX. V, ^^. \TI. IX. XII. and XIH of 
the Convention of October 11, 1933, for Facili- 
tating the International Circulation of Films of 
an Educational Character, of its desire that the 
proces-verbal should apply to British Burma. 
The notification was received by the Secretariat 
of the League on April 2, 1940. 



Iraq 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Xations dated April 17, 1940. the 
Proces-Verbal of September 12. 1938, Concern- 
ing the Application of Articles FV, V, \1. VII, 
IX. XII. and XIII of the Convention of Octo- 
ber 11. 1933. for Facilitating the Iiuernational 
Circulation of Films of an Educational Char- 
acter was signed on behalf of Iraq on April 10, 
1940. 

Southern Rhodesia 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Xations dated April 24. 1940, the 
British Government notified the Secretary Gen- 
eral, in accordance with the provisions of ar- 
ticle IV, paragraph 2 of the Proces-Verbal of 
September 12, 1938. concerning the application 
of Articles FV. V. \1, Yll. IX. XH. and XIH 
of the Convention of October 11, 1933, for Facil- 
itating the International Circulation of Films 
of an Educational Qiaracter, of its desire that 
the proces-verbal should now apply to Southern 
Rhodesia. The notification was received by the 
Secretariat on April 15, 1940. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the proces-verbal has been signed by the 
following coimtries: Australia, including 
Papua, Xorfolk Island. Xew Guinea and 
Xauru: Brazil; Denmark; Egypt; Great Brit- 
ain: Greece; Lidia; Iraq: Ireland; Latvia; 
Monaco: Xorway; Poland; Sweden; Switzer- 
land; and the Union of South Africa, 

Convention for Facilitating the Interna- 
tional Circulation of Films of an Educa- 
tional Character 

France 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Xations dated April 24, 1940, the in- 
strument of ratification by France of the Con- 
vention for Facilitating the International Cir- 
culation of Films of an Educational Character, 
signed at Greneva on October 11, 1933. was de- 
posited with the Secretariat on April 12. 1940. 
The ratification was made subject to a reserva- 
tion which reads in translation as follows: 



556 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"The French Government declares that in 
accepting this convention, it reserves the right 
provided in article IX, and assumes no obliga- 
tion as regards its colonies or protectorates or 
the territories placed mider its mandate." 

SLAVERY 

International Slavery Convention (Treaty 
Series No. 778) 

Burma 

There is quoted below the text of a circular 
letter from the League of Nations dated April 
24, 1940, regarding the application to Burma 
of the International Slavery Convention signed 
at Geneva on September 25, 1926 : 

"I have the honour to inform you that the 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of His 
Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and 
the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Em- 
peror of India, has notified me as follows: 

" 'As Burma was separated from India on 
April 1st, 1937, and now possesses the status 
of a British overseas territory, the Slavery Con- 
vention concluded at Geneva on September 
25th, 1926, is to be regarded, in accordance with 
the provisions of Article 9, and by virtue of the 
signature and ratification of the Convention in 
respect of tlie British Empire, as having applied 
from April 1st, 1937, to Burma.' 

"This notification is made subject to the fol- 
lowing reservation, which corresponds to that 
portion of the reservation made on behalf of 
India at the date of signature which was still 
in force at the date of separation : 

" 'The Convention is not binding upon Burma 
in respect of Article 3 in so far as that Article 
may require her to enter into any Convention 
whereby vessels by reason of the fact that they 
are owned, fitted out or commanded by Bur- 
mans, or of the fact that one half of the crew 
is Barman, are classified as native vessels or are 
denied any privilege, right or immunity en- 



joyed by similar vessels of other States signato- 
ries of the Covenant or are made subject to any 
liability or disability to which similar ships of 
these other States are not subject.' 

"This notification was received by the Secre- 
tariat of the League of Nations on April 15tb, 
1940." 

According to the records of the Department 
the following countries have ratified or adhered 
to the convention : United States of America, 
Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bul- 
garia, Canada, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, 
Demnark, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Haiti, 
Hungary, India, Iraq, Irish Free State, Italy, 
Latvia, Liberia, Mexico, Monaco, the Nether- 
lands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Po- 
land, Portugal, Eumania, Spain (including the 
Spanisli colonies, but not the Spanish pro- 
tectorate in Morocco), the Sudan, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria and the Lebanon, Turkey, 
LTnion of South Africa, and Yugoslavia. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Report of the Delegate of the United States of Amer- 
ica to the Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics, Held at Panama September 23- 
October 3, 1939. Conference Series 44. Publication 
1451. vi, 81 piJ. 150 (paper). 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). April 1, 1940. Publica- 
tion 1452. 22 pp. Free. 

Diplomatic List, May 1940. Publication 1458. ii, 
90 pp. Sub.scription, $1 a year; single copy, 10^. 

Other Go\'erxment Agencies 

Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States 
for the Calendar Year 1938. (Department of Com- 
merce: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.) 
983 pp. $2.25 (cloth). 



U. S. eoVERNMEiHT PRINTING OFFICE- 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. Washington. D. C. — Price 10 cent* Subscription price, $2.7u a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APFBOVAL OF TUB DIRECTOR OP THE BDREAD OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



-O ^LJ \[ J }{ 4 



— ^ r 



TIN 



MAY 25, 1940 
Fol. II: No. 48 — Publication 1 467 

Qontents 

Europe: 

Repatriation of American citizens: Psge 

Voyage of the Steamship President Roosevelt .... 559 
Warnings to Americans in the Balkans and the Near 

East 560 

Contributions for relief in belligerent coimtrics .... 560 
The American Republics: 

Joint declaration of the American republics protesting 

violation of neutrality in Europe 568 

Statement on the sinking of the German ship Hannover 

off coast of Donunican Republic 568 

Inter- American Union of the Caribbean 569 

Cuba: Anniversary of independence 570 

Paraguay: National amiiversary 570 

Argentina: Aimiversary of independence 570 

Commercial Policy: 

National Foreign Trade Week: 

Message of the President and Radio Address by the 

Secretary of State 571 

Rebuilding Our Foreign Trade: Address by Lynn R. 

Edminster 574 

Radio address by Raymond H. Geist 581 

Foreign Service of the United States: 

Resignation of James H. R. Cromwell as Minister to 

Canada 584 

Persomiel changes 585 

[Over] 



Wf^ 



Wm. 



U. S. SUPERINTFNDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
JUN 10 1940 



Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicia] Settlement: 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Interna- Page 

tional Disputes 585 

Permanent Court of International Justice 585 

Commerce: 

Protocol on Arbitration Clauses in Commercial 

Matters 586 

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation With Iraq . . . 586 
Finance: 

Convention for the Establishment of an Inter- 
American Bank 587 

Customs: 

Convention Concerning Exemption From Taxation 
for Liquid Fuel and Lubricants Used in Air 

Traffic 587 

Legislation 587 

Publications 587 



Europe 



REPATRIATION OF AMERICAN CITIZENS 

Voyage of the Steamship "President Roosevelt" 



[Released to the press May 22] 

The Secretary of State telegraphed the 
American Legation at Dublin, fiire, on the 
night of May 22 the following instruction: 

"The steamship President Roosevelt of 
American registry is being dispatched from 
New York for the purpose of repatriating 
Americans. The vessel probably will leave 
late the night of May 23 and will proceed to 
Galway, Eire. Detailed instructions will be 
sent you within the next few days. The ves- 
sel should arrive in Galway about May 30 and 
when loaded with those desiring to proceed to 
the United States at their own expense will sail 
without cargo directly for New York. You 
will please communicate this information to 
the government at Dublin and ask the authori- 
ties there to facilitate the arrival and departure 
of the ship and the movement through Eire of 
American citizens desiring to board the vessel 
for the voyage to the United States. The ves- 
sel will carry on her eastward voyage no cargo. 
On her westward voyage she will carry no 
cargo and only passengers. About 500 can be 
accommodated in regular berths and 500 more 
on emergency cots." 

At the same time, the Secretary of State tele- 
graphed the following instruction to the 
American Embassies at London, Paris, Berlin, 
Brussels, and the American Legations at The 
Hague and Oslo : 

"You will please notify the Government to 
which you are accredited that the steamship 

234416 — 40 1 



Pi'esident Roosevelt of American registry is 
proceeding from New York to Galway, Eire, 
on the great circle route for the purpose of 
repatriating American citizens and their fami- 
lies, sailing from New York May 24, arriving 
Galway probably May 30. 

"On the eastward voyage the vessel will 
carry no cargo. On the westward voyage she 
will carry no cargo and only American citizens 
and their families as passengers. The vessel 
will carry the American flag prominently dis- 
played and will proceed fully lighted at night. 
The vessel is unarmed and moving without con- 
voy. The Govermnent of the United States 
expects this vessel to make its eastward and its 
westward voyages without interruption or mo- 
lestation by the air, naval or military forces 
of any belligerent." 

[Released to the press May 23] 

All passages on the S. S. President Roosevelt 
will be booked from the London oflSce of the 
United States Lines, which is being advised by 
the New York office regarding fares from Gal- 
way to New York. 

All persons desiring transportation on board 
must themselves bear all costs. 

The American Ambassador to Great Britain 
and the American Minister to £ire, with the 
assistance of the American consuls in Great 
Britain and Ireland, will endeavor to notify all 
Americans of the opportunity thus afforded 
them for returning to the United States and will 
make every possible arrangement for the em- 
barkation of those wishing to return. 

559 



560 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Released to the press May 25] 

The S. S. President Roosevelt sailed from New 
York yesterday and is expected to arrive at 
Galway June 1. The American Embassies at 
London, Paris, Brussels, and Berlin and the 
Legations at Oslo and The Hague have been 
instructed to notify the governments to which 
they are accredited. 

The following regulation has been codified 
under Title 22 : Foreign Relations ; Chapter I : 
Department of State ; and Subchapter A : The 
Department, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Federal Register and the Code of 
Federal Regulations: 

Part 55C— Travel 

§ 55C.4 American vessels in combat areas — 
(c) Vessels authorized to evacuate American 
citizens and those under direction of American 
Red Cross — (1) The S. S. President Roosevelt. 
The S. S. President Roosevelt has, by arrange- 
ment with the appropriate authorities of the 
United States Government, been commissioned 
to proceed into and through the combat area 
defined by the President in his proclamation 
numbered 2394, of April 10, 1940,' in order to 
evacuate citizens of the United States who are 
in imminent danger to their lives as a result of 
combat operations incident to the present war. 
Therefore, in accordance with paragraph (4)^ 



of the regulations which the Secretary of State 
issued on November 6, 1939, and amended on 
April 10, 1940,^ the provisions of the President's 
proclamation of April 10, 1940, do not apply 
to the voyage which the S. S. President Roose- 
velt has been commissioned to undertake for 
the aforesaid purpose. (Sec. 3, Public Res. 54, 
76th Cong., 2d sess., Nov. 4, 1939; Proc, No. 
2394, April 10, 1940) 

CoRDELL Hull, 

Secretary of State. 
Mat 23, 1940. 

Warnings to Americans in the Balkans and 
the Near East 

[Released to the press May 21] 

In response to inquiries concerning warnings 
given to American citizens in the Balkan and 
Near Eastern areas, news correspondents were 
informed on May 22 that the Department had 
suggested to its officers in those areas on May 16 
that they might consider the advisability, be- 
cause of the current situation in Europe and 
the possibility of the extension of hostilities to 
other areas, of inviting Americans in their re- 
spective districts to return to the United States 
while there still remained an opportunity for 
them to do so. This instruction was sent to the 
following offices: Belgrade, Athens, Bucharest, 
Budapest, Sofia, Ankara, Beirut, Baghdad, 
Jerusalem, Cairo, Tunis, and Tangier. 



-♦- + -♦■>■♦■■♦- + 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES 



[Released to the press May 22] 

Following is a tabulation of contributions 
collected and disbursed during the period Sep- 
tember 6, 1939, through April 30, 1940, as shown 
in the reports submitted by persons and organi- 
zations registered with the Secretary of State 



^ 5 F. R. 1390. 

'This regulation, wliich appeared as paragraph (4) 
in "Regulations under section 3 of the joint resolution 
of Congress approved November 4, 1939" (4 F. R. 4510) , 
has been designated as § 55C.4 (c) under Title 22 
for codification purixjses. 



for the solicitation and collection of contribu- 
tions to be used for relief in belligerent coun- 
tries, in conformity with the regulations issued 
pursuant to section 8 of the act of November 4, 
1939, as made effective by the President's proc- 
lamation of the same date. 

This tabulation has reference only to contri- 
butions solicited and collected for relief in bel- 
ligerent countries (France; Germany; Poland; 



' 5 F. R. 1401. 



MAY 25, 1940 



561 



the United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New 25ealand, and the Union of South Africa ; 
and Norway) or for the relief of refugees 
driven out of these countries by the present 
war. The statistics set forth in the tabulation 
do not include information regarding relief ac- 
tivities which a number of organizations regis- 
tered with the Secretary of State may be carry- 
ing on in nonbelligerent countries, but for which 
registration is not required under the Neutrality 
Act of 1939. 



The American National Red Cross is required 
by law to submit to the Secretary of War for 
audit "a full, complete, and itemized report of 
receipts and expenditures of whatever kind." 
In order to avoid an unnecessary duplication 
of work, this organization is not required to 
conform to the provisions of the regulations 
governing the solicitation and collection of con- 
tributions for relief in belligerent countries, 
and the tabulation does not, therefore, include 
information in regard to its activities. 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination of 
contributions 



Funds 
received 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



Unexpended Estimated 

balance as of value of 

Apr. 30, 1940, contribu- 

[ncludins tions in 

cost of goods kind sent 

purchased to coun- 

and still on tries 

hand named 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on hand 



Acci6n Democrats Espafiola, San Francisco, Calif., Mar. 29, 1940. 
France. 



Allied Relief Ball, Inc., New York, N. Y., Apr. 4, 1940. Great Britain 

and France _ - - 

American and French Students' Correspondence Exchange, New 

York, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1939. France 

American Association for Assistance to French Artists, Inc., New 

York, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1940. France.- -... 

American Association of Teachers of French— Washington Chapter, 

Washington, D. C, Apr. 24, 1940. France - _ 

American Auxiliary Committee de L'Union des Femmes de France, 

New York, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1939. France.... 

American Committee for Christian Refugees, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 26, 1939. Germany and France 

American Committee for the German Relief Fund, Inc., New York, 

N. v.. Mar. 27, 1940. Germany and Poland _ 

American Committee for the Polish Ambulance Fund, Chicago, 111., 

Feb. 12, 1940. France and Poland 

American Dental Ambulance Committee, New York, N. Y., Mar. 12, 

1940. United Kingdom 

American Emergency Volunteer Ambulance Corps, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Jan. 25. 1940. Great Britain and France 

American Field Service, New York, N. Y.. Sept. 27. 1939. France.... 
American-French War Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1939. 

France . 

American Friends of Czechoslovakia, New York, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939. 

Great Britain, France, and Bohemia-Moravia 

American Friends of the Daily Sketch War Relief Fund, New York, 

N. Y., Dec. 1, 1939. Great Britain 

American Friends of France, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. 

France 

American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 9, 1939. 

United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, and France 

American Fund for French Wounded, Inc., Boston, Mass., Jan. 3, 1940. 

France — 

American Fund for Wounded in France, Inc., Worcester, Mass., Dec. 

15, 1939. France -- 

American-German Aid Society, Los Angeles, Calif., Nov. 15, 1939. 

Germany 

The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Inc., New 

York, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1939." United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, 

and France. . - - - - 

American McAll Association, New York, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1940. France 
American Society for British Medical and Civilian Aid, Inc., New 

York, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1939. Great Britain and France. - 

American Society for French Medical and Civilian Aid, Inc., New 

York, N. Y., Oct. 13, 1939. France... 

American Volunteer Ambulance Corps, New York, N. Y., Dec. 12, 

1939. France 

American War Godmothers, Pittsburgh, Pa., Mar. 6, 1940. France. 
American Women's Hospitals, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1939. 

France and England — 



$166.09 

7, 442. 95 

2, 193. 42 

7,022.74 

291.85 

6, 436. 68 

11,801.86 

1, 665. 00 

6, 040. 31 

1, 135. 02 

None 
71, 139 14 

18, 674. 80 

6, 603. 61 

1, 357. 00 

103, 61.1. 80 

21,997.86 

4, 182. 67 

200.00 

3, 472. 66 

1, 773, 392. 56 
346.46 

167, 974. 16 

160, 081. 84 

96,010.16 
118. 12 



1,226.97 
• No complete report for the month of April has been received from this organiiatlon. 



None 

None 

$353.24 

3,857.89 
None 

2, 469. 86 

11,801.86 

None 

None 

1,000.00 

None 
35, 001. 03 

12, 432. 26 

3, 272. 48 

1, 367. 00 

64, 335. 64 

19, 495. 10 

3, 142. 32 

None 

None 

;, 691, 676. 61 
249. 46 

96, 273. 28 

94, 768. 95 

84. 852. 15 
61.18 

1,200,00 



$16.00 

896.75 

166.60 

1, 649. 60 

98.86 
672. 08 

None 
409.66 
661.11 

None 

None 
3,111.15 

745.77 

1, 942. 29 

None 

8,771.95 

2, 101. 75 

191. 12 

None 

828.10 



181, 716. 05 
None 



8,481.06 
8,605.06 



4,114.48 
66.94 



26.97 



$161.09 

6, 647. 20 

1,684.68 

1,616.35 

193.00 

2, 304. 74 

None 

1, 246. 36 

5, 479. 20 

135. 02 

None 
33. 026. 96 

6, 396. 77 

388.84 

None 

30. 408. 21 

401.00 

849. 13 

200.00 

2, 644. 66 



None 
96.00 



63, 219. 81 
66, 807. 84 



7, 043. 53 
None 



None 



None 

None 

None 

$1,070.27 

None 

821.97 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

12, 324. 42 

17. 076. 00 

None 

7.864.26 

6, 520. 20 

1,887.81 

None 

None 



61.00 
100. OO 



1.842.29 
8. 860. 37 



1,500.00 
None 



None 



None 

Nona 

None 

None 

None 

$18.60 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

442.00 

None 
None 
417. 11 
497.00 

280.70 
None 

None 



None 
100.00 



160.00 
220.60 



None 
1.00 



None 



562 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 
OoNTBiBUTioNS FOB RELIEF IN Belligeeent CouNTBiES — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 



Funds 
received 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30, 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 



American Women's Unit for War Belief, Inc., New York, N. Y., 
Jan. 16, 1940. France 

American Women's Voluntary Services, Inc., New York, N. Y., 
Feb. 13, 1940. England _. 

Les Amis de la France 4 Puerto Rico, San Juan, P. R., Dec. 20, 1939. 
France 

Les Amitife Ftoinines de la France, New York, N. Y., Dec. 19, 1939. 
France -. .-- - - 

Les Anciens Combattants Franpais de la Grande Guerre, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Oct. 26, 1939. France 

Mrs. Larz Anderson, Boston, Mass., Dec. 12, 1939. France.. _. 

Anthracite Relief Committee, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. Po- 
land. 



Associated Polish Societies Relief Committee of Webster, Mass., Web- 
ster, Mass., Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Associated Polish Societies' Relief Committee of Worcester, Mass., 

Worcester, Mass.. Sept. 14, 1939. Poland 

Association of Former Juniors in France of Smith College, New York, 

N. Y., Dec. 18, 1939. France 

Association of Former Russian Naval Officers in America, New York, 

N. Y., Feb. 21, 1940. France - 

Association of Joint Polish-American Societies of Chelsea, Mass., 

Chelsea, Mass., Sept. 1.5, 1939. Poland... 

L'Atelier, San Francisco, Cahf.. Jan. 29, 1940. France 

Mrs. Mark Baldwin, New York, N. Y,, Mar. 4, 1940. France 

Basque Delegation in the United States of America, New York, N. Y., 

Dec 19 1939 France 
The Benedict Bureau UiitrincV"New'York,'N.''Y.rNovrM, 'im 

France 

Beth-Lechem, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Bethel Mission of Poland, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., Nov. 27, 1939. 

Poland 

Bishops' Committee for Polish Relief, Washington, D. C, Deo. 19, 

1939. Poland 

Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United 

States of America, New York, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1939. Great Britain, 

France, and Germany 

British-American Comfort League, Qulncy, Mass., Feb. 21. 1940. 

England 

British-American War Relief Association, Seattle, Wash., Nov. 17, 

1939. United Kingdom and allied countries 

British War Relief Association of Northern California, San Francisco, 

Calif., Oct. 20, 1939. Great Britain and Franco 

The British War Relief Association of the Philippines, Manila, P. I., 

Apr. 11, 1940.' All belligerent countries... 

The British War Relief Association of Southern California, Los 

Angeles, Calif., Dec. 8, 1939. Great Britain 

British War Relief Society, Inc., New York, N. Y., Deo. 4, 1939. « 

Great Britain 

Bundles for Britain, New York, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1939. Great Britain 

and dominions 

Caledonian Club of Idaho, Boise, Idaho, Jan. 25, 1940. Scotland 

The Catholic Leader, New Britain, Conn., Sept. 25, 1939.'' Poland. . . 
Catholic Medical Mission Board, Inc., New York, N. Y., Jan. 17, 

1940.' India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 

South Africa 

The Catholic Student War Relief of Pax Romana, Washington, D. C, 

Dec. 13. 1939. Poland, France, Germany, and Great Britain 

Central Committee for PoUsh Relief, Toledo, Ohio, Feb. 29, 1940. 

Poland 

Central Committee Knesseth Israel, New York, N. Y., Oct. 27, 1939. 

Palestine 

Central Committee of the United Polish Societies, Bridgeport, Conn., 

Sept. 14, 1939. Poland 

Central Council of Polish Organizations, New Castle, JPa., Nov. 7, 

1939. England, Poland, and France 

Central Council of Polish Organizations in Pittsburgh, Pa., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939./ Poland 

Centrala. Pas,salc, N. J., Oct. 12, 1939. Poland 

Cercle Franpais de Seattle, Seattle, Wash., Nov 2, 1939. France and 

Great Britain 

Chester (Delaware Co., Pa.) Polish Relief Committee, Chester, Pa., 

Sept. 16, 1939. Poland 

Children's Crusade for Children, Inc., New York, N.Y., Feb. 3, 1940. 

France, Poland, and Germany _ 



$840.29 

6,663.83 

7, 737. 61 

631. 84 

6, 782. 61 
9, 829. 11 

10, 178. 96 

2, 799. 27 

7, 984. 80 

198. 60 

159. 69 

1,674.08 

2,459.16 

621. 86 

1, 037. 30 

1, 875. 00 
2, 135. 86 

5, 462. 26 

296, 437. 38 

6, 123. 85 

179.63 

4,278.83 

10, 417. 75 



17, 362. 66 

32, 676. 77 

15, 378. 90 

477. 64 

1, 719. 84 



722.65 

707.00 

17, 184. 75 

S, 626. 22 

1,844.26 

24, 323. 31 
1, 360. 77 

1, 842. 95 

6, 652. 07 

46, 183. 91 



$447. 80 

161.05 

6, 000. 00 

229.83 

3, 327. 88 
9, 424. 12 

2, 000. 00 

2,600.00 

6, 766. 45 

150.00 

106. 00 

1,000.00 

1, 390. 29 

612.00 

775.00 

None 
316.40 

4, 40O. 00 

166, 324. 31 

4, 770. 60 

None 

2, 981. 00 

7,414,34 



11,238.16 

4, 062, 10 

6, 850 89 

300.30 

1, 719. 84 



100.00 

600.00 

9, 843. 36 

3, 266. 70 

700.00 

23, 966. 09 
900.76 

558.28 

4,935.16 

None 



$278. 43 

6, 464. 64 

168. 19 

142.66 

177.89 
None 

288.46 
7.60 

453. 10 

None 

2.29 

86.67 

128.01 

50.86 

97.76 

116. 67 
1,673.70 

787. 56 

46.23 

714. 26 

25.00 

834, 27 

481.21 



$114. 06 

1,048.24 

1, 569. 42 

269. 46 

3, 276. 84 
404.99 

7, 890. 61 

191. 77 

766.26 

48.60 

52.40 

488.41 

940.85 

69.00 

164.64 

1, 759. 33 
145. 76 

274. 70 

140, 066. 84 

639. 09 
164.63 
463. 66 

2, 622. 20 



None 

$4,807.16 

232.00 

70.00 

772. 76 
None 

None 

None 

1,430.00 

None 

None 

None 

266. 18 

30.00 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

86.00 

2, 582. 11 



3, 223. 16 

4, 996, 04 

2, 270. 21 
164. 67 
None 



44.40 

67.84 

7, 341. 39 

48.40 

20.95 

367. 22 
11.66 

422.40 

377. 63 

40, 640. 28 



2, 891. 24 

23, 628. 63 

6, 257. 80 
12.77 
None 



163.52 
185.50 

12, 029. 44 

None 
None 



678.26 

139. 16 

None 

2, 220. 12 

1, 123. 31 

None 
448.37 

862.27 

339.28 

6, 643. 63 



None 

None 

None 

1,011.96 

None 

8, 321. 69 
1,900.00 

None 

1, 677. 30 

None 



• No report has been received from this organization. 

• No complete reports for the months of March and April have been received from this organization. 
' The registration of this organization was revoked on Apr. 30. 1940, at the request of registrant. 

• No complete report has been received from this organiration. 

/No report for the month of April has been received from this organization. 



MAY 25, 1940 



563 



OoNTBiBUTioNS FOB RELIEF IN BBaxiOEBENT COUNTRIES — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 



Funds 
received 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30. IMO, 

including 

cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on band 



Club des Femmes de France, Boston, Mass., Apr. 17, 1940." France... 
Commission for Polish Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., .Sept. 12, 1939.* 

Poland - 

Committee for Aid to Children of Mobilized Men of the XX" Arron- 

dissement of Paris, New York, N. Y., Jan. 16, 1910. France 

Committee for Belief in Allied Countries, Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, 

1940. France, Great Britain, Poland, and Norway 

Committee for the Relief for Poland, Seattle, Wash., Nov. 24, 1939. 

Poland 

Committee for the Relief of War Sufferers in Poland, St. Louis, Mo., 

Oct. 16, 1939. Poland 

Committee of the American Fund for Breton Relief, New York, N. Y., 

Oct. 31, 1939. France _ 

Committee of French-American Wives, New York, N. Y., Nov. 16, 

1939. France 

Committee of Mercy, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 16, 1939. France, 

Oreat Britain, Norway, and their allies 

Committee Representing Polish Organizations and Polish People In 

Perry, N. Y., Perry, N. Y., Oct. 23, 1939. Poland 

East Chicago Citizens' Committee for Polish War Sufferers and 

Refugees, East Chicago, Ind., Oct 16, 1939.' Poland 

The Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 13, 1939, 

England, France, and Norway 

Emergency Relief Committee for Kolbuszowa, New York, N. Y., 

Mar. 13, 1940. Poland 

English-Speaking Union of the United States, New York, N. Y., Dec. 

26, 1939. Great Britain, possibly France 

Erste Pinchover Kranken Unterstuzungs Verein, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Apr. 22, 1940. Poland --- -- 

Federated Council of Polish Societies of Grand Rapids, Mich., Grand 

Rapids, Mich., Sept. 16, 1939. Poland ---- 

Federation of Franco-Belgian Clubs of Rhode Island, Woonsocket, 

R. I., Nov. 16, 1939. France 

Federation of French Veterans of the Great War, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Oct. 11, 1939. France --- -- --- 

Federation of Polish Jews in America, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 

14, 1939. Poland 

The Federation of Polish Societies, Little Falls, N. Y., Oct. 9, 1939. 

Poland - --- 

Fellowship of Reconciliation, New York, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1940. France, 

England, and possibly Germany -- 

Five for France, Atlanta, Ga., Feb. 26, 1940. France - 

Fortra, Inc., New York, N. Y., Mar. 7, 1940. Germany and Poland.. 
Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 

21, 1939. France 

Foyers du Soldat, New York, New York. March 2, 1940. France. . . 
French Committee for Relief in France, Detroit, Mich., Oct. 17, 1939. 

French Refler Association,' Kansas City, Mo., February 3, 1940. 
France 

French War Relief, Inc.. Los Angeles, Calif., Nov. 16, 1939. France.. 
French War Veterans, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 6, 1939. France. 
The Friends of Israel Refugee Relief Committee, Inc., Philadelphia, 

Pa., Oct. 23, 1939. Canada, France, and England 

The Friends of Normandy, New York, N. Y., Dec. 18, 1939. France 

Friends of Poland, Chicago, HI., Dec. 6, 1939. Poland . ... 

General Gustav Orlicz Dreszer Foundation tor Aid to Polish Children, 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 3, 1939. Poland 

General Taufflieb Memorial. Relief Committee for France, Santa 

Barbara, Calif., Nov. 17, 1939. France and England -.-.. 

German-American Relief Committee for Victims of Fascism, New 

York., N. Y., Apr. 18, 1940. France and Great Britain ---■■-: 

Golden Rule Foundation, New York, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939. Poland 

and Palestine ---. ,:;•--;;■,■- 

The Grand Duke Vladimir Benevolent Fund Association, New York, 

N. Y., Jan. 8, 1940. France.. - --- 

Grand Lodge, Daughters of Scotia, Hartford, Conn., February 16, 

1940. Scotland... -,---vv;---- 

Greater New Bedford British War Relief Corps, New Bedford, Mass., 

Deo. 19, 1939. Great Britain .w,"--^;' ;." 

Greater New York Committee to Save Spanish Refugees, New York, 

N. Y., Apr. 6, 1940." France and United Kingdom.. 

Margaret-Greble Oreenough (Mrs. Carroll Greenough), Washington, 

D. C, Nov. 21, 1939. France 



$307, 744. 43 
4, 898. 40 
4, 463. 03 
2, 418. 43 
6, 215. 10 
4, 460. 17 
8, 330. 06 
23, 388. 95 
197. 00 
2,612.69 

10, 707. 19 
4, 679. 86 

10, 826. 43 

20.00 

4,611.97 

1,844.60 

1, 376. 70 

3, 472. 05 

410.00 

679. 21 

78.60 

101,216.62 

67, 667. 90 
6, 760. 22 

1,144.92 

630.00 

11, 975. 66 
767. 81 

9, 194. 66 
1,810.60 
1, 103. 40 

894. 46 

1, 292. 69 

339. 67 

203.62 

312.21 

1, 664. 46 

1, 429. 18 

2, 045. 06 

S76.0O 



$162, 860. 25 
3, 365. 63 
2,500.00 
2, 162. 72 
6, 106. 89 
2, 891. 00 
6, 145. 10 
11,168.60 
197.00 

2, 687. 95 

3, 713. 63 

None 

4, 246. 03 

None 
4,299.76 

908.61 

801. 09 
3, 120. 75 

363. 00 

531.21 

None 

58, 167. 74 

27, 969. 77 
None 



296.61 

4, 175. 49 

407.75 

492.50 
900.00 
200.00 



260 00 
1,071.90 
276.30 
None 
284.64 
None 
673. 31 
None 
296.00 



$35, 873. 81 

None 

1,805.60 

265. 71 

722.91 

222.78 

369. 36 

3,631.38 

None 

24.64 

2, 854. 64 

2, 166. 69 

733.32 

None 

109.72 

264.69 

2.50 

137.29 

46.64 

None 

.80 

14.311.41 

12, 169. 73 

2, 636. 02 

107.68 

93.47 

2,422.11 

171.66 

3, 622. 93 
160.00 

65.87 

321.29 
20.79 
13.10 
None 
8.67 
None 
62.33 
1, 726. 28 
None 



$109, 010. 37 

1, 632. 77 

157. 43 

None 

386.30 

1, 346. 39 

2, 816. 59 

8, 688. 97 

None 

None 

4, 139. 12 

2,413.16 

6, 847. 08 

20.00 

202.60 

671.30 

672.11 

214. 01 



48.00 

77.80 

28, 737. 37 

17. 43S. 40 
4, 225. 20 



141.02 

6, 377. 96 

178. 40 

6, 079. 23 
750.60 
847.53 

323.16 

200.00 

60.17 

203.62 

19.00 

1,654.46 

693.54 

318.78 

681.00 



$1,500.00 

None 

None 

None 

2,000.00 

2,873.80 

1, 390. 00 

210.00 

None 

None 

1,226.43 

None 

2, 662. 10 

None 

600.00 

150.00 

664.70 

7, 651. 43 

None 

None 
None 
None 

None 
None 

687.86 

198. 15 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

80.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

$60.00 

None 

None 

None 

241. 15 

None 

223.04 

None 

600.00 

87.30 

None 

6,000.00 

None 

None 
None 
None 

None 
None 

2, 121. 16 

69.86 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



' No report has been received from this organization. 



''^"/The 'registration of this organization was revoked on Apr. 30. 1940, at the request of registrant 
f The re^stratlon of this organization was revoked on Apr. 30, 1940, at the request of registrant. 



564 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 
OoNTBiBDTioNS FOB RELIEF IN Belugerent Countmes — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 


Funds 
received 


Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 


Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

aflairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 


Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30, 1940, 

including 

cost of goods 

purchased 

and stUl on 

hand 


Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 


Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on hand 


Hadassah, Inc., New York, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1939. Palestine 

Hamburg-Bremen Steamship Agency, Inc., New York, N. Y., Mar. 
21,1940. Germany and Poland _ 


tl, 044, 661. 20 

36, 161. 39 

78.89 

1,499.28 

1, 126. 17 

16, 999. 04 

3, 345. 57 

434. 00 

22, 212. 00 

7, 604. 50 

2, 636. 75 
25.00 

307.03 

6, 645. 36 

8, 396. 02 

8, 699. 46 
1. 065. 00 

12, 236. 47 
898.00 
261. 66 

1, 300. 65 

13, 722. 89 

13, 460. 67 

1, 285. 48 

7, 678. 48 

4,511.60 

4, 639. 99 

338. 87 
111.00 

None 

None 
6,608.22 

1, 210. 56 

1,427.82 

693.88 

6,015.46 

25,311.64 
1,268.29 

28, 727. 55 
67,664.94 
5,912.96 

599.00 

26, 759. 72 

7,991.93 

1,690.10 


$445,680.87 

29, 238. 93 

76.00 

None 

1,049.00 

1, 005. 00 

700.00 

None 

16,101.00 

3,895.65 

1,000.00 
25.00 

37.85 

B, 336. 29 

6, 845. 00 

7, 226. 56 
700.00 

8, 597. 13 

None 

163.00 

904.67 
8,642.00 

4, 194. 25 

None 

S, 000. 00 

3,406.60 

4, 403. 61 

None 
61.00 

None 

None 
3, 136. 69 

826. 17 
1, 400. 28 

None 

4, 589. 86 

21,966.70 
None 

None 
41, 949. 77 

5, 671. 15 

None 

25, 675. 26 

5,345.00 

84.68 


$19, 283. 00 

3, 157. 00 

3.89 

None 

None 

98.62 

61.63 

None 

614. 15 

3, 199. 76 

603.90 
None 

269. 18 

13.56 

407.63 

775. 40 
None 

2,805.88 

141.08 

None 

60.65 
1,860.21 

36.26 

483.13 

2, 396. 47 

1.75 

456.65 

79.37 
None 

None 

None 
2,235.61 

384. 38 
19.18 
92.50 
None 

103. 39 
None 

9, 093. 67 

27,090.59 

None 

45.56 

84.46 

None 

7.00 


$679, 687. 33 

6, 772. 45 

None 

1, 499. 28 

77.17 

16,896.42 

2, 583. 94 

434. 00 

5, 496. 85 

609.09 

932. 85 
None 

None 

296.50 

1, 143. 39 

598.50 
365.00 

833.46 

756. 92 

108.66 

346.33 
3,320.68 

9,230.16 
802. 35 
282.01 

1, 103. 25 

None 

269. 60 
60.00 

None 

None 
235.92 

None 

8.36 

501.38 

425.60 

3,241.65 
1, 268. 29 

19,633.88 
None 
241. 80 

653. 45 

None 

2,646.93 

1,498.42 


$29,623.04 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

100.00 

None 

None 

1, 970. 00 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

1, 846. 05 
None 

2,348.70 
None 
None 
None 

2, 249. 25 

None 
None 

None 

None 
1,765.35 

None 

1,300.00 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

2,707.76 

None 

None 

None 

1, 600. 00 

500.00 


$618.76 
None 


Hebrew-Christian Alliance of America, Chicago, 111., Jan. 3, 1940. 
England, Germany, and Poland . , 


None 


Holy Cross Relief Fund Association of New Britain, Conn., New 
Britain, Conn., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland . 


None 


Holy Rosary Polish Roman Catholic Church, Passaic, N. J., Sept. 16, 
1939. Poland 


None 


A. Seymour Houghton, Jr., et al., New York, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1939. 
France 


None 


Humanitarian Work Committee, Glen Cove, N. Y., Sept. 30, 1939. 
Poland 


None 


Independent Kinsker Aid Association, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1940. 
Poland - --- - 


None 


International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations, 
New York, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland, France, and India 

International Relief Association for Victims of Facism, New York, 
N. Y., Sept. 25, 1939. France, England, and Germany 


None 
40.00 


Joint Committee of the United Scottish Clans of Greater New York 

and New Jersey, New York, N. Y., Jan. 30, 1940. Scotland _ 

Marthe Th. Kahn, New York, N. Y., Apr. 16, 1940. France 


None 
None 


The Kindergarten Unit, Ijic, Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 3, 1939. France, 

Poland, United Kingdom, India, Australia, and New Zealand 

Kuryer Publishing Company, Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 16, 1939. 


None 


Der Kylfhaeuserbund, I^eague of German War Veterans in U. S. A., 




Lackawanna County Committee for Polish Relief, Scranton, Pa., 
Sept. 16, 1939. Poland . . 


None 






LaFayette Preventorium, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. 
France . _ ..--_... 


None 


La France Post American Legion, New York, N. Y., Feb. 7, 1940. 
France 


None 


Mrs. Nancy Bartlett Laughlin, New York, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1940. 
France 


None 


League of Polish Societies of New Kensington, Arnold and Vicinity, 
New Kensington, Pa , Nov. 17, 1939. Poland 


303.95 


Legion of Young Polish Women, Chicago, HI., Oct. 2, 1939. Poland. - 
The Little House of Saint Pantaleon, Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 30, 
1939. France 


None 
None 


The Maple Leaf Fund, Inc., New York, N. Y., Apr. 19, 1940. Canada, 
United Kingdom, and France 


60.00 


The Maryland Committee for the Relief of Poland's War Victims, 
Baltimore, Md., Oct. 21, 1939. Poland 


None 


Massachusetts Relief Committee for Poland, Worcester, Mass., Nov. 
9,1939. Poland 




Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, Pa., Feb. 13, 1940. Great 


1, 737. 00 


Milford, Connecticut, Polish Relief Fund Committee, Milford, 
Conn., Nov. 6. 1939. Poland _ . 


None 


Kate R. Miller, New York, N. Y., Feb. 19, 1940. France -... 




Emily Morris (Mrs. Lewis Spencer Morris), New York, N. Y., Jan. 
13,1940. France . .. . 


None 


The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, 
U. S. A., Boston, Mass., Apr. 26, 1940. Canada, France, and the 


None 


Fernanda Wanamaker Munn (Mrs. Ector Muim), New York, N. Y., 
Nov. 25, 1939. France 


None 


New Jersey Broadcasting Corporation, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 13, 
1939. Poland 


None 


North Side Polish Council, Relief Committee, of Milwaukee, Wis., 
Milwaukee. Wis., Dec. 5, 1939. Poland. . 


None 


Nowe-Dworer Ladies Benevolent As.sociation, Inc., New York, N. Y., 
Oct. 25, 1939. Poland- 


None 


Nowiny Publishing Apostolate, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 26, 1939. 
Poland 


None 


Nowy Swiat Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. ii, 1939. 
Poland and France . . 


None 


Order of Scottish Clans, Boston, Mass.. Jan. 25, 1940, Scotland 
Paderewski Fund for Polish Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Feb. 23, 


None 


Us Paquet au Front. New York, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1939. France 

The Paryski Puhlishinp Co., Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 15. 1939. Poland.. 
The Pawtucket and Bl,\ckstone Valley British Relief Society of 

Rhode Island, Pawtucket, R. I., Feb. 26, 1940. Great Britain 

Poland War Suflerers Aid Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 16, 

1939. Poland 


178. 65 
None 

None 


Polish Aid Fund Committee of Federation of Elizabeth Polish Or- 
ganizations, Elizabeth, N. J., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 


None 


Polish Aid Fund Committee of St. Casimir's Roman Catholic Church 
of the City of Albany, N. Y., Albany, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1940. Poland.. 


None 



MAY 25, 1940 



565 



OONTEIBUTIONS FOB RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 



Polish-American Associations of Middlesex County, N. J., Sayrcville 

N. J. Jan, 22. 1910. Poland 

Polish-American Central Civic Committee of South Bend Ind 

South Bend. Ind.. Sept. 19. 19.39.* Poland 

Polish-.Vmerican Citizens Relief Fund Committee. Shirley, Mass 

Dec. 16, 19.19. Poland _ _ .' 

Polish-.American Council, Chicago, 111, Sept. 15, 1939. Poland 
Polish-.^merican Forwarding Committee, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Mar. 2S, 1940. Poland and Germany .._ 

Polish-.American Volunteer Ambulance Section (Pavas), Washington, 

D. C, Feb. 13, 1940. France, 

Polish Broadcasting Corporation, New York, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Business and Professional Men's Club, Los Angeles, Calif., 

Nov. 17, 1939. Poland-- .". 

Polish Central Committee of New London, Conn., New London, 

Conn., Oct. 13. 1939. Poland _ 

Polish Central Council of New Haven, New Haven, Conn., Sept. 29, 

1939. Poland -.-. 

Polish Civic League of Mercer County, Trenton, N. J., Sept. 19, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Civilian Relief Fund, Passaic, N. J., Oct. 27, 1939. Poland 

Polish Emergency Council of Essex County, N. J., Newark, N. J., 

Sept. 14, 1939.' Poland 

Polish Falcons Alliance of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., Sept. 20, 1939. 

Poland - 

Polish Inter-Organization *'Centrala" of Waterbury, Waterbury, 

Conn., Feb. 28, 1940. Poland 

Polish Interor^ianization Council, Detroit, Mich., Oct. 11, 1939.' 

Poland 

Polish Literary Guild of New Britain. Conn., New Britain, Conn., 

Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Polish Medical Relier Fund of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Bar Harbor, 

Maine, Sept. 25, 1939." Poland.. - 

The Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, United States of America, 

Brooklyn. N. Y., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Alliance of the United States of North America, 

Chicago, 111., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Council of Montgomery County, Amsterdam, N. Y., 

Oct. 12, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Council of New York, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 

1939. Poland 

The Polish Naturalization Independent Club, Worcester, Mass., 

Sept. 20. 1939. Poland -- 

PolishReliefof Carteret, N. J.. Carteret, N. J., Oct. 11, 1939. Poland.. 
Polish Relief Committee of Boston, Boston, Mass., Sept. 14, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Brockton, Mass., Brockton, Mass., Sept. 

25, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge, Mass., 

Sept. 10, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Columbia County, Hudson, N. Y., Mar. 

15, 1940. Poland... 

Polish Relief Committee of Del., Wilmington, Del., Sept. 22, 1939. 

Poland .- 

Polish Relief Committee, Detroit, Mich., Sept. 11, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Fitchburg, Fitchburg, Mass., Mar. 29, 

1940. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee, Flint, Mich., Sept. 18, 1939. Poland 
Polish Relief Committee of Gardner, Mass., Gardner, Mass., Sept. 26, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Holyoke, Mass., Holyoke, Mass., Nov. 4, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Jackson, Mich., Jackson, Mich., Nov. 9, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee. New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 31, 1939. Poland- 
Polish Relief Committee of Philadelphia and Vicinity, Philadelphia, 

Pa., Sept. 12, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of the Polish National Home Association, 

Lowell, Mass., Nov. 27, 1939. Poland - 

Polish Relief Committee, Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1939. Poland.. 
Polish Relief Committee, Taunton, Mass., Dec. 13, 1939. Poland.... 
Polish Relief Fund of Fall River, Mass., Fall River, Mass., Nov. 8, 

1939. Poland 



Funds 
received 



$937. 25 

11,922.61 

391.36 
265. 253. 43 

None 

12,900.00 

I, 899. 08 

472. 50 

1, 167. 10 

2, 927. 49 

6, 435. 05 

3, 523. 10 

11,644.01 

8, 849. 68 

10.00 

14, 343. 69 
2,406.15 
3, 413. 16 
7, 025. 67 
258, 092. 25 
2,866.21 

77, 033. 40 

2, 278. 17 
891.00 

7, 129. 47 

1, 408. 80 

1,609.19 

None 

6, 829. 48 
129. 639. 73 

181.20 
4, 204. 14 

3, 540. 70 

4, 852. 57 

1, 286. 37 
7, 760. 98 

30, 444. 24 

1, 864. 26 
4.S.W. 51 

2, 536. 18 

952.20 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



$600.00 
11.458.11 

Aao. 31 

I3fi, 597. 50 

None 

0, 902. 87 

None 

314.23 

369. 24 

2.131.00 

.^ 092. 86 
2,000.00 

10.161.61 

7. .522. 23 

None 

11,171,20 
1,000.00 
3, 126. 80 
4,000.00 
231,005.00 
2, 110. 00 

34, 762. 24 

1,800.00 
600.00 

6. 101. 19 
1,001.27 

911.15 

None 

5, 097. 77 
83, 628. 14 

None 
3,300.00 

2. 179. 20 

2, 372. 90 

500.00 
5, 763. 41 

32, 479. 00 

900.00 
4. 473. 38 
2,115.00 

800.00 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigDS, 

etc. 



$73. 82 

i!>l. 70 

21.67 
3, 575. 10 

None 

20.97 

35 30 

158.27 

148. 57 

51.26 

.49 
137.00 

138.68 

20.00 

5.50 

51.30 

13.00 

278. 71 

None 

569.05 

81.41 

7, 843. 75 

8.65 
13.00 

414.56 

236.04 

41.75 

None 

168.57 
3, 456. 94 

None 
806.31 

700.11 

75.93 

86.99 
496.38 



149. 84 
56.80 
17.85 

30.10 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30. 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

bond 



$203. 43 

12.74 

19.38 
125,080.83 

None 

5.916.10 

1, 863. 78 

None 

649. 29 

745,23 

1,341.70 
1, 3S6. 10 

1, 343. 72 

1,307.45 

4.50 

3, 12L 09 

1, 393. 15 

7.64 

3, 025. 67 

28,458.20 

674.80 

34,427.41 

469.52 
378.00 

613. 72 

171.49 

656.29 

None 

1,563.14 
42, 564. 65 

181.20 
97.83 

661.39 

2. 403. 68 

699.38 
1, 610. 19 

3,671.22 

814.42 
324. 33 
403.33 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions In 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 



None 

None 

$3,')0. OO 
40, .'iOO. 00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

75.00 

800.00 

4,000.00 
None 

1, 638. 60 

None 

None 

116.22 

None 

None 

None 

None 

6,000.00 

289, 633. 50 

None 
45.00 

1,800.00 

350.00 

600.00 

None 

850.00 
32,800 00 

None 
None 

1,307.05 

600.00 

750.00 
1,850.00 

None 

None 

1, 653. 00 

976.00 

None 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind now 
on hand 



None 

None 

$76.00 
27.000.00 

None 

Nooe 

None 

None 

None 

950.00. 

None 
None 

300.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

228. 174. 60 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

1.500.00 
None 

76.00 
None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 
None 
None 

None 



» The registration of this organization was revoked on Mar. 31. I'.MO. at the rciiucst of registrant. 
I The registration of this organization was revoked on Apr. 30, 1940, at the rc/juost of registrant. 
m The registration of this organization was revoked on Nov. 28, 1939, at the request of registrant 

234416 — 40 2 



566 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETIN 
CtoNTEiBUTioNs FOE Eelief IN Belligekent Countbies — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 



Funds 
received 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30, 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 



Polish Relief Fund of Irvington, N. J., Irvington, N. J., Sept. 26, 1939. 

Poland -- 

Polish Reliaf Fund, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 12, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund, Jewett City, Conn., Oct. 3, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund of Meriden, Meriden, Conn., Oct. 12, 1939. Poland. 

Polish Relief Fund, Middletown, Conn., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund, Niagara Falls, N. Y., Oct. 26, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund of Palmer, Mass., Three Rivers, Mass., Oct. 20, 

1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund of Syracuse, N. Y., and Vicinity, Syracuse, N. Y., 

Oct. 31, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund Committee, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 13, 1989. 

Poland -- 

Polish Relief Fund Committee of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis., 

Sept. 26, 1939. Poland ._. 

Polish Relief Fund Committee of Passaic and Bergen Counties, Inc., 

Passaic, N. J.. Sept. 22, 1939. Poland 

Polish Roman Catholic Priests Union, Group No. 3 of New York Arch- 
diocese, New York, N. Y., Jan. 25, 1940. Poland and France.. 

Polish Union of the United States of North America, Wilkes-Barre, 

Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. Poland. _ _ 

Polish United Societies of Holy Trinity Parish, Lowell, Mass., Sept. 

20, 1939. Poland 

Polish War Sufferers Relief Committee (Fourth Ward), Toledo, Ohio, 

Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Polish Welfare Association, Hyde Park, Mass., Sept. 16. 1939. Poland- 
Polish Welfare Council, Schenectady. N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland.. 
Polish White Cross Club of West Utica, Utica, N. Y., Oct. 20, 1939. 

Poland --- -- -- 

Polish Women's Fund to Fatherland, Lawrence, Mass., Sept. 23, 1939. 

Poland - -- 

Polish Women's Relief Committee, New York, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1939. 

France, Poland, and Germany 

Polski Komitet Ratunkowy (Polish Relief Fund), Binghamton, 

N. Y., Sept. 25, 1939. Poland _ 

Polsko Narodowy Komitet w Ameryce, Soranton, Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. 

Poland 

Pulaski Civic League of Middlesex County, N. J., South River, N. J., 

Sept. 30, 1939. Poland -. 

Pulaski League of Queens County, Inc., Jamaica, N. Y., Oct. 21, 1939. 

Poland 

Rekord Printing and Publishing Co., Shamokin, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939.» 

Poland - - - - 

Relief Agency for Polish War Sufferers, Willimantic, Conn., Sept. 29, 

1939. Poland 

Relief Committee of United Polish Societies, Chleopee, Mass., Oct. 21, 

1939. Poland 

Relief Fund for Sufferers in Poland Committee, Kenosha, Wis., Sept. 

26,1939. Poland 

Relief Society for Jews in Lublin, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 13, 1939. 

Poland -. 

Helena Rubinstein-Titus, New York, N. Y., Mar. 1, 1940. Poland.. 
Russian Refugee Children's Welfare Society, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 29, 1939. Germany, France, and Poland 

The Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church, Little Falls, N. Y., Little 

Falls, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1939. Poland 

Saint Adalbert's Polish Relief Association, Thompsonville, Conn., 

Nov. 2, 1939." Poland ._._ 

St. Stephens Polish Relief Fund of Perth Amboy, N. J., Perth Amboy, 

N. J., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland 

Save the Children Federation, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1939. 

England and Poland 

Schuylkill and Carbon Counties Relief Committee for Poland, 

Frackville, Pa., Sept, 15, 1939. Poland... 

Secours Franco-Am6ricain — War Relief, Pittsburgh, Pa., Nov. 20, 

1939. France 

Share A Smoke Club, Inc., Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1939. England, 

France, and Norway 

Sociedades Hispanas Aliadas, San Francisco, Calif., Mar. 29, 1940. 

France 

Sociedades Hispanas Confederadas, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1940. 

France 

8ocift6 Frangaise de St. Louis, Inc., St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 15, 1939. 

France 

Society of the Devotees of Jerusalem, Inc., New York, N. Y., Dec. 18, 

1939. Palestine 

The Somerset Workroom, Far Hills, N. J., Apr. 26, i940. France andj 

Great Britain 

" The registration of this organization was revoked on Feb. 29, 1940, 
• The registration of this organization was revoked on Jan. 31, 1940, 



$3, 077. 49 

38, 021. 85 

1, 086. 15 

1, 345. 64 

3, 545. 05 

1, 821. 80 

1,116.88 
6, 877. 45 

359.40 
13,117.09 
9, 093. 06 

496. 50 
1,092.35 

4, 035. 64 

6. 002. 03 

434. 85 

4, 506. 40 

6, 923. 86 

4, 327. 89 

6, 695. 64 

3, 307. 14 

23, 007. 69 

496.08 
6,129.52 

938. 40 

2, 676. 20 

3, 644. 11 

2, 623. 18 

703. 63 
6, 365. 16 

6, 422. 37 

239.95 

686. 92 

2, 607. 46 

2, 688. 20 

4, 662. 46 
817. 50 
171.40 

1,061.64 
47, 640. 98 

431.05 
6, 496. 23 

677.00 



$2, 232. 60 

28, 762. 50 

982. 90 

None 

1,119.00 

1, 000. 00 

605. 36 
4, 264. 00 

153. 00 
10, 232. 72 
7, 673. 92 

None 

None 

1,788.31 

4, 884. 94 

350.00 

3,961.55 

4, 744, 53 

1,637,10 

269. 72 
2, 364. 04 
18, 226. 69 

None 
6, 600, 00 

923.58 

1, 777. 12 

2, 712. 64 

2, 560. 00 

None 
1,366.15 

3, 519. 67 
200. 00 
666.92 
None 

2, 023. 25 

4,310.71 

98.61 

None 

None 

18, 790. 12 

373. 49 

3, 500. 00 
None 



$32,00 
1, 407, 33 

101,08 
27,90 
18.20 
21.80 

39,27 

66.25 

84.64 

390.88 

276, 65 

None 

None 

157, 65 

117.09 
None 
67.32 

234,11 

406, 92 

2, 132. 77 

247. 13 

338.95 

86.00 
157.25 

10,00 
145. 72 

None 

42.78 

261. 39 
4, 000. 00 

1, 177, 26 

1.00 

None 

None 

688.17 

None 

60.16 

62.50 

679. 87 

8, 730. 24 

67.66 

2, 840. 39 

None 



$812. 89 
7, 862. 02 
2.17 
1, 317. 64 
2, 407. 86 
800.00 

472. 26 
2, 567. 20 

121. 76 
2, 493. 49 
1,142.49 

496. 60 

1,092.35 

2, 089. 68 

None 

84.85 

487.63 

945. 21 

2, 283, 87 

4, 293. 16 

705. 97 

4, 443. 06 

411.08 

472. 27 

4.82 

653.36 

831. 47 

30,40 

442.24 
None 

726.44 

38.96 

130. 00 

2, 607. 45 

76.78 

341. 75 

358.74 

108. 90 

381. 67 

20, 020. 62 

None 

166, 84 

677.00 



$500.00 
1, 675, 00 
400.00 
None 
None 
None 

4,00195 

350,00 

150. 00 

11,607.40 

2, 990. 60 
660. 00 
None 

1, 240. 00 

None 

None 

6, 150. 00 

1, 600. 00 

1,800.00 

859.00 

780.00 

19, 915, 00 

None 

None 

726.00 

637. 10 

1, 342. 60 

460, 00 

None 
None 

1, 166. 20 

None 

625,00 

None 

None 

None 

385.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



, at' the request of registrant, 
at the request of registrant. 



567 



OoNTEiBTjTioNs FOE RELIEF IN Beixigeeent Counteies — Continued 



Name of registrant, location, date of registration, and destination 
of contributions 



Southbridge Allied Committee for Relief in Poland, Souttibrldge, 

Mass., Nov. 9, 1939. Poland.- 

Spanish Committee Pro-Masonic Eefugees in France, New York, 

N. Y., Feb. 20, 1940. France _ 

Spanish Refugee Relief Campaign, New York, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1939. 

France --. 

Springfield and Vicinity Polish Relief Fund Committee, Springfield, 

Mass., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland _ _ 

Superior Council of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, New York, 

N. Y., Apr. 5, 1940.» France 

Toledo Committee for Relief of War Victims, Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 19, 

1939. Poland 

Tolstoy Foundation for Russian Welfare and Culture, New York, 

N. Y., Oct. 17, 1939. France, Poland, and England 

Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Bethesda, Md., Nov. 24, 1939. Great 

Britain 

Edmund Tyszka, Hamtramck, Mich., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

L'Union Alsacienne, Inc., New York, N. Y., Oct. 2S, 1939. France... 
United American Polish Organizations, South River, N. J., Soutli 

River, N. J., Oct. 20, 1939. Poland 

United Biigorayer Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Mar. 21, 1940.« 

Poland 

United Charity Institutions of Jerusalem, New York, N. Y., Oct. 13, 

1939. Palestine 

United Committee for French Relief, Inc., New York, N. Y., Oct. 26, 

1939. France 

United German Societies, Inc., Portland, Oreg., Portland, Oreg., Jan. 

8, 1 940. Germany 

United Nowy Dworer Relief Committee, New York, N. Y., Jan. 3, 

1940. Poland. 

United Opoler Relief of New York, New York, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1939. 

Poland - 

United Polish Central Council of Connecticut, Bridgeport, Conn., 

Oct. 16, 1939. Poland., 

United Polish Committees in Racine, Wis., Racine, Wis., Nov. 2, 1939. 

Poland -.- 

United Polish Organizations of Salem, Mass., Salem, Mass., Oct. 20, 

1939. Poland- -.- - 

United Polish Roman Catholic Parish Societies of Greenpoint, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 13, 1939. Poland 

United Polish Societies of Bristol, Conn., Bristol, Conn., Sept. 29, 

1939. Poland -. 

United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Sept. 27, 

1939.' Poland 

United Polish Societies of Immaculate Conception Church, Southing- 
ton, Conn., Oct. 13, ^939.' Poland 

United Polish Societies of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct. 21, 

1939. Poland... 

United Reading Appeal for Polish War Sufferers, Reading, Pa., Sept. 

22, 1939. Poland 

Urgent Relief for France, Washington, D. C, Dec. 26, 1939. 

France 

Mrs. Paul Verdier Fund, San Francisco, Calif., Oct. 11, 1939. 

France 

Ware Polish Relief Fund, Ware, Mass., Nov. 4, 1939.> Poland 

Woman's Auxiliary Board of the Scots' Charitable Society, Inc., 

Waverley, Mass., Feb. 28, 1940. Scotland 

Women's Allied War Relief Association of St. Louis, Clayton, Mo., 

Dec. 18, 1939. Great Britain and France 

Registrants whose registrations were revoked prior to Apr. 1, 1940, and 

who bad no balance on hand as of that date 



Total '.. 



Funds 
received 



$1,003.28 

None 

27, 267. 78 

1,061.09 



4, 86«. 47 

16. 699. 60 

330. 60 
2,929.71 
1,913.81 

2,644.24 

929. 97 

26, 948. 20 

26, 630. 22 

1,458.52 

784.96 

677. 15 

6, 990. 96 

1,316.86 

2,427.99 

2, 621. 63 

905.82 

4,090.66 

720.65 

2,291.69 

6, 550. 44 

7,947.99 

3,986.72 
1,691.44 

305.70 

1, 282. 20 

64, 761. 58 



7, 395, 348. 47 



Funds spent 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



None 

None 

$7,028.73 

1,000.00 



4, 560. 00 

8, 386. 64 

306. 67 

2, 929. 71 

400.27 

1,200.00 

None 

13, 667. 17 

13, 974. 47 

1,000.00 

None 

None 

5,119.66 

1,160.00 

1, 265. 27 

2,300.00 

604.00 

3, 271. 72 

460.00 

1,910.68 

5, 582. 14 

S, 176. 62 

3,897.31 
1, 184. 80 

200.00 

763.04 

62,684.06 



6, 192, 242. 60 



Funds 
spent for 
adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 

affairs, 

campaigns, 

etc. 



$20.91 

None 

19, 052. 85 

21.26 



213. 20 
2, 526. 63 

2.10 

None 
607. 62 

136. 94 

79.90 

12,618.23 

2, 366. 17 

121.24 

181.96 

36.21 

166 67 

116.00 

431.31 

70.00 

None 

109.00 

23.20 

302.29 

138.34 

390.23 

40.45 
96.31 

12.38 

8.02 

16,246.11 



660, 848. 62 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Apr.30. 1940, 

including 
cost of goods 

purchased 

and still on 

band 



$982. 37 

None 

1, 186. 17 

39.84 



103.27 

6, 787. 53 

22.83 

None 

1, 005. 92 

1, 307. 30 
850.07 
762.80 
10. 289. 68 
337.28 
603.00 
641.94 

1, 704. 63 
60.86 
731.41 
161.63 
401.82 
709.83 
247. 35 
78.82 
829.96 

2, 382. 14 

27,96 
410. 33 

93.32 

621. 14 

None 



1,660,028.62 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions in 

kind sent 
to coun- 
tries 
named 



None 

None 

$16, 136. 00 

None 



None 

None 

None 
None 
315.00 

None 

None 

None 

1,657.80 
None 
None 
None 

2,210.00 
None 
596.00 
None 
100.00 

9, 608 70 

None 

None 

None 

933.76 

3, 282. 00 
1,600.00 

None 

631.93 

2, 250. 00 



651, 736. 68 



Estimated 
value of 

contribu- 
tions In 

kind now 
on hand 



None 

None 

$1,360.00 

None 



None 

None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

449.66 

None 

None 

None 

906.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

161. 6S 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 



284,122.80 



»» No complete report has been received from this organization. 

« No report for the month of April has been received from this organization. 

■• The registration of this organization was revoked on Apr. 30, 19-10. at the request of registrant. 

• The registration of this organization was revoked on Feb. 29, 1940, at the request of registrant. .,,,.... ^., , .™ .™it=hi= 

' It is not possible to strike an exact balance in these published totals, smce some registrants have included m their expenditures moneys available 
from loans or advances, which are not considered by the Department to bo "funds received" and hence are not reported as such. 



The American Republics 



JOEVT DECLARATION OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS PROTESTING 
VIOLATION OF NEUTRALITY EN EUROPE 



[Released to tbe press May 19] 

The text of the joint declaration by the 
American republics with regard to the invasion 
of Belgium, Holland, and Luxemburg proposed 
by the Uruguayan Government and agreed to 
by the other American republics was released 
May 19, 1940, by the President of Panama and 
reads as follows: 

"The American Republics in accord with the 
principles of international law and in applica- 
tion of the resolutions adopted in their inter- 
American conferences, consider unjustifiable the 
ruthless violation by Germany of the neutrality 
and sovereignty of Belgimn, Holland and Lux- 
emburg. 

"In paragraphs four and five of the Ninth 
Resolution of the Meeting of Foreign Ministers 



held at Panama in 1939 entitled 'Maintenance of 
International Activities in accordance with 
Christian Morality',* it was established that the 
violation of the neutrality or the invasion of 
weaker nations as a measure in the conduct and 
success of war warrants the American Republics 
in protesting against this infraction of inter- 
national law and the requirements of justice. 
"The American Republics therefore resolve to 
protest against the military attacks directed 
against Belgium, Holland and Luxemburg, at 
the same time making an appeal for the reestab- 
lishment of law and justice in the relations be- 
tween countries." 



'See the BiiHetin for May 18, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 47), 
p. 542. 



-^ -^ ■*- -^ -^ -^ ■¥ 



STATEMENT ON THE SmKING OF THE GERMAN SHIP 
OFF COAST OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



'HANNOVER" 



[Released to the press May 24] 

Following the procedure of consultation pro- 
vided in the Declaration of Panama, the 21 
American republics have agi-eed upon the trans- 
mission of the following communications : 

1. A comrmmication frorw the President of 
Panama to the President of the Domini- 
can Rejnihlic: 

"I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that your note of March 11 reporting the sink- 
ing of the German merchant vessel Hannover 
near the eastern coast of the Dominican Re- 
public has been transmitted to the governments 
of the other American republics and has re- 
568 



ceived the careful consideration of those govern- 
ments. 

"It gives me pleasure, on behalf of the other 
American republics, to express cordial apprecia- 
tion of the prompt action of the Dominican 
Goverimient in reporting this incident. The 
action of Your Excellency's Government is one 
more indication of the determination of the 
nations of the American continent to face to- 
gether the problems brought about by the 
European war. 

"The American republics have authorized me 
to express to your Excellency their complete 
agreement with the position taken by the 
Dominican Government in the sense that the 



569 



Hannover incident was a violation of the right 
set forth in the Declaration of Panama. A 
statement to this effect is being addressed to 
the British and German Governments and at 
the same time the attention of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Neutrality Committee is being directed to 
this case." 

2. A comrmmication from the President of 

Panama to King George VI of Great 
Britain and to the CJiancelor of the Ger- 
man Reich: 

"The Government of the Dominican Republic 
has informed the other American republics that 
on March 9, near the eastern coast of the Do- 
minican Republic, the German merchant vessel 
Hannover was scuttled by its own crew on being 
intercepted by a British war vessel obviously for 
purposes of search and capture. 

"This incident is considered by the govern- 
ments of the twenty-one American republics to 
be a violation of the inherent right asserted on 
behalf of tliose republics in the Declaration of 
Panama which was communicated to the Gov- 
ernments of Great Britain, France and Germany 
on October 4, 1939. At the same time that the 
American republics have authorized me to ex- 
press their regret at the failure of the bellig- 
erent governments to observe the terms of the 
Declaration, they reiterate the principle therein 
set forth and reserve all their rights in the 
premises." 

3. A communication from the Secretary of 

Foreign Relations and Communications 
of Panama to the President of the Inter- 
American Neutrality Committee at Rio 
de Janeiro: 

"On March 2, 1940 a communication was ad- 
dressed to Your Excellency by the Director Gen- 
eral of the Pan American Union transmitting 
the affirmative answer of the twenty-one Ameri- 
can republics to the inquiry propounded by the 
Inter- American Neutrality Committee as to the 
competence of that Committee to deal with prob- 
lems arising from the Declaration of Panama. 

"Since the date mentioned, a number of hos- 
tile acts have taken place within the security 



zone established in the Declaration. I have 
been requested to transmit to Your Excellency 
the following documents relating to the sinking 
by its own crew of the German merchant vessel 
Hannover near the eastern coast of the Domini- 
can Republic on being intercepted by a British 
war vessel obviously for purposes of search and 
capture : 

"(1) A telegram from the Dominican Gov- 
ernment to the Government of Panama, 
dated March 11, 1940, reporting the inci- 
dent. 

"(2) A telegram from the President of Pan- 
ama to the President of the Dominican 
Republic on behalf of the American re- 
publics. 

"(3) A telegram from the President of Pan- 
ama on behalf of the American republics 
to the King of Great Britain and to the 
Chancellor of the German Reich." 

-f -f ■♦■ 

INTER-AMERICAN UNION OF THE 
CARIBBEAN 

[Released to the press May 24] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Government of the Dominican Republic 
to be represented by an official delegation at the 
second meeting of the Inter-American Union 
of the Caribbean, which will be held at Ciudad 
Trujillo from May 31 to June 6, 1940. The 
President has approved the appointment of the 
following persons as delegates on the part of 
the United States: 

Eugene M. Hinkle, Esq., American Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim, Ciudad Trujillo, Do- 
minican Republic 

Dr. Emilio del Toro, President of the Supreme 
Court of Puerto Rico, San Juan, P. R. 

Dr. John D. Long, Medical Director, Retired, 
Public Health Service, and Chief Traveling 
Representative of the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau, will also attend the meeting as the 
representative of the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau. 

The Inter-American Union of the Caribbean, 
which has its headquarters at Habana, Cuba, is 



570 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



composed of representatives of the governments 
and cultural organizations of those countries 
and possessions bordering on the Caribbean 
Sea. It was organized for the purpose of con- 
vening meetings "to further closer relations and 
to contribute toward the development of cul- 
tural as well as economic and tourist relations 
among the nations in this portion of the New 
World." 



-^ -^ ■¥ 

CUBA: ANNIVERSARY OF 
INDEPENDENCE 

Following is a telegram sent by President 
Eoosevelt to the President of Cuba, Dr. 
Federico Laredo Brii and President Brii's reply : 

[Released to the press May 20] 

"The White House, 

May 20, 19W- 
"Upon this anniversary of the independence 
of Cuba it is a great pleasure to greet Your 
Excellency in my own name and on behalf of my 
fellow countrymen and to extend my sincere 
wishes for the happiness and welfare of the 
people of our sister republic. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 

[Released to the press May 24] 

"Mat 23, 1940. 
"In the name of the Cuban people and in my 
own name, I expi-ess warm gratitude for the 
cordial greetings and sincere good wishes which 
Your Excellency sent to me on the occasion of 
the happy anniversary of our independence and 
I take pleasure in giving voice, in my turn, to 
warm good wishes for the increasing happiness 



and prosperity of the noble American people 
and for the personal happiness of its illustrious 
President. 

Fedeeico Laredo Bru" 

> -f -f 

PARAGUAY: NATIONAL 
ANNIVERSARY 

[Released to the press May 20] 

Following is a translation of a telegram sent 
to President Roosevelt by the President of 
Paraguay, Gen. Jose F. Estigarribia : 

"Asuncion, 
[Rec'd May 16, 191^0, 11:03 p. m.] 
"The President. 

"I thank your Excellency sincerely, in the 
name of the Paraguayan people and in my own 
name, for the greetings and wishes for peace 
and prosperity expressed by Your Excellency 
on the occasion of the return of our national 
anniversary, and I cordially reciprocate them. 
General Jose F. Estigarribia" 

•¥■¥■¥ 

ARGENTINA: ANNIVERSARY OF 
INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press May 2S] 

Following is a telegram from President 
Roosevelt to the Acting President of the Ar- 
gentine Republic, Sehor Ramon S. Castillo : 

"Mat 25, 1940. 
"On this anniversary of the independence of 
the Argentine Republic, I send to Your Excel- 
lency and to the people of Argentina my felici- 
tations and best wishes. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



Commercial Policy 



NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE WEEK 

Message of the President and Radio Address by the Secretary of State' 



[Released to the press May 19] 

It gives me great pleasure to read the follow- 
ing message of the President of the United 
States : 

"As on similar occasions in the past, I am 
happy to extend again my most cordial greet- 
ings to all those who are participating in the 
observance of Foreign Trade Week. 

"This important annual observance is becom- 
ing traditional in our national life. It is a 
valuable occasion for renewing our appreciation 
of the essential significance of foreign trade for 
the economic well-being of our Nation. It is a 
reminder that vigorous and mutually beneficial 
trade relations among nations are essential for 
the maintenance of enduring world peace. 

"Today vre are all profoundly conscious of 
the black cloud of war overhanging so much of 
the world's surface. The devastating and wide- 
spread wars now being waged have far-reaching 
economic and spiritual effects. Some of these 
effects fall heavily upon our own country. 

"The tragic events now transpiring bear elo- 
quent testimony to the fundamental need for 
liberal economic policies in international rela- 
tions, if, in the future, frictions, conflicts, and 
wars among nations are to be averted. They 
serve also to emphasize the inescapable fact that 
our Nation cannot enjoy sustained and satisfac- 
tory prosperity unless adequate foreign markets 
exist for our exportable surpluses and unless our 
necessary imports are unhampered by adverse 
developments at home and abroad. 

"The promotion of liberal economic policies 
has been — and will continue to be — a vital part 
and a dominant purpose of the foreign policy 
of the United States. In this way, and in this 

'Delivered from the studios of the National Broad- 
casting Co., Washington, May 19, 1940. 



way alone, can the United States contribute to 
the economic reconstruction of the world when 
the destruction now going on shall have ceased. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt" 

The observance of Foreign Trade Week oc- 
curs tliis year at a time when the international 
situation is extraordinarily grave. Large por- 
tions of two continents are being ravaged by 
violent and destructive warfare. The reper- 
cussions of these titanic struggles extend to the 
uttermost corners of the earth. They will 
have a profound influence, in innumerable ways, 
upon the future of this Nation and of every 
nation. 

The disorganization and disruption of the 
normal processes of life in important areas of 
the globe have already produced serious effects 
upon our foreign trade and upon our shipping 
— and, through them, upon many other phases 
of our economic life. 

As regards current trade, both exports and 
imports are involved. Apart from the other 
20 American republics, all of the foreign coun- 
tries which are the principal customers for our 
products are affected by war. Some of them 
have ceased their purchases from us almost al- 
together because of the exigencies of war-time 
controls. Others have had to subject their for- 
eign trade to stringent regulation, which has 
had the effect of changing substantially the 
composition of our exports. 

The result of all this is that while some of 
our exporting branches of production are ex- 
periencing temporarily an intensified demand 
for their products, others are subjected to a 
slackening of foreign demand. Our total ex- 
ports have increased substantially during the 
war months. They amounted to $2,607,000,000 
during the period from September 1939 to 

5T1 



572 

April 1940, as compared with $1,952,000,000 
during the corresponding period of 1938-39. 
Obviously, the increases have far outweighed 
the decreases. Nevertheless, the decline of for- 
eign demand for some of our important export 
products has naturally created hardships for 
the agricultural and manufacturing industries 
involved. We must frankly face the possibil- 
ity that these difficulties may become greater. 
The government is constantly engaged in most 
earnest efforts to reduce these difficulties as 
much as possible through negotiations and con- 
versations with foreign governments. 

On the import side, too, the effects of war are 
felt in our economic life. In some cases, dis- 
ordered conditions abroad give rise to situations 
in which domestic industries face the impact of 
additional competition from imports. Where 
this is the case, the government, of course, takes 
appropriate measures to deal with the situation. 
But there also are other, and entirely different, 
ways in which the war is affecting our imports. 
War-time exigencies have made it more difficult 
for our manufacturers to secure some of the raw 
materials which they must bring in from abroad 
for their operations. War has made it more 
difficult for our consumers to obtain some of 
the commodities produced abroad to the use of 
which they have long become accustomed. 
Here, too, the government is making most 
earnest efforts to eliminate or reduce some of 
the war-created obstructions to a continued in- 
flow of imports essential to the functioning of 
our economic life, to our national defense, and 
to the comfort of our people. 

In part, the difficulties experienced in both 
our export and our import trade are due to 
dislocations of shipping caused by the war. In 
this connection, I should like to say a word 
about our own shipping problem, a reference 
to which is particularly appropriate at this 
time, because Foreign Trade Week tradition- 
ally coincides with the observance, on May 22, 
of National Maritime Day. 

In pursuing a course of policy designed to 
reduce the risks of our possible involvement in 
war, it has been deemed wise to forbid our mer- 
chant vessels from entering certain designated 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

zones of danger. This measure, adopted with 
the view to safeguarding our highest national 
interest, has obviously imposed handicaps on 
our merchant marine, which has been compelled 
temporarily to abandon some of its most valu- 
able trade routes. 

It is immensely gratifying to observe the en- 
ergy and initiative with which our shipping 
industry has sought to adjust itself to the new 
emergency conditions. Some new routes have 
been mapped out, and arrangements have been 
made for new ports of call. Government effort 
and private enterprise have worked, each in its 
own sphere, to bring about the necessary adjust- 
ments. Today, most of the merchant fleet flying 
the American flag is again busily employed in 
passenger and freight traffic. 

Some of the tonnage formerly used for trans- 
Atlantic sailings now plies in the waters of the 
Western Hemisphere. This is a consequence 
of the fact that, as between our country and the 
other American republics, trade has, in recent 
months, substantially increased. 

In trade as in shipping, the difficulties to 
which wars abroad have given rise cannot be 
adjusted by government alone or by business 
alone. The government, through the various 
avenues of action open to it, can and must create 
conditions in which private enterprise can func- 
tion most effectively. It alone is capable of in- 
ducing other governments to moderate the sever- 
ity of the restrictions which they impose to the 
detriment of American trade. In time of war, 
the government's tasks in this respect multiply 
with the multiplication of restraints on trade. 
But, beyond that, whether in war or in peace, the 
prosperity of our foreign commerce must depend 
upon the vigor and ingenuity of those actually 
engaged in the process of trade, upon their 
initiative and enterprise. 

From this point of view, I have every con- 
fidence in the ability of our businessmen to make 
the adjustments necessitated by the war emer- 
gency. They have already shown their capacity 
in this direction. I have equal confidence in 
their ability to resume vigorous progress in the 
foreign-trade field when peace is restored — ^if 
our government and other governments will 



I 



MAY 25, 1940 



573 



have the wisdom to create sound conditions for 
the functioning of international trade. 

The qualities I have enumerated — energy, in- 
genuity, initiative, enterprise — are traditionally 
American. By possessing them and by using 
them — in a political system based on democratic 
institutions and on individual freedom under 
law — our farmers, our workmen, and our busi- 
nessmen have been responsible for the vast eco- 
nomic expansion which has characterized so 
vividly the history of our Nation. Our further 
national economic gi'owth requires the greatest 
practicable development both of our domestic 
economy and of our foreign commerce. Neither 
can function satisfactorily or soundly without 
the other. 

What has happened in the last few months has 
brought out strikingly — perhaps, more strik- 
ingly than ever before — the effects of foreign 
trade upon our national well-being. For the 
present, the difficulties experienced by those of 
our surplus-producing branches of agriculture 
and industry which are being affected by the 
sudden war-time curtailment of foreign mar- 
kets, are being relieved to some extent by the 
general economic improvement in the country, 
resulting, in part, from the expansion of other 
exports. But it must be increasingly clear — to 
every one who woidd but open his eyes to what 
is going on today — that permanent and stable 
prosperity for our surplus-producing branches 
of both agriculture and industry — and, there- 
fore, for the country as a whole — is possible 
only in a world which is at peace and in which 
expanding economic activity in all countries 
makes possible increasing employment and con- 
sumption and, hence, rising standards of living 
everywhere. 

The difficulties which we now experience in 
securing some of our essential imports provide 
an added unanswerable refutation to those who 
indulge in reckless assertions that our country 
can isolate itself from the rest of the world and 
prosper. The commodities which we bring in 
from abroad consist overwhelmingly of raw ma- 
terials and foodstuffs which we either do not 
produce at all or else produce in insufficient 
quantities; and of various products and spe- 
cialties which differ markedly from our own 



production in quality, price, season of market- 
ing, etc., and without which our people cannot 
maintain their accustomed standards of com- 
fort and enjoyment. There is no occasion for 
rejoicing when our imports of these essential 
commodities decline. That is a sure sign that 
some of our factories stand idle and, therefore, 
need smaller amoimts of raw materials. That 
is a sure sign that the purchasing power of our 
people has been curtailed by unemployment, 
lower wages, or lower prices. That is a sure 
sign that our exports, too, must decline. 

Loss of foreign markets for our exportable 
surpluses disorganizes and reduces our domestic 
market as well, causing disastrous unemploy- 
ment of human and material resources. Re- 
duced to its simplest terms, the importance of 
foreign trade to our national economic well- 
being may be stated as follows : 

If we were to shut out by means of embargo 
policies every dollar's worth of agricultural im- 
ports and every dollar's worth of imports of 
manufactured goods — and thereby shut in our 
own agricultural exports and our own exports 
of factory products — we would put into culti- 
vation about 10 million acres and take out of 
cultivation over 40 million acres; and we would 
take out of employment at least two or three 
times as many men as might conceivably be 
employed to make the goods now imported. 

These results would inexorably follow if our 
country were to enter upon an embargo policy 
as regards tariffs, quotas, controlled exchanges, 
or other trade-destroying devices. For the em- 
bargo game can be played by foreign countries 
as well as by us. And there is nothing more 
certain in international trade relations than a 
vicious cycle of retaliation and counterretalia- 
tion once any country is short-sighted enough 
to start the process. The bitter experience of 
the period following the World War beai-s wit- 
ness to this, and — much nearer home — our own 
disastrous experience under the embargo policy 
of the Hawley-Smoot tariff. 

Six years ago, our country resolutely turned 
its back u^^on this type of economic suicide. By 
enacting the Trade Agreements Act, the Con- 
gress created an instrument with which it be- 
came possible to meet and overcome some of 



574 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIlSr 



the pressing and extraordinary diflBculties in 
the field of foreign trade with which our Na- 
tion was fpced. During the period of its opera- 
tion to date, the trade-agreements program has 
amply demonstrated its effectiveness for this 
purpose. As was proved conclusively in recent 
hearings before appropriate congressional com- 
mittees, it has brought marked benefits to all 
groups of our population and to all sections of 
the counti'y, without inflicting injury on any 
one. 

The renewal of the Trade Agreements Act 
for another period of 3 years was an immensely 
important step from the viewpoint of both the 
immediate and the long-range interests of our 
country. As things are today and as they are 
likely to be for some time to come, we need to 
have this and every other appropriate means 
of safeguarding our trade and of our whole 
economic life and of maintaining and improv- 
ing the economic health and strength of our 
country. At the same time, we must be ever- 
lastingly concerned with the broad and basic 
problems of the future. 

The principles underlying the trade-agree- 
ments program offer the only possible basis on 
which the economic life of the world can be 
successfully rebuilt when the present wars are 



over. Only if these principles prevail in eco- 
nomic relations among nations will it be pos- j 
sible to ci'eate a firm foundation for stable 
peace and for satisfactory economic progress. 
If the opposite tendencies — those of totalitarian 
autarchy and all that it means — so ominously 
spreading today, should come to be widely 
dominant, mankind will be plunged into a pe- 
riod of chaos and impoverishment, and, inevi- 
tably, into moral and spiritual decay. 

Our Nation has an obvious and essential 
stake in the establisliment and preservation of 
conditions of stable peace and of orderly inter- 
national relations. It is our duty to ourselves 
to make every appropriate contribution toward 
that end. Our paramount task today is two- 
fold, and I camiot emphasize too strongly the 
vital importance of both of its phases. We 
must increase our national strength, redouble , 
our national vigor and courage, create for our- I 
selves adequate means of defending this coun- 
try's safety and security against any armed 
challenge. And we must hold ever in readi- 
ness — for use when circumstances permit — the 
proven and tested instrument of constructive 
action for economic welfare, free enterprise, 
and stable peace provided by the trade-agree- 
ments progi-am. 



Rebuilding Our Foreign Trade : Address by Lynn R. Edminster ' 



[Released to the press May 21] 

Me. Chairman, Members of the New Or- 
leans Board of Trade, and Guests : It is a gen- 
uine pleasure to be here tonight, to participate 
in the series of meetings which New Orleans 
is sponsoring iii celebration of Annual Foreign 
Trade Week. It is all the more a pleasure be- 
cause it is my first visit to this celebrated city — 
a visit which, I must confess, has long been 
overdue. 



"Delivered at a dinner meeting sponsored by the 
New Orleans Board of Trade and cooperating groups, 
in connection with the observance of National Foreign 
Trade Week, New Orleans, May 21, 1940. Mr. Ed- 
minster is Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



In approaching the problem of our foreign 
trade and what it means to the welfare of our 
people, I am keenly conscious — as I know you 
must be — of the dark shadow of impending 
events across the seas. As we meet here tonight 
half the world is locked in a death grapple. The 
lingering hope that somehow — in some way — 
the terrible tragedy of another major war might 
be averted was finally dashed last September. 
The constructive forces of peaceful and mu- 
tually advantageous cooperation among nations, 
so necessary to the maintenance and further de- 
velopment of our whole civilization, have now 
gone into eclipse throughout much of the world, 



MAY 25, 1940 



575 



■while great nations turn loose upon each other, 
in the full impact of their destructive barbarity, 
the terrible instruments of -warfare -which mod- 
ern science has forged. 

Where it will all end, no one can tell. We 
do kno-w, however, that the United States is still 
a part of this rapidly slirinking world — and 
seems likely to continue to be, no matter how 
much some people may wish it were on another 
planet. Such being the case, only the most 
stupid person could fail to see that the critical 
events that are now transpiring must pro- 
foundly affect our national interests for many 
years to come and may, indeed, mark a crucial 
turning point in the entire history of our 
country. 

In such a setting, it is obvious that the future 
of our foreign trade, as it affects each and every 
part of our Nation, must inevitably contain so 
many elements that are now quite unpredictable 
that any attempt to forecast developments 
would be worse than futile. Wliat is possible, 
however, is briefly to review our experience of 
recent years in attempting to deal with this 
difficult problem ; to see how matters stand as 
of today; and to set the goal for our further 
efforts during and after the war. 

The story of the efforts of the Federal Govern- 
ment to deal with the crisis in our foreign trade 
goes back to the adoption of the Trade Agree- 
ments Act in 1934 and to the events which led 
up to it. It is a story with which most of us 
are, by now, more or less familiar. Throughout 
the twenties this country had succeeded, chiefly 
by dint of heavy foreign lending, in facing two 
directions simultaneously — maintainmg a large 
and growing export trade while at the same 
time imposing ever-higher tariffs upon imports. 
That seemed fine while it lasted. But when we 
stopped lending and, on top of that, raised our 
tariff still higher in 1930, a foreign-trade crisis 
which had for some time been in the making 
suddenly burst upon us, contributing its full 
impact to the longest and severest depression 
in the history of this country. Dammed up 
agricultural surpluses forced farm prices down 
to starvation levels; slumken markets, both at 
home and abroad, for our industrial surpluses 



threw millions out of employment ; everywhere, 
the grim specter of deepening depression 
stalked through the land. 

Within the short period of 3 years, from 
1929 to 1932. our national income fell by over 42 
billion dollars — or more than half. There is 
not the slightest doubt that the decline, mean- 
while, of more than two-thirds in the value of 
our foreign trade (from 9.6 billion dollars to 
2.9 billions) was both an important contribut- 
ing cause, and a result, of that enormous drop 
in our national income. In 1929 we had ex- 
ported 1.7 billions of dollars' worth of farm 
products alone ; by 1932. that figui-e was down 
to 662 million dollars. Meanwhile, cash farm 
income fell from 11.2 billions to 4.7 billions. 
In Louisiana the total income of the State fell 
during the same period from $804,000,000 to 
$526,000,000. and cash farm income, from $157,- 
000,000 to $60,000,000. Exports of products 
originating in Louisiana fell by nearly two- 
thirds; and the total foreign trade tonnage 
moving into and out of the port of New Orleans 
likewise fell by nearly 60 percent. Shipments 
of all important Louisiana products entering 
into export trade at that time — particularly 
such things as petroleum products, raw and 
manufactured cotton, lumber, and rice — under- 
went extremely severe reductions. 

The Trade Agreements Act has been the in- 
strumentality by which the Government has 
sought, during the past 6 years, to deal with 
this crisis in our foreign trade. I cannot im- 
dertake, in the brief space of my remarks, to 
review in detail the record of acliievement 
under that act — a record made in the face of 
the most difficult and trying conditions 
throughout the world. I do, however, want to 
bring out a few salient jjoints. 

First and foremost, let me say that, in re- 
newing the act a second time, for a further 
3-year period, the present Congress subjexited 
the trade-agreements program to the most 
searching scrutiny; and the record is there for 
anyone to examine for himself. To any who 
may be in doubt, I particularly commend, for 
careful reading, the 43-page report of the Ways 
and Means Committee. The facts cited in that 



576 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIIT 



report are, in my opinion, unanswerable. In 
the light of those facts, the Committee con- 
cluded as follows: 

" ( 1 ) The foreign trade agreements concluded 
during the past 5I/2 years have been highly 
beneficial to this country, both in reviving our 
foreign commerce and in safeguarding it 
against adverse discriminations abroad ; 

"(2) The trade-agreements program has, di- 
rectly or indirectly, contributed to the restora- 
tion of profitable production throughout Amer- 
ican agriculture and industry. 

"(3) The act has been administered with, 
scrupulous regard for the best interests of the 
Nation, while the welfare of all interested par- 
ties has been safeguarded and will continue to 
be safeguarded by the democratic procedure 
and painstaking caution which have been ad- 
hered to throughout; 

"(4) There is urgent need for the continua- 
tion of this program, for the 3-year period 
provided in the resolution, both as a tried and 
proven means for protecti)ig and fostering our 
foreign commerce and as concrete evidence that 
this Nation proposes to persevere along with 
like-minded nations in the promotion of those 
principles which alone can give a sound eco- 
nomic basis on which to build a stable peace. 

"The committee, therefore, states with all the 
emphasis at its command the firm conviction 
that our highest national interests require the 
continuance of the authority for the trade- 
agreements program, for a further period as 
provided by the accompanying resolution." 

Second, I would call your attention to a few — 
and only a few — of the outstanding facts that 
were brought out by the Committee. For 
example, one study by the Commerce Depart- 
ment showed that our exports to trade-agree- 
ment countries increased, between the 2-year 
periods 1934-35 and 1937-38, by 61.2 percent, 
as contrasted with an increase of only 37.9 per- 
cent in our exports to nonagreement countries. 
Another study by that Department showed that 
for the year 1939 our exports to agreement coun- 
tries increased by 8.1 percent over 1938, whereas 
our exports to nonagreement countries fell by 
4.5 percent. 



With respect to agriculture. Secretary Wal- 
lace significantly pointed out, among other 
things, that our agricultural exports to the 16 
trade-agreement countries with which trade 
agreements were in effect throughout the fiscal 
year 1938-39 showed an increase of 15 percent 
in that year over the fiscal year 1935-36 (when 
relatively few agreements were in effect), 
whereas, by contrast, exports of farm products 
to other countries showed a decrease of 19 per- 
cent. Referring to claims of injurious in- 
creases in imports of farm products by reason 
of duty reductions in trade agreements. Secre- 
tary Wallace said : "I do not know of a single 
case where such duty reductions have seriously 
inconvenienced an American agricultural 
industry." 

The testimony of Secretary Wallace was fur- 
ther supported by that of the president of the 
American Farm Bureau Federation — one of the 
largest and most genuinely representative farm 
organizations in this country — endorsing the 
program and citing in support of that position 
the findings of a nonpartisan and objective 
study of this whole question which had been 
made at the instance of the Farm Bureau by 
Dr. Schultz, of Iowa State College, at Ames. 
Finally, there was the over-all fact, pointed out 
by Secretary Hull, that between 1932 and 1938, 
farm cash income in this country rose from 4.7 
billion dollars to 7.6 billions, excluding benefit 
payments, and that, even making allowance for 
price changes affecting the farmers' cost of 
living, farm income in 1938 represented at least 
40 percent more purchasing power than in 1932. 

The evidence offered to show that industry 
and labor have benefited by the trade agreements 
was equally impressive. Indeed, one of the 
most striking features of the whole proceeding 
was the strong support which came from many 
leading industries and from large bodies of 
organized labor, support which was backed by 
facts and arguments that could not be success- 
fully refuted but which time does not permit 
me to go into here. 

This being an election year, irresponsible and 
insupportable charges continue to be made to 
the effect that agriculture, industry, labor — or 



MAY 25, 1940 



577 



particular groups among these three — have 
been hui't. So consiuning have become the fires 
of political ambition in some quarters that, even 
within recent weeks — wliile events have been 
transpiring in Europe which constitute a seri- 
ous challenge to the best statesmanship that we 
can muster — we have been compelled to listen, 
for example, to a repetition of shopworn, dis- 
credited, and silly charges that the farmer has 
been "sold down the river" in the trade agree- 
ments. I shall not take the time and trouble 
here to go into the latest species of statistical 
hocus-pocus that is relied upon by aspirants to 
very high office to prove this charge. Suffice 
it to say that what has been offered in the name 
of "evidence" would scarcely do credit to a 
high-school freshman, much less serve to con- 
vince any fair-minded and intelligent jury. 

Permit me now to turn to the situation as 
it stands today and to consider some of the 
problems which grow out of it. As we all 
know, the European war has already had im- 
portant repercussions on our foreign trade and 
on the operation of some of our trade agi-ee- 
ments. Trade with the belligerent countries 
has been either completely shut off, or — in the 
case of the Allies — subordinated to the necessi- 
ties of war, and these circumstances have tem- 
porarily deprived us of the benefit of some of 
the most valuable concessions obtained in our 
trade agreements with certain countries. That, 
of course, cannot be helped; but it should also 
be noted that the existence of trade agreements 
with such covmtries has given our Goverimient 
definite advantages in looking out for our trade 
interests that we would not have had in the 
absence of such agreements. 

Moreover, the continuance of the trade-agi-ee- 
ments program has an important significance 
in coimection with our trade relations with 
countries outside the war zone, particularly in 
this hemisphere. Because of this, and also be- 
cause I am aware of the great interest whicli 
your own city of New Orleans has in the devel- 
opment of closer trade relations with the other 
American republics, I want especially to deal 
with this phase. 



We are all justly proud of the fine record of 
achievement under our "good neighbor" policy 
of recent years. We have seen its progress evi- 
denced in many directions. The acceptance by 
our Government, along with the other Ameri- 
can republics, of the doctrine of noninterven- 
tion; the abrogation of the Piatt Amendment, 
under which for a generation we had main- 
tained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs; 
the settlement of the Chaco boundary dispute 
through negotiations in which six American re- 
publics participated; the setting up, at the 
Buenos Aires Conference in 1936, of machinery 
for collective consultation among the American 
republics in connection wilh developments any- 
where in the world affecting the peace and se- 
curity of the Western Hemisphere, and the 
prompt utilization of this machinery after the 
outbreak of war in Europe; the definite steps 
that have been taken to promote closer cultural 
ties between our own country and our southern 
neighbors: these are all noteworthy illustra- 
tions of the way in which the good-neighbor 
policy has been "practiced as well as preached" 
in recent years. 

There have likewise been many important 
evidences of closer collaboration in the economic 
field. Most miportant from the standpoint of 
actual achievement in the economic domain are 
the 11 trade agi-eements which we have negoti- 
ated with other American republics. Their 
significance goes beyond the precise terms of the 
agreements themselves. For they disclose a 
much more realistic and wholesome attitude 
concerning our trade relations with our neigh- 
bors to the south than prevailed in this country 
even as late as a decade ago. There is a far 
better appreciation in this country today than 
there was a decade ago that, if we expect to sell 
abroad we must also buy from abroad. Hence 
there is a greater realization that we must search 
for every practicable opportunity to increase 
our imports without at the same time inflicting 
serious injury upon any established domestic 
industry. I say this in spite of the recent fail- 
ure of efforts to bring still more of South 
America within the scope of the trade-agree- 
ments program. 



578 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXILLETIN 



The trade agreements which we have con- 
cluded with the other American republics, as 
with other parts of the world, have been mutu- 
ally helpful in safeguarding and increasing 
trade in the face of the most trying and difficult 
circumstances. We have been witnessing in the 
world, in recent years, a struggle between two 
utterly conflicting types of trade policy : On the 
one hand, aggressive bilateralistic policies which 
would reduce international trade to virtually 
a barter basis and therefore eliminate a large 
part of it ; and on the other hand, liberal trade 
policies which would preserve and foster multi- 
lateral trade as the only possible method of ex- 
panding international trade as a whole. The 
agreements concluded with our sister republics 
have enabled us better to safeguard our trade 
interests in this area of the world against the 
outside pressure to which these countries have 
sometimes been subjected to discriminate 
against our trade. 

The manner in which our trade with the 
American republics has benefited from the agree- 
ments can be illustrated by referring to some 
figures recently compiled by the United States 
Tariff Commission. These show that our an- 
nual average exports to Cuba increased by 140 
percent between the preagreement period Janu- 
ary 1932-August 1934 and the postagreement 
period September 1934-October 1939, whereas 
for the same period our total exports to all 
countries increased by only 60 percent. The 
same type of comparison (based upon some- 
what different periods) showed an increase of 
48 percent in our exports to Brazil for the 
periods compared, as against a gain of 35 per- 
cent in our total exports. And it showed an in- 
crease of 82 percent in our exports to Colombia, 
as against a gain of 37 percent in our total 
exports. 

The war in Europe has, of course, served to 
emphasize anew the interest of all the American 
republics in closer trade and other relations with 
each other. Indeed, it has already affected our 
trade relations with the other republics. Un- 
able to obtain from Europe and other jjarts of 
the world adequate supplies of many types of 
products ordinarily bought there, our southern 



neighbors have turned increasingly to this coun- 
try for the things they need. This has undoubt- 
edly been one of the main factors responsible for 
the increase, in recent months, in our exports to 
that area of the world. During the first 6 
months of the war in Europe, our exports to the 
20 republics of Central and South America 
showed an increase, over the corresponding 6 
months of the preceding year, of $127,000,000, or 
nearly 54 percent. Prominent in this gain were 
such items as textile fibers, wood and paper, 
coal, petroleum products, machinery, automo- 
biles, chemicals, animal and vegetable products, 
and textile manufactures. 

In this matter of our trade relations with our 
southern neighbors, it is necessary, however, 
that we proceed with due caution, lest we become 
the victims of our momentary enthusiasms. It 
is vitally important to recognize that, unless we 
propose to give our products away, these coun- 
tries must find means of paying us for them. 
Either they must sell us enough goods and 
services to pay for them; or else they must 
realize enough from their sales to other 
parts of the world to pay for the goods 
and services bought from those areas ( including 
debt service) and still have available an excess 
of exchange to convert into dollars to apply 
against purchases from this country. Under 
present circumstances, this second alternative 
is not a practical one, for the reason that pur- 
chases by the belligerent countries are being 
either cut off or — in the ease of the Allies — held 
to a minimum. Furthermore, the funds realized 
from sales to the Allies are earmarked by them 
for use in buying Allied products or in debt 
service and thus are not available to our south- 
ern neighbois for purchases in the United States. 

As you can readily see, this situation poses 
very definitely the question of how we are going 
to be paid for our additional sales to the other 
American republics unless we are willing and 
able to buy more goods directly from these coun- 
tries than we have been buying. To some extent, 
we have been doing tliis. Our imports from the 
20 other American republics increased by over 
$71,000,000, or about 32 percent, during the first 
6 months of the European war as compared with 



MAY 25, 1940 



579 



the corresponding months of the preceding year. 
This increase in our imports amounted, how- 
ever, to only about 56 percent of the increase 
in our exports to these countries during the 
same period. Take the case of Brazil — a coun- 
try with which we have ordinarily had a large 
debit trade balance. During the first 6 months 
following the outbreak of the war, our exports 
to Brazil increased from 32.2 millions of dollars 
to 54.9 millions — a gain of 22.7 millions, or over 
70 percent. But meanwhile our imports from 
that country increased only slightly, from 51.8 
millions to 58.3 millions— a gaiii of only 6.5 
millions, or less than 13 percent. As a result, 
our trade with Brazil for the 6-months period 
was almost in balance. As a matter of fact, in 
very recent months, we have been selling more 
to Brazil than we have been buying from her. 
The question that insistently intrudes itself, 
therefore, is how much further this sort of 
thing can go, or how long it can continue, with- 
out any backset. 

Moreover, in appraising the possibilities of 
trade expansion with the other American re- 
publics, we shall be well-advised to look beyond 
the immediate situation to the longer-range 
aspects of our trade relations with these coun- 
tries. It is well and fine that the American 
republics should seek every feasible means of 
promoting, among themselves, closer solidar- 
ity — politically, economically, culturally. In- 
deed, it is more than that: It is positively 
essential, in the world of today, that they shall 
do so. But it is necessary also to remember 
that the economic life of this hemisphere is still 
geared in innumerable and vital ways to that 
of the rest of the world. There is no escaping 
that basic fact. The fundamentally triangular 
character of our normal trade relationships 
with Europe and South America is a basic fact 
that must still be reckoned with despite the 
many disrupting influences of recent years. To 
both our South American friends and to our- 
selves, the existence of a prosperous Europe, 
willing and able to exchange its surpluses for 
those of the Western Hemisphere, is essential 
if healthy conditions of foreign trade, with all 
that those conditions mean to the domestic 
economy of each country, are to prevail. 



Indispensable as a foundation for genuine 
and lasting prosperity is the establislmaent 
throughout the world of peace and order on 
a basis that holds promise of enduring. To be 
enduring, such a settlement must embrace 
measures of many kinds in the field of interna- 
tional economic reconstruction. Among the 
most important of these are measures to bring 
about the earliest possible resumption and ex- 
pansion of international trade upon a healthy, 
l)eace-time basis. If the world's experience 
during the generation after the last World War 
counts for anything, it must surely have im- 
pressed upon every nation the folly, the stu- 
pidity, and the terrible costliness of ever- 
mounting trade barriers throughout the world. 
The history of the post-war period is in large 
part the history of a struggle for supremacy 
between such narrowly nationalistic economic 
policies and the broader and more salutary poli- 
cies of constructive international cooperation 
which have been espoused by enlightened and 
forward-looking people of all nations. I do 
not believe that any informed person today 
doubts that the temporary ascendancy of such 
narrow economic policies in many parts of the 
world contributed tremendously to the break- 
down of economic and political relations which 
we have witnessed and to the outbreak of an- 
other widespread war. 

After the painful lessons of the past decade, 
I cannot believe that more than a relatively 
small number of our people still cherish the 
illusion that we can make this country pros- 
perous by means of embargo tariffs, or that the 
world can be prosperous when nations wall 
themselves off and refuse to trade with each 
other. In the light of recent history, how can 
anyone longer believe that nations which seek 
to lift themselves by their own embargo-tariff 
bootstraps without regard to their economic ties 
with the rest of the world, ever accomplish any- 
thing at all other than to sink themselves deeper 
into the mire? After all, has it not been con- 
clusively demonstrated that such policies of 
narrow economic nationalism undermine the 
whole foundation of world prosperity, and that 
no nation — not even one so fortunately circum- 



580 

stanced as our own — can possibly escape the evil 
consequences that inevitably follow ? 

The economic life of the whole world has 
suffered grievously during the past decade from 
the general paralysis of trade and production 
caused by the rise of prohibitive barriers to 
international trade. To turn this tide and in- 
augurate a reverse trend toward healthy world 
trade conditions has been, and will continue 
after the present war to be, one of the outstand- 
ing problems of world economic reconstruction. 
This task has been enormously magnified by 
the pursuit, in some parts of the world, of trade 
policies based upon discrimination and other 
practices which, if generally adopted, would 
reduce, rather than increase, the already di- 
minished volume of world trade. When critics 
of the trade-agreements program point out, as 
they have sometimes done, that the struggle for 
trade has itself been an important cause of war 
in the past, they neglect to explain that it is 
the pursuit of aggressive and predatory policies 
such as these that has generally been at the root 
of the trouble. Such policies are the precise 
opposite to that upon which the trade-agree- 
ments program rests. Our program rests upon 
the principle, not of discrimmation and aggres- 
sion, but of equality of treatment and of coop- 
eration. It seeks, by peaceful methods and on 
a basis of fair dealing, to clear away excessive 
barriers to trade, to the mutual advantage of 
ourselves and of the countries with which we 
deal. 

Surely it is clear, however, that if there is to 
be a reordering of international economic rela- 
tions at the close of the present war upon the 
basis of principles of fair dealing and equal 
treatment, then the situation existing at that 
time must be one in which there is genuine 
opportunity to work for such a settlement, and 
work for it with a reasonable prospect of con- 
structive accomplishment. And it must be 
equally clear that there can be no such oppor- 
tunity in a world where policies of economic, 
political, and military aggression are in the 
ascendancy. 

I began my remarks with an expression of 
grave anxiety over the march of impending 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

events across the seas. I close them with a 
reiteration of that thought, as expressed in the 
carefully measured words of the Secretary of 
State only a few days ago. Speaking before 
the American Society of International Law, 
Secretary Hull said, and I quote : 

"The specter of a new descent into the condi- 
tions of international anarchy which character- 
ized the Dark Ages looms on the horizon today. 
I am profoundly convinced that it menaces the 
civilized existence of mankind — of every nation 
and of every individual. Every nation and 
every individual should be actively on guard. 

"Our own Nation — powerful as it is and de- 
termined as it is to remain at peace, to preserve 
its cherished institutions, and to promote the 
welfare of its citizens — is not secure against 
that menace. We camiot shut it out by at- 
tempting to isolate and insulate ourselves. We 
cannot be certain of safety and security when 
a large part of the world outside our borders 
is dominated by the forces of international 
lawlessness. 

"We cannot close our eyes to what is going 
on elsewhere in the world and delude ourselves 
with the mere hope that somehow — somehow — 
all this will pass us by. Never in our national 
history has there been a more desperate need 
for a clear understanding by every responsible 
citizen of our country of what is taking place 
in the world and of how it affects us. Such 
understanding is essential to a wise charting 
and application of our national policies. Un- 
der our system of government, it is the most 
effective safeguard for the maintenance and 
promotion of the national interest. 

"The world is today torn by conflicts, the 
outcome of which will affect the lives of the 
future generations in all countries. The world 
is today threatened with an orgy of destruction 
— not only of life and property, but of religion, 
of morality, of the very bases of civilized so- 
ciety. The spread of international anarchy 
not only undermines law, justice, and morality 
among nations, but also inevitably impairs, 
within nations, these essential foundations of 
civilized existence. 



MAT 25. 1940 



581 



""In the face of existing conditions, we have 
no choice but to expand our program of arma- 
ment constmcticn to a degree necessary to pro- 
vide ftdlv adequate means of defending this 
comitrT's security and its rightful interests. 
But if mankind is to avoid a long-continuing 
period of chaos and retrogression, it can only 
be through the firm establishment of order un- 
der law. Never before has there been a greater 



need for otir people to place the support of a 
wholly united public opinion behind our Na- 
tions efforts to exert the great weight of its 
moral influence in favor of a revindication and 
revitalization of the basic principles of order 
under law. which alone can give lasting assur- 
ance of safety, security, snd peace." ^ 



' See the BaUetim of May IS. IWO (Vot II. Xo. -€7). 

Pix 534-035. 



Radio Address by Raymond H. Geist » 



[Beieased to tbe piess ilaj 21] 

I am very glad to have an opportunity of 
speaking in Memphis. When the Department 
of Commerce aslied me to visit a few cities in 
the United States during Foreign Trade Week 
and inquired where I should prefer to go. 
among others I indicated this city. It may 
seem surprising to my listeners to hear that on 
the whole it is a rare experience for an officer 
of the Foreign Service of the United States to 
make a radio talk in an American city. Many 
people in this coimtry hear about the activities 
of the Foreign Service ; they know that we have 
ambassadors, ministers, diplomatic secretaries, 
consuls, and attaches in foreign cities: but on 
the whole little is known by the average Amer- 
ican citizen of the life we lead abroad and what 
otir duties are. Some extent of what that life 
is and how many sacrifices it involves is indi- 
cated by the conditions of war and tension 
existing in many countries today in different 
parts of the world. 

Let me briefly say before giving you a more 
intimate view of the life of our Foreign Serv- 
ice officers that we are now observing in this 
country Foreign Trade Week. In many cities 
of the United States, chambers of commerce 
and trade associations are holding meetings 
where problems are discussed with regard to 
our foreign trade. America has long been a 
great exporting nation. The large agricultural 



' Delivered in connection with the observance of 
Xarional Foreign Trade Week, Memphis. Tenn.. May 
21. 15^0. Mr. Geist is Chief of the Division of Com- 
mercial Affairs, Department of State, 



surpluses that we have had in this country few 
many years are sold and sent abroad. An inter- 
ruption of this trade has direct effects upon our 
economic well-being at home; therefore, every 
effort is made by the Government to aid 
producers of the United States to place their 
goods in foreign markets. 

In addition to the efforts to extend our for- 
eign trade pursued by the great agricultural and 
business interests of this country, it is the work 
and the duty of the Govenmient to supplement 
such efforts. The machinery of the Departments 
of Agriculture, of Commerce, and of State are 
combined to perfect this process. In most of the 
large cities of the United States (as here in 
Memphis) there exist district offices of the De- 
partment of Commerce whose fvmction it is to 
keep in touch with the businessmen of the vari- 
ous cities and not only to aid them in their 
domestic business but to afford them every fa- 
cility to make contacts abroad and build up 
an export business. The district offices are 
branches of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. This Bureau, composed of many 
divisions, is a great organization of the Depart- 
ment of Conmierce at Washington. Here all 
trade information gathered from every part of 
the world is centralized for dissemination to 
interested firms in the United States. This 
Bureau maintains close connections with the 
Department of State, to which Department all 
requests from the Bureau for aid and assistance 
on behalf of business interests in coimection 
with our foreign trade are directed. 



582 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIII 



The Foreign Service of the United States is 
one of the most important branches of the Gov- 
ernment and is used to conduct our foreign rela- 
tions with other countries. Diplomatic missions 
are maintained in almost every country in the 
•world. Likewise, in most conmiercial and in- 
dustrial cities in five continents and along the 
shores of the seven seas our consular officers are 
stationed. 

President Washington, in 1790, appointed 6 
American consuls and 10 vice consuls under 
general constitutional authority to be stationed 
at 16 of the world's largest seaports. The first 
act of fundamental importance in regard to the 
organization of the Consular Service was passed 
by Congi-ess on April 14, 1792. The Service 
was established formally by this law, and the 
duties and privileges of consuls were defined 
for the first time. These duties related almost 
entirely to the protection of the interests of 
American citizens, especially seamen, as indi- 
viduals, or "such as arise from the nature of the 
office under the general commercial law of na- 
tions." In 1838, Secretary of State Forsyth 
favored the suggestion of reports from consuls 
of a distinctly commercial character, and an in- 
struction to consular officers at that time stated 
that the Department would be glad to receive at 
all times information relating to the commer- 
cial policy of the country in which they were 
stationed, the nature and extent of its trade 
with other countries, and such suggestions as 
may benefit or extend the commerce of the 
United States. In 1842, an act was passed by 
Congress which provided that the Secretary of 
State shall annually lay before Congress a 
statement, among others, of the information 
communicated to him by diplomatic and con- 
sular officers during the preceding year as he 
may deem vakiable for public information, as 
well as a statement of all changes and modifica- 
tions in the commercial systems of other nations 
as shall have been communicated to the Depart- 
ment, including all commercial information con- 
tained in the official publications of other gov- 
ernments which he shall deem sufficiently 
important. 



In 1853, a general instruction requesting in- 
formation of a definite commercial character 
was sent to all consular officers. The General 
Instructions of 1855 contained specific directions 
as to reporting upon all events that might af- 
fect the commerce of the United States with 
the country where the consular officer was sta- 
tioned. This instruction required the submis- 
sion of quarterly reports by each consular 
officer on the trade of his district. 

In July 1877, circular instructions were sent 
to all consular officers in Central and South 
America directing them "to devote attention to 
the question of methods by which trade with the 
United States can be most judiciously fostered." 

In 1880, at the request of the cotton-goods in- 
dustry of the United States a survey was made 
by the Consular Service as to the markets 
abroad for cotton goods and cotton products, 
and this appears to be the first case in which 
American manufacturing interests requested 
the assistance of the Consular Service for data 
for the use of a specific industry. 

Consular officers render service not only in 
connection with the extension of trade and com- 
merce but sen-e the American citizen in many 
ways. I would not have time in a brief radio 
talk to describe these services or to go into all 
the phases of the work which our Foreign Serv- 
ice officers perform. But these services are 
numerous and varied. 

Our officers are to a certain extent like sol- 
diers at their posts; and no matter what hap- 
pens in foreign countries, so long as good rela- 
tions exist between the United States and the 
countries to which they are assigned, they con- 
tinue day in and day out to perform their 
duties. If war sweeps through the country in 
which they are working, their first duty is to 
extend all help and aid to American citizens 
and American interests however these may be 
aflfected. Sometimes extreme hardship de- 
velops, and these officers are compelled by the 
very necessity of circumstances to share the 
rigorous existence of the communities in which 
they live. Under normal circumstances a For- 
eign Service officer establishes his home for a 
number of years in the city to which he is sent 



I 



MAY 25, 1940 



583 



and takes up life in a more or less permanent 
way in a foreign community far away from 
home, from relatives, and friends. He is the 
leading American in his community. He is 
called upon to give counsel and aid to his fel- 
low citizens who may be living there. He helps 
them in their business when it relates to the 
commerce of the United States and helps them 
in their personal affairs when they require his 
protection. It must not be imagined that an 
officer of our Government permanently living 
abroad is able to follow according to his wishes 
the American way of life. He has above all 
things to take into account the customs and 
manners of the country in which he lives; he 
must adapt himself to the temperament and 
the susceptibilities of the citizens who are na- 
tionals of the land to which he is sent. He 
makes friendships with the leading citizens and 
with not only officials of the Government to 
which he is sent but also with other foreigners 
living in the same community. A diplomatic 
or consular officer must be very versatile in 
these contacts ; he must know how to speak for- 
eign languages ; as frequently he must transact 
business with a colleague who may speak a lan- 
guage he does not know or who may not be 
able to converse in English. Therefore, an in- 
termediate language, often French, is found 
necessary. In other words, he must know how 
to associate successfully with the citizens of 
any nation with whom his official duties and 
social requirements bring him in contact. 

But one of the most interesting and at the 
same time disappointing features of such a life 
is that an officer may live a long time in a city 
in South America, Europe, Asia, or Africa and 
make many friends and adapt himself to a cer- 
tain way of life which suddenly, with a transfer 
to another post, is entirely changed. This re- 
quires great adaptation. For such changes are 
often definite; and rarely does an officer, a 
consul general or consul, for instance, return 
to a city where he once may have lived for many 
years to take up the old contacts and old friend- 
ships. He finds himself shifted into an entirely 
new world, with new friends, new environment, 
and, most likely, where another language is 



spoken and where all the customs and manners 
of business and social life are quite different. 
To be effective in his work and to perform the 
important duties that he must fulfill, not only 
for the American people but our Government, 
he must again dig in and establish his life in 
the new community on the same basis as he 
did before. Everything is built up anew; so 
over a long period, sometimes 20, 30, and even 
40 years, our men move from country to country, 
looking after the interests of the United States. 

The history of our Foreign Service is replete 
with examples of rare deeds. The first consuls 
were sent abroad by President Washington. 
Through the M^hole existence of our national life 
including many generations these officers have 
been at their posts. And today their duties are 
growing heavier and calling for more self-sac- 
rifice than ever before. At this moment our 
diplomatic and consular officers are stationed at 
cities where the storms of war are approaching, 
or where the fury has struck — where for days 
it has been necessary to live in cellars and risk 
life for food and drink; or where hazardous 
trips have been made through difficult war areas 
to succor beleaguered Americans ; or where long 
and dangerous voyages have been through snow- 
bound mountains, under conditions of great ex- 
posure — all in the performance of duty. 

It is a career and a kind of work that while 
it has its great advantages from the point of 
view of experience and culture and learning 
the ways of the world, one must not lose sight of 
the incessant sacrifices Foreign Service officers 
of the United States are continually making. 
Tliey are far away from home, often separated 
for long periods from their families and rela- 
tives, endure the variations in climate, the cold 
of the north with its long winter days, or the 
heat of the tropics with its varied diseases, or 
lands where there are long and heavy rains, 
or perpetual snows and devastating winds. 
But above all, those of us know, who have lived 
for long periods of time in foreign countries, 
how difficult it is to be separated from our own 
American life with its freedom and pleasant 
way of living. It must not be imagined, for 
instance, when representatives of the American 



584 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUI^LETIN 



Government are living in countries where the 
inhabitants are subject to restrictions on their 
way of life, that our oflScers are not subject to 
share hardships, food shortages, and rations. 
If there are restrictions upon the use of butter 
and sugar, gasoline and automobiles, our officers 
too have to adapt themselves to such restrictions. 
If catastrophes visit these countries, they may 
find themselves in the center of such catastro- 
phes. 

And I am telling you about the Foreign Serv- 
ice of the United States which includes, let us 
remember, not only the officers of the De- 
partment of State, not only the ambassadors, the 
ministers, the diplomatic secretaries, consuls, 
and the commercial and agricultural attaches, 
but the military and naval attaches, and 
all representatives of the American Government 
who are in foreign lands. It is well to remem- 
ber while we are now so interested and con- 
cerned in what is going on abroad that we have 



representatives over there who are sending in 
daily, in fact, hourly first-hand information of 
what is going on in all parts of the world. 
Otherwise, it would not be possible for those 
who are in charge of the affairs of our Govern- 
ment in Washington to determine on the basis 
of first-hand information the policies which 
we need to adopt to protect the interests of 130 
millions of people in the United States and to 
forge ahead into the years of our future his- 
tory and preserve our interests and our rights 
throughout the world. The interests of our 
great people, as you all must know, are not con- 
fined to our territorial limits; they are not 
bounded between the great oceans that wash our 
eastern and western shores, but extend every- 
where where the sun rises and sets, and the offi- 
cers that I have mentioned are sent out to cover 
that vast territory and to protect and advance 
our interests in the world wherever they might 
exist. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



RESIGNATION OF JAMES H. R. CROMWELL AS MINISTER TO CANADA 



[Released to the press by the White House May 23] 

James H. R. Cromwell has resigned as Amer- 
ican Minister to Canada. His letter to the Presi- 
dent, dated May 22, 1940, reads as follows : 

"Mr Dear Mr. President: 

"Having been nominated, on May 21st, by the 
Democratic Party of the State of New Jersey 
for the office of United States Senator, I feel 
it incumbent hereby to resign my present post 
as United States Minister to Canada to become 
effective at your discretion. 

"May I take this opportunity, dear Mr. Presi- 
dent, to express my deep appreciation for your 
confidence in me and the honor you conferred 
upon me, and also to tell you how greatly I en- 
joyed my work under Secretary Hull and with 



the personnel of the State Department with 
whom I was associated. 

"Respectfully yours, 

James H. R. Cromwell" 

Under similar date, the President accepted 
Mr. Cromwell's resignation and gave him the 
following communication : 

"My Dear Jim : 

"In accepting your resignation as Minister 
to Canada, I wish you the best of success in 
the larger field of activity upon which you are 
entering. 

"These are serious days in the history of the 
world and require the intelligent and loyal co- 
operation of all of our citizens in order that 



MAY 25, 1940 



585 



our country may be prepared to resist any 
challenge to the continuance of our form of 
government or to the prosecution of our politi- 
cal ideals. 

"Realizing that you believe in our political 
objectives, and that you will continue to strive 
for their attainment, I can only add that I hope 
you will be highly successful in the new field 
which you have chosen. 
"Faithfully yours, 

Frankun D. Eoosevelt" 
^ ^ -^ 
PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Release to the press May 25] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since May 18, 19Jfi: 

George H. Winters, of Downs, Kans., second 
secretary of embassy at Mexico City, Mexico, 
has been assigned as consul at Ciudad Juarez, 
Mexico. 

George F. Scherer, of New York, N. Y., vice 
consul at Mexico City, Mexico, has been as- 
signed as vice consul at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. 

G. Frederick Reinhardt, of Oakland, Calif., 
third secretary of legation and vice consul at 



Tallinn, Estonia, has been designated third sec- 
retary of embassy and vice consul at Moscow, 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

The assignment of M. Gordon Knox, of Bal- 
timore, Md., as vice, consul at Vienna, Ger- 
many, has been canceled. Mr. Knox has now 
been assigned as vice consul at Berlin, Germany. 

Foy D. Kohler, of Toledo, Ohio, third secre- 
tary of legation and vice consul at Athens, 
Greece, has been assigned for duty in the 
Department of State. 

Raymond A. Hare, of Manchester, Iowa, sec- 
ond secretary of legation at Cairo, Egypt, has 
been assigned as consul at Cairo and will serve 
in dual capacity. 

Norris B. Chipman, of Washington, D. C, 
consul at Cairo, Egypt, has been designated 
second secretary of legation at Cairo and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

Francis L. Spalding, of Brookline, Mass., 
vice consul at Cairo, Egypt, has been desig- 
nated third secretary of legation at Cairo and 
will serve in dual capacity. 

Evan M. Wilson, of Haverford, Pa., vice 
consul at Cairo, Egypt, has been designated 
third secretary of legation at Cairo and will 
serve in dual capacity. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes 

Haiti 

According to a circular letter from the League 
of Nations dated April 29, 1940, the Secretary 
General received on April 15, 1940, a communi- 
cation from the Haitian Government informing 
him in regard to the declaration made by Can- 
ada when adhering to the General Act for the 



Pacific Settlement of International Disputes of 
September 26, 1928, that while taking note of 
the Canadian Government's communication, the 
Haitian Government reserves its point of view. 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

Haiti 

According to a circular letter from the League 
of Nations dated April 29, 1940, the Secretary 
General received on April 15, 1940, a communi- 
cation from the Haitian Government inform- 



586 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIlJir 



ing him in regard to the declaration made by 
Canada that it will not regard its acceptance 
of the Optional Clause of Article 36 of the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice as covering disputes arising out 
of events occurring during the present war, 
that while taking note of the Canadian Govern- 
ment's communication the Haitian Government 
reserves its point of view. 

COMMERCE 

Protocol on Arbitration Clauses in Com- 
mercial Matters 

The Netherlands 

According to a circular letter from the League 
of Nations dated April 29, 1940, the Netherlands 
Government informed the Secretary General 
that it desires to withdraw, in respect of the 
Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and Curasao, the 
first part of the reservation made by it when 
signing the Protocol on Arbitration Clauses in 
Commercial Matters, signed September 24, 1923. 

The reservation reads in translation as fol- 
lows: 

"The Government of the Netherlands reserves 
its right to restrict the obligations mentioned in 
the first paragraph of Article 1 to contracts 
which are considered as commercial under 
Netherlands Law." 

The notification was received by the Secre- 
tariat on April 16, 1940. 

According to information furnished by the 
League of Nations the protocol has been ratified 
by the following countries : Albania ; Belgium ; 
Brazil; British Empire, Southern Ehodesia, 
Newfoundland, British Guiana, British Hon- 
duras, Jamaica (Turks and Caicos Islands and 
Cayman Islands), Leeward Islands, Windward 
Islands (Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), 
Gambia (colony and protectorate). Gold Coast 
(including Ashanti and the northern terri- 
tories of the Gold Coast and Togoland), Kenya 
(colony and protectorate), Zanzibar, Northern 
Ehodesia, Ceylon, Mauritius, Gibraltar, Malta, 



Falkland Islands and dependencies, Iraq, 
Palestine (excluding Trans-Jordan), Trans- 
Jordan, Tanganyika, St. Helena, Uganda, Ba- 
hamas, Burma, New Zealand, India; Czecho- 
slovakia; Denmark; Free City of Danzig; 
Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; 
Italy; Japan; Luxemburg; Monaco; Nether- 
lands, Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and Cura- 
sao; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Rumania; 
Spain ; Sweden ; Switzerland ; and Thailand. 

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation With 
Iraq 

The American Minister to Iraq reported by a 
telegram dated May 20, 1940, that he had on that 
day exchanged, with the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, ratifications of the Treaty of Com- 
merce and Navigation between the United 
States and Iraq, signed on December 3, 1938. 

The treaty provides for unconditional most- 
favored-nation treatment with regard to im- 
port and export duties and restrictions. Ex- 
emptions are provided for advantages which 
the United States may accord to Cuba and the 
Panama Canal Zone and which Iraq may accord 
to any country whose territory was in 1914 
wholly included in the Ottoman Empire in Asia. 
National treatment is guaranteed to vessels of 
the United States in Iraq and to vessels of Iraq 
in the United States. 

The treaty will enter into effect on June 19, 
1940, namely, 30 days after the exchange of 
ratifications. It will continue in effect for 3 
years thereafter and will remain in force in- 
definitely after the expiration of the 3-year pe- 
riod unless denounced 1 year in advance by one 
of the contracting parties. 

According to the terms of article VT of the 
treaty it will supplant, from the day on which 
it enters into force, article 7 of the Convention 
between the United States and Great Britain 
and Iraq Defining the Eights of the United 
States and of its Nationals in Iraq, signed Janu- 
ary 9, 1930 (Treaty Series No. 835), insofar 
as commerce and navigation are concerned. 



I 



MAY 25, 1940 



687 



FINANCE 

Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank 

Brazil 

The Convention for the Establishment of an 
Inter-American Bank, which was opened for 
signature at tlie Pan American Union on May 
10, 1940, was signed on behalf of Brazil by the 
Brazilian Ambassador at Washington, Senor 
Carlos Martins, on May 13, 1940.» 



CUSTOMS 

Convention Concerning Exemption From 
Taxation for Liquid Fuel and Lubricants 
Used in Air Traffic 

Greece 

The American Minister to Greece transmitted 
to the Department with a despatch dated April 
25, 1940, a copy of the Official Gazette of March 
27, 1940, No. 101, vol. I, which publishes the 
"compulsory law" No. 2253 by which Greece 
ratifies the Convention Concerning Exemption 
from Taxation for Liquid Fuel and Lubricants 
Used in Air Traffic, signed at London on March 
1, 1939.1° 



•See the Bulletin of May 11, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 46), 
pp. 512-522. 

'° See Treaty Information, bulletin No. 115, April 
1939, pp. 76-78. 



Turhey 

Tlie American Ambassador to Turkey re- 
ported by a despatch dated April 20, 1940 that 
the Official Gazette No. 4477 of April 5, 1940, 
publishes the law by which the Turkish Govern- 
ment ratifies the Convention Concerning Ex- 
emption from Taxation for Liquid Fuel and 
Lubricants Used in Air Traffic, signed at Lon- 
don on March 1, 1939.1° 



Legislation 



Supplemental E.stimate of Appropriation for the State 
Department : Communication from the President of 
the United States transmitting a supplemental estimate 
of appropriation for the Department of State, for the 
fiscal year 1941, amounting to $15,000 [for Agrarian 
Claims Commission, United State.s and Mexico, 1941]. 
(H. Doc. 775, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) 2 pp. 50. 



Publications 



Department of State 

American Delegations to International Conferences, 
Congresses and Expositions and American Representa- 
tion on International Institutions and Commissions 
With Relevant Data : Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939. 
Compiled in the Division of International Conferences. 
Conference Series 45. Publication 1453. viii, 192 pp. 
250. 



0, S. GOVERNMElNT PmNIING OFFJCt: 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington. D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHED WBEKLI WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OP THH BDEBAO OF THE BDDGBT 



'tt^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




ETIN 



JUNE I, 1940 
Fo/. II: No. 4g — Publication I46g 



Qontents 




General: p^^. 

Radio address by the President 591 

Remarks by the Under Secretary of State at the dedi- 
cation of the Cohimbus Arms mural in the Library 

of Congress 596 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 597 

Official Sources for the Study of American Foreign 

Policy: Address by E. Wilder Spaulding 599 

Appropriations for the Department of State for the 

fiscal year 1941 603 

Proposed transfer of Immigration and Naturalization 

Service to Department of Justice 610 

Europe: 

Repatriation of American citizens 610 

Travel of American citizens in belligerent aircraft over 

certain Canadian provinces 612 

The American Republics: 

Warnings to American citizens against the "Spanish 

Swindle" 612 

Argentina: Anniversary of independence 613 

Legislation 613 

\Over\ 



U. S, SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS^ 
JUL 9 1940 



Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and Judicial Settlement: Page 

Permanent Court of International Justice 614 

International Law: 

Convention and Protocols Adopted at the Conference 
for the Codification of International Law, The 

Hague, 1930 615 

Legal Assistance: 

Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of Attorney Which 

Are To Be Utilized Abroad 615 

Commerce: 

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation With Iraq 

(Treaty Series No. 960) 616 

Publications 616 



General 



RADIO ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House May 26] 

At this moment of sadness throughout most 
of the world, I want to talk with you about a 
number of subjects that directly affect the 
future of the United States. We are shocked 
by tlie almost incredible stories that come to 
us of what is happening at this moment to the 
civilian populations of Norway and Holland 
and Belgium and Luxemburg and France. 

I think it is right on this Sabbath evening 
that I should say a word in behalf of women 
and children and old men who need help — 
immediate help in their present distress — help 
from us across the seas, from us who are still 
free to give it. 

Tonight over the once peaceful roads of 
Belgium and France millions are now moving, 
running from their homes to escape bombs 
and shells and fire, without shelter, and almost 
wholly without food. They stumble on, know- 
ing not where the end of the road will be. I 
remind you of these people, because each one 
of you that is listening to me tonight has a 
way of helping them. The American Red 
Cross, which represents each of us, is rushing 
food, clothing, and medical supplies to these 
destitute millions. Please — I beg you — give 
according to your means to your nearest Red 
Cross chapter, give as generously as you can. 
I ask this in tlie name of our common 
humanity. 

Let us sit down again, together, you and I, to 
consider our own pressing problems that con- 
front us. 



' Broadcast from the White House, Washington, May 
26, 1940. 



There are many among us who in the past 
closed their eyes to events abroad — because tliey 
believed in utter good faith what some of their 
fellow Americans told them — that what was tak- 
ing place in Europe was none of our business ; 
that no matter what happened over there, tha 
United States could always pursue its peaceful 
and unique course in the world. 

There are many among us who closed their 
eyes, from lack of interest or lack of knowledge, 
honestly and sincerely thinking that the many 
miles of salt water made the American Hemi- 
sphere so remote that the people of North, Cen- 
tral, and South America could go on living in 
the midst of their vast resources without refer- 
ence to, or danger from, other continents of the 
world. 

There are some among us who were persuaded 
by minority groups that we could maintain our 
physical safety by retirmg within our conti- 
nental boundaries — the Atlantic on the east, the 
Pacific on the west, Canada on the north, and 
Mexico on the south. I illustrated the futility — 
the impossibility — of that idea in my message 
to the Congress last week. Obviously, a defense 
policy based on that is merely to invite future 
attack. 

And, finally, there are a few among us who 
have deliberately and consciously closed their 
eyes because they were determined to be op- 
posed to their Government's foreign policy, to 
be partisan, and to believe that anything that 
the Government did was wholly wrong. 

To those who have closed their eyes for any 
of these many reasons, to those who would not 
admit the possibility of the approaching 

591 



592 



DEPARTMENT OE STATE BULLETIN 



storm — to all of them the past 2 weeks have 
meant the shattering of many illusions. 

They have lost the illusion that we are re- 
mote and isolated and, therefore, secure against 
the dangers from which no other land is free. 

In some quarters, with this rude awakening 
has come fear bordering on panic. It is said 
that we are defenseless. It is whispered by 
some that, only by abandoning our freedom, our 
ideals, our way of life, can we build our defenses 
adequately, can we match the strength of the 
aggressors. 

I did not share those illusions. I do not share 
these fears. 

We are now more realistic. But let us not 
be calamity howlers and discount our strength. 
Let us have done with both fears and illusions. 
On this Sabbath evening, in our homes in the 
midst of our American families, let us calmly 
consider what we have done and what we 
must do. 

In the past 2 or 3 weeks all kinds of stories 
have been handed out to the American public 
about our lack of preparedness. It has even 
been charged that the money we have spent on 
our military and naval forces during the last 
few years has gone down the rat hole. I think 
that it is a matter of fairness to the Nation 
that you hear the facts. 

We Jiave spent large sums of money on the 
national defense. This money has been used 
to make our Army and Navy today the largest, 
the best-equipped, and the best-trained peace- 
time military establishment in the history of 
this country. 

Let me tell you just a few of the many things 
accomplished during the past few years. 

I do not propose to go into every detail. It 
is a known fact, however, that in 1933, when 
this administration came into office, the United 
States Navy had fallen in standing among the 
navies of the world, in power of ships and in 
efficiency, to a relatively low ebb. The relative 
fighting power of the Navy had been greatly 
diminished by failure to replace ships and 
equipment, which had become out-of-date. 

Between 1933 and 1940 — 7 fiscal years — your 
Government will have spent $1,487,000,000 more 



than it spent on the Navy during the 7 years 
before 1933. 

What did we get for this money ? 

The fighting personnel of the Navy rose from 
79,000 to 145,000. 

During this period 215 ships for the fighting 
fleet have been laid down or commissioned, prac- 
tically seven times the number in the preceding 
similar period. 

Of these we have commissioned 12 cruisers; 
63 destroyers; 26 submarines; 3 aircraft car- 
riers; 2 gunboats; 7 auxiliaries; and many 
smaller craft. Among the many sliips now be- 
ing built and paid for are 8 new battleships. 

Ship construction costs millions of dollars — 
more in the United States than anywhere else in 
the world ; but it is a fact that we cannot have 
adequate naval defense for all American waters 
without ships — sliips that sail the surface of the 
ocean, ships that move under the surface, and 
ships that move through the air. And, speak- 
ing of airplanes that work with the Navy, in 
1933 we had 1,127 useful aircraft, and today we 
have 2,892 on hand and on order. Nearly aU 
of the 1933 planes have been replaced by new 
planes because they became obsolete or worn out. 

The Navy is far stronger today than at any 
peace-time period in the whole long history of 
the Nation. In hitting power and in efficiency, 
I would even make the assertion that it is 
stronger today than it was during the World 
War. 

The Army of the United States in 1933 con- 
sisted of 122,000 enlisted men. In 1940 that 
has been practically doubled. The Army of 1933 
had been given few new implements of war 
since 1919 and had been compelled to draw on 
old reserve stocks left over from the World 
War. 

The net result of all this was that our Army 
by 1933 had very greatly declined in its ratio 
of strength with the armies of Europe and the 
Far East. 

That was the situation I found. 

Since then great changes have taken place. 

Between 1933 and 1940 — 7 fiscal years — your 
Government will have spent $1,292,000,000 more 
than it spent on the Army the previous 7 years. 



JUNE 1, 1940 



593 



What did we get for this money ? 

The personnel of the Army has been almost 
doubled. And by the end of this year every 
existing unit of the present regular Army -will 
be equipped with its complete requirements of 
modern weapons. Existing units of the Na- 
tional Guard will also be largely equipped with 
similar items. 

Here are some striking examples taken from 
a large number : 

Since 1933 we have actually purchased 5,640 
airplanes, including the most modern type of 
long-range bombers and fast pursuit planes, 
though, of course, many of these which were 
delivered 4, 5, 6, or 7 years ago have worn out 
through use and been scrapped. 

These planes cost money — a lot of it. For 
example, one modern four-engine long-range 
bombing plane costs $350,000 ; one modem inter- 
ceptor pursuit plane costs $133,000; one medium 
bomber costs $160,000. 

In 1933 we had only 355 antiaircraft guns. 
We now have more than 1,700 modern anti- 
aircraft gvms of all types on hand or on order. 
And you ought to know that a three-inch anti- 
aircraft gun costs $40,000 without any of the 
fire-control equipment that goes with it. 

In 1933 there were only 24 modern infantry 
mortars in the entire Army. We now have on 
hand and on order more than 1,600. 

In 1933 we had only 48 modern tanks and 
armored cars; today we have on hand and on 
order 1,700. Each one of our heavier tanks 
costs $46,000. 

There are many other items in which our 
progress since 1933 has been rapid. And the 
great proportion of this advance has been dur- 
ing the last 2 years. 

In 1933 we had 1,263 Army pilots. Today 
the Army alone has more than 3,200 of the best 
fighting flyers in the world, who last year flew 
more than 1 million hours in combat training. 
This does not include the hundreds of splendid 
pilots in the National Guard and organized 
reserves. 

Within the past year the productive capacity 
of the aviation industry to produce military 
planes has been tremendously increased. This 



capacity today, however, is still inadequate. 
But the Government, working with industry, is 
determined to increase this capacity to meet our 
needs. We intend to harness the efficient ma- 
chinery of these manufacturers to the Govern- 
ment's program of being able to get 50,000 
planes a year. 

One additional word about aircraft. Recent 
wars, including the current war in Europe, have 
demonstrated beyond doubt that fighting effi- 
ciency depends on unity of control. 

In sea operations the airplane is just as much 
an integral part of unity of ojoerations as are 
the submarine, the destroyer, and the battleship ; 
and in land warfare the airplane is just as much 
a part of military operations as are the tank 
corps, the engineere, the artillery, or the infantry 
itself. Therefore, the air forces should be part 
of the Army and Navy. 

At my request the Congress is voting the 
largest appropriation ever asked by the Army or 
the Navy in peacetime; and the equipment and 
training provided by them will be in addition 
to the figures I have given you. 

The world situation may so change that it 
will be necessary to reappraise our progi'am at 
any time. In such case I am confident that the 
Congress and the Chief Executive will work in 
harmony as a team — as they are doing today. 

I will not hesitate at any moment to ask for 
additional funds when they are required. 

In this era of swift, mechanized warfare, we 
all have to remember that what is modern today 
and up-to-date, what is efficient and practical, 
becomes obsolete and outworn tomorrow. 

Even while the production line turns out air- 
planes, new ones are being designed on the 
drafting table. 

Even as a cruiser slides down the ways, plans 
for improvement, plans for increased efficiency 
in the next model, are taking shape in the blue 
prints of designers. 

Every day's fighting in Europe, on land, on 
sea, and in the air, discloses constant changes in 
methods of warfare. We are constantly im- 
proving and redesigning, testing new weapons, 
and seeking to produce in accordance with the 
latest that the brains of science conceive. 



594 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



We are calling upon the resources, the ef- 
ficiency, and the ingenuity of American manu- 
facturers of war materiel of all kinds — air- 
planes, tanks, guns, ships, and all the hundreds 
of products that go into this materiel. The 
Government of the United States itself manu- 
factures few of the implements of war. Private 
industry will continue to be the source of most 
of this materiel ; and private industry will have 
to be speeded up to produce it at the rate and 
efficiency called for by the needs of the times. 

I know that private business cannot be ex- 
pected to make all the capital investment re- 
quired for expansions of plants and factories 
and personnel which this program calls for at 
once. It would be unfair to expect industrial 
corporations to do this, when there is a chance 
that a change in international affairs may stop 
future orders. 

Therefore, the Government of the United 
States stands ready to advance the necessary 
money to help provide for the enlargement of 
factories, the establishment of new plants, the 
employment of thousands of necessary workers, 
the development of new sources of supply for 
the hundreds of raw materials required, the 
development of quick mass transportation of 
supplies. The details of this are now being 
worked out in Washington, day and night. 

We are calling on men now engaged in pri- 
vate industry to help us in carrying out thisi 
program, and you will hear more of this in the 
next few days. 

This does not mean that the men we call upon 
will be engaged in the actual production of this 
materiel. That will still have to be carried 
on in the plants and factories throughout the 
land. Private industry will have the respon- 
sibility of providing the best, speediest, and 
most efficient mass production of which it is 
capable. The functions of the businessmen 
whose assistance we are calling upon will be 
to coordinate this program— to see to it that all 
of the plants continue to operate at maximum 
speed and efficiency. 

Patriotic Americans of proven fiaerit and of 
unquestioned ability in their special fields are 



coming to Washington to help the Government 
with their training, experience, and capability. 

It is our purpose not only to speed up pro- 
duction but to increase the total facilities of 
the Nation in such a way that they can be fur- 
ther enlarged to meet emergencies of the future. 

But as this program proceeds there are sev- 
eral things we must continue to watch and 
safeguard, things which are just as important 
to the sound defense of a nation as i^hysical 
armament itself. While our Navy and our air- 
planes and our gims may be our first lines of 
defense, it is still clear that way down at the 
bottom, underlying them all, giving them their 
strength, sustenance, and power, are the spirit 
and morale of a free people. 

For that reason, we must make sure, in all 
that we do, that there be no break-down or can- 
celation of any of the great social gains which 
we have made in these past years. We have 
carried on an offensive on a broad front against 
social and economic inequalities and abuses 
which had made our society weak. That offen- 
sive should not now be broken down by the 
pincers movement of those who would use the 
present needs of physical military defense to 
destroy it. 

There is nothing in our present emergency 
to justify making the workers of our Nation 
toil for longer hours than now limited by stat- 
ute. As more orders come in and as more 
work has to be done, tens of thousands of peo- 
ple, who are now unemployed, will receive 
employment. 

There is nothing in, our present emergency 
to justify a lowering of the standards of em- 
ployment. Minimum wages should not be re- 
duced. It is my hope, indeed, that the new 
speed-up of production will cause many busi- 
nesses which now pay below the minimmn 
standards to bring their wages up. 

There is nothing in our present emergency 
to justify a breaking down of old-age pen- 
sions or unemployment insurance. I would 
rather see the systems extended to other groups 
who do not now enjoy them. 

There is nothing in our present emergency 
to justify a retreat from any of our social ob- 



JUNE 1, 1940 



595 



jectives — conservation of resources, assistance 
to agriculture, housing, and help to the under 
privileged. 

Conversely, however, I axn sure that respon- 
sible leaders will not permit some specialized 
group, which represents a minority of the 
total employees of a plant or industry, to break 
up the continuity of employment of the ma- 
jority of the employees. The policy and the 
laws providing for collective bargaining are 
still in force. And labor will be adequately 
represented in Washington in this defense 
program. 

Also our present emergency and a common 
sense of decency make it imperative that no 
new group of war millionaires come into be- 
ing in this Nation as a result of the struggles 
abroad. The American people will not relish 
the idea of any American citizen growing rich 
and fat in an emergency of blood and slaughter 
and human suffering. 

And, finally, this emergency demands that 
the consumers of America be protected so that 
our general cost of living can be maintained 
at a reasonable level. We ought to avoid the 
spiral processes of the World War. The 
soundest policy is for every employer in the 
country to help give useful employment to the 
millions who are unemployed. By giving to 
those millions an increased purchasing power, 
the prosperity of the whole country will rise 
to a much higher level. 

Today's threat to our national security is 
not a matter of military weapons alone. We 
know of new methods of attack. 

The Trojan Horse. The Fifth Column that 
betrays a nation unprepared for treachery. 

Spies, saboteurs, and traitors are the actors 
in this new strategy. With all of these we 
must deal vigorously. 

But there is an added technique for weak- 
ening a nation at its very roots, for disrupting 
the entire pattern of life of a people. It is 
important that we understand it. 

The method is simple. First, discord. A 
group — not too large — a group that may be sec- 
tional or racial or political — is encouraged to ex- 
ploit their prejudices through false slogans and 



emotional appeals. The aim of those who de- 
liberately egg on these groups is to create con- 
fusion of counsel, public indecision, political 
paralysis, and, eventually, a state of panic. 

Sound national policies come to be viewed 
with a new and unreasoning skepticism, not 
through the wholesome political debates of 
honest and free men, but through the clever 
schemes of foreign agents. 

As a result of these new techniques armament 
progi-ams may be dangerously delayed. Single- 
ness of national purpose may be imdermined. 
Men can lose confidence in each other and there- 
fore in the efficacy of their own united action. 
Faith and courage yield to doubt and fear. The 
unity of the state is so sapped that its strength 
is destroyed. 

All this is no idle dream. It has happened 
time after time, in nation after nation, during 
the last 2 years. Fortunately, American men 
and women are not easy dupes. Campaigns of 
group hatred or class struggle have never made 
much headway among us and are not making 
headway now. But new forces are being un- 
leashed, deliberately planned propagandas to 
divide and weaken us in the face of danger 
as other nations have been weakened before. 

These dividing forces are undiluted poison. 
They must not be allowed to spread in the New 
World as they have in the Old. Our moral and 
mental defenses must be raised as never before 
against those who would cast a smokescreen 
across our vision. 

The development of our defense program 
makes it essential that each and every one of us 
feel that we have some contribution to make 
toward the security of our country. 

At this time, when the world — and the world 
includes our own American Hemisphere — ia 
threatened by forces of destruction, it is my 
resolve and yours to build up our armed 
defenses. 

We shall build them to whatever heights the 
future may require. 

We shall rebuild them swiftly, as the methods 
of warfare swiftly change. 

For more than three centuries we have been 
building on this continent a free society, a so- 
ciety in which the promise of the human spirit 



596 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



may find fulfillment. Commingled here are the 
blood and genius of all the peoples of the world 
who have sought this promise. 

We have built well. We are continuing our 
efforts to bring the blessings of a free society, of 
a free and productive economic system, to every 
family in the land. This is the promise of 
America. 

It is this that we must continue to build — this 
that we must continue to defend. 

It is the task of our generation. But we build 
and defend not for our generation alone. We 
defend the foundations laid by our fathers. We 
build a life for generations yet unborn. We de- 
fend and we build a way of life, not for America 



alone, but for all mankind. Ours is a high 
duty, a noble task. 

Day and night I pray for the restoration of 
peace in this mad world of ours. It is not peces- 
sary that I, the President, ask the American 
people to pray in behalf of such a cause — I know 
you are praying with me. 

I am certain that out of the hearts of every 
man, woman, and child in this land, in every 
waking minute, a supplication goes up to Al- 
mighty God; that all of us beg that suffering 
and starving, that death and destruction may 
end — and that peace may return to the world. 
In common affection for all mankind, your 
prayers join with mine — that God will heal the 
wounds and the hearts of humanity. 



■♦-■♦■■♦- -f ■♦- -f -f 



REMARKS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE DEDICA- 
TION OF THE COLUMBUS ARMS MURAL IN THE LIBRARY OF CON- 
GRESS ' 



[Released to the press May 28] 

I count it a great privilege to be afforded the 
opportunity this afternoon, in this beautiful 
Hispanic Room of the Library of Congress, to 
take part in the dedication of the mural com- 
prising the arms of Christopher Columbus. 

Soon 450 years will have passed since the 
Great Discoverer first sighted the lands of the 
New World in which we live. And while the 
Admiral always maintained, as the words 
blazoned on his arms demonstrate, "Por Castilla, 
per Leon, nuevo mundo hallo Colon" — for Cas- 
tile and for Leon, Columbus discovered a new 
world — we Americans know that our New 
World of the Americas was in truth discovered 
for a higher purpose and was designed to 
achieve a far greater destiny than merely to 
serve as an appanage of the Old World. 



■Delivered by Mr. Welles at the dedication of the 
Columbus Arms mural in the Hispanic Room of the 
Library of Congress, Washington, and broadcast over 
the network of the Columbia Broadcasting Co., Mav 
28, 1940. 



Throughout these past four and a half cen- 
turies the term "the New World" has come, I 
believe, to mean, above all else perhaps, in the 
minds of the peoples of other continents, a land 
of promise where they could obtain freedom — 
freedom from oppression at the hands of the 
tyrant, freedom to think, freedom to speak, and 
freedom to worship God as they themselves be- 
lieved right. Even before those colonies which 
later became the 21 American republics had all 
of them achieved their political freedom, in 
the greater part of the New World men and 
women had achieved individual freedom. To- 
day, throughout the three Americas comprising 
Columbus' New World, there still exist the same 
ideal and the same goal as those which the 
founders of our republics sought and which 
they so successfully achieved. 

In these darkened hours, throughout a great 
part of the rest of the world, those liberties 
which we cherish, and by which we live, have 
been assailed and have been, at least momen- 
tarily, successfully destroyed. Almost hourly 



JUNE 1, 1940 



597 



one can see spreading the tide of carnage and 
of devastation which engulfs millions upon mil- 
lions of people who desired nothing more than 
to live their lives peacefully, in amity with all 
and as a menace to none, under the form of gov- 
ernment which they themselves hud devised. 

In a physical sense and in a material sense, 
I realize that we are at last fully aware of 
these dangers in the Americas. There has 
never previously existed so comprehensive an 
understanding, so close a relationship, as that 
wliich fortunately — fortunately for each one 
of them — binds the American republics to- 
gether today. Any act of aggression by a 
non-American power, whether it be committed 
south or north of the Equator, is a challenge 
to the security of all and will be so regarded 
by them. 

But, as you and I know, the ability to resist 
aggression and to preserve our institutions of 
freedom requires something inore than mere 
material preparedness. It requires just as 
much a moral preparedness. 

Too many of us in these racent generations 
have grown fat — fat physically and fat men- 
tally. We have led ourselves to believe that 
we were all of us secure because we wanted to 
believe that we were secure. We had reached 



the point where many of us even thought only 
what it was most pleasant — what it was the 
easiest — to think. And how many of us here 
in these United States have been preoccupied 
primarily with what we alleged the country 
and the Government owed us, rather than with 
our obligations and our duty to the country 
and the Government ! 

As we look back to the earlier days and 
draw inspiration from the lives of the men and 
women who created our Kepublic and who 
made our Nation great we can see clearly that 
our liberties, our institutions, our very inde- 
pendence, were achieved not by blind sloth and 
self-indulgence but by sacrifice and by suffer- 
"^g? by austerity and by devotion, and not 
infrequently by blood and sweat. 

The price of our continued security is a re- 
dedication of themselves in this sense by our 
citizens, the eternal vigilance and unselfish de- 
votion to the public interest of those in au- 
thority, together with a continuance of effective 
and intimate cooperation on the part of all the 
governments of the Western Hemisphere. 

Only in that way, and only in that spirit, 
can the New World which Colimibus found 
continue to maintain unassailed and imassail- 
able the institutions of democracy which free 
men and women have here created. 



-f -f -f -f -f -♦■ -f 
ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE 



[Released to Uie press May 31] 

Fellow Workers: 

During all its history, this country has built 
its life on the premise that its people shall live 
their lives in peace. Every element of our peo- 
ple came here, labored here, and many have 
died here, to preserve and protect this right of 
peaceful development. Now we live in the 
presence of a great disaster, which raises the 
question whether this ideal of peace can be 
maintained. 



' Delivered at the annual convention of the Interna- 
tional Ladies Garment Workers Union, Carnegie Hall, 
New York City, May 31, 1940. 

235762 — 40 2 



This Government has patiently sought to talk 
the language of reason, of justice, and of co- 
operation. It has repeatedly offered to con- 
tribute to any settlement which might avoid 
the horrors which fill the air today. It has 
been made plain that if we are to preserve 
the precious gift which America has granted 
to all of us here, we must be prepared to defend 
that gift, for oui-selves and our families, our 
friends and our children. 

It is clear that this country must have at 
its command all of the strength necessary to 
assure its safety. 



598 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Because we have lived peacefully, we have 
not built up a huge reserve of war machines. 
It is necessary now to do so. This means pro- 
duction, production, and still more production. 
It means planning and still more planning. 
It means action, skill, and the forthright hon- 
esty that goes into a first-rate job done quickly, 
done well, and done dependably. To do this 
we shall need the highest degree of national 
unity, national discipline, national will; and 
the result of it will be national defense. 

Even in the tragedy of these times, I welcome 
the test to which this country is being put. Too 
many people have said that a free people can- 
not succeed in swift and unified action. It is 
time to give the lie to that sort of talk. Too 
many people have said that Americans were 
interested only in themselves. It is time to 
prove that every American is more interested 
in his country even than in himself, and that he 
knows that his own life and safety is bound up 
with the life and safety of the country whose 
we are and which we serve. It has been said 
that democratic groups will never abandon their 
individual quarrels. It is time to show to all 
concerned that evei-y group is entirely able to 
sink its differences and to make a whole-hearted 
contribution to a single cause. 

We are entitled to ask of management that it 
abandon the search for individual advantage 
and judge its success only by the contribution 
which it now makes to the national welfare. 
We are entitled to ask of labor that it do the 
same. 

We need sacrifice none of our social gains, 
but we have a right to ask that no search for 
social gain be permitted to interrupt the steady 
flow of production for the national defense. 

No social gain made by seizing a temporary 
strategic advantage in time of stress is perma- 
nent. Whenever there is a problem — and there 



will be many — the country has a right, and you 
have a right, to insist that the problem shall 
be solved without interrupting for an instant 
the steady flow of goods or the steady carrying 
out of necessary plans. A victory won by a 
strike will be worthless if a foreign system is 
imposed which takes from labor the advantage 
won. A profit earned by restricting production 
will vanish if an un-American form of life pre- 
vails on this hemisphere. There must be team 
play continuously and always. We must lay 
aside our ambitions, our prejudices, our dislikes, 
and judge ourselves by the single and implacablei 
test : Have we, between us, made the country a 
unit, achieved the necessary discipline, and laid 
on the line the last implacable argument, which 
means that no threat from overseas can domi- 
nate our national development? 

I myself have an endless faith in the morale 
of the United States. Because we discuss freely, 
differ freely, sometimes quarrel freely, it has 
been assumed that we could never abandon our 
discussions, our differences, and our quarrels, 
and get together. To people who believe this I 
can only say, they do not yet know America. 
Out of many, we are one. We have welcomed 
all gifts; but equally, we could unify all talents. 

We have, and propose to preserve, the free life 
of free men. We propose to safeguard them as 
free men can and must — by joining ranks. The 
time has come to stand by. 

In doing this we shall need and we shall have 
tJie support of every group in the country. 
This includes aliens as well as citizens. The 
Solicitor General has that particular matter in 
hand, and he asks me to say that there will be 
no alien baiting, for the good and simple reason 
that the great bulk of aliens in America came 
here for the purpose of joining, and not oppos- 
ing, our national life. They are here because 
they wish to be Americans; and all who join in 
the national effort will find warm welcome. 



JUNE 1, 1940 599 

OFFICIAL SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY 

Address by E. Wilder Spaulding " 



[Released to the press May 27] 

There is an all too popular notion that di- 
plomacy is something secretive and clandestine 
which the layman cannot hope to understand 
because the foreign offices of the world are so 
careful to conceal the records of their activity. 
It may be that some foreign offices are in fact 
secretive. The Department of State of the 
United States, however, does not fall in that 
category. The Secretary of State himself has 
expressed his conviction that the American 
public should be informed of what is taking 
place in the field of international relationships. 
He stated as recently as May 13 that: 

"Never in our national history has there been 
a more desperate need for a clear understanding 
by every responsible citizen of our country of 
what is taking place in the world and of how 
it affects us. Such miderstanding is essential 
to a wise charting and application of our na- 
tional policies. Under our system of govern- 
ment, it is the most effective safeguard for the 
maintenance and promotion of the national 
interest." " 

The Department of State is taking the public 
into its confidence to an extent equaled by few 
other foreign offices, and I am grateful for this 
opportunity to tell you, of the library profes- 
sion, how that is being done through the medium 
of the printed page. 

You are doubtless aware of the fact that in 
recent months when there have been discussions 
with belligerent governments over neutral 
rights or, to take another example, exchanges of 
notes with Mexico regarding the expropriation 
of oil properties, the Department of State has 
issued no white books or blue papers as certain 



° Delivered at the sixty-second annual convention of 
the American Library Association, Cincinnati, May 
27, 1940. Mr. Spaulding is Chief of the Division of 
Research and Publication, Department of State. 

"See the Bulletin of May 18, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 47), 
p. 535. 



other governments have done. That is not be- 
cause this Government has not released some 
very important diplomatic correspondence on 
such subjects but rather because the correspond- 
ence, a few days after it was released by the 
Department, was printed in the several issues of 
The Department of State Bulletin. The Bulle- 
tin is the most important of the publications by 
which the Department keeps the public in- 
formed of current developments in American 
foreign relations. 

Many of you will recall that as recently as a 
year ago the Department was publishing each 
month a little Treaty Information bulletin, 
which contained data about treaties and other 
international agreements to wliich the United 
States was or might become a party and about 
some other treaties of general international in- 
terest, and that the Department was also pub- 
lishing a weekly pamphlet called Press Re- 
leases, which included the material which the 
Department was releasing from day to day in 
mimeographed form to the representatives of 
the press. These two pampldets combined were 
designed to give the public a fairly full picture 
of current developments in American foreign 
policy. But it was becoming increasingly ob- 
vious that, in spite of the rapidly growing 
popular interest in foreign affairs, the Treaty 
hiformMion bulletin and the printed Press Re- 
leases were not reaching any considerable por- 
tion of the public. Perhaps that was because 
their very titles seemed to indicate that they 
were too technical or restricted in scope to be 
of general interest. Wliatever the reason, it 
seemed to the Department to be most unfor- 
tunate that it had no one periodical wliich was 
reaching any considerable proportion of the 
many teachers, professors, students, interna- 
tional lawyers, publicists, and librarians work- 
ing in the field of international relations. 

Consequently, it was decided a year ago to 
inaugurate the publication of a bulletin of the 



600 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXIEJLETIN 



Department of State which would be published 
weekly and distributed to depository libraries 
and subscribers through the Superintendent of 
Documents. The Press Releases pamplilet and 
the Treaty lnform,ation bulletin were discon- 
tinued. The new Bulletin now contains not 
only treaty information, which is kept together 
in one section as compiled by the Department's 
Treaty Division, and the texts of the Depart- 
ment's releases to the press, but it also contains 
the texts of White House releases on important 
pliases of foreign policy, the significant official 
addresses of the Secretary of State and other 
high officers of the Department, and some other 
material such as notices of new legislation or 
new official publications of interest to persons 
working in the field. It will be indexed semi- 
annually. The table of contents printed on the 
front cover is broken down into departments or 
sections to facilitate ready reference. 

The Department of State Bulletin for the 
first half year of its existence contained 756 
double-column pages and constituted, I be- 
lieve, a remarkably full official record of Ameri- 
can foreign policy for that period as set forth 
by the President and the Secretary of State 
and as carried out by the Department of State. 
We in the Department find it invaluable for 
constant reference, and we hope that it will 
become a widely known and freely used source 
in all the larger libraries, special or general. 
The number of paid subscriptions — and the 
yearly rate is only $2.75 — ^lias already shown 
a marked increase over the totals for its two 
predecessors. Press Releases and Treaty Infor- 
mation^ combined. 

It is not of course possible to publish all im- 
portant diplomatic correspondence while ne- 
gotiations are in progress. The definitive and 
final printed record of the determination of 
foreign policy by tlie President through the 
Secretary of State, the Department, and the 
Foreign Service is to be found in tliose ample 
annual volumes, Papers Relating to the Foreign 
Relations of the United States, better known 
by their popular title, Fo^^eign Relations. 
These volumes contain simply the diplomatic 
correspondence itself, with no editorial com- 



ments or official interpretations. They are or- 
ganized into general and country sections, with 
subdivisions on particular subjects or cases. 
They are indexed, and they have on their front 
pages generous lists of the papers included to 
make it possible to locate what the searcher 
is looking for without reading all the docu- 
ments. What is perhaps more important, the 
Foreign Relations volumes are a substantially 
complete record of American diplomacy for 
the year in question. By departmental order 
the compilers are authorized to omit only need- 
less details, matters which would embarrass 
pending negotiations or which would betray 
confidences reposed in the Department, items 
which might needlessly offend other nationali- 
ties or countries, or expressions of personal 
ojjinion not adopted by the Department. The 
compilers of Foreign Relatione are not author- 
ized to omit papers in order to conceal what 
they might feel were defects of policy. We 
follow the now established custom of consult- 
ing foreign govermnents before printing any 
of their notes or memoranda. As Secretary 
Hull has expressed it, "this Government cannot 
undertake to make public confidential conamu- 
nications without the permission of the govern- 
ment which reposed confidence in this Govern- 
ment." But most foreign governments, like 
the policy officers of the Department itself, have 
been remarkably liberal in refraining from 
objection, and in consequence the Foreign Re- 
lations volumes produced during the last few 
years are noteworthy for their comprehensive- 
ness, objectivity, and usefulness. 

These volumes are now being issued about 
15 years after the events with which they are 
concerned. The 1925 volumes wull come out 
this year. This 15-year gap was arrived at 
only by accident — the World War delayed the 
entire publishing program, and we have never 
been able to recover the ground lost. The De- 
partment hopes however to be able to publish 
its correspondence somewhat more promptly in 
years to come if the gap can be closed without 
prejudicing the completeness of the compilation. 

Of the various supplements to the Foreign 
Relations series you may be familiar with the 



JUNE 1, 1940 



601 



several World War volumes which are now 
constantly cited by authorities on the period 
of American neutrality, 1914 to 1917, and with 
the two Lansing Papers volumes which ap- 
peared early in the present year and were 
widely commented on in the daily press. The 
latter volumes contain several hundred pages 
of correspondence between President Wilson 
and his war-time Secretary of State that is in- 
valuable in understanding the critical days of 
1914 to 1920. This was correspondence which 
Mr. Lansing placed in his personal files and 
took with him when he left the Department. 
It was returned to the Department after Mr. 
Lansing's death by members of his family, 
but as it was received too late to be used in 
compiling the Foreign Relations: World Wwr 
volumes it had to be printed separately. 

The Foreign Relations volumes have been 
published regularly from 1861 with a gap of 
only 1 year, 1869, but many of the early is- 
sues) were so superficial and so clogged with 
inconsequentialities that the series has not al- 
ways been respected by the scholarly world. 
The volumes for the years since 1914 are, we 
believe, worthy of the best traditions of Amer- 
ican diplomacy. 

The quai*terly pamphlet. Publications of the 
Department of State, which any librarian may 
receive regularly for the asking, lists most of 
the pamphlets and periodicals issued by the 
Department since October 1, 1929, when a new 
publishing program was adopted and the serial 
numbering of our publications was begun. It 
lists the annual Register of the Department of 
State, which shows the organization of the 
Department; the quarterly Foreign Service 
List, which contains the names and posts of 
all American Foreign Service oiBcers; the 
monthly Diplomatic List of foreign diplo- 
matic representatives at Washington; and the 
annual Foreign Consular Offices in the United 
States. It lists the Arbitration Series, the 
Commercial Policy Series, the Conference 
Series, the various regional series, the Map 
Series, and other series treating of varied 
aspects of the Department's work. It also lists 
recent issues of the Treaty Series, which con- 

235762 id 3 



tain the texts of treaties to which the United 
States is a party, and of the Executive Agree- 
ment Series, as well as Dr. Hunter Miller's 
monumental treaty edition, Treaties and Other 
Inteimational Acta of the United States of 
America. This treaty edition, of which five 
volumes covering the period 1776 to 1852 have 
already been published, will include not only 
the texts of American treaties — some of them 
being printed hei'e fully and accurately for the 
first time — but also abundant notes of a textual 
and procedural character. Compiled by a 
great lawyer and scholar, this American treaty 
edition already surpasses in accuracy and 
scholarship all similar publications of other 
foreign offices. 

Under special mandate from the Congress the 
Department of State is publishing the Terri- 
torial Papers of the United States. For nearly 
a century the territories were administratively 
under the Department of State and the relevant 
records were of course in the Department's files. 
The compilation and publication of the official 
records of the continental territories of the 
United States, beginning with the Northwest 
Territory, under the able editorship of Dr. 
Clarence E. Carter, will make those records 
available to the many historians, genealogists, 
and searchers in the field of local history who 
cannot make constant visits to Washington to 
use the original papers themselves. Dr. Carter 
has already completed one preliminary volume 
and seven volumes of texts containing papers 
for the Northwest, Southwest, Mississippi, and 
Indiana Territories — volumes which have been 
most favorably reviewed in the learned journals. 

The Department of State no longer adminis- 
ters the territories of the United States, but 
it still retains some of its other early functions 
that have no relation to the determination of 
foreign policy. One of these functions is the 
publication of the laws. The ponderous vol- 
umes entitled United States Statutes at Large 
are still edited in the Department under the 
direction of the Secretary of State, and the same 
agency is responsible for the publication of the 
laws in the pamphlet or "slip law" form. 

I wish that I might describe to you more of 
the approximately 1,500 publications which the 



602 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Government Printing OflSce has printed for the 
Department of State since 1929. The titles are, 
however, in our printed quarterly list, which 
may be obtained, as I have said, from the De- 
partment upon request. I also wish that time 
permitted my mentioning some of the ways in 
which the State Department is endeavoring to 
be of assistance to American libraries in the 
procurement of books and periodicals from 
abroad. We have cooperated with the Library 
of Congress by negotiating a series of agree- 
ments with other countries for the exchange of 
official publications, and there is a constant ex- 
change of correspondence with American dip- 
lomatic and consular offices abroad on the 
procurement of official documents for the use 
of our Government — especially of the Library 
of Congress. The Department has recently 
been making a determined effort to secure war- 
time material — posters, regulations, decrees, no- 
tices, and propaganda documents — to enrich the 
collections of the Library of Congress. The 
effect of recent British restrictions on exports 
upon the flow of learned and scientific publica- 
tions from Germany to the United States has 
received the earnest attention of the Depart- 
ment, and appropriate representations have 
been made to the British Foreign Office by the 
American Embassy at London. The Depart- 
ment has kept closely in touch with the Li- 
brarian of Congress, who in turn has worked 
closely with officers of the American Library 
Association, and an amicable solution of the 
blockade problem which will insure the con- 
tinued flow of many important publications 
from Germany seems to be in sight. 

With respect to the future I may say that the 
Department plans to continue its efforts to make 
The Department of State Bidhtin such a satis- 
factory source of reference on American foreign 
policy that it will be recognized as indispensable 
in every general library, and to maintain the 
Foreign Relations series as a "substantially com- 
plete" definitive record of the foreign relations 
of this Government. The Department also plans 
to bring out in several volumes the urgently 
needed continuation of John Bassett Moore's 
famous Digest of International Law, a new Di- 



gest of Intemation(d Law now being compiled 
by the Department's able Legal Adviser, Mr. 
Hackworth. The new Digest will begin where 
the old one left off, at 1906. 

Mention should also be made of the long- 
awaited documentary history of the Paris Peace 
Conference of 1919. American scholars and 
publicists have long been urging, and the De- 
partment has for several years been ready to 
undertake, the publication of the voluminous 
records of American participation in the 1919 
Conference. The general public as well as the 
scholarly world is interested as never before in 
learning what really happened at Paris. A 
whole literature of unofficial accounts, diaries, 
memoirs, biogi-aphies, and commentaries is 
growing up around the Conference, but much of 
that literature is of necessity based upon sur- 
mise, speculation, or memory because the basic 
framework of the story's structure, the official 
documentation, is so largely lacking. No major 
government has as yet made more than a frag- 
mentary publication of its official Peace Con- 
ference records. The Department made a con- 
certed effort in 1938 to obtain permission in 
principle from the other governments repre- 
sented on the famous Council of Four for the 
publication of the important minutes and pro- 
ceedings of the various bodies of the Paris Con- 
ference. That permission was finally obtained 
somewhat more than a year ago ; appropriations 
from Congress were asked and granted; the 
work of compilation has commenced; and the 
first two volumes should appear eai'ly in 1942. 

It is apparent from what I have said that the 
publication progi'am of the Department of State 
is by no means a static one. Tlie Department is 
always ready to modify, restrict, or expand its 
publications if by so doing it can better serve 
the needs of the officials and the public who use 
them. Certainly no professional group is in a 
better position than the librarians to suggest, 
to comment, or even to criticize, as to the effec- 
tiveness and usefulness of the printed records 
which a Govermnent department is producing, 
and I am certain that the Department of Statei 
does and will continue to welcome suggestions 
from the country's librarians. 



JUNE 1, 1940 



603 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE FOR THE 

FISCAL YEAR 1941 



The first of the following tables shows the 
increases and decreases in the State Depart- 
ment's appropriations for the 1941 fiscal year as 
compai-ed with 1940 fiscal year. The second 
table shows increases and decreases made by 



Congress in the 1941 budget estimates submitted 
by the President. 

The Department's appropriation bill for 1941 
was approved by the President on May 14, 1940. 



RECAPITULATION OF TABLE NO. I 

Department op State Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1941 Compared With 1940 

(Regular Annual Appropriations) 



Appropriation title 


Appropriations 
for 1941 


Appropriations 
for 1940 


Increases f+), de- 
creases (-1 tor 1941 


Reasons for increases or decreases 


Department Proper. - 


$2, 921, 000 

13, 784, 500 

300, 000 

3, 120, 000 


$2, 871, 260 

13, 116,075 

750, 000 

5, 006, 505 


+ $49,740 

+ 668,425 

-450,000 

-1,886,505 


See attached statement of details. 


Foreign Service 

Foreign Service Buildings 

International Obligations 


See attached statement of details. 

General decrease. 

See attached statement of details. 


Grand Total 


20, 125, 500 


21, 743, 840 


-1,618,340 


This apparent decrease is attributable 




entirely to the payment of $1,830,000 
to Panama, which is nonrecurring for 
1941, and to other nonrecurring items. 



TABLE NO. I 

Department of State Appropriations foe Fiscal Year 1941 Compared With 1940 

(Regular Annual Appropriations) 



Appropriation title 



Department Proper 

Salaries, Department of 
State. 



Contingent Expenses, 
partment of State. 



De- 



Appropriations 
for 1941 



$2, 458, 500 



143, 000 



Appropriations 
for 1940 



<'»$2,427,660 



" 138, 300 



Increases (+), de- 
creases (— ) for 1941 



+ $30,840 



+ 4,700 



Reasons for increases or decreases 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Increases allowed were $62,840 for 27 
additional permanent positions ; $9,500 
for reallocations; and $8,500 for re- 
ducing the deficit which is now 
required to be covered by lapses. 
These total increases were offset by a 
decrease of $50,000 which was made 
in the appropriation for the Trade 
Agreements Division pending exten- 
sion of the Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ments Act. This item is to be given 
further consideration. 

Increases were allowed of $8,500 for 
travel; $1,319 for stationery, supplies, 
and postage; $750 for repairs to 
equipment; $250 for piecework trans- 
lations; $300 for newspapers; $500 for 
cultural objects for presentations; and 
$200 for books and maps. These 
increases were offset by nonrecurring 
items of $7,119 contained in the 1940 
appropriation and not repeated in 
1941. 



604 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIIT 



TABLE NO. I— Continued 



Appropriation title 



Appropriations 
for 1941 



Appropriations 
for 1940 



Increases (+), de- 
creases (— ) tor 1941 



Seasons for increases or decreasps 



Department Proper — Con. 
Printing and Binding, De- 
partment of State. 



$237, 000 



$225, 500 



+ $11,500 



Passport Agencies, Depart- 
ment of State. 

Collecting and Editing Offi- 
cial Papers of the Terri- 
tories of the United 
States. 



Promotion of Foreign Trade 
(Reciprocity Committee) . 



57, 500 
25, 000 



60, 000 
19, 800 



-2, 500 
+ 5,200 



Total Department 
Proper. 



Foreign Service 

Salaries of Ambassadors and 

Ministers. 



2, 921, 000 



2, 871, 260 



+ 49,740 



660, 000 



650, 000 



+ 10,000 



Salaries of Foreign Service 
Officers. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



4, 166, 000 



4, 163, 100 



+ 2, 900 



Increases were allowed as follows: $8,500 
for the last volume of Damages in 
International Law; $2,500 for print- 
ing the reply brief in the Dutch 
Florins case; $2,000 for revised edition 
of the pamphlet "Department of 
State;" $500 for Cultural Relations 
Division pamphlets; $2,500 for Trade 
Agreements Division pamphlets; 
$1,500 for List of Treaties; $700 for 
congressional documents; $1,987 for 
the Foreign Service; $2,009 for bind- 
ing and rebinding; and $3,514 for 
forms, letterheads, memorandum pads, 
and miscellaneous items. These in- 
creases were offset by nonrecurring 
items of $14,210 contained in the 1940 
appropriation and not repeated in 
1941. 

The decrease of $2,500 reduces the 
allowance for temporary employees 
from $6,800 to $4,300. 

In addition to the $19,800 appropriated 
for 1940 there was a balance of $1,386 
available from 1939. Therefore, the 
actual increase for 1941 over funds 
available for 1940 is $3,814. This 
increase is for printing and binding. 
This entire project is carried on under 
a special authorization of Congress 

The appropriation for carrying on this 
work during 1941 will be provided 
under the funds made available to the 
Tariff Commission. Therefore, for 
purposes of comparison the sum of 
$43,000 appropriated under the State 
Department for 1940 has been con- 
sidered as a transfer to the Tariff 
Commission and omitted here. 



The increase of $10,000 results from a 
transfer to this appropriation of 
$15,000 for salaries while receiving 
instructions and in transit heretofore 
carried under Salaries, Foreign Serv- 
ice Officers, offset by a general de- 
crease of $5,000. The First Deficiency 
Bill for 1940 contains a provision 
maliing the appropriations for Salaries 
of Ambassadors and Ministers for 
1940 and 1941 available for salary of 
a Minister to Australia. 

The net increase of $2,900 results from 
the following: Increases were allowed 
of $56,300 for automatic promotions 
of Foreign Service Officers and $12,500 
for adjustment of salaries of officers 



JUNE 1, 1940 



605 



TABLE NO. I— Continued 



Appropriation title 



Appropriations 
tor 1941 



Foreign Service — Contd. 
Salaries of Foreign Service 
Officers— Contd. 



Transportation, Foreign 
Service. 



Oflice and Living Quarters, 
Foreign Service. 



$723, 000 



2, 153, 000 



Appropriations 
for 1940 



° $688, 155 



Cost, of Living Allowances, 
Foreign Service. 



Representation Allowances, 
Foreign Service. 



Foreign Service Retirement 
and Disability Fund. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



338, 500 



150, 000 



609, 000 



» 2, 178, 194 



300, 000 



140, 000 



199, 400 



Increases (+), de- 
creases (—) tor 1941 



+ $34,845 



-25, 194 



+ 38,500 



+ 10,000 



+ 409, 600 



Reasons for increases or decreases 



formerly under the Departments of 
Commerce and Agriculture who were 
transferred to the Department of 
State under the Reorganization Plan. 
These increases were offset by a de- 
crease of $50,000 estimated as a 
saving under the reorganization, and 
a general decrease of $900 which was 
made by Congress, and by the trans- 
fer of .$15,000 for salaries while re- 
ceiving instructions and in transit 
from this appropriation to Salaries of 
Ambassadors and Ministers. 

This increase of $34,845 results from 
increases of $17,800 for travel of 
Ambassadors and Ministers, $11,000 
for temporary details, and $25,000 
for home leaves, offset by decreases of 
$2,500 for travel of supervisors of 
construction, .$5,380 estimated savings 
on average costs of transfers as a 
result of the reorganization, and 
$11,075 for local transportation and 
travel within districts transferred 
to Contingent Expenses, Foreign 
Service. 

An increase of $10,510 was granted for 
18 additional American clerks at 
approximately $570 each. Reduc- 
tions were made as follows: $11,900 
(10 allowances at average of $1,190) 
for cancelation of appointments of 10 
additional officers provided for 1940 
who were not required after the 
reorganization; $9,000 for discon- 
tinuance of living quarters allowances 
at certain posts at which Govern- 
ment-owned quarters are being pro- 
vided; $8,458 for discontinuance of 
office rent at posts where Govern- 
ment-owned quarters are being pro- 
vided; $4,346 for savings under 
reorganization; and a general cut of 
$2,000 made by Congress. 

An increase of $37,020 was granted for 
officers and clerks formerly under the 
Departments of Commerce and Agri- 
culture, and an increase of $1,480 for 
additional clerks for 1941. 

The increa.se of $10,000 will permit 
allowances to several consular posts 
not now receiving allowances and will 
allow small sums to be granted to 
Diplomatic Secretaries who are called 
upon to incur representation expenses. 

This increase under the amended retire- 
ment law is to provide appropriations 
to maintain the retirement fund in 
fuU force and effect. 



606 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TABLE NO. I— Continued 



Appropriation title 


Appropriations 
for 1941 


Appropriations 
for 1940 


Inereases"(+), de- 
creases (-) for 1941 


Reasons for increases or decreases 


Foreign Service — Contd. 
Salaries, Foreign Service 
Clerks. 

Miscellaneous Salaries and 
Allowances, Foreign Serv- 
ice. 

Contingent Expenses, For- 
eign Service. 

Emergencies Arising in the 
Diplomatic and Consular 
Service. 


$2, 837, 000 

697, 000 
1, 226, 000 

225, 000 


"■$2, 730, 672 

710, 554 
» 1, 181,000 

175, 000 


-|-$106, 328 

-13,554 
-f 45, 000 

+ 50,000 


Increases were allowed of $50,000 for 
promotions and $50,280 for addi- 
tional clerks, offset by a decrease of 
$28,802 for temporary clerks. Also, 
the sum of $34,850 ' was transferred 
to this appropriation from the appro- 
priation Miscellaneous Salaries and 
Allowances, Foreign Service, to per- 
mit reclassification of certain miscel- 
laneous employees performing clerical 
duties. 

Increases were allowed of $15,000 for 
adjustments of salaries, and $5,726 
for additional einplovees, offset by 
the sum of $34,280 ' transferred from 
this appropriation to the appropria- 
tion for Salaries, Foreign Service 
Clerks. 

The increase of $45,000 was allowed for 
the following purposes: stationery 
and supplies, $7,075; binders, $2,336"; 
flags, $1,000; packing cases, $500; 
telephone service, $4,000; freight, 
$10,000; burial expenses, $1,000; 
motor vehicles, $2,150; radios, $864; 
machines and equipment, .$5,000; 
transfer to this appropriation from 
Transportation, Foreign Service, $11,- 
075. 

General increase. 


Total Foreign Sbevice. 


13, 784, 500 


13, 116, 075 


-F668, 425 




Foreign Service Buildings 
Fund. 


300, 000 


750, 000 


-450, 000 


General decrease. 


International Obligations 
United States Contributions 
to International Commis- 
sions, Congresses, and 
Bureaus. 

Convention for Promotion 
of Inter-American Cul- 
tural Relations. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico (Reg- 
ular Commission). 


1, 083, 000 

94, 500 
198, 000 


2, 883, 655 

75, 000 
193, 000 


-1,800,655 

+ 19, 500 
-1-6, 000 


This decrease results from the following: 
Increases of $392 for the Cape Spartel 
Light; $43,891.74 for the Pan Ameri- 
can Union; and $78 for the Inter- 
national Council of Scientific Unions, 
Radio Union; Decreases of $10,000 
for expenses of participation in meet- 
ings of the Interparliamentary Union; 
$5,016.74 for the International Labor 
Organization (increase of $12,850.26 
for the quota and decrease of $17,867 
for travel) ; and a nonrecurring item 
of $1,830,000 for payment to Panama. 

This increase is necessary for additional 
expenses in connection with the 
ratification of the convention by 
additional countries. 

The increase is required for additional 
expenses required by the regular 
Commission in connection with the 
operation and maintenance of com- 
pleted construction projects. 



I 



See footnotes at end of table. 



JUNE 1, 1940 



607 



TABLE NO. I— Continued 



Appropriation title 


Appropriations 
for 1941 


Appropriations 
for 1940 


Increases (+), de- 
creases (-) for 1941 


Reasons for increases or decreases 


INTEBNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS — 










Continued. 










Rio Grande Rectification 








1939 appropriation was continued avail- 
able for 1940 and 1941. No new 


Project. 
















funds appropriated. 


Lower Rio Grande Flood 


$950, 000 


$800, 000 


-1- $150, 000 


General increase in construction work. 


Control Project. 










Rio Grande Canalization 


500, 000 


500, 000 
25, 000 






Project. 
Fence Construction Inter- 


-25,000 


Nonrecurring. 


national Boundary Com- 










mission, United States 










and Mexico. 










International Boundary 


43, 000 


42, 000 


+ 1,000 


Increase is for the United States share 


Commission, United 








of installing lights in the four bound- 


States and Canada and 








ary range mark towers in Boundary 


Alaska and Canada. 








Bay, Washington. 


Salaries and Expenses, In- 


19, 500 


37, 500 


-18,000 


This decrease results from the elimina- 


ternational Joint Com- 








tion of certain salaries and an adjust- 


mission, United States 








ment in others. 


and Great Britain. 










Special and Technical In- 


48, 500 


47, 000 


+ 1,500 


This increase is for investigations on 


vestigations, Interna- 








eastern tributaries of the Milk River. 


tional Joint Commission, 










United States and Great 










Britain. 










International Fisheries 


28, 000 


25, 000 


+ 3, 000 


This increase is for extending the period 


Commission. 








of vessel operations at sea in order 
that more extensive data may be 
acquired with respect to the halibut 
fisheries. 
General decrease made by Congress. 


Pacific Salmon Fisheries 


35, 000 


40, 000 


-5,000 


Commission. 










Cooperation with American 
Republics. 


120, 500 




+ 120,500 


New appropriation for initiating a pro- 








gram of cooperation with American 










republics. 


Eighth American Scientific 




85, 000 


-85,000 


Nonrecurring. 


Congress. 










Seventh Assembly of Int'l 




4,500 


-4,500 


Nonrecurring. 


Union of Geodesy and 










Geophysics. 










International Seed Testing 




500 


-500 


Nonrecurring. 


Congress. 
Alaskan International High- 




6,200 


-6,200 


Nonrecurring. 


way Commission. 










Eighth Pan American 




5,000 


-5,000 


Nonrecurring. 


Child Congress. 










First Pan American Hous- 




2,000 


-2,000 


Nonrecurring. 


ing Congress. 






International Committee 




20, 000 


-20,000 


Nonrecurring. 


on Political Refugees. 






Third International Con- 




5,000 


-5,000 


Nonrecurring. 


gress for Microbiology. 










Mixed Claims Commission, 




34, 400 


-34,400 


Nonrecurring. 


United States and Ger- 






many. 
Payment to the Govern- 




72, 000 


- 72, 000 


Nonrecurring. 


ment of Nicaragua. 










Agrarian Claims Commis- 




85, 000 


-85,000 


Nonrecurring. 


sion, United States and 










Mexico. 










Second Inter-American Ra- 




16, 000 


-16,000 


Nonrecurring. 


dio Conference, Santiago, 










Chile. 











See footnotes at end of table. 



608 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUUOETIN 







FABLE NO. I 


— Continued 




Appropriation title 


Appropriations 
for 1941 


Appropriations 
for mo 


Increases (+), de- 
creases (-) for 1941 


Reasons for increases or decreases 


INTEKNATIONAI, OBLIGATIONS 

Continued. 
Meeting of Treasury Repre- 
sentatives, Guatemala. 




$2, 750 


-$2,750 


Nonrecurring. 






Total International 
Obligations. 


$3, 120, 000 


5, 006, 505 


- 1, 886, 505 




Grand Total 


20, 126, 500 


21, 743, 840 


-1,618,340 


This apparent decrease is attributable 
entirely to the payment of $1,830,000 
to Panama, which is nonrecurring 
for 1941, and to other nonrecurring 
items. 



Appropriation for Foreign Service Pat Adjustment 
(Contained in Independent Offices Appropriation Bill) 



Appropriation titlo 


Appropriations 
for 1941 


Appropriations 
for 1940 


Increases (+), de- 
creases (-) for 1941 


Reasons for increases or decreases 


Foreign Service 


$1, 280, 000 


$1, 400, 000 


-$120,000 


Decrease is due to savings resulting 




from depreciation of foreign cur- 
rencies. 



I 

1 



TABLE NO. I— PART 2 

Department of State Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1941 Compared With 1940 
(Supplemental and Deficiency Appropriations) 



Appropriation title 



Department Proper 

Salaries, Department of State 

Contingent Expenses, Department of State. 

ToTAL Department Proper 



Foreign Service 

Salaries, Foreign Service Clerks 

Contingent Expenses, Foreign Service 

Emergencies Arising in the Diplomatic and Consular Service. 

Total Foreign Service 



International Obligations 

First Inter- American Congress on Indian Life. 



Grand Total of Supplementalb and Deficiencies. 



Appropriations for 1941 



These supplemental appropria- 
tions were provided after the 
1941 budget was submitted. 
It is impossible to indicate at 
the present time whether simi- 
lar supplemental and defi- 
ciency appropriations will be 
required for 1941. 



Appropriations 
for 1940 



$41, 387 
18, 000 



59, 387 



40, 000 
500, 000 
500, 000 



1, 040, 000 



2,000 



1, 101, 387 



"■ Inclusive of funds transferred to these appropriations from the Departments of Commerce and Agriculture for activities of those Departments which 
were consolidated with the Department of State under the reorganization. 

' Includes $225,000 (or the Trade Agreements Division, which was a separate appropriation for 1940, whOe for 1941 it has been consolidated with "Sal- 
aries, Department of State." 

< The sum of .$34,280 was actually transferred, and an additional sum of $570 was provided for adjustments of the salaries of employees transferred to 
the rates fixed for clerks. 



JUNE 1, 1940 



609 



TABLE NO. II 
Department or State — Fiscal Year 1941 



Appropriation title 



Approved by 

President for 

submission to 

Congress 



Appropriation 

approved by 

Congress 



Increase (+) 
Decrease (— ) 



Department op State: 

Salaries, Department of State 

Contingent Expenses, Department of State 

Printing and Binding, Department of State 

Passport Agencies, Department of State 

Collecting and Editing Official Papers of Territories of the United 

States. 

Total, Department op State 

Foreign Service: 

Salaries, Ambassadors and Ministers 

Salaries, Foreign Service Officers 

Transportation, Foreign Service 

Office and Living Quarters, Foreign Service 

Cost of Living Allowances, Foreign Service 

Representation Allowances, Foreign Service 

Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund 

Salaries, Foreign Service Clerks 

Miscellaneous Salaries, Foreign Service 

Contingent Expenses, Foreign Service 

Emergency Fund 

Total, Foreign Service 

Foreign Service Buildings Fund 

International Obligations: 

Contributions, Quotas, etc 

Convention for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Relations 
Mexican Boundary Commission: 

Regular Commission 

Lower Rio Grande Flood Control 

Rio Grande Canalization 

International Boundary Commission, United States and Canada and 

Alaska and Canada. 
International Joint Commission, United States and Great Britain: 

Salaries and Expenses 

Special and Technical Investigations 

International Fisheries Commission 

International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission 

Cooperation with the American Republics 

Total, International Obligations 

Grand Total 



$2, 562, 560 

164, 500 

245, 000 

60, 000 

25, 000 



$2, 458, 500 

143, 000 

237, 000 

57, 500 

25, 000 



''-$104,060 

-21,500 

-8,000 

-2,500 



3, 057, 060 



2, 921, 000 



665, 000 
4, 166, 900 

746, 500 
2, 155, 000 

339, 000 

160, 000 

609, 000 
2, 852, 000 

704, 000 
1, 255, 000 

250, 000 



660, 000 
4, 166, 000 

723, 000 
2, 153, 000 

338, 500 

150, 000 

609, 000 
2, 837, 000 

697, 000 
1, 226, 000 

225, 000 



13, 902, 400 



13, 784, 500 



500, 000 



300, 000 



1, 112,966 
94, 540 

198, 000 

1, 000, 000 

500, 000 

43, 000 



19, 600 
50, 000- 
31, 500 
40, 000 
291, 940 



1, 083, 000 
94, 500 

198, 000 

950, 000 

500, 000 

43, 000 



19, 500 
48, 500 
28, 000 
35, 000 
120, 500 



3, 381, 546 



3, 120, 000 



20, 841, 006 



20, 125, 500 



■136,060 



- 5, 000 

-900 

-23,500 

-2,000 

-500 

-10,000 



- 15, 000 
-7,000 
-29,000 
-25,000 



•117,900 



-200, 000 



-29,966 
-40 



-50,000 



-100 
-1,500 
-3,500 
-5,000 
171,440 



-261, 546 



-715,506 



I" This figure includes a $.'^0,000 decrease made by Congress pending the extension of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act. 
been extended, this item will be given further consideration. 



Since that act has now 



610 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PROPOSED TRANSFER OF IMMIGRA- 
TION AND NATURALIZATION SERV- 
ICE TO DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

The following is an excerpt from the message 
of the President of the United States to the 
Congress May 22, 1940, transmitting Reorgan- 
ization Plan No. V, which provides for the 
transfer of immigration and naturalization 
functions fiom the Department of Labor to the 
Department of Justice : 

"This Plan provides for transferring the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service from 
the Department of Labor to the Department of 
Justice. While it is designed to afford more 
effective control over aliens, this proposal does 
not reflect any intention to deprive them of their 
civil liberties or otherwise to impair their legal 
status. This reorganization will enable the 
Government to deal quickly with those aliens 
who conduct themselves in a manner that con- 
flicts with the public interest. No monetary 
savings are anticipated." 



The following is quoted from Reorganization 
Plan No. V: 

"Immigration and Naturalization Service 

"Section 1. Transfer of Imrmgration and 
Naturalization Service. — The Immigration and 
Naturalization Service of the Department of 
Ijabor (including the Office of the Commissioner 
of Immigration and Naturalization) and its 
functions are transferred to the Department of 
Justice and shall be administered under the 
direction and supei-vision of the Attorney Gen- 
eral. All functions and powers of the Secretary 
of Labor relating to the administration of the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service and 
its functions or to the administration of the 
immigration and naturalization laws are trans- 
ferred to the Attorney General. In the event 
of disagreement between the head of any de- 
partment or agency and the Attorney General 
concerning the interpretation or application of 
any law pertaining to immigration, naturaliza- 
tion, or nationality, final determination shall be 
made by the Attorney General." 



Europe 



REPATRIATION OF AMERICAN CITIZENS 



[Released to the press May 27] 

Mr. Alexander C. Kirk, American Charge in 
Berlin, reported that the German Foreign OflBce 
had acknowledged the receipt of his notes trans- 
mitting the information about the S. S. Presi- 
dent RooHcvelt proceeding from New York to 
Galway, Ireland, and return for the purpose of 
repatriating American citizens. The Foreign 
Office stated it had not failed to inform the ap- 
propriate domestic authorities of their contents. 

The British Foreign Office informed Ambas- 
sador Kennedy that the attention of the compe- 
tent authorities of the United Kingdom had 
been drawn to the contents of his note. The 
Foreign Office gave assurance that no hindrance 
would be offered so far as the British were con- 



cerned to this vessel either upon its outward or 
upon its homeward voyage. 

The following regulation has been codified 
under Title 22 : Foreign Relations ; Chapter I : 
Department of State; and Subchapter A: The 
Department, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Federal Register and the Code of 
Federal Regulations: 

Part 55C — Travel 

§ 55C.4 American vessels in combat areas — 
(c) Vessels authorized to evacuate Americam 
citizens and those wider direction of American 
Bed Cross— {2) The S. S. Washington. The 



JUNE 1, 1940 



611 



S. S. Washington has, by arrangement with the 
appropriate authorities of the United States 
Government, been commissioned to proceed into 
and through the combat area defined by the 
President in his proclamation numbered 2394, 
of April 10, 1940,' hi order to evacuate citizens 
of the United States who are in imminent 
danger to their lives as a result of combat oper- 
ations incident to the present war. Therefore, 
in accordance with paragraph (4)* of the regu- 
lations which the Secretary of State issued on 
November 6, 1939, and amended on April 10, 
1940," the provisions of the President's procla- 
mation of April 10, 1940, do not apply to the 
voyage which the S. S. Washington has been 
commissioned to undertake for the aforesaid 
purpose. (Sec. 3, Public Res. 54, 76th Cong., 
2d sess., Nov. 4, 1939 ; Proc. No. 2394, April 10, 
1940) 

CORDELL HXTLL, 

Secretary of State. 
Mat 28, 1940. 

[ReleaBed to the press May 28] 

The S. S. Washington, sailing from New 
York on May 30, will be instmcted to call at 
Bordeaux and Lisbon en route to Genoa to pick 
up Americans there who wish to return to the 
United States. 

[Released to the press May 31] 

The S. S. Washington has been dispatched 
at the instance of the Government of the United 
States to France to repatriate American citi- 
zens and their families. She will proceed to 
Bordeaux where Americans have been advised 
to gather. The Washington is proceeding with- 
out convoy, with no passengers or cargo or mail 
for Bordeaux except two representatives of the 
Red Cross and a shipment of Red Cross medi- 
cal supplies and clothing. She will proceed 



' 5 F. R. 1399. 

'This regulation wtiicli appeared as paragraph (4) 
in "Regulations under section 3 of the joint resolution 
of Congress approved November 4, 1939" (4 F. R. 4510) , 
has been designated as § 55C.4 (c) under Title 22 for 
codification purposes. 

° 5 F. R. 140L 



with the American flag prominently displayed 
and fully lighted at night. Tlie necessary au- 
thorization has been given under the provisions 
of the Neutrality Act, and all belligerent gov- 
ernments have been advised that the American 
Government expects the vessel to proceed with- 
out molestation or delay on the part of the 
military, naval, or air forces of any belligerent. 
After leaving Bordeaux and calling at Lisbon, 
she may proceed to Genoa if she has passenger 
accommodations available. 

The S. S. Manhattan will sail June 1 from 
Genoa direct for the United States with a full 
emergency passenger list. The officers of the 
United States Government in Italy and in Swit- 
zerland several days ago were advised to notify 
all Americans who may I'emain in those coun- 
tries after the Manhattan sails and who desire 
to return to the United States to proceed im- 
mediately to Bordeaux where they may catch 
the Washington. 

The S. S. President Roosevelt is due the 
night of May 31 at Galway, Ireland, and will 
immediately take on passengers and return. 

There are other American passenger ships 
in the Mediterranean bound for the United 
States, loaded to capacity with passengers. 
They are the President Harrison from Port 
Said for New York ; the Exchorda and Excam- 
hion from eastern Mediterranean and Italian 
ports for New York. There are also 20-odd 
freighters bound from Black Sea and eastern 
Mediterranean ports, many of which carry from 
10 to 20 passengers and all of which are bound 
west for American ports. 

Very few, if any, Americans who desire to 
return to the LTnited States remain in Italy, 
the Balkans, or the Levant — or will remain 
after noon of June 1. 

Attention is called to the Department's press 
statement of May 15, 1940,'" which pointed out 
the numerous warnings which have been issued 
to Americans of dangerous situations, and in- 
vitations to leave war areas in Europe. 



'° See the Bulletin of May 18, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 47), 
pp. 542-543. 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TRAVEL OF AMERICAN CITIZENS IN 
BELLIGERENT AIRCRAFT OVER 
CERTAIN CANADIAN PROVINCES 

The following regulation has been codified 
under Title 22: Foreign Relations; Chapter I: 
Department of State ; and Subchapter A : The 
Department, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Federal Register and the Code of 
Federal Regulations ; 

Part 55C — Travel 

Pursuant to the authority contained in the 
President's Proclamation No. 2374, of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, issued pursuant to section 1 of the 
Neutrality Act of 1939, I, Cordell Hull, Secre- 
tary of State of the United States, hereby pre- 



scribe the following regulation, amending the 
regulations issued on November 6, 1939,'^ as 
amended by regulations issued on November 17, 
1939,12 and December 14, 1939," relating to 
travel on belligerent vessels: 

§ 55C.3 American nationals in conibat areas — 
(h) Travel in belligerent aircraft over certain 
Canadian provinces. American nationals may 
travel in belligerent aircraft over the Canadian 
provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and 
Prince Edward Island. (Sec. 1, Public Res. 54, 
76th Cong., 2d sess., approved Nov. 4, 1939; 
Proc. No. 2374, Nov. 4, 1939) 

Cordell Hull, 

Secretary of State. 

May 29, 1940. 



The American Republics 



WARNINGS TO AMERICAN CITIZENS AGAINST THE 
"SPANISH SWINDLE" 



[Released to the press May 27] 

The American consul general at Mexico 
City, Mr. James B. Stewart, informed the De- 
partment that only a few days ago he learned 
of three cases of American citizens who had be- 
come involved in the so-called "Spanish Swin- 
dle." The consul general reports that in one 
case, unfortunately, the American actually came 
to Mexico City and paid out more than $3,000 
in United States currency before he learned that 
he had been swindled. In the other two cases, 
the consul general was able to warn the pro- 
spective victims in time to prevent them from 
actually paying out money. 

Mr. Stewart lias called attention to the fact 
that the swindle has been carried on in Mexico 
for a number of years, and in spite of the fact 
that the Mexican authorities, with the cooper- 
ation and assistance of tlie American consulate 
general, have been successful in apprehending 
several operators of the fraud, the swindlers 
are becoming more and more active. For this 



reason, the Department is desirous of giving the 
widest possible publicity to the fraud in the 
hope that it may be stopped. 

There follows the text of a warning sheet 
prepared by the consul general at Mexico City, 
which is being circulated in cities from whence 
victims are known to have come, containing 
some details of the working of this swindle : 

"It is known that certain anonymous persons 
resident in this city have been approached by 
swindlers resident in Mexico engaged in a 
fraudulent scheme for obtaining funds from 
residents of tlie United States. The methods 
used appear to be essentially the same as those 
employed in the well known Spanish Swindle, — 
that is, a person in Mexico who does not reveal 
his true identity and who represents himself to 
be in distressing circumstances (usually impris- 



" 22 CFR 55C.1-2. (4 F. R. 4509) 

"=22 CFR 55C.2-3 (b)-(f) (l)-(4). (4 F. R. 4640) 

"22 OFR 55C.3 (f) (5). (4 F. R. 4871) 



JUNE 1, 1940 



613 



oned) urgently appeals through the mails for 
financial aid in order that he may receive mental 
or physical relief, or both. The name and ad- 
dress of an intermediary in Mexico are given; 
and, according to statements in the correspond- 
ence, the intermediary will make all necessary 
arrangements for receiving the desired funds. 
In return for such pecuniary assistance thou- 
sands of dollars in reward are promised. 

"It is alleged, in much of the correspondence 
emanating from undiscovered sources in Mex- 
ico, that the successful outcome of the plan 
hinges upon certain papers or keys that have 
been placed in a secret compartment of a trmik 
or traveling bag, to which the person in Mexico 
is prevented, for various reasons, from gaining 
access. Elaborate instructions are usually 
given concerning the methods to be followed 
in removing the papers or keys from the secret 
compartment. 

"No doubt there are variations to the gen- 
eral plan of the scheme as outlined above, but 
the desired result is always the same, namely, 
the delivery of funds to a person in Mexico 
whose true identity is not revealed. 

"The American Consulate. General in Mexico 
City has reported that persons in this City 
and in other parts of the United States have 
received letters from Mexico which read sub- 
stantially like this: 

"'Dear Sbk: 

" 'A person who knows you and who has 
highly spoken about you has made me trust 
you a very delicate matter of which depends 
the entire future of my dear daughter as well 
as mine. 

" 'I am in prison sentenced for bankruptcy 
and I wish to know if you are willing to help 
me save a sum of $285,000.00 dollars which I 
have in bank bills inside of a secret place in 
a trunk that is deposited in a custom house in 
North America. 

"'As soon as I send you some imdeniable 
evidence it is necessary for you to come here 
and pay the expenses incurred in connection 
with my process in order to lift the embargo 
on my baggage and thus recover a suit case 
which contains the necessary documents (a 
baggage check) that we need to take out the 
trunk that contains the cash and which is 
deposited in a customs house in the United 
States. 



" 'To compensate you for all your troubles 
I will give you the Third Part of Sato Sum. 

" 'Fearing that this letter may not come to 
your hands I will not sign my own name till 
I hear from you and then I will entrust you 
with all my secret. 

" 'For serious I'easons that you will know 
later please reply via air mail. I beg you to 
treat tliis matter with the most absolute reserve 
and discretion. Due to the fact that I am in 
charge of the Prison's school I can write you 
freely and in this way. 

" 'For the time being I am only signing "L". 

" 'I cannot receive your reply directly to the 
prison so in case you accept the proposition 
please airmail your letter to a person of my 
entire trust who will deliver it to me safely and 
rapidly. This is his name and address . . .' 

"The American consulate general cautions all 
persons to be on their guard against this old 
swindle, the perpetrators of M'hich are extremely 
active at the present time. It has requested 
that the widest possible publicity be given to 
protect the American public from losses." 

-f -f -f 

ARGENTINA: ANNIVERSARY OF 
INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press May 31] 

Following is a translation of a message to 
President Roosevelt from the President of the 
Argentine Republic, Dr. Roberto M. Ortiz: 

"Buenos Aires, 

May 28, 191fi. 
"The President : 

"I am very sincerely grateful for Your Ex- 
cellency's cordial greetings and good wishes on 
the occasion of the commemoration of our 
national anniversary. 

Roberto M. Ortiz." 



Legislation 



Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation for the De- 
partment of State, 1941 : Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting a supple- 
mental estimate of appropriation for the Department 
of State, for the fiscal year 1941, amounting to $1,000,- 
000. (H. Doc. 788, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) 2 pp. 50. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the 

ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

Union of South Africa 

Tliere is quoted below the text of a circular 
letter from the League of Nations dated May 3, 
1940, regarding the termination by the Union 
of South Africa of the acceptance of the Op- 
tional Clause, article 36, paragraph 2, of the 
Permanent Court of International Justice and 
its acceptance thereof on new conditions: 

"I have the honour to inform you that the) 
Minister of External Affairs of the Union of 
South Africa, by a communication dated April 
7th, 1940, has notified me of the termination by 
His Majesty's Goveriunent in the Union of 
South Afi-ica of their acceptance of the com- 
pulsory jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of 
International Justice (Article 36, paragraph 2, 
of the Statute of the Court), which was effected 
by a Declaration made on September 19th, 1929, 
and ratified by an instrument deposited with 
the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 
April 7th, 1930, subject to the exceptions and 
conditions contained in the said Declaration, for 
a period of ten years from the date of ratifica- 
tion, and thereafter until notice was given to 
terminate the acceptance (see C. L. 251. 1929. V. 
of October 3rd, 1929, and C. L. 60. 1930. V. of 
April 30th, 1930). 

"By another communication of the same date, 
■ the Minister of External Affairs of the Union 
of South Africa notified me of the further ac- 
ceptance of the compulsory jurisdiction of the 
Court by His Majesty's Government in the 

614 



This communication 



Treaty Division 

Union of South Africa, 
reads as follows : 

" 'With reference to my declaration of to-day's 
date, amiouncing the termination of His Ma- 
jesty's Govermnent in the Union of South Af- 
rica of their acceptance of the jurisdiction of 
the Permanent Court of International Justice, 
in conformity with paragraph 2 of Article 36 
of the Statute of the Court, I now have the 
honour to make the following declaration : — 

" 'On behalf of His Majesty's Government in 
the Union of South Afi-ica, I accept as com- 
pulsoi-y ipso facto and without special conven- 
tion, on condition of reciprocity, the jurisdic- 
tion of the Court in conformity with Article 
36, paragraph 2, of the Statute of the Court, 
until such time as notice may be given to termi- 
nate the acceptance, over all disputes arising 
after the signing of the present declaration with 
regard to situations or facts subsequent to such 
signing, other than 

" 'disputes in regard to which the parties to 
the dispute have agreed or shall agree to have 
recourse to some other method of peaceful 
settlement, and 

" 'disputes with the Government of any other 
Member of the League which is a member of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, all of 
which disputes shall be settled in such manner 
as the parties have agreed or shall agree, and 

" 'disputes with regard to questions which 
by international law fall exclusively within the 
jurisdiction of the Union of South Africa, and 

" 'disputes arising out of events occurring 
during any period in wloich the Union of South 
Africa is engaged in hostilities as a belligerent, 

" 'and subject to the condition that His Ma- 
jesty's Government in the Union of South Af- 
rica reserve the right to require that proceedings 
in the Court shall be suspended in respect of any 
dispute which has been submitted to and is 
under consideration by the Council of the 
League of Nations, provided that notice to sus- 



JUNE 1, 1940 



615 



pend is given after the dispute has been sub- 
mitted to the Council and is given witliin ten 
days of the notification of the initiation of the 
proceedings in the Court, and provided also 
that such suspension shall be limited to a period 
of twelve months or such longer period as 
may be agreed by the parties to the dispute or 
determined by a decision of all the Members of 
the Council other than the parties to the 
dispute.' " 

INTERNATIONAL LAW 

Convention and Protocols Adopted at the 
Conference for the Codification of Inter- 
national Law, The Hague, 1930 

Burma 

There is quoted below the text of a circular 
letter from the League of Nations dated May 
10, 1940, regarding the application to Burma 
of the Convention and Protocols adopted at 
the Conference for the Codification of Inter- 
national Law, The Hague, 1930 : 

"I have the honour to inform you that the 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affaire of His 
Majesty the King of Gi-eat Britain, Ireland 
and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, 
Emperor of India, has informed me that the 
following Convention and Protocols, signed at 
The Hague on April 12th, 1930, viz : 

"Convention on certain questions relating to 
the Conflict of Nationality Laws ; 

"Protocol relating to Military Obligations in 
certain cases of Double Nationality ; 

"Protocol relating to a certain case of State- 
lessness ; 

"Special Protocol concerning Statelessness; 

in which Burma formerly participated as a 
part of India, should be regarded, by virtue 
of the signature and ratification thereof in 
respect of the United Kingdom, as applying 



to Burma as a British overseas Territory, as 
from April 1st, 1937, on which date Burma 
was separated from India and acquired its new 
status. 

"Further, in view of the declaration made 
by India at the time of signature to the effect 
that His Britannic Majesty did not assume 
any obligation in respect of the territories 
in India of any Prince or Chief under His 
suzerainty, or the population of the said terri- 
tories, the application of the above-mentioned 
instruments to Burma as a British overseas 
Territory is subject, in accordance with Article 
29 of the Convention and with the correspond- 
ing Articles of the three Protocols, to the 
following reservation : 

" 'His Majesty the King does not assume any 
obligation in respect of the Karemii States, 
which are under His Majesty's suzerainty, or 
tlie population of the said States.' 

"This notification was received by the Secre- 
tariat of the League of Nations on April 23rd, 

1940." 

LEGAL ASSISTANCE 

Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of Attor- 
ney Which Are To Be Utilized Abroad 

El Salvador 

By a communication dated May 22, 1940, the 
Director General of the Pan American Union 
informed the Secretary of State that on May 
21, 1940, the Minister of El Salvador in Wash- 
ington signed on behalf of his Government 
the Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of At- 
torney Which Are To Be Utilized Abroad, 
which was opened for signature at the Union 
on February 17, 1940. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the i)rotocol has been signed by El Sal- 
vador, Panama, and Venezuela. 



616 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



COMMERCE 



Treaty of Commerce and Navigation With 
Iraq (Treaty Series No. 960) 

On May 29, 1940, the President proclaimed 
the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation be- 
tween the United States and Iraq, signed on 
December 3, 1938." The treaty will shortly 
be printed as Treaty Series No. 960. 



Publications 



"See the Bulletin of May 25, 1940 (Vol. II, No. 48), 
p. 586. 



Depabtment of State 



Reciprocal Trade: Supplementary Agreement and an 
Accompanying Protocol Between the United States of 
America and Cuba and Exchange of Notes.— Signed at 
Washington December 18, 1939 : effective December 23, 
1939. Executive Agreement Series No. 165. Publication 
1460. 23 pp. 5i- 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. Washington. D. C— Price 10 cents Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BDREAD OF THE BUDGET 



-'^KaJT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.13 \j JL/JL/ 



H 



■^ f 



J 



riN 



JUNE 8, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 50 — Publication 1 4^2 

Qontents 

General: rage 

Proposed joint resolution regarding European posses- 
sions in the Western Hemisphere: Letter from tlie 
Secretary of State to the Chairman of the House 

Committee on Foreign Aifairs 619 

Entry of aliens into the United States 620 

Europe : 

Repatriation of American citizens 624 

Official reports from war areas 625 

Contributions for relief in belligerent countries . ... 626 
The American Republics: 

Adjudication of agrarian claims in Mexico 626 

The Far East: 

Japan : Death of Prince Tokugawa 627 

Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 627 

Publications 627 

Legislation 627 

Commercial Policy : 

The Reciprocal-Trade-Agreements Program of the 

United States : A General Statement 628 

Treaty Information : 
International Law: 

Conference on Jurisconsults 631 

Health: 

Convention Modifying the International Sanitary 
Convention of Juno 21, 1926 632 

\Over\ 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT Of OOQyv.itrtio 

JUL 9 



Treaty Information — Continued. Page 

Legal Assistance: 
Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of Attorney 

Wliich Are To Be Utilized Abroad 632 

Labor : 
Conventions of the International Labor Conference . 632 



I 



General 



PROPOSED JOINT RESOLUTION REGARDING EUROPEAN POSSESSIONS 

IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 

Letter From the Secretary of State to the Chairman of the House Committee on Foreign 

Affairs 



[Released to the press June 4 ^] 

Following is the text of a letter from the Sec- 
retary of State, Mr. Cordell Hull, to the Hon- 
orable Sol Bloom, Chairman of the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives: 

"June 4, 1940. 
"My Dear Me. Bloom : 

"You have requested my comment on the 
attached proposed joint resolution regarding 
possessions in the Western Hemisphere belong- 
ing to European states. 

"Several European states have had posses- 
sions in the Western Hemisphere for long peri- 
ods of time and this Goverimient has at no time 
undertaken to interfere with them. However, 
in keeping with its traditional policy, this Gov- 
ernment must necessarily insist that such pos- 
sessions shall not become the subject of barter 
or conquest between rival European powers or 
be made the scene of the settlement of Euro- 
pean difficulties. 

"The proposed resolution here in question 
recites (1) that the United States would not 
recognize any transfer and would not acquiesce 
in any attempt to transfer any geographic 
region of the Western Hemisphere from one 
non-American power to another non-American 
power and (2) that if such transfer or attempt 
to transfer should appear likely the United 
States would, m addition to other measures, 



immediately consult with the other American 
Republics to determine upon the steps which 
should be taken to safeguard their common 
interests. 

"The first part of the resolution is in effect a 
restatement of the position which this Govern- 
ment has consistently taken for more than a 
hundred years. The second part of it is a 
reaffirmation of the policy adopted in recent 
years of cooperation with the other American 
Republics in matters of common interest. I 
enclose for your information copies of (1) the 
Convention for the Maintenance, Preservation 
and Reestablishment of Peace signed at Buenos 
Aires in 1936,- to which the United States is a 
party, providing for consultation between the 
American Republics in the event that their 
peace is menaced; (2) the Declaration of the 
Principles of Solidarity of America signed at 
Lima in 1938, commonly referred to as the 
Declaration of Lima;^ and (3) the resolution 
adopted at Panama regarding the transfer of 
sovereignty of geographic regions of the 
Americas held by non- American states.* 

"The proposed resolution is based squarely 
upon tlie idea of full respect for established 
sovereignties. It would not interfere in any 



' Released by the Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

237673 — 40 



' Treatr Series No. 922. 

' See Press Releases of December 24, 1938 (Vol. XIX, 
No. 482), pp. 474-475. 

* See the Bulletin of October 7, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 15), 
p. 334. 

619 



620 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



way with continuance of equality of commerce 
and trade for all nations of the world in their 
relations with the countries of the American 
continents. 
"Having in mind the foregoing, I heartily 



approve the proposed resolution and am glad to 
be able to reconunend its favorable considera- 
tion by the Congi'ess. 

"Sincerely yours, 

CoEDELL Hull" 



+ ^ -f + ^ -f > 



ENTRY OF ALIENS INTO THE UNITED STATES 



[Released to the press June G] 

In view of the critical international situation, 
it has been found necessary to adopt a close 
supervision over aliens entering the United 
States. Various administrative changes in 
procedure have been placed in effect. Aliens 
desiring to come to the United States tempo- 
rarily must establish a legitimate purpose or 
reasonable need for their presence in the United 
States and must establish that they will depart 
from the United States at the conclusion of 
their stay. They must present conclusive evi- 
dence that they will be admitted into the country 
of their nationality or some other foreign coun- 
try to which they intend to return or proceed 
after departing from the United States. On 
and after July 1, 1940, all aliens, in addition 
to meeting other requirements, will be required 
to be in possession of passports or other docu- 
ments of identity and nationality and have 
visas obtained from American consular officers 
abroad. 

The exemption from passport and visa re- 
quirements previously extended to the follow- 
ing categories of persons entering the United 
States temporarily has been suspended, effec- 
tive July 1, 1940, and on and after that date 
such persons will be subject to passport and 
visa requirements: 

Citizens of Canada, Newfoundland, St. 
Pierre, Miquelon, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the 
Dcmiinican Republic, Panama, Bermuda, or of 
any British, French, or Netherlands possession 
in the West Indies, domiciled therein, and to 
British subjects domiciled in Canada, New- 
foundland, Bermuda, or any British possession 
in the West Indies, French citizens domiciled 



in St. Pierre or Miquelon or any French posses- 
sion in the West Indies, and to Netherlands 
subjects domiciled in any Netherlands posses- 
sion in the West Indies. 

It is contemplated that different regulations 
will be established with respect to persons who 
have entered the United States for permanent 
residence on immigration visas and who may 
be returning from a temporary absence abroad. 

The foregoing regulations relate only to 
aliens entering the United States and do not 
require any additional documentation of Amer- 
ican citizens proceeding to or returning from 
the territories mentioned. 

[Released to the press June 5] 

Executive Order 

Documents Required of Bona Fide Alien Sea- 
men Entering the United States 

By virtue of and pursuant to the authority 
vested in me by the act of May 22, 1918, 40 
Stat. 559, as extended by the act of March 2, 
1921, 41 Stat. 1205, 1217, I hereby prescribe 
the following regulations governing the entry 
of alien seamen into the United States: 

PARTI 

Seamen whose occupational status as such is 
found to be bona fide, entering ports of the 
United States solely in pursuit of their calling 
as seamen, may be admitted temporarily in the 
discretion of the immigi'ation authorities and 
under regulations prescribed by the depart- 
ment head charged with the administration of 
the immigration laws without passports or 



JUNE 8, 1940 



621 



visas if arriving in the United States under 
the following circumstances: 

(a) Seamen who were members of the crew 
of an American vessel which has been sold and 
delivered abroad, when the contract of em- 
ployment provides for the return of the crew, 
or the laM's of the United States provide for 
tlieir return to an American port. 

(b) Seamen who have been lawfidly ad- 
mitted into the United States for permanent 
residence returning to the United States in 
accordance with the terms of the articles of 
outward voyage. 

(c) Sliipwrecked or cast-away seamen res- 
cued by or transfen-ed to a vessel bound to an 
American port. 

(d) Seamen who are American consular pas- 
sengers or are repatriated without expense to 
the United States Government following and 
in accordance with the terms of their dis- 
charge in a foreign port before an American 
consular officer, but who, for any reason, can 
not be considered as serving as seamen on the 
vessel on which they arrive at an American 
port. 

PART II 

Masters of maritime vessels (except govern- 
ment vessels and such other vessels as the Sec- 
retary of State, in his discretion, may indicate) 
of all nationalities sailing for a port of the 
United States must submit for visa a list of all 
the alien members of the vessel's crew to the 
American consular officer at the port from 
which the vessel commences its voyage. If 
there is no consular officer stationed at that 
poi't, but there is one stationed at a nearby 
place to whom the list may be submitted by 
mail for visa without delay of the vessel's de- 
parture, the list must be so submitted for visa. 
If there is no American consular officer sta- 
tioned nearby, the list must be submitted for 
visa at the first port of call where an American 
consular officer is stationed, but if the vessel 
does not call at any such port then no visa of 
the crew list will be required. The visa of a 



sliipping commissioner in the Canal Zone shall 
be equivalent to the visa of an American con- 
sular officer, but consular agents ai-e not au- 
thorized to visa crew lists. The visaed crew 
list must be delivered to the immigration au- 
thorities at the vessel's first port of call in the 
United States. 

Alien seamen whose names are not on a 
visaed crew list when a visaed crew list is re- 
quired of the vessel on which they arrive at a 
port of the United States shall not be allowed 
to land without tlie permission of the Secretary 
of State, except that for such seamen arriving 
at a port in the Virgin Islands the Governor 
thereof is authorized to grant such permission. 

An alien seaman who is not exempt from the 
passport and visa requirements under Part I 
hereof shall be required to present an identify- 
ing travel document in the nature of a passport, 
showing his nationality and identity and bear- 
ing his fingerprints, before he may be granted 
shore leave for any purpose. The travel docu- 
ment shall be surrendered to the immigration 
authorities by each seaman at the time of land- 
ing and returned to him, upon personal appli- 
cation, at the time of departure. 

As used in this order, the term "United 
States" shall include the territories of Alaska 
and Hawaii, the District of Columbia, Puerto 
Kico and the Virgin Islands. 

The Secretary of State and the department 
head charged with the administration of the 
immigration laws are hereby authorized to 
make such additional rules and regulations, not 
inconsistent with this order, as may be deemed 
necessary for carrying out the provisions of this 
order and the statutes mentioned therein. 

This order shall take effect immediately and 
shall supersede and cancel Executive Order No. 
7797 of January 26, 1938, entitled "Documents 
Required of Bona Fide Alien Seamen Entering 
the United States". 

Fraxklin D. Roose\t:lt 

The WnrrE House, 
June 5, 1040. 

[No. 8429] 



622 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Released to the press June 5] 

Executive Order 

Documents Required of Aliens Entering the 
United States 

By virtue of and pursuant to the authority 
vested in me by the act of May 22, 1918, 40 
Stat. 559, as extended by the act of March 2, 
1921, 41 Stat. 1205, 1217, 1 hereby prescribe the 
following regulations pertaining to documents 
required of aliens entering the United States 
(which regulations shall be applicable to 
Chinese and to Philippine citizens who are not 
citizens of the United States except as may be 
otherwise provided by special laws and regu- 
lations governing the entry of such persons) : 

PART I 

1. Nonimmigrants must present unexpired 
passports or official documents in the nature of 
passports issued by the governments of the 
countries to which they owe allegiance or other 
travel documents showing their origin and 
identity, as prescribed in regulations issued by 
the Secretary of State, and valid passport visas, 
except in the following cases : 

(a) A nonimmigrant alien coming within a 
category and domiciled in a country, island, or 
territory of the Western Hemisphere, specified 
in such regulations as may be issued by the 
Secretary of State, if passing in transit 
through the United States or entering the 
United States temporarily. 

(b) A nonimmigrant alien lawfully ad- 
mitted into the United States who later goes in 
transit from one part of the United States to 
another through foreign contiguous territory, 
if specified in regulations issued by the Secre- 
tary of State. 

(c) A nonimmigrant alien child born subse- 
quent to the issuance of the passport visa of 
an accompanying parent, the visa not having 
expired, if specified in regulations issued by 
the Secretary of State. 

(d) An alien who has previously been 
legally admitted into tlie United States with a 
diplomatic visa or with a passport visa as a 
nonimmigrant as defined by section 3 (1) or 



section 3 (6) of the Immigration Act of 1924 
(43 Stat. 153, 154), who has maintained the 
status in which he was admitted and who has 
departed temporarily from the United St3.tes 
and returned within six months, having pro- 
ceeded only to such countries, islands and terri- 
tories of the Western Hemisphere as may be 
specified in regulations issued by the Secretary 
of State. 

2. A nonimmigrant alien not included in any 
of the foregoing exceptions who is passing in 
transit through the United States may present, 
in lieu of a passport visa, a transit certificate 
granted by an authorized officer of the United 
States. 

3. A nonimmigrant alien not included in any 
of the exceptions specified in the preceding 
paragraphs who enters the United States for a 
period not exceeding ten days, landing tempo- 
rarily while the vessel on which he is a passen- 
ger is in port or crossing the border, entering 
and departing via the same port of entry, may 
present, in lieu of a passport visa, a limited 
entry certificate granted by an authorized offi- 
cer of the United States. 

4. The Secretary of State is authorized in his 
discretion to waive the passport and visa re- 
quirements in cases of emergency for nonimmi- 
grants, except that the Governor of the Virgin 
Islands is authorized in his discretion to waive 
the requirements in cases of emergency for non- 
immigrant aliens applying for admission at a 
port of entry of the Virgin Islands. 

5. No passport visa, transit certificate, or lim- 
ited entry certificate shall be granted to an alien 
whose entity would be contrary to the public 
safety or to an alien who is unable to establish 
a legitimate purpose or reasonable need for the 
proposed entry. 

PART n 

1. Immigrants must present unexpired pass- 
ports, or official documents in the nature of pass- 
ports, issued by the governments of the coun- 
tries to which they owe allegiance, or other 
travel documents showing their origin and iden- 
tity, prescribed in regulations issued by the Sec- 
retary of State, and valid immigration visas 



I 



JUNE 8, 1940 



623 



granted by the consular officers of the United 
States in accordance with the requirements of 
the Immigration Act of 1924 and the regulations 
issued thereunder, except in the following cases : 

(a) An alien immigrant child born subse- 
quent to the issuance of the immigration visa 
of an accompanying parent, the visa not hav- 
ing expired. 

(b) An alien inunigrant child born during 
the temporary visit abroad of an alien mother 
who has previously been legally admitted into 
the United States for permanent residence, 
under such regulations as may be prescribed. 

(c) An alien immigrant who has previously 
been legally admitted into the United States 
for permanent residence and who is the bearer 
of a border identification card issued by the 
immigration authorities, if specified in regula- 
tions issued by the Secretary of State. 

(d) An alien immigrant who has previously 
been legally admitted into the United States 
for permanent residence, has departed tempo- 
rarily from the United States and returned 
within six months, having proceeded only to 
such countries, islands, and territories of the 
Western Hemisphere as may be specified in reg- 
ulations issued by the Secretary of State. 

(e) An alien immigi-ant who has previously 
been legally admitted into the United States 
for permanent residence, reentering from a 
journey beginning in an American port, with- 
out transshipment from the original vessel to 
another vessel. 

(f) An alien immigrant who has previously 
been legally admitted into the United States 
for permanent residence, has departed there- 
from and has returned from a temporary visit 
abroad, and who presents an unexpired permit 
to reenter, issued pursuant to section 10 of the 
Immigration Act of 1924. 

2. An immigrant Spanish national who on 
April 11, 1899 (whether adult or minor), was a 
bona fide resident of Puerto Rico or adjacent 
islands which comprised the Province of 
Puerto Rico, and who, in conformity with 
Article IX of the treaty between the United 



States and Spain of April 11, 1899, has pre- 
served his allegiance to Spain, may present a 
passport visa, in lieu of an immigration visa, 
for entry into Puerto Rico. Such aliens may 
be admitted into Puerto Rico without regard 
to the provisions of the Immigration Act of 
1924, except section 23. (Act of May 26, 1926, 
ch. 400, 44 Stat. 657.) 

3. In such classes of cases and under such 
conditions as may by regulations be pre- 
scribed, the immigration visa requirements 
may be waived, under section 13 (b) of the 
Immigration Act of 1924, and the passport 
requirements may also be waived, for an alien 
immigrant who has previously been legally 
admitted into the United States for permanent 
residence, has departed therefrom, and is re- 
turning from a temporary visit abroad. 

4. In such classes of cases and under such 
conditions as may by regulations be pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of State, the passport 
requirements may be waived for any imraigrantf. 

PART ni 

The Executive Secretary of the Panama 
Canal is hereby authorized to issue passport 
visas, transit certificates, limited entry certifi- 
cates, and immigration visas to aliens coming 
to the United States from the Canal Zone. 
The Governor of American Samoa is hereby 
authorized to issue passport visas, transit cer- 
tificates, limited entry certificates, and immi- 
gration visas to aliens coming to the United 
States from American Samoa. The Governor 
of Guam is hereby authorized to issue passport 
visas, transit certificates, limited entry certifi- 
cates, and immigration visas to aliens coming to 
the United States from Guam. 

PART IV 

The documentary requirements for aliens ap- 
plying for admission into American possessions 
outside the United States are to be prescribed 
by the competent authorities in such posses- 
sions, except in the case of the Philippine Is- 
lands, which are covered by separate executive 
order. 



624 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PART V 

The definitions contained in section 28 of the 
Immigration Act of 1924 shall be regarded as 
applicable to this order, except as otherwise 
specified herein. 

PART VI 

The Secretary of State and the department 
head charged with the administration of the 
immigration laws are hereby authorized to make 
such additional rules and regulations, not in- 
consistent with this order, as may be deemed 
necessary for carrying out the provisions of 
this order and the statutes mentioned herein. 



PART VU 

This order shall take effect immediately and 
shall supersede and cancel the provisions of 
Executive Order No. 8029 of December 27, 1-938 
entitled "Documents Required of Aliens En- 
tering the United States" but shall not super- 
sede Executive Order No. 4049 of July 14, 1924 
entitled "Documents Required of Aliens Enter- 
ing the United States on Airships", or Execu- 
tive Order No. 7797 of January 26, 1938 entitled 
"Documents Required of Bona Fide Alien Sea- 
men Entering the United States". 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

The White House, 
Jnne, 5, 19\0. 

[No. 8430] 



Europe 



REPATRIATION OF AMERICAN CITIZENS 



[Released to the press June 2] 

The New York office of the United States 
Lines this afternoon informed the Department 
that the S. S. President Roosevelt had sailed 
from Galway, Ireland, at 6 p. m., London time, 
June 2, with 720 jiassengers, and that the S. S. 
Manhattan had sailed from Genoa, Italy, at 
4 : 44 Y>- HI-) Greenwich time, June 2, with 705 
first-class passengers and 1,200 third-class 
passengers. 

Consul Francis H. Styles of the American 
consulate general at Dublin, who went to Gal- 
way to assist in the embarkation of i^assengers 
on the S. S. President Roosevelt^ reported to 
the Department the afternoon of June 2 from 
Galway that the weather was perfect and 
everything satisfactory in connection with the 
embarkation. 

The Department notified the belligerent gov- 
ernments that the ship had sailed. 

[Released to the press June 3] 

The American steamship Cliarles R. McCor- 
mick sailed from Bergen for the United States 



at 6 p. m., June 1, 1940. All belligerent gov- 
ernments were notified on May 31 that the ship 
was expected to sail from Bergen on or about 
June 1 for direct return to the United States 
without cargo, unarmed, and without convoy. 
The vessel carries the American flag promi- 
nently displayed and proceeds fully lighted at 
night. Belligerent governments have been in- 
formed that the Government of the United 
States expects this vessel to make its westward 
voyage without interruption or molestation by 
the air, naval, or military forces of any 
belligerent. 

[Released to the press June 6] 

The Dejiartment of State announces that the 
steamship Washington, now at Bordeaux, will 
proceed to Lisbon to embark American citizens 
who desire to return to the United States. She 
will then proceed to a port in Ireland for the 
purpose of embarking several hundred addi- 
tional American citizens who were unable to 
be accommodated aboard the President Roose- 
i^elt, and will proceed thence to New York. 



JUNE 8, 1940 



625 



Contrary to earlier expectations, she will not 
go to Genoa. 

The steamship President Roosevelt, en route 
to New York from Ireland loaded with Ameri- 
can citizens returning from the war zone, will 
discharge those passengers in New York and 
will then be released to resume her contract 
run to Bermuda. 

The officials of the United States Lines are 
announcing that the steamship Manhattan, en 
route to the United States from Genoa with 
2,000 passengers, will resume on arrival in 
New York, her regular sailings to Naples and 
Genoa, as will the steamship Washington on 
the completion of her repatriation voyage to 
Boi'deaux, Lisbon, and Ireland. 

-f >- + 

OFFICIAL REPORTS FROM WAR 
AREAS 

[Released to the press June 3] 

Ambassador Bullitt reported to the Depart- 
ment of State June 3 at 3 p. m., Paris time, 
that the city of Paris was bombed heavily that 
day and that he could not yet give an estimate 
of the dead and wounded. 

Mr. Bullitt said that he had gone to attend a 
luncheon given by the Air INIinister. The re- 
ception and dining rooms of the building 
where the luncheon was to be held are on the 
roof, with a balcony outside the reception 
room. Mr. Bullitt's report continued: 

"Just before luncheon the air raid siren 
sounded, but since it seemed wholly improbable 
that the Germans would bombard the center of 
the city of Paris, instead of seeking the air 
raid shelter, we went out on the balcony to 
see the planes. A minute later a bomb dropped 
on a large field adjacent to the building, about 
one hundred yards from us. Another bomb 
dropped exactly on the roof of the reception 
room to which we had withdrawn. Obviously 
it did not explode. It is now being rendered 
harmless. 

"Heavy bombs fell on all sides of the build- 
ing and we went down to the air raid shelter 
amid flying glass and plaster. We were 



obliged to remain in the shelter for a period 
of one hour. Two cars of guests at the 
luncheon were struck and burned up in the 
courtyard at the entrance of the building. My 
car was untouched and I was entirely unin- 
jured." 

[Released to the press June 3] 

The Department of State the night of June 
2 received the following telegram dated May 
26, 1940, from the American Ambassador to 
Belgium, Mr. John Cudahy: 

"Referring to previous telegrams sent since 
May 16 please reply via American Embassy 
Berlin. 

"Consul General SussdorjBf reported in per- 
son at Embassy May 22 that all members of 
Consulate General well; as far as known no 
American injured in the Antwerp area. 

"Consulate here engaged in making survey 
of remaining Americans this area. As far as 
known they are all well. Cudaht." 

The above telegram was received bj^ the 
American Embassy in Berlin through the Ger- 
man Foreign Office on June 2. 

The American consul general at Marseille, 
Mr. John P. Hurley, reported on June 1 that 
Marseille was bombed in a raid wliich lasted 
2 hours on June 1. The staff of the American 
consulate were all safe. No Americans were 
believed to have been injured. 

[Released to the press June 4] 

The Department of State received on June 4 
a telegram dated May 29, 1940, relayed through 
the German Foreign Office and the American 
Embassy at Berlin, from the American consul 
at Brussels, Mr. Charles C. Broy, stating that 
195 Americans were reported as having de- 
parted from Brussels just prior to and since 
May 10. He has had no report of casualties 
among the Americans remaining in the Brus- 
sels consular district. He is now engaged in 
making a survey. 

The Department on Jime 3 had information 
from Consul General Louis Sussdorflf, Jr., as of 
May 22, that so far as was known no Americans 



626 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



had been injured in the Antwerp area. On 
May 26, Ambassador John Cudahy reported to 
the Department that so far as was known all 
Americans in the Brussels area were well. 

> -f > 

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN 
BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES 

[Keleased to the press June 3] 

The following persons and organizations 
have registered with the Secretary of State for 
the solicitation and collection of contributions 
pursuant to section 8 of the Neutrality Act of 
1939 to be used in belligerent countries for 
medical aid and assistance or for food and 
clothing to relieve human suffering (the coun- 
tries to which contributions are being sent are 
given in parentheses) : ^ 

308. Fund for the Relief of Men of Letters and Scien- 
tists of Russia, 610 West One Hundred and Forty- 
third Street, New York, N. Y. (France, Czecho- 
slovaljia, and Poland) 

309. North American Spai;ish Aid Committee, 55 West 
Forty-second Street, Room 1004, New York, N. Y. 
(France and the United Kingdom) 

310. Le Souvenir Frangais, International Center, 2431 
East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. (France and 
Belgium ) 

311. American Employment for General Relief, Inc., 
505 East Sixteenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Eng- 
land, France, Norway, Poland, Belgium, Luxemburg, 
and the Netherlands) 

312. Mr. JIaxime L6vy, L6vy Hermanos, Inc., Manila, 
P. I. (France) 

313. Norwegian Relief, Inc., 135 South La Salle Street, 
Chicago, 111. (Norway) 

314. British Sailors' Book and Relief Society, care of 
Mr. Donald NoviUe-Willing, 18 East Seventieth 
Street, New Y^ork, N. Y. (Bermuda, Canada, and 
British West Indies) 

315. League of American Writers, Inc., 381 Fourth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (France, England, 
Poland, and Norway) 

316. Scots' Charitable Society, 355 Newbury Street, 
Boston, Alass. (Scotland) 

317. American Friends of a Jewish Palestine, 285 
Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Palestine, Ger- 
many, Poland, France, and the United Kingdom) 



318. Central Bureau for Relief of the Evangelical 
Churches of Europe, 297 Fourth Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. (All belligerent countries) 

319. Queen Wilhelmina Fund, Inc., Holland House, 10 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N. Y. (The Nether- 
lands; France; Poland; the United Kingdom, India, 
Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the Union of 
South Africa; Norway; Belgium; and Luxemburg) 

320. The Commission for Relief in Belgium, Inc., 420 
Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Belgium and 
Luxemburg) 

321. National Christian Action, Inc., 2 Park Avenue, 
Room 2005, New York, N. Y. (Norway) 

322. Unitarian Service Committee of the American 
Unitarian Association, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, 
Mass. (France) 

323. The Salvation Army, Inc., 122 West Fourteenth 
Street, New York, N. Y. (England, France, the 
Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway) 

324. American Association of University Women, 1634 
Eye Street, Washington, D. C. (France) 

325. Anzac War Relief Fund, 405 Lexington Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. (Australia and New Zealand) 

326. The Kosciuszko Foundation, Inc., 149-151 East 
Sixty -seventh Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

327. Belgian Relief of Southern California, 617 South 
Duusmuir Avenue, Los Angeles, Calif. (Belgium) 

328. American Civilian Volunteers, care of Mr. Wm. 
Brown Prescott, South Sudbury, Mass. (France) 

329. Netherlands War Relief Committee, care of Wise 
& Company, Inc., 176 Juan Luna, Manila, P. I. 
(Netherlands) 

330. Junior Relief Group of Texas, 1111 Main Street, 
Houston, Tex. (The United Kingdom, France, the 
Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway) 



The American Republics 



'For prior registrants, see the BuUetin of April 27, 
1940 (Vol. II, No. 44), pp. 443-450. 



ADJUDICATION OF AGRARIAN 
CLAIMS IN MEXICO 

[Released to the press June 2] 

In a note addressed by the Department of 
State of the United States to the Mexican Am- 
bassador in Washington imder date of May 24, 
1940, it was suggested that the period for the 
adjudication of agrarian claims of American 
citizens whose farm properties in Mexico have 
been expropriated since August 30, 1927, be 



JUNE 8, 1940 



627 



extended to June 30, 1940. In a note of the 
same date the Mexican Ambassador states that 
the Mexican Government agrees to this exten- 
sion. 



The Far East 



JAPAN: DEATH OF PRINCE 
TOKUGAWA 

[Released to the press June 6] 

Upon instruction of tlie Secretary of State, 
the American Ambassador to Japan, Mr. 
Joseph C. Grew, has conveyed to the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs and to the family of the late 
Prince Tokugawa on behalf of the Secretary 
of State and the Government of the United 
States an expression of deep sympathy in the 
loss of a great humanitarian and statesman 
and one who has been widely known as an 
advocate of friendly and cooperative relations 
among nations. 



Foreign Service 



Janeiro, Brazil, has been designated second 
secretary of embassy at Rio de Janeiro and 
will continue to serve in dual capacity. 

Robert Janz, of Norman, Okla., consul at 
Bahia, Brazil, has been assigned for duty in 
the Department of State. 

Woodruff Wallner, of New York, N. Y., vice 
consul at Paris, France, has been designated 
third secretai-y of embassy at Paris and will 
serve in dual capacity. 

The assignment of Richard A. Johnson, of 
Moline, 111., as vice consul at Barcelona, Spain, 
has been canceled. Mr. Johnson has now been 
assigned as vice consul at Naples, Italy. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Foreign Policy : Address by Brecliinridge Long, Assist- 
ant Secretary of State, before the Forum on Foreign 
Policy and National Defense at the National Institute 
of Government, Washington, May 2, 1940. Publication 
1462. 5 pp. 50. 

Foreign Service List, April 1, 1940. Publication 1463. 
Iv, 107 pp. Subscription, 500 a year ; single copy, 150. 

Extradition : Treaty Between the United States of 
America and Monaco. — Signed at Monaco February 15, 
1939; proclaimed March 27, 1940. Treaty Series No. 
959. 10 pp. 50. 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to the press June 8] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since May 25, 19^0: 

Robert English, of Hancock, N. H., third 
secretary of legation and consul at Ottawa, 
Canada, has been designated second secretary 
of legation at Ottawa and will continue to 
serve in dual capacity. 

Cecil B. Lyon, of New York, N. Y., third 
secretary of embassy at Santiago, Chile, has 
been designated second secretary of embassy 
at Santiago. 

Randolph Harrison, Jr., of Lynchburg, Va., 
third secretary of embassy and consul at Rio de 



Other Go\t3jnment Agencies 

Geolesigraph of the Neutrality Act of 1939, by Samuel 
E. Perkins [together with an appendix containing the 
text of the act and proclamations, regulations, rulings, 
etc., under the act]. (Department of Commerce: Bu- 
reau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Division of 
Commercial Laws.) Comparative Law Series, May 
1940, Vol. Ill, No. 5. 53 pp., map, charts. Subscription, 
$1 a year ; single copy 100. 



Legislation 



Joint Resolution Providing for the taking effect of Re- 
organization Plan Numbered V [transfer of Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service to Department of Jus- 
tice]. (Public Res. 75, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) 1 p. 50. 



Commercial Policy 



THE RECIPROCAL-TRADE-AGREEMENTS PROGRAM OF THE 

UNITED STATES 

A General Statement 



The reciprocal-trade-agreements program is 
based upon the Trade Agreements Act of 
June 12, 1934, which has been extended on two 
occasions for additional 3-year periods, from 
June 12, 1937, and from June 12, 1940. 

Why It Was Adopted 

Purpose. — To increase foreign markets for 
products of the United States is the primary 
purpose of the trade- agreements program. 
This purpose is sought through reciprocal 
adjustment of excessive trade barriers. 

Necessity. — Normally the United States can 
and does produce more of a great number of 
farm and nonfarm products than can be sold 
in the American market at remunerative prices. 
Surpluses of such production must either (1) 
be sold in other countries, (2) pile up in un- 
mai'ketable carry-overs in this country, or 
(3) be sold by producers at ruinously low 
prices. Unless exported, such surpluses force 
down prices, create unemployment, and reduce 
the incomes of American producers. 

Trade between nations declined sharply after 
1929, largely because most nations, including 
the United States, set up excessive barriers to 
imports from other countries. By thus making 
it difficult for its people to buy things they 
needed and desired from other countries, each 
country made it difficult for its own producers 
to sell their exportable surpluses in other 
countries. 

As world trade diminished, employment and 
incomes fell, and the world-wide economic de- 
pression was deepened and prolonged. Between 
1929 and 1932 United States foreign trade 
dropped 69 percent, national income 50 percent, 
and gross farm income 55 percent. 
628 



Bene'fits of Foreign, Trade. — Sound expansion 
of United States trade with foreign countries — 

1. Directly benefits American producers whose 
goods are exported. 

2. Improves domestic markets. Any Ameri- 
can producer, farmer or nonf armer, whose goods 
find a foreign market becomes a better customer 
for the goods of other American producers. 

3. Increases the supplies available to Ameri- 
can consumers at reasonable prices, of goods 
produced to better advantage in other countries 
or not produced in sufficient quantities or at all 
in the United States. 

Foreign trade necessarily is two-way trade. 
This country cannot have the benefit of export 
trade unless it imports goods from other coun- 
tries. The citizens of foreign countries can buy 
products only to the extent that they can acquire 
dollars to pay for them, and the only way they 
can acquire dollars is through the sale in this 
country of their products (including gold and 
silver) and services or by borrowing. Loans, 
even if available to them, merely postpone for 
a time the ultimate necessity for payment in 
the form of commodities or services. 

How THE Program Works 

Direct and separate negotiations with other 
countries is the method prescribed by the Trade 
Agreements Act for reducing excessive bar- 
riers to foreign trade. This method was chosen 
as more practicable and effective than general 
downward revision of the United States tariff 
alone. The latter method, even if feasible, 
would not insure the reciprocal reduction of 
foreign tariffs and other barriers against our fl 
export trade. " 

Method. — Specifically, the act empowers the 
President, in order to obtain concessions from 



JUNE 8, 1940 



629 



other countries on American products, to mod- 
ify excessive United States tariff rates on for- 
eign i^roducts; to bind existing tariff rates 
against increase; or to guarantee continued 
entry free of duty of products on tlie free list. 

The act does not empower the President to 
modify tariff rates except under a trade agree- 
ment; it does not empower him to reduce the 
duty on any foreign product under trade agree- 
ments by more than 50 percent or to transfer 
any item from the dutiable list to the free list. 

It does require trade agreements to be con- 
cluded only after the President has sought the 
advice of the Departments of State, Agriculture, 
and Commerce, the Tariff Commission, and 
other appropriate agencies of the Government, 
and only after public notice and full opportu- 
nity for presentation of information and views 
by any interested person. 

All Government agencies concerned with 
foreign commerce cooperate in studying all 
pertinent facts and views before any trade 
agreement is concluded. The trade-agreement 
activities of the various Departments and agen- 
cies are carried on by means of interdepart- 
mental committees and are coordinated in the 
Department of State. 

Concessians Ohtalned. — The United States, 
in negotiating a trade agreement, asks a for- 
eign country to lower its excessive tariff rates 
on our typical export products or to liberalize 
quotas or exchange restrictions on American 
products. 

Such concessions and assurances against ad- 
verse changes have been obtained from impor- 
tant foreign customers of the United States 
with regard to hundreds of American products, 
both agricultural and nonagricultural, compris- 
ing nearly one-third of all United States 
exports. 

Concessions Granted. — Under trade-agi'ee- 
ments, the United States has agreed to tariff re- 
ductions or to the '"binding" of existing tariffs 
or free entry m the case of imported products 
needed or desired by American industry or 
^\jnerican consumers. Concessions on imported 
commodities similar to those produced in the 
United States are granted by tliis country only 



after particularly exhaustive study indicates 
ttiat such concessions can be made in the na- 
tional interest without serious injury to the 
American producers concerned. When it ap- 
pears necessary, tariff modifications on such 
products are limited by quotas which set upper 
limits on the imports permitted to enter at the 
reduced tariff rates or by restriction of tariff re- 
ductions to seasons when competing American 
products are not marketed in quantities suflS- 
cient to satisfy the demand. 

^•Most-Favored-Nati-air' Clause. — The tradi- 
tional trade policy of the United States is not 
to discriminate between foreign nations, but to 
extend equality of tariff treatment to all who 
do not discriminate against the trade of this 
country. This policy is embodied in the Trade 
Agreements Act. Under it a concession on a 
given product in a trade agreement with a for- 
eign nation (other than Cuba) applies also to 
the same product from any third nation, unless 
that third nation is found to discriminate 
against the products of the United States. The 
same treatment for United States products is 
naturally required of the other party to the 
trade agi-eement. 

This policy of fair treatment on a reciprocal 
basis paj-s large dividends in dollars and cents 
to American exporters of agricultural and fac- 
tory products who are thus protected against 
foreign tariff and other discriminations. It 
also avoids international ill feeling and thus 
promotes peaceful commercial relations. 

What the Program Has Accomphshed 

Under the Trade Agreements Act the United 
States has concluded agreements with 21 foreio-n 
countries. These countries, in the order in 
which the agreements were signed, are: Cuba, 
Belgium, Haiti, Sweden, Brazil, Canada, the 
Netherlands, Switzerland, Honduras. Colombia, 
France and colonies, Guatemala, Nicaragua.' 
Finland, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Czecho- 
.-lovakia,' Ecuador, the United Kingdom in- 

•The reciprocal duty conces.sions and certain pro- 
visious of the agreement with Nicaragua ceased to he 
effective on March 10, 1!)3S. 

'The operation of the trade agreement witli 
Czechoslovakia was suspended, effective April 22 1930 



630 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIiLETIN 



eluding Newfoundland and the British Colonial 
Empire, Turkey, and Venezuela. A second 
agreement with Canada, wliich entered into 
eflPect January 1, 1939, replaced the first agree- 
ment with that country, which had been in 
effect since January 1, 1936. In addition, a 
supplementary trade agreement has been nego- 
tiated with Canada and another with Cuba. 

About 60 percent of the foreign trade of the 
United States is carried on with the countries 
with which reciprocal concessions are in effect 
in 19 trade agreements. The United Kingdom 
and Canada are, respectively, the largest and 
the second largest customers for American 
exportable surpluses. 

Trade Increases. — The trade-agreements pro- 
gram has contributed in significant degree to in- 
creases in United States international com- 
merce since the inauguration of the program. 
Of course, a number of other factors also have 
influenced both the volume and the nature of 
that trade. Among these factors, some of 
which have tended to enlarge and others to 
diminish international trade, have been wide 
fluctuations in agricultural production, both 
here and abroad; wars and preparations for 
war; and changes in general industrial and 
economic activity due to causes unrelated to 
foreign trade. 

During the 2-year period 1934-35, United 
States total foreign trade averaged 4.1 billion 
dollars a year. In the 2-year period 1938-39 
the average was 5.3 billion dollars. 

That the trade-agi'eements program has con- 
tributed to the increase in our foreign trade 
may be seen from a comparison of United 
States trade with agreement and nonagreement 
countries. 

In the 2-year period 1938-39, when there 
were 16 trade agreements in effect throughout 
the entire period, United States exports to the 
countries covered by these agi-eements averaged 
62.8 percent greater than in 1934-35, when only 
1 agreement was in force for a year or more, 
while our exports to all other countries increased 
by 31.2 percent. In addition to the 16 agree- 
ments in effect throughout 1938-39, 2 agree- 
ments, with the United Kingdom and with 



Ecuador, were in effect thi'oughout all of 1939. 
Our exports to the countries covered by the 18 
agreements in effect throughout 1939 averaged 
50.5 percent greater in 1938-39 than in 1934-35, 
while our exports to all other countries in- 
creased by only 31.7 percent. 

Our imports from the 16 agreement countries 
averaged 21.6 percent greater in 1938-39 than 
in 1934^35, while our imports from other coun- 
tries averaged 11.1 percent greater. Our im- 
ports from the countries covered by the 18 
agreements mcreased by 17.8 percent and from 
all other countries by 12.5 percent during the 
same period. 

The trend in trade with agreement and non- 
agreement countries in the 2-year period 
1937-38, as compared with 1934-35, was some- 
what similar. The increase in United States 
exports to the trade-agreement group of coun- 
tries was greater than to the nonagreement 
group. However, in the case of imports, the 
increase in our trade with the nonagreement 
group was slightly greater than with the agree- 
ment group of countries because of the in- 
fluence of certain factors not connected with 
the trade-agreements program, such as the se- 
vere drought of 1936 in this country. 

These statistical comparisons reinforce the 
common-sense conclusion that the reduction of 
excessive tariffs and other barriers to the ex- 
change of our exportable surpluses for those 
of other nations tends to support and enlarge 
the volume of our international commerce. 

The War and the Program 

Ejfects of War. — ^Wartime trade controls and 
restrictions have been imposed by belliger- 
ent countries for the purpose of assisting them 
in their war effort and by certain nonbelliger- 
ent countries because of the dislocating effects 
of war on their trade. These measures have 
had adverse effects upon our export trade in 
certain products, particularly those not con- 
sidered essential by the belligerent countries. 
On the other hand, our exports of certain other 
products, particularly those considered essen- 
tial for war purposes, have been stimulated. 



JUNE 8, 194 



631 



Although specific provisions of our trade agree- 
ments with a number of belligerent countries 
have been suspended temporarily as a result of 
war, the existence of the agreements helps to 
strengthen the position of the Government of 
the United States in its continuing efforts to 
mitigate as much as possible the adverse effects 
of wartime measures on American trade. 

After the War. — Economic insecurity and de- 
pression, caused in part by excessive trade bar- 
riers and discriminatory trade policies, have 
been among the major causes of most wars, in- 



cluding the one now going on in Europe. The 
tragic events now transpiring bear grim testi- 
mony to the need for keeping alive the liberal 
principles upon which the trade-agreements 
program is based. Such principles will be 
sorely needed to guide the nations in the task 
of economic reconstruction when the war has 
ended. If, in the future, international friction, 
hostilities, and war are to be avoided, these 
principles must prevail over the policies of 
extreme tariff protection and trade discrimina- 
tions. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



INTERNATIONAL LAW 
Conference of Jurisconsults * 

The Conference of Jurisconsults, which met 
in Montevideo on July 18, 1939, for the pur- 
pose of revising the texts of the eight original 
treaties signed at Montevideo in 1889, adopted 
three treaties, namely, a Treaty on Asylum and 
Political Refugees, a Treaty on Intellectual 
Property (Copyright), and a Treaty on the 
Exercise of the Liberal Professions. The con- 
ference adjourned on August 4, 1939, to enable 
the delegates to study questions with respect to 
the proposed amendments to the treaties on 
Civil Law, Processal Law, Penal Law, Com- 
mercial Law, and Commercial Navigation. 
The Conference reconvened on March 6, 1910, 
with official delegates of Argentina, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, and 
Uruguay participating. Brazil and Colombia 
had not been represented at the first session of 
the Conference. 

On March 19, 1940, the Conference con- 
cluded its deliberations, and the i-evised texts 
of the above-mentioned treaties were adopted. 



The Treaty on Civil Law was signed by 
Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru 
with reservation, and Uruguay with reserva- 
tion. 

The Treaty on Penal Law was signed by 
Argentina with reservation, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. 

The Treaty on Processal Law was signed by 
Argentina with reservation, Bolivia, Brazil 
with reservation, Colombia, Paraguay', Peru, 
and Uruguay. 

The Treaty on Commercial Law was signed 
by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil with reservation, 
Colombia with reservation, Paraguay, Peru, 
and Uruguay. 

The Treaty on Commercial Navigation was 
signed by Ai-gentina, Bolivia with reservation, 
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, and 
Uruguay. 

The Conference also adopted an Additional 
Protocol which was signed by Argentina, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, 
Peru with reservation, and Uruguay. 



' See the Bulletin of August 19, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 8), 
p. 144. 



632 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



HEALTH 

Convention Modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926 

Afghanistan 

The American Ambassador to France trans- 
mitted to tlie Secretary of State with a des- 
patch dated May 13, 1940, a copy of a circular 
note from the French Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs stating that the instrument of ratitica- 
tion by Afghanistan of the Convention Mod- 
ifying the International Sanitary Convention 
of June 21, 1926, signed at Paris on October 31, 
1938, was deposited with the French Govern- 
ment on April 8, 1940. 

LEGAL ASSISTANCE 

Protocol on Uniformity of Powers of 
Attorney Which Are To Be Utilized 
Abroad 

Colombia 

By a letter dated May 29, 1940, the Director 
General of the Pan American Union informed 
the Secretary of State that the Ambassador of 
Colombia at AVashington signed ad referendwm 
on May 25, 1940, in the name of his Govern- 
ment, the Protocol on Uniformity of Powers 
of Attorney Wliich Are To Be Utilized Abroad, 
opened for signature at the Pan American 
Union on February 17, 1940. 

There is quoted below in translation the res- 
ervation made by the Ambassador when sign- 
ing the protocol : 

"The Plenipotentiary of Colombia signs the 
Protocol on tlie legal regime of Powers of 



Attorney ad referendimi to approval by the 
National Congress, making the reservation that 
the Legislation in Colombia, in Article 2590 
of the Civil Code, provides that notaries, are 
responsible only for the formal part and not 
for the substance of the acts and contracts 
which they authenticate." 

Nicaragua 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a 
letter dated May 31, 1940, that the Protocol on 
Uniformity of Powers of Attorney "Which Are 
To Be Utilized Abroad, which was opened for 
signature at the Union on February 17, 1940, 
was signed on behalf of Nicaragua on May 27, 
1940. 

LABOR 

Conventions of the International Labor 
Conference 

Iraq 

According to a despatch from the Minister 
Resident and Consul General to Iraq dated 
April 18, 1940, the adherence of Iraq to the 
Convention Concerning Equality of Treatment 
for National and Foreign Workers as Regards 
Workmen's Compensation for Accidents, 
adopted by the International Labor Conference 
at its seventh session, June 5, 1925, was ap- 
proved by the Iraq Government on February 
7, 1940, and the Royal Irada sanctioning the 
adherence was published in the Government 
Gazette No. 12 of March 24, 1940. 



U, S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.73 a year 
pubijIshed weekly with the approval of the director of the bdread of the budget 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



JUNE 15, 1940 
Vol. II: No. 5/ — Publication 14^6 




Qontents 

Europe : p,g« 

Address by the President at Charlottesville, Virginia . . 635 
Message of June 10 from Premier Raynaud of France to 

President Roosevelt 638 

Reply of President Roosevelt to the message of June 14 

of Premier Reynaud of France 639 

Proclamations and regulations concerning neutrality of 
the United States in the war between Italy and 

France and the United Kingdom 639 

Repatriation of American citizens 645 

Official reports from war areas 646 

Airplane explosion in Finland 647 

Intergovernmental debts : 

Statement of payments due 647 

Correspondence with foreign governments 648 

The American Republics: 

The United States and Inter- American Relations: 

Address by Ben M. Cherrington 660 

Message from the President of Brazil 666 

South American tour of the All America Youth Or- 
chestra 666 

The Far East: 

Japanese bombings of Chungking 666 

General: 

Regulations regarding immigration visas for Canadian 

and Mexican commuters 666 

\Owr\ 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

JUL 9 1940 



Commercial Policy: Page 

Restrictions on imports into Ecuador 667 

Foreign Service of the United States: 

Personnel changes 668 

Publications 669 

Treaty Information: 
Education : 

International Act Concerning Intellectual Coopera- 
tion 670 

Commerce : 

Trade Agreement with Ecuador (Executive Agree- 
ment Series No. 133) 670 

Labor : 

Conventions of the International Labor Conference . 670 
Legislation . 671 



Europe 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT AT CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINLV^ 



[Released to the press by the White House June 10] 

President Newcomb, Mt Friends of the 
University of Virginia: 

I notice by the program that I am asked to 
address the classes of 1940. I avail myself of 
that privilege, but I also take this very apt 
occasion to speak to many other classes, classes 
that have graduated through all the years, 
classes that are still in the period of study, 
classes not alone of the schools of learning of 
the Nation but classes that have come up 
through the great schools of experience; in 
other words a cross section, a cross section just 
as you who graduate today are a cross section 
of the Nation as a whole. 

Every generation of young men and women 
in America has questions to ask the world. 
Most of the time they are the simple but 
nevertheless difficult questions, questions of 
work to do, opportunities to find, ambitions 
to satisfy. 

But every now and again in the history of 
the Republic a different kind of question pre- 
sents itself — a question that asks, not about the 
Euture of an individual or even of a generation, 
but about the future of the country, the 
future of the American people. 

There was such a time at the beginning of 
jur history — at the beginning of our history 
is a nation. Young people asked themselves 
in those days what lay ahead, not for them- 
selves, but for the new United States. 



'Delivered at the graduation exercises of the Uni- 
rersity of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., June 10, 
L940, and broadcast on a nationwide network. 

239207 — 40 1 



There was such a time again in the seemingly 
endless years of the War between the States. 
Young men and young women on both sides of 
the line asked themselves, not what trades or 
professions they would enter, what lives they 
would make, but what was to become of the 
country they had known. 

There is such a time again today. Again 
today the young men and the young women 
of America ask themselves with earnestness 
and with deep concern this same question: 
"What is to become of the country we know?" 

Now they ask it with even greater anxiety 
than before. They ask, not only what the 
future holds for this Republic, but what the 
future holds for all peoples and all nations 
that have been living under democratic forms 
of government — under the free institutions of 
a free people. 

It is understandable to all of us, I think, 
that they should ask this question. They read 
the words of those who are telling them that 
the ideal of individual liberty, the ideal of free 
franchise, the ideal of peace through justice is 
a decadent ideal. They read the word and 
hear the boast of those who say that a belief in 
force — force directed by self-chosen leaders — 
is the new and vigorous system which will 
overrun the earth. They have seen the ascend- 
ancy of this philosophy of force in nation 
after nation where free institutions and indi- 
vidual liberties were once maintained. 

It is natural and understandable that the 
younger generation should first ask itself what 
the extension of the phil<)Soi)hy of force to all 
the world would lead to ultimately. We see 

635 



636 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



today, for example, in stark reality some of 
the consequences of what we call the machine 
age. 

Where control of machines has been retained 
in the hands of mankind as a whole, untold 
benefits have accrued to mankind. For man- 
kind was then the master; and the machine 
was the servant. 

But, in this new system of force the mastei'y 
of the macliine is not in the hands of man- 
kind. It is in the control of infinitely small 
groups of individuals who rule without a sin- 
gle one of the democratic sanctions that we 
have known. The machine in hands of irre- 
sponsible conquerors becomes the master ; man- 
kind is not only the servant; it is the victim 
too. Such mastery abandons with deliberate 
contempt all of the moral values to which even 
this young country for more than 300 years 
has been accustomed and dedicated. 

Surely the new philosophy proves from 
month to month that it could have no possible 
conception of the way of life or the way of 
thought of a nation whose origins go back to 
Jamestown and Plymouth Kock. 

And conversely, neither those who spring 
from that ancient stock nor those who have 
come liither in later years can be indifferent 
to the destrviction of freedom in their ances- 
tral lands across the sea. 

Perception of danger, danger to our institu- 
tions, may come slowly or it may come with a 
rush and a shock as it has to the people of the 
United States in the past few months. This 
perception of danger, danger in a world-wide 
area — it has come to us clearly and overwhelm- 
ingly — we perceive the peril in a world-wide 
arena, an arena that may become so narrowed 
that only the Americas will retain the ancient 
faiths. 

Some indeed still hold to the now somewhat 
obvious delusion that we of the United States 
can safely permit the United States to become 
a lone island, a lone island in a world domi- 
nated by the philosophy of force. 

Such an island may be the dream of those 
who still talk and vote as isolationists. Such 
an island represents to me and to the over- 



whelming majority of Americans today a help- 
less nightmare, the helpless nightmare of a 
people without freedom ; yes, the nightmare of 
a people lodged in prison, handcuffed, hungry, 
and fed through the bars from day to day by 
the contemptuous, unpitying masters of other 
continents. 

It is natural also that we should ask our- 
selves how now we can prevent the building of 
that prison and the placing of ourselves in the 
midst of it. 

Let us not hesitate — all of us — to proclaim 
certain truths. Overwhelmingly we, as a Na- 
tion — and this applies to all the other American 
nations — are convinced that military and naval 
victory for the gods of force and hate would en- 
danger the institutions of democracy in the 
western world, and that equally, therefore, the 
whole of our sympathies lies with those nations 
that are giving their life blood in combat against 
these forces. 

The people and the Government of the United 
States have seen with the utmost regret and with 
grave disquiet the decision of the Italian Gov- 
ernment to engage in the hostilities now raging 
in Europe. 

More than 3 months ago the Chief of the Ital- 
ian Government sent me word that because of 
the determination of Italy to limit, so far as 
might be possible, the spread of the European 
conflict, more than 200 millions of people in the 
region of the Mediterranean had been enabled 
to escape the suffering and the devastation of 
war. 

I informed the Chief of the Italian Govern- 
ment that this desire on the part of Italy to 
prevent the war from spreading met with full 
sympathy and response on the part of the Gov- 
ernment and the people of the United States, 
and I expressed the earnest hope of this Govern- 
ment and of this people that this policy on the 
part of Italy might be continued. I made it 
clear that in the opinion of the Government of 
the United States any extension of hostilities 
in the region of the Mediterranean might result 
in a still greater enlargement of the scene of 
the conflict, the conflict in the Near East and in 
Africa, and that if this came to pass no one 



JUNE 15, 1940 



637 



could foretell how much greater the theater of 
the war eventually might become. 

Again on a subsequent occasion, not so long 
ago, recognizing that certain aspirations of Italy 
might form the basis of discussions between the 
powers most specifically concerned, I oflfered, in 
a message addressed to the Chief of the Italian 
Government, to send to the Governments of 
France and of Great Britain such specific indi- 
cations of the desires of Italy to obtain read- 
justments with regard to her position as the 
Chief of the Italian Government might desire 
to transmit through me. Wliile making it clear 
that the Goverimient of the United States in 
such an event could not and would not assume 
responsibility for the nature of the proposals 
submitted nor for agreements which might 
thereafter be reached, I proposed that if Italy 
would refrain from entering the war I would be 
willing to ask assurances from the other powers 
concerned that they would faithfully execute 
any agreement so reached and that Italy's voice 
in any future peace conference would have the 
same authority as if Italy had actually taken 
part in the war, as a belligerent. 

Unfortunately, unfortunately to the regret of 
all of us and to the regret of humanity, the Chief 
of the Italian Government was unwilling to 
accept the procedure suggested, and he has made 
no counterproposal. 

This Government directed its efforts to doing 
what it could to work for the preservation of 
peace in the Mediterranean area, and it likewise 
expressed its willingness to endeavor to coop- 
erate with the Government of Italy when the 
appropriate occasion arose for the creation of a 
more stable world order, through the reduction 
ot armaments and through the construction of 
i more liberal international economic system 
which would assure to all powers equality of op- 
portunity in the world's markets and in the 
securing of raw materials on equal terms. 

I have likewise, of course, felt it necessary 
in my communications to Signor Mussolini to 
express the concern of the Government of the 
United States because of the fact that any exten- 
sion of the war in the region of the Mediter- 
ranean would inevitably result in great preju- 



dice to the ways of life and government and to 
the trade and commerce of all of the American 
republics. 

The Government of Italy has now chosen to 
preserve what it terms its "freedom of action" 
and to fulfill what it states are its promises to 
Germany. In so doing it has manifested dis- 
regard for the rights and secui'ity of other na- 
tions, disregard for the lives of the peoples of 
those nations which are directly threatened by 
this spread of the war; and has evidenced its 
unwillingness to find the means through pacific 
negotiations for the satisfaction of what it be- 
lieves are its legitimate aspirations. 

On this tenth day of June 1940, the hand that 
held the dagger has struck it into the back of 
its neighbor. 

On this tenth day of June 1940, in this Uni- 
versity founded by the first great American 
teacher of democracy, we send forth our prayers 
and our hopes to those beyond the seas who are 
maintaining with magnificent valor their battle 
for freedom. 

In our, in our unity, in our American unity, 
we will pursue two obvious and simultaneous 
courses; we will extend to the opponents of 
force the material resources of this Nation and, 
at the same time, we will harness and speed up 
the use of those resources in order that we our- 
selves in the Americas may have equipment and 
training equal to the task of any emergency and 
every defense. 

All roads leading to the accomplishment of 
these objectives must be kept clear of obstruc- 
tions. We will not slow down or detour. Signs 
and signals call for speed — full speed ahead. 

Yes, it is right that each new generation 
should ask questions. But in recent months the 
principal question has been somewhat simpli- 
fied. Once more the future of the Nation, the 
future of the American people is at stake. 

We need not and we will not, in any way, 
abandon our continuing effort to make democ- 
racy work within our borders. Yes, we still 
insist on the need for vast improvements in 
our own social and economic life. 

But that, that is a component part of national 
defense itself. 

The program unfolds swiftly, and into that 



638 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULliETIN 



program will fit the responsibility and the op- 
portunity of every man and woman in the land 
to preserve his and her heritage in days of peril. 
I call for effort, courage, sacrifice, devotion. 



Granting the love of freedom, all of these are 
possible. ] 

And — and the love of freedom is still fierce, 
still steady in the Nation today. 



■f -f -f -f -f -f -f 



MESSAGE OF JUNE 10 FROM PREMIER REYNAUD OF FRANCE TO 

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT 



[Released to the press by the White House June 13] 

Paris, Jwne 10, WJfi — 6 f. m. 

[Received 10 :13 p.m.] 

Secretary of State, 

W ashington. 
Rush 
Personal for the President 

I have just received from Paul Reynaud, 
President of the Council of Ministers, the fol- 
lowing message to you. He telephoned to me 
and asked me to transmit it immediately since 
his own code clerks could not possibly do the 
work. This is the full text of the message re- 
ferred to in my telegram earlier today. 

"Mr. President : I wish first to express to you 
my gratitude for the generous aid that you have 
decided to give us in aviation and armament. 

"For six days and six nights our divisions 
have been fighting without one hour of rest 
against an army which has a crushing superi- 
ority in numbers and material. Today the 
enemy is almost at the gates of Paris. 

"We shall fight in front of Paris; we shall 
fight behind Paris; we shall close ourselves in 
one of our provinces to fight and if we should 
be driven out of it we shall establish ourselves 
in North Africa to continue the fight and if 
necessary in our American possessions. 

"A portion of the government has already 
left Paris. I am making ready to leave for the 
front. That will be to intensify the struggle 
with all the forces which we stiU have and not 
to abandon the struggle. 

"May I ask you, Mr. President, to explain all 
this yourself to your people to all the citizens 



of the United States saying to them that we are 
determined to sacrifice ourselves in the struggle 
that we are carrying on for all free men. 

"This very hour another dictatorship has 
stabbed France in the back. Another frontier 
is threatened. A naval war will begin. 

"You have replied generously to the appeal 
which I made to you a few days ago across the 
Atlantic. Today this 10th of June 1940 it is my 
duty to ask you for new and even larger 
assistance. 

"At the same time that you explain this situ- 
ation to the men and women of America, I be- 
seech you to declare publicly that the United 
States will give the Allies aid and material sup- 
port by all means 'short of an expeditionary 
force'. I beseech you to do this before it is too 
late. I know the gravity of such a gesture. Its 
very gravity demands that it should not be made 
too late. 

"You said to us yourself on the 5th of October 
1937: 'I am compelled and you are compelled 
to look ahead. The peace, the freedom and the 
security of 90% of the population of the world 
is being jeopardized by the remaining 10% 
who are threatening a breakdown of all interna- 
tional order and law. 

" 'Surely the 90% who want to live in peace 
under law and in accordance with moral stand- 
ards that have received almost trusty accept- 
ance through the centuries, can and must find 
some way to make their will prevail.' 

"The hour has now come for these. Paul 
Reynaud." 

BULUTT 



JXTNE 15, 1940 



639 



REPLY OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO THE MESSAGE OF JUNE 14 OF 

PREMIER REYNAUD OF FRANCE 



[Released to the press by the White House June 15] 

President Roosevelt has sent the following 
cablegram to the Premier of France : 

"I am sending you this reply to your mes- 
sage of yesterday which I am sure you will 
realize has received the most earnest, as well 
as the most friendly, study on our part. 

"First of all, let me reiterate the ever-increas- 
ing admiration with which the American peo- 
ple and their Government are viewing the 
resplendent courage with which the French 
armies are resisting the invaders on French 
soil. 

"I wish also to reiterate in the most emphatic 
terms that, making every possible effort mider 
present conditions, the Government of the 
United States has made it possible for the Al- 
lied armies to obtain during the weeks that have 
just passed airplanes, artillery and munitions 
of many kinds and that this Government so 
long as the AUied governments continue to re- 
sist will redouble its efforts in this direction. 
I believe it is possible to say that every week 



that goes by will see additional materiel on 
its way to the Allied nations. 

"In accordance with its policy not to recog- 
nize the results of conquest of territory ac- 
quired through military aggression, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States will not consider 
as valid any attempts to infringe by force the 
independence and territorial integrity of 
France. 

"In these hours which are so heart-rending 
for tlie French people and yourself, I send you 
the assurances of my utmost sympathy and I 
can further assure you that so long as the 
French people continue in defense of their lib- 
erty which constitutes the cause of popular in- 
stitutions throughout the world, so long will 
they rest assured that materiel and supplies will 
be sent to them from the United States in ever- 
increasing quantities and kinds. 

"I know that you will understand that these 
statements carry with them no implication of 
military commitments. Only the Congress can 
make such commitments." 



-f ■♦- -f -f -f -f -f 



PROCLAMATIONS AND REGULATIONS CONCERNING NEUTRALITY OF 
THE UNITED STATES IN THE WAR BETWEEN ITALY AND FRANCE 
AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 



[Released to the press June 10] 

Proclamation of a State of War Between 
Italy, on the One Hand, and France and 
THE United Kingdom, on the Other Hand 

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

"Whereas section 1 of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, provides 
in part as follows : 

"That whenever the President, or the Con- 
gress by concurrent resolution, shall find that 
there exists a state of war between foreign states. 



and that it is necessary to promote the security 
or preserve the peace of the United States or to 
protect the lives of citizens of the United States, 
the President shall issue a proclamation nam- 
ing the states involved ; and he shall, from time 
to time, by proclamation, name other states as 
and when they may become involved in the war." 

And WHEREAS it is further provided by sec- 
tion 13 of the said joint resolution that 

"The President may, from time to time, pro- 
mulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and proper 
to carry out any of the provisions of this joint 
resolution; and he may exercise any power or 



640 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIII 



authority conferred on him by this joint reso- 
lution through such officer or officers, or agency 
or agencies, as he shall direct." 

Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. KoOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority con- 
ferred on me by the said joint resolution, do 
hereby proclaim that a state of war unhappily 
exists between Italy, on the one hand, and 
France and the United Kingdom, on the other 
hand, and that it is necessary to promote the 
security and preserve the peace of the United 
States and to protect the lives of citizens of the 
United States. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in pre- 
venting violations of the said joint resolution 
and in bringing to trial and punishment any 
offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary of 
State the power to exercise any power or author- 
ity conferred on me by the said joint resolution, 
as made effective by this my proclamation issued 
thereunder, which is not specifically delegated 
by Executive order to some other officer or 
agency of this Government, and the power to 
promulgate such rules and regulations not in- 
consistent with law as may be necessary and 
proper to carry out any of its provisions. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this tenth 

day of June, in the year of our Lord nineteen 

hundred and forty, and of the Inde- 

[seal] pendence of the United States of 
America the one hundred and sixty- 
fourth. 

Franklin D. Eoosevelt 

10.20 p. m., E. S. T. 

By the President: 
CoKDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2407] 



[Released to the press June 10] 

Proclaiming the Netjtralitt of the United 
States in the War Between Italy, on the 
One Hand, and France and the United 
Kingdom, on the Other Hand 

BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas a state of war unhappily exists be- 
tween Italy, on the one hand, and France and 
the United Kingdom, on the other hand ; 

Now, therefore, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
President of the United States of America, in or- 
der to preserve the neutrality of the United States 
and of its citizens and of persons within its terri- 
tory and jurisdiction, and to enfoi'ce its laws 
and treaties, and in order that all persons, be- 
ing warned of the general tenor of the laws 
and treaties of the United States in this behalf, 
and of the law of nations, may thus be pre- 
vented fi'om any violation of the( same, do 
hereby declare and proclaim that all of the 
provisions of my proclamation of September 5, 
1939, proclaiming the neutrality of the United 
States in a war between Germany and France ; 
Poland ; and the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand apply equally in respect 
to Italy. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this tenth 
day of June, in the year of our Lord nineteen 
hundred and forty, and of the Inde- 
[seal] pendence of the United States of 
America the one hundred and sixty- 
fourth. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

10.20 p. m., E. S. T. 
By the President: 
Cordell Hull 

Secretary of State. 
[No. 2408] 



I 



JUNE 15, 1940 



641 



[Released to the press June 10] 

Use of Ports or Territorial Waters of the 
United States by Submarines of Foreign 
Belligerent States 

BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas section 11 of the joint resolution 
approved November 4, 1939, provides : 

"Whenever, during any war in which the 
United States is neutral, the President shall 
find that special restrictions placed on the use 
of the ports and territorial waters of the 
United States by the submarines or armed 
merchant vessels of a foreign state, will serve 
to maintain peace between the United States 
and foreign states, or to protect the commer- 
cial interests of the United States and its 
citizens, or to promote the security of the 
United States, and shall make proclamation 
thereof, it shall thereafter be unlawful for any 
such submarine or armed merchant vessel to 
enter a port or the territorial waters of the 
United States or to depart therefrom, except 
under such conditions and subject to such limi- 
tations as the President may prescribe. When- 
ever, in his judgment, the conditions which 
have caused him to issue his proclamation 
have ceased to exist, he shall revoke his proc- 
lamation and the provisi