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VOLUME XXIV: Numbers 600-626 

January 1—June 25, 1951 



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U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENT^ 



Publication 4377 



INDEX 



Volume XXiV: Numbers 600-626, January 1-June 25, 1951 



ACC. See Air Coordinating Committee uniler Aviation. 
Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Bevin, Ernest, British Foreign Minister, death of, 003 

Cease-fire (Korea) proposal. Communist attitude, 104 

CBS interview (Sevaroid), 50 

CFM. Soviet attitude, 00 

Communist aggression, efforts against, S3, 323, 700, 
92.'!, 003 

Consultative Committee, meeting in Ce.vlon, 234 

Cordell Hull Foundation, 800 

ECA and Schuman Plan, results of, 5S0 

Far Eastern policy, 104, 300, 6S3, 706, 923, 903 

Foreign buildings exhibit, 019 

Indian food aid program, 424 

Iranian oil situation, 891 

Italian Senate, defense budget, 84.5 

Japanese peace settlement, Dulles' part in, 185 

Meeting of Consultation, OAS, 500, 016 

NAT, united defense, 3 

Pacifie area, security, 300 

St. Lawrence waterway, testimony, 432 

Schuman Plan, 523, 5S0 

Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Com- 
mittees, testimony, 923, 963 

Soviet thrusts, defense against, 700 

Strategic materials, international control, 383, 752 

Trade Agreements Act, renewal, testimony, 200, 435 

Wedemeyer's Korean report, 784 

Western Europe, joint defense of, 323 
Correspondence : 

Carnahan, on falsity of "American Peace Crusade," 
308 

Connally, on joint resolution of friendship for 
U.S.S.R., 556 

Dodd, on FAO economic program, 466 

International Joint Commission, construction of 
Libby Dam, on Canadian border, application for 
approval, 230 

McMahon, on Soviet Lenin Day speech, 256 

MouUette, Clarence E., in respect to son's letter, 450 

Panyushkin, exchanges of notes on lend-lease settle- 
ment, 302, 640, 744 

Schuman, Robert, French Foreign Minister, on Euro- 
pean Army, 287 

Truman, President, appointment of Eisenhower as 
SCAFE, 6 

Van Zealand, on 2d NATO anniversary, 620 
Defense of, by President, 10 
OAS, Meeting of Consultation, request, 8 
Adams, Russell B., appointment as Special Assistant to 

the Secretary, 156, 477 

Index, January /o June 195? 



Adenauer, Konrnd, Cliancellor of the German Federal Re- 
public, exchange of letters with Allied High Commis- 
sion, 445, 449, 003 
Advisory Board on International Development, 558 
Advisory Committee on Personnel (Rowe-Ramspeck-De 

Courcy Committee), 715 
Afghanistan : 

Point 4 agreement signed, 299 
U.S. Ambassador (Merrell), appointment, 716 
Africa (see also Morocco ; South Africa) : 

Central and Southern Africa Transport Conference, 

report by Kelly, Smith, and Birch, 110 
Ewe problem : 

General Assembly resolution, 181 
Iraq-U.S. draft resolution, text, 479, 500 
Study by TC (Gerig, McKay), with map, 128 
Trust territories. General Assembly resolutions, 181 
U.S. relations with Near East, South Asia, and Africa 

( McGhee over VOA ) , 61 
Uranium, U.S., U.K., and Union of South Africa, con- 
clude agreement on production, 28 
Workshops of liberty (Bennett at Tulane), 585 
Agriculture (see also Pood and Agriculture Organization; 
Technical cooperation programs) : 
Agricultural workers, draft agreement, with Mexico, 

188, 300 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 101 
Export-Import Bank, loans to Spain for agriculture 

and industry, 380, 501 
International Wheat Council, 5th session, U.S. delega- 
tion to, 1026 
Rubber Study Group, 316 
Rural Cooperatives in Caribbean, 388 
Aid to foreign countries (see also Economic Cooiieration 
Administration ; Mutual aid and defense ; Point 4 
under Technical cooperation programs) : 
China : 

Military supplies for defense of Taiwan, exchange 

of notes, 747 
U.S. policy (Acheson, testimony), 963 
Decisions for Americans (Truman before Natl. Con- 
ference on Citizenship), 931 
European Recovery Program discussed, 217 
Far East, policy and action (Acheson before Natl. 

Women's Press Club), 683 
Germany : 

ECA purchase of raw cotton, 743 
U.S. policies (McCloy over Bavarian radio), 736 
India : 

Emergency food aid, statements to Congress by : 
Acheson, 424, 674 
Henderson, 426 
Truman, 349, 592 

1035 



Aid to foreign countries — Continued 
India — Continued 
Pood situation, Embassy report, 591 
Relief for flooded areas, 89 
Korea, U.S. contribution to U.N. aid programs, 469 
Mutual Security Program, message of President to Con- 
gress, and statement (Webb), 883, 1015 
Pakistan, relief assistance for flooded areas, 89 
Palestine, U.S. contribution to aid programs, 469 
Philippines, U.S. pledge fulfilled (Cowen), 1016, 1017 
Public Advisory Board (Newsom appointed), 559 
South Asia, U.S. policy (McGhee before Cincinnati Coun- 
cil on World Affairs), 892 
Spain, Export-Import Bank, loans for agriculture. In- 
dustry, and wheat, 380, 591 
Yugoslavia : 

Foodstuffs, U.S. provision of, text of agreement, 150 
U.S. Emergency Relief Assistance Act (19150) , text, 277 
Air Force missions, U.S. vcith : 
Chile, 502 
Cuba, 26 
Air transport agreements, U.S. with : 
Ecuador (1947), amended, 188 
France (1946), amended, 152, 535 
Albania, German-looted gold, Albanian and other claims 
submitted to arbitrator by U.S., France, and U.K., 
text, 785 
Aldana Sandoval, Carlos H., credentials as Guatemalan 

Ambassador, 979 
Allied High Commission (HICOM), 443, 621, 623, 901, 902 
Allison, John M., deputy to Dulles on Japanese peace 

treaty matters, 184, 584, 837 
Altmeyer, Arthur J., heads U.S. delegation to 3d Inter- 
American Conference on Social Security, 475 
American citizens, decisions for (Truman before Natl. 

Conference on Citizenship), 931 
American efforts to meet threats of aggression (Perkins), 

63 
American Republics (see also Organization of American 
States; Treaties; and the individual countries): 
American National Ballet Theatre on tour, 700 
Communism threatens inter-American security, U.S. 

requests OAS Meeting of Consultation, 8 
Cordell Hull Foundation for International Education, 

860 
Economic Commission (U.N.) for Latin America, U.S. 

delegation, 955 
Economic problems in the present danger (Thorp in 

OAS Meeting of Consultation), 693 
Educational interchange {see also Point 4 under Tech- 
nical cooperation programs) : 
Foreign nationals visit U.S., 29 
U. S. nationals visit abroad, 29, 99, 264, 414 
Foreign Relations, 1934, vol. IV, American Republics, 

released, 439 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 153 
Inter-American ECOSOC, appointment of U.S. repre- 

serjtMtive (Bohan), 639 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, appointment of 

U.S. member (Owen), 265 
Iiili'r-American relations reviewed (Dreier before Pan 
Amor. Socy. of New England), 688 

1036 



American Republics — Continued 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appoint- 
ment of director of investigations (Schaefer), 109 
Latin America's role in future business (Miller before! 

Harvard Business School Assn.), 975 
Pan American Day (proclamation), 572 
Pan American Railway Congress, 7th report of, 458 
Pan American Sanitary Organization, meeting, 752 
Point 4 leaders, activities, 264, 303, 989 
Rural cooperatives in Caribbean, technical meeting, 191 
UNESCO in Americas (Sargeant at Habana), 18 
U.S. invites opinions on Japanese treaty (Dulles), 617 
West Indian Conference, 4th session, report, 385 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States. 
America's part in building a free world (Fisher), 375 
Andrews, Stanley, delegate. International Wheat Council, 

5th session, 1026 
Appropriation act for fiscal year 1951, 3d supplemental 
(H. R. 3587), rider restricting economic aid abroad 
criticized by Truman, 1027 
Araujo, Antonio Martin, credentials as Venezuelan Am- 
bassador, 302 
Arbenz Guzman, Lt. Col. Jacobo, inauguration as Presi- 
dent of Guatemala, 499 
Argentina : 

Light cruisers, negotiations for sale under MDAA, 104 
U.S. Ambassador (Bunker), appointment, 559 
Arms and armed forces (see also Korea) : 

American Republics, collective defense, 570, 574, (306, 607 
Arming for peace, exchange of letters (Truman, Flan- 
ders ct al.), 514 
Arrangements, interim, for collective use, U.S. views in 
relation to uniting-for-peace resolution of General 
Assembly (Nov. 3, 1950), 420, 771, 959 
Commission, new, proposed, to consolidate U.N. Atomic 
Energy Commission a7id Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments : 
General Assembly proceedings and resolution, 140, 

318, 420, 912 
U.S. statement (Nash), and working paper, text, 991, 
992 
Communist "Crusade for Peace" explained (Russell), 

486 
Embargo on shipments to Communist China, statements 
(Gross) and General Assembly resolution, text, 
848, 849 
Executive Order 10206 for detail of U.S. personnel of 
armed forces in support of certain U.N. activities, 
199 
U.S. Marine questions need for war, exchange of letters 

(Achosiin, Moulette), 450 

U.S.-U.K.-France, tripartite agreement on industrial 

controls in Allied zones of Germany, test, and letter 

from Allied High Commission to Adenauer, 621, 023 

.Vrmstrcmg, Elizabeth H., West Indian Conference, 4th 

session, article on, 385 
.Vrmstrong, Maj. Gen. Harry G., delegate, Military Medi- 
cine and Pharmacy Congress, 957 

Department of State Builelin 



Armstrong, Willis C. : 

Chairman, lUibber Study Group, 316 
I Designation in State Department, 675 
Atomic energy and conventional armaments : 

Communist "Crusade for Peace" including Communist 

plan for atomic-energy control (Russell), 486 
Coordination of Atomic Energy Commission and Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments : 
General Assembly resolution (Dec. 13, 1950) and 

proceedings, 140, 318, 420, 912 

U.S. statement (Nash) and working paper, 991, 992 

"Peace Pilgrimage" of the "American Peace Crusade," 

Communist plan (Acheson letter to Carnahau), 368 

Auriol, Vincent, President of France, visit to U.S., 413, 495, 

fi63 
Austin, Warren R. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Collective security, 170 

Collective security, U.N. function, 772, 773, 774, 778 
Communist China, aggression in Korea, U.N. collec- 
tive action urged against, 166, 206 
Communist China, attempts to blackmail U.N., 203 
Kashmir, demilitarization of, implementing, 831 
Korea, cease-Hre order, 103 
Palestine, peace efforts, 914 
Correspondence with Secretary-General Lie, on return 
of World War II prisoners of war, 879 
Australia, Ambassador (Spender) to U.S., credentials, 

979 
Austria : 

Air Coordinating Committee report (19.50), 535 
American snldier's murder in Vienna by Soviet soldiers, 

787, 986 
Soviet repatriation mission in U.S. Zone expelled (Don- 
nelly letter to Sviridov), 1019 
U.S. note to Moscow, protesting soldier's murder, 986 
Aviation (see also International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion) : 
Air Coordinating Committee report (1950), 529 
Air Force mission agreements signed witli : 
Chile, 502 
Cuba, 26 
Air transport agreement with Ecuador amended, 188 
Air transport agreement with France amended, 152, 535 
Airplane climb performance standards (Haldeman), 32 
Special Assistant (Rockwell) to Secretary of Air Force 
appointed, 477 
Baker, George P., representative on Transport and Com- 
munications Commission, ECOSOC, 316, 511 
Balkan States : 

General Assembly resolution on violation of human 

rights in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, 143 
Special Committee on (UNSCOB), resolution of General 
Assembly continuing (Dec. 1, 1950), text, 348, 554 
Baltic States, VGA, inauguration of programs, 946 
Bancroft, Harding F. : 

Apjiointment to Collective Measures Committee, 419 
Article and statement, 460, 771 
Barnard, Tburman L., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 519 
Barnes, Robert G., designation in the State Department, 
894 



Barrett, Edward W. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
"Campaign of Truth," 352 
Counteract defeatism by winning Cold War, 408 
Information themes, changing world conditions, 13 
Lithuania, inauguration of VGA program, 354 
VGA motion picture, defense of, 302 
Correspondence vv'ith Senator Benton, on VGA, 301 
Barringer, J. Paul, delegate, assembly (ICAO), 5th ses- 
sion, 999 
Begg, John M. : 
Address on information program, 409 
Designation in State Department, 477 
Belgium (see also Benelux ; Brussels agreement) : 
Additional forces to Korea, 862 

Indemnification for war damage, agreement by exchange 
of notes, time limit, 498, 987 
Benelux (see also Belgium; Netherlands) : 
Torquay procotol (G ATT), concessions (effective, June 

6, 1951), 862, 988 
Treaty of collaboration and collective self-defense with 
France and U.K., 668 
Bennett, Henry G., Technical Cooperation Administrator: 
Address at Tulane University, 585 

Point 4 activities, 56, 67, 151, 187, 212, 219, 264, 299, 942, 
979, 990 
Benton, Senator William : 

Information activities, attitude, 278, 422 
VGA, correspondence with Assistant Secretary Barrett, 
301 
Bevin, Ernest, British Foreign Minister, resignation and 

death, 449, 663 
Binder, Carroll : 
Freedom of Information principles, 194, 232 
U.S. representative to conference, 153 
Birch, John A., article on conference on central and south- 
ern Africa transport problems, 110 
Bogotd, pact of, relation to International Court of Jus- 
tice, 669 
Bohan, Merwin L. : 

Appointed representative to lA-ECOSOC, 639 
Heads U.S. delegation to ECLA, 4th session, 912, 955 
Boblen, Charles E., Counselor of the State Department, 

559 
Bolivia : 
Joint economic committee named, 748 
Point 4 agreement signed, 501 
Strategic materials, joint study, 748 
U.S., relations resumed, 979 
Boundary, Canadian, U.S. application to construct dam 

and reservoir, 230 
Bradford, Amory J., designation on staff of U.S. Deputy, 

NAT Council, 155 
Bradley, General Omar N., testimony, 330 
Brady, Dr. Frederick J., delegate. Pan American Sanitary 

Organization, 752 
Bramble, Harlan P., appointment in the State Depart- 
ment, 675 
Brannan, Charles F., Secretary of Agriculture, letter to 

the Director General, FAO, 466 
Branscomb, Harvie, transmission of report to Congress on 
educational exchange, 788 



Index, January to June 1951 



1037 



Brazil : 

Joint Brazil-United States Commission for Economic 

Development, 25, 814 
Light cruisers offered to, 104 

U.S. delegation to Brazilian inaugural ceremonies, 231 
Broph.v, Gerald B., as Special Consultant to the Secretary, 

156 
Brown, Elizabeth Ann, summaries of General Assembly 

action, 5th session, 138, 175 
Brown, Winthrop G., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 675 
Brunauer, Mrs. Esther Caukln, suspended for security 

reasons, 675 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
enem.v assets, entry into force, 293 
American claimiints to submit data, 294 
Budget message on international security and foreign re- 
lations, excerpt, 269 
Bulgaria, violation of human rights. General Assembly 

re.solution (Nov. 3, 1950), 143 
Bunker, Ellsworth, appointed Ambassador to Argentina, 

559 
Burma, trial of Dr. Gordon S. Seagrave, 224 
Butler, Robert, resigns as Ambassador to Cuba, 477 
Buttenwieser, Benjamin J., address at Bremen, 488 
Byroade, Henry A., statement on Soviet obstruction in 

Germany, 815 
Cabot, Thomas D., Director of International Security 
Affairs : 
Address on organizing for peace, 980 
Consultation with MDAP and NATO officials, 511 
Designation in State Department, 155 
Calendar of international meetings, 30, 189, 381, 536, 749, 

908 
Cambodia, arrival of Minister (Nong Kimny) in U.S., 984 
"Campaign of Truth." See International Information 

and Educational Exchange Program. 
Canada : 
Infantry brigade arrives In Korea, 862 
Libby Dam and reservoir on U.S.-Canadian boundary, 
U.S. application to International Joint Commission 
to construct, 230 
Partnership for peace (Webb at Montreal) , 927 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Boundary waters (U.S.-U.K., 1909), U.S. application 
to International Joint Commission for construc- 
tion of Libby Dam and reservoir on border, 230 
Civil defense agreement, exchange of notes, 587 
Lease of naval and air bases (U.S.-U.K., 1941), 

agreement to modify, 813 
Radio transmitters, agreement signed, 302 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project (1941 pro- 
posed agreement), H. J. Res. 3 for approval. Sec- 
retary Acheson, testimony, 432 
Torquay procotol concessions (GATT), effective June 
6, 1951, 862 
Canal Zone, regulations to safeguard vessels, ports, and 

waterfront facilities in, (Ex. Or. 10226), 698 
Canhani, Erwin D., chairman, U. S. Advisory Commission 

on Information, 422 
Cannon, Mary M., chairman of U. S. delegation to Inter- 
American Commission of Women, 153 

1038 



Caribbean Commission : 

U.S. Commissioner appointed (MorOn), 535 
West Indian Conference, 4th session, article on, 385 
Caribbean, Rural Cooperatives in, technical meeting, U.S. 

delegation, 191 
Carney, Admiral Robert B., to visit Jordan, 661 
Castleman, Edward, report on 1st meeting of Inter- 
national Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisher- 
ies, 954 
Central and Southern Africa Transport Conference, report 

by Kelly, Smith, and Birch, 110 
Ceylon : 
Diplomatic and consular conference, 423, 517 
Radio, agreement by exchange of notes, the U. S. to fur- 
nish certain equipment in return for facilities for 
VOA, 946 
U. S. to attend Ceylon meeting of Consultative Com- 
mittee on economic development in South Asia, 
statement (Acheson), 234 
CFM. See Foreign Ministers, Council of. 
Chappelear, Nancy B., designation in State Department, 

199 
Children : 

Greek, General Assembly resolution on repatriation 

text (Dec. 1, 1950), 143, 333, 348 
International Children's Emergency Fund, reports on 
medical care and training of handicapped, 863, 953 
Childs, J. Rives, confirmed as U.S. Ambassador to Ethi- 
opia, 716 
Chile : 

Copper situation, discussion with U.S., 819 

ECOSOC, 12th session, Santiago, Chile, address by 

Miller, 454 
Light cruisers offered to, 104 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, signed, 502 
Point 4 agreement, signed, 219 
China (Communist) : 
Aggression by Chinese Communists (Truman), 205 
Aggressor in Korea, U.S. Congress passes resolutions, 

168, 208 
Americans detained and denied communications, 947 
Cease-fire in Korea, correspondence on U.N. proposal, 

113, 164, 165 
Communist regime attempts to blackmail U.N. (Austin) , 

203 
Embargo on shipments to, statements (Gross), and 
General Assembly resolution (May 18, 1951), text, 
848, 849, 1030 
U.N. collective action on aggression in Korea : 

General Assembly resolution (Feb. 1, 1951), text, 138, 

142, 236 
Statements by Austin, 106, 206 
U.S. Congress, text of resolutions, 168, 208 
U.S. draft resolution in U.N., 167 
U.S. opposes Communist representation in Trustee- 
ship Council (Sayre), 236, 265 
China (Nationalist Government) : 

Chinese-American friendship, statement by Assistant 

Secretary Rusk, 846, 848 
Defense of Taiwan (Formosa), U.S. military supplies, 
exchange of notes, 747 

Deparfmenf of S/afe Bullefin 



China (Nationalist Government) — Continued 
Educational exchange program, report of U.S. Advisory 

Commission on Educational Exchange, 788 
Scholarship program by ECA, 185 

Troops, proposed use in Korea (Assistant Secretary 
McFall, letter to Representative Seely-Brown), 263 
U.S. freeze order (lO.'JO), application, 303 
U.S. policy (Acheson, testimony), 963 
U.S. policy (Dulles, Rusk before China Institute), 843, 

846, 848 
U.S. rebuttal of Soviet claim of U.S. aggression and vio- 
lation of Chinese airspace (Gross), 3.".^ 
VOA, addition of Amoy, Mandarin, and Swatow dia- 
lects to programs, 369, 502 
Chou En-lai, Minister of Foreign Affairs (Communist 
China), correspondence with General Assembly on 
cease-fire in Korea, 114, 165 
Civil defense, agreement with Canada signed, 588 
Civil defense conference, address by the President, 763 
Civilians in time of war, protection of (Geneva, 1949), 
transmission of convention to Senate, with report, 866 
Claims and property : 
Belgium, war damages, claims for, agreement by ex- 
change of notes, 498, 987 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
enemy assets, entry into force, 293 
American claimants to submit data, 294 
Enemy property, settlement of intercustodial conflicts 

involving (Ex. Or. 10244), 890 
German debts, tripartite communiques, France, U.K., 

and U.S., 443, 901 
German-looted gold, tripartite agreement by U.S., 
France, and U.K. to submit claims to arbitrator, 
text, 785 
German reparations, Swiss-Allied Accord, quadripar- 
tite meeting, 419 
Germany, Berlin general claims law, procedure under, 

743 
Italy, deadline for filing war claims, 651 
Japan, Closed Institutions Liquidation Commission, 

procedure for filing claims, 580 
Netherlands, agreement on looted securities, signed, 187 
Philippine War Damage Commission completes task, 

618 
Philippines, reparations from Japan, discussed, 405, 
577, 578 
Clark, Lewis. U.S. representative on U.N. Advisory Coun- 
cil for Libya, presentation to King designate, 643 
Cohen, Benjamin V., alternate U.S. representative to Gen- 
eral Assembly, Greek question and report of UNSCOB, 
346 
Collaboration and collective self-defense, treaty of (Bene- 
lux, France, U.K.), 668 
Collective Measures Committee. See Uniting-for-peace 

resolution. 
Collective security (see also Mutual aid) : 
Peace Observation Commission, role (Gross), 553 
U.N., its collective security system (Bancroft), 460, 771 
U.S. armed forces in support of U.N. (Gross to Lie), 959 
Colombia : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Restrepo Jaramillo), credentials, 
979 



Colombia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation, signed, 746 
Point 4 agreement signed, 501 
Unified command for Korea, aid to, 12 
Colombo Plan. See Consultative Committee. 
Commodities {see also Strategic materials) : 

Commodity and country requirements. Departmental 
coordination, under Defense Production Act 
(19.50), 276 
Fair distribution of (Thorp), 818 
Shortages : 

Secretary Acheson, statement, 752 
Tripartite statement (France, U.K., U.S.), 149 
Communism : 
Acheson supported by President as leading opponent 

of Communism, 10 
Arming for peace, exchange of letters (Truman, Flan- 
ders et al.), 514 
Confuse and Control, Soviet Techniques in Germany, 

pamphlet released, 7.59 
Inter-American security, Jleeting of Consultation (OAS) 

called to meet threat to, 8 
Land "reform" in North Korea, 582 
"Peace Crusade," Communist objective of (Russell), 

486 
"Peace Crusade" and its "Peace Pilgrimage" (Acheson 

letter to Carnahan), 368 
Radio Moscow increases foreign propaganda output, 

946 
Senate and House pass resolutions on Communist China, 

168, 208 
Stalin's Pravda interview : 
Statement (McDermott), 367 

VOA and Wireless Bulletin announce U.S. reaction, 
367 
U.S. Marine, questions need for war, exchange of letters 

(Acheson, Moullette), 450 
Western Europe, joint defense, testimony of Acheson, 
Bradley, and Marshall, 323, 328, 330 
Communism, addresses and statements against, by : 
Acheson : 

Congressional testimony, 323, 923, 963 
Press statement, 83 
U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 766 
Austin, Assn. of Amer. Colleges, 170 
Barrett, at : 
Brooklyn, 408 
St. Louis, 352 
Begg, at Chicago, 409 
Byington (over NBC), 407 
Cabot, at Tufts College, 980 
Cooper, on Western European attitude, 428 
Dreier, before Pan Amer. Socy. of New England, 688 
Dulles, at : 

Association for U.N., 85 

China Institute, 843 

Meeting of Consultation, OAS, 617 

Philadelphia, 483 

U.N. Association of Japan, 726 

University of Arizona, 935 



Index, January to June I95J 



7039 



Communism, addresses against — Continued 
Eisenhower : 

Before Congress, 245 
Over NBC, 285 
Fisher, at Des Moines, 375 
Gross, 57, 390 

Heath, on Indochinese attitude, 264 
Hickerson, before Foreign Policy Institute, 731 
Jessup : 

Peace strategy, 17-i 
"Preventive war," 363 
Johnstone, World Affairs Council, San Francisco, 370 
Kuhler, on effectiveness of VOA, 780 
McCIoy, High Commissioner for Germany, 736 
McGhee, on : 
Near East area, 186 
South Asia, 892 
Perkins, George W., over VOA, 63 
Eusk: 

Korean situation, 055, 846, 848 
VOA, 64 

World Affairs Council, Philadelphia, 295 
Russell : 

"Peace Crusade," Communist objectives, 486 
Railvcay Clerks Convention, 895 
Sayre, Chinese Communist representation in Trustee- 
ship Council, 265 
Thorp, before American Economic Association, 94 
Truman : 

Annual message, 123 
Civil Defense Conference, 763 
Korea, policy in, 603 

Message to Congress on Indian food crisis, 349 
National Conference on Citizenship, 931 
On Communist Chinese aggression, 205 
On Pacific area, 699 
Webb, at Montreal, 927 
Concentration camps, survivors of, ECOSOC resolution, 

670 
Congress : 

Air Coordinating Committee, report (1950), 529 
Appropriation Act ( H. R. 3587 ) , Kem amendment crit- 
icized by President, 1027 
Arming for peace, exchange of letters (President, Sen- 
ator Flanders et al.), 514 
"Campaign of Truth," report of U.S. Advisory Com- 
mission on Information, and President's statement 
urging funds, 638 
China (Acheson, testimony), 923, 963 
Communist China, aggressor in Korea, House and Sen- 
ate resolutions, 168, 20S 
Educational Excliange, Advisory Commission on, re- 
ports, 156, 675, 788 
Eisenhower, General, report before, 245 
France, President Auriol addresses, 563 
Priendsliip for Soviet people, McMahon-Ribicoff resolu- 
tion (text) and letter of Secretary Acheson to Sen- 
ator Connally, 556, 5.j7 
Geneva conventions (four) for protection of war victims, 

transmittal to Senate, with report, 866 
Germany, U. S. policy in. High Commissioner McCloy to 
Representative Javits, 940 

1040 



Congress — Continued 
Indian emergency food aid legislation : 
Statement by President, 394, 592 
Testimony by Secretary Acheson and Ambassador 
Henderson, 424, 426, 674 
Information, Advisory Commission on, report and Presi- 
dent's statement urging funds, 63S 
Information program of State Department : 
Assistant Secretary Barrett to Senator Benton, 301 
Senator Benton's draft resolution and Department 

statements, 278, 422 
Representative Judd, criticism of VOA, and Barrett 
statement, 301, 302 
Italian military program and provisions of peace treaty, 
exchange of letters. Assistant Secretary McFall, 
Senator Lodge, 379 
Korea (Acheson, testimony), 923, 963 
Labor views of Edith Wall, exchange of letters (Deputy 
Under Secretary Humelsine and Representative 
Walter), 994 
Legislation listed, 30, 152, 197, 239, 251, 284, 332, 384, 

431, 516, 637, 645, 719, 756, 860, 919, 926, 1026 
Messages to Congress : 
Annual message, 123 
Budget, excerpt, 269 
Indian food crisis, 349 
Mutual Security Program, 883 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 2d semiannual 

report, 757, 758 
"Peace pilgrimage," Americans urged to reject false 
motives, letter of Secretary Acheson to Representa- 
tive Carnahan, 368 
Personnel, official, stationed in U.S. and in U.S.S.R., 
analysis, letter of Assistant Secretary McFall to 
Representative Lane, 649 
St. Lawrence project (H. J. Res. 3), Secretary Acheson, 

testimony, 432 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal (Acheson, testimony), 

209, 435 
Troops in Europe (S. Res. 99), text and statement by 

President, 637 
Western Europe, defense, statements before Senate 
Foreign Relations and Armed Services Committees 
by: 
Acheson, 323 
Bradley, 330 
Cooper, 42S 
Marshall, 328 
Yugoslavia : 

Military forces, materials for under MDAA, letter 
from Truman to congressional committees and 
U.S. note to Yugoslavia, 717, 718 
Yugoslav Emergency Assistance Act to supply food- 
stuffs, text, 277 
Consular convention, with U.K., signed, OS" 
Consultative Committee, on economic and social develop- 
ment in South and Southeast Asia, meeting at Colom- 
bo, Ceylon, 234 
Conventional Armaments, Commission for, resolution of 
General Assembly providing for coordination with 
Atomic Energy Commission (Dec. 13, 1950), 140, 
318, 420, 912, 991, 992 

Deparfmenf of State BvUetin 



Coolidge, Charles A., designation in State Department, 

639 
Cooper, John Sherman, testimony on Western Eurojw's 

defense, 428 
Coppock, Joseph D., designation in State Department, 675 
Copyright, universal convention proposed, article (Dixon, 

Goldblatt), 288 
Cordell Hull Foundation for International Education to 

be established, 8()0 
Corse, Carl D., designation in State Department, 675 
Costa Rica : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Point 4 program, signed, 151 
Trade agreement (1936) terminated, 662 
U.S. Ambassador (Fleming), appointment, 716 
U.S. Consular Agency at Quepos closed, 851 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 191 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers, 

Council of 
Cowen, Myron M., Ambassador to the Philippines, state- 
ments : 
Fulfillment of U.S. pledge to Philippines, 1017 
Mutual Security Program, 1016 
Cuba: 
Air Force mission agreement signed, 26 
Offer to cooperate in U.S. defense program, 380 
U.S. Ambassador (Butler) resigns, 477 
Czechoslovakia : 
American passports not valid, 932 
Missing U.S. planes reported, 1019 
Torquay protocol (GATT), signatory, 1020 
Daniels, Paul C. : 

U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador, 716 

U.S. representative on Council, OAS, letter requesting 
Meeting of Consultation, 8 
Davis, Monnett B., appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel, 

317 
Dean, John H., U.S. representative on Cotton and Cotton 

Linters Committee, IMC, 510 
Deason, Hilary J. : 

Commissioner, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commis- 
sion, 190 
Delegate to Indo-Paciflc Fisheries Council, 234 
Defense Production Act (1950), Department's resiKjnsl- 

bilities, 276 
Defense Production Board, of NATO, 7, 811 
Denmark, text of agreement signed with U.S. pursuant to 

NAT, for defense of Greenland, 814, 943 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials : 
Australia (Spender), 979 
Cambodia (Nong Kimny), 984 
Colombia (Restreix> Jaramillo), 979 
Guatemala (Aldana Sandoval), 979 
Korea (Yang), 983 
Spain (Lequerica y Erquiza), 169 
Uruguay (Mora), 575 
Venezuela (Araujo), 302 
Dixon, Sir Owen, on India-Pakistan dispute, 394 
Dixon, Roger C. : 

Article on copyright convention, 288 
Designation in State Department, 675 



Dominican Republic : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Point 4 agreement signed, 414 

Torquay protocol concessions (GATT) effective (June 
6, 1951), 862 
Donnelly, Ambassador Walter J., letter to Soviet High 
Commissioner Sviridov requesting Soviet repatria- 
tion commission to leave U.S. zone of Austria, 1019 
Dreier, John C. : 

Appointments as U.S. repre.'ientative on preparatory 
committee for Meeting of Consultation, and on 
Council of OAS, 66, 462 
Inter-American relations, address on, 688 
Letter to Secretary General Lleras (OAS) on agenda 
for Meeting of Consultation, 266 
Dulles, .lohn Foster : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

American Republics, opinion sought on Japanese 

treaty, 617 
Challenge of communism, 85 
Challenge of today, 935 
China, friendship with, 843 

Japanese peace settlement, 228, 252, 403, 483, 576, 617, 
726 
Appointment as President's Special Representative to 

achieve a Japanese peace, 185, 837 
Correspondence : 

MacArthur, on Japanese peace, 485 
Malik, on principles for peace treaty, 65 
Yoshida, on post-treaty fisheries, 351 
Preparations for Japanese peace treaty, 485, 584, 654, 

747, 779, 837, 934, 1019 
Reports as Special Representative, 403, 747, 779 
ECA. See Economic Cooperation Administration. 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East. 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe. 
ECLA. See Economic Commission for Latin America. 
Economic Affairs Bureau, reorganization, 674 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 
Appointments, 316 

Commission on Status of Women, 5th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 751, 754 
Economic Employment and Development Commission, 

6th session, U.S. delegation, 802 
Forced labor conditions in U.S.S.R. (Kotschnig), 544 
Population Commission, 6th session, U.S. delegation, 706 
Social Commission, 7th session, U.S. delegation, 511 
Technical Assistance Board, report (Luhin), 17, 307 
Trade-union rights, Soviet infringements of (Kotsch- 

nig), 463 
Transport and Communications Commission, 5th ses- 
sion, U.S. delegation, 511, 597 
12th session, Santiago, Chile : 
Proceedings, 398, 454, 479, 538 n. 
Resolutions adopted on : 

Covenant on human rights, propo.sed articles, 672 
Forced labor, 478, 670 
Narcotic drugs, 636 
Survivors of concentration camps, 670 
Water control, 671 
U.S.-Chilean economic problems (Miller), 454 



Index, January fo June I95I 



I04I 



Economic and Social Council — Continued 
12th session, Santiago, Chile — Continued 

U.S. delegation, 315 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights, provisions drafted 

for international covenant, 672, 1003 
Water control as a world problem (Lubin) , .503 
World economic situation (1950), address (Lubin), and 
text of resolution, 538, 712 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(ECAFE), meetings and U.S. delegations, 357, 478 
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), 6th session, 912 
Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), U.S. 

delegation, 912, 955 
Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) : 
Addresses and statements at 3d anniversary : 
Acheson, 589 
Harriman, 591 
Schuman, 590 
Truman, 589 
Cotton, authorization for Germany, 743 
Flour for Yugoslavia, 104 
Scholarship program, 185 
Economic Defense and Trade Policy, Office of, established, 

674 
Economic problems facing American republics (Thorp 

at OAS), 693 
Economic situation (1950), reviev? of world (Lubin at 

ECOSOC), 538 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador : 

Ambassador (Peuaherrera) to U.S., 169 
President (Galo Plaza) visits U.S., 947 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement amended, 188 
Point 4 agreement signed, 823 
U.S. Ambassador (Daniels), appointment, 716 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, re- 
port, 156, 675, 788 
Educational Exchange Program. See International In- 
formation and Educational Exchange Program. 
Egypt, Point 4 agreement signed, 823 

Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., appointed to command NAO 
forces : 
Messages exchanged between the President and Secre- 
tary Acheson, 6 
North Atlantic defense, broadcast, 285 
President Truman's letter to General Eisenhower, 7 
Report to Congress on North Atlantic defense, 245 
Secretary Acheson, statement, 3 
Senate resolution supporting, text, 637 
El Salvador, territorial waters, extent discussed, 24 
Embargo on shipments to Communist China, statements 
(Gross), and General Assembly resolution, text, 848, 
849 
Enemy property, settlement of intercustodial coutlicts 

(Ex. Or. 10244), 890 
Enochs, Elisabeth S., delegate, Directing Council, Amer- 
ican International Institute of Childhood, 834 
Entezam, Nasrollah: 

Exchange of messages, Chinese Communist Foreign 
Minister, 114, 115 

1042 



Entezam, Nasrollah — Continued 

President, General Assembly, 5th session, 138 
Report of Group on Cease-Fire in Korea, 113 
Eritrea, General Assembly resolution for federation of 
Eritrea with Ethiopia under Ethiopian crown, 144 
Erwin, John D., appointed Ambassador to Honduras, 317 
Ethiopia : 

Contribution to Korean conflict (Hickerson before Va. 

Fed. of Women's Clubs), 709, 775 
General Assembly resolution for federation of Eritrea 

with Ethiopia under Ethiopian crown, 144 
Troops join U.N. forces in Korea, 709 
U.S. Ambassador (Childs), appointment, 716 
Ethridge, Mark, resignation from Advisory Commission 

on Information, 29 
Europe : 

Communism on wane in Western (Byington over NBC), 

407 
ECA and Schuman Plan advance recovery, addresses by : 
Acheson, 589 
Harriman, 591 
Schuman, 590 
Trumr.n, 589 
European defense forces (NATO) : 

French proposals welcomed (Acheson letter to Schu- 
man), 287 
German participation, 4, 6, 7, 11, 377 
Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, appointment of 

Eisenhower, 3, 6, 7 
Testimony before Congressional committees : 
Acheson, 323 
Bradley, 330 
Cooper, 428 
Marshall, 328 
U.S. troops, authorization to send (S. Res. 99), text, 
and statement by President, 637 
European defense forces (NATO), addresses, statements, 
etc. : 
Acheson, 3, 620 

Eisenhower, before Congress, 245 
Fisher, 375 

Perkins, over VOA, 63 
Truman, 6, 620, 637 
European Recovery Program (sec aJso ECA), 217 
Evans, John W. : 

Designation in State Department, 675 
Representative, Manganese, Nickel and Cobalt Commit- 
tee, IMC, 705 
Ewe prolilem, consideration in TC and text of resolution, 

128, 181, 479, 509 
Executive orders (texts) : 

Canal Zone, regulations on safeguarding of vessels, 
ports, and waterfront facilities in (Ex. Or. 10226), 
698 
Enemy property, settlement of intercustodial conflicts 

involving (Ex. Or. 10244), 890 
Korea, and adjacent waters, designated as combat zone 

(Ex. Or. 10195), 149 
Peaceful settlement of disputes, detail of personnel of 
the armed forces in supiwrt of U.N. activities in 
(Ex. Or. 10206), 199 

Department of State Bulletin 



Executive orders (texts) — Continued 
I President's Commission on Internal Security and Indi- 
vidual Rights, establishment of (Ex. Or. 10207), 
238 
Yugoslav Emergency Relief Assistance, administration 
of (Ex. Or. 10208), 277 
Export-Import Bank, loans to Spain for agriculture, in- 
dustry, and wheat, .380, 591 
Export Requirements Committee established, 276 
Fairbanks, Douglas, Jr., chairman, American Relief for 

Korea organization, 413 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Far Eastern policy, addresses and statements by : 
Acheson, 164, 369, 683, 766, 923, 963 
Dulles, on proposed Japanese treaty, 403, 483, 747 
Rusk, re China and Korea, 64, 263, 295, 655, 846 
Truman, on Korea, 123, 205, 603, 609 
Faricy, William T., report on 7th Pan American Rail- 
way Congress, 458 
Ferguson, John H., appointment as Deputy Director of 

the Policy Planning Staff, 639 
Financial and Economic Board, of NATO, 810 
Financial policies on transfer of dollars, U.S.-Sweden, 

discussed, 624 
Finland : 

Educational Exchange Program appraised, 788 
VOA program, inauguration of, 151 
Fisher, Adrian S., address, on defense of Western Europe, 

375 
Fisheries : 

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, background and U.S. 
H delegation, 234 

T Japanese negotiations on high-seas fisheries to wait 
until after peace treaty, exchange of notes (Dulles, 
Tosh i da), 351, 579 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, International Commis- 
sion for : 
Report of 1st meeting, by Castleman, 954 
U.S. Commissioners and U.S. delegation, 190, 595 
U.S. -Costa Rica Tropical Tuna Commission, 109 
Fleming, Philip B., confirmed as Ambassador to Costa 

Rica, 716 
Flood Control, Technical Conference on, U.S. delegate, 118 
Pood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 

Conference, special session, report by Under Secretary 

of Agriculture McCormick, 105 
Rural Cooperatives in Caribbean, meeting, 191 
U.S. recommendations for long-range program for, 
(Acheson, Brannan, letters to Dodd), 466, 467 
Foreign affairs, organization of, address (Webb), 273 
Foreign Assistance Act (1948), Public Advisory Board of, 

appointment, 559 
Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM), proposed meeting 
on measures to eliminate tensions in Europe: 
Agenda proposed by Deputies, 803, 859 
Review of past negotiations, 92 
Soviet notes (Nov. 3, Dec. 30, 1950, and Feb. 5, 1951), 

12, 90, 313 
Statement by Secretary Acheson, 90 
U.S. notes (Dec. 22, 1950, Jan. 23, Feb. 19, May 31, and 
June 15, 1951), 11, 228, 366, 933, 1021 



Foreign Ministers, Western (New York, 1950), deci- 
sions conferring on Germany certain government 
powers, 443, 623, 902 
Foreign Ministers' Deputies, agenda for proposed meeting 
of Council of Foreign Ministers, discussion, and text, 
803, 859 
Foreign Ministers of American Republics, Meeting of 
Consultation. See under Organization of American 
States. 
Foreign Relations, 1934, vol. IV, Amm'ican Republics, re- 
leased, 430 
Foreign Service: 
Ambassadors, appointment : 

Afghanistan (Merrell), 716; Argentina (Bunker), 
559; Costa Rica (Fleming), 716; Ecuador (Dan- 
iels), 716; Etliiopia (Childs), 716; Guatemala 
(Schoenfeld), 559; Honduras (Erwin), 317; Israel 
(Davis), 317; Spain (Griffis),317 
Ambassadors, resignation : 

Cuba (Butler), 477; Israel (McDonald), 199 
Bolivia, relations resumed, 979 
Career officer category expanded, 799 
Conference at Ceylon of U.S. missions in South Asia, 

423, 517 
Conferences of U.S. missions, at Frankfort, Istanbul, 

and Paris, 198, 423 
Consular convention with U.K., signed, 987 
Consular offices : 
Bari, Italy, opening, 1018 ; Diisseldorf, Germany, open- 
ing of Consulate General, 119 ; Geneva, Switzerland, 
elevation to Consulate General, 639 ; Isfahan, Iran, 
and Benghazi, Libya, opening, 423 ; Quepos, Costa 
Rica, closing, 851 
Diplomatic and consular conference, Ceylon, 423, 517 
Diplomatic conferences, Istanbul, Paris, and Frank- 
fort, 198, 423 
Diplomatic relations established with : 
Cambodia, 9S4 
Libya, 643 
Dismissal of officers at Hong Kong, 599 
Examinations announced, 517 
Foreign Buildings Operations Exhibit, 919 
Instructions on Internal Security Act, 677 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, appoint- 
ment of Bohan as U.S. representative, 639 
Legation, Vientiane, Laos, opening, 851, 1018 
Minister, appointment, Switzerland (Patterson), 559 
Passports not valid for Czeclioslovakia, 932 
Passports to Hungary now issued, 770 
Personnel, Advisory Committee on, plans announced, 

715 
Personnel, official, stationed in U.S. and in U.S.S.R., 

analysis, 649 
Selection Boards, appointments to, 119, 155 
Tangier (Vincent, chief of mission), 477 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, appointment 
of Gunter as alternate, 902 
Formosa. See Taiwan. 
France (see also Schuman Plan) : 
Collective security, joint communique of President Tru- 
man and French Premier Pleven, 243 



Index, January to June 1 95 1 



1043 



France — Continued 
Controlling scarce materials (tripartite statement), 149 
European Army proposals welcomed (Aeheson to Schu- 

man), 287 
Ewe problem, 128, 181, 479, .509 
German debt settlement, party to tripartite commu- 

niqinJs, 443, 901 
Indochinese and French resistance to Communist dom- 
ination (Heath), 262 
International Court of Justice sets deadlines for filing 
statements on rights of U.S. nationals in Morocco, 
79 
Paris as site for 6th General Assembly, aud text of 

resolution, 512, 632, 633 
President Auriol, visit to U.S., 413. 495, 503 
Prime Minister Pleven, visits U.S., 187, 243 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement with U.S. (1946), amended, 

152, 535 
Collaboration and collective self-defense with Benelux 

and U.K., 668 
German-looted gold, tripartite agreement, text, 785 
Industrial controls agreement, tripartite, effective in 

Western zones of Germany, text, 621, 623 
Japanese peace, settlement, French views, 1019 
Torquay protocol concessions (GATT) effective 
(June 6, 1951), 862 
Frangois-Poncet, Andr^, Chairman, Allied High Commis- 
sion, letter to Chancellor Adenauer concerning settle- 
ment of German external debts, 447, 904 
Freedom of Information convention, Soviet draft pre- 
amble analyzed (Hinder before U.N. committee), 194, 
232 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty, U. S. with 

Colombia, 746 
Frozen funds, Chinese, nonapplicable to certain groups, 

303 
Fulbright Act. See International Information and Edu- 
cational Exchange Program. 
Gamel, Col. Jay F., chairman, U.S. delegation. Health 

Congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, 752 
Gardner, Kelsey B., chairman of U.S. delegation, Rural 

Cooperatives in Caribbean, 191 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade. 

Gay, Merrill C, U.S. representative to ECAFE, 7th ses- 
sion, 357 
General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs and 

trade. 
General Assembly : 
Fifth session, summary of proceedings and resolutions, 

138, 175 
Greece, proceedings and decisions in General Assembly, 
article by Howard, with statements by U.N. repre- 
sentative Cohen, and texts of resolutions, 333, 
346, 348 
Resolutions: 

Children, continuing needs (Dec. 1, 1950), 176 
Communist China, aggressor in Korea, U.S. draft 

resolution adopted (Feb. 1, 1951), 236 
Coordination of Atomic Energy Commission and Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments, (Dec. 13, 
1950), 140, 318, 420, 912, 991, 992 

7044 



General Assembly — Continued 
Resolutions — Continued 

Economic development of underdeveloped countries 

(Nov. 20, 1950), 175 
Embargo on shipments to People's Republic of China 

(May 18, 1951), text, and statements (Gross), 

848, 849, 1030 
Eritrea, federation with Ethiopia under Ethiopian 

crown (Dec. 2, 1950), 144 
Freedom of information (Dec. 14, 1950), 177 
Greek children and military prisoners, repatriation 

of (Dec. 1, 19.50), 143, 333, texts, 348 
Human rights (Dec. 4, 1950), 177 
Human rights and fundamental freedoms, violation 

by Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania (Nov. 3, 

1950), 143 
Italian colonies, boundaries (Dec. 15, 19.50), 144 
Korea, Group on Cease-Fire (Dec. 14, 1950), text, 113 
Korea, independence (Oct. 7, 1950), 140 
Korea, personnel in, distinguishing ribbon (Dec. 12, 

1950). 184 
Korea, relief and rehabilitation (Dec. 1, 1950), text, 

146, 179 
Libya, status of (Nov. 17 and Dec. 15, 1950), 143 
Palestine refugees, assistance to (Dec. 2, 1950), text, 

78, 145, 146 
Paris, site for next session (Mar. 21, 1951), text, 512, 

632, 633 
"Peace through Deeds" (Nov. 2, 19.50), 141 
Prisoners of war (Dec. 14, 1950), text, 73, 178 
Propaganda against peace, condemnation (Nov. 17, 

19.50), 141 
Refugees and stateless persons (Dec. 14, 1950), 178 
South West Africa, status (Dec. 13, 1950), 182 
Soviet draft resolutions claiming U.S. aggression in 

China and violation of Chinese airspace, U.S. 

statement against (Gross), 267, 3.55 
Spain, revoking previous resolution (1940) and re- 
newing international relations (Nov. 4, 1950), 

143 
Special Committee on the Balkans (UNSCOB), reso- 
lution continuing (Dec. 1, 1950), text, 143, 348, 554 
Technical assistance to non-self-governing territories 

(Dec. 12, 1950), 181 
Trusteeship Council, on report of (Dec. 2, 10.50), 180 
U.N. headquarters, regulations relative to (Dec. 12, 

1950), 184 
U.N. pastal administration (Nov. 16, 1950), 182 
U.N. Special Committee on the Balkans (Dec. 1, 1950), 

continuance, 143, 348, 554 
U.N. telecommunications system (Dec. 12, 1950), 182 
Uniting-for-peace (Nov. 3, 1950), Collective Measures 

Committee and! Peace Observation Commission 

established under, 140, 419, 420, 400, 512, 553, 771, 

959 
Geneva conventions (1949) for protection of war victims: 
revising Geneva convention (1929) for amelioration 
of the condition of wounded and sick of armies in the 
field; Geneva convention (1929) re prisoners of war; 
and Hague convention (1907) on maritime warfare; 
also a now convention on protection of civilians in 
war; with report, transmitted to Senate, 806 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Gerig, Benjamin, article on the Ewe problem, 128 
German-looted gold, tripartite agreement by U.S., France, 

and U.K. to submit claims to arbitrator, text, 785 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 

Allied High Commission, implementation of decisions 
of Council of Foreign Ministers, 443, 621, 623, 901, 
902 
Aviation, civil, policy as recommended by ACC, 534 
Claims procedure under Berlin General Claims Law, 743 
Cotton, EGA authorization, 743 
Debt settlement : 
Allied High Commission, communique (Mar. 6), with 
accompanying statements and exchange of let- 
ters with Chancelloi* Adenauer, 44.3, 445 
Tripartite communique (May 24), with attachments, 
901 
Ilemilit.irization, exchange of notes between U.S. and 

U.S.S.R., 11 
Diisseldorf, opening of Consulate General, 119 
European defense (NATO), participation in, 4, 6, 7, 11, 

443, 623, 815 
Foreign investment relaxed, 412 

Foreign Ministers, Western (1950), implementation 
of decisions granting Germany certain government 
powers, 443, 623, 902 
GATT, accession to, 937 

German Federal Republic's Monthly Economic Review 

(February, April, and June 1951), 100, 491, 738, 937 

Industrial controls agreement, tripartite, effective in 

Western zones, text, and letter to Adenauer, 621, 

623 

Monetary reform law revision, effect on U.N. nationals, 

651 
Occupation Statute, revision of, 443 
Parker, Chauncey G., named Assistant U.S. High Com- 
missioner for Germany, 89 
Prisoners of war, commission to investigate, 68 
Racial persecution. See Claims procedure under Ber- 
lin General Claims Law. 
Refugees, responsibility for, 443 

Schurz, Carl, address on, at Bremen ( Butten wieser ) , 488 
Strategic materials, export ban (McCloy letter to Aden- 
auer), 906 
Strategic materials in short supply, cooperation (ex- 
change of letters, HICOM and Adenauer), 443, 446, 
449, 903 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, 901, 902, 906, 

1023 
U.S. High Commission for Germany, office moved to 

Bonn, 89 
U.S. pamphlets on Germany and German youth released, 

759 
U.S. policies (MeCloy), 736, 940 
U.S. women to visit, 652 
VO.A. German-language programs, negotiations for, 652, 

783 
War criminals, Landsberg, execution, .365, 412, 488, 490, 
907, 988 
Gibson. Edward T., U.S. representative to Central Group, 

IMC, 554, 634 
Global strategy of peace (Jessup), 174 
Gold, German-looted, tripartite agreement, 785 



Goldblatt, Sigmund, article on copyright convention, 288 
Goldman, Olive Remington, U.S. representative to Com- 
mission on Status of Women (ECOSOC), 5th session, 
751 
Graham, Frank P., named by Security Council as U.N. 
representative to act as mediator for India and 
Pakistan on Kashmir, 753, 831 
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway. See St. Lawrence. 
Greece : 

General Assembly, 5th session, article by Howard, and 

statements by Cohen, 3.33, 346 
General A.ssembly resolutions on repatriation of armed 
forces and of children and continuance of UNSCOB, 
text, 143, 333, 346, 348, 554 
Point 4 grants to Athens College and to American Farm 

School, announced, 824, 942 
UNS( 'Or. report, statement by Cohen, 346 
Greenland, Denmark-U.S. defense agreement, respecting 

(NATO), 814, 943 
Gresens, Cpl. Paul J., U.S. note re murder of, 787, 986 
Grifiis, Stanton : 

Appointed U.S. Ambassador to Spain, 317 
Press remarks, lOlS 
Gross, Ernest A. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Embargo on shipments to Communist China, 848 
India-Pakistan dispute, 394, 629, 913 
Paris as site for 6th session of General A.s.sembly, 632 
Peace Observation Commission's' role, 553 
U.N., analysis of Soviet performance in, 390 
U.N. faces aggression, 57 

U.S. rebuttal to Soviet claim of U.S. aggression in 
China, 355 
Report to Collective Measures Committee established 
under uniting-for-peace resolution (letter to Sec- 
retary-General Lie), 959 
Guatemala : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Aldana Sandoval), credentials, 

979 
U.S. Ambassador (Schoenfeld), appointment, 559 
U.S. delegation to inaugural ceremonies, 499 
Gunter, John W., named to Tripartite Commission on 

German Debts, 902 
Haiti, Point 4 agreement, S24 
Haldeman, George W. : 
Article on airplane climb performance standards, 32 
Chairman, U.S. delegation. Airworthiness Division, 
ICAO. 4th session, 555 
Harriman, W. Averell, address and statement: 
3d anniversary of ECA, 591 
U.S. policy toward Soviet aggression, 806 
Harvey, Mose L., designation In State Department, 156 
Hathaway, Gail A., chairman, U.S. delegation to inter- 
national engineering conferences. 118 
Hauser, Philip M., U.S. representative. Population Com- 
mission, ECOSOC, 6th session, 706 
Hayes, Frank H., U.S. representative. Copper, Zinc, and 

Lead Committee, IMC, 419, 474 
Hayes, Samuel P., Jr., article on Point 4 Program, 225 
Health (.see also World Health Organization) : 
DDT to Iran for malaria control, 945 
International Children's Emergency Fund, 863, 953 



Index, January to June 1951 



1045 



Health — Continued 

Military Medicine and Ptiarmac-y, 13th Congress, U.S. 

delegation to, OnO 
Pan American Sanitary Organization (PASO), 13th 

meeting of executive committee, 752 
Royal Sanitary Institute, Health Congress of, 752 
Heath, Donald R., on Indochlnese resistance to com- 
munism, 262 
Heindel, Richard H. : 

Designation in State Department, 1.56, 199 
UNESCO and human rights, address, 507 
Hemmendinger, Noel, designation in State Department, 

837 
Henderson, Loy W., Ambassador to India, statement on 

Indian emergency food pi'ogram, 426 
Hensei, H. Struve, consultant. Tripartite Commission on 

German Debts, 1023 
Hibbs, Ben, member of U.S. Advisory Commission on In- 
formation, 716 
Hickerson, John D., addresses, statements, etc. : 
Phony peace offensive, 731 
U.N. action on collective security, 775 
HICOM. See Allied High Commission. 
Hilton, Ralph, designation in State Department, 317 
Hoey, Jane M., U.S. representative to Social Commission, 

ECOSOC, 7th session, 511 
Honduras, U.S. Ambassador (Erwin), appointment, 317 
Hong Kong, dismissal of consular oflicers, 599 
Hoover Commission, recommendations implemented, 37, 

274 
Hoskins, Harold Boies, designation in State Department, 

477 
Howard, Harry N., article on Greek question in 5th ses- 
sion of General Assembly, 333 
Human rights : 

Forced labor and infringements of trade-union rights in 

U.S.S.R., 463, 544 
Indians in Union of South Africa, General Assembly 

resolution for conference of states concerned, 145 
U.N. slavery-servitude questionnaire, U.S. answers to, 

713, 919 
Violations in the Balkans, General Assembly resolution 
on, 1J3 
Human rights, draft covenant on : 

General Assembly resolutions on subject matter, 177 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights, suggested provi- 
sions, 672, 1003 
Human Rights, United Nations Commission on: 
7th session, 072, 10O3 
U.S. delegation, 31G, 670 
Humelsine, Carlisle H., Deputy Under Secretary, corre- 
spondence with Representative Walter, 994 
Hungary : 

American passports issued, 770 

General Assembly resolution (Nov. 3, 1950) on viola- 
tion of human rights, 143 
Peace treaty (1947), invoked in Vogeler case, 723 
Travel restrictions for Hungarian Legation personnel 

in Washington, 261 
Vogeler case, 723, 770 
VOA, program expansion, 502, 724 



Hyde, H. van Zile, head, U.S. delegation, 7th session, ex- 
ecutive board, WHO, 118 
lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American Economic and Social 

Council. 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 
Iceland, text of agreement with U.S. signed for defense 

of, pursuant to NAT, 812 
IE. Sec International Information and Educational Ex- 
change Program. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
IMC. See International Materials Conference. 
India (see also South Asia) : 

Emergency food aid, statements to Congress by : 
Acheson, 424, 674 
Henderson, 426 
Truman, 349, .592 
Food situation. Embassy report, 591 
Kashmir, dispute with Pakistan: 

Security Council proceedings, 421, 479, 513, 598, 913 
Solution sought (Gross), 394, 629, 913 
U.N. representative to effect demilitarization, 753, 831 
Point 4 agreement and project signed, 67, 988 
Relief assistance for flooded areas, 89 
Indochina : 

Resistance to communism (Heath), 262 
U.S. Legation at Vientiane, Laos, opened, 851, 1018 
Indonesia : 

Admission to U.N., 139 

U.N. Commission for Indonesia, final report, 636 
Industrial controls in Western Germany, tripartite agree- 
ment, and letter to Adenauer, text, 621, 623 
Industrial property. See Copyright. 

Information. See International Information and Educa- 
tional Exchange Program. 
Information, freedom of, draft convention on : 

General Assembly resolutions on subject matter, 177 
Soviet preamble, statement (Binder), 232 
U.S. attitude (Binder), 194 
U.S. delegation to committee on, 153 
Information, U.S. Advisory Commission on, report, and 

President's statement urging funds, 638 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, work, 94, 225, 457 
Inter-American Commission of Women, U.S. delegation, 

153 
Inter-American Conference on Social Security, 3d, U.S. 

delegation, 475 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council (lA- 
ECOSOC), appointment of U.S. representative (Bo- 
han),6.39 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, appointment of U.S. 

member (Owen), 205 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appointment 

of official (Schaefer), 109 
International Association of Hydraulic Research, U. S. 

delegation, 118 
International Children's Emergency Fund, reports, 863, 

9.-)3 
International Civil .\viation Organization (ICAO) : 

Airworthiness Division, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 5i55 
Comnmiiications Division, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 
751 



1046 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fish- 
eries, 190, 595, 954 
International Congress on Large Dams, 4th, U.S. delega- 
tion, 118 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, 10th plenary 

meeting. U.S. delegation, 191 
International Court of Justice : 
Cliamber of Summary Procedure, .ludges elected to, 1023 
Collaboration and collective self-defense, treaty of, pro- 
vision for reference to, 6G9 
Compulsory jurisdiction, status of declarations accept- 
ing, 604 
Morocco, rights of U.S. nationals, deadlines for filing 

statements, 79 
Pacific settlement of international disputes, provisions 

of treaties relating to, 667 
President of Court selected to name arbitrator in looted- 
gold claims, 785 
International Development Advisory Board, report on eco- 
nomic development of underdeveloped areas, and 
President Truman's letters to Nelson Rockefeller, 
Members of Congress, and heads of Government 
agencies, 558 
International Information and Educational Exchange 
Program (IE). See also Congress ; Voice of America. 
American National Ballet Theatre on South American 

tour, 700 
Amerika, popularity, of concern to U.S.S.R., 985 
Senator Benton's draft resolution (S. Res. 74), and De- 
partment statements, 278, 422 
"Campaign of Truth," 20, 278. 638, 6.39 
Appointment (Barnard), 519 

Radio funds, statement by President Truman, 638 
Educational Exchange Program, a part of "Campaign 

of Truth" (Johnstone at Richmond), 20 
Educational interchange, 29, 99, 264, 414 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, resolution, text of, and 

letter (Truman to Johnson), 918 
General Business Committee to assist U.S. Advisory 

Commission on Information, 15, 476 
Pamphlets on Germany and German youth released, 

759 
Publishers' survey of program, 230 

Radio Advisory Committee named to assist U.S. Ad- 
visory Commission on Information, 518 
Religious advisory panel named, 714 
Stalin's Praida interview: 

Statement on by McDermott, 367 

VOA and Wireless Bulletin broadcast U.S. reaction, 
367 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange: 
5th semiannual report, 675, text, 788 
Report for fiscal 1950, press notice, 156 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information : 
Appointments (Canham, Hibbs), 422, 716 
Consultative committee, 476 
Report, 4th semiannual, 638 
Resignation (Ethridge), 29 
International Information and Educational Exchange 
Program, addresses, statements, etc. : 
American idea, package it for export (Begg at Chicago) , 
409 

Index, January fo June 7951 



International Information, addresses, etc. — Continued 
Communism on wane in Western Europe (Byington), 

407 
Counteract defeatism by winning the Cold War (Bar- 
rett at Brooklyn), 408 
Freedom of inl'orniation principles (Binder), 194, 232 
Information themes, changing world conditions (Barrett 

at Philadelphia), 13 
Our answer to the "Big Lie" (Johnstone at San Fran- 
cisco), 370 
Soviet "Big Lie" versus "Campaign of Truth," 639 
Turn of tlie tide (Barrett at St. Louis), 352 
Iiiternatiimal Joint Commission, U.S. application to con- 
struct Libby Dam and reservoir on Canadian bound- 
ary, 230 
International Labor Conference, 34th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 958, 1024 
International Labor Office, Governing Body, 114th and 

115th sessions, U.S. delegations, 384, 956 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Commit- 
tee, 3d session, U.S. delegation, 356 
Coal Mines Committee, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 834 
International Materials Conference (IMC) : 
Central Group: 

Meetings and members, 383, 510, 554, 634 
Rules of procedure, adopted, 634 
Committees, meetings and members : 
Copper, zinc, lead, 384, 419, 474 
Cotton, cotton linters, 510 
Manganese, nickel, cobalt, 705 
Pulp, paper, 833 
Sulphur, 474 

Tungsten, molybdenum, 706 
Wool, 510, 634 
Committees, reports, 704 
Statements (Acheson), 383, 752 
International M.iterials Policy, Office of, established, 674 
International Radio Consultative Committee, 6th assemr 

bly, U.S. delegation, 957 
International Refugee Organization (IRO) : 

Report of 7th session of General Council, by Warren, 

952 
Swiss-Allied Accord, payment to IRO for nonrepatriable 
Nazi victim.s, 419 
International Security Affairs (S/ISA), Office of, estab- 
lished, 155 
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) : 

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference of, 

U.S. policies and delegates, 154 
5th session of Administrative Council, report by Miss 

Kelly, 33 
International Radio Consultative Committee, 6th as- 
sembly, 957 
International Trade Policy, Office of, abolished, 674 
International Union of Crystallography, U.S. delegation, 

1025 
International Wheat Council, 5th session, U.S. delegation, 

1026 
Iran: 

Assisting Iran to unite with free world (McGhee, 
Mathews, Loftus, Burns over CBS-TV), 657 

1047 



Iran — Continued 

Isfahan, opening of consulate, 423 

Point 4 aid, against locusts and malaria, and for agri- 
culture, 657, C61, S26, 945 
U.S. position in oil controversy : 
Aide-memoire to Iran, text, 891 
Statements, 851, 891, 1015 
U.S. -U.K. joint communique on mutual interests in Iran, 
661, 700 
Iraq: 

Ewe question, solution sought in U.N. by Iraqi repre- 
sentative and U.S. representative (Sayre), 479, 509 
Point 4 agreement signed, 653 
Ireland, Foreign Minister MacBride visits U.S., 575 
IRO. See International Refugee Organization. 
Israel (see also Palestine) : 

McDonald, .James G., resigns as ambassador, 199 

Point 4 agreement signed, 500 

Point 4 and WHO grant for medical mission, 826 

Security Council proceedings, 672, 753 

Security Council resolutions (May 8 and 18, 1951), 

texts, on dispute with Syria, 797, 914, 916 
U.S. Ambassador (Davis), appointment, 317 
VOA programs inaugurated, 653 
Israel, National Council of Young, alleged letter to Roose- 
velt, 496 
Italy : 

Claims of U.S. nationals for property in Italy damaged 

in vpar, deadline, 651 
Defense measures (Cooper, testimony), 430 
Former colonies. General Assembly resolution, 144 
German-looted gold, Italian and other claims submitted 

to arbitrator by U.S., France, and U.K., text, 785 
Italian Senate, contribution to NAT defense budget 

statement (Acheson), 845 
Peace treaty, relation of military program to, exchange 
of letters ( Senator Lodge and Assistant Secretary 
McFall), 379 
Somaliland, agreement for Italian administration, 181 
U.S. Consulate at Bari opened, 1018 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union. 
Jamison, Edward, designation in State Department, 423 
Japan : 

Claims, filing procedure against closed institutions, 580 
Ambassador Dulles, addresses on Japanese peace treaty, 

228, 252, 403, 483, 576, 617, 726 
Ambassador Dulles, preparations for peace treaty, 485, 

584, 654, 747, 779, 837, 934, 1019 
Fisheries, post-treaty negotiations, exchange of letters 

(Yoshida, Dulles), 351, 579 
Forced-labor in Soviet Far East, Japanese victims 

(Kotschnig), .544 
Foreign press, erroneous drafts of peace treaty, 618 
Latin American opinion on Japanese treaty, U.S. invites 

(Dulles), 617 
Peace settlement, address by Secretary Acheson and 

statement by President Truman, 683, 699 
Peace settlement, exchange of letters (Dulles, Mac- 
Arthur), 485 
Peace treaty, discussions with General Ridgway and 
with leading Japanese, 747 

J 048 



Japan — Continued 

Presidential mission to Japan, apiwintment of si)ecial 
representative (Dulles), and statement (Acheson), 
185, 837 
Prisoners of war. General Assembly action, 68, 73 
Reparations, Philippine attitude, 405, 577, 578 
U.S. replies to Soviet comments, on Japanese peace set- 
tlement, 65, 852, 856 
U.S.S.R., attitude toward Japanese peace settlement, 
453, 483, 576, 726, 856 
Jessup, Philip C, addresses, statements, etc. : 

Foreign Ministers' Deputies, proposals and impasse, 803, 

859 
Peace strategy is global, 174 
Preventive war, fallacy of, 363 
Johnson, Herschel V., head of U.S. delegation to Brazilian 

presidential inauguration, 231 
Johnstone, William C, Jr., addresses: 

Answer to Soviet propaganda ("Big Lie"), 370 
Educational Exchange Program, 20 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission, 25, 814 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Civil Defense Committee established, 

588 
Jones, G. Lewis, designation in State Department, 156 
Jordan : 

Admiral Robert B. Carney to visit on Arab Legion Day, 

661 
Point 4 agreement signed, 500 
Point 4 water project, 990 
Judd, Walter H., criticizes VOA motion picture, 301 
Kaiser, Philip M. : 

Chairman, U.S. delegation. International Labor Con- 
ference, 34th session, 1024 
U.S. representative on Governing Body of ILO, 115th 
session, 384, 956 
Kashmir. See India. 
Katz, Milton, U.S. representative. Economic Commission 

for Europe, 912 
Keesing, Dr. Felix M., U.S. commissioner. South Pacific 

Commission, 7th session, 707 
Kelly, H. H., article on central and southern Africa trans- 
port problems conference, 110 
Kelly, Helen G., article, 5th session, Administrative Coun- 
cil, ITU, 33 
Kem amendment to appropriation act (1951), text, 1027 
Kimny, Nong, Cambodian minister, arrives in U.S., 984 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., protest to U.S.S.R. on killing of 

American military policeman, 986 
Kirkpatrick, Ivone, Chairman, Allied High Commission, 
exchange of letters with Chancellor Adenauer, 445, 
449, 902 
Knollenberg, Bernhard, commissioner on Northwest Atlan- 
tic Fislieries Commission, 190 
Koepfli, Joseph B., appointed as Science Adviser in the 

State Department, 317 
Kohler, Foy D., remarks on VOA. 780 
Korea : 

Ambassador (Yang) to U.S., credentials, 983 
Belgium to send additional forces. Sti2 
Canadian Infantry Brigade arrives, 862 
Casualties of U.N. forces in Korea, 656 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Korea — Continued 
Cease-fire, discussion of: 

Asian powers propose cease-fire, 113 
Chinese Communists' reply to invitation, 165 
Reports from Group on Cease-Fire, 113, 164 
Resolution re group to determine cease-fire, 113 
Resolution re invitation adopted (Cttee. I), 163 
Statements by Ambassador Austin and Secretary 
Acheson, 163, 164 
Chinese Nationalist troops, use of (Asst. Secy. McFall, 

letter to Rep. Seely-Brown), 263 
Colombian aid, 12 
Communiques to Security Council, 149, 2."i5, 393, 596, 

712, S;50, 984 
Communist land "reform" program, 582 
Documents, Korean and Russian, military orders (June 
28 and 30, 19.")0), enclosed in U.N. Command special 
report, translations, 828 
Embargo on shipments to People's Republic of China, 
text of General Assembly resolution (May 18, 1951), 
and statements (Gross), 848, 849, 1030 
Ethiopian troops .I'oin U.N. forces, 709, 775 
Ex. Or. 10195 designating Korea and adjacent waters 

as combat zone, 149 
General Assembly, 5th sess., actions taken on Korea, 

113, 138, 140, 146, 179 
MacArthur relieved of command (Austin to U.N. Sec- 
retary-General), 654 
Memorial Day for U.N. war dead, 984 
Military aid to U.N., status of officers, 861, 1030 
Norway contributes mobile hospital unit, 784 
Relief and rehabilitation. General Assembly resolu- 
tion (Dec. 1, 1950), text, 146, 179 
Soviet "cultural" influence, 788 
U.N. cemetery dedicated, 636 

U.N. collective action on Communist China's aggression 
in Korea : 
General Assembly resolution (Feb. 1, 1951), 236 
Statements by Austin, 166, 170, 203, 206 
U.S. Congress, resolutions, 168, 208 
U.S. draft resolution in General Assembly, 167 
U.N. Command Operations, eighth through twentieth 
rep<:irts ( Oct. 16, 1950-Apr. 30, 1951 ) , 43, 47, 50, 304, 
470, 471, 472, 625, 627, 710, 755, 910, 948 
U.N. Command Operations, special report, enclosing 

captured documents, 828 
U.N. contributions, for relief, status of, 596, 950 
U.N. distinguishing ribbon award. General Assembly 

resolution, 184 
U.N. forces in, appeal by Unified Command for addi- 
tional, 1030 
U.S. relief, 413, 469, 513 

Wedemeyer's report, comment by Secretary Acheson, 
784 
Korea, addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acheson. on Far Eastern policy, 164, 369, 683, 766, 923 
Austin, on need for U.N. action against Chinese Com 

munist aggression, 166, 170, 203, 206 
Fisher, on Korea and defense of Western Europe, 375 
Gross, on Peace Observation Commission, 553 
Hickerson, on U.N. collective security, 775 

Index, January fo June 1951 



Korea, addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 

Rusk, on reasons why we are in Korea, 64, 263, 295, 655 
Truman, on policy in Korea, 123, 205, 603, 699 
Kotschnig, Walter M., statements before ECOSOC on 
forced-labor conditions and infringements of trade- 
union rights in U.S.S.R., 403, 544 
Labor (see also International Labor Organization) : 
Agricultural workers' agreement, U.S. -Mexico, 188, 300 
Economic, Employment and Development Commission 

(ECOSOC), 6th session, U.S. delegation. 862 
Educational Exchange Program, role in, 788 
Forced labor, ECOSOC resolution on abolition of, 478, 

512, 670 
Forced labor, notably in U.S.S.R., 463, 544 
Latin America's role in future business (Miller before 

Harvard Business School Assn.), 975 
Schuman Plan, analysis (Acheson), 523 
Trade-union rights infringed in U.S.S.R., 403 
Edith C. Wall's views questioned, exchange of letters 
(Deputy Under Secretary Humelsine and Repre- 
sentative Walter), 994 
LabouiBse, Henry R,, Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 199 
Laos, U.S. Legation at Vientiane, opened, 851, 1018 
Lease of naval and air bases (U.S.-U.K., Mar. 27, 1941), 

U.S. -Canadian agreement to modify, 813 
Lebanon, Point 4 agreement and projects, 500, 825, 979 
Lerldy, John M., designation in State Department, 675 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S.S.R., discussed, 93, 302, 

646, 744 
Lequerica y Erquiza, Jos§ F^lix, credentials as Spanish 

Ambassador to U.S., 169 
Libby Dam and reservoir on U.S.-Canadian boundary, 

U.S. application to construct, 230 
Liberia, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Point 4 agreement with U.S. signed, 27 
Radio communications agreement, exchange of notes, 

5SS 
U.S. military training mission, agreement signed, 151 
Libya : 
Benghazi, opening of U.S. consulate, 423 
General Assembly resolutions following report of U.N. 

Commissioner to, 143 
Provisional government of, 643 n. 

U.S. representative on U.N. Advisory Council for Libya 
presented to the King designate, exchange of re- 
marks (Clark, Shaqishli), 643 
Lie, Ti-ygre, on : 

Designs for U.N. postage stamps, 949 
Status of contributions for Korean and Palestine relief, 
950 
Linder, Harold F., designation in State Department, 477 
Linville, Francis A., designation in State Department, 675 
Lithuania : 

Independence Day, statement by Barrett over VOA, 354 
VOA programs inaugurated, 369 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., Senator, exchange of letters with 
A.ssistant Secretary McFall on Italian peace treaty, 
379 
Looted gold, claims, tripartite agreement. 785 
Looted securities, agreement with Netherlands, 187 

J 049 



Lubin, Isador: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
U.N. Technical Assistance Board, ECOSOC, comments 

on 2d report, 307 
Water control as a world problem, 503 
World economic situation (1950), 538 
U.S. representative, ECOSOC, 12th session, 315 
Luxembourg. See Benelux. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas, commanding general, U.N. mili- 
tary forces : 
Exchange of letters with Ambassador Dulles, 485 
Relieved of command by President Truman, 605, 654 
MacBride, Sean, Irish Foreign Minister, confers with 

President Truman, 575 
McClellan, John L., Senator, introduces S. Res. 35 and 36 

on Communist China's aggression in Korea, 208 
McCIoy, John J., High Commissioner : 
Address on outlook for Germany, 736 
Letter to Representative J. K. Javits on status of Ger- 
many, 940 
Transfer of headquarters to Bonn, 89 
McComb, William R., chairman, U.S. delegation, Coal 

Mines Committee, ILO, 4th session, 835 
McCormack, John M., Representative, introduces H. Res. 

77 on Communist China, 168 
McCormick, Clarence J., Under Secretary of Agriculture, 

report on FAG conference (1050), 105 
McCullough, Max, appointed Director, UNESCO Relations 

Staff, 156 
McDermott, Michael J., on: 
Rusk's statement on Chinese-American friendship, 848 
Stalin's Pravda interview, 367 
McDonald, James G., resigns as Ambassador to Israel, 198 
McFall, Assistant Secretary Jack K., correspondence: 
Representative Lane, analysis of oflBcial personnel in 

U.S. and U.S.S.R., 649 
Senator Lodge on military provisions of Italian iieace 

treaty, 379 
Representative Seely-Brown on use of Chinese National- 
ist troops in Korea, 263 
McGhee, George C, Assistant Secretary, addresses, state- 
ments, etc. : 
Indian Government, tasks confronting, 892 
Iran, relations with free world, 657 
Middle East, conference of chiefs of missions, 423 
Near East, general situation and U.S. policy, 61, 186, 
221 
McGrath, J. Howard, Attorney General, announces agree- 
ment with Netherlands on looted securities, 187 
McKay, Vernon, article on the Ewe problem, 128 
McMahon, Senator Brien, correspondence with Secretary 

Acheson on Soviet speech, 256 
McMahon-RibicofE resolution on friendship for Russian 

people, 557 
Malik, Jacob A., Soviet representative, discussion with 

Dulles on principles for Japanese peace treaty, 65 
Maritime warfare (1907), revision (1949), transmission 

with report to Senate, 866 
Marshall, Gen. George C, testimony on joint defense of 

Western Europe, 328 
Martinez Trueba, Andrew, President of Uruguay, inaugu- 
ration of, 414 



Meeting of Consultation. See under Organization of 

American States, Foreign Ministers. 
Meier, Oscar W., designation in State Department, 317 
Merrell, George R., appointed ambassador to Afghanistan, 

716 
Mexico : 

Tariffs on crude oil imports, 152 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural workers, agreement with U.S., negotia- 
tions, 188, 300 
Trade agreement, termination, 152 
Military Medicine and Pharmacy, 13th Congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, 956 
Military mission, agreement with Liberia, 151 
Military Production and Supply Board, of NATO, 7 
Miller, Edward G., Jr., Assistant Secretary: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
ECOSOC, conference at Santiago, Chile, 454 
Latin America, relations with U.S. business, 975 
OAS, value of, 62 • 
Delegate to inauguration of Uruguayan president, and 
itinerary, 414 
Miller, Justin, to head Radio Advisory Committee, 518 
Moline, Edwin G., designation in State Department, 675 
Monsma. George N., designation in State Department, 423 
Mora, Jos6 A., credentials as ambassador of Uruguay to 

U.S., 575 
Morocco : 

Diplomatic agent and consul at Tangier appointed (Vin- 
cent), 477 
International Court of Justice sets deadline for filing 
statements on rights of U.S. nationals, 79 
Mor6n, Alonzo G., appointed commissioner on Caribbean 

Commission, 535 
Motion-picture films, American, text of U.S. note re- 
questing Soviet Government to cease unauthorized 
showing, 229 
Moulette, Clarence E., exchange of letters with Secretary 

Acheson on meaning of Korean war, 451 
Moulette, Corp. John B., letter to father on meaning of 

Korean war, 452 
Mutual aid and defense {see also Collective security) : 
American republics, Meeting of Consultation of Foreign 

Ministers, 4th, .569, 606 
Canada, civil defense cooperation, agreement by ex- 
change of notes, 587 
Canada-U.S. agreement on Newfoundland bases, modi- 
fying U.S.-U.K. agreement (Mar. 27, 1941), 813 
Execi:tive Order 10206, providing for detail of personnel 
of the armed forces in support of U.N. activities in 
peaceful settlement of disputes, 199 
French proposals for European Army welcomed (Ache- 
son letter to Schuman), 287 
Kera amendment to appropriation act (1951), forbid- 
ding foreign aid to any country which exports to 
U.S.S.R. or satellites, 1027 
U.S. and U.K., mutual interests in Iran, 700 
Vessels, light crui.sers offered to Argentina, Brazil, and 

Chile, 104 
Yugoslavia, materials for military forces, under MDA.\, 
letter from Truman to congressional committees, 
and U.S. note to Yugoslavia, 717, 718 



7050 



Department of State Bulletin 



Mutual aid aud defense, addresses and statements : 
Acheson : 
Congressional testimony on joint defense of Western 

Europe, 323 
On lOul prospects, 83 
On Pacific area, 369 
U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 766 
Austin, on collective security, 1G6, 170, 203, 206, 772, 773, 

774 
Bancroft, on U.N. collective security, 460, 771 
Bradley, Congressional testimony on joint defense of 

Western Europe, 330 
Burns, Norman, on Iran, 659 
Cabot, at Tufts College, 980 

Dreier, before Pan Amer. Socy. of New England, 688 
Dulles: 

On challenge of Communism, 85 

On proposed Japanese treaty, 252, 403, 483, 576, 726 
Eisenhower, on security of North Atlantic area, 245, 285 
Harriman, on alliance of free men, 806 
Hickerson, before Va. Women's Clubs, 775 
Loftus, .John, on Iran, 659 
Lubin, at ECOSOC, 538 

McCloy, High Commissioner for Germany, over Bavar- 
ian radio, 736 
McObee, on Near East area, 186 
Marshall, Congressional testimony on joint defense of 

Western Europe, 328 
Mathews, on Iran, 658 
Miller, on South America, 454, 975 
Ru.«sell, before Railway Clerks Convention, 895 
Truman : 

At Philadelphia, 283 
Budget excerpt, 269 
Civil defense conference, 763 
On Korea, 603 
On Pacific area, 699 
Webb, at Montreal, 927 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, aid to foreign 

countries under, 104, 717, 718 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program : 

Message to Congress (Truman), transmitting 2d semi- 
annual report on (summary), 757, 758 
State Department ofHcials (Webb, Cabot), consultations 
in London and Paris, 511 
Mutual Security Program : 
President Truman, message to Congress, including arms 

aid and economic assistance, 883 
Webb and Cowen (over NBC-TV), 1015, 1016 
Myers, Denys P., notes on compulsory jurisdiction of In- 
ternational Court of Justice, 664 
Narcotic drugs : 

ECOSOC resolutions on, 636 

Protocol (1948), amending 1931 convention, proclaimed, 
154 
Nash, Frank C, on commission to unite Atomic Energy 
Commission and Commission for Conventional Arma- 
ments, 991 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Near East : 
Nationals visit U.S., 29 



Near East — Continued 

Strategic position (McGhee over NBC), 186 
U.S. relations with (McGhee over VOA), 61 
Near East, South Asia, and Africa, relations with U.S. 

(McGhee), 61, 221, 423 
Near East Foundation, part in Point 4 Progi-am, 826 
Nepal, Point 4 agreement signed, 212 
Netherlands (sec also Benelux) : 

Looted securities, agreement signed, 187 
Tariff quotas on imp(n-ts of crude oil, 152 
Newfoundland bases for defense, U.S.-Canada agreement 

modifying U.S.-U.K. agreement (Mar. 27, 1941), 813 
Newsom, Herschel D., confirmed as member. Public Ad- 
visory Board (Foreign Assistance Act, 1948), 559 
Nicaragua, U.S. delegation to inaugural ceremonies, 814 
Nichols, Clarence W., designation in State Department, 

675 
Nolan, Charles P., designation in State Department, 423 
Nong Kimny. Cambodian Minister, arrives in U.S., 984 
North Atlantic Treaty, 2d anniversary, statement by 
President Truman, and message from Secretary 
Achesun to Chaiiman van Zeeland, 620 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see also European 
defense forces) : 
Agreement for the defense of Greenland, signed by U.S. 

and Denmark, text, 814, 943 
Agreement for the defense of Iceland, signed by U.S. and 

Iceland, text, 812 
Budget message of the President for the year ending 

June 30, 1952, excerpts, 269 
Council : 
Brussels meeting, communique (6th sess.), 7 
Reorganization, communique, 810 
Defense Production Board, established, 7, 811 
Financial and Economic Board, established, 810 
Italian Senate approves contribution to defense budget 

(Acheson), 845 
Military Production and Supply Board, superseded by 

Defense Production Board, 7, 811 
Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, defense plan, 917 
Raw materials, international arrangements for shar- 
ing (Acheson), 752 
State Department officials (Webb, Cabot), consulta- 
tions in London and Paris, 511 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, addresses, state- 
ments, etc. : 
Acheson : 

Brussels meeting, 3 

Congressional testimony for joint defense of West- 
ern Europe, 323 
U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 766 
Bradley, Con'.iressional testimony on joint defense of 

Western Europe, 330 
Byroade, Director, Bureau of German Affairs (over 

NBC-TV), 815 
Cooper, testimony, 428 
Eisenhower, before Congress, 245 
Fisher (at Des Jloines), 375 

Marshall, testimony on joint defense of Western Europe, 
328 



Index, January fo June 1951 



1051 



North Atlantic Treaty Org., addresses, etc. — Continued 
Truman : 
On Brussels meeting of North Atlantic Treaty Coun- 
cil, 6 
On S. Res. 99, U.S. troops in Europe, 637 
Northwest Atlantic Fi-sheries. See under Fisheries. 
Norway, mobile hospital unit contributed for Korea, 784 
OAS. See Organization of American States. 
Oil (see also Iran), new tariff quotas on imports of, 152 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 

Foreign Ministers, 4th Meeting of Consultation: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acheson, 8, 569, 616 
Thorp, 693 
Truman, 566 
Agenda and proposed revision, 66, 266, 568 
Announcement of, by Acheson, 8 
Collective defense, 569, 574, 606, 607 
Final act and draft resolutions, texts, 573, 606, 614 
History of past meetings, 9 
Results summarized (Dreier), 690 
U.S. delegation, 574 

U.S. representative (Daniels) requests meeting, 8 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, apiwint- 

ment of U.S. representative (Bohan), 639 
Inter-American relations reviewed (Dreier before Pan 

Amer. Soc. of New England), 688 
U.S. contribution to Technical Cooperation Program, 

185 
U.S. representative to Council, appointment (Dreier), 

462 
Value of OAS (Miller over VOA), 62 
Otterman, Harvey B., chairman of U.S. delegation. Inter- 
national Radio Consultative Committee, 6tli assembly, 
957 
Owen, George Hodges, appointed to Inter-American Ju- 
ridical Committee, 265 
Pacific. See South Pacific Commission. 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, report on, 479 
Pacific pact discussed by nations of Pacific, statement 

(Acheson), 369 
Pacific settlement of International disputes, relation to 

International Court of Justice, 667 
Pakistan (see also Kashmir under India) : 

Dispute with India, solution sought (Gross), 394, 629, 

913 
Point 4 agreement signed, 299 
Relief assistance for flooded areas, 89 
Palestine : 

General Assembly, resolution on refugees, 78, 145 
Peace between Israel and Syria, text of Security Coun- 
cil resolutions, and Austin's statement, 797, 914, 916 
Proceedings on Israeli-Syrian dispute, 672, 753 
Refugees and an international regime for Jerusalem, 

statements by John C. Ross, 74 
Relief programs : 

U.N. contributions, 596, 9.TO 
U.S. contributions, 469, 596 
Panama, Point 4 agreement signed, 502 
Pan American Day, proclamation, 572 
Pan American Railway Congress, 7th, report by Farley, 
458 



Panyushkin, Alexander S., Soviet Ambassador, exchange- 
of notes with Secretary Acheson on lend-lease set- 
tlement, 302, 646 
Parker, Chauncey G., appointed Assistant to U.S. High 

Commissioner to Germany, 89 
Passports : 

Czechoslovakia, not valid for, 932 
Hungary, issued, 770 
Patterson, Richard C, Jr., appointed Ambassador to 

Switzerland, 559 
Pawley, William D., appointed Special Assistant to tlie 

Secretary, 477 
Peace Observation Commission of United Nations. Bee 

Uniting-for-peace resolution. 
Peaceful settlement of disputes, detail of personnel of 
the armed forces in support of U.N. activities in (Ex, 
Or. 10206), 199 
Pearson, Lester B., report of Group on Cease-Fire in 

Korea, 113, 164 
Penaherrera, Luis Antonio, credentials as Ecuadoran Am- 
bassador to U.S., 169 
Perkins, George W., Assistant Secretary, statement on 

American efforts against aggression, 63 
Peru, Point 4 agreement signed, 219 
Philippines : 

Reparations from Japan, discussed, 405, 577, 578 
U.S. pledge fulfilled (Cowen), 1016, 1017 
War Damage Commission completes task on claims, 618 
Plaza, Galo, President of Ecuador, to visit U.S., 947 
Pleven, Ren^, French Prime Minister, visit to U. S., and 
joint communique with President Truman on collec- 
tive security, 187, 243 
Point 4. See under Technical cooperation programs. 
Poland: 
Friend.«hip and commerce (1931), treaty of, claim of 

violation answered by U.S. note, 821 
VOA honors anniversary of Polish constitution (Tru- 
man), 783 
Portugal, VOA programs, expansion of, 502 
Pospelov, P. N., speech on Lenin's birthday attacking U.S., 

257 
Pravda, interview with Stalin, 367 

President's Commission on Internal Security and Indi- 
vidual Rights (established by Ex. Or. 10207), 238 
Preventive war, with U.S.S.R., fallacy of idea (Jessup), 

363 
Prisoners of war : 

Concentration camps, survivors of, 670 
General Assembly, resolution for commission to investi- 
gate, text, 73 
General Assembly, summary of action, 178 
Greek military prisoners, General Assembly resolutions, 

143, 333, text, 348 
Japanese victims, forced labor in Soviet Far East (Kot- 

schnig), 544 
Statement before U.N. committee by U.S. representative 

Samp.son, 68 
U.S. reiwrts return of World War II prisoners of war 
(Austin to Lie), 879 
Prisoners of war convention (1929), revision (1949), 
transmission with report to Senate, 866 



1052 



Department of State Bulletin 



Proclamations : 

Narcotic drugs, protocol (1040) proclaimeil, 154 
Pan American Day, .')72 
Tariff quota on imports of crude oil, 152 
Ten-quay tariff negotiations, 988 
World Trade Week. 817 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property {.ice also 
Claims) : 
Belgium, procedure for filiiig war claims, 498, 987 
Communist China, Americans detained and denied com- 
munications, 047 
Copyright, universal convention proposed, article 

(Dixon, Goldblatt), 288 
Enemy property in Allied or neutral countries, Amer- 
ican claimants, procedure under Brussels agree- 
ment, 204 
Internationa) Court of Justice sets deadlines for filing 
statements on rights of U.S. nationals in Morocco, 
79 
Seagrave, Dr. Gordon S., trial of, 224 
Soviet murder of American soldier in Vienna, text of 

U.S. note protesting, 787, 986 
U.S. interests in property abroad (Ex. Or. 10244), 890 
Vogeler, Robert : 

Messages to President Truman and Secretary Ache- 
son, 770 
Negotiations betvs^en U.S. and Hungarian Govern- 
ments for release of, 723 
Provisional Frequency Board (radio), 593 
Public Advisory Board of the Foreign Assistance Act 

(1948), appointment to, 559 
Publications : 

Confuse and Control: Soviet Techniques in Oermnny, 

759 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 
reports, 5th semiannual, and Two-Way Street, 156, 
675, 788 
Foreign Relations, 1934, vol. IV, 439 
Lists : 

Congress, 39, 152, 197, 239, 251, 284, 332, 384, 431, 516, 

637, 645, 719, 756, 800, 919, 926, 1026 
State Department, 15, 84, 157, 279, 317, 439, 477, 409, 

599, 639, 676, 799, 815, 822, 803, 974 
United Nations, 278, 389, 555, 599, 624, 671, 831, 993, 
1014 
Preparation for Tomorrow: A German Boy's Year in 

America, 759 
Schuman Plan Constituting a European Coal and Steel 
Communitij: Draft Treaty Constituting the Euro- 
pean Coal and Steel Communitij and Draft Con- 
vention Containing the Transitional Provisions, 528 
V.8. Treaty Developments, 5th series, 316 
Radio : 

Communications agreement affecting amateurs, ex- 
change of notes with Liberia, 588 
Provisional Frequency Board, article (Smith), .503 
Transmitters, agreement signed with Canada, 302 
Radio Advisory Committee, to a.ssist U.S. Advisory Com- 
mission on Information, 518 
Radio Consultative Committee, International, 6th assem- 
bly, background of, and U.S. delegation to, 957 
Radio Moscow, foreign propaganda, 946 

Index, January to June 1951 



Railway Congress, 7th Tan American, report (Faricy), 

458 
Rand, George L., chairman, U.S. delegation, Communica- 
tions Division (ICAO), 4th session, 751 
Rau, Sir Benegal, report of Group on Cease-Fire in Korea, 

113, 164 
Ravndal, Christian M., delegate to inauguration of 

Uruguayan President, 414 
Raw materials. See International Materials Conference; 

Strategic materials. 
Reams, Elinor P., designation in State Department, 199 
Red Cross, to assist in repatriation of Greek children and 

military, 143, 333, 348 
Reed, Philip D., heads business committee to assist U.S. 

Advisory Commission on Information, 476 
Refugees and displaced persons : 

Concentration camps, survivors, text of ECOSOC reso- 
lution, 670 
General Assembly resolutions, 73, 78, 143, 145, 146, 178, 

348 
Germany, responsibility for, 443 
Greek children and military, repatriation sought, 143, 

333, 348 
International Children's Emergency Fimd, reports, 863, 

053 
International Refugee Organization, 7th session, reiiort 

(Warren), 952 
Korea, relief programs, 413, 469, 513, 950 
Palestine, refugees and an international regime for 

Jerusalem, statement (Ross), 74 
Palestine, relief programs, 469, 506, 050 
Soviet Repatriation Commission in U.S. zone of Austria 

expelled (Donnelly letter to Sviridov), 1019 
Swiss-Allied Accord, payment to IRO for nonrepatriable 
Nazi victims, 419 
Reichelderfer, Francis W., delegate to 1st Congress, World 

Meteorological Organization, 475 
Religious panel to advise on Information and Educational 

Exchange Program, 714 
Reparations, Paris agreement, developments under, 419 
Repatriation mission, Soviet, in U.S. zone of Austria, with- 
drawn, 1019 
Repatriation of children and prisoners of war, General 
Assembly resolutions, 73, 78, 143, 145, 146, 178, 333, 
348 
Research for U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe, Division of 

(DRS), established, 1.56 
Research for Western Europe, Division of (DRW), estab- 
lished, 156 
Restrepo Jaramillo, Cipriano, credentials as Colombian 

Ambassador, 979 
Rice, Stuart A., representative. Statistical Commission, 

(ECOSOC), 6th se.ssion, 837 
Ridgway, Lt. Gen. Matthew B., designated Command- 
ing General of U.N. military forces to succeed General 
MacArthur, 654 
Roberts, Richard H., representative, Wool Committee, 

IMC, 634 
Rockwell, Stuart W., as Special Assistant to Secretary of 

Air Force, 477 
Rodrick, Bertha S., retirement, 758 

1053 



Rooserelt, Franklin D., purported letter to Mr. Zabrousky 

(Zabronsky), 496 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D., U.S. delegate to 7th session, 

U.N. ComiDission on Human Rights, 316, 670, 672 
Ross, John C, statement, refugee problem, and inter- 
national regime for .Teru.salem, 74 
Royal Sanitary Institute, Health Congress, U.S. delegation 

to, 752 
Rubber Study Group, U.S. delegation, 316 
Rumania, General Assembly resolution (Nov. 3, 1950) on 

violation of human rights, 143 
Rural Cooperatives in Caribbean, U.S. delegation to tech- 
nical meeting, 3.SS 
Rusk, Dean, Assistant Secretary, addresses, statements, 
etc., on Korea and the Far East, 64, 263, 295, 655, 
846 
Russell, Francis H., addresses on Communism and on 

global foreign policy, 486, 895 
St. Lawrence and Great Lakes Seaway (1941 proposed 
agreement), H. J. Res. 3 for approval of agreement. 
Secretary Acheson, testimony, 432 
Sampson, Edith S., statement on prisoners of war ques- 
tion, 68 
Sandifer, Durward V., letter on contributions to aid pro- 
grams for Korea and Palestine, 469 
Sanitary conventions, conference on revision of, 635, 798, 

912 
Sargeant, Howland H. : 
Addresses and statements: 
UNESCO for communication among peoples, 16 
UNESCO in the Americas, 18 
VGA, German-language program, 653 
Chairman, U.S. delegation. General Conference, 
UNESCO, 6th session, 1023 
Sargent, Francis W., commissioner, Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries Commission, 190 
Saudi Arabia, Point 4 agreement signed, 187 
Sayre, Francis B., addresses, statements, etc. : 
Communist China, representation on Trusteeship Coun- 
cil, 236, 265 
Ewe question, solution sought, 509 
Scarce commodities. See Strategic materials. 
Schaefer, Milner B., appointed to Inter-American Tropi- 
cal Tuna Commission, 109 
Scheele, Leonard A., chairman, U.S. delegation. World 

Health Assembly, 4th session, 835 
Schoenfeld, Rudolf E., appointed Ambassador to Guate- 
mala, 5.59 
Schuman, Robert, French Foreign Minister, 523, 590 
Schuman Plan: 
Analysis, 523 
Statements by : 
Acheson, 523, 589 
Schuman, 590 
Truman, 589 
Science Adviser, OflBce of, established, 519 
Seagrave, Dr. Gordon S., trial in Burma, 224 
Security : 

Canal Zone, regulations on safeguarding of vessels, 
ports, and waterfront facilities in (Ex. Or. 10226), 
698 

J 054 



Security — Continued 
President's Commission on Internal Security and Indi- 
vidual Rights established (Ex. Or. 10207), 237, 238 
Security Council : 

Communist China, aggressor in Korea, attitude, 236 
Kaslimir dispute: 

Proceedings, 421, 479, 513, 598, 753, 831, 913 
Solution sought (Gross), 304, 629, 913 
Palestine, proceedings on, 672, 753, 914, 916 
Resolutions : 

Kashmir dispute (Mar. 30, 1951), 598 
Palestine, peace negotiations' (May 8 and 18, 1951), 
texts and statement (Austin), 797, 914, 916 
Security in the Middle East, statement (McGhee), 423 
Sevareid, Erie, interviews Secretary Acheson on present 

world crisis, 56 
Shaqishli, Muhammad, Prime Minister of Libya, exchange 

of remarks with Ambassador Clark, 643 
Shaw, Ambassador George P., note to Salvadoran Foreign 
Minister on Salvadoran definition of territorial 
waters, 24 
Shera, Jesse H., article on UNESCO Conference on Im- 
provement of Bibliographic Services, 707 
Simsarian, James, article on 7th session of U.N. Commis- 
sion on Human Rights, 1003 
Slavery and servitude, U.S. answers U.N. questionnaire, 

598, 713, 919 
Smith, Allan Hugh, article on Central and Southern 

Africa Transport Problems Conference, 110 
Smith, Marie Louise, article on Provisional Frequency 

Board, 593 
Smith, Paul A., Rear Admiral, delegate to Assembly, 

ICAO, 5th session, 999 
Somaliland, trusteeship agreement, 181 
Somoza, Gen. Anastasio, inauguration as President of 

Nicaragua, 814 
South and Southeast Asia, Consultative Committee on 
economic find social development in, U.S. delega- 
tion, 2.34 
South Africa, Union of: 

General Assembly action, 145, 181 

Indiaas in Union of South Africa, General Assembly 
resolution for conference of states concerned, 145 
Uranium agreement with U.S. and U.K., 28 
South Asia : 
U.S. policy (McGhee at Cincinnati), 892 
VOA inauguration of programs in, 946 
South Pacific Commission, 7th session, U.S. delegation, 707 
South West .\frica, question of status, 181 
Spain : 

Ambassador (Lequerica y Erquiza) to U.S., 169 
Export-Import Bank loans for agriculture, industry, 

and wheat, 380, 591 
General Assembly resolution (Nov. 4, 1950) revoking 
previous resolution (1946), and renewing interna- 
tional relations, 143 
U.S. Amba.ssador (Griffis) : 
Appointment, 317 
Remarks misinterpreted, 1018 
Spender, P. S., credentials as Australian Ambassador, 979 
Spofford, Charles M., Deputy Representative, NATO, SIO 
Stalin, Marshal Joseph, interview with Prarda, 367 

Department of State Bulletin 



State Department: 
Counselor (Bohlen), appointment, 559 
Country and commodity requirements, Department's 

responsibilities for coordination of, under Defense 

Production Act (1050), 27G 
Dismissal of officers at Houg Kong, .599 
Economic Affairs Bureau, reorganization, ()74 
Economic Defense and Trade Policy, Office of, estab- 
lished, 674 
Export Requirements CJommittee established, 276 
"Hoover Commission" recommendations, implemented, 

37, 274 
International Materials Policy, Office of, established, 

674 
International Security Affairs, Office of, established, 155 
International Trade Policy, Office of, abolished, 674 
Japanese peace settlement, assignments, (Departmental 

Announcement 103), text, S37 
Peaceful settlement of disputes, detail of armed forces 

personnel to support U.N. activities (Ex. Or. 10206), 

text, 199 
Personnel, improved system (Rowe-Ramspeck-De 

Courcy Committee), 715 
Research for U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe, Division of 

(DRS), established, 156 
Research for Western Europe, Division of (DRW), 

established, 156 
Retirement of Bertha S. Rodrick, 758 
Science Adviser, Office of, established (Departmental 

Announcement 31), text, 519 
Suspension of Mrs. Esther Caukin Brunauer, 675 
Yugoslav Emergency Relief Assistance, administration 

authorized (Ex. Or. 10208), text, 277 
Stineblower, Leroy D., designation in ECO.SOC, 316, 862 
Strategic materials (see also International Materials 
Conference) : 
Bolivian and U.S. officials, study of problems, 748 
Chile and U.S. discuss copper situation, 819 
Commodities, fair distribution of: 
Acheson, 752 
Thorp, 818 
Control of, tripartite statement, 149 
Cuba to cooperate in U.S. defense production program, 

380 
Embargo on shipments to People's Republic of China, 

General Assembly resolution, text, and statements 

(Gross), 848, 849 
Germany, cooperation, 443, 906 
Industrial controls in Western Germany, letter (Allied 

High Commission to Adenauer), 623 
Tripartite agreement, text, 621 
Inter-American relations (Dreier),688 
Meeting of Consultation (OAS), resolutions, 610, 

(draft), 614 
Oil, Iranian situation, 661, 700, 851, 891, 1015 
Sweden : 

Financial policies on transfer of dollars, 624 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

GATT, contracting party to, and termination of trade 

agreement (1935), 624 
Torquay protocol (GATT), signatory, 1020 



Sweeney, Wilson, U.S. representative, 3d session of Sub- 
committee on Iron and Steel (ECAFE), 357 
Sweet, Theodore L., U.S. representative. Sulphur Com- 
mittee, IMC, 475 
Swing, Raymond, appointed to VOA staff, 947 
Swiss-Allied Accord (1946), quadripartite, meeting, 419 
Switzerland: 

Consulate at Geneva elevated to consulate general, 639 
Double taxation, convention signed, 907 
U.S. Minister (Patterson), appointed, 559 
Syria : 
Point 4 aid, 826 

Security Council proceedings, 672, 753, 914 
Security Council resolutions (May 8 and 18, 1951) , texts, 
on dispute with Israel, 797, 916 
Taiwan (Formosa) : 

Scholarship program by ECA, 185 
U.S. military supplies, exchange of notes, 747 
Tariff.s and trade, general agreement on (GATT, 1947) : 
Contracting parties, 35, 415, 624 
German Federal Republic, accession to, 937 
Oil, new tariff quotas, 152 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (1947) , conference 
at Torquay of contracting parties : 
Articles, etc. : 

Contracting parties to GATT, 5th session (Weiss), 415 
Expanding world trade, 213 
Results of Torquay conference, 816 
Signatories to Torquay protocol, 862, 1020 
Statement by participating governments, 701 
U.S. proclamation, 088 

U.S. tariff rates (effective June 6, 1951), 862, 934, 988 
Tariff quotas on imports of crude oils, 152 
Taxation : 
Air Coordinating Committee, discussion of taxes on 

international air carriers, 533 
Double taxation, convention signed with Switzerland, 
907 
TC. See Trusteeship Council. 
Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA). See 

Point 4 under Technical cooperation programs. 
Technical cooperation programs: 

Bennett, Henry G., Technical Cooperation Administra- 
tor, to visit other American republics, 264 
Consultative Committee on economic development in 
South and Southeast Asia, meeting at Colombo, 
statement (Acheson), 234 
ECOSOC, Technical Assistance Board, report, 17, 307 
ECOSOC, water control, resolution, text, 671 
Expenses of, amount contributed by U.S., 17, 185, 225, 

457, 697 
FAO long-range program : 

Secretary Acheson and Secretary Brannan, letters to 

Director Dodd, 466 
U.S. recommendations, 467 
International Development Advisory Board, report on 
expanded world economy, and letters from Presi- 
dent Truman to chairman of Board, Members of 
Congress, and others, 558 
OAS, program contribution by U.S., 185, 457, 697 



Index, January to June 1957 



1055 



Technical cooperation programs — Continued 
Pan American Railway Con;;ress, seventh, technical 

assistance in railway development, 458 
Point 4 : 

Agreements and projects under: Af,i;hanistan, 299; 
Bolivia, 501; Chile, 219; Colombia, 501; Costa 
Rica, 151 ; Dominican Republic, 414 ; Ecuador, 
823; Es.vpt, 821?; Haiti, 824; India, 67, 988; Iran, 
601, 82G, 945 ; Iraq, 653 ; Israel, 500 ; Jordan, 500, 
990; Lebanon, 500, 825, 979; Liberia, 27; Near 
East Foundation, 820; Nepal, 212; Pakistan, 299; 
Panama, 502; Peru, 219; Saudi Arabia, 187; 
Syria, 826 
Agricultural consultants appointed, 990 
Grants under, for Caribbean Area, 827; Greece, 824, 

942 ; Israel, 826 
Leaders, activities, 264, 303, 989 

Technicians, orientation courses, 56, 303, 519, 827, 932 
Technical cooperation programs, addresses, statements, 
etc. : 
Bennett, on TCA, its workshops of liberty, 585 
Hayes, on TCA, its scope, 225 
Lubin, at ECOSOC, water control, 503 
McGhee, on Near East and South Asia, 221 
McGhee, on Point 4 (over CBS-TV), 657 
Miller, at ECOSOC, 454 
Sargeant, on UNESCO projects, 16 
Thorp, on policy issues, 94 
Thorp, OAS, Meeting of Consultation, on common effort, 

693 
Truman, on Point 4, 699 
Telecommunications (see also Voice of America) : 
International Telecommunication Union, Extraordinary 
Administrative Radio Conference of, U.S. policies 
and delegates, 154 
Provisional Frequency Board (Smith), 593 
Radio communications, agreement affecting amateurs, 

U.S.-Liberia exchange of notes, 588 
Radio Consultative Committee, International, 6th as- 
sembly, background of, and U.S. delegation to, 957 
Radio transmitters, agreement with Canada signed, 302 
U.N. telecommunications and postal sy.stems, 182 
UNESCO proposal on use of television, text, 1021, 1022 
Territorial waters, extent of, letter from Ambassador 
Shaw to Roberto E. Canessa, Salvadoran Foreign 
Minister, 24 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

American Republics, economic problems, 693 
Commodities, fair distribution of, 818 
Economic development of other countries, 94 
Ticoulat, G. J., U.S. representative, Pulp-Paper Commit- 
tee, IMC, 833 
Torquay protocol. See Tariffs and trade. 
Trade (see also Tariffs and trade) : 

Advertising Council, USIB Program (Begg before 

World Trade Conference), 409 
American Republics, economic problems facing (Thorp 

at OAS), 693 
Appropriation act for fiscal year 1951, 3d supplemental 
(H. R. 3.587), rider affecting trade abroad criti- 
cized by Truman, 1027 

1056 



Trade — Continued 

Chile and U.S. discuss copper situation, 819 
Commodities, fair distribution of (Thorp), 818 
Export of strategic materials from Germany, ban urged 

(McCloy letter to Adenauer), 906 
Latin America, relation.s with U.S. business (Miller), 

975 
Schuman Plan, 523 

Sweden, trade-agreement status, and dollar policy, 624 
Tariff quotas, new, on imports of crude oil, 152 
U.S. policy and program, article, 213 
U.S. policy issues in foreign economic development 

(Thorp at Chicago), 94 
World Trade Week, proclamation, 817 
Trade agreements : 

Renewal of Trade Agreements Act (Acheson, testi- 
mony), 209, 435 
Significance of, article, 213 
Termination of: 

Costa Rica (1936), exchange of notes, 662 
Mexico (1942), 152 
Sweden (1935), 624 
Trade-union rights, allegations regarding Soviet infringe- 
ments of (Kotschnig at ECOSOC), 463 
Transport and Communications Commission, 5th session, 

597 
Transport problems. Conference on Central and Southern 

Africa (Kelly, Smith, Birch), 110 
Treaties and other international acts : 
Agricultural workers, agreement with Mexico, negotia- 
tions, 188, 300 
Air Force missions, agreements with : 
Chile, 502 
Cuba, 26 
Air transport, agreements with : 
Ecuador (1947), amended, 188 
France (194G), amended, 1.52, 535 
Boundary waters (U.S.-U.K., 1909), U.S. application to 
International Joint Commission for construction 
of Libby Dam and reservoir on Canadian boundary, 
230 
Brussels agreement (1947) on conflicting claims to Ger- 
man assets, entry into force, summary, and proce- 
dure for American claimants, 293, 294 
Civil defense, cooperation, agreement by exchange of 

notes with Canada, 587 
Civilians in time of war, protection of (Geneva, 1&49), 

transmission to Senate, with report, 866 
Claims, for war damages, exchange of notes with Bel- 
gium, 498, 987 
Collaboration and collective self-defense, treaty signed 

by Benelux countries, France, and U.K., 6()S 
Consular convention, signed with U.K., 987 
Copyright convention, universal, article (Dixon, Gold- 

blatt), 2SS 
Double taxation, convention with Switzerland, signed, 

907 
Foodstuffs, U.S. provision of, text of agreement signed 

with Yugoslavia, 150 
Freedom of information, proposed convention, Soviet 
preamble analyzed (Binder), 194, 232 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Treaties aiifl other international acts — Continued 

Friendship and commerce (1931), I'oland claims vio- 
lation, 821 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty signed 

with Colombia, 746 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1947). See 

Tariffs and trade. 
Geneva conventions (1949) for the protection of war 
victims: revising Geneva convention (1929) for 
amelioration of the condition of wounded and sick of 
armies in the field; Geneva convention (1929) re 
prisoners of war; and Hague convention (1907) on 
maritime warfare ; also a new convention on pro- 
tection of civilians in war ; with report, trans- 
mitted to Senate, SG6 
German-looted gold, claims, tripartite agreement 
(France, U.K., U.S.) to submit to arbitrator, text 
and statement, 7S5 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 

Debts. Allied High Commission and tripartite com- 
muniques (France, U.K., U.S.), and exchange of 
letters with Adenauer, ys, 445, 901 
Foreign Ministers, Western (1950), implementation 
by Allied High Commission of decisions granting 
certain powers to Germany, 443, 623, 902 
Industrial controls agreement (U.S.-U.K.-France), 
text, 621, 623 
Greenland, defense agreenient with Denmark concern- 
ing, text, 814, 943 
Iceland, defense agreement, background and text, 812 
Indemnification for war damage, exchange of notes with 

Belgium, 498, 987 
International Court of Justice, compulsory jurisdiction, 
including relation of pacts on pacitic settlement to, 
article (Myers), 6(54 
Japanese peace settlement. See under Japan. 
Joint Brazil-United States Commission for Economic 

Development, exchange of notes. 25, 814 
Lease of naval and air bases (U.S. -U.K., Mar. 27, 1941), 

U.S.-Canadian agreement to modify, 813 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S.S.R., negotiations, 93, 

302, 646, 744 
Libliy Dam and reservoir on U.S.-Canadian boundary, 
U.S. application to construct, filed with Interna- 
tional Joint Commission under boundary waters 
treaty (1909), 230 
Looted securities, agreement signed with Netherlands, 

187 
Maritime warfare (1907), revision (1949), transmis- 
sion with report to Senate, 806 
Military mission, agreement signed with Liberia, 151 
Military supplies to China (Taiwan), exchange of notes, 

747 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948), amending 1931 con- 
vention, proclaimed, 154 
Newfoundland bases for defense, U.S. -Canada agree- 
ment modifying U.S. -U.K. agreenient (Mar. 27, 
1941), 813 
North Atlantic Treaty, agreements related to, for de- 
fense of Greenland and Iceland, 812, 814, 943 
Pacific pact, discussion, statement (Acheson), 369 

Index, January to June 1951 



Treaties and other international act.s — Continued 

Peace treaty with Hungary (1947), invoked in case of 

Vogeler, 723 
Peace treaty with Italy (1947), relation of military 
program to, exchange of letters (Senator Lodge 
and Assistant Secretary McFall), 379 
Point 4 agreements (see alxo innlcr Technical coopera- 
tion programs) signed with: 
Afghanistan, 299; Bolivia, .501 ; Chile, 219; Colombia, 
.501; Costa Rica, 151; Dominican Republic, 414; 
Ecuador, 823 ; Egypt, 823 ; Haiti, 824 ; India, 67 ; 
Iraq, 653 ; Israel, 500 ; Jordan, 500 ; Lebanon, 979 ; 
Liberia, 27 ; Nepal, 212 ; Pakistan, 299 ; Panama, 
502; Peru, 219; Saudi Arabia, 187; Uruguay, 501 
Prisoners of war convention (1929), revision (1949), 

transmission with report to Senate, S6C 
Radio Ceylon, agreement for equipment for, in return 

for VOA facilities, exchange of notes, 946 
Radio communications, agreement affecting amateurs, 

exchange of notes with Liberia, 588 
Radio transmitters, agreement signed with Canada, 302 
St. Lawrence and Great Lakes Seaway (1941 proposed 
agreement), testimony by Secretary Acheson in sup- 
port of H. J. Res. 3 for approval of, 432 
Sanitary conventions, conference on revision of, 635, 

798, 012 
Schuman Plan, analysis and statements (Acheson, 

Schuman, Truman ) , 523, 589, ,590 
Swiss-Allied Accord (1946), quadripartite, meeting, 419 
Torquay protocol. See Tariffs and trade. 
Trade agreements, termination : 
Costa Rica (1936), 662 
Mexico (1942), 152 
Sweden (1935), 624 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal (testimony, Acheson), 

209, 435 
Trade agreements program, discussed, 213 
Uranium, production, agreement between U.S., U.K., 

and South Africa, 28 
Wounded and sick of armies in field (Geneva conven- 
tion, 1929), revision (1949), transmission with re- 
port to Senate, 866 
Treaty Developments, U.S., 5th series, released, 316 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, 901, 902, 906, 

1023 
Truman, President : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Acheson supported as foe to Communism, 10 

Aggression, Communist China, 205 

Aggression, prevention by military strength, 809 

Appropriation act, rider defective, 1027 

Chinese Reds, aggres.sors in Korea, 205 

Civil defense, 763 

Collective security, joint communique, with French 

Prime Minister Pleven, 243 
EGA and Schuman Plan, results, 589 
Faith for which men fight, 283 
India, food aid, 349, 592 
Korea, policy, 603 
Meeting of Consultation (OAS), 566 
National Conference on Citizenship, 931 
NAT, Council, Brussels meeting, 6 

7057 



Truman, President — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
NAT, 2d anniversary, 620 
NAT, U.S. troops in Europe (S. Res. 99), 637 
Pacific area, 205, 603, 699 
Point 4 Program, 699 
Security, Internal, and Individual Rights, Commission 

established, 237, 238 
VOA, funds, 638 

VGA, Polish constitution, 160th anniversary, 783 
Appropriation act, 3d supplemental (H. R. 3587), rider 

restricting economic aid abroad, criticism, 1027 
Budget message, excerpt, appropriations for conduct of 
foreign affairs and for military and economic aid 
to Europe, 269 
Correspondence : 

Board of Foreign Scholarships (Johnson), on success 

of Fulbright Program, 918 
Bureau of Budget (Lawton), on establishing Federal 

History Program, 272 
Congress, Committees, on aid to Yugoslavia, 718 
Congress, Members of, enclosing report of Interna- 
tional Development Advisory Board, 5.58 
Congress, Members of (Flanders et ul.), on proposals 

for peace through disarmament, 514 
Eisenhower, appointment as SCAFE, 7 
Heads of Government agencies, enclosing report of 
International Development Advisory Board, 559 
International Development Advisory Board (Koclie- 

feller), 558 
Philippine War Damage Commission, war claims, 618 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress : 
Annual message, 123 
Budget, excerpt, 269 
Indian food crisis, 349 
Mutual Security Program, 883 
Messages to Congress transmitting: 

Geneva conventions (1049), with report, 866 
Blutual Defense Assistance Program, report, 757, 758 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
Truslow, Francis Adams, 477, 814 
Trust territories, South West Africa, General Assembly 

resolution on status, 181 
Trusteeship Council (TC) : 
Ewe problem : 

Iraqi-U.S. resolution and statement (Sayre), text, 

479, 509 
Study, with map (Gerig, McKay), 128, 181 
Pacific Islands, U.S.-administered, report on, 479 
Report and re.soliitions of General Assembly on, 180 
Somaliland trusteeship agreement, General Assembly 

approval, 181 
U.S. opposition to Chinese Communist representation on, 
236, 265 
Underbill, Bartow H., designation in State Department, 

477 
Unger, I'aul A., U.S. delegate to GATT at Tonjuay, 266 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.). See also 
Coiinnuiiism ; Foreign Ministers, Council of. 
Amerika, popularity causes concern, 985 
Communist China, relations with, 138, 236, 265, 512 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

Forced labor conditions in Soviet Union (Kotschnig at 
ECOSOC), 544 

Freedom of information convention, Soviet draft pre- 
amble analyzed (Binder at U.N.), 194, 232 

Friendship for Soviet people (Acheson to Connally), 
text of letter and joint resolution, 550, 5.57 

Japanese peace settlement, attitude, 453, 483, 576, 726, 
856 

Korean independence. Secretary Acheson's statement 
on Soviet attitude, 784 

Lend-lease settlement, negotiations and proposed terms, 
93, 302, 646, 744 

Lenin Day speech attacking U.S., 257 

Motion-picture films, American, Soviet Government re- 
quested to cease unauthorized showing, text of 
U.S. note, 229 

Murder of American soldier in Vienna (Gresens), and 
text of U.S. note protesting, 787, 986 

Pacific area, Soviet strategy (Dulles at Philadelphia), 
483 

Personnel, official, analysis of, in U.S. and U.S.S.R., 
letter from Assistant Secretary McFall to Repre- 
sentative Lane, 649 

Pospelov, speech attacking U.S., 257 

Preventive war, fallacy of a ( Jessup), 363 

Prisoners of war detained in Soviet territory: 

General Assembly, summary of action and text of 
resolution for commission to investigate, 73, 178 
Statement by U.S. representative (Sampson), 68 

Propaganda, Soviet, "Our answer to the Big Lie" 
(Johnstone before World Affairs Council, San Fran- 
cisco), 370 

Radio Moscow increases foreign propaganda, 946 

Repatriation mission in U.S. zone of Austria withdrawn, 
with text of Donnelly letter to Sviridov, 1019 

Soviet thrusts against Europe and Asia, defending peace 
from (Acheson before U.S. Chamber of Commerce), 
766 

Stalin's Prat^da interview: 

Statement on Soviet deception (McDermott), 367 
VOA and Wireless Bulletin broadcast U.S. reaction, 
307 

Trade-unions, allegations regarding rights (Kotschnig 
at ECOSOC), 4G3 

Trusteeship Council, U.S. opposes Chinese Communist 
representation (Sayre), 230, 265 

U.N., analysis of Soviet performance in (Gross), 390 

U.N. faces Comumnist aggression (Gross before Amer. 
Pol. Sci. Assn.), 57 

U.S. foreign aid, restriction by Kem amendment, 1027 

U.S. rebuttal of Soviet claim of U.S. aggression in China 
and violation of Chinese airspace, 267, 355 

U.S. relations with (Harriman), 806 

U.S. relations with, MeMahon-Ribicoff resolution (text), 
and Acheson letter to Connally, 556, 557 

U.S. replies to Soviet comments on Japanese peace set- 
tlement, 65, 852, 856 

VOA, inauguration of Georgian-language programs, 946 
Unitarian Service Committee, medical mission to Israel, 
826 



1058 



Department of State Bulletin 



United Kingdom (U.K.) : 

Bevin, Foreign Minister, resignation and deatli, 449, C63 
Commodity sliortages, joint statement witli U.S. and 

France, 149 
Defense measures (Cooper, testimony), 428 
Ewe prolilem, study in operation of Trusteeship Council, 

128, 181, 479, 509 
German del)t settlement, tripartite communiques, 443, 

901 
Iranian oil situation, U.S.-U.K. discuss mutual interests, 

GOl, 700, 851, 891 
Royal Sanitary Institute. Health Congress of, 752 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Collaboration and collective self-defense with France 

and Benelux, 608 
Consular convention, signed, 987 
German-looted gold, tripartite agreement, text, 785 
Germany, industrial controls, tripartite agreement, 

text, 621, 623 
Japanese peace settlement, views, 1019 
Lease of naval and air bases (1941), U.S.-Canadian 

agreement to modify, 813 
Uranium production, agreement signed with U.S. and 
South Africa, 28 
United Nations (U.N.) : 
Armed forces : 

Collective Measures Committee (set up under General 
Assembly's uniting-for-peace resolution), U.S. 
views outlined, 140, 419, 420, 460, 771, 9.59 
U.S. Executive Order 10206, on use of personnel of 
U.S. armed forces in support of certain U.N. 
activities, 199 
Arming for peace, exchange of letters (Truman, Flan- 
ders et al.), 514 
Chinese Communist regime, attempts to blackmail U.N. 

(Austin), 203 
Chinese Communists, aggression in Korea (Truman), 

205 
Chinese representation, 138, 236, 265, 512 
Collective security system, 140, 419, 420, 460, 512, 553, 

771, 959 
Coordination of Atomic Energy Commission and Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments : 
Proceedings, and resolution (Dee. 13, 19.50) setting 

up a committee to report, 140, 318, 420, 912 

U.S. statement (Nash) and working paper, 991, 992 

Copyright convention, universal, efforts of UNESCO for, 

288 
Court. See International Court of Justice. 
Documents listed, 278, 389, 555, 599, 624, 671, 831, 993, 

1014 
ECOSOC. iSee Economic and Social Council. 
Free men, great alliance of (Harriman before Amer. 

Assn. of U.N., Los Angeles), 806 
Freedom of information, draft convention (Binder be- 
fore U.N.), 194, 232 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
German monetary reform law, effect on U.N. nationals, 

651 
Headquarters, General Assembly resolution on regula- 
tions relative to (Dec. 12, 1950), 184 

Index, January to June 1 95 1 



United Nations — Continued 
India, State of Jammu and Kashmir, U.N. representa- 
tive Graham to effect demilitarization, 753, 831 
India and Pakistan, solution of dispute sought (Gross), 

394, 629, 913 
Indonesia, Commission for, final report, 036 
International Children's Emergency Fund, reports, 863, 

953 
Korea. See Korea. 
Korean conflict, resolute action by U.N. needed (Austin), 

106, 206 
Libya, exchange of remarks between U.S. representa- 
tive Clark and Prime Minister Sbaqishli, 643 
Palestine, problem of refugees and of an international 

regime for Jerusalem, statements (Ross), 74 
Palestine, relief program, status of contributions, .590, 

950 
Peace Observation Commission, 140, 460, 512, .5.53, 771 
Postal administration, General Assembly resolution 

(Nov. 16, 19.50), 182 
Prisoners of war, U.S. reports return of (Austin to 

Lie), 879 
Prisoners of war resolution, statement by Edith S. 

Sampson, alternate U.S. representative, 68 
Security Council. Sec Security Council. 
Slavery-servitude questionnaire, and U. S. reply to, 

598, 713, 919 
Soviet charges against U.N. (Hickerson before Foreign 

Policy Institute), 731 
Soviet performance in U.N., analysis (Gross), 390 
Telecommunications system for U.N., General Assembly 

resolution (Dec. 12, 19.50), 182 
Trusteeship Cimncil. See Trusteeship Council. 
U.N. budget, 182 

U.N. Command Operations in Korea. See under Korea. 
U.N. faces aggression (Gross), 57 
U. S. contribution to aid Palestine refugees, 4G9, .596 
Why we need allies (Truman before Civil Defense Con- 
ference), 763 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 
Bibliographic services, conference on, 707 
Communication among peoples (Sargeant at Topeka), 

16 
Copyright, efforts for, 288 

General conference, 6th session, U.S. delegation, 1030 
Human rights, cultivation of (Heindel at Atlantic City), 

507 
U.S. National Commission for, proposals for use of 
television and for studies of foreign areas, 1021, 
1022 
United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans 

(UNSCOB), 143, 346, 348, 554 
United Nations Technical Assistance Program, 17, 175, 307 
United States Advisory Commission on Educational Ex- 
change, reports, 156, 675, 788 
United States Advisory Commission on Information, 29, 

422, 476, 518, 638, 716 
United States in United Nations (weekly summary), 117, 
1.59, 192, 235, 267, 318, 358, 398, 420, 478, 512, 597, 635, 
672, 753, 797, 912, 958, 1030 

J 059 



United States Information and Educational Exeliange 
Program {see also International Information, etc.), 
committees named to assist Information Program, 
476, 518, 714 
United States troops in Europe (see also Uniting-for- 
peace resolution) : 
Austria, American soldier on patrol duty (Gresens), 
murdered, text of U.S. note to U.S.S.R. protesting, 
787, 986 
Czechoslovakia, missing U.S. planes in, 1019 
S. Res. 99, test (and Truman statement) authorizing, 
637 
Uniting-for-peace resolution (Nov. 3, 19.50) : 

Collective Measures Committee and Peace Observation 
Commission set up thereunder, 140, 419, 420, 460, 
512, 553, 771, 9-59 
Detail of U.S. armed forces to U.N., 199, 950 
Universal Postal Union (UPU), resolution on seating 

Chinese Communist, adopted, 193 
UNSCOB. See United Nations Special Committee on the 

Balkans. 
UPU. See Universal Postal Union. 

Uranium, U.S., U.K., and Union of South Africa, agree- 
ment on production, 28 
Uruguay : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Morn), credentials, 575 
Point 4 agreement, exchange of notes, 501 
U.S. delegation to inaugural ceremonies, 414 
Vargas, Getulio, President of Brazil, inauguration, 231 
Venezuela : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Araujo), credentials, 302 
Tariffs on crude oil imports, 152 
Vessels : 

Canal Zone, safeguarding of vessels, ports, and water- 
front facilities (Ex. Or. 10226), 698 
Light cruisers offered to Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 

104 
NATO defense plan for ocean shipping, 917 
Poland charges discrimination in N.Y. harbor, U.S. 
note denying, 821 
Vincent, John Carter, appointed as chief of mission at 

Tangier, 477 
VOA. See Voice of America. 
Vogeler, Robert A., released from detention in Hungary, 

723, 770 
Voice of America (VOA) : 

Agreement for equipment for Radio Ceylon in return 

for VOA facilities, exchange of notes, 946 
Appointment (Swing), 947 
Appropriations urged (Truman), 638 
Congressional hearing requested (Barrett, letter to 
Benton), and statement (Barrett) in answer to 
criticism (Judd), 301, 302 
Darkness at Noon, transmission of, 7(X) 
Effectiveness (Kohler before Institute for Education 

by Radio-Television), 780 
Expansion of programs, 309, 502, 724 
Inauguration of programs, 151, 369, 502, 652, 653, 783, 
946, 947 

1060 



Voice of America — Continued 

Lithuanian Independence Day (Barrett), 354, 369 
Polish Constitution, anniversary honored (Truman), 

783 
Stalin's Pravda interview, broadcasts U.S. reaction, 367 
Vyshinsky, Andrei, note on meeting of Council of Foreign 

Ministers, 313 
Wall, Edith C, labor \ iews of, 994, 997 
Walter, Francis E., U.S. Representative in Congress, query 

on State Department employee, 996 
War criminals, German : 

German attitude toward, article (Buttenwieser), 488 
Landsberg prisoners, stay of execution and execution, 
363, 412, 490, 907, 988 
Waring, Frank A., chairman, Philippine War Damage 
Commission, letter to President on completion of 
task, 619 
Warren, Fletcher, named to joint committee for study of 

Bolivian economic problems, 748 
Warren, George L., article on 7th session of General Coim- 

cil of IRO, 952 
Water control, ECOSOC resolution, 671 
Water control and utilization as a world problem 

(Lubin), 503 
Waynick, Capus M., heads delegations to Guatemalan and 

Nicaraguan inaugural ceremonies, 499, 814 
Webb, James E. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Bevin, British Foreign Minister, resignation, 449 
Canada, relations, 927 
Japanese peace treaty, 654 
Mutual Security Program, 1015 
U.S. organization of foreign affairs, 273 
Consultation with MDAP and NATO officials, 511 
Wedemeyer"s report on Korea, statement by Secretary 

Acheson, 784 
Weiss, Leonard, report on 5th session of GATT, at Tor- 
quay, 415 
West, Robert Rout, as Special Consultant to the Secre- 
tary, 156 
West Indian Conference, 4th sess., report by Miss Arm- 
strong, 385 
Wheat Council, International, 5th session, U.S. delegation 

to, 1026 
White, Edwin D., chairman, U.S. delegation. Cotton Ad- 
visory Committee, 191 
White, Ivan B., designation in State Department, 423 
WHO. See World Health Organization. 
Williams, John Wayne, dismissal, 599 
Wireless Bulletin, Stalin's Prarda interview, broadcasts 

U.S. reaction, 367 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Executive Board, 7th and Sth sessions, U.S. delegation, 

118, 959 
International sanitary regulations, special committee 
to revise, U.S. delegation, 635, 798, 912 
World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1st Con- 
gress, U.S. delegation, 475, 754 
World Power Conference, sectional meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 118 

Department of State Bulletin 



« 



World Trade Week, proclamation, 817 

Wounded and sick of armies in field (Geneva convention, 
1929), revision (1949), transmission with report to 
Senate, 866 

Wyckoff, Dr. Ralph W. G., chairman, U.S. delegation. 
International Union of Crystallography, 2d assembly, 
1025 

Yang, You Chan, Korean Ambassador, credentials, 983 

Yoshida, Shigeru, Japanese Prime Minister, exchange of 
notes with Dulles on post-treaty fisheries negotia- 
tions, 351 



Yugoslavia : 
Agreement on U.S. provision of foodstuffs, signed, 150 
Flour from German Federal Republic, 104 
Military forces, materials for under MDAA, letter from 
Truman to congressional committees and U.S. note 
to Yugoslavia, 717, 718 
Yugoslav Emergency Assistance Act to supply food- 
stuffs, text of act and of Executive Order 10208 
277 
Zabronsky (Zabrousky), Jacob O., of National Council 
of Young Israel, alleged Roosevelt letter to, 496 



f 



Index, January /o June 195 J 



1061 



Corrections in Volume XXIV 



The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call attention 
to the following errors : 

January S: page V5, left-hand column, first para- 
graph, "Gen. William A. Piley" should read "Gen. Wil- 
liam A. Riley." 

January 15: Index, under "Mutual Aid and Defense," 
delete "Dusseldorf, Opening of Consulate General." 

January 22; page 12,3, left-hand column, the last 

sentence in the sixth paragraph should read as follows : 

"We are able to produce more than ever before — in 

fact, far more than any country ever produced in the 

"History of the world." 

page 12.3, right-hand column, the last 
sentence in the seventh paragraph should read as fol- 
lows : "But, 1 am sorry to say, that has not been the 
case." 

page 124, right-hand column, the last 
sentence in the second paragraph should read as fol- 
lows : "Therefore, even if we were craven enough — 
and I do not believe that we could be — I say even if 
we were craven enough to abandon our ideals, it 
would be disastrous for us to withdraw from the com- 
munity of free nations." 

page 125, right-hand column, the 
fourth paragraph, the following sentence should be in- 
serted after the first sentence : "Long, long ago we 
stood for the freedom of the peoples of Asia." 

January 29: page 167, left-hand column, "Text of 
U.S. Resolution" should read "Text of U.S. Draft 
Resolution." 



March 2G: page 502, top of right-hand column, the 
heading "U.S.-Chile Sign Air Force Agreement" should 
read "U.S.-Chile Sign Navy Mission and Air Force 
Mission Agreements." 

April 2: page 529, left hand column in footnote, de- 
lete the following words ; "Message from the President 
of the United States transmitting the" 

In index, delete heading "Trust Terri- 
tories" and subhead : "Caribbean Commission : U.S. 
Commissioner Appointed (Moron)." 

April 9: page 596, right-hand column, the title of the 
agency used in the heading and in the first paragraph, 
fifth line should read "United Nations Relief and 
Worlis Agency for Palestine." 

April SO: page 713, left-hand column, "U.N. doc. 
E/AC.33/Add.55" should read "U.N. doc. E/AC.33/ 
10/ Add. 55." The first five paragraphs are repetitious. 

May 21: page 82S, left-hand column, the last sentence 
of the first paragraph should read as follows: "The 
originals of these documents, which are in the Korean 
[one Korean, one Russian] language, are in the pos- 
session of the United States Government." 

June 11: page 959, right-hand column, the letter from 
Ambassador Gross to the Secretary-General was 
printed from U.N. doc. A/1822, dated June 25, 1951. 

June 18: Front cover, "Vol. XXIV, No. 625" should 
read "Vol. XXIV, No. 624." 

page 973, right-hand column, the third line 
in the first paragraph should be deleted. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Ottice 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 

U S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1951 



^ne/ z^eha^tTneni/ /C^ tn^ate^ 



^ 





UNITED ACTION FOR THE DEFENSE OF A FREE WORLD: 

Remarks by Secretary Acheson 3 

Statement by the President 6 

COMMUNISM THREATENS INTER-AMERICAN 
COMMUNITY— U.S. REQUESTS MEETING 
OF OAS: 

Announcement by Secretary Acheson 8 

Communication From Ambassador Daniels ... 8 

STRESSING INFORMATION THEMES TO MEET 
CHANGING WORLD CONDITIONS • hy Assistant 

Secretary Barrett 13 

REORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE— IMPLEMENTING THE RECOMMENDA- 
TIONS OF HOOVER COMMISSION 37 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 600 
January 1, 1951 




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JAN 12 1351 




bulletin 

Vol. XXIV, No. 600 • Publication 4053 
January 1, 1951 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government u-ith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the itork of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
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UNITED ACTION FOR THE DEFENSE OF A FREE WORLD 



Remarks by Secretary Acheson'^ 



qpHis AFTERNOON I would like to talk with you 
about the point we have reached in the develop- 
ment of the North Atlantic Treaty, what we did 
at Brussels, and where we are going from that 
meeting. 

I tliink the best way of putting this thing in 
perspective is to say that this meeting at Brussels 
was the conclusion of a chapter in a long book, a 
book in which the chapters which lie behind us are 
history, and the chapters that lie before us are 
plans for dynamic action. 

So far as the North Atlantic Treaty organiza- 
tion is concerned, that is only one part of this 
book. It is an important part. That part of the 
chapter which lay before Brussels was a period, 
and a very important and necessary period, of 
planning and organization. We were thinking 
about drawing up the structure of this organiza- 
tion before we could go to work to put real muscle 
and real bone into it. 

First Step in Field of Action 

Brussels brought the culmination of that part 
of the North Atlantic Treaty work. We have fin- 
ished the matter of plans. We have finished the 
matter of organization. Now we have taken the 
first step in the field of action. From now on it is 
action which counts and not further resolutions 
or plans or meetings, although there will be all of 
those. 

At Brussels we did several things. We took 
recommendations which had come from the meet> 
ings immediately preceding in London and acted 



' Made at a news conference at Washington, D.C., on 
Dee. 22 and released tt. tlie press on the same date; also 
printed as Department of State publication 4058. 



on those recommendations. They had to do with 
the creation of the united, unified, integrated 
army which is to provide for the defense of Eu- 
rope. The papers which came to us laid out the 
structure of that army, how it should be composed, 
of what troops, where the troops should come 
from, how it should be organized, its command 
structure, the higher command structure which 
would give that army its direction, and how the 
Supreme Commander should be selected and ap- 
pointed. We dealt with and acted upon all those 
matters. 

Selection of Supreme Commander 

Tlie structure was agreed upon and the force 
was created. The Council unanimously asked the 
President of the United States to select a United 
States officer to be the Supreme Commander. A 
specific recommendation was made as to who it 
was hoped that officer would be. The President 
responded at once, and that officer. General Eisen- 
hower, was unanimously appointed the Supreme 
Commander. As he has stated, he will leave 
shortly after the first of the year to go over and 
arrange for the creation and location of his staff. 

The creation of a supreme commander and the 
selection of General Eisenhower is an essential step 
and a most vital step in galvanizing into action 
the actual translation of these papers into terms 
of men with gims, materiel, air forces, and naval 
forces. 

There must be this one dynamic figure to give 
all of our allies the guidance, the direction, and the 
inspiration which will lead to the translation of 
papers into organized people and organized 
things. General Eisenliower, more tlian any living 



January I, J957 



soldier, has the capacity, the prestige, and the 
imagination which can bring that about. His 
appointment is in itself a great act in Europe, 
which has completely revolutionized the attitude 
of people toward the problems ahead of them. 

Now at Brussels also we considered material 
things as well as men with guns. It was clear to 
us that you cannot have an army, no matter how 
well organized, unless it is supplied, unless it is 
supplied in quantity, and unless all the productive 
capacities of all the allies are harnessed to that 
great effort. Consequently, the whole conception 
of the old production board was changed and there 
is to be a new vigorous and active board. I trust 
that at the head of that there will be a man in the 
economic field as dynamic and as full of leader- 
ship as General Eisenhower is in the military field. 
These two men must work very closely together 
if we are to use the vast potential and economic 
power of Western Europe to create what is neces- 
sary for this force. 

Concrete Objectives of Unified Command 

This force which is now in being means several 
concrete things. It means, first of all, that our 
forces in Europe will be, and they now are, under 
the command of General Eisenhower. It means 
that the British, French, Italian, Dutch, Belgian, 
and the forces of all the other North Atlantic 
Treaty nations which are now in existence for the 
defense of Europe will be, and many of them now 
are, under his command. It means also that those 
forces must be increased. They are not now ade- 
quate for their mission. They will be increased 
and steps are in process now by which they will be 
increased in France, in England, and in other 
countries of Europe; in the United States addi- 
tional forces will be placed at General Eisen- 
hower's disposal in Europe. 

We made it clear also at Brussels that, contrary 
to the propaganda which the Soviet Union and its 
satellites are putting out, this is a defensive force. 
It will be clear to any intelligent person that it 
must be. Certainly there is no remote intention, 
and there never has been, to use this force for 
aggressive purposes. 

German Participation 

Also at Brussels we took action on the very 
important question of the relation of Germany to 
the defense of Western Europe. We cleared away 
the obstacles which had been in front of German 



participation. We made it perfectly clear to the 
Germans that their participation is a matter to be 
discussed with them. Their will and their en- 
thusiastic cooperation is an essential part of any- 
thing which is to be done. We made it clear that, 
if they take part in this effort, then clearly their 
relations with the nations of Western Europe and 
with us in the United States will be and can be on 
a different basis from what they are now. 

Now that is perhaps nothing new to you. That 
is the action which was taken and I should like 
for a moment to try and put it in its relation with 
other chapters in this long book about which I 
have spoken. 

The North Atlantic Treaty work is only a part 
of that book. The action at Brussels is only a 
part of one chapter. It is that important part, 
however, which is moving from plans into action. 

Common Problem of Security 

Now the rest of the book, the material part of 
the book, the part which is history, has to do with 
what we and our allies have tried to accomplish 
since the end of the war. What we have tried to 
accomplish has been in the light of a clear concep- 
tion which we have all had. That is that the 
security of each one of us is tied up with the 
security of all of us, and therefore strength and 
security is a common problem and a common task. 
It is a task in which we must all wish to work 
together and in which we are all partners in the 
truest sense of the word. 

So far as the United States is concerned, this 
is a national policy. It isn't a matter which has 
been decided by any small group of people in 
connection with any particular event. It is the 
product of the decisions of all the Executive 
branches of the Government, of the Congress, and 
of the people of the United States over a long 
period of years. It is something which has found 
expression at various times in different acts. 
Exactly these same conceptions were inherent in, 
were discussed, and were decided when the Greek- 
Turkish Aid Program came up in the early part 
of 1947. These same ideas are inherent in the 
Economic Recovery Program. These same ideas 
are contained in the so-called Vandenberg resolu- 
tion passed by the Senate. We moved from the 
economic field into the field of providing a com- 
mon defense when we negotiated and almost unan- 
imously ratified the North Atlantic Treaty. 

Again this policy was reiterated when we came 



Deportment of State Bullefin 



to the military defense program, which was to 
put our aid at the disposal of our allies while they 
were building up the forces which, with oure, 
would give a common strength and a common de- 
fense to all of us. 

Now all the way through these chapters of the 
book and in connection with all the steps that I 
have mentioned there have been dissenting views 
expressed. There have been views expressed that 
we should not use our resources and our power in 
conjunction with others to build up a common 
strength and a common defense, but that we 
should retire to our own continent, that we should 
try to isolate ourselves from the problems and 
difficulties of the world, and that here on our 
hemisphere we should attempt to secure ourselves 
against the dangers and difficulties of the world. 
This attitude, as I say, has been expressed, has 
been debated, and the contrary decision has been 
taken in each one of the steps which I have 
mentioned. 

Policy Examination and Recommendations 
of National Security Council 

This attitude is one which is continually ex- 
amined. It is the task of the National Security 
Council to examine all alternatives and make 
recommendations regarding them. When the Na- 
tional Security Council performs its duty in this 
respect, it speaks for the whole Executive branch 
of the Government which is concerned with the 
defense problems of the United States and with 
the mobilization of the economic power of the 
United States which is necessary to back up that 
defense. So that the National Security Council 
means, of course, the President, who presides at 
it and whose sanction is necessary for the validity 
of any of its acts. It means the whole military 
establishment on the civilian side and on the mili- 
tary side, the whole organization of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff. It means the Department of 
State ; it means the Treasury Department ; it means 
the economic branches of the White House and the 
economic departments of the Government. They 
have examined this attitude many times, the last 
time quite recently, and, every time they have 
examined it, they have recommended unanimously 
that this is an impossible attitude for the United 
States to take because it spells defeat and frus- 
tration ; it has no possibility of success ; and there- 
fore it is not an attitude which this Government 
can usefuUy take. 



Conclusions Regarding Policy of Withdrawal 

In our work on this particular question we have 
brought out many considerations. I shall mention 
a few of them. 

It is our unanimous conclusion, and has been 
throughout all these years, and is now, that such 
a policy is a policy of withdrawal into our hemi- 
sphere and an attempt to deal on a defensive basis 
with the dangers in the rest of the world. Our 
conclusion is that the first result of that would 
enable the Soviet Union to make a quick conquest 
of the entire Eurasian land mass. 

To do that leads us to the second conclusion, 
which is that it would place at the disposal of 
the Soviet Union a possession of military resources 
and economic power vastly superior to any that 
would be then available for our home security. 
It would give the Soviet Union possession of a 
strategic position which would be catastrophic to 
the United States. 

In that situation we come to the third conclu- 
sion. In such a position, the Soviet Union would 
be able to nullify our power. Such nullification 
would be attempted, because, isolated as we would 
be, we would still have some potential threat to the 
success of the Soviet plans. 

We then come to the fourth conclusion, which 
is that such a developing situation would make 
any negotiation, any peaceful settlement of the 
problems before us, quite impossible. It would so 
unbalance the power in the world and put us at 
such a vast disadvantage that negotiation would 
not be possible at all. 

That leads to the fifth conclusion. Negotiation 
not being possible, we would then be brought 
either to the position where we must accept what- 
ever terms were imposed or where we would have 
to fight without allies merely to maintain, if we 
could in that precarious position, our own physical 
existence. 

I say physical existence because that brings us 
to the sixth conclusion. A position of that sort, 
accepted by us, would undermine the entire con- 
stitutional structure, the entire morale position, 
and the entire heritage of the American tradition. 

Therefore the National Security Council has 
rejected this policy because it concludes that it is 
a self-defeating policy and one which could lead 
only to surrender or to defeat. 

Building Strength To Maintain Freedom 

The attitude which we take is that we and our 



January 7, 7957 



allies are moving ahead with courage and with 
determination to build our common strength. We 
regard our dangers as common dangers and we 
believe that they can be met and must be met by 
common strength. We believe that they need our 
help in order to maintain their security and that 
we need their help. We know that, if, by an 
indiflferent attitude, we abandoned our allies with- 
out regard to future consequences, we would find 
ourselves in a position of unutterable national 
shame and great national weakness. 

Therefore, we are taking a policy of going 
forward with vigor and with determination and 
with courage. We are rejecting any policy of 
sitting quivering in a storm cellar waiting for 
whatever fate others may wish to prepare for us. 
As I say, we have rejected that course and, as the 
President made entirely clear last week, we are 
firmly resolved to build our strength side by side 
with our allies. By doing so we believe that we 
are calling upon the great potential strength of 
the entire free world to maintain its freedom. 
We believe that we can, if we pull together, build 
that strength and we are determined that we shall 
build it. 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House December 21] 

The Secretary of State this morning gave me a 
full report of his meeting in Brussels with the 
Foreign Ministers and Defense Ministers of the 
North Atlantic Treaty countries. 

I was greatly encouraged to hear from the Sec- 
retary of the serious way in which the representa- 
tives of the North Atlantic countries went about 
the job of bringing to life the military and eco- 
nomic agencies of the North Atlantic community. 

The Secretary reported that the appointment of 
General Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Com- 
mander, Europe, greatly heartened and inspired 
the European nations who see in it new proof of 
the firm intention of the free nations to stand 
together. 

Within the next few weeks the soldiers in Eu- 
rope of the members of the North Atlantic com- 
munity will be training together. Many of our 
hopes have now become facts with all that this 
means for the defense of the free world. 

The Secretary also reported on his informal 
conversations with French Foreign Minister Schu- 
man and British Foreign Minister Bevin. These 



conversations resulted in full agreement on how 
the three Governments, pursuant to the North 
Atlantic Council's decision would take up with the 
German (iovernment the problem of German con- 
tributions to the defense of Western Europe. 

I am in full agreement with the Secretary that 
the spirit shown by the countries of Western Eu- 
ro2>e lias justified our confidence that the free states 
of Europe mean business about setting up our 
connnou defense system. The success of this meet- 
ing will be a matter of great satisfaction to all 
the American people. 

Let there be no mistake about it — the unity of 
the nations of Western Europe and of the North 
Atlantic area is vital to their security and to ours. 



General Dwight D. Eisenhower 
To Command NAC Defense Forces 



MESSAGES EXCHANGED BETWEEN 

THE PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press by the White House Dceem'ber IS] 

The following telegram was received by the President 
from Secretary Achcson. 

The North Atlantic Council today completed 
arrangements for the establisliment of an inte- 
grated European defense force. This plan pro- 
vides that the Supreme Allied Commander, Eu- 
rope be a U. S. Officer. The Council has asked me 
to transmit to you its request that you designate 
a U. S. Officer to take this position. At the time 
this action was taken the membei-s of the Council 
expressed their earnest hope that you will find it 
possible to designate General of the Army Dwight 
D. Eisenhower for the position of Supreme Allied 
Commander, Europe. 

The President sent the following reply to Secretary 
Acheson. 

Pursuant to the request of the North Atlantic 
Council that I designate a U. S. Officer to take the 
position of Supreme Allied Conunander, Europe, 
I have designated General of the Ai'my Dwight D. 
Eisenhower. In taking this action I wish to ex- 
press both my gratification and agreement with 
the view of the North Atlantic Council that Gen- 
eral Eisenhower's experience and talents make him 
uniquely qualified to assume the important respon- 
sibilities of this position. 



Department of State Bulletin 



COMMUNIQUE 

[liclcascd to the itrcss December 19] 

Following is the text of a communique issued hij the 
North Atlantic Council at the close of its sixth x( ssion 
at Brussels on December 19, 1950. 

The North Atlantic Council acting on recom- 
mendations of the Defense Connnittee today com- 
pleted the arrangements initiated in September 
last for the establishment in Europe of an inte- 
grated foz"ce under centralized control and com- 
mand. This force is to be composed of contin- 
gents contributed by the participating govern- 
ments. 

The Council yesterday unanimously decided to 
ask the President of the United States to make 
available General of the. Army Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower to serve as Supreme Commander. Follow- 
ing receipt this morning of a message from the 
President of the United States that he had made 
General Eisenhower available, the Council ap- 
pointed him. He will assume his command and 
establish his headquarters in Eui'ope early in the 
New Year. He will have the authority to train 
the national units assigned to his command and 
to organize them into an effective integrated de- 
fense force. He will be supported by an interna- 
tional staff drawn from the nations contributing 
to the force. 

Tlie Council, desiring to simplify the structure 
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 
order to make it more effective, asked the Council 
Deputies to initiate appropriate action. In this 
connection the Defense Committee, meeting sep- 
arately on December 18th, had already taken ac- 
tion to establish a defense production board with 
greater powers than those of the Military Pro- 
duction and Supply Board which it supersedes. 
The new board is charged with expanding and 
accelerating production and with furthering the 
mutual use of the industrial capacities of the mem- 
ber nations. 

The Council also reached unanimous agreement 
regarding the part which Germany might assume 
in the common defense. The German participa- 
tion would strengthen the defense of Europe with- 
out altering in any way the purely defensive char- 
acter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
The Council invited the Governments of France, 
the United Kingdom and the United States to 
explore the matter with the Government of the 
German Federal Republic. 

The decisions taken and the measures contem- 
plated have the sole purpose of maintaining and 



consolidating peace. The North Atlantic nations 
are determined to pursue this policy until peace 
is secure. 



LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT 
TO GENERAL EISENHOWER 

[Released to the press by the White House December 19] 

The President todaij sent the following letter to General 
of the Army Diviyht 1). Eisenhower. 

De.\r General Eisenhower : The North Atlan- 
tic Treaty Nations have agreed on the defense 
organization for Europe and at their request I 
have designated you as Supreme Allied Com- 
mander, Europe. I view their request as a pledge 
that their support of your efforts will be complete 
and unequivocal. 

I understand that the Standing Group of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization will shortly 
issue a directive to you concerning your responsi- 
bility and authority as the Supreme Allied Com- 
mander, Europe. 

You are hereby assigned operational command, 
to the extent necessary for the accomplishment of 
your mission, of the U. S. Army Forces, Europe; 
U. S. Air Forces, Europe; and the U. S. Naval 
Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

Subject to overriding requirements of the Su- 
preme Allied Connnander, Europe, the missions, 
routine employment, training and administration 
of these forces will continue to be handled through 
command channels heretofore existing. 

You are authorized to have officers and enlisted 
personnel of the U. S. Armed Forces, as well as 
civilian employees of the Departments of the 
Army, Navy and Air Force, for your Staff in such 
numbers and grades as you consider necessary. 

I am sending a copy of this letter to the Secre- 
tary of State for his guidance and a copy to the 
Secretary of Defense for his guidance and neces- 
sary action by the Department of Defense. 

You are undertaking a tremendous responsi- 
bility. As President and Commander-in-Chief of 
the Armed Forces of the United States, I know 
that our entire country is wholeheartedly behind 
3'ou. Indeed, you carry with you the prayers of 
all freedom-loving peoples. I send you my warm- 
est personal good wishes for success in the great 
task which awaits you. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



January I, 795? 



Communism Threatens Inter- American Community Security 



U. S. REQUESTS MEETING OF ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES 



ANNOUNCEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press December 16] 

Pursuant to instructions from President Tru- 
man, I have today instructed the representative 
of the United States in the Council of the Organi- 
zation of American States [Oas] to request that 
a meeting of consultation of Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs be held in accoi'dance with article 39 of 
the Charter of the Organization, which provides 
that such meetings shall be held "to consider prob- 
lems of an urgent nature and of common interest 
to the American States." 

The aggressive policy of international commu- 
nism, carried out through its satellites, has brought 
about a situation in which the entire free world 
is threatened. The free world is meeting that 
threat by resolute action through the United Na- 
tions, in keeping with the principles of the United 
Nations Charter. As President Truman an- 
nounced in his speech last night, the United States, 
for the purpose of organizing its strength in sup- 
port of these principles, has embarked on an 
emergency program of economic and military 
preparedness. 

Within the United Nations, the United States is 
also part of the established regional community 
represented by the Organization of American 
States. All 21 members of that community have 
jointly dedicated themselves to the cause of free- 
dom. This common cause, even more than geog- 
raphy, has prompted them to work together for 
their common secvu'ity. Their cooperation is 
based on the principle that the defense of any one 
of them is inseparable from the defense of all of 
them. Wliat is at stake in the present situation, 
with respect to this inter-American community of 
ours, is the survival of all that it stands for in 
the world. 

The United States, having embarked on urgent 
mobilization for the common defense, wishes to 
consult its fellow members in the inter-American 
community with respect to the situation which we 
all face and on the coordination of the common 
effort required to meet it. That is the reason why 

8 



it is requesting that a meeting of consultation be 
held. 

In the near future this Government, after con- 
sidtation with Congressional leaders and the gov- 
ernments of the other American Kepublics, will 
have proposals to make respecting the date and 
place of the meeting and its agenda. 

COMMUNICATION FROM AMBASSADOR 
DANIELS TO OAS 

[Released to the press December 20] 

Comnvunication of the United States representative on 
the Council of the Organization of American States 
addressed to the Chairman of the Council, Ambassador 
Uilderhrando Accioly. 

December 20, 1950 
My dear Mr. Chairman: Confirming the re- 
quest which I made to you Saturday, December 16, 
I have been instructed by my Govermnent to re- 
quest that a Meeting of Consultation of Ministers 
of Foreign Affairs be held in accordance with 
Article 39 of the Charter of the Organization of 
American States, which provides that such 
Meetings shall be called "to consider problems of 
an urgent nature and of conunon interest to the 
American States." I am, therefore, hereby re- 
questing, in accordance with Article 40 of the 
Charter, that this matter be considered at the next 
meeting of the Council of the Organization of 
American States which will, I understand, be held 
on Wednesday, December 20, at 10 : 30 a. m. 

The aggressive policy of international commu- 
nism, carried out through its satellites, has brought 
about a situation in which the entire free world 
is threatened. The free world is meeting that 
threat by resolute action through the United Na- 
tions, in keeping with the principles of the United 
Nations Charter. As President Truman has an- 
nounced, the United States, for the purpose of 
organizing its strength in support of these prin- 
ciples, has embarked on an emergency progi-am of 
economic and military preparedness. 

The twenty-one American Kepublics have 

Department of State Bulletin 



joinUy dedicated themselves to the cause of free- 
dom. Our common cause, even more than geog- 
raphy, has prompted us to work together for 
common security. Our cooperation is based on 
the principle that the defense of one is inseparable 
from the defense of all. What is at stake in the 
present situation with respect to this inter- Amer- 
ican community of ours is the survival of all that 
it stands for in the world. 

Having embarked on urgent mobilization for 
the common defense, the United States wishes 
to consult its fellow members in the Organization 
of American States with respect to the world 
situation which we all face and on the coordina- 
tion of the common effort required to meet it. 

Should this request receive the approval of the 
Council, my Government in the near future, but 
after there has been adequate time for prior con- 
sultation, especially among our respective gov- 
ernments, will present for the consideration of the 
Council, in accordance with Article 41 of the 
Charter of the Organization of American States, 
specific proposals, falling within the scope of the 
subject mentioned above, with regard to the pro- 
gram of the meeting. 
Sincerely yours, 

Paul C. Daniels 
U.S. Representative on the Council of the 
Organization of American States. 



REVIEW OF FORMER CONSULTATIVE MEETINGS 

[Released to the press hy the Pan American Union 
December 20] 

The forthcoming hemisphere meeting of Con- 
sultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, re- 
quested by the United States as a step in meeting 
the aggressive policy of international communism 
and coordinating the common effort of the Ameri- 
can Kepublics against that aggression, will be the 
fourth of its kind since the inter- American struc- 
ture of cooperation was created in 1890. Previous 
meetings of consultation were held in Panama in 
1939, in Habana in 1940, and in Kio de Janeiro in 
1942. 

Method Established 

The procedure for calling meetings of consulta- 
tion of foreign ministers in times of emergency was 
established at the Inter- American Conference for 
the Maintenance of Peace, held at Buenos Aires 
in 1936. That meeting was called to safeguard 
peace within the Western Hemisphere and to pro- 
tect the American Republics from aggression 
within or beyond the hemisphere. 

The principle of consultation was embodied in 
the Convention for the Maintenance, Preservation 
and Reestablishment of Peace which was adopted 
at Buenos Aires. That instrument provided for 
considtation and collaboration by all the American 



nations when their peace was threatened from any 
source. Moreover, it established the principle 
that a threat to the peace of any American nation 
was a threat to the peace of each and every one of 
them. 

The Buenos Aires Peace Conference did not go 
so far as to provide the machineiy for applying 
this principle. This was done 2 years later at 
Lima, when the American Republics adopted the 
historic Declaration of Lima at the eighth Inter- 
national Conference of American States. 

1939 

The Declaration of Lima affirmed their inten- 
tion to maintain their continental solidarity and 
their collaboration in the principles underlying 
this solidarity; to defend these principles against 
all foreign intervention, and to consult on all mat- 
ters affecting their peace, security and territorial 
integrity through meetings of foreign ministers. 
Within a year this machinery was put to the test 
by the outbreak of hostilities in Europe, and a 
meeting of consultation was convoked at Panama 
on September 23, 1939. 

The purpose of the Panama meeting was pri- 
marily that of maintaining the neutrality of the 
American continent. To that end, the meeting 
adopted the Declaration of Panama, establishing 
a neutral zone around the American Republics to 
be kept free from belligerent activities. The Gen- 
eral Declaration of Neutrality, adopted at the same 
time, established the machinery for resolving prob- 
lems affecting American neutrality. Likewise 
discussed was the matter of economic cooperation 
among the American Republics in a world partly 
at war. 



1940 

Failure of the belligerents to respect the West- 
ern Hemis])here neutrality zone laid down at 
Panama and German occupation of France and 
Holland, with con-esponding implications for 
French and Dutch possessions in the Western 
Hemisphere, led to the second meeting of Consul- 
tation, held at Habana in July 1940. 

There the American Republics undertook to 
study the problem of European possessions in 
America and the consequences of their possible 
transfer to another non-American power. Their 
deliberations led to adoption of the Act of Habana, 
pertaining to the provisional administration of 
European colonies and possessions in America if 
the need arose. This interim measure was to be 
supplanted by the Convention of Habana, adopted 
at the same meeting, as soon as the latter instru- 
ment had been fully ratified by two-thirds of the 
member nations. Another important commitment 
made at Habana was to be found in resolution 
XV of the Habana Convention, providing for re- 
ciprocal assistance and cooperation by all member 



January I, 1 95 1 



nations in the event of an aggression against any 
one of them. 

This commitment successfully met its first test 
when Japan attacked the United States on Decem- 
ber 7, 1941. On the basis of the Habana agree- 
ments and as a general expression of solidarity, a 
number of American Republics declared war on 
the Axis shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. 
Several of them, in fact, preceded the United 
States in its declaration of war. 



1942 

The third meeting of Consultation, which began 
at Rio de Janeiro on January 15, 1942, was called 
to adopt measures for the defense of the Western 
Hemisphere in the light of Axis aggression. The 
Axis attack against the United States was inter- 
preted as an act of aggression against continental 
sovereignty itself, and it was recommended that 
the American Republics break diplomatic rela- 
tions with the Axis powei"S in accordance with the 
procedures and circumstances obtaining in the case 
of each country. 

At that time, nine countries — Costa Rica, Cuba, 
the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama — had 
already declared war on the Axis. Three — Co- 
lombia, Mexico, and Venezuela — had bi-oken off 
diplomatic relations with the Axis before the Rio 
Conference, and the others had agreed to consider 
the United States a nonbelligerent. Eventually, 
after the Rio Conference, all the American Repub- 
lics severed relations with the Axis. 

The purpose of this move, aside from its psycho- 
logical effect, was to eliminate sources of enemy 
propaganda, sabotage, and espionage which other- 
wise might have continued to function under the 
cloak of diplomatic immunity. To supplement 
these steps agaiiist subversive activity, an Emer- 
gency Advisory Committee for Political Defense 
was created, which began to function in Monte- 
video, Uruguay, on April 15, 1942. Likewise 
created was the Inter- American Defense Board, 
which continues to play an important role in the 
military defense of the Hemisphere. Other meas- 
ures adopted at the Rio meeting included com- 
munications, postwar problems, the maintenance 
of internal economies, raw and strategic material 
production, financial cooperation, and transporta- 
tion. 

Each of these three meetings of consultation 
proved to be of extraordinary importance to the 
Americas in time of crisis, and each was produc- 
tive of results which surpassed the most optimistic 
expectations. They served to bring the Americas 
closer together in the face of a common peril and 
euabled the Americas to pool their unlimited re- 
sources in a common and powerful front against a 
common enemy. Moreover, they reflected an ex- 
ample of successful international cooperation 
without precedent in the world 



Secretary Acheson Supported as 
Vigorous Opponent of Communism 

Statement hy the Preaident 

[Released to the jtress hy the White House December J9] 

There have been new attacks within the past 
week against Secretary of State Acheson. I have 
been asked to remove him from office. The authors 
of this suggestion claim that this would be good 
for the country. 

How our position in the world would be im- 
proved by the retirement of Dean Acheson from 
jjublic life is beyond me. Mr. Acheson has helped 
shape and carry out our policy of resistance to 
Communist imperialism. From the time of our 
sharing of arms with Greece and Turkey nearly 
4 years ago and coming down to the recent mo- 
ment when he advised me to resist the Communist 
invasion of South Korea, no official in our Govern- 
ment has been more alive to communism's threat 
to freedom or more forceful in resisting it. 

At this moment, he is in Brussels representing 
the United States in setting up mutual defenses 
against aggression. This has made it possible for 
me to designate General Eisenhower as Supreme 
Allied Commander in Europe. 

If communism wei'e to prevail in the world — 
as it shall not prevail — Dean Acheson would be 
one of the firet, if not the first, to be shot by the 
enemies of liberty and Christianity. 

These recent attacks on Mr. Acheson are old 
in the sen.se that they are the same false charges 
that have been made time and time again over a 
period of months. They have no basis in fact 
whatever. 

It is the same sort of thing that happened to 
Seward. President Lincoln was asked by a group 
of Republicans to dismiss Secretary of State 
Seward. He refused. So do I refuse to dismiss 
Acheson. 

If I did anything else, it would weaken the firm 
and vigorous position this country has taken 
against Communist aggression. 

If those groups attacking our foreign policy 
and Mr. Acheson have any alternative policies to 
offer, they should disclose them. They owe it to 
their country. This is a time for hard facts and 
close thinking. It is not a time for vague charges 
and pious generalities. 

There are some Republicans who recognize the 
facts and the true reasons for these attacks on 
Secretary of State Acheson and who do not agi-ee 
with their colleagues. 

This Nation needs the wisdom of all its people. 
This is a time of great peril. It is a time for 
>inity, for real bipartisanship. It is a time for 
making use of the great talents of men like Dean 
Aclieson. 

Comnumism — not our own country — would be 
served by losing him. 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Proposal for Discussing German Demilitarization Considered Too Narrow 

U.S. PROPOSES MEETING TO ELIMINATE INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS 

[Released to the press December 22] 



U. S. NOTE OF DECEMBER 22, 1950 

Follotoing is the text of the United States reply to the 
Soviet note of November 3, 1950, proposing a meeting of 
the Council of Foreign Ministers on the subject of the 
demilitarisation of Ocrmanii. The United ^States reply 
teas delivered to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the 
U.S.^.R. today. Identical notes were delirered by the 
French and British Ambassadors at Moscow. 

1. The Embassy of the United States of Amer- 
ica has the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
the note of November ','>, 1950, of the Soviet Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs. This note enclosed the 
text of a declaration published in Prague October 
22, 1950,' and proposed a meeting of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers of the United States, the 
United Kingdom, France, and the U.S.S.R. to 
consider the question of the fulfillment of the 
clauses of the Potsdam Agreement regarding the 
demilitarization of Germany. 

2. The United States Government has consist- 
ently abided by the principle set forth in the 
Charter of the United Nations that international 
problems should be settled by peaceful negotia- 
tions. 

The United States Government takes this 
occasion to reaffirm its adherence to this prin- 
ciple. This is in full accord with the spirit of 
the recent General Assembly resolution supported 
by the United States Government which calls 
attention to the desirability of consultations which 
would help to allay existing international ten- 
sions. Far from having any aggressive inten- 
tions toward the Soviet Union, it is inspired by 
a genuine desire to put an end to the existing 
international tension and will spare no eli'ort to 
achieve so highly desirable an end. It is pre- 
pared on the basis and in the manner set forth 
below to explore with the Soviet, British, and 
French Governments the possibility of finding a 
mutually acceptable basis for a meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers of the four countries. 

3. The Government of the United States has 
studied with care the note of the Soviet Govern- 



' Not here printed. 
January 1, 1951 



ment of November 3, 1950. It has been obliged 
to note with regret that the basis proposed in 
this note is not such as to afford any prospect of 
a genuine settlement. The Soviet proposal to 
examine the question of the demilitarization of 
Germany will not suffice to remove the causes of 
the present tension. The only German military 
force which exists at present is that which for 
many months in the Soviet zone has been trained 
on military lines with artillery and tanks. If 
the participation of German units in the defense 
of w^estern Germany is being discussed, it is solely 
because Soviet policy and actions have compelled 
the other nations to examine all means of improv- 
ing their security. Contrary to the entirely false 
allegations contained in the Prague communique, 
the United States Government in common with 
the Governments of France and the United King- 
dom is determined never to permit at any time or 
in any circumstance western Germany to be used 
as a base for aggression. The United States 
Government has no feeling of confidence that the 
same is true of that part of Germany under Soviet 
occupation, in view of the rearmament taking 
place in eastern Germany referred to above. 

4. It is furthermore impossible to envisage a just 
settlement of German problems on the basis of the 
Prague communique. This communique contains 
no new or constructive feature and the solution 
proposed therein has been rejected by the majority 
of German opinion. It does little more than re- 
iterate in substance previous propositions which 
proved after exhaustive examination to afford no 
basis for a constructive solution of the German 
problem. For the purpose of ending the present 
division of Germany the United States Govern- 
ment in conjunction with the French and British 
Governments has for its part more than once made 
proposals for restoring German unity by means of 
free elections held under international supervision. 
These ]>roposals were sent by letter by the three 
High Commissioners to the head of the Soviet 
Control Commission on May 25, 1950, and October 
9, 1950. No reply has been made to these letters. 

5. The serious tension which exists at present 

11 



springs neither from the question of the demili- 
tarization of Germany nor even from tlie German 
problem as a whole. It arises in the first instance 
from the general attitude adopted by the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.S.R. since the end of the war and 
from the consequent international developments of 
recent months. The Governments of the four 
powers would be failing in their full responsibility 
if they were to confine their discussion to the nar- 
row basis proposed by the Soviet Government. 
Questions related to Germany and Austria would 
obviously be subjects for discussion. But the 
United States Government believes that any dis- 
cussions should include equally the principal prob- 
lems whose solution would permit a real and last- 
ing improvement in the relations between the 
Soviet Union and the United States, Great Britain, 
and France and the elimination of the causes of 
present international tensions throughout the 
world. 

6. The United States Government is prepared 
to designate a representative who, together with 
representatives of the Soviet, British, and French 
Governments would examine the problems re- 
ferred to in the preceding paragraph with a view 
to finding a mutually acceptable basis for a meet- 
ing of the foreign ministers of the four countries 
and recommend to their Governments a suitable 
agenda. It would appear that the presence of rep- 
resentatives of the above-named governments at 
the seat of the United Nations in New York pre- 
sents the most convenient opportunity to conduct 
such exploratory discussions. 

7. The United States Government would appre- 
ciate receiving the views of the Soviet Govern- 
ment concerning the proposals set forth in the 
present note. 



and to the accomplisliment of the demilitariza- 
tion of Germany. The Soviet Government fully 
shares the proposals mentioned as well as the 
Prague declaration as a whole, the text of which 
is enclosed herewith. 

The Soviet Government considers that the ques- 
tions concerned in the communique of the Min- 
isters of Foreign Affairs of the United States of 
America, Great Britain, and France of September 
19 and also in the Prague declaration possess the 
greatest significance for the cause of assuring in- 
ternational peace and security and touch funda- 
mental national interests of the peoples of Europe 
and in the first instance the peoples who suffered 
from Hitlerite aggression. 

Taking into account the important significance 
of the question of the fulfillment of the decisions 
of the Potsdam Conference regarding demilitari- 
zation of Germany and also the divergencies exist- 
ing in the positions of the Four Powers occupying 
Germany on this question, the Soviet Government 
considers it necessary to discuss these questions 
without delay. With these purposes in mind the 
Soviet Government submits proposal for calling 
the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of 
the United States of America, Great Britain, 
France and the U.S.S.R. ,for consideration of 
the question of fulfillment of the Potsdam Agree- 
ment regarding the demilitarization of Germany. 

The Soviet Government hopes to receive an 
answer from the Government of the United States 
of America regarding the present proposal at a 
very early date. 

The Soviet Government is simultaneously 
sending similar notes to the Governments of 
Great Britain and France. 



SOVIET NOTE OF NOVEMBER 3, 1950 

On instructions of the Soviet Government, the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. has 
the honor to state the following. 

On September 19, 1950, a communique was pub- 
lished regarding the meeting in New York of the 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the United States 
of America, Gi-eat Britain, and France on the 
question of Germany. As seen from the com- 
munique, that principal question of meeting of 
three Ministers was question of creation of German 
army, question of remilitarization of Western 
Germany. 

On October 20 and 21, a meeting was held in 
Prague of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of 
the U. S. S. R., Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, 
Poland, Rumania, Hungary, and the German 
Democratic Republic, as result of which a dec- 
laration was published containing proposals, di- 
rected, in conformity with the Potsdam Agree- 
ment, to an early peace settlement for Germany 



Unified Command for Korea 
Accepts Colombian Aid 

[Released to the press December iP] 

The Department of State has informed the 
Colombian Embassy in Washington that the 
unified command for Korea has gratefully 
accepted Colombia's offer of a battalion of in- 
fantry made on November 14. 

A note from the Secretary of State to the 
Colombian Ambassador, Dr. Eduardo Zuleta 
Angel, expressed the gratitude of the United 
States for the manner in which Colombia once 
again has affirmed its support of the action being 
taken by the United Nations against Communist 
aggression in Korea. 

Colombia's previous offer of the frigate 
Almirante PadilJa was accepted by the unified 
command on October 4. 



12 



Oeparfment of S/afe Bvlletin 



stressing Information Themes To IVIeet Changing World Conditions 



hy Edioard W. Barrett 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs^ 



In the matter of world opinion, we are up 
against a picture that has changed very rapidly 
in the last few weeks. Let us look at it. 

The American people are deeply disturbed but 
determined to do whatever is necessary. As a 
whole, they are ready and willing to make the sac- 
rifices they have been asked to make, and probably 
are willing to make a great many more. 

Over in Communist-dominated China, the most 
unbelievably intense campaign is being waged to 
whip up popular sentiment against Americans 
and against the West. You should hear what you 
are being called — "tools of Wall Street imperial- 
ism," "enemies of all Asia," and "reactionary 
forces of frustration." It is an all out hate-Amer- 
ica campaign. Fortunately, from what we learn, 
it has not taken hold 100 percent, and there are 
still a gi'eat many dissident elements in China. 

Over in Russia, the people themselves have not 
been fully informed on how far the Kremlin has 
led them down the path toward general war. 
"While the Moscow radio shouts the dangers of 
war to Western Europe, it tends to play this sub- 
ject down to its own people. While the Kremlin 
shouts about the monstrous danger of the atom 
bomb to Western Europe, it all but suppresses 
the subject in propaganda on the home front. The 
Kremlin rulers do, of course, keep hammering at 
the theme that the United States is bent on aggres- 
sion and that the United Nations is but a stooge 
of the United States. But, in most of Russia, 
today, there is, by no means, full realization of 
the Kremlin's dangerous course in international 
relations. 

In the satellites, some of the same factore exist. 
However, there are many indications that a very 
large segment of the population secretly yearns 
for war — seeing in it the main hope of liberation 
from the Soviet yoke. 

' Excerpts from an address delivered before the Junior 
Advertising Club of Philadelphia, Poor Richard Club, at 
Philadelphia, Pa., on Dec. 21 and released to the press 
on the same date. 



In the free world, particularly in Western Eu- 
rope, there is, obviously, a great deal of very seri- 
ous fear. It is a fear that the Russians might 
overrun them before their defenses are built up. 
There is a serious fear, also, that the rather naive 
Americans might somehow bluster them into a 
general war. On the other hand predominant 
sentiment is such that it welcomes a United States 
stance of being calm and resolute, of being de- 
termined to do nothing foolish or premature in 
the international field, but of being determined to 
build up our own defenses as rapidly as possible. 
The events of the last few days in Brussels, fol- 
lowing the President's speech, have demonstrated 
this. 

Against that background, the correct course for 
the United States, the right position for us to 
take, seems reasonably clear. We must be calm, 
clear-headed, unflustered, but determined. We 
must make clear that we are not going to let our- 
selves be unnecessarily provoked into foolish in- 
ternational moves. We must be ready to negoti- 
ate fairly but determined not to appease. 

The action of the President and the Congress, 
in the last week, has had helpful effects on free 
world opinion. The appointment of General 
Eisenhower, whose name and record have a reas- 
suring ring to free peoples everywhere, has given 
a real boost to European morale. 



Themes To Be Stressed in Information Program 



In 



of truth 



the 



our own campaign ot trutli program, 
main lines for us to take are fairly clear. To 
the Chinese people and the Russian people, we 
must make every effort to deter them from sup- 
porting the rapid drift toward war. This means, 
among other things, making clear to the Russian 
people how rapidly the Kremlin is leading them 
down the road to conflict. It means making clear 
to both that we have no quarrels with the peoples 
themselves. In fact, we have a long liistory of 
true and fundamental friendship between the 



January 1, 1 95 1 



13 



American people, on the one hand, and the Chi- 
nese and Russian jjeople, on the other. We believe 
the basic goals of our people are the same. And 
we are seeking to make this clear in every possible 
way. 

To the free world, our basic theme is also clear. 
It is this: "True peace and freedom and human 
welfare depend on the strength of the free world." 
The calm and determined and speedy build-up 
of free world strength offers the only course for 
achieving true peace and freedom and human wel- 
fare. We must also make clear, over and over 
again, that the cause of the free world, basically, 
is the welfare of the many versus the tyranny 
of the few. 

Naturally, there is a great deal more than we are 
doing that we should do. But this represents the 
main lines that we may appropriately discuss now. 



Information Media Employed 

VOICE OF AMERICA 

First, there is the Voice of America which now 
broadcasts from several batteries of transmitter 
in this country and is relayed over transmitters in 
Great Britain, Munich, Tangier, Salonika, Ha- 
waii, the Philippines, and Tokyo. We are step- 
ping up our transmitter equipment and power just 
as rapidly as production will permit. We are in 
the course of doubling the number of languages 
in which we broadcast. Up to recently, our broad- 
casts were going out in 25 languages. Now, we 
are adding a number of others in particularly 
critical areas, including the so-called splinter 
languages behind the iron curtain. 

The Voice's output naturally vai'ies from area 
to area. Basically, that directed behind the iron 
curtain is made up of about half hard-hitting, 
well-selected news and about half commentary — 
material clearly reflecting the American point of 
view and labeled as such. Logic, irony, and plain 
cold economic facts each play their role in the 
commentaries. For example, the potential might 
of the free world as opposed to the potential 
strength of the Communist world is an important 
argument today. Humor, too, also plays a part 
from time to time. For example, we had a lot of 
fun and did an effective job, I believe, with the 
Communist allegation that we were dropping po- 
tato bugs behind the iron curtain. We had even 
more fun and effect, I believe, in later reporting 
the Czechoslovak wisecrack that the Americans 
were now finding it necessary to drop potatoes in 
order to keep the potato bugs alive. 

How are we getting through f We know we are 
being heard widely in the satellite countries where 
jamming is infrequent. For example. Ambassa- 
dor Briggs from Praha last week told me : "The 
Voice of America is the most effective instrument 
that the cause of freedom now has in Czechoslo- 



vakia. It is being listened to widely and widely 
talked about." 

In Russia, itself, we have come up against the 
greatest jamming effort ever mounted. AVe are 
beginning to get through that jannning with a 
number of technical developments, and we believe 
we will get through it to a much greater degree 
in the not-distant future. 

We do know that when we have an important 
news item which we broadcast and which is sup- 
pressed locally, it does somehow get through today 
and is talked about widely within a few hours 
after we broadcast it. In other words, jannning 
has limited our direct audiences but the gossip net- 
work still rebroadcasts the news widely. 

FILfVI STRIPS AND INFORMATION CENTERS 

Films and film strips are enormously effective in 
many sections. They are particularly effective in 
areas where the literacy rate is low. We have had 
great success with small jeep mobile units. They 
can roll into a town square, play some music for a 
few minutes, and have an audience of several 
thousands in a short time. The films these units 
show tell what sort of people we are, what our 
aims and goals are, and give the audience the 
story of the cause for which the free world is 
fighting. Next, we have our information centers, 
which are scattered around the world in limited 
numbers now, and which serve, if you will, as ar- 
senals of ideas for those who are fighting for free- 
dom. They are used widely by leaders of opinion 
in the countries in which they operate. Inciden- 
tally, we still have one operating behind the iron 
curtain — and it is visited by an average of 3,000 
people a month. 



PRESS PROGRAM 

We have a press program through which a 
great deal of material straightening out miscon- 
ceptions about this country and countering Soviet 
propaganda is fed into a majority of the news- 
papers of the world. We have a picture program 
that again feeds a large number of the newspapers 
of the world. And let us not forget the very 
important item of the man-to-man conversations 
between our public affairs officers in the tield and 
the editors and writers of various newspapers and 
publications. I hardly need to tell you how im- 
portant they are in combating untruths about 
America — in combatiufj Communist-inspired mis- 
information. Our publications, which are gen- 
erally printed in the Held and tailored to suit local 
conditions, range all the way from fairly learned 
documents for intellectual leaders down to comic 
books on what happens when the Comnnuiists ac- 
tually take over a village. One such comic book, 
today, is being sold throughout nuich of the Far 
East and is proving immensely popular and 
effective. 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



PROGRAM 



Lastly, I might mention our exchange of per- 
sons program under which the Government helps 
6,000 leaders and specialists and opinion leaders, 
as well as teachers and students, to visit back and 
forth between this country and other countries 
each year. Some will tell you that this is only 
a long-range progi-am. I deny it. There is to- 
day a young German labor leader who is singing 
the praises of America throughout Germany — 
largely because he was brought on such a trip here 
4 months ago. There is an editor in Scandinavia 
whose editorial policies have been completely re- 
versed from anti-American to pro- American since 
he came on such a trip to this country. In general, 
the editoi's and writers, lecturers, radio commenta- 
tors, leaders, and teachers who visit this country 
are shown the bad witli the good. They almost 
invariably go back with the impression that this 
old country is fallible, of course, but strong, open, 
and honest, with vast power and an unbeatable 
spirit. 



Information Program Discussed 
With Business Firms 

On December 15, the Department of State held 
an all-day meeting with representatives of United 
States business firms operating in the Near East 
and South Asia to discuss the Depaitment's over- 
seas information and educational exchange pro- 
grams. 

The meeting was the fourth in a series, others 
having, been held with American firms doing busi- 
ness in Europe and Latin America. 

Among Department officers taking part were 
George C. McGliee, Assistant Secretary for Near 
Eastern, South Asian and African Affaii-s, and 
Edward W. Barrett, Assistant Secretary for Pub- 
lic Affairs. 

Further consultations on ways to strengthen the 
Department's information and educational ex- 
change activities abroad are also being held with 
farm, labor, and other groups in the United States. 



Surveying and Testing Reactions 

I might point out to you that we believe the 
proof of the pudding is in the eating — that the 
best way to improve our output is to study and 
follow closely the reactions of the actual target 
audiences. Today, we still seek and value the 
advice of experts — or even so-called experts — in 
this country, but we are placing far more value 
on the opinions and reactions of the audiences 
concerned. We survey, by tested sampling 
methods, the reactions of the audiences in nations 
that are open to us. We organize panels repre- 
senting a cross section of the population ; we have 
them sample our output and answer questions 
from us. In the more inaccessible zones, we get 
regular reaction reports from our Embassy staffs 
and from others who are in a position to advise 
us. We systematically interrogate escapees fi'om 
these areas and organize them into panels from 
time to time. I repeat — we feel that such steps 
as these are the real proof of the pudding and 
the real guide to continuing improvement in our 
output. 



Cooperation of Private Organizations Urged 

Xow, let us recognize that the one big factor 
militating against us today is the fear that the 
Kremlin, however deceitful, may be irresistibly 
powerful. That is why it is urgently important 
for us today to convince the world anew of our 
enormous military and economic potential — and 
of our calm and resolute determination to develop 
that potential as rapidly as possible. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

United States Educational Foundation in Thailand. Trea- 
ties and Other International Att.s Series 20U5. Pub. 3919. 
8 pp. 50. 



Agreement between the United States and Thailand — 
Signed at Bangkok July 1, 1950 ; entered into force 
July 1, 1950. 



Peace in the Americas. International Organization and 
Conference Series II, American Republics 6. Pub. 3964. 
29 pp. 100. 



A rfeum^ of measures undertaken through the Organ- 
ization of American States to preserve the peace with 
relevant documents. 



The Peace the World Wants. International Organization 
and Conference Series III, 58. Pub. 3977. 19 pp. 100. 



Address by Secretary Acheson before the United 
Nations General Assembly at Flushing Meadow, N. Y., 
September 20, 1950. 



The Shield of Faith. 

Pub. 4021. 9 pp. 5^. 



General Foreign Policy Series 36. 



Address by Secretary Acheson before the National 
Conference of Christians and Jews at Washington, 
D. C. on November 9, 1950. 



January 1, 1951 



15 



Major Tasks of UNESCO in Establishing Communication 
Among Peoples of the World 



by Howland H. Sargeant 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ' 



The world community in the sense of a world 
society, based on international law and justice, will 
be the result of growth, just as local communities 
and national communities are the result of growth. 
Communication among people is a necessary part 
of that growth. And it is with establishing better 
and more effective communication among the peo- 
ples of the world that Unesco is primarily con- 
cerned. 

Four major tasks of Unesco are directed toward 
getting this communication. 

Fundamental.Education 

The major obstacle to communication on a world 
scale is this : between a half and three-fourths of 
the world's peojjles are illiterate — they cannot 
read nor write in any language. This means that 
they can speak to and hear from only those with 
whom they are in face-to-face contact. Obviously 
this is UNESCO's greatest challenge, and it is at- 
tempting to make a beginning with a program 
it calls Fundamental Education. It chose this 
phrase deliberately, rather than, let us say, the 
wiping out of illitei-acy. Let us take a look at 
fundamental education in the Unesco sense. It 
means more than the wiping out of illiteracy. 
Literacy is accepted as an essential condition for 
wide communication but it is only a means to a 
vital end. Fundamental education includes not 
only the teaching of reading and writing, but also 
the minimum elements of a rounded program of 
education that will enable a people to lead healthy 
active lives. It is community education broadly 
conceived, concerned with adults and adolescents 
as much as with children. 



' Excerpts from an address delivered before the Kansas 
Commission for Unesco at Topeka, Kans., on Dec. 8 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



The content of fundamental education includes : 

skills of thinking and communicating (reading and 
writing, speaking, listening and calculation) ; 

vocational skills (such as agriculture and husbandry, 
building, weaving and other useful crafts, and simple 
technical and conunercial skills necessary for economic 
progress) ; 

domestic skills (such as the preparation of food and 
the care of children and of the sick) ; 

skills used in self-expression in the arts and crafts; 

education for health through personal and community 
hygiene ; 

knowledge and understanding of the physical environ- 
ment and of natural processes (for example simple and 
practical science) ; 

knowledge and imderstanding of the human environ- 
ment (economic and social organization, law and gov- 
ernment) ; 

knowledge of other parts of the world and the people 
who live in them ; 

the development of qualities to fit men to live in the 
modern world, such as personal judgment, and initiative, 
freedom from fear and superstition, sympathy and under- 
standing for different points of view ; 

spiritual and moral development ; belief in ethical 
ideals; and the habit of acting upon them; with the duty 
to examine traditional standards of behaviour and to 
mortify them to suit new conditions. 

AVliat has Unesco done in this field ? Unesco's 
I^rogram includes a recommendation to member 
states "that they provide fundamental education 
for all their people, including the establishment as 
soon as possible of universal free and compulsory 
primary education and also education for adults." 
It continues with the statement that "Unesco will 
help member states which desire aid in campaigns 
for fundamental education, giving priority to less 
developed regions and to underprivileged groups 
within industrialized countries." The program 
recommends to the Director General that in fun- 
damental education: 

emphasis should be placed on the development of the 
intelligence of the individual and not merely on his eco- 
nomic betterment; 

the needs and resources of the local community should 
be the basis of the fundamental education program ; 

no attempt should be made to reach arbitrary conclu- 



16 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bullefin 



sions about a minimum standard of education applicable 
to all countries and all people ; 

the more highly developed States should not only as- 
sist the less developed areas, but should also actively 
promote fundamental education among the less privileged 
groups within their own borders ; 

full use should be made, after consultation with the gov- 
ernment or the National Commission of the country con- 
cerned, of the resources not only of governmental but also 
of all appropriate non-governmental agencies and insti- 
tutions. 



The realistic course for Unesco is to enlist the 
active support and cooperation of all interested 
organizations, both national and international. 
As it develops its clearinghouse of information in 
this field, it will become more and more of a stim- 
ulator and a catalyst, resulting in activity on the 
part of governments and voluntary orgamzations. 

Technical Assistance 

UNESCO's activities in the field of fundamental 
education are closely related to a second major field. 
This is technical assistance to the underdeveloped 
countries. At the Technical Assistance Confer- 
ence, held at Lake Success in June 1950, 53 coun- 
tries pledged contributions totaling over 20 million 
dollars, including the United States pledge of 
approximately 12 million dollars. Unesco's part 
of the expanding United Nations technical assist- 
ance program has gotten under way with the allo- 
cation of 1 million dollars for a number of educa- 
tion and scientific projects to be carried out in 
Asiatic, African, and South American countries. 

The allocations were based on requests sub- 
mitted by various governments in these areas and 
will finance projects for technical and industrial 
training, the establishment of scientific research 
centers and campaigns against illiteracy. The 
countries which will be the immediate beneficiaries 
of the program are Ceylon, Ecuador, India, Indo- 
nesia, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mexico, 
Pakistan, Iran, and Thailand. Unesco is now 
considering further requests for assistance which 
have been submitted by Egypt, the Philippines, 
Burma, Israel, Guatemala, Colombia, El Salvador, 
and British, and French non-self-governing 
territories. 

Under the expanded technical assistance pro- 
gram, Unesco will receive about $2,300,000 as its 
14 percent share of the total amount of $20,048,000 
pledged by 53 members of the United Nations for 
both the United Nations and specialized agency 
programs. This amount is in addition to Unesco's 
regular budget. 

A few examples of specific projects will serve 
to illustrate the nature of the program. In Ceylon, 
provision has been made for the establishment of 
a fundamental education center. Three specialists 
will be furnished by Unesco to assist in setting 
up the center which will concentrate on methods 
used in combating illiteracy and in teaching im- 
proved farming methods. In India, a scientific 

January 7, J957 

921607—51 3 



center will be set up to serve not only India but 
also other countries in the Far East. This center, 
which will provide documentation for the various 
technical aid programs in the area, will abstract, 
and when necessary, translate important scientific 
works received from all parts of the world and 
make them available to scientific groups and others 
concerned in procuring available material. The 
purpose of the center is to further the development 
of basic research needed for technical and indus- 
ti'ial advance. In addition to this center, seven 
experts will be sent by Unesco to aid established 
Indian research institutes and laboratories in the 
development of certain engineering techniques 
which will be of value in the economic develop- 
ment of that country. 

A teacher training project for Indonesia has 
been approved, under which teachers will be 
trained for schools in areas where 1 million war 
refugees and demobilized soldiers will be resettled. 

Pakistan's request for help in developing a 
broadcasting system for use in a campaign of mass 
education has been approved and experts will be 
sent to assist in the establishment of this program. 
Another project approved for Pakistan is the es- 
tablishment of a geophysics institute to survey 
desert areas with a view to determining how much 
can be reclaimed for food production. 

In Libya, which is now under the administration 
of British and French authorities, but which will 
become independent in 1952, a training program 
will be provided to train junior civil servants to 
serve the new state. A fellowship program has 
also been authorized to provide intensive training 
for persons slated to hold top-level positions. A 
sum of $57,000 has been allocated for these 
programs. 



Universal Declaration of Human Rights 



For even more important than communicating 
with one another and having enough in common 
to make that communication meaningful, are the 
attitudes that people display toward one another 
in the process of communication. 

Certain injustices, certain discriminations, cer- 
tain attitudes and customs are deeply imbedded. 
Examination of these makes for discomfort, criti- 
cism, sometimes painful sacrifices. It is even more 
difficult to bring about world conditions, so that 
the 30 principles stated in the Declaration apply 
not only in the immediate community but also in 
the national community and in the world com- 
munity. 

But the task is not impossible. There are more 
individuals with more freedom in the world today 
than at any other time in history. It is because 
this is true that the subjugated and the under- 
privileged are themselves searching for freedom, 

17 



a word which finds response in the hearts of men 
everywhere. 

There is power in the word itself and infinite 
power in the practice of the word. But one can- 
not liave freedom for oneself alone. There must be 
freedom for others and it is in the resolution of the 
problems created in maintaining freedom for all 
that the United Nations method of international 
cooperation will meet its greatest need. 

Understanding of the United Nations 

The fourth task of Unesco brings us back to the 
United Nations and its action in Korea. Unesco, 
as the specialized agency concerned with the use 
of education to bring about a peaceful world com- 
munity, has an obligation to spread understanding 
of the United Nations itself. 

When charters are adhered to by nations, just 
as when contracts are entered into between indi- 
viduals, the rules laid down must be followed, or 
men of common sense will abandon the enterprise. 

The Communist aggression in Korea was a clear 
case of violation of the rules; either the United 
Nations had to stand behind its rules or suffer a 
fateful loss in leadership and prestige. 

The current effort of the United Nations in 
Korea, then, is an important step in its long 
struggle to establish justice and security and free- 
dom on a world-wide basis. This is the way any 
organism grows: by meeting the obstacles to its 
survival, %ecau.se the United States believes in 
the United Nations as the way to reach the estab- 
lishment of law and order in the world community, 
tlie people of the United States now face a period 
of sacrifice. 

The world community was advanced a long step 
by the United Nations action in Korea. The inter- 
national machinery represented by the United 
Nations may be put to even more severe tests in 
similar and even more difficult situations. Let us, 
therefore, learn the lesson of Korea so that we 
may apply what we have learned to new situations. 
In that task each of us here has a part. 



CHALLENGE OF UNESCO IN THE AMERICAS ^ 

■ ■ • • • 

Ignorance is a prison of the human mind and 
spirit. In Unesco, in the United Nations, in our 
Organization of the American States, we hold 
the key with which to unlock that prison and open 
the door to freedom and a more abundant life for 
millions upon millions who now live in wretch- 
edness and for coming generations who otherwise 



'Excerpts from an address delivered by Mr. Sargeant 
before the National Commissions for TInesco of the West- 
ern Hemisphere at Habana, Cuba, on Dee. 11 and released 
to the press on the same date. 



will be born into a condition of wretchedness. 

You, the representatives of the National Com- 
missions for Unesco in the Americas, have the 
power to help translate Unesco's opportunity into 
accomplished fact. This power which you hold is 
real power, the power of leadership, and the 
opportunity to use it in building up the scope 
and momentum of education and technical train- 
ing through Unesco's role in the United Nations 
technical assistance program. 

One of the gi-eat barriers to human progress, 
today, is underdeveloped areas — one of the major 
roots of appalling conditions in nearly all areas — 
is illiteracy — the sheer inability to read and write. 
Even if the United Nations technical assistance 
program did nothing more than make some 
progress in overcoming illiteracy, the program 
could be regarded as a resounding success. But 
literacy is not only a worthy goal in itself. It is 
fundamental to progress in all other fields. 

The advancement of education and technical 
training seems the major field for practical Unesco 
action — the phase to bear down on — the one on 
which to concentrate Unesco's energies. The 
bottleneck of illiteracy and technical deficiency 
must be broken, to improve the means of trans- 
mitting all forms of necessary knowledge for the 
lifting of human life. 

The relationship between standards of living 
and the level of education was made clear by a 
study published by the United States Chamber 
of Commerce in 1945. That study, entitled Edu- 
cation Steps Up Living Standards, compared 
countries with high and low incomes and stand- 
ards of living, and arrived at the following con- 
clusions : 

A country's standard of living is not determined 
by its resources alone. 

A country's standard of living is determined 
largely by its level of education and technical 
training. 

Furthermore — and this fact is of particular in- 
terest to our National Commissions — the level of 
a country's education and technical training is not 
dictated by its resources and income, but by its 
determination to improve its educational system. 

Here, in the Western Hemisphere, we are be- 
coming increasingly concerned about the inter- 
locked problems of economic privation, illiteracy, 
and technical deficiency. We have seen a vigorous 
attack on these problems in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, 
and Bolivia, in cooperative programs of their Gov- 
ernments and the United States Government, to 
reorganize school systems from the ground up. 
This program has required the training of many 
more teachers, the preparation of the first text- 
books in the local language, and the development 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



of courses dealing with practical, everyday prob- 
lems and conditions. We see a similar program 
getting under way in Chile, the Dominican Re- 
public, and Nicaragua. 

However, despite the great value and effective- 
ness of cooperative programs conducted on a bi- 
lateral basis, despite the progress that is being 
made with them, we see that something more is 
needed to really come to grips with the over-all 
problem in the Western Hemisphere. Wliat is 
needed is collective, international action such as 
is possible through Unesco and the United Nations 
technical assistance program. 

It is reliably estimated that 70 million persons 
over 15 years of age in North, Central, and South 
America cannot read nor write. The need for 
adult education is great. Furthermore, 19 million 
children continue to reach adulthood without op- 
portunity for any formal schooling whatsoever. 
Obviously, we shall not get very far very fast 
unless we cut off this continuing stream of illit- 
eracy, and, just as obviously, we cannot succeed in 
cutting it off except through a mighty effort of all 
the American Republics working together. 

The Organization of American States (Oas.) is 
now promoting an agreement among the govern- 
ments of Latin America to set up free, compulsory 
education for all children through the first three 
grades. The Oas is advocating this as the mini- 
mum, initial step to bring the illiteracy problem 
under control, to be followed as rapidly as possible 
by extension of compulsory universal education 
through additional grades. The Oas proposal 
represents a minimum step, but even so it will tax 
the resources of this hemisphere and will call for 
our best efforts and cooperation to bring it off. 
It will be necessary to write and produce the text- 
, books, to set up numerous training centers in which 
additional teachers can be trained, to build schools 
where none exist now, and to improve the equip- 
ment of many othere. There will be a considerable 
need for technical experts in the field of education 
to advise on the production of textbooks, the train- 
ing of teachers, the location of new schools, the 
procurement of equipment, and the planning of 
courses of instruction. 

The United States is willing to contribute to this 
progi-am with technical assistance, just as — I am 
sure — every other American Republic is equally 
willing to do. And I believe that though we might 
not be able to get the job done separately, or even 



on a country -to-country basis, we can get it done 
on the international basis. 

The vigorous participation of Unesco will ac- 
cordingly be essential to the success of this pro- 
gram. This Conference of National Commissions 
could make no decision more promising for the 
f utui"e of the American Republics than to urge the 
American governments to adopt the Oas plan and 
to urge Unesco to give the program its fullest pos- 
sible support. 

Another historic decision which this conference 
could make would be to resolve to eliminate illiter- 
acy entirely in the Americas in the next 10 years. 
I believe that a careful study of what steps, in ad- 
dition to the Oas plan, would need to be taken on 
a collective basis, would reveal its practicability. 
With determination and ingenuity, ways can 
surely be found to reach one out of every ten illiter- 
ates every year and teach him to read and write, 
until — at the end of 10 years — literacy would be 
virtually universal in this hemisphere. 



In vain will we appeal to fettered, illiterate 
minds to appreciate and uphold the Universal Dec- 
laration of Human Rights. But we will not ap- 
peal in vain, once we have freed them from their 
mental bondage and advanced their capacity for 
thought. These, our liberated brothers, will rein- 
force us in the battle to liberate the world. 

The challenge to Unesco in the Americas in- 
cludes both this opportunity for the spiritual up- 
lift of our brothers and the opportunity to broaden 
the base of their economic uplift through the 
United Nations technical assistance program. The 
more we convert illiterates into people who can 
read, write, and calculate, the more will we ex- 
pand the number who can enter the ranks of our 
skilled farmers and workers. As new skills and 
knowledge flood throughout the Americas, we shall 
surely witness a quickening of life and a growth 
of strength marking the start of a new and glori- 
ous era in our history. 

The opportunity is at hand, the tools are avail- 
able, and the method of attack is known to us all. 
We have tested it; we have proved it with mag- 
nificent success in this hemisphere. The method 
is collective, international action. All that we 
need now is the determination to use it, immedi- 
ately, enthusiastically, in an all-out effort, on an 
adequate scale. 



January 1, 1951 



19 



The Educational Exchange Program — 

An Integral Part of the Campaign of Truth 



hy WilliaTn C. Johnstone, Jr. 

Director, Offlce of Educational ExcJumge ^ 



Millions of destitute people who somehow sur- 
vived the ravages of war are tottering on the brink 
of slavery. Through false promises, perversion, 
and threats of force and violence, the Communists 
are seeking to extend their domain. They are at- 
tempting to capture peoples, now clinging to the 
last vestiges of freedom, and add them to the mil- 
lions who live unhappily in a prison of propa- 
ganda. 

I do not need to describe this war of ideas in 
generalities. What the Russians are saying to 
the world is best told in their own words. 

From the Journal of Soviet Pedagogy, for in- 
stance, we learn that the purpose of American 
education is 

... to educate obedient, nonthinking, nonresisting slaves 
of capital just as the medieval school educated obedient 
slaves of feudal barons. 

It defined the role of American education in 
these terms : 

To separate the child from the problems of social life, 
to lock up his spiritual world in a small cage of personal 
emotions, to deprive him of scientific knowledge, to put 
into him haughty contempt toward those who search for 
the wa.vs of real solution of social problems, to chain 
his thought and will to God's providence, to disarm fully 
in the struggle against tlie capitalist world, to be recon- 
ciled to outrageous crimes against mankind and the 
human conscience. 

Among other things, the Journal charged that 
the doctrine of original sin lay at the core of the 
latest "progressive" educational theory in the 
United States and that its purpose was to train — 

. . . dull but self-satisfied 100 per cent Americans ready 
on orders of American fascists to conquer the world and 
subject it to the American way of life. 



' Excerpts from an address made before the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools at Rich- 
mond, Va., on Dee. 6 and released to the press on the 
same date. 



Here is another blast on public education in the 
United States from Pravda: 

... in the USA everything is done in order to limit 
the number of pupils. The American bourgeoisie dislike 
spreading education among wide strata of the common 
people. 

For the systematic deception of American youth, a re- 
actionary system of teaching has been created in the 
USA. Young students are carefully isolated from all 
progressive influences. From the university faculties 
there are propagandized numerous anti-scientific "theo- 
ries," which have been created by the ideologists of Amer- 
ican fascism and which are designed to show that cap- 
italism is eternal, and the right to exploit other peoples 
naturally belongs to Americans. They falsify history 
and in every way promote racism and cosmopolitanism, 
which are vital to the imperialist marauders for a theo- 
retical grounding of their striving towards world 
domination. 

They teach young American men and women "Ameri- 
canism", striving to cultivate in them hatred towards the 
camp of democracy and its vanguard — the Soviet Union. 

Schools in which workers' children are taught are in 
a terrible state. The children study in unheated, neg- 
lected or completely unsuitable locations for schools. 
Often a decrepit shed or dark, musty basement serves as 
a school. 

The corrupting influence of the American system of 
education shows itself with especial force in the colossal 
growth of juvenile delinquency. The propounding of mis- 
anthropic ideas in the school, on the cinema screens and 
in children's literature is developing the darkest instincts 
among American youth. Some schools are becoming ac- 
tual nests of banditry . . . 

Writing on "Americanism" in the Cominform 
Journal of September 16, 1949, Uya Ehrenberg 
leveled perhaps the most bitter attack on "the in- 
tellectual poverty and spiritual barrenness of 
American life." He declared : 

At the words "American way of life," there comes to 
mind the peculiar but hardly attractive scenes of Ameri- 
can life ; towns which look exactly alike, people always 
in a hurry, drug stores with their food counters, tawdry 
gilt and glitter, dirt, stuffiness, "coca cola" adverts, and 
the ideal laxative taken by Romeo and Juliet on the 
other side of the ocean to maintain spiritual balance . . . 
Personally, I don't know of any other country in the 
world where individuality is as crushed and, indeed ob- 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



literated, as in the United States ... It isn't important 
that all Americanists wear the same kind of tie, one 
could put up with that. What is awful is that American- 
ists repeat one and the same thing . . . Real love is alien 
to the Americanist : he has no imaclnation. He repeats 
the radio advice of an expert on affairs of the heart . . . 
Ever.vthing is mechanized : there is no place for thought, 
or sentiment . . . Already machines are able to make 
faultless calculations . . . Soon they will do everything. 
Human robots sigh with relief : machines will invent, vote, 
make love, give birth, study. It will be the golden age 
for America : people will have nothing to do but chew 
gum and admire their dollars. Where is their individ- 
uality? Where are their thoughts and sentiments? They 
go to idiotic films and are dazzled. They gulp five whis- 
kies and get into a car with somebody else's wife. They 
listen to Mr. Acheson and to any other charlatan who 
advertises laxatives. They read only "best sellers." They 
are all alike. This is not a human society, it is a herd 
of milling millions . . . They would have us believe that 
their way of life is the height of culture. For the super- 
man, as was the case with the German ubermenscheu, 
technique is culture. Certainly, the gas chambers of 
Oswiecim were beyond the dreams of the primitive can- 
nibals . . . But technique cannot conceal the intellectual 
poverty and spiritual barrenness of American life . . . 

Because the Kremlin is hampered neither by 
moral restrictions or by public opinion, it is free 
to distort to its heart's content. Let me give you 
a classic example from a recent Slovakian broad- 
cast depicting a United States cabinet meeting : 

When the U.S. minister of Education was called upon 
to furnish the text of a proposed article (by President 
Truman), it was found that he had stopped attending 
Cabinet meetings, because his salary had not been paid 
for several years. The Secretary of the Treasury ex- 
plained that there were no funds for such purposes, for 
they had to be used for armaments. 

The proposal to reduce the quantity of hydrogen in 
the hydrogen bomb in order to get money for the Ministry 
of Education was rejected because the bomb industry 
might complain and a crisis on the Wall Street market 
might result. 

These are but samples of the Moscow story, a 
story which is being told around the world, around 
the clock. Everywhere, by every means, the Com- 
munists are attacking the free way of life through 
a steady barrage of falsehoods. In face of this, 
there can be no question as to the necessity for 
our engaging in a world-wide Campaign of Truth. 
In the words of General Eisenhower, "the big lie 
must be met by the big truth." Certainly, the 
truth has one enormous advantage over the lie. 
It can be proved. It is our job, then, to see to it 
that the world is given the full truth. 



Task of Presenting Truth 

As President Truman put it, 

Our task is to present the full truth to the millions of 
people who are uninformed or misinformed or uncon- 
vinced . . . Our task is to show that freedom is the way 
to economic and social advancement, the way to political 
independence, the way to strength, happiness and peace. 
We must pool our efforts with those of the other free 
peoples in a sustained, intensified program to promote 
the cause of freedom against the propaganda of slavery. 
We must make ourselves heard round the world in a great 
campaign of truth. 



The task of telling the truth is not separate and 
distinct from other elements of our foreign policy. 
It is a necessary part of all we are doing to build 
a peaceful woi'ld. It is essential to the success of 
our foreign policy that the military, political, and 
economic measures we are taking be accompanied 
by an effective information and educational ex- 
change program. The facts about what we do, the 
facts about why we do it, the facts about the way 
we do it are integral parts of what we do in foreign 
affairs. 

The growth of an international community of 
free and democratic nations depends upon the 
ready and free flow of facts, ideas, and people. 
Only this free flow of facts, ideas, and people can 
make clear the common bonds and interests of 
nations and allow them to settle their differences 
peaceably and justly. 

Our Government and private citizens are work- 
ing together to extend to other peoples the ideas 
and concepts inherent in American life and to re- 
place distortions and misunderstandings with 
facts. 

Information and Educational Excliange Programs 

Various agencies of the Government have, for 
about 10 years, conducted overseas information 
and educational exchange programs. The De- 
partment of State carries on its Information and 
Educational Exchange Program (USIE) under 
authority of the Smith-Mundt Act (Public Law 
402) of 1948, the Fulbright Act, and certain other 
specialized legislation. The USIE Program is 
coordinated with the activities of other agencies 
through an Interdepartmental Foreign Informa- 
tion Staff, chaired by the Department of State. 
Private agencies directly participate in many 
phases of the USIE Program and provide, by 
contract, many program facilities and materials 
for government use. Private projects having 
similar aims to those of the Government's pro- 
gram are encouraged and aided by the Depart- 
ment of State. The over-all role of the Depart- 
ment of State is to assure that the total United 
States effort is properly oriented, well-organized 
and effective. 

To tell America's story to the people of other 
lands, the USIE Program employs a great variety 
of communication systems. It transmits by press 
and radio the latest day-to-day developments of 
our story; it presents the story visually through 
motion pictures and exhibits; it goes more fully 
into the many facets of American life by providing 
books and periodicals as well as study facilities, 
lectures, and English-language instruction in eas- 
ily accessible information centers abroad; and, 
finally, it personalizes the story by the actual 
interchange ©f people for educational purposes. 

I am glad to report that the program is an 
expanding one. Because of the world situation, 
the Congress recently appropriated a large ad- 



January 1, 1951 



21 



ditional sum which permits strengthening the 
program all along the line. For example, in 
1950, we operated 139 United States information 
centers in 60 countries; in 1951, we hope to in- 
crease that figure to 177 centers in Gl countries. 
In 1950, we had 30 binational centers in 18 Latin 
American countries ; the 1951 target is 33 centers 
in 21 countries. These centers, which play an im- 
portant part in promoting hemispheric solidarity, 
incidentally, are quite annoying to the Communists 
as a recent blast carried in the Communist news- 
paper, Democrata, bears out. From Fortaleza, 
Brazil : 

Imperialist infiltration in our country is increasing from 
day to day. . . . one of the most effective methods of the 
hundred per cent war policy of the United States used 
in our country to prepare our youth psychologically for 
war is precisely the so-called Brazil-United States In- 
stitute . . . The Institute is an instrument for the infil- 
tration of the rotten, warlike ideology of the bats of 
Wall Street into the minds of our youth . . . the Institute 
is a school of gangsterism maintained throughout the 
country by Yankee warmongers. . . . TJie young people 
should themselves unmask it as an insult" to the traditions 
of our people, as a criminal interference meant to stand- 
ardize our customs according to the American pattern. 

In 1950, this Government brought 4,300 teach- 
ers, students, research scholars, lecturers, and 
leaders to this country; in 1951, the figure will be 
approximately 4,800. At the same time, we 
awarded grants to 1,250 Americans to go abroad 
for serious study, lecturing, and to serve as special- 
ist advisers in foreign countries; next year this 
will be increased to 1,650. 

While no program funds are involved, assist- 
ance to private agencies including procurement 
of copyright privileges to American books, solicit- 
ing donations of educational materials, and assist- 
ance to private agencies in the exchange of persons 
will continue to expand. Assistance to private, 
nonprofit schools sponsored by American citizens 
in other countries will likewise continue. Nearly 
$300,000 will be used in 1951 in the English- 
teaching program to develop and distribute 
English-teaching materials to foreign universi- 
ties and individuals concerned with the teaching 
of English and to finance the English-teaching 
institutes. These are but a few instances of the 
enlarged scope of educational exchange activities 
carried on by your Government as we approach 
the halfway mark of 1951. 

Each of the media serves a unique function, 
each plays a specialized role. But all are devoted 
to the same goal — that of creating among peoples 
in other countries an understanding of America, 
what we are, and what we stand for so as to 
strengthen the cooperation between the United 
States and all other free nations. This is USIE. 
In Washington, we are directing and coordinating 
the use of these media in all parts of the world. 
We are seeing to it that they work together har- 
moniously. 

For example, under the exchange of persons 
program, 11 Korean teachers of English were 



brought to this country shortly before the outbreak 
of hostilities. Public and private agencies cooper- 
ated with the Department in arranging their 
training, both at universities and in observing 
public school methods. Several of the teachers 
were interviewed by the Voice of America for 
programs beamed to the Far East, press interviews 
were given in many places in the United States, 
and our overseas press units relayed their stories 
back to Korea and other areas of the world. Our 
film specialists sent out photographers to get the 
story of their visit in the United States to show • 
in Korea. So, the impact of this one project has 
been widened by the use of all our USIE media. 

Last year, there were more than 26,000 students 
from 125 countries, studying in 1,200 American 
institutions of higher learning. Every State, the 
District, and several of the Territories welcomed 
these foreign students. Wliat they achieved aca- 
demically is of great importance, but, even more 
important, is what they learned about the life 
and institutions of the United States. 



Of the total number of foreign students on our 
campuses last year, only a small percent were 
supported by the United States Government. 
Contributions from colleges account for approxi- 
mately 25 percent of the total. Many Government 
grants are partial, and university or other private 
resources are depended upon to complete them. 
The travel grants made under the Fulbright Act 
are a good example of this. 

Selecting Exchange Scholars 

Private cooperation with the Government is 
arranged in many ways. The United States 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange 
and the Board of Foreign Scholarships are exam- 
ples of this and their membership reflects such 
Nation-wide participation. In addition to being 
an advisory body, the Board of Foreign Scholar- 
ships is also charged with the actual selection of 
persons to receive awards for the educational 
exchanges taking place under the Fulbright Act. 

The Board of Foreign Scholarships and the 
Department are very well aware that, in order to 
present a true picture of America abroad, the 
persons chosen for awards must represent a cross 
section of this country. We are also well aware 
of the mandate of the law to give due regard to 
proper geographical distribution in the awarding 
of grants. 

To fulfill this responsibilitv, the Department 
and the Board have directed the agencies cooper- 
ating in the execution of the program to give care- 
ful consideration to this factor in recommending 
candidates and have undertaken a constant analy- 
sis of recommendations to see that this directive 
is being followed. 



22 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Department and the Board have, likewise, 
directed the cooperating agencies to expend the 
maximum effort to publicize the progi-am in all 
parts of the country. They have encouraged the 
appointment of Fulbright advisors on hundreds 
of campuses and the establishment of campus com- 
mittees to assure the widest possible participation 
and the making of initial judgments on can- 
didates at the place where they are best known — 
in their college communities. 

Again, mindful of its responsibility under the 
law, the Board of Foreign Scholarships this year 
adopted the State Scholar Plan and requested each 
of the States to establish committees to select two 
students for special awards. The Board adopted 
this plan as an experiment, the results of which 
may guide them in further efforts to assure equi- 
table distribution of grants. 

I do not wish to imply that selectingexchange 
scholars does not present difficulties. We have a 
world-wide program now — exchanges with nearly 
60 countries. The majority of opportunities for 
Americans are in the 19 countries with which we 
have Fulbright agreements. But the requirements 
for each of these countries differ. As you would 
imagine, by far the largest number of Americans 
want to go to England, France, and Italy, with 
England the favorite. However, the British uni- 
versities are more overcrowded than our own, and, 
in France and Italy, housing shortages are still 
very acute. This necessarily limits the number 
of persons we can send and means a larger propor- 
tion of disappointed candidates. 

International educational exchange is necessar- 
ily complex. The interchange of teachers, for 
example, presents complex problems of matching 
a teacher in a certain subject at a certain grade 
level with a counterpart abroad where the school 
systems and curricula are not exactly comparable. 
If the program is to achieve its goal, these head- 
for-head exchanges have to be managed with a 
minimum of dislocation for both teachers and 
pupils. 

In choosing candidates for university lecturing 
or advanced research, we are made very sharply 
aware of the binational character of these pro- 
gjrams. We are, of necessity, guided by the par- 
ticular openings in foreign universities which 
Americans are asked to fill or the type of research 
facilities which these countries can make avail- 
able for our scholars. Very often, it is a matter 
of recruiting the right person for the specific open- 
ing—a factor which limits the normal Nation- 
wide competitive aspect of the program. 

American colleges and universities are chal- 
lenged today to demonstrate more effectively than 
ever before the survival value of America's free 
institutions and basic democratic ideas and ideals. 
They must not be content to meet this challenge 
for the foreign students within their halls; they 
must go out to meet it beyond their borders. 

January J, 7951 



I believe that the challenge was put squarely to 
all of us in the resolutions adopted at a meeting 
of the National Conference of University and 
College Administrators and Educators, Govern- 
ment and Military Officials, and Representatives 
of National Organizations, held at Washington in 
October of this year. They are brief and to the 
point, and I ask that you consider them carefully 
as I read them : 

1. That forces be rallied which are concerned with the 
preserving and the perfecting of the democratic way of 
life in America to the end that we may present to the 
world a more convincing demonstration of a people who 
are seeking full realization of democratic values. 

2. That each institution take immediate steps to re- 
examine and strengthen its total program in order to 
insure that : 

a) An awareness of the gravity of the international 
situation is grasped by both the students and the adult 
community, and that the challenge to our way of life is 
understood. 

b) Accurate information is disseminated concerning 
both private and public professional positions in the inter- 
national field, and students are carefully selected for 
training to fill these positions. 

c) All faculty members, regardless of subject, become 
aware of their ojiportunities and obligations for teaching 
international understanding. 

d) In so far as facilities permit, colleges undertake 
programs of research designed to throw new light upon 
and improve procedures for education for international 
responsibility. It is particularly urgent that research in 
the social sciences keep pace with expansion of research 
in the natural sciences. 

e) Students and professors from other lands have a 
profitable educational experience in the United States and 
that their presence result in improved mutual under- 
standing. 

f ) Adequate help be given to students and faculty to 
secure and make full use of valuable foreign experience 
and the Individual institutions be urged to facilitate the 
release of trained specialists for temporary service to our 
government at home and abroad. 

3. That the training for military service include orienta- 
tion in the basic issues involved in the present crisis. 

4. That each institution, as a step toward revising, 
strengthening, and coordinating its program, establish an 
all-institution committee to carry on the evaluation sug- 
gested above and to bring about needed changes. 

5. That the American Council on Education take im- 
mediate steps to bring about urgently needed coordination 
at the national level of the many international activities 
of colleges and universities, including the provision for 
a clearinghouse of information. 

6. That steps be taken immediately by governmental 
and intergovernmental agencies to coordinate their serv- 
ices and activities in the international fields whenever they 
involve higher educational institutions. 

7. That the proposed World Association of Colleges and 
Universities and Unesco be supported as the appropriate 
agencies to effect international coordination and liaison 
in this field. 

8. That, in view of many opportunities and urgent needs 
for colleges and universities to engage directly in coopera- 
tive activities in foreign countries with the guidance and 
assistance of appropriate federal agencies, educational in- 
stitutions to be used to carry out government contracts 
for specific projects and that authority and funds be dele- 
gated to the institutions and that formulas for accomplish- 
ing this be devised. 

9. That American higher education take greater re- 
sponsibility for securing sound and constructive legislative 



23 



action in the field of foreign affairs and particularly on 
behalf of international cultural relations. 

10. That steps be taken at once by the American Council 
on Education and other appropriate bodies to organize a 
program of educational reconstruction to parallel economic 
aid in Korea. 

Now, these are sound resolutions. What are we 
going to do about them ? It is said that one of the 
greatest labor-saving devices is tomorrow. With 
the problems we face in the world today, however, 
tomorrow may be too late. We cannot afford the 
luxury of resolving and then failing to act. 

Occasionally, I hear someone remark — "Yes, 
this business of educational exchange is fine, but, 
with world events moving so rapidly, what effect 
can it produce ? " I'm going to let the Communists 
answer that in their own words. In what was once 
remote Korea, Chong Son, Vice Minister of Cul- 
ture and Propaganda, spoke to the people of North 
Korea over the Pyongyang radio on October 19, 
1949 — several months before the Moscow-inspired 
aggression. He said, and I quote : 

Only by absorbing the advanced Soviet culture will we 
be able to develop our national culture further. There- 
fore we must intensify our efforts to absorb more vigor- 
ously the advanced Soviet culture so that we may develop 
our national culture to a higher level and make ours a 
rich, powerful country. 

It is interesting to note that, in the autumn of 
1945, the Korean-Soviet Culture Society had a 
membership of about 3,700, with only 20 branches. 
By May 1949, the membership had swollen to 
1,300,000 with 105 branches and 20,000 units. In 
order to train middle-school teachers and govern- 
ment employees, more than 100 special Russian- 
language schools were established, already having 
more than 1,500 graduates. In addition, almost 
70,000 lectures and concerts were given by Soviet 
artists, writers, and other cultural representatives 
in 1948, and an even greater number in 1949. 

Does the Soviet Lmion believe in the effective- 
ness of cultural exchange — in its case, cultural 
penetration ? I imagine any GI fighting in Korea 
today could tell us just how much the Korean and 
the Chinese Red has been "influenced." 

The facts of international life today permit no 
complacency. Today, foreign affairs are every- 
one's affairs. Every American must become a pula- 
lic relations agent for his country. The responsi- 
bility of educators — the leaders of thought and 
opinion — is especially important. We must re- 
member that every American student, American 
professor, technician, or specialist who goes 
abroad either represents the greatness or the weak- 
ness of American education to the peoples with 
whom he comes in contact. 

Recently, Secretary Acheson pointed out, " 

We do not always present our best side to the world. 
In our enthusiasm and drive we often expect others to 
recognize us for what vre are ... It is our purpose to 
carry to all parts of the world the facts about what is 
happening in America and in the world . . . What is 
even more important than what we say to the world is 
how we conduct ourselves at home and abroad. The force 



of example and action is the factor which finally deter- 
mines what our influence is to be. 

That is what makes the educational exchange 
program such an important part of the Campaign 
of Truth, which Secretary Acheson has termed the 
sixth element in the strategy of freedom. I ask 
you to join in this bold effort — to assume a leading 
role in this great Campaign of Truth. 



U.S. Will Not Adhere to Salvadoran 
Definition of Territorial Sovereignty 

[Released to the press December 22] 

Following is the text of a note, dated December 12, 
1950, from the American Ambassador at San Salvador, 
Oeorge P. Shaw, to the Salvadoran Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, Roberto E. Canessa. 

1 have the honor, pursuant to the direction of 
my Government, to refer to the Constitution of 
El Salvador of 1950 which in its Article 7 sets 
forth that the territory of El Salvador compre- 
hends the adjacent seas for the distance of 200 
marine miles, calculated from the lowest tide line, 
and includes the air overhead, the subsoil and the 
corresponding continental shelf. 

I am directed to inform Your Excellency that 
the Government of the United States of America 
has noted with deep concern the implications of 
this provision of the Constitution. Under long- 
established principles of international law, it is 
universally agreed that the territorial sovereignty 
of a coastal state extends over a naiTow belt of 
territorial waters beyond which lie the high seas. 
The provisions of Article 7 would, if carried into 
execution, bring within the exclusive jurisdiction 
and control of El Salvador wide ocean areas which 
have hitherto been considered high seas by all 
nations. It would in these extensive waters and 
in the air spaces above supplant the free and un- 
trammeled navigation of foreign vessels and air- 
craft by such controls as El Salvador, in the exer- 
cise of the sovereignty claimed, might apply. 
This is true despite the disclaimer of the second 
paragraph of Article 7, since, consequent upon 
the assertion of sovereignty, freedom of naviga- 
tion in these areas might be claimed to be a privi- 
lege granted by El Salvador rather than based 
on a right deriving from international law. 

The United States of America has, in common 
with the great majority of other maritime nations, 
long adhered to the principle that tlie belt of ter- 
ritorial waters extends three marine miles from 
the coasts. My Government desires to inform the 
Government of El Salvador, accordingly, that it 
will not consider its nationals or vessels or aircraft 
as being subject to the provisions of Article 7 or to 
any measures designed to carry it into execution. 

Please accept [etc.]. 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. and Brazil Establish Joint Commission for Economic Development 



[Released to the press December Zl] 



The Governments of Brazil and the United 
States announced today conchision of a general 
agreement for technical cooperation under the 
Point 4 Program and a subsidiary agreement 
establishing a Joint Commission for Economic 
Development to assist Brazil in planning and 
carrying out an extensive program of economic 
development. The agreements were made at the 
request of the Brazilian Government. 

Technical Cooperation 

Signing of the agreements was announced in 
Washington by Henry G. Bennett, Technical Co- 
operation Administrator, and in Rio de Janeiro 
by Raul Fernandes, Minister for Foreign Aifairs. 
The Foreign Minister expressed his and Presi- 
dent Dutra's "immense satisfaction" on consum- 
mation of the agreements. The general Point 4 
agreement with Brazil is the first of the kind to 
be signed in Latin America. 



Organization 

The Joint Commission, to be composed of a 
Brazilian and an American commissioner ap- 
pointed by their respective Governments, will be 
located in Rio de Janeiro. Its primary duty will 
be to study the development needs of Brazil and 
to recommend action to be taken by the two 
Governments.' 

The Commission will make recommendations 
for immediate development and improvement in 
specific fields vital to Brazil's goal of a balanced 

' The Export-Import Bank announced on Dec. 22 that 
it now has on its books loans for a great variety of 
projects, all of them designed to contribute to the pro- 
ductive capacity of Brazil. They include the fully inte- 
grated steel plant at Volta Redonda, for the expansion 
of which an additional 2.5 million dollars was recently 
committed ; the Rio Doce valley railway and the Itabira 
iron mine development ; other rail transportation equip- 
ment; cargo steamships; airplanes; harbor barges; mu- 
nicipal buses ; hydroelectric equipment ; and equipment 
for other industries. In all, loans to Brazil by the Bank 
have exceeded 200 million dollars. Repayments of prin- 
cipal have amounted to approximately 72 million dollars 
and are up to date. 



economy, greater production, expanded trade, and 
a higher standard of living. The Commission 
will recommend what technical assistance is 
needed on specific projects and will advise on 
opportunities for utilizing foreign and domestic 
technical knowledge, skills, and investments in 
furthering Brazil's economic development. 

Brazil's proposed program to speed the coun- 
try's economic and industrial development, with 
the assistance of the new Joint Commission, will 
be based upon cooperation between government 
and private intere.sts, with the maximum use of 
Brazilian resources and greater employment of 
private enterprise, both foreign and domestic. 

Three Subcommissions on Transportation, 
Power Development, and Food and Agriculture 
will advise and assist the Commission. These are 
the fields considered by the Brazilian Government 
as most urgently needing attention in order to 
promote economic development. The Subcom- 
missions, each headed by a Brazilian and an 
American technician, will depend largely on the 
services of specialized Brazilian and United 
States organizations on a contractual basis. 

The United States has a,llocated $800,000 of 
Point 4 funds to Brazil during the current fiscal 
year for new projects of which $1.50.000 will be 
used to help finance the work of the Commission. 
About 60 percent of this amount may be used for 
immediate studies by the Subcommissions on 
Transportation and Power of urgently needed im- 
provement and development projects in those 
fields. Brazil will contribute the services of its 
technicians, buildings and other facilities, and 
funds for operating costs of the Commission. 

Brazil is now a large exporter of light products 
such as coffee and cocoa beans but is unable to 
export heavy items such as iron and manganese 
ore and lumber on a large scale because of railroad 
deficiencies. With the assistance of the proposed 
Subcommission on Transportation, Brazil hopes 
to rehabilitate its principal railroads so as to im- 
prove carrying capacity, increase efficiency, and 
reduce transportation costs. 

The production of power is insufficient for Bra- 
zil's present needs, and power shortages are hold- 



January I, 1957 



25 



inf^ back industrial expansion in the states of Rio 
Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, and JMinas Geraes. 
The Government has suggested a review by the 
Subcommissiou on Power Development of tlie ex- 
tensive power i^rojects already under way in those 
states, as the possible basis of a coordinated power 
progi-am for Brazil. The Subcommissiou also 
will study the financing of power development, 
including the possibilities of necessary foreign 
capital ijarticipation. 

Pirazilian authorities want the Subcommission 
on Food and x\gi-iculture to investigate the possi- 
ble establishment of meat packing and cold stor- 
age plants, silos and warehouses, and increased 
production and distribution of fertilizer. 



Background 

The Joint Commission will not duplicate but 
will be able to utilize the intensive investigation 
and research already carried out by the short- 
term Brazil-U.S. Technical Commission, or the 
Abbink Commission, in 1948-49. The Commis- 
sion will also have as another basis of reference for 
its activities the official development program for 
Brazil known as the SALTE plan. The new 
Commission will formulate an action program 
based in part on these earlier plans. 

The Point 4 agreement for establishment of the 
new Joint Commission is an outgrowth of discus- 
sion between President Truman and President 
Dutra in May 1949, when the latter visited Wash- 
ington with the Minister for Foreign Affairs. In 
conversations with President Dutra, President 
Truman emphasized the past record of interde- 
pendence of the two countries in peace and war 
and assured the President of Brazil of the con- 
tinuing interest of the United States in the devel- 
opment of his country. 

As part of the amplified technical cooperation 
between the two countries, the Brazilian Govern- 
ment has requested that existing joint projects in 
Brazil be expanded under the Point 4 jn-ogram. 

Institute of Inter-American Affairs Role 

The Institute of Inter- American Affairs is co- 
operating with Brazil in the most extensive health 
and sanitation program with which the Institute 
is connected in Latin America. Activities are cen- 
tered mainly in the Amazon and Rio Doce Valleys 
and in the states of Bahia and Paraiba. The pro- 
gram includes the operation of more than 25 
health centers, numerous outposts, hospitals, lab- 
oratories, and river launches that carry medical 
aid to people in isolated regions. 

In the vocational education program in which 
the Institute is working with Brazilian authori- 
ties, teachers are being given in-service training in 
industrial education; approximately 30 industrial 
teachers will be brought to the United States for 
training in each of the next three fiscal years; 



the curricula of industrial schools will be studied 
and new teaching materials prepared. 

Another cooperative project, which is being 
substantially expanded with $50,000 of Point 4 
funds, is Fazenda Ipanema (Ipanema Farm), 
owned by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture 
and located in the state of Sao Paulo. An Ameri- 
can technician from the Department of Agricul- 
ture has directed its operation since 1948 as a na- 
tional training center in rural engineering, with 
emphasis on the operation, maintenance, and re- 
pair of farm machinery. 

Since 1940, American geologists, from the Geo- 
logical Survey of the Department of Interior, have 
been working with Brazilian geologists in scientifi- 
cally surveying some of Brazil's valuable mineral 
resources. These investigations verified the ex- 
istence of the two largest deposits of high-grade 
manganese known in the Western Hemispliere. 

One of tliese, in the territory of Amapa near the 
mouth of the Amazon, is estimated to contain at 
least 7 million tons of ore. The other, in the 
state of Mato Gi'osso near the Bolivian border, 
contains an estimated 33 million tons of ore. As 
a result of these surveys, two large American steel 
companies are negotiating with Brazilian inter- 
ests for the development of the manganese in 
Amapa, and for developing the Morro do Urucum 
deposit in Mato Grosso. 

Meanwhile, American geologists are helping 
their Brazilian colleagues determine how much 
iron ore is contained in a mountain range at Ita- 
bira, in the state of INIinas Geraes — one of the 
largest soui'ces of high-grade iron ore in the 
world. 



Air Force Mission Agreement 
With Cuba 

[Released to the press December 22'\ 

Secretary Acheson and Dr. Luis Machado, Am- 
bassador of Cuba to the United States, today 
signed an agreement providing for the technical 
services of an advisory mission of the United 
States Air Force to serve in Cuba. The agree- 
ment is to continue in force for 2 years from the 
date of sigiiature and may be extended beyond 
that period at the request of the Government of 
Cuba. 

The agreement is similar to numerous other 
agreements in foi'ce between the United States and 
certain other American Republics providing for 
advisory missions of pei-sonnel of the United 
States Army, Navy, Air Force, or ^Marine Corps 
to those countries. The provisions of the agree- 
ment pertain to the duties, rank, and compensa- 
tion of the personnel of the mission, the travel 
accomnuxlations to be provided for the members 
of the mission and their families, and other re- 
lated matters. 



26 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



U.S. and Liberia Sign Point 4 Agreement 



[Released to the press December 21] 



The United States and the Republic of Liberia 
today concluded a general Point 4 agreement 
under which a comprehensive program for the 
economic development of Liberia will be coopera- 
tively undertaken. 

Secretary Acheson represented the United 
States Government and Secretary of State Gabriel 
L. Dennis, who headed the special commission 
which negotiated the agreement, represented the 
Government of Liberia at the signing ceremony 
in the Department of State today. 

Present at the signing were C. D. B. King, Li- 
berian Ambassador to the United States and the 
following members of the Liberian Special Mis- 
sion which negotiated the agreements : C. Abayomi 
Cassell, Attorney General of Liberia; Henry B. 
Duncan, Secretary of Public Works and Utilities; 
Charles B. Sherman, Liberian Government Econ- 
omist and Mrs. Mai Padmore, Secretary to the 
Commission. 

Also present were George C. McGhee, Assistant 
Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian and 
African Affairs, and Dr. Henry G. Bennett, Tech- 
nical Cooperation Administratoi*. 

General Agreement 

The general, or "umbrella," agreement is de- 
signed to carry out the provisions of the act for 
international development which established the 
Point 4 Program. It defines the general condi- 
tions of economic cooperation and paves the way 
for specific project agreements. 

The two Governments also signed a memoran- 
dum of understanding, providing for a Joint Com- 
mission for Economic Development to survey the 
economic resources of Liberia, as well as to plan 
and advise on the Point 4 Program in that coun- 
try.^ The Commission will be composed of seven 
representatives of the Liberian Government and 
six representatives of the United States Govern- 
ment, with a Liberian chairman. The pattern of 
cooperation is similar to that woi'ked out in the 
recent exchange of notes with Paraguay.^ 

' For text of the agreement and memorandum, see De- 
partment of State press release 12.54 of Dec. 22. 
= BtnxETiN of Dec. 18, 1950, p. 974. 



The agreements signed today grew out of the 
Liberian Government's request for United States 
assistance in carrying out a new long-range devel- 
opment program. Tlie Liberian Government will 
contribute 20 percent of its total national revenues 
toward the cost of the program. It estimates that 
this contribution will average about a million 
dollars a year. 



Cost of the Program 

Technical Cooperation Administrator Henry G. 
Bennett announced that the United States will 
contribute the services of 67 technicians plus the 
equipment they may need in their work. It is 
expected that the annual rate of United States 
spending for the Liberian program will reach the 
level of $850,000 by next June. The two Govern- 
ments will now negotiate specific project agree- 
ments, under which the new, expanded program 
will go forward. As a result of 2 years of joint 
planning and consultation by the United States 
and Liberian Governments, the general direction 
and scope of the program can now be forecast. 

According to present estimates, it will take 
between 5 and 10 yeai-s and cost about 321/2 mil- 
lion dollars to carry out the new development 
program. Financing through loans and private 
investment will be needed to supplement the con- 
tribution of Liberian Government revenues and 
United States technical assistance. 

The work of technical cooperation and develop- 
ment in the 5- to 10-year period will be concen- 
trated in five major fields: Engineering projects, 
Ijrincipally roads, bridges, hydroelectric power, 
and water works, to cost about $11,300,000; agri- 
cultural development mainly concerned with 
food supply and export items such as rubber, 
cacao, and palm oil, to cost approximately $4,- 
200.000; health projects, at an estimated cost of 
$8,700,000; iirojects in basic education, to cost 
about $7,100,000; projects to extend and improve 
public administration, costing about $1,200,000. 

At the request of the Liberian Government, 
the United Nations will also cooperate in the 



January 1, 1951 



27 



fields of health and education through its special- 
ized agencies, the World Health Organization, 
and Unesco. 



Benefits Outlined 

A solid foundation for the new long-range 

Erogram has been laid by the work which the 
Iberian Government, aided by the work which 
the United States Economic and Public Health 
Missions have been carrying on for the past 6 
years. Each of the United States missions has 
been staffed with 10 American teclmicians. The 
Economic Mission has cooperated with the Li- 
berian Government on extensive surveys for its 
roadbuilding program. Large areas of the in- 
terior of the country have been opened up for 
new cultivation. As a result, the road mileage 
of the country has increased from 200 in 1938 
to more than 1,000 miles in 1950. 

A survey of Liberia's forests by the Economic 
Mission's forester has established that more than 
one-third of the country's area is covered by high 
forest. These forests are composed largely of 
tropical hardwoods some of established value and 
others still unknown commercially. If uses for 
all species can be developed, the annual cut of 
Liberian timber under a sound forest program 
might equal in volume the cut normally taken 
from all United States forests east of the Missis- 
sippi River. 

An Economic Mission soil survey shows that 
the remaining two-thirds of Liberia's area is 
adapted to the production of a variety of crops 
including rubber, cacao, coffee, oil palms, ba- 
nanas, and other tropical crops all of which are 
important supplements to temperate zone prod- 
ucts and some of which have gi'eat strategic value 
to the Western world. 

As a result of Liberia's traditional open-door 
policy toward private investment, development 
of rubber production by American private enter- 
prise preceded the second World War by 13 
years. This enabled Liberia to make an impor- 
tant contribution to the United Nations war ef- 
fort. In 1943 when most Far Eastern rubber 
production was in enemy hands, Liberia exported 
25,000 tons of crude rubber to the United States, 
approximately one-half of all United States im- 
ports of that critical commodity in that year. 

Food supply projects have included increased 
planting of rice, making Liberia self-sufficient in 
that staple food for the first time. New vege- 
tables, soybeans, and other legumes have been 
introduced into the Liberian diet. The Ameri- 
can Mission has cooperated with Liberian 
Department of Agriculture and Commerce, es- 
tablished in 19-18, in importing purebred poultry 
and livestock and in developing balanced rations 
for livestock from Liberian grains. 

The United States Health Mission has worked 
with the Liberian Bureau of Health and Sanita- 



tion in greatly reducing the incidence of malaria, 
dysentery, yaws, and syphilis. As the result of a 
nation-wide vaccination program, smallpox is now 
under complete control. 

The United States Health Mission has cooper- 
ated with Liberian health authorities in building 
and operating a large general clinic, with special- 
ized clinics in maternal and infant care and in 
tropical and venereal diseases. The general clinic 
admits more than 2,000 patients a month. A 
nurses' training school and a medical library have 
also been established. X-ray facilities are avail- 
able to the general public. A training program 
for medical technicians and sanitary inspectors is 
now in operation. 

In recent years, the Liberian Government has 
greatly intensified its own efforts for economic 
development. Appropriations for public health 
and sanitation are 5 times greater than in 1944 
and now constitute about 10 percent of all govern- 
ment spending. 

Appropriations for public education during the 
last 6 years have been increased by approximateh' 
3 times while total revenues were increasing by 
about 50 percent. More than 100 Liberian stu- 
dents are at present in the United States taking 
advanced training in technical fields, most of them 
on grants from the Liberian Government. 

Close cooperation between the United States and 
Liberian Governments dates back to 1942 when a 
mutual defense agreement was concluded. Un- 
der this agreement, the United States built Roberts 
Field which became an important wartime link in 
the Air Transport Command's feny service to 
Europe and the Middle and Far East. A lend- 
lease agreement provided for the building of a free 
port which was subsequently constructed at Mon- 
I'ovia. In 1942, Liberia declared war on Germany 
and Japan and joined the United Nations 
coalition. 

Liberian Government revenues have risen from 
$885,000 in 1938 to approximately $4,000,000 in 
1950. In the same period, the value of annual 
trade between the two countries has gi-own from 
$2,000,000 to $21,500,000. 



U.S., U.K., and South Africa Reach 
Agreement on Uranium Production 

[Released to the press ty AEC December 14] 

Uranium to be produced in the Union of South 
Africa as a byproduct of gold production will be 
sold to the United States and the United Kingdom 
under an agreement just concluded by the three 
nations. 

The new agreement marks the successful culmi- 
nation of several years of intensive research and 
development by the three nations on the problem 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



of economically recovering uranium from the 
gold-bearing ores. 

The South African gold ores represent one of 
the world's largest sources of uranium. Although 
the uranium content of the ores is small, potential 
production is relatively large because of the great 
quantities of ore mined. 

The initial production will come from the prop- 
erties of the following mining companies, although 
consideration will be given by South African Gov- 
ernment to the construction of additional uranium 
processing plants on other mine properties as it 
is warranted : 

1. West Rand Consolidated Mines, Ltd. 

2. Daggafontein Mines, Ltd. 

3. Blyvooruitziclit Gold Mining Co., Ltd. 

4. Western Reefs Exploration and Development Co., Ltd. 

Funds to cover the capital cost of the uranium 
processing plants will be loaned by the United 
States and United Kingdom, on a banking basis, 
if requested by the South Africans. 

Although uranium will be a valuable byproduct 
of gold production, the revenue and earnings from 
uranium will not be on such a scale as to affect 
materially the tinancial positions of the companies 
concerned. 

Negotiations which led to the new agreement 
were concluded last month in Johannesburg by 
representatives of the three nations. Preliminary 
discussions were held at the same city a year ago. 
The principal representative of the United States 
at the meeting last month was Jesse C. Johnson, 
manager of the Raw Materials Operations Office 
of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. 

Plant design and construction leading to the 
production of uranium under the new agreement 
is proceeding on an urgent basis. Because of se- 
curity considerations, no information on rate of 
progress or other aspects of the program can be 
made public. 



Foreign Nationals Visit U.S. 

Recent arrivals in the United States under the 
Department of State's grants-in-aid program 
include : 

Pyun Yung Tai, writer and lecturer, and vice- 
president of the Korean Red Cross, will tour the 
United States to confer with Red Cross officials, 
journalists, and literary leaders. His tour will 
include visits to colleges and universities, and he 
will study the public school system. 

Cyrus Majd, member of the High Council Ad- 
visory Commission of the Ministry of Labor, Iran, 
is on a 3-month tour of various industrial and 
mining centers and labor organizations. 

Dr. Suzanne Lemaire, head of the School of 
Pediatrics, University of Paris, will tour the child 
and maternal health centers for 3 months. Her 



itinerary will include Johns Hopkins University, 
the Mayo Clinic, and other institutions in New 
York, Boston, Chicago, Denver, New Orleans, San 
Francisco, and Los Angeles. 

Lee Ki Poong, wife of the mayor of Seoul, 
Korea, will visit educational institutions and wom- 
en's organizations for 3 months. She will confer 
with officials of the Women's Bureau of the De- 
partment of Labor and study the workings of 
various associations, particularly university wom- 
en's clubs. 

Grace Pak Chang, principal of Kyungki Public 
Girls' Middle School, Seoul, Korea, will tour for 
10 weeks various educational centers. She will 
study methods of educational administration and 
visit YWCA offices and women's clubs. 

Dr. Hermes A. Bartholomeu, executive secre- 
tary of a child welfare agency at Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, will visit child and maternal welfare agen- 
cies in rural areas similar to organizations now 
being planned in Brazil. 

Hafizullah Khan, vice president of the Motor 
Shirkat of Kabul, Afghanistan, desires to consult 
experts in long-distance hauling of foods in con- 
nection with visits to motor transport operational 
and manufacturing centers. 

Dr. Benjamin Maisler, leading archaeologist 
and authority on the historical geography of Pal- 
estine will give courses in ancient Hebrew civili- 
zation and history and recent archaeological dis- 
coveries in Israel at the Oriental Institute of the 
University of Chicago. 



Americans Visiting Abroad 

David L. Cohn, writer and lecturer, of Hope- 
well, New Jersey, will tour India, Pakistan, and 
Southeast Asia, and will speak and discuss the 
various phases of American civilization and cul- 
ture and race relations. He is the first lecturer 
to be awarded a grant under the Smith-Mundt 
Act for the purpose of visiting a number of coun- 
tries of South and Southeast Asia. 

Florence Arquin, photographer and visual edu- 
cation specialist, will tour South America to 
discuss and demonstrate techniques of visual 
education. 

These visits have been made possible through 
grants-in-aid awarded by the Department of 
State. 



Resignation of Mark Ethridge 

from information Advisory Commission 

On November 25, the President accepted the resignation 
of Mark Ethridge as Chairman of the United States 
Advisory Commission on Information. For the text of 
President Truman's letter to Mr. Ethridge, see White 
House press release of that date. 



January 1, I95I 



29 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings' 



Adjourned During December 1950 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Air Navigation Commission, Fifth Session Montreal Sept. 19-Dec. 11 

Council, Eleventh Session Montreal Sept. 27-Dec. 15 

Air Transport Committee, Eleventh Session Montreal Sept. 28-Dec. 15 

Special African-Indian Ocean, European-Mediterranean, North Paris Nov. 8-Dec. 5 

Atlantic Regional Meteorological Meetings. 

Air Navigation Commission: Fourth Session of Rules of the Air Montreal Nov. 14- Dec. 14 

and Air Traffic Control Division. 

Inter-American Seminar on Biostatics Santiago Sept. 25-Dec. 16 

Intergovernmental Study Group on Germany London Oct. 24-Dec. 15 

United Nations: 

International Tin Conference Geneva Oct. 25-Dec. 2 

Economic and Social Council: 

Narcotic Drugs Commission: Fifth Session Lake Success Dee. 1-16 

Second Social Welfare Seminar for the Arab States in the Middle Cairo Nov. 22-Dec. 14 

East. 

Joint Ecafe/Unesco Working Party on Educational and Scientific Bangkok Dec. 20-22 

Supplies, Second Session. 

Gatt (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) : Fifth Session of the Torquay Nov. 2-Dec. 16 

Contracting Parties. 

Meeting of Inter-American Federation of Nursing Sao Paulo and Bahia .... Nov. 13-Dec. 9 

West Indian Conference: Fourth Session Curagao Nov. 27-Dec. 8 

Caribbean Commission: Eleventh Meeting Curagao Nov. 27-Dec. 14 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): 

Textiles Committee: Third Session Lyon Nov. 28-Dec. 9 

Asian Advisory Committee: Second Session Indonesia Dec. 17-19 

Fourth Inter-Anierican Conference on Agriculture Montevideo Dec. 1-12 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Latin American Regional Conference (Concurrent with Inter- Montevideo Dec. 1-18 

American Conference on Agriculture) . 

Latin American Forestry and Forest Products Commission: Third Santiago Dec. 11-20 

Session. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization) : 

Second International Conference of University Representatives . . Nice Dec. 4-9 

First Regional Conference of the National Commissions of the Habana Dec. 8-20 

Western Hemisphere. 
First Latin American Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology . . Montevideo and Buenos Dec. 8-17 

Aires. 
North Atlantic Council: Sixth Session Brussels Dec. 18-19 

In Session as of December 31, 1950 

United Nations: 

General Assembly: Fifth Session Lake Success ....... Sept. 19- 

Serainar on Public Personnel Management Lake Success Oct. 30- 

Gatt (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) : Third Round of Torquay Sept. 28- 

Tariff Negotiations of Contracting Parties. 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : Asian Technical Conference Karachi Dec. 26- 

on Cooperation. 

' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
30 Department of S/afe Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 
Scheduled January 1-March 31, 1951 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Legal Committee: Seventh Session Mexico City Jan. 2- 

Air Navigation Commission Airworthiness Division: Fourth Ses- Montreal Mar. 20- 

sion. 

Air Navigation Commission Operations Division: Fourth Session . Montreal Mar. 27- 

Fourth Meeting of the International Association for Hjdraulic lie- Bombay Jan. 2- 

search. 
United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 

Technical Conference on Flood Control New Delhi 

Regional Conference of Statisticians Rangoon 

Subcommission on Iron and Steel: Third Meeting Lahore 

Committee on Industry and Trade Lahore 

Seventh Session Lahore 

Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations Lake Success 

Twelfth Session Santiago 

Transport and Communications Commission : Fifth Session . . Lake Success 

Fiscal Commission: Third Session Lake Success 

Social Commission: Seventh Session Geneva 

Trusteeship Council: Eighth Session Lake Succe.ss 

Fourth International Congress on Large Dams New Delhi 

Indian International Engineering Exhibition New Delhi 

Centenary Celebrations of the Geological Survey of India Calcutta 

First Plenary Session of International Commission on Irrigation and New Delhi 

Canals. 

Sectional Meeting of the World Power Conference New Delhi 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organ- Paris 

ization): Executive Board : Twenty-fifth Session. 

Inter- American Commission of Women : Regional Seminar San Salvador 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): 

Committee of F^xperts on Indigenous Labor: First Session La Paz 

Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works: Third Session . . . Geneva 

Governing Body: 114th Session Geneva 

Who (World Health Organization): Executive Board: Seventh Session . Geneva 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Technical Meeting on Rural Cooperatives Port-of-Spain 

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council: Third Meeting Madras 

Meeting on Agricultural Extension: (Training Centre for Agricul- Turrialba 

tural Extension Workers in Latin American Countries). 

Technical Meeting on Education in Home Economics and Nutrition Port-of-Spain 

Cotton Advisory Committee, International: Tenth Plenary Meeting . Lahore 

Motion Picture Festival (Festival cinematografico) Punta Del Este, Uruguay , 

Petroleum Congress, First South American Montevideo 

Imo (International ]\Ieteorological Organization): Extraordinary Ses- Paris 

sion of the Directors. 

Wmo (World Meteorological Organization) : First Congress Paris 

Lyon International Trade Fair, Thirty-Third Lyon 

South Pacific Quarantine Conference Suva, Fiji Islands . . . 

2 Tentative. 



Jan. 


7- 


Jan. 


22- 


Feb. 


12- 


Feb. 


14- 


Feb. 


22- 


Jan. 


22- 


Feb. 


6 2- 


Mar 


12- 


Mar 


. 19- 


Mar 


. 19-' 


January 


Jan. 


10- 


Jan. 


10- 


Jan. 


10- 


Jan. 


10- 


Jan. 


10 


Jan. 


10- 


Jan. 


15- 


Jan. 


1(>- 


Feb. 


17- 


Feb. 


2fi- 


Jan. 


22- 


Jan. 


22- 


Feb. 


1- 


Feb. 


3- 


Mar 


12- 


Feb. 


1- 


Feb. 


15- 


Mar 


12- 


Mar 


15- 


Mar 


15- 


Mar 


31- 


March 



Jcnoary I, J 95 1 31 



Airplane Climb Performance Standards 



iy George W. Haldeman 

Chief, Aircraft Division, Civil AeroTumtics Administration 



From September 14— October 3, 1950, delega- 
tions from the United States and 11 other mem- 
ber governments of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization (Icao) met at Paris to 
discuss airplane climb performance standards to 
be presented for adoption at the next sessions ^ 
of the Airworthiness and Operations Divisions of 
Icao. 

Climb performance standards have presented 
a difficult i^roblem, primarily because these stand- 
ards determine the maximum weight at which an 
airplane may operate and, therefore, the maxi- 
mum pay load which may be carried. Moreover, 
there are strong economic implications in these 
decisions. A brief examination of the history of 
this problem and its present status is noted here. 

At the International Civil Aviation Conference 
at Chicago, November 1-December 7, 1944, the 
United States proposed the adoption, as interna- 
tional standards of airworthiness of aircraft, sub- 
stantially its own domestic civil regulations. This 
proposal was well received, and, with the excep- 
tion of climb performance standards, was ac- 
cepted by Icao on March 1, 1949, when the Coun- 
cil adopted annex 8 to the convention. 

Early objections to the United States climb 
performance standards were raised on the ground 
that they were not rational. The United Kingdom, 

Erior to the third session of the Airworthiness 
•ivision, proposed an entirely new approach to the 
establishment of climb performance standards 
based upon a statistical assessment of the various 
factors influencing performance. At the third 
sessions of the Airworthiness and Operations Di- 
visions, although agreement could not be reached 
upon many of the factors involved, it was the con- 
sensus that the climb performance standards 
should be based upon the principles of the United 
Kingdom proposal but that the standards which 

' The fourth sessions of the Airworthiness and Oper- 
ations Division of Icao are scheduled to be held in March 
1951 at Montreal. 



emerged should be reviewed in the light of their 
effect upon the oj^erating weights of airplanes for 
which operating experience existed. If necessary, 
thereafter, these standards would be so modified as 
to insure a continuation of the safety record which 
had been established by these airplanes. 

It was recognized that much study of various 
aspects of the application of these principles to the 
establishment of a set of climb performance stand- 
ards would be necessary before complete basic 
standards might emerge. The special meeting at 
Paris was recommended as an opportunity to reach 
a measure of agreement upon this subject sufficient 
to enable the Airworthiness and Operations Di- 
vision to recommend to the Council the adoption 
of climb performance standards. 

For this purpose, the delegations of the various 
participating nations convened at Paris on Sep- 
tember 14, 1950. The United States delegate was 
George W. Haldeman, Chief, Aircraft Division, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, who was elected 
chairman of the meeting.^ 

Participating nations were Australia, Belgium, 
El Salvador, France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Thailand, Union of South Africa, 
United Kingdom, and United States. 

The work of the meeting is covered by a series 
of working papers, the 96th of which is tlie final 
report of the meeting. This report may be 
characterized as the closest approach which was 
found possible in the light of information avail- 
able at the meeting to agreement upon standards 
covering take-off, landing, and climb performance 
for consideration by the fourth sessions of the 
Airworthiness and Operations Divisions. 

The participating countries accepted the report 
and decided that, in the interim before the begin- 
ning of the fourth sessions, these standards should 
be applied to airplanes with which the world has 
had operating experience. Depending upon the 

' For other members of the U.S. delegation, see Bulletin 
of Sept. 25, I'JSO, p. 513. 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



result of this trial application, modification of 
these standards by the Divisions might or might 
not be necessary. 

With two possible minor exceptions, the deci- 
sions of the meeting conformed with the position 
established for the United States prior to the meet- 
ing. The United States delegation recommended 
that the United States participate to the fullest 
extent in the fourth sessions of the Airworthiness 
and Operations Divisions when, it is believed, 
agreement will be reached upon international 
standards covering the area considered. The dele- 
gation also recommended that, prior to these ses- 
sions, the United States thoroughly assess the ef- 
fect on the operating weights now permitted of 
applying to its aircraft, currently in use, the stand- 
ards recommended at the Paris meeting. It would 
then be decided whether the recommended stand- 
ards, provided that they maintain the level of 
safety resulting from existing United States re- 
quirements, are acceptable for application to 
future types of aircraft. 

There was some reluctance on the part of all 
countries, except the United States, to accept the 
idea that operational rules should specify a mini- 
mum height in feet by which the flight path of 
an airplane, with one engine inoperative, should 
clear any terrain over which the airplane must be 
so operated. The United States took the position 
that such minima are essential to the complete 



definition of airworthiness. There was agreement 
that the operations rules should state explicitly 
that the clearance between the flight path and the 
terrain must be positive, but the main issue of 
establishing minima remains open for further dis- 
cussion at subsequent meetings. 

Although the meeting agreed that, ultimately, 
the standard should provide a single value of drag 
weight ration, or some practicable alternative, and 
should provide a single set of factors relating to 
tlie landing distance of the airplane to the landing 
distance available at the airport, it did not agree at 
this session upon such values. This issue remains 
open. 

The meeting did result in agreement upon a set 
of climb performance standards recommended for 
consideration by the fourth sessions of the Air- 
worthiness and Operations Divisions, subject only 
to such modification or adjustment as might be 
warranted upon the basis of the result of trial ap- 
plication of the standards to current and projected 
airj)lane types between the close of the meeting 
and the commencement of the fourth sessions. It 
is believed that final agreement upon a set of 
standards can be achieved at the fourth sessions. 
Such an agreement would provide, for the first 
time since the Chicago Conference, a comjDlete 
set of airworthiness standards governing the de- 
sign and operation of transport category A air- 
planes in international air navigation. 



Fifth Session ofITU Administrative Council 

hy Helen G. Kelly 

Special Assistant on the Telecommunications Policy Staff 



The fifth session of the Administrative Council 
of the International Telecommunication Union 
(Itu) met at Geneva from September 1 to Octo- 
ber 11, 1950. The Administrative Council was 
set up by the International Telecommunication 
Convention at Atlantic City in 1947 and normally 
meets once a year at Geneva. 

Sixteen of the 18 members of the Council were 
present.! The U.S.S.R. and Poland did not send 
representatives. The representative of France, 
Jean Laffay, served as chairman of the fifth 
session. 

The most important question confronting the 
Council resulted from postponement of the Ex- 
traordinary Administrative Radio Conference 
which had been scheduled to convene at The Hague 



' For the U.S. delegation, see Bulletin of Sept. 25, 1950, 
p. 514. 



on September 26, 1950.^ The postponement had 
been proposed by the United States and had been 
concurred in by a majority of the members of the 
Union. Although agreeing to such postpone- 
ment, a majority of administrations favored hold- 
ing a conference in the near future because of a 
feeling that indefinite postponement would seri- 
ously jeopardize the constructive work of the 
Atlantic City conferences as well as the subsequent 
work of the Provisional Frequency Board (Pfb) 
and the various regional and service conferences. 
It was intended that the Hague Conference 
would brin<r to a culmination the plans for an 
engineered frequency list laid down at Atlantic 
City. However, it was recognized that, in the 

^ For the purpose of the Extraordinary Administrative 
Radio Conference, see article on fourth session of the 
Itu Council by Helen G. Kelly, Bulletin of Jan. 23. 
1950, p. 143. 



January 1, 1951 



33 



present state of international affairs, this objective 
was practically impossible of attainment. The 
Council set up a special connnittee to consider the 
matter. Before the end of the session, the Council 
had forwarded a proposal to all the members of 
the Union and had obtained a majority concur- 
rence for holding an Extraordinary Administra- 
tive Eadio Conference at Geneva on August 15, 
1951, subject to confirmation of the date by the 
Administrative Council at its sixth session be- 
ginning on April 16, 1951. 

The new Conference will have a more limited 
and more specific agenda than that originally pro- 
posed, consisting of two major items. The first 
is to establish portions of the new international 
frequency list for those bands in which satisfac- 
tory draft frequency lists have already been estab- 
lished and to consider proposals for new methods 
of bringing the Atlantic City frequency alloca- 
tion table into force for bands in which no satis- 
factory draft lists exist. The second part of the 
agenda concerns the implementation of the Atlan- 
tic City frequency allocation table. The Council 
believed that no great difficulty will be experienced 
in obtaining approval of the draft lists for fre- 
quencies below 4,000 kilocycles and for frequencies 
employed by the maritime and aeronautical mobile 
services between 4,000 and 27,500 kilocycles. 

Additionally, the agenda provides for considera- 
tion of the implementation of those articles, para- 
graphs, and appendices referred to in article 47 = 
of the Atlantic City radio regulations which the 
Conference considers possible to implement either 
in whole or in part. Finally, the Conference is 
to consider the clissolution of tlie Pfb and the new 
duties of the International Frequency Registra- 
tion Board (Ifrb) in light of decisions on the 
foregoing items. 

At previous sessions of the Council, the mem- 
bers had been seriously concerned with the finan- 
cial status of the Union. The budget ceiling, of 
4,000,000 Swiss francs for ordinary expenses had 
been approved before three working languages 
and five official languages were adopted in the 
Union. The General Secretariat has found it 
increasingly difficult to remain within this ceiling 
and, at the same time, to provide the required per- 
sonnel for carrying out its increased duties as well 
as arranging for the necessary linguistic service. 

The Council felt that it might be necessary to 
request approval by a majority of the members of 
the Union for an increase of 10 percent in the 
ceiling, but it iinally decided to postpone consider- 



' Article 47 pertains to the effective date of the Atlantic 
City radio rcKulations. Part of the reiiulations came into 
force on .Jan. 1, 1049, with the vital excp])tion of the 
table of allocation of fre<iuencie.s below 27,5t)0 kc. and of 
certain articles and appeiulices InclndinR the jirocediu-e 
for the refiistration of frequencies by the Ifrr. These 
remaininpr regiilntions will come into force on a date 
decided upon by the Extraordinary Administrative Radio 
Conference. 



ation of the problem until April 1951. The Coun- 
cil agreed that the members of the Union shoidd 
be recjuested to reimburse the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment in the amount of 400,000 Swiss francs. 

This session of the Council was characterized by 
closer coordination with the United Nations with 
representatives from the United Nations attend- 
ing all the meetings of the Council. A strong 
desire still exists, however, on the part of most 
members of the Council to maintain the Ixu as 
an autonomous organization and to retain its own 
methods of procedure, regulations, and forms. 
The Council did agree to transmit the annual 
budget of the Union to the United Nations in a 
form more nearly in line M'ith those submitted by 
other specialized agencies. It also agreed to en- 
large the annual report to make it more readable 
and comprehensible from a layman's point of 
view. 

The Itu has never sought publicity, and, as a 
result, very little is known outside its own circles 
about its activities. The Itu recognized that this 
ignorance of the woi'k is not beneficial to tlie or- 
ganization, and, therefore, it requested the Secre- 
tariat to pi'epare a modest information program. 

A representative of Icao attended most of the 
meetings in connection with the discussions on the 
Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference, 
which, naturally, is of interest to aviation, al- 
though ordinarily the attendance is limited and 
observers are excluded. 

The Council decided to retain its own personnel 
and financial regulations on a provisional basis, 
pending study of the regulations of the United 
Nations. It directed the Secretary-General to re- 
quest the United Nations to make a study of what 
would be involved in the Itu's joining the United 
Nations pension plan. 

It is now generally recognized that the general 
regulations annexed to the Atlantic City conven- 
tion are in need of a complete overhauling. The 
general regulations were adopted toward the end 
of the Atlantic City conferences when the delega- 
tions were working under intense ])ressure. As a 
result, they sometimes disagi'ee with the conven- 
tion, are difficult to interpret, and some are faulty 
in construction. The Council requested the Sec- 
retary-General to prepare a report for discussion 
at the sixth session, pointing out the reforms nec- 
essary. The Council will then draw up proposals 
to be submitted to the Plenipotentiary Conference 
at Buenos Aires in 1952 for clarification of the 
convention and the regulations. 

The Council agreed that all countries listed in 
annex 1 of the convention, regardless of whether 
they have ratified the convention or acceded 
thereto, as well as other countries not figuring in 
the annex which have acceded to the convention, 
would be considered members of the Union so far 
as voting is concerned. 

In addition to convening the Extraordinary 
Administrative Radio Conference at Geneva in 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



Aiifriist 1951, the Council took the following action 
regarding proposed future conferences : 

(1) The International Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Conference, originally scheduled to meet 
at liuenos Aires in l!);-)2, is to meet in 1954 at a 
place still to be specified. 

(•2) The site and date of the Plenipotentiary 
Conference was reaffirmed, namely, Buenos Aires 
in 1952. 

(;')) Tlie question of the convening of the regu- 
lar Ordinary Radio Conference, which was sched- 
uled to meet at Buenos Aires in 1952, was not 
decided finally and will be considered again at 
the sixth session of the Council. 

(4) The eighth plenary assembly of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Consultative Connuittee 
(Cgit) will meet in 1953 instead of 1951. How- 
ever, various study groups are scheduled to meet 
early in 1951 at Geneva. 

(5) The sixth plenary assembly of the Inter- 
national Eadio Consultative Committee (Ccir) 
will meet at Geneva from June 5 to July 6, 1951. 

(6) The next plenary assembly of the Inter- 



national Telephone Consultative Committee 
(Ccif) will be held in October 1951. 

The Council was confronted with only one po- 
litical problem — the seating of a Chinese repre- 
sentative. Representatives of both the Commu- 
nist and the Nationalist Governments claimed the 
seat. In a secret ballot, the representative of the 
Nationalist China Government was .seated by a 
large majority. 

The Council considered approximately GO 
agenda items and adopted 47 resolutions and 
numerous decisions. It was agreed for the first 
time that as a matter of convenience the volume 
of resolutions which is issued at the end of each 
session of the Council should also include decisions 
reached which were not embodied in resolutions. 

The four vice chairmen present at the fifth ses- 
sion — the United States, United Kingdom, France, 
and China — chose the United Kingdom repre- 
sentative as chairman of the Council for the sixth 
session, which is scheduled to be held at Geneva, 
beginning April 16, 1951. 



Contracting Parties to GATT End Fiftli Session 

[Released to the press December 18] 



Twenty-nine countries who are contracting 
parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade ended their fifth session on December 16 
at Torquay, England, after acting on the most 
important and extensive agenda that had faced 
any session. (The tariff negotiations, which 
began on September 28, 1950, at Torquay ad- 
journed on December 22 and will resume on 
January 2, 1951.) 

The meetings of the contracting parties were 
held in a spirit of genuine cooperation and good- 
will, and member countries settled several trouble- 
some trade dis])utes. This meeting has demon- 
strated again the growing vitality and strength 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
as a most effective and practical means for dealing 
with problems of mutual interest in the trade field. 

The membei-s carried out consultations, required 
by the agreement, with a number of countries in 
the sterling area concerning import restrictions 
maintained against dollar goods and the possibil- 
ity of relaxing those resti'ictions under present 
conditions. They completed the first stage of the 
preparatory work looking toward the establish- 
ment of a more effective machinery to adminis- 
ter the agreement between plenary se.ssions of the 
participating countries. Their decisions included 
the adoption of (1) a procedure for obtaining in- 



formation needed in the detailed examination of 
current import and export revStrictions; (2) a rec- 
ommended code of standard practices for the ad- 
ministration of the necessary trade restrictions; 
and (3) procedures to enable contracting parties 
who are not members of the International Mone- 
tary Fund to carry out their Agi-eement obliga- 
tions affecting the control of foreign exchange. 
They rejected a proposal for the amendment of 
the Agreement to include certain articles of the 
Habana charter dealing with employment and eco- 
nomic activity. 

They agreed, in the light of the current inter- 
national situation, to extend the time during which 
parties may use exceptional import controls in 
regard to commodities in short supply and com- 
modities of which there are large government- 
owned stocks. The United States now has in 
effect such import controls on certain fats and 
oils and on rice. 

The fifth session of the contracting parties also 
studied the settlement of a number of disputes 
arising out of complaints that the benefits of the 
Agreement had been nullified or impaired by the 
action of individual countries. Brazil agreed to 
take the necessary steps toward the amendment 
of her internal tax legislation so as to eliminate 
certain discriminations against imported products. 



January 7, J 95 1 



35 



Australia and Chile announced the settlement of 
a case brought by the latter that Australia had, 
through discrixiiinatory subsidy action, nullified 
the value of a tariff concession granted on sodium 
.nitrate, and the United Kingdom announced that 
efforts were being made to find a way to elimi- 
nate discrimination against imports resulting from 
the British purchase tax. A Czechoslovak com- 
plaint charging that the United States violated 
the Agreement in recently withdrawing tariff 
concessions on women's fur felt hats and hat 
bodies, under the "escape clause" (art. XIX of 
the Agreement) , is being considered by an inter- 
sessional working party which will report to the 
next session. 

The session was also attended by observers from 
the International Monetary Fund, the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Cooperation, the 
United Nations, the seven Governments now ne- 
gotiating for accession to the agreement (Austria, 
Federal Republic of Germany, Korea, Peru, Phil- 
ippines, Turkey, Uruguay), and six other coun- 
tries (El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezu- 
ela, Switzerland, Yugoslavia). 

In consultation between the contracting parties 
and certain countries maintaining import restric- 
tions against dollar goods, representatives of the 
International Monetary Fund, and of the United 
States, Belgium, Cuba, and Canada expressed the 
view that the dollar position of the United King- 
dom, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, and South- 
ern Rhodesia had reached the point where a 
beginning of progressive relaxation of these re- 
strictions was possible. The representatives of 
these countries in the sterling area agreed that 
their Governments would carefully consider these 
views and also the analysis presented by the In- 
ternational Monetary Fund. They also expressed 
the view that insufficient attention had been paid 
to the danger that the present improvement in 
their dollar situation might not be typical but 
was rather the result of abnormal temporary 
facto i"s.^ 

The action regarding the administration of the 
General Agreement followed a Canadian proposal 
to create a standing committee to handle problems 
between sessions of the contracting parties. This 
proposal was studied and the results transmitted 
to the respective governments of the representa- 
tives for further study. 

In considering the problem of how to deal with 
parties to the Agreement who have not joined 
the International Monetary Fund, the contracting 
parties found that all parties except New Zealand 
have either joined the Fund, signed a special ex- 
change agreement, or are in process of doing one 
or the other. The special exchange agreement 
was worked out at the third session to insure that 
contracting parties who are not Fund members 

' A memorandum on the same subject, prepared in the 
Department of State, Is also available. 



fulfill their obligations under the commercial pol- 
icy principles of General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade in any use they may make of exchange 
controls or other financial measures. 

The session adopted an extensive questionnaire 
concerning import restrictions in order to en- 
able the contracting parties to obtain relevant 
information as regards the policy, technique, and 
effect of import restrictions now being applied 
for balance-of-payments reasons. This informa- 
tion is to be submitted early in 1951 by signatory 
governments who maintain such restrictions and 
will be used in an over-all review of this problem 
at the next session. The questionnaire is also 
designed to obtain information for a second report 
on the use of balance-of-payments restrictions be- 
ing used in discriminatory fashion under the spe- 
cial exceptions provided for during the postwar 
transitional period. The contracting parties also 
decided to require the submission of statements on 
export controls and on import restrictions being 
applied for other than balance-of-payments rea- 
sons. 

Acting under the provisions of the General 
Agreement relating to economic development, the 
contracting parties authorized Haiti to continue 
certain import controls for 5 years in order to en- 
courage tobacco ]iroduction and the development 
of a more diversified economy. Requests for au- 
thority to continue similar measures on various 
products for the same reason submitted by Den- 
mark and Italy were withdrawn during the course 
of the session. 

At the request of the World Health Organiza- 
tion, technical advice was given by the contracting 
parties on a draft convention concerning the im- 
portation of insecticides, which the World Health 
Organization may recommend to its member gov- 
ernments as a means of achieving its aims in the 
field of pest control. 

The code of practices for the standardization 
and simplification of import-export and exchange 
control administration which the representatives 
recommended to their governments includes provi- 
sions designed to simplify the problems of traders 
arising out of import licensing, changing regula- 
tions, exchange allocation, and complex adminis- 
trative formalities. This text will be released on 
December 27. 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
came into force provisionally on January 1. 1948. 
At present, the following countries are parties to 
the agreement: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Burma, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, Cuba, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Fin- 
land, France, Greece, Haiti, India, Indonesia, 
Italy, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, the Nether- 
lands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakis- 
tan, Southern Rhodesia, Sweden, Syria, Union of 
South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States. 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



Reorganization of the Department of State 



IMPLEMENTING THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE HOOVER COMMISSION 



Public Law 73, 81st Congress, authorized the 
appointment of ten Assistant Secretaries of State 
inchiding existing positions of that rank and 
clarified and strengthened the administrative re- 
sponsibility of the Secretary of State with respect 
to both the Departmental and Foreign Service 
operations.' By that act, all authority which had 
heretofore been vested in subordinate officers, 
either in the Departmental or Foreign Service, was 
vested in tlie Secretary of State, who was given 
complete authority for the administration of the 
Foreign Service. Previously, under the Foreign 
Service Act of 19-16, authority for administration 
of the Foreign Service had been vested, separately, 
in a Director General whose relationship to the 
Secretary of State was not clearly defined. 

The major structural changes in the Depart- 
ment's organization have been made. In general, 
they conform to the plan which had been recom- 
mended by the Commission on Organization of 
the Executive Branch of the Government. 

In conducting its reorganization, the Depart- 
ment established its own task forces comjDosed of 
operating personnel who were given the assign- 
ment of developing the detailed reorganization 
plans. During the course of putting the reorgani- 
zation into effect, several hundred people in the 
De^Dartment participated in the devising and 
testing of the new organizational and procedural 
arrangements. This was felt to be an important 
part of the reorganization ; that if the reorganiza- 
tion were to be successful it would require the 
understanding of the many employees in the De- 
partment who would have to live with it on an 
operational basis. The wisdom of this approach 
has since been borne out. 



Major Changes in Organization 

ADMINISTRATION 

The first major change in the Department was 
the reorganization of the administrative area, 



including the Department's consular activities. 
This involved the dissolution of the separate Office 
of the Foreign Service and the pairing of its ad- 
ministrative activities with the parallel Depart- 
mental activities. Before the reorganization, 
there had been an Office of the Foreign Service, 
an Office of Departmental Administration, an 
Office of Budget and Planning, and an Office of 
Controls. Subsequent to the reorganization, there 
was a more functional distribution of administra- 
tive activities among an Office of Personnel, an 
Office of Management and Budget, an Office of 
Operating Facilities, and an Office of Consular 
Affairs. Each of these offices was given respon- 
sibility for both the headquarters and field aspects 
of its subject matter. This was placed into effect 
on May 16, 1949. 



SUBSTANTIVE OPERATIONS 



' Bulletin of June 26, 1949, p. 835. 
Jon vary T, ?95I 



The second phase of the reorganization was the 
establishment on October 3, 1949, of the organi- 
zational pattern for the conduct of the substan- 
tive operations. The major efl'ect was to dissolve 
the former regional geographic offices and to 
replace them with bureaus under a broader con- 
cept of operations. Each of the bureaus was 
given responsibility for all operating actions 
affecting countries under its jurisdiction. Pro- 
vision was made for the transfer to the regional 
geographic bureaus of public affairs, economic, 
and administrative personnel in order to assure 
that the bureau will be technically equipped to 
handle all matters within its scope. In addition, 
the bureaus were authorized to employ advisers 
on intelligence and on international organization 
matters who would also assure proper integration 
of the activities of the regional bureaus with those 
of our intelligence area and the newly created 
Bureau of United Nations Affairs. The Bureau 
of United Nations Affairs was also established as 
of October 3, 1949. It replaced the former Office 
of United Nations Affairs. Subsequent to the 
establishment of the four regular regional bu- 
reaus, including a Bureau of Inter-American 



37 



Affairs, a Bureau of European Affairs, a Bureau 
of Far Eastern Affairs, and a Bureau of Near 
Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs, there 
was established a separate Bureau of German 
Affairs with a director wlio was given the achiiin- 
istrative rank of Assistant Secretary. Normally, 
its operations would be included within the Bu- 
reau of European Affairs but, because of the mag- 
nitude of the occupation task which had been 
transferred to the Department of State, it was 
decided to maintain this as a separate operation. 

INTELLIGENCE 

The OtKce of the Special Assistant for Intelli- 
gence continues to operate on a centralized basis 
as I'ecommended by the Hoover Commission and 
by the Department's own task forces. The basic 
line of reasoning is that a separate intelligence 
unit is necessary in order to assure the making of 
independent intelligence estimates by j^eople who 
could devote full time to their research with 
the advantage of central intelligence research 
facilities. 

ECONOMIC 

TJie economic area of the Department was con- 
solidated under a single Assistant Secretary for 
Economic Affairs through the transfer to that area 
of the previously separate Office of Transport and 
Communications. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS 

In the meantime, studies were in process lead- 
ing to the reorganization of the public affairs area 
of the Department. This followed the lines of 
the Hoover Commission recommendation for a 
General Manager for international information 
and educational exchange programs who would 
relieve the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs 
of the bulk of his operational responsibilities and 
free liim for greater attention to policy matters. 
The General Manager was appointed on March 
15, 1950. 

TOP COMMAND 

The top command of the Department has been 
strengthened through the clarification of the re- 
sponsibilities of the Under Secretary of State 
and through the designation of two Deputy Under 
Secretaries of State who were given responsibility 
for assisting the Under Secretary in the fields of 
coordination and i)olicy as directed. One of these 
Deputy Under Secretaries was also given respon- 
sibility for the direction of the administration 
of the Department and the Foreign Service. 

Additional Organizational Changes 

In addition to these basic changes in the De- 



partment's organization, thei'e have been cei'tain 
additional organizational changes in the Depart- 
ment of State that have resulted from new re- 
sponsibilities in the foreign affairs field, as 
follows: 



MUTUAL DEFENSE ASSISTANCE 

On October ii5, 1919, the position of Director of 
Mutual Defense Assistance was established in the 
Office of the Secretary and assigned the general 
responsibility for carrying out the provisions of 
the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1919, as 
amended. The Director was assigned a small staff 
to assist him in administering the program. In 
addition, the regional bureaus and functional of- 
fices of the Department have been developing and 
administering certain aspects of the program sub- 
ject to over-all advice, review, and coordination of 
the Director. 

Because of the tremendous step-up in our for- 
eign and domestic programs for increasing our 
own national security and that of other free na- 
tions, the Department of State has recently been 
devoting considerable efforts toward the devel- 
opment of organizational machinery which will 
integrate the many programs of military and eco- 
nomic assistance, both within the Department of 
State and among the various agencies of the Gov- 
ernment. Recent international developments re- 
quire a vigorous and unified direction of United 
States policy and programs in the international 
security field. 

This Department, in conjunction with the De- 
partment of Defense, the Treasury Department, 
and the Economic Cooperation Administration, 
has devised machinery to accomplish this pur- 
pose. Arrangements are being made for the ap- 
pointment of a senior officer in the Department of 
State who will be responsible for coordinating all 
activities within the Department relating to the 
North Atlantic Treaty, other similar international 
programs, and military and economic assistance 
for mutual defense, and, in addition, will be re- 
sponsible for providing leadership in the inter- 
departmental coordination of these programs. 
This officer will assume the duties now performed 
by the Director for Mutual Defense Assistance 
and will be given additional responsibilities and 
authority commensurate with the role outlined 
above. 



POINT 4 

On October 27, 1950, the Technical Cooperation 
Administration was established in the Depart- 
ment of State. It is the function of this office to 
plan, implement, and manage the technical coop- 
eration (Point 1) programs authorized by the Act 
for International Develoi)nient (Title IV of Pub- 
lic Law 535, 81st Con<rress) . The Technical Coop- 
eration Administration operates as an integral 



38 



Deparfment of Sfofe Bulletin 



component of the Department of State, utilizing 
the Department's staff services and facilities. 

OCCUPATION OF AUSTRIA 

Executive Order 10171 of October 12, 1950, 
vested in the Department of State the responsi- 
bilities and oblifiations of the United States in 
connection with the occupation of Austria. A 
United States Civilian High Commissioner for 
Austria was appointed and furnished an oro:ani- 
zation to carry out these responsibilities in Aus- 
tria. Departmental support for the High Com- 
missioner has been provided in the Bureau of 
European Affairs. 

Developing "Point of Action" Responsibility 

The Department was concerned not alone with 
im])rovinii- its pattern of operation but also with 
assuring that in actual operation that duties were 
clarified and that there were no conflicts in re- 
sponsibility. Tlie Department adopted the prin- 
ciple that, on any given matter, there should be 
one point of action responsibility. 

The work of each unit of the Department is 
related in some way to that of one or more other 
units. In order to fix responsibility and to avoid 
confusion, clear delineation of responsibilities and 
clear specification of interrelations was felt nec- 
essary. Also, because of the broad range of social, 
economic, ancl political interests which are repre- 
sented within the Department's operating proc- 
esses, an operating doctrine had to be developed 
which would encourage the decentralization of de- 
cision making so that the top command of the 
Dejiartment could be free for attention to the most 
imjjortant matters. Thus, the action processes of 
the Department emphasized the making of de- 
cisions beginning at the working levels and the 
referral upwards only of those matters which 
specifically require higher attention. 

Procedural Changes 

Thus, in addition to basic structural change in 
its organization the Department has been devot- 
ing a great deal of attention to the procedural 
changes which are necessary to assure effective 
reorganization. Tangible progress in reaching 
certain objectives is already reflected in the sub- 
stantial decrease in the amount of action paper 
] which has heretofoi'e been referred to the Secre- 
■ tary of State for decision and by the extent to 
which the various Assistant Secretaries have al- 
' ready assumed responsibility for matters within 
their respective areas of assignment. 

Reconnnendation No. 20 of the Hoover Commis- 
sion report on foreign affairs - proposed an amal- 
gamation of the now separate personnel systems 
of Departmental and Foreign Service 



I'vice personnel. 



The Department requested that implementation of 
this recommendation be tieferred pending further 
study because of the complex nature of the 
problem. 

A })reliminary study of the problem was made 
by a research conmiittee in the Department during 
the summer and fall of 1949. During January 
1950, an Advisory Conunittee to the Secretary was 
appointed to advise him whether fundamental 
changes are required in the personnel systems and 
relati()nshi|)s of the Department and the Foreign 
Service. The membership of the Conmiittee in- 
chided James Rowe, who was a member of the 
Hoover Commission, as chairman; William E. 
DeCourcy, xVmbassador to Haiti ; and Robert 
Ramspeck, former Chairman of the House Civil 
Service Conunittee. 

The Committee has made its report to the Sec- 
retary. The Department is now reviewing the re- 
])ort and the impi-ovements required in our per- 
sonnel systems for the more effective conduct of 
foreign affairs. 



THE CONGRESS 



- Bulletin of Apr. 24, 1950, p. G60. 
January 1, 1 95 1 



Legislation 

Permitting Free Entry of Articles Imported From For- 
eign Countries for tlie Purpose of Exiiiliition at the Mid- 
Century International Exposition, Inc., Nt-w Orleans, La. 
H. Rept. 2r)61, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. J. 
Res. 489] 2 pp. 

Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Terri- 
tory of Hawaii — Part 2. Hearings before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, 
Ei.ghtieth Congress, second session. April 13, 14, and 15, 
1950. 158 pp. 

State Department. Hearings before a subcommittee of 
the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- 
ments, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, sec- 
ond session. March 10 and 12, 194S. 120 pp. 

Effects of Foreign Oil Imports on Independent Domestic 
Producers. Hearings before the Select Committee on 
Small Business, House of Representatives, Eightieth Con- 
gress, second session, pursuant to II. Res. 22, a resolution 
creating a select committee to conduct a study and inves- 
tigation of problems of small business. Part Z, Washing- 
ton. D. C— April 16, 1950; Jackson, Miss.— April 24, 1950; 
New Orleans, La. — A|iril 25, 1950; Lalje Charles, La. — 
April 2C, 1950; Shreveport, La.— April 26, 1950; Little 
Rock. Ark.— April 27, 1950 ; Oklahoma City, Okla.— April 
28, 1950 ; Santa Fe, N. Mes.— May 2, 1950. 441 pp. 

Membership and Participation by the United States in 
the International Trade Organizatioa. Hearings before 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representa- 
tives, Eighty-first Congress, second session, on H. J. Res. 
236. A joint resolution providing for membership and 
participation by the United States in the International 
Trade Organization, and authorizing an appropriation 
therefor. April 19, 20, 21, 25, 26. 27, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 
10, 11, 12, 1950. (Department of State, indexed) 809 pp. 

Establishing a Bureau of Passports and Visas. S. R. 
2231, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 3069] 5 pp. 

39 



nd 



ex 



Subject Index 
Africa Page 

U.S., U.K., and South Africa Reach Agree- 
ment on Uranium Production 28 

Liberia-U.S. Sign Point 4 Agreement .... 27 
American Republics 

American.s Visiting Abroad 29 

Brazil: U.S.-Brazil E.stablish Joint Com- 
mission for Economic Development ... 25 

Challenge of Unesco in Americas 18 

Colombia : Unified Command for Korea Ac- 
cepts Colombian Aid 12 

Communism Threatens Inter-American 
Community Security-U.S. Requests 
Oas Meeting 8 

Cuba : Air Force Mission Agreement With 

Cuba 26 

El Salvador : U.S. Will Not Adhere to Salva- 
doran Definition of Territorial Sover- 
eignty 24 

Foreign Nationals Visit U.S 29 

Asia 

Americans Visiting Abroad 29 

Foreign Nationals Visit U.S 29 

Korea : Unified Command for Korea Ac- 
cepts Colombian Aid 12 

Aviation 

Air Force Mission Agreement With Cuba . . 26 
Airplane Climb Performance Standards by 

George W. Haldeman 32 

Communism 

Communism Threatens Inter-American 

Community Security 8 

Educational Exchange Program — An In- 
tegral Part of the Campaign of Truth . 20 
Secretary Acheson Supported as Vigorous 
Opponent of Communism. Statement 

by the President 10 

Stressing Information Themes To Meet 

Changing World Conditions 13 

Congress 

Legislation List 39 

Europe 

Foreign Nationals Visit U.S 29 

Germany : 

Participation in European Defense .... 4 

Soviet Proposal for Discussing German 
Demilitarization Considered Too Nar- 

rov?. Exchange of Notes 11 

United Action for the Defense of a Free 

World 3 

United Kingdom : 

U.S., U.K., and South Africa Reach Agree- 
ment on Uranium Production 28 

U.S.S.R. : 

Soviet Proposal for Discussing German 
Demilitarization Considered Too Nar- 
row. Exchange of Notes 11 

Information and Educational Exchange Pro- 
gram (USIE) 

Americans Visiting Abroad 29 

Educational Exchange Program— An In- 
tegral Part of the Campaign of Truth 
by William C. .lohnstone, Jr., before 
Southern Assn. of Colleges and Second- 
ary Schools, Richmond, Va 20 

Foreign Nationals Visit U.S 29 

Information Program Discussed With Busi- 
ness Firms 15 

Resignation of Mark Ethridge From Infor- 
mation Advisory Commission 29 

Stressing Infoimation Themes To Meet 
('hanging World Conditions by Edward 
W. Barrett before Junior Advertising 
Club, Phila 13 



International Meetings Page 

Calendar of Meetings 18 

Gatt: Contracting Parties End Fifth 

Session 35 

IcAO: Airplane Climb Performance Stand- 
ards 32 

iTu: Fifth Session of Administrative 

C!ouncil 33 

Near East 

Foreign Nationals Visit U.S 29 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 
United Action for the Defense of a Free 
World. Remarlis by Secretary Ache- 
son 3 

Communique of Nac (6th sess.) 7 

Elsenhower, General, Appointed To Com- 
mand Nac Forces : 

Communique of Nac (6th .sess.) 7 

Messages Exchanged Between the Presi- 
dent and Secretary Acheson 6 

President's Letter 7 

Remarks by Secretary Acheson 3 

Statement by President Truman 6 

Publications 

Recent Releases 15 

Technical Cooperation and Development 
Brazil-U.S. Establish Joint Commission for 

Economic Development 25 

Liberia-U.S. Sign Point 4 Agreement .... 27 
Major Tasks of Unesco in Establishing 
Communication Among Peoples of the 
World by Howland H. Sargeant .... 17 
Trade 

(3(ATr: Contracting Parties End Fifth 

Session 35 

Treaties 

Air Force Mission Agreement With Cuba . . 26 
Brazil-U.S. Establish Joint Commission for 

Economic Development 25 

Gatt: Contracting Parties End Fifth 

Session 35 

Liberia-U.S. Sign Point 4 Agreement. ... 27 
U.S., U.K., and South Africa Reach Agree- 
ment on Uranium Production 28 

State, Department of 

Reorganization Implementing the Recom- 
mendations of Hoover Commission . . 37 
United Nations 

Calendar of Meetings 18 

I gag: Airplane Climb Performance Stand- 
ards 32 

Iru : Fifth Session of Administrative Coun- 
cil 33 

UNESCO: Major Tasks of Unesco In Estab- 
lishing Communication Among Peoples 
of the World 16 

Uuitied Command for Korea Accepts Colom- 
bian Aid 12 

Name Index 

Accioly, Ambassador HiUlerlirando 8 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 3, 6, 8, 10, 26, 27 

Barrett, PMward W 13 

Canessa, Roberto B 24 

Daniels, Ambassador I'aul C 8 

Dennis, Gabriel L 27 

Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D 3, 6, 7, 13 

Ethridge, Mark . 29 

Haldeman, George W 32 

.Johnstone, Jr., William C. . . 20 

Kelly, Helen G . 33 

Macliado, Dr. Luis 26 

Sargeant, Rowland H 16,18 

Shaw, Ambassador George P 24 

Truman, President Harry S 6, 7, 10, 29 



^Jne^ z/feha/^^tmerU/ jO^ t/tat& 





EIGHTH, NINTH, AND TENTH REPORTS OF U.N. 
COMMAND OPERATIONS IN KOREA: OCTOBER 
16-NOVEMBER 30 43 

THE UNITED NATIONS FACES AGGRESSION • fey 

Ernest A, Gross 57 

IMPARTIAL COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE PRIS- 
ONERS OF WAR QUESTION • Statement by Edith 
S. Sampson 68 



PALESTINE QUESTION POSES PROBLEM OF REF- 
UGEES AND OF AN INTERNATIONAL REGIME 
FOR JERUSALEM • Statements by John C. Ross . . 



' For complete contents see back cover 



74 



Vol. XXIV, No. 601 
January 8, 1951 



^BNT oj^ 




'<^'' 



U. S. SUPERINTEN8ENT OF DOCUCIENIS 

JAN 19 1951 




%/Ae zl^efia/y^inmit xi^ c/Cale JLy W 1 J. KD L 1 X X 



Vol. XXIV, No. 601 • Publication 4062 
January 8, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 
Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as tbe source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Reports of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 



EIGHTH REPORT: 

FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 16-31,19501 

U.N. doc. S/1885 
Transmitted Nov. 6, 1950 

I herewith submit report number 8 of the United 
Nations Command operations in Korea for the 
period 16-31 October, inclusive. Korean releases 
(numbers 559 through 602) appended hereto pro- 
vide detailed accounts of these operations. 



Ground Operations 

Enemy resistance to United Nations forces ad- 
vances has been sj^oradic and weak during most 
of the period of this report, but had begun to 
stiffen towards the end of October. Despite the 
Communist defenders' advantage of extremely 
rugged, mountainous terrain, their defensive ef- 
forts have failed to prevent continued U.N. ad- 
vances, which have averaged more than 10 miles 
per day. Defending briefly at most points of con- 
tact generally with battalion size units tlie Com- 
munist North Korean forces have yielded 150 
miles of territory over the whole front. The 
wholesale retreat before unrelenting U.N. pressure 
has been extremely expensive to the enemy both in 
men and in materiel. Enemy prisoners of war 
have reached an approximate figure of 135,000. 
Captured materiel was in proportion. 



' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council on Nov. 6. For texts of the first, second, third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh reports to the Security 
Council on U.N. command operations in Korea, see Bttlle- 
TiN, of Aug 7, 1950, p. 20.3 ; Aug. 28, 1950, p. 32.3 ; and Sept. 
11, 1950, p. 403; Oct. 2, 1950, p. 534; Oct. 16, 1950, p. 603; 
Nov. 6, 1950, p. 729, and Nov. 13, 1950, p. 759, respectively. 
These reports are published separately as Department of 
State publications 3985, 3955, 3962, 3978, 39S6, 4006, and 
4015, respectively. The eighth, ninth, and tenth reports 
are published as Department of State publication 4051. 

Correction : The U.N. document reference for the text 
of the seventh report as printed in the Bulletin of Nov. 
13, 1950, p. 759 should read S/1883 instead of S/158S. 



On 20 October the United States 187th Eegi- 
mental Combat Team executed a parachute drop 
at Sukch'on and Sunch'on. The drop area was 
about 30 miles north of Pyongyang and was ac- 
complished at the time United States, British and 
ReiJublic of Korea Army units were attacking to 
secure Pyongyang. This efficiently executed air- 
borne operation materially reduced the enemy re- 
sistance to the south and contributed to the rapid 
advance of the U.N. units on the west coast. 

At no time since the September collapse of the 
North Korean line around Pusan has the enemy 
been able to organize a solid, coordinated front. 
However, with our approach to the Yalu River, 
the enemy has become somewhat more aggressive, 
and has resisted much more strongly along a line 
some 50 miles south of the border. In the west 
coast sector, elements of the NK I7th Armored, 
and 32d and 45th Infantry Divisions have built 
up the semblance of a front extending northeast 
about 50 miles from Chongju to Onjong, which 
has temporarily slowed our rate of advance. At 
Onjong, on the eastern leg of this sector, an esti- 
mated two regiments of the NK 45th Division 
vigorously counter attacked our advanced units, 
forcing one United Nations unit to make a slight 
withdrawal. United Nations forces also met in- 
creasing resistance in their advance on the east 
coast sector. 

On 26 October, amphibious elements of the 
United Nations naval forces began an adminis- 
trative landing of the 1st United States Marine 
Division and other units of the Corps over the 
beaches in the Wonsan area. These units had 
been moved by water from Inchon around the 
lieninsula to Wonsan. 

On 29 October the United States 7th Infantry 
Division with Republic of Korea Army units 



January 8, 1951 



43 



landed on the beaches at Iwon which is 178 road 
miles north of Wonsan. 

The 7th Infantry Regiment of the 6th Republic 
of Korea Division advanced to the northern bor- 
der of Korea on the Yalu River at one point near 
Ch'osan on 26 October. 

For the first time in the Korean war, Chinese 
soldiers of the Chinese Communist forces were 
captured in combat in Korea. They wore North 
Korean uniforms, and may have been volunteers. 
There is no positive evidence that Chinese Com- 
munist units, as such, have entered Korea, although 
incomplete interrogation of these prisoners of war 
indicates that possibility. 

Guerrilla operations conducted by enemy bands 
of from 50 to 2,000 have been relatively intense 
south of the 39th [38th?] parallel. Such bands 
carry out frequent raids on defenseless towns and 
villages, and harass small military convoys and 
units. United Nations forces in affected areas 
destroy or disperse these bands when they show 
themselves, but the process of eliminating this 
menace is necessarily a slow one, since the moun- 
tainous terrain and complex nets of hill trails 
facilitate their escape. 

The First Turkish Armed Forces Command ar- 
rived in Korea on 17 October and has been attached 
to the Eighth Army. This force consists of in- 
fantry, artillery and supporting services normal 
to combat in the field. The Turkish force is a 
valuable and welcome addition to the United Na- 
tions columns. 

Two more Republic of Korea infantry divisions 
were activated during the period. 

Navy Operations 

United Nations naval forces continued to effec- 
tively deny to the enemy the use of Korean Coastal 
waters. Naval air support and naval gunfire ac- 
tivity were reduced during time of the period of 
this report, reflecting the decreased intensity of 
enemy resistance on the ground. Attacks of our 
carrier based aircraft were concentrated mainly 
on moving transport and on roads and rail lines 
on the Korean east coast north of Wonsan and 
against the off -lying islands near Wonsan harbor. 
Military targets in the vicinity of Songjin were 
bombarded by United Nations warsliips on 17 
October. 

The only serious problem confronting United 
Nations naval forces during this period was that 
of enemy mines. A number of Korean ports lib- 



erated by United Nations forces in recent weeks 
were mined by the enemy. In most cases, the 
numbers of mines involved are not large. How- 
ever, the enemy laid a very massive minefield in 
the approaches to the harbor of Wonsan. To 
clear a channel through this minefield required 
the constant employment of a substantial number 
of United Nations minesweepers throughout a pe- 
riod of more than two weeks. A planned pro- 
gram for clearing principal North Korean ports 
of enemy laid mines has been instituted. 

Evidence continues to accumulate that the de- 
sign of the mines used by the enemy does not pro- 
vide for their being rendered harmless as soon as 
they have broken loose from their moorings, as 
is required by international law. To date, over 
40 drifting mines have been found and destroyed 
by United Nations naval forces, of which a large 
proportion proved to be live. 

Air Operations 

United Nations combat aircraft retain the po- 
tential of mounting formidable offensive or de- 
fensive efforts but the paucity of North Korean 
targets has called for few daily sorties in compar- 
ison to the rate of air activity during previous 
periods. Fighters and light bombers are con- 
stantly available for close support as the United 
Nations ground forces drive the aggressor to his 
northern border but only limited numbers of 
tanks, vehicles, and artillery provide targets as 
small enemy groups attempt to organize localized 
defenses and counter-attacks or disengage and flee 
in disorder. 

Tlie accent has shifted from the combat aircraft 
to the cargo planes as air dropped equipment and 
supplies support the United Nations columns knif- 
ing deep into hostile territory beyond the capabil- 
ity of immediate normal resupply operations. 

Aerial resupply to advanced bases has proved a 
major contribution to continued gi'ound opera- 
tions as surface supply routes have been extended. 
Airlift has provided the principal support for 
continued advances and will do so until additional 
.seaports in North Korea are opened. Wonsan and 
Pyongyang are airlift terminals for the east and 
west sectors, respectively. One day's lift into 
Pyongyang for the 8th Army approximated 1,-100 
tons. 

On 20 October, in a technically perfect per- 
formance, 110 Far East Air Forces cargo aircraft 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



dropped over 2,800 paratroops of the United 
States 187th Airborne Regiment with over 300 
tons of combat equipment well behind enemy lines 
at Sunch'on and Sukch'on. Succeeding drops 
brought the total of personnel dropped to about 
4,000, the total equipment to over 600 tons. 

Hostile air activity has consisted of a few nui- 
sance raids by light aircraft at night. No damage 
has resulted. 

Prisoners of War 

The continuing disintegration of the North Ko- 
rean Army as a fighting force is exemplified by 
the fact that approximately 135,000 prisoners of 
war are now in the hands of United Nations for- 
ces ; of these about 60,000 are now located in five 
prisoner of war camps in the vicinity of Pusan, 
33,000 are detained at a prisoner of war camp in 
Inchon, 11,000 at Pyongyang, and the remainder 
are detained in transit enclosures pending transfer 
to permanent camps. 

Atrocities 

United Nations field forces continue to report 
atrocities and other violations by the enemy of the 
laws and customs of war. Up to the present time, 
a total of 74 war crimes incidents, involving ap- 
proximately 26,000 victims, have been noted in 
our files. Approximately 400 American military 
personnel appear to have been the victims of of- 
fences of various kinds, while the remaining vic- 
tims have been South Korean nationals, civilians as 
well as military. Investigation of the incidents 
continues as the tactical situation permits. 

It has become increasingly evident that in the 
interest of justice steps must be taken to try before 
appropriate tribunals of the United Nations Com- 
mand those prisoners of war, and others who may 
be taken into custody and who, prior to capture or 
detention, have committed atrocities and other 
offences violative of the laws and customs of war. 
I have, therefore, caused to be prepared in this 
headquarters, and I have promulgated to the 
United Nations Command, a set of rules and regu- 
lations for the conduct of United Nations military 
commissions which will be convened, whenever 
needed, for the trials of such pei'sons under the 
common law of war. Copies of these rules and 
regulations are being forwarded for your infor- 
mation. Jurisdiction is limited under the rules 
of conventional war crimes and the so-called in- 
ternational crimes of waging aggressive warfare 



and crimes against humanity, such as genocide, are 
not included. 

Civilian Relief 

Problems of relief and welfare in North Korea 
have been made more difficult and complex by 
the absence of local government officials, utilities, 
transportation, and relief and welfare agencies; 
however, supplies to prevent disease, starvation 
and unrest are being distributed as expeditiously 
as the military situation permits. 

The situation in South Korea is becoming more 
stabilized with most of the refugees having been 
returned to their homes. Local governments 
have been reestablished in most areas. Economic 
conditions are improving and donations from 
member nations are beginning to aiTive; how- 
ever, critical needs exist for food, clothing, fuel 
and medical supplies. 

Detailed surveys and estimates indicate that 
the Masan-Taegu perimeter sustained much 
heavier damages than originally estimated. The 
original estimate was that there were 30,000 homes 
destroyed whereas the actual destruction is nearer 
120,000. Detailed surveys are now being con- 
ducted on a house-by-house, family-by-family 
basis. 

Throughout the destroyed areas people are 
building temporary huts on former house sites. 
Progress on reconstruction has been good in the 
smaller towns and rural areas; however, rebuild- 
ing has been slower in the cities due to lack of 
raw materials. 

In spite of the destroyed medical facilities and 
almost total lack of medical supplies, the general 
health of the people appears to be good. In some 
areas less than one-third of the local doctors can 
be found, either because they were war casualties 
or became refugees and have not returned to their 
former homes. Medical supplies for those who 
desire to i-esume practice are being provided from 
United Nations sources to assist in the relief, wel- 
fare and prevention of disease throughout Korea. 
For example, the vaccination program is near 
completion in the city of Seoul with over 700,000 
individuals immunized against cholera, typhoid 
and smallpox and over 300^000 immunized against 
typhus. Similar programs are now under way in 
Inchon and other large towns in the northern 
ai'eas of Korea. 

As indicative of the feeling of the populace in 
some areas north of the 38th parallel, there was a 



January 8, I95I 



45 



United Nations day celebration in the city of 
Wonsan attended by an estimated 12,000 persons 
with appropriate flags, banners and speeches. 

This event was organized by the local populace 
without the guidance or influence of United Na- 
tions officials, or military forces. 

Transportation in Korea 

The transportation systems of Korea are in such 
a condition that extensive rehabilitation is re- 
quired. The rail line from Pusan to Seoul was 
opened as a single track line on 21 October 1950 
by means of a shoo fly bridge across the Han 
Eiver. Tliis route has an average daily movement 
of 3,975 short tons and 688 passengers. Another 
single track line is in operation from Pusan to 
Tanyang and will be opened to Seoul after re- 
habilitation is completed on six major bridges and 
three tumiels. Tlie single track line from Yosu 
to Kunsan to Taejon is in operation. The Seoul- 
Wonsan line is open to Tongduch'on-ni. The 
United Nations forces have rehabilitated and are 
operating 1,295 miles of railroad in Korea and 
have in operation 245 locomotives and 4,400 freight 
cars of all types. Extensive rehabilitation activi- 
ties are in progress on the rail lines. 

The highways from Pusan to Pyongyang are 
open. These roads are in poor condition and 
through highway movement is the exception 
rather than the rule. The main effort on highway 
rehabilitation has been directed toward restoring 
damaged bridges and minor repairs to the roads in 
heavy traffic areas. 

As the major means of supplying both the mili- 
tary and civil requirements is by water, the ports 
of Korea have been rehabilitated materially. 
However, there still remains much construction to 
be done before they will be at their pre-war stand- 
ards. The major ports of discharge are Pusan 
and Inchon. The discharge rate at Inchon has 
been raised from 1,000 short tons to 5,000 short 
tons daily during the period 19-31 October 1950. 
Many of the smaller ports are in operational con- 
dition and will be used for the relief programme 
in order to reduce the internal distribution prob- 
lem. The ports of Wonsan and Chinnamp'o are 
in the process of being cleared of mines. During 
the period 15-31 October 1950, the ports in Korea 
discharged 366,507 measurement tons of military 
cargo, 45,000 metric tons of relief cargo, and out- 
loaded 19,308 measurement tons of cargo. 



With the liberation of large areas of Korea, in- 
creasing emphasis is being given by leaflet and by 
radio to inform the Korean people of the an- 
nounced objectives of the United Nations in Korea. 
Special broadcasts and 3,120,000 leaflets were used 
throughout the nation on 24 October to commem- 
orate United Nations Day. United Nations leaf- 
lets disseminated in Korea have passed the one 
hundred million mark. In areas of military oper- 
ations, ground and airborne loud-speaker systems 
are being extensively used to inform many soldiers 
of the military situation and impress upon them 
the futility of resistance. Surrender leaflets and 
loudspeaker messages are having considerable 
effectiveness in inducing voluntary surrenders. 
Radio Pyongyang has been restored to operation 
on a temporary basis, and is expected to resume 
sclieduled broadcasts shortly. 

Press Censorship 

Despite heavy pressure to the contrary, no mili- 
tary censorship has been instituted by the United 
Nations Command throughout the Korean cam- 
paign. Reliance for security against the prema- 
ture publication of information helpful to the 
enemy has instead rested upon voluntary censor- 
ship by editors and correspondents. This policy 
has resulted in the most complete and prompt 
public dissemination of information on the course 
of operations of any military campaign in history, 
without as far as is known a single security breach 
of a nature to assist the enemy. This may be said 
to the great and lasting credit of the press of the 
free world and its responsible publishers, editors, 
and correspondents. In evaluating the issue be- 
tween compulsory and voluntary censorship, one 
must understand that the sole purpose of either is 
to safeguard against the premature publication of 
information on plans and operations which would 
assist the enemy to develop countermeasures. No 
foi'm of censorship can prevent espionage, nor 
can it properly be employed to control undue em- 
phasis given to the outcroppings of emotional 
strain which must, as in the present campaign, 
find its correction in the balance achieved through 
maturity gained with battle experience. Nor is it 
the proper instrument for the avoidance of factual 
error. Correspondents assigned to cover military 
operations are the selected representatives of re- 
sponsible publishers and editors and their ability 
to assume the responsibility of self-censorship has 
been amply and conclusively demonstrated in the 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



course of the Korean campaign. In the many mili- 
tary campaigns in which I have engaged, most of 
which were covered by a rigid form of news censor- 
ship, I have never seen the desired balance between 
public information and military security so well 
achieved and preserved as during the Korean cam- 
paign. 

In Conclusion 

1. Operations are continuing to destroy the re- 
mains of the North Korean forces. 

2. Approximately 135,000 prisoners of war have 
been captured. 

3. Complex airborne and amphibious operations 
were expertly executed by elements of the United 
Nations Army, Navy, and Air Force commands. 

4. The attitude of the large majority of North 
Korean people toward the United Nations forces 
is that of friendly welcome for relief from oppres- 
sion and conflict. 

5. A Turkish Army force has arrived in Korea. 
Two more Republic of Korea infantry divisions 
were activated. Army combat forces now in the 
United Nations Command in Korea represent six 
different nations. 

6. There is no military press censorship in the 
United Nations Command. Voluntary censorship 
of editors and correspondents is producing an ex- 
cellent balance between public information and 
military security. 

7. Repair of roads, rail lines and ports is pro- 
gressing. 

8. The continuation of the relief, welfare, and 
rehabilitation program in Korea is essential. To 
insure success of this program, it is imperative that 
member nations contributions of food, relief, and 
medical supplies be expedited for shipment to 
Korea. 

NINTH REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 
NOVEMBER 1-15, 1950 

Included in U.N. doc. S/1933 
Transmitted Dec. 28, 1950 

I herewith submit report number 9 of the United 
Nations Command operations in Korea for the 
period 1-15 November, inclusive. Korean re- 
leases (numbers602 through 643) provide detailed 
accounts of these operations. 

Introduction 

Chinese Communist Forces in significant 
strength have moved across the Yalu River and 



attacked United Nations Forces. This constitutes 
an act of international lawlessness far exceeding 
that of mere brigandage. The course of opera- 
tions of United Nations Forces in Korea has in 
consequence changed from that of pursuit of de- 
feated and routed North Korean army remnants 
to that of a new campaign against a fresh enemy 
force. 

Ground Operations 

On 31 October, the dwindling North Korean 
Forces appeared to be making a last desperate 
stand in the Unsan area. Elsewhere, they were 
steadily giving ground to advance to United Na- 
tions Forces. However, on 1 November, elements 
of the 124th Chinese Communist (CCF) Division 
were identified on the front near Kot'ori, a few 
miles south of Choshin Reservoir. Within ten 
days, through interrogation of prisoners from 
all Chinese units involved, elements of eleven more 
CCF divisions were identified in the forward areas. 
Of these, elements of nine had taken up positions 
between Pakch'on and Topch'on in the western sec- 
tor, and CCF strength in the Kot'ori area had 
expanded to identified elements of three divisions. 
At the same time. United Nations aerial recon- 
naissance disclosed heavy troop movements near 
the border, in Manchuria, and into Korea. 

To date, Chinese Communist intervention has 
increased effective enemy strength by an estimated 
three hundred per cent. By this action, the enemy 
has made it necessary to integrate advanced United 
Nations elements into a continuous front on the 
western and central sectors, for coordinated large 
scale offensive action. During the period of the 
United Nations Forces redeployment the Com- 
munist Forces were moderately aggressive and 
mounted numerous small scale attacks at various 
points in the western and central parts of the 
front. As United Nations Forces resumed the 
offensive, the enemy displayed flexibility, and re- 
sisted stubbornly at Pakch'on, Won'ni, and par- 
ticularly at Tokch'on. 

In the widely extended east coast sector, no 
definite front lines exist. Of the three main axes 
of advance, the Communists interposed a strong 
defending force only on the approaches to the 
Choshin and Fusen Reservoirs. On the P'ungsan- 
Kapsan axis, the North Korean Wonsan Brigade 
has retreated to Kapsan under steady United Na- 
tions pressure. The 607 North Korean Brigade, 



January 8, 1951 



47 



carrying out limited delaying actions, has been 
forced to displace 25 miles northward from Kil- 
chu along the main east coast highway. 

In reinforcement and resupply, the enemy is rel- 
atively safe from United Nations air interdiction, 
because he can move from the border to the front 
lines during the long winter hours of darkness. 

Front lines at the end of the period ran generally 
from Pakch'on, near the west coast, eastward to 
Tokch'on, thence northeast to Kot'ori, and Kap- 
san, and thence eastward to Tajin on the east coast. 

The 20th British Infantry Brigade Group ar- 
rived in Korea on 3 November and the 21st Thai- 
land Infantry Regiment arrived on 7 November. 
United Nations Army combat forces in Korea now 
contain units from seven nations. The differences 
in language, equipment, supplies and methods of 
operations are being solved satisfactorily and the 
cooperation between forces of diflferent nations is 
excellent. 

One more Republic of Korea Division was acti- 
vated during the period. 

Enemy guerrilla operations, primarily con- 
ducted by by-passed North Korean units, both in 
the immediate and deep rear areas, continue north 
of the 38th Parallel. Though by no means a seri- 
ous factor, these forces are a constant menace to 
United Nations supply lines, extremely prejudicial 
to civil control, and require disproportionate num- 
bers of United Nations troops for internal policing 
action. Conditions south of the 38th Parallel have 
improved considerably and the counter-guerrilla 
operations in that area are now being accom- 
plished entirely by Republic of Korea Forces. 

Navy Operations 

During the period covered by this report, units 
of Thailand Navy joined the United Nations naval 
forces in Korean waters, which forces now are 
comprised of naval units of nine member nations. 

United Nations naval forces of all types and 
categories, by their constant patrol activity, con- 
tinued to maintain absolute control of the move- 
ment of all surface craft in Korean coastal waters. 

Carrier-based naval aircraft carried out an 
interdiction program on lines of communication in 
northeastern Korea, attacking bridges, rail lines 
and enemy transports wherever found. During 
the latter days of the period, these aircraft shifted 
their attack to the international bridges over the 
Yalu, operating under strict orders not to violate 



Manchurian territory. Despite the handicaps of 
this restriction and of unhampered anti-aircraft 
fire from batteries on the Manchurian side of the 
river, the attacks of these aircraft have produced 
excellent results. 

Marine fighter bomber aircraft, carrier-based as 
well as shore-based, furnished daily close air sup- 
port to units of the X Corps in their operations 
in northeastern Korea. 

Naval gunfire support and bombardment ac- 
tivity reached the lowest level of the Korean cam- 
IJaign, due to the growing lack of military targets 
within the radius of their guns. 

Enemy mines continued to engage a large share 
of the attention of the United Nations naval forces. 
The small minesweeping flotilla, and associated 
units, devoted maximum efforts to this tedious and 
dangerous task throughout the period and the re- 
sults of this effort are plainly evident. Shipping 
was able to dock at berths at Wonsan Harbor on 5 
November. Light draft vessels were able to enter 
Chinnamp'o Harbor on 10 November. Mine- 
sweeping continues off Chinnamp'o and Hungnam 
with the prospect that both these important ports 
will be completely free of mines in the near future. 

To date over eighty drifting mines have been 
found and destroyed by United Nations naval 
forces. A large portion of these drifting mines 
were live mines, in violation of international law 
which requires that mines shall be so constructed 
as to automatically become harmless as soon as they 
have broken loose from their moorings. 

Air Operations 

The United Nations complete supremacy in the 
air has been challenged for the first time during 
the Korean operations by modern high perform- 
ance type jet aircraft. Russian-produced MIG-15 
have been engaged in combat over Korean terri- 
tory since 1 November when United Nations planes 
were attacked in Sinuiju area. This period also 
has seen a marked increase in the employment of 
enemy conventional type aircraft against United 
Nations air and ground forces, though so far tliey 
have constituted in the main no more than a nui- 
sance factor. 

Comparative losses favor the United Nations 
forces despite operating factors favoring the en- 
emy. The Comnuniists are taking full advantage 
of the sanctuary afforded within the areas be- 
yond the Manchurian bordei-. respected by our 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



forces. Aircraft have been observed taking off 
from Antung in Manchuria and proceeding to the 
attack south across the Yalu River. The intercep- 
tion of tliese planes between the border and the 
United Nations front lines is a difficult problem — 
so short a period of flight is involved. 

Combat damaged Communist planes which 

I would certainly have been destroyed, had our 
forces been operating without restriction, have 
found refuge in Chinese Communist territory. 
The superiority of United Nations pilots has been 
nullified upon occasion when hard pressed Com- 
munist fliers have utilized the border to break off 
combat and improve their tactical position by 
gaining altitude or by other maneuver, and then 
have returned to combat. Thus handicapped, 
United Nations aviators cannot anticipate the 
capability to deny the area to limited Communist 
aerial offensives. 

Planes attacking militai-y objectives south of 
the border have drawn antiaircraft artillery fire 
from guns on the Manchurian side. This hostile 
action has been conducted with impunity as a 
result of scrupulous efforts of United Nations 
forces to maintain inviolate the border. The Com- 
munists practice this conscienceless derision of jus- 
tice and peace from their bases of aggi-ession pro- 
tected solely by a barrier imposed by the democra- 
cies' desire to prevent expansion of the arena of 
conflict. 

Interdiction of enemy lines of communications 
is being vigorously pursued throughout the limited 
area remaining to the North Koreans. The south- 
ern ends of the bridges across the Yalu River are 
being attacked in an effort to retard the flow of 
Chinese Communist supplies and persomiel, 
though the most important bases and reserves re- 
main invulnerable within Manchuria. Command, 
communication and supply centers of North Korea 
will be obliterated in order to offset tactically the 
handicap we have imposed upon ourselves strate- 
gically by refraining from attack of Manchurian 
bases. 

A South African Air Unit has joined other 
United Nations air forces in the Far East during 
the period. 

1 Aerial supply continue to contribute materially 

to both ground and air combat operations. 

Prisoners of War 

Since my last report a new prisoner-of-war 
camp with two enclosures capable of accommodat- 



ing 50,000 prisoners has been established in Pyong- 
yang, Korea. Approximately 22,000 prisoners are 
now detained there. The three prisoner-of-war 
camps with eight enclosures now operating in 
Korea will provide facilities and accommodations 
for 200,000 prisoners. 

All camps are being rapidly developed and im- 
proved. Projects now in progress include winter- 
ization of tents and other housing facilities, in- 
stallation of elaborate water systems and construc- 
tion of additional sanitary facilities and mess 
facilities. Large additional quantities of warm 
winter clothing and bedding have been shipped 
to Korea for issue to prisoners of war. 

Atrocities 

In July the units of the United Nations Com- 
mand were directed to investigate and report all 
war crimes atrocities uncovered by them. Subse- 
quently, when it became evident that atrocities 
were being committed by the North Koreans on a 
large scale, it was deemed advisable to have in 
being an organization capable of continuing and 
completing investigations begun by tactical units 
which subsequently move forward. Therefore a 
war crimes division was established in the Head- 
quarters of the Eighth United States Army, and 
to this division has been assigned operational 
responsibility for the investigation and apprehen- 
sion of persons suspected and accused of having 
perpetrated conventional war crimes. Tactical 
units continue to investigate and report atrocities 
as heretofore. 

It is now estimated that the number of victims 
of atrocities committed by the North Koreans to- 
tals 35,000 of whom the vast majority were non- 
combatants whose only crime was that they 
harbored, or were suspected of harboring, beliefs 
at variance with those of the individuals in power 
in North Korea. The receipt of new reports of 
almost unbelievable atrocities continues unabated. 
An incident only recently discovered occurred on 
or about 27 September when approximately 50 
civilian men and women were arrested by the 
North Korean authorities. Their hands and feet 
were tied ; they were dropped down two wells, and 
large rocks were dropped on them. None sur- 
vived this ordeal. Another incident, discovered 
on 2 November, occurred on or about 20 October, 
when more than 400 civilians, believed to have 
been political prisoners, were executed in the bomb 
shelter of a coal mine. Twenty persons are said 



January 8, 1951 



49 



to have survived this massacre. And, on 8 No- 
vember, more than 700 bodies were found in an- 
other coal mine in the same vicinity. 

Civil Activities 

To assist in the problems of relief and the re- 
establishment of local and provincial govern- 
ments in North Korea, civil assistance teams have 
been organized to provide the necessary guidance 
and assistance in the achievement of United Na- 
tions aims. 

In cities north of the 38th Parallel where tac- 
tical conditions permit, local civil governments 
have been reestablished by the appointment of 
appropriate individuals to key positions. These 
temporarily appointed officials provide necessary 
civil administration and function under the super- 
vision and guidance of the civil assistance teams 
of the United Nations Command. 

To further implement the civil assistance pro- 
gram in the field of public health and welfare, 
I have recently requested recruitment from United 
Nations members of technically qualified persons 
to permit formation of additional public health 
and welfare teams for use in the areas of North 
Korea. 

The need for relief supplies and equipment in 
Korea continues to be critical. Economic condi- 
tions have improved with the receipt of more than 
300,000 metric tons of relief supplies and equip- 
ment. However, additional contributions to pre- 
vent widespread suffering are becoming more 
necessary with the approach of the winter season. 

The attitude of local inhabitants continues to 
indicate appreciation of the United Nations effort 
in Korea. Indicative of this was the recent spon- 
taneous celebration by the citizens of Pusan on 
the occasion of the 5th anniversary of the organ- 
ization of the United Nations. 

Psychological Warfare 

The appearance of alien Communist soldiers in 
northern Korea has intensified the importance of 
leaflet operation and loudspeaker transmission to 
enemy forces. Twelve million leaflets were air 
dropped to enemy troops during the first half of 
November, including 7 million in Korean and 5 
million in Chinese. Tlie Chinese language leaflets 
reiterate the traditional friendship of the peoples 
of the United Nations for the Chinese people, and 
assure Chinese soldiers now in Korea the United 
Nations forces will respect the inviolability of 



Korea's international frontiers. All leaflets con- 
vey to enemy soldiers the United Nations guaran- 
tee of good treatment for prisoners of war, and 
urge them voluntarily to lay down their arms. 
More than 115 million United Nations leaflets have 
now been disseminated in Korea. Loudspeaker 
broadcasts, both from the air and on the ground, 
are proving effective in complementing the influ- 
ence of leaflets in inducing suri'ender of enemy 
soldiers. United Nations broadcasts from Eadio 
Seoul and Radio Pyongyang, as well as from 
United Nations Conmiand Headquarters, continue 
to provide the civil population of Korea with 
authentic news reporting. 

In Conclusion 

1. Large scale Chinese Communist intervention 
has profoundly altered the concluding phase of 
the Korean War. 

2. Advances continued in the eastern sector and 
forces were regrouped in the western sector to con- 
tend with the new enemy of the United Nations. 

3. The United Nations Command now comprises 
army forces of seven nations, navy forces of nine 
nations, and air forces of four nations. 

4. Enemy aircraft are attacking United Na- 
tions forces in Korea from bases in Manchuria. 

5. Requirements continue for civilian relief 
supplies. 

TENTH REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 

NOVEMBER 16-30, 1950 

Included in U.N. doc. S/1953 
Transmitted Dec. 28, 1950 

I herewith submit report number ten of the 
United Nations Command operations in Korea for 
the period 16 to 30 November, inclusive. Korean 
releases, numbers 644 through 689 and United Na- 
tions Command communiques, numbers 12, 13 and 
14, provide detailed accounts of these operations. 

Introduction 

In order to more clearly present the situation 
facing the United Nations forces at this time, I 
present you a resume of events that have trans- 
pired since September. 

By the middle of October 1950, the United Na- 
tions forces had in prisoner-of-war enclosures over 
130,000 north Korean military personnel and had 
killed or wounded over 200,000 more. Thus, tlie 
personnel of the north Korean forces were elimi- 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



nated, their equipment was captured or destroyed, 
and all but the northern borders of Korea was 
held by United Nations forces. For all practical 
purposes, the conflict with the armed forces of the 
former north Korean regime had been terminated. 

Beginning in October 1950, Chinese Communists 
started moving into Korea and attempted to cover 
their moves by statements that it was individual 
volunteer participation. It is perfectly clear that 
the Chinese started moving the mass of their forces 
to position for the invasion by the middle of Sep- 
tember. The Chinese Communist forces are now 
invading Korea and attacking United Nations 
forces in great and ever increasing strength. No 
pretext of minor support under the guise of vol- 
unteerism or other subterfuge now has the slight- 
est validity. These irrefutable facts prove that 
the Chinese Communist regime has directed an in- 
vasion of Korea and an assault against the United 
Nations forces. 

During the first half of the period there were 
extensive operations by United Nations air forces 
of all types in sustained attacks on enemy lines of 
communications, supplies, and troop concentra- 
tions in conjunction with a regrouping and re- 
supply of United Nations Army forces. On 24 
November a general attack was launched by all 
available United Nations forces. The attack pro- 
gressed satisfactorily for two days, at which time 
strong attacks, principally by Chinese Connnunist 
forces, required readjustment of United Nations 
forces and resuming defensive operations. The 
United Nations offensive successfully developed 
and revealed the strength and intentions of the 
Chinese Communists. 

Ground Operations 

The enemy forces now opposing United Nations 
operations in Korea demonstrated considerable 
strategic and tactical skill during the period of 
this report. These forces, now predominantly 
Chinese Communist, surrendered very extensive 
areas in the east coastal sector in the zone of op- 
erations of the X United States Corps. United 
Nations forces were virtually unchallenged within 
the great quadrangle marked by Chongjin, Hye- 
sanjin, Choshin Reservoii", and Hungnam, except 
for strong pressure on United Nations units south 
and west of the Eeservoir. The United States 
7th Infantry Division met only moderate opposi- 
tion in its rapid advance to the Manchurian bor- 
der at Hyesanjin, and Republic of Korea forces 



had similar success advancing beyond Chongjin 
on the east coast. However, in the west sector 
Communist forces launched a strong offensive, 
producing a collision with the United Nations 
general offensive of 24 November. 

In the west sector, on a line arching northward 
between Kasan and Tokch'on the enemy displayed 
little interest in combat from 16 to 25 November, 
inclusive. In many instances, United Nations 
units advanced several miles without contacting 
the enemy, and United Nations patrols ranging 
northward five to eight miles met only occasional 
resistance in the eastern part of the sector. On 26 
and 27 November, the enemy, apparently rein- 
forced by several fresh Chinese Communist armies 
(Corjis) from Manchuria, attacked all along the 
line, devoting his major effort to the United Na- 
tions Eighth Army right flank in the Tokch'on 
area. These strong, sustained attacks, charac- 
terized by the usual Communist infiltration and 
flanking tactics, forced advanced United Nations 
units on the United Nations Eighth Army left 
flank and center to displace ten to twelve miles 
to a main line of resistance extending between 
Pakch'on and Won-Ni. Powerful Communist 
thrusts north of Tokch'on forced United Nations 
units back about twenty-five miles to the vicinity 
of Taep'yong on the Taedong river. During the 
intense fighting in these actions, the enemy suf- 
fered heavy personnel losses as a result of 
maximum United Nations air, ground efforts. 
However, such losses are no longer of crucial mili- 
tai-y importance, in view of the enemy's tremen- 
dous capacity for troop reinforcement from secure 
bases in Manchuria. 

The enemy opposition on the right flank of 
Eighth Army is now accepted as a major Chinese 
Communist force thrust which clashed with 
United Nations forces, and which involved ele- 
ments of approximately eight Chinese Connnunist 
forces divisions, while holding operations on the 
remainder of the Eighth Army position involved 
approximately six additional Chinese Communist 
forces divisions. As part of this general Chinese 
Communist force offensive, savage attacks were 
directed against United Nations forces in the gen- 
eral vicinity of the Choshin Reservoir with a Chi- 
nese force estimated at six to eight divisions. 

During the period 24 November to 1 December, 
the Chinese Communist forces are credited with 
having taken over direct responsibility for the 
entire front in North Korea, except for a short 



January 8, 195) 



51 



line of contact noith of Chongjin on the east coast. 
The Chinese Communists reportedly have trans- 
ferred most of the Nortli Korean forces to Man- 
churia for retraining and re-equipping. At pres- 
ent, the only significant military power now con- 
fronting United Nations Forces in Korea is 
Communist China. 

Identified and accepted Chinese Communist 
units are as follows: 

38th Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
112th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
113th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
114th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

39th Cliinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
115th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
116th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
117th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

40th Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
llSth Chinese Communist Forces Division 
119th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
120th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

42n(J Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
124th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
125th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
126th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

50th Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
14.Sth Chinese Communist Forces Division 
149th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
150th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

66th Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
196th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
197th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
198th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

20th Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps) 
59th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
60th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
89th Chinese Communist Forces Division 

This undoubtedly represents a total strength of 
about 200,000. 

Units other than those listed above that have 
been identified, reported and tentatively accepted 
are the 70th Chinese Communist Forces Division 
of the 24th Chinese Communist Forces Army 
(Corps) and the 79th and 80th Chinese Com- 
munist Forces Divisions of the 27th Chinese Com- 
munist Forces Army (Corps). In addition is 
the doubtful and unaccepted presence of the 94th 
Chinese Communist Forces Division of the 32nd 
Chinese Communist Forces Army (Corps). 

Judging from experience of the past, it is con- 
sidered that there is a strong possibility that both 
the 24th and the 27th Chinese Communist Forces 
Armies (Corps) are in the area of operations, in 
which case approximately 55,000 to 60,000 addi- 
tional Chinese Comnumist Forces troops would 
then be added making a total of at least 250,000. 



52 



In reviewing the build-up of Chinese Communist 
Forces in Manchuria and Korea it is necessary to 
go back to June and July of this year when the de- 
cision to move the Chinese Communist Forces 4th 
Field Army to Manchuria was apparently made 
and the actual redeployment of these forces im- 
plemented. In view of the situation in Korea at 
the time, the decision to deploy one field army to 
this critical area could conceivably be supported 
as tactically and strategically sound and in the 
best interests of the Chinese Communists from a 
purely defensive viewpoint. However, the subse- 
quent movement and employment of elements of 
the 3rd Chinese Communist Forces Field Army 
and possibly portions of the 1st Chinese Com- 
munist Forces Field Army certainly cannot be so 
justified. The vast quantities of personnel and 
material now poised along the Yalu River and 
aggressively employed against United Nations 
Forces in Korea far exceed the most elaborate re- 
quirements for the establishment of a purely de- 
fensive structure along the Korean-Manchurian 
border. It is evident that the assembly of such 
an array of force could not have been effectively 
accomplish "over night." These factors, con- 
sidered with other pertinent manifestations, cer- 
tainly indicate that plans for the active and ag- 
gressive intervention in the Korean war were un- 
doubtedly developed early in the summer. 

Front lines at the close of the period in the 
Eighth Army sector ran generally northeast from 
the mouth of the Ch'ongeh'on River to Pakch'on 
east to Won-Ni, and thence southeast to ToepVong 
Ni. In the X United States Corps sector on the 
east coast, no definite front lines exist. Points of 
contact demarcate a general line north from Sa- 
ch'ong to Hagaru and Yudam on the Choshin 
Reservoir, northeast to Samsu and thence north- 
east to Chongjin on the east coast. 

A Netherlands Army battalion arrived on 22 
November and a French Army battalion arrived on 
29 November. These units have joined the United 
Nations Forces in Korea which raises to nine 
the number of nations contributing Army combat 
forces. 

Communist guerrilla units varying from a few 
hundred to several thousand men are operating in 
isolated areas throughout the United Nations oc- j 
cupied portion of Korea. At present, nearly J 
thirty per cent of the United Nations troops in 
Korea are employed against them in the essential 
task of protecting supply lines and the more vital 

Department of State Bulletin 



urban centers. From 1 to 21 November, for ex- 
ample, there were nearly two hundred guerrilla 
raids and attacks, most of which required the im- 
mediate attention of United Nations anti-guerrilla 
forces. These units are primarily composed of 
former North Korean soldiers, and are led by pro- 
fessional leaders, many of whom have had ex- 
tensive pre-war guerrilla experience. Guerrilla 
forces now total thirty thousand to thirty-five 
thousand in strength. There is growing evidence 
' that guerrilla activities are being controlled and 
coordinated by the enemy high command, and that 
this menace to United Nations operations will ne- 
cessitate continued anti-guerrilla measures. Of 
these, the most successful to date has been the de- 
struction of many major guerrilla sup))ly caches. 

Navy Operations 

During the period of this report. United Nations 
naval forces of all types and categories despite 
extreme cold and considerable snow, continued to 
deny enemy surface units movement in any of the 
waters surrounding Korea. Carrier-based air- 
craft, also hampered by snow and adverse flying 
conditions, exerted maximum effort against mili- 
tary installations, troop concentrations, supply 
clumps, communications facilities, and especially 
the international bridges over the Yalu river over 
which the enemy is receiving most of his reinforce- 
ments and supplies. These carrier-based aircraft 
encountered intense and accurate anti-aircraft- 
fire from batteries on the Manchurian side of the 
border when operating over Korean territory in 
the lower Yalu river valley. On one occasion, in 
the vicinity of Sinuiju, thi-ee carrier-based aircraft 
were seriously damaged by flak. In addition to 
anti-aircraft fire, carrier-based units, as well as air 
force units, have been attacked by planes operating 
from the Manchurian side of the border. On 18 
November, carrier-based aircraft of Task Force 77 
were attacked by eight to ten jet planes of Russian 
MIG-15 type operating from bases in Manchuria. 
One of these planes was destroyed and several 
others damaged. They all quickly avoided combat 
and, except for the one that was destroyed, took 
refuge over the border in Manchuria. In addi- 
tion to carrying out interdiction strikes, carrier- 
based planes, plus Marine shore based planes, fur- 
nished close air support to groimd units in north- 
eastern Korea. 

Naval gunfire support and bombardment in- 
creased during this period and the United Nations 



naval units proved to be indispensable in aiding 
the advance of United Nations ground units north 
of Wonsan toward the northeastern border. 

United Nations minesweeping units are continu- 
ing the task of sweeping mines from the harbors 
essential to our operations, a long and tedious 
process. Wliile still a source of great danger to 
United Nations shipping, the menace of mines has 
been reduced considerably. Channels leading to 
the harbors of Haeju, Chinnamp'o, Wonsan, Ham- 
hung, Sonjin, I won and Kojo have been swept by 
our minesweeping units and these ports are now 
open to our shipping. These are in addition to 
ports previously available to us. Thousands of 
tons of supplies are entering these ports daily for 
onward routing over short overland hauls to our 
United Nations units engaging the enemy to the 
north. Many drifting mines are still being 
sighted by our naval patrols both from the surface 
and the air. Many of these drifting mines are 
being desti'oyed and in most instances, as hereto- 
fore, prove to be still live, even though they have 
no moorings. This is further evidence that the 
North Koreans have deliberately violated interna- 
tional law in planting mines that do not become 
harmless when they break loose fi-om their moor- 
ings. This mine menace, both due to moored 
mines and drifting mines, will prove to be a source 
of gi-eat danger to the shipping of all nations even 
after the cessation of hostilities. 

Air Operations 

Air Forces of five nations, continuing the of- 
fensive launched by the United States Far East 
Air Forces in June, struck repeatedly at Commun- 
ist forces and installations in the narrow band of 
North Korea controlled by the aggressor. The 
major part of the air effort comprised sorties in 
direct and close support of ground forces. Other 
than during occasional periods of bad weather 
ground unit commanders could anticipate early 
response to their calls for assistance by air. 

The effectiveness of the United Nations air ef- 
fort to prevent resupply and reinforcement of the 
enemies of the United Nations is seriously reduced 
by the restrictions to operations imposed by the 
border. Supply and concentration centers in the 
zone of action have been repeatedly attacked to 
the detriment of hostile capabilities, but the most 
suitable targets, many of them visible to our pilots 
flying south of the Yalu river, are north of the 
border, and immune to our attacks. Tlie effects 



January 8, 1951 



53 



of destruction of some of the international bridges 
is being nullified by the freezing of the river which 
permits crossing on the ice by heavy equipment 
at many points. 

Hostile air activity, during the period 24 No- 
vember-1 December, inclusive, was noted on 
twenty-three different occasions, with an over-all 
total of at least forty-four enemy aircraft re- 
ported as being involved. It is not practical to 
estimate total aircraft committed by the enemy, 
as sightings on various days might include pre- 
viously employed aircraft. Although fewer en- 
emy jets were sighted and observations were less 
frequent than during the past three-four weeks, 
and, regardless of the fact that there were only 
three aerial engagements, utilization of enemy air- 
craft showed signs of becoming more effective. 
This was indicated by the 28 November and 1 De- 
cember attacks on Pyongyang airfield during the 
early morning hours of darkness. The first of 
these attacks damaged six United Nations air- 
craft and killed one person, damage resulting 
from the second has not yet been reported. On 
26 November, on the same general vicinity, enemy 
aircraft accomplished four propaganda leaflet 
drops. Two unidentified 4-engine aircraft were 
observed on 28 November and one unidentified 
twin-engine aircraft, and possibly another, were 
observed on 26 November. Pi-obable reconnais- 
sance of front line areas by enemy aircraft was 
indicated by the greater number of friendly 
ground unit observations. 

The enemy aii'craft could appear in much 
greater numbers and become increasingly aggres- 
sive. Should this occur, and in the strength be- 
lieved available to the Chinese Communist air 
forces, it is believed that the enemy air force 
would be capable of : 

(1) Diverting a considerable portion of the 
United Nations air effort from the direct support 
of ground action ; 

(2) Hindering the United Nations air lift in 
Korea ; 

(3) Striking United Nations vessels and in- 
stallations of Korea ; and 

(4) Possible effective support of enemy ground 
action. 

The readily accessible sanctuary in Manchuria 
has provided the enemy with an advantage that is 
almost impossible for our airmen to overcome 
despite our superiority in other respects. 

A significant development in the United Na- 



tions air operations has been the increased nimi- 
ber of attacks mounted at night against the enemy 
whose major movements are attempted under 
cover of darkness. Air resupply continues its 
important contribution to our operations. 

Prisoners of War 

No large numbers of Communist prisoners were 
taken during the period of this report ; the Eighth 
Army captured no North Korean prisoners on 
their front from 20 to 28 November. The total 
captured to date numbers in excess of 140,000 of 
which 275 are Chinese. 

All enemy prisoners of war of Chinese nation- 
ality were being detained in separate compounds 
segregated from Korean prisoners of war, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of article 22 of the 
Geneva Convention relative to the treatment of 
prisoners of war of August 12, 1949. 

During the last half of the period covered by 
this report about sixty United States prisoners of 
war, nearly all of whom were wounded, were re- 
turned to the United Nations control by the Chi- 
nese Communists. These recovered United States 
prisoners have all been evacuated through medical 
channels and are now being cared for in United 
States medical facilities located in Japan. 

It is interesting to note that more than 6,000 
North Korean prisoners of war are being given 
hospital facilities staffed and operated by United 
Nations personnel. 

Atrocities 

The investigation of reported war crimes con- 
tinues on an increased scope as a result of im- 
proved conditions in those areas of Korea which 
have been liberated from Communist control. No 
reports of any atrocities have been received from 
the areas recently taken by United Nations troops. 
Reports from the very small number of wounded 
United Nations troops recently released by the 
Chinese Communists of humane treatment is in 
marked contrast with all other reports in this re- 
gard received since the beginning of hostilities. 
Too few have been released to draw any valid 
conclusions as to whether the actions taken and 
publicly announced by the United Nations Com- 
mand to insure the punishment of war criminals 
have convinced the enemy of the necessity that all 
prisoners of war and non-combatants receive the 
humane treatment required under international 
law and demanded by modern civilization. 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



Civil Activities 

Over-all contributions of civilian relief supplies 
from United Nations member nations now total 
approximately sixteen million dollars. These in- 
clude food, clothing, medical and disease preven- 
tion supplies, fuel and miscellaneous items. 

The advent of cold weather has made the cloth- 
ing problem acute. Urgent need exists for addi- 
tional quantities of blankets and clothing. Al- 
though medical and hospital supplies including 
sanitary materials are arriving in increased quan- 
tities a serious shortage of these items still exists 
due to the looting and destruction by the Conmiu- 
nist forces in their withdrawal to the north. 

Increasing quantities of rice, barley and flour 
received through United Nations sources have 
greatly improved the food situation in urban areas 
where the situation was acute. Conditions were 
particularly critical in the city of Seoul but regu- 
lar free rations from November 3 to 15 caused the 
price of rice to fall from 8,000 won to 3,700 won 
per small mal (13.6 pounds). The rice price in 
June was 2,000 won per small mal. The govern- 
ment expects to collect 700,000 metric tons of rice 
from the current harvest. However, lack of trans- 
portation facilities from the rural to the urban 
areas may still present feeding problems in the 
larger cities. As rapidly as conditions permit rice 
polishing mills are being put in operation with 
two such mills in the Hungnam-Hamliung area 
being placed in operation during this period. 

Wliere possible, immunization programs have 
continued among the civilian population. The ex- 
isting situation does not permit accurate disease 
reporting. However, there has been no indica- 
tion of a serious outbreak of any communicable 
disease in either north or south Korea. 

As rapidly as conditions permit local and pro- 
vincial govenmients are being re-established 
tliroughout the areas in north Korea. Govern- 
ment officials are temporarily appointed and oper- 
ate under the supervision of civil assistance offi- 
cers of the United Nations Command. 

Construction has been in the minimum due to 
scarcity of materials, transportation and equip- 
ment. Public buildings and hospitals are under- 
going minor repair. Eailroads and bridges have 
been reconstructed to the degree necessary for 
movement of military supplies and troops. An 
effort is being made to rehabilitize the fishing 



industry. Boats are being repaired and quanti- 
ties of diesel fuel have been provided. 

I would like to reiterate my previous statements 
that the contributions of member nations of the 
United Nations in personnel, supplies and mate- 
riel are contributing materially to the achievement 
of the United Nations objective in Korea and that 
continued assistance to the war torn country will 
do much to alleviate the suffering that exists. 

Psyciiological Warfare 

Intensive efforts are being made to inform sol- 
diers, both Korean and Chinese Communists, of 
the truth about the Korean conflict and to persuade 
them to cease resistance. During the latter half of 
November 20,000,000 leaflets and numerous loud- 
speakers broadcasts, both from the ground and 
from the air, were employed for this purpose, 
using message in Korean and in Chinese. Mes- 
sages reiterate the objectives of the United Nations 
in Korea, and the assurance that the United Na- 
tions forces will respect the Sino-Korean fron- 
tier. They inform the enemy soldier of the libera- 
tion of most of Korea, and point out to him that 
further resistance serves no effective purpose ex- 
cept to obstruct the efforts of the Korean People to 
achieve independence and unity. More than 136,- 
000,000 leaflets have now been disseminated in Ko- 
rea. Similar information is being communicated 
to the civil population by radio broadcasts from 
Seoul and Pyongyang, as well as from United Na- 
tions Command Headquarters. 

United Nations land and carrier-based aircraft 
have attacked unremittingly and succesfully tar- 
gets in the limited battle area, but the denial to 
United Nations air of access to the most suitable 
and important targets north of the privileged bor- 
der has precluded success in isolation of the battle- 
field. 

Complete organized Chinese Communist units 
totalling over five Chinese Communist Forces 
Armies with a strength of approximately 250,000 
have already crossed into north Korea and at- 
tacked United Nations forces. 

At the closing of the period United Nations 
ground units were on the defensive. 

Hostile aircraft continue to attack United Na- 
tions forces from the sanctuary of bases in Man- 
churia. 

United Nations naval minesweeping forces have 
opened the majority of the large ports in north 
Korea for United Nations shipping. 



January 8, 795? 



55 



Facing Up to the Challenge 
of the Present World Crisis 

hy Secretary Acheson ' 

1. Question: 

Some Americans of authority are saying tliat tliis is 
America's darliest hour. Do you believe that? 

Answer: 

Mr. Sevareid, a nation's darkest hour is when 
its citizens lose their will and their courage. Amer- 
icans have never done that. During the winter of 
Valley Forge, many people thought that was our 
country's darkest hour, but General Washing- 
ton and his army and the people who supported 
him in the country never lost their courage and 
never lost their will. Other people thought that, 
9 years ago now, the night of Pearl Harbor, was 
our darkest hour; but, again, Americans never 
lost their will, and they never lost their courage. 
And they faced up to the challenge which that 
event brought before them. 

And, now, today, we are confronted by another 
aggressive force in the world. A well-armed force, 
a highly mobilized force, and that calls for action 
on our part to build our strength. We must build 
tanks, and guns, and planes, and more of them, 
and build them faster. We can do this. We are 
doing it, and we must do still more. 

2. Question: 

Most Americans seem to be keenly conscious of our 
strategic and military weaknesses in the face of Russia. 
What are our major points of strength? 

Answer: 

It is a good thing to be conscious of your weak- 
nesses if being conscious of them leads you to do 
something about correcting them. We have great 
sources of strength. 

In the first place, we have the tremendous source 
of strength that our cause is right. We are on the 
side of freedom and on the side of the great spirit- 
ual values which have created our country. 

In the second place, we have friends who believe 
in the same values that we believe and this is a 
great source of strength. 

In the third place, we and our friends have the 
greatest industrial capacity in the world which, 
in turn, can make us and our friends strong. 

And, in the fourth place, we have not merely 
potential strength but we have strength in being 
since we have a first-class Navy and we have a 
strong Air Force, and, in our Army, we have the 



' Comments made at an interview with Eric Sevareid, 
CBS commentator, over the Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem during its show, "The Challenge of the Fifties — 
Years of Crisis," on Dec. 31 and released to the press on 
the same date. 



nucleus around which we can build a real fighting 
force. 

We have not only these forces in being but we 
have the power to retaliate against any aggressor 
who attacks us and our friends and that power 
cannot be overlooked. We expect to make our- 
selves respected and to deter aggression. 

3. Question: 

What can the average American now do to help his 
country through tliis time of crisis? 

Answer: 

Well, Mr. Sevareid, it is precisely the average 
American who has the future of this country in his 
iiands. In the first place, he must understand 
what the danger is that confronts us. I think 
most of our citizens do understand that, and I 
think that they are prepared to do all that is 
necessary to meet it. This means acting respon- 
sibly, and acting steadily, and acting with courage. 

For some of us, this means service in the Forces. 
For others of us, it means work on farms, in fac- 
tories, in the Government, in mines. It means not 
merely that we must produce more and more and 
more, but it means that we must not do the things 
which interfere with the efPort of the country. 
We must not buy unnecessary things. We must 
not waste materials, and we must not try to evade 
the regulations which are set up for the security 
of all of us. 

In short, the heart of the whole matter is that 
we must produce more. The prescription which 
we need today is the prescription which Mr. 
Churchill gave to England in 1940 — blood and toil, 
sweat and tears — and may I add, faith — faith in 
our country, faith that the great task before us 
can be done and that it will be done. 



Orientation Course for 
Point 4 Experts Completed 

The first orientation course for Point 4 experts assigned 
to .jobs in the field has just been completed. After 2 
weeks of intensive study in the Foreign Service Institute, 
the first group of experts to undergo this special training 
will now go out to do technical assistance work in Liberia, 
India, Haiti, El Salvador, and other Latin American coun- 
tries under the Point 4 Program. 

The new course is the first to be given in connection 
with the Point 4 Program. It puts primary emphasis on 
the understanding of foreign peoples, their cultures, his- 
tory, customs, and languages. 

The next course is planned for the second week in 
January and Point 4 Administrator Henry G. Bennett 
expects eventuall.y to extend the )>erio(l of orientation for 
all technicians over a 3-6 month ix^riod. The Foreign 
Service Institute has put two experienced anthroinilogists 
in charge of planning and instruction. They are Edward 
A. Kennard and Edward T. Ilall. The American .Vntliro- 
pological Association is preparing a general manual for 
use in the course. 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United Nations Faces Aggression 



hy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative to the United Nations^ 



On June 25, 1950, international communism 
made plain, as the President said 2 days later, 
that . . . 

'it had passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer 
independent nations and will now use armed invasion and 
war. 

The validity of this prediction has received 
striking confirmation by the Chinese Communist 
armed invasion and war against the Republic of 
Korea and the United Nations forces in Korea. 

The United Nations is confronted now with the 
necessity to take decisions which relate generally 
to the role of the United Nations in the strategy 
of peace. I shall attempt to analyze some of the 
factors which I think must be taken into account 
in reaching these decisions. 

The peoples of the United Nations, having 
formed a coalition which developed and executed 
a successful strategy of war, organized the United 
Nations as the primary mechanism for developing 
and executing the strategy of peace. 

Communist Revolt Against Collective Security 

It has, of course, been increasingly obvious dur- 
ing the past 5 years that the Soviet Union, bent 
upon a course of Communist imperialism, would 
persist in its violation of the standards of conduct 
which the United Nations Charter establishes as 
the basic essentials of peace. "Aggression against 
the U. N." is simply one way of describing a revolt 
against the collective security system. Because of 
the refusal of Soviet communism to comply with 
the basic requirements of this system, it has been 
necessary for the free world to take strenuous 
measures for the maintenance of conditions in 
which the collective security system could survive 

' Address made before the American Political Science 
Association at Washington, D.C., on Dec. 29 and released 
to the press on the same date. 

ianuaty 8, 1 95 J 

922309—51 3 



and take root. The Communist leadership, not 
content with violating its obligations under the 
Charter of the United Nations, has even gone so 
far as to attack those measures which the free 
world found it necessary to take in order to pre- 
vent the United Nations from being destroyed by 
these very violations. For example, the North 
Atlantic Treaty, which was made necessary be- 
cause of tlie Soviet subversion of the United Na- 
tions collective security system, is attacked by the 
Soviet Union as being itself a subversion of the 
Charter. The Soviet, therefore, attacks both the 
primary and secondary defenses of the collective 
security system. 

The question is whether the United Nations is 
furthering, or can further, the efforts of the free 
world to develop the strategy of peace. 

The Need for Quick Decisions 

It had seemed that the development of solidarity 
would be a gradual process, brought on by the busi- 
ness of working and planning together in the 
United Nations, by the use of this "center for 
harmonizing the actions of nations." Wliat most 
of us had expected was admirably expressed by 
Assistant Secretary Rusk over a year ago : 

If danger comes, it will be most effectively met not 
on the basis of reluctant decisions made under the shadow 
of tragic events, but on the basis of a common cause and 
an inescapable decision made in the long process of build- 
ing a peace. 

However, we now see that history may well 
record the survival or destruction of the United 
Nations precisely on the basis of its ability or in- 
ability to make "reluctant decisions under the 
shadow of tragic events." 

It is not enough that institutions be built upon 
valid fundamental principles. Institutions sur- 
vive only if they have the capacity to take decisions 
essential to their existence. It was not much more 
than a century ago that intense factional strife 

57 



■within our own country led John Marshall to say, 
after his 30 years as Chief Justice : 

I yield slowly and reluctantly to the conviction that 
our Constitution cannot last. 

It did last, because the society, whose compact 
it is, had the capacity to take necessary decisions. 

Can the U.N. Survive Attacks by a Great Power 

I believe that the fundamental decision which 
faces the free world members of the United Na- 
tions is whether to abandon the collective security 
system in the face of the large-scale rebellion 
against that system. The centrally directed Com- 
munist imperialism is now engaged in what may 
be its decisive effort to bring to its own terms the 
basis upon which the international order will be 
conducted henceforth. It has proclaimed openly 
by force of arms, by overt violence, and by crude 
threat its intention to subvert the international 
system as it has subverted numerous national sys- 
tems in countries now reduced to vassalage. It 
has embarked on a course which, if successful, 
would leave a stunted United Nations, serving as 
a Soviet satellite. 

There are some who say "The U. N. was never 
designed to cope with situations in which great 
powers disagree among themselves." I do not find 
any such limitation inherent in the United Nations 
Charter. It is indeed difficult to contemplate with 
anything but foreboding the chaos into which our 
international society is being plunged by the Com- 
munist revolt against the Charter. But into what 
darker chaos would the free world be staring if 
it abandoned the system of collective security 
which is under assault? What would be the rela- 
tive positions of the large and small nations if that 
should occur ? 



Purpose of Collective Security System 

The answer to this question depends upon a 
practical appreciation of the purposes of a collec- 
tive security system. I referred at the beginning 
of my remarks to the fact that the United Nations 
was established as the primary mechanism for de- 
veloping and executing the strategy of peace. 

Up to this moment of history, there has, of 
course, never been a successful and durable strat- 
egy of peace. The mechanisms of bilateral di- 
plomacy, military coalitions and alliances, regional 
groupings, organizations of states in the form of 
commonwealths, federations or leagues, all have 
succumbed, at one time or another, to attacks by 
aggressors who found themselves with physical 
means to accomplish their aggressive designs. 
The experience of history thus proves that the 
only hope of insuring that force shall not be used 
except in the common interest is through what 
the Charter describes as "the acceptance of the 
Ijrinciples and the institution of methods" of a 



collective security system. Obviously, a collec- 
tive security system does not, in itself, insure 
peace, as the fate of the League of Nations demon- 
strates. The point is that the absence of a col- 
lective security system is, in itself, an invitation 
to aggression and, hence, will make war almost 
inevitable in a world in which there lurk power- 
ful aggressors. 

Deterrent Value of Programs of Strength 

This should be all the more obvious to the 
peoples of the free world because of the fact that 
the United States programs of economic and mili- 
tary assistance are based upon precisely the same 
reasoning. That is to say, that weakness and 
disunity stand as an open temptation to the pred- 
atory to undertake quick and cheap aggressions. 
The program of military assistance was not based 
upon an absurd assumption that Western Europe 
could, within any foreseeable period, establish and 
equip a military force which, man for man or divi- 
sion for division, could match the armed forces 
of international communism. On the contrary, 
the Congress would have disapproved any such 
program not only because it would have been 
inherently impractical but also because it would 
have destroyed the economic base of Western 
Europe. The fundamental justification for the 
Military Assistance Program is that a military 
vacuum in Western Europe would offer to Commu- 
nist aggression an open invitation to win a quick 
and easy victory with a minimum of risk to itself. 

So, also, the North Atlantic Treaty stands as 
a deterrent to aggression in that, by a demonstra- 
tion of unity, it increases the risk to the aggressor 
and, hence, decreases the risk of aggression. As 
the Senate Foreign Relations Conuuittee put it in 
their unanimous report : 

The primary objective of the Treaty is to contribute 
to the uiaintenaiice of peace by malting clear the deter- 
mination of the parties collectively to resist armed attacli 
upon any of them. It is designed to strengthen the sys- 
tem of law based upon the purposes and principles of 
the United Nations. It should go far to remove any un- 
certainty which might mislead potential aggressors as to 
the determination of the parties fully to carry out their 
obligations under the Charter and collectively to resist 
an armed attaclj. 

The manifest determination of the members of 
the United Nations collectively to resist aggression 
and never appease will, if anything can, similarly 
go far to remove any uncertainty which might mis- 
lead potential aggressors into minimizing the risks 
they run. This is a part of the mobilization of the 
resources of the free world. It is the best, if not 
the only, method by which many small countries 
can contribute to the common struggles in which 
their survival as free nations is at stake. 

There is no doubt in my mind that it is for this 
very reason that Comnumist imperialism finds 
the United Nations in its way. This is why we 
now confront the open revolt against the Charter. 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



t 



It is in this light that the free world, particularly 
the smaller countries, should appraise the care- 
fully contrived Communist effort to isolate them 
from the United States. We are scaling the face 
of the cliff together, and, if we allow the rope to 
be cut, it will not necessarily be the largest of the 
group who will be the first to fall into the abyss. 

Identity of U.S. and U.N. Principles 

We ourselves often forget, and it is, therefore, 
all the more natural that even our closest friends 
may fail to remember, the close parallel between 
the principles on which our country was founded 
and the motives which called the United Nations 
into being: peace and security; the dignity and 
worth of the individual and the inviolability of 
his basic rights; equal treatment of all under im- 
partially administered law; opportunity for ad- 
vancement commensurate with ability and enter- 
prise. 

These are principles common to the United 
Nations Charter and to the Constitution of the 
United States. It is against these principles that 
international communism is in open rebellion. 
People often take for granted that, whatever the 
ressures, somehow, these principles will endure, 
oth in practice in the United States and as stand- 
ards for future achievement in the international 
society. In many parts of the world today, poli- 
cies are formulated by governments and accepted 
by people on the basis of a conviction and a faith 
in the essential integrity of the United States. 
Criticism is directed against us not on the ground 
that we despoil or threaten to take away but that 
we do not give enough or do not share our gifts 
equitably. We are assailed not because we are 
feared but because of faults which are common 
to all men and which we ourselves are frequently 
the first to admit. Because we are not feared, we 
are not appeased. Yet, we would neither seek 
nor tolerate appeasement because we prefer to 
have men's respect than to have their fear. 

I believe profoundly that the American way of 
life will survive in the world. But I think it is 
time for all members of the free world to under- 
stand how crucially important it is for them that 
it does survive. This is the essential significance 
of the parallel which I have drawn between the 
principles upon which the United States and the 
United Nations are based. I do not know if one 
can long survive the other, but I believe that the 
free nations cannot survive without both. 

Soviet Efforts To Isolate Free World From U.S. 

I referred a few moments ago to the efforts by 
Communist imperialism to isolate the free world 
from the United States. The clearest example is 
their carefully developed propaganda line regard- 
ing the United Nations action in Korea. 

You will recall that the President said in his 
statement of June 27 : 

January 8, 1 95 1 



I know that all memberf? of the United Nationig will con- 
sider carefully the conseiiueiices of this latest atiKression 
in Korea in defiance of the Charter of the United Nations. 
A return to the rule of force in international affairs would 
have far-reaching effects. The United Stales will continue 
to uphold the rule of law. 

The United Nations did consider the conse- 
quences and had the capacity to make a bold and 
quick decision. It was thus that the world was 
confronted with no Munich in Korea, and it was 
only thus that the United Nations survived. 

In the face of this decision to uphold the rule 
of law against the rule of force, the Soviet propa- 
ganda machine in Asia at once began to portray 
the action in Korea as an "American interven- 
tion." This, of course, was intended to arouse the 
latent xenophobia of the Asians as well as the 
hatreds engendered by long periods of imperial 
exploitation, including that of the Russians. For 
American consumption, however, communism has 
stressed the relatively slight contribution made by 
other United Nations members so as to discourage 
American support of the United Nations effort. 
For European consumption, the Communist line 
has been that the United States efforts in Korea 
have detracted from the United States programs 
of assistance; in the Middle East and Latin Amer- 
ica, Communist propaganda has sought to arouse 
hatred of the United States because we did not 
have assistance programs of comparable scope to 
those maintained in Europe. 

These inherently contradictory lines have one 
common objective: the destruction of the collec- 
tive security system. 

Attempt To Isolate Free World From U.S. 

Perhaps, the most revealing effort in this direc- 
tion is the persistent line taken both by Moscow 
and Peiping that the Chinese Communists are 
"suspicious of American intentions in Korea." The 
pattern of the operation is simple. 

For months, the people of China have been con- 
tinuously exposed by their masters to the lie that 
the Americans are intervening in Korea, that we 
launched an attack on June 25, that we wished 
to establish bases in Korea, and that we plan ag- 
gression in China. During this same period, with 
the barbarity of method common to all police 
states, no other point of view has been permitted 
expression. The same Communist propaganda or- 
gans have worked throughout Asia, the Middle 
East, and other sensitive and troubled areas, build- 
ing up the same false picture ; that is, an alleged 
fear on the part of the Chinese people against 
American aggressive intentions. 

Part of the pattern is to accompany this fabric 
of lies by a pretense that the intentions of no one 
else but the Americans are suspect. This device 
helps to entrap the unwary or the wishful into be- 
lieving that, however vicious the methods of the 
aggressor, his motives might not be wholly evil. 

59 



Efforts of Cease-Fire Group 

A group of 13 Asian and Middle Eastern coun- 
tries sponsored a resolution which the General 
Assembly adopted on December 14, 1950, with only 
the Russian bloc voting against it. This resolu- 
tion set up a group of three persons to examine 
the possibility of arranging a cease-fire. The 
carefully coordinated Moscow-Peiping line did 
not rest itself upon a mere rejection of this obvi- 
ously fair and honest procedure. Instead, the 
Soviet representative to the United Nations and 
later Mr. Chou En-Lai took the line that these 13 
nations, while themselves desiring peace, . . . 

had failed to see through the whole intrigue of the United 
States Government. 

Mr. Chou En-Lai, therefore, called upon the group 
of 13 states to "free themselves from U.S. pres- 
sure," to abandon the cease-fire group of three, 
and to give up the idea of cease-fire first and nego- 
tiations afterwards. 

The technique employed here is precisely the 
same as that adopted in the face of reports filed by 
the United Nations Commission on Korea setting 
forth the facts of the North Korean aggression on 
June 25. Tlie Soviet representative to the United 
Nations repeatedly dismissed the reports of the 
United Nations Commission as mere products of 
American domination and intrigue despite the fact 
that the reports were signed by the 7 members of 
the Commission, all of whom were representing 
their governments in the performance of tasks as- 
signed by the United Nations General Assembly. 

Assurances of Free World Willingness To Negotiate 

We shall probably be hearing that the so-called 
suspicions of American intentions may be based, 
to some extent, on alleged uncertainty concerning 
our willingness to negotiate issues of concern to 
the Chinese Communists. We have made it clear, 
repeatedly and officially, that we shall do every- 
thing that we can, through whatever channels are 
open to us, to seek a peaceful solution of existing 
issues. This was most recently stated in the com- 
munique issued by President Truman and Prime 
Minister Attlee on December 8.^ 

In order to avoid any possible misunderstand- 
ing, the cease-fire group established by the Gen- 
eral Assembly sent a message to Peiping express- 
ing the clear underetanding on their part, as well 
as on the part of the 12 Asian sponsors, that once 
a cease-fire arrangement had been achieved, ne- 
gotiations regarding existing issues would be pro- 
ceeded with at once and that the Peiping regime 
would be included in such negotiations. This 
message was not even referred to in the statement 
made by the Peiping regime on December 22 re- 
jecting the whole effort of the cease-fire gi'oup. 

' BuiiETiN of Dec. 18, 1950, p. 959. 



Request to Peiping Not To Cross 38th Parallel 

Mr. Chou En-Lai remained just as silent on this 
point as he has remained concerning the declara- 
tion adopted on December 5 by 13 Asian and 
Middle Eastern countries calling upon the Chinese 
Communists to refrain from crossing the 38th 
parallel. He has, perhaps, answered the latter 
appeal by implication. His statement of Decem- 
ber 22, again using the familiar tactic of isolating 
the United Nations from tlie United States, refers 
to the "obliteration" of the 38th parallel — 

When tlie invading troops of the United States arrogantly 
crossed the 38th ijarallel at the beginning of the month 
of October. 

I have summarized at this length the line fol- 
lowed by Moscow and Peiping in the Korean 
question because international communism has 
quite obviously perceived an acute need to iso- 
late the free world from the United States in 
the Korean case, representing as it does the high- 
water mark up of the revolt against the collective 
security system. 

I do not think this attempt to corrupt the moral 
unity of the free world will succeed. There is 
little danger that the members of the fi'ee world 
will forget the importance of the action boldly 
taken and loudly cheered on June 25. The mili- 
tary set-back which has ensued from the massive 
Chinese aggression does not in any way detract 
from the morality and fundamental wisdom of the 
action taken by the United Nations on June 25. 
This action was essential in order to preserve the 
collective security system, which would otherwise 
have fallen apart into fragments. 



Collective Security or Chaos 

The determination to resist aggression, shown 
on June 25, made it necessary for Communist 
imperialism to take a much graver risk in order 
to pursue its aggressive designs. The risk does 
not only involve the mobilization of a huge war 
effort, with a consequent diminution of the public 
services so badly needed by the Chinese people, it 
also involves a risk of consequences, the gravity 
of which is still incalculable. These risks to the 
aggressors will grow — not diminish — if the col- 
lective security system maintains itself intact, pre- 
serves its moral position, and strengthens itself 
with all the measures of self-sacrifice that may be 
I'equired. The United Nations must, of course, 
prudently calculate the tactics of time, place, and 
method in its pursuit of the strategy of peace. 
But it will become clearer, as adversity increases, 
that, although a collective security system will not 
insure peace, the disappearance of the collective 
secui'ity system would be a certain invitation to 
disaster far exceeding even the great threat which 
now hangs over civilization. 



60 



Department of State Bulletin 



Review of Relations 

With Near East, South Asia, and Africa 

Statement by George G. McGhee 

Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian 

and African Affairs '■ 

Normally, we Americans, as the year draws to 
a close, like to look back over what has happened, 
to recall with pleasure the brighter days, and per- 
haps to push buck in our memory the darker ones. 
But, as this year comes to an end. no thinking per- 
son can dismiss from his mind the gravity of the 
events that have cast their shadow on the lives of 
people all over the world. No thinking person 
can look into the future with complete confidence. 
We can, however, look back over the recent past 
and select those factors on which we can build 
constructively in the days to come. 

When we review the cumulative developments 
of the past year in the countries of the Near East, 
South Asia, and Africa — I believe we find some 
indications which offer encouragement for the 
future. These are three : 

progress in the strengthening of our relations with these 
countries ; 

progress toward their own political and economic devel- 
opment ; 

progress toward a more realistic understanding of the 
true nature of the danger that confronts the free world. 

Relations With Other Countries 

First, our relations with these countries — both 
our diplomatic relations and our less formal con- 
tacts — have grown stronger and more friendly. 
In the past, there has, unfortunately, been sus- 
picion on the part of some peoples of the world 
of the United States and its motives. There have 
been charges of American imperialism, charges 
of discrimination against certain peoples and of 
partiality for one state at the expense of another. 

The year is closing, I am confident, with a deeper 
measure of understanding of our objectives. I feel 
sure that we, in turn, have come to a better appre- 
ciation of the aspirations of other peoples. This 
growth of mutual understanding has been greatly 
increased by numerous visits of high government 
officials. It has been strengthened by the many 
visits of teachers and students, of technicians, 
journalists, and professional people. We attach 
high value to this interchange, not only because 
it furthers the flow of knowledge in both direc- 
tions but also because of the personal friendships 
which are made. It is through such channels that 
we have been able to make ourselves known to the 
peoples of the Near East, South Asia, and Africa. 
It is through such channels that we have both come 



' Broadcast over the Voice of America on Dec. 28 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



to realize that our basic aims are identical — that 
we both desire to improve our way of life and to 
live in peace, with security against subversion or 
aggression. The strengthening of our relations 
through recognition of the mutuality of our in- 
terests is an important foundation on which we 
are building. 

Economic Progress of Other Countries 

A second element which we welcome is the 
progress which the Near East, South Asia, and 
African peoples have made in economic and politi- 
cal betterment. Tliese countries are demonstrat- 
ing a growing determination to apply the principle 
of self-help in achieving their own development. 
It has been gratifying to us that we have been 
able to extend assistance in several ways — through 
economic assistance under the EGA ; through sup- 
port of applications for International Bank loans; 
and through loans from our own Export-Import 
Bank. Programs of technical assistance are now 
underway in many countries. Technical assist- 
ance agreements have been concluded with Li- 
beria, Iran, Ceylon, and India, and negotiation of 
several other such agreements is well-advanced. 
All of these programs, which are being under- 
taken on the initiative of these countries will im- 
prove the well-being of their peoples. 

We have also seen progress in political devel- 
opment. To choose at random, we have seen it 
in the democratic elections in Egypt and Turkey ; 
in the progress toward creation of a new inde- 
pendent state in Libya; in the growth of consti- 
tutional government in Jordan. We have seen it 
generally in the remarkable growth of political 
institutions in the new states of the area — India, 
Pakistan, Ceylon, and Israel — and in the resolute 
way in which these states have assumed full re- 
sponsibility for the conduct of their domestic and 
international affairs. This progress toward de- 
velopment of freedom and strength is a second 
constructive trend on which to build. 

Restoring Peace Through the U.N. 

Finally, the countries of the Near East, South 
Asia, and Africa have demonstrated their desire 
to work for the restoration and maintenance of 
peace through the United Nations. While there 
have been some divergencies as to methods of 
solving the difficult international problems which 
confront the world, these nations have been 
united — with us and with the free world as a 
whole — in common agreement on objectives. 

We are confident that our friends will increas- 
ingly direct their attention to the main problem 
which confronts them, even as it confronts us. 
We are confident that they will put aside the rela- 
tively minor differences between themselves, all of 
which are capable of solution through the exer- 
cise of restraint and wisdom, — so that they will be 



January 8, 1 95 1 



61 



able to meet the paramount problem we all face — 
the problem of assuring our continued survival as 
free nations. Out of this new awareness, this 
growing appreciation of the one great danger 
which confronts the world, the danger of Soviet 
imperialism, is developing a new hope for closer 
collaboration. We seek, at the same time, the cre- 
ation of an international climate in which all peo- 
ples can play their part and can realize, to the 
maximum extent possible, their individual and 
national aspirations. 

The growth of mutual understanding, the eco- 
nomic and political progress of free peoples, and 
a realistic appreciation of the nature of the danger 
which we are facing together — on these we can 
build, indeed we must build, for our common sur- 
vival in the years ahead. 

The OAS — Expression of 
Hemisphere Law and Order 

Statement hy Edward G. Miller 

Assistant Secretary for Inter- American Afairs * 

We have reached the midpoint of the twentieth 
century. We are about to embark on the second 
stretch, leading to the year 2000. Probably, in all 
the 1,950 years of the Christian era, there has 
never before been a month in which the world — 
as nations and as individuals — was as fully aware 
as we are, here and now, of the extent to which our 
personal lives are affected by the stress and ten- 
sion of international conflict. Undoubtedly, there 
has, never before, been such determination on the 
part of so many nations to stand together and work 
together in withstanding that stress. The exist- 
ence of the United Nations is positive proof. 
Within the United Nations, a cornerstone of the 
whole, the Organization of American States 
(Oas), four-square and staunch, represents West- 
ern Hemisphere solidarity in a shaken world. 

Solidarity of Western Hemisphere 

In all sincerity, I believe that our 21 Republics 
afford an example that should inspire and hearten 
other regions of the earth. The Americas have 
proved that countries can discuss their common 
problems at a common council table and find pa- 
cific solutions on a basis of perfect equality and 
complete respect. I am convinced that our hemi- 
sphere New World pattern affords a pattern for 
a global New World. 

In a world shaken by conflict, there is, in the 
Americas, peace among nations. Disagreements 
and misunderstandings occur from time to time, 
but there is wise provision for dealing with them. 
A most important advance in hemisphere solidar- 

' Broadcast over the Voice of America on Dec. 28 and 
released to the press on the same da,te. 



ity was achieved when the Inter-American Treaty 
of Reciprocal Assistance was signed 3 years ago at 
Rio de Janeiro. This treaty is a pact for the 
common defense of the American nations, stand- 
ing together, an impenetrable bulwark of collec- 
tive freedom. According to it, each is outpost 
and guardian for itself and its sister states. It is 
our mutual pledge to cooperate in maintaining 
regional order and in repelling aggression. The 
workability of this Rio treaty was reemphasized 
this year when it was applied to dissensions in the 
Caribbean area and led to their peaceful solu- 
tion. 

In January of the present year, the United 
States inaugurated periodical conferences of its 
diplomatic representatives to the other American 
Republics. These meetings reaffirm the interest 
of our Government in the inter-American system 
and in the Organization of American States as 
the highest expression of hemisphere law and 
order. 

The present year has been marked also by im- 
portant developments respecting treaties through 
which our country helps build solidarity. These 
include approval by the Senate of the charter of 
the Organization of American States. This char- 
ter, which supplies the structural pattern of the 
inter- American system, was signed in tlie form of 
an inter-American treaty at the Ninth Confer- 
ence of American States. Other important treaty 
enactments of our own Government during the 
past year include the Treaty of Friendship, Com- 
merce and Economic Development with Uruguay 
and the Cultural Convention with Brazil. 

Early in 1950, the Inter-American Economic 
and Social Council, at an extraordinary session at 
Washington, agreed to set up a special board and 
budget to handle technical cooperation among our 
21 Republics. This involves basic research on 
such problems as poinilation, material resources, 
agriculture, fuel and power, labor, mining, fiscal 
policy, and transportation. It means that the 
American Republics will engage in joint endeavor 
to solve these problems. 

In the wider field of world policy, the American 
Republics asserted both their own solidarity and 
their support of the United Nations by their swift, 
unanimous resolution in condemnation of aggres- 
sion against the Republic of Korea and by their 
tenacious defense of the United Nations' positions 
with respect to that aggression. 

Our own Government has recently suggested 
to the other nations of this hemisphere that a 
meeting of consultation of Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs be held in the near future. In so doing, 
we are seeking means to give expression to what 
is, I am sure, the common determination of our 
21 countries to hold fast to that freedom and 
democracy upon which all the American Republics 
are founded and which, please God, individually 
and collectively, we shall continue to cherish and 
defend. 



62 



Oeparfmenf of Sfofe ^uWeWn 



American Efforts 

To Meet Threats of Aggression 

Statement hy George W. Perkins 
Assistant Secretary for European Affairs ^ 

Last week, a report from Moscow said that the 
people of the United States were increasing their 
demands for peace. For once, the Kremlin was 
speaking the truth. 

Of course, I fully realize that the Communist 
leaders had a very special reason for making such 
a statement. They wanted to alarm the people 
of free Europe. They wanted to plant fear in 
the minds of Europeans by implying that America 
would soon return to isolationism. 

They wanted to give the impression that Amer- 
ica would not stand together with other nations 
for their common defense against aggression. 
This is a standard Soviet propaganda trick. They 
want to break down the unity of the people of 
the free world. 

But let us return to the statement from Moscow 
about Americans increasing their demands for 
peace. That is quite true. And the easiest way 
to prove it is to look at the actions the Americans 
have taken for peace. 

In 1945, the United States had a military force 
of moi'e than 12 million men and women. The 
war hud ended, and our military forces were 
brought back home and demobilized. 

Did the Kremlin leaders demobilize? No, they 
did not. They kept large forces under arms to 
permit them to make satellites of several neighbor- 
ing countries and fasten their control on many 
millions of people. 

steps To Prevent Aggression 

Their actions threatened world peace once more. 
This was contrary to the deepest longings of all 
the peoples of the world — particularly the people 
of the Soviet Union, who know so well the hori-ors 
of war. Nevertheless, the Kremlin took the road 
that leads to aggression. So, the American people, 
anxious to prevent war, took steps to prevent this 
threat by working with others who felt as they 
did. 

First, the American people sent aid to Greece 
and Turkey when it became obvious that Moscow 
wanted to add those two countries to its growing 
collection of satellites. 

Next, the American people approved the Mar- 
shall Plan of aid to Europe. In fact, the Ameri- 
can people were so anxious to help recreate a peace- 
ful world that they also offered Marshall Flan aid 
to the Russian people and the people of Eastern 
Europe. But the Kremlin refused, and ordered 

' Broadcast over the Voice of America on Dec. 26 and 
released to the press on Dec. 28. 



its satellites to do the same thing. The Commu- 
nist followers of the Kremlin in France, Italy, 
and elsewhere have been trying to sabotage all 
efforts to reconstruct a peaceful world ever since. 

To meet the continuing Soviet threat of aggres- 
sion, the people of America then concluded that 
they must join with other countries to preserve 
peace. So, they approved a plan to coordinate 
and combine the defense efforts of the North At- 
lantic countries to preserve peace. 

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(Nato) has become a reality. The American peo- 
ple have agreed for the first time in history to 
participate with other free European nations in 
collective defense. In accordance with the United 
Nations Charter, 12 free nations have started to 
combine their national defense efforts. Their sole 
objective is to preserve peace by showing a firm 
determination to resist armed attack. The char- 
acter of the Nato is defensive. Its goal is peace. 

At the start of these preparations, this past 
year, an attack was launched against the Republic 
of Korea. We all know what happened there on 
last June 25. We all know how swiftly the United 
Nations responded to this act of aggression. We 
all know that, when the United Nations asked the 
Kremlin to intervene in North Korea on behalf of 
peace, the Kremlin said, "No." We all know that, 
when the United Nations tried to negotiate with 
the Communists on the Korea incident, the Com- 
munists refused. We all know that, every time 
the United Nations has taken a vote for peace, 
the Soviet bloc has voted against. 

When Communist aggression became even more 
flagrant and more formidable in Korea, the Amer- 
ican people immediately approved a new and 
much bigger program to enable them to do more 
to defend the peace of the free world. Much 
equipment has already been sent to free Europe. 
The volume of such deliveries will be much big- 
ger during the coming year. 

Last week at Brussels, the Atlantic Pact na- 
tions decided to unite their defense forces under a 
single commander — General Eisenhower. For the 
first time in history, free nations of the world are 
organizing a combined defense force under a com- 
mon commander in chief before an attack instead 
of after. We all believe that such advance prep- 
arations will serve as a warning to any potential 
aggressor. We know for certain that without 
any such defense preparations the aggressor would 
feel free to start war by attack and that he would 
do so, sooner or later. The American people have 
agi-eed, as I mentioned a few moments ago, to 
increase their own efforts and to have larger forces 
and to produce more material for defense and mu- 
tual aid. The other member nations are also 
increasing their efforts to defend the peace. 

Let me say once again. The people of the 
world want peace. The people behind the iron 
curtain, who are now cut off from the free world 
by their rulers, share with us the dread of war. 



January 8, I95I 



63 



This is Christmas time. It is the time when the 
people of America, together with the other people 
of the free world, are united in prayers for peace. 
I want to tell you that at this time, as always, the 
American people are striving to maintain peace 
throughout the world. They are willing to do 
much themselves, and they are willing to work 
together with others who would join with them to 
bring the rule of peace and good will to this earth. 



Our Contributions to the Peace 

Statement hy Dean Rttsk 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^ 

As 1950 draws to a close, the American people 
have a right to be proud of a policy which, during 
the five postwar years, has concerned itself with 
f,he building of the peace, the advance of human 
liberty, and the raising of the standards of living 
of men and women in every quarter of the globe. 

We have attempted by every possible means 
to make our contribution to the peace. We have 
made concessions up to the limits of conscience in 
an effort to reach workable agreements. 

Our foreign policy has been reflected in our 
willingness to submit atomic weapons to inter- 
national control, in feeding and clothing those 
stricken by the war, in supporting free elections 
and government by consent, in building factories 
and dams, power plants and railways, schools and 
hospitals, in improving seed and stock and fertil- 
izer, in stimulating markets, and improving the 
skills and techniques of others in a hundred differ- 
ent ways. 

Let these things stand in contrast to a foreign 
policy directed toward the extension of tyranny 
and using the big lie, sabotage, suspicion, riot, and 
assassination as its tools. 

The great strength of the United States is de- 
voted to the peaceful pursuits of our own people 
and to the decent opinions of mankind. But it is 
not healthy for any regime or group of regimes 
to incur, by their lawless and aggressive conduct, 
the implacable opposition of the American people. 

The lawbreaker, unfortunately, in the nature 
of things, always has the initiative, but the peace- 
loving peoples of the world can and will make 
themselves strong enough to insist upon peace. 

Collective Security in the Far East 

In the situation facing us at the year's end, our 
position, in the final analysis, rests upon the fact 
that, if the Chinese Communist regime desires 



' Broadcast over the Voice of America on Dec. 29 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



peace with the rest of the world and is primarily 
concerned with the welfare of China and not with 
the advancement of Bolshevik interests or the 
extension of control over neighboring countries, 
then, specific problems at issue will fall naturally 
into perspective and can be solved by peaceful 
means. But, if this is not the desire of the Chinese 
Communists, if in fact they are dedicated to the 
overthrow of the national governments of the 
other Asian states and the destruction of the free 
world along orthodox Bolshevik lines, then, at- 
tempts to solve specific issues will prove futile. 

From the time the Chinese Communists moved 
from subversion to the open conquest of China, 
they used every opportunity to single out Ameri- 
cans and American interests as special objects of 
their animosity. By outrageous treatment of our 
representatives in disregard of all civilized stand- 
ards, by encouragement of extortionate demands 
and riotous action on the part of local employees 
of our consular offices, by arbitrary and illegal 
seizure of United States official property, the 
Chinese Communists made plain that they were de- 
termined to drive us from their midst. 

The reasons are simple. We believe in the 
political integrity of China. The^ seem willing 
to dismember China to suit the Kremlin's inter- 
ests. We believe in freedom. They have brought 
tyranny. And the seeds of freedom in their midst 
were more than they could tolerate. 

We have a long record of sympathy for China 
and have demonstrated our belief that genuine 
Chinese and American interests are the same, that 
we have no desire to seek a voice in the internal 
affairs of China, that we intend to observe scru- 
pulously the political independence and territorial 
integrity of China. 

The plain fact is that, given Chinese Commu- 
nist intentions as now revealed, the danger of the 
present serious situation could have been avoided 
only by submission to aggression, but that would 
produce even greater dangers to the rest of the 
world. It could not have been avoided by any 
action on the part of the United Nations or the 
United States short of acquiescence in the elimina- 
tion of the Republic of Korea. That would have 
destroyed, finally, the principle of collective secu- 
rity and would have left the United Nations mori- 
bund. 

The Chinese Communists took part in the prep- 
arations for the treacherous North Korean assault 
long before it was actually launched. A large 
portion of the North Korean forces that drove 
across the 38th parallel last June had come from 
China. Many had been transferred to Korea dur- 
ing the preceding year, some just a few weeks be- 
fore. More followed. And we also now know 
that considerable Soviet military equipment for 
the North Korean forces was shipped through 
Manchuria, with the heaviest shipments, includ- 
ing aircraft, taking place in April and May of 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



this year prior to the aggression. The bulk of the 
Chinese Communist forces which intervened in 
Korea in October were units of tlie Comnuniists' 
Fourth Field Army which previously had been 
stationed in South China but which started mov- 
ing North to the Korean border befoi-e the out- 
break of hostilities. There can be no doubt now 
but that the Chinese Communists, from the vei-y 
start, had every intention of intervening actively 
should North Korean forces fail in their mission 
to .seize all of Korea. 

As President Truman said after his conferences 
with Prime Minister Attlee of (ireat Britain, we 
have no intention of getting out of Korea. We 
put our forces in Korea in support of the United 
Nations Security Council resolutions. Their mis- 
sion has not changed. We will not get out vol- 
untarily. 

We have no territorial ambitions of our own. 
We seek no special position or privilege in the 
Far East or elsewhere in the world. 

We believe that surrender to Chinese Communist 
terrorization would speedily be followed by fur- 
ther Chinese Communist encroachment, directly 
or indirectly, on the other nations on its borders. 

The tendency to excuse the conduct of Peiping 
reflects the success of Communist propaganda in 
playing upon the hopes of peaceful men. It's an 
old technique — but one which fails because the ac- 
tion of the aggressor is more convincing than his 
lies. For it is now unmistakable to anyone that, 
while the acts staged by Peiping are Chinese, the 
puppet master is Soviet. 

If there was ever any doubt that the Communist 
imperialists were prepared to use armed force to 
secui-e their ends, there is no reason for doubt any 
more. If there was ever any doubt that Commu- 
nist talk of peace was a mask for their aggi'essive 
plans, that doubt was banished when the Chinese 
Communists, faithfully echoing the voice of their 
masters, rejected the peace appeal of the 13 Asian 
and Arab nations with outspoken contempt. 

So, the year ends without peace, but not without 
hope that peace can yet be achieved by free men 
joining their strength together as a bulwark 
against the threat which faces them. 

One thing is sure. For the first time in history, 
the world of free nations — 54 free nations— has 
acted together for the common defense. Collective 
security is no mere dream. It is a practical neces- 
sity for every man and woman in the world. The 
brotherhood of man that knows no race has been 
given visible meaning in the year that is ending. 

The free peoples of the world, standing shoul- 
der to shoulder in the trying days that are ahead 
of us, need only recall that the pages of history 
are littered with the wreckage of empires that 
sought to rule the world. Let this thought give 
them courage and sustain them in the belief that 
their glorious goal of preserving freedom for 
themselves and for mankind is not an impossible 
one. 



Answer to Soviet Questions 

on Principles for Japanese Treaty 

[Released to the press December 28] 

The JoUoxmng aide-memoire, dated December 27, was 
delivered to J. A. Malik, Soviet representative to the 
United Nations, at New York. 

On November 20 of this year, Mr. Malik pre- 
sented to Mr. Dulles an aide-memoire expressing 
the desire of the Soviet Government for clarifica- 
tion of a number of points in a tentative United 
States statement of principles respecting a Japa- 
nese peace treaty given Mr. Malik by Mr. Dulles 
on October 26.' After careful study of the Soviet 
aide-memoire of November 20, the United States 
Government has concluded that most of the ques- 
tions raised by the Soviet Government have, in 
fact, been answered by the statement of principles 
given to Mr. Malik on October 26. However, in 
order to dispel any possible misunderstanding, 
the points raised by the Soviet Government are 
further discussed as follows: 

1. The United States Government hopes that 
all nations at war with Japan will participate in 
the conclusion of peace. The United States does 
not, however, concede that any one nation has a 
perpetual power to veto the conclusion by others 
of peace with Japan. The wartime declaration of 
January 1, 1942, referred to by the Soviet Union, 
was designed to assure that all nations at war with 
Japan, or with the other Axis powers or their as- 
sociates, would continue to fight until victory had 
been won. That they did. The United States 
does not accept the thesis, often put forward by 
the Soviet Union, that there cannot be peace ex- 
cept on terms that one power dictates. Japan, 
after its defeat, has now for over five years loyally 
complied with the agreed terms of surrender ancl 
is entitled to peace. The United States should be 
glad to know whether it is the view of the Soviet 
Union that there can never be any peace with 
Japan unless terms can be found which are fully 
satisfactory to each one of the 47 nations which 
signed or adhered to the Declaration of Janu- 
ary 1, 1942. 

2. The Cairo Declaration of 194.3 stated the pur- 
pose to restore "Manchuria, Formosa and the Pes- 
cadores to the Republic of China". That 
Declaration, like other wartime declarations such 
as those of Yalta and Potsdam, was in the opinion 
of the United States Government subject to any 
final peace settlement where all relevant factors 
should be considered. The United States cannot 
accept the view, apparently put forward by the 
Soviet Government, that the views of other Allies 
not represented at Cairo must be wholly ignored. 
Also, the United States believes that declarations 
such as that issued at Cairo must necessarily be 
considered in the light of the United Nations 



^ Bulletin of Dec. 4, 1950, p. 881. 



January 8, J 95 J 



65 



Charter, the obligations of whidi prevail oTer any 
other international agreement. 

3. The United States Government does not un- 
derstand the reference by the Soviet Union to "ter- 
ritorial expansion" in connection with the sug- 
gestion that the Ryukyu and Bonin Islands might 
be placed under the United Nations trusteeship 
system, with the United States as administermg 
authority. Article 77 of the United Nations Char- 
ter expressly contemplated the extension of the 
trusteeship system to "territories which may be 
detached from enemy states as a result of the Sec- 
ond World War" and certainly the trusteeship 
system is not to be equated with "territorial ex- 
pansion." 

The Government of the United States also does 
not understand the suggestion of the Soviet Union 
that, because the Eyukyu and Bonin Islands are 
not mentioned in either the Cairo Declaration or 
the Potsdam Agreement, their consideration in the 
peace settlement is automatically excluded. The 
Government of the Soviet Union seems to have 
ignored the fact that the Potsdam Declaration 
provided that Japanese sovereignty should be 
limited to the four main islands, which were 
named, and "such minor islands as we determine." 
It is, therefore, strictly in accordance with the 
Potsdam Agreement that the peace settlement 
should determine the future status of these other 
islands. 

4. It is the view of the United States Govern- 
ment that, upon conclusion of a peace settlement, 
the military occupation of Japan would cease. 
The fact that a "new order of peace, security and 
justice," as envisaged in the Potsdam Declaration, 
has not been established, and that irresponsible 
militarism has not been driven from the world, 
would at the same time make it reasonable for 
Japan to participate with the United States and 
other nations in arrangements for individual and 
collective self-defense, such as are envisaged by 
the United Nations Charter and particularly Ar- 
ticle 51 thereof. These arrangements could in- 
clude provision for the stationing in Japan of 
troops of the United States and other nations. 

The United States does not propose for Japan 
a peace settlement which will deny to Japan what 
Prime Minister Stalin has described (March 10, 
1939) as "the policy of collective security, the 
policy of collective resistance to the aggressors." 

5. Referring to a policy decision of the Far 
Eastern Commission, which decisions have been 
commonly considered to be legally operative only 
for the period of the occupation except as the sub- 
stance of particular provisions may be embodied 
in the peace settlement, the Soviet Government 
raises two questions relating to the security of 
Japan after the conclusion of a peace treaty. 

Both questions are answered by paragraph 4 
of the statement of principles handed to Mr. Malik 
on October 26 and by the comment thereon ex- 
pressed above. 



66 



6. The United States considers that the Japa- 
nese peace treaty should not limit the Japanese 
peacetime economy nor deny Japan access to 
sources of raw material or participation in world 
trade. The United States, without awaiting the 
formal conclusion of peace, has made very large 
financial grants to Japan to enable it to acquire 
food and raw materials needed for its economic 
livelihood and has encouraged the establishment 
by Japan of trade promotion offices in many parts 
of the world in an eflFort to help Japan to develop 
a prosperous peacetime economy and steadily ad- 
vance the living standards of the Japanese people. 

7. The present conversations are being con- 
ducted by the United States through diplomatic 
channels and, as the Soviet Union well knows, the 
Government of the United States has no diplo- 
matic relations with the so-called "Government of 
the Chinese People's Republic". 

It is the earnest hope of the United States that 
the close attention which the Government of the 
Soviet Union has given to the peace proposals of 
the United States in relation to Japan signifies the 
desire and intention of the Soviet Union not only 
to enter into discussions of a peace treaty for 
Japan but to act in cooperation with other nations 
at war with Japan to make peace a reality. 



Proposed Agenda for Meeting 
of American Foreign Ministers 

[Released to the press Deeemlier 29] 

At a meeting this afternoon of the Special Pre- 
paratory Committee, appointed by the Council of 
the Organization of American States to recom- 
mend the date, agenda, and regulations of the 
forthcoming consultative meeting of American 
Foreign Ministers, the representative of the 
United States, John C. Dreier, proposed that the 
agenda of this meeting include the following 
topics : 

I. Political and Military Cooperation for the Defense of 
the Americas in Support of the Efforts of the Free World 
to Prevent and Repel Aggression. 

II. Cooperation to Strengthen the Internal Security of 
the American Republics. 

III. Emergency Economic Cooperation. 

A. Production and Distribution for Defense Purposes. . 

B. Basic Requirements of Civilian Economies for Prod- 
ucts in Short Supply. 

The United States representative also suggested 
that the meeting of consultation take place in mid- 
March. 

In accordance with the decision of the Council 
of the Organization of American States on De- 
cember 20, the Committee will make recommenda- 
tions to the Council concerning the date, agenda, 
and regulations. Wiien approved by the Council, 
these recommendations will be sent to the Gov- 
ernments of the 21 Anu'iican Republics. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Point 4 Agreement With India 

[Released to the press December 28] 

India, today, concluded a Point 4 agreement with 
the United States.^ Technical Cooperation Ad- 
ministrator Henry G. Bennett announced the 
signing at Delhi of a general Point 4 agreement 
by United States Ambassador Loy Henderson and 
Sir Girja Sliankar Bajpai, Secretary General of 
the Indian Ministry of External Affairs. 

"The new Point 4 agreement with India,"~said 
Dr. Bennett, "creates a magnificent opportunity 
for two great nations to work together for their 
mutual progress and well-being." 

"The Point 4 method of technical cooperation," 
said Dr. Bennett, "is the best, the most realistic, 
and the most practical way of bringing our two 
peoples closer together in growing understanding 
and respect. We are working with the Govern- 
ment of India to get a concrete, well-rounded pro- 
gram underway as quickly as possible." 

The general or "umbrella" agreement signed to- 
day provides the framework into which agree- 
ments for specific technical cooperation projects 
will fit. It is similar in content to the agreement 
recently concluded with the Government of Cey- 
lon.^ It sets forth the general conditions of co- 
operation, including both the provision of the 
services of American experts and the technological 
training of Indian nationals. 

The signing of the general agreement paves the 
way for expansion of the Point 4 Progi-am in South 
Asia. The Government of India is submitting to 
the United States Government a comprehensive 
proposal for Point 4 projects in the fields of agri- 
culture, river valley development, and transporta- 
tion, which will be jointly considered and agreed 
upon by the two Governments. In connection with 
these projects, it is expected that more than 150 
leading Indian experts and technicians will come 
to the United States during the next 2 years for 
consultation and advanced study. 

Since the Point 4 Program was authorized by 
Congress last June, five specific projects for India 
have been approved. Administrator Bennett has 
tentatively allocated 1.2 million dollars of Point 4 
funds for these and other projects which may be 
approved in the current fiscal year. 

Three of the five approved projects are already 
underway. Two are agricultural projects; the 
third is in the field of child welfare. 

One of the agricultural projects, concentrating 
on food supply, is headed by Horace Holmes of 

^ For text of the agreement, see Department of State 
press release 1261 of Dec. 28. 
' Bulletin of Dec. 18, 1950, p. 975. 



North Carolina, who recently returned to India 
after serving for 2 years as adviser to the Indian 
Government. On that assignment, Mr. Holmes 
worked with the farmers in a lUO square mile area 
around Mahewa, United Provinces, demonstrating 
the use of improved seed, crop rotation, and simple 
farm machinery. As a result of this program, 
the wheat yield of the area was increased G3 per- 
cent, and the potato crop was more than doubled. 
These achievements have awakened the interest 
and cooperation of farmers for hundreds of miles 
around. Mr. Holmes also cooperated with the 
Government of India on adult education and vil- 
lage improvement programs in the United Prov- 
inces. He returned at the express request of the 
Government to continue his work under the Point 
4 Program. 

In addition to Mr. Holmes, two agricultural 
specialists are at New Delhi as consultants to the 
Indian Minister of Agriculture. Earle K. Rambo, 
well-known for his work as University of Arkan- 
sas Extension Agricultural Engineer, is cooperat- 
ing with the Indian Government's program to 
bring greater mechanization into its agriculture. 

Ford M. Milam, an agi-onomist with recent 
agricultural experience in El Salvador and Korea, 
IS working with the Indian Government on agri- 
cultural research problems. 

An American child health and welfare expert, 
Miss Deborah Pentz of San Francisco, was as- 
signed last July to the University of New Delhi. 
Miss Pentz is working with the University in set- 
ting up a basic course in child welfare education. 

The two other projects, approved but not yet in 
operation, call for the sending of three United 
States geologists to India. 

One of them is George C. Taylor, Jr., distin- 
guished ground water specialist of the United 
States Interior Department's Geological Survey. 
Dr. Taylor was in India last May on a short recon- 
naissance survey, and will return there early in 
19,51. 

Dr. Taylor has made geological investigations 
in Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Haiti, the 
Virgin Islands, Chile, Thailand, and India. On 
his present assignment, he will work with the In- 
dian Government's Geology Survey in the devel- 
opment of ground water resources. 

Another geologist specializing in the selection 
of dam sites and the use of ground water resources 
will be assigned to this project. 

The second geological project is concerned with 
the development of mineral resources in India. 
John A. Straczek, on the staff of the Geological 
Survey, Department of Interior, since 1938, will 
leave for India early in February to undertake 
this assignment. 



January 8, 1951 



67 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Impartial Commission To Investigate the Prisoners of War Question 



STATEMENT BY EDITH S. SAMPSON > 

The resolution on prisoners of war, which we 
have been discussing, presents in formal language 
a deeply human problem : the fate of hundreds 
of thousands of people taken prisoner during the 
last war who are still unaccounted for and who 
have not returned to their homes and families. 

We join with the United Kingdom and Aus- 
tralia in asking the General Assembly to set up 
an impartial commission to assist those govern- 
ments who desire its assistance in finding out what 
has happened to these people, report their fate 
to their families, and to assist in repatriating those 
who are still alive. 

I would like to deal briefly with three questions 
which go to the heart of the matter. First, why 
do we bring this problem to the United Nations^ 
Second, what are the obligations of governments 
having charge of prisoners of war ? Third, what 
is the record 5 years after the war? 

Solicitation of United Nations for Aid 

The first question is : Why do we bring this 
problem to the United Nations ? 

The United States, in cooperation with other 
governments, has patiently tried by negotiation 
and agreement ever since the end of the war to get 
a full accounting and to arrange for the return 
of prisoners to their homes. As the record — re- 
garding German and Japanese prisoners — read 
out to you by the representatives of the United 
Kingdom and Australia shows so clearly, agree- 
ments were made, dates set, reports requested, 
promises given time after time. And the end of 
all those efforts was a Soviet press report claim- 
ing that, with the exception of a few thousand 

' Miifle before Committee III (Social, Humanitarian 
and Cultural) on Dec. 5 and released to the press by the 
U.S. delegation to the General Assembly on the same date. 
Miss Sampson is an alternate U.S. repre-sentative to the 
General Assembly. 



prisoners they were holding in connection with 
alleged war crimes and a handful of sick persons, 
all had been returned. 

Even after that announcement — May 4 of this 
year, in the case of the German prisoners of war — 
the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
France addressed a detailed note to the Soviet 
Union, seeking settlement of the problem.- In 
that note of July 14, 1950, the three Governments 
asked for an investigation by an impartial inter- 
national body "in order that the actual fate of the 
prisoners of war known to have been in Soviet 
custody may be ascertained." They suggested 
"an ad hoc commission designated by the United 
Nations, or a group composed of representatives 
of the Four Powers now occupying Germany, or 
representatives of neutral powers, or any other 
group mutually acceptable," to get at the true 
facts. You can see the full document listed as 
annex X, document A/1339. 

Please note that it took the Soviet authorities 
78 days to reply, which they did on September 30. 
And then, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the 
U.S.S.R. merely stood by the TASS statement 
of May 4 and refused to consider the matter 
further. 

After the Soviet Government made the astound- 
ing announcement that it had completed the re- 
patriation of (lerman prisoners of war, the For- 
eign Ministers of France, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States, meeting at London, jointly 
pledge to take — and I quote — 

... all possible steps to obtain information bearing 
on the fate of prisoners of war and civilians not yet 
repatriated from the Soviet Union and to bring about 
repatriation in the largest possible number of cases. 

We feel obliged by this pledge to bring this 
issue involving so many hundreds of thousands of 
people to the United Nations as the place of last 
resort. 



' Bulletin of July 24, lltoO, p. 132. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



This is, obviously, the kind of probloin which 
complicates and embitters international relations. 
Families, anxious over the fate of their loved 
ones, can hardly be expected not to protest. Until 
the facts are clearly and impartially established, 
they will continue to organize, agitate, and appeal 
on this issue. 

The United States joins with others in bringing 
this matter before the General Assembly because 
Ave believe that tlie facts, whatever they are, should 
be known, and this issue put to rest. 

As one of the occupying powers of Japan and 
Germany, we bring it here also out of a sense of 
responsibility to the peoples of those countries. 

We bring it here because the international com- 
munity has a deep and unavoidable responsibility 
for human rights — in the unexplained disappear- 
ance of large numbere of human beings. Like the 
problems of refugees, of the practice of genocide, 
of protecting and repatriating children, and of 
the observance of human rights, we are confronted 
here with the questions of what value we place 
upon human life. 

I would add another reason for bringing the 
case here, a reason which appeals to me very 
personally. I believe we all have an obligation to 
express the moral sense of responsibility of the 
peoples in our respective countries. Millions of 
people in all countries, who are not in any way 
connected with these particular prisoners of war, 
can feel and understand the suffering of others. 

They cannot be disinterested in what we, as 
their representatives, do about this human prob- 
lem. Those who themselves have suffered and 
struggled hardest for their human rights will 
feel this situation most acutely. They know that 
the rights of all men are involved in the struggle 
for the rights of any group of men. If they know 
the facts, free peoples everywhere will persist in 
pressing for a just solution. 

Yet, in bringing this resolution to the General 
Assembly, we do not pro^wse that the United Na- 
tions pass a judgment or condemn. We propose 
a fair and impartial commission to study the facts, 
to check on the evidence and the records, and to 
assist in resolving the controversy. How could 
fair-minded people possibly reject this time-hon- 
ored method of dealing with important differ- 
ences in international relations? This is exactly 
the type of service which the United Nations was 
established to perform for the international com- 
munity. 

The other Allies in the war made use of inter- 
national agencies to supervise repatriation and 
the accounting of war prisoners from beginning 
to end. If the Soviets had done this, they would 
not have to ask the world to take their word — 
their unsup^wi-ted word alone — on what has hap- 
pened to the thousands of prisoners. 

It is not only in the interest of the international 
comnumity, but in the interest of the Soviet Union 
itself to satisfy the demands of the millions of rela- 



tives and friends from many countries for a trust- 
worthy and impartial accounting of these pris- 
oners. 

And so, Mr. Chairman, we liave brought this 
jiroblem to the General Assembly after exhausting 
every means of direct negotiation, because we have 
an obligation to the families of the prisoners, be- 
cause it involves human rights, which is a major 
concern of the United Nations, and because we 
wish to terminate controversy and friction on this 
issue by using the facilities of the United Nations 
for peaceful adjustment and settlement. 

Obligations for Protection of War Victims 

Now what are the obligations of the govern- 
ments having charge of prisoners of war? My 
colleagues of the United Kingdom and Australia 
have already referred to the obligations under in- 
ternational "agreements for the protection of war 
victims — the Hague convention of 1907, the 
Geneva Red Cross and prisoners-of-war conven- 
tions of 1929, and the four Geneva conventions of 
1949. 

These generally accepted principles of human- 
ity and international law provide that informa- 
tion regarding captui'es, serious illness, and deaths 
sliall he immediately reported to the home coun- 
tries and thus to the families of the prisoners of 
war, and that prisoners of war may communicate 
with their loved ones regularly. 

According to these international agreements 
a protecting power, chosen by the liome country 
and representatives of humanitarian organiza- 
tions, such as the International Committ.ee of the 
Red Cross, may go behind the barbed wire to see 
and report the actual conditions of the prisoners 
of war. These impartial neutrals assist in main- 
taining contact between the prisoner of war and 
his home country. 

The only legitimate reason for taking prisoners 
of war is to prevent them from participating fur- 
ther in the conflict. It is evident, therefore, that 
once the conflict has ended there is no further 
legitimate reason for holding them — and that they 
should be repatriated. 

To this end, both the Geneva prisoners-of-war 
conventions of 1929 and 191:9 provided for the 
repatriation of prisoners of war as soon as pos- 
sible after hostilities have terminated. That such 
repatriation should be effected is disputed by no 
one. 

In 1942, Foreign Minister Molotov, referring 

to German mistreatment of Russian prisoners, had 

this to say : 

In spite of all this the Soviet Government, true to the 
principles of humanity and respect for its international 
obligations, does not intend, even in the given circum- 
stances, to use retaliatory, repressive measures in respect 
to German prisoners of war, and, as in the past, is ad- 
hering to the obligations accepted by tlie Soviet Govern- 
ment In respect to the prisoners of war regime of the 
Hague convention of 1907, which was also signed by 



January 8, 1 95 1 



69 



Germany, but was so treacherously violated In all its 
points." 

Some months after the end of the war, October 
12, 1945, to be exact, the Soviet news agency made 
an announcement in Berlin, promising — 

... the exchange of letters between German prisoners 
of war in the Soviet Union and their relatives in Germany. 

It says further, and I quote. 

To how many families and homes this news will bring 
new hope and joy! Wives, mothers and fathers, who, 
durinK the years of war, have received the sad message 
"mifssing in action," will now look forward to the coming 
of the postman. Maybe he is still alive. 

The trouble is that the postman, in far too many 
cases, did not ring twice. After receiving one 
letter bringing that "new hope and joy," thous- 
ands of families never heard anything more. Or 
months would pass by, and, then, some' repatriated 
prisoner would bring word to a family that he had 
seen their relative in some distant labor camp. 

There was one promise in that Soviet announce- 
ment of 1945 to which I want to draw your par- 
ticular attention. I quote: 

The German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union were 
and still are treated following the international law of 
humanity. Nothing is neglected that can guarantee a 
safe return. 

I am sure that if they had lived up to that 
promise they would be eager now to prove it to 
the world through some kind of impartial com- 
mission. 

Mr. Chairman, there is no need to labor the 
point. The Soviet Government accepted the ob- 
ligations toward prisoners of war. This would 
indicate that the U.S.S.R. has nothing to conceal. 
And yet, all reasonable requests to look into the 
fulfillment of these obligations have been refused. 

The Situation From Statistics 

This brings me to the third question : What is 
the record 5 years after the war ? 

You have that record, in considerable detail 
with facts and figures spelled out, in the state- 
ments presented by the United Kingdom and 
Australia. 

You know by the record that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment was the only party to the Moscow agree- 
ment of April 1947, which failed to repatriate 
German prisoners by the agreed deadline of De- 
cember 31, 1948. The U.S.S.R. admitted this on 
January 24, 1949, when it stated that prisoners 
of war in its custody would be repatriated durino- 
1949. 

They did return many prisoners during 1949 
and up to May 4, 1950, when that startling an- 
nouncement in TASS was made. Except for 
some 13,000 held in coimection with so-called war 

' Foreign Polwy of the Soviet Union During the Father, 
land War, vol. I, Moscow, 1946, p. 2G8. 



crimes or due to illness, TASS announced, and I 
quote : 

The repatriation of German prisoners of war from 
the Soviet Union to Germany is now completely finished. 

Compare that to this fact: A careful registra- 
tion of German prisoners of war and other missing 
persons was conducted in the Federal territory of 
Germany and West Berlin during March of this 
year. That record lists by name unretumed 
prisoners of war from whom or about whom 
definite word has been received since the end of 
the war. They were alive; they have not been 
accounted for; and the number on that minimum 
list is almost 5 times greater than the total which 
the Soviets admitted they were holding for war 
crimes and due to illness. 

It is unreasonable to ask for an impartial report 
on what happened to them. 

Add this fact. From reports patiently gath- 
ered from repatriates, the German authorities 
have close estimates on the number of prisoners 
of war left behind in many of the camps when 
the last prisoners were released. This number, 
too, is many times the total admittedly held. 

Are we to conclude that all of these people have 
since died? 

The Soviet Government claimed during and 
immediately after the war that they had captured 
between 3 and 4 million Germans. Its official 
figures show captures of more than 2 million Ger- 
man prisoners of war during 1945 alone. In an- 
nouncing the completion of repatriation of 
German prisoners of war in May 1950, the Soviet 
Government stated that it had returned some 1.9 
million. It, therefore, appears that the Soviet 
(iovernment has failed to account for a total num- 
ber of German prisoners of war equivalent to the 
number captured during the years 1941, -42, -43, 
and -44. 

Did they all die — a million or more? If so, 
why were their deaths not reported? 

The record is full of details on harsh conditions 
in Soviet prisoners-of-war camps. Conservative 
estimates indicate a high death rate in such camps. 
However, many thousands of these more than a 
million prisoners unaccounted for must still be 
alive. 

We hope and believe they are. We cannot, in all 
conscience, allow such huge numbers of human 
beings to disappear from the earth without a 
trace. If they are all dead, let us know it now 
and relieve their relatives of further anxiety. 

The figures on Japanese prisoners are much 
more specific and comprehensive. You have heard 
the record, as read out by the representative of 
Australia, a record based on the Potsdam Dec- 
laration providing for the return of military per- 
sonnel to Japan, and the Scap — U.S.S.R. re- 
patriation agreement of December 19, 194G, which 
included civilians as well. 

You liave heard the story of the frustrations 



70 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



and delays which accompanied this program, of 
the tireless eflForts of the Supreme Commander of 
the Allied Powers, of the transportation made 
available, of the provisions made for the reception 
of repatriates according; to plan. The delays and 
excuses became so exasperating that even the 
Central Executive Committee of the Japanese 
Communist Part)- and deputies in the Diet felt 
compelled to join the clamor for the return of 
Japanese held by the Soviet authorities. 

The Japanese Government states on the basis 
of exhaustive surveys and detailed statistics that 
at least 369,382 persons are still unrepatriated and 
unaccounted for. The U.S.S.R. claims that it 
is only holding 2,467 in connection with alleged 
war crimes and for medical reasons. 

What is the explanation of this huge gap? 

Did all of these missing persons die in action? 
Neither Scap nor the Japanese Government has 
any official Soviet report to account for them. 
All we have is a Soviet press announcement dated 
September 11, 1945, stating that 80,000 Japanese 
officers and men were killed in action. This 80,000 
is a gruesome total when we recall that the Soviet 
Union and Japan were engaged in active hostili- 
ties for only 6 days. 

Did these missing persons die in Soviet prison 
camps after their capture? The Japanese Gov- 
ernment and Scap have not received a single death 
report or any list of deceased persons. 

Does the Soviet Government call this record 
living up to its international obligations and 
agreements, agreements which specifically require 
death notifications? 

As you know, nationals of many other countries 
fell into Soviet custody. These are also on the 
lists of the unrepatriated and unaccounted for 
human beings. 

The Austrian Government reports a total of 
approximately 100,000 Austrian citizens missing. 
More than half of them were missing in Soviet 
territory. No official information about them has 
ever been sent to the Austrian authorities. 

Repeated requests for information on Austrians 
killed in action or who have died in detention 
camps and are buried in the U.S.S.R. have pro- 
duced no results. 

Some 400 Austrian nationals, including five 
women, were returned recently. But many hun- 
dreds are still unaccounted for and are believed 
to be alive in prisoner camps. The Austrian Gov- 
ernment has made every effort to secure the com- 
pletion of the repatriation program. 

Mr. Chairman, the Italian people are also vitally 
concerned with this issue. The Italian Govern- 
ment informs us that the Soviet Government 
claimed, early in 1943, to be holding 115,000 Ital- 
ian prisoners in its custody. In November 1945, 
the Soviet Government announced the beginning 
of repatriation. Later, it announced that 20,096 
Italian prisoners had been repatriated. But, in 
reply to repeated requests for information about 



the tens of thousands still not accounted for, the 
only word was : 

No Italian prisoners are found in the Soviet Union. 

The Italian Government cannot accept this 
claim as true because Italian prisoners returning 
from Russian camps gave specific reports aboiit 
others they saw there who have not been repatri- 
ated or accounted for in any way. Also, postal 
cards have been received in Italy from many pris- 
oners which prove they were alive after the war 
but have not been accounted for or allowed to 
return home. 

Large numbers of missing Italian prisoners are 
undoubtedly dead. The obligation of the coun- 
try having" them in custody to furnish lists and 
dates of deaths or death certificates has not been 
fulfilled, according to the Italian Government. 
No lists of the dead were received, and only 10 
death certificates were forwarded. 

There are numerous nationals from other coun- 
tries who have suffered the same treatment. In- 
formation reaching the United States indicates 
that thousands of nationals of Hungary and Ru- 
mania are still awaited by their relatives, who are 
anxious to have them home or, at least, to have 
word about them whether they are dead or alive. 

Large numbers of civilians, women as well as 
men, were taken into Soviet custody and are still 
missing, leaving their relatives to wonder whether 
they are clead or alive. Communication between 
them and their families and friends is restricted 
or completely denied. 

Some prisoners of war may have been given 
civilian status. We understand some civilians 
have been included in prisoner-of-war transports 
and camps. Thus, in many places, there is no 
clear line of demarcation between civilians and 
military personnel. Both are held against their 
will and denied regular communication with the 
outside world. No official accounting has been 
made of either group. 

Mr. Chairman, Soviet spokesmen often try to 
put themselves on the side of the masses, insist- 
ing they should not suffer for the sins of their 
rulers. Yet, in the handling of captives of war, 
the Soviets have struck at the masses, the millions 
of ordinary people — prisoners and their families. 
These families have had to wait and wonder for 
more than 5 years. 

Public Interest Expressed 

The most convincing evidence of the seriousness 
and scope of the problem before us is the room- 
fuls of letters in Japan and Germany from these 
anxious relatives. Just in the last few weeks, 
since it became known in Japan and Germany that 
I would speak for the United States on this issue, 
my mail has been full of letters from mothers and 
brothers and wives and sisters wanting word about 
someone they hope is still alive. 



January 8, I95T 



71 



Fiom this pile of letters, may I read a few short 
excerpts? You can understand why the deeply 
disturbed people wlio write them, in the very na- 
ture of this problem, tend to attach their hopes to 
any individual who speaks in their behalf. But 
really, their appeal is directed to all of us — to our 
Governments. 

A wife writes from Germany : 

In the Swiss newspaper ... I read an article dealing 
with you and your work . . . and I apply to you in my 
great di-stress with the urgent request to be kind enough 
to u.se your influence on behalf of my husband. . . . 

In his last letters he informed me that the Russian 
authorities were thinking of repatriating him. Repatri- 
ated prisoners told me that he was eventually retained 
from a transport of people eligible for repatriation. . . . 

I have sent a letter In German, of which I enclose a 
copy, in English, to the Russian Foreign Secretary, Mr. 
Vyshinsky. Apologizing for the trouble I am putting yoii 
to, I ask you with all my heart to try to help me and 
discuss this matter, if there shoiUd be any possiblUty, 
with Mr. Vyshinsky personally. 

A Japanese wife writes, in part : 

My husband worked as a guard for the South Man- 
churian Railway. On the second of March 1946, my 
husband was carried away by the Soviets. I was re- 
patriated with my two small children looking like beggars 
I heard from him In July 1948. . . . Since then I have 
been looking forward to his homecoming. 

My brother-in-law, who was with my husband, was re- 
patriated in February and believed that my husband 
would soon be repatriated. ... I can't understand why 
they keep him there. Brother-in4aw says he was not 
sentenced, nor even accused as a war criminal. I don't 
understand this situation at all. 

His eighty-year-old father is awaiting his return. My 
boy begs me to go and bring his daddy home. Please ask 
the United Nations to save us from this awful situation 
and send our loved-one home. 

A German wife writes at great length. She 
says, in part : 

From the statements of a comrade of my husband who 
was with him but has returned home, I learned that my 
husband was captured alive and unwouuded. . . . 

Since his capture I have been without any news from 
him. The last mail I received from him was dated May 
6, 1944. Unfortunately, all conceivable Inquiries which 
I made were in vain. A request for clemency which I 
directed to the following Soviet authorities has likewise 
had no results: The Minister of the Interior of the 
U.S.S.R. ; the General In Charge of Prisoners of War 
Matters in tlie U.S.S.R.; the Commandant of the Soviet 
zone of occupation in Berlin. 

I am living in tlie greatest of want \vith my two chil- 
dren, nine- and ten-year-old boys who are unprovided 
for. . . . The parents of my husband are old and it is 
their most fervent wish to .see their long-lost son once 
again. Only the hope of seeing him again has helped us 
to survive all the hardships and sorrow. 

A Japanese mother writes : 

Please ask the United Nations to send back my only 
son. He has written me twice this year, on the 13th of 
May and again on the 30th. There Isn't a .shadow of 
doubt as to his being alive. I am an old woman of 60. 
I want my son back so badly. I want to see him. I went 
to Tokyo 4 times in .search of information about him, but 
in vain. . . . Please ask the United Nathms to send him 
back. 



And, finally, a short excerpt from the letter of 
a mother in Germany : 

I am the mother of a son who is missing in Russia since 
1944 and of another son who returned healthy from Eng- 
lish captivity in 1947. . . . 

. . . Maybe our son is dead, then we would be content 
to have the true information of his death. But uncer- 
tainty is awful. 

Mr. Chairman, these thousands of letters deserve 
to be answered. We hope these anxious relatives 
may be assured that their pleas have been heard, 
that the General Assembly has adopted the resolu- 
tion on prisoners of war, and that a commission 
of the United Nations will begin work shortly on 
this historic task. 

[Later in the debate, Mrs. Sampson made the following 
remarks.] 



Need for Impartial Commission 

The distinguished representative of the Soviet 
Union asserted that this case not only had no 
legality but also had no validity in fact. That 
is his opinion; it is not the opinion of the three 
Governments which placed this item on the 
agenda. It is not the opinion of the families in 
Germany and Japan which believe that their hus- 
bands, brothers, and sons are still alive in the 
Soviet Union. Whether there is any validity to 
this item is for the General Assembly to decide. 
"Wliether there is any validity to the Soviet state- 
ment that all prisoners have been repatriated 
should be for the Commission to determine. 

I was disturbed to hear the distinguished rep- 
resentative of the Soviet Union say tiiat his Gov- 
ernment would have nothing to do with the United 
Nations on this matter. I hope that I misunder- 
stood the Soviet representative, for it is a serious 
matter when any member of the United Nations 
announces that it will have nothing to do with 
the organization concerning an issue before the 
General Assembly. It would be a very serious 
matter if the Soviet Government took such an 
attitude after the General Assembly created a 
commission of inquiry. The members of the 
United Nations are entitled to know the facts in 
this case, and they are entitled to have the coop- 
eration of every member in ascertaining these 
facts. 

The distinguished representative of the Soviet 
Union protested, at some length, over the fact 
that the Supreme Connnander for the Allied 
Powers in Japan had issued different sets of fig- 
ures. He complained that the Japanese Govern- 
ment and the Japanese press have issued con- 
flicting statistics. Well, Mr. Chairman, the Soviet 
delegate i)ut his finger on the crux of the problem 
before us. No one really knows the true facts 
and figures — no one outside the Soviet Govern- 
ment. No one knows how to reconcile these appar- 
ent discrepancies. It is, for this very reason, that 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



we have put this item on the agenda of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The world wants to know the 
facts. The world wants to obtain the correct fig- 
ures. The people of Germany and Japan want 
to know the truth behind all these facts and 
figures. 

The distinguished representative of the Soviet 
Union made many serious charges against my 
Government and other governments for their treat- 
ment of war prisoners. He alleged that the 
United States and other countries brutally mis- 
treated the prisoners of war under our control 
and that we used them for slave labor. He charged 
that we are still holding many thousands of pris- 
oners and refusing to repatriate them. Mr. 
Chairman, my Government does not for 1 moment 
admit the validity of any of these charges, but it 
is quite prepared to have these charges investi- 
gated by an impartial body. In fact, the Soviet 
representative, in making these charges, has of- 
fered another excellent reason for the creation of 
such an impartial body. If the Soviet represen- 
tative wants the true facts about the number of 
war prisoners held by the United States and re- 
patriated by the United States, he should vote 
for the joint resolution before this Committee. 
Pai'agrapli 3(a) of that resolution offers the 
Soviet Government an opportunity to learn the 
true facts, for it relates to "prisoners coming 
within the custody of any foreign government." 
Paragraph 3(b) offers every member of the 
United Nations an opportunity to learn the true 
facts about war prisoners everywhere. Under that 
paragraph, the General Assembly would request — 

the Commission to seek from the governments, or author- 
ities concerned full information regarding prisoners com- 
ing within the custody or control of any foreign gov- 
ernment as a consequence of military operations of the 
Second World War and not repatriated or otherwise 
accounted for. 

In short, Mr. Chairman, this draft resolution 
asks the Soviet Union to do no more than we are 
prepared to do oui*selves. 

The Soviet representative challenged the ac- 
curacy of various figures regarding the Japanese 
prisoners of war. To this, I would say that these 
are the best we have available ; they are based on 
several censuses taken during the war in the areas 
occupied by Japan and on Japanese Army and 
Navy strength figures adjusted to exclude all 
known battle deaths. But, quite apart from these 
statistics, the Japanese Government during the 
past year has been compiling a register of names 
based on the statements of returning repatriates 
and the families of persons who are missing. This 
register, which as yet is by no means completed, 
already contains over 316,000 separate names to- 
gether with other data concerning, the missing 
persons. If anything, the present estimate of 
369,000 missing Japanese is very low; there is 
every likelihood that it will finally exceed 400,000 
persons. It might even i-each half a million per- 



-sons, the number which the Soviet delegate this 
morning admitted is missing. Now, whether these 
persons are in Hawaii or are in areas under Soviet 
control and infiuence, we might well leave to our 
proposed impartial commission to decide. 

If, as the Soviet delegate would have us be- 
lieve, all this information and all these statistics 
have been fabricated as part of some Machiavel- 
lian plot to slander the Soviet Union and promote 
a third world war, no one should be happier than 
the Soviet Union itself to have these figures in- 
vestigated by a completely impartial body, to have 
this so-called fraud exposed, to have this imagined 
plot against the Soviet Union brought to light, 
and the matter laid to rest once and for all. 

In short, the more the Soviet delegate questions 
the information, based as it is on the evidence of 
the families of the missing persons themselves, the 
more he establishes the need for exactly the sort 
of impartial body we are seeking, to investigate 
and make known the true facts. 



MEASURES FOR THE PEACEFUL SOLUTION 
OF THE PROBLEM OF PRISONERS OF WAR 

U.N. doe. A/1749 
-Adopted Doc. 14, 1950 

Vote : 43-5-8 

The General Assembly, 

Mindful that one of the principal purposes of the 
United Nations is to achieve international co-operation 
in solving international problems of a humanitarian 
character and in promoting and encouraging respect for 
human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, 

CoNSiDEKiNQ that the General Assembly may recom- 
mend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situa- 
tion, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to impair 
the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, 

Believing that all prisoners having originally come 
within the control of the Allied Powers as a consequence 
of the second world war should either have been repatri- 
ated long since or have been otherwise accounted for. 

Recalling that this is required both by recognized 
standards of international conduct and the Geneva Con- 
vention of 1949 for the protection of war victims, and by 
specific agreements between the Allied Powers, 

1. Expresses its concern at the information presented 
to it tending to show that large numbers of prisoners 
taken in the course of the second world war have neither 
been repatriated, nor otherwise accounted for; 

2. Calls upon all Governments still having control of 
such persons to act in conformity with the recognized 
standards of international conduct and with the above- 
mentioned international agreements and conventions 
which require that, upon the cessation of active hostili- 
ties, all prisoners should, with the least possible delay, 
be given an unrestricted opportunity of repatriation and, 
to that end, to publish and transmit to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations before 30 April 1951 : 

(a) The names of such prisoners still held by them, 
the reasons for which they are still detained and the 
places in which they are detained ; 

(b) The names of jaisoners who have died while 
under their control as well as the date and cause of 
death, and the manner and place of burial in each case ; 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to establish an Ad 
Hoc Commission composed of three qualified and im- 
partial persons chosen by the International Red Cross 
or failing that, by the Secretary-General himself, with 
a view to settling the question of the prisoners of war in 



January 8, 1 95 1 



73 



a purely humanitarian spirit and on terms acceptable 
to all the Governments concerned. The Commission 
shall convene at a suitable date after 30 April 19-51 to 
examine and evaluate, in the light of the information 
made available to the fifth session of the General Assem- 
bly, the information furnished by Governments in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the preceding paragraph. 
In the event that the Commission considers that this 
information is inadequate or affords reasonable ground 
for believing that prisoners coming within the custody 
or control of any foreign Government as a consequence 
of military operations of the second world war have not 
been repatriated or otherwise accounted for, the General 
Assembly : 

(a) Requests the Commission to seeli from the Gov- 
ernments or authorities concerned full information re- 
garding such prisoners ; 

(b) Requests the Commission to assist all Govern- 
ments and authorities who so desire in arranging for and 
facilitating the repatriation of such prisoners ; 



(c) Authorizes the Commission to use the good oflices 
of any qualified and impartial person or organization 
who It considers might contribute to the repatriation 
or accounting for of such prisoners ; 

(d) Urges all Governments and authorities con- 
cerned to co-operate fully with the Commission, to supply 
all necessary information and to grant right of access 
to their respective countries and to areas in which such 
prisoners are detained ; 

(e) Requests the Secretary-General to furnish the 
Commission with the staff and facilities necessary for 
the effective accomplishment of its task ; 

4. Urgently requests all the Governments to make the 
greatest possible efforts, based in particular on the docu- 
mentation to be provided, to search for prisoners of war 
whose absence has been reported and who might be in 
their territories; 

5. Directs the Commission to report as soon as prac- 
ticable the results of its work to the Secretary-General 
for transmission to the Members of the United Nations. 



Palestine Question Poses Problem of Refugees and 
of an International Regime for Jerusalem 



STATEMENT BY JOHN C. ROSS> 

Mr. Chairman: My delegation has examined 
with great care the draft resolution which has 
been tabled in this Committee by the distinguished 
representative of Egypt, our esteemed colleague 
and friend, Abdel Monem Mostafa Bey. It is 
evident that in proposing this resolution the Egyp- 
tian representative has been motivated by deep 
concern for the fate of the hundreds of thousands 
of innocent refugees from the Palestine conflict. 
I feel sure that I speak for the whole Committee 
when I say that all of us are filled with deepest 
concern for these victims of a conflagration for 
which they were not responsible. 

Refugee Problem 

We are the more concerned as we realize that 
month after month has passed and that very little 
progress has been made toward the repatriation 
of these unfortunate people and the payment of 
compensation to them or to their resettlement and 
economic and social rehabilitation. Moreover, as 
tiie honorable delegate of the United Kingdom 
has pointed out tliis morning, we must face frankly 
the fact that the international community is not 

'Made in the Ad Hoc Political Committee on Nov. 29 
and ri'leaspd to the press by the U.S. delegation to the 
General Assembly on the same date. Mr. Ross is an alter- 
nate U. S. representative to the General Assembly. 



likely indefinitely to continue its contributions to 
the support of the refugees. 

The resolution tabled by the delegation of Egypt 
proposes one method of dealing with certain as- 
pects of this most difficult and complex problem, 
namely, the aspects of repatriation and compensa- 
tion. The method proposed in the Egyptian reso- 
lution is the establishment of a United Nations 
Agency for the Repatriation and Compensation of 
Palestine Refugees. 

Speaking frankly, I must say that we question 
very seriously whether it is necessary or desirable 
to create an entirely new and separate United Na- 
tions body to deal with this problem. The draft 
four-power resolution before us proposes an al- 
ternative, that is, the creation of an office which 
would be under the direction of the Conciliation 
Commission. With the indulgence of my col- 
leagues, I should like to allude to this aspect of 
the four-power resolution in a few moments. 

I hope I may be confident that our Egyptian 
colleague and our colleagues of the other Arab 
delegations will find in our alternative proposal 
the most effective means of achieving the objectives 
which they have not only in mind but close to their 
hearts protection of the best interests of the 
refugees. 

Mr. Chairman, my delegation is fully aware 
of the depth of the wound caused in the Near East 
by the Palestine conflict. It is only natural that 
jiassions sliould have run high as a result of this 



74 



Department of Sfate Bulletin 



dispute, and my delegation does not expect mir- 
acles of progress toward the final settlement of the 
issues arising out of such a strife. 

Settling Conflicts 

However, we should not be discouraged by the 
progress which has been made so far. The United 
Nations has played an extremely important role 
in the steps which liave been taken to lieal the scai-s 
caused by the Palestine war. The name of Count 
Folke Bernadotte, distinguished son of the Swed- 
ish nation, will live with us always as we recall 
the Count's heroism in devoting himself to the 
attempt to bring about a settlement between the 
parties in Palestine. Fully deserved tribute is 
also due to Count Bernadotte's successor, Dr. 
Ralph Bunche, who with his associates labored 
long and well to bring about the armistice agree- 
ments which now provide the framework for the 
relationship between the Arab States and Israel, 
as well as to Gen. William A. Piley, now in Pales- 
tine ably supervising the operation of the armis- 
tice agreements on belialf of the United Nations. 
An end was put to hostilities in Palestine, and we 
can all be thankful that under the armistice 
agreements gradual progress is being made away 
from war toward peace. Since the end of hos- 
tilities, the Palestine Conciliation Commission has 
contributed greatly through able and patient 
efforts to promote a settlement between the parties. 

The task of the United Nations is to promote the 
establishment of peace all over the world by all 
means at its disposal. Therefore, it is our duty 
to attempt to contribute as much as we can to the 
amelioration of conditions in any part of the world 
where there is tension and conflict. We must, 
then, attempt to stimulate further the efforts which 
the United Nations has already made concerning 
Palestine, in the interests of the peace and security 
of the area. Tliis is the guiding principle which 
has led my delegation to participate in the draft- 
ing and sponsoring of the four-power resolution 
now before us. 

My delegation believes that, during the past 
year, there has been substantial progress toward 
fuller realization by the Governments concerned 
of the necessity of establishing better relations 
between themselves. As the Conciliation Commis- 
sion points out, the indefinite prolongation of the 
state of armistice cannot but have advei-se effects 
on the interests of all concerned, both separately 
and with regard to the area as a whole. It is a 
fundamental purpose of this resolution to attempt 
to create the basis for better relations in the area. 
The resolution recognizes a fact which must be 
apparent to all of us — that the refugee question is 
a problem vitally affecting the peace and stability 
of the Near East. This fact, taken in conjunction 
with the humanitarian aspects of the refugees 
tragedy, demands that the problem of these un- 
fortunate people be dealt wuth as a matter of 
urgency. 



The resolution passed by this Committee on No- 
vember 27 shows the way to the beginning of 
permanent reintegration of the refugees through 
repatriation and resettlement. In this connection, 
it was with interest and appreciation that my dele- 
gation noted the declared intention of the Govern- 
ment of Israel to contribute to the reintegration 
fund proposed in this resolution. In the opinion 
of my deleo;ation, the Governments in the Near 
East should without delay turn to the refugee 
question as a problem of the greatest priority, since 
as long as the refugees remain destitute, ill-housed, 
and dependent upon the charity of others, they 
will constitute a nucleus of human misery and 
suffering which can only have a harmful effect 
upon the well-being of the states concerned and of 
the area. This consideration is entirely apart 
from the humanitarian aspects of the refugee prob- 
lem, which have resulted in generous official and 
nonofficial contributions by the international com- 
munity for the relief of these people. 

It is in the interests of the refugees that the 
draft four-power resolution proposes the estab- 
lishment under the Conciliation Commission of an 
office to make such arrangements as it may con- 
sider necessary for the assessment and payment 
of compensation in pursuance of paragraph 11 
of the General Assembly resolution of December 
11, 1948, and to work out such arrangements as 
may be practicable for the implementation of the 
other objectives of the same paragraph. It is the 
intention of the drafters of the four-power resolu- 
tion that the proposed office would work in closest 
cooperation and harmony with the United Nations 
Relief and Works Agency. 

Direct Contacts Between Israelis and Arabs Urged 

The draft resolution which I am discussing also 
notes the concern my delegation feels, and which 
I am sure is shared by the other members of the 
Committee, that agreement has not been reached 
between the parties on the final settlement of the 
questions outstanding between them. The resolu- 
tion seeks to promote better understanding and 
relations among the governments in the area by 
urging the latter to engage without delay in direct 
discussions under the auspices of the Conciliation 
Commission for Palestine, or independently, in 
order to arrive at a peaceful settlement of all ques- 
tions outstanding between them. It is to be noted 
that for 2 years the parties have been dealing 
with the Palestine Conciliation Commission, but 
that there has been practically no direct contact 
between Arabs and Israelis. It is the belief of my 
delegation that such direct contact would enable 
the parties to set forth more effectively their re- 
spective points of view. It is our hope that direct 
contact may enable the parties to realize that there 
are bi-oad fields where understandings between 
them will be mutually advantageous and will con- 
tribute to the strength and unity of the region. A 



January 8, 1 95 1 



75 



recommendation for direct discussions between the 
parties, under the auspices of a United Nations 
commission, is not such a remarkable thing. It 
does not seem illogical to expect that parties to a 
dispute should sit down togetlier in an effort to 
reach a peaceful settlement of the issues dividing 
them. We have not at all disregarded the particu- 
larly bitter feelings which were engendered by 
the Palestine war. However, 2 years have passed 
since the hostilities ceased, and we believe that it 
is now our duty to attempt to persuade the paiiies 
that they should take the further step of sitting 
down either under the auspices of the Palestine 
Conciliation Commission or independently to dis- 
cuss the questions which are in dispute between 
them. In urging that this be done, the cosponsors 
and ourselves have realized that the success of any 
such discussions, in fact the very undertaking of 
such discussions, must in the end depend upon the 
good will of the parties. We, therefore, have seen 
fit to urge the parties to exhibit this good will and 
to undertake direct discussions. We believe that 
a full, frank, and direct exi^osition by the parties 
of such doubts, fears, claims, and desires as they 
may have will be of assistance in contributing 
toward the betterment of relations between them 
and to the restoration of peace in the Near East. 
Air. Chairman, this is not a radical resolution. 
There is no magic formula which will suddenly 
provide a complete cui'e for the ills and troubles 
which beset this area of the world. We confidently 
believe nevertheless, that this resolution, if loyally 
carried out by the parties, will contribute to the 
establishment of better relations between Israel 
and the Arab States and to the welfare of the Pal- 
estine refugees. In discussions with the parties 
prior to the tabling of the resolution, our cospon- 
sors and ourselves appealed to the representatives 
of the Arab States and Israel to make genuine 
efforts to understand the point of view of the other 
party and to cooperate in the fulfillment of the 
provisions of this draft, if it is accepted by the 
Committee. We trust that the Committee will 
agi-ee that the resolution offers the possibility of 
progress toward the restoration of peace to the 
Near East and that it will accord its support to 
the draft. 



STATEMENT BY JOHN C. ROSS' 

The pui'pose of this statement is to set forth the 
position of the United States on the question of 
Jerusalem, as well as the views of my delegation 
concerning the proposals and suggestions which 
have so far been made in this Committee on the 
problem we are dealing with. At the outset of 
these remarks I wish to make clear that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States continues to support 

" Made in the Ad Hoc Political Comniittpe on Dec. 12 anj 
released to the press liy the U.S. di'legalion to the General 
Assembly on the same date. 



the principle of an international regime for the 
Jerusalem area. 



U.S. Position 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica has consistently supported the United Nations 
in its handling of the problem of Jerusalem. It 
supported the provisions of the General Assembly 
Palestine resolution of November 29, 1947, con- 
cerning the internationalization of Jerusalem, un- 
til it became apparent that the resolution as a 
whole could not be implemented without the use 
of force. 

Subsequently, the United States supported the 
adoption by the General Assembly of its resolution 
of December 11, 1948. This resolution, in estab- 
lishing the Palestine Conciliation Commission, in- 
structed the latter to present to the fourth regular 
session of the General Assembly detailed proposals 
for a permanent international regime for the Jeru- 
salem area which would provide for the maximum 
local autonomy consistent with the special inter- 
national status of the Jeinisalem area. The United 
States, as a member of the Palestine Conciliation 
Commission, participated in drafting these pro- 
posals, and in the Assembly last year gave them 
its support in the belief that they represented a 
reasonable compromise between the interests of 
the world community and those of the inhabitants 
of the city. It was a matter of real regi'et to the 
United States delegation that the Assembly did 
not take under active consideration the proposals 
of the Conciliation Commission and that Israel 
and Jordan did not see fit to accord them support. 

On December 9, 1949, the General Assembly 
adopted a resolution which determined that Jeru- 
salem should be established as a corpus separatum. 
The Assembly directed the Trusteeship Council 
to complete the statute for Jerusalem which had 
previously been drafted under the provisions of 
the resolution of November 29, 1947, and to pro- 
ceed at once to its implementation. Believing that 
such an approach to the question would be an 
impracticable one, the United States opposed this 
resolution. With j'our indulgence, Mr. Chairman, 
I quote a portion of a statement on this question 
made by the representative of the United States 
in the Ad Hoc Committee on December 5, 1949 : 

Rlr. Chairman, I regret to have to say that the sub- 
committee's draft resolution deceives world opinion, par- 
ticularly Arab and (."hristiau opinion, for it has the 
appearance of complete internationaliZiUion but it offers 
no assurance whatsoever that any internationalization 
will be achieved. We do not believe lliat the United 
Nations sliould make a decision knowinj; in advance that 
it is not practicable to carry it out. World opinion looks 
to us not to make irresponsible and fruitless decisions, 
but to work out reasonable solutions for the problems 
which confront us. If the (Jeueral Assembly acts other- 
wise it will be violating the trust given to it l)y the world. 
The question is not whether we shall have an interna- 
tional regime for Jerusalem. The question is r:\ther 
whether we shall establish an international regime which 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



will adequately protect the interests of the international 
community, particularly the religious interests, and 
which will at the same time be effective. 



Efforts on Behalf of Jerusalem 

Events have proven tluit this statement was a 
prophetic one. As we all know, the Trusteeship 
Council carried out its mandate as regards the 
revision and completion of the 1947 statute. As 
a loyal member of the United Nations, the United 
States, despite its opposition to the principle under 
which the Council was working, participated con- 
structively in the task of completing the statute. 
However, when the President of the Council com- 
plied with the Council's instructions to transmit 
the statute to the Governments of Israel and Jor- 
dan and to request their full cooperation in putting 
it into effect, he was, through no fault of his own, 
unable to obtain this cooperation and had no al- 
ternative but to report this fact back to the Coun- 
cil. Accordingly, the Council resolved to refer 
the whole question back to the General Assembly. 

The Government of the United States continues 
to be fully aware of the importance of Jerusalem 
to the family of nations and of the desirability of 
immediate arrangements to grant to the world 
community its legitimate rights in the Holy City. 
The experience of the past year, however, has 
borne out all too clearly, in the opinion of the 
United States Government, that there is no prac- 
ticable way to enforce and implement a statute 
firmly opposed by the inhabitants of the Jerusa- 
lem area and by the Governments exercising con- 
trol over the city. This does not mean that the 
Governments of Israel and Jordan should have 
what amounts to the jjower of veto over decisions 
of the United Nations concerning Jerusalem. It 
does mean that the United Nations should not take 
decisions, which, by their very nature, give the 
Govermnents concerned and the people of Jerusa- 
lem no alternative but to oppose them and which, 
at the same time, would involve the international 
community in responsibilities not corresponding 
to its interests in tlie city. We must not forget 
that conditions in Jerusalem have greatly changed 
in the 3 years since the concept of the interna- 
tionalization of Jerusalem, as contained in the 
1947 resolution, was established. Political ties and 
physical connections between the Holy City and 
the State of Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan 
have been established and strengthened. The 
United States delegation believes that the Assem- 
bly rnust give full consideration to these changed 
conditions, while still maintaining its efforts to 
establish an international regime which will be in 
accord with the legitimate interests of the world 
commimity in the area. 

We do not consider that it is desirable or prac- 
ticable to seek to involve the United Nations in 
countless difficulties and responsibilities in Jeru- 
salem in order to achieve purposes not all of which 
are of genuine concern to the international com- 



munitv— such as the establishment of a new and 
entirely separate political entity which does not 
conform to the wishes of the local people; the 
regulation of the day-to-day secular activities of 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and the provision 
of essential services, such as water, light, and san- 
itation, which are a necessary element in the daily 
life of a large and modern city. It is also not de- 
sirable for the United Nations to take impracti- 
cable steps which would delay and endanger the 
achievement of the purpose which must be the prin- 
cipal concern of every delegate here — to assure the 
immediate representation of the rightful author- 
ity of the United Nations in the Jerusalem area. 
It is not necessary to dwell again upon the huge 
financial and administrative burden which would 
fall upon the United Nations as a result of any 
attempt to establish and operate a city state in 
Palestine. 

We must seek to avoid plunging the issue into 
further debate and wrangling, and to take a deci- 
sion during this session of the Assembly which 
will resolve once and for all the controversy over 
the Holy City. Failure to take this action would 
be detrimental to the interests of the United Na- 
tions, to those of the three great religions of the 
world, and to the prospects of a final settlement 
of the outstanding differences in the Palestine 
area. It would also render much more difficult the 
establishment of any international authority in 
the area at a later date. 

Full Cooperation Needed 

Mr. Chairman, the United States Government 
continues to desire to see established a workable 
international regime for the Jerusalem area which 
will give genuine recognition to the international 
status of the area as a center of three great world 
religions ; which would provide for the necessary 
protection of and access to the Holy Places under 
United Nations supervision; which would con- 
tribute to the peace and stability of the Jerusalem 
area ; and which would take into account the in- 
terests of the principal communities in Jerusalem 
and tlie views of Israel and Jordan. We have 
sought these objectives through our participation 
in the work of the Palestine Conciliation Com- 
mission on Jerusalem, and last year in the General 
Assembly. We are prepared this year again to 
offer full cooperation to interested delegations in 
an effort to reconcile varying points of view on 
this issue and to arrive at a solution of the Jeru- 
salem problem which will achieve the objectives 
I have stated. 

The United States delegation has studied with 
interest and appreciation the draft proposal for 
an international regime for the Jerusalem area 
tabled by the delegation of Sweden. We consider 
this effort on the part of the Swedish delegation 
and of those who have collaborated with that dele- 
gation to be a constructive contribution to the 



January 8, 1951 



77 



solution of the pi'oblem and to our work in this 
Committee. In the opinion of my delegation, the 
approach to the problem outlined in the Swedish 
draft contains the elements of a solution which 
would take into consideration the international 
ijiterests and rights in the Holy City, as well as 
those of Israel and Jordan. Israel has already 
indicated general acceptance of the Swedish pro- 
posal, and the United States delegation was con- 
siderably disappointed when the distinguished 
representative of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jor- 
dan revealed yesterday that important aspects of 
the draft were unacceptable to his Government. 
As far as my delegation can see, the terms of the 
Swedish draft would not involve any appreciable 
derogation of Jordanian sovereigiaty in Jerusalem. 
Be that as it may, however, the representative of 
Jordan lias indicated that his Government is pre- 
pared formally to give to the United Nations the 
pledges outlined in the Swedish proposal. The 
Jordanian Government is also prepared, as we 
learned yesterday, to accept and cooperate with 
a representative of the United Nations sent to 
Jerusalem to represent the interests of the world 
community in the Holy City. Presumably, the 
Government of Israel is also agreeable to these 
conditions. Under the circumstances, the United 
States delegation would be interested to learn the 
reaction of the Committee to a possible modifica- 
tion of the Swedish pi-oposal wherein the greater 
part of the preamble would be maintained, as well 
as part A containing the pledges which the Gov- 
ernments in the Holy Land would be invited to 
give to the United Nations. In lieu of pai't B, 
there would be a provision that, pending further 
decisions by the United Nations on the status of 
the City, a United Nations representative with 
staff would be sent to Jei'usalem to represent the 
interests of the world community. The further 
decisions of the United Nations concerning Jeru- 
salem which have been referred to might be taken 
on the basis of the recommendations of the United 
Nations representative, who would have the benefit 
of experience on the spot and of full and constant 
consultations with the parties. Such an approach 
to the problem would, in the opinion of my delega- 
tion, not be so satisfactory as that contained in 
the Swedish draft in its present form, and we 
would onl}' be prepared to support it should it 
prove acceptable to the majority of the General 
Assembly and should Jordan and Israel be pre- 
pared to accept or at least acquiesce in it. The 
Swedish proposal as it now stands, and the modi- 
fication I have just outlined, would not in them- 
selves constitute a final settlement of the Jerusalem 
question. They M'ould, however, constitute an 
important step in the direction of a final settle- 
ment, a step upon which later decisions would be 
built. 

I should like to make a few brief comments on 
the suggestion of the distinguished representative 
of Belgium that a Committee be established to 



negotiate further concerning the status of Jeru- 
salem. My delegation agrees with the representa- 
tive of Belgium that no stone should be left 
unturned in this matter, but we consider that the 
negotiations which have so far taken place on the 
Jerusalem question have been exhaustive. As a 
member of the Palestine Conciliation Commission, 
my Government has full knowledge of the pains- 
taking and careful manner in which the Commis- 
sion examined every aspect of the Jerusalem 
question before making its recommendations to the 
General Assembly. We have also been aware of 
the protracted negotiations which have recently 
taken place between the delegations of Sweden 
and the Netherlands on the one hand and those 
of Israel and Jordan on the other. We are ac- 
cordingly satisfied that the problem has been 
thoroughly discussed with the interested parties, 
and we believe that the Assembly should take a 
step in the direction of a final settlement during 
the present session. For this reason, we cannot 
support the suggestion of our esteemed Belgian 
colleague. 



ASSISTANCE TO PALESTINE REFUGEES 

U.N. doc. A/1603 
Adopted Dec. 2, 1950 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling Its resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949, 
Havinq Examined the report of the United Nations 
Relief and Worlis Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 
Near East (A/1451), and the report of the Secretary- 
General concerning United Nations Relief for Palestine 
Refugees (A/1452), 

1. Notes that contributions sufficient to carry out the 
programme authorized in paragraph 6 of resolution 302 
(IV) have not been made, and urges Governments which 
have not yet done so to make every effort to make volun- 
tary contributions in response to paragraph 13 of that 
resolution ; 

2. Recognizes that direct relief cannot be terminated as 
provided in paragraph 6 of resolution 302 (IV) ; 

3. Authorises the Agency to continue to furnish direct 
relief to refugees in need, and considers that, for the 
I>eriod 1 July 1951 to 30 June 1952, the equivalent of 
approximately $20,000,000 will be required for direct re- 
lief to refugees who are not yet reintegrated into the 
economy of the Near East ; 

4. Considers that, without prejudice to the provisions of 
paragraph 11 of General Assembly resolution 194 (III) 
of 11 December 194S, the reintegration of the refugees 
into the economic life of the Near East, either by repa- 
triation or resettlement, is essential in preparation for 
the time when international assistance is no longer avail- 
able, and for the realization of conditions of jieace and 
stability in the area; 

5. I)h'<triicts the Agency to establish a reintegration 
fund which shall bi^ utilized for projects requested by any 
Government in the Near East and approved by the Agency 
for the i)ermanent re-establishnieut of refugees and their 
removal from relief; 



78 



Department of State Bulletin 



6. Considers that, for the period 1 July 1951 to 30 June 
1952, not less than the equivalent of .f.SO,0(X),000 should 
be contributed to the Agency for the purposes set forth 
in paragraph 5 above ; 

7. Aiitlinrizcs the Agency, as circumstances permit, to 
transfer funds available for the current relief and works 
programmes, and for the relief programme provided in 
paragraph 3 above, to reintegration projects provided for 
in paragraph 5 ; 

S. (a) ifr(/Mrs?« the President of the General Assembly 
to appoint a >fegotiating Committee composed of seven or 
more members for the purpose of consulting, as soon as 
possible during the current session of the General Assem- 
bly, with Meml>er and non-memlier States as to the 
amounts which Governments may be willing to contribute 
on a voluntary basis towards : 

(i) The current programme for relief and works 
for the period ending 30 June 1951, bearing in mind the 
need for securing contributions from Member States 
which have not yet contributed ; 

(ii) The programme of relief and reintegration 
projects as provided for in paragraphs 3 and 4 above for 
the year ending 30 June 1952; 

(b) Atithorizes the Negotiating Committee to adopt 
procedures best suited to the accomplishment of its task, 
bearing in mind : 

(i) The need for securing the maximum contribu- 
tion in cash ; 

(ii) The desirability of ensuring that any contribu- 
tion in kind is of a nature which meets the requirements 
of the contemplated programmes; 

(iii) The importance of enabling the United Na- 
tions Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in 
the Near East to plan its programmes in advance and to 
carry them out with funds regularly contributed ; 

(iv) The degree of assistance which can continue 
to be rendered by specialized agencies, non-member States 
and other contributors ; 

(c) Requests that, as soon as the Negotiating Com- 
mittee has ascertained the extent to which Member States 
are willing to make contributions, all delegations be noti- 
fied accordingly by the Secretary-General in order that 
they may consult with their Governments ; 

(d) Decides that, as soon as the Negotiating Com- 
mittee has completed its work, the Secretary-General shall 
at the Committee's request arrange, during the current 
session of the General Assembly, an appropriate meeting 
of Member and non-member States at which Members 
may commit themselves to their national contributions 
and the contributions of non-members may be made 
known; 

9. Authorizes the Secretary-General, in consultation 
with the Advisory Committee on Administrative and 
Budgetary Questions, to advance funds, deemed to be 
available for this purpose and not exceeding $5,000,000, 
from the Working Capital Fund to finance operations 
pursuant to the present resolution, such sum to be repaid 
not later than 31 December 1951 ; 

10. Calls upon the Secretary-General and the special- 
ized agencies to utilize to the fullest extent the Agency's 



facilities as a point of reference and coordination for 
technical assistance programmes in the countries in which 
the Agency is operating; 

11. Expresses its appreciation to the United Nations In- 
ternational Children's Emergency Fund, the World Health 
Organization, the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, the International Refugee Or- 
ganization, the International Labour Organisation and 
the Food and Agriculture Organization for the assistance 
which they have rendered, and urges them to continue 
to furnish all possible assistance to the Agency ; 

12. Commends the International Committee of the Red 
Cross, the League of Red Cross Societies, and the Amer- 
ican Friends Service Committee for their invaluable serv- 
ices and whole-hearted co-oi)eration in the distribution of 
relief supplies until those functions were taken over by 
the Agency ; 

13. Expresses its thanks to the numerous religious, 
charitable and humanitarian organizations whose pro- 
grammes have brought much needed supplementary as- 
sistance to the Palestine refugees, and urges them to 
continue and expand, to the extent possible, the work 
which they have undertaken on behalf of the refugees; 

14. Extends its appreciation and thanks to the Director 
and staff of the Agency and the members of the Advisory 
Commission for their effective and devoted work. 



International Court Sets Deadlines for 
Filing Statements on U.S. Nationals 
in Morocco 

[Released to the press iy the V.N. Department of 
Public Information November 28] 

The folloxoing was received at V.N. Headquarters at 
Lake Success from the Registry of the International 
Court of Justice, The Hague. 

The International Court of Justice has fixed the 
following time limits for deposit at The Hague 
of documents of the written procedure in the case 
concerning rights of United States nationals in 
Morocco : 

For the Memorial of the Government of the 
French Republic — 1 March 1951. 

For the Counter-Memorial of the United States 
Government — 1 July 1951. 

For the Reply of the Government of the French 
Republic — 1 September 1951. 

For the Rejoinder of the United States Govern- 
ment — 1 November 1951. 

This timetable was fixed by the Court in an 
order dated 22 November 1950. The application 
instituting proceedings against the United States 
Government was filed with the Court's Registry 
on 28 October by the French Charge d'Affaires at 
The Hague. 



January 8, I95I 



79 



ind 



ex 



Subject Index 
Africa Page 
Morocco : International Court Sets Deadlines 
for Filing Statements on U.S. Na- 
tionals 79 

Review of Relations Witli Near East, Soutli 
Asia, and Africa. By George C. McGhee 
(over VGA) 61 

American Republics 

Organization of American States (Oas) : 
Oas — Expression of Hemispliere Law and 
Order. By Edward G. Miller (over 

VOA) 62 

Proposed Agenda for Meeting of American 

Foreign Ministers 66 

Arms and Armed Forces 

American Efforts To Meet Threats of Aggres- 
sion. By George W. Perliins (over 
VOA) 63 

Facing Up to the Challenge of Present World 
Crisis. By Secretary Acheson (over 
CBS) 56 

Proposed Agenda for Meeting of American 

Foreign Ministers 66 

UN. Command Operations in Korea (Oct. 

16-Nov. 30) 43 

U.N. Faces Aggression. By Ernest A. Gross . 57 

Asia 

India : Point 4 Agreement With India ... 67 

Japan : 

Answer to Soviet Questions on Principles 

for Japanese Treaty 65 

Impartial Commission To Investigate Pris- 
oners of War Question. By Edith S. 
Sampson 68 

Korea: U.N. Command Operations (Oct. 16- 
Nov. 30) 43 

Our Contributions to Peace. By Dean Rusk . 64 

Palestine: Palestine Question I'oses Problem 
of Refugees and of an International Re- 
gime for Jerusalem. Statements by John 
C. Ross 74 

Review of Relations With Near East, South 
Asia, and Africa. Statement by George 
C. McGhee 61 

U.N. Paces Aggression. By Ernest A. Gross . 57 

Communism 

American Efforts To Meet Threats of Aggres- 
sion By George W. Perkins 63 

Our Contributions to Peace. By Dean 

Rusk (over VOA) 64 

U.N. Command Operations in Korea (Oct. 

16-Nov. .30) 43 

U.N. Faces Aggression. By Ernest A. Gross . 57 

Foreign Service 

Orientation Course for Point 4 Experts 

Completed 56 

Europe 

Germany: Impartial Commission To Investi- 
gate Prisoners of War Questiou ... 68 
U.S.S.R.: 

American Efforts To Meet Threats of Ag- 

gre.ssion. By George W. I'crkins ... 63 

Answer to Soviet Questions on Principles 

for Japanese Treaty 65 

Facing Up to tlic Challenge of Present 

World Crisis. By Secretary Acheson . . 56 

Impartial Connnission To Investigate Pris- 
oners of War Question 68 

U.N. Faces Aggression. By Ernest A. 
Gross (American I'olitical Science 
Assn.) 57 



Page. 
France: International Court Sets Deadlines 
for Filing Statements on U.S. Nationals 
in Morocco 79 

Prisoners of War 

Imijartial Commission To Investigate Pris- 
oners of War Question. By Edith S. 
Sampson 68 

U.N. Command Operations in Korea . . 45, 49, 54 

Protection of U.S. Nationals and Property 

International Court Sets Deadlines for 
Filing Statements on U.S. Nationals in 
Morocco 79 

Refugees 

Palestine Question Poses Problem of Refugees 
and of an International Regime for Jeru- 
salem. Statements by John C. Ross . . 74 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Orientation Course for Point 4 Experts Com- 
pleted 56 

Point 4 Agreement With India, signature . . 67 

Treaties and International Agreements 

Answer to Soviet Questions on Principles for 

Japanese Treaty 65 

Point 4 Agreement With India, signature . . 67 

United Nations 

Impartial Commi.ssion To Investigate Pris- 
oners of War Question. By Edith S. 
Sampson 68 

International Court Sets Deadlines for Fil- 
ing Statements on U.S. Nationals in 
Morocco 79 

Palestine Question Poses Problem of Refu- 
gees and of an International Regime for 
Jerusalem. Statements by John C. 
Ross 74 

Resolutions : 

Assistance to Palestine Refugees (Dec. 

2), text 78 

Prisoners of War (Dec. 14), text ... 73 

U.N. Command Operations (Oct. 10-Nov. 

30) 43 

U.N. Faces Aggression. By Ernest A. Gross . 57 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 56 

Austin, Warren R 43 

Bajpai, Girja Shaukar 67 

Bennett, Henry G 56,67 

Dreier, John C 66 

Dulles, John Poster 65 

Gross, Ernest A 57 

Henderson, Loy 67 

Jlalik, J. A 6.1 

McGhee, George C 61 

Miller, Edward G 62 

Perkins, George W 63 

Ross, John C 74 

Rusk, Dean 64 

Sevareid, Eric .16 

Sampson, Edith S 68 



iJ/i€/ u)eha^t^teni/ /(w t/tafe^ 




CHARTING THE COURSE FOR 1951 • Statement by 

Secretary Acheson 83 

WHERE ARE WE? A FIVE-YEAR RECORD OF 
AMERICA'S RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGE 

OF COIMMUNISM • By John Foster Dulles ... 85 

BASIC POLICY ISSUES IN ECONOMIC DEVELOP- 
MENT • By Assistant Secretary Thorp 94 

U.S. DELEGATION REPORT ON FAO • By Clarence 

J. McCormicU, Under Secretary of Agriculture ..... 105 

CONFERENCE ON CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN 

AFRICA TRANSPORT PROBLEMS • An Article . . 110 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 602 
January 15, 1951 




V: S. SUPERINTENDENT Of DOCUMENTS 

JAN 291951 




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January 15, 1951 



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edited in the Division of Publications, 
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Charting the Course for 1951 



Statement hy Secretary Ackeson 



[Released to the press December SO] 



We have gone through a dark year. It was a 
year of steadily increasing tension which broke, 
in June, into open fighting, an action which under- 
went a manifold increase in scale with the fla- 
frant and barefaced attack by Communist China, 
t was a year in which the leaders of the Soviet 
Union talked loudly of peace, but their words 
were drowned out by the noise of their warlike 
acts. But let us not make the mistake of permit- 
ting the deep shadow which overcast 1950 to ob- 
scure certain fundamental accomplishments that 
are a part of the year's record. I call attention to 
some of them here because they form a part of the 
foundation on which we are going to build in 1951. 
They also concern the foreign policy which this 
Government has been pushing for the past 5 
yeai-s — a policy which is designed to create unity 
and security for the free world. It is our firm 
intention to press forward with this policy. We 
are confident it is sound. 

Last June, the United Nations met squarely the 
issue of Communist aggression against the Repub- 
lic of Korea. Fifty-three nations joined in brand- 
ing the North Koreans as aggressors and called 
for military action from member nations to drive 
them out. Twenty-five nations made offers of 
material contributions to the United Nations army. 
Infantry units of 13 nations are fighting in Korea 
imder the United Nations flag, and 14 coun- 
tries have contributed air, naval, and medical 
contingents. 

This is concrete evidence that our associates in 
the free world are willing to make sacrifices — 
and, in some instances, the sacrifices entailed are 
considerable — in the interests of collective secu- 
rity. They are demonstrations of the willingness 
of these nations to stand up and be counted for the 
cause of freedom. 

The Year In Retrospect 

During 1950, the procedures of the General As- 
sembly were strengthened so that the United 



Nations could not be rendered impotent by obstruc- 
tionist use of the veto. 

The year, also, saw progress in shaping the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The talks 
in Brussels this month paved the way for action 
and made possible the appointment of General 
Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander. We 
are getting on with the job of marshaling an effec- 
tive security force for the North Atlantic 
community. 

In the past 12 months, the Mutual Defense 
Assistance Program moved ahead at a good pace. 

Point 4, tremendous in potential though modesc 
in scale, got under way. The European recovery 
which the Marshall Plan was designed to accom- 
plish has made tremendous strides and, in some 
nations, is a full year ahead of schedule. 

The year produced another move of grim sig- 
nificance to the free world. For the first time 
since V-J Day, the Soviet Union went a step beyond 
tactics of indirection and subversion — and encour- 
aged the use of force. Consequently, the air is 
now cleared of any shred of doubt that might have 
existed as to the methods which the Soviet Union 
is willing to use. The Politburo's sanctimonious 
profession of its desire for peace is shown to be 
nothing but camouflage to cloak the naked impe- 
rialism of its aims. 



Prospects for 1951 

Thus, the crisis of this past year — and, thus, 
the need for some very plain talk on plans and 
prospects for 1951. 

The emergency we face is one of extreme gravity. 
Our freedom, our way of life is menaced. We 
must rebuild our own defenses and help buttress 
those of the free world. That means sacrifice. 
That means maximum effort from each one of us. 
It means that there must be full understanding of 
the problems we are facing. It means also that 
there must be full support for the measures which 
may be essential to preserve the free world. 



January IS, 1951 



83 



I believe that there are certain fundamentals of 
irolicy which must be followed in 1951: 

This country must remain true to its tradition 
of standing by its friends. To abandon our allies 
would gratify the Kremlin. To do so would be 
appeasement on a gigantic scale. The Soviet 
Union, holding in unhappy bondage the peoples 
of Eastern Europe, wields enough power without 
making the Soviet imperialists a gift of the pro- 
ductive capacity and technical skills of Western 
Europe, plus the strategic resources and the man- 
power of the Middle East and Asia. 

Eegardless of threats, this country will not 
compromise by appeasement its security or the 
principles by which a society of free men must live. 
We will not reward Communist aggression. In 
Korea, this means that this country will not be 
intimidated by the threats coming out of Peiping; 
but will continue under the United Nations to 
combat the forces of aggression. 

This Government will press vigorously ahead 
with programs and policies, the validity of which 
has been established by actual test. We will re- 
double our efforts to build situations of strength 
to meet trouble wherever it threatens. This is the 
effective counter to Communist expansion. The 
present difficulties arise from the lawless and cyn- 
ical conduct of the Communists who would destroy 
peace and freedom. This conduct requires us to 
add rapidly to our military strength. We will 
continue our efforts to work for peace through the 
United Nations. That is the kmd of people we 
are — but we now, once again, must see to our arms. 

Economic aid will be carried forward — although 
redirected, where necessary, to contribute to the 
military strength of the free world. 

We will step up the international information 
program to make sure that the ideals of free men 
have full expression, that the Soviet Union and 
its puppets are constantly before the bar of world 
opinion, and to present an accurate and factual 
interpretation of American action and intention. 

We must strive to close the ranks at home to 
obtain the strength which derives from unity. The 
two great parties must continue to consult with 
each other on international affairs in order to 
insure that American action will have maximum 
possible bipartisan backing. 

Creating Strength To Repel Aggression 

The lesson of Korea has hit home. We must 
rally to the support of the President in his call 
for rapid strengthening of our national defenses 
and for readying the full moral and material 
strength of the nation to guard against the dangers 
that threaten us. No sacrifices are too great when 
the future of this nation is at stake. 

I am confident that, if we dedicate ourselves to 
a build-up of strength in the months ahead, we 
will come through this crisis. We have the pro- 



84 



ductive capacity, the skill, and the manpower that 
are required. All that is needed is the determina- 
tion to do the job. There will be no lack of will if 
w^e keep ever in mind, during the new year, that 
American strength is the indispensable component 
of world peace. 

The great resources of this country are now 
being marshaled and the armed forces rapidly 
being expanded. New weapons are being forged 
which will be made available to our own forces and 
to our allies. Meanwhile, our allies are also in- 
creasing their military production and building 
up their armed forces. 

I am sure that this country, together with the 
other free nations, will create the strength neces- 
sary to repel aggression, restore stability, and 
increase the well-being of the free world. 



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Where Are We? A Five- Year Record 

of America's Response to the Challenge of Communism 



hy John Foster Dulles 
Consultant to the Secretary ' 



At the end of the year, it is our good custom to 
jjause to think about the past so that we can better 
plan the future. This year end it is particularly 
important to do that, and we should be grateful 
to all who, out of wisdom, experience and proven 
idealism, help to clarify the grave issues that 
confront us. 

As we look back, we need not feel despondent. 
Great dangers still surround us and there are many 
patches of ground fog. But, once we lift our 
vision so that we see the present in the light of 
historical perspective, it is apparent that the last 
5 years have been years of achievement and that 
our people have already surmounted a great peril. 

THE DANGER OF WESTERN DECADENCE 

Nations are like people in the sense that, while 
they may die a violent death, they are more apt 
to die in their beds, pai'ticularly as they gi-ow 
older. The great question of our time has been 
whether our Western civilization had become so 
old and decadent that it was bound to pass away, 
giving place to the younger, dynamic, and bar- 
barian society born out of the unholy union of 
Marx's communism and Russia's imperialism. 

For a thousand years, our Western civilization 
had been dominant in the world. It won and held 
that leadership on merit. It produced spiritual, 
intellectual, and material richness such as the 
world had never known before. The fruits of 
Western society were spread everywhere, and men, 
elsewhere, wanted to share them, rather than to 
destroy their source. 

However, a thousand years is a long time, even 
for a civilization, and many had come to feel that 
Western civilization had run its course and had 



' Address made before the American Association for the 
United Nations at New York City on Dec. 29 and released 
to the press on the same date. 



become infected with the same decay as had rotted 
other great civilizations of the past. The Com- 
munists shouted that everywhere. The West, they 
said, could no longer produce the vital leadership 
or creative acts needed to satisfy the dissatisfied 
masses; only communism could do that. 

With that slogan they softened up the opposi- 
tion and then moved in with terrorism, subversion 
and civil war to gain political control. By those 
methods the Russian state and the Bolshevik 
Party, working hand in hand, brought about 800 
million people under their control. That is about 
one-third of all the people there are. And still 
they were rolling on toward their announced goal 
of a Communist "one world." 

Who was there to stop them? Many thought 
that they were unstoppable; and a bandwagon 
trend was getting under way. 

U.S. RESPONSIBILITY 

At this critical moment, heavy responsibility 
fell upon the United States. We were still a rela- 
tively young nation ; we had not been devastated 
by war, and were on that account less susceptible 
than some others to the poison that the Communist 
Party distills. If anyone could perhaps demon- 
strate the faith and works needed to rally men 
to the cause of human freedom, it should be the 
United States. 

The whole world watched to see. If, at that 
juncture, we had sought only to save ourselves, 
that would have been public confession that the 
Communists were right when they said that the 
West had rotted. The tide of communism would 
have rolled on irresistibly, and we would have been 
encircled, isolated, and finally engulfed. Only, 
as we sought to help others could we save ourselves. 

Our people responded to that challenge by a 
5-year record of which we can be proud. 

Consider these deeds: 



January IS, 1951 



85 



1. We showed, by example within our own coun- 
try, that social justice could be had without 
traveling the Communist road of violent revolution 
and materialism. Through graduated income and 
estate taxes, and social security and pension plans, 
our capitalistic society has come to approach more 
nearly than the Communist world, the ideal of 
production according to ability and distribution 
according to need. 

2. Within 5 years the colonial system, which had 
become a festering sore, has been subjected to 
orderly liquidation. Over 550 million people have 
peacefully won political independence. Great 
Britain, as the principal colonial power, took the 
lead. Our own direct national contribution has 
been the granting of freedom to the Philippines 
and the discrediting of racial discrimination here 
at home. But, in many other ways, we helped in 
this whole great process of building between men 
of different races, creeds, and colors a new rela- 
tionship of partnership and of equality. 

3. Since the end of World War II, we have 
provided, in loans and grants, over 40 billion 
dollars for the relief of other people and the recon- 
struction of other lands, thereby practicing the 
great commandment that the strong ought to 
lighten the burdens of the weak. 

4. We took the lead in founding the United 
Nations as an organization for recording the moral 
judgments of the world and developing ways to 
put power behind those judgments so as to pro- 
mote collective justice and security. This year, 
for the first time in all time, a world organization 
moved with force to halt aggression. It seemed 
that the hope of ages had come true. Whatever 
now be the disappointments, we can know that the 
sons of the United Nations who in Korea lay down 
their lives, do so for the noblest cause for which 
men ever died in battle. They have done the 
indispensable by showing that world order can 
be made a practicable possibility. Nothing now 
can stop the determination of the people to achieve 
solidly that goal. 

THE NEED FOR CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM 

Now, I do not suggest for a moment that our 
record is a record of perfection. Our own social 
changes may have gone so far as unduly to curtail 
incentive and self-reliance. In some cases, political 
independence may have been given to peoples who 
are so inexperienced in the ways of self-govern- 
ment that it will be hard for them to preserve that 
independence in the face of the diabolically clever 
apparatus of Soviet communism. Our loans and 
grants to othei-s may sometimes have provided 
temporary relief rather than incentives to bold 
new creations of unity and strength. Both the 
United States and the United Nations may have 
assumed political responsibilities which they did 
not yet have the power to back up. Policies, them- 
selves good, often lacked efficient and timely exe- 
cution. There have been grave and perhaps 



unnecessary set-backs. Almost surely the free 
world erred in relying too much on potential 
power and in not creating enough military strength 
in being. 

There is no occasion for complacency or for 
whitewash. There is need to expose errors and to 
point the way to making better use of all the 
moral and material assets that our people have 
shown they could provide. Such constructive 
pressures are needed, and I have been among those 
who sought to create them. Under our political 
system, that is a special responsibility of the oppo- 
sition party. 

But, whatever may have been the faults and 
inadequacies of leadership, our people over the 
past 5 years have wrought mightily, and not with- 
out result. 



THE "COLD WAR" THWARTED 

A year ago, on January 1, 1950, IzvesticHs lead- 
ing editorial welcomed the New Year with these 
words : 

Around the U.S.S.R. the camp of the fighters for peace, 
democracy, and socialism is growing and becoming 
stronger. 

The forces of this camp are multiplying day by day. 
The camp of democracy and socialism today includes the 
great Soviet Union, democratic Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, Albania, Northern Korea, 
the Mongol People's Republic, the Chinese People's Repub- 
lic, the German Democratic Republic. 

And the editorial concluded : 

Communism is conquering. Communism will triumph ! 

I do not know what Izvestia will say next Mon- 
day in greeting to 1951. I do know that, whereas 
between 1945 and 1950 it was boasting new con- 
quests at the average rate of over two nations and 
150 million people a year, there are, this year, no 
new names of wliich to boast. I do not predict 
that we have seen the end of Soviet Communist 
expansion, but the free world has found the way 
to slow down Soviet Communist expansion by 
cheap methods; short of open war. That is no 
mean accomplishment. 

Communism pitted its youth against what it 
thought was our decrepitude; its universal creed 
against what it thought was our isolationism ; its 
revolutionary practices against what it thought 
was our static mood. It found, to its dismay, a 
people who, when under pressure, did not decom- 
jjose into factionalism and frustration. Unitedly, 
and with unpartisan and bipartisan leadership, 
they joined in an outpouring of compassion, fel- 
lowship, and material succor such as history has 
never before recorded. There is scarcely' a man, 
woman, or child in the United States who has not 
consciously made some sacrifice, out of the highest 
motives of which human beings are capable. In 
the process, they have ennobled their own charac- 
ters, have given new hope and courage to millions 
elsewhere, and have discomfited the leaders of 
Soviet conununism. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



There are defects, at top and bottom, but the 
broad outline is not without a certain grandeur. 
It is not to be belittled ; nor is the mood one to be 
reversed. 

We can rejoice in the renewal of the faith that 
has been the rock of our foundation and out of 
which have gushed healing waters. We can bo 
confident that that faith, if sustained, assures our 
capacity to overcome at least one of the twin 
dangers which, at the end of World War II, con- 
fronted us. We are not doomed to die in our beds. 

The Future 

So much for the past. Let us look now to the 
future. Have we renewed our youth like the 
eagle's only to be shot at in battle? Tliat might 
be. That was the risk our people took when they 
decided not to die from the internal diseases oif 
old age. 

The leadei-s of Soviet communism would have 
preferred sickness to be the method of our passing. 
They have great skill in spreading malignant 
germs and they prefer to practice that art rather 
than the art of open war where their nation may 
have quantitative superiority, but has qualitative 
inferiority. Party leaders have always distrusted 
the army and the generals, and are reluctant to 
give them the power that war exacts. If they 
have to use any army, they would rather us© 
someone else's. 

But, since it seems that the free world has gained 
a certain immunity to the Communist Party poi- 
son, their leadei-s must now decide whether to 
accept one of those waiting periods which Stalin 
has taught may, from time to time, be necessary 
in order "to buy off a powerful enemy and gain a 
respite" or whether to resort increasingly to open 
war. 

The fact that the free world succeeded, to the 
degree it did, in slowing up Communist success 
by methods short of war, automatically increased 
the risk of war itself. 

But risk is not the same as certainty. Just as 
we surmounted, in recent years, the primary peril 
of inner decay, so, in the year ahead, we must 
seek to surmount also the peril of full-scale for- 
eign war. We must find effective deterrents to 
Russian armed aggression. 

The free world starts out with certain assets 
which, I think we would all agree, are capable of 
being developed into deterrents of a general war 
of Russian origin. Since moral factors do not 
R-eigli heavily in the Russian scale, we are forced 
to think somewhat in material terms. 

OUR INDUSTRIAL SUPERIORITY 

Our inventive, resourceful, and free society has 
given industrial productivity far greater than that 
of Russia. In terms of steel, aluminum, electric 
power, and oil, the United States has a superiority 
of 3 or 4 to 1 over Russia. That ratio of supe- 



riority would not, of course, hold if Russia could 
take the industrial power of the Ruhr and Western 
Europe and the oil of the Middle East. So long 
as there are impediments to that, the free world 
has an economic power which operates as a major 
deterrent to open Russian aggression, particularly 
if we also have the will to forego some of our 
pleasures and put our economic machine into 
creating weapons on a mass i^roduction basis. 

RUSSIAN INTERNAL VULNERABILITY 

Already, within the captive world, there are 
grave internal weaknesses, and these could be ex- 
ploited by skillful opponents. Despotism, when 
looked at from without, usually looks solid and 
formidable, whereas free societies look divided and 
weak. Actually, that is an optical illusion. The 
reality is just the opposite. 

Take Russia. Out of its 200 million people, 
only about 6 million, or 3 percent are members 
of the ruling Communist Party. The political 
prisoners number from 10 to 15 million, or twice 
the total membership of the Party. The Party 
itself is shot through with distrust and suspicion, 
and there are periodic purges as between Party 
factions. No one, even in high authority, feels 
personally safe. In the case of the satellite coun- 
tries, the situation is even more precarious. For 
example, there is much unrest on the China main- 
land, and, in Poland and Czechoslovakia, the 
people are forced to accept officials of Russian 
nationality because the Russian masters cannot 
find any Poles or Czechs they are willing to trust. 

When a few men rule despotically 800 million, 
that is bound to be a vulnerable position. Many 
of the 800 million are sure to be sullen, resentful, 
and eager for change. Most of the othei-s will have 
been so beaten into submissiveness by the harsh 
discipline of the police state that they have lost all 
sense of personal responsibility. They could not 
respond to the unpredictable needs which come out 
of war disruptions. War can be very unkind to 
rulers who are despots and who have systemati- 
cally destroyed the individual initiatives of their 
people. They know that, and we can increasingly 
help them to see the light. 

THE FALLACY OF AREA DEFENSE 

Wlien it comes to straight military strategy, the 
free world seems, momentarily, in a mood of some 
confusion and without any agreed deterrent 
program. 

The Soviet Union has interior lines. It has con- 
centrated men, tanks, artillery, and strategic and 
tactical planes around the hub of the great circle 
of its control. The rim starts near the North Pole, 
swings south, along the border of Norway, Finland, 
Sweden, West Germany, Austria, and Yugoslavia ; 
then east, along the border of Greece, Turkey, the 
Arab states, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, 
Burma, Indochina, and Malaya ; then northward 



January IS, 1951 



B7 



close to the Philippines, Formosa, Japan, Korea, 
and Alaska. From within this vast orbit, a single 
will can, in secrecy, plot and act to strike any one 
of the many nations with overwhelming force. 

It may be possible, by prearranged defense, to 
make that attack costly, particularly where sea and 
air power play a role or where, as in Western 
Europe, there is depth and numbers and military 
experience on which to draw. But, with more 
than 20 nations strung along the 20,000 miles of 
iron curtain, it is not possible to build up static 
defensive forces which could make each nation 
impregnable to such a major and unpredictable 
assault as Russia could launch. To attempt this 
would be to have strength nowhere and bank- 
ruptcy everywhere. 

That, however, does not mean that we should 
abandon the whole idea of collective security and 
merely build our own defense area with the help 
of such other countries as we might pick because 
of their capacity to be useful to us. 

The whole world can be confident that the 
United States will not, at a moment of supreme 
danger, shed allies who are endangered and to 
whom we are bound by solemn treaty, by common 
heritage, and by past fellowship in war and peace. 
I do not interpret anyone as urging this. Any 
nation doing that would scarcely be in a position, 
thereafter, to do much picking and choosing for 
its own account. It would have elected a danger- 
ous course, for solitary defense is never impreg- 
nable. It is possible to plan on paper, and describe 
in words, what it seems should be an impregnable 
defense, a China Wall, a Maginot Line, a Rock of 
Gibraltar, an Atlantic and Pacific Moat. But the 
mood that plans such a defense carries, witliin 
itself, the seeds of its own collapse. A defense 
that accepts encirclement quickly decomposes. 
That has been proved a thousand times. 

A United States which could be an inactive spec- 
tator wliile the barbarians overran and desecrated 
the cradle of our Christian civilization would not 
be the kind of a United States which could defend 
itself. 

THE DETERRENT OF RETALIATORY POWER 

Fortunately, we do not have to choose between 
two disastrous alternatives. It is not necessary 
either to spread our strength all around the world 
in futile attempts to create everywhere a static 
defense, nor need we crawl back into our own hole 
in the vain hope of defending ourselves against all 
the rest of the world. We are not so bankrupt in 
resourcefulness that we can find only those two 
choices. There are others. 

Around the rim of the captive world, the free 
world can maintain enough economic and political 
vigor, enough military strength, and enough will 
to resist so that these areas cannot be cheaply con- 
quered by subversive methods, by trumped up 
"civil wars," or even by satellite attacks. 

That leaves to be dealt with the possibility of 



full-scale attack by the Soviet Union itself. As 
against that there is only one effective defense, 
for us and for others. That is the capacity to 
counterattack. That is the ultimate deterrent. 

When I was in the Senate, working for the rati- 
fication of the North Atlantic Pact, I took the 
position that it did not commit the United States 
to the land defense of any particular area; it did 
commit us to action, but action of our own choos- 
ing rather than action that an aggressor could 
dictate to us. 

In Korea, the United Nations forces suffer the 
grave handicap of trying to repel an aggressor 
within the limited area he selected for an attack, 
at the time he selected, and with methods of war 
which are dictated by the terrain, and the weather 
he selected. 

Our people have loyally, sacrificially, and 
rightly backed this historic first attempt at or- 
ganized suppression of aggression. We have done 
so despite the fact that this effort involves the 
inevitable defects of any first endeavor. But we 
instinctively feel that there is something wrong 
about the method and do not want to be committed 
to a seiies of Koreas all around the globe. 

That instinct is quite sound. 

Against such military power as the Soviet Union 
can marshal, collective security depends on capac- 
ity to counterattack against the aggressor. Then, 
there can be concerted, rather than dissipated 
power, for the force that protects one protects all, 
and with that there is a good chance of deterring 
aggression. 

The free world is not without power in this 
resjject. It has a strategic air force and a stock 
of weapons. But total reliance should not be 
placed on any single form of warfare or any 
relatively untried type of weapon. It has naval 
power, and potential strength on the ground. 
Much more of all of this needs, now, to be brought 
into being. The arsenal of retaliation should 
include all forms of counterattack with maximum 
flexibility, mobility, and the possibility of sur- 
prise. The places of assembly should be chosen, 
not as places to defend, but as suitable stages for 
launching the means of destroying the forces of 
aggi-ession, if aggression occurs. The United Na- 
tions, if it shows that it has the requisite moral 
courage, should be given the right to determine 
the fact of aggression so as to insure the Charter 
goal of armed forces not being used save in the 
common interest. 

In such ways, the idea of collective security can 
be given sensible and effective content. 

THE HOPE OF RIGHTEOUS PEACE 

We cannot be sure that anything we now do 
will, in fact, prevent the awful catastrophe of a 
third world war. The final decision will be made 
in the Kremlin. Perhaps, it has been made already. 
That we cannot know. AVc face a i>eriod that is 
bound to be one of grave anxiety. But so long as 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



the die has not been irrevocably cast for war, we 
must assume that righteous peace may yet be pos- 
sible ; and we must worlt with all the power that lies 
within us to achieve that peace. 

It is not pleasant, at this lioliday season, to 
talk about instruments of death. But events in 
Korea have shown that peace is not to be found in 
an unbalance of military power. To correct that 
balance is a <^rim necessity. But it is a necessity 
which also requires that we be vigilant to preserve 
and not relax the moral safeguards with which 
military jiower needs always to be surrounded. 

We can rejoice that the United Nations forces 
in Asia and the North Atlantic forces in Europe 
are under tlie command of two men, General Mac- 
Artliur and General Eisenhower, wlio have dem- 
onstrated, in peace and war, that they put 
material values second and moral values first. 
That should be the mood of all people. 

It is not easy to do what has to be done without 
whipping up emotions which are provocative of 
war. AYe must make certain that no act of ours 
increases the already acute danger. So let us, on 
the eve of this New Year, solemnly consecrate our- 
selves to that calm resolve which, in moments of 
peril, is the hallmark of true greatness. 



Office of U.S. High Commissioner 
for Germany Moved to Bonn 

[Released to the press Januarjf S] 

John J. McCloy, United States High Commis- 
sioner for Germany, announced today that the 
High Commissioner for Germany's headquarters 
will be transferred from Frankfort to the Bonn 
enclave as soon as housing, office space, and other 
facilities can be constructed. This is expected to 
be by September 1, 1951. 

Mr. McCloy stated : 

The Bonn move is a basic step directed toward the 
establishment of normal relations with the German Fed- 
eral Republic at its seat of government. 

This move will simplify our working relationships with 
the federal officials without sacrificing our contacts with 
the laender. It is especially gratifying to me that it can 
be accomplished without expense to the German people, 
as the construction costs and related expenses will be paid 
with U.S. counterpart funds and will not be charged 
against occupation costs. 

Mr. McCloy's personal headquarters will be in- 
cluded in the move to Bonn, but he will continue 
to maintain an office at Frankfort. Certain Hicoo 
units will probably remain at Frankfort following 
the shift to Bonn until they are phased out or can 
be accommodated in the Bonn area. The recently- 
completed housing project in Frankfort will be 
retained during that time and for such additional 
time as necessary for Hicog and United States 
Army personnel. As soon as feasible, the space 



will be released, as originally planned, to the city 
of Frankfort. 

Glenn (i. Wolfe, Director of the Office of Ad- 
ministration, explained that: 

The construction in the Bonn area, at sites not yet deter- 
mined, will include office facilities and ijermaneut type 
housinj; accommodations for both American and German 
eiiiployees, plus other auxiliary requirements. 

All constiuction of Hicoo housing facilities is planned 
in due consideration of ultimate U.S. needs in Germany 
as well as maximum utilization by the German i)eople 
and is linanced from U.S. counterpart funds accruing 
from dollar expenditures in Western Germany. 

It was pointed out that though the Bonn move 
will probably speed up the planned contraction of 
the HicoG headquarters and laender staffs, most 
of the reduction in personnel would come through 
normal attrition during the next year in any case; 
thus the move is not expected to result in large- 
scale release of laender or headquarters persomiel. 



Chauncey G. Parker, Assistant 

U.S. High Commissioner for Germany 

On December 29, the Department of State an- 
nounced the appointment of Chauncey G. Parker 
as Assistant United States High Commissioner for 
Germany. Benjamin J. Buttenwieser, presently 
Assistant High Commissioner, continues in that 
office where he assists High Commissioner John J. 
McCloy in matters of policy and representation. 
Mr. Parker will serve in an executive capacity in 
the operating field. 



Relief Assistance for 

Flooded Areas of India and Pakistan 

[Released to the press January 5] 

Through the joint cooperative efforts of the 
Department of Defense and the War Relief Serv- 
ices-National Catholic Welfare Conference, 4 tons 
of relief supplies including children's clothing, 
blankets, medicines, and foodstuffs were shipped 
today in United States Air Forces planes to Pakis- 
tan and India. 

Following heavy floods in Kashmir and the 
Punjab areas of India and Pakistan, the Ameri- 
can Embassies at New Delhi and Karachi re- 
l^orted on these disasters and urged that relief 
assistance be extended to the flood victims. The 
supplies will be distributed to the unfortunate 
people in the stricken areas of India and Pakistan. 

A similar relief shipment for the earthquake 
victims in Assam was flown to India in October 
1950 through the combined efforts of the United 
States Air Force and the American Eed Cross. 



January 15, 7957 



89 



status of Negotiations With Soviet Union 
on Proposed Foreign Ministers Meeting 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON ' 

I have the following comments to make about 
the exchange of notes ^ relating to the proposed 
meetings of representatives of the United States, 
the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet 
Union : 

Last November, the Soviet Union proposed that 
the Council of Foreign Ministers meet to consider 
German demilitarization on the basis of the 
Praha communique. You will recall that this 
communique, which was full of the usual false al- 
legations against the three Western powers, re- 
peated previous proposals which not only had 
been rejected by the majority of German opinion 
but also had been found to afford no basis for a 
constructive solution of the German problem. 

On December 22 the United States replied that 
existing international tensions arise not from the 
question of the demilitarization of Germany nor 
even from the German problem as a whole but 
from the general attitude adopted by the U.S.S.R. 
since the end of the war and from consequent 
international developments of recent months. 
This being so, the United States, along with 
France and the United Kingdom, rejected any 
Cfm meeting which would take up only the ques- 
tion of Germany. The United States note stated : 

5. The serious tension which exists at present springs 
neitlier from the question of tlie demilitarization of Ger- 
many nor even from the German problem as a whole. It 
arises in the first instance from the general attitude 
adopted by the Government of the U.S.S.R. since the end 
of the war and from the consequent international develop- 
ments of recent months. The Governments of the four 
powers would be failing in their full responsibility if they 
were to confine their discussion to the narrow basis pro- 
posed by the Soviet Government. Questions related to 
Germany and Austria would obviously be subjects for 
discussion. But the U.S. Government believes that any 
discussions should Include equally the principal problems 
whose solution would i^ermit a real and lasting improve- 
ment in the relations between the Soviet Union and the 
United States, Great Britain and France and the elimina- 
tion of the causes of present international tensions 
throughout the world. 



' Made at press conference on Jan. 3 and released to the 
press on the same date. 
' See also Bulletin of Jan. 1, 1951, p. 11. 



6. The U.S. Government is prepared to designate a 
representative who, together with representatives of the 
Soviet, British and French Governments would examine 
the problems referred to in the preceding paragraph with 
a view to finding a mutually acceptable basis for a meet- 
ing of the foreign minLsters of the four countries and 
recommend to their Governments a suitable agenda. It 
would appear that the presence of representatives of the 
above-named governments at the seat of the United Nations 
in New York presents the most convenient opportunity to 
conduct such exploratory discussions. 

The British and French Governments sent simi- 
lar replies. 

The Soviet note received Monday makes no 
mention of the broader issues which we proposed 
should be explored but merely restates the Soviet 
position that the Cfm should meet to discuss Ger- 
man questions. The only additional feature in the 
Soviet reply is the statement that, prior to the 
Cfm meeting, the U.S.S.R. would be willing to 
have representatives of the four powers meet, but 
only to draw up an ageiida. This is not an ac- 
ceptance of our proposal for the exploratory talks 
which I have just described. 

It is obvious that we must have further clarifica- 
tion of the Soviet position before we can assume 
that the U.S.S.R. is ready to accept our proposal 
to discuss the solution of outstanding problems, 
including Germany, in regard to which the Soviet 
attitude has created a sense of insecurity in the 
minds of peace-loving nations. 

We have already begun to discuss with the 
British and the French the next step to be taken. 
Since the three Western powers drafted the De- 
cember 22 note together, these Governments would 
naturally wish to act together in sending any 
further note to the U.S.S.R. 



SOVIET NOTE OF DECEMBER 30 

[Released to the press January 2] 

Follmmnff is an nnoffioial English translation of th-e 
Sotyiet note of December 30, 1H50, ^chieh was released bii the 
U.S.S.R. toda;/. The Soviet note is in reply to the joint 
notes of the United States, United Kingdom, and France 
dated December 82, 1950: 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics confirms receipt of 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



the note of the Government of the United States 
of America of December 22, which is in answer 
to a note of the Soviet of November 3 of this year 
on the question of callinf^ a meeting of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers and on instruction of the 
Soviet Government, has the honor to state the 
following: 

1. The Soviet Government in its note of No- 
vember 3 proposed calling the Council of Foreign 
Ministei-s of the U.S., Great Britain, France and 
the USSR for consideration of the question of ful- 
fillment of the decisions of the Potsdam confer- 
ence regarding the demilitarization of Germany. 
Introducing such a proposal the Soviet Govern- 
ment proceeded, thus, from the necessity of holding 
not simply a meeting of the four ministers for the 
purpose only of consultations on these or those 
questions, but also from the necessity of calling 
the Council of Foreign Ministers for considera- 
tion of questions related to the competence of the 
Council of Ministers as constituted. In this con- 
nection the Soviet Government considered it 
necessary to discuss first of all the question of the 
demilitarization of Germany as the most acute 
question for Europe. 

C-ontinuing to consider that the question of 
demilitarization of Germany is the most important 
in the cause of insuring international peace and 
security and touches upon the basic interest of 
the people of Europe and primarily of the peoples 
who have suifered from Hitlerite aggression, the 
Soviet Government expressed its agreement to the 
discussion also of other questions regarding Ger- 
many which corresponds to the position of the 
Soviet Government as set forth in its note of 
November 3 and to the Prague declaration of 
eight powers. 

The Soviet Government does not object to the 
proposal for the calling of a preliminary meeting 
of representatives of the USA, Great Britain, 
France and the USSR with the purpose that the 
meeting work out an agenda for the session of the 
Cfm. It goes without saying that in tasks of 
such a preliminary discussion, consideration of 
questions which should be considered at the meet- 
ing itself of the four foreign ministers will not be 
included. 

As for the place of calling of the preliminary 
meeting, the Soviet Government proposes that 
such meeting be called not in New York but in 
Moscow, Paris, or London in view of the fact that 
the holding of such meeting in one of the capitals 
mentioned presents undoubted practical conven- 
iences for the majority of its participants. 

2. The assertion of the Government of the 
United States that proposals set forth in the 
Praha declaration cannot serve as a basis for 
the favorable solution of the German problem 
calls forth legitimate doubt since this assertion 
was made before the proposals mentioned were 
subjected to consideration of the four powers. As- 



sertions also of the American note that these pro- 
posals were allegedly rejected by a majority of the 
German people are at least baseless and do not at 
all conform to the real situation. In any event, 
it is not difficult to be convinced that in broad 
circles of the German population, including the 
population of West Germany as well, the proposals 
of the Praha meeting have met with great interest. 
As far as remarks contained in the note of the 
Government of the United States of America with 
respect to letters of the High Commissioners to 
the President of the Soviet Control Commission on 
the question of conducting all German elections 
which are simply an evasion of the question having 
great significance for the German people are con- 
cerned, this question was the subject of repeated 
discussion between the Governments of the four 
powers and the position of the Soviet Union on 
this question is well known. 

3. From published data it is seen that the Gov- 
ernments of the USA, Great Britain and France 
are creating in Western Germany a regular Ger- 
man army, forming not just some police detach- 
ments as has been officially stated by the Ministers 
of Foreign Affairs of the three Western powers, 
but whole divisions. It is known also that in 
recent days representatives of the Governments of 
the USA, Great Britain and France are carrying 
on negotiations with the Government of Adenauer 
concerning the number of German divisions being 
formed and their armament even with tanks and 
heavy artillery and concerning the inclusion of 
these divisions in the so-called "united armed 
forces." Attempts to camouflage these measures 
with references to the necessity of strengthening 
the defense of the USA, Great Britain, France and 
other states of Europe are clearly untenable since 
no one has threatened or is threatening these 
states. All the more untenable are attempts in the 
note of the Government of the USA to justify 
plans for remilitarization of Western Germany by 
references to rearmament allegedly taking place 
in Eastern Germany. Everything said in the note 
of the Government of the USA on this matter is 
fabricated from beginning to end and does not 
conform to reality in the slightest degree. In the 
note of the Soviet Government of October 19, it 
was already pointed out that such assertions of the 
Governments of the three powers were without any 
foundation. 

4. The note of the Government of the USA of 
December 22, furnishes a basis for considering 
that it is agreeable to the proposal of the Soviet 
Government with respect to joint consideration 
by the four powers of the question of the demili- 
tarization of Germany. The Soviet Government 
attaches important significance to this since the 
carrying out of the demilitarization of Germany is 
not only provided for by the Potsdam agreement 
between the USA, the USSR, Great Britain and 
France, but remains the most important condition 
for securing peace and security in Europe, corre- 



January 15, 1951 



91 



spending also to the national interest of the Ger- 
man people itself. 

Furthermore, it is known to tlie whole world 
that in recent time it is in fact the Governments 
of the USA, Great Britain and France which have 
been taking every kind of measure for the revival 
of a regular German army and for the restoration 
of war industry in Western Germany and are al- 
ready carrying on official negotiations on these 
questions with the Government of Adenauer, 
which is an expression of the desire of certain 
aggressive circles to confront the peoples of 
Europe with accomplished facts. There is no 
necessity to prove that such actions by the Govern- 
ments of the USA, Great Britain and France 
clearly contravene the obligations undertaken by 
these governments concerning the necessity for 
carrying out the demilitarization of Germany and 
also that they cannot but create serious difficulties 
in the solution of those questions which must be 
considered by the Council of Foreign Ministers, 
the calling of which is being delayed further and 
further for some reason or other. 

Similar notes are being sent by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment simultaneously to the Governments of 
France and Great Britain. 

REVIEW OF PAST ALLIED 
NEGOTIATIONS WITH SOVIET UNION 

This Government has repeatedly made knowii 
its willingness to take its part in negotiations for 
the settlement of outstanding problems with the 
Soviet Union with the proviso that there exists 
evidence of a genuine desire and intention to reach 
agreements. As recently as October 24, the Presi- 
dent, in his address to the United Nations General 
Assembly, reaffirmed the principle that the United 
States, as one of the members of the United Na- 
tions, is prepared, as always, to enter into nego- 
tiations for the peaceful settlement of problems as 
required by the Charter of the United Nations.^ 
The insistence which the United States has placed 
upon the necessity for evidence of a genuine desire 
to reach agreement, however, is based upon the 
impressive record of the futility of previous 
efforts, as well as upon the conviction that an at- 
mosphere of tension and danger is not an auspi- 
cious one in which to undertake fragmentary 
solutions. The whole problem of real negotiations 
must be kept within this perspective. 

Germany 

The record of postwar Allied negotiations with 
the Soviet Union on the subject of Germany is one 
of dismal futility, indicating a lack on the part 
of the Soviet Union of any genuine desire and in- 
tention to reach basic agreements or, when agree- 
ments are nominally reached, to carry out their 
terms on any other than a basis of expediency. 

" UULLETiN of Nov. 6, li)50, p. 719. 



The Potsdam Conference of July 17-August 2, 
1945, established a Council of Foreign Ministers 
(Cfm) which, for the purpose of considering 
German questions, consisted of the Foreign Min- 
isters of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, 
France, and the United States. Six regular ses- 
sions of this Council have since been held : 

1. London — September 11-October 2, 1945 

2. Paris — April 25-May 16, and June 15-July 
12, 1946 

3. New York — November 4-Deceinber 12, 1946 

4. Moscow— March 10-April 24, 1947 

5. London — November 25-December 16, 1947 

6. Paris— May 23-June 20, 1949 

The last of these sessions — that held at Paris — 
confirmed a process of fruitless negotiation which 
had failed to resolve a single one of the major 
points at issue with the Soviet Union concerning 
Germany. 

The problem of German economic unity may be 
taken as typical of these issues. Under the terras 
of the Potsdam Agreement, Germany was to be 
treated as an economic unit during the period of 
occupation. From the beginning, however, the 
Soviets cut their zone off from the rest of Ger- 
many, exploited and Sovietized it, and refused 
even to reveal to the Allied Control Council what 
they were doing. The issue of economic unity was 
discussed several times by the Council of Foreign 
Ministers and caused the breakdown of the fifth 
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers held 
at London late in 1947 when the Soviets insisted 
on obtaining reparations from current German 
production. At the Paris meeting of the Foreign 
Ministers in May-June 1949, economic unity of all 
Germany was again discussed, but no substantive 
agreements were reached. Even the quadripartite 
talks which were subsequently held with a view to 
mitigating the effects of the administrative divi- 
sion of Germany in the field of trade proved 
abortive. 

A similar account could be given for such issues 
as the status of the city of Berlin, reparations, de- 
militarization, and political unification of Ger- 
many. In no case, has there been any evidence that 
Allied good faith and willingness to negotiate were 
reciprocated by the Soviets, who demanded com- 
plete concession to their point of view, or that the 
conferences were serving much more purpose than 
to provide for the Soviets a convenient sounding- 
board for their propaganda efforts. 

Austria 

Turning to Austria, we find that tlie deputies 
for the Austrian treaty have met 258 times since 
1947. Only five comparatively minor articles are 
still unagreed, but the deputies have, for almost a 
year, made no progi'ess because the Soviets have 
resorted to delaying tactics and have continually 
introduced new and irrelevant issues. 



92 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



The Cfm, in June 1949, reached an a<jreenient on 
tlie most important treaty issues: reparations, 
boundaries, and the Soviet demands for German 
assets. In spite of tliis Cfm agreement, tlie So- 
viets are unwillinji; to grant Austria a treaty. 
P'or several months, tliey helil up discussions on 
the flimsy pretext that one article could not bo 
settled until the conclusion of bilateral Austro- 
Soviet "negotiations'' on Austria's alleged debt for 
relief supplies furnished by the Soviets; these 
"negotiations"' ended with an Austrian note sent 
in December 1949 which the Soviets have not yet 
found time to answer. Later, the Soviet deputy 
nuule the unsupported and untrue accusation that 
the AVestern powers and the Austrian Government 
are encouraging a revival of nazism and demanded 
that the already agreed article on nazism be re- 
opened. Tlien, he indicated that an Austrian 
treaty is impossible until the United States and 
Britain demonstrated their willingness to abide 
by the Italian peace treaty by withdrawing their 
troops from Trieste, an entirely irrelevant issue. 

During 12 meetings, in 1950, the deputies have 
been able to do nothing except argue about pro- 
cedure and listen to Soviet denunciations. The 
few remaining treaty articles could be easily set- 
tled if the Soviets would discuss them all, wnthout 
making new demands and reopening articles al- 
ready agreed. 

United Nations 

The record in the United Nations of repeated 
efforts, during the past 5 years, to obtain Soviet 
cooperation and to negotiate with them on ques- 
tions in which they are interested fully justifies 
the doubts now entertained as to the prospects of 
prompt and satisfactory settlement of outstanding 
differences through yet another forum. In gen- 
eral, they have sought to employ three types 
of devices of noncooperation and obstruction : 
(1) the walk-out; (2) the refusal to join interna- 
tional bodies; and (3) the veto and other parlia- 
mentary tactics in organs of which they are 
members. 

The first demonstration of the tactic of the 
"walk-out" and of refusing to participate in con- 
sideration of matters affecting them took place in 
early 1946 when Soviet Delegate Gromyko walked 
out of the Security Council meetings dealing with 
the complaint of Iran that the U.S.S.R. refused 
to remove its troops as required by treaty and was 
engaging in subversive activities designed to sepa- 
rate Azerbaijan from the rest of Iran. 

This use of the arbitrary boycott to seek to i:)ara- 
lyze the work of United Nations bodies culminated, 
in the spring of this year, over the question of 
Chinese representation when the Soviet delega- 
tions, as well as those of the captive countries of 
Europe, walked out of more than 40 different 
United Nations organs, agencies, and conferences. 

January 75, 7951 



Of the nearly a dozen specialized agencies (such 
as the Fao, Who, etc.), the Soviet Union has re- 
fused to join all but a single one, despite repeated 
invitations of the rest of the international com- 
munity to cooperate through these essential bodies 
in working out the solutions of the woi'ld's eco- 
nomic' and social prohlem-s. Not a single ruble has 
been contributed to tlieir work or to the various 
funds set up by the United Nations for the care 
of refugees, for technical assistance, or for similar 
humanitarian efforts. 

As to tlie third device, it is hardly necessary to 
recall the 46 times the U.S.S.R. has cast a veto in 
the Security Council to forestall decisions on al- 
most all major questions, for the admission of new 
members to the pacific settlement of disputes, to 
the appointment of the Secretary-General, to a 
settlement of the Korean question. 

In the particularly important field of atomic 
energy and disarmament, the futility of previous 
efforts to negotiate with the U.S.S.R. is strikingly 
demonstrated. 

Conclusion 

Despite this past record of discouragement and 
futility in trying to reach .solutions of interna- 
tional problems through peaceful procasses of ne- 
gotiation, tlie United States is determined to do 
everything it can to achieve the aims of removing 
the causes underlying present tensions. 

Since the end of the war, Soviet policies have 
resulted in the creation of tensions in various parts 
of the world which, if continued, afford little as- 
surance that there exists now a genuine desire on 
the part of the Soviet Government to come to 
real agreements whicii will remove or alleviate 
threats to world security and peace. Nevertheless, 
the United States Government, together with the 
British and French Governments, is proposing to 
enter into discussions with the Soviet Government 
for the purpose of determining whether there 
exists now a genuine desire on the part of the 
Soviet Government to eliminate the causes under- 
lying present international tensions and whether 
an acceptable basis can be found for holding a 
meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the four 
countries. 



U.S.-U.S.S.R. Negotiations 
on Lend-Lease To Resume 

[Released to the press January 5] 

U.S.-U.S.S.R. negotiations for a settlement of 
the Soviet wartime lend-lease account are to be 
resumed in Washington on January 15, 1951, with 
re^jresentatives of the Soviet Government nomi- 
nated for this purpose. Tlaese discussions will 
deal with lend-lease matters only. The question 

93 



of a settlement of Soviet obligations under the 
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Master Lend-Lease Agreement of 
June 11, 1942, has been a subject of discussion 
between the two Governments since 19-15. Formal 
settlement negotiations were first undertaken in 
April 1947. 

The forthcoming talks result from a United 
States note of June 15, 1950, to the Soviet Govern- 
ment suggesting the resumption of negotiations 
in a further effort to reach a long-overdfue settle- 
ment of this lend-lease account. 

The main problems to be dealt with are : 

(1) The amount, and terms of payment, for 
the reimbursable portion of wartime lend-lease 
aid from the United States to the Soviet Union. 
This reimbursable portion does not include arti- 
cles lost, destroyed, or consumed in the common 
war effort. It thus comprises only a small part 



of the total of approximately 11 billion dollars 
worth of lend-lease aid from the United States to 
the Soviet Union. 

(2) The disposition of naval and merchant 
vessels loaned to the U.S.S.R. which are subject to 
return to the United States on request. After 
the Soviet authorities failed for 2 years to comply 
with requests for return of certain vessels, the 
United States, on October 7, 1948, formally de- 
manded the return of 3 icebreakers, 28 frigates, 
and 186 units of other types, mainly small craft. 
To date, the U.S.S.R. has returned the frigates and 
one icebreaker but has failed to comply with the 
request for the other vessels. 

(3) Compensation to United States firms for 
the use of their patented oil refinery processes sup- 
plied to the U.o.S.R. under lend-lease. To date, 
the U.S.S.R. has reached agreement with only one 
of the seven interested United States firms. 



Basic Policy Issues in Economic Development 

hy Willard L. Thorp 

Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



Assistance to the process of economic develop- 
ment of other countries is nothing new to the 
United States. Foreign missionaries from Ameri- 
can churches taught much more than religious 
dogma. Business men carried capital and tech- 
nical skill abroad. Engineers created monuments 
to modern technology. Foundations translated 
fortunes accumulated in the United States into 
libraries, universities, and public health centers 
in other countries. 

So far as direct action by the Government is 
concerned, we need only note that the Export- 
Import Bank of Washington was established in 
1934, that many developmental projects in Latin 
America during the war were the antecedents of 
the present Institute for Inter-American Affairs, 
that under the so-called Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 
for the interchange of persons, knowledge, and 
technical services, much help in economic develop- 
ment has been given, and that the appropriations 
for the Economic Cooperation Administration 
each year have included funds for developmental 
use in tlie dependent overeeas territories of the 
cooperating European countries. For many 
years, and on a limited scale, various departments 
of the Government, notably the Department of 
Agriculture and the Public Health Service, have 
been providing foreign technical assistance. 

' Address made before the American Economic Associa- 
tion at Chicago, 111., on Dec. 29 and released to the press 
on the same date. 



These scattered and sporadic government pro- 
grams were given a new status when, in 1950, Con- 
gress passed the Act for International Develop- 
ment. This act contains the following policy 
statement : 

It is declared to be the policy of the United States to 
aid the efforts of the peoples of economically under- 
developed areas to develop their resources and improve 
their working and living conditions by encouraging the 
exchange of technical knowledge and skills and the flow 
of investment capital to countries which provide condi- 
tions under which such technical assistance and capital 
can effectively and constructively contribute to raising 
standards of living, creating new sources of wealth, in- 
creasing productivity and expanding purchasing power. 



Policy Objective 

Thus, assistance to the economic development of 
imderdeveloped countries is no longer a matter of 
haphazard and limited incident but is now an es- 
tablished policy objective of the United States 
Government, 

United States foreign policy seeks a number of 
different objectives. It looks forward to a world 
of free and independent nations, with an inter- 
national structure bringing order into interna- 
tional relationships. It seeks a peaceful woi'ld. 
It seeks a world of increasing personal freedom 
and respect for human dignity. It seeks a more 
productive and more prosperous world. 

These broad objectives are expressed in many 
policies and programs, varying all the way from 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



action against an aggressor nation to concern for 
displaced persons, from negotiating commercial 
treaties to the development of the charter of 
human rights, from arranging for the interna- 
tional exchange of students and professors to the 
international allocation of broadcasting fre- 
quencies. 

The basic objectives are interdependent and con- 
sistent, but the inn-suit of them along so many 
paths inevitably requires choices among policies 
or programs. For example, the preservation of 
free nations may conflict directly with the desire 
for peace. The pui"suit of peace, under today's 
conditions, may impinge sharply upon individual 
freedom and physical well-being. Personal free- 
dom may lead to the uneconomic use of resources 
or instability of business activity. The pursuit 
of prosperity may make more difficult the defense 
measures necessary for peace or may luidermine 
the personal freedom of others. And, to the ex- 
tent that any policy or program is costly, thei'e 
is the necessary and difficult choice imposed by 
tlie fact that government revenues, economic 
resources, and manpower are, by no means, 
unlimited. 

The elevation of assistance in economic devel- 
opment to a new position, both in terms of policy 
and program, inevitably raises a new series of 
choices. Some are internal to the policies and pro- 
grams for economic development itself, and some 
represent choices or conflicts with other objectives. 
Of course, as circumstances change and one objec- 
tive or another requires emphasis, earlier an- 
swers may need to be modified. I can only sug- 
gest a few of the policy issues which are trouble- 
some today. 



Imperialist Dilemma 

First is the so-called imperialist dilemma. To- 
day, in a number of countries, there is a strong 
undercurrent of nationalism which places in direct 
conflict the feeling of antagonism toward things 
which are foreign and the desire for the benefits 
of a cooperative effort with the outside world. In 
the first instance, this dilemma is one for the re- 
ceiving rather than the assisting country. How- 
ever, it may also raise the problem for the assist- 
ing country. Should it assist unless it can play 
an active rather than a passive role ? 

Oftentimes, an economically underdeveloped 
country has an underdeveloped government. It 
may lack a civil service system for selecting and 
training personnel ; it may lack an effective budget- 
ary control ; it may lack a sound fiscal policy; and 
its governmental structure may lack that clearly 
assigned responsibility among its parts, so neces- 
sary to take action effectively. When it is without 
an efficient and effective government, the under- 
developed country is under a serious handicap in 
carrying out its own plans for economic develop- 
ment. 



The dilemma is simply this : that, if the United 
States, through its representatives, imposes its 
judgments upon other governments and economies, 
we will be charged with being "political commis- 
sars for economic imperialism." Even if we es- 
tablish severe conditions for the receipt of aid to 
insure the effectiveness of some pi'ogram, we may 
be accused of "invading the sovereignty of inde- 
pendent nations." On the other hand, if we do 
not take an active role, the developmental effort 
may be dissipated in inefficiency and confusion, 
and the net result may well be very slight. 

This dilemma has proved to be much more 
troublesome as a nuitter of public relations than 
as a matter of any real threat to sovereignty. 
American policy is clear that it seeks to build 
strong, independent nations. So long as this ob- 
jective can be clearly declared and maintained, the 
so-called interferences arising from the process 
of assisting in the economic development of other 
countries can hardly be called imperialism, except 
by deliberate liars, particularly since our assist- 
ance is provided only on request. 

However, decent and honest as we may believe 
ourselves to be, the dilemma still remains for us 
to resolve, and we have dealt with it in various 
ways. In Greece, we assumed very considerable 
responsibility. In the Marshall Plan countries, 
we concerned ourselves largely with the use to 
which our aid was put and the support of objec- 
tives such as the liberalization of trade, already 
subscribed to by the Organization of European 
Economic Cooperation before any American 
funds were appropriated. In the case of the 
Philippines, we gave them their full independence 
along with substantial monetary assistance. 
However, since Philippine independence, the fis- 
cal situation in the Islands has deteriorated dan- 
gerously, and we are now offering further sup- 
port, providing a series of specific steps are taken 
to straighten out the situation. 

One important aspect of the problem arises 
from the proposition that, as one accepts greater 
participation, one's responsibility also increases. 
If we are to take a positive role in economic de- 
velopment, we need to know much more than we 
do about the nature and character of social and 
economic change. Economists, for example, have 
been preoccupied with the current American eco- 
nomic scene, except as they have been exposed to 
economic history, but even that was likely to be 
devoted to tracing the antecedents of our times, 
particularly by examining the feudal system. 

Our body of economic theory is related to the 
preconceptions and mores of Western civilization. 
It is worth remembering that Karl Marx built his 
system upon an interpretation of historical devel- 
opment while classical economists focused their 
cogitations much more ujion the theoretical oper- 
ations of economic equilibrium. 

We are woefully ignorant of contemporary so- 
cial and economic institutions in most other coun- 



January 15, 1951 



95 



tries. It is clear that these other societies and 
cultures cannot and should not be made over in 
the American image, but our accumulated social 
science knowledge has all too little to tell us about 
the possibilities and limitations of economic devel- 
opment in the underdeveloped countries. If we 
hope to give effective developmental aid to other 
countries, we must be prepared to play an active 
and responsible part. That means that we need 
a rapid advance in our understanding of and 
knowledge about the whole complex of problems 
involved in social and economic change, with par- 
ticular reference to the institutions presently ex- 
isting in the vmderdeveloped areas. This is a 
practical job for the social scientists. 

Timing Dilemma 

One of the most difficult set of choices in eco- 
nomic development may be called the timing di- 
lemma. Some less sophisticated individuals have 
thought of economic development almost exclu- 
sively in terms of capital goods, asserting that the 
problem could be solved if the underdeveloped 
countries could only get machinery. 

But economic development is no simple matter, 
and there is no magic formula for raising stand- 
ards of living rapidly. Usually, major social 
changes are required. Education and training 
are a basic necessity. And increased industrial 
production requires many supporting economic 
activities, such as transportation and power. Ob- 
viously, economic development is a slow process 
with the possibilities ranging from zero to a small 
percentage advance each year. 

However, there is need for haste. The cumu- 
lative process of development may never achieve 
real vigor unless it quickly arouses hope and cap- 
tures the imagination and allegiance of peoples. 
The essential drive must come from within the 
country itself. Furthermore, political instability 
and civil disorder are likely to make improvement 
impossible unless there is evidence of improve- 
ment. The improvement called for is an expan- 
sion in per capita consumption, itself a difficult 
achievement in countries with rapidly increasing 
populations. But, for the success of the enter- 
prise, it is important to make immediate progress. 

It is inevitable, therefore, that consumption and 
capital formation will compete with each other, 
with consumption having much the stronger drive 
behind it. There is an inevitable and sometimes 
subconscious pressure to give special emphasis to 
programs with immediate results. The local gov- 
ernments are eager to redeem their campaign 
promises, if there was any campaign, and, in any 
event, to assure their survival in power by pointing 
to a record of achievement. Even those abroad 
giving assistance, be tliey public or private, like 
to have definite results to report to the soiu'ces of 
their funds. It is a matter of fact that the most 
urgent requests from some of the underdeveloped 



countries have been for credit to buy consumers 
goods, sometimes because of natural catastrophes 
such as earthquakes or famine, but often on 
grounds of immediate political necessity. 

In countries where productivity is already ex- 
tremely low, domestic capital formation is neces- 
sarily limited. This situation may even lead to a 
condition where economic development can best 
be furthered by providing foreign consumers 
goods, which then can be translated into local 
currencies and used for the local costs of develop- 
mental enterprises which would not, otherwise, be 
met without depressing the already substandard 
of living. 

The fact remains that economic development is 
inherently a slow process. It may be necessary 
to break through the dead hand of custom, made 
jiarticularly difficult because fixed ways and atti- 
tudes often have a moral or religious basis. 
Luckih', there is a good deal of evidence that eco- 
nomic develo])ment can be an accelerating process. 
It is slow, at first, because the margin of saving 
for capital formation is small, because the number 
of people able to act as catalysts are few, and be- 
cause the idea of change must become acceptable 
before people become teachable. Both capital 
formation and teachability tend to pick up speed 
as production grows, education spreads, and 
horizons widen. 

Much can be done with promises about the fu- 
ture, as the Communists have demonstrated. But, 
sooner or later, there must either be a police state 
to deal with complaints or there must be a demon- 
stration of progress. Progi'ams must be devel- 
oped not merely as sound economic blueprints 
but with the needs and nature of the human be- 
ings involved clearly in mind. If the people of a 
country are starving, it is a hard choice for its 
rulers between using its credit to buy rice or wheat 
or to develop irrigation systems and build ferti- 
lizer plants. Since those who provide the credit 
also have an option to provide it for one purpose 
or another, they face the same problem. 

Private Enterprise Dilemma 

Next, may I cite the private-enterprise dilemma. 
We credit much of our own tremendous indus- 
trial development to the releasing of individual 
energies and imaginations through the institu- 
tion of private enterprise. It follows that we 
cannot lielp feeling that this great motive force 
would accomplish wonders in the underdeveloped 
countries if fostered and aided. 

On the other hand, underdeveloped countries are 
wary of private enterprise. In the past, foreign 
l)rivate enterprises have not always been locally 
popular, and, in many countries, a form of pre- 
industrial local private enterprise lias led to the 
growth of divergent wealthy and poor classes 
such as Marx mistakenly held to be inevitable for 
all capitalist societies. Hence, government poli- 
cies, regulations, and attitudes may inhibit not 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



only foreign-financed but even domestic private 
enterprise. 

American policy has strongly siippoi'ted the no- 
tion that tlie channels should be cleared for the 
flow of private capital abroad as a means of pro- 
viding American capital, technical skill, and man- 
agement experience to other countries. To that 
end, sustained efforts have been made to negotiate 
commercial treaties which would give assurances 
of fair treatment to foreign investors. However, 
treaties or no treaties, private capital seems to be 
loath to go abroad in these days of political and 
economic insecurity unless its prospective rewards 
are so great as to make these risks worth taking. 
The necessity of a high rate of return appears to 
rule out all but a few fields of endeavor (certainly 
eliminating the basic public service developments 
such as transportation, power, and irrigation) or 
to arouse such cries of foreign exploitation as to 
lead to further regulation by foreign governments. 
Some have suggested the use, as an incentive, of re- 
duced taxation in the United States of foreign 
earnings, but there are many other interests (be- 
sides educational and charitable institutions) 
which would like similar encouragement. At any 
rate, the fact is that, at present, private enterprise 
is not doing the job. As a result, governments are 
playing a large role, and one American principle 
comes in conflict with another. 

As to private enterprise in general, it is, of 
course, true that many countries, even our own, 
today take the form of mixed economies. Private 
enterprise is perhaps most valuable in the pioneer- 
ing activities where experiment and imagination 
are attracted by large potential rewards. In an 
underdeveloped country, the problem is largely 
one of utilizing the experience of other countries. 
Thus Russia, between the two wars, was able to 
move ahead rapidly because she started far behind 
the established levels of the more advanced coun- 
tries and could take over, without the costs of trial 
and error, the advanced technology of the West- 
ern world. Many individuals in other countries 
would argue that private enterprise is not as es- 
sential in a country which is far behind the pro- 
cession. They say that, since the problem is one 
of how best to use scarce skills, capital, and re- 
sources, a central planning, and control agency, 
i. e., government, is the minimum requirement, and 
government operation itself may be the most ef- 
fective device to get things done. 

The attitude in other countries toward private 
enterprise has changed noticeably during tlie last 
3 years. There is much less confidence in govern- 
ment operation as a panacea for all economic ills 
and much more recognition of the part which 
private enterprise can play in an expanding 
economy. 

Not merely for them but also for us the private 
enterprise dilemma raises a host of difficult specific 
problems. Can we expect private capital to flow 
abroad in larger volume? (The Marxist would 
answer, of course, that it will and must do so.) 

January 15, 1 951 

82302&— 51 3 



What special encouragement, if any, should be 
given by the government? What should our 
attitude be toward an underdeveloped country 
which employs government screening of foreign 
investment and government direction of private 
investment? How about government-to-govern- 
ment loans? How about the development of an 
economic plan for a country? What can be done 
to encourage private savings and investment in 
forms other than jewelry and real estate? These 
are not hypothetical questions. They are in- 
evitable in a world of varying economic and polit- 
ical structures. 

Trade Policy Dilemma 

Next, let us consider the trade-policy dilemma. 
Economists have long had a clear-cut doctrine 
that trade barriers interfere with the most effi- 
cient use of resources, physical and human. For 
17 years, American foreign policy has been di- 
rected toward the liberalization of trade although, 
I must confess, that consistency has not been per- 
fectly achieved in this field. 

Many of the underdeveloped countries have a 
great desire for industrialization. They are eager 
to reduce their dependence on one or a few major 
farm or mine products. They see the so-called 
industrial countries as those with the highest 
standards of living. They believe that economic 
well-being is highly and positively correlated with 
the proportion of the population engaged in in- 
dustry. Many of them are particularly eager to 
develop heavy industry even at high cost, because 
of the degree of independence which it gives them, 
the economic counterpart of political nationalism. 
It is interesting to note that, even in the more 
soj^histicated countries of Western Europe, the 
efforts of the Economic Cooperation Administra- 
tion to program, in terms of specialization of 
labor, within the ai'ea of the cooperating countries, 
were considerably defeated by the unwillingness 
of each country to increase its dependence upon 
other counti'ies, even if it were a mutual inter- 
dependence. 

This urge for the development of industiy leads 
to a desire for high tariffs. They are eager to 
build up industries that will compete with, not 
complement, those already existing in the de- 
veloped areas. They are interested in growing 
more food and fibres only if, in fact, they are now 
importing them. So the "infant industry" tariff 
defense once more appears in force. 

When 56 nations met at Habana 3 years ago to 
endeavor to find a common basis for an interna- 
tional charter in the trade field, one of the most 
vigorous and sustained controversies amon^ the 
representatives revolved around this very problem. 
The net result was that, while the basic policy 
agreement on which the charter was predicated 
was directed toward the reduction of trade bar- 
riers, there were complicated escape provisions 
outlining methods by which underdeveloped coun- 

97 



tries might, for purposes of development, obtain 
release from commitments assumed in trade agree- 
ments and, under the charter itself, with respect to 
commercial policy. Some such compromise was 
the only basis upon which agreement could be 
reached. 

Parenthetically, it may be interesting to note 
the interesting twist which the dilemma takes 
when American management and capital estab- 
lishes an infant industry in a foreign country 
behind a protective tariff. On several occasions, 
the United States Government has been under con- 
siderable pressure from American export pro- 
ducers to obtain lower tariii's into a country on a 
given procluct and from other American interests 
manufacturing within the foreign country not to 
expose them to the devastating competition of the 
continentals. The Americans operating abroad 
will argue that their costs are higher for a number 
of reasons, such as the small scale of their opera- 
tion, higher per unit labor costs, and the fact that 
usually they produce only an incomplete line, all 
of which conditions they claim will be corrected 
over time although I have yet to hear of a case 
where that time has been reached. Furthermore, 
they have painfully developed a local market 
under a given set of conditions including the tariff, 
and now it should not be available to others who 
have devoted no effort to its creation. Finally, 
they say, how can economic development ever take 
place if new enterprises in the underdeveloped 
areas must compete with the efficiency of modern 
American industry? (The next caller may out- 
line the problems which he faces in the United 
States as the result of cheap labor products being 
imported from abroad.) 

In the field of trade policy, the underdeveloped 
countries are extremely suspicious of the policies 
of the industrial countries. Some, apparently, 
believe that the basic purpose of present desires to 
liberalize trade is to obtain foreign markets for 
manufactured goods and that the advanced coun- 
tries are endeavoring to deny to underdeveloped 
nations freedom to use the very devices by which 
the industrial powers have established their pre- 
eminence. The argument parallels that of the 
Marxist, that capitalist countries must export to 
live and that heavy industry is the basis for sound 
economic development. One must add that many 
American businessmen fear the industrialization 
of other countries, either as a threat to their for- 
eign markets or as potential invaders of the 
American market itself. 

It has long been apparent that commercial pol- 
icy problems cannot be resolved simply by refer- 
ence to the principle of comparative advantage. 
They arouse conflicting interests which confuse 
the determination of the national interest, and 
they involve national objectives beyond those 
which can bo calculated from supply and demand 
curves. Plans for economic development will take 
quite different shapes according to whether they 



are made within a pattern of expanding inter- 
national trade or on the basis of economic 
nationalism. It is somewhat difficult to see the 
basis on which nations can expect to receive in- 
ternational assistance in order that they may 
achieve economic nationalism. From the eco- 
nomic point of view, assistance can best be justi- 
fied on the assumption of expanding world trade, 
with its resulting mutual benefits. However, 
even if the broad basis for action were generally 
accepted, there would still remain innumerable 
specific cases, both at home and abroad, where the 
notion of reducing trade barriers and expanding 
world trade would be vigorously challenged. 

Allocation of Resources Dilemma 

At this moment, we are faced with a new and 
disheartening series of choices, the allocation-of- 
resources dilemma. Any previous set of priori- 
ties among government programs must now be 
revised in the light of the requirements of the 
national emergency. To be sure, economic de- 
velopment assistance on the part of the Govern- 
ment always has been a charge against our 
national budget, but the requirements, in terms of 
goods and services, have been against an economy 
not operating under pressure or at full capacity. 
It has not been tested in a period rife with in- 
flationary forces. 

Today, we must give first priority to building 
our defenses. The combination of reiterated 
Kremlin-Communist doctrine and the continued 
high rate of expenditure for increasing Com- 
munist military sti-ength have presented for many 
months an increasing threat to our security. The 
recent events in Korea have demonstrated a cal- 
lous and confident willingness to enter upon ag- 
gression and even to defend it loudly and length- 
ily in the halls of the United Nations. We have 
no choice but to endeavor to prevent a world-wide 
conflagration by building such strength as to 
make the calculated risk to the aggressor one 
which no group in power anywhere would dare 
to chance. 

The process of building strength means that 
the United States will soon be short of govern- 
ment revenue, technicians, investment capital, 
capital goods, spare parts, and all the exportable 
ingredients of economic development. Other na- 
tions concerned with preserving the free world 
will also be devoting increased efforts to rearma- 
ment and will develop similar shortages. 

As a partial offset, is the fact that some of the 
underdeveloped areas are important producers of 
raw materials, and one of the immediate results 
of the expanded military programs has been to 
increase sharply the prices of their exports. They 
may well find themselves with rapidly accumulat- 
ing supplies of dollars and other foreign curren- 
cies but with limited opj)ortunities to spend them 
for technical assistance or for capital goods. Pol- 
icies with respect to priorities can, of course, limit 



98 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



economic development, either by restricting dollar 
aid or export availabilities, or both. 

Upon careful examination, it is clear that 
the choice is, by no means, a simple one between 
two clear-cut alternatives. Even those who 
would insist that all our attention should be fo- 
cussed upon buildino; up our own militaiy 
strength would agree that economic development 
projects in other countries, which would yield 
additional quantities of strategic materials in 
short supply, should be rapidly prosecuted. But 
there are still other considerations. Building 
strength is not solely a matter of military power, 
nor are all Communist successes the result of mil- 
itary aggression. Part of the process of reinforc- 
ing the fi'ee world must be to create situations of 
political and economic strength in areas whose 
weakness may otherwise invite aggression, direct 
or indirect. Through concrete evidence at the 
grass roots of constructive American interest in 
their welfare and through the hope created by 
forward movement, resistance can be created to 
the coming to power of Communists or seriously 
hostile governments. In the present world con- 
test, every country is important. 

Even though our blue chips may be stacked on 
military preparedness for ourselves and friendly 
countries, it may still be the part of wisdom to 
place some of our white chips on economic de- 
velopment. If we accept the idea that assistance 
for economic development has a valuable place in 
our policies, even during the national emergency, 
there remain the difficult problems of how much 
and where. It will be a period of cut-backs in 
many directions, and no program can operate on 
a "business as usual" basis. However, we must 
build for the future as well as for the present, and 
we can hope that, in the not too distant future, 
the tremendous expenditures for armaments can 
be reduced, and we can then devote a substantial 
part of that energy and those resources to eco- 
nomic development. 

Digression of Objectives by National Emergency 

The five dilemmas which have been outlined are, 
by no means, a complete listing of the policy issues 
which face those responsible for carrying forward 
in the field of economic assistance to underde- 
veloped countries. They are illustrative of the 
variety and complexity of the choices which must 
be made. Perhaps, most of all, they suggest the 
difficulty in isolating any particular program and 
evaluating it except against a background of the 
totality of objectives in foreign policy. 

Today, we must deal with a national emergency. 
This is the paramount requirement. But our long- 
run objectives of world peace and prosperity are 
not changed one iota by this necessary digression. 
Toward our long-run purpose, there can be no 
question of the importance of American aid as 
our contribution to "the efforts of the peoples of 



economically underdeveloped areas to develop 
their resources and improve their working and 
living conditions." To be sure, there are prob- 
lems and policy issues. There is nothing unusual 
about this in the field of economic foreign rela- 
tions. Wliat is important is to regard these policy 
and program conflicts not as obstacles to action 
but as problems which must be resolved again and 
again. The wisdom of the solutions will depend, 
in large part, upon the breadth of knowledge and 
the depth of understanding of the social and eco- 
nomic processes involved. To these basic require- 
ments, it is my conviction that the economists of 
this country can make an ever-increasing con- 
tribution. 



Graduate Study in Latin America 

Fellowships for United States graduate students 
to study or do research in certain American Re- 
publics will again be available for the academic 
year 1951-52, the Department of State announced 
on December 18. 

The fellowships will be made under terms of the 
Convention for the Promotion of Inter-American 
Cultural Relations, which provides for an annual 
exchange of students between the United States 
and each of the signatory republics. The partic- 
ipating countries, in addition to the United States, 
are as follows: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, 
Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guate- 
mala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. 

The United States Government provides trans- 
portation for American students to and from the 
receiving country, and the host country pays tui- 
tion and a monthly maintenance allowance. In 
some cases, a small allowance is also allotted for 
books and incidental expenses. It is sometimes 
necessary, however, for the student to supplement 
his maintenance allowance. 

Students desiring to apply should have the 
following general qualifications: United States 
citizenship, a bachelor's degree or its equivalent, 
the initiation or completion of some graduate 
study, and a satisfactory knowledge of the lan- 
guage of the country in which study or research 
is to be undertaken. All other considerations being 
equal, students under 35 years of age and veterans 
will be given preference. 

Full information regarding these fellowships 
and application forms may be obtained from the 
Division of International Educational Relations, 
United States Office of Education, Federal Secu- 
rity Agency, Washington 25, D. C. The completed 
forms must be returned to the Office of Education 
no later than January 15, 1951. The Advisory 
Committee on Exchange of Students will nominate 
five candidates for the panel to be submitted to 
each of the participating governments. Final 
selection of the two students will be made by the 
governments of the respective countries. 



January 15, 1 951 



99 



German Federal Republic's IVIonthly Economic Review ^ 



Economy of the German Federal Eepnblic con- 
tinued to expand during October and November, 
but pressure of shortages is braking the rate of 
increase. At a moment when production should 
normally leap to answer demand, the critical 
dearth of coal and electricity clamped down on 
what had been phenomenal economic activity. 
Earlier in the fall months the Federal Republic 
had begun to feel the effects of shortages in cer- 
tain imported raw materials and in specialized 
workers. The unhealthy balance-of-payments 
position of the preceding 2 months was still in 
danger, and remedial efforts taken in October were 
still too recent to allow an exact appraisal of their 
effects. 

But there were generally favorable develop- 
ments. Foreign trade reached record figures in 
October in exports ($214,000,000) as well as im- 
ports ($312,000,000), and export prospects con- 
tinue excellent. The number of unemployed 
(1,230,200) at the end of October was at its lowest 
point since April 1949. The increase in unem- 
ployment, which appeared in November, appears 
to be due solely to seasonal factors. 

While labor has benefited from recent wage in- 
creases, conflicting factors have brought about 
increasing agitation by labor during the past 2 
months for new wage hikes. 



Industry 

In October, the Federal index of industrial pro- 
duction (excluding building, stimulants, and food 
processing) rose another 3 points to the high point 
of 128 of the 193() production level. Despite this 
record, bottlenecks in raw materials including 
coal, some nonferrous metals, and the tightening 
steel situation, made the increase considerably 
more moderate than in the previous months. 
Output of finished products in the investment 
goods and consumer goods fields continued to 
climb, with increases in vehicle, electrical equip- 
ment, and metal goods production. Chemical 
production tended to drop. 

'Reprinted from the January issue of the Information 
Bullelin; prepared by the Analytical Reports Branch of 
the Program Review Division of the Office of Economic 
Affairs, Hicoo. 



The Federal Republic and occupation authori- 
ties as well as private industry and the individual, 
took measures to meet a worsening coal situation, 
as supplies became more critical in the face of 
winter weather and expanding industry. First 
priority for co-^l delivery is reserved for export, 
with domestic uses at the bottom of the list, and 
heavy and light industry falling respectively in 
between. Coal stocks in the consumer goods in- 
dustries are in most cases extremely low for this 
time of year and some industries contemplated an 
industrial holiday between Christmas and the New 
Year to conserve their stocks. 

Coal production in November rose from 370,000 
metric tons per day in the first week to 391,000 tons 
daily for the week ending November 26, including 
1 day when production touched 400,000 tons. In 
addition, a total of 827,000 tons was produced in 
what amounted to 2.1G extra normal days, on holi- 
days and Sundays. Incentives for increased out- 
put appeared in a new wage agreement effective 
November 1, which raised wages for the miners 
10 percent, and provided a bonus of 3 percent for 
full attendance in all shifts during the month. 
A further provision was made for a 50-75 percent 
increase in wages for extra shifts, of which it is 
contemplated there will be six during each quar- 
ter for the fourth quarter 1950 and first quarter 
1951. To attract new labor to the mines, the Fed- 
eral Republic has announced a program amount- 
ing to DM 110,000,000 for miners' housing and has 
requested release of DM 45,000,000 counterpart 
funds to support this program. 

Crude steel production for November was 1,110,- 
703 metric tons, approximately 24,000 tons under 
the previous montli's record output. Preliminary 
estimates for pig iron production for November 
were about 52,000 metric tons under the previous 
month and totaled 874,990 tons. Less fuel in 
December will result in lower production figures. 

New electric power generating capacity of about 
100 megawatts, financed mainly by EGA funds, 
was completed during October. The coal short- 
age, however, prevented the power industry from 
utilizing all available capacity and obliged the 
Federal Ministry of Economics to issue power al- 
locations for consumption in each state. For- 
tunately, heavy rainfalls resulted in 00,000,000 
extra kilowatt-hours supplementing the normal 



100 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



I 



power production, and thereby avoidin<T heavy 
curtailment except in Bavaria where hirge power 
consumption, particularly in the chemical indus- 
try, had to be reduced. 

The coal shortage hit the gas indvistry, too; 
grid gas supply forced restrictions on large indus- 
trial consumers. In a number of municipal gas 
works, situated far from the coal source, coal 
stocks were extremely low. This was aggravated 
by short deliveries of Saar gas coal, to be supplied 
on a contract basis. No real impi-ovement is to 
be expected for the coming months. Consumption 
of gas in October 1950, incidentally, was about 27 
percent higher than in 1949. 

German crude oil production showed an in- 
crease of 5 percent over last month and 30 per- 
cent compared with the same period last year. 
Total refinery output, as well as the production 
of gasoline and diesel oil, remained unchanged, 
while the civil consumption of gasoline increased 
10 percent over the consumption figures of last 
month. 

INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 



wm 

Sept. 



Oct. 



rl25 


128 


rl23 


126 


rl24 


128 


rl03 


104 


rl38 


143 


137 


137 


131 


129 


rll2 


119 



(1936=100) 



Atif. 

TOTAL ALL INPrsTRIES 

(incl. electricity and gas ') 115 

(excl. electricity and pas i) 113 

Investment poods (total) 113 

Raw materi:ils 98 

Finished products 123 

General production Roods 

(incl. electricity and gas) 130 

(excl. electricity and gas) 124 

Consumer goods 101 

' Excluding food processing, stimalants and building. 
r= Revised. 



PRODUCTION OF MAJOR COMMODITIES 

Unit of 

COMMODITY Meamre' Aug.' Sept.' Ocl.' 

Hard coal (gross mined) . . thous. t 9,445 9,216 9,499 

Crude petroleum t 98,800 95.265 100,360 

Cement t 1,134.202 1,147,216 1, 169, 8n2 

Bricks (total) 1,000 483,761 4ia, 785 448.283 

Pig iron t 858,021 875,912 918.895 

Steel ingots t 1,060.173 1,050,176 1,104,741 

Rolled steel finished products t 751,290 761,841 781,449 

Farm tractors (total) > . . . pieces 8, 985 9, 486 9, 095 

Typewriters' pieces 17,910 19,961 21,690 

Passenger cars (incl. chassis) . pieces 20,465 21,026 2!, 219 

Cameras (total) pieces 179, 148 185, 287 176, 445 

Sulphuric acid (incl. oleum) . t-SOs 102,318 102,740 109,081 

Calcium carbide t 69,333 60,691 47,337 

Soap (total) t 16, 122 17, 756 14. 657 

Newsprint t 15.026 13.987 14,507 

Auto and truck tires .... pieces 285.659 319.250 328,155 

Shoes (total) 1,000 pairs 6,801 8,379 9,169 

1 All tons are metric tons. 

' Excluding accessories, parts, and spare parts. 

' Standard, long-carriage, and portable typewriters. 

r= Revised. 
p = Preliminary. 

Transportation and Communication 

November traffic demands on the railways, al- 
though slightly below those of October, nonethe- 
less exceeded 60,000 cars per working day. By 
continuing the emergency measures of October, 
these demands were met in full, including addi- 
tional commitments for flour shipments to Yugo- 
slavia (scheduled at 10,000 tons per week) and 
increased supply traffic to Berlin. 



Wage and salary hikes, plus added supply costs 
brought the Bundesbahn management face to face 
with a new increase in operating costs. A tem- 
porary agreement, retroactive to October 1, 1950, 
and expiring January 31, 1951, has been reached 
between the Bundesbahn management face to face 
with a new increase in operating costs. A tempo- 
rary agreement, retroactive to October 1, 1950, 
and expiring January 31, 1951, has been reached 
between the BundesTbahn management and the 
railway unions. Salaries and pensions were npped 
by 6 percent and wages by an average of 8 per- 
cent. This represents an estimated DM 175,000,- 
000 annual rise in costs. In addition, the Bundes- 
bahn is faced with an increase in the price of coal 
and other supplies which will add DM 120,000,000 
to yearly operating costs. It is contemplated, 
however, that this increase will be met by a general 
increase of freight tariffs so that the seven-point 
Bundesbahn program initiated by the Coverdale & 
Colpitts report will not be affected. 

During November, telephone service between 
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Argentina was 
opened via the direct radio telephone circuit Ham- 
burg-Buenos Aires. This expanded use of Ger- 
man facilities for international transit telecom- 
munications services was designed to increase the 
foreign currency earnings of the Bundespost. 
Transit telephone services have earned approxi- 
mately $130,000 monthly. Of these amounts, 69 
percent accrue to the Federal Kepublic under 
quadripartite agreements now in effect. 

A direct telegraph circuit has been installed 
between Frankfurt/Main and London to handle 
telegrams between Germany and the extra-Euro- 
pean countries now routed via the United Kingdom 
(e.g., Africa, the Near East). Foreign currency 
earned will accrue to the Bank Deutscher Laender 
as export credits. 

Labor 

Seasonal depression of employment in the out- 
door occupations caused a greater rise in unem- 
ployment in November than had been anticipated 
in view of the extraordinarily favorable situation 
in October. The number of registered unemployed 
rose by 86,000 during November to a total of 
1,316,000. The November 1949 increase was 
67,000. Assuming that this summer's monthly 
average increase in the labor force (60,000) con- 
tinues, employment of wage and salary earners 
dropped by only 25,000 to about 14,375,000. 

While it seems certain now that the 1950 peak 
of general employment was reached, as in 1949, at 
the end of October, employment in manufacturing 
and trade may not begin to decline seasonally until 
shortly before Christmas. Industrial and resi- 
dential building is still at a high level in spite of 
a very rainy month. Shortages of raw materials, 
half-fabricates and coal increased the number of 
factory workers on short time and discouraged 
many manufacturers from hiring additional labor 



January 75, I95I 



101 



as orders in hand would warrant. In only a few 
cases have shortages caused dismissal of em- 
ployees, and these only in small manufacturing 
establishments outside the main industrial centers. 
Except for the wage increase for railroad work- 
ers and for hard coal miners, there was little move- 
ment in wage rates. Threats of industrial unrest, 
however, sounded from headquarters of the Trade 
Union Federation at Duesseldorf. In a referen- 
dum of employees in the Ruhr iron and steel in- 
dustries conducted on November 29-30, 95.8 per- 
cent of the 201,512 participants expressed their 
readiness to strike, if necessary, to secure equal 
voice in the economic affairs of management 
("economic co-determination"). The decision to 
hold this poll came on the heels of sharp attacks 
leveled by top industry and employers' associa- 
tions against union demands for "co-determina- 
tion." On December 1, the Mine Workers Union 
Convention unanimously called for a similar ref- 
erendum in the mining industry at the earliest 
possible date. Federal legislation on codetermina- 
tion is still pending in Parliament. 

Prices 

The index of basic material prices rose 1 point 
(0.5 percent) in October to a new postwar record 
of 220 percent of the 1938 level. The increase was 
the smallest since the outbreak of the Korean 
war, reflecting a balance between opposing ten- 
dencies — a 3-point decline in the agricultural com- 
ponent of the index, and a 4-point rise in the 
industrial component. 

The agricultural component of the index de- 
clined 3 points (1.7 percent) to 177 percent of the 
1938 level — the first monthly decline since May 
1950 — due mainly to price decreases for live cattle, 
sheep, and hogs. The agricultural component of 
the index was 6 percent less than a year ago but 
5 percent higher than last June. 

The industrial component of the index rose 4 
points (1.0 percent) to a postwar record of 249 
percent of the 1938 level — 21 percent higher than 
a year ago. The October rise was due mainly to 
price increases for aluminum, calf skins, cotton, 
flax, lead, linen yarn, raw rubber, roofing tiles, 
sawn wood, and zinc. 

BASIC MATERIALS PRICE INDEX 

1938=100 

Monthly Average 

Aug. Sept. Oct.' 

Food 176 180 177 

Industry 227 245 249 

Tola! 207 219 220 

p- Preliminary. 

The consumer price index which had been a 
postwar low in August and September rose 1 
point in October, reaching 149 percent of the 
1938 level. Fruits and vegetables rose 3 per- 
cent, while food (excluding fruits and vegetables) 
and stimulants remained unchanged. Clothing 
rose 2 percent and household goods 1 percent. All 



other groups increased slightly (but less than half 
of one percent). 

The largest particular October increases were 
fresh vegetables (12 percent), shoes (4 percent), 
shoe soles (3 percent), rubber goods (3 percent) 
and woolen goods (2 to 3 percent). The increase 
in fresh vegetable prices is seasonal, while that for 
shoes, soles, woolens, and rubber goods reflects 
the recent sharp rises in world raw material 
prices. 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX— BIZONAL AREA > 

1938=100 
(Wage/salary earner's family of four, with one child mider H) 

Sept. Oct. Nov. 

Food 149 ISO 152 

Stimulants 275 275 275 

Clothing 184 187 189 

Rent 103 103 103 

Heat and Light 118 118 119 

Cleaning and Hygiene 147 148 148 

Education and Entertainment 140 141 142 

Household goods 160 161 163 

Traveling 133 133 133 

Total 148 149 150 

' The Consumer Price Index Is not yet available on a trlzonal basis. 

Foreign Trade 

West German exports and imports reached post- 
war record monthly levels in October 1950. Total 
exports of $214,200,000 were 29 percent above the 
previous month's figure of $165,700,000 and 20.7 
percent above the previous postwar monthly high 
of $177,600,000 in August 1950. Total imports of 
$312,200,000 were 30.6 percent higher than the 
figure of $239,100,000 recorded in September 1950, 
and 13.2 percent above the previous postwar 
monthlv high of $275,700,000 in December 
1949. The October 1950 total trade deficit was 
$98,000,000. 

Exports to the United States ($16,200,000) and 
to Latin America ($21,800,000) rose sharply in 
October to reach postwar monthly record figures. 
The same was true for exports to the participating 
countries ($143,700,000). However, within the 
Oeec group, the record rise in exports was mostly 
accounted for by shipments to the non-sterling 
participating countries. October exports to the 
participating sterling countries ($11,300,000) 
were still below the postwar peak of $13,200,000 
reached in July 1950. October exports to Eastern 
Europe were $10,600,000 and those to the non- 
participating sterling area were $8,300,000 (a new 
postwar high ) . October imports from the United 
States ($42,700,000) and from the non-OEEC ster- 
ling area ($16,300,000) increased considerably over 
figures for September 1950. Deliveries from 
Latin America ($18,500,000) and Eastern Europe 
($14,800,000) were slightly above September 1950 
figures. Imports from the participating countries 
($202,000,000) were at a new postwar high, 28.2 
percent above the previous postwar ]wak of 
$157,500,000 set in September 1950. This rapid 
rise was shared in equally by imports from both 
the participating sterling and participating non- 
sterling areas. 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



The commodity breakdown shows the export 
rise accounted for ahnost entirely by finished 
goods. The increase in imports was seen in all 
commodity groups, with semifinislied goods pre- 
dominant percentage-wise. A review of tliose 
foreign trade figures reflects a rapidly expanding 
West German economy. During the last year the 
source of imports has made a mai-ked shift from 
the United States to the European Payments 
Union (Epu) countries, much to the ";ratification 
of ERP jilanners. Exports have developed favor- 
ably to all areas. Whereas a year ago, the West 
German trade deficit was almost exclusively a 
problem of trade with the United States, it is now 
becoming increasingly a problem of trade with 
Epu countries. 



WEST GERMAN FOREIGN COMMODITY TRADE 

October 1950 

[Thousand Dollars] 

CATEGORIES Imports Exports 

Food and Agriculture 133. 608 6. 453 

Industry 178.581 207.773 

Raw matorials 87. 586 25. 965 

Semifinished goods 48,429 33.898 

Finished goods 42. 566 147. 910 

Total 312.189 214,226 

AREA 

Total Non-participating Countries 109, 869 69. 983 

US\ 42.708 16.186 

Canada 1.092 1.187 

Latin America 18.465 21.797 

Non-rarticipating Sterling Countries 16.310 8.347 

Eastern Europe 14. 763 10. 608 

other Countries 16.531 11.858 

Participating Countries 202.014 143.721 

Non-Sterling 165.081 132.411 

Sterling 36,933 11,310 

Unspecified 306 622 

Total 312,189 214,226 

IMPORT SURPLUS: October $97,963,000. 

Monetary Developments 

The volume of short-term commercial bank 
credit increased DM 615,000,000 during October 
to DM 13,102,000,000 as compared to the previous 
month's increase of DM 633,000,000. However, 
tlie volume of money (currency and deposits) 
showed an increase of DM 756,000,000 to DM 26,- 
048,000,000, as compared to the September in- 
crease of DM 401,000,000. Commercial Bank ex- 
cess reserves as a proportion of minimum reserves 
showed a sharp decrease from 5.5 percent at the 
end of September to 2.9 percent at the end of Octo- 
ber, reflecting the increase in reserve requirements 
which was effective October 1. At the same time 
net indebtedness of commercial bank to the Cen- 
tral Banking System has shown the following 
movements : 



since July: 



(DM Million) 



July 
2,290 



August 
2,104 



Septem- 
ber 
2,786 



October 
3,070 



These movements give no definite indication as 
to future short-run monetary developments. 
Sufficient time to show effects of the Central Bank 
restrictive measures has not yet passed. Prelimi- 



nary reports for November from samples seem to 
indicate a marked slowdown in the rate of credit 
expansion. 

Agricultural Production 

At the beginning of November, mild but very 
unsettled weather set in, with almost incessant 
rainfall over the whole Federal area. The rain 
impeded fall cultivation and interrupted seeding 
of winter wheat. Rains also delayed the beet har- 
vest, but during the short dry period, much of 
the sugarbeet crop was harvested. Some local 
areas of grassland, and even cropland to a minor 
degree, were flooded. 

Final estimates of this year's bumper potato 
crop indicate a total of almost 28,000,000 metric 
tons, an increase of 34 percent over last year. 
Preliminary estimates of the sugarbeet harvest 
show an increase of 38 percent over last year due 
to increased hectarage and better yields. The fol- 
lowing table presents the total production of some 
major crops as compared with last year and pre- 
war averages. 

PRODUCTION OF MAJOR 'CROPS 

(Thousand metric tons) 

Fodder- 
beets 
Bread- Fodder- Sugar- and 

grain grain Potatoes beets rutabagas 

193.5-.38 6,689 4,798 19,538 4,253 2.5,872 

1949-50 6,954 4,267 20,875 4.735 21.583 

1950-51 6,792 4,414 27.958 '6,547 25.231 

in %of 

1949-50 97.3 103.4 133.9 138.3 116.9 

• Preliminary. 

The total production of hops is estimated at 
9,400 metric tons, a postwar record, and reaching 
prewar levels. The grapewine harvest has been 
completed and bears out previous forecasts of 
above-normal quantities. The quality of this 
year's vintage will also be above normal, but will 
not reach the excellence of the past few years' 
vintages. 

The stand of growth of fall-seeded grains and 
oil crops is satisfactory. Some difficulties are an- 
ticipated in the procurement of certain types of 
clover and grasses. 

The health and weight status of all livestock is 
reported as good. The seasonal removal of live- 
stock from pasture has been completed in the be- 
ginning of November. Farm-to-market deliveries 
for cattle showed a seasonal increase during No- 
vember, while hog supply was still somewhat short 
in most places so that prices generally remained 
at the high level of July-October. Milk produc- 
tion continued its seasonal downward trend. 
Total milk production during the past economic 
year (July 1949-June 1950) amounted to 12,800,- 
000 metric tons as compared with 10,000,000 dur- 
ing the preceding year. 

During November, the Federal Republic agreed 
to a barter transaction of sugarbeet molasses for 
cane sugar from the United States at ratio of 



ianuary IS, 1951 



103 



3 to 1. The price for sugarbeet molasses was es- 
tablished at approximately $35 per ton FOB Ger- 
man ports. 

The Federal Republic has submitted a report to 
the ECA Mission indicating an export potential 
for 1950-51 of the following types and quantities 
of fertilizer : 

Nitrogen (pure N) 150,000 MT . Average price, all 

types, $220 per 
MT, FOB Ger- 
man port 

Superphosphate (PiOf) 30,000 MT . World market price 

Potash 300,000 MT . World market price 



Flour for Yugoslavia 

In November, the ECA Mission made arrange- 
ments with the Federal Republic to ship imme- 
diately to Yugoslavia approximately 30,000 tons 
of flour. This flour is urgently required by Yugo- 
slavia in view of the recent drought. The Fed- 
eral Republic will receive approximately 50,000 
tons of grain from the United States which will 
replace the wheat used and also be used to pay 
for the costs of milling and transportation of the 
flour to Yugoslavia. This arrangement not only 
provides for immediate emergency shipments of 
flour to meet urgent Yugoslavian requirements, 
but also enables Western Germany to more fully 
utilize its flour-milling capacity and to receive in- 
creased imports of dollar wheat to pay for labor 
and other Deutsche Mark costs. There is a pos- 
sibility that further arrangements will be made 
for similar shipments of flour to Yugoslavia, 
through the assistance of the Federal Republic. 

Legislation 

Pursuant to the extension, passed in October, of 
the Emergency Ordinance on Economic Controls, 
an order was issued prolonging the validity of 19 
marketing regulations thereunder. Also, two 
pi"ice ordinances were issued: the first established 
surcharges on imported wheat of DM 40 (thous. 
kg.) for amber durum wheat and DM 3 for all 
other varieties; efi'ective from October 1950 to 
June 1951, inclusive; the second set import and 
retail prices for Mexican canned beef. Lastly, a 
law was passed authorizing tax reductions on 
specific quantities of tobacco products resold to 
tobacco growers, maximum quantities being fixed 
in relation to the area of tobacco cultivated. 



Berlin 

Preliminary estimates indicate that Berlin's net 
output during the third quarter of 1950 amounted 
to DM 935,000,000 and was approximately 
DM 140,000,000 higher than during the previous 
3 months. Employment and output data for Octo- 
ber make it quite improbable that this rate of 
progress could be maintained in the fourth quar- 
ter of 1950. Industrial production during Octolier 
rose by only 1 index point to 39 percent of 193G. 



Wliile unsubsidized employment rose moderately 
from July through October, the increase came to 
a halt in the first half of November with a reduc- 
tion of 700. Increased output in November thus 
seems highly doubtful. 

Shipments to West Germany and foreign coun- 
tries in October exceeded the monthly average of 
the third calendar quarter by 20 percent and 
amounted to DM 106,000,000. Shipments arriv- 
ing in October increased approximately in the 
same proportion (21 percent) and amounted to 
DM 229,200,000. Thus the gap widened and Ber- 
lin's balance of trade shows a DM 122,000,000 defi- 
cit for October ; this represents an increase of DM 
21,600,000 over the monthly average of the third 
quarter, and of DM 24,900,000 over September. 
While the increase in exports was insufficient to 
pay for the additional imports, the composition of 
goods arriving in the city clearly indicated that 
seasonal buying, apparently the stocking of pre- 
Christmas inventories, is the primary cause for 
increased arrivals. The largest increases noted 
were in foodstuffs and other consumer goods. In 
connection with longer run balance-of-payments 
considerations it may be well to remember that 
Berlin's industries largely specialize in producers 
goods and therefore Berlin's external position in 
the short run is sensitively affiected by seasonal 
changes in consumer demand. 



Light Cruisers Offered 

to Argentina, Brazil, and Chile 

[Released to the press January 4] 

The Department of State announced today that 
preliminary negotiations have been satisfactorily 
concluded with naval representatives of Argen- 
tina, Brazil, and Chile and the United States De- 
partment of the Navy for the proposed transfer 
of two light cruisers to each of these Governments 
in connection with plans for the defense of the 
hemisphere. 

A formal offer of sale of these World War II 
vessels, which have been determined to be in ex- 
cess of the mobilization reserve requirements of 
this Government, was made today in diplomatic 
notes presented to each of the Ambassadors of 
these Governments at Washington. 

The proposed sales will be made under the au- 
thority of the Mutual Defense Act of 1949, as 
amended. 

It is expected that, once formal acceptance is 
received from the Governments of Argentina, 
Brazil, and Chile of the terms and conditions un- 
der which the vessels can be sold, arrangements 
will be made for the rehabilitation and outfitting 
of these vessels and the training of the naval per- 
sonnel of the three countries prior to the ultimate 
transfer. 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United States Delegation Report on FAO 



SPECIAL CONFERENCE SESSION, WASHINGTON, D.C. 
NOVEMBER 3-11, 1950 



hy Clarence J. McCormick, Under Secretary of Agriculture 



The special session of the Conference of the 
Food and Agriculture Organization (Fag) con- 
vened at Washington on November 3 in an atmos- 
phere of uncertainty and adjourned, on November 
11, with the reaffirmed faith of the member gov- 
ernments strongly expressed in words and actions. 
Between convening and adjourning, the Confer- 
ence, under the chairmanship of Andre Mayer of 
France, toolc a number of noteworthy actions. 

Tlie Conference admitted five new members, 
continued the appointments of the present Direc- 
tor-General and independent Cliairman of the 
Fao Council, amended the constitution, rules of 
procedure and financial regulations, approved the 
program and budget for 1951 and gave a good deal 
of thought to future programs and budgets, con- 
tinued the Committee on Commodity Problems 
with a broadened frame of reference, promised co- 
operation with United Nations actions on land re- 
form and Korean reconstruction, and made a num- 
ber of other decisions. 

The Conference agenda was much more exten- 
sive than had originally been anticipated for what 
was essentially a special session devoted primarily 
to business. Normally, a Conference would not 
have been held this year since, at the 1949 Confer- 
ence, the Organization had voted to hold the next 
meeting in April 1951. However, pressing prob- 
lems and the forthcoming move to Rome justified 
a shift to an earlier date. 

In recognition of the fact that this is the last 
Conference Fao will hold with headquarters at 
Washington and also in recognition of the fifth 
anniversai-y, the Organization held a commem- 
orative ceremony midway in the Conference delib- 
erations honoring more than 60 Fao pioneers, who 



had participated in the founding of the Organi- 
zation at Hot Springs and at Quebec. 

U.S. Leadership on Expanded Budget 

The feeling of uncertainty tinged with pessi- 
mism that clouded the early Conference sessions 
and those of the Fao Council of 18 governments, 
which met for a week before the Conference, was 
the product of several factors. 

One factor was the likelihood that the Organi- 
zation would have to adopt a reduced program for 
1951 in order to live within its income. Another 
uncertain factor was the effect that the move to 
Rome might have on the Organization's finances, 
personnel, and ability to meet demands while in 
process of moving and restaffing. The cost of the 
h\( ve would be greater than had originally been 
anticipated, largely because of the cost of making 
final payments to the staff members electing not 
to move with the Organization. 

The United States delegation sensed this feeling 
of uncertainty and pessimism and felt that, if un- 
checked, it would prove damaging to the future 
of the Organization on which so much depended. 
The delegation, therefore, worked hard to dissi- 
pate and overcome the feeling. At the session of 
the Fao Council that preceded the Conference, a 
United States member stated that these problems 
could be readily solved, "if we keep our minds on 
the objectives of the Organization, the idealism 
that lies behind it and the future which can be 
in store for it with the continued support of mem- 
ber governments." 

For the first time, the United States had been 
in a position to urge or support an expanded 



January IS, 1 95 1 



105 



budget for Fao although the Organization had 
been in financial difficulties for several years. 
The reason for the difficulties was twofold : the 
limitation of the budget to 5 million dollars and 
the fact that available funds never came to so 
much as that figure because the original contribu- 
tion scale used until 1949 included governments 
which failed to join and because some member 
governments were seriously in arrears on paying 
their contributions. The major portion of these 
contributions in arrears are represented by the 
contributions of China, of Eastern European 
members which have now announced withdrawal, 
and of other members which dispute the date of 
their entry into membership. Thus, though the 
membership had increased by nearly 60 percent 
since its founding, the budget had remained static, 
and the available funds had reached the point 
where the Conference could approve an expendi- 
ture level of only 4.5 million dollai-s for 1951 al- 
though the budget had been approved at 5 million 
dollars. 

Suiting action to words, the United States mem- 
ber proposed that the Director General be in- 
structed to plan for an expanded regular pro- 
gram and budget in 1952 and 1953. This pro- 
posal gained support and was finally adopted at 
the council session after the Conference. 

A budget of 5 million dollars was agreed when 
Fao was formed at Quebec in 1945. On the basis 
of this figure and the United States percentage 
contribution which was also agreed at the time, 
the United States Congress set a ceiling on the 
cont;;ibution to Fao of 1.25 million dollars- This 
action had the effect of tending to restrict the total 
Fao budget to 5 million dollars since the United 
States makes the largest single contribution. The 
previous Fao Conference, the fifth, had modified 
the scale of contributions to be made by each 
government and had raised the United States share 
from 25 to 27.1 percent of the total, making the 
amount required from the United States 1.36 
million dollars. With the United States ceiling 
already set at 1.25 million dollars this increase 
would put the United States in arrears on its 1950 
contribution. However, Congress, in September, 
raised the ceiling to 2 million dollars. 

By this action the United States was able to 
recommend an expansion in Fao's total regular 
budget for 1952-53. The United States position 
was that it should be a modest expansion, rather 
than one that would require going to the new 
United States ceiling right away. Therefore, no 
mention of specific figures for an expanded budget 
was made. 

The Council, at its session after the Conference, 
having been instructed by the Conference to give 
the Director General guidance on the level of the 
budget he should plan for 1952-53, agreed that he 
should plan an expenditure budget of 5 million 
dollars. Because of the constitutional necessity 
of assessing members which have announced with- 
drawal in the past year, and certain other mem- 



bers who may not be in a position to pay within 
the year, this would mean a so-called income 
budcret of over 5 million dollars. 



General Conference Actions 

During the special session of the Conference, 
five new members were admitted to Fao. These 
were Cambodia, Vietnam, the Gennan Federal 
Republic, Jordan, and Spain. The admission of 
Spain was made possible by the vote of the United 
Nations General Assembly, while the Fao Con- 
ference was in progress, to allow Spain's admission 
to specialized agencies of the United Nations. 
Spain's earlier application had been shelved until 
such time as the General Assembly might remove 
the ban on its membership in specialized agencies. 

With the five new members admitted, Fao's total 
membership became 68 at the time of the Confer- 
ence although Czechoslovakia ceased to be a mem- 
ber in December 1950, and Poland will withdraw 
in April 1951. 

The Conference reappointed the present Di- 
rector-General of Fao, Norris E. Dodd, for another 
year and invited the independent chairman of 
the Council, Viscount Bruce of Melbourne, to con- 
tinue to serve for another year. Lord Bruce in- 
dicated that he would like to relinquish his post 
as soon as a suitable successor could be found. 
The Fao Council will present nominations to fill 
both of these posts to the next session of the Con- 
ference. 

The Conference agreed to extend for another 
year the terms of the six council members who 
would have retired this year. 

A thorny problem that the Conference tackled 
was the interpretation of the date of membership 
of member governments in Fao. The question 
was whether membership of countries in Fao dated 
from the time that the countries' representatives 
signed the constitution at the Quebec Conference 
in October 1945 or whether they were members 
only from the time that their legislative bodies 
had ratified their membership. This question had 
a number of serious implications, among them 
that of how much money was due from the coun- 
tries in contributions and whether they should be 
regarded as members for the purpose of assessing 
contributions as well as all other purposes. If 
assessed from the time of signing, countries were 
technically in arrears for more than 2 years and 
should thus lose their voting rights at the Con- 
ference. 

A few countries maintained that their date of 
membership was the date of ratification, and some 
in this group had not yet secured ratification. 
This position was maintained in sjiite of action 
taken at last year's Conference, which noted that 
the majority of countries which signed the con- 
stitution, as original members of Fao, felt under 
moral obligation to contribute to the exjienses of 
the Organization from that date since thev had 



106 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



participated fully in all activities continuously 
from the time of signing. 

The Conference agreed that it had no legal al- 
ternative but to accept the position, taken by the 
nations in question, that their meml)ership dated 
only from ratification. Since this Conference had 
no time to go into all the implications of accepting 
this position, it requested the council, with the 
assistance of the Committee on Financial Control, 
to study the problem so that a final settlement 
could be made at the next regular session of the 
Conference. 

A niunber of other general actions of the Con- 
ference should be noted. The Director General 
was asked to consult with the Secretary General 
of the Organization of American States (Oas) 
on ways of working out closer relations between 
the two organizations in fields of common inter- 
ests. The purpose of these consultations will be 
to develop joint or complementary activities, avoid 
duplicating ones, and utilize common services. 
The Director General is to work out with the Oas 
a draft general agreement on the subject. 

The Conference considered a proposed inter- 
national plant protection convention. This pro- 
posal was designed to facilitate development of 
world-wide plant quarantine regulations and es- 
tablish a central reporting service. This service 
would provide information on outbreaks of plant 
disease and coordinate efforts to prevent its spread. 
Since several governments felt that they needed 
more time to consider the pi-oposal, the Confer- 
ence put off final action until the next session. 



by Fao can serve only as a spearhead for wider 
development by the country concerned and it must 
be designed to enable the recipient country to carry 
on the work once the project is concluded. 

If the program is to achieve economic develop- 
ment and raise living standards, capital invest- 
ment will be required in addition to tecluiical 
assistance. 

After hearing the discussion, the Conference 
approved the progress that the Director General 
was malving on the program and endorsed his ar- 
rangements for administration both within Fao 
and with the United Nations Technical Assistance 
Board. It urged fullest cooperation from all 
member countries in paying their contributions 
to the United Nations Special Technical Assist- 
ance Account, in making technicians and equip- 
ment and training facilities available, and in fol- 
lowing through on local activities required to make 
technical assistance effective. 

Several specific i-equests were made of the 
Director General for his future operation of the 
program : one, that he should, as far as possible, 
present the technical assistance work in future pro- 
grams and budgets in such a way as to be com- 
pared with the regular program and evaluated in 
relation to the program; another, that adequate 
provision be made to insure that information 
growing out of the projects be carried down to 
the individual producer and that special attention 
be given in technical assistance work to ques- 
tions of land tenure and immigration and land 
settlement. 



Expanded Technical Assistance Program 

A full discussion of Fao's expanded technical 
assistance program led off with a report from the 
Director General on the progress Fao had made 
with the use of the 29 percent of the United Na- 
tions Technical Assistance Fund allotted to it. 

In the discussion of the program and the con- 
sideration of the report that the Council had made 
on its discussion prior to the Conference a number 
of points were brought out. 

One was that progress was limited by two fac- 
tors: neglect of some countries to make usable 
contributions to the special account and lack of 
information on the part of recipient countries on 
how to qualify for technical assistance projects. 

Another point was that some problems were 
arising in recruiting experts — problems both for 
Fao in getting the specialists needed and for the 
countries contributing experts which might feel 
that their own operations would suffer if Fao 
recruited too many technical people. Tlie Con- 
ference also noted that technical assistance is not 
limited to supplying expert assistance but that it 
also encompasses equipment needed as part of tech- 
nical assistance work and the organization of 
training arrangements within the recipient coun- 
tries to enable them to carry on projects after the 
initial stages. The technical assistance provided 



Land Tenure 

The Conference heard a report on the discus- 
sions that were then taking place in the United 
Nations General Assembly on land tenui'e and 
other aspects of the depressed living standards 
of rural people. The resolution, which the As- 
sembly was then drafting, called for a study of 
this subject by the Secretary General in coopera- 
tion with Fao because of the importance for eco- 
nomic development and for the welfare of small 
farmers throughout the world. The Conference 
recommended that the Director General furnish 
as full cooperation as possible in making the study 
called for by the resolution, which was adopted 
by the General Assembly on November 20. The 
study is to be presented to the next session of the 
Economic and Social Council for use in preparing 
recommendations to the General Assembly on im- 
proving conditions. The recommendations will 
cover land reform, cheap agricultural credit fa- 
cilities, technical assistance, promotion of rural 
cooperatives, development of small agricultural 
machinery factories and processing facilities, re- 
vised tax policies, promotion of family-owned 
and cooperative farms, and other measures to pro- 
mote the security of tenure and welfare of agricul- 
tural workers, tenants, and owners of small- and 
medium-sized farms. 



January 15, 1951 



107 



The General Assembly also i-ecommended that 
governments avail themselves of United Nations 
facilities for advice on these measures. Thus, 
Fag can go forward with activities in these fields 
without waiting for the study to be completed and 
approved. 

Commodity Problems 

A Committee on Commodity Problems had been 
established by the fifth session of the Fao Confer- 
ence in 1949 with the primary purpose of consider- 
ing surplus conunodity situations arising from 
balance-of-payment difficulties. This session of 
the Conference considered the report the Com- 
mittee had made on the work and the recom- 
mendations of the Council session preceding the 
Conference and felt that the Committee had proved 
worthy and that it should not only be continued 
but that the scope should also be broadened. The 
new definition of the scope of the Committee is 
"that its terms of reference shall be those laid 
down by the fifth session of the Conference, save 
that the Committee will address its attention to 
commodity problems falling within the com- 
petence of Fao to consider, whether arising from 
balance-of-payment difficulties or from other 
causes." Also, the Conference approved the Com- 
mittee's method for devising ways for disposing 
of surplus foods at concessional prices in such a 
way as to "serve the legitimate interests of produc- 
ers and consumers." 

The International Cooperative Alliance intro- 
duced a proposal to the Conference inviting the 
marketing and consumer cooperatives of the world 
to form a world surplus commodity cooperative. 
This cooperative would purchase commodities in 
surplus and, through exchanging them and pos- 
sibly processing materials received in exchange, 
get commodities surplus in one area used, if pos- 
sible, in another. Part of the proposal was to 
negotiate a loan from the International Bank to 
start the cooperative. This proposal was referred 
to the Committee on Commodity Problems for 
study. 

Korean Relief and Reconstruction 

The Conference reviewed the plans for Korean 
relief and reconstruction developed by the United 
Nations General Assembly and the Economic and 
Social Council and approved the action the Di- 
rector General of Fao had taken at the beginning 
of the Korean crisis in offering the full coopera- 
tion of Fao to the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations and authorized Fao's continued coopera- 
tion with United Nations arrangements for Ko- 
rean relief. 

Program of Work 

Tlie Conference approved the proposed reor- 
"aiiizalion of Fao's staff. The main changes 



included the combination of the Distribution 
Division witli the Economics and Statistics Divi- 
sion and of the Rural Welfare Division with the 
Agriculture Division. 

On the question of Fao's regional offices, the 
Conference approved the termination of the Euro- 
pean Regional Office after Fao moves to Rome 
and the creation of the North American Regional 
Office. It took no action on the location of the 
Far East Regional Office which is temporarily 
located at Bangkok and left to the Director Gen- 
eral the location of further Latin American Of- 
fices, other than those now at Santiago, Chile, and 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

The question of the relations of the Fao Re- 
gional Office for the Near East with the Govern- 
ment of Israel was considered apart from the 
discussions on other regional offices. The Con- 
ference considered the difficulties of establishing 
direct relations between Israel and the Near East 
Regional Office and decided that the Director 
General should explore the problem and find the 
best method of making the full services of Fao 
available to the Government of Israel. 

The Conference considered at length the long- 
term trends of the Organization. This problem 
was first raised by the United States Government 
at the Fao Council session in May 1950. The 
feeling prevailed that, with 5 years' experience 
in working toward its objectives, Fao would do 
well to examine operations in the light of ex- 
perience and make any adjustments that appeared 
necessary. The Conference agreed to appoint a 
working party, responsible to the Council and 
made up of representatives selected for their spe- 
cial abilities, to make a thorough study and report 
on the problem. It also asked member govern- 
ments to submit their ideas on Fao's long-term 
work not later than February 15, 1951. 

The general trend of the discussion on Fao's 
long-term trends was that its objectives were as 
valid today as when it was founded. It is only 
its means of achieving its objectives that need 
careful consideration. 

Financial and Administrative Decisions 

One of the main concerns of the United States 
delegation in the financial and administrative 
field was the action that the Conference might 
take on revising the scale of contributions of mem- 
ber governments to Fao. The United States 
spokesman on this subject, Ralph S. Roberts, Di- 
rector of Finance of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, stated the United States 
position that "the largest contribution must not 
be so high as to place the Organization in a po- 
sition of great dependence on it." For this rea- 
son, he said, the United States should not be asked 
at this session to make a further increase in its 
peirentage share in Fao. 

He stated that — 



108 



Department of State Bulletin 



. . . The United States does not intend tliat its con- 
tribution pertentafjcs to various international orf^anis'.a- 
tions sliall never be subject to raodilicatiou. . . . Wlieu 
substantial downward adjustments in tlie I'nited States 
percentage share takes place, particularly in the United 
Nations as well as in Wiio and Unesco, some upward 
adjustments become possible in the case of those organiza- 
tions where the United States share is relatively low. 

The Conference decided that, for the time being, 
tlie present ceiling on contributions of 27.1 percent 
should be continued. Some support for a pro- 
posal had been put forward by several members 
that the ceiling should be fixed at -SIU^ percent 
as a target to be aitproached as rapidly as possible. 
Also on this subject, the Conference approved the 
recommendation of the Special Committee on the 
Scale of Contributions that national income sta- 
tistics should be used as the basis for developing a 
more fundamental revision of the scale of con- 
tributions, rather than the United Nations scale 
of contributions itself. It instructed the Special 
Committee to prepare a revised scale of contribu- 
tions based on national income statistics for 
presentation to the next regular session of the 
Conference. 

For 1951, the Conference adopted the scale of 
contributions recommended by this Committee as 
well as the assessments for new members. 

The Conference also took a number of other 
actions in the fields of finance and administrative 
problems. It established a Special Headquarters 
Removal Fund to pay for the cost of moving to 
Rome. Part of this fund is to be made up of a 
loan of $800,000 from the United Nations and the 
rest of the estimated total cost of $1.6 million 
from resources available within Fag. It ap- 
proved, subject to review at the next Conference, 
the Director General's recommendations for apply- 
ing a cost-of-living differential of 10 percent of 
7.5 percent of the salary of each international 
staff member at Rome. It put off until the next 
Conference a decision on what currency the con- 
tributions of member governments should be paid 
in when the Organization is established at Rome. 
It decided that the Working Capital Fund should 
be established at 1.75 million dollars for 1951 by 
payments from members on the basis of member- 
ship and scale of contributions for 1951. 

It urged member governments to make their 
payments as soon as possible and, in order to en- 
courage payment of contributions which are in 
arrears, requested the Director General, in prin- 
ciple, not to send missions to or hold meetings or 
conferences in countries whose arrears amount to 
as much as their dues for the two preceding finan- 
cial years. 



Amendments to Constitution, 

Rules of Procedure, and Financial Regulations 

This session of the Conference made extensive 
revisions in Fao's constitution, rules of procedure, 



and financial regulations. The principal purpose 
of (he amendments was to bring them into con- 
formity with the decision to change over from 
annual to biennial conferences and with United 
Nations procedure. The Conference agreed that 
none of the revisions adopted was to be regarded 
as limiting or prejutlicing future consideration of 
uniform provisions that may be proposed for 
United Nations agencies. The Conference felt 
that the greatest warranted degree of imiformity 
consistent with technical requirements of individ- 
ual agencies is greatly to be desired. 

Conclusions 

An undercurrent of sentiment prevailed at the 
Conference that Fao is at the crossroads. The 
Conference reaffirmed allegiance to the hope that 
Fao remain the vehicle for the expression of the 
best hope for human affairs. Fao's Director Gen- 
eral Norris E. Dodd said, at the ceremony com- 
memorating the pioneers of Fao, "Even if Fao 
as we know it should disappear, it would rise again 
in some other form." 



Milner B. Schaefer Appointed 
to Tropical Tuna Commission 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 28 the appointment of Milner B. Schaefer as 
Director of Investigations by tlie newly formed 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Mr. 
Schaefer will assume his duties on January 1, 1951. 

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission 
was established by a convention between the 
United States and Costa Rica which entered into 
force on March 3, 1950. Chairman of the Com- 
mission for the first year is Jose Luis Cardona- 
Cooper, Chief of the Department of Fisheries of 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Industries, San 
Jose, Costa Rica. President Trumair appointed 
three members to serve on behalf of the United 
States: Milton C. James, assistant director, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior; 
Lee F. Payne, member of the California Fish and 
Game Commission ; and Eugene D. Bennett, an 
attorney of San Francisco. 

The Department stated that the Commission has 
been established to make a joint study of certain 
tuna fisheries, namely, yellowfin and skipjack, in 
the tropical waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean, 
and of the kinds of fish used as bait by tuna fish- 
ermen. Because these fisheries present probleins 
to other countries besides the United States and 
Costa Rica, provision has been made for other iii- 
terested countries to become participants. The 
territorial waters of Costa Rica are an important 
source of bait, and it is understood that the Com- 
mission plans to establish branch headquarters in 
that country although the main office and labora- 
tory will be located in southern California. 



January 15, J957 



109 



Conference on Central and Southern Africa Transport Problems 



A midcentury evaluation of the present develop- 
ment and future prospects of transportation in 
the great subcontinent of Central and Southern 
Africa has just been made at an intergovern- 
mental meeting in the chief city of that area. The 
occasion was the Central and Southern Africa 
Transport Conference held at Johannesburg, 
Union of South Africa, October 25-November 16, 
1950, and attended by Government representatives 
of the four metropolitan powers with overseas ter- 
ritories in Africa south of the Sahara — Belgium, 
France, Portugal, and the United Kingdom; the 
Union of South Africa and South West Africa; 
Administrations of Southern Rhodesia, Northern 
Rhodesia, Nyasaland, East Africa High Commis- 
sion (Tanganyika, Uganda, Kenya), Belgian 
Congo, Mozambique ; United Kingdom High Com- 
mission for the Protectorates of Basutoland, 
Bechuanaland and Swaziland; and Madagascar. 
The United States and the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development were repre- 
sented by observers. 

The Conference 

The Transport Conference designated February 
28, 1951, as the final date for governments con- 
cerned to submit their official views on the matter 
of establishing a permanent transport organiza- 
tion. If that principle was agreed upon, a fur- 
ther conference would be held on June 1, 1951, in 
order to complete and sign a draft constitution. 

A number of proposals for railway and port 
development in Africa north of the Union and 
south of the Sahara were examined in detail. The 
conference endorsed international through-rates 
and recommended principles for establishing rates. 

The meeting adopted a highway numbering 
system and a highway classification system with 
maximum permissible load and dimensional limits, 
and it also adopted African standard railway 
gauge (42 inches) and made important recom- 
mendations on railway equipment, service, and 
interchange of equipment. 



BACKGROUND AND AGENDA 

Tlie Conference was held at the invitation of 
the Government of the Union of South Africa, 



pursuant to a decision made at a Conference on 
Central African Transportation which had been 
convened at Lisbon in May 1949 upon the initia- 
tive of the Government of ^Portugal.' The agenda 
for the Johannesburg meeting was fixed at the 
Lisbon session. Further preliminary discussion 
of the problems under consideration occurred, at 
a special meeting on transport problems in Africa 
south of the Sahara, convened by the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Cooperation at Paris 
in February 1950. At both these preliminary 
meetings the United States was represented by 
observers. 

The agenda of the Johannesburg Conference 
was printed in the Bulletin of July 4, 1949. In 
general, the objective of the Conference was to 
consider the sound and coordinated improvement 
and expansion of transport facilities as a basic 
factor in the general economic development of 
the vast and promising region south of the Sahara. 
To achieve this objective the Conference was to 
consider the establishment of a permanent inter- 
territorial organization. 



UNITED STATES DELEGATION 

The United States delegation of observers was 
composed of the following pereons : 

John G. Erhardt, Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of the United States of America to the 
Union of South Africa, Pretoria 

Henry H. Kelly, Chief, Inland Transport Policy Staff, 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Allan Hugh Smith, Director, Overseas Territories Divi- 
sion, Office of Special Representative, EGA, Paris 

George Clemens, Alternate Representative for ECA, Paris 

Frank H. Wliitehouse, Assistant Chief, Economics Divi- 
sion, Munition Board, Department of Defense, Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 

John A. Birch, Commercial Attache to the Embassy of the 
United States of America, Pretoria 

Miss Virginia M. Robinson, AttachiS (Geographic) to the 
Embassy of the United States of America, Pretoria 

Stephen J. Shuttack, (Secretary) Administrative Officer, 
American Consulate General, Johannesburg 

The United States observers took part in the 
deliberations of all of the conunittees except the 
Steering Committee, composed of the lieads of the 



' For an article on the Lisbon conference by Maxwell 
Harway, see Bulletin of July 4, 1949, p. 852. 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



various participatinfr delegations, and the Final 
Act Drafting Committee. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE CONFERENCE 

Following the opening ceremonies presided 
over by the Prime Minister of the Union of South 
Africa, Di-. D. F. Malan, on October 25, the first 
plenary session on October 26 elected P. O. Sauer, 
the South African Minister of Transport and 
leader of the South African delegation, as presi- 
dent and E. De Backer, the Belgian Royal Inspec- 
tor of Colonies of the Ministry of Colonies and 
leader of the Belgian delegation, as vice president. 

The following substantive committees were ap- 
pointed by participating delegations on October 
28, 1950 : 

Committee I — Steering Committee 

Committee II — Economic Development Committee 

Committee III — Railways, Marine Ports and Inland 

Waterways Committee 
Committee IV — Roads Committee 
Committee V — Fiscal and Rating Committee 
Committee VI — Transportation Committee 
Committee VII — Constitution Committee (Permanent 

Organization) 
Committee VIII — Final Act Drafting Committee 

The Conference Secretariat was under the direc- 
tion of W. Marshall Clark, Secretary-General both 
of the Conference and the Interim Transport Or- 
ganization for Central and Southern Africa. He 
■was assisted by a Deputy Secretary-General, two 
Assistant Secretaries-General (administrative), a 
Public Relations Officer and a technical staff. 



territories and the general nature of transporta- 
tion plans. The Conunittee then received de- 
tailed statements of specific transportation pro- 
posals set forth in the terms of reference. In 
most cases, the Committee merely noted the state- 
ment and the Committee report itself contains 
ten "conclusions and recommendations," of which 
four are merely noted and do not represent action 
by the Committee. 

Major discussion in the Committee — sitting in 
conjunction with Committee III — included full 
statements relating to the improvement of the 
port of Beira. The Committee expressed the 
opinion that the prompt conclusion of improve- 
ment on this port was essential. The Committee 
heard an exhaustive statement concerning the 
relative economic merits of the alternative rail 
links to Louren<;o Marques through Beit Bridge 
and through Pafuri, together with a carefully 
documented argument by South Africa on the 
capacity of the Mafeking Line, all of which repre- 
sented frank ventilation of the problems involved 
in this decision. On this problem the Committee 
did not recommend a choice between the alterna- 
tives but recommended that a forthcoming ECA 
survey should be expedited. 

The Committee received interesting and valu- 
able information concerning the economic possi- 
bilities of the development of Northern Rhodesia 
and of the western part of the territories of 
British East Africa as the result of construction 
of the proposed rail link from the Rhodesia rail- 
ways to one or another of the Tanganyika ports. 



Work of the Committees 



The committees produced recommendations 
which were adopted by the Conference in plenary 
session on November 16.- 



BASIC TRANSPORTATION NEEDS 

Generally speaking, under the terms of refer- 
ence Committee II was to investigate the problem 
of transportation requirements of the difFerent 
African territories as indicated by their problems 
of economic development and present traffic re- 
quirements, as well as proposed new road, rail, and 
inland waterway routes, and conclude whether 
such proposals were necessary, were adequate, and 
whether additional transportation would be re- 
quired. Under the terms of reference, the Com- 
mittee was assigned 24 specific transportation and 
port problems. 

The Committee first received statements in 
general terms of the economies of the different 

'These recommendations are set forth in detail in a 
public statement issued by tlie Secretary-General at the 
close of the Conference. Text of this statement may be 
obtained by writing to the Office of Transport and Com- 
muidcations Policy, Department of State, Washington 
2.-5, D.C. 



CAPACITY OF TRANSPORT FACILITIES 

The work of Committee III was largely tech- 
nical in nature. It agreed on the capacity figures 
for the port of Beira in Mozambique as being 
presently 2,100,000 short harbor tons and at the 
end of 1951 approximately 4,013,000 short har- 
bor tons. It also agreed on an African standard 
railway gauge of 3 feet 6 inches and upon stand- 
ardization of railway equipment moving in inter- 
territorial traffic. 



ROADS 

Altliough the agenda gave priority to the prob- 
lems of railways and maritime ports, discussions 
in the Conference itself showed full recognition 
of the importance of highways. Committee IV 
produced a useful substantive set of resolutions. 

The United States observers explained current 
higjiway practices in the United States, the work 
of the United Nations in sponsoring an interna- 
tional convention on road traffic, the present 
status of road signs and signalization in other 
parts of the world, and similar technical details.^ 

' For an article by H. H. Kelly on the subject, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 12, 1049, p. S75a. 



January 15, 1951 



111 



The Conference made decisions which will even- 
tually facilitate the development of highway 
transport throughout the area. These practices 
include the classification and numbering of a sys- 
tem of interterritorial highways — the future 
"Cape to Cairo" road was designated as A-104; 
endorsement of the provisions of the Road Traf- 
fic Convention of 1949, including its traffic regu- 
latory principles, and its permissible maximum 
dimensions and weights of large motor vehicles 
(for example, 18,000 pounds or 8 metric tons per 
axle). Agreement was also reached on a basic 
system of highway signs and signals, based on 
the Geneva Protocol of 1949, but with recognition 
of the fact that the United Nations has appointed 
a committee of experts to consider the problem of 
a single world-wide system. The United States 
observers gave the Secretariat of Committee IV 
materials prepared by the United States Bureau 
of Public Roads on the subject of highway plan- 
ning surveys and stated that the matter of in- 
telligent planning of a highway network should 
receive the careful attention of any permanent 
organization. This fact was recognized by the 
Committee in its recommendations on research. 

RATES AND TARIFFS 

Committee V achieved two important results. 
It received a list of agreements that were pres- 
ently in force between different railway admin- 
istrations affecting rates and conditions of inter- 
territorial traffic. It did not, however, accept the 
texts of any such agreements, although texts were 
offered by several delegations. Secondly, it en- 
dorsed the principle of interterritorial through- 
rates and adopted a statement of the principles 
that should guide railway administrations in 
reaching such agreements. 

This Committee did not examine specific rates 
or tariff structures, nor did it attempt to explain 
or define the effect of railroad tariffs upon the 
economy of tlie territories served. 

The Committee recommended investigation of 
the possibility of abolishing visas for in-transit 
passengers and recommended improvement of 
facilities relating to hotel accommodations, sup- 
plies of motor fuel, repair shops, and telephone 
and telegi'aphic communications. 

COORDINATION OF TRANSPORT FACILITIES 

Committee VI decided that matters affecting the 
control and regulation of competition among rail- 



way, road, and water transportation are entirely 
matters of domestic concern and recommended 
"that these matters be not discussed." 

The affirmative achievements of Committee VI 
are all technical in character, affecting interchange 
of i-olling stock, railway timetables, and related 
matters. 

PERMANENT ORGANIZATION 

Committee VII considered the establishment of 
a permanent interterritorial council in accord- 
ance with the recommendations of the Lisbon 
Conference. All delegations, including the 
United States observers, were represented on the 
Committee. 

The Committee gave full consideration to the 
views of the member delegations but, while able 
to agree unanimously in principle that continuing 
collaboration in the field of transport is necessary 
and desirable, was unable to agree on the form 
that such collaboration would take. The prin- 
cipal issue was whether a formal organization con- 
sisting of an interterritorial council and secre- 
tariat should be created or whether continuing 
cooperation could be satisfactorily achieved 
through a series of rotating annual conferences. 
A subcommittee examined various draft constitu- 
tions put forward by several of the delegations 
and drafted a constitution, but, because of the lack 
of unanimous agreement, the Committee was un- 
able to recommend it to the participating Govern- 
ments. Accordingly, the draft constitution 
containing provisions for a permanent organiza- 
tion was forwarded to the Governments for 
consideration. 

Under the terms of the final act of the Confer- 
ence, it is recommended that the respective Gov- 
ernments be given until February 28, 1951, to 
indicate their decision on the principle of estab- 
lishing a permanent organization. Should they 
so agree, it is recommended that comments be 
forwarded to the Secretary General of the Interim 
Organization before June 1, 1951, on which date a 
meeting of the participating Governments should 
be convened to complete and sign the constitution. 

The Conference agreed that an Interim Organi- 
zation should continue only until February 28, 
1951, for the purpose of completing the work of 
the Johannesburg Conference. If the Govern- 
ments agree to the establishment of a permanent 
organization, the Interim Organization would con- 
tinue until a pei'manent body comes into being. 



This article was prepared by H. H. Kelly, Allan Hugh Smith, and 
.John A. Birch, all uaemhers of the tluited States observer-delegation 
to the meeting. 



112 



Department of State Bulletin 



Report to the General Assembly From Group on Cease-Fire in Korea 



U.N. rlnc. A/C. 1/643 
Dated Jan. 2, 1951 

[1.] Oil 14 December 1950 the General Assembly 
adopted the following resolution which had been 
sponsored bj' thirteen Asian Powers : 

The General Assembly, 

Viewing with grave concern the situation in the Far 
East, 

Anxious that immediate steps should be taken to iire- 
vent the conflict in Korea spreading to other areas and 
to put an end to the fighting in Korea itself, and that 
further steps should then be taken for a peaceful settle- 
ment of existing issues in accordance with the purposes 
and principles of the United Nations, 

Rcqutsts the President of the General Assembly to con- 
stitute a group of three persons, including himself, to 
determine the basis on which a satisfactory cease-fire 
in Korea can be arranged and to make recommendations 
to the General Assembly as soon as possible. 

2. In pursuance of the resolution, the President 
forthwith constituted a group consisting of Mr. 
L. B. Pearson of Canada, Sir Senegal N. Ran of 
India and himself, and announced this fact to the 
General Assembly. The Group met almost im- 
mediately afterwards and decided to associate the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations with its 
work. 

3. A copy of the resolution was sent on 15 De- 
cember to Ambassador Wu, the representative of 
the Central People's Government of the People's 
Republic of China who was then in New York. 

4. On 15 December, as a firet step in carrying 
out its task the Group consulted the representa- 
tives of the Unified Command as to what they con- 
sidered to be a satisfactory basis for a cease-fire. 
The suggestions which emerged from this con- 
sultation and which in the circumstances the 
Group felt constituted a reasonable basis for dis- 
cussion, are summarized below : 

(1) All governments and authorities con- 
cerned, including the Central People's Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of China and the 
North Korean authorities, shall order and enforce 
a cessation of all acts of armed force in Korea. 
This cease-fire shall apply to all of Korea. 

(2) There shall be established a demilitarised 
area across Korea of approximately twenty miles 
in depth with the southern limit following gen- 
erally the line of the 38th parallel. 

(3) All ground forces shall remain in posi- 



tion or be withdrawn to the rear; forces, including 
guerrillas, within or in advance of the demilitar- 
ised area must be moved to the rear of the demil- 
itarised area; opposing air forces shall respect the 
demilitarised zone and the areas beyond the zone ; 
opposing Naval forces shall respect the waters con- 
tiguous to the land areas occupied by the oppos- 
ing armed forces to the limit of 3 miles from shore. 

(4) Supervision of the cease-fire shall be by 
a United Nations Commission whose members and 
designated observers shall insure full compliance 
with the terms of the cease-fire. They shall have 
free and unlimited access to the whole of Korea. 
All governments and authorities shall co-operate 
with the Cease-Fire Commission and its desig- 
nated observers in the performance of their duties. 

(5) All governments and authorities shall 
cease promptly the introduction into Korea of any 
reinforcing or replacement units or personnel, in- 
cluding volunteers, and the introduction of addi- 
tional war equipment and material. Such equip- 
ment and material will not include supplies re- 
quired for the maintenance of health and welfare 
and such other supplies as may be authorized by 
the Cease-Fire Commission. 

(6) Prisoners of war shall be exchanged on a 
one-for-one basis, pending final settlement of the 
Korean question. 

(7) Appropriate provision shall be made in 
the cease-fire arrangements in regard to steps to 
insure (a) the security of the forces; (b) the 
movement of refugees; and (c) the handling of 
other specific problems arising out of the cease- 
fire, including civil government and police power 
in the demilitarised zone. 

(8) The General Assembly should be asked 
to confirm the cease-fire arrangements, which 
should continue in effect until superseded by 
further steps approved by the United Nations. 

5. The Group then attempted to consult the 
Central People's Government of the People's Re- 
public of China and, for this purpose, sent a mes- 
sage by hand to Ambassador Wu and repeated it 
by cable to the Minister for Foreign Alfairs in 
Peking. The text of this message is reproduced 
below : 

Dear Ambassador Wu, As you have already been in- 
formed by Resolution 1717, a copy of which was sent to 



January IS, 1957 



113 



you yesterday, a Committee was set up by the General 
Assembly of the United Nations on the previous day, 
December 14, consisting of myself and my two colleagues, 
Sir Benegal Rau of India, and Mr. L. B. Pearson of 
Canada, charged with the duty of determining whether 
it is possible to arrange appropriate and satisfactory 
conditions for a cease-lire in Korea. The purpo.se of tliis 
cease-fire in Korea will be to prevent the conflict from 
spreading to other area, to put an end to the fighting in 
Korea, and to provide an opportunity for considering 
what further steps should be taken for a peaceful settle- 
ment of existing issues, In accordance with the purposes 
and principles of the United Nations. 

The above Committee has now met representatives of 
the Unified Command in Korea, and has discussed with 
them, in an exploratory manner, possible conditions upon 
whicii a cease-fire might be established. Since the Gov- 
ernment of the Communist People's Republic of China has 
expressed strong views on the future of Korea, and about 
the present state of warfare in that country, and since 
Chinese are participating in that warfare, the Committee 
wishes also to discuss with your Government or its repre- 
sentatives, and with the military authorities in command 
of the forces operating in North Korea possible conditions 
upon which a cease-fire might be established. For this 
purpose, we desire to see you at your earliest convenience, 
and we should be grateful to know when a meeting can 
be arranged. 

We realised that your Government which sent you here 
with other ob.)ects in mind, may prefer other arrange- 
ments by which a cease-fire can be discussed with them. 
We wish your Government to know tliat, in the interests 
of stopping the fighting in Korea and of facilitating a 
just settlement of the issues there in accordance with tlie 
principles of the United Nations Charter, we are prepared 
to discuss cease-fire arrangements with your Government 
or its representatives either here or elsewhere, as would 
be mutually convenient. We urge only that arrangements 
for these discussions should be made with the least pos- 
sible delay. With this in mind, we are sending the text 
of this communication directly to your Government by 
telegram. 

Yours sincerely, 

December 16, 1950. Nasrollah Entezam. 

6. On 18 December, Mr. Pearson, on behalf of 
the Group, submitted a brief preliminary account 
of its activities to the First Committee, hoping that 
a fuller report would be made in the near future. 

7. On 16 December, the President, acting on be- 
half of the Group, had availed himself of tbe good 
offices of the Swedish Delegation to transmit 
through the Swedish Embassy in Peking a request 
to the Central People's Government that Ambas- 
sador Wu be instructed to stay on in New York 
and discuss with the Group the possibility of 
arranging a cease-fire. The reply to the request, 
communicated to the President on 21 December, 
through the same channel was as follows : 

The Central People's Government acknowledges receipt 
of a message dated ISth December 1950 from Mr. Entezam, 
President of the General Assembly, transmitted via the 
Swedish Government and ask the Swedish Government to 
transmit the following reply to Mr. Entezam, President 
of the General Assembly. 

The representative of the People's Republic of China 
neither participated in nor agreed to tlie adoption of the 
Resolution concerning the so-called 3-men Committee for 
Cease Fire in Korea by United Nations General Assembly. 
The Central People's Government has repeatedly declared 
that the Central People's Government would regard as 
illegal and null and void all ma.jor resolutions especially 
those concerning Asia which might be adopted by the 
United Nations without the participation and approval 



of the duly appointed delegates of the People's Republic of 
China. Therefore the Central People's Government can- 
not instruct its representative General Wu to continue to 
remain in Lake Success for negotiations with the above- 
mentioned 3-men illegal Committee. After the Security 
Council unreasonably voted against the "Complaint 
against the Unitfxl States armed aggression against 
Taiwan" raised by the People's Republic of China General 
Wu was instructed by the Central People's Government 
to continue to stay at Lake Success for participation in 
the discussion of "the complaint of the U.S. aggression 
against China" submitted by the USSR representative; 
although he has waited for a long time and until the 
United Nations General Assembly was declared adjourned, 
he was still not given the opportunity to -speak. Under 
such circumstances, the Central People's Government 
deems that there is no more necessity for General Wu and 
his staff to remain at Lake Success and has therefore 
instructed him to start their homeward journey on De- 
cember 19. 

2. As to the question of how the United Nations may get 
in touch with the Korean Democratic People's Republic 
the Central People's Government is of the opinion that 
United Nations should address direct inquiry to the Gov- 
ernment of the Korean Democratic People's Republic. 

8. On 19 December, acting on a recommenda- 
tion from the sponsors of the twelve-Power reso- 
lution introduced in the First Committee on 12 
December, the Group sent another message to the 
Foreign Minister of the Central People's Govern- 
ment. This was intended to remove any possible 
misunderstandings which may have arisen out of 
the separation of the twelve-Power resolution 
from the thirteen-Power resolution adopted by 
the General Assembly on 14 December. The text 
of the message is given below : 

Chout En-Lai, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs 
Central People's Oovernment of People's Republic of China 
(Peking, China) 

In the consideration which you are giving to our earlier 
message, we are anxious that there should be no mis- 
understanding as to the relationship between the United 
l^ations Resolution establishing a cease fire group, and 
resolution proposed by twelve Asian Government, recom- 
mending appointment of a committee to meet as soon as 
possible and make recommendations for peaceful settle- 
ment of existing issues in Far East. It is our clear un- 
derstanding and also that of the twelve Asian sponsors, 
that once a cease fire arrangement had been achieved, 
the negotiations visualised in the second resolution should 
be proceeded with at once. Indeed, the preamble to cease 
fire resolution states specifically that stops should he taken 
for a peaceful settlement when fighting in Korea is ended. 
It is also our view, as well as that of the twelve Asian 
governments sponsoring the second resolution, that Gov- 
ernment of the Peoples Republic of China should be in- 
cluded in the Negotiating Committee referred to in that 
resolution. We feel that this Committee could become 
an effective channel for seeking peaceful solution of exist- 
ing issues in Far East between the United States, the 
United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and Cliina. For that 
purpose, in our opinion, it should be set up with minimum 
of delay, but to make that possible a "cease fire" arrange- 
ment must be i)Ut into effect. This point of view has 
been communicated to your Delegation which left New 
York today, and we express the hope that you will give 
full weight to it. 

Committee of the General Assembly 
Nasbollah Entezam, 

President of the Oencral Assembly 
Sir Benegal Rau 
Lester B. Pearson 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



9. On 23 December, the President of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, in his capacity as such, received 
from the Foreign Minister of the Central People's 
Government the text of a statement issued by the 
latter in Peking on 22 December explaining the 
attitude of the Central People's Government on the 
Resolution constituting the Cease-Fire Group and 
on the peaceful settlement of the Korean question. 
This document is reproduced as an Annex. It ap- 
pears to be in the nature of an answer to the 
Group's message of IG December. 

10. In tliese circumstances and in spite of its 
best efforts, tlie Group regrets that it has been 
unable to pursue discussion of a satisfactoi-y cease- 
fire arrangement. It therefore feels that no rec- 
ommendation in regard to a cease-fire can usefully 
be made by it at this time. 



ANNEX I TO THE REPORT 

OF THE GROUP ON CEASE FIRE IN KOREA 

{Cablegram dated 23 December 1050 from the Minister 
of Forcipn Affairs of the Central People's Qovemment of 
the People's Republic of China addressed to the President 
of the General Assembly) 

Peking, December 23, 1950 
Nasrollah Entezam, 
President of the Fifth Session 

of the United Nations General Assembly, 
Lake Success. 

The attitude of the Central Peoples Government of the 
Peoples Republic of China on the so-called "three man 
committee for cease-fire in Korea" and the peaceful settle- 
ment of the Korean question is to be found in my state- 
ment issued on December 22. Besides being broadcast 
by the Hsiu Hua News Agency on the same date, the said 
statement is hereby transmitted by cable for your 
information. 

Chou En-Lai, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs of the 

Central Peoples Government of the 

Peoples Republic of China, 

Peking, December 22, 1950. 

Statement by Chou En-Lai, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs of the Central Peoples Government of the 
Peoples Republic of China on the resolution concern- 
ing the "three-man committee for cease-fire in Korea" 
illegally adopted by the United Nations General As- 
sembly, on December 14, 1950. 

The General Assembly of the United Nations illegally 
adopted a resolution submitted by thirteen nations con- 
cerning a so-called cease-fire in Korea. This resolution 
provided for the establishment of a three-man committee, 
consisting of the President of the current session of the 
United Nations General Assembly, Entezam, the Indian 
Delegate Kau, and the Canadian Delegate Pearson both 
appointed by him, to conduct talks to determine whether 
it is possible to arrange appropriate and satisfactory con- 
ditions for a cease-fire in Korea, and then to make recom- 
mendations to the United Nations General Assembly. 
With reference to this resolution, Chou En-Lai, Minister 
for Foreign Affairs of the Central Peoples Government, 
the Peoples Republic of China, issues the following 
statement : 

"1" The Representative of the Peoples Republic of China 
neither participated in nor agreed to the adoption of the 
resolution concerning the so-called "three-man commit- 



ianuary 15, ?95? 



tee for cease-fire in Korea" by the United Nations General 
Assembly. Prior to this, the Central Peoples Government 
of the Peoples Republic of China had repeatedly declared 
that the Central Peoples Government of the Peoples Re- 
public of China would regard as illegal and null and void 
all resolutions on major problems, especially those con- 
cerning the major problems of Asia, which might be 
adopted by the United Nations witliout the participation 
and concurrence of the duly apiwinted Delegates of the 
I'eoples Republic of China. Therefore, the Government of 
the Peoples Republic of China and its Delegates are not 
prepared to make any contact with the above mentioned 
illegal "three-man committee". 

"2" The Central Peoples Government of the Peoples Re- 
public of China has always held and still holds that the 
hostilities in Korea should be speedily brought to an 
end. In order to end the hostilities in Korea, genuine 
peace must be restored in Korea, and the Korean people 
must have genuine freedom to settle their own problems. 
The reason why the hostilities in Korea have not yet 
be<!n put to an end is precisely because of the fact that 
the United States Government has despatched troops to 
Invade Korea and is continuing and extending its poli- 
cies of aggression and war. As far back as the beginning 
of the hostilities in Korea, we here stood for the peaceful 
settlement and localisation of the Korean problem. For 
this reason, the Government of the Peoples Republic of 
China and that of the USSR have repeatedly proposed 
that all foreign troops be withdrawn from Korea, and 
that the Korean people be left alone to settle the Korean 
problem them.selves. However, the United States Gov- 
ernment not only rejected such a proposal, but also re- 
jected negotiations for the peaceful settlement of the 
Korean problem. When the invading troops of the 
United States arrogantly crossed the 38th parallel, at 
the beginning of the month of October, the United States 
Goevrnment, recklessly ignoring warnings from all quar- 
ters and following the provocative crossing of the border 
by Syngman Rhee in June, thoroughly destroyed, and 
hence obliterated forever this demarcation line of political 
geography. In the later part of November, when the 
Representative of the Peoples Republic of China was in- 
vited to take part in the discussion by the Security Coun- 
cil on the charge against United States aggression in 
Taiwan, he again submitted the proposal that the United 
States and other foreign troops be all withdrawn from 
Korea, and that the People of South and North Korea 
be left alone to settle their domestic affairs. But the 
United Nations Security Council, under the domination 
of the United States, rejected this reasonable peace pro- 
posal from the Government of the Peoples Republic of 
China. From this it is evident that since the United 
States Government has from the very beginning refused 
to withdraw its troops, it has absolutely no sincerity In 
ending the hostilities in Korea, still less in letting the 
Korean people have genuine peace and freedom. 

"3" This being the case, why does the American Dele- 
gate, Mr. Austin, now favour an immediate cease-fire in 
Korea, and why does President Truman also express will- 
ingness to conduct negotiations to settle the hostilities in 
Korea? It is not difficult to understand that, when the 
American invading troops were landing at Inchon, cross- 
ing the 38th parallel or pressing toward the Yalu River, 
they did not favour an immediate cease-fire and were not 
willing to conduct negotiations. It is only today when 
the American invading troops have sustained defeat, that 
they favour an immediate cease-fire and the conducting 
of negotiations after the cease-fire. Very obviously, they 
opposed i>eaee yesterday, so that the United States might 
continue to extend her aggression ; and they favour a 
cease-fire today, so that the United States may gain a 
breathing space and prepare to attack again, or at least 
hold their present aggressive position in preparation for 
further advance. What they care about is not the in- 
terests of the Korean people and the Asian peoples, nor 
those of the American people. They are only interested 
in how American imperialists can maintain their invading 

115 



troops and aggressive activities in Korea, liow they can 
continue to invade and occui)y China's Taiwan and how 
they can intensify the preparation for war in tlie capital- 
ist world. Therefore, the Representative of MacArthur's 
Headquarters said hluntly that tliey could accept a cease- 
fire only on a military basis and without any political 
conditions. This means that, all tlie status of aggression 
will i-emain tlie same after the cease-fire, so that they can 
fight again wlien they are prepared. Further, tliey could 
take this opportunity to declare the existence of a state 
of emergency and to prepare for mobilisation in the 
United States, in Western Europe and Japan, thus driving 
the peoples of the United States, Western Europe and 
Japan down into the al)yss of war. Is this not wliat 
Messrs. Truman, Acheson, Marshall and MacArthnr are 
doing now? With reference to the so-called proposal for 
cease-fire first and negotiations afterwards, irrespective 
of the fact that the proposal by the twelve nations liad 
neither been adopted by the Security Council nor by the 
United Nations General Assembly and irrespective of what 
countries are to be included in the negotiating conference 
and even if all these had been agreed upon, the agenda 
and contents of the negotiation could still be discussed 
endlessly after the cease-fire. If the conference is not a 
conference of the legal Security Council or of the legal 
Five Power conferences, or is not affiliated to them, the 
U. S. Government in the last resort can still manipulate 
its voting machine. Thus to discuss the cease-fire and 
start negotiations not on the basis of the withdrawal of 
all foreign troops from Korea and the settling of Korean 
domestic affairs by the Korean people themselves is to act 
hypocritically and would therefore suit the designs of 
the U. S. Government, and hence cannot satisfy the sin- 
cere desire of the peace-loving peoples of the world. The 
three-man committee — a cease-fire on the spot — peace ne- 
gotiations — launching of a huge offensive : this Marshall 
formula is not in the least unfamiliar to the Chinese peo- 
ple, because in 1946, General Marshall assisted Chiang 
Kai Shek in this way, repeatedly for a whole year, and In 
the end had to admit failure and leave. Will the people 
of China, who liad learned this lesson in 1046 and later 
gained victory, fall into such trap today? No, the old 
trick of General Marshall will not work again in the 
United Nations. 

"4" Moreover, the present issues are definitely not con- 
fined to the Korean problem. While the United States 
Government was engineering the hostilities in Korea, 
it despatched the Seventh Fleet to invade China's Taiwan 
and then bombed North-East China, fired on Chinese mer- 
chant ves.sels and extended its aggression in East Asia. 
Against all tliis, the Central Peoples Government of the 
Peoples Republic of China has repeatedly lodged charges 
with the United Nations. But under American domina- 
tion, the majority in the United Nations has not only up- 
held American aggression against Korea and supported 
American invasion and occupation of Taiwan, the bombing 
of North-East Cliina, but also rejected the three proposals 
submitted by our representative on the charge against 
the United States for armed aggression against Taiwan, 
and shelved the charge of tlie United States aggression 
against China made by the Delegate of the Soviet Union. 
Our Representative was kept waiting for a long time and 
until the First Committee of the United Nations General 
Assembly was indefinitely adjourned, he was not given 
a chance to speak. 

This attitude which was taken by the majority of the 
United Nations under the domination of the Anglo-Amer- 
ican bloc, ol)viously violates the United Nations Charter 
and its purposes. They are furthering rather than clieck- 
Ing American aggression. They are undermining rather 
than defending world peace. 

What particularly arouses tlie world's indignation is 
tliat, in .spite of the fact that during the past several 
months the United Nations held innumerable discussions 
on China or on important questions concerning China, 



tlie Delegates of the Peoples Republic of China, who are 
the only Representatives of the four hundred and seventy- 
five million people of China, are still being kept out of 
the doors of the United Nations, whereas the Representa- 
tives of a handful of the Chiang Kai Shek reactionary 
remnants are still being allowed to usurp tlie seats of the 
Chinese Delegation in the United Nations. To such an 
extent the Chinese people have been slighted and 
insulted ! 

Therefore, the Cliinese people, who, impelled by right- 
eous indignation, have risen to volunteer in resisting the 
United States and helping Korea, and thus protecting 
their homes and defending their country are absolutely 
reasonable and justified in so doing. The Chinese i)eoples' 
volunteers, who have been forced to take up arms side by 
side with the Korean Peoples' Army to resist the Ameri- 
can aggressors, under the Unified Command of the Gov- 
ernment of the Korean Democratic Peoples Republic, are 
fighting for their own existence, fighting to aid Korea and 
fighting for the peace of East Asia as well as the peace 
of the whole world. 

"5" It must be pointed out that the proposal for a peace- 
ful .settlement of the Korean problem submitted by the 
majority of the Delegates of the thirteen Asian and 
Arabian nations was originally based on their desire for 
peace, and this is understandable. But they have failed 
to see through the whole intrigue of the United States 
Government in supporting the proposal for a cease-fire first 
and negotiations afterwards, and therefore they have not 
seriously considered the basic proposals of the Chinese 
Government concerning the peaceful settlement of the 
Korean problem. 

The original thirteen-nation resolution was not wholly 
palatable to the United States Government, so it was 
separated into two resolutions. The first resolution, or 
the resolution providing for the .so-called "three man com- 
mittee for cease-fire in Korea", which is satisfactory to the 
United States, was, under pressure, given priority for 
discussion and was consequently adopted by the United 
Nations General Assembly. But the second resolution, 
or the resolution providing for a so-called "negotiating 
conference" "negotiating commission", with which the 
United States was either not satisfied, or not quite satis- 
fied, was therefore shelved for the time being. 

The difference between these two resolutions was re- 
markably demonstrated by the attitude of the Philippine 
Delegate. The Philippine Delegate, who always follows 
in the footsteps of the United States, only agreed to the 
first resolution but withdrew from the second resolution. 
This trick of close co-operation displayed by the Philip- 
pines in the role of demanding a cease-fire and by the 
United States in the role supporting It has thus been 
exposed. 

From this fact itself, the lesson can be drawn that if the 
Asian and Arabian nations wish to gain genuine peace, 
tliey must free themselves from United States pressure 
and must abandon the "three man committee for cease- 
fire in Korea", and give up the Idea of cease-fire first and 
negotiations afterwards. 

"6" The Central Peoples Government of the Peoples 
Republic of China solemnly declares that the Chinese 
people eagerly hope that the hostilities in Korea can be 
settled peacefully. We firmly insist that, as a basis for 
negotiating for a peaceful settlement of the Kiu-ean prob- 
lem, all foreign troops must he withdrawn from Korea, 
and Korea's domestic affairs must be settled by the Korean 
people themselves. The American aggression forces must 
be withdrawn from Taiwan. And the Representatives of 
the Peoples Republic of China must obtain a legitimate 
status in the Unit<'d Nations. These points are not only 
the justified demands of the Chinese people and the Korean 
people; they are also the urgent desire of all progressive 
public opinion throughout the world. To put aside these 
points would make it impossible to settle peacefully the 
Korean problem and the important problems of Asia. 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



[December 22, 1950 — January 11, 1951] 

General Assembly 

Although the. work of the fifth session of the 
General Assembly has been largely completed, 
Committee I (Political and Security) continues to 
be active having still on the agenda certain items 
relating to the situation in the Far East. On Jan- 
uary ;5, the Committee met for the first time since 
December 18 to hear Sir Benegal Rau (India) 
report on the efforts of the three-member group 
appointed under the Assembly resolution of De- 
cember 14 for determining the basis on which a 
satisfactory cease-fire in Korea might be arranged. 
All moves, Sir Benegal stated, to consult with the 
Chinese Communists had been fruitless. In addi- 
tion to describing the steps taken by the group, and 
the eight points suggested by the unified command 
as the basis for a cease-fire, the report had ap- 
pended a lengthy cable from the Chinese Com- 
munist Foreign Minister denouncing the cease-fire 
group as "illegal" and demanding immediate with- 
drawal of all foreign troops from Korea as a pre- 
requisite to peaceful settlement. 

After thanking the gi'oup, Ambassador Warren 
E. Austin (U.S.) asserted that the onus for the 
lack of success should be placed on the Chinese 
Communists, who, by their large-scale offensive 
against United Nations forces, had compounded 
the original North Korean aggression. He 
stressed that the United States was ready to dis- 
cuss with the Peiping regime, at an appropriate 
time and in an appropriate forum, ways to achieve 
by peaceful means United Nations objectives in 
Korea. 

At the January 5 meeting, Canadian Rejire- 
sentative Pearson, as spokesman for the cease-fire 
group, informed the Committee that the group was 
not yet prepared to report on principles that might 
underlie an agreed solution of the Korean and 
other Far Eastern problems. In a genei-al state- 
ment of the United States position. Ambassador 
Austin emiihasized that "it would be incomprehen- 
sible for the United Nations as the cohesive force 
in the free world to ignore" Chinese Communist 
aggression. To do so could only mean that "big 
aggression can succeed with impunity." However, 
he said, we would acquiesce in the request of the 
cease-fire group for more time to prepare a state- 
ment of principles, in the interest of free world 
unity and because "we believe that it may be a step 
leading to a pacific settlement." The Committee 
rejected a Soviet proposal to see a "documentary" 
film on United States "atrocities" in Korea. 

Following a decision on January 8, to adjourn 
for 3 days to give the cease-fire group additional 



time, the Committee on January 11, heard a five- 
point statement of principles to underlie a cease- 
fire settlement in Korea, presented as a supple- 
mentary report by the cease-fire group. The state- 
ment called for: (1) immediate arrangement of a 
cease-fire, safeguarded to prevent use as a screen 
for further attacks; (2) advantage to be taken 
either of the cease-fire or of a lull in hostilities to 
pursue further peacemaking moves; (3) with- 
drawal of all non-Korean forces progressively to 
allow evcnt\uil free elections ; (4) interim ai-range- 
ments for the administration of Korea; and (5) 
following a cease-fire, an appropriate body to be 
set up by the General Assembly to achieve a settle- 
ment of Far Eastern problems. Among the prob- 
lems specifically mentioned in the fifth point were 
Formosa and Chinese representation in the United 
Nations. The contemplated General Assembly 
body to work out this projected settlement would 
include the United States, the United Kingdom, 
the U.S.S.R., and the "People's Republic of China." 
Support for this plan was voiced by Norway, 
France, India, the United Kingdom, the United 
States, Israel, Turkey, and Chile. Tlie prelimi- 
nary comment of Soviet Representative Malik, 
however, was unfavorable. 

Economic and Social Council 

The Committee on Non-Governmental Organ- 
izations met on January 4 to consider three items 
proposed for inclusion on the provisional agenda 
for the twelfth session of the Economic and Social 
Council in February. The Committee decided to 
recommend to the Secretary-General that the 
World Federation of Trade Unions (Wftu) item 
on the lowering of living standards as a result of 
war economy not be included. It also took a nega- 
tive position on an International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions proposal but recommended 
favorably in the case of an International Cham- 
ber of Commerce item concerning the conclusion 
of an international convention on customs treat- 
ment of samples and advertising material. The 
United States representative on the Committee 
stated that he voted against the Wffu proposal 
because it was bound to be considered at the twelfth 
session of the Council in connection with another 
agenda item and because the supporting Wftu 
document was inaccurate and tendentious. On 
January 11, the agenda committee of the Council 
met to discuss the provisional agenda for the 
twelfth session, but final decisions wei'e postponed 
until fhe Committee's February 16 meeting at 
Santiago, Chile. 



January 15, J95I 



117 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

Development of Water Resources 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 28 that Gail A. Hathaway, special assistant 
to the chief of engineers, Department of the Army, 
and president-elect of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, has been designated as chairman 
of the United States delegation to each of several 
international engineering conferences which are 
to meet in India in January 1951 to consider 
questions relating to the control and development 
of water resources. 

The Fourth International Congress on Large 
Dams will be convened at New Delhi on January 
10, 1951, under the sponsorship of the Interna- 
tional Commission on Large Dams, a subsidiary 
organization of the World Power Conference, to 
consider such matters as methods for determining 
the maximum discharge of water which may be 
expected at a dam and for which it should be de- 
signed, the design and construction of earth and 
rockfill dams, sedimentation of reservoirs, and the 
effect of various conditions on the properties of 
concrete. Concurrently, a sectional meeting of 
the World Power Conference will discuss thef 
use of energy, in particular the use of electricity 
in agriculture and the coordination of the develop- 
ment of industries and the development of power 
resources. A list of the names of the members 
of the United States delegation to these two con- 
ferences follows below. 

The Indian National Committee of the World 
Power Conference has also made arrangements for 
an exhibition of engineering activities relating to 
the conservation and use of water and power to 
open at New Delhi on January 10. Various coun- 
tries have been invited to show what they have 
accomplished in these fields and will display work- 
ing and still models of machinery and devices re- 
lating to river control, flood control, irrigation, 
navigation, water supply, bridges and allied struc- 
tures, and power generation, transmission, and 
utilization, as well as charts, maps, and photo- 
graphs. The exhibit of the United States Govern- 
ment consists of three units which have been de- 
veloped, respectively, by the Corps of Engineers 
of the Department of the Army, the Department 
of the Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority. 

Before the opening of the two conferences and 
the exhibition at New Delhi on Januaiy 10, Mr. 
Hathaway and other members of a United States 
delegation will participate in a Meeting of the 
International Association of Hydraulic Research, 
to be held at Bombay, January 2-5, 1951. The 
International Association of Hydraulic Research 
was organized approximately 15 years ago for the 
purpose of developing and exchanging technical 
information in the field of hydraulics, particularly 
with respect to hydraulic design and model testing. 



At its forthcoming meeting, attention ■will be 
focused on questions relating to the design of lined 
canals, headworks to exclude solid materials from 
canals, the effect of barrages and dams on the re- 
gime of rivers, and the distribution and control 
of water and solids in canals. 

From January 7-January 9, Mr. Hathaway, 
assisted by Leslie N. McClellan, chief engineer, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Inte- 
rior, Denver, Colorado, will also serve as the 
United States delegate to a Technical Conference 
on Flood Control to be held at New Delhi. That 
conference is being convened by the Bureau of 
Flood Control of the United Nations Economic 
Commission for Asia and the Far East to con- 
sider a report which it has prepared on methods 
of flood control. 

Following are the members of the United States 
delegation to the Fourth International Congress 
on Large Dams and the sectional meeting of the 
World Power Conference, New Delhi, India, Jan- 
uary 10, 1951 : 

Members 

Francis L. Adams, assistant chief, Bureau of Power, Fed- 
eral Power Commission 

Preston T. Bennett, civil engineer (Soils Mechanics), 
Omaha District, Corps of Engineers, Omaha, Nebr. 

Clarence E. Blee, chief engineer, Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Waldo G. Bowman, editor. Engineering News-Record, 
McGraw-Hill Publications, New York, N. Y. 

William C. Cassidy, hydraulic engineer, South Pacific 
Division, Corps of Engineers, San Francisco, Calif. 

Henry L. Deimel, Jr., counselor of Embassy for Economic 
Affairs, American Embassy, New Delhi, India 

Jacob H. Douma, hydraulic engineer, Civil Works, Office 
of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army 

Francis S. Friel, president, Albright and FViel, consulting 
engineers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Leslie N. McClellan, chief engineer. Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, Department of the Interior, Denver, Colo. 

Robert J. Pafford, Jr., hydraulic engineer, Missouri River 
Division, Corps of Engineers, Omaha, Nebr. 

Louis E. Rydell, civil engineer, Walla Walla District, 
Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla, Wash. 

Michael W. Straus, commissioner of reclamation, Depart- 
ment of the Interior. 

Claude R. Wickard, administrator, Rural Electrification 
Administration, Department of Agriculture. 

The same delegation will represent the United 
States at the Meeting of the International Asso- 
ciation of Hydraulic Research at Bombay, India, 
on January 2, 1951, with the exception of the 
following : 

Henry L. Deimel, Jr., counselor of Embassy for Economic 
Affairs, American Embassy, New Delhi, India 

Michael W. Straus, commissioner of reclamation, Depart- 
ment of the Interior. 

Claude R. Wickard, administrator, Rural Electrification 
Administration, Department of Agriculture 



Executive Board (WHO) 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 5 that Dr. H. van Zile Hyde, whom President 
Truman appointed in October ISHS as the United 
States representative on the Executive Board of 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



the World Health Organization (Wno), will 
head the United States delegation to the seventh 
session of the Executive Board, beginning on Jan- 
uary 22 at Geneva. 

Dr. Hyde will be assisted by Howard B. Calder- 
wood, Oflice of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State, as the alter- 
nate United States representative. Dr. Fred- 
erick J. Brady, assistant chief, International Or- 
ganizations, Division of International Health, 
United States Public Health Service, and Alvin 
Eoseman, United States representative for spe- 
cialized agency affairs, Geneva, will serve as 
advisers. 

Dr. Hyde will be unable to attend a preliminary 
meeting of tlie Executive Board's Standing Com- 
mittee on Administration and Finance, beginning 
on January 8 at Geneva. In his absence. Dr. 
Brady has been appointed as alternate United 
States i-epresentative, and Mr. Calderwood and 
Mr. Roseman will serve as advisers. 

The Executive Board, composed of 18 member 
states of Who, is responsible for putting into 
effect the decisions and policies of the Organiza- 
tion's main constituent organ, the Health Assem- 
bly. Meetings of the Executive Board are held 
at least semiannually. 

The forthcoming meetings will give considera- 
tion, among other items, to the proposed program 
and budget for 1952 and financial matters affect- 
ing Who. In addition, the Executive Board has 
included in its provisional agenda such topics 
as the prevalence of tropical ulcer and of leprosy 
throughout the world, technical assistance to un- 
derdeveloped countries, and reports on the prog- 
ress made by various expert and regional 
committees concerned with such matters as tuber- 
culosis, mental health, venereal diseases, and 
school health services. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Appointments to Foreign Service 
Selection Board Announced 

[Released to the press December 19] 

The State Department announced today that 
plans have been completed for the 1951 Selection 
Boards to review the records and recommend pro- 
motions for career officers of the United States 
Foreign Service. The Boards will convene on Jan- 
uary 8, 1951, and will continue in executive session 
for 6 weeks. 

The annual Selection Board meetings were de- 
veloped as a consequence of the Foreign Service 
Act of 194G, which included among its objectives 
the declaration that "promotions leading to posi- 
tions of authority and responsibility shall be on 



the basis of merit and selection on an impartial 
basis of outstanding persons for such positions." 

There are three Selection Boards, each composed 
of four Foreign Service officers and two public 
members. The officers who serve must have out- 
standing performance records, established repu- 
tations for sound judgment of personnel, and 
enjoy the confidence of the Service. In addition, 
these officers are selected as nearly as possible so 
that experience in the major areas of the world 
and in the major functions of the Service are 
represented on each Board. 

The 12 Foi-eign Service officials who are mem- 
bers of tlie Board are: J. Rives Cliilds, Ambassa- 
dor to Jidda; William DeCourcy, Ambassador to 
Port-au-Prince; David McK. Key, Ambassador 
to Rangoon ; Robert Murphy, Ambassador to Brus- 
sels; Harold Minor, recently Counselor of Em- 
bassy, Athens; Sidney Belovsky, Consul General 
at St. John's, Newfoundland; Sam Berger, re- 
cently First Secretary of Embassy and Consul, 
London ; Thomas Hickok, Member of Inspection 
Corps; Gerald A. Drew, Minister to Amman; 
Francis Flood, First Secretary of Embassy, Ot- 
tawa; Waldo Bailey, Consul, Bombay; and Rich- 
ard A. Johnson, Consul, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

The public members are men — not connected 
with the government — who are prominent in 
American business, labor, and academic fields and 
who are willing to devote considerable time in 
order to be of service to the government. The 
names of the public members will be announced 
later. 

Members of the Selection Boards are assisted 
in their deliberations by observers representing 
Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and 
Labor. 

The Foreign Service is the field-operating arm 
of the Department of State which represents the 
United States Government abroad. It consists of 
more than 16,000 employees, including approxi- 
mately 1,400 career officers, at approximately 280 
consulates and diplomatic missions scattered 
throughout the world. Through these posts, the 
United States conducts its business with other 
nations. In addition to their well-known diplo- 
matic functions, officials of the Foreign Service 
perform many other services for this Government 
and its citizens. These services include the issu- 
ance of passports and visas, economic and political 
reporting, reporting for the benefit of American 
business on possible markets for United States 
products or possible supplies of raw materials, 
and protecting American citizens abroad. At one 
time or another, officials of the Foreign Service 
may be charged with performing any or all of these 
fimctions in posts ranging from Capetown to 
Helsinki or from Buenos Aires to Rangoon. 

Consular Offices 

The American Consulate General at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many, was opened December 1, 1950. 



January 15, 7 95 J 



119 



Subject Index 
Africa 

Conference on Central and Southern Africa 
Transport Problems (Kelly, Smith, 

Birch) 

Aid to Foreign Countries : 

India : Relief Assistance for Flooded 

Areas 

Pakistan: Relief Assistance for Flooded 

Areas 

U.S.-U.S.S.R. Negotiations on Lend-Lease To 

Resume 

American Republics 

Argentina : Light Cruisers Offered .... 

Brazil : Light Cruisers Offered 

Chile: Light Cruisers Offered 

Graduate Study in Latin America 

Milner B. Schaefer Appointed to Tropical 
Tuna Commission 

Asia 

China : Report to the General Assembly From 
Group on Cease-Fire in Korea .... 

India : Relief Assistance for Flooded Areas . 

Korea : Report to the General Assembly From 
Group on Cease-Fire 

Pakistan : Relief Assistance for Flooded 
Areas 

Communism 

Basic Policy Issues in Economic Development 
(Thorp before Am. Econ. Assn., Chi- 
cago) 

Charting the Course for 1951 (Acheson) . . 

Where Are We? A Five-Year Record of 
America's Response to the Challenge of 
Communism (Dulles before Am. Assn. for 
U.N., N.Y.) 

Europe 

Austria : Statu.s of Negotiations With Soviet 
Union on Proposed Foreign Ministers 
Meeting : 
Review of Past Allied Negotiations . 
Soviet Note of Dec. 30, 1950 .... 
Statement by Secretary Acheson . . 
Germany : 

Chauncey G. Parker Named Assistant U.S 

High Commissioner for Germany . . 
Dusseldorf, Opening of Consulate General 
German Federal Republic's Monthly Eco 

nomic Review 

Office of U.S. High Commissioner for Ger 

many Moved to Bonn 

Status of Negotiations With Soviet Union 
on Proposed Foreign Ministers Meet- 
ing: 
Review of Allied Negotiations . . . 
Soviet Note of Dec. 30, 1950 .... 
Statement by Secretary Acheson . . 

U.S.S.R. 

Negotiations on Lend-Lease To Resume . . 
Status of Negotiations With Soviet Union 
on Proposed Foreign Ministers Meet- 
ing: 
Review of Past Allied Negotiations . . . 

Soviet Note of Dec. 30, 1950 

Statement by Secretary Acheson . . . 

Where Are We? A Five-Year Record of 

America's Response to tlie Challenge of 

Communi.sm (Dulles before Am. Assn. for 

U.N., N.Y.) 

Yugoslavia : German Federal Republic's 

Monthly Economic Review 

Fisheries 

Milner B. Schaefer Appointed to Tropical 
Tuna Commission 



index 

Foreign Service paga 

I'age Appointments to Foreign Service Selection 

Board Announced 119 

Consular Offices : Du.s.seldorf, Germany, Open- 

110 ing of Consulate General 119 

Information and Educational Exchange 
Program (USIE) 

Graduate Study in Latin America 99 

gg International Meetings 

Conference on Central and Southern Africa 

93 Transport Problems (Kelly, Smith, 
Birch) 110 

Status of Negotiations With Soviet Union on 
V^ Proposed Foreign Ministers Meeting . . 90 

1"^ U.S. Delegations: 
oQ Conference on Central and Southern ALfrica 

^^ Transport 110 

Development of Water Resources .... 118 

109 Executive Board (Who) 118 

U.S. Delegation Report on Fag : Special Con- 
ference Session (McCormick) .... 105 
113 Mutual Aid and Defense 

89 Dusseldorf, Opening of Consulate General . 119 

Charting the Course for 1951 (Acheson) . . 83 
113 Light Cruisers Offered to Argentina, Brazil, 

Chile 104 

89 Where Are We? A Five-Year Record of 
America's Response to the Challenge of 
Communism (Dulles before Am. Assn. 
for U.N., N.Y.) 85 

94 Publications 

83 Recent Releases 84 

Technical Cooperation and Development 
Basic Policy Issues in Economic Development 
„_ (Thorp before Am. Econ. Assn., Chi- 

°° cago) 94 

Trade 

Basic Policy Issues in Economic Develop- 
ment (Thorp before Am. Econ. Assn., 

Chicago) 94 

g^ Transport 

go Conference on Central and Southern Africa 
Transport Problems (KeUy, Smith, 
Birch) 110 

89 Treaties and Other International Agreements 
119 U.S.-U.S.S.R. Negotiations on Lend-Lease 

(1942) To Resume 93 

100 United Nations 
gg Fad: U.S. Delegation Report, Special Con- 
ference Session (McCormick) .... 105 
General Assembly : Report From Group on 

Cease-Fire in Korea 113 

92 Resolutions: Korea (Dec. 14, 1950), text . . 113 
QQ U.S. in the United Nations 117 

90 Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean S3, 90 

93 Birch, John A 112 

Chou En-Lai 114,115 

Dulles, John Foster 85 

Entezam, Nasrollah 114, 115 

Q9 Hathaway, Gail A 118 

(^ Hvde, H. van Zile 118,119 

no Kelly, H. H 112 

McCloy, John J 89 

McCormick, Clarence J 105 

Parker, Ctiauncey G 89 

gg Pearson, Lester B 114 

Ran, Sir Benegal 114 

-.f.. Schaefer, Milner B 109 

Smith, Allan Hugh 112 

Thorp, Willard L 94 

WoUe, Glenn G 89 

109 Wu, Ambassador 113, 114 



^Ae/ z/Jeha^tmeTii/ ^^ t/iate/ 





THE STATE OF THE UNION • Message of the President 

to the Congress .••.•.••••• 123 

FIFTH SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY: 

PART I • Summary by Elizabeth Ann Brotcn 138 

THE EWE PROBLEM: A CASE STUDY IN THE OP- 
ERATION OF THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL • 

By Benjamin Gerig and Vernon McKay ..« 128 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 603 
January 22, 1951 



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Vol. XXIV, No. 603 • Publication 4083 
January 22, 1951 



The Department of State BVLLETIIS, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
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The State of the Union 



Message of the President to the Congress ' 



Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the 
Congress : 

This Eighty-second Congress faces as grave a 
task as any Congress in the history of our Ke- 
public. 

The actions you take will be watched by the 
whole world. These actions will measure the 
ability of a free people, acting through their chosen 
representatives and their free institutions, to meet 
a deadly challenge to their way of life. 

We can meet this challenge foolishly or wisely. 
We can meet it timidly or bravely, shamefullly or 
honorably. 

I know that the Eighty-second Congress will 
meet this challenge in a way worthy of our great 
heritage. I know that your debates will be earn- 
est, responsible, and to the point. I know that 
from these debates there will come the great de- 
cisions needed to carry us forward. 

At this critical time, I am glad to say that our 
country is in a healthy condition. Our demo- 
cratic institutions are sound and strong. We have 
more men and women at work than ever before. 
We are able to produce more than ever before — 
in fact, far more than any country in the history 
of the world. 

I am confident that we can succeed in the great 
task that lies before us. 

We will succeed, but we must all do our part. 
We must all act together as citizens of this great 
Republic. 

As we meet here today, American soldiers are 
fighting a bitter campaign in Korea. 

We pay tribute to their courage, devotion, and 
gallantry. 

Our men are fighting, alongside their United 
Nations allies, because they know, as we do, that 
the aggression in Korea is part of the attempt of 
the Russian Comnmnist dictatorship to take over 
the world, step by step. 

' Delivered to the Congress on Jan. S and released to the 
press by the White House on the same date. 



Our men are fighting a long way from home, 
but they are fighting for our lives and our liberties. 
They are fighting to protect our right to meet 
here today — our right to govern ourselves as a free 
nation. 

The Soviet Threat 

The threat of world conquest by Soviet Russia 
endangers our liberty and endangers the kind of 
world in which the free spirit of man can sur- 
vive. This threat is aimed at all peoples who 
strive to win or defend their own freedom and 
national independence. 

Indeed, the state of our Nation is in great part 
the state of our friends and allies throughout 
the world. The gun that points at them points 
at us, also. 

The threat is a total threat and the danger 
is a common danger. 

All free nations are exposed and all are in 
peril. Their only security lies in banding to- 
gether. No one nation can find protection in a 
selfish search for a safe haven from the storm. 

The free nations do not have any aggressive 
purpose. We want only peace in the world — 
peace for all countries. No threat to the security 
of any nation is concealed in our plans or pro- 
gi'ams. 

We had hoped that the Soviet Union, with its 
security assured by the Charter of the United 
Nations, would be willing to live and let live. But 
that has not been the case. 

The imperialism of the czars has been replaced 
by the even more ambitious, more crafty, and 
more menacing imperialism of the rulers of the 
Soviet Union. 

This new imperialism has powerful military 
forces. It is keeping millions of men under arms. 
It has a large air force and a strong submarine 
force. It has complete control of the men and 
equipment of its satellites. It has kept its sub- 



January 22, J95J 



123 



ject peoples and its economy in a state of perpet- 
ual mobilization. 

The present rulers of the Soviet Union have 
shown that they are willing to use this power to 
destroy the free nations and win domination over 
the whole world. 

The Soviet imperialists have two ways of going 
about their destructive work. They use the 
method of subversion and internal revolution, and 
they use the method of external aggression. In 
preparation for either of these methods of attack, 
they stir up class strife and disorder. They en- 
courage sabotage. They put out poisonous propa- 
ganda. They deliberately try to prevent economic 
improvement. 

If their efforts are successful, they foment a 
revolution, as they did in Czechoslovakia and 
China, and as they tried unsuccessfully to do in 
Greece. If their methods of subversion are 
blocked, and if they think they can get away with 
outright warfare, they resort to external aggres- 
sion. This is what they did when they loosed the 
armies of their puppet states against the Republic 
of Korea, in an evil war by proxy. 

Free World To Meet the Challenge 

We of the free world must be ready to meet both 
of these methods of Soviet action. We must not 
neglect one or the other. 

The free world has power and resources to meet 
these two forms of aggression — resources that are 
far greater than those of the Soviet dictatorship. 
We have skilled and vigorous peoples, great in- 
dustrial strength, and abundant sources of raw 
materials. And above all, we cherish liberty. 
Our common ideals are a great part of our 
strength. These ideals are the driving force of 
human progress. 

The free nations believe in the dignity and worth 
of man. 

We believe in independence for all nations. 

We believe that free and independent nations 
can band together into a world order based on 
law. We have laid the cornerstone of such a 
peaceful world in the United Nations. 

We believe that such a world order can and 
should spread the benefits of modern science and 
industry, better health and education, more food 
and raising standards of living — throughout the 
world. 

These ideals give our cause a power and vitality 
that Russian communism can never command. 

The free nations, however, are bound together 
by more than ideals. They are a real community 
bound together also by the ties of self-interest and 
self-preservation. If they should fall apart, the 
results would be fatal to human freedom. 

Our own national security is deeply involved 
with that of the other free nations. Wliile they 
need our support, we equally need theirs. Our 

124 



national safety would be gravely prejudiced if 
the Soviet Union were to succeed in harnessing to 
its war machine the resources and the manpower 
of the free nations on the bordei's of its empire. 

If Western Europe were to fall to Soviet Russia, 
it would double the Soviet supply of coal and 
triple the Soviet supply of steel. If the free 
countries of Asia and Africa should fall to Soviet 
Russia, we would lose the sources of many of our 
most vital raw materials, including uranium, 
which is the basis of our atomic power. And 
Soviet command of the manpower of the free na- 
tions of Europe and Asia would confront us with 
military forces which we could never hope to equaL 

In such a situation, the Soviet Union could im- 
pose its demands on the world, without resort 
to conflict, simply through the preponderance of 
its economic and military power. The Soviet 
Union does not have to attack the United States to 
secure domination of the world. It can achieve 
its ends by isolating us and swallowing up all our 
allies. Therefore, even if we were craven enough 
to abandon our ideals, it would be disastrous tor 
us to withdraw from the community of free 
nations. 

We are the most powerful single member of 
this community, and we have a special responsi- 
bility. We must take the leadership in meeting 
the challenge to freedom and in helping to protect 
the rights of independent nations. 

U.S. Program for Action Against Communism 

This country has a practical, realistic program 
of action for meeting this challenge. 

EXTENDING ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 

First, we shall have to extend economic assist- 
ance, where it can be effective. The best way 
to stop subversion by the Kremlin is to strike at 
the roots of social injustice and economic dis- 
order. People who have jobs, homes, and hopes 
for the future will defend themselves against the 
underground agents of the Kremlin. Our pro- 
grams of economic aid have done much to turn 
back communism. 

In Europe, the Marshall Plan has had electri- 
fying results. As European recovery progressed, 
the strikes led by the Kremlin's agents in Italy 
and France failed. All over Western Europe, 
the Communist Party took worse and worse beat- 
ings at the polls. 

The countries which have received Marshall 
Plan aid have been able, through hard work, to 
expand their productive strength — in many cases, 
to levels higher than ever before in their history. 
Without this strength, they would be completely 
incapable of defending themselves today. They 
are now ready to use this strength in helping 
to build a strong combined defense against ag- 
gression. 

Department of State Bulletin 



We shall need to continue some economic aid 
to European countries. This aid should now bo 
specificiilly related to buildinji; their deleiises. 

In otlier parts of tlie world, our economic as- 
sistance will need to be more broadly directed 
toward economic development. In the Near East, 
in Africa, in Asia, we must do what we can to help 
people who are striving to advance from misery, 
poverty, and hunger. We also must continue to 
help the economic growth of our good neighbors in 
this hemisphere. These actions will bring 
greater strength for the free world. They will 
give many people a real stake in the future and 
reason to defend their freedom. They will mean 
increased production of the goods they need and 
the materials we need. 



CONTINUING MILITARY ASSISTANCE 

Second, we shall need to continue our military 
assistance to countries which want to defend them- 
selves. 

The heart of our common defense effort is the 
North Atlantic community. The defense of 
Europe is the basis for the defense of the whole 
free world — ourselves included. Next to the 
United States, Europe, is the largest workshop 
of the world. It is also a homeland of great 
religious beliefs shared by many of our citizens — 
beliefs which are now threatened by the tide of 
atheistic communism. 

Strategically, economically, and morally, the 
defense of Europe is part of our own defense. 

That is why we have joined with the countries 
of Europe in the North Atlantic Treaty, pledging 
ourselves to work with them. 

There has been much discussion recently over 
whether the European countries are willing to 
defend themselves. Their actions are answering 
this question. 

Our North Atlantic Treaty partners have strict 
systems of universal military training. Several 
have recently increased the term of service. All 
have taken measures to improve the quality of 
training. Forces are being trained and expanded 
as rapidly as the necessary arms and equipment 
can be supplied from their factories and ours. Our 
North Atlantic Treaty partners, together, are 
building armies bigger than our own. 

None of the North Atlantic Treaty countries, 
including our own country, has done enough yet. 
But real progress is being made. 

Together, we have worked out defense plans. 
The military leaders of our own country took part 
in working out these plans and are agreed that 
they are sound and within our capabilities. 

To put these plans into action, we sent to Europe 
last week one of our greatest military commanders. 
General Dwight D. Eisenhower. 

General Eisenhower went to Europe to assume 
command of the united forces of the North Atlan- 

January 22, 7957 



tic Treaty countries, including our own forces in 
Germany. 

The people of Europe have confidence in Gen- 
eral Eisenhower. They know his ability to put 
together a fighting force of allies. His mission 
is vital to our security. Wo should all stand be- 
hind him and give him every bit of help we can. 

Part of our job will be to reinforce the military 
strength of our European partners by sending 
them weapons and equipment as our military pro- 
duction expands. 

Our program of military assistance extends to 
nations in the Near East and the Far East which 
are trying to defend their freedom. Soviet com- 
munism is trying to make these nations into 
colonies, and to use their people as cannon fodder 
in new wars of conquest. We want their people 
to be free men and to enjoy peace. 

Our country has always stood for freedom for 
the peoples of Asia. Our history shows this. We 
have demonstrated it in the Philippines. We have 
demonstrated it in our relations with Indonesia, 
India, and China. We hope to join in restoring 
the people of Japan to membership in the com- 
munity of free nations. 

It is in the Far East that we have taken up arms, 
under the United Nations, to preserve the prin- 
ciple of independence for free nations. We are 
fighting to keep the forces of Communist aggres- 
sion from making a slave state out of Korea. 

Korea has tremendous significance for the 
world. It means that free nations, acting through 
the United Nations, are fighting together against 
aggression. 

Wo understand the importance of this best if 
wo look back into history. If the democracies had 
stood up against the invasion of Manchuria in 
1931, or the attack on Ethiopia in 1935, or the 
seizure of Austria in 1938, if they had stood to- 
gether against aggression on those occasions as the 
United Nations has done, the whole history of our 
time would have been different. 

The principles for which we are fighting in 
Korea are right and just. They are the founda- 
tions of collective security and of the future of 
free nations. Korea is not only a country under- 
going the torment of aggression; it is also a 
symbol. It stands for right and justice in the 
world against oppression and slavery. The free 
world must always stand for those principles — 
and we will stand with the free world. 

WORKING FOR PEACEFUL SETTLEMENTS 

As the third part of our progi-am, we will con- 
tinue to work for peaceful settlements of inter- 
national disputes. We will support the United 
Nations and remain loyal to the great principles 
of international cooperation laid down in its 
Charter. 

125 



We are willing, as we have always been, to nego- 
tiate honorable settlements with the Soviet Union. 
But we will not engage in appeasement. 

The Soviet rulers have made it clear that we 
must have strength as well as right on our side. 
If we build our strength — and we are building it — 
the Soviet rulers may face the facts and lay aside 
their plans to take over the world. 

That is what we hope will happen, and that is 
what we are trying to bring about. 

That is the only realistic road to peace. 

These are the main elements of the course our 
Nation must follow as a member of the community 
of free nations. These are the things we must do 
to preserve our security and help create a peace- 
ful world. But they will be successful only if we 
increase the strength of our own country. 

Preparing for Wartime Mobilization 

Here at home we have some very big jobs to do. 
We are building much stronger military forces — 
and we are building them fast. We are preparing 
for full wartime mobilization, if that should be 
necessary. And we are continuing to build a 
strong and growing economy, able to maintain 
whatever effort may be required for as long as 
necessary. 

EQUIPMENT 

We are building our own Army, Navy, and Air 
Force to an active strength of nearly 31/2 million 
men and women. We are stepping up the training 
of the reserve forces, and establishing more train- 
ing facilities, so that we can rapidly increase our 
active forces far more on short notice. 

We are going to produce all the weapons and 
equipment that such an armed force will need. 
Furthermore, we will make weapons for our allies, 
and weapons for our own reserve supplies. On 
top of this, we will build the capacity to turn out 
on short notice arms and supplies that may be 
needed for a full scale war. 

Fortunately, we have a good start on this be- 
cause of our enormous plant capacity and the 
equipment on hand from the last war. For ex- 
ample, many combat ships are being returned to 
active duty from the "mothball fleet" and many 
others can be put into service on very short notice. 
We have large reserves of arms and ammunition 
and thousands of woi-kers skilled in arms 
production. 

In many cases, however, our stocks of weapons 
are low. In other cases, those on hand are not 
the most modern. We have made remarkable 
technical advances. We have developed new types 
of jet planes and powerful new tanks. We are 
concentrating on producing the newest types of 
weapons and producing them as fast as we pos- 
sibly can. 



This production drive is more selective than the 
one we had during World War II, but it is just as 
urgent and intense. It is a big program and a 
costly one. 

Let me give you two concrete examples. Our 
present program calls for expanding the aircraft 
industry so that it will have the capacity to pro- 
duce 50,000 modern military planes a year. We 
are preparing the capacity to produce 35,000 tanks 
a year. We are not now ordering that many 
planes or tanks, and we hope that we never have 
to, but we mean to be able to turn them out if we 
need them. 

The planes we are producing now are a lot big- 

§er — and a lot better — than the planes we had 
uring the last wai". 

We used to think that the B-17 was a huge 
plane and the block-buster it carried was a huge 
load. But the B-36 can carry five of those block- 
busters in its belly, and it can carry them five 
times as far. Of course, the B-36 is much more 
complicated to build than the B-17, and far more 
expensive. One B-17 costs about $275,000, while 
now one B-36 costs about 3i/^ million dollars. 

I ask you to remember that what we are doing 
is to provide the best and most modern military 
equipment in the world for our fighting forces. 

This kind of defense production program has 
two parts. 

SPEED 

The first part is to get our defense production 
going as fast as possible. We have to convert , 
plants and channel materials to defense produc- 
tion. 

This means heavy cuts in the civilian use of 
copper, aluminum, rubber, and other essential ma- 
terials. It means shortages in various consumer 
goods. 

The second part is to increase our capacity to 
produce and to keep our economy strong for the 
long pull. We do not know how long Commmiist 
aggression will threaten the world. 

Only by increasing our output can we carry the 
burden of preparedness for an indefinite period in 
the future. This means that we will have to build 
more power plants, and more steel mills, grow 
more cotton, mine more copper, and expand our 
capacity in many other ways. 

LEGISLATION 

The Congress will need to consider legislation, 
at this session, affecting all the aspects of our 
mobilization job. The main subjects on which 
legislation will be needed are: 

First, appropriations for our military build-up. 
Second, extension and revision of the Selective 
Service Act. 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



Third, military and economic aid to help build 
up the strength of the free world. 

Fourth, revision and extension of the authority 
to expand production and to stabilize prices, 
wages, and rents. 

Fifth, improvement of our agi-icultural laws, to 
help obtain the kinds of farm products wo need 
for the defense effort. 

Sixth, improvement of our labor laws to help 
provide stable labor-management relations and to 
make sure that we have steady production in this 
emergency. 

Seventh, housing and training of defense work- 
ers, and the full use of all our manpower resources. 

Eighth, means for increasing the supply of doc- 
tors, nurses, and other trained medical personnel 
critically needed for the defense effort. 

Ninth, aid to the States to meet the most urgent 
needs of our elementary and secondary schools. 
Some of our plans will have to be deferred for the 
time being. But we should do all we can to make 
sure our children are being trained as good and 
useful citizens in these critical times ahead. 

We are building up our strength, in concert with 
other free nations, to meet the danger of aggres- 
sion that has been turned loose on the world. The 
strength of the free nations is the world's best 
hope of peace. 

Appeal for Unity 

I ask the Congress for unity in these crucial 
days. 

Make no mistake about my meaning. I do not 
ask, or expect, unanimity. I do not ask for an end 
to debate. Only by debate can we arrive at de- 
cisions which are wise and which reflect the de- 
sires of the American people. We do not have 
dictatorship in this country, and we will never 
have it. 

When I request unity, what I am really asking 
for is a sense of responsibility on the part of every 
member of this Congress. Let us debate the is- 
sues, but let every man among us weigh his words 
and deeds. There is a sharp difference between 
harmful criticism and constructive criticism. If 
we are truly responsible as individuals, I am sure 
that we will be unified as a government. 

Let us keep our eyes on the issues and woi'k for 
the things we all believe in. 

Let each of us put our country ahead of our 
party and ahead of our own personal interests. 

I had the honor to be a member of the Senate 
during World War II, and I know from experience 
that unity of purpose and of effort is possible in 
the Congress without any lessening of the vitality 
of our two-party system. 

Let us all stand together as Americans. And 
let us stand together with all men everywhere who 
believe in human liberty. 



Peace is precious to us. It is the way of life we 
strive for with all the strength and wisdom we 
possess. But more precious than peace are free- 
dom and justice. We will fight, if fight we must, 
to keep our freedom and to prevent justice from 
being destroyed. 

Tlicse are the thinj^s that give meaning to our 
lives, and which we acknowledge to be greater than 
ourselves. 

Tenth, a major increase in taxes to meet the cost 
of the defense effort. 



Additional Messages 

The Economic Report and the Budget Message 
will discuss these subjects further. In addition, I 
shall send to the Congress special messages con- 
taining detailed recommendations on legislation 
needed at this session. 

In the months ahead, the Government must give 
priority to activities that are urgent — like military 
procurement and atomic energy and power devel- 
opment. It must practice rigid economy in its non- 
defense activities. Many of the things we would 
normally do must be curtailed or postponed. 

But in a long-term defense effort like this one, 
we cannot neglect the measures needed to main- 
tain a strong economy and a healthy democratic 
society. 

The Congress, therefore, should give continued 
attention to the measures which our country will 
need for the long pull. And it should act upon 
such legislation as promptly as circumstances per- 
mit. 

To take just one example — we need to continue 
and complete the work of rounding out our system 
of social insurance. We still need to improve our 
protection against unemployment and old age. 
We still need to provide insurance against loss of 
earnings through sickness and against the high 
costs of modern medical care. 

Above all, we must remember that the funda- 
mentals of our strength rest upon the freedoms of 
our people. We must continue our efforts to 
achieve the full realization of our democratic 
ideals. We must uphold freedom of speech and 
freedom of conscience in our land. We must as- 
sure equal right and equal opportimities to all our 
citizens. 

As we go forward this year in the defense of 
freedom, let us keep clearly before us the nature 
of our present effort. 

This is our cause — peace, freedom, justice. 

We will pursue this cause with determination 
and humility, asking Divine Guidance that in all 
we do we may follow God's will. 



The White House, 
January 8, 1951. 



Hakrt S. Truman 



January 22, J 95 1 



127 



THE EWE PROBLEM: A CASE STUDY 

IN THE OPERATION OF THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

hy Benjamin Gerig and Vernon McKay 



When the United Nations Trusteeship Coun- 
cil opens its eighth session on January 30, it will 
again be confronted with the Ewe problem ^ — a 
challenging issue that has arisen at every ses- 
sion since the Council was inaugurated nearly 
4 years ago. The Ewe people, more than 800,000 
in number, are West Africans, have a common 
language, tradition, and customs but are divided 
by political boundaries of three territories — the 
two trust territories of British Togoland and 
French Togoland and the British colony of the 
Gold Coast. In their desire to be united under 
a single administration. Ewe leaders have sent 
more than 140 petitions to the Trusteeship 
Council. The issue thus raised, involving a 
proposal to change political boundaries, poses 
questions of wide significance for the future of 
Africa. The Ewe question is a striking example of 
the complex issues before the Council, and it pro- 
vides an informative case study of how the Coun- 
cil operates in carrying out its three main tasks of 
examining annual reports, dealing with petitions, 
and sending missions to study conditions in the 
areas under its supervision. 

Characteristics of Eweland 

The Ewe people inhabit an area of about 10,000 
square miles lying between the Volta and Mono 
rivers along the humid, tropical Guinea Coast of 
West Africa. In 1884, the eastern part of this area 
was taken over by the Germans who founded the 
colony of Togo. Invaded and partitioned by the 
British and French at the outbreak of World War 

' Ewe is pronounced eh'-vay. 

128 



I, Togo was redivided after the war into the two 
mandated territories of British Togoland and 
French Togoland. Essentially agricultural, the 
Ewe area exports cocoa, tapioca, coffee, palm 
kernels and palm oil, and other tropical products. 
It has a small fishing industry, but its mineral re- 
sources are not of sufficient importance to attract 
mining enterprise. Three short branches of a 
Fiench railroad converge on Lome, the capital of 
French Togoland and the only significant port in 
the whole Ewe region. By special arrangement 
with the French, most of the cocoa produced in 
British Togoland is shipped over this railroad to 
Lome for export. The Ewe areas of British Togo- 
land and the Gold Coast, as the Trusteeship Coun- 
cil's first visiting mission found, have no railroads 
and only a poor road system, and no bridges over 
the rivers. The area's revenues, like its resources, 
have, in the past, been too limited to permit exten- 
sive economic development. 

Origins of the Ewe Movement 

The Ewe people migrated westward from their 
first known home in Nigeria to found, at an un- 
known date, the walled town of Notsi in French 
Togoland. From the middle of the seventeenth 
century, the beginning of their modern history, 
they moved on from Notsi until they reached their 
i:)resent settlements. These settlements subse- 
quently developed independently of eacli otlier 
all hough they formed alliances in time of war. 

Wlion Christian missionaries entered Ewe coun- 
try in the midnineteenth century, they found 
that the Ewe language, like most of Africa's 800 
languages, was a vernacular which liad not been 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



transcribed into writing. A German missionary 
published the first Ewe grammar in 1856. To- 
gether with an excellent Ewe translation of the 
Bible, it paved the way for the standardization 
of the literary form of the language. When mis- 
sion schools began to give the Ewe people a formal 
education, they became increasingly conscious of 
a common origin and hopeful of a common destiny. 
In September 1919, a number of Ewe chiefs, 
in a protest to the British Colonial Ollice, alleged 
that — 

. . . the absorption of Tojioland into French colonial 
possessions will sever members of Ewe-speaking tribes of 
ToKoland from those in the South-eastern part of the Gold 
Coast and seriously interfere witli their economic progress. 

A note to President Harding in 1921 made a 
similar allegation. Other Ewe protests were in- 
cluded among the ten petitions regarding the 
frontier problem which were submitted to the Per- 
manent Mandates Commission of the League of 
Nations. The Mandates Conmiission, however, 
took little action. In the case of petitions dealing 
with customs-frontier difficulties and the separa- 
tion of villages from farms, it expressed the hope 
that the mandatory power would take appropriate 
measures to meet the situation. 

To promote their objectives, Ewe leaders have, 
in the past, formed a number of unions and asso- 
ciations. In its present advanced form, however, 
the Ewe movement is an outgrowth of World War 
II. Ewe discontent was enhanced by the imposi- 
tion of additional frontier restrictions between the 
two Togolands, particularly during the Vichy 
period. 

As the war drew to a close. Ewe leaders foresaw 
that the future of the mandates would be an im- 
portant problem in any plans for a new postwar 
world organization. With this idea in mind, they 
set out to strengthen the Ewe movement. In May 
1945, a Gold Coast Ewe on the faculty of Achimota 
College began the monthly publication of the Ewe- 
News-Letter^ and, in April 1947, another Ewe 
journal, Le Guide du Togo, began semimonthly 
publication in Lome. On Jime 9, 1946, Ewe lead- 
ers from British and French Togoland and the 
Gold Coast held the first meeting of an All-Ewe 
Conference which drew up the All-Ewe Conven- 
tion referred to in several petitions. These efforts 
undoubtedly crystallized Ewe opinion. In No- 
vember 1947, the British and French Governments 
informed the Trusteeship Council that they had 



good reason to believe that the objects and views 
of the All-Ewe Conference were those of the mass 
of the Ewe people, whether educated or not. 



FRENCH 
( WEST 

. AFRICA 




Atlantic Ocean 

T 11781 



How the Ewe Question Came Before the Council 

The Ewe people were among the earliest peti- 
tioners to present their case to the Trusteeship 
Council, their first petition having been sent by 
cable in April 1947 during the Council's first ses- 
sion. Seven Ewe petitions were examined by the 
Council during the second session, two during the 
third session, one during the fourth session, and 
one during the fifth session. More than 100 other 
Ewe petitions, presented to the visiting mission 
which traveled through British and French Togo- 
land between November 30 and December 16, 1949, 
were dealt with at the seventh session in the sum- 
mer of 1950. 

The first Ewe petition was called to the Council's 
attention by its President on April 23, 1947. 
Noting that the petition had not been received 2 
months before the opening of the session and, 



January 22, 795? 



129 



therefore, in accordance with rule 86 of the rules 
of procedure, could not be placed upon the agenda 
without a special vote to that effect, the Council 
decided to place the petition on the agenda of the 
next regular session. 

In the interval between the first and second ses- 
sions. Ewe leaders petitioned for the opportunity 
to send representatives to supplement their writ- 
ten petition with an oral statement in accordance 
with rule 80. Since this request involved the set- 
ting of an important precedent, it was discussed 
at length on November 20, 1947, the opening day of 
the second session. The President stated that, in 
his view, the hearing of oral petitions was a matter 
of grace and not of right and a matter which the 
Council should determine in each individual case. 
After the representative of the United Kingdom 
pointed out that it was possible to travel from the 
Gold Coast to New York in 24 hours by airplane, 
the Council approved a motion by the representa- 
tive of Mexico to accord an oral hearing to the 
petitioners if they could send a representative 
within 2 weeks. Immediately after the meeting, 
the Secretariat telegraphed this decision to the 
petitioners. 

The First Anglo-French Joint Memorandum 

Meanwliile, in a joint memorandum dated 
November 17, the British and French Govern- 
ments submitted to the Council their observations 
on the Ewe petitions thus far received. Expres- 
sing the view that substantial progi-ess had already 
been made in the social, economic, political, and 
cultural spheres, the two Governments, neverthe- 
less, recognized that — 

. . . there are disabilities arising from the present sys- 
tem, and that the Ewes have certain legitimate grievances. 

Although willing to take steps to remedy these 
grievances, the two administering authorities were 
opposed to the political unification of the Ewe 
people since — 

. . . such a territorial unit based on tribal unity could 
not, under any circumstances, possess a national character 
in the modern sense of the vFord. 

They were also opposed to reuniting the two 
Togolands; they believed that any advantage 
which the Ewes might gain would be more than 
counterbalanced by the disadvantages to the tribes 
farther north. 

The two Governments announced an agreement, 
however, on certain economic, fiscal, and cultural 



measures which, in their opinion, would go far to 
meet Ewe grievances. In the economic field, they 
had decided to instruct local governments to re- 
move, as far as possible, obstacles to the movement 
of individuals and people across the frontiers. 
Furthermore, they would consult together in order 
to establish, within a fixed period of time, a con- 
ventional zone designed to remove all the dis- 
abilities arising from the customs frontier, on 
condition that the establishment of this zone would 
not prejudice the principle of exchange control 
between French and British territories in Africa. 
To remedy fiscal grievances, steps were to be taken 
to insure that the same individual was not taxed in 
both territories for the same reasons ; and an at- 
tempt was to be made to achieve a closer approxi- 
mation between the total burden of taxation per 
head of the native population in the two territories. 
In the cultural sphere, the two Governments 
agreed to introduce the teaching of the French 
language in the schools of British Togoland and 
the teaching of the English language in the schools 
of French Togoland, beginning with the higher 
primary schools. A university fund would be 
created to permit the exchange of speciallj' quali- 
fied students and to give them the opportunity to 
continue their studies in higher educational in- 
stitutions in British or French Togoland. 

To coordinate and "give the necessary impetus 
to the carrying out of this work," a standing 
Consultative Commission for Togoland Affairs 
would be established that would consist of two 
representatives of the inhabitants of each of the 
trust territories and under the joint chairman- 
ship of the Governor of the Gold Coast and the 
Commissaire de la R«publique of French Togo- 
land. 

Syivanus Olympic Presents the Ewe Case 

On December 8, 1947, 3 weeks after the submis- 
sion of the Anglo-French joint memorandum to 
the Council, Syivanus Olympio appeared for the 
first time at the Council table to present the Ewe 
case. In addition to being an outstanding leader 
in the Ewe movement, Mr. Olympio is president 
of the Representative Assembly of French Togo- 
land and manager of the Lome branch of the 
United African Company. Fluent in French and 
English as well as his native Ewe language, he 
impressed the Council by the moderation and 
conviction of his statements. He summed up the 
Ewe case as — 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



. . . the simple request of a tribe of one million people 
to be allowed to live together under one roof, and one gov- 
ernment, so that they could achieve peace and prosperity. 

He recalled that the Ewe country had been di- 
vided between Germany and England in 1884, had 
been redivided in 1914, and had been partitioned a 
third time after the peace treaty in 1920 when the 
British relinquished to the French a part of the 
territory they had occupied. The problem created 
by these arbitrary partitions, Mr. Olyinpio de- 
clared, had been a constant source of irritation and 
dissatisfaction. 

He felt that the economic, fiscal, and cultural 
reforms proposed in the Anglo-French joint mem- 
orandum were "hopelessly inadequate." The 
solution that the two Governments proposed was, 
at most, a makeshift arrangement which did not 
solve the basic problem. The orderly and true 
progress of the Ewe country required a common 
educational system, the same political organiza- 
tion, and economic unity, which could be brought 
about only by the complete unification of the 
country under one administration. In concluding 
this introductory statement, Mr. Olympic asked 
the Trusteeship Coimcil to investigate the prob- 
lem on the spot. 

In a 3-day discussion, the members of the Coun- 
cil questioned Mr. Olympio closely. Special repre- 
sentatives of France and the United Kingdom and 
two ofiicials from Ewe areas were also asked to 
present their views. This questioning and cross- 
questioning enabled the members of the Council 
to form a clearer idea of the complexity of the 
Ewe question and of the extent to which the re- 
forms proposed by the two Governments were 
likely to meet Ewe demands. The representative 
of the United States obtained from the French 
delegation an important clarification which helped 
the Council toward the adoption of a preliminary 
resolution.- He asked whether the reform pro- 
posals could be regarded as a first step toward uni- 
fication ; if so, it would, perhaps, give a good deal 
of satisfaction to the petitioners, who felt that 
these steps did not go far enough. The French 
representative responded that the United States 
suggestion seemed reasonable but that the two 
Governments could not say that the measures pro- 

' At the first and second sessions, the United States 
representative. Ambassador Francis B. Sayre, served as 
the Council's first president. During this period, Ben- 
jamin Gerig, United States deputy representative, took 
the seat of the United States representative at the Council 
table. 

I ianuary 22, 195? 



posed in the memorandum were necessarily the 
first steps toward unification in the foreseeable 
or immediate future "because this goes beyond the 
competence of the Trusteeship Council." He felt, 
however, that the reform proposals could be re- 
garded as a first stage, a transitional measure. 
The United States representative stated that he 
would not wish to admit at this point that the 
question of frontier modifications went beyond the 
competence of the Trusteeship Council. He 
thought it might be legitimate for the Council to 
make recommendations to the administering au- 
thorities for frontier changes although, of course, 
before such changes could be made, the trusteeship 
agreements would have to be modified. 

The French declaration that the reform pro- 
posals could be regarded as a transitional measure 
made it easier for the Council to reach agree- 
ment. On December 10, the president, remarking 
that tlie Ewe question was one of the really im- 
portant problems before the Council, suggested 
that the drafting committee on petitions, composed 
of the representatives of Australia, China, Iraq, 
and the United States, should draft a resolution 
that would embody the thoughts which had been 
expressed in the debate. A resolution presented 
to the Council by the chairman of the drafting 
committee was discussed and adopted unanimously 
on December 15 with minor amendments. 

The Council's First Ewe Resolution 

This resolution is of sufficient importance in 
the history of the Ewe question to merit sum- 
mary. A long preambular section lists the main 
steps in the Council's consideration of the Ewe 
petitions and notes the action agreed upon by the 
administering authorities to improve economic, 
fiscal, and cultural conditions. The fact that the 
representative of the All-Ewe-Conference con- 
sidered these measures inadequate and that the 
representatives of the administering authorities 
considered the measures to be transitional is also 
noted. 

Two other important paragraphs are contained 
in the preamble. In the first of these, the Coun- 
cil observes that the petition of the All-Ewe-Con- 
ference represents the wishes of the majority of 
the Ewe population and that the representatives 
of the administering authorities have recognized 
the point of view of the Ewe people. 

Ill the second paragraph, the Council repeats 
an assurance tliat had been given earlier by the 



131 



special representative of France during the dis- 
cussion of an Ewe petition protesting against a 
ban placed on an Ewe meeting by the French 
Togoland Government. The special representa- 
tive had declared — 

. . . that it is the policy of his Government to grant full 
freedom of assembly to the people of the Trust Territory 
and that tribal meetings and meetings of various sections 
of the Ewe population will not, shall not and cannot be 
forbidden or repressed. 

The operative part of tlie resolution contains 
seven paragraphs, the most important of which 
welcome the measures proposed by the administer- 
ing authorities as an earnest and constructive 
initial effort, decide that the first visiting mission 
to tlie two trust territories shall devote special 
attention to the problem set forth in the petitions, 
and provide for a reexamination of the Ewe ques- 
tion at the Council's session in which the report of 
the visiting mission to the two trust territories is 
considered. 



Examination of First Annual Reports 

The Council did not, however, await the report 
of its first visiting mission before taking up the 
Ewe question again. Ewe petitions received brief 
mention at the third session in the summer of 1948, 
and the problem arose inevitably at the fourth ses- 
sion, beginning January 24, 1949, when the Coun- 
cil examined the first annual reports submitted by 
the British and French Governments, respectively, 
on their administrations of the two Togolands. 

Both annual reports contained summaries of the 
work of the newly established Anglo-French 
Standing Consultative Commission and, in addi- 
tion, on February 15, the Council was presented 
with a second joint Anglo-French statement, this 
one on the measures thus far taken to alleviate 
frontier difficulties. Officials from the two terri- 
tories were again present as special representatives 
of the administering authorities, and the Council 
was given an opportunity to question them con- 
cerning the work of the Consultative Commission. 

This information revealed that the Commission 
had held its first two meetings in 1948, at Lome, 
on May 2C-27, and at Accra, capital of the Gold 
Coast, on November 30-December 21. The Kep- 
resentative Assembly of French Togoland had 
elected Sylvanus Olympio and Fare Djato to 
serve on tlie Commission during the life of the 
Representative Assembly. The representatives of 
British Togoland, E. Amu and W. S. Honu were 



132 



nominated by the Governor of the Gold Coast since 
no suitable election machinery existed. Arrange- 
ments were subsequently made by the British for 
an election, however, and the two British Togo- 
land appointees were confirmed for a 1-year term 
at a public election held at Kpandu on August 11, 
1948. 

Achievements of tlie Consultative Commission 

Since the terms of reference of the Consultative 
Commission did not enable it to take up the basic 
Ewe demand for political unification, the Ewe 
people were certain to be dissatisfied with the 
Commission. The Council learned from the 
statements of the administering authorities, how- 
ever, that the Commission had taken a number of 
positive steps to remedy partially certain economic, 
fiscal, and cultural grievances. In the economic 
field, in 1948, it implemented the proposals of the 
original Anglo-French memorandum for the re- 
moval, as far as possible, of obstacles to the move- 
ment of individuals and to the transporting of 
personal property, local goods, and individual 
headloads of locally produced food stuffs and, in 
addition, made concessions with respect to im- 
ported household goods, glassware, and currency. 
After the first session of the Commission, the two 
Governments agreed to allow £10 in either French 
West African francs or British West African 
currency, or a combination of the two, to be car- 
ried across the frontier. Arrangements were also 
made for "reasonable remittances" in the case 
of proceeds from the sales of crops, laborers re- 
turning with their savings, maintenance of de- 
pendents, and payments of school fees. More- 
over, the British and French customs posts at Aflao 
were to be moved together as an experiment to 
permit joint examinations in order to reduce the 
number of occasions on which a lorry had to 
stop for inspection. No progress was made, how- 
ever, toward the establishment of a conventional 
zone as envisaged in the original Anglo-French 
memorandum. In their joint statement of Feb- 
ruary 1.5, 1949, the two Governments reported 
that their economic and financial experts were 
studying the establishment of a conventional zone, 
but they advised the Council that this study was 
likely to reveal the great difficulties of establishing 
such a zone at a time when excliango control was 
in force. 

The information presented to the Council indi- 
cated that steps had also been taken to implement 

Department of State Bulletin 



the fiscal and educational measures proposed in 
the original memorandum. At the first meeting 
of the Commission, the Governments had agreed 
to work out jirocedures to prevent double taxation. 
Wlien it came to equalizing the tax burden in the 
two territories, however, the Commission's discus- 
sion revealed numerous difTercnces between the two 
taxation systems which would be very difficult to 
reconcile. As for the educational measures pro- 
posed in the memorandum, they were discussed in 
the Commission in 1948, and plans were made to 
begin their implementation. 

It is significant to note that the Commission also 
discussed numerous matters in the fields of educa- 
tion, communications, and health which went be- 
yond the specific proposals of the original Anglo- 
French joint memorandum. Shortly after the 
first session of the Commission, an experimental 
program for community development (mass edu- 
cation) was started in the Kpandu subdistrict of 
British Togoland with the understanding that the 
extension of this program in both territories would 
be considered when the results were known. The 
Commission also made proposals for completing 
important road, telephone, and telegraph links, 
and an agreement was reached, effective January 
1, 1949, to reduce postal rates between the territo- 
ries to the level of those in force for internal post- 
age. Similar reductions in telephone and tele- 
graph rates were under consideration in 1948. 
Plans and achievements of Anglo-French cooper- 
ative endeavors in the fields of health, agriculture, 
and veterinary medicine were also discussed in 
the Commission. 

Many of these steps were undertaken in response 
to suggestions by the Ewe representatives in the 
Conmaission. Although these representatives ex- 
pressed their gratitude and their willingness to 
cooperate in developing the Commission into an 
effective organ, they emphasized the fact that their 
goal is still complete unification. The early activ- 
ities of the Commission are, nonetheless, a promis- 
ing development for the future of the area. 

Council Postpones Action 

Since the mission had not yet made its visit to 
the Ewe country, the Council's action at the fourth 
session was limited to the hearing of this addi- 
tional information furnished by the administering 
authorities in the aimual reports and the joint 
memorandum of February 15 and to supplemen- 



tary information furnished by the special repre- 
sentatives in answer to written and oral ques- 
tions submitted by members of the Council. The 
only resolution adopted by the Council postponed 
action on a petition from the Natural Rulers of the 
southern section of British Togoland until the 
Council I'eceived the report of the visiting mission. 
The Council did decide, however, on the com- 
position of the visiting mission to West Africa 
and the time at which it would make its visit.* 
The United Kingdom and French representa- 
tives pointed out that the only period at which 
the tei'ritories to be visited could be traversed 
without difficulty was the dry season beginning in 
November. The Council, therefore, decided that 
the mission should leave for West Africa at the 
beginning of November 1949. The composition of 
the mission was tentatively voted on on March 21 
although replacements for two of the members 
who were unable to take part were elected at the 
fifth session and the first special session of the 
Council. The mission was composed of A. 
Khalidy (Iraq), Chairman, A. Claeys-Bouuaert 
(Belgium), A. Ramos Pedrueza (Mexico), and 
Benjamin Gerig (United States). Its terms of 
reference, adopted at the fifth session on June 
20, 1949, directed the mission to give particular 
attention to the Ewe problem. 

Report of the Visiting Mission 

The four members of the mission, accompanied 
by six members of the United Nations Secretariat, 
departed from New York by air on October 28, 
1949. After a month in the two Cameroons, the 
mission arrived on November 30 in Lome. As the 
plane circled the airport for a landing, a large 
welcoming crowd could be seen below carrying 
huge placards bearing the word "Unification." 
From the moment the party landed until it left 
the Ewe country a week later, its attention was 
constantly taken up with the Ewe problem. A 
large number of Ewe chiefs and leaders were re- 
ceived by the mission and their views were freely 
expressed. All aspects of the problem were laid 
before the mission, both by the Ewe leaders and 
the French and later the British authorities. The 
Ewe views were expressed in moderate and well- 
reasoned terms. It was evident that a great deal 

'The Council had earlier decided to send its first 
regular visiting mission to East Africa in 1948 and to 
send missions to West Africa in 1949 and the Pacific in 
19.50. Thereafter, each of the three areas was to be 
visited every 3 years in regular rotation. 



January 22, I95I 



133 



of thought and organized effort had been given 
the question, for the various Ewe leaders invari- 
ably spoke in similar if not identical terms. They 
did not ask for national independence or for im- 
mediate self-government. They sought recogni- 
tion for their existence as one people. 

The Ewe people organized a mass demonstration 
in the Municipal Stadium at Lome to which the 
mission was invited. A score or more Ewe tribal 
leaders and chiefs, supported by thousands of their 
followers, assembled from all parts of the area. 
Each chief or leader, in turn, addressed the mis- 
sion and the assemblage through a public address 
system, giving the reasons why the existing fron- 
tiers were believed to be detrimental to the de- 
velopment of the Ewe people and calling upon the 
mission to present their case before the Trustee- 
ship Council. 

The visiting mission left French Togoland to 
study the problem in British Togoland. Again 
discussing the question with both administrators 
and Ewe leaders, the mission visited frontier posts 
and saw the extent to which the two Governments 
had taken steps to ameliorate frontier difficulties, 
particularly with reference to passage of goods 
and exchange of currency. The mission noted 
with satisfaction the efforts which had been made 
to reduce the inconveniences caused by the frontier 
and agreed that an appreciable step forward had 
been taken. It came to the conclusion, however, 
that those measures in themselves were insuffi- 
cient to solve the problem. 

The mission discussed with the Anglo-French 
Standing Consultative Commission the efforts 
made to establish a conventional zone for the area 
which would further ameliorate problems of ex- 
change control and economic interchange. It was 
informed, however, that technical reasons would 
prevent the establishment of such a conventional 
zone at present. 

When the mission came into contact with non- 
Ewe tribes in the North, it found how difficult it 
would be to give satisfaction to Ewe claims with- 
out, to some extent, injuring the future interests 
of these northern tribesmen. The mission was 
told repeatedly by these tribesmen that they were 
not prepared to accept the dominant position which 
the Ewe people would have if their full claims 
were recognized and that they preferred, for the 
time being, to be governed by French and British 
authorities. It, thus, became clear to the mission 
that the Ewe problem could not be viewed exclu- 



sively as a matter which concerned the Ewe 
peoples alone but would have to be examined in the 
light of its effects upon neighboring tribes and 
peoples. The problem had far-reaching and com- 
plex ramifications which must be viewed in the 
light of the future development of a larger area 
in West Africa. 

The visiting mission in fact found the problem 
too complex for any precise and clear-cut recom- 
mendation to the Trusteeship Council. The mis- 
sion's report was received by the Ewe people them- 
selves with a certain degree of disappointment, 
which was later expressed by their spokesman, 
Mr. Olympio at the sixth session of the Council at 
Geneva in February 1950. 

The report of the visiting mission, however, 
sets forth clearly the conflicting claims and views 
of various groups and parties in the two Togolands 
and suggests three lines along which a solution 
might be sought; namely, (a) a political solution 
within the framework of the two existing Togo- 
lands; (b) an economic solution within the frame- 
work of the two Togolands; or (c) a general solu- 
tion within a wider economic and political frame- 
work including the two Togolands. The mission 
concludes that the problem has attained the force 
and dimensions of a nationalistic movement and 
that a solution should be sought with urgency in 
the interest of peace and stability in that part of 
the world. 

The value of the visiting mission function of the 
Trusteeship Council was clearly demonstrated in 
its handling of the Ewe question. This was recog- 
nized by both the Council and by the two admin- 
istering authorities which expressed their appreci- 
ation for the care with which the visiting mission 
conducted its task and for its constructive 
suggestions. 

Mr. Olympic's Second Oral Presentation 

The mission's report was presented to the Trus- 
teeship Council in February 1950 at its sixth 
session. Moreover, on February 28, the Council 
voted unanimously to grant a request for a second 
oral hearing for the Ewe petitioners. Two weeks 
later, however, the president announced that the 
French and British delegations proposed to defer 
until the seventh session the examination of the 
reports concerning the two Togoland territories. 
The French representative then read a statement 
fi'om his Government to the effect that the two 
Governments would continue to do their utmost 



134 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



to dispose of tlie nonpolitical aspects of the unifi- 
cation movement and would, in ad<lition, seek a 
political or administrative solution; such con- 
crete proposals as may have been agreed upon be- 
tween the two Governments would be communi- 
cated to the Council at the seventh session. 

The Council agreed to the proposed postpone- 
ment and telegraphed this decision to the petition- 
ers, but the president stated on March 15 that the 
telegram had reached them after the departure of 
the thi-ee Ewe representatives from West Africa. 
They had just arrived at Geneva where the Coun- 
cil was meeting. At the president's suggestion, 
it was decided to grant them a hearing on March 
20. On this day, Mr. Olympio, along with two 
other representatives of the All-Ewe Conference, 
Mr. E. Amu and Mr. Stimson, took their places 
at the Council table. Mr. Olympio again reviewed 
the background of the Ewe complaint and termed 
the work of the Consultative Commission to be 
"utterly inadequate." The Commission, he said, 
had "outlived its day" and should be replaced by 
a body with full powers to deal with all aspects 
of the problem. After a question period for the 
remainder of the meeting, the president thanked 
the representatives of the All-Ewe Conference and 
added that they would be welcome at the next 
session if they should desire to be heard again. 

The New Anglo-French Proposals 

Wlien the Council met again for its seventh 
session it received, on June 19, 1950, the joint ob- 
servations of the Governments of France and the 
United Kingdom on the special report of the visit- 
ing mission concerning the Ewe problem. These 
observations contained the new proposals which 
the two Governments had agreed to give the Coun- 
cil. The two administering authorities paid 
tribute to the visiting mission for presenting an 
objective report which showed clearly the com- 
plexity of the Ewe question. They stated that, 
in the light of a report of the joint Anglo-French 
working party of experts which visited Togoland 
in 1949, they had reluctantly come to the conclu- 
sion that to establish a conventional zone in the 
two trust territories under present circumstances 
would be to expose the economies of the two terri- 
tories to great risks which the two Governments 
would not feel justified in taking. With regard 
to a political solution, they remained of the opinion 
that no one solution readily offers itself as being 
clearly preferable to the present state of affairs. 

January 22, J 95 J 



The joint observations stated, however, that the 
two Governments had decided to take steps to con- 
sult the representatives of the peoples of both 
territories in order to establish their real wishes 
and interests. To this end, they would greatly 
expand the membership of the Commission to 
make it fully representative of all the people of 
both territories and, moreover, would expand its 
functions by charging it with the responsibility of 
submitting to the two Governments its views as 
to the practical means of satisfying, within ths 
framework of French and British administration, 
the wishes of the inhabitants of all parts of the 
two trust territories. They had decided to in- 
clude in the Commission 17 representatives of the 
people of British Togoland and 28 representatives 
of the people of French Togoland although these 
numbers were, at present, provisional. Elections 
would take place at an early date so that the new 
Commission could start work without delay. 

The Third Oral Hearing 

With the terms of this new proposal in mind, 
the Council began, on July 5, the third oral hear- 
ing of Ewe petitioners. On this occasion, in addi- 
tion to Sylvanus Olympio, who represented the 
All-Ewe Conference for the third time, several 
other petitioners took their places at the Council 
table. S. G. Asare and F. Y. Antor were present 
as representatives of the Togoland Union, the 
Natural Rulers of Western Togoland, and the 
Togoland Farmers Association; Pedro Olympio 
and D. Ayeva represented the Togoland Progress 
Party; and Mr. Ayeva also spoke on behalf of 
the chiefs and population of Northern Togo- 
land. Speaking first, Sylvanus Olympio stated 
that the Ewe people had been deeply disap- 
pointed when the administering authorities had 
made known their latest joint proposals. He 
announced that the All-Ewe Conference had no 
alternative but to reject these proposals outright 
and that the All-Ewe Conference did not propose 
to take part in the establishment of the proposed 
Consultative Commission since it was convinced 
that that body's terms of reference did not permit 
it to study the question of the unification of the 
Ewe people as it ought to be studied. He stated 
that, if the administering authorities still doubted 
the Ewe peoples' desire, the All-Ewe Conference 
was prepared to put the Ewe issue to a plebiscite 
under United Nations supervision although it was 



135 



most anxious that the unification of the Ewe people 
and the unifications of the two Togolands should 
be treated as separate questions. 

The next Ewe representative, Mr. Asare, stated 
the case for the unification of the two Togolands. 
He used many of the arguments and reasons which 
had been previously given for the unification of 
Eweland. This same view was then presented by 
Mr. Antor, who concluded with the hope that the 
Council might insure a program of development 
which would enable Togoland to attain self-gov- 
ernment within 5 years. A different view was 
presented to the Council by the other two spokes- 
men. Pedro Olympio, cousin of Sylvanus Olym- 
pio, stated that the Togoland Progress Party felt 
it to be its duty to work in close and loyal coopera- 
tion with France so as to enable the people of 
Togoland gradually to take over responsibility 
for the country's affairs. His party, he said, was 
opposed to unification because it would not meet a 
real need of the Ewe people. This view was 
shared by D. Ayeva, who stated, on behalf of the 
chiefs and population of Northern Togoland, that 
the Ewe movement was a subversive movement 
which they fully and severely condemned because 
it entailed a change in the status of the people of 
Northern Togoland, who were strongly opposed to 
the unification of the two Togolands. 

Six meetings of the Council between July 5 and 
July 14 were devoted to a searching and sometimes 
heated discussion. As a result of the opposition 
expressed to the new Anglo-French proposals, the 
British representative called attention to what he 
termed a misunderstanding about that part of the 
proposals referring to a solution "within the 
framework of British and French administration." 
He stated that the British and French delegations, 
therefore, proposed to clarify this paragraph by 
adding to the above words the phrase "and not 
precluding the unification of any parts of the two 
trust territories." Other delegations expressed 
their appreciation of this addition to the proposal, 
and the representative of the United States com- 
mented on July 11, that it was now clear that the 
Commission was authorized to make recommenda- 
tions regarding the unification of the Ewe people 
and that such unification could take place either 
under British, French, or Anglo-French admin- 
istration. 

When the president asked the Ewe representa- 
tives their opinion regarding the amendment pro- 
posed by the British delegation, Sylvanus Olympio 



136 



responded that he wished to have an assurance that 
the interpretation given by the representative of 
the United States was the correct one ; that inter- 
pretation implied that the Consultative Conamis- 
sion would be empowered to recommend Ewe uni- 
fication under French, British, or Anglo-French 
authority. Both the British and French repre- 
sentatives subsequently agreed that the intei-preta- 
tion given by the United States representative was 
correct. Mr. Olympio then expressed his appreci- 
ation of this concession which, he said, permitted 
the Ewe people at least to discuss their unifica- 
tion but stated that he could not accept it as a satis- 
factory solution. He could do no more than 
simply inform the people he represented that the 
concession had been made. 

In the ensuing discussion, the United States 
and Argentine delegations submitted a joint draft 
resolution on the Ewe question which, in effect, 
noted the plan put forward by the administering 
authorities and expressed the hope that they would 
proceed along the lines proposed. Amendments 
to this resolution were put forward by the Chinese, 
Iraqi, and Philippine delegations. As the United 
States representative commented, however, these 
amendments proposed that the new decisions 
reached by the administering authorities should 
be completely ignored and asked the Coimcil to 
decide that, as matters stood, the extremely com- 
plex problem could only be solved by one method, 
namely, the unification of the Ewe people under a 
single administration. Moreover, the proposed 
amendments asked the administering authorities 
to ignore the opinion of the northern peoples. On 
July 14, the amendments were rejected by 8 votes 
to 3.* The Argentine-United States proposal 
was then adopted by the Council by 8 votcs-2 
(Iraq, Philippines), with 1 abstention (China). 
This resolution expresses the hope that the admin- 
istering authorities will proceed along the lines 
proposed and will take all appropriate steps to 
insure that the Consultative Commission veill 
equitably represent the different sections and 
groups of the two trust territories; requests the 
administering authorities concerned to inform the 
Council, at its next session, of the steps which 
have been taken to give effect to the plan for the 
expanded Consultative Commission and to sub- 
mit to the Council a progress report on the deliber- 
ations of the Consultative Commission to date; j 

* The Soviet Union was not represented at either the 
sixth or seventh sessions of the Council. 

Departmonf of Stata Bulletin 



and recommends that the administerinti author- 
ities concerned lake all necessary and api)ro[)iiate 
measures in order to insure that, until a definitive 
settlement is reached, the common traits and 
traditions of the Ewe peoples in the two trust terri- 
tories be preserved. 

Ewe Question at the Fifth General Assembly 

The next step in United Nations treatment of 
the Ewe question marked a new departure in pro- 
cedure. The eifrhth session of the Trusteeshiji 
Council was not to open before January 1951, but, 
on September 30, not long after the opening of 
the fifth session of the General Assembly, the Ewe 
petitioners cabled the Secretaiy-General and pro- 
tested against the methods devised by the French 
for the choice of members of the Consultative Com- 
mission. Subsequent petitions alleged that several 
persons protesting were arrested and imprisoned 
after a summary trial. 

On October 9, the Philippine delegation brought 
these petitions to the attention of the Fourth Com- 
mitee of the General Assembly. Although the 
French rejiresentative reminded the Committee 
that a procechire is established whereby the 
Trusteeship Council dealt with petitions, and other 
delegations suggested that a special session of the 
Trusteeship Council might be called, the Com- 
mittee decided to take up the question without 
waiting for Trusteeship Council action. On Octo- 
ber 18, the representative of France made a de- 
tailed statement explaining French procedure for 
the elections and denying the major allegations in 
the petitions. 

Two weeks later, the delegations of India, In- 
donesia, Iraq, the Philippines, and Yugoslavia 
submitted to the Fourth Committee a joint draft 
resolution which was adopted by the Foui'th Com- 
mittee after several amendments and was subse- 
quently approved by the General Assembly on De- 
cember 2 by a vote of 48-0-6. 

The resolution calls for an adequate solution, 
as soon as possible, in full accordance with the real 
wishes and interests of the people concerned. The 
necessity of conducting elections to the Consulta- 
tive Commission in a democratic manner that will 
insure a true representation of the people is 
stressed, and the administering authority is asked 
to investigate promptly the practices complained 
of in the petitions with a view to ascertaining 
whether the methods of election which have been 
applied insure that the views of all sections of the 

January 22, I95T 

924291—51 3 



population are faithfully reflected. The ad- 
ministering authority is also asked to report on 
this investigation at the next session of the Trustee- 
ship Council, and the Council is requested to devote 
to the Ewe question a special chapter or subchapter 
of its annual report to the sixth session of the 
General Assembly. 

Conclusion 

The Ewe question will, thus appear, again on 
the agenda when the eighth session of the Trustee- 
ship Council opens on January 30. It is already 
possible, however, to draw certain tentative con- 
clusions regarding the Council's treatment of the 
Ewe petitions. In the first place, certain restric- 
tions and difficulties resulting from the existing 
frontier have been minimized, a benefit of no small 
value to the Ewe people. Secondly, the develop- 
ment by the two Governments of a joint approach 
to the handling of common problems is a tangible 
asset. This promising innovation can be further 
developed to the advantage of the Ewe people 
and might be a helpful precedent for a joint ap- 
proach to the handling of similar border prob- 
lems in other African territories. A third plus 
value, perhaps more intangible, is the fact that a 
large group of Africans with a common gi-ievance 
have been given an opportunity to air their views 
before an official international forum, a fact which, 
in itself, should be a source of satisfaction to the 
Ewe people and to others interested in their case. 
Finally, it may be said that the international dis- 
cussion of the Ewe case has revealed complexities 
but has helped to clarify the various issues. 

The Trusteeship Council's treatment of the Ewe 
question is at once a measure of the Council's lim- 
itations and of its possibilities. The Council can 
make recommendations, but the decision as to 
whether these recommendations are to be carried 
out is in the hands of the administering authori- 
ties. The efforts of the administering authorities 
to meet Ewe gi-ievances are, however, an un- 
deniable indication of the Council's effectiveness 
and prestige as a forum for the expression of the 
international conscience. 

"•i^ Benjamin Gerig and Vernon McKay are, re- 
spectively, Director of the Office of Dependent 
Area Affairs and Foreign Affairs Officer in the 
Office of Dependent Area Affairs. Mr. McKay 
has also served as adviser to the United States 
delegation at meetings of the Trusteeship Council. 



137 



FIFTH REGULAR SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



Summary of Action: September 19-December 15, 1950 



by Elizaheth Ann Brown 



The fifth re^lar session of the General As- 
sembly convened September 19. On December 
15, 4 items remained on the agenda: (1) interven- 
tion of the Central People's Government of the 
People's Republic of China in Korea; (2) the 
question of Formosa; (3) complaint by tlie 
tJ.S.S.R. regarding aggression against China by 
the United States; and (4) complaint by the 
U.S.S.R. regarding the violation of Chinese air 
space by the air foi-ce of the United States and the 
machine-gunning and bombing of Chinese terri- 
tory by that air force, and against the bombard- 
ment and illegal inspection of a mei'chant ship of 
the People's Republic of China by a military ves- 
sel of the United States. These items are now 
being dealt with by the First Committee (Polit- 
ical and Security). At the meeting of the As- 
sembly December 15, tlie President indicated that 
when the First Committee finished its work, lie 
would reconvene the Assembly, thus making pos- 
sible completion of the agenda for the fifth session. 



PLENARY SESSIONS 

Chinese Representation 

Before the internal organization was completed, 
the Assembly was confronted with the difficult 
question of Chinese representation. In an unprec- 
edented move. Sir B. N. Rau (India) introduced 
a resolution under which the Assembly would have 
decided that the Central Government of the Peo- 
ple's Republic of China \sic\ should be entitled to 
represent the Republic of China in the Assembly. 
Mr. Vysliinsky (U.S.S.R.) submitted a motion 
to the effect that the representatives of the 
Kuomintang regime could not take part in the 
work of tlie Assembly and its organs because they 
did not represent China and subsequently proposed 
that the representatives of the Chinese People's 
Government be invited to participate in the Gen- 



eral Assembly. A third motion, introduced by 
Lester Pearson (Canada), provided for the estab- 
lisliment of a special committee of seven members 
to consider the question of Chinese representation 
and report to the Assembly after the Assembly 
had considered the Cuban item on tlie recognition 
of representatives of states members of the United 
Nations. The Indian and Soviet proposals were 
rejected, and the resolution submitted by Canada 
was adopted. On December 12 Canada, Ecuador, 
India, Iraq, Mexico, the Philippines, and Poland 
were elected to the Special Committee, which held 
its first meeting December 15 and adjourned sub- 
ject to the call of its chairman. 

Internal Organization 

The Assemblj' on September 19 elected Nasrol- 
lah Entezam (Iran) President of the fifth regular 
session. On September 21, in successive sessions 
of the six main committees, their respective chair- 
men were chosen, and thereafter the seven vice- 
presidents of the Assembly, were elected. These 
officers who, with the President, constitute the 
General Committee are : the chief delegates of 
Australia, China, France, United Kingdom, 
United States, U.S.S.R., Venezuela, vice-presi- 
dents; Roberto Urdaneta (Colombia), Gustavo 
Gutierrez (Cuba), G. J. van Heuven Goedhart 
(Netherlands), Prince Wan (Thailand). Jam 
Saheb (India), and Vladimir Outrata (Czecho- 
slovakia) chairmen of Committees I-VI, respec- 
tively. Dr. Victor Belaunde (Peru) was elected 
chairman of an Ad Hoc Political Committee 
which shared the political items on the agenda 
with the First Committee. 



Adoption of Agenda 

Tlie Asseuibly adopted an original agenda of 70 
items, and during a second series of plenary ses- 



138 



Department of State Bulletin 



sions, October 6-7, added five items. On Decem- 
ber G, an item entitled ''Intervention of tlie Central 
People's Government of tlie People's Reiniblic of 
China in Korea" was included thereby bringing 
the total to 76 items. 

Admission of Indonesia 

Indonesia was admitted by unanimous vote as 
the sixtieth member of the United Nations on So])- 
tember 28, 1950. 

Elections to United Nations Councils 

On September l>9, the General Assembly elected 
Brazil and the Netherlands to the Security Coun- 
cil to succeed Cuba and Norway, but in I'J ballots 
failed to break the deadlock which had developed 
between Turkey and Lebanon for the seat held by 
Egypt. In a second series of ballots October 7, 
Turkey was elected, following Lebanon's with- 
drawal, on the fourteenth ballot. On September 
29, the United Kingdom, the U.S.S.R.. and Poland 
wei'e reelected, and Uruguay, the Philippines, and 
Sweden were chosen to replace Brazil, Australia, 
and Denmark on the Economic and Social Council. 
The Dominican Republic and Thailand were 
elected to the Trusteeship Council September 29, 
the former being reelected after having filled an 
unexpired 1-year term, and the latter succeeding 
the Pliilippines. 

Appointment of the Secretary-General 

In view of the inability of the Security Council 
to reach agreement on the recommendation of a 
candidate for the post of Secretary-General, 
Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Ecuador, France, Greece, 
India, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paki- 
stan, the Philippines, the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and Yugoslavia submitted a joint reso- 
lution according to which the Assembly would 
decide to continue the present Secretary-General, 
Trygve Lie, in office for a period of 3 years. The 
representative of the Soviet Union introduced a 
draft resolution whereby the Assembly would de- 
fer decision on the question and request the Secu- 
rity Council to continue consideration of the mat- 
ter and submit recommendations to the Assembly, 
in accordance with article 97 of the Charter. The 
Soviet proposal for adjournment of the debate on 
this item was rejected 45-5-9.^ Twenty-six states 
participated in the general debate, which began 
with a speech by the representative of the United 
States in behalf of the joint resolution and Mr. 
Lie and was closed by the representative of Iraq, 
who introduced a draft resolution providing for 
the appointment of a committee of seven to study 
the question and to report to the Assembly within 
2 weeks. 



The Assembly, in voting on the various pro- 
posals on November 1, first rejected the Soviet 
resolution by a vote of 37-9-11. The Iraqi resolu- 
tion was defeated next by a vote of 35-15-7. 
Finally, the 15-power resolution was adojjted by 
46-5-8. At the next meeting, the Secretary-Gen- 
eral stated that he regarded this vote as a reaffir- 
mation by the Assembly of the independence and 
integrity of the office of the Secretary-General; 
Mr. Lie thus continues in office for 3 more years.^ 

International Bureau for Declarations of Death 

The Assembly, on November 10, adopted by a 
vote of 38-6-13, a resolution which approves the 
establishment of the International Bureau for 
Declarations of Death under the Convention on 
the Declaration of Death of Missing Persons. 

Development of a 20- Year Program for Peace 

After personal interviews with the President of 
the United States, and the Prime Ministers of the 
United Kingdom, France, and the U.S.S.R. in 
April and May, the Secretary-General circulated 
to all members of the United Nations a 10-point 
memorandum for consideration in the develop- 
ment of a 20-year program for achieving peace 
through the United Nations and subsequently 
formally placed this matter on the Assembly's 
agenda. The 10 points were inauguration of 
periodic Security Council meetings, together with 
development and use of other United Nations ma- 
chinery for conciliation; a new attempt toward 
establishment of international control of atomic 
energy ; a new approach to the problem of bring- 
ing armaments under control ; a renewal of efforts 
to reach agreement on armed forces to be made 
available to the Security Council under article 43 
of the Charter ; rapid progress toward universality 
of membership; technical assistance; more vigor- 
ous use of the specialized agencies; development 
of United Nations work for observance and re- 
spect for human rights and fundamental free- 
doms; use of the United Nations to promote the 
advancement of dependent, colonial, or semi- 
colonial peoples to a place of equality in the world ; 
and active use of all Charter powers and all United 
Nations machinery to speed up development of 
international law. 

On November 20 the Assembly, by a vote of 
51-5-1, approved a resolution commending the 
Secretary-General for his initiative, and request- 
ing the appropriate United Nations organs to give 
consideration to those points in the memorandum 
with which they are particularly concerned and 
to inform the Assembly at the sixth session of 
any progress achieved.^ 



' The third figure in the tabulation of votes will refer to 
abstentions. 

January 22, 1 95 1 



' Bulletin of Nov. 20, 1950. p. 831. 
' Bulletin of Dec. 4, 1950, p. 907. 



139 



Admission of New Members 

The (leneral Assembly adopted, on December 4, 
1950, a resolution on new members proposed 
jointly by Brazil, Canada, the Philippines, 
Sweden, and Syria. This resolution, ajiproved by 
46-5-2, noted that the Security Council had not 
made reconuuendations for the admission of cer- 
tain states (Austria, Ceylon, Finland, Jordan, Ire- 
land, Italy, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Nepal) 
whose membersliip applications were pending and 
requested the Council to keep the applications 
under consideration. 

International Control of Atomic Energy 

Without jjrior action by a committee, the 
General Assembly, on December 13, approved a 
joint resolution on atomic energy proposed by 
Australia, Canada, Ecuador, France, Netherlands, 
Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States. 
This resolution provides for the establishment of 
a committee of 12, consisting of representatives 
of the members of the Security Council as of 
January 1, 1951, together with Canada, to consider 
and report to the next Assembly session on ways 
and means wheieby the work of the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments may be coordinated, and 
on the advisability of their functions being merged 
under a new and consolidated disarmament com- 
mission. In the preamble of the resolution, the 
Assembly recognizes the inability to achieve agree- 
ment to date in this field and recalls the plan 
developed in the Atomic Energy Commission and 
later approved by the General Assembly for the 
international control of atomic energy and also re- 
calls the useful planning work carried on by the 
Commission for Conventional Armaments. The 
resolution was approved on December 13, 1950, 
by a vote of 47-5-3.^ 

Place of Next Meeting 

On December 14 the General Assembly, by a 
vote of 31-16-11, approved a resolution to convene 
the sixth regular Assembly session in Europe, with 
instructions for the President of the Assembly and 
the Secretary-General to select the city most suit- 
able for this purpose and to make the necessary 
arrangements. 



REPORTS OF FIRST COMMITTEE 
(POLITICAL AND SECURITY) 

Korea 

In three plenary sessions October 6 and 7, the 
General Assembly took action upon the report of 
the First Committee (Political and Security) with 
respect to the problem of the independence of 

* HULLETiN of Dec. 2fi, 1950, p. 1026. 

140 



Korea. At the outset, a Soviet motion to invite 
representatives of North and South Korea to state 
their views was rejected. 

The eight-power resolution recommended by the 
First Committee was adopted by a vote of 
47-5-7.= 

The resolution with respect to Korea adopted 
by the Assembly, after preambuhir reference to 
previous actions of United Nations bodies on 
Korea and to the present Korean situation, (1) rec- 
onnnends (a) that all appropriate steps be taken 
to insure conditions of stability throughout Korea ; 
(b) that all constituent acts, including the holding 
of elections under United Nations auspices, be 
taken for the establishment of a unified, independ- 
ent, and democratic government in the sovereign 
state of Korea; (c) that United Nations forces 
should not remain in Korea otherwise than so far 
as necessary for achieving these objectives; and 
(d) that ail necessary measui-es be taken to ac- 
complish the economic rehabilitation of Korea; 

(2) establishes a United Nations Commission for 
the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea, con- 
sisting of Australia, Chile, Netherlands, Pakistan, 
Philippines, Turkey, and Thailand to represent 
the United Nations in bringing about the estab- 
lishment of a unified, independent, and democratic 
government of all Korea, and an interim com- 
mittee composed of these states to consult with and 
advise the United Nations iniified command ; and 

(3) requests the Economic and Social Council, 
in consultation with the specialized agencies, to 
develop plans for relief and rehabilitation on the 
termination of hostilities and to report to the Gen- 
eral Assembly within 3 weeks of the adoption of 
the resolution and to expedite the study of long- 
term measures to promote the economic develop- 
ment and social progress of Korea. 

Pursuant to this resolution, the interim commit- 
tee of the United Nations Commission for the 
Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea held 
several meetings at New York, and the full Com- 
mission is now in Korea. The Economic and 
Social Council met in special session to consider 
the Korean relief program. 

Uniting for Peace 

Following general discussion of the report of 
the First Connnittee, the Assembly on November 2 
approved in substance the resolutions" recom- 
mended by that Committee after rejecting various 
Soviet amendments. 

The first of these resolutions, which was sub- 
mitted jointly by Canada, France, Philippines, 
Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and 
Uruguay, is divided into five sections. The reso- 
lution as a whole was adopted 52-5-2. 

Section A, udoi)tcil by a vote of 52-5-1, provides 
that, if the Security Council, because of lack of 

' Bui,ij.;tin of Oct. 2.S, in.'O. p. 648. 
' BULLBi-iN of Nov. 20, 10r.O, p. 82.S. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



unanimity amontj the permanent members, fails 
to exercise its primary responsibility regarding 
(lie maintenance of international peace anil secu- 
rity, the General Assembly shall innnediately con- 
sider the matter in regular or emergency special 
session and make appropriate reconunendations to 
members for collective measures, including, when 
necessary, the use of armed force. The Assembly 
is authorized to meet in emergency special session 
within 24 hours at the request of the Security 
Coiuicil acting by vote of any seven members, or 
of a nnijority of the memliers of the United 
Nations. 

Section B, accej^ted 57-0-2, jirovides for the 
establishment of a Peace Observation Commission 
which can observe and report on the situation in 
any area where there is international tension likely 
to endanger international peace and security. 
China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, France, India, 
Iraq, Israel, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden, the 
U.S.S.R., the Ignited Kingdom, the United States, 
and Uruguay were named to the Peace Observa- 
tion Commission. 

Section C, adopted 45-5-7, invites members to 
survey their resources to determine what assist- 
ance they can render in support of any recom- 
mendations of the Security Council or General 
Assembly for the restoration of international peace 
and security. It is recommended that each mem- 
ber maintain, within its national armed forces, 
elements which can be promptly made available 
to the United Nations on the recommendation of 
the Council or Assembly. Provision is also made 
for appointment of a panel of military experts. 

Section D, approved 49-5-3, provides for the 
establislnnent of a Collective Measures Committee 
to study and report to the Council and Assembly 
by September 1, 1951 on methods and resources 
which can be made available to the United Nations 
for the maintenance of international peace and 
securitA'. The members of the Collective Meas- 
ures Committee are Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Burma, Canada, Egj'pt, France, Mexico, the 
Philippines, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. 

Section E, which was adopted 54—0-1, urges 
members to respect fully and to intensify joint 
action in cooperation with the United Nations to 
develop and stimulate universal respect for and 
observance of human rights and fundamental free- 
doms and to intensify individual and collective 
efforts to achieve conditions of economic stability 
and social progi'ess. An annex, prescribing nec- 
essary changes and additions in the Assembly'.s 
rules of procedure was adopted 51-5-2. 

The Asseml)ly then adopted, by a vote of 52-0-6, 
a second resolution, developed from a Soviet draft, 
recommending to the Security Council that it take 
the necessary steps to insure that action provided 
for under the Charter is taken with respect to 
matters likely to endanger the maintenance of in- 
ternational peace and security, and that it devise 



measures for the earliest application of articles 
43, 45, 4G, and 47 of the Charter regaiiling the plac- 
ing of armed forces at the disposal of the Security 
Council. 

A third resolution, intiodured by Iraq and 
Syria, was unanimously apiiroved. This resolu- 
tion reconunends that the permanent members of 
the Council meet to discuss collectively or other- 
wise and, if necessary, with other states concerned, 
all problems likely to threaten international peace 
and hamper United Nations activities with a view 
to their solution.' 

A Soviet resolution recommending consultation 
among the great powers under article 106 for the 
purpose of taking joint action to maintain inter- 
national peace was rejected 39-5-11. 

Peace Through Deeds; 

Condemnation of Propaganda Against Peace 

The action taken in the two resolutions entitled 
"Peace Through Deeds" * and "Condemnation of 
Propaganda Against Peace'' " grew out of an 
agenda item submitted by the U.S.S.R., under 
the title "Declaration on the Removal of the 
Threat of a New War and the Strengthening of 
Peace and Security Among the Nations." A 
Soviet resolution, rejected in the First Committee 
and thereafter in the plenary when reintroduced, 
would have had the General Assembly condemn 
the propaganda in favor of a new war being con- 
ducted in a number of countries and urge all 
states to prohibit such propaganda; declare the 
use of the atomic weapon to be unconditionally 
prohibited and institute a strict system of inter- 
national control ; declare that the first government 
to use the atomic weapon or any other means for 
mass destruction would thereby commit a crime 
against humanity and should be regarded as a 
war criminal ; and unanimously express the desire 
that the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, China, and the U.S.S.R. should combine 
their efforts for peace and conclude among them- 
selves a pact for the strengthening of peace, and 
that these powers should reduce their present 
armed forces by one-third during 1950-51, the 
question of a further reduction to be brought up 
for consideration at a forthcoming Assembly. 

Following the rejection of various amendments 
j)roi3osed by the Soviet bloc, the Assembly, on 
November 17, by a vote of .50-5-1, approved the 
resolution "Peace Through Deeds." This resolu- 
tion (1) reaffirms that, "whatever the weapons 
used, any aggression, whether committed openly, 
or by fomenting civil strife in the interest of a 
foreign power, or otherwise, is the gravest of all 
crimes against peace and security ;" (2) determines 
that for the realization of peace and security (a) 



' Bulletin of Nov. 6, 1950, p. 750. 
' BULLETHN of Nov. 1.3, 19.50, p. 767. 
• Bltlletin of Dec. 18, 1950, p. 989. 



January 22, 1 95 1 



141 



it is indispensable that "prompt united action be 
taken to meet aggression wherever it arises;" and 
(b) that every nation agree to accept effective in- 
ternational control of atomic energy, to strive for 
the control and elimination, under the United Na- 
tions, of all other weapons of mass destruction, to 
regulate all armaments and armed forces under a 
United Nations system of control and inspection 
with a view to their gradual reduction, and to re- 
duce to a minimum the diversion for armaments of 
human and economic resources and to strive to- 
ward their development for the general welfare 
with due regard to underdeveloped areas ; and (3) 
declares that these goals can be attained "if all 
Members of the United Nations demonstrate by 
their deeds their will to achieve peace." 

By a vote of 49-0-7, the Assembly adopted the 
second resolution recommended by the First Com- 
mittee, "Condemnation of Propaganda Against 
Peace." The resolution reaffirms previous resolu- 
tions in this general field and declares that propa- 
ganda against peace includes incitement to con- 
flicts or acts of aggression, measures tending to 
isolate peoples from any contact with the world, 
and measures tending to silence or distort United 
Nations activities in favor of peace or to prevent 
peoples from knowing the views of other states 
members. 

Permanent Commission of Good Offices 

On November 17, the General Assembly ap- 
proved a resolution according to which the ques- 
tion on establishing a Good Offices Commission is 
referred to the Interim Committee, which is to 
study the problem in connection with its continu- 
ing systematic examination of machinery for the 
pacific settlement of disputes. The resolution was 
approved by 45-5-3. 

Duties of States in the Event 
of the Outbrealt of Hostilities 

On November 17, the Assembly acted upon the 
item proposed by Yugoslavia concerning duties of 
states in the event of the outbreak of hostilities. 
Two resolutions were adopted.^" The first, ap- 
proved by a vote of 49-5-1, recommends that 
if a state becomes engaged in armed conflict with 
another state or states, it take all steps practicable 
in the circumstances and compatible with the right 
of self-defense to bring the armed conflict to an 
end at the earliest possible moment and make a 
public statement proclaiming its readiness, pro- 
vided that those with which it is in conflict will 
do the same, discontinue all military operations 
and withdraw its forces; and immediately notify 
the Secui'ity Council of the circumstances sur- 
rounding the conflict, invite United Nations to 
dispatch the Peace Observation Commission to 
the area, if it is not already functioning there. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 18, 1950, p. 993. 



It further recommends that the conduct of the 
states concerned shall be taken into account in any 
determination of responsibility for the breach of 
peace or act of aggression; and determines that 
the provisions of the resolution in no way impair 
rights and obligations of states under the Charter 
nor decisions or recommendations of any com- 
petent United Nations organ. 

The second resolution, also adopted by a vote of 
49-5-1, refers to the International Law Commis- 
sion for consideration in conjunction with matters 
already under study in that body, a Soviet pro- 
posal which provided, inter alia, that, in an inter- 
national conflict, that state should be declared 
the attacker which first committed one of certain 
enumerated acts, such as declaration of war, in- 
vasion by armed forces of the territory of another 
state, bombardment of the territory, landing of 
forces, and naval blockade. 

Threats to the Political independence 
and Territorial Integrity of China 

An item on threats to peace in the Far East, 
proposed by China for consideration by the fourth 
regular session and at that time referred to the 
Interim Committee, came back to the Assembly 
at its fifth session when the Interim Committee 
decided not to debate the question in view of the 
forthcoming session and the scope of the item 
in the context of the existing political situation. 
On December 1, 1950, the Assembly approved two 
resolutions. The first, adopted by a vote of 35-17- 
7, instructs the Interim Committee to continue 
its inquiry and to report to the next regular ses- 
sion. The second resolution draws the attention 
of all states to the necessity of faithful compli- 
ance with the recommendations in General As- 
sembly Resolution 291 (IV), the object of which 
was to promote stability of international relations 
in the Far East, recommending specific principles 
to that end, including scrupulous observance of 
the various treaties in force; it was approved by 
39-6-14. 

Threats to the Political Independence 
and Territorial Integrity of Greece 

On December 1, the General Assembly approved 
three resolutions on Greece. At the same time, it 
decisively rejected a Soviet resolution recommend- 
ing the dissolution of the United Nations Special 
Committee on the Balkans, the declaration of a 
general amnesty, the holding of universal free 
elections, cessation of military and political inter- 
vention in Greek affairs by the United States and 
the United Kingdom, and the establishment of 
diplomatic relations between Greece and Albania, 
and between Greece and Bulgaria. It also re- 
jected a second Soviet resolution requesting the 
President of the Assembly to negotiate with the 
Greek Government concerning the repeal of death 



142 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



I 



sentences passed by the military courts on "Greek 
patriots." 

The first resohition, approved by a vote of 53- 
5-1, which concerns those members of the Greek 
armed forces who were captured by the Greek 
guerrilhxs and taken into countries north of Greece, 
recommends tlie repatriation of all those who so 
wish, calls upon the states concerned to take the 
necessaiy measures of implementation, and in- 
structs the Secretary-General to remiest the Inter- 
national Committee of the Red Cross and the 
League of Red Cross Societies to insure liaison 
with the national Red Cross oi-ganizations of the 
states concerned, with a view to implementing the 
resolution. 

The second resolution, adopted by 53-6-0, after 
reference to the report of the United Nations 
Special Committee on the Balkans, approves the 
report, continues the Special Committee in being 
until the sixth Assembly session with the same 
terms of reference as previously, unless the Com- 
mittee recommends to the Interim Committee its 
own dissolution, and authorizes the Interim Com- 
mittee to act on such recommendation as it thinks 
proper. 

The final resolution, which was approved by 50- 
0-5, deals with the problem of the repatriation of 
Greek children. It requests the Secretary-Gen- 
eral and the International Red Cross and League 
of Red Cross Societies to continue their efforts in 
accordance with previous Assembly resolutions, 
urges all states harboring Greek children to make 
necessary arrangements for their early return 
to their parents, establishes a Standing Committee, 
composed of Peru, the Philippines, and Sweden 
to act in consultation with the Secretary-General, 
and to consult with the states concerned with a 
view to early repatriation of the children, and re- 
quests the Secretary-General to report to members 
on the progress made, the International Red Cross 
organizations and the Secretary-General being re- 
quested to report to the sixth session of the 
Assembly. 



REPORTS OF AD HOC POLITICAL COMMITTEE 

Violation of Human Rights 

in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 

The General Assembly, on November 3, adopted 
by a vote of 40-5-12, the resolution on violation of 
human rights in the Balkans " recommended by 
the Ad Hoc Political Committee. This resolution 
takes note of the advisory opinion of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice with respect to this case, 
condemns the willful refusal of Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania to fulfill their obligation under 
the peace treaties to appoint representatives to the 
treaty commissions, states the opinion that the 
conduct of the three Governments indicates their 

" BuiXETiN of Nov. 27, 1950, p. 872. 

January 22, ?95J 



awareness of the breaches of the peace treaties and 
their indifference to the sentiments of the world 
community, notes with anxiety the continued 
serious accusations on the violation of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms in these three 
states and the lack of satisfactory refutation of 
these accusations, and invites members of the 
LTnited Nations to submit any evidence on this 
question to the Secretary-General, who is asked to 
notify members of any such information received. 

Relations of States Members 

and Specialized Agencies With Spain 

Following general discussion of the Commit- 
tee's report, the General Assembly adopted on No- 
vember 4, by a vote of 38-10-12, a resolution 
revoking the recommendation for the withdrawal 
of Ambassadors and Ministers from Madrid, con- 
tained in General Assembly Resolution 39 (I) of 
December 12, 1946, and the recommendation in- 
tended to debar Spain from membership in inter- 
national agencies established by or brought into 
relationship with the United Nations.'- 

Former Italian Colonies 

REPORT OF THE U. N. COMMISSIONER IN LIBYA 

Acting on the basis of the above reports and 
referring to its decision at the fourth regular ses- 
sion that Libya should be constituted a united 
independent and sovereign state, the General As- 
sembly, on November 17, approved by a vote of 
50-0-6, the resolution recommended by the Ad Hoc 
Political Committee. This resolution (1) ex- 
presses confidence that the United Nations Com- 
missioner in Libya (Adrian Pelt), with the 
assistance and advice of the Council for Libya, 
will take the necessary steps to discharge his func- 
tions toward achievement of independence and 
unity; (2) calls upon the authorities concerned to 
take all steps necessary to insure early, full, and 
effective implementation of the Assembly's action ; 
(3) recommends that a National Assembly duly 
representative of the inhabitants of Libya shall be 
convened as early as possible, and before January 
1, 1951, that this Assembly shall establish a pro- 
visional government, with April 1, 1951, as a target 
date, that powers shall be progressively trans- 
ferred to the provisional government by the admin- 
istrating powers, and that the LTnited Nations 
Commissioner, with the assistance of the Libyan 
Council, shall proceed immediately to draw up a 
program in cooperation with the administering 
powers for the transfer of power; (4) urges the 
Economic and Social Council, the specialized agen- 
cies, and the Secretary-General to extend to Libya 
such technical and financial assistance as is possible 
in order to establish a sound basis for economic and 
social progress; and (5) reaffirms its recommenda- 



" BtTLLETiN of Nov. 13, 1950, p. 772. 



143 



tion that, upon her pstablishment as an indepen- 
dent state, Libya be admitted to the United 
Nations. 

Another aspect of this problem, having to do 
with the economic and financial provisions to be 
applied in Libya in accordance with annex XIV 
of the treaty of peace with Italy, was dealt with 
late in the session after detailed consideration by 
an ad hoc subcommittee. On December 15, the 
Assembly adopted three resolutions. The first, 
adopted by a vote of 47-5-2, provides for Libya to 
receive the movable and immovable property lo- 
cated in Libya owned by the Italian state and sets 
down specific conditions regarding transfer. Cer- 
tain other property and assets are to be handled 
by special agreement on conditions to be estab- 
lished by agreement between Italy and Libya. A 
United Nations Tribunal will be set up, composed 
of three persons selected by the Secretary-General 
for their legal qualifications from nationals of 
three states not directly interested, which will give 
any necessary instructions with respect to imple- 
mentation of the resolution, and which shall decide 
all disputes concerning its interpretation and ap- 
plication. The second resolution authorizes the 
Secretary-General to remunerate members of the 
Tribunal and to assign the necessary staff facil- 
ities; the vote was 49-5-2. The third resolution, 
adopted unanimously, refers to the fact that Libya 
as a result of the war has suffered extensive dam- 
ages to private and public property and instructs 
the Secretary-General to study the problem of war 
damages in connection with the technical and fi- 
nancial assistance which Libya may request from 
the Economic and Social Council, the specialized 
agencies and the Secretary-General, and to report 
to the sixth Assembly. 

REPORT OF U. N. COMMISSION FOR ERITREA 

On December 2, 1950, the Assembly adopted, by 
a vote of 46-10—4, a resolution regarding the future 
status of Eritrea. The resolution provides that 
Eritrea shall constitute an autonomous unit feder- 
ated with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of the 
Ethiopian Crown; that the Eritrean government 
shall possess legislative, executive, and judicial 
powers in the field of domestic affairs ; that the ju- 
risdiction of the federal government shall extend 
to defense, foreign affairs, currency and finance, 
foreign and interstate commerce and external and 
interstate communications, including ports, the 
federal government having the right to impose 
uniform taxes throughout the Federation to meet 
expenses of federal functions and services; that 
the area of the Federation shall constitute a single 
area for customs purposes; that an Imperial Fed- 
eral Council composed of equal numbers of Ethio- 
pian and Eritrean representatives shall meet at 
least once a year to advise upon the common affairs 
of the Federation ; that a single nationality shall 
prevail through the Federation; that the federal 
government, as well as Eritrea, shall insure to re- 

144 



sidents in Eritrea the enjoyment of enumerated 
human rights and fundamental liberties; that 
there shall be a transition period, not to extend 
beyond September 15, 1952, during which the Eri- 
trean government will be oi-ganized and the Eri- 
trean constitution prepared and put into effect; 
that there shall be a United Nations Commissioner 
in Eritrea; that during the transition the present 
administering authority shall continue to conduct 
the affairs of Eritrea and in consultation with the 
United Nations Commissioner prepare as rapidly 
as possible the organization of an Eritrean admin- 
istration, making arrangements for and convoking 
a representative assembly of Eritreans; that the 
United Nations Commissioner shall, in consulta- 
tion with the administering authority. Ethiopia 
and the inhabitants, prepare a draft of the Eri- 
trean constitution to be based upon the principles 
of democratic government; that the Federal Act 
and the Eritrean constitution shall enter into effect 
following ratification of the Federal Act by the 
Emperor of Ethiopia ; that the Commissioner shall 
maintain headquarters in Eritrea until the trans- 
fer of power has been completed, reporting to the 
Assembly concerning discharge of his functions 
and may consult with the Interim Committee : and 
that the Secretary-General is authorized to re- 
munerate and provide for the staffing of the Com- 
missioner's office. 

A second resolution, establishing a Committee 
composed of the Assembly President ai^d two As- 
sembly vice-presidents, Australia and Venezuela, 
the chairman of the Fourth Committee and the 
chairman of the Ad Hoc Political Connnittee, to 
nominate a candidate or if no agreement is reached 
candidates for the post of United Nations Com- 
missioner in Eritrea, was approved by a vote of 
45-5-6. On December 13, this Committee nomi- 
nated the following candidates : Victor Hoo 
(Assistant Secretary-General for Trusteeship 
Affairs), Justice Aung Khine (Burma), and 
Eduardo Anze ]\Iatienzo (Bolivia). Anze Mati- 
enzo was elected. 

DELIMITATION OF BOUNDARIES 

On December 15, without debate, by a vote of 
44^5-0, the General Assembly adopted a resolu- 
tion defining the procedure to delimit the bound- 
aries of the former Italian colonies. With respect 
to Libya, the resolution recommends that the por- 
tion of her boundary with French territory not 
already delimited by international agreement be 
delimited, upon her independence, by negotiation 
between the Libyan and French Governments, 
assisted upon request of either by a tliird jierson. 
With respect to the trust territory of SonuUiland, 
it provides that any portion of her boundaries witli 
British Somalilaud, as well as with Ethiopia, not 
already delimited by international agreement, be 
delimited by bilateral negotiations between tlie 
United Kingdom Government and the administer- 
ing authority in the one case, and Ethiopia and 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



I 



the administering authority in the other, any dif- 
ferences which arise to be resolved throii<j;ii a 
mediation procedure under a United Nations 
mediator to be appointed by the Secretary-General 
and arbitration if necessary. The resolution also 
recommends with respect to any other boundaries 
not delimited by international agreement that the 
parties concerned seek to reach agreement by nego- 
tiation or mediation. 



implementation or enforcement by the Union Gov- 
ernment of the "Group Areas Act" ; and includes 
this item in the next session's agenda. 

Report of the Security Council 

The Assembly, in accordance with its usual 
practice, by a vote of 45-0-6, took note of the re- 
port of the Security Council. 



Assistance to Palestine Refugees 

On December 2, by a vote of 46-0-G, the As- 
sembly approved a resolution with respect to 
assistance to Palestine ref ugees.^^ This resolution 
notes that contributions sufficient to carry out the 
program previously authorized have not been 
made and urges governments to make every effort 
to make voluntary contributions; and recognizes 
that direct relief cannot be terminated now as 
previously provided and authorizes the Agency 
to continue to furnish direct relief, considering 
that approximately 20 million dollars will be re- 
quired. It further considers that reintegration of 
the refugees into the economic life of the Near 
East, either by repatriation or resettlement, is 
essential; instructs the Agency to establish a re- 
integration fund (which for the period July 1, 
1951 to June 30, 1952, is set at not less than 30 
million dollars) ; makes various arrangements for 
financing the program, including establishment 
of a negotiating committee of seven or more mem- 
bers to consult with members and nonmembers 
regarding contributions ; calls upon the Secretary- 
General and the specialized agencies to utilize the 
Agency's facilities as a point of reference and co- 
ordination for technical assistance programs in 
the area ; and expresses appreciation to the various 
agencies and organizations which have assisted in 
the relief program and to the Director and staff 
of the Agency and its Advisory Commission. 

Treatment of People of Indian Origin 
in Union of South Africa 

The General Assembly, on December 2, ap- 
proved by a vote of 33-6-21, a resolution which 
recommends that India, Pakistan, and the Union 
of South Africa proceed with a round-table con- 
ference; recommends that in the event of failure 
to hold such a conference before April 1, 1951, or 
to reach agreement in such conference within a 
reasonable time, there shall be established to assist 
the parties a commission of three members, one 
to be nominated by the Union Government, an- 
other by India and Pakistan, and the third by the 
other two members, or in default of agreement by 
the Secretary-General; calls upon the govern- 
ments concerned to refrain from action prejudicial 
to the success of their negotiations, in particular 

" BtnXETiN of Jan. 8, 1951, p. 78. 

January 22, 1 95 1 



Question of an International Regime for Jerusalem 

The Ad Hoc Political Committee recommended 
the adoption of a resolution which would instruct 
four persons, to be appointed by the Trusteeship 
Council, to study, in consultation with the Govern- 
ments at present in de facto control of the Holy 
Places and with the otlier states, authorities and 
religious bodies concerned, "the conditions of a 
settlement capable of ensuring the effective pro- 
tection, under the supervision of the United 
Nations, of the Holy Places and of spiritual and 
religious interests'in the Holy Land;" and would 
invite them to report to the next Assembly. How- 
ever, when the matter came before the plenary 
meeting on December 15, the recommended resolu- 
tion failed to receive the required two-thirds ma- 
jority, the vote being 30-18-9. 

Recognition of Representation of a Member State 

The item on representation was placed on the 
agenda by Cuba with the thought in mind that 
it would be desirable for the United Nations to 
adopt criteria by which it might be possible to 
reach a uniform and practical settlement of the 
problem of representation on the various organs 
and organizations of the United Nations of coun- 
tries of which two or more authorities claimed to 
be the only regular goverimient. A subcommittee 
reported out a resolution setting up criteria 
to be included among factors to be taken into 
account in determining the question of representa- 
tion, but was rejected in the full committee. On 
December 14, the General Assembly, by a vote of 
36-6-9, adopted the resolution recommended by 
the Committee, together with an amendment pro- 
posed by Egypt. This resolution, as amended, 
after preambular references to the desirability of 
uniformity in the procedure applicable whenever 
more than one authority claims to be the gov- 
ernment entitled to represent a member, and 
a statement that the Assembly, by virtue of its 
composition, is the organ of the United Nations 
in which consideration can best be given to this 
matter, recommends (1) that whenever more 
than one authority claims to be the government 
entitled to represent a member and the ques- 
tion becomes the subject of controversy, it 
should be considered in the light of the purposes 
and principles of the Charter and the circum- 
stances of each case; (2) that when such question 
arises it should be first considered in the Assembly, 



145 



or if it is not in session, in the Interim Committee, 
and tliat the attitude adopted by the Assembly oi- 
Interim Committee sliould be taken into account 
in otlier United Nations bodies; (3) declares that 
the attitude adopted by the Assembly or Interim 
Committee shall not affect the direct relations of 
individual members with the state concerned ; and 
(4) requests the Secretary-General to transmit 
the resolution to other organs of the United 
Nations and to the specialized agencies for such 
action as may be apiiroj^riate. 

Repatriation of Palestine Refugees 

Following the rejection of a Soviet proposal, 
by a vote of 48-5-1, which would have terminated 
the United Nations Conciliation Commission for 
Palestine, and i-ejection of several Soviet amend- 
ments to the resolution recommended by the Com- 
mittee, the General Assembly, on December 14, 
adopted a resolution dealing with Palestine refu- 
gees. The resolution refers to the report of the 
United Nations Conciliation Commission for 
Palestine, notes with concern that agreement has 
not been reached between the parties on the final 
settlement of the questions outstanding and that 
repatriation, resettlement, economic and social re- 
habilitation of the refugees, and the payment of 



compensation have not been effected, and recog- 
nizes that, in the interests of peace and stability 
of the Near East, the refugee question should be 
dealt with as a matter of urgency. The operative 
part of the resolution urges the governments and 
authorities concerned to seek agreement by nego- 
tiations conducted either with the Commission or 
directly, with a view to final settlement of the 
questions outstanding; directs the Commission to 
establish an office to make such arrangements as 
necessary for assessment and payment of compen- 
sation pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 
194 (III), work out arrangements for implemen- 
tation of other objectives of that resolution, and 
continue consultation with the parties regarding 
measures for protection of the rights, property, 
and interests of the refugees; and calls upon the 
governments concerned to undertake measures to 
insure that refugees, whether repatriated or re- 
settled, will be treated without any discrimination. 
This resolution was approved by a vote of 48-5-4. 

91^ This article was prepared hy Elizabeth Ann 
Brown, who is a Foreign. Affairs officer, Office of 
United Nations Political and Security Affairs, 
Department of State. 

Editor's Note : Part II will appear in the next issue of 
the Bulletin. 



Relief and Rehabilitation of Korea 



D.N. doe. A/1595 
Adopted Dee. 1, 1950 



A. 



The General Assembly, 

Having kegard to Its resolution of 7 October 1950 on 
the problem of the independence of Korea. 

Having received and considered a report of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council submitted in accordance with 
that resolution, 

Mindful that the aggression by North Korean forces 
and their warfare against the United Nations seeliing to 
restore peace in the area has resulted in great devasta- 
tion and destruction which the Korean people cannot 
themselves repair, 

Recognizing that as a result of such aggression the 
people of Korea are desperately in need of relief supplies 
and materials and help in reconstructing their economy. 

Deeply moved by the sufferings of the Korean people 
and determined to assist in their alleviation. 

Convinced that the creation of a United Nation's pro- 
gramme of relief and rehabilitation for Korea is nec- 
essary both to the maintenance of lasting peace in the 
area and to the establishment of the economic founda- 
tions for the building of a unified and independent 
nation. 

Considering that, under the said resolution of 7 October 
1950, the United Nations Commission for the Unification 
and Uehabilitation of Korea is the principal representa- 
tive of the United Nations in Korea and hence must 



share in the responsibility for the work undertaken by the 
United Nations in furtherance of the objects and pur- 
poses mentioned in the said resolution, 

Considering that it is nevertheless desirable to set up 
a special authority with broad powers to plan and super- 
vise rehabilitation and relief and to assume such func- 
tions and responsibilities related to planning and super- 
vision, to technical and administrative matters, and to 
questions affecting organization and implementation 
as are to be exercised under the plans for relief and 
rehabilitation approved by the General Assembly, such 
authority to carry out its responsibilities in close co- 
operation with the Commission. 

A. Establishment of the United Nations Korean Recon- 
struction Aiicncij for the relief and rehabilitation of Korea 

1. Establishes the United Nations Korean Reconstruc- 
tion Agency (Unkra) under the direction of a United 
Nations Agent General, who shall be assisted by one or 
more deputies. The Agent General shall be responsible 
to the General Assembly for the conduct (in accordance 
with the policies established by the General Assembly, 
and having regard to such general policy recommenda- 
tions as the United Nations Commission for the Unifi- 
cation and Rehabilitation of Korea may make) of the 
programme of relief and rehabilitation in Korea, as that 
programme may be determined from time to time by the 
General Assembly ; 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



2. Authorizes the United Nations Commission for the 
Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea : 

(a) To reconnnend to the Agent General such poli- 
cies concerning tlie United Nations Korean Reconstruc- 
tion Agency's programme and activities as tlie Commis- 
sion may consider necessary for the elTective discharge of 
the Commission's responsiliilities in relation to the estab- 
lishment of a unified, independent and democratic gov- 
ernment in Korea ; 

(b) To determine, after consultation with the Agent 
General, the geographical areas within which the Agency 
shall operate at any time; 

(c) To designate authorities in Korea with which 
the Agent General may establish relationships; and to 
advise the Agent General on the nature of such rela- 
tionships ; 

(d) To take such steps as may be needed to support 
the Agent General in fulfilling his task in accordance with 
the policies established by the General Assembly for relief 
and rehabilitation ; 

(e) To consider the reports of the Agent General to 
the General Assembly and to transmit any comments 
thereon to the Economic and Social Council and the 
General Assembly; 

(f) To call for information on those aspects of the 
work of the Agent General which the Commission may 
consider necessary for the proper performance of its 
work ; 

,S. Authorizes the Commission to consult from time to 
time with tlie Agent General in regard to the provisional 
programme adopted by the General Assembly on the rec- 
ommendation of the Economic and Social Council and 
especially with regard to the adequacy of that pro- 
gramme to meet the needs of Korea as defined in the 
statement of general policy, and to make recommendations 
thereon to the Economic and Social Council ; 

4. Directs the Agent General : 

(a) To co-ordinate his programme with measures 
taken by the United Nations Commission for the Unifica- 
tion and Rehabilitation of Korea to carry out the recom- 
mendations of the General Assembly relating to the 
establishment of a unified, independent and democratic 
government in Korea, and to support the Commission in 
fulfilling this task ; 

(b) To commence the operation of the programme 
in Korea at such time as may be agreed upon by the 
United Nations Unified Command, the United Nations 
Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of 
Korea and the Agent General ; 

(c) To consult with and generally be guided by the 
advice of the United Nations Commission for the Unifica- 
tion and Rehabilitation of Korea on the matters set forth 
under paragraph 2(a) and be governed by its advice on 
the matters covered in paragraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c) ; 

5. Further directs the Agent General, in the carrying 
out of his operational functions : 

(a) To ascertain, after consultation with the desig- 
nated authorities in Korea, the requirements for supplies 
and services for relief and rehabilitation made necessary 
by the consequences of armed conflict in Korea ; 

(b) To provide for the procurement and shipment of 
supplies and services and for their effective distribution 
and utilization within Korea; 

(c) To consult with and assist the appropriate author- 
ities in Korea with respect to measures necessary for the 
rehabilitation of the Korean economy and the effective dis- 
tribution and utilization within Korea of supplies and 
services furnished ; 

(d) To submit reports to the General Assembly 
through the Secretary-General, transmitting copies simul- 
taneously to the United Nations Commission for the 
Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea, and to the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council ; 

(e) To be guided in matters of administration, to the 

January 22, J 95 1 



extent consistent with the special requirements of the pro- 
gramme, by the rules and regulations established for the 
operation of the Secretariat of the United Nations; Spe- 
cifically he shall: 

(1) Select and appoint his staff in accordance with 
general arrangements made in agreemcMt with the Secre- 
tary-General, including such of the staff rules and regula- 
tions of the United Nations as the Agent General and the 
Secretary-General shall agree are applicable; 

(2) Utilize, wherever appropriate, and within budg- 
etary limitations, the existing facilities of the United 
Nations ; 

(3) Establish, in consultation with the Secretary- 
General and the Advisory Committee on Administrative 
and Budgetary Questions, and in agreement with the Ad- 
visory Committee established under paragraph 6 below, 
financial regulations for the United Nations Korean 
Reconstruction Agency ; 

(4) Arrange, in consultation with the Advisory 
Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions, 
for the rendering and audit of the accounts of the Agency 
under procedures similar to those applicable to the render- 
ing and audit of the accounts of the United Nations ; 

6. Establishes an Advisory Committee consisting of rep- 
resentatives of . . . (five Member States) to advise the 
Agent General with regard to major financial, procurement 
distribution and other economic problems pertaining to his 
planning and operations. The Committee shall meet on 
the call of the Agent General but not less than four times 
a year. The meetings of the Committee shall be held at 
the Headquarters of the United Nations except in special 
circumstances, when the Committee, after consultation 
with the Agent General, may meet elsewhere if it deems 
that this would be essential to the proper performance of 
Its work. The Committee shall determine its own methods 
of work and rules of procedure ; 

7. Requests the Secretary-General, after consulting the 
United Nations Commission for the Unification and Re- 
habilitation of Korea and the Advisory Committee to ap- 
point the United Nations Agent General for Korean Recon- 
struction, and authorizes the Agent General to appoint one 
or more Deputy Agents General in consultation with the 
Secretary-General ; 

8. Authorizes the Secretary-General to establish a spe- 
cial account to which should be credited all contributions 
in cash, kind or services, the resources credited to the 
account to be used exclusively for the programme of relief 
and rehabilitation and administrative expenses connected 
therewith ; and directs the Secretary-General to make cash 
withdrawals from the account upon request of the Agent 
General. The Agent General is authorized to use con- 
tributions in kind or services at his discretion ; 

9. Recommends that the Agent General in carrying out 
his functions : 

(a ) Make use at his discretion of facilities, services and 
personnel that may be available to him through existing 
national and international agencies and organizations 
both governmental and non-governmental ; 

(b) Consult with the Secretary-General and the heads 
of the specialized agencies before appointing his principal 
subordinate personnel in their respective fields of com- 
petence ; 

(c) Make use of the advice and technical assistance of 
the United Nations and the specialized agencies and, where 
appropriate, request them to undertake specific projects 
and special tasks either at their own expense or with funds 
made available by the Agent General ; 

(d) Maintain close contact with the Secretary-General 
for the purpose of ensuring fullest co-ordination of efforts 
of the organs of the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies in support of the programme ; 

10. Authorizes the Agent General to enter into agree- 
ments with such authorities in Korea as the United Na- 
tions Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation 
of Korea may designate, containing terms and conditions 
governing measures affecting the distribution and utiliza- 

147 



tion in Korea of the supplies nntl services furnished, in 
accordance with the statement of general policy on Korean 
relief and rehabilitation contained in section B of the 
present resolution ; 

11. Requests the Secretary-General to make available to 
the maximum extent iwssible, and subject to appropriate 
financial arrangements, such facilities, advice and services 
as the Agent General may request ; 

12. Requests the specialized agencies and non-govern- 
mental organizations to make available to the maximum 
extent possible, and subject to appropriate financial ar- 
rangements, such facilities, advice and services as the 
Agent General may request ; 

13 Requests the Economic and Social Council to review 
the reports of the Agent General and any comments which 
the United Nations Commission for the Unification and 
Rehabilitation of Korea may submit thereon, and such 
other data as may be available on the progress of relief 
and rehabilitation in Korea and to make appropriate 
reports and recommendations thereon to the General 
Assembly ; 

14. Calls upon all Governments, specialized agencies 
and non-governmental organizations, pending the begin- 
ning of operations by the United Nations Korean Recon- 
struction Agency, to continue to furnish through the Sec- 
retary-General such assistance for the Korean people as 
may be requested by the Unified Command ; 

15. Invites countries not Members of the United Nations 
to participate in financing the programme of relief and 
rehabilitation in Korea ; 

B. Statement of general policy on relief and rehabilitation 
in Korea 

16. Approves the following statement of general policy : 

1. The United Nations programme of relief and re- 
habilitation in Korea is necessary to the restoration of 
peace and the establishment of a unified, independent and 
democratic government in Korea. 

2. To this end, it is the objective of the United Na- 
tions to provide, subject to the limit of the resources 
placed at its disposal for this purpose, relief and reha- 
bilitation supplies, transport and services, to assist the 
Korean people to relieve the sufferings and to repair the 
devastation caused by aggression, and to lay the neces- 
sary economic foundations for the political unification 
and independence of the country. 

3. The United Nations programme of relief and 
rehabilitation for Korea shall be carried out in practice 
in such a way as to contribute to the rapid restoration of 
the country's economy in conformity with the national 
interests of the Korean people, having in view the 
strengthening of the economic and political independence 
of Korea and having in view that, in accordance with 
the general principles of the United Nations, such assist- 
ance must not serve as a means for foreign economic and 
political interference in the internal affairs of Korea 
and must not be accompanied by any conditions of a 
political nature. 

4. The United Nations programme is to be a supple- 
ment to the general recovery effort that will be under- 
taken by the Korean people on their own initiative and 
responsibility, through the most effective utilization of 
their own resources as well as of the aid which is ren- 
dered under the programme. 

5. Whilst the programme should be consistent with 
the pattern of long-term economic development in Korea, 
it is itself necessarily limited to relief and rehabilitation, 
and contributions and supplies furnished under this pro- 
gramme shall be used exclusively for that purpose. 

6. First priority shall be given to the provision of 
the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter for the 
population of Korea and measures to prevent epidemics. 
Second highest priority shall be given to projects which 
will yield early results in the indigenous production of 
basic necessities; this will include the reconstruction of 
transport and power facilities. As the programme de- 

148 



velops, emphasis should be shifted to the provision of 
other materials, supplies and equipment for the recon- 
struction or replacement of war-damaged facilities neces- 
sary to the economic life of the country. 

7. The necessary measures shall be taken to ensure 
that distribution shall be so conducted that all classes 
of the population shall receive their equitable shares ot" 
essential commodities without discrimination as to race, 
creed or political belief. 

8. Subject to adequate control, the distribution of 
supplies shall be carried out, as appropriate, through pub- 
lic and co-operative organizations, through non-profit- 
making voluntary organizations such as the Red Cross, 
and through normal channels of private trade. At the 
same time, measures shall be taken to ensure that the 
cost of distribution and the profit from the sale of sup- 
plies are kept to the minimum. Measures shall be taken 
to ensure that the special needs of refugees and other 
distressed groups of the population are met through ap- 
propriate public welfare programmes, and accordingly 
the sale of relief supplies will take place only in justifiable 
cases and under conditions agreed upon with the United 
Nations Commision for the Unification and Rehabilitation 
of Korea. 

9. The local currency proceeds derived from the sale 
of relief and rehabilitation supplies or, at the discretion 
of the Agent General, an amount commensurate with 
the value of goods and services supplied, shall be paid into 
an account under the control of the Agent General. The 
Agent General, after consultation with the United Na- 
tions Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation 
of Korea, and in agreement with the Advisory Commit- 
tee referred to in paragraph 6 of Section A of the present 
resolution, shall use these funds for appropriate addi- 
tional relief and rehabilitation activities within Korea, 
for the local currency expenses of the relief and rehabil- 
itation operations of the United Nations, or for measures 
to combat inflation. The proceeds shall not be used for 
any other purpose. 

10. The necessary economic and financial measures 
shall be taken by the authorities in Korea to ensure that 
the resources provided under the United Nations pro- 
gramme, as well as Korean resources, are effectively em- 
ployed to aid in laying the economic foundations of the 
country. Among these, special attention should be given 
to measures to combat inflation, to sound fiscal and mon- 
etary policies, to the requisite pricing, rationing and allo- 
cation controls (including the pricing of goods imported 
under the programme), to the prudent use of Korean for- 
eign exchange resources together with promotion of ex- 
ports, and to the efficient management of government ' 
enterprise. 

11. Import taxes shall not be imposed on relief and 
rehabilitation supplies received under the United Nations 
programme. 

12. The authorities in Korea should maintain such 
records and make such reports on the receipt, distribution 
and use of relief and rehabilitation supplies as may be 
determined by the Agent General after consultation with 
them. 

13. All authorities in Korea shall freely permit the 
personnel of the United Nations to supervise the distribu- 
tion of relief and rehabilitation supplies, including the 
examination of all storage and distribution facilities as 
well as records. 

14. The personnel of the United Nations shall be ac- 
corded within Korea the privileges, immunities and facil- 
ities necessary for the fulfilment of their function. 

15. All authorities in Korea and the Secretary-Gen- 
eral shall use their best efforts to inform the people of 
Korea of the sources and purposes of the contributions of 
funds, supplies and services. 

1»>. In determining Korea's needs for relief and re- 
habilitation, in drawing up programmes and plans, and in 
implementing such programmes and plans, the Agency, 
created to administer the relief and rehabilitation pro- 
gramme should consult with and utilize, to the greatrst 
extent feasible, the services of Korean authorities. 

Department of State Bulletin' 



Tlu' (ioneral Assembly 

1. Requests the President to appoint a Negotiating Com- 
mittee composed of seven or more memliers for tlie purpose 
of consulting, as soon as possible during the current ses- 
sion of the General Assembly, with Alember and non-mem- 
ber States as to the amounts which (iovernnieuts may be 
willing to contribute towards the tinancing of the pro- 
gramme for the relief and rehabilitation of Korea; 

2. Authorizes the Negotiating Conunittee to adopt pro- 
cedures best suited to the accomplishment of its task, bear- 
ing in mind : 

(a) The need for securing the maximum contribution 
in cash ; 

(b) The desirability of ensuring that any contribu- 
tion in kind is of a nature which meets the requirements 
of the contemplated programmes ; and 

(c) The degree of assistance which can be rendered 
by specialized agencies, non-member States and other 
contributors ; 

3. Requests that, as soon as the Negotiating Committee 
has ascertained the extent to which Alember States are 
willing to make contributions, all delegations he notitied 
accordingly by the Secretary-General in order that they 
may consult with their Governments ; 

4. Decides that, as soon as the Negotiating Committee 
has completed its work, the Secretary-General shall, at 
the Committee's request, arrange, during the current ses- 
sion of the General Assembly, an appropriate meeting of 
Member and non-member States at which Members may 
commit themselves to their national contributions and the 
contributions of non-members may be made known. 

* * * 
In accordance with the terms of the above resolution, 
the President of the General As.sembly, at the 31Sth 
plenary meeting on 4 December 1950, announced that he 
had appointed a Negotiating Committee. The following 
States Members were appointed : Canada, Eg.vpt, France, 
India, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, the United States of America and Uruguay. 



Executive Order 10195 Designating 
Korea and Adjacent Waters 
as Combat Zone ^ 

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 22 
(b) (13) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended by 
section 202 (a) of the Revenue Act of 1950, approved 
September 23, 1950 (Public Law 814, Slst Congress), there 
is hereby designated, for the purposes of paragraph (13) 
of section 22 (b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as an 
area in which armed forces of the United States have 
engaged in combat : 

Korea, including the waters adjacent thereto within 
the following-de.scribed limits : From a point at Lat. 39°30' 
N, Long. 122''45' E southward to Lat. 33° N, Long. 122°45' 
E ; thence eastward to Lat. 33° N. Long. 127 "55' E ; thence 
northeastward to Lat. 37°05' N, Long. 133° E; thence 
northward to Lat. 40°40' N, Long. 133° E ; thence north- 
westward to a point on the east coast of Korea at the 
juncture of Korea with the U. S. S. E. 

The date of the commencing of combatant activities in 
such area is hereby designated as June 27, 1950. 

Haret S. Tkuman 
The White House, 

December 20, 1950. 

'15 Fed. Reg. 9177. 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to tlie Security Council 

General Douglas MacArtliur, Commander in 
Chief of United Nations command, has trans- 
milted communiques regarding Korea to the Sec- 
retary-General of the United Nations under the 
following United Nations document numbers: 
S/1919, November 29; S/192(), November ;M); 
S/1924, December 1 ; S/1927, December 5 ; S/1929, 
December 6 ; S/1931, December 7 ; S/1935, Decem- 
ber 8 ; S/1938, December 12 ; S/1939, December 12 ; 
S/1940, December 13; S/1941, December 14; 
8/1944, December 15; S/1945, December 19; 
S/1946, December 19; S/1949, December 19; 
S/1951, December 21; S/1954, December 28; 
S/1955, December 28; S/1956, December 28; 
S/1957, December 26. 



Cooperation Among Free World 
in Controlling Scarce Materials 

Statement by Fra9ice, U.K., and U.S. 

[Released to the press January 12] 

In recent weeks representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
and France have given consideration to ways and 
means of bringing about cooperation among the 
countries of the free world to increase the pro- 
duction and availability of materials in short 
supply and to assure their most effective use. 

Work in the field of materials has been going 
forward for several months in the Organization 
for European Economic Cooperation (Oeec) and, 
more recently, in the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization (Nato) and the Organization of 
American States (Oas). The Oeec in particular 
has made valuable studies of the growing prob- 
lems of scarce materials and has recommended the 
calling of appropriate international conferences 
to deal with them. 

The events of the last few weeks have made 
these problems of even greater urgency. They 
have also made it clear that commodity problems 
cannot be dealt with on a regional basis but must 
take account of the needs and interests of the 
whole of the free world. Continuing inter- 
national machinery is needed through which all 
of the interested governments of the free world, 
whether or not they are members of the Oeec, 
Nato, or Oas organizations, can cooperate in the 
solution of commodity shortages which are world- 
wide in scope and effect. 

Accordingly, the tliree Govermnents have 
agreed that proposals should be made to other in- 
terested governments for the creation of a number 



January 22, J 95 1 



149 



of standino: international commodity groups, rep- 
resenting tlie governments of producing and con- 
suming countries throughout tlie free world which 
have a substantial interest in the commodities con- 
cerned. These commodity groups would consider 
and recommend to governments the specific action 
wliich should be taken, in the case of each com- 
modity, in order to expand production, increase 
availabilities, conserve supplies, and assure the 
most effective distribution and utilization of sup- 
plies among consuming countries. 

Early action is called for with respect to cer- 
tain commodities. The Government of the United 
States has therefore agreed to send invitations 
immediately to other interested friendly govern- 
ments for the establishment of certain of the 



commodity groups referred to above. Others can 
be created as the needs of the free world require. 
Also, the three Governments will establish imme- 
diately in Washington a temporary central group 
to provide a servicing mechanism for the standing 
commodity groups. There will be early consul- 
tations with interested governments and appro- 
priate international organizations with respect to 
the continuing functions and membership of the 
central group. 

The new international arrangements on ma- 
terials which are now proposed will, of course, be 
greatly assisted by the contributions in this field 
of the Oeec, the Nato, the Oas, and the several 
existing international commodity organizations. 



Providing Foodstuffs for Yugoslavia 

AGREEMENT SIGNED AT BELGRADE 

[Released to the press January S] 



There follows the text of an agreement signed at Bel- 
grade on January 6, 1951, t>y United States Ambassador 
Oeorge V. Allen and Yvgoslaii Foreign Minister Edvard 
Kardelj regarding the provision of foodstuffs by the 
United States Oovemment to the Yugoslav people in ac- 
cordance icith the provisions of the Yugoslav Emergency 
Relief Assistance Act of 1950. 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the Federal People's Republic of 
Yugoslavia having heretofore agreed on the terms and 
conditions under which Initial shipments of food would 
be made to Yugoslavia to meet the immediate emergency 
resulting from the recent drought ; 

Desiring to set forth understandings which will govern 
the furnishing of additional relief assistance pursuant to 
the authority of the Yugoslav Emergency Relief Assist- 
ance Act of 1950 have agreed as follows : 

Article I 

1. The Government of the United States of America 
will, subject to the provisions of the Yugoslav Emergency 
Relief Assistance Act of 19.50, furnish assistance to the 
people of Yugoslavia by making available such assistance 
as may be authorized by the Government of the United 
States of America. 

Article II 

1. The Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia recognize that it is in their mutual interest 
that full publicity be given to the objectives and progress 
of the assistance being rendered pursuant to this agree- 
ment and that all pertinent information be made avail- 
able to the people of Yugoslavia. The Government of 
the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia will en- 
courage the dissemination of such information by giving 
full and continuous publicity through the press, radio, 
and all other available media in Yugoslavia to the as- 
sistance furnished by the United States Government pur- 



suant to this agreement, and will allow to the United 
States Government, in cooperation with the Yugoslav 
Government, the use of such media as may be required to 
accomplish this purpose. 

2. The Government of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia will permit and facilitate in every way 
the freedom of representatives of the Government of the 
United States of America, duly designated for this pur- 
pose by the United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia, 
without restriction, to observe, supervise and report on 
the receipt and distribution in Yugoslavia of commodi- 
ties and other assistance made available pursuant to this 
agreement, and to cooperate fully with them hy per- 
mitting them to have full access to communication and in- 
formation facilities. The Government of the Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia will grant to represen- 
tatives of tlie United States press full freedom to ob- 
serve and report on the receipt and distribution of com- 
modities and other assistance made available pursuant 
to this agreement. 

3. The Government of the Federal People's Republic of 
Yugoslavia will make available to the Government of the 
United States of America such amounts, in dinars, as 
may be required by the Government of the United States 
of America to meet its expenses in Yugoslavia in connec- 
tion with the administration and operation of the pro- 
gram of assistance provided pursuant to this agreement. 

4. Commodities and other assistance made available 
pursuant to this agreement and similar supplies produced 
locally or imported from outside sources will be distrib- 
uted equitably among the people of Yugoslavia without 
discrimination as to race or political or religious belief. 

,'). The Government of the Federal People's Republic of 
Yugoslavia will, when any dinar proceeds are realized 
fr(un the sale of commodities made availalile jiursuant to 
I he aulliority of tlie YuLjoslav Eniergem-y Relief Assist- 
ance .Act of 1030 including Hour shi])irt>d Irom (ierniany 
and Italy, use an equivalent amount of dinars to provide 
relief to needy persons and to children for charitable 
iind medical purposes or for such other purposes as may 
be mutually agreed to by the two Governments. 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



6. The Government of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia will take all appropriate economic measures 
to reduce its relief needs, to encouraiie increased produc- 
tion and distribution of foodstuffs witliiti Yugoslavia, and 
to lessen the danger of future conditions of food short- 
age similar to the present emergency. 

Article III 

The Government of the United States of America re- 
serves the right at any time to terminate its assistance 
to Yugoslavia made available jiursuant to this agreement, 
including termination of deliveries of all supplies sched- 
uled but not yet delivered. 

Article IV 

This Agreement shall take effect on the day of its sig- 
nature. 

Done at Belgrade, in duplicate, in the English, and 
Serbo-Croat languages, this sixth day of January 1951. 



Point 4 Agreement With Costa Rica 

[h'cleased to the press January Xl] 

Costa Rica today became the fourth Latin 
American cotmtry to conchide a Point 4 general 
agreement with the United States. At San Jose, 
Foreign Minister Mario Echandi and United 
States Charge d'AfFaires Andrew E. Donovan II 
signed the agreement which will assure continued 
technical cooperation between the two nations. 
The United States has previously concluded agree- 
ments with Panama, Paraguay, and Nicaragua, in 
addition to a number of countries outside the 
Western Hemisphere. 

In announcing the signing. Technical Coopera- 
tion Administrator Henry G. Bennett called atten- 
tion to three technical cooperation projects al- 
ready in existence with Costa Rica tinder authority 
of earlier legislation. He said the Technical Co- 
operation Administration has also approved a 
fourth project, which will soon be in operation. 

Of the existing projects, two are being carried 
out by the Department of Agriculture; one by 
the Institute of Inter-American AflPairs. Five 
Department of Agriculture technicians are work- 
ing with Costa Rican experts in increasing the 
rubber supply of the American Republic. Two 
re.search experts — one a plant pathologist, the 
other a rural sociologist — are also representing 
the Department of Agriculture. 

Eight technicians from the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs are working with 22 extension 
offices throughout Costa Rica, advising on prob- 
lems of irrigation and drainage ; insect and disease 
control ; and soil, crop, and livestock improvement. 

The project, soon to begin, will also make use 
of the services of the Institute. Tlie Costa Rican 
Government plans to establish a health mission 
designed to introduce new measures of health and 
sanitation to residents of rural areas. Now an 
agency of Point 4, the Institute of Inter-American 
Affairs has been working at teclmical cooperation 
with Latin America since 1942. 



VOA To Broadcast in Finnish 

[Released to the press December 29] 

The Voice of America will begin a daily 15- 
minute broadcast in Finnish, starting January 1, 
the Department of State announced today. 

The initial program will include the New Year's 
Day messages of President Truman and Secretary 
Acheson ; special messages by Edward W. Barrett, 
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ; and George 
W. Perkins, Assistant Secretary for European 
Affairs; and a special New Year's message in 
Finnish by the Rev. Arvi H. Saarisuu, minister of 
the Harlem Finnish Lutheran Church. The Jan- 
uary second program will contain an interview 
with the Finnish Trade Union delegation, and 
subsequent programs will consist of American 
press opinion on topics of interest to Finnish 
listeners, news commentaries, discussions of 
American life and the American scene, interviews 
with Americans of Finnish descent, and a request 
program based on questions submitted by Finnish 
listeners. 

The program will be broadcast shortwave from 
the United States on three frequencies from 1 : 30 
to 1 : 45 p.m., e.s.t., which will be picked up and 
recorded in London for rebroadcast on BBC facil- 
ities on three frequencies from 2 : 15 to 2 : 30 p.m., 
e.s.t. (9 : 15 to 9 : 30 p.m. Finnish time). 

The Finnish program will be the immediate 
responsibility of Henry Arnold, who has just re- 
turned from Finland after serving 5 years as the 
United States Public Affairs Officer at Helsinld. 
The addition of Finnish will increase to 26 the 
number of languages utilized by the Voice of 
America in its world-wide broadcasting service. 

Also, on January 1, the Voice of America will 
increase its Arabic language broadcast from 30 
minutes to 1 hour daily. 



U.S. Military Training Mission 
To Advise Liberian Government 

[Released to the press January 11] 

Upon the request of the Liberian Government, 
the United States Govenunent has agreed to fur- 
nish Liberia with a United States military train- 
ing mission. The agreement covering this mis- 
sion was signed today by both Governments at 
Washington. 

The purpose of this mission is to cooperate with 
the Armed Forces authorities and personnel of 
Liberia in the training and organization of these 
forces and to advise and assist the Armed Forces 
of Liberia on any matter with a view to enhancing 
the efficiency of these forces in maintaining in- 
ternal security. 



January 22, 7957 



151 



Secretary Acheson represented the United 
States Government, and Secretary of State Ga- 
briel L. Dennis, wlio headed tlie Special Liberian 
Commission which negotiated the agreement, 
represented the Government of Liberia at the sign- 
ing ceremony in the Department of State. 

Present at the signing were C. D. B. King, 
Liberian Ambassador to the United States, and 
the following members of the Liberian Special 
Commission which negotiated the agreement: C. 
Abayomi Cassell, Attorney General of Liberia; 
Charles B. Sherman, Liberian Government Econ- 
omist; and Mrs. Mai Padmore, Secretary to the 
Commission. 

Also present were George C. McGhee, Assistant 
Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian and 
African Affairs ; James C. Evans, Civilian Assist- 
ant to the Secretary of Defense; Brig. Gen. B. O. 
Davis, USA, Ket. ; Col. James H. Robinson, USA ; 
and Col. West A. Hamilton, USA, Ret. 



U.S. and France Conclude 
Consultation on Civil Aviation 

[Released to the press December 26] 

The Department of State and the French For- 
eign Office announced today that a French delega- 
tion, of which Fernand Hederer, Secretary General 
of Civil Aviation, Ministry of Transport, was 
chairman, and a delegation of the United States, 
headed by Walter A. Radius, Director, Office of 
Transport and Communications, Department of 
State, had concluded on December 22 a formal 
consultation on civil aviation matters connected 
with the Franco-American air transport agree- 
ment. 

Agreement was reached on a basis for the prepa- 
ration of statistics relevant to the problem of re- 
lating capacity to the traffic demand which will 
be considered when the consultations are resumed 
in Paris during the latter part of January. Ar- 
rangements were made for future closer consulta- 
tion and collaboration on mutual problems. The 
two delegations also agreed upon an amendment 
of the disputes article of the bilateral air trans- 
port agi'eement. This amendment was suggested 
by the French delegation and will bring the article 
into line with current practice. 

The chairmen of both delegations expressed 
their satisfaction at the cordial and frank spirit 
of cooperation which governed the discussions. 
They expressed their conviction that although 
problems would inevitably arise in connection with 
the gi'owing aviation industry, cooperation in the 
spirit of the joint French-United States interest 
in the development of sound international carriers 
by both countries would assure mutually satisfac- 
tory solutions. 



New Tariff Quotas 

on Imports of Crude Oils 

[Released to the press December 29] 

The new tariff quota which will be applicable 
to imports of crude oil, topped crude, and fuel 
oil beginning January 1, 1951, has, today, been al- 
located by Presidential Proclamation as follows: 
Venezuela 59.4 percent, the Netherlands (includ- 
ing overseas territories) 18.7 percent, all other 
countries 21.9 percent. 

As a result of the termination of the trade agree- 
ment with Mexico, effective December 31, 1950, 
taxable imports of crude oil, topped crude oil, and 
fuel oil in 1951 will be taxed at the rate of lOi^ 
cents a barrel in the case of imports not in excess 
of 5 percent of the crude runs to stills in the United 
States during 1950. Taxable imports in excess of 
the 5 percent quota will be taxed at the rate of 21 
cents a barrel. It is the low duty imports to 
which the allocations apply. 

The quantity of crude oil processed in the 
United States in 1950 against which the quota will 
be calculated will be announced by the Treasury 
Department after determination by the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. A forecast in November by 
the Bureau of Mines estimated that the crude runs 
to stills in the United States in 1950 will be slightly 
in excess of 2 billion barrels. It is estimated that 
roughly one-third of the taxable imports in 1951 
of the products covered will be within the quota 
allowed and thus qualify for the lOi/o cent rate. 
More than half of the total will be at the new 
high rate of 21 cents. The remainder is for gov- 
ernment purchase or for use as bunkers of ships 
and therefore tax free. I 



THE CONGRESS 



Legislation ■ 

Authorizing Credits to Certain Public Agencies of the 
United States for Costs of Construction and Operation 
and Maintenance of Flood Protective Levee S.vstems Along 
or Adjacent to the Lower Colorado River in Arizona, 
California, and Lower California, Jlexieo. S. R. 2240, 
Slst Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 1140] 12 pp. 

Protecting the National Security of the United States 
by Permitting the Summary Suspension of Employment 
of Civilian Officers and Employees of Various Departments 
and Agencies of the Government. S. R. 215S, Slst Cong., 
2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 7439] 9 pp. 

Authorizing the I'resident To Invito the States of the 
Union and Foreign Countries To Participate in the First 
United States International Trade Fair, To He Held at 
Chicago, 111., August 7 through 20, 1950. S. U. 2163, Slst 
Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany 11. .T. Kcs. 45:!] 2 pp. 

Annex to International Telecommunication Conven- 
vention — Telegraph Regulations (Paris Revision, 1949) 
and Final Protocol. S. Ex. R. 9, Slst Cong., 2d sess., 9 pp. 



152 



Departmenl of Stafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United States Delegations to International Conferences 



Inter-American Commission of Women 

Tlie Department of State announced on January 
13 that the Inter- American Commission of Women 
will hold, on January 15, the first in a series of 
three regional seminars to study the civil, political, 
economic and social, and educational status of 
women in the Western Hemisphei'e. The United 
States Government will be i-epresented at the first 
seminar covering the Central American region, to 
be held at San Salvador, by the following dele- 
gation : 

Chairman 

Miss Mary M. Cannon, chief, International Division, 
Women's Bureau, Department of Labor ; and United 
States delegate, Inter- American Commission of 
Women 

Delegates 

Mrs. Lou Nora Spiller Axelrod, assistant United States 

attorney, Houston, Texas 
Mrs. Gladys Dorris Barber, former member. Governor's 

Commission on Child Labor, Annapolis, Maryland, 

and former President, League of Women Voters in 

the State of Maryland ; Lima, Peru 
Miss Maria Socorro Lacot, supervisor of home economics, 

Division of Vocational Education, Department of 

Education, San Juan, Puerto Eico 

The first seminar will serve as a working model 
for the two following seminars. With respect to 
problems relating to the civil status of women, the 
firet seminar will make an analysis of the civil 
rights of women as set forth in the statutes of vari- 
ous countries, as well as ways in which those stat- 
utes may be improved. The contribution of 
women to the political and administrative life of 
America and the participation of women in politi- 
cal parties are among the political subjects to be 
discussed. In its study of the economic and social 
status of women, the Seminar will concentrate on 
the problems of women workers, in particular, 
farm workers, industrial woi-kers, professional 
workers, government employees in private indus- 
try, and domestic workers. Stress will be placed 
on the questions of protecting women workers 
against discrimination on the ground of sex, of 



providing maternity protection, and of providing 
such services as clinics, mateniity centers, nursery 
schools, and kindergartens. Among the topics re- 
lated to the education of women which the Seminar 
will consider are: the fight against illiteracy of 
women; the vocational, technical and professional 
training of women; civic education; aesthetic edu- 
cation ; and the training of women for family life. 
In connection with its work in each of the four 
basic topics, the Seminar will fonnulate recom- 
mendations to the Inter-American Commission of 
Women regarding measures to be adopted for the 
improvement of the status of women. 

The Inter-American Commission of Women is a 
permanent intergovernmental body organized 
pursuant to a resolution of the Sixth International 
Conference of American States at Habana in 1928. 
It is composed of representatives of the 21 Ameri- 
can Republics, and its secretariat is located at the 
Pan American Union in Washington. The pres- 
ent chairman of the Commission is Amalia de Cas- 
tillo Ledon of Mexico. 



Freedom of Information 

On January 13, the Department of State an- 
nounced that the Committee on the Draft Con- 
vention on Freedom of Infonnation will convene 
at Lake Success on January 15 pursuant to a 
United Nations General Assembly resolution of 
December 14, 1950. The United States delega- 
tion is as follows : 

United States Representative 

Carroll Binder, editorial editor, Minneapolis Tribune 

Deputy United States Representative 
Samuel de Palma, Office of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State 

AdrAsers 

Herzel I'laine, special assistant to the Attorney General, 

Department of Justice 
Marjorle M. Whiteman, acting assistant legal adviser for 

Inter-American Affairs, Department of State 

The Committee, composed of 15 member gov- 
ernments, has been requested to pref)are a draft 



January 22, 1 95 1 



153 



convention on freedom of information, taking into 
consideration the draft approved by the United 
Nations Conference on Freedom of Information 
and of the Press held at Geneva in March-April 
1948 ; the text voted during the second part of the 
third session of the General xVssembly at Lake 
Success in April-May 1949; article 14 of the pro- 
visional text of the draft of the First Interna- 
tional Covenant on Human Rights; and the ob- 
servations contained in the summary records of 
the General Assembly's Third Committee dealing 
with the question. The Committee has been re- 
quested also to report to the thirteenth session of 
the United Nations Economic and Social Council, 
scheduled to be held at Geneva in July 1951, on 
the results of its work and to submit recommenda- 
tions regarding the advisability of convening a 
conference of plenipotentiaries with a view to the 
framing and signature of a formal convention on 
freedom of information. 

Prior to the convening of the meeting, a discus- 
sion of the interests and position of the United 
States will be held at the United States mission to 
the United Nations on January 13. Approxi- 
mately 15 people, leaders in the field of press, 
radio and motion pictures, have been invited to 
attend. Rowland H. Sargeant, Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Public Affairs; Walter Kotscluiig, 
Director, Office of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, and Samuel de Palma will par- 
ticipate in the discussion for the United States 
Government. 



Protocol on Control 

of Narcotic Drugs Proclaimed 

[Released to the press January 10] 

The President today proclaimed the protocol, 
signed at Paris under date of November 19, 1948, 
bringing under international control drugs out- 
side the scope of the convention of July 13, 1931, 
for limiting the manufacture and regulating the 
distribution of narcotic drugs, as amended by the 

Erotocol signed at Lake Success under date of 
'ecember 11, 1946. The protocol of 1948 entered 
into force with respect to certain countries, not 
including the United States, on December 1, 1949, 
pursuant to article 6 thereof which provides for 
entry into force upon the expiration of 30 days 
following the day on which 25 or moi-e states have 
signed it without reservation or accepted it in ac- 
cordance with article 5, provided that such states 
shall include five of the following: China, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, Netherlands, Poland, Switzer- 
land, Turkey, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Eepublics, United States, and Yugo- 
slavia. 

The United States Senate, on July 6, 1950, gave 
its advice and consent to ratification of the proto- 



col, and the protocol was ratified by the President 
on August 7, 1950. An instrument of ratification 
was deposited on behalf of the United States on 
August 11, 1950, and the United States became a 
party to the protocol, pursuant to article 7 there- 
of, on September 11, 1950, upon the expiration 
of 30 days following such deposit, which consti- 
tuted acceptance. 

The 1931 convention to which the United States 
is a party and to which the 1948 protocol refers, 
enlarged the area of narcotics control by limiting 
the world manufacture of certain narcotic drugs 
to the world's medical and scientific needs and by 
limiting in each country party thereto the accumu- 
lation of stocks of such drugs. Discoveries in the 
field of synthetic drugs, modern pharmacology, 
and chemistry have made the existing control sys- 
tem in effective in some respects. The 1948 pro- 
tocol will make an essential contribution to 
effective international control of the traffic in nar- 
cotics by limiting the manufacture and regvilating 
the distribution not only of existing deleterious 
drugs which fall outside the scope of the 1931 
convention but also of any future drug of that char- 
acter as well. 



Policy Group To Consider 
U.S. Positions for ITU Meeting 

[Released to the press January 12] 

A special ad hoc policy group consisting of 
James E. Webb, Under Secretary of State; Rob- 
ert A. Lovett, Deputy Secretary of Defense ; and 
Wayne Coy, chairman. Federal Communications 
Commission, has been established to consider the 
basic policy positions which the United States 
should take with respect to the Extraordinary 
Administrative Radio Conference of the Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union scheduled for 
August 1951, at Geneva and make suitable rec- 
ommendations to the Department of State. 

The Geneva Conference is the next step in the 
course of implementing the Radio Frequency Al- 
location Table adopted at the Atlantic City Inter- 
national Radio Conference in 1947. This involves 
various radio services such as fixed, international 
broadcast, maritime, and aeronautical. While 
considerable preparatory work has been under 
way through the medium of government-industry 
radio committees under the guidance of the De- 
partment of State, there still remain certain pol- 
icy questions which fall within the sphere of 
higher government policy level authorities. 

Tliis policy group has tlesignnted AValter A. 
Radius, director. Office of Transport and Com- 
munications Policy, Department of State; Maj.' 
Gen. H. M. McClelland, USAF, director. Com- 
munications-Electronics, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



Department of Defense ; and Commissioner E. ]\I. 
Webster, Federal Communications Commission, 
to act as their alternates to carry out this assign- 
meat and report to them as appropriate. Fur- 
thermore, the policy group and their alternates 
will be assisted in this work by several outstand- 
ing independent experts of recognized competence 
who will serve as consultants. 

Thus far, E. K. Jett, a former commissioner 
with the Federal Communications Commission, 
now vice-president and director of television for 
some Baltiuu)re ])apers, and Hai-aden Pratt, vice 
president, couuuercial radio corporation, have, 
with the consent of the companies with which they 
are now associated, been designated as consultants 
and will be engaged from time to time in reviewing 
the situation and assisting in the work. 

The first meeting of the alternates with jNIr. 
Jett and Mr. Pratt was held on January 12, 1951, 
at which meeting plans were made for the con- 
duct of the work involved. 



Service promotion system was the fair and im- 
pai'tial recognition of meritorious performance. 

H. P. Martin, Director of Personnel, and R. P. 
Butrick, Director General of the Foreign Service, 
also addressed the Selection Board members and 
described the procedure and criteria to be applied 
by the Boards during their deliberations. The 
Boards are expected to be in session for 6 weeks. 

The six public members of the 1951 Selection 
Boards are : Dr. Robert E. Buchanan, recently re- 
tired educator from Iowa State College; Dr. Ar- 
thur E. Burns, dean. School of Government, 
George Washington University; Gordon W. 
Chapman, secretary-treasurer of the State, 
County, and Municipal Employees (AFL), Wis- 
consin; Palmer F. Cope, European representative 
for CIO; Dr. Pitman B. Potter, dean. Graduate 
Division, American University; William A. 
Schoenfeld, on special assignment with the Bureau 
of Indian Atfairs, United States Department of 
Interior. 



Atnory J. Bradford Appointed 

Special Assistant to U.S. Deputy on NATC 

The Department of State announced on January 12 
tliat Amory .J. Bradford was appointed as Special Assist- 
ant on the staff of the United States Deputy on the North 
Atlantic Treaty Council. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Director, International Security 
Affairs Established 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Appointment of Public Members 
to Foreign Service Selection Board 

Carlisle H. Humelsine, Deputy Under Secre- 
tary, greeted on January 8 the members of the 
1951 Selection Boards who met in executive ses- 
sion at the State Department to begin their review 
of performance records and to recommend pro- 
motions for the career officers of the United States 
Foreign Service. 

In welcoming the six public members and the 
twelve Foreign Service officers ^ who comprise the 
three Selection Boards, Mr. Humelsine congratu- 
lated the Board members on their designation and 
expressed the sincere appreciation of the Depart- 
ment to the public members for their willingness 
to leave their professional and business duties at 
considerable personal inconvenience in order to 
be of service to the Government. Mr. Humelsine 
stressed the fact that the basis of the Foreign 

' Bulletin of Jan. 15, p. 119. 



[Released to the press January 4] 

Effective January 8, 1051, there will be established in 
the Department of State the position of Director, Inter- 
national Security Affairs. The OfBce of the Director, 
Mutual Defense Assistance established October 25, 1949, 
is abolished and its personnel, records, and functions, 
including the functions ve.sted in the Secretary of State 
by Executive Order 10099, as amended, have been trans- 
ferred to the Director, International Security Affairs. 

The Director, Thomas Dudley Cabot, will occupy the 
senior position authorized by section 406 (e) of the 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, as amended. The 
Director shall perform his functions under the direction 
of the Secretary of State. He sliall have authority over, 
and be responsible for, the general direction and coordi- 
nation of all activities within the Department of State 
relating to : 

a. The North Atlantic Treaty and other similar regional 
and bilateral arrangements concerned primarily with 
collective defense or mutual defense assistance ; 

b. the military security phases of other regional or bi- 
lateral arrangements, such as the Organization of Amer- 
ican States; 

c. military assistance programs ; 

d. programs of economic assistance which are designed 
to support programs of military assistance; 

e. the export or foreign sale of military materiel or the 
release to other nations of classified military informa- 
tion. In addition, the commitment of United States mil- 
itary resources for United Nations purposes shall be co- 
ordinated with the Director. As to all such matters, he 
shall reiiresent and spealj for the Department of State. 
In performing these several functions, he shall be respon- 
sible for appropriately relating bis performance to the 
development and execution of other foreign policies and 
programs. 



January 22, J 95 1 



155 



The Director shall have such staff as may be necessary 
for the effective execution of his responsibilities but 
shall, to the extent consistent with the effective discharge 
of his responsibilities, utilize tlie resources of the regional 
and functional bureaus and offices. The regional and 
functional bureaus and offices of the Department shall 
give to the Director all appropriate assistance and shall 
be responsible to the Director for all activities veithin 
the field of his responsibility. The Director within the 
area of his responsibility set forth shall : 

a. Coordinate and direct the development of objectives, 
policies, and programs for international security and 
assistance affairs. 

b. Approve programs for military and economic as- 
sistance for mutual defense, and review, coordinate, and 
expedite the implementation of approved programs. 

c. Assure the establishment and maintenance of effec- 
tive working relationships concerning international se- 
curity and assistance matters with all Government agen- 
cies having policy, advisory, or operational responsibili- 
ties within this area. 

d. Evaluate the effectiveness and progress of policies 
and programs in the field of international security and 
assistance and prepare or direct the preparation of all 
necessary reports with respect thereto. 

e. See that appropriate instructions to United States 
representatives abroad concerned with international se- 
curity and assistance matters are developed and issued. 

f. Assure development, coordination, and Implementa- 
tion of policies to control, under appropriate provisions of 
law, the export and import of arms, ammunition, and im- 
plements of war. 

g. Assure formulation of Department of State policy on 
all questions relating to disclosure to foreign powers of 
classified information in the field of international security 
and assistance affairs. 

h. Have primary responsibility, subject to the budget 
and fiscal policies and procedures of the Department of 
State, for the control, allocation, and utilization of funds 
made available for aid and assistance programs and 
related activities. Including responsibility for budget 
formulation, for budget justification before the Bureau 
of the Budget and Congress, and for budget execution. 

i. Assure the development, tlirough existing organiza- 
tional arrangements, of domestic and overseas programs 
of public information with respect to international se- 
curity and assistance affairs. 

The Director shall be the Department of State rep- 
resentative on and chairman of the Committee on Inter- 
national Security Affairs. The Director shall determine, 
in consultation with the Deputy Under Secretary for 
Administration, State Department representation on, 
and shall be responsible for and generally supervise State 
Department participation in, the activities of such addi- 
tional interdepartmental committees and working groups 
as exist or may be created in the field of international 
security and assistance. 

On international security and assistance matters, the 
Director shall be responsible within the Department of 
State for all relationships of the Department of State 
with the Department of Defense, with the Economic Co- 
operation Administration, and with other Departments 
and agencies. 



Appointment of Officers 

Max McCullough as Director and Richard Heindel as 
Deputy Director of the Unesco Relations Staff, both ap- 
pointments effective December 1, 19.50. 

G. Lewis .lones as Director, Office of Near East Affairs, 
effective December 13, 1950. 

Mose Harvey as Chief, Division of Research for 
U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe, effective December If). 

Gerald B. Brophy as Special Consultant to the Secre- 
tary of State, efl'ective December It), 11)50. 



Robert Rout West Appointed 
Special Consultant to the Secretary 

The Department of State announced on January 5 the 
appointment of Robert Kout West, as special consultant 
to the Secretary of State. In this capacity, Mr. West will 
specialize in migration affairs, giving special considera- 
tion to United States Government policy toward solution 
of problems of excess iwpulation in certain areas of 
Europe, which present an ol)stacle to Western European 
political and economic stability. He will also be con- 
cerned, during the emergency defense period, with the 
relation between manpower resources in Europe and in- 
ternational efforts to meet essential civilian and defense 
production r^(iuirements. 

Russell B. Adams Appointed 
Special Assistant to the Secretary 

The Department of State announced on January 3 
the appointment of Russell B. Adams as a special as- 
sistant to the Secretary of State. In his new capacity, 
Mr. Adams will specialize In multilateral negotiations 
particularly in regard to aviation matters. He will as- 
sume his duties on January 15, 1951. 



New Research Divisions Announced 

On December 19, 1950, the Department of State estab- 
lished within the Office of Intelligence Research the 
Division of Research for U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe 
(DRS). This change also renames the former Division 
of Research for Europe as the Division of Research for 
Western Europe (DRW). 



PUBLICATIONS 



Report on Educational Exchange 
Activities Issued 

[Released to the press Januunj 6] 

Programs to promote the free flow of persons 
between this country and other nations as part 
of United States policy to spread the truth about 
democracy are completely reviewed and analyzed 
in the latest report of the Presidentially appointed 
United States Advisory Commission on Educa- 
tional Exchange, Two Way Street, made public 
today. 

The report of the Commission, a comprehensive 
document illustrated by numerous charts and ]iho- 
tographs, presents a broad picture of the Govern- 
ment's activities in cooperation with private agen- 
cies in the field of international exchange during 
1950. It shows how, b}' the exchange of persons 
and materials, American life and institutions are 
being brought to peoples of other countries and 
how the United States, in turn, is profiting from 
the knowledge and experience of other fiee 
nations. 



156 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Divided into four major sections, Two IFay 
Street tells why, where, and how the United States 
is conducting programs of interiuitional exchange. 
It brings together, for the first time, information 
on the whole range of educational exchange activi- 
ties conducted by the Department of State and 
other agencies of the Government. 

In making the report [)ublic. Dr. Harvie Brans- 
comb, Chainnan of the Commission and Chancel- 
lor of Vanderbilt University, declared, 

. . . The Soviet masters are seeking to turn the world 
against the United States In hatred and suspicion through 
their shrewd, continuous and malicious untruths. Our 
counter-attack is to make tlie truth known. Tlie free ex- 
change of peoples and tlieir ideas is one of the surest means 
of combatting communism. It is a vital part of our total 
effort, tlie CampaiL;u of Truth. 

As President Truman said recently, "... when men 
throughout the world are making their clioice between 
communism and democracy the important thing is not 
what we know about our purposes and our actions — the 
important thing is what they know !" 

Two Watj street has been prepared to inform private 
groups and individuals concerning the Government's activ- 
ities. Its audience is the American people. 

The report deals with such programs as USIE 
(Smith-Mundt), Fulbright, Finnish Educational 
Exchange, Chinese Aid, Point 4 operations, the 
program for democratization of Germany, and the 
activities of the Institute of Inter-American Af- 
fairs. In addition, it includes a review of the 
exchange activities of the Department of the Army 
and the Economic Cooperation Administration 
and touches on the wide range of educational ex- 
change activities sponsored by private organiza- 
tions which cooperate with or receive assistance 
from the Department of State. 

Two Way Street also reviews exchange activities 
of locally governed binational cultural organiza- 
tions in the American Republics, United States 
libraries and information centers throughout the 
world, translations of American books, "traveling" 
book exhibits, the exchange and distribution of 
publications, cooperative scientific and technical 
projects, assistance to American-sponsored schools 
abroad, and the exchange of persons with repre- 
sentative groups throughout the world. 

Following an over-all review of educational ex- 
change activities, Ttao Way Street reviews in- 
dividual operations in over 90 countries in all 
areas of the world — the American Republics, Eu- 
rope and the British Commonwealth, the Far East, 
the Near East, South Asia, and Africa. 

The United States Advisory Commission on 
Educational Excliange was established by the 
United States Information and Educational Ex- 
change Act of 1948 (Public Law 402) to insure 
public participation in the international exchange 
program. It is a five-member body of leading 
private citizens who are specialists in educational, 
cultural, scientific, technical, and public-service 
fields. The members are appointed by the Presi- 
dent and confirmed by the Senate. In addition 
to Dr. Branscomb, the Commission is composed of 



Mark Starr, vice-chairman and educational direc- 
tor of the International Ladies Garment Workers 
Union; Dr. Harold Willis Dodds, president of 
Princeton University; Dr. Edwin B. Fred, presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin ; Dr. Martin 
R. P. McGuire, professor at Catholic University. 

Copies of Tioo Way Street may be obtained for 
GO cents a copy from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, Oovern- 
mcnt Printing Ufflce, Washinyton 25, D. 0. Address re- 
guests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, which may he obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Education: Cooperative Program in Guatemala. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2077. Pub. 3911. 
5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Guatemala 
modifying and extending the program of August 12, 
1944, as modified and extended — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Guatemala July 28 and August 19, 
1949; entered into force August 23, 1949, operative 
retroactively from June 30, 1949. 

International Civil Aviation, 1949-1950. International 
Organization and Conference Series IV, International 
Civil Aviation Organization 5. 47 pp. Pub. 3915. 25((. 

Third Report of the Representative of the United 
States to ICAO. 

United States-Mexican Commission on Cultural Coopera- 
tion. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2086. 
Pub. 3933. 7 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States and Mexico — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Mexico Decem- 
ber 28, 1948 and August 30, 1949 ; entered into force 
August 30, 1949. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2089. Pub. 3941. 15 pp. 10(f. 

Convention between the United States and other gov- 
ernments, dated at Washington February 8, 1949 — 
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States 
August 17, 1949; proclaimed by the President of the 
United States July 17, 1950; entered into force July 
3, 1950. 

Passport Visa Fees. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2090. Pub. 3942. 15 pp. 10^. 

Agreement and supplement between the United States 
and INI^xieo — Effected by exchange of notes signed 
at Mexico May 3, 1950 ; entered into force May 3, 1950, 
operative June 1, 1950. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Mexico. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2091. Pub 
3943. 8 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Mexico 
extending and modifying agreement of June 30 and 
July 1, 1943, as amended — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at Mexico February 10 and 14, 1949; 
entered into force February 14, 1949, operative retro- 
actively from December 31, 1948. 



January 22, 1 95 1 



157 



Fisheries: Establishment of an International Commission 
for the Scientific Investigation of Tuna. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2094. Pub. 3947. 16 pp. 
10^. 

Convention bPtwpen the Unitod States and Mexico — 
Signed at Mexico January 25, 1949 ; entered into force 
July 11, 1950 and excliange of notes signed at Mexico 
January 26 and 31, 1949. 

The Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2099. Pub. 3956. 21 pp. 
15«f. 

Agreement and exchange of notes between the United 
States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland— Signed at Washington July 21, 
1950; entered into force July 21, 1950. 

Weather Stations: Pacific Ocean Program. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2103. Pub. 3963. 4 pp. 
54. 

Agreement between the United States and Canada — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
June 8 and 22, 1950 ; entered into force June 22, 1950. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Peru. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2102. Pub. 
3968. 3 pp. 5(t. 

Agreement between the United States and Peru pro- 
viding for extension of program as modified and ex- 
tended — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Lima 
October 4 and IS, 1949 ; entered into force October IS, 
1949, operative retroactively July 1, 1949. 

Naval Mission. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2104. Pub. 3973. 12 pp. 5<}. 

Agreement between the United States and Venezu- 
ela — Signed at Washington August 23, 1950; entered 
into force August 23, 1950. 

Relief Supplies and Packages for France: Duty- Free En- 
try Payment of Transportation Charges. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2107. Pub. 3979. 3 pp. 
50. 

Agreement between the United States and France 
amending agreements of December 23, 1948, and Janu- 
ary 31, 1950 — Signed at Paris August 3, 1950 ; entered 
into force August 3, 1950. 

Economic Cooperation With Indonesia. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2108. Pub. 39S0. 3 pp. 
5(f. 

Agreement between the United States and Indonesia — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Djakarta 
March 22 and 24, 1950 ; entered into force March 24, 
1950. 

Settlement of Certain War Claims. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2112. Pub. 39S9. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Switzer- 
land — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Wash- 
ington October 21, 1949 ; entered into force October 21, 
1949. 



U.S. National Commission UNE.SCO News, December 
1950. Puix 4023. 16 pp. $1.00 per year, domestic ; $1.35 
per year, foreign ; 10<f a copy. 

Prepared monthly for the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

The Department of State and the United Nations. De- 
partment and Foreign Service Series Gl. I'ub. 4031. 8 pp. 
[Bulletin Reprint] Free. 

Article by Lincoln Palmer Bloomfield which, with the 
exception of minor revisions, is reprinted from Inter- 
national Organization, World Peace Foundation, vol. 
IV, No. 3, p. 400. 



General Foreign Policy Series 



The Strategy of Freedom. 
39. Pub. 4034. 14 pp. 50. 

Address by Secretary Ache.son, delivered on November 
29, 1950, from Wa.shington to the National Council of 
Churches of Christ in the United States, meeting in 
Cleveland. 

Uniting for Peace. International Organizations and Con- 
ference Series III, 64. Pub. 4035. 23 pp. [Bulletin 
Reprint] Free. 

Address by Secretary Acheson made before the 
plenary session of the General Assembly at Flushing 
Meadow, N. Y., on September 20 ; also printed as De- 
partment of State publication 3977. 



Diplomatic List, December 1950. 

300 a copy ; .$3.25 a year domestic, $• 



Pub. 4036. 164 pp. 
.50 a year foreign. 



Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses. 

The "Point Four" Program: A Progress Report. Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Series 25. Pub. 4042. 10 pp. Free. 

Background information (one of a series of reports) 
in summary form on developments in the President's 
program for world economic progress through co- 
operative technical assistance. 

Developing Plans for an International Monetary Fund 
and a World Bank. International Organization and Con- 
ference Series IV, International Bank and Monetary Fund 
I. Pub. 4046. 13 pp. [Bulletin Reprint] Free. 

Includes a brief summary of U. S.-British proposals, 
Bretton Woods Conference, and summary of articles 
of agreement of International Bank. 

The National Emergency. 

40. Pub. 4052. 13 pp. 50. 

Address and proclamation by President of the United 
States, Harry S. Truman, Washington, D. C, Decem- 
ber 15 and 16, 1950. 



General Foreign Policy Series 



United Action for the Defense of a Free World. 

Foreign Policy Series 41. Pub. 405S. 7 pp. 50. 



General 



Extemporaneous remarks by Secretary Acheson made 
at a news conference in Washington. D. C. on Decem- 
ber 22, 1950, concerning the Brussels meeting of the 
North Atlantic Council. 



I 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



[Jaiiuarj- 12-18, 10r>l] 

General Assembly 

Continuing consideration of the "Intervention 
of the Central People's Government of the People's 
Republic of China in Korea," the Political and 
Security Committee, on January 18, opened debate 
on the Chinese Communist reply to the statement 
of principles transmitted by the Committee Chair- 
I man on January 13. United States Ambassador 
Austin, the first speaker, declared that the time 
had come to face facts and that the United Nations 
should adopt a resolution recognizing that the 
Peiping regime had committed aggression, calling 
upon that regime to cease hostilities against United 
Nations forces and to withdraw forces from 
Korea, affirming United Nations determination to 
continue efforts to meet aggression in Korea, and 
calling on all states and authorities to lend assist- 
rance to the United Nations and refrain from aid- 
ing the aggressors. 

The Uiiited States thought that the General 
Assembly should call on some such body as the 
Collective Measures Committee to consider what 
further collective measures be taken. Ambassador 
Austin continued, and to report recommendations 
to the General Assembly as soon as possible. He 
believed the resolution also should reaffirm the 
United Nations policy to bring about a Korean 
^ease-fire with a view to peaceful settlement and 
ichievement of United Nations objectives in 
Korea and should provide for a United Nations 
iroup to be ready at all times to use its good offices 
:o that end. Many of the other speakers, during 
:he first day of debate, agreed with Mr. Austin 
;hat the Peiping reply had constituted rejection 
)f the statement of principles. 

The principles, drawn up by the three-man 
•ease-fire group, had been approved on January 13 
jy a vote of 50-7, with 1 abstention, the U.S.S.R., 
I Syelorussia, the IJkraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Uhina, and El Salvador voting negatively, and the 
Philippines abstaining. 

In a reply of January 17, the Peiping regime 
■■tated that it could not agree to the principle of a 
;ease-fire in Korea to be followed by negotiations 
m Far Eastern problems and submitted the fol- 
owing counterproposals : (1) negotiations should 
)e held among the countries concerned on the basis 



anuary 22, 1 95 1 



of agreement to the withdrawal of "all foreign 
troops" from Korea and the settlement of Korean 
domestic affairs by "the Korean people them- 
selves;" (2) the subject-matter of the negotiations 
should include the withdrawal of United States 
armed forces from Taiwan and the Taiwan Straits 
and related Far Eastern problems; (3) the coun- 
tries to particijiate in negotiations should be the 
People's Republic of China, the U.S.S.R., the 
United Kingdom, the United States, France, 
India, and Egypt, and the "rightful place" of the 
Central People's Government of the People's Re- 
public of China in the United Nations should be 
established as from the beginning of the seven- 
nation conference; and (4) the seven-nation con- 
ference should be held in China. 

Freedom of Information Committee 

A 15-nation committee to prepare a text of a 
convention on freedom of information began work 
at Lake Success on January 1.5. The members, 
elected by the General Assembly at the fifth ses- 
sion, are Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, France, India, 
Lebanon, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philip- 
pines, Saudi Arabia, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, 
United States, and Yugoslavia. After completing 
work, the Committee will report to the thirteenth 
session of the Economic and Social Council, and 
the Council will consider the advisability of con- 
vening a conference of plenipotentiaries to ap- 
prove and sign the convention. 

During the general debate, completed on Jan- 
uary 17, Carroll Binder, United States representa- 
tive, urged the Committee to recommend that the 
freedom of information convention be held in 
abeyance, pending definite action on the Human 
Rights Covenant, which, he believed, embodied 
the maximum constructive agreement on this sub- 
ject now attainable. Only then, he said, would the 
United Nations be able to determine the extent 
possible to advance still more the cause of this 
freedom. After reviewing the differing points of 
view, he suggested that a temporary impasse 
should be acknowledged and stated that the United 
States was strongly opposed to any compro- 
mise that was likely to endanger freedom of 
information. 



159 



in 



dex 



. 138,142 



149 

149 
140 
146 
123 
139 
,140 



Africa 

The Ewe Problem. (Gerig, McKay) . . . 128 

Eritrea: General Assemlily Action .... 144 

Liberia: U.S. Military Training Mission . 151 

Libya : General Assembly Action 143 

South Africa : General Assembly Action . . 145 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

Yugoslavia : Foodstuffs Agreement .... 150 

American Republics 

Costa Rica: Point 4 Agreement 151 

Inter-American Commission of Women . . 153 

Venezuela : Tariff on Crude Oil Imports . . 152 

Arms and Armed Forces 

Executive Order 10195 Designating Korea 

and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone . 149 
State of the Union. (Truman) 123 

Asia 

China : General Assembly Action . 

Korea : 

Communique to Security Council . . . 

Executive Order 10195 Designating Korea 
and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone . 

General Assembly Action 

Relief and Kehabilitation (text of res.) . 

State of the Union. (Truman) .... 

Indonesia : Admission to U.N 

Palestine : General Assembly Action . . .14: 

Atomic Energy 

International Control 140 

Aviation 

France : Air Transjwrt Agreement .... 152 

Communications 

U.S. Positions Considered for Itu Meeting . 154 

Communism 

The State of the Union. (Truman) ... 123 

Congress 

Legislation listed 152 

The State of the Union (Truman) . . . 

Europe 

Balkans : General Assembly Action . . . 
Finland : VOA To Broadcast 

France : 

Air Transport Agreement with U.S. . 

Controlling Scarce Materials .... 

The Ewe Problem (Gerig, McKay) . . 
Greece : General Assembly Action . . . 

Mexico : Tariffs on Crude Oil Imports . 
Netherlands : Tariff on Crude Oil Imports 
Spain : General Assembly Action .... 
United Kingdom : 

Controlling Scarce Materials .... 

The Ewe Problem (Gerig, McKay) . . 
U.S.S.R. : The State of the Union. (Truman) 
Yugoslavia : Foodstuffs Agreement . . . 

Foreign Service 

Selection Board Appointments 155 

Human Rights 

Indians in Union of South Africa .... 145 
Violations in Balkans 143 

Information and Educational Exchange Program 

Report on Educational Exchange Activities . 156 
VOA To Broadcast in Finnish 151 

International Meetings 

U.S. Delegations to: 

Freedom of Information 153 

Inter-American Commission of Women . 153 



123 

143 

151 

152 
149 
128 
142 
152 
152 
143 

149 
128 
123 
150 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

Controlling Scarce Materials 149 

International Security Affairs Established . 155 

The State of the Union. (Truman) . . . 123 

Narcotics 

Protocol on Control of Narcotics Proclaimed . 154 

Publications 

Recent Releases 157 

Report on Educational Exchange Activities . 156 

State, Department of 

Appointment of Ollicers 156 

International Security Affairs Established . 155 

New Research Divisions Announced . . . 156 

Special Consultants Named 156 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Point 4 Agreement with Costa Rica . . . 151 

State of the Union. (Truman) 123 

Trade 

New Tariff Quotas on Imports of Crude Oils . 152 
Treaties and Other International Agreements 

France: Air Transport Agreement .... 152 
Liberia : U.S. Military Mission, signature . 151 
New Tariff Quotas on Imports of Crude Oils . 1.52 
Costa Rica : Point 4 Agreement signature . '"1 
Narcotic Drug Protocol (Pres. Proc.) . . . ir>4 
Providing Foodstuffs for Yugoslavia, agree- 
ment signed, text l-^O 

Trust Territories 

The Ewe Problem (Gerig, McKay) .... 128 

United Nations 

Communiques Korea to Security Council . . 149 

The Ewe Problem (Gerig, McKay) .... 128 
Fifth Regular Session of the General 

Assembly: Summary Action (Brown) . . 138 

Itu : U.S. Positions Considered for Meeting . 154 
Resolutions : Relief and Rehabilitation of 

Korea (Dec. 1, 1950), text 146 

The United States in the Uniteii Nations . . 159 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 152 

Adams, Russell B 156 

Allen, George V 150 

Bennett, Henry G 151 

Binder, Carroll 153 

Bradford, Amory J 15o 

Brophy, Gerald B 156 

Brown, Elizabeth Ann 138 

Cabot, Thomas Dudley 155 

Cannon, Mary M 153 

Dennis, Gabriel L 152 

Donovan II, Andrew E 151 

Echandi, Mario 151 

Entezam, Nasrollah 138 

Gerig, Benjamin 128 

Harvey, Mose 156 

Hederer, Fernand 15- 

Heindel, Richard 156 

Humelsine, Carlisle H 155 

Jones, G. Lewis 156 

Kardelj, Edvard 150 

Lie, Trygve 139 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas 149 

McCulloueh, Max 156 

McKay, Vernon 128 

Olvmpio, Svlvanus 130 

Ra"dius, Walter A 152,154 

Truman, I'resident Harry S 123, 149, 152 

West, Robert Rout 156 

U. S. SOVERNHENT PBlNTlNfi OFFICE, I9I> 



j/ie^ ^eha^i?meni/ /w trtate^ 




DISCUSSION OF PRINCIPLES FOR CEASE-FIRE 

ARRANGEMENT IN KOREA 163 



U.N. COLLECTIVE ACTION URGED AGAINST COM- 
MUNIST RiLGIME IN CHINA • Statement hy 
Ambassador Warren R. Austin 166 



FIFTH SESSION OF THE GENEIL4L ASSEMBLY: 

PART II # Summary by Elisabeth Ann Brown . . . 175 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XXIV, No. 604 
January 29, 1951 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
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public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
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made by the President and by the 
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Discussion of Principles for Cease-Fire Arrangement in Korea 



STATEMENT BY 

AMBASSADOR WARREN R. AUSTIN' 

Radar is not more sensitive to atmospheric vi- 
brations than the personalities who sit around this 
great table here and constitute the First Com- 
mittee of the General Assembly are to the politi- 
cal atmosphere of our times and especially to the 
atmosphere of this particular meetinjr of the First 
Committee. The feelinj^ of gratification which 
prevails in this room at this moment is a per- 
fectly natural reaction from the agi-eement re- 
ported by the group of three. This fact of agree- 
ment is an encouraging event in the history of the 
United Nations. 

As I told the Committee the other day, my Gov- 
ernment feels that the United Nations must face 
the facts of the Chinese Communist aggression 
against Korea and against the forces of the 
United Nations. In our view, the free world can 
not afford to accept this situation without a 
demonstration of its united will to withstand ag- 
gression. Only by so doing, can we maintain the 
confidence of the peoples of the world in the prin- 
ciples of collective security upon which our Char- 
ter is based. And only by so doing, can we main- 
tain our own self-respect and dignity. I am sure 
that we all agree on such basic ideas and objec- 
tives. The immediate problem before us today is 
what means we choose to advance toward such 
objectives. 

We have before us a supplemental report of the 
cease-fire group containing a statement of prin- 
ciples which that group and a number of other 
members of the Committee believe may further 
our efforts toward a peaceful and honorable solu- 
tion of the problems that face us.^ My Govern- 
ment has given its sincere support to the efforts of 
the cease-fire group in their diligent search for 
a peaceful solution. 

As the group has already reported to this Com- 
mittee, their efforts have been rebuffed by the 
Chinese Communist regime. Nevertheless, the 



cease-fire group believes that the new effort pro- 
posed by them may perhaps open another channel 
for achievement by negotiation of the objectives 
of the United Nations in Korea. A substantial 
number of the members of the United Nations are 
in favor of supporting this recommendation of 
the group of three. 

A principal objective of the United States is 
to maintain the strength of the United Nations 
by promoting the unity of the members who are 
genuinely dedicated to the support of the collec- 
tive security system. In view of the fact that the 
cease-fire gi'oup itself, and a numerous body of 
members, view this proposed step as offering a 
basis upon which to maintain the unity of the free 
world, I shall vote in favor of the proposal which 
has been tabled or if it does not arrive in that 
manner, or if the question arises on a resolution 
of transmittal, I shall vote in favor of that. My 
Government is in accord with the principles em- 
bodied in the statement and to the draft resolution 
such as I have indicated. 

The principles themselves provide a restatement 
of the essential policy which the United Nations 
has followed in its efforts to seek a peaceful solu- 
tion and maintain the basic position of the United 
Nations that there must be a cessation of hostili- 
ties before there can be any hope for successful 
negotiations. The statement of principles makes 



Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on Jan. 
11 and released to the press by the U.S. delegation to 
the General Assembly on the same date. 

^For text of the group's first report, see Buixetin of 
Jan. 15, 1951, p. 113. 



Resolution Adopted By Committee I 

U.N. doc. A/C. 1/651 
Adopted Jan. 13, 1951 

The First Committee 

Invites the Chairman of the First Committee 
through the Secretary-General to transmit the 
principles approved by it on 13 January 1951 to 
the Central People's Government of the People's 
Republic of China and invite them to inform him 
as .soon as possible whether they accept these 
principles as a basis for the peaceful settlement 
of the Korean problem and other Far Eastern 
problems. Upon the receipt of the reply from the 
Central People's Government of the People's Re- 
public of China the Chairman of the First Commit- 
tee will convene the Committee to consider that 
reply. 



January 29, J 95 1 



163 



it clear that further steps can be taken for the 
restoration of peace as a result of a formal cease- 
fire arrangement or a lull in hostilities pending 
the working out of the details of the cease-fire ar- 
rangement. The statement also maintains the ob- 
jective of the United Nations that Korea should be 
a unified, independent, democratic, sovereign state 
with a constitution and government based upon 
free popular elections. The arrangements for 
reaching these objectives are to be in accordance 
with United Nations principles. 

We feel that enough time should be allowed to 
transmit these principles to the Peiping regime 
and to receive their reply, but we feel that a limi- 
tation of time is important in the world situation. 
If this effort fails to produce the hoped-for result, 
I have a strong, feeling that we shall be firmly 
united in opposing aggression. 

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE 
GROUP ON CEASE-FIRE IN KOREA 

D.N. doc. A/C. 1/645 
Dated Jan. 11, 1951 

The objective shall be the achievement, by 
stages, of the programme outlined below for a 
cease-fire in Korea, for the establishment of a free 
and united Korea, and for a peaceful settlement of 
Far Eastern problems. 

1. In order to prevent needless destruction of 
life and property, and while other steps are being 
taken to restore peace, a cease-fire should be im- 
mediately arranged. Such an arrangement 
should contain adequate safeguards for eiosuring 
that it will not be used as a screen for mounting 
a new offensive. 

2. If and when a cease-fire occurs in Korea, 
either as a result of a formal arrangement or, 
indeed, as a result of a lull in hostilities pending 
some such arrangement, advantage should be 
taken of it to pursue consideration of further steps 
to be taken for the restoration of peace. 

3. To permit the carrying out of the General 
Assembly resolution that Korea should be a uni- 
fied, independent, democratic, sovereign State with 
a constitution and a government based on free pop- 
ular elections, all non-Korean armed forces will 
be withdrawn, by appropriate stages, from Korea, 
and appropriate arrangements, in accordance with 
United Nations principles, will be made for the 
Korean people to express their own free will in 
respect of their future government. 

4. Pending the completion of the steps referred 
to in the preceding paragraph, appropriate in- 
terim arrangements, in accordance with United 
Nations principles, will be made for the adminis- 
tration of Korea and the maintenance of peace 
and security there. 

5. As soon as agreement has been reached on a 
cease-fire, the General Assembly shall set up an 
appropriate body which shall include representa- 



tives of the Governments of the United Kingdom, 
the United States of America, the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, and the People's Republic of 
China with a view to the achievement of a settle- 
ment, in conformity with existing international 
obligations and the provisions of the United Na- 
tions Charter, of Far Eastern problems, including, 
among others, those of Formosa (Taiwan) and of 
representation of China in the United Nations. 

STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press January 17] 

At his press conference today. Secretary Acheson made 
the following statement: 

There has been a good deal of discussion in this 
country regarding the latest cease-fire proposal 
in the United Nations and why this Government 
voted for it. I should like to comment briefly on 
this matter. 

First. The proposal was put forward by the 
Cease-Fire Committee — the President of the 
General Assembly, Mr. Pearson of Canada, Sir 
Benegal Rau of India. It had the support of 
the overwhelming majority of the United Nations 
members. This support was founded on two 
principal attitudes. One was the belief of many 
members that the Chinese Communists might still 
be prevailed upon to cease their defiance of the 
United Nations. Wlaile we did not share this 
belief, we recognized that it was sincerely held 
by many members. 

The second attitude was that, even though there 
might be little prospect of success in the approach 
to Peiping, the United Nations should leave no 
stone unturned in its efforts to find a peaceful 
solution. Holders of each view believed and 



Chinese Communists Reject Cease-Fire 
Proposal 

Statement by Secretary Acheson 

[Released to the press January J7] 

The reply of the Chinese Communists to the 
United Nations cease-fire proposal is still further 
evidence of tlieir contemptuous disregard of a 
world-wide demand for peace. Their so-called 
"counterproposal" is nothing less than an outright 
rejection. 

Once again, the Peiping regime has shown a total 
lack of interest in a peaceful settlement of the 
Korean question. 

There can no longer be any doubt that the United 
Nations has explored every possibility of finding 
a peaceful settlement of the Korean question. Now, 
we must face squarely and soberly the fact that 
the Chinese Communists have no intention of 
ceasing their detianee of the United Nations. 

I am confident that the T'nited Nations will do 
that. The strength of the United Nations will lie 
in the flrniness and unity with which we now 
move ahead. 



164 



Departmenf of State Bullefin 



stated to ns that opposition or abstention by the 
United States would destroy any possibility of 
success which the proposal might have. 

Peaceful settlement is one of the cardinal pur- 
poses of the United Nations. The resort to force 
in Korea came from the North Koreans first and 
the Chinese Communists second. The United 
Nations has constantly demanded that this should 
end and that the United Nations objectives should 
be attained by peaceful means — we have stood 
and still stand for this position. Also, it has been 
our goal to so act as to maintain the unity of the 
free nations against aggression which has marked 
the United Nations actions in Korea. Accord- 
ingly, we voted for the resolution to demonstrate 
our adlierence to these basic principles even though 
we did not share the beliefs of other members, 
mentioned above, that it would achieve its purpose. 

Second. As to what the five principles mean : 

If they are accepted, first, there would be a 
cease-fire in Korea. Then, after the fighting has 
stopped, there would be negotiations among all 
interested parties to find a peaceful settlement of 
the Korean question and other outstanding prob- 
lems in the I'ar East. 

Tlie five principles contain three elements: (1) a 
termination of hostilities in Korea; after the 
cease-fire has become effective, two further steps 
are contemplated; (2) arrangements to insure the 
achievement of United Nations objectives of an 
independent and democratic Korea by peaceful 
means and the withdrawal by appropriate stages 
,of all non-Korean troops; and (3) a discussion of 
Far Eastern problems. 

These principles are entirely consistent with the 
United Nations Charter, United Nations objec- 
tives in Korea, and United States policy. The 
General Assembly resolution of October 7 made 
it clear that United Nations forces should not 
remain in Korea longer than necessary to achieve 
United Nations objectives there. 

"We don't want our troops in Korea longer than 
is absolutely necessary. If satisfactory arrange- 
ments for an independent and democratic Korea 
are put into effect, there is no longer any reason 
for maintaining United Nations forces in Korea. 

The fifth principle provides for discussions on 
Far Eastern problems and stipulates four of the 
parties which will participate. It goes without 
saying that other parties with interests in Far 
Eastern problems will also participate. It men- 
tions two of the problems which should be con- 
sidered at a conference on Far Eastern problems — 
Formosa and Chinese representation in the United 
Nations. We have discussed these questions 
freely in the past, stated our views frankly, and 
also stated that the problems should be settled by 
the peaceful means of discussion and debate- 
There is no reason why we should oppose discus- 
sion of these questions in the future under proper 
circumstances. If such a conference is held, there 



will undoubtedly be other items on the agenda, in- 
cluding some which the United States may wish to 
add. Obviously, we have not committed ourselves 
on any questions which might be discussed. 

CHINESE^COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT REPLIES 
TO U. N. CEASE-FIRE ORDER 



D.N. doc. A/C.1/65.'? 
Dated Jan. 17, 1951 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of the cahle- 
gram dated 13 January 1951, transmitted by Mr. Owen 
at the request of the First Committee of the General As- 
sembly, on the principles concerning the Korean and other 
Far Eastern problems. In the name of the Central 
People's Government of the People's Republic of China I 
wish to reply as follows : 

1. The Central People's Government of the People's 
Republic of China has always maintained and still main- 
tains that a rapid termination of the hostilities in Korea 
should be sought by negotiations among the various coun- 
tries concerned with a view to the peaceful settlement 
of the Korean question on the basis of tlie withdrawal 
of all foreign troops from Korea and the settlement of 
Korean domestic affairs by the Koreans themselves ; that 
United States Armed Forces must be withdrawn from 
Taiwan (Formosa) ; and that the representatives of the 
People's Republic of China must assume their rightful 
place in the United Nations. These principles were also 
mentioned in my statement of 22 December 1950, trans- 
mitted by cable to Mr. Entezam, president of the General 
Assembly, on the same day, and are now well known to 
the whole world. 

2. On 13 January 1951, the First Committee of the 
United Nations General Assembly adopted without the 
participation of the representative of the People's Re- 
public of China various principles concerning the Korean 
and other Far Eastern prohlems, the basic points of which 
are still the arrangement of a cease-fire in Korea first 
and the conducting of negotiations among the various 
countries concerned afterwards. The purpose of arrang- 
ing a cease-fire first is merely to give the United States 
troops a breathing space. Therefore, regardless of what 
the agenda and subject-matter of the negotiations may 
be, if a cease-fire comes into effect without first conduct- 
ing negotiations to fix the conditions therefor, negotia- 
tions after the cease-flre may entail endless discussions 
without solving any problems. Besides this fundamental 
point, the other principles are also not clearly defined. 
It is not clearly stated whether the so-called existing 
international obligations refer to the Cairo and Potsdam 
Declarations, and this may easily be utilized to defend 
the position of aggression maintained by the United States 
In Korea, Taiwan and other parts of the Far East. We 
understand that many countries in the First Committee 
agreed to the principles adopted on 13 January 1951 be- 
cause of their desire for peace. It must be pointed out, 
however, that the principle of a cease-fire first and nego- 
tiations afterwards would only help the United States 
to maintain and extend its aggression, and could never 
lead to genuine peace. 

Therefore the Central People's Government of the 
People's Republic of China cannot agree to this principle. 

3. With a view to a genuine and peaceful solution of 
the Korean problem and other important Asian problems, 
I hereby submit, in the name of the Central People's Gov- 
ernment of the People's Republic of China, the following 
proposals to the United Nations : 

A. Negotiations should be held among the countries 
concerned on the basis of agreement to the withdrawal of 
all foreign troops from Korea and the settlement of 
Korean domestic affairs by the Korean People themselves, 



January 29, 7951 



165 



in order to put an end to the hostilities in Korea at an 
early date. 

B. The subject-matter of the nesotiatioiis must include 
the withdrawal of United States Armed Forces from Tai- 
wan and the Taiwan Straits and Far Eastern related 
problems ; 

C. Tlie countries to participate in the negotiations 
should be the following seven countries : the People's Re- 
public of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, 
the United States of America, France, India and Egypt, 
and the rightful place of the Central People's Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of China in the United 
Nations should be established as from the beginning of 
the Seven-Nation Conference; 



D. The Seven-Nation Conference should be held in 
China, at a place to be selected. 

4. If the above-mentioned proposals are agreed to by 
the countries concerned and t)y the United Nations, we 
believe that it will be conducive to the prompt termina- 
tion of the hostilities in Korea and to the peaceful settle- 
ment of A.slan problems to hold negotiations as soon as 
possible. 

CHor En-Lai, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Central Peo- 
ple's Government of the People's Republic 
of China, 
Peking, 17 January 1951 



U.N. Collective Action Urged Against Communist Regime in China 

Statement hy Ambassador Warren R. Austin 

U.S. Representative at the Seat of the United Nations ^ 



I have examined with care the answer that 
Mr. Chou En-lai has sent to this Committee. 
I must say that I have found in it no echo of sym- 
pathy to the generous offer that this committee 
made to the Peiping regime by a vote of 50 to 7 
on January 13. I have examined the response in 
vain for some indication that the Chinese Com- 
munists are aware that over the past 5 weeks, the 
greater part of the civilized world — the nations 
that believe in peace — have made three separate 
efforts to persuade the Peiping regime to cease its 
aggression against the United Nations and to adopt 
instead the way of peaceful negotiation. 

Three times we have turned our cheek. Three 
times our sincere efforts for peace have been 
scorned as weakness and treated with derision. 

On December 16, 1950, the cease-fire group re- 
quested from the Peiping regime and is representa- 
tive at Lake Success, General Wu, an opportunity 
to discuss arrangements for a cease-fire in order 
to provide opportunity for considering what fur- 
ther steps should be taken for a peaceful settle- 
ment of existing issues, in accordance with the pur- 
poses and principles of the United Nations. 

On December 21, Mr. Chou En-lai replied that 
his regime considered null and void all major reso- 
lutions, especially those concerning Asia, which the 
United Nations might adopt without participation 
and approval of his regime. Mr. Chou refused 
to allow General Wu to remain longer at Lake Suc- 
cess and contemptuously referred to the cease-fire 
committee as "the illegal three-man committee." 

Meanwhile, on the 19tli of December, the United 
Nations cease-fire group had dispatched a second 
message to the Peiping authorities. In this mes- 
sage, the group indicated that once a cease-fire had 
been achieved, a committee could meet with the 

'Made before Committee I (Political and Security) 
of the General A.ssenihly on .Ian. 18 and released to the 
press by the U.S. delegation to the General Assembly on 
the same date. 



Chinese Communists to recommend peaceful 
settlement of existing issues in the Far East. 

On December 23, the President of the General 
Assembly received a reply from Peiping to the 
second message. The message repeated f*eiping's 
reference to the "illegal three-man committee." It 
echoed the same wild charges of "American ag- 
gression" that we have heard so often from the 
Soviet representative here. It made the familiar 
claim that the several hundred thousand Chinese 
regular troops now in Korea are only "volunteers." 
And it made the charge that the proposals sug- 
gested by a group of Arab and Asian nations were 
only a trap engineered by United States intrigue. 

No Stone Unturned 

Mr. President, even that did not entirely dis- 
courage members of this Committee. Some mem- 
bers of the United Nations believed that — even 
then — the Chinese Communists might still be pre- 
vailed upon to cease their defiance of all the free 
world. Some members believed we should leave 
no stone unturned in our efforts to find a peaceful 
solution. 

Some members of this Committee suggested that 
a third attempt might win agreement from the 
Peiping regime. Those members stated to us that 
opposition or abstention by the United States 
would destroy any possibility of success that a 
third attempt might have. 

You know that on last Saturday, the United 
States, mindful of the fact that tlic greatest 
strength of the United Nations lies in its unity, 
voted for the cease-fire commission's statement of 
principles. 

Some have accused the United Nations of an 
excess of forbearance. In Peijiing, our forbear- 
ance seems to have strengthened the contempt in 
which this organization is apparently held by 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



those whose conquest of their native land is a 
matter of such recent history. 

We have now i-eceived the evidence of this atti- 
tude in the final rebuff of our peaceable approaches 
to the Chinese Communist regime. 

Wliat — in fact — does that regime say? 

They say that the}' will not agree to a cease-fire 
followed by negotiations on Far Eastern problems. 

The Cliinese Communists demand tlie right to 
continue their assault on the United Nations until 
negotiations are concluded. 

But that is not all. They insist that before any 
talks are held their regime be admitted to the 
United Nations as the official representative of 
China. 

Nor is that all. Tliey insist that as a condition 
of negotiations on the question of Formosa, the 



Text of U.S. Resolution > 

tr.N, doc. A/C. l/fi.')4 
Dated Jan. 20, 1950 

The General Assembly 

Noting tlint the Security Coiineil, because of lack 
of unanimity of tlie permanent members, has failed 
to exerci.se its primary responsiliility for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and security in regard 
to Chinese Communist intervention in Korea ; 

Noting that the Central People's Government of 
the People's Republic of China has rejected all 
United Nations proposals to bring about a cessation 
of hostilities in Korea with a view to peaceful 
settlement, and that its armed forces continue their 
invasion of Korea and their large-scale attacks 
upon United Nations forces there ; 

Finds that the Central People's Government of 
the People's Republic of China, by giving direct aid 
and assistance to those who were already com- 
mitting aggression in Korea and by engaging in 
hostilities against United Nations forces there, has 
itself engaged in aggression in Korea ; 

CaUs upon the Central People's Government of 
the People's Republic of China to cause its forces 
and nationals in Korea to cease hostilities against 
the T'nited Nations forces and to withdraw from 
Korea ; 

Affirms the determination of the United Nations 
to continue its action in Korea to meet the 
aggression ; 

Calls upon all states and authorities to continue 
to lend every assistance to the United Nations action 
in Korea ; 

Calls upon all states and authorities to refrain 
from giving any assistance to the aggressors in 
Korea ; 

Requests a committee composed of the members 
of the Collective Measures Committees as a matter 
of urgency to consider additional measures to be 
employed to meet this a.ggression and to report 
thereon to the General Assembly; 

Affirms that it continues to be the policy of the 
United Nations to bring about a cessation of hos- 
tilities in Korea and the achievement of United 
Nations objectives in Korea by peaceful means, and 

Requests the president of the General Assembly 
to designate forthwith two persons who would 
meet with him at any suitable opportunity to use 
their good offices to this end. 



' Introduced before Committee I (Political and 
Security) of the General Assembly on Jan. 20. 



January 29, 7951 



United Nations must accept in advance the prin- 
ciple that American forces should be withdrawn, 
thus bringing an end to the policy of neutralizing 
the island and limiting the area of the conflict in 
Korea. 

They tell the United Nations that they will talk 
only with representatives of six particular 
countries, which they name. 

They announce that tliey will choose the place 
as well, and that the six countries must come to 
them. 

If all these conditions are fulfilled, Mr. Chou 
and his colleagues may agree to a cease-fire. 

But if the result of such negotiotions should 
displease the Chinese Communists, what would be 
the consequences? 

If the Communists are not seated as the repre- 
sentatives of China before cease-fire and before 
negotiations, will they then break into the United 
Nations with mortars and grenades? 

Unfaithful to the characteristics, traditions and 
interests of the Chinese people, the Chinese Com- 
munists have put their necks into the Soviet collar. 

They cannot make an honest acceptance. The 
very phrases of their response are those of the 
Soviet rulers. Those old tricks with which we are 
so familiar are there in that response. The tricks 
of dialectics found in this response have the label 
of the Politburo. For example, there is the false 
label, that is, falsehoods stated as facts. In this 
very telegram, they say, of the proposal of a cease- 
fire which we made, that the purpose is merely to 
obtain a "breathing space" for the United States 
troops. Another trick, concealing their own guilt, 
was accusation of the same crime of which they are 
guilty, accusation of others. Thus, and I quote 
from their reply, we see the phrase "to defend the 
position of aggression maintained by the United 
States in Korea," and, again, "would only help the 
United States to maintain and extend its aggres- 
sion." We have heard this before from another 
source, have we not ? 

Then there is that ancient trick, the "stop thief" 
trick. They said in their telegram that the basis 
of this negotiation must be withdrawal from Korea 
of all foreign troops, meaning, though concealing 
that meaning, the troops of the United Nations. 
All others, even Chinese Communist armies, are 
labeled volunteers, and thus they are presumed to 
belong to Korean troops and are not included in the 
Communist counterproposal. 

Really this response is not Chinese; it is their 
masters' response, that of the Soviet ruling circles. 
"Wliy, the Chinese Communist regime must regard 
the United Nations as a very trivial and contempt- 
ible body indeed to have sent us such a reply. I do 
not think this reply is of a character to occupy 
much of our time. The response of the Chinese 
Communist regime differs from earlier responses in 
only one respect; the absurd fiction that the Chi- 
nese Communists' attack on Korea was being con- 
ducted by individual volunteers seems to have been 
abandoned. The Peiping regime seems to begin to 

167 



assume responsibility for its actions in Korea. 
The statement speaks throughout of the regime's 
attitude, the regime's motives, the regime's plans 
and intentions. Is it true that the regime now 
openly seeks to use its armed forces in Korea as an 
instrument to blackmail the United Nations into 
acceptance of its demands? Since the regime has 
now apparently publicly accepted the responsibil- 
ity, it follows, does it not, that it must accept the 
consequences ? 

The cease-fire effort has failed. We have 
failed — not because of any lack of effort or good 
will on the part of the United Nations — but be- 
cause those who fear and hate the United Nations 
have derided our effort and mocked our good will. 

So be it. I trust that this gesture may not be 
too costly to the Chinese people — I put the empha- 
sis where it belongs: the Chinese people — whose 
destinies presently lie within the power of Peiping. 

We have more important work for us today 
than this holding of post-mortem examination 
of our dead hopes. That work is to build a struc- 
ture of collective security so firmly that neither 
the Chinese Communists nor any other aggressor 
power can shatter it. 

We are called upon to deal with some funda- 
mental truths in our deliberations today, Mr. Pres- 
ident. This is a duty that no member of this com- 
mittee can shirk. For it is a question of life or 
death — for the United Nations as a whole — and 
even for individuals related closely to this organi- 
zation. 

We must face the fact that aggression has been 
committed. 

We cannot — we will not — fail at this great 
crossroads in the existence of the United Nations. 

A regime that controls vast manpower and vast 
territories has defied the United Nations. It is 
seeking to destroy a country that sought only the 
elementary right guaranteed by our Charter to live 
and to be independent. At this instant, young 
men from many of our countries are dying, in 
order to uphold the right of that small country to 
be free and independent. 

Mr. President, when the Charter of the United 
Nations was signed, 

the peoples of the United Nations determined ... to 
reaffirni faith ... in the equal rights ... of nations 
large and small. 

We determined then — 

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and 
security. 

The first purpose of this organization includes 

to take effective collective measures . . . for the sup- 
pression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the 
peace. 

Among our first principles is that — 

all members shall settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means . . . and . . . refrain . . . from the use 
of force against the territorial integrity or the political 
independence of any state. 



Further, it is stated, 

all members .shall give the United Nations every assist- 
ance in any action it takes in accordance with the present 
Charter and shall refrain from giving assistance to any 
state against which the United Nations is taking preven- 
tive or enforcement action. 



Must Examine Purposes 

I recall these sentences from our Charter because 
this is a time when we must examine our first 
purposes and principles in order that their valid- 
ity may be tested by the flame of experience. 

A powerful regime has committed aggression. 
We must consider calmly and soberly what we 
shall do. The world watches us for upon our de- 
cision much depends. 

Shall there be one law for a small power and 
another for a great power ? 

Or shall we try to apply the law only to small 
aggressions — and turn our faces the other way 
when a powerful regime commits a big 
aggression ? 

I do not believe we can do that. We cannot do 
that if we believe that the rule of law is higher 
than the rule of force. 

No nation is strong enough to stand alone un- 
aided. The weak must depend on the strong and 
the strong depend on the weak. Together we are 
secure. Separated, none of us is secure. 

Security is indivisible. Once we start slicing 
it up into bits and pieces it no longer exists. We 
cannot let one nation fall unheeded before aggres- 
sion — and expect to protect another nation at some 
future date. 

I say that if we should do that we should destroy 
here and now the principle of collective security 
on which the safety of our nations rests. 

I believe that if we did that, the peoples of the 
world would turn away not only from the United 
Nations but from the j^rinciple of the interde- 
pendence of nations. 

Since last June 25, this organization has done 
what no world-wide union of nations has ever 
done. We have taken collective action under law 
to repel aggression. It was not to wage war; it 
was to make the peace-making functions of the 
United Nations prevail. 



House Passes Resolution on Communist 
China' 

Resoh^ed, That it is the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the United Nations should 
immediately act and declare the Chinese Com- 
munist authorities an aggressor in Korea. 



' Introduced to the House of Representatives by 
Rep. John M. McCormack of Massachusetts, Demo- 
cratic leader of the House, with the collaboration 
of tlie Republican leader, Itep. Joseph W. Martin, Jr., 
(if Jlassachusetts on Jan. 19 and passed by the 
House on the same date. 



168 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



We know that we cannot M'in peace by remaining 
passive in the face of aggression. We are ail famil- 
iar with that beautiful animal, the rabbit; he is 
lovol}' to look at. But you know of course that he 
has no courage, that he has no character. In the 
presence of danger he squats; he sits clown. Even 
the house cat that does not weigh as much as the 
rabbit can break the rabbit's neck because of the 
rabbit's lack of determination and courage. He 
has the equipment by which he may run away and 
outrun any cat that lives. We can only achieve 
peace by fii'm resolve and determined, continuous 
effort. 

A fundamental principle of the Charter outlaws 
armed aggression. Under our law it is a crime. 

Let us show by our determination, by the resolu- 
tions we take and by our acts that no power can 
defy this principle with impunity. Humanity de- 
mands this. If we should fail humanity at this 
period, we wouitl be denying the hopes of millions 
of people in every land under the sun. That would 
be a grave decision for us around this table to take. 

i' Prompt Action Urged 

The existing attack by the Chinese Communists 
and Xorth Koreans challenges us to strengthen 
the ties that bind most of us — and most of the 
world — together in equality and security. Time — 
and time enough — has already gone by. We must 
act while we can, for if we wait, we may find our 
young unity permanently broken up. 

My Government has given lengthy and careful 
thought to the problems that confront us — to some 
of which I have alluded. My Government believes 
that the United Nations should not shrink from 
facing up to the aggression that is being committed 
in Korea by the Chinese Communist regime of 
Peiping. 

That aggression is part of the world-wide pat- 
tern of centrally directed Soviet imperialism. It 
is an aggression which clearly serves no legiti- 
mate Chinese national interest, but only the inter- 
ests of that e.xpanding power which, under the 
guise of throwing off the yokes of an old and dis- 
credited colonialism, would impose a new and far 
more rigorous colonialism upon the peoples of 
Asia struggling to emerge to full national 
independence. 

The United Nations has had experience in the 
past with this expansionist power. The chain 
of crises has run from Iran through Greece and 
Berlin back across the world to Korea. The 
United Nations has learned from these past ex- 
periences that each crisis was met only by our de- 
termination to stand together. In each crisis, our 
standing together has had the eventual effect of 
bringing the Soviet imperialist power to a stand- 
still. Our united resolution has compelled at least 
temporary stabilizations. 

We must hope that by our united resolution now 
we can once again bring those responsible for this 
new aggression to realize that flinging its armies 



against the United Nations is in the long run 
neither prudent for the regime nor helpful to the 
welfare of the Chinese people whom J'eiping now 
controls. I hope that that realization will not be 
too long delayed. 

Because the aggression in Korea is part of a 
world-wide pattern, my Government believes that 
the actions we take in the United Nations must 
be tailored to fit that pattern. Our program of 
action must take into account the distribution of 
power in the world and the imminence of danger 
elsewhere. What is important, in our view, is 
that by facing up to this threat to the collective 
security of the world, the United Nations should 
discourage present or future aggression. 

Action Consistent With Facts 

j\Iy Government believes that the United Na- 
tions should now adopt a resolution which notes 
the facts and recommends action consistent with 
the facts. The facts are that the Peiping regime 
has rejected efforts to bring about a cease-fire in 
Korea, has rejected proposals aimed at a peaceful 
settlement, and has continued its invasion of Korea 
and its attacks upon the United Nations forces 
there. 

In view of these facts, it is clear to my Govern- 
ment that the Peiping regime has committed 
aggression and that the General Assembly must 
say so. We believe that the General Assembly 
should call upon the Peiping regime to cease hos- 
tilities against the United N'ations forces and to 
withdraw its forces from Korea. We believe that 
the General Assembly should affirm the determina- 
tion of the United Nations to continue its efforts 
to meet the aggression in Korea. We believe the 
Genei'al Assembly should call upon all states and 
authorities to lend their assistance to the United 
Nations, and to refrain from giving any assistance 
to the aggressors. 

(Continued on page 108) 



Letters of Credence v 

Ecuador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador, 
Seiior Don Luis Antonio Peiiaherrera, presented 
his credentials to the President on January 17. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State jjress 
release 36 of January 17. 

Spain 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Spain, 
Seiior Don Jose Felix de Lequerica y Erquiza, 
presented his credentials to the President on Jan- 
uary 17. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks 
and the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 35 of Januai-y 17. 



January 29, J 95 J 



169 



The Road Ahead in Collective Defense of Free Nations 



hy Ambassador Warren R. Austin ^ 



I welcome this opportunity to meet with the 
leaders of the university world, to turn for a little 
while from the international conference table and 
talk with my fellow Americans about the difficult 
road ahead. 

To get our bearings, let us begin by recalling a 
few of the milestones along the way we have come 
to this critical fork in the road. We will be guided 
by what we liave learned on the journey, especially 
during the last decade. 



International Situation in 1941 

Ten yeai-s ago, we were engaged in a great 
debate on foreign policy. In the midst of that 
debate, France had fallen to the so-called "invinci- 
ble forces of Hitler." In January 1941, Britain 
was being blasted by the Luftwaffe and threatened 
with imminent invasion. 

Do you remember that milestone set by Winston 
Churchill when he pitted the spirit of an almost 
defenseless Britain against the full fury of a vic- 
torious Nazi military machine? Surveyed by the 
cold eye of a practical analyst, has the situation 
of the free world ever seemed more hopeless? 
Yet, in retrospect, that undaunted British courage 
marked the turning point. 

At that time, two national committees led the 
debate in the United States. One called "America 
First" was really pleading that America be last 
on the aggressor's list of victims. The other 
called "Defend America by Aiding the Allies" 
found, month by month, fewer allies left. But 
it did muster the public opinion needed to create 
an "arsenal of democracy" in America. 

It was not difficult in those days for the defeat- 
ists to paint a dark and hopeless picture. They 
arrayed the statistics on the hundreds of Nazi 
and Fascist divisions, their overwhelming air 



' Escerpts from an address made before the Association 
of American C'olleges at Atlantic City, N.J., on Jan. 9 
and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. 
on tile same date. 



170 



power, and thousands of tanks, which made the 
rescued battalions from Dunkirk and the little 
fleet of Spitfires look like sick chickens. 

The picture was to become still darker. In De- 
cember 1941, much of the Pacific fleet lay in ruins 
in Pearl Harbor. The Philippines, Hong Kong, 
Indonesia, Thailand, and Indochina were quickly 
seized by the Axis. But America was at last on 
the march, in step with its Allies. The great de- 
bate was over. And the next milestone was 
marked with words : "Declaration of the United 
Nations." Many of these United Nations were al- 
ready occupied and fighting through underground 
forces. 

Soon, we were devoting almost 40 percent of our 
national j^roduction to the common cause of vic- 
tory. We realized then, as we should now, that 
weapons and supplies delivered to the hands of our 
Allies were as damaging to the common enemy as 
those carried by our own forces to battle. We 
could onlj' regret that we hadn't started to lend- 
lease the tools of defense from the "arsenal of de- 
mocracy" when there were still hands on the con- 
tinent of Europe able and eager to use them. 

In the process, we discovered something about 
ourselves and our economic system. We found 
out that, before the war, we were living up to less 
than half of our creative capacity. Under the 
spur of necessity, our production doubled in spite 
of the fact that millions of workers were taken 
away from the farms and out of the factories to 
serve in the armed forces. 

We learned something else about our economic 
system. Operating in high gear, it was eating up 
terrific quantities of raw materials and resources, 
many of which were in short supj)ly in this hem- 
isphere. We desperately depended upon far-llung 
free markets around the world to procure tiie essen- 
tial material for a highly technical and refined in- 
dustry. Fortunately, we found many of these 
things still outside the reach of the Axis. While 
our Allies held the enemy at bay, we hastily built 
new industries to produce synthetics and sub- 

Department of State Bulletin 



stitutes for those required resources already denied 
us by the enemy. 

Then we realized that, if we were permanently 
cut off from certain vitamins of industry, we could 
be starved and weakened in critical sectors of our 
economy without an enemy crossing an ocean to 
get at Washington. Then, we saw how we had 
almost been made ready for the kill by an enemy 
determined to encircle and isolate us. This mile- 
stone in experience we must now remember. 

The Hope of the U.N. 

While the United Nations fought successfully 
to turn back the tide of aggression, they began to 
plan a system of collective security to prevent or 
stop future aggression. This was embodied in 
the United Nations Charter. 

The great hope at San Francisco was that the 
member nations, and especially the large powers, 
would faithfully carrj' out the obligations to which 
they pledged themselves and cooperate in building 
the collective security system called for by the 
Charter. That hope was sabotaged by one power- 
ful member. 

What did that member sabotage? The prin- 
ciples and the efforts of all the other members to 
organize a sj'stem of collective security. 

Shall we conclude, then, that the principles were 
wrong? No, the principles are right. The more 
they are flouted by a few, the closer all the others 
must unite to uphold them. 

Shall we conclude from this record of obstruc- 
tion that a system of collective security is futile 
and the effort to develop such a system should be 
abandoned ? No, the belligerent behavior of a few 
makes it all the more necessary to proceed without 
delay to build up the system of collective security. 

We are engaged now in doing it. Let us recall 
two more events from the past. 



Unilateral Disarmament After World War II 

After the war we took the lead in going off on 
a dangerous detour marked : unilateral disarma- 
ment. We created a militaiy vacuum in Europe 
before making peace. But the Soviet Union did 
not follow our lead. It was a perfectly natural 
impulse of a peace-loving democracy to want to 
enjoy the liberties which had been preserved. 
"Bring the boys home" was an almost universal 
cry. We demobilized, put the ships and planes 
in moth balls, and converted industry back to 
peacetime production of the good things of life. 

There were other mistakes of judgment and pol- 
icy, but this was the crucial one. Let him who 
did not concur in it throw the first stone. 



Repulsing Aggression in Korea 

In the records of the United Nations, you will 
find the most recent milestone on the road to today. 



January 29, 1951 



For the first time in history, an international 
organization acted to stop and repulse an aggres- 
sor when the North Korean Communists launched 
their attack on the Republic of Korea. 

Without an organized systeni of collective secur- 
ity in being, with only the most limited military 
establishments available, and those widely dis- 
persed, the United Nations — 53 of them — pledged 
their support to the victim of aggression. 

Five long years of perplexing and frustrating 
experience lay behind that act of faith and cour- 
age. Patiently, they had sought peace and secur- 
ity according to the terms of the Charter. 

Time after time, they had averted or stopped 
conflicts in tinderbox areas where new world con- 
flagrations might have got started. And against 
every contrary sign, they nursed the hope that, 
given time and patience, the majority could stay 
the hand of the trouble-making minority. 

Year by year, these members of the United Na- 
tions witnessed the unfolding of the Soviet design 
for aggression, albeit through the fog of the most 
confusiiig double-talk. They had all, to some ex- 
tent, suffered the lash of Soviet invective. Some 
hoped that the barking dog would not bite. 

It has not been easy for Americans to endure 
the insults and accusations heaped upon our coun- 
try and to defend our honor with dignity. But 
we were not alone. I say, in all seriousness, that 
the unity of 1950 was, in large measure, the result 
of the unreasonable, arrogant assaults of the So- 
viet spokesmen upon the sensibilities of the other 
delegations. 

It is no easy decision for small countries on the 
doorstep of a belligerent giant, or for nations 
which have long escaped the horrors of war by 
neutrality, or for large counti'ies struggling to 
their feet after being trampled by a brutal in- 
vadei' — I say it is no easy decision for such coun- 
tries to stand up and be counted against the deter- 
mined will of the world's most heavily armed 
empire. 

We have never suffered the torture of modern 
war as the victim of a ruthless attack. We have 
not had to dig out of the wreckage and labor in 
tears to rebuild a battered civilization. We can 
only imagine what courage it takes for such a 
people, whose every fiber cries out for a respite 
of peace, to unite in their weakiiess with others 
to resist a far-off aggi-ession. 

From every quarter of the globe, without ad- 
vance plans, specialized training or scheduled 
transport, fighting forces — land, sea, and air — 
began to converge on the besieged tip of Korea. 
By December — less than 6 months after the Com- 
munist aggression — forces from 14 nations were 
in action under the United Nations command. It 
is well to remember that, in World War I, it took 
the United States 18 months to get into action in 
Europe. 

In numbers, the largest forces were the defend- 
ing Koreans, more than matching the total from 

171 



all the others. The American forces came next, 
being closest to the scene of the aggression. Units 
contributed by small nations, while not large in 
numbers, represented a significant proportion of 
their inadequate standing defenses. 

Yet, events proved that the forces brought 
against the original aggressor were adequate to 
resist and repulse him. At the same time, even 
larger forces were engaged against Communist 
assaults in other areas. Most of the free world 
stood guard against threats and pressures from 
Hong Kong to Berlin. 

This is the miracle of our times. Such courage 
and foresight have never before been shown by 
men of such varied races, languages, customs, and 
national circimistances. This first improvised 
collective action against aggression is not to be 
measured by a slide rule but by an imaginative 
understanding of the spirit which animated the 
undertaking. With that spirit, numbers can be 
raised up for the future and the power of the 
free world mobilized. 

I recall the trials and tribulations of George 
Washington as he patiently strove to unite and 
keep united 13 colonies and Vermont clustered 
together in one area, sharing the same language 
and traditions, each one under direct assault. 
Then, I am amazed and uplifted by the progress 
the United Nations has, thus far, made in an in- 
finitely more complicated attempt at collective 
defense. 



Unique Power of Retaliation 

Consider for a few minutes the shape and reality 
of the situation about us. Let us see what we have 
to work with to meet the dangers that beset us. 

In weapons and armed forces we are generally 
deficient everywhere in the free world. We are 
confronted by hundreds of trained divisions, mil- 
lions of reserves, vast arsenals of modern weapons, 
and fleets of planes. 

In relative preparedness, we are far down the 
list of nations, save in atomic weapons, air power, 
and naval strength. But those last three items 
are not to be shrugged off as inconsequential. In 
all three, we are growing in strength by leaps and 
bounds. 

This power of retaliation is our bulwark for 
peace and gives the aggressor pause. It is not 
for the moment what is in front of him but what 
can come over him that immobilizes his over- 
wlielming strength on the ground. This is a 
shield beliind which power can be built and the 
free world united in practical collective measures. 

We have a plan for collective measures. It was 
adopted by the General Assembly by a vote of 52-5 
a few weeks ago as part of the resolution entitled, 
"United Action for Peace." 

Out of the frustrations of past attempts to or- 
ganize the collective security system, out of the 
Korean experience, and out of a rising determina- 



tion to broaden and strengthen the free world 
front against aggression, this plan emerged. Its 
realization and operation is subject to no veto. It 
depends only upon the will of the members to 
plan and act together. 

By this program each nation will mobilize, 
equip, and train special contingents to be on call 
for united action. A Collective Measures Com- 
mittee is established to advise each nation how to 
prepare these contingents for participation in col- 
lective defense, to work out problems of transport 
and supply, and to coordinate these forces for 
combined operations. 

The lack of this agreement and advance plan- 
ning was the most serious handicap in mobilizing 
a United Nations force in Korea. Units of differ- 
ent languages, training and types of weapons are 
difficult to coordinate at best. Now, we have the 
agreement on what the members shall do to be 
ready and the plan for doing it. 

Behind this global plan just now undertaken are 
the matured progi'ams of the Organization of 
American States and the Atlantic Pact. 

The Organization of American States is a re- 
liable brotherhood of 21 nations on this hemi- 
sphere, united in moral power, cooperating in 
building up physical strength, and a vital mani- 
festation of United Nations substance and form. 

General Eisenhower has begim putting the 
pie<'es of the Atlantic alliance together behind the 
shield of our unique power of retaliation. Only 
those who doubted that General Eisenhower could 
unite a broken, beaten team behind its own goal- 
posts in 19-12 and win, will doubt that he can mo- 
bilize the defenses of the Western world now. It 
can be done. And the fact that it is being done 
will daily add new deterrents. 

This is the shape of the collective defense. It is 
miles ahead of what the defeatists thought was 
our hopeless position 10 years ago. 



The Free World Economic Position 

In population, resources, and productive capac- 
ity, the free world has at least a 2-1 lead over its 
adversary. In some critical components of de- 
fense, such as oil and steel, it has an even greater 
lead. 

Its vast and varied resources are brought to- 
gether in the machine shops of Europe and 
America largely by sea — the most effective form 
of transportation. Within its industrialized con- 
tinents we find a highly developed and efficient 
rail, road, and air transportation system, far be- 
yond anything the opponent could hope to develop 
over decades. In this transport system, lies the 
strength of mobility. 

The recuperative power of the free world after 
the most devastating of wars has surprised even 
the most optimistic. The predictions of postwar 
economic chaos and collapse — even of recession — 



172 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



never materialized. Instead, the economies of 
the free world raced ahead of prewar levels in a 
1 few short years. 

The productive capacity of the world's second 
greatest industrial workshop, which is Western 
; Europe, is about 50 percent gi-eater than when 
Hitler seized it. From its expanded productive 
power, Europe is capable of turning out yearly 
many times the value of our 10 billion dollar in- 
vestment in its recovery. 

Having laid the foundations for social stability 
and self-defense through the most remarkable feat 
of voluntary regional cooperation in all history, 
we shall now surprise ourselves again by building 
a Gibraltar in the path of the aggressor. If the 
time be short, we waste not a second of it as hyp- 
notized spectators watching and waiting. 

We did not help to build those foundations for 
freedom only to abandon them without a struggle 
to be used as a launching platform for an assault 
against us. 

Other areas of the free world are just beginning 
to draw upon a new source of strength. Asia 
arouses herself in her new-found freedom. Facing 
tlie acciunulated problems of centuries, a dozen 
new-born nations draw upon the technical assist- 
ance of the United Nations to develop their in- 
dependent future. 

As they have witnessed the self-proclaimed 
"liberator" loot the factories of Manchuria and 
haul away food from famine-stricken China, they 
have reluctantly recognized the threat of a new 
colonialism. Great patience and understanding 
are required of us as a billion people slowly work 
their way through the morass of Communist prop- 
aganda and promises toward realism. The 
United Nations has been a great classroom for 
■ them. There, they have been learning the true 
nature of the Soviet "bear" who so cunningly ap- 
proaches them in sheep's clothing. 

Spiritual Resources of the Free World 

This leads, naturally, to the third, and most 
important factor in the free world situation to- 
day, the spiritual resources. 

In this regard, Americans dwell in the "privi- 
leged sanctuary" of the free world. The well- 
springs of our spiritual strength are beyond the 
range of the totalitarian propaganda squadrons. 
Only a few timid souls who have lost contact with 
the spirit of the freedom revolution which began 
on this Continent, regard the revival of despotism 
as a "wave of the future." 

We know the power of other men's faith to 
uplift the spirit of confused and harassed citizens 
and soldiers. The arrival of Lafayette with his 
token forces and material aid f I'om France did not 
so materially alter George Washington's military 
situation. He revived the spirit of resistance 
which, in turn, mobilized the power of resistance. 
The very phrase, "The Yanks Are Coming," con- 



I 



January 29, 1 95 J 



veyed now strength to the flagging forces of 
France in 1917. 

Hear the Churchillian ring of these words from 
an appeal addressed to me by the Foreign Minister 
of the Republic of Korea, Cen Limb, a week ago : 

Our Government is stanflins firm, and our poople are 
united in their determination to liglit to the last. . . We 
will tight like wlUicats to defend our own. We are content 
to fight in cotton jackets and with straw sandals upon 
our feet. We shall trudge through the valleys and climb 
over the hills. We shall fight with our backs to the 
mountains and the surrounding seas. We shall fight in 
fair weather and foul. 



Our Policy for Future Action 

And the road ahead ? What shall be our policy ? 

1. To stand steadfast by the principles for which 
we have entered the lists of the United Nations in 
Korea. While continuing to welcome an honor- 
able and peaceful settlement, we must never let 
the aggressor, be he large or small, convert tem- 
porary military successes into defeat for those 
principles. 

That is the high strategy. For the day-to-day 
tactics, we must rely upon consultations of the 
United Nations and decisions of the commanders, 
secure, however, in the knowledge that no respon- 
sible authority proposes to march into the morass 
of the China mainland. 

2. To arm ourselves and the free world as 
speedily as possible, giving every evidence of our 
united determination to build a genuine system of 
collective defense behind the shield of our present 
power of retaliation. 

3. To expand our production and to cut out the 
waste and luxuries as the sound and wholly practi- 
cal means of doing all that needs to be done to 
deter further aggression or, if need be, to repel 
and destroy the aggressor by collective force. 

Having the most to lose, we have the most to 
save. We are not trying to save our individual 
skins and our personal conveniences today but to 
assure the future of a free society in a peaceful 
world tomorrow. For that, no effort or sacrifice is 
too much to ask. 

4. To continue wise investments in the expansion 
of productivity in Western Europe and to expand 
technical assistance to underdeveloped areas. 

Only by imagination and daring in applying the 
dynamics of democracy can the free world rise 
above the regimented forces of the Soviet empire. 
The preponderance of potential power must be 
rapidly translated into dependable and united 
strength, capable of deterring aggression from 
without and preventing disintegration from 
within. 

We dare not court the slow bankruptcy which 
comes from the whittling away of the free world 
preponderance of power. For, by that route, the 
enemy would gain the preponderance in people, 
resources, and production. Once he had insolated 

173 



us, he could regiment this overwhelming power to 
harass and drive us into material and spiritual 
bankruptcy without setting foot on our soil. 

We will not let that happen. 

The road ahead will be uphill, strewn with dis- 
appointments, dangers, and uncertainties. 

At this very moment, holding fast to the jDrin- 
ciples and purposes, the members of the United 
Nations confront a turbulence of ideas over 
methods to meet the new invasion launched by the 
Chinese Communist regime. 

The high strategy is the foundation of our 
present unity. But tactics and timing are issues 
for consultation and consensus. It is of the 
essence that we all move together in the United 
Nations, and, take my word for it, we will. 

We are striving now for a strong, united posi- 
tion, featuring four main points : 

First: a finding that the Communist regime in 
China has flouted United Nations authority and 
has committed aggression in Korea ; 

Second : a reaffirmation of United Nations pur- 
poses in Korea, calling for the withdrawal of the 
invader and for all members to refrain from 
assisting the aggressor ; 

Third: a call to each member to support action 
decided upon by the United Nations, in proportion 
to its ability ; and 

Fourth: a move to activate immediately the 
Collective Measures Committee to consider the 
means to meet existing aggression and prevent 
further aggression. 

This generation of Americans is called upon to 
take world leadership in building the first collec- 
tive security system in history. If it acts with 
the full energy of which a free society is capable, 
with loyalty to its allies and faith in the ultimate 
triumph of a righteous cause, this generation will 
yet stay the hand of the aggressor and set foot on 
the road to permanent peace. But, if it falters 
and is afraid, tries to build Maginot Lines around 
its own comforts, leaving its allies to their separate 
fates, in my judgment, war would be inevitable. 
And, if it should come to that, we would pay 
dearly in lives and treasure for our lack of faith 
at this crucial hour. 



Global Strategy of Peace 

by Ambassador Philip C. Jessup ^ 

The strategy of peace has to be global just as 
much as our military strategy in World War II 
was global. During the war, we were trying to 

' Excerpts from an artdi'ess which was made before repre- 
sentatives of nonsoverumental organizations at Washing- 
ton, D. C, on Jan. 15. 



establish the conditions of a permanent peace. 
We and our Allies were involved in various types 
of common operations, military and other, in 
Europe, throughout the Pacific area, in the 
Middle East and Asia, in Africa, in Latin 
America, and in the Atlantic. It is equally true 
today that, as we continue in our effort to estab- 
lish peace, we cannot be indifferent to what goes 
on in any part of the world. The international 
Communist movement directed fi"om the Kremlin 
is trying to undermine the free world in every 
sector. It encourages violence and aggression al- 
though it uses its satellites to do the fighting and 
dying for it. We naturally have both a practical 
and a moral interest in the independence, pros- 
perity, and welfare of all countries and all peoples 
seeking freedom and peace. 

It is the objective of our global strategy to 
prevent war if we can. If the Soviet Union in- 
sists on plunging the peoples of the world, includ- 
ing the peoples of the U.S.S.R., into war, the result 
of our global strategy will be that we and other 
free peoples will win. If the Soviet Union is 
convinced of the fact of our combined strength 
and united determination, it may be deterred from 
starting a war. 

Nevertheless, we must realize that the interna- 
tional Communist movement likes to have a con- 
tinuing state of tension in the world. Since they 
are able to create tensions by subversion and 
aggression, we have got to make up our minds 
that we must face a long period of tension. Dur- 
ing that long period, we must remain strong. This 
will involve big sacrifices and continued effort. 
Those sacrifices and efforts will be far less tlian 
those required by war itself, and we must endure 
them. 

Since the imperialist Communist movement is 
centrally controlled by the Kremlin and is world- 
wide in its activities, we, too, must maintain a 
solid front in the United Nations and act interna- 
tionally. Unlike the Kremlin, we do not operate 
a slave system, and we must, therefore, under- 
stand the varying points of view among the free 
nations in order to maintain a system of interna- 
tional cooperation. 

It is part of our global strategy to hold fast to 
our ideals and moral principles which give us a 
distinct superiority over the Kremlin. We are 
demonstrating all through the world that free 
societies offer a better way of life and more 
strength than can exist under the slave system. 
We can be strong and, at the same time, preserve 
the rights of the individual and the independence 
of the countries united in support of the principles 
of the United nations. Those principles require 
the use of the procedures of peaceful settlement, 
and we are always ready to use them as we have 
repeatedly demonstrated. 



174 



Department of State Bulletin 



FIFTH SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



Summary of Action, Part II: September 19-December 15, 1950 



htj Elisabeth Ann Brown 



REPORTS OF SECOND COMMITTEE 
(ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL) 

Economic Development of Underdeveloped Countries 

The General Assembly, by unanimous action 
November 20, adopted six resolutions on economic 
development. The first resolution, having to 
do with technical assistance activities under 
General Assembly Resolution 200 (III), notes 
with approval that the Secretary-General has in- 
cluded in the United Nations budget for 1951 the 
same amount as was appropriated by the Assembly 
in 1950, and recommends that requests for techni- 
cal assistance for economic development which 
cannot be financed with funds provided on the 
regular budget, should be eligible for financing 
from the special account for technical assistance 
for economic development established in accord- 
ance with Assembly Resolution 304 (IV) and with 
the actions of the Technical Assistance Confer- 
ence. 

The second resolution deals with the financing 
of economic development of underdeveloped coun- 
tries; recommends that the Economic and Social 
Council consider practical methods, conditions, 
and policies for achieving the adequate expansion 
and steadier flow of foreign capital, both private 
and public, and pay special attention to financing 
non-self-liquidating projects basic to economic 
development ; calls upon members and specialized 
agencies concerned to submit to the Council pro- 
posals bearing upon the resolution; and requests 
the Council to submit recommendations to the sixth 
Assembly. 

Referring to the important problem of land re- 
form and the fact that agrarian conditions in 



Editor's Note: Part I of this article appeared in the 
Bulletin of Jan. 22, 1951, p. 13S. 

January 29, 1 95 1 



many underdeveloped countries constitute a bar- 
rier to their economic development, the third reso- 
lution recommends that the Secretary-General, in 
cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organ- 
ization and other appropriate specialized agencies, 
prepai'e and submit to the thirteenth session of 
the Economic and Social Council an analysis of 
the degree to which unsatisfactory forms of agra- 
rian structure and particularly systems of land 
tenure in underdeveloped countries impede eco- 
nomic development and depress standards of liv- 
ing; calls upon the Council to consider this analy- 
sis and prepare recommendations to the Assembly 
with a view to improvement of agricultural popu- 
lations, paying special attention to certain meas- 
ures, including such matters as land reform, taxa- 
tion policies, promotion of family owned and 
operated farms, and cooperative farms; and 
recommends to the Governments of underdevel- 
oped countries that they avail themselves of facil- 
ities available through the United Nations ex- 
panded program of teclinical assistance. 

The fourth resolution concerns the development 
of arid land. This resolution recommends that 
the Secretary-General prepare, in collaboration 
with competent specialized agencies, a report on 
the practical measures adopted for study of prob- 
lems of arid zones and on technical and financial 
means employed by the specialized agencies; in- 
vites him to submit his report to the fourteenth 
session of the Economic and Social Council ; and 
calls upon the Council to examine the report and 
to consider such measures as devotion of sufficient 
technical and financial means to study the relevant 
scientific and practical problems, promotion and 
coordination of United Nations activities to that 
end, and the furnishing of appropriate technical 
assistance to the governments concerned. 

The fifth resolution deals with the volume and 
distribution of national income in underdeveloped 

175 



countries and recommends that these countries 
devote special attention to studies directed toward 
calculation of their national income and its dis- 
tribution; requests the Seci'etary-General and 
specialized agencies concerned to give most fa- 
vorable consideration to requests for technical 
assistance for the above purpose ; requests the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council' to study and report on 
this question with special reference to various in- 
come groups and respective proportions and the 
amounts used in underdeveloped countries to meet 
their foreign commitments arising from loans and 
investments and the payment of services ; directs 
the Secretary-General to prepare and submit a 
report to the Council ; and requests him to avoid 
any duplication in this work with the study rec- 
ommended in Economic and Social Council Keso- 
lution294D (IX). 

The final resolution, entitled "Economic De- 
velopment and International Economic and Com- 
mercial Policy," reaffirms previous Assembly 
action and requests the group of experts, to be 
appointed by the Secretary-General pursuant to 
an Economic and Social Council resolution deal- 
ing with this matter, to pay due attention in their 
studies to the influence that prevailing commercial 
policies have on national plans for the economic 
development of underdeveloped countries. 

Full Employment and Economic Stability 

Four resolutions were adopted by the Assembly 
on December 12. The first, approved 43-5-1, notes 
the vigorous action taken by the Economic and 
Social Council in connection with full employ- 
ment and invite governments to cooperate with 
the Secretary-General in carrying out the tasks 
entrusted to him by the Economic and Social 
Council. 

The second resolution, which is concerned with 
the current world economic situation, was adopted 
unanimously and requests the Economic and So- 
cial Council, when examining the world economic 
situation during its twelfth session, to pay special 
attention to changes currently occurring in the 
international economic situation, with a view to 
recommending measures designed to make possible 
uninterrupted progress of programs of economic 
stability and development; invites the members of 
the Council to submit their views concerning the 
way in which the current situation has affected 
their economic progress and the prospects of con- 
tinuing world economic expansion ; and invites all 
other members similarly to submit their views in 
this field. 

The third resolution, approved by 51-0-1, deals 
with guides for the organization and collection 
of economic data in underdeveloped countries and 
notes that the Economic and Social Council had 
recommended that governments should furnish the 
Secretary-General with a wide range of economic 
and statistical information. It recommends that 



the Secretary-General and the specialized agen- 
cies, taking into account different institutional cir- 
cumstances in the underdeveloped countries, pre- 
pare material which may serve to guide govern- 
ments and which should set forth the types of 
data necessary to provide up-to-date information 
regarding level of economic activitj', employment, 
unemployment and underemployment, procedures, 
and methods suitable for obtaining and presenting 
such data, and other relevant suggestions. 

The last resolution, entitled "]\Iechanization and 
Unemployment in Underdeveloped Countries," 
was adopted unanimously. After noting past 
Assembly action, the resolution requests the Sec- 
retary-General to impress upon the group of ex- 
perts to be appointed by him, the necessity of 
giving due consideration to ways and means of 
preventing any aggravation of problems of unem- 
ployment and underemployment in underdevel- 
oped countries that may occur as a result of the 
mechanization of production in certain branches 
of industry and agriculture, and measures of social 
security designed to insure that there will be no 
interruption in the income of workers temporarily 
unemployed through mechanization or technolog- 
ical progress ; and requests the Secretary-General 
and the specialized agencies concerned to bear in 
mind this resolution of the Assembly in their 
work on this matter. 



REPORTS OF THIRD COMMITTEE 
(SOCIAL, HUMANITARIAN AND CULTURAL) 

Advisory Social Welfare Services 

On December 1, 1950, the General Assembly 
unanimously adopted a resolution on advisory so- 
cial welfare services prepared by the Economic and 
Social Council. The resolution authorizes the 
Secretary-General to provide certain advisory 
welfare services in accordance with the needs of 
and agreement of the governments concerned and 
to report measures which he takes to the Social 
Commission, which is to formulate recommenda- 
tions concerning the action required to cari-y on 
essential advisory social welfare activities. 

Long-Range Activities for Children 

After approval of two amendments, one pro- 
posed jointly by Australia, Chile, Denmark, Ecua- 
dor, and Yugoslavia, and the other sponsored by 
Bolivia, Canada, Ecuador, and the Netherlands, 
the Assembly December 1 unanimously adopted a 
resolution on the continuing needs of children. In 
the resolution, the Assembly approves the policy 
of the Executive Board of the United Nations In- 
ternational Children's Emergency Fund to devote 
more resources to develojiment of jirograms out- 
side Europe ; expresses gratitude for generous con- 
tributions to the Fund, and renews ai)peal for 



176 



Department of State Bulletin 



further contributions; recommends to member 
states that tliey develop and improve national 
child welfare :5ervices; and asks the t^conomic and 
Social Council to give greater emphasis to sup- 
port of national programs to aid children within 
the framework of existing United Nations activ- 
ities for development of underdeveloped areas and 
to explore the means of procuring and financing 
supplies. The resolution provides that the Execu- 
tive Board of the Fund shall be reconstituted, that 
the Board shall fornuilate policies, determine pro- 
grams, and allocate resources for the purpose of 
meeting through the provision of supplies, train- 
ing, and advice emergency and long-range needs 
of children and their continuing needs, particu- 
larly in underdeveloped countries, with a view to 
strengthening permanent child health and welfare 
programs of countries receiving assistance; and 
that the General Assembly will consider the 
Fund's future after 3 years with the object of con- 
tinuing on a permanent basis. 

Draft International Covenant on Human Rights 

On December 4, the General Assembly adopted 
three resolutions concerning human rights, the 
principal one by a vote of 38-7-12. After com- 
mending the Commission on Human Rights and 
calling upon the Economic and Social Council to 
request the Commission to continue to give prior- 
ity to the draft Covenant in order that the As- 
sembly may have the revised draft for the sixth 
session, the resolution states that the list of rights 
in the first 18 articles of the Covenant does not 
contain certain elementary rights, that the word- 
ing of some of these articles should be improved, 
and that account should be taken of the principles 
and purposes of the United Nations Charter, and 
calls upon the Economic and Social Council to 
request the Commission to take into consideration 
in its revision of the Covenant (a) the views ex- 
pressed during discussions at the fifth session of 
the Assembly and the eleventh session of the Coun- 
cil, including those relating to articles 13 and 14 
and, with a view to the addition of other rights, 
those relating to rights set forth by the U.S.S.R. 
and Yugoslavia in specific documents and (b) the 
view that it is desirable to define the rights and 
limitations with the greatest possible precision. 
The resolution also calls upon the Economic and 
Social Council to request the Human Rights Com- 
mission to study a federal state article and to pre- 
pare, for consideration at the Assembly's sixth 
session, recommendations having as their purpose 
the securing of the maximum extension of the 
Covenant to the constituent units of federal states, 
and the meeting of constitutional problems of such 
states. The Commission is also asked to study 
ways and means to ensure the right of peoples and 
nations to self-determination and to prepare 
recommendations for the sixth session. Another 
section of the resolution provides for inclusion in 

January 29, 7951 

»26862— 61 S 



the Covenant of economic, social, and cultural 
rights and an explicit recognition of equality of 
men and women in related rights; calls upon the 
Council to request the Commission to include a 
clear expression of economic, social, and cultural 
rights in a manner relating them to the civic and 
political freedoms proclaimed in the Covenant, 
and to take steps to obtain cooperation of other 
United Nations organs and specialized agencies in 
consideration on such rights; and requests the 
Economic and Social Council to consider at the 
twelfth session the methods by which the special- 
ized agencies might cooperate with the Commis- 
sion of these rights. The resolution also calls 
upon the Council to ask the Commission to con- 
sider provisions to be inserted in the Covenant or 
in separate protocols for the receipt and examina- 
tion of petitions from individuals and organiza- 
tions on alleged Covenant violations and to report 
to the Council at its thirteenth session concerning 
those matters. The Secretary-General is re- 
quested to invite member states to submit by 
February 15, 1951, their views on the revised draft 
Covenant. 

The second resolution, adopted by 36-11-8, re- 
quests the Human Rights Commission to include 
in the Covenant a prescribed article providing 
that the Covenant shall be applicable equally to a 
signatory metropolitan state and to all the terri- 
tories, be they non-self-governing, trust, or 
colonial, which are being administered or gov- 
erned by such a state. 

The final resolution invites all states and inter- 
ested organizations to adopt December 10 as 
Human Rio^hts Day and invites all states to report 
annually tlirough the Secretary-General on the 
observance of this day. It was approved by 47- 
0-5. 

Freedom of Information 

Three resolutions on freedom of information 
were adopted by the Assembly on December 14. 
The first, approved by 49-5-0, adopts the declara- 
tion of the Economic and Social Council to the 
effect that deliberate interference with radio sig- 
nals constitutes a violation of the accepted prin- 
ciples of freedom of information; condemns 
measures of this nature as a denial of the right of 
all persons to be fully informed; invites govern- 
ments of member states to refrain from such inter- 
ference; invites all governments to refrain from 
radio broadcasts that would mean unfair attacks 
or slanders against other peoples and to conform 
to ethical conduct in the interest of world peace 
by reporting facts truly and objectively; and in- 
vites member states to give every possible facility 
so that their peoples may know objectively the 
United Nations activities in promoting peace and, 
in particular, to facilitate reception and trans- 
mission of United Nations official broadcasts. 

The second resolution was adopted by 41-5-2, 

177 



and recommends to all member states that, when 
they are compelled to declare a state of emergency, 
measures to limit freedom of information and oi 
the press shall be taken only in exceptional cir- 
cumstances and only to tiie extent strictly required. 
The final resolution, adopted by 44-0-12, ap- 
points a committee composed of representatives 
of Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, France, India, Lebanon, 
Mexico, Netherlands, JPakistan, Philippines, Saudi 
Arabia, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States, 
and Yugoslavia to prepare a draft convention on 
freedom of information and to report to the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council at the thirteenth session, 
submitting recommendations, especially on the ad- 
visability of convening a plenipotentiary confer- 
ence to sign a convention. The Secretary-General 
is requested to submit the Committee's report to 
governments, which are invited to transmit sug- 
gestions and observations by June 15, 1951. The 
resolution concludes with a recommendation to 
the Economic and Social Council to consider 
whether a conference of plenipotentiaries should 
be convened as soon as possible and not later than 
February 1, 1952, with a view to framing and 
signature of a freedom of information convention. 

Refugees and Stateless Persons 

On Decemljer 14 the Assembly adopted three 
resolutions relating to refugees and stateless per- 
sons and, in a secret ballot, elected Dr. G. J. van 
Heuven Goedhart (Netherlands) High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees. 

The first resolution, approved by 36-5-11, 
adopts an annex which constitutes the statute of 
the High Commissioner's OfEce for Refugees and 
calls upon governments to cooperate with the High 
Commissioner, especially by becoming parties to 
and implementing international conventions pro- 
viding for protection of refugees, entering into spe- 
cial agreements with the High Commissioner, 
admitting refugees to their territories, assisting in 
promotion of voluntai-y repatriation, promoting 
assimilation of refugees, providing refugees with 
travel and other documents, permitting refugees to 
transfer assets, and providing the High Com- 
missioner with information on the number and 
condition of refugees and laws and regulations 
concerning them. The Secretary-General is re- 
quested to transmit the resolution to states non- 
members of the United Nations with a view to ob- 
taining their cooperation. The statute annexed 
to the resolution sets forth the functions and or- 

fanization of the High Commissioner's Office and 
efines the categories of refugees to which his 
competence shall extend. 

Under the terms of the second resolution, ap- 
proved by 41-5-10, after adoption of a Venezuelan 
amendment and one sponsored jointly by France, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States, the 
Assembly decides to convene a plenipotentiary 
conference at Geneva to complete the drafting of 



and to sign both the convention relating to the 
status of refugees and the protocol relating to the 
status of stateless persons. Governments par- 
ticipating in the conference, to which the Secre- 
tary-General is instructed to invite both members 
and nonmcmbers of the United Nations and in the 
work of which the High Commissioner is called 
upon to participate, are recommended to take into 
consideration the draft convention submitted by 
the Economic and Social Council and in particular 
the text of a definition of the term "refugee." 

In the final resolution, the Assembly decides to 
address an urgent appeal to all states to assist the 
International Refugee Organization in efforts to 
resettle refugees remaining under its care, par- 
ticularly those in need of permanent custodial care, 
and to postpone until the sixth session the ex- 
amination of the problem of assistance raised by 
communications from the General Council of the 
International Refugee Organization. It was 
approved 40-5-7. 

Complaint of Soviet Failure To Repatriate or Account 
for Prisoners of War Detained in Soviet Territory 

The item on prisoners of war detained in Soviet 
territory was placed on the agenda jointly by Aus- 
tralia, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. On December 14, by a vote of 43-5-6, the 
General Assembly adopted a resolution entitled 
"Measures for the Peaceful Solution of the Prob- 
lem of Prisoners of War." " The resolution ex- 
presses the Assembly's concern at the information 
presented tending to show that large numbers of 
prisoners taken in the course of World War II 
have neither been repatriated nor otherwise ac- 
counted for ; and calls upon all governments still 
having control of such persons to act in accordance 
with recognized standards of international con- 
duct and various international agreements requir- 
ing that, upon cessation of hostilities, all prison- 
ers should with the least possible delay be given 
an unrestricted opportunity of repatriation, and 
to that end to publish and transmit to the Secre- 
tary-General before April 30, 1951, the names of 
prisoners still held, the reasons for their continued 
detention and where they are detained, and the 
names of prisoners who have died together with 
date and cause of death, and manner and place 
of burial. The Secretary-General is requested to 
establish an Ad Hoc Conunission composed of 
three qualified and impartial persons chosen by the 
International Red Cross, or failing that, by him- 
self, with a view to settling this question in a 
purely humanitarian spirit and on terms accept- 
able to all governments concerned ; the Commission 
is to meet after April 30, 1951, to examine infor- 
mation furnished by governments in accordance 
with the resolution, and, depending upon that in- 
formation, to take furtlier steps, if necessai*y, to 
facilitate the repatriation of prisoners of war. 

"BuixETiN of Jan. 8, 1051, p. 73. 



178 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Governments are requested to make the greatest 
possible effort to search for prisoners of war whose 
absence has been reported and who might be in 
their territories. Tlie Connuission is to report as 
soon as practicable to the Secretary-General for 
transmission to the members of the United 
Nations. 



REPORTS OF JOINT 

SECOND AND THIRD COMMITTEE 

Plans for Relief and Rehabilitation of Korea 

In the resolution, adopted October 7 on the 
problem of the independence of Korea, the As- 
sembly requested the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil to develop plans for Korean relief and rehabili- 
tation, and the Council accordingly met in special 
session immediately. The report, after commit- 
tee consideration, was acted upon by the Assembly 
on December 1, 1950.^^ 

The Assembly adopted two resolutions on this 
subject. The first of these, adopted by a vote of 
51-0-5, establishes the United Nations >Korean 
Reconstruction Agency under the direction of a 
United Nations Agent General ; authorizes the 
United Nations Commission for the Unification 
and Rehabilitation of Korea to undertake certain 
functions in relation to the relief program ; directs 
the Agent General to coordinate his program with 
the Commission, to commence at such time as may 
be agreed upon by the Commission, the unified 
command and liimself, to ascertain the require- 
ments for supplies and services for relief and re- 
habilitation, to submit reports to the General As- 
sembly through the Secretary-General, and to be 
guided in matters of administration by rules and 
regulations established for the operation of the 
United Nations Secretariat; and establishes an 
Advisor}' Committee of five states — Canada, India, 
United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay — to 
advise the Agent General with regard to major 
fmancial, procurement, distribution, and other eco- 
nomic problems. The Secretary-General, after 
consultation with the Korean Commission, is au- 
thorized to appoint the Agent General and to es- 
tablish a special account to which should be cred- 
ited all contributions in cash, kind, or services to 
the program. The Agent General is instructed to 
make use of existing facilities, services, and per- 
sonnel through national and international agen- 
cies and organizations, to consult with the Secre- 
tary-General to ensure coordination of efforts, and 
to make use of the advice and technical assistance 
of the United Nations and specialized agencies. 
The resolution also requests these various bodies 
to assist the Agent General and calls upon all gov- 
ernments, specialized and nongovernmental agen- 
cies, pending begimiing of operations by the 
Agency, to continue to furnish through the Secre- 

" BuixETiN of Nov. 27, 1950, p. 859. 



tary-General such assistance as may be requested 
by the Unified Command. Countries not members 
are also invited to participate in financing the 
Korean relief program. The resolution concludes 
with a 16-point statement of general policy on re- 
lief and rehabilitation in Korea. 

The second resolution, which was approved by 
a vote of 51-0-5, deals with financial arrange- 
ments for the Korean relief program and pro- 
vides for a Negotiating Committee composed of 
seven or moi-e members for the purpose of con- 
suiting with member and nonmember states as to 
the amounts governments may be willing to con- 
tribute toward financing, the relief program. As 
soon as the Negotiating Committee has finished 
its work, the Secretary-General is requested to ar- 
range an appropriate meeting of member and non- 
member states at which they may commit them- 
selves to their national contributions and the con- 
tributions of nonmembers may be made known. 

France, Egypt, India, Canada, Uruguay, the 
United States, and the United Kingdom were ap- 
pointed to the Negotiating Committee. This 
same group is also considering financial arrange- 
ments for the relief progi-am for Palestine 
refugees. 



REPORTS OF JOINT COMMITTEE TWO AND 
THREE AND FIFTH COMMITTEE 

Coordination Between United Nations 
and Specialized Agencies 

On December 1, the Assembly acted upon five 
related resolutions growing out of the Joint Com- 
mittee's consideration of a number of aspects of 
the general problems of coordination and relations 
between the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies. 

Resolution A, adopted unanimously, deals with 
the administrative budgets of the specialized 
agencies. These agencies are urged to intensify 
their efforts to stabilize their regular budgets by 
elimination or deferment of less urgent projects, 
to provide information concerning the estimates 
for expenditure of technical assistance funds, and 
to consider at an early date adoption of common 
financial and staff regulations modeled as far as 
possible after those of the United Nations. Mem- 
bers' attention is drawn to the necessity for 
prompt payment of their contributions. The 
Secretary-General is requested, in consultation 
with the heads of the specialized agencies, to pay 
particular attention in 1951 to further develop- 
ment of satisfactory arrangements for the pro- 
vision of common services, particularly in respect 
of regional and branch offices, with a view to 
greater efficiency and economy and to report 
thereon. 



January 29, 195? 



179 



Resolution 5, also adopted unanimously, au- 
thorizes the United Nations Investments Commit- 
tee to provide advice to a specialized agency at its 
reqiiest. 

Resolution C, adopted unanimously, deals with 
concentration of effort and resources; requests 
each specialized agency to review the 1952 pro- 
gram during 1951, using the ci-iteria already estab- 
lished; requests the Council and the specialized 
agencies to indicate, when new projects are 
adopted, whicli current projects may be deferred, 
modified or eliminated; requests the Council to 
review during 1951 the 1952 programs of the 
United Nations and specialized agencies and to 
report to the sixth Assembly on the results of the 
review ; requests the Secretary-General to include 
in budget estimates a summary schedule of the 
estimated costs of the projects provided for in 
the United Nations and the specialized agencies' 
budgets ; and urges that the efforts being made to 
insure fullest coordination of programs and activ- 
ities of the United Nations and specialized agen- 
cies be vigorously prosecuted. 

Resolution Z?, which was approved by a vote of 
49-0-5, expresses the hope that those members 
not participating at the present time in the spe- 
cialized agencies may find their way to assume or 
resume, as soon as possible, full participation. 

Resolution E, adopted by 48-5-2, provides for 
the transfer of the functions of the International 
Penal and Penitentiary Commission to the United 
Nations; authorizes the Secretary-General to 
make the necessary arrangements for the transfer 
on a mutually satisfactory date prior to Decem- 
ber 31, 1951 ; and pays tribute to the Commission's 
accomplishments in the field of the prevention of 
crime and the treatment of offenders. 



REPORTS OF FOURTH COMMITTEE 

(TRUSTEESHIP 

AND NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES) 

Report of the Trusteeship Council 

The General Assembly, on December 2, adopted 
a series of 11 resolutions with respect to the report 
of the Trusteeship Council. 

Resolution I was adopted by 45-0-7 and ex- 
presses confidence that the Council will continue 
to contribute effectively to achieving the high ob- 
jectives of the Trusteeship System. 

Resolution II, approved by 53-1-3, deals with 
the general procedure of the Trusteeship Council 
and reconnnends that the Council undertake a re- 
view of its procedure, bearing in mind the observa- 
tions made during Assembly discussion. 

Resolution III, which was adopted 53-0-2, re- 
fers to the annual reports of the Trusteeship 
Council ; and recommends that, in future reports 
to the Assembly, the Council present in separate 
sections all the relevant data examined concern- 



ing the political, economic, social, and educational 
conditions in each trust territory ; include in each 
section the observations, conclusions, and recom- 
mendations of the Council on the topic under re- 
view ; give, in each case, an account of the manner 
in which the administering authority has carried 
out each recommendation of the Assembly or 
Council; state its conclusion; and include, wher- 
ever practicable, maps of the trust territories. 

Resolution IV, approved by 41-0-14, deals with 
the organization and methods of functioning of 
visiting missions; recommends that the Council 
undertake another review of this subject, taking 
into account certain suggestions made during the 
Assembly's discussion, and the advisability of such 
matters as arrangements for the length of stay 
of visiting missions in each territory, the number 
of territories to be visited, inclusion in their terms 
of reference of specific problems. 

Resolution F, on the examination of petitions, 
was approved by 47-0-8 and recommends that the 
Council consider the possibility of constituting the 
Ad Hoc Committee on petitions as a standing com- 
mittee to meet, if necessary between Council ses- 
sions, of requesting the administering authorities 
to submit observations on petitions within 2 months 
of their receipt, of" studying other measures to 
impi'ove the procedure, and of requesting the ad- 
ministering authorities to submit each year 
information concerning action taken on the recom- 
mendations of the Council. 

Resolufio7i VI, adopted by 33-11-12, is con- 
cerned with information on the implementation 
of Trusteeship Council and General Assembly 
resolutions relating to trust territories, and re- 
quests the Secretary-General to prepare a list of 
such resolutions and to report to the sixth As- 
sembly on the measures taken by the administer- 
ing authorities to implement such resolutions and, 
if no action has been taken, to set forth the reasons 
given. 

Resolution VII was adopted by 47-0-6; with 
respect to educational advancement in the trust 
territories, it recommends that the Council con- 
tinue to devote particular attention to long-range 
programs. 

Resolution VIII, which was adopted bj' 54-0-1, 
is entitled "Rural Economic Development of the 
Trust Territories." The Trusteeship Council is 
requested to study prevailing policies, laws, and 
practices in the trust territories relating to land, 
land utilization, and alienation of land, taking 
into account the present and future needs of the 
indigenous inhabitants and the future economic 
requirements of the territories, as well as social 
and economic consequences of transfer of laud to 
nonindigenous inhabitants; and to make recom- 
mendations to the administering authorities con- 
cerning these matters. 

Resolution IX was adopted by 51-0-2 and is con- 
cerned with technical assistance for trust terri- 
tories. The attention of the administering au- 



180 



Department of State Bulletin 



thorities is drawn to the facilities available under 
the technical assistance programs; the Economic 
and Social Council, the specialized agencies, 
and the Secretary-General are referred to the 
need to extend to the trust territories such techni- 
cal assistance as tiiey may be able to render and to 
establish a sound basis for tlie progressive develop- 
ment of the inhabitants; and it is recommended 
that the administering authorities make full use 
of the sources of technical assistance and submit 
to the Council information on all applications 
made in implementation of this resolution and the 
manner in which technical assistance received has 
been integrated into long-range programs. 

Resolution X was adopted by 55-0-2 and rec- 
ommends that measures be taken immediately to 
bring aliout the complete abolition of corporal 
punishment in all trust territories where it still 
exists. 

Resolution X/, approved by 48-0-6, is con- 
cerned with the Ewe unification movement and 
related questions in the trust territories of French 
and British Togoland, respectively. The reso- 
lution i-ecognizes the great importance of this 
problem and impresses upon the Council and the 
administering authorities the importance of find- 
ing an adequate solution as soon as possible; rec- 
ommends that the administering autliority of 
French Togoland investigate promptly certain 
practices complained of in various petitions to 
ascertain whether the methods of election applied 
insure that the views of all sections of the popu- 
lation are faithfully reflected and report thereon 
to the next Assembly for such action as it may 
deem appropriate; and requests that the Council 
devote a special chapter or subchapter of the next 
annual report to setting forth all steps undertaken 
in connection with the Ewe question. 

I Former Italian Colonies 

On December 2, the General Assembly approved 
the draft trusteeship agreement for the territory 
of Somaliland under Italian administration by 
44-6. The trusteeship agreement had been pre- 
viously reviewed by tlie Trusteeship Council. 
There is attached to the approved trusteeship 
agreement a declaration of constitutional princi- 
ples which forms an integral part of the agreement. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories 

On December 12, the General Assembly adopted 
five resolutions on information from non-self- 
governing territories. It may be noted that the 
work of the Fourth Committee on this subject 
was in turn based upon the report of the As- 
sembly's Special Committee on Information trans- 
mitted under Article 73 (e) of the Charter. Cuba 
and Pakistan were elected by the Fourth Com- 
mittee as members of the Special Committee, suc- 
ceeding Sweden and Venezuela. 

January 29, 7 95 J 



Resolution I, adopted by 50-0-2, is concerned 
with technical assistance to non-self-governing 
territories and invites the administering mem- 
bers which need technical assistance for the eco- 
nomic, social, and educational advancement of 
their non-self-governing territories to submit 
their requests and recommends that they include 
yearly in the information submitted under Article 
73 (e) as full a report as possible on all appli- 
cations for technical assistance and the manner 
in which such assistance has been integrated into 
long-range development programs. 

Resolution II, approved by a vote of 49-0-4, 
inter alia, takes note of the rep)ort of the Special 
Committee; approves the special report on edu- 
cation; notes with interest the special studies of 
Unesco for education and training of teachers, 
expressing the hope that full account will be taken 
of such studies in the formulation of policies on 
this matter in the non-self-governing territories; 
approves the an-angements of the Special Com- 
mittee for its work in 1951; and invites the 
specialized agencies concerned, with a view to the 
preparation of studies in respect of economic con- 
ditions and development to be considered by the 
Special Committee in 1951, to collaborate with the 
Secretary-General in the study of problems of the 
prices of tropical export crops and arrangements 
for their marketing, migrant labor in Africa, de- 
velopment of cooperative societies in peasant 
communities, and the economic value of preven- 
tive medicine. 

Resolution III was approved by a vote of 37- 
10-9 and invites members responsible for the ad- 
ministration of non-self-governing territories to 
include in the information transmitted under ar- 
ticle 73 (e) a summary of the extent to which the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights is im- 
plemented. 

Resolution IV, adopted by 32-13-13, refers to 
the use of comparable statistical information re- 
lating to the subjects treated under article 73 (e) 
of the Charter and invites the Secretary-General, 
in making use of such information, to obtain the 
consent of the member concerned and to take into 
account all elements necessary for scientific and 
objective comparison. 

Resolution V deals with the development of 
self-government in non-self-governing territories 
and was approved by 41-0-8. The resolution 
takes note with satisfaction of the communication 
of the Netherlands with reference to cessation of 
the transmission of information on Indonesia and 
requests the Special Committee to examine such 
information as may be transmitted to the Secre- 
tary-General in pursuance of Assembly Eesolu- 
tion222 (III). 

Question of South West Africa 

The General Assembly, on December 13, first 
voted on the resolution recommended by the 

181 



Fourth Committee. This resolution, which was 
defeated, after reference to the advisory opinion 
of the Court, would have requested the Union of 
South Africa to submit to the United Nations 
before June 1, 1951, a report on the administration 
of South West Africa during the years 1947, 1948, 
1949, and 1950 in accordance with the question- 
naire adopted by the Permanent Mandates Com- 
mission of the League of Nations and to transmit 
to the Secretary-General, with any necessary com- 
ments all petitions relating to the territory, and 
would have established a Commission for South 
West Africa to be composed of 10 experts to assist 
the Assembly in consideration of the amiual 
reports. 

Following the defeat of the Committee resolu- 
tion, the Assembly turned to a proposal which 
had been submitted jointly by Brazil, Denmark, 
Peru, Syria, Thailand, and the United States. 
After paragrapli-by-paragi-aph voting on each of 
the provisions, the Assembly adopted the resolu- 
tion by 45-6-5. Tho preamble of the resolution 
sets forth par