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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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VOLUME XXV: Numbers 627-653 

July 2-December 31, 1951 



s 



e 



INDEX 




■*TE9 




Corrections in Volume XXV 



The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call attention 
to the following errors : 

July 16, pane 105, right-hand column, the heading 
should include the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands 

August 20, page 313, right-hand column, in the 9th 

line from bottom the heading should read Publications 

page 316, left-hand column, the last ttco 

lines should read Alexander F. Jones, executive editor, 

Syracuse Herald Journal 

September 10, page 4^4, left-hand column, in the 2d 
line the date should be November 1-1, 1950 

September 17, page 415, to the heading should be 
prefixed the word Inter-American 

back cover, the number of the issue 
should be No. 638 

September 24, page 504, the heading should read 
V. S. Opposes New Convention for Freedom of Infor- 
mation. The second item on the front cover should 
also so read 



October 15, front cover, thb dates in the last item 
should be 1949-50 

October 29, page 6S4, right-hand column, the 12th 
line of the first paragraph should read doubts concern- 
ing the atheistic attitude of the 

November 19, page 828, left-hand column, in the italic 
heading the name in the 7th line should read Carl 
Vinson 

same page, middle of the right-hand 
column, the citation should he to section 101 (b) of 
the Mutual Security Act of 1951 

December S, page 879, footnote 2 should refer to 
page 889 of the some issue. 

December 31, page 1075, the last sentence of the sec- 
ond paragraph should read: The extending legislation 
authorized the continuance of the program to June 30, 
1953, provided that not more than $100,000 a year might 
be made available for the purpose. 









<- 



Publication 453 



U.S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

Ml 16 1952 
INDEX 

Volume XXV: Numbers 627-653, July to December 1951 



Abdullah, King of Jordan, texts of U.S. messages of 

condolence on assassination of, 171 
Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Anniversary of Canadian and U.S. independence, 71 
Armistice In Korea, question of withdrawal of foreign 

forces, 188 
Berlin festival of youth, 414 

Communist attack on Republic of Korea, anniver- 
sary, 7 
Communist China, representation in U.N. (before 

General Assembly), 917 
Conferences, recent, accomplishments, 585 
Disarmament resolution, proposed to General Assem- 
bly by France, U.K., and U.S., 806, 879 
Freedom House anniversary (over CBS), 610 
Friendship resolution, release by U.S.S.R. to Soviet 

peoples, 297 
Harrinian, departure for Iran, 130 
Human rights, violation in Rumania, excerpts, 867 
Hungary, mass deportations in, 251 
India, first shipment of grain under Emergency Food 

Aid Act, 39 
International discussions, recent, review, 1047 
Invitation (U.S., U.K., and France) to U.S.S.R. to 

meeting of Foreign Ministers at Washington, 16 
Iranian oil situation, 73 

Italian Prime Minister (de Gasperi), visit to U.S., 382 
Italy, statues from, dedication, 436, 565 
Land-tenure Problems, World, Conference on, 600 
Middle East Command, proposed, 647 
Mutual Security Program, testimony, 46, 209 
NATO, developments of (at Ottawa), 526 
Neivn, English-language publication of U.S.S.R., 171 
North Atlantic Council, 7th session, Ottawa, 525 
OEEC, declaration on defense of Western Europe, 487 
Philippines, mutual defense treaty, signature, 423, 685 
San Francisco Conference, opening and closing state- 
ments, 450, 4.59 
Schuman Plan treaty, ratification by France, 1013 
Security treaty, tripartite, with Australia and New 

Zealand, 495, 685 
Security treaty with Japan, signature, 463, 685 
Soviet expansion, defense against (at Detroit), 203 
Spain, strategic importance to defense of Western 

Europe, 170 
Stassen testimony on China policy, 656 
State Department employees, devotion to duty, 714 
U.N. goals for peace (before General Assembly), 803, 

834 
U.S. delegation to Japanese Peace Conference, 442 
U.S. position in world affairs, statement (over NBC- 
TV), with questions and answers on, 685 



Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
VOA programs inaugurated, 102, 103, 104 
World situation, before group of publishers, 123 
Allegations against, memorandum refuting, 397 
China and related areas, U.S. policy, memorandum to 

Jessup (July IS, 1949), 603 
Communiqu(?, joint, with Italian Prime Minister (de 

Gasperi), on mutual cooperation, 563 
Correspondence : 

Brazilian Minister Lafer, on proposed U.S. aid, 0.54 
German President Heuss, on 2d anniversary of Fed- 
eral Republic, 488 
Italian Ambassador, on revision of peace treaty, 1050 
Jordan Prime Minister al-Rifai, condolence on assas- 
sination of King Abdullah, 171 
Libyan Foreign Minister, on recognition of Libya, 1057 
Soviet Charge, on distribution of German merchant 

fleet, 254 
Soviet Charge Karavaev, urging return of lend-lease 
vessels, 145 
Additional Measures Committee, of U.N., 1st U.S. report 

to, text, with annexes and comments (Gross), 54 
Adenauer, Konrad, Chancellor of German Federal Re- 
public : 
Free elections, letter to U.S., U.K., and French High 

Commissioners for Germany, on, 694 
Western Foreign Ministers, meeting with, 891, 1049 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, U.S., ex- 
tract of report, 235 
Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division of ICAO, 5th ses- 
sion, U.S. delegation, 668 
Africa : 

Africa and free world, address, McGhee (at North- 
western U. ) , 97 
Barrier to aggression (McGhee, testimony), 213 
Aftermath of Munich, October 193S-March 1939, vol. IV, 
series D, of Documents on German Foreign Policy, 
1918-1945, released, 558 
Agricultural workers, migrant labor agreement with Mex- 
ico, entry into force, message to Congress and state- 
ment (Truman), 197, 199, 336 
Agriculture. See Food and Agriculture Organization; 

Land reform; Technical cooperation programs. 
Aid to tlood victims in Kansas and Missouri, l'. K., offer of, 

165 
Aid to foreign countries {see also Mutual aid and defense ; 
Mutual Security Program; North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization; Technical cooperation programs): 
Brazil, for reconstruction, statements (Lafer, Acheson), 

581, 054 
Denmark, effectiveness in, addresses (Anderson), 764, 
857 



Index, July to December J95J 



1087 



Aid to forei^ countries — Continued 

Greece, Turl^ey, and Iran, article (Howard), 812 
India, trausjwrtation of relief supplies, agreement 

signed, 146 
India, U.S. Emergency Food Aid Act, 37, 38, 39 
Italy : 
Address, Prime Minister de Gasperi to Congress re- 
questing, 566 
Flood-disaster aid, 894 
Korea. See Korea. 

Palestine refugees, request to Congress by the Pres- 
ident for funds for, 259 
Ptiilippines, cooperation of Export-Import Bank and 

EGA in operations for, 260 
Reviewed in address (Truman), 4 
Air Force mission, agreement with Uruguay, signature, 

1016 
Air transport agreement with Ecuador, permit granted 

under, 70 
Airfields, communications, and installations, "infrastruc- 
ture" program for NATO, 524 
Allergy, 1st International Congress on, U.S. delegation, 

555 
Allied High Commission for Germany (HICOM) : 

Free elections in Germany, exchange of communications 

with Adenauer and list of Western proposals, 694 
Negotiations with German Federal Republic on Euro- 
pean Defense Community, 486 
Allied Powers property compensation law : 
Entry into force, 432 

Text of draft and reference to Japanese peace treaty, 
429 
Allison, John M. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Japan, future of (at New York), 724 
Japanese peace treaty (over NBO-TV), 388 
Appointment as Acting Assistant Secretary for Far 
Eastern Affairs, 1000 
Altarpiece from Monte Cassino, returned to Italy, 1011 
American Friends Service Committee (AFC) : 
Achievements (from 1917), 76 
Point 4 project in India, 76 
American Republics (see also Organization of American 
States; Treaties; and the individual countries) : 
Economic Commission for Latin America (U.N. ), cited 

989, 996 
Foreign Ministers of American States, 4th Meeting of 

Consultation, cited, 654 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 707 
Inter-American Cultural Council, 1st meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 515 
Inter-American ECOSOC, 2d meeting (Panama), U.S. 

delegation, and address (Miller), 360, 475 
Latin American Fisheries meeting of FAO, U.S. delega- 
tion, .555 
GAS Charter (1948), U.S. ratification, statements 

(Dreier, Truman), 34 
Pan American Highway Congress, 5th U.S. delegation, 

636 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, nui'sing workshop in 
Guatemala City, 146 

1088 



American Republics — Continued 

Pan American Sanitary Organization (PASO) : 

Executive Committee of, 14th and 15th meetings, 554 
5th session, U.S. delegation, 554 
Professional Librarians Regional (Conference on De- 
velopment of Public Libraries in, U.S. delegation, 
635 
Regional Committee of WHO for the Americas, 3d meet- 
ing, U.S. delegation, 554 
South American/South Atlantic Regional Air Naviga- 
tion Meeting of ICAO, U.S. delegation, 788 
Trade with U.S., address (Miller at Va. Trade Conf.), 
949 
American Samoa, administration, transfer of (Ex. Or. 

10264), statement (Truman), 105, 106 
Americans detained In China, 1014 

Amity and economic relations, treaty with Ethiopia, sig- 
nature, 497 
Anderson, Eugenie, Ambassador to Denmark : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

European attitude toward U.S. aid, 763 
European defense efforts (at New York), 855 
Mutual security (over NBC-TV and at Washington), 
653, 696 
Anglo-American partnersliip in Middle East, discussed 

705 
Anglo-Iranian oil controversy. See Iranian oil contro- 
versy. 
Antarctica, sending of warships to, joint Argentine, Chil- 
ean, and U.K. decision to avoid and U.S. attitude, 941 
Appropriations, criticism of President Truman at cut in 

funds for international organizations, 312 
Arab refugees : 
Near East, 177 

Palestine, problem of relief, 259 
Arab States : 

Morocco, charge of French violation of treaty in, 786, 

1042 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 215, 216, 

217, 218 
U.S. iK)liiy toward, article (Howard), 8.39 
Argentina : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Paz), credentials, 436 
Export-Import Bank, credit from, 582 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Warships to Antarctica, joint decision with Chile and 
U.K. to avoid sending, 941 
Armistice in Korea. See Korean armistice. 
Armour, Norman, resignation as Ambassador to Vene- 
zuela, text of letter, 597 
Arms and armed forces : 

Balanced reduction, regulation, and limitation, new 

commission proposed for, 874, 879, 889, 920, 962 
Commission for Control of Armaments and Armed 
Forces, General Assembly draft resolution for, 317 
Czechoslovak, killing of German policeman in U.S. zone 

in Germany, text of U.S. protest, 207 
Danish modernization, statement (Anderson over NBC- 
TV), 654 
German, statement (Bruce over NBC-TV), 490 
Juridical status in NAT countries, NAT governments 

sign treaty, statement (Spofford), 16 
NATO objectives, NAC communique on, 523 

Department of State Bulletin 



Arms and armed forces — Continued 

Proclamation enumerating arms in accordance with 

H. J. Res. 306 (76th Cong.), text, 56 
Soviet, strength of, discussed (Truman, Dulles, Jessup), 

243, 938, 955 
Soviet satellites bordering Yugoslavia, forces of, cited, 

826 
Tribute to, remarks (Acheson on U.N. Day), 722 
U.S. Army, training area in Bavaria, text of U.S. let- 
ter answering Bavarian protest over proposed en- 
largement, 207 
U.S. program for reducing, address (Truman), 799 
Withdrawal of, from Korea, statement (Acheson), 188 
Yugoslav, need for increase of, cited, 826 
Armstrong, Willis C, article on International Materials 

Conference, 23 
Arnold Engineering Development Center, dedication of, 

by President Truman, 3 
Art, objects dispersed during World War II, recovery of, 
article (Hall), illustrations, and press statements, 
337, 340, 341, 345, 1011 
Art dealers, universities, museums, libraries, and book- 
sellers, U.S. notice respecting looted art objects, 340 
Artistic and scientific institutions and historic monu- 
ments, inter-American treaty on protection of (1935), 
cited, 345 
Artists, radio, establishment of South German fund for 

needy, 1053 
Arts, as means of dissemination of communism, 895 
Asylum from persecution for displaced persons, U.S. leg- 
islation relating to, cited, 1068 
Atlantic pact, implementation, address (Cabot at Col- 
gate), 272 
Atomic energy and conventional armaments (see also 
Disarmament, tripartite proposal for balanced reduc- 
tion of forces) : 
Atom bomb, prohibition of, address (Acheson at Gen- 
eral Assembly), 885 
Atom bomb tests, Nevada, Communist propaganda re- 
garding, statement (Webb), 767 
Atomic Energy Commission, enlargement of radio- 

isotoiie export program, 181 
Control, international, report of Committee of Twelve, 

agenda. General Assembly, 776 
Coordination of Atomic Energy Commission and Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments, statements 
and draft resolution, 238, 395, 770, 799, 800, 806, 
874, 889, 1002, 1023, 1042, 1047 
Coordination of commissions, address (Truman), 799 
U.S.S.R., 2d atomic explosion by, statement (Short), 
611 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Communist China, representation in U.N. (before 

General Assembly committee), 917 
Disarmament, balanced reduction, address (Paris), 

936 
Germany, free elections in, 892, 893 
Iranian oil controversy, G15, 746 
Soviet tactics, international unity against (Veterans 
of For. Wars), 425 

Index, July fo December 1951 



Austin, Warren R. — Continued 
Correspondence : 

Secretary-General Lie, on charges of atrocities in 

Korea, 189 
Secretary-General Lie, on Soviet attack on U.N. plane, 
909 
U.S. representative to Cth session of General Assembly, 
confirmation, 680 
Australia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement, signature, 854 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Security treaty, with U.S. and New Zealand, draft 
text, signature, and statements by Acheson. Dulles, 
Spender, and Berendsen, 147, 148, 187, 299, 415, 495, 
496, 620, 823 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to 
include Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific 
Islands, signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 
914, 1038, 1039 
U.N. forces in Korea, additional contribution by, 634 
Austria : 

Allied Council for, charges of U.S. remilitarization by 

U.S.S.R. (Sviridov), cited, 691 
Ambassador (Kleinwaechter) to U.S., credentials, 1057 
EGA achievements, statement (Donnelly), 692 
Remilitarization in, Soviet charges, statement (Don- 
nelly), refuting, 691 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Austrian state treaty, proposed negotiations, text of 
note (Gruber) and statement (Donnelly), 486, 768 
GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 17, 577, 829 
U.S. Ambassador (Donnelly), appointment, 961 
U.S. mission, elevation to Embassy, 833 
U.S. soldier's murder in Vienna by Soviet soldiers, ex- 
change of notes, U.S.S.R. and U.S., 861, 862 
World Federation of Trade Unions, attitude, 935 
Aviation {see also International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion) : 
Air Force mission, agreement signed with Uruguay, 1016 
Airfield agreement signed with Saudi Arabia, 150 
Ecuadoran airline, Aerovias EJcuatorianas, permit for 

route, 70 
Jet planes for NATO (Bonbright), 208 
Missile Test Center, U.S. Air Force, Cocoa, Fla., exten- 
sion of flight-test range, 948 
Azores defense agreement, with Portugal, signature, 466 

Balkan Subcommission of Peace Observation Commission 

to be established, 1002 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on : 

Report (1951), reviewed (Howard), 531, 777 
Resolution of General Assembly discontinuing, 1002 
Ballet Theatre, American National, cited, 905 
Bancroft, Harding F., statement on report of UJi. Collec- 
tive Measures Committee, 666 
Barkley, Alben W., statements on inauguration of VOA 

programs, 103, 104 
Barnard, Thurnian L. : 

Designation in State Department, 234 
U.S. Information Program, address (at Williamsburg, 
Va.), 851 

1089 



Barrett, Edward W., Assistant Secretary for Public Af- 
fairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Cultural affairs, Kremlin's campaign in (at New 

York), 903 
INP, charges against, by Frank Stout, 669 
"Peace offensive" by U.S.S.R. (NBC-TV), 250 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, opening of New Or- 
leans unit, 105 
U.S.S.R., conflicting propaganda (at Colgate), 226 
Voice of America, transmitter project for, 582 
VOA, use of out.side commentators, writers, and private 
corporations, letter to Congressman Roouey on, 261 
Barrington, James, statement on inauguration of VOA 

Burmese program, 104 
Bavaria : 

Bavarian Radio, assignment of new broadcasting fre- 
quency to, 171 
Radio transmissions, Soviet Interference, and measures 

to lessen, 700, 769 
Touring northern and eastern borders, article by Cald- 
well (reprint, HICOG Information Bulletin), 166 
Bayar, Celal, President of Turkey, correspondence with 
President Truman, on proposed membership of Turkey 
in NATO, 571, 650 
"Bear that walks like a man," cited by Mr. Jessup, 224 
Beaulac, Willard L., confirmed as U.S. ambassador to 

Cuba, 39 
Belgian Congo 10-year plan discussed (McGhee), 100 
Belgium : 

Claims, filing procedure, 17 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Bell Mi.ssion recommendations, Export-Import Bank to 
discuss grants of credit to Philippines pursuant to, 96 
Bennett, Henry G., Technical Cooperation Administrator : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Iran, rural improvement. 111 
Point Four and engineering (before Natl. Soc. of 

Prof. Engineers), 107 
Point Four Program, 18, 19, 149 
Near East and Asia, visit to, 948 
Berendsen, Sir Carl, statements on tripartite security 
treaty. New Zealand with U.S. and Australia, 148, 495 
Berkner, Lloyd V., author of Science and Foreign Rela- 
tions, 968 
Berlin festival of Coninuini.st youth, 407, 414, 483 
Berry, Burton Y., designation in State Department, 1000, 

1041 
"Big Lie" propaganda efforts of U.S.S.R., discussed, ad- 
dress (Barnard at Williamsburg, Va.), 851 
Biheler, Oto, former Czechoslovak Military and Air At- 
tachd, alleged espionage, State Department comment, 
922 
Bingham, Jonathan H., designation in State Department, 

866 
Bogota charter, U.S. ratification of, 112 
Bohan, Merwin L., appointment to U.S.-Brazil Joint Com- 
mission under Point 4, 157 
Bolivia : 
Economic problems, di.scussed with U.S., 631 
Export-Import Bank loan for tungsten production, 828 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 

1090 



Bolte, Lt. Gen. Charles Lawrence, personal representative 

of President to Ethiopia, 18 
Bonbright, James C. H., comment on departure of jet 

planes for NATO, 208 
Bonds, U.S. savings, for defense. President Truman (San 

Francisco), 415 
Border : 

Czechoslovak-German, killing of German policeman in 
U.S. zone of Germany, text of protest by U.S., 207 
Soviet border, alleged violation by U.S. plane, state- 
ment (Gromyko), 909 n. 
Violations charged by Czechoslovakia, exchange of notes 
with U.S., 12, 417, 418, 421 
Boundary waters between Canada and U.S., measures for 

control of pollution of, authorized, 947 
Brazil : 

Aid from IBRD and Export-Import Bank for reconstruc- 
tion in, proposed, statement (Acheson), 581, 654 
Foreign trade, address (Miller), 950 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Point Four project, 74 
Brazil-U.S. Joint Commission for Economic Development, 

157, 951 
Briggs, Ellis O., Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, note to 
Czechoslovak Foreign Minister requesting release of 
U.S. pilots, 93 
Bruce, David K. E., Ambassador to France, statement 
(over NBC-TV), on collective security in Europe, 490 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German enemy 
assets (1947), U.S. nominees to panel of conciliators 
under, 260 
Budenz, Louis F., testimony against Vincent, cited, 922 
Bulgaria, treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial agreement (1932), notice of termination, 

95, 291, 550, 914 
Peace treaty (1947), violations of human rights and 
military provisions, 867, 987 
Burma, VOA Burmese broadcast inaugurated, statements 

(Barkley, Acheson, and Barrington), 104 
Burrows, Charles R., designation in State Department, 20, 
363 

Cabot, Thomas D. : 

Atlantic pact, implementation, address (at Colgate), 

272 
Designation in State Department, 53 
Caldwell, W. J., article on tour of Bavaria's northern and 

eastern borders, 166 
Cale, Edward G., designation in State Department, 597 
Calendar of international meetings, 21, 228, 393, 437, 551, 

750, 915 
Cambodia (see also Indochina) : 

Minister to U.S. (Nong Kimny), credentials, 7 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
"Campaign of Truth," progress, addresses (Barnard, Bar- 
rett), 851, 903 
Canada : 

Independence, anniversary of (Acheson over NBC), 71 
North Atlantic Council (NAC), 7th session at Ottawa, 

523 
St. Lawrence seaway project, offer for construction by, 

581 
Tariff adjustment, 977 

Department of State Bulletin 



Canada — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Boundary waters (1909), IJC recommendations to 

prevent pollution approved by Canada and U.S., 947 

Extrailition convention, supplementary, with U.S., 

signature, 908 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Tax conventions (1950), estate and income, with U.S., 
entry into force, 909 
Caribbean Commission : 

Housing plan. Point 4 project, 866 
13th meeting, U.S. delegation, 752 
Cartels and monopolies, U.S. draft resolution and ECOSOC 
resolution (Sept. 13), texts, and statement (Lubin), 
590, 595 
Cates, John M., Jr., article on human rights, 1059 
Census, WHO, world, statistics of increase for past 50 

years, 308 
Ceylon, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Chemistry, IGth conference of International Union of Pure 

and Applied, U.S. delegation, 394 
Chicago Trihune, charge of shipment of newsprint to left- 
ist papers abroad, 827 
Chiclien, eviscerated, adjustment in tariff rates on, by 

U.S., 977 
Children, International Conference in Defense of, relation- 
ship to Soviet "peace offensive," 935 
Children, UNICEF, funds for, urged ( Hickerson ) , 632 
Chile : 

Export-Import Bank credit for buying and transporting 

U.S. machinery, 498 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Warships to Antarctica, joint decision with Argentina 
and U.K. to avoid sending, 941 
China : 

Formosa, U.S. policy, address (Rusk at Tacoma, Wash.), 

822 
Round-table discussions on U.S. policy (1949), 607, 

608, 655 
Stassen testimony on U.S. policy toward, statements 
(Acheson, McDermott) and letters (Jessup to Sen- 
ator Sparkman), refuting, 60S, 610, 656, 657, 658 
Tariff concessions to, withdrawal of, by U.S., following 

withdrawal from GATT, 977 
U.S. policy toward : 

Memorandum (Acheson to Jessup, July 18, 1949), 603 
Round-table discussions (1949), question of release of 

transcript to public, 607, 655 
Testimony on 1949-1950 policy (Jessup), 603 
Wallace, Henry A., 1944 mission, documents relating to, 

541 
Yalta agreements, understandings under, testimony 
(Harriman), 377 
China (Communist) : 

Embargo, U.S. report to Additional Measures Commit- 
tee, text, annexes, and statement ((Jross), 54 
Recognition by U.S. and membership in U.N., U.S. atti- 
tude, 606 
Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951), import of furs 

into U.S. denied, 95 
United Nations, representation, statements (Aclieson, 
Austin), 917 

Index, July to December 1951 



Cinematographic Art, International Exhibition of, U.S. 

delegation, 361 
Claims and property (see also Protection) : 
Allied powers in Japan, text of draft property compensa- 
tion law, 429 
Belgium, procedure for filing, 17 

Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
enemy assets (1947), U.S. nominees for panel of con- 
ciliators under, 260 
Convention with Mexico (1941), 10th Mexican payment 

under, 948 
Cultural works, ownership of, U.S. attitude, 345 
Germany, dead line for tiling, 1013 
Japan, Closed Institutions Liquidation Commission, ex- 
tension of time for filing, 01, 860 
Clark, Gen. Mark W., nomination by President as Ambas- 
sador to Vatican, 894 
Clarke, Dr. Hans T., appointment as scientific attach^ at 

London, 234 
Clubb, Oliver Edmund, suspension by Department of State, 

150 
Coal: 

European Coal and Steel Community, sponsorship by 

France, 485 
Export-Import Bank loans to Spain for, 170 
OEEC declaration, text, 487 
Cohen, Benjamin V., alternate U.S. representative to 6th 

session of General Assembly, 680 
Collective Measures Committee: 

Proceedings, 158, 238, 317, 395, 518, 639, 734, 755, 875, 

962, 1027 
Report, statement (Bancroft), article (Sisco), and 
agenda item. General Assembly, 666, 771, 777 
Collective security (see also Mutual aid and defense; 
Mutual Security Program ; North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization) : 
Azores defense agreement, Portugal with U.S., signa- 
ture, 466 
Collective Measures Committee, report, 666, 771, 777 
Collective security, draft resolution, General Assembly, 

text, 1027 
Military assistance agreement, with Yugoslavia, signa- 
ture and text, 863 
Mutual defense, treaty with Philippines, text, signature, 
and remarks (Truman, Quirino, Acheson, and 
Romulo), 335, .394, 422, 423, 424, 620, 823 
Near East, participation, article (Howard), 840 
OEEC, declaration, text, and statement (Acheson), 487 
Security treaty with Australia and New Zealand, draft 
text, signature, and statements (Acheson, Dulles, 
Spender, and Berendsen), 147, 148, 187, 209, 415, 
495, 496, 620, 823 
Security treaty with Japan, draft text, signature, state- 
ments and exchange of notes (Acheson and Yo- 
shida), 187, 463, 464, 465, 620, 823 
Uniting-for-peace resolution, 317, 518, 639, 666, 733, 753, 
772, 803, S75, 962, 1027 
Collective security, addres.ses and statements : 
Acheson on Korean situation, 125 
Allison (at New York), 727 

Anderson (at U. of Minn, and New York), 764, 765, 853 
Austin (at Paris), 936 
Bruce (over NBC-TV), 490 

1091 



CollectiTe security, addresses and statements — Continued 
Dulles (at Cleveland), 975 
Eisenhower (at London), 163 
Hickerson (at New York), 732 
McCloy (at Bremerliaven), 943 
McGhee (at U. of Va.), 177 
Thorp ( at Boston ) , 72S 
Truman (at Arnold Center), 3, 7S 
Webb (at Raleigh, N. C), 579 
Colombia : 

Export-Import Bank loan for shipments of raw cotton, 

828 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Colombo Plan, official beginning (July 1) , 112 
Cominforni bloc, aggressive pressure, charge by Yugoslavia 

in General Assembly, 985 
Commerce Department, texts of orders revoking licenses 
to export to China and orders giving shipping restric- 
tions, 58, 59 
Commercial agreements. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, notice of negotia- 
tions to amend trade agreement (1949) with Vene- 
zuela, 435 
Commodity groups. See Strategic materials. 
Communism : 
Arts, use by Party to disseminate doctrine, 895 
Children, International Conference in Defense of, 935 
China and related areas, U.S. policy, memorandum 

(Acheson to Jessup), 603 
Experiences under, by citizens of North Korean town, 

928 
Hungary, trial of Archbishop Grosz and other Hungar- 
ians, 73 
North Korea, regime in, UNCURK report, 932 
Oatis trial in Czechoslovakia. See Oatis. 
Thought-control doctrine, in U.S.S.R., article in three 

parts, 719, 844, 895 
World Federation of Democratic Women, cited, 935 
World Federation of Trade Unions, cited, 935 
Youth festival, in East Berlin, article (McKee), state- 
ment (Acheson), and article (Cox), 407, 414, 483 
Communism, addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acheson, 7, 46, 251, 414 

Anderson (at U. of Minn, and New York), 767, 857 
Austin (before Veterans of For. Wars and at Paris), 

425, 937 
Barrett (at Hot Springs), 582 
Kirk (at New York), 683 
McGhee (at Northwestern U.), 97 
Snow ( at George Washington U. ) , 790 
Thorp (over NBC-TV), 762 
Truman (at Arnold Center and at Library of Cong.), 

3, 208, 529 
Webb (at Raleigh, N.C.), 579, 767 
Communist-dominated countries, listed, tariff concessions 

denied to, Ijy proclamation, 291 
Communist Party of U.S.S.R., All-Union, theory of thought 

control, 719 
Community feeling and free nations, remarks (Acheson 

over CBS), 610 
Compton, Wilson M., designation in State Department, 597 
Computation Center, International, Conference for Crea- 
tion of (UNESCO), 918 

1092 



Congress : 

Arms, enumeration by the President, in accordance with 
H. J. Res. 306 (76th Cong.), text of proclamation, 
56 
China : 

Policy of U.S. (1949-1950), testimony (Jessup), 603 
Stassen testimony on, statements (Acheson, McDer- 
mott) and letters (Jessup to Senator Sparkman) 
refuting, 608, 610, 656, 657, 658 
Wallace mission (1944), letter from President Tru- 
man to Vice President Barkley, transmitting 
Wallace files, 541 
General Wedemeyer testimony on, correspondence 
(Representative Flood and Deputy Under Secre- 
tary Humelsine), 670 
Ecuadoran President (Plaza), address, 68 
Far Eastern situation, wartime relations with Soviet 
Russia, including Yalta agreements, testimony 
(Harriman), 371 
Foreign Affairs Committee, House, testimony on MSP 

(Harriman), 88 
India, Emergency Food Aid Act, text, 38 
Italy, aid for, address by Prime Minister de Gasperi 

requesting, 566 
Jessup, consideration of nomination as U.S. representa- 
tive to 6th session of General Assembly, 603, 655 
Legislation listed, 39, 208, 745, 788, 873, 923 
Legislation relating to human rights, cited, 1058, 1066 
McMahon-Ribicoff resolution, 87, 144, 226, 294, 296, 297, 

379, 381 
Messages to Congress : 
Lend-lease operations, report, 631 
Migrant agricultural workers from Mexico, 197 
Termination of war with Germany, with draft res- 
olution, text, 90 
U.S. participation in U.N. (19.50), 262 
Mutual Security Program, presentation and testimony 
(Acheson, Harriman, McGhee, Rockefeller), 46, 53, 
88. 209, 213, 328 
Oatis, William N., internment in Czechoslovakia for 

alleged espionage (H. Con. Res. 140), text, 417 
Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, Vincent re- 
quest for hearing, 922 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, signed, state- 
ment (Truman), 16 
Constitution and Declaration of Independence : 
Address (Truman at Library of Cong.), 528 
Preservative measures for, 528 n. 
Constitution and draft international covenant on human 

rights, discussed, article (Gates), 1061 
Consultative Committee on Economic and Social Develop- 
ment in South and Southeast Asia, U.S. part in meet- 
ing at Colombo, 112 
Conventional Armaments, Commission for, statements 
and draft resolution on coordination with Atomic 
Energy Commission, 238, 395, 770, 799, 800, 806, 874, 
889, 1002, 1023, 1042, 1047 
Cooper, John Sherman : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Free all-German elections, U.N. consideration, 1018 
Yugoslavia and U.S.S.R., tensions between, 985 
Appointment as alternate U.S. representative to 6th 
session of General Assembly, 680 

Department of State Bulletin 



Copy right agreements, extension of time for compliance 
witli, pi-oclamations : 
Finland, 8(J-1 
Italy, 1012 
Corliss, James C, designation in State Department, 512 
("osta Rica, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Cotton : 
Export-Import Bank credit to Colombia and Germany 

for, 828, 944 
International meetings on, article (Edmond), 586 
Cotton, International Advisory Committee, 10th plenary 

meeting, 586 
Cotton - Cotton Llnters Committee, 1st meeting, 587 
Council of Europe, cited, 223, 764, 765 
Cowen, Myron M., resignation as Ambassador to Philip- 
pines and appointment as Consultant to the Secretary, 
808 
Cox, Henry B., article on Communist festival of youth, 

Berlin, 483 
Cuba: 

Foreign trade, address (Miller), 950 
Tariff adjustment, 977 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military and naval missions agreements, signed with 

U.S., 436 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Point 4 agreement, exchange of notes, 19 
Cultural activities as a means of thought control in Soviet 

propaganda, 895 
Cultural affairs, Kremlin's campaign in, address (Barrett 

at New York), 903 
Cultural exchange program, Russian, article (Little), 370 
Cultural relations program for Japan, analysis by John D. 

Rockefeller, 3d, 493 
Czayo, George M., designation in State Department, 922 
Czechoslovakia : 

Ambassador (Prochdzka) to U.S., credentials, 416 
Biheler, Oto, former Military and Air Attach^ to U.S., 

alleged espionage, U.S. comment, 922 
Border violations by U.S. and false broadcasts, charges 

of, exchange of notes with U.S., 12, 417, 418, 421 
Killing of German policeman in U.S. zone of Germany, 

text of U.S. note protesting, 207 
Oatis case : 

ECOSOC resolution on rights of news correspondents, 

text, 289 
Espionage laws applicable, text, 285 
H. Con. Res. 140, text, 417 

Proceedings of trial for espionage, and sentence, ex- 
cerpts, 92, 283, 286, 288 
Ambassador ProchSzka, attitude, 416 
"Secret telephone line," Communist propaganda testi- 
mony, 489 
Statements (Stefan, Kotschnig), 284, 289 
Refugee train incident, exchanges of notes with U.S., 

624 
Release of U.S. pilots requested, U.S. note (Briggs to 

Siroky), text, 93 
Sudeten German population in Germany, exchange of 
notes with U.S. on Czechoslovak charges of militar- 
ism, 628 
Tariff concessions under GATT, U.S. request for sus- 
pension, adopted, 829 

Index, July to December J 95 J 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 

U.S. withdrawal of trade concessions to, 290, 291, 621, 
622, 914 

Damages. See Claims; Protection of U.S. nationals and 

property. 
Davies, John Paton, Jr., suspension and clearance by De- 
partment of State, 150, 278 
Declaration of Independence and Constitution: 
Address (Truman at Library of Cong.), 528 
Preservative measures for, 528 n. 
Defense Mobilization, Office of, allocation of goods to 

foreign countries, text, 29 
Defense Production Authority (Thorp), 246 
Denmark : 

Mutual defense efforts, addresses (Anderson), and Con- 
gressional criticism, 653, 696, 700 
Trade-union movement in. discussed, address (Ander- 
son), 855 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement, signed, 432 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., signature, 575 
Greenland, defense agreement with U.S. regarding, 
discussed (Anderson), 654, 697, 765 
Deportations, mass : 

Hungary, statements (Truman, Acheson, Cooper), 208, 

251, 987 
Yugoslavia, charges of deportations from areas in Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania near Yugoslav fron- 
tier, 987 
Diplomatic personnel in U.S.S.R., discriminations against, 

address (Kirk at New York), 681 
Diplomatic representation in Eastern Europe, discrimina- 
tory practices of Cominform states, 987 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials : 
Argentina (Paz), 436; Austria (Kleinwaechter), 1057; 
Cambodia (Kimny), 7; Czechoslovakia (Pro- 
chfizka), 416; Finland (Nykopp), 7; Hungary 
(Weil), 299; Panama (Heurtematte), 655 
Disarmament, Subcommittee on, established by General 

Assembly, completion of work, 953, 957, 1002 
Disarmament Commission for regulation, limitation and 
balanced reduction of forces : 
Draft resolution in General Assembly, text, 889 
Proposal for, tripartite, U.S., France, and U.K., 770, 799, 
802, 806, 807, 874, 889, 920, 954, 962, 1002, 1023, 1042, 
1047 
U.S. attitude, 879 
Disarmament Commission for regulation, limitation and 
balanced reduction of forces, statements : 
Acheson (before General Assembly and at press con- 
ference), 806, 834, 879, 1047 
Au.stin (at Paris), 936 
Gross (over NBC-TV), 1023 
Jossup (at General Assembly), 953 
Truman (over radio hook-up), 799 
Displaced persons. See Refugees and displaced persons. 
Documentary dims, U.S., awards at Venice and Edinburgh 

International Film Festivals, 517 
Documentation, ISth International Conference on, U.S. 
delegation, 516 

1093 



Dominican Republic : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Financial convention witli U.S. (1940), excliange of 

note.s terminating, 299 
Guided missiles tests, territory for, agreement with 

U.S., signature, 948 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 4.59 n. 
Donnelly, Walter, U.S. High Commissioner for Austria : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Austrian state treaty, proposed negotiations, 768 
Remilitarization, Soviet charges, reply to, 691 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Austria, 961 
Double taxation. See Taxation. 
Doyle, Dr. William L., appointment as scientific attach^ 

at Stockholm, 234 
Dreier, John C, statement on U.S. ratification of OAS 

Charter (1948), 34 
Dulles, John Foster: 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Free East and Free West (at Cleveland), 973 
Japanese officials, proposed meetings with, 977 
Japanese peace treaty (over CBS, at San Francisco, 

and at Gatlinburg, Tenn.), 346, 452, 616 
Japanese ratification of peace treaty, 945 
Procedures and principles in preparing treaty, 132 
Russian imperialism (at Detroit), 938 
Security treaty with Australia and New Zealand, 14T 
Soviet charges against Japanese peace treaty, an- 
swer to, 461 
Report on peace settlement with Japan and other Pacific 
treaties, letter to President Truman, 620 
Dunn, James C. (Ambassador at Rome), arrangement with 
Italian Government for movement of U.S. supplies, 
94 

EGA. See Economic Cooperation Administration. 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East. 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 

Business practices, restrictive, U.S. proposal for con- 
sideration by, 277 
Cartel restrictions, U.S. attitude, statement (Lubin), 
with texts of U.S. draft resolution and ECOSOC 
resolution, 590, 595 
Economy, U.S., critical review of, statement (Lubin), 

301 
Elections to, 1002 

Freedom of information, draft convention on, U.S. atti- 
tude, 318 
Freedom of information and rights of correspondents, 

resolution, bearing on Oatis case, 289, 318 
Land reform, resolution on, discussion, 473, 602, 998 
Land-reform problem, statement (Lubin), 467 
Report to General Assembly, and election of members, 

agenda items, 776 
Technical Assistance Board, part in technical coopera- 
tion programs, 518, 996 
13th session, U.S. delegation and proceedings, 230, 239, 
317. .395 
Economic challenge, international, address (Thorp at U. 
of Mich.), 245 

1094 



Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(ECAFE), Trade Promotion, Regional Conference on, 
U.S. delegation, 636 
Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), cited, 

989, 996 
Economic Cooperation Administration (EGA) : 
Africa, aid to dependent territories in (McGhee), 100 
Au.stria, achievements, statement (Donnelly), 692 
Denmark, aid to, address (Anderson), 763 
Freight charges on relief supplies, authorization for 

payment, 146 
Philippines, additional funds requested and cooperation 
with Export-Import Bank in rehabilitation, 96, 260 
Economic measures and Communist aggression, address 

(Thorp over NBOTV), 762 
Economic problems of Bolivia, discussion with U.S., 631 
Economic relations and amity, treaty with Ethiopia, sig- 
nature, 497 
Economic relations between Eastern and Western Europe, 

address (Llnder), 759 
Economy, U.S., review of, statement (Lubin at ECOSOC, 

Geneva), 301 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador: 
Export-Import Bank, credit for Ambato waterworks, 

70 
Manila hemp plantation, RFC examines possibility of, 

70 
President Plaza addresses U.S. Congress, and issues 

joint statement with President Truman, 68 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement, permit granted under, 70 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Edinburgh Film Festival, 5th, U.S. delegate, 361 
Edmond, Lester E., article on International meetings on 

cotton, 586 
Education, Public, 14th International Conference on, 

U.S. delegation, 195 
Education, reforms in universities in Soviet zone of Ger- 
many, 907 
Educational Exchange Program. See International In- 
formation and Educational Exchange Program. 
Educational grants in Federal Republic of Germany, 

HICOG authority over, 669 
Egypt : 

Middle East Command, proposed, invitation to join, 
statement (Acheson), text of Four Power proposal, 
and rejection of, 647, 702 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Point 4 project, 865 

Suez Canal, restrictions on shipping to Israeli ports. 
Security Council proceedings and resolution, text 
(Sept. 1) 239, 396, 479 
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., Supreme Allied Commander, 
Europe : 
Europe, Western, necessity of unity, address (at Lon- 
don), 163 
Jessup, letter to, on cliarges against Jessup, 315 
Elections, free, in Germany. See vnder Germany. 
Elliott, John B., assertions against Secretary Acheson, 397 
El Salvador, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Embargo : 

Communist China : 
General Assembly resolution (Mn.v IS), action of 

Member Governments in accord with, 317, 518 
U.S. report to Additional Measures Committee, text, 
annexes, and statement (Gross), 54 
Furs from Soviet Russia and Communist China, under 
Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951), 95, 291, 
292, 913 
General As.sembl.v resolution (May 18) to meet aggres- 
sion in Korea, 54, 158, 395, 518, 702 
Strategic materials to Soviet bloc countries, 762 
Emmons, Arthur B.. 3d, article summarizing UNCURK 

report on Korea, 927 
Entezam, Nasrollah, Iranian Ambassador, on Korean 

armistice, 78 
Entomology, 9th Congress of, U. S. delegation, 360 
Eritrea : 
Economic provisions for, under Italian peace treaty, 

agenda. General Assembly, 787 
Ethiopia, federation with, 19, 787 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 219 
Point 4 agreement signed, 19 
Espionage. See Czechoslovakia ; Information, freedom of ; 

Oatis ; Rumania. 
Ethiopia : 
Bolte, Charles L., personal representative of President 

Truman, 18 
Federation of Eritrea with, transitional stage, agenda 

item. General Assembly, 19, 787 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 219 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic relations and amity, with U.S., signature, 

497 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Point 4 agreement signed, 18, 149 
Visit of Henry G. Bennett, Technical Cooperation Ad- 
ministrator, 149 
Europe, Council of, 223, 764, 765 
Europe, Eastern and Western, economic relations between, 

address (Linrter), 759 
Europe, Mutual Security Program for. Sec Mutual Se- 
curity Program. 
European Coal and Steel Community, creation by France, 

acceptance by Western Foreign Ministers, 485 
European Defense Community : 
Germany, proposed inclusion in, addresses (McCIoy ) , 63, 
943, 1051 
_ NAC communiques, 523, 952 

P Negotiations, proposed, by Allied High Commission on, 
' 48G 

European Defense Force Plan, sponsorship by France, 485, 

490 
European defense forces, addresses and statements : 
Acheson (press statements and Senate testimony), 170, 

209, 487, 1050 
Anderson (at U. of Minn, and at New York), 763, 856 
Bonbright, on cargo of planes for Europe, 208 
Bruce (over NBC-TV), 490 
Cabot (at Colgate), 275 
Eisenhower (at London), 163 
McCloy (at Frankfort), 253 

Index, July fo December 195? 



European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
(OEEC) : 
Cited, 223, 764 

Control measures for strategic metals, 869 
Declaration, text of, and statement (Acheson), 487 
Production in Western Europe, plan to increase, 947 
European Payments Union, cited, 764, 831 
Evidence of Violations of Human Rights Provisions of the 
7'reaties of Peace hy Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, 
cited, 867 n. 
Ewe problem, Anglo-French resolution in Trusteeship 
Council, text as amended, with statement (Sayre), 
270, 271 
Exchange-of-persons program. See International Informa- 
tion and Educational Exchange Program. 
Executive orders : 

American Samoa, transfer of administration (Ex. Or. 

10264), text, 106 
Mutual Security Act of 1951, administration of (Ex. Or. 

10300), text, 826 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, transfer of admin- 
istration (Ex. Or. 10265), text, 106 
Export-Import Bank : 
Argentina, credit to, 582 

Bolivia, credit to, for tungsten production, 828 
Brazil, loans to, proposed, 581, 654 
Chile, credit to, for acquisition and transportation of 

machinery to, 498 
Colombiii, credit to, for raw-cotton shipments, 828 
Ecuador, credit to, 70 

Germany, credit to, for purchase of raw cotton, 944 
Mexico, credit to, for railroad rehabilitation, 499 
Near East, loans to, discussed in article (Howard), 814 
Philippines, credit to, and cooperation with EGA in re- 
habilitation, 96, 2G0 
Spain, credit to, for coal and wheat, for Spanish Na- 
tional Railway, and for steel and nitrogen produc- 
tion, 170, 298, 498 
Underdeveloped areas, funds for, 990 
Venezuela, credit to, for cement-plant expansion pro- 
gram, 706 
Extradition convention, supplementary, with Canada, 
signature, 908 

Facilitation Division of ICAO, 3d session, U.S. delegation, 

919 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Far East : 

Communism in China and related areas, U.S. policy re, 
memorandum (Acheson to Jessup July 18, 1949), 
603 
Economic Commission for Asia and the (ECAFE), 
Regional Conference on Trade Promotion, U.S. dele- 
gation, G36 
Foreign policy in, address (Rusk at Tacoma, Wash.), 

818, 821 
Indochina, military aid program for, discussions, 570 
Land utilization in tropical areas of, FAO regional 

meeting on, U.S. delegation, 517 
Mutual Security Program (Acheson, testimony), 212 
Wallace, Henry A., documents relating to 1944 mission 
to, 541 

1095 



Far East — Continued 

Yalta agreements on, criticism of, testimony (Harri- 

man), 371 
arben, I. G., shareholders of stoclc, to declare shares, 259 
Farinholt, Dr. L. H., appointment as scientific attach^ 

at London, 234 
Farm youth exchange, 20 
Film Advisory Committee, 1st meeting, 596 
Film Festival, Edinburgh, U.S. delegate, 361 
Films, Soviet propaganda uses, article (Little), 368, 369 
Finance: 

Capital, flow of, important to underdeveloped areas, 

testimony (Rockefeller), 332 
Dollar deficits in Europe (Thorp), 249 
European Payments Union, cited, 764, 831 
Peru, bond arrangements for payment of obligations to 

U.S., statement (Webb), 865 
Underdeveloped areas, economic development of, and 

loans by International Bank, 395, 501, 990 
U.N. forces in Korea, expenditures by ROK, interim 
payment by U.S., 666 
Financial convention, with Dominican Republic (1940), 

exchange of notes terminating, 299 
Finland : 

Choral greeting, recorded, for President Truman, 1013 
Copyright laws of U.S., agreement with U.S. for exten- 
sion of time, proclamation, 864 
Minister to U.S. (Nykopp), credentials, 7 
Fisher, Adrian S., text of preliminary objection filed as 
U.S. agent in Moroccan case, and letters to Interna- 
tional Court of Justice, 179, 982, 984 
Fisheries, Latin American, of FAO, meeting, U.S. delega- 
tion, 555 
Fisheries, North Pacific, convention proposed, 789 
Flood, Rep. Daniel J., letter to Secretary Acheson on Wede- 

meyer testimony, 670 
Flood disaster in Italy, U.S. aid, statement (Webb), 894 
Food and Agriculture Organi/.ation (FAO) : 

Conference of, 6th session, U.S. delegation and state- 
ment on agrarian reform (Hoi>e), 872, 998 
Fisheries, Latin American, meeting, U.S. delegation, 555 
Laud utilization in tropical areas of Asia and Far East, 

regional meeting on, U.S. delegation, 517 
Locust Control, Desert, International Conference on, 

U.S. delegation, 752 
Plant Quarantine Conference, U.S. delegation, 516 
Food supply, world, through "grass-roots" methods, urged, 

577 
Forced Labor, U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on, 79, 639 
Ford, Henry H., designation in State Department, 922 
Foreign Affairs, Graduate Student Summer Seminar on, 

conducted by Department of State, 150 
Foreign affairs, present organization, address by Webb 

(at Raleigh, N.C.), 578 
Foreign Ministers, Council of, invitation (U.S., U.K., and 
France) to U.S.S.R. to meeting in Washington, state- 
ment (Acheson), 16 
Foreign Ministers, Western : 

Adenauer, Konrad, German Chancellor, meeting at 

Paris, 891, 1049 
Declaration, tripartite, and communique (Washington 
meeting), 485, 486 

1096 



Foreign Ministers, Western — Continued 
Termination of war with Germany, statement, excerpt, 

91 
West German sovereignty, quadripartite statement and 
statement (Acheson), 891, 1049, 1050 
Foreign Ministers' Deputies : 
Invitation to Soviet Government, joint declaration, text, 

and statement (Jessup), 14 
Paris meeting, statement (Jessup over NBOTV), 187 
Foreign Ministers of American States, 4th Meeting of Con- 
sultation, cited, 654 
Foreign Service : 

Ambassadors, appointments : 

Austria (Donnelly), 961; Cuba (Beaulac), 39; Iran 
(Henderson), 597; Ireland (Matthews), 235; Leb- 
anon (Minor), 597; Panama (Wiley), 39; Turkey 
(McGhee), 1000; Union of South Africa (Gallman), 
415; Uruguay (Roddan), 597 
Ambassadors, resignations : 

Philippines (Cowen), 80S; Venezuela (Armour), 597 
Clearance of John Paton Davies, Jr., by Loyalty Secu- 
rity Board, 150, 278 
Consular offices : 

Bari, Italy, opening, 713 
Kuwait, Kuwait, opening, 279 
Tripoli, Libya, elevation to Legation, 1057 
Diplomatic missions, elevation to Embassies : 
Katmandu, Nepal, 443 
Vienna, Austria, 833 
Dismissal of John Stewart Service on Loyalty Review 

Board decision, 1041 
Hungarian charges against U.S. Legation answered, 

U.S. note, excerpt, 94 
Policy Committee, termination, 316 
Scientific attaches, appointment to U.K., Sweden, and 

Switzerland, 234 
Suspension of John Paton Davies, Jr., and Oliver Ed- 
mund Clubb, and clearance of Davies, 150, 278 
Formosa, U.S. policy on, address (Rusk at Tacoma, 
Wash. ) , 822 

Fourth of July address, defense of freedom (Truman), 83 
France (see also Allied High Commission; Foreign Min- 
isters, Western) : 
Colonial development in Africa, 100 
Commodity groups, joint statement, 26 
Cultural objects, measures to prohibit export, d-marche 

(1946) with U.S. and U.K., text, 340 
Disarmament, balanced reduction of forces, tripartite 

propo.sal, in U.N., with U.S. and U.K., 770, 799, 802, 

807, 874, 889, 920, 936, 954, 962, 1002, 102^, 1042, 

1047 
Euroi)ean coal and steel community, sponsorship, 485 
Free all-German elections, tripartite resolution with 

U.S. and U.K., text of draft, 1U19 
French Cameroons, administration of, U.S. observation 

of, statement (Sayre), 190 
German Debts, Tripartite Commission on, meetings and 

communiques, 35, 61, 358, 737, 894, 1021 
Human rights, alleged violation in Morocco, agenda. 

General Assembly, 786, 1042 

Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



France — Continued 
Middle East Command : 

Four Power proposal (France, U.K., U.S., and Tur- 
key) to Egj-pt to join, text, and rejection by Egypt, 
647, 702 
Four Power statement, text, 817 
Soviet attitu<le, 1054, 1055 
Morocco, rights of U.S. nationals In, case before Inter- 
national Court of Justice, U.S. objection, texts of 
French observations and submissions on U.S. objec- 
tion, and of correspondence with the Court, 179, 978, 
982 
Paris I'lan, support by Western Foreign Ministers, 485, 

400 
Schunian Plan. See Schuman Plan. 
Togoland, administration of, progress (Sayre), 309 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Peace treaty with Italy (1947) : 

Revision, joint declaration by France, U.S., and 

U.K., and Soviet note in reply, 570, 649 
Trieste, Soviet charge against France, U.S., and 
U.K. of violations of provisions re, 911 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to 
include Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, 
signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 914, 1038, 
1039 
President Truman's message on 2000th birthday of Paris 

(to Pierre de Gaulle), 87 
West German sovereignty, joint statement with West 

Germany, U.K., and U.S., text, 891 
World Federation of Trade Unions, attitude, 935 
Free East and free West, fellowship between, address 

(Dulles at Cleveland), 973 
Freedom of press and Information. See Information, free- 
dom of. 
Friendship, commerce and consular rights, treaty of. See 

under Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty of. See 

under Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Friendship for Soviet peoples (McMahon-Ribicoff resolu- 
tion) : 
Letter forwarding (Truman to Shvernik) and VOA 

broadcast, 87 
Shvernik"s reply and Soviet resolution, 294 
Statements (Truman, Acheson), 296, 297 
Text, 381 

Transmittal of Soviet reply (Truman to Congress), 379 
Withheld from Russian people, discussion, 144, 226 
Frog legs, reduction in tariff on, by U.S., 977 
Frontier incidents. See Border. 

Furs fro u U.S.S.R. and Communist China, import pro- 
hibited, 95, 291, 292, 918 

.Galbraith, Capt. William Jackson, U.S.N. , designation in 

State Department, 279 
Gallman, Waldemar J., appointed Ambassador to Union 

of South Africa, 415 
Gasperi, Alcide de, Prime Minister of Italy: 
Addresses, statements, etc.: 

Aid for Italy, address to Congress, 566 
^ Statues from Italy, 566 

Index, July to December J 95 1 



Gasperi, Alcide de. Prime Minister of Italy — Continued 
Communique, joint, with Secretary Acheson, on mutual 

cooperation, 563 
Visit to U.S., 382 ..i 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. 
General Assembly, 6th session : 

Agenda, and opening session, 732, 770, 775, 834 
Atomic Energy Commission and Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments, proposed merger and U.S. 
draft resolution, 238, 317 
Collective Measures Committee, set up under uniting- 
for-ijeace resolution : 
Proceedings, 158, 238, 317, 395, 518, 639, 734, 755, 875, 

962, 1027 
Reiwrt, article (Sisco), and agenda item, 771, 777 
Disarmament, Subcommittee on, completion of work, 

953, 957, 962, 1002 
Disarmament, tripartite proposals for regulation, lim- 
itation and balanced reduction of forces, draft res- 
olution and statements, 770, 799, 802, 806, 807, 874, 
889, 920, 954, 962, 1002, 1023, 1042, 1047 
Disarmament Commission, for regulation, limitation 
and balanced reduction of forces, to replace Atomic 
Energy Commission and Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments, 889, 962, 1002, 1042 
Human rights and fundamental freedoms, efforts to- 
ward international covenant, article (Gates) and 
statement (Roosevelt), 1059, 1060 
Korea, UNCURK report on, article (Emmons), 927 
OflScers, listed, 1080 
Prisoners of War, Ad Hoc Commission on, proceedings 

of 1st session, 238 
Resolutions : 

Additional measures to meet aggression in Korea 

(May 18). See Embargo. 
Balkan subcommission of Peace Observation Com- 
mission to be established (Dec. 7), 1002 
Disarmament, Subcommittee on (Nov. 30), text, 953, 

957, 962, 1002 
Embargo against Communist China and North Korea, 
to meet aggression in Korea (May 18) , 158, 317, 395, 
518 
Eritrea, federation with Ethiopia (Dec. 2, 1950), 19 
German elections, free, U.N. commission to ascertain 
if proper conditions exist for (Dec. 20), with text 
of draft, 770, 962, 1002, 1018, 1019, 1043, 1081 
Human rights and fundamental freedoms (Nov. 3, 
1950), violation in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Ru- 
mania, 867 
Libya, independence (Nov. 21, 1949), U.S. recogni- 
tion, 19, 1057 
20-year program for peace (Nov. 20, 19.")0), report by 
Secretary-General, agenda. General Assembly, 785 
Uniting-for-peace (Nov. 3, 1950), action of Member 
Governments in accord with, 317, 518, 6;?9, 666, 755, 
772, 803, 875, 962, 1027 
UNSCOB, discontinuance (Dee. 7), 1002 
U.N. Committee on International Criminal Court, 194 
U.N. Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 317 
U.N. goals for peace, address (Acheson), 803, 8.34 
Underdeveloped areas, aid to, text of U.S. draft res- 
olution on financial arrangements, 995, 1003 
U.S. delegation, 514, 680, 735 

1097 



General Assembly, 6th session — Continued 
Xugoslav complaint of hostile activities by U.S.S.R. and 
Cominform countries, 985 
Geneva conventions (1949), instructions to U.N. forces in 

Korea to observe, 189 
Genocide, reservations to convention on, text of advisory 

opinion of International Court of Justice, 784 
Geodesy and Geophysics, 9th General Assembly of Inter- 
national Union of, U.S. delegation, 229 
Germany: 
Adenauer, Konrad, Chancellor of German Federal Re- 
public, meeting with Western Foreign Ministers, 
891, 1049 
Allied High Commission, correspondence with Chancel- 
lor Adenauer on conditions for all-German elections, 
694, 695 
Allied High Commission, proposed negotiations on Ger- 
man part in European Defense Community, 486 
Anniversary, 2d, of Federal Republic, messages (Ache- 
son, McCloy), 488 
Claims, dead line for tiling, 1013 
Czechoslovak citizens, flight to U.S. zone, exchanges 

of notes, U.S. and Czechoslovakia, 624 
Debts, Tripartite Commission on German, meetings and 

texts of communiques, 35, 61, 358, 737, 894, 1021 
Ecmxomic Review, Monthly, 255, 436 
Educational grants, HICOG authority over, 669 
Elections. See Free all-German elections, infra. 
European Defense Community, German share in : 
Addresses (McCloy), 63, 253, 943, 1051 
Declaration and communique of Western Foreign 
Ministers, 485, 486 
Exchange-of-persons activities, 825 
Export-Import Bank, credit for purchase of raw cotton, 

944 
Free all-German elections. General Assembly resolution 
setting up U.N. commission to ascertain conditions 
for, 770, 962, 1002, 1018, 1019, 1043, 1081 
Exchange of letters (Adenauer and HICOM), with 

chronology, 694, 695 
Statements (Austin, Cooper), 892, 893, 1018 
GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 17, 491, 829 
Killing of German policeman, text of U.S. note to Czecho- 
slovakia protesting 207 
Merchant marine vessels, exchange of notes between 

U.S. and U.S.S.R. on distribution of, 254 
NATO, relationship, NAC communique, 523 
Organization chart, 62 
Polish Repatriation Mission, withdrawal from U.S. zone, 

exchange of notes, Poland and U.S., 172, 173 
Radio, Bavarian, Soviet interference, statements by 

HICOG, 171, 700, 769 
Radio Stuttgart, establishment of "artists' fund," 10.53 
Refugees, problem in, letter (President Truman to 

Queen Juliana), 701 
Sovereignty, quadripartite statement and statement 

(Acheson), 891, 1049, 1050 
Soviet policy, objwtive of, address (McCloy), 252 
Sudeten Germans in, exchange of notes, U.S. and Czech- 
oslovakia, on Czech charges of U.S.-lnspired mili- 
tarism, 628 
Sulphur Committee of IMC, representation, 277 

1098 



Germany — Continued 
Tariff law for, entry into force, 491 
Termination of war with, message from President Tru- 
man to Congress, with text of draft resolution and 
proclamation, 90, 769 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, meetings, texts 
of communiques, and U.S. appointment (Pierson), 
35, 61, 358, 737, 894, 1021 
U.S. Army training area in Bavaria, proposed enlarge- 
ment, text of letter (Gration to Frenzel) answering 
protest, 207 
U.S. attitude, address (McCloy at Bremerhaven), 942 
U.S. shareholders of I. G. Parben stocks, to declare 

shares, 259 
U.S. zone, cultural objects dispersed during World War 

II, restitution of, 337, 345, 1011 
U.S. zone, violation by Czechoslovak aircraft, request 
for investigation ignored, U.S. note (Briggs to 
Siroky), text, 94 
West Berlin festival, 1951, article by Keefe, 292 
Western Europe, integration with. See European. 
supra. 
Germany, Soviet zone : 

Communist festival of youth, in East Berlin, article 
(McKee), statement (Acheson), and article (Cox), 
407, 414, 483 
Interference with Bavarian Radio, measures taken, 700, 

769 
University reforms in, HICOG report, 907 
Glick, Philip N., designation in State Department, 234 
Gomez Ruiz, Louis E., Venezuelan Foreign Minister, re- 
quests negotiations of changes in trade agreement 
(1939), 17 
Graham, Frank P., U.N. representative for India and Paki- 
stan : 
Report and statement on demilitarization of Kashmir, 

738, 740, 754, 958 
Visit to India and Pakistan, 278, 638 
Gration, Eric G. (HICOM), letter to Dr. Erich Frenzel of 
Bavaria in answer to protest over proposed enlarge- 
ment of U.S. Army training area, 207 
Greece : 

Aid under Truman d(x;trine, results of, 175, 812 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 214, 218 
North Atlantic Treaty, question of accession to, NAC 
communique, text of protocol, and correspondence 
(Truman and Venizelos), 523, 571, 650, 841 
Report to U.N. by UNSCOB, on guerrilla movement, ref- 
ugees, etc., with recommendations, article (How- 
ard), 531 
Reports of UNSCOB, Secretary-General, and Red Cross, 

agenda. General Assembly, 777 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with U.S., 

signature, 261 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
U.S. aid to, article (Howard), 812 
Greenland, U.S. defense agreement, cited, 654, 697, 765 
Gresens, Cpl. Paul J., exchange of notes with U.S.S.R., on 

murder of, 861, 862 
Grindle, Nan L., article re international meetings on wool, 
116 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Gromyko, Andrei, statements on Korean armistice, and on 
alleged violation of Soviet border by American plane, 
78,909 n. 
Gross, Ernest A., deputy U.S. representative to U.N. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Demilitarization of Kashmir, 958 
Disarmament, tripartite proposals, 1023 
Embargo against Communist China, 54 
U.N. and U.S. (at U. of Va.), 183 
Appointment as alternate U.S. representative to 6th ses- 
sion of General Assembly, 680 
Grosz, Archbishop, trial by Communists in Hungary, 73 
Gruber, Karl, Austrian Foreign Minister, treaty negotia- 
tions, note requesting, 768 
Guam, membership in South Pacific Commission, 914, 1038, 

1039 
Guatemala : 
Nursing workshop in Guatemala City, opened under aus- 
pices of Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 146 
Peace treaty vpith Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Guided missiles tests, territory for, agreement with 
Dominican Republic, signature, 948 

Hackworth, Green, reelected as U.S. member of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice, 1002 
Hague convention, laws and customs of war on land 

(1907), cited, 345 
Haiti, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Hall, Ardelia R., article on recovery of cultural objects 
dispersed during World War II, with appendixes and 
illustrations, 337, 340, 341 
Hall, Graham R., designation in State Department, 402 
Harriman, W. Averell : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Departure for Iran, 130 
Testimony on MSP, 88 
Director, Mutual Security Agency, confirmation, 680 
Iranian oil controversy, exchange of messages with 

Prime Minister Mosadeq, 547, 548 
Operation Wise Men, cited, 686 

President Truman's personal representative in Anglo- 
Iranian oil controversy, 129, 130, 131 
Soviet Union, wartime relations with, Including Yalta 

agreements, testimony, 371 
Special North Atlantic Council Committee, appointment 
as U.S. representative, 572 
Health (see also World Health Organization) : 

Mental Health Congress, 4th International, U.S. dele- 
gation, 1040 
Nursing workshop in Guatemala City, opening, 146 
Hemp (manila), possibility of Ecuadoran plantation, 70 
Henderson, Loy W., appointed Ambassador to Iran, 597 
Herrington, William C, designation in State Department, 

234 
Heurtcraatte, Roljerto M., credentials as Panamanian Am- 
bassador, 655 
Hickerson, John D., Assistant Secretary for U.N. Affairs : 
Collective security, address (at New York) , 732 
Funds for UNICEF urged, testimony, 6.H2 
HICOG. See High Commissioner for Germany, U.S. ; 

McCloy. 
HICOM. See Allied High Ommission for Germany. 

Index, July to December 195? 



High Commissioner for Germany, U.S. (see also McCloy), 

German educational grants, authority over, 669 
Highway Congress, 5th Pan American, U.S. delegation, 

636 
Hilton, Howard J., article on Hungary and Soviet eco- 
nomic imperialism, 323 
History Teaching Seminar, U.S. delegation, 196 
Honduras, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 459 n. 
Hope, Clifford R., statement on agrarian reform, 998 
Hospital, Red Cross field, nonmilitary, Italian contribu- 
tion to Korean war, 960 
Hospital units, for Korea, agreements with Sweden and 
Norway on logi-stical support and financing of, 75, 530 
Howard, Harry N., articles on U.N. and Greece, with 
UNSCOB recommendations and chronology, and on 
U.S. policy in Near East (1945-1951), 531, 809, 839 
Hulten, Charles M., appointment as chief European repre- 
sentative of IE, 234 
Human rights : 
Activities in U.S., legislation in the several States and 

in Congress (1950), chart, 1079 
Article (Gates), 1059 

Asylum from persecution for displaced persons, legisla- 
tion relating to, cited, 1068 
Congress, legislation relating to, cited, 1058, 1066, 1079 
Soviet denial of, address (Acheson before General As- 
sembly), 806 
Statement (Mrs. Roosevelt), 1059 
U.S. courts, cases relating to, cited, 1067 
Human rights, draft international covenant on, article 
(Gates) and statement (Mrs. Roosevelt), on U.N. 
proceedings, 396, 1059 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of, cited, 1059, 1060 
Human rights, violations of: 
Czechoslovakia. See Oatls case. 
Hungary : 

Communist trial of Archbishop Grosz and 8 other 

Hungarians, 73, 94 
Mass deportations, statements (Truman, Acheson, 
Cooper), 208, 251, 987 
Morocco. See Morocco. 

Peace treaties (1947), with Rumania, Hungary, and 
Bulgaria, violations of human rights and of mili- 
tary provisions, 987 
Rumania, freedom of press and publication, evidence 

of violations submitted to U.N., 867 
Rumania, Hungary, and Bulgaria, mass deportations 
from areas near Yugoslav border, charges by Yugo- 
slavia, 987 
U.S.S.R., practices in, address (Acheson before Gen- 
eral Assembly), 806 
Humelsine, Carlisle H., Deputy Under Secretary : 
Correspondence : 

Representative Flood, on Wedemeyer testimony, with 

enclosures, 671 
Senator McCarthy, on State Department loyalty pro- 
gram, 233, 315 
McCartliy allegations against loyalty of State Depart- 
ment employees, statement, 314 
Hungary : 

Agreements, secret, with U.S.S.R. (1947), 327 
Charges against American Legation and suppression of 
human rights, U.S. note, excerpt, 94 

1099 



Hungary — Continued 

Communist trial of Archbishop Grosz and 8 other Hun- 
garians, 73, 94 

Crown of St. Steplien, held in trust by U.S., 345 

Deportations, mass, statements (Truman, Aeheson, 
Cooper), 208, 251, 987 

Freedom of press and publication, violation of, U.S. 
evidence, 867 

Informational activities, U.S., curtailed, 94 

Minister (Weil) to U.S., credentials, 299 

Soviet economic imperialism in, article (Hilton), 323 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights (1925), 

modification or termination, 95, 914 
Peace treaty (1947), violations of human rights and 
military provisions, 867, 987 

U.S. Legation, note replying to charges against, 94 

lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American ECOSOC. 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 
IE. See International Information and Educational Ex- 
change Program. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
IMC. See International Materials Conference. 
Immigration : 
Agricultural workers from Mexico, agreement, entry 
into force, message to Congress and statement (Tru- 
man), 197, 199, 336 
Migration, 2d Conference on, U.S. delegation, 635 
India : 
Appointment of Willson as director of technical coop- 
eration, 961 
Kashmir, dispute with Pakistan: 

Demilitarization of, report and statement to Secu- 
rity Council (Graham), resolution (Nov. 10), text. 
and statement (Gross), 738, 740, 754, 835, 958, 959 
Official visit of U.N. representative Graham, 278, 638 
Peace with Japan, refusal to participate, exchange of 

notes with U.S. on, 385, 387 
Point 4 project by American Friends Service Committee 

in India, 76 
Relief supplies, transportation of, agreement with U.S., 

signature, 146 
South Africa, treatment of Indians in, proceedings of 

U.N. Committee, 778, 1081 
Sulphur Committee of IMC, representation, 277 
U.S. "India Emergency Food Aid Act of 1951," text, and 
amendment re freight charges, 38, 146 
Indochina (see also Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam) : 
Military aid program for, discussed, 570 
U.S. policy on, discussed (Rusk at Tacoma), 822 
Indonesia, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 833 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Industrial property. See Copyright. 

Industrial Technology, U.S. Mission for Exchange of, dis- 
cussed, article (Rudolph), 968 
Information, freedom of: 

Convention on, ECOSOC <lraft, U.S. objections, state- 
ments (Kotschnig. Lubin), 318, 504, 509, 577 
ECOSOC resolution on protection of correspondents' 
rights (Aug. 15), text, 289 

1100 



Information, freedom of — Continued 

Hungary, suppression of, and subseriuent decrease in 
U.S. informational activities, U.S. note, excerpt, 94, 
867 
Oatis, William N., trial in Czechoslovakia for espio- 
nage, 92, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 416, 417, 489 
Radio, interference by U.S.S.R. and charges by Czecho- 
slovakia of false broadcasts, 12, 419, 421, 700, 769 
Rumania, violation of, evidence submitted to U.N., 867 
Information, U.N. Special Committee on, U.S. delegation, 

554 
Information, U.S. Advisory Commission on, advisory com- 
mittees, 596 
"Infrastructure" program of airfields, communications, 

and installations, agreement of NAC on, 524 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 707 
Inter-American Cultural Council, 1st meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 515 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council (lA- 
ECOSOC) : 
Appointment of U.S. deputy representative, 512 
Hemisphere problems, address (Miller). 475 
2d special meeting, U.S. delegation, 360 
Interior, Secretary of the, texts of executive orders trans- 
ferring administration of American Samoa and Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands to, with statement 
(Truman), 105 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD) : 
Address by President Truman, 501 
Loans to Brazil, proposed, 581, 654 
Underdeveloped areas, funds for, 395, 501, 990 
International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), 
funds for (Truman, letters to Congress), and testi- 
mony (Hickerson), 313, 632 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 
Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division, 5th session, 

U.S. delegation, 668 
Chart and map catalog, trilingual, publication, 219 
Facilitation Division of, 3d session, U.S. delegation, 

919 
Legal Committee, 8th session, U.S. delegation, 516 
South American/South Atlantic Air Navigation Meet- 
ing of ICAO, U.S. delegation, 788 
International Computation Center, Conference for Crea- 
tion of (UNESCO), 918 
International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC), 10th 

plenary meeting, article (Edmond), 586 
International Court of Justice : 

Iranian oil controversy, text of provisional measures for 

modus vwendi indicated, 176, 585, 638 
Morocco, rights of American nationals in : 

Correspondence with France and U.S. on, 982 
French observations and submissions, text, on U.S. 

objections, 978 
Preliminary objection filed by U.S., text, 179 
South-West Africa, advisory opinio^ on status, 781, 1003 
International Criminal Court, U.N. Committee on, appoint- 
ment of George Maurice Morris, 104 
International Documentation Conference, ISth, U.S. dele- 
gation, 516 
International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art, U.S. 
delegation, 361 

Department of State Bulletin 



InternatiiiMal Farm Youth Exchange Program, U.S. dele- 
gation, 20 
International Information and Educational Exchange Pro- 
gram (IE). See also Voice of America. 
Appointment of Charles M. Hnlten as chief European 

representative, 234 
"Campaign of Truth," addresses (Barrett, Barnard), 

S.51, 903 
Educational exchange activities: 

Australia, S.J4; Denmark, 432; Iraq, .336; Japan, -132 
Exchange-of-persons activities : 

Authority for signature of working agreements, 637 
Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundestag approval of, 
825 
Farm Youth Exchange, American delegation, 20 
B'ulbright Act, U.S. students awarded foreign scholar- 
ships, 20 
Hungary, suppression of freedom of information, and 
subsequent decreases in U.S. activities in, U.S. note, 
excerpt, 94 
Poland, termination of U.S. Information Service in, 298, 

6.51, 652 
Press and Publications A<1\ isor.v Committee, establish- 
ment and 1st meeting, 316 
Private Enterprise Cooijeration, Office of, opening of 

New Orleans unit, ]0,"> 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, 
report, extract, 235 
International .Joint Commission (IJC), boundary >vaters, 
measures recommended to prevent pollution of. ap- 
proved by Canada and U.S., 947 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Labor, Forced, Ad Hoe Committee on, 639 
Manpower Techniial Conference. Asian, U.S. delegate, 
1040 
International Law Commissicm. report of 3d session, 

agenda. General As.sembly, 784 
International Materials Conference (IMC) : 
Achievements (IMC press release), 868 
Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee, copper and zinc alloca- 
tions, 634 
Cotton-Cotton Linters Committee. 1st meeting, article 

(Edmond), 587 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee, nickel and cobalt 

allocations, 665 
Organization and background : 
Addresses (Thorp, Jliller), 247, 476, 729 
Articles (Armstrong, Grindle). 23, 116 
Pulp-Paper Committee : 
Allocations, cited, 828 
Japan, representation, 277 
Kraft pulp and dis.solving pulp, 361 
Newsprint, 3d allocation, 596 
Sulphur Committee : 
Allocations, 194, 711 
Germany and India, representation, 277 
Shortages, with tables showing, 870 
Ticoulat, Gabriel J., appointment as U.S. representa- 
tive to central group, 665 
Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee : 

Conclusions and recommendations, 192 
Distribution, 3d and 4th quarters (1951), 301, 731 
Increase in 4th quarter (1951) allocations, 960 

Index, July to December 1951 

904605—52 3 



International meetings. .S'cr Calenilai- ol inlernntional 

meetings. 
International Monetary Fund, address by President Tru- 
man, 501 
International Penal and Penitentiary Commission, ter- 
mination and transfer to U.N., 7!t, 358 
International Press and Publications, Division of, charges 

at-'ainst by Frank Stout, statement (Barrett), 669 
International Refugee Organization (IRO) : 
Executive Committee, 10th session, U.S. delegation, 712 
General Council, 8th session, U.S. delegation, 712 
Report, agenda. General Assembly, 780 
Tribute by General Ridgway for .services in Korea, 306 
International Telecommunication Uni(m, Radio Confer- 
ence, Extraordinary Administrative. U.S. delegation, 
359 
International Tin Study Group. 6th meeting, U.S. delega- 
tion, 515 
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 16th 

conference of, U. S. delegation, 394 
International Wheat Council, 7th session, U.S. delegation, 

752 
International Wool .Study Group, article (Grindle), 116 
Intervention in internal affairs of other states: 

Soviet charge against JIutual Secuiity Act (1951) and 

U.S. reply, 910. 921, 1010, 1042, 1056, 1081 
ILS. iliarge against Soviet threats to Middle East states, 
10.56 
Iran : 

Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 214, 218 
Oil controversy in. See Iranian oil controversy. 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 46(1 n. 
Point 4 contracts for rural improvement, with Utah 

colleges, and for water supply. 111, 1016 
Soviet interest in, article (Howard), 810 
U.S. aid to, article (Howard), 812 
U.S. Ambassador (Henderson), appointment, 597 
U.S. pilot accidentally killed, stalement (Bennett), 71 
Warne, William E., appointment as director of U.S. 
technical cooperation program in, 8.33 
Iranian oil controversy : 

Correspondence (Truman and Mosadeq, and Harriman 

and Mosadeq), 72, 129, 130, 547, 548 
Discussions in U.S. with I'rime Minister Mosadeq, U.S. 

attitude, 864 
Harriman, W. Averell, personal repre.sentative of Presi- 
dent Truman, 129, 130, 131 
Internationa! Court of Justice, text of provisional 
measures indicated re oil controversy before, 176, 
585, 638 
Security Council proceedings on failure of Iranian Gov- 
ernment to comply with measures of International 
Court of Justice, 615, 746, 754 
Suspension of negotiations, 382 

U.K. request for U.N. action, U.K. letter to Security 
Council, with texts of draft resolution and of state- 
ment l)y International Coiirt of Justice, 584, 5S5 
Iranian oil controversy, addresses and .statements: 
Concern over situation (Acheson), 73 
Oil problem in the Middle East (McGhee), 131, 612 
Security Council consideration, reason (Austin), 615, 

746 
Solution, hope for (Truman), 382 

1101 



Iraq, treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Educational exchange, with U.S., signature, 336 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Ireland : 

FrieniLsliip, cniunierce and navigation treaty, with U.S. 

(1950), discussed, 1058 
U.S. Aniba.ssador (Matthews), appointment, 235 
IRO. See International Refugee Organization. 
Iron Curtain : 

Tour of iiaiulets lying near, article (Caldwell), 166 
Transmitter project, new, for penetration of, address 
(Barrett iit licit .Springs), •"),S2 
Israel (see also Palestine) : 

Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 215, 217, 

218 
Restrictions imposed by Egypt on use of Suez Canal, 
Security Council proceedings, and text of Security 
Council resolution (Sept. 1), 239, 396, 479 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic assistance agreement, with U.S., exchange 

of notes, 1015 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty with 
U.S., signature, 382 
Italy : 

Aid from U.S., address by Prime Minister de Gasperl to 

U.S. Congress requesting, 566 
Altarpiece, Monte Cassino, returned, 1011 
Flood disaster in, U.S. aid, statement (Webb), 894 
German-owned libraries in, U.S. attitude toward, 345 
Hospital, Red Cross field, nonmllitary, for Korea, 960 
Policy of U.S. tiiwnrd Trieste. rc:iltirm.-ition ( McDer- 

mott), 131 
Prime Minister ( de Gasperl ) , visit to U.S., 382, 563 
Statues to U.S. from, dedication, 436, 564, 565, 566 
Supplies for U.S. forces in Europe, arrangement for 

movement of, 94 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyright laws of U.S., agreement with U.S. for ex- 
tension of time, proclamation, 1012 
Friendship, commerce and navigation treaty with 
U.S. (1948), agreement supplementary to, signa- 
ture and text, 568 
GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 832 
Peace treaty (1947) : 

Eritrea, economic provisions for, agenda. General 

Assembly, 787 
Joint declaration by U.S., France, and U.K., for re- 
vision of, and exchange of notes, U.S. and Italy, 
486, 570, 1011, 1050 
Soviet reply to joint declaration by U.S., U.K., and 

France for revision, 648, 649 
Trieste, Soviet charges of violations of provisions 
for. by U.S.. U.K.. iind France, and U.S. state- 
ment, 911, 912 
U.N. niemliership, proposed, .'i70. 1011. 1022. 10S;2 
U.S. Consulate at Barl opened, 713 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union. 

Jago, John W., designation in State Department, 922 
Jammu and Kashmir, State of. See Kashmir under India. 
Japan (.see also Treaty of peace with Japan) : 

Claims against closed institutions, extension of time, 
61, 860 



Japan — Continued 
Cultural relations with U.S., analysis by John D. RocKe- 

feller, 3d, 493 
Future of, economic and political, address (Allison), 

724 
Land reform in, statement (Lubin), 470 
Overseas agency at Washington, established, 225 
Property compensation law. Allied Powers, text of draft, 

and relation to Japanese peace treaty, 429 
Pulp-Paper Committee of IMC, representation, 277 
Soviet maneuver for, address (Dulles at Cleveland), 

974 
Soviet participation against in World War II, testimony 

( Harriman), 377 
Takeuchi, Ryuji, statement on deposit of Instrument of 

ratitication of peace treaty by Japan, 945- 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, income and estate, conventions with 

U.S., proposed, 864 
Educational exchange, memorandum signed, 432 
Peace treaty with Allied Powers. See Treaty of peace 

with J'apan. 
Security treaty with U.S., statements and exchange of 
notes (Acheson and Toshida), signature, and text, 
187, 463, 464, 465, 620, 823 
VOA broadcast program for, 428 

Toshida, Shigeru, Prime Minister, exchange of notes 
with General Ridgway on treaty, 383 
Japanese Government overseas agency at Washington, 

establishment, 225 
Jessup, Philip C. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Democracy and freedom (at Colgate), 220 
Disarmament Conmiission proposal, French, U.K., and 

U.S., 953 
Foreign Ministers' Deputies, meetings at Paris (over 

NBC-TV), 187 
Programs f(.T strength against Communism (before 

Carnegie Endowment), 573 
Soviet noncooperation in CFM Deputies' meetings at 
Paris, 14 
Allegations of Senator McCarthy against, 436 
Appointment, recess, as U.S. representative to General 
Assembly, consideration by Congress, of nomina- 
tion, and statement (Truman), 603, 655, 736 
China, policy of U.S. (1949-1950), testimony, 603 
Defense of, letter (Eisenhower), 315 
Stassen charges re China, letter to Senator Sparkman, 
with enclosures, 657, 658, 659 
Jet planes for NATO, statement (Bonbrlght), 208 
Johnson, U. Alexis, appointment as Deputy Assistant 

Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, 1000 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Commission, cited, 581 
Jordan, assassination of King Abdullah, U.S. messages of 

condolence, texts, 171 
Joy, Vice Adm. Charles Turner, chief U.N. delegate to 
Korean armistice negotiations : 
Correspondence and statements, texts, 357, 389, 441, 1035 
U.N. defensive positions, maintenance of, statement, 393 
U.N. representative to Korean armistice meetings, 79 
Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, letter to President 
Truman on assimilation of refugees, 572 



1102 



Department of State Bulletin 



Kansas, lluod victims in, U.K. offer of aid to, 165 
Kashmir. See under India. 

Keefe, William, article on West Berlin festival, 292 
Keesing, Felix M., statement, on signing of agreement to 

extend scoiie of SoHth Pacific Commission, 1038 
Kellogg Pact, cited, 956 
Kennedy, Donald D., designation in State Department, 

597 
Kingsley, J. Donald, agent general of UNKRA, visit to 

Korea, 264 
Kirk, Alan G., Admiral, Ambassador at Moscow : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Armistice negotiations in Korea, 687 
Soviet Union, life in (at New York). 681 
Kleiuwaechter, Dr. Ludwig, credentials as Austrian Am- 
bassador, 1057 
Kohler, Foy D., address on Russian-American relations 

(at Columbia U.), 8 
Korea : 

Additional forces for, request for, and contribution by 
Australia, Denmark, Italy, and Norway, 53, 530, 
634, 654, 960 
Atrocities, charges, letter (Austin to Lie), 189 
Civilian specialists in, tribute to (Ridgway), 305 
Collective action in, article (Sisco), 771 
Collective security in, analyzed (Acheson), and ad- 
dress (Hickerson), 125, 733 
Communist aggression in, addresses (Gross, Rusk), 185, 

818 
Communist attack on Republic of, anniversary, state- 
ments (Acheson, Muccio), 7 
Currency made available to U.S. forces in, payment 

by U.S., 666 
Danish contribution of hospital ship Jutlandia, 654 
Eighth Army, tribute to, remarks (Acheson on U.N. 

Day), 722 
Embargo on shipments to People's Republic of China : 
General Assembly resolution (May 18), action of 

Member Governments in accord with, 317, 518 
U.S. report to Additional Measures Committee, text, 
annexes, and statement (Gross), 54 
GATT, accession to, 17 

Hospital, Red Cross field, Italian contribution to, 960 
Hospital units, agreements by Sweden and Norway 
with U.S. on logistical support and financing of, 
75, 530 
Land reform in, UNCURK report, 933 
Military strength, urgency of, address (Thorp), 245 
Policy in, discussed in communique (Truman and 

Pleven), 243 
Raw materials, effect on world markets of Korean war, 

25 
Soviet attack on U.N. plane, communication (Austin to 

Lie), 909 
Soviet obstructionism, cited, addresses (Acheson, Aus- 
tin, Gross), 184, 425, 805, 834 
Unified Command, agreement with UNKR.X regarding 

relief operations, 232 
U.N. Command Operations, 21st through 29th reports 
(May 1 through Sept. 15), 30, 1.55, 265, 267, .303. 
510. 708. 1028. 1031 
U.N. Command troops, investigation of conduct by neu- 
tral body urged (Austin to Lie), 190 



Korea — Continued 
U.N. Commission for the Unification and Rehabilita- 
tion of Korea (UNCURK) : 
Relations with UNKRA, with Republic of Korea, and 

with U.N. Command. 934 
Report to General Assembly, article, 777, 927, 932 
U.N. forces in Korea, summary, and financial agreement 

signed with U.S. (19.50), cited, 667, 733 
U.N. Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) : 

Agreement with U.N. Unified Command regarding re- 
lief operations, 232 
Appointments (Hall and Lubin) to Advisory (Commit- 
tee for, 402 
Operations, 264 
Relations with UNCURK and with Republic of Korea 

and U.N. Command, 934 
Report, agenda, General Assembly, 779 
Van Fleet, Lt. Gen. James A., statement on summer 
campaign in, 589 
Korea, North : 

Communism, experiences under, by citizens of, 928 
Communist regime in, UNCURK report, 9.32 
Korean armistice proposals and negotiations : 

Communist commanders and delegates to meetings, cor- 
respondence, etc. See Correspondence, infra. 
Correspondence, documents, broadcasts, etc., 43, 151, 
188, 231, 268, 306, .356. 389. 439, 479, 513, 556, 588, 
633, 667, 1035 
Joy, Vice Adm. Charles Turner, chief U.N. delegate, 
correspondence and statements, texts, 357, 389, 392, 
441, 1035 
Neutrality, violation of, charges against U.S. : 
Communist protests, texts, 391, 392 
Letter (Joy to Nam U) and summary of enclosures, 

389, 390 
Refutation (Joy), 441 
Statements (Ridgway, Truman), 390. 391 
U.N. statement, text, 392 
Proposals, texts, 43, 78 

Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B., U.N. Commander, announce- 
ments, statements, and messages, texts, 43, 44, 152, 
231, 269, 306, 390. 439. 479, 513, 556, 557, 588, 634, 
667, 668 
Soviet attitude, as expressed by Malik and Gromyko, 
U.N. discussion of, text and discussion by Gromyko 
and U.N. members, 45, 78, 90 
Suspension of peace talks, text of statement (Ridgway) , 

390 
Truce talks, analysis of, statement (U.N. Command), 

787 
U.N. defensive positions, maintenance until settlement, 

statement (Joy), 393 
U.N. representatives, 79 
Vyshinsky, statement, 688 
Korean armistice proposals and negotiations, statements: 
Foreign forces in, withdrawal of (Acheson), 188 
Frei' world, defensive strength, address (Truman), 415 
Military, not political, issues (Kirk). 687 
Mutual Security Program, testimony (Acheson), 209 
Soviet tactics, address (Aehescn at General Assembly), 

805, 834 
U.S. position, address (Rusk), 820 



Index, July to December 1951 



1103 



KotschniK, Walter : 

Comments on Oatis case, 289, 318 

Freedom of information, draft convention, statement of 
U.S. attitude, 318, 504, 509 
Kuwait, Kuwait, U.S. Consulate opened, 279 

Lnbor, Forced, Ad Hoc Committee on, 79, 639 

Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization. 
Labor, role in U.S. foreign policy, address (Anderson), 

855 
Lacy, Dan Mabry, designation in State Department, 597 
Land reform : 
ECOSOC recommciid.itions, agenda. General Assembly, 

779 
ECOSOC resolution (Sept. 7), discussed, 473. 662, 998 
FAO, regional meeting on, Ceylon, 517 
In Korea, UNCURK report, 9.33 
Statement ( Lubin at ECOSOC), 467 
Trusteeship Council, special committee on, 1025 
Land-tenure Problems, Wi'rkl, Conference on, statement 

(Acheson) and address (Thorp), 660, 661 
Laos (see also Indochina), peace treaty with Japan, 

signed, 460 n. 
Lattimore. Owen, China mission, 1944, discussed in letter 

(Wallace to Truman), 541 
Law Commission. International, report of 3d session, 

agenda. General Assembly, 784 
Leather, chamois, withdrawal of reduction in tariff on, 

under GATT, 828 
I^ebanon : 

Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
U.S. Ambassador (Minor), appointment, 597 
Legal Committee of ICAO, 8th session, U.S. delegation, 516 
Lek, Dr. Louis, appointment as scientific attach^ at Bern, 

234 
Lend-lease : 

Report, 32d, text of President's message transmitting 

to Congress, 631 
Settlement, status with various countries, 631 
Settlement, with Mexico, payment of installment dis- 
cussed, 260 
Vessels in U.S.S.R., texts of notes (Acheson) urging 
return of, 145 
Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan, assassina- 
tion, 702 
Liberia : 

Mutual Security I'rogram, proposed part in, 219 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Librarians, Professional, Regional Conference of 
(UNESCO), on the Development of Public Libraries 
in Latin America, 635 
Libya : 

Consulate General at Tripoli elevated to Legation, 1057 
Independence, General Assembly resolution, 19 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 219 
Point 4 agreement signed, 19 
Reports of Secretary-General and U.N. Commissioner 

in, agenda. General Assembly, 778 
U.S. recognition, messages (Truman and Acheson), 1057 
Licenses for export to China, Hong Kong, etc., orders by 
Commerce Department revoking, 58 



Lie, Trygve, Secretary-General of U.N., armistice in 

Korea, excerpt of message, 78 
Linder, Harold F., address on economic relations between 

Eastern and Western Europe, 759 
Literature, Soviet control of, doctrine of thought control, 

895 
Little, Alan M. G., article on Soviet propaganda machine, 

367 
Locust Control, Desert, International Conference on 

(FAO), U.S. delegation, 752 
Locust-infested areas of Pakistan, Point 4 project, 466 
Loftness. Dr. Robert L., appointment as scientific attach^ 

at Stockholm, 234 
Loftus, John A., address on unity in Middle East (Windsor. 

Ont.), 703 
Lof)ted property : 

Cultural objects, measures to control and prohibit ex- 
port, d-marche (1946), between U.S., U.K., and 
France, text, 340 
Cultural objects dispersed during World War II, re- 
covery of, article (Hall) with illustrations and press 
statement, 337, 340, 341, 345 
Loyalty. See under State Department. 
Loyalty Review Board of CSC, findings in regard to loyalty 

of John Stewart Service, 1041 
Lubin, Isador : 

Appointment to Advisory Committee for UNKR.\, con- 
firmation, 402 
Freedom of information, draft convention, U.S. objec- 
tions, statement, 509 
Land-reform problem, statement at ECOSOC, 467 
Luxembourg, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 

McCarthy, Senator Joseph, allegations against loyalty of 

Department employees, 314, 436, 791 
McCloy, John J., U.S. High Commissioner for Germany : 
Address, statements, etc. : 

Germany, objective of Soviet policy (at Frankfort), 

252 
Germany. U.S. attitude (at Bremerhaven), 942 
Germany and Europe (before Wtirttemberg-Baden 

Landtag), 1051 
Germany's integration with Western Europe (at 
Washington), 63 
Germany, 2d anniversary of Federal Republic, message 
to President Heuss, 488 
McDaniel, Bruce, designation in State Department, 833 
McDermott, Michael J. : 
Address, statements, etc. : 

Stas.sen testimony on U.S. iwlicy toward China, 608, 

610 
Trieste, policy of U.S. reafiirmed, 131 
McGhee, George C, Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, 
South Asian and African Affairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Africa and the Free World (at Northwestern U.), 97 
Iranian oil controversy (over NBC-TV and at Okla- 
homa City), 131, 612 
Middle East, U.S. policy toward (at U. of Va.), 174 
Mutual security in Near East (at Atlantic City), 643 
Near East and Africa, barrier to aggression, testimony, 
213 
Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, 1000 



1104 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



McKee, Ruth E., article on Berlin festival of youth, 407 
McMahon-RibicofC resolution. See Friendship for Soviet 

peoples. 
Malaya, Federation of: 

Tin industry, invitation to U.S. to observe, 581 
VOA Mala.van broadcast inaugurated, statements (Ache- 
son, Barkley, and Rusk), 102 
Malik, Jacob A., excerpt from U.N. broadcast and discus- 
sion by U.N. members of statement on Korean truce, 
45, 78, 90 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of IMC, nickel and 

cobalt allocations, 665 
Manpower Technical Conference, Asian, of ILO, U.S. 

delegate, 1040 
Mansfield, Michael J. : 

Mutual Security Act (1951), denial of Soviet charge 
of interference in internal affairs of other countries, 
1010, 1081 
Underdeveloped areas, aid to, statements, 989, 994 
U.S. representative to 6th session of General Assembly, 
680 
Manufactured goods, allocation (Thorp at U. of Mich.), 

248 
Marshall, Gen. George C, on departure of Harriman for 

Iran, 130 
Marshall Plan : 

Benefits, discussed, address (Anderson), 857 
Cited, 698, 942 
Matthews, Francis P., appointed Ambassador to Ireland, 

235 
Mental Health, 4th International Congress on, U.S. dele- 
gation, 1040 
Merchant, Livingston T., appointment as special assistant 
to the Secretary (for Mutual Security Affairs), 1000 
Merchant Marine Commission, Tripartite (TMMC), 
recommendations (1947) for distribution of German 
merchant marine vessels, Soviet demand, 254 
Meteorological Organization, World, Executive Committee, 

2d, U.S. delegation, 637 
Mexico : 

Economic status, address (Miller), 950 
Export-Import Bank credit for rehabilitation of rail- 
ways, 499 
Lend-lease settlement, payment of installment, dis- 
cussed, 260 
Migrant agricultural workers in U.S., illegal entry of, 
message from President Truman to U.S. Congress, 
197 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Agricultural workers, immigration of, agreement with 
U.S., entry into force and statement (Truman), 
199, 336 
Claims convention (1941), 10th payment under, 948 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Point 4, exchange of notes, 67 

TV frequency channels, agreement with U.S., ex- 
change of notes, 865 
Middle East, policy of U.S. toward, address (McGhee, at 

U. of Va.) 174 
Middle East Command: 

Desirability of, discussed, article (Howard), 842 
Membership, proposed, listed, 1054 
Principles, Four Power statement, text, 817 

Index, July to December 7957 



Middle East Command — Continued 

Proposals to Egypt, by U.S., U.K., France, and Turkey, 
and rejection by Egypt, text and statement (Ache- 
son), 647, 702 
Soviet attitude, exchange of notes, U.S.S.R. and U.S., 
1054, 1055 
Middle East unity, address (Loftus at Windsor, Ont.), 

703 
Migrant workers from Mexico, illegal entry of, 197, 199, 

336 
Migration, 2d Conference on, U.S. delegation, 635 
Military aid and defense, Indochina, discussions, 570 
Military mission agreements, signed with Venezuela and 

Cuba, 300, 436 
Miller, Edward G., Jr., Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs, addresses, statements, etc. : 
Hemisphere economic problems (at lA-ECOSOC), 475 
Trade, inter-American (before Va. Trade Conf.), 949 
Minor, Harold B., appointed Ambassador to Lebanon, 597 
Missouri, flood victims in, U.K. offer of aid to, 165 
Mokma, Gerald A., Charge d'Affaires, U.S. note answering 

charges against American Legation, in Hungary, 94 
Monopolies and cartels, ECOSOC resolution and statement 

(Lubin), 590, 595 
Morocco : 

French violation of human rights in, item proposed by 
Egypt and others, agenda. General Assembly, 786, 
1042 
Rights of American nationals in, case before Inter- 
national Court of Justice, texts of U.S. preliminary 
objection, of French observations and submissions 
on U.S. objection, and of correspondence with the 
Court, 179, 978, 982 
Morris, George Maurice, apptiinted U.S. representative on 
U.N. Committee on International Criminal Court, 194 
Morris, Lawrence S., designation in State Department, 234 
Morrison, Herbert, U.K. Foreign Secretary, attendance at 
Washington meeting of Western Foreign Ministers, 
485 
Mosadeq, Mohammad, Prime Minister of Iran : 
Discussions in U.S., on Iranian oil controversy, 864 
Exchange of messages with President Truman and 
Harriman on oil controversy, 72, 129, 130, 547, 548 
Motion pictures and music, Soviet regulation of, under 

thought control, 898 
Muccio, John J., Ambassador to Korea, statement on 

anniversary of Communist aggression in Korea, 7 
Music, Soviet doctrine of thought control, 900 
Mutual aid and defense (see also Collective security) : 
Danish concern at Congressional criticism, 700 
Ecuadoran President (Plaza) and President Truman, 

joint statement, 68 
Guided missiles tests, territory for, agreement with 

Dominican Republic, signature, 948 
Middle East Command, 174, 647, 702, 817, 842, 1054, 1055 
Mutual defense, treaty with Philippines, text, signature, 
and remarks (Truman, Quirino, Acheson, and 
Romulo), .335, 394, 422. 4L'3, 424, 620, S2:i 
Raw-material shortages, relation to, 731 
Sauili Arabia, agreements signed, 1,50 
Schuman Plan, sTipport for, and French ratification of 
treaty, statement (Acheson), 253, 485, 490, 705, 941, 
1013, 1050 

1105 



Mutual aid and defenst^ — Continuwl 

Security treatj', tripartite, with Australia and New 
Zealand, signature, draft text, and statements 
(Aciieson, Dulles, Spender, and Berendsen), 147, 
148, 1S7, 299, 415, 495, 496, 620, 823 

Security treaty with Japan, signature, text, statements, 
and exchange of notes (Acheson, Toshida) , 187, 463, 
464, 465, 620, 823 
Mutual aid and defense, addresses and statements : 

Denmark, participation in (Anderson), 653, 696 

Eluropean efforts (Anderson), 855 

Germany, integration with Western Europe (McCloy), 
63, 943, 1051 

Middle East (McGhee), 174 

Middle East Command (Acheson), 647 

Mutual Security Program, testimony (Acheson), 46, 209 

NATO, jet planes for ( Bonbright ) , 208 

Near East, mutual security in (McGhee), 643 

Near East and Africa, barrier to aggression, testimony 
(McGhee), 213 

Soviet expansion, defense against (Acheson), 204 

Spain, strategic Importance to Western Europe (Ache- 
son), 170 
Blutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, military assist- 
ance agreement, with Yugoslavia, signature and text, 
863 
Mutual Security Act of 1951 : 

Administration of (Ex. Or. 10300), 826 

Economic assistance agreement, with Israel, exchange 
of notes, 1015 

Interdependence of military and economic strength, 946 

Signature, statement (Truman), 646 

Soviet charge of U.S. a,trsression and interference in 
internal affairs of other countries, 910, 921, 955, 
1042, 1081 

U.S. reply to Soviet charge, statements (Mansfield, 
Vorys) and note, 1010, 1056 

Yugoslavia, military and economic aid under, and signa- 
ture of military assistance agreement, 826, 863 
Mutual Security Agency (MSA), confirmation of W. 

Averell Harriman as director, 680 
Mutual Security Bill, funds for migration of refugees pro- 
posed, 702 
Mutual Security Program (MSP) : 

Congress, presentation to (Departmental Announce- 
ment 125), text, 53 

Greece, proposed part in, 214, 218 

Middle East, economic and military aid, address 
(McGhee), 177 

Near East, address (McGhee at Atlantic City), 643 

Near East, recommendations for, article (Howard), 840 

Palestine refugees, request (Truman) to Congress for 
funds for, 259 

Philippines, economic aid to, 96 

South Africa, military equipment, 825 

Testimony before Congressional Committees (Acheson, 
Harriman, McGhee, Rockefeller) , 46, 53, 88, 209, 213, 
328 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council. 

NATO. Sec North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

Naval mission agreement, signed with Cuba, 436 

1106 



Near East : 

Barrier to aggression, testimony (McGhee), 213 
Mutual security in, address (McGhee at Atlantic City), 

643 
Technical Cooperation Administrator (Bennett), visit 

to Asia and, 948 
U.S. policy toward (1945-51), article (Howard), 809, 
839 
Nepal, U.S. mission at Katmandu, elevation to Embassy, 

443 
Netherlands : 
Refugees, assimilation of (Queen Juliana, letter to 

President Truman), 572 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to 
include Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific Is- 
lands, signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 
914, 1038, 1039 
News, English-language publication of U.S.S.R. : 
Attitude of U.S. toward, 171 

"Peace offensive" articles in, U.S. challenge (Barrett, 
NBC-TV), 250 
Newsprint : 

Allocation by IMC, 596, 828 

Shipments to leftist papers, refutation of charges, 827 
New Zealand, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Security treaty, tripartite, with U.S. and Australia, 
signature, draft text, and statements (Acheson, 
Dulles, Spender, and Berendsen), 147, 148, 187, 299, 
415, 495, 496, 620, 823 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to in- 
clude Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, 
signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 914, 1038, 
1039 
Nicaragua, peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Nong Kimny, Minister of Cambodia to U.S., 7 
North American regional broadcasting draft agreement 

(NARBA), article (Smith), 113 
North Atlantic Council (NAC), 7th session, Ottawa: 
Communique, Council statement, and statement and ad- 
dress (Acheson) 276, 523, 524, 525, 526 
Greece and Turkey, NATO membership proposed, text 

of protocol for, 650 
Special North Atlantic Council Committee, appointment 

of Harriman as U.S. representative, 572 
U.S. delegation, 514 
North Atlantic Council, 8th session (Rome), U.S. delega- 
tion, and communique, 918, 952 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). See also 
European defense. 
Agreement for defense of Greenland, U.S. and Denmark, 

cited, 654, 697, 765 
Azores, integration into defense plans of, 406 
Germany, Federal Republic of, inclusion. Western For- 
eign Ministers' declaration and communique, 485, 
486 
Greece and Turkey, membership, NAC communique, 
text of protocol for, correspondence (President 
Truman with Prime Minister Venizelos and Pres- 
ident Bayar), and article (Howard), 523, 650, 651, 
571, 841 

Department of State Bulletin 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) — Continued 
"Infrastructure" program of airfields, communications, 

and installations for, NAC communique on, 524 
Italian cooperation in, movement of U.S. supplies, 94 
Nonaggressive purpose of, 910 

Treaty on juridical status of armed forces signed, state- 
ment (Spofford), 16 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, addresses and state- 
ments : 
Acheson (at press conferences, Detroit, Ottawa, and be- 
fore General Assembly), 170, 204, 526, 803, 1049 
Anderson (at Washington and New York), 696, 859 
Bonbright, 208 
Bruce (over NBC-TV), 490 
Cabot (at Colgate), 272 
Eisenhower (at London), 163 
Jessup (at Colgate), 222 
McGhee (at Atlantic City), 643 
Spofford (over NBC-TV), 276 
Webb (before Int. Productivity Mission), 946 
North Korea. See Korea, North. 

North Pacific fisheries convention, proposed, U.S. delega- 
tion to negotiations, 789 
Norway, treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, income and estate, conventions with 

U.S. (1949), ratification, 1014 
GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 146 
Hospital unit, mobile surgical, for Korea, agreement 

with U.S. for logistical support of, 530 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Nursing workshop in Guatemala City, opening, 146 
Nykopp, Johan Albert, credentials as Minister of Finland 
to U.S., 7 

OAS. See Organization of American States. 
Oatis, William N., espionage charges by Czechoslovakia : 
Czechoslovak laws applicable, text, 285 
ECOSOC resolution on protection of correspondents' 

rights, text, 289 
H. Con. Res. 140, te.xt, 417 

Proceedings of trial for espionage, and sentence, ex- 
cerpts, 92, 283, 286, 288 
Ambassador Prochilzka, attitude, 416 
"Secret telephone line" testimony, Communist propa- 
ganda, 489 
Statements (Stefan, Kotschnig), 284, 289 
OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for. 
Oil, controversy in Iran. See Iranian oil controversy. 
Operation Wise Men, cited, 686 

Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC). See European Economic Cooperation, Or- 
ganization for. 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 

Appointment of Burrows as alternate to U.S. repre- 
sentative to Council of OAS, 20 
Financing of nursing workshop in Guatemala City, 146 
OAS Charter (1948), U.S. ratification, statements 
(Dreier, Truman), 34, 112 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of: 
Administration, transfer of, statement (Truman) and 
Ex. Or. 10265, texts, 105, 106 

Index, July to December 1951 



Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of — Continued 

South Pacific Commission, membership in, 914, 1038, 
1039 
Pakistan : 
Kashmir, dispute with India. See under India. 
Official visit of F. P. Graham, U.N. representative, 278, 

638 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Point 4 project, locust-infested areas, spraying, 466 
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, assassination, mes- 
sage of condolence from President Truman, 702 
Palestine : 

Palestine Refugee Program, U.N. : 
Discussed (McGhee), 216 

Funds for, letter (Truman to Congress), requesting, 
259 
U.N. Conciliation Commission for, 317, 639, 778 
U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees 
in Near East, report, agenda. General Assembly, 
778 
U.S. and U.N. contributions to refugee programs, 216 
U.S. policy toward, article (Howard), 839 
Palestine Refugee Agency (PRA), refugees, reintegration 

into Near Eastern countries (McGhee), 217 
Pan American Highway Congress, 5th, U.S. delegation, 636 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, nursing workshop in 

Guatemala City, sponsorship, 146 
Pan American Sanitary Organization (PASO) : 

Executive Committee, 14th and 15th meetings, U.S. dele- 
gation, 554 
5th session, U.S. delegation, 554 
Panama : 
Ambassador (Heurtematte), to U.S. credentials, 655 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Paraguay : 

Land reform in (Lubin), 471 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Paris Plan, support of, 485, 490 
Paz, Hipolito J., credentials as Argentine Ambassador to 

U.S., 436 
Peace, policy for, address (Truman at Winston-Salem), 

679 
Peace, prospects for, address (Austin at Paris), 9.36 
Peace Observation Commission (POC), to establish a 
Balkan subcommission under General Assembly reso- 
lution, 1002 
"Peace offensive" by U.S.S.R. : 
Challenged (Barrett over NBC-TV), 250 
Discussed (Acheson), 171 

Relationship of International Conference in Defense of 
Children to, 935 
Peace through U.N., 20-year program for, report of Secre- 
tary-General, agenda. General Assembly, 785 
Peace treaty with Japan. Sec Treaty of peace with Japan. 
Penal and Penitentiary Commission, International, U.S. 

delegation to, final meeting, 119 
Peru : 
Bond arrangement for payment of ol)ligations to U.S., 

statement (Webb), 865 
Member.ship in U.N., presentation of proof, agenda, Gen- 
eral Assembly, 786 
Point 4 project, 707 

no7 



Peru — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GAIT, Torquay protocol, signature, 17, 493, 631, 829 
Peace treaty witli Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Petroleum Convention, Venezuelan National, U.S. delega- 
tion, 516 
Philippines : 
Economic aid program (1951), implementation of U.S. 

note, 96 
Rehabilitation of, cooperation of Export-Import Banli 

and ECA in, 260 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, accession to, 17 

Mutual defense, treaty with U.S., text, signature, and 
remarks (Truman, Quirino, Acheson, and Romulo), 
335, 394, 422, 423, 424, 620, 823 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
U.S. Ambassador (Cowen), resignation, 808 
U.S. policy on, address (Rusk at Tacoma, Wash.), 822 
Physics, International Union of Pure and Applied, 7th 

General Assembly, U.S. delegation to, 119 
Pierson, Warren Lee, U.S. representative, Tripartite Com- 
mission on German Debts, 35, 737 
Plant Quarantine Conference of FAO, U.S. delegation, 516 
Plaza, Galo, President of Ecuador, address to Congress, 

and joint statement with President Truman, 68 
POC. See Peace Observation Commission. 
Point 4. See under Technical cooperation programs. 
Poland : 

Friendship, commerce and consular rights treaty with 

U.S. (1931), modification or termination, 96, 913 
Polish Repatriation Mission, withdrawal from U.S. zone 
in Germany, exchange of notes with U.S., 172, 173 
Polish Research and Information Service in New York, 

closing, 298, 651, 652 
U.S. Information Service, closing, exchange of notes 
with U.S. on, 298, 651, 652 
Policy Committee, Foreign Service (FSPC), termination, 

316 
Polish-language broadcasts over VOA, from Munich, 653 
Portugal, Azores defense agreement, with U.S., signature, 

466 
Poultry Congress, 9th World, U.S. delegation, 195 
PRA. See Palestine Refugee Agency. 
Press. See Information, freedom of. 
Press, Soviet propaganda uses, article (Little), 368 
Press releases, listed, 279, 319, 363, 408, 443, 478, 517, 559, 
598, 637, 675, 713, 749, 895, 833, 873, 923, 961, 1001, 1041, 
1080 
Prisoners of war : 
Korean, discussed (Jessup), 955 

U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on, appointment of members, 
79 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, Office of, opening of New 

Orleans unit, 105 
Prochfizka, Dr. Vladimir, credentials as Czechoslovak 
Amba.ssador, remarks, and attitude toward Oatis case, 
416 
Proclamations : 
Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, enumeration 

by the President, text, 56 
Copyright e.xtension to Italy, text, 1012 
Germany, termination of state of war with, text, 769 

1108 



Proclamations — Continued 

India Emergency Food Aid Act, implementation, text, 37 
Trade-agreements concessions to U.S.S.R. and satellites, 

withdrawal, text, 291 
U.N. Day ( 1951 ) , text, 500 
Pi'opaganda machine, Soviet, article (Little), 367 
Property. See Claims; Protection. 

Protection of U.S. nationals and property (see also 

Claims) : 

Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 

enemy assets (1947), U.S. nominees for panel of 

conciliators under, 260 

Czechoslovakia, release of U.S. pilots requested, U.S. 

note (Briggs to Siroky), text, 93 
ECOSOC resolution on protection of correspondents' 

rights (Aug. 15), text, 289 
Germany, holders of I. G. Farben stock to declare shares, 

259 
Japan, text of draft Allied property compensation law, 

429 
Morocco, rights of U.S. nationals in, proceedings before 
International Court of Justice, 179, 786, 978, 982, 
1042 
Oatis case. See Oatis. 

Travel of American citizens to Czechoslovakia pro- 
hibited, 93 
Psychological Operations Coordinating Committee, 36 
Psychological Strategy Board established (Presidential 

directive), 36 
Publications : 

Aftermath of Munich, October 1938-March 1939, vol. iv, 
series D, of Documents on Oemian Foreign Policy, 
191S-19!,5, 558 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1934, vol. n, 

Europe, the Near East, and Africa, released, 74 
Lists : 

Congress, 208, 381, 500, 599, 611, 674 
State Department, 279, 313, 363, 494, 583, 795, 984, 
1017 
United States Participation in the United. Nations, 262 n. 
U.S. Treaty Developments, 6th series, 236 
Pulliam, Eugene, charges of shipments of newsprint to 
leftist papers, 827 

Quirino, Elpidio, President of the Philippines, remarks 
at the signing of the mutual defense treaty with U.S., 
423 

Quirino-Poster agreement (1950), implementation of, U.S. 
note to Philippine Government, text, 96 

Radio (see also Telecommunications; Voice of America) : 
Bavaria, Soviet interference in transmission, and meas- 
ures to lessen, 700, 769 
Bavarian Radio, assignment of new broadcasting fre- 
quency to, 171 
Czechoslovak charges of false broadcasts, 12 
Europe, Radio Free, prote.sts by Czechoslovakia against 

use of Czech and Slovak languages, 419, 421 
Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference of ITU, 

U.S. delegation, 359 
North American Regional Broadcasting agreement, be- 
fore Senate, 113 

Department of State Bulletin 



Radio — Continued 

South Germany, establishment of fund for needy artists, 

1053 
Soviet propaganda uses, article (Little), 368, 369 
Radioisotope export program, enlargement by Atomic En- 
ergy Commission, 181 
Railway rehabilitation in Mexico, Export-Import Bank 

credit for, 499 
Raw materials. See International Materials Conference ; 

Strategic materials. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, notice of nego- 
tiations on changes in trade agreement with 
Venezuela, 435 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), soil survey, 

for abacil plantation in Ecuador, 70 
Red Cross. See under Italy ; Sweden. 
Red Cross Societies, Leasue of, tribute (Ridgway) for 

services in Korea, 306 
Refugees and displaced persons (see also International 
Refugee Organization) : 
Arab refugees, 177, 217 
Assimilation of, correspondence (Queen Juliana and 

President Truman), 572, 701 
Asylum from persecution, U.S. legislation, cited, 1068 
Convention and protocol on status of, discussed, article 

(Warren), 502 
Convention relating to status of stateless, report by 
Secretary-General, agenda. General Assembly, 786 
Czechoslovak citizens, flight to U.S. zone in Germany, 

exchanges of notes with Czechoslovakia, 624 
Funds for, proposed, under Mutual Security Bill, 702 
Greece, UNSCOB interest in, article (Howard), 533 
Palestine : 

Funds for, letters (Truman to Congress), 259 
Reintegration program and costs, 216 
Report, agenda. General Assembly, 778 
Polish, in U.S. zone in Germany, exchange of notes with 

Poland, 172, 173 
U.N. conference at Geneva to draft convention on status 
of refugees and protocol on status of stateless per- 
sons, article (Warren), 61, 79, 502 
U.N. High Commissioner for, report, agenda. General 
Assembly, 780 
Repatriation mission, Polish, in U.S. zone of Germany, ex- 
change of notes with Poland regarding withdrawal, 
172, 173 
Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B., Commander in Chief, U.N. 
Command : 
Announcements, statements, and messages in Korean 
armistice negotiations, texts, 43, 44, 152, 231, 269, 
306, 390, 439, 479, 513, 556, 557, 588, 634, 667, 668 
Civilian specialists in Korea, tribute to, 305 
Correspondence with Japanese Prime Minister (Yos- 
hida) on Japanese peace treaty, 383 
Road Federation, International, part in Point Four proj- 
ect, 111 
Rockefeller, John D., 3d, analysis of cultural relations 

program for Japan, 493 
Rockefeller, Nelson, testimony on Mutual Security Pro- 
gram, 328 
Roddan, Edward L., appointed Ambassador to Uruguay, 
597 

Index, July to December 7957 



Romulo, Carlos P., remarks on signing of mutual defense 

treaty with U.S., 424 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., understandings at Yalta with 
Churchill and Stalin, testimony by W. Averell Harri- 
man, 371 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D. : 
Human rights, statement, 1059 

U.S. representative to 6th session of General Assembly, 
680 
Round-table discussions on U.S. policy toward China 

(1949), 607, 608, 655 
Rudolph, Walter, article on science and foreign iwllcy, 

967 
Rumania : 

Deportations, mass, from areas near Yugoslavia, alleged, 

987 
Freedom of press and publication, violation of, U.S. 

evidence submitted to U.N., 867 
Spy charges against U.S., exchange of notes with U.S., 

1056, 1057 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Commercial agreement with U.S. (1930), termina- 
tion, text of U.S. note, 95 
Peace treaty (1947), violations of human rights and 
military provisions, 867, 987 
Rusk, Dean, Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Far East, foreign policy (Tacoma, Wash.), 818, 821 
VOA, Malayan program inaugurated, 103 
Russell, Francis H., Director, Otflce of Public Affairs, 
address. International Farm Youth Exchange pro- 
gram, 20 
Russian Imperialism, address, Dulles (at Detroit), 938 

Safety of life at sea, international convention (1948), 

entry into force, 1017 
St. Lawrence seaway project, Canadian offer to construct, 

581 
San Francisco Conference. See Treaty of peace with 

Japan. 
Saudi Arabia, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Dliahran Airfield agreement, with U.S., signature, 150 
Mutual defense assistance, with U.S., signature, 150 
Peace treaty with .Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Sayre, Francis B., U.S. representative in Trusteeship 

Council : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Ewe question, amendment to Anglo-French resolution, 
270 

French Cameroons, administration of, 190 

Somaliland, U.S. views on problems, 32 

Togoland, British and French, progress, 309 

Trusteeship Council, report, 1024 
SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Powers). See 

Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B. 
Schuman, Robert, French Foreign Minister, attendance 

at Washington meeting of Western Foreign Ministers, 

485 
Schuman Plan, support for, 253, 485, 490, 765, 941, 1013, 

1050 
Science Adviser, OflSce of, establishment and duties, 969 
Science and foreign policy, article (Rudolph), 967 

no9 



Scientific advancement in U.S.S.R., Government control of, 

discussed, article, 845, 849 
Security. See Loyalty and security program under State 

Department. 
Security, alleged espionage by Oto Biheler, former Czecho- 
slovak military and air attach^. State Department 
comment, 922 
Security Council : 

Elections to, 1002, 1042, 1081 

Iranian oil controversy, statement of competence of 

(Austin), 746 
Kashmir, reixirt and statement by U.N. representative 

for India and Pakistan (Graham), 738, 740, 754 
Report to General Assembly and election of members, 

agenda items, 776 
Resolutions : 

Demilitarization of State of Jammu and Kashmir, 

continuation of efforts for (Nov. 10), 8.35, 959 
Suez Canal, Egyptian restrictions on shipping to 
Israeli ports, text, (Sept. 1), 479 
Security Program, Mutual. See Mutual Security Program 
Security treaties with : 
Australia and New Zealand, draft text, signature, state- 
ments (Acheson, Dulles, Spender, and Berendsen), 
and U.S. delegation, 147, 148, 187, 299, 415, 495, 496, 
620, 823 
Japan, text, signature, exchange of notes, and state- 
ments (Acheson, Toshlda), 187, 463, 464, 465, 620, 
823 
Service, John S., dismissal on Loyalty Review Board de- 
cision, 1041 
Sheppard, William J., designation in State Department, 

20 
Short, Joseph, atomic explosion by U.S.S.R. (second), 

statement, 611 
Shvernik, Nikolai Mikhailovitch, letter to President Tru- 
man on friendship resolution, 294, 379 
Sisco, Joseph J., article on report of Collective Measures 

Committee at 6th session of General Assembly, 771 
Smith, Marie L., article on North American regional broad- 
casting draft agreement (NARBA), 113 
Snow, Conrad E., address on loyalty program, 790 
Somaliland, U.S. views on problems, statement (Sayre), 

32 
South Africa, Union of: 
Military equipment for, under Mutual Security Pro- 
gram, 825 
South-West Africa, question in U.N. of status, 1003 
South American/South Atlantic Regional Air Navigation 

Meeting of ICAO, U.S. delegation, 788 
South Pacific Commission : 
8th session, U.S. delegation, 753 

Six Power agreement, to include Guam and Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands, signature, state- 
ment (Keesing), and text, 914, 1038, 1039 
South-West Africa : 
International Court of Justice, implementation of ad- 
visory opinion, agenda. General Assembly, 781 
Question in U.N. of status, 1003 
Soviet bloc countries, economic pressure on, address 
(Linder), 759 



Spain : 

Export-Import Bank, credit and loans for coal and 

wheat, for Spanish National Railway, and for steel 

and nitrogen production, 170, 298, 498 

Strategic importance of, to defense of Western Europe, 

statement (Acheson), 170 

Spender, Percy C, security treaty, tripartite, Australia 

with U.S. and New Zealand, statement, 147, 496 
Spofford, Charles M. : 
Activities as U.S. deputy on NAC, 571, 651 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Juridical status of armed forces, signature of agree- 
ment by NAT governments, 16 
NATO progress (over NBC-TV), 276 
Sports, international, and Soviet propaganda, address 

(Walsh), 1007 
Stassen, Harold E., policy of U.S. re China, testimony, 

608, 656, 657, 658 
State Department : 
Allegations by John B. Elliott against Secretary Ache- 
son, memorandum refuting, 397 
Appointments : 

Allison, John M., as Acting Assistant Secretary for 

Far Eastern Affairs, 1000 
Cowen, Myron M., Consultant to the Secretary, 808 
J'ohnson, U. Alexis, as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 

Far Eastern Affairs, 1000 
Merchant, Livingston T., as special assistant to the 
Secretary, 1000 
Biheler, Oto, former Czechoslovak Military and Air At- 
tach*?, alleged espionage, comment, 922 
Disloyalty charges against John Paton Davles, Jr., clear- 
ance of, 150, 278 
Employees, devotion to duty, remarks (Acheson), 714 
Graduate Student Summer Seminar on Foreign Affairs, 

150 
Libraries and Institutes, Division of, OflSce of Educa- 
tional Exchange, abolished, 234 
Loyalty and security program : 

Letters and statement (Humelsine) to Senator Mc- 
Carthy, 233, 314, 315 
Service, John Stewart, dismissal on findings of 

Loyalty Review Board of CSC, 1041 
Support of Jessup in allegations by Senator McCar- 
thy, 436 
Suspension of John Paton Davles, Jr., and Oliver 
Edmund Clubb, and reinstatement of Davles, 150, 
278 
Vincent requests hearing before Senate subcommit- 
tee, 922 
Loyalty Security Board, description, address (Snow), 

790 
Number of employees, 791, 889 
Overseas Information Centers, Division of (ICD), Office 

of Educational Exchange, established, 234 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, Office of, opening of 

New Orleans unit, 105 
Science Adviser, Office of, duties, 969 
Statues from Italy, addresses (Truman, Acheson, De 
Gasperi) on dedication, 436, 564, 565, 566 



1110 



Department of State Bulletin 



steel : 

European community for coal and steel, sponsorship by 
France, 485 

OEEC declaration, text, 487, 488 

Production of, in Spain, Export-Import Bank credit, 498 
Stefan, Representative Karl, address (over VOA) on 

Oatis trial. 284 
Stout, Frank, charges against INP, statement (Barrett), 

669 
Strategic materials : 

Africa's deposits of. discussed (McGhee), 97 

Coal. European situation, 170, 487 

Coal and Steel, European Community, sponsorship by 
France. 48.5 

Copper and zinc allocations of Copper-Zine-Lead Com- 
mittee, of IMC, 634 

Cotton, International Advisory Committee, 10th plenary 
meeting, article (Edmond). 586 

Cotton-Cotton Linters Committee, 1st meeting, article 
(Edmond), 587 

Embargo on, to Soviet bloc countries, 762 

Europe, natural resources (OEEC declaration), 487 

Far East, .sources of, statement (Acheson), 51 

Free world's needs, address (McGhee), 614 

Germany, efforts to restrict export, statement (McCloy), 
66 

Germany and India, represented on Sulphur Committee 
of IMC, 277 

Hemp plantation in Ecuador, possible RFC project, 70 

lA-ECOSOO, discussion of lncrea.sed production (Mil- 
ler), 476 

International Materials Conference, efforts to correct 
short supply, joint statement. U.S., U.K.. France, 
and other statements. 23. 26, 116. 247. 729, 868 

Japan, represented on Pulp-Paper Committee of IMC, 
277 

Kraft pulp and dissolving pulp, recommendations, 361 

Minerals in Bolivia, discussed, 631 

Molybdenum and tungsten, IMC availabilities, 4th quar- 
ter (1951), 960 

Newsprint, allocation by Pulp-Paper Committee of IMC, 
me. 828 

Nickel and cobalt, allocation for 4th quarter (1951), 665 

Oil, Anglo-Iranian controversy, 72. 73, 129, 130, 131, 176, 
382, 547, 548, 5.84, 612 

Shortages, methods of handling, addresses (Thorp), 
246, 728 

Sulphur, allocation for 3d and 4th quarters, and IMC 
computation of shortages, with tables, 194, 711, 870 

Tin industry in Malaya, invitation to U.S. for study, 
581 

Tin Study Group, International, 6th meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 515 

Tungsten and molybdenum, distribution in 3d and 4th 
quarters (1951), 192, 361, 731 

Tungsten production, Export-Import Bank loan to Bo- 
livia. 828 

Underdeveloped areas, source of, 329 

U.S. allocation to foreign countries, text, 29 

Western Europe, cooperation in controls over export to 
Iron Curtain countries, 759 
Strauss, Anna Lord, alternate U.S. representative to 6tli 
session of General Assembly, 680 

Index, July fo December 1957 



Sudeten Germans in Germany, exchange of notes, U.S. 
with Czechoslovakia, on Czech charges of U.S.-inspired 
militarism, 628 
Suez Canal, Israeli ports, Egyptian restrictions on shipping 
to. Security Council resolution, text (Sept. 1), and 
proceedings, 239, 396, 479 
Sulphur Committee of IMC, allocation of sulphur for 4th 

quarter of 1951, 711 
Sviridov, V. P., Soviet High Commissioner for Austria, 

charges of U.S. remilitarization in Austria, 691 
Sweden : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, Torquay protocol, 169 

Red Cross field hospital in Korea, to reimburse U.S. 
for logistical support, text, 75 
U.S. scientific attaches (Doyle, Loftness), appointment, 
234 
Switzerland : 

Double taxation conventions, estate tax, with U.S., sig- 
nature, and income tax, with U.S., ratification, 
145, 575 
U.S. scientific attach^ (Lek), appointment, 234 
Syria, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, U.N. notified of Syria's intention to withdraw. 

from, 115 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 

Takeuchi, Ryuji : 

Appointment as chief of Japanese Government over- 
seas agency at Washington, D.C., 225 
Statement on deposit of instrument of ratification of 
peace treaty by Japan, 945 
Tarchiani, Alberto, Italian Ambassador, note to U.S. 

proposing revision of Italian peace treaty, 1011 
Tariffs : 

Cartel restrictions and tariffs, distinction, statement 

(Lubin), 591 
Concessions denied to countries dominated by world 
Communist movement, U.S. notes, proclamation, 
and letter (Truman to Snyder), 95, 96, 291, 913 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT) : 
Ad hoc committee for intersessional business, 830 
Administration of, measures for strengthening, 6th 

session, 829 
Belgian restrictions on dollar imports, 831 
Business practices, restrictive, U.S. proposal for con- 
sideration by ECOSOC, 277 
Chamois leather, withdrawal of reduction in tariff on, 

828 
China, withdrawal of concessions to, by U.S., following 

China's withdrawal from agreement, 977 
Czechoslovakia, tariff concessions to, request of U.S. for 

suspension, adopted, 829 
Czechoslovakia, U.S. withdrawal of trade concessions, 

290, 291, 621, 622, 914 
Deadline for signature of Torquay protocol extended 

by contracting parties, 829 
Procedures for negotiation outside conferences, 830 
6th session (Geneva) : 

Report on proceedings, 829 
U.S. delegation, 553 

mi 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT) — Con. 
Torquay protocol, signatures: 

Austria, 17, 577, 829; Germany, 17, 491, S29; In- 
donesia, 833; Italy, 832; Norway, 146, 227; Peru, 
17, 493, 631, 829; Sweden, 109; Turkey, 17, 576, 829 
Syria notifies U.N. of intention to withdraw from, 
115 
U.S. Import restrictions on dairy products, complaints, 
830 
Taxation, double, conventions with : 

Canada (1950), income and estate, entry into force, 909 
Japan, income and estate, proposed, 864 
Norway (1949), income and estate, ratification, 1014 
Switzerland, income tax, ratification, and estate tax, 
signature, 145, 575 
TCA. See Technical Cooperation Administration. 
Technical Assistance Board, of ECOSOC, part in tech- 
nical cooperation programs, 996 
Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA) : 

Bennett, Henry G., visits to Ethiopia, Near East, and 

Asia, 149, 948 
Food and natural resources, xerogram of, recommenda- 
tions of Point 4 consultants, 577 
.Technical cooperation programs : 

Agenda, General Assembly, program for underdeveloped 

countries, 779 
ECOSOC proceedings on and funds for, 518 
Engineering, contribution to, address (Bennett), 107 
Far East, limiting factors in, address (Rusk at Tacoma, 

Wash.), 823 
Farming techniques, improvements, cited, 660 
India, appointment of Willson as director, 961 
Israel, economic assistance agreement, 1015 
Near East countries, discussed in article (Howard), 

815 
OAS, financing of nursing workshop in Guatemala City, 

146 
Point 4 agreements signed with : 

Cuba, 19; Eritrea, 19; Ethiopia, 18, 149; Libya, 19; 
Mexico, 67 ; U.K., for dependent overseas terri- 
tories, 227 
Point 4 projects for : 

Pood supply, world, through "grass roots" methods, 

577 
Roads in Latin America and elsewhere, contract, HI 
Scientific books, distribution, 149 
Point 4 projects with : 
Brazil, 74, 300; Caribbean area, 866; Egypt, 865; 
India, 76; Iran, 111, 1016; Latin America, 300; Li- 
beria and other African countries, 101 ; Pakistan, 
466; Peru, 707 
Progress, cited (Acheson before General Assembly), 

804 
Technical Assistance Board, of ECOSOC, part in, 996 
Unified planning and operation of, urged, 577 
U.N. program, funds for, statement (Mansfield), 994 
U.S.-Brazil Joint Commission, appointment of Mer- 
win L. Bohan to, 157 
Technical Industrial Intelligence Committee, cited, 967 
Telecommunications (see alxo Radio ; Voice of America) : 
Bavarian Radio, assignment of new broadcasting fre- 
quency to, 171 

1112 



Telecommunication.s — Continued 

TV frequency channels, agreement with Mexico, ex- 
change of notes, 865 
U.N. telecommunications system, report of Secretary- 
General, agenda. General Assembly, 783 
"Telephone line, .secret," Communist-propaganda testi- 
mony in Oatis trial in Czechoslovakia, 489 
Television frequency channels, agreement with Mexico, 

exchange of notes, 865 
Theater, Soviet doctrine of thought control, 897 
Thorp, Willard L., Assistant Secretary for Economic Af- 
fairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Czechoslovakia, suspension of trade concessions to, 

622 
Economic challenge, international (at U. of Mich.), 

245 
Economic measures and Communist aggression (over 

NBC-TV), 762 
Land-tenure problems (at Madison, Wis.), 661 
Raw material shortages, effects (at Boston), 728 
Thought-control doctrine of Soviet propaganda, article, 

in three parts, 719, 844, 895 
Ticoulat, Gabriel J., aijpointment as U.S. representative 

to central group of IMC, 665 
Tin, Malayan production, U.K. and Malayan Government 

invite U.S. to observe, 581 
Tin Study Group, International, 6th meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 515 
Tobacco Congress, World, U.S. delegation, 515 
Tobias, Chauning H., alternate U.S. representative to 6th 

session of General Assembly, 680 
Togoland, British and French, progress, statement 

(Say re), 309 
Torquay protocol. See Tariffs and trade. 
Trade (see also Tariffs and trade) : 

Business practices, restrictive, U.S. proposal for con- 
sideration by ECOSOC, 277 
Cartels, U.S. draft resolution and ECOSOC resolution 
(Sept. 13), texts, and statement (Lubin), 590, 595 
Communist-dominated countries, suspension of tariff 
concessions, U.S. notes, proclamation, and letter 
(Truman to Snyder), 95, 96, 291, 913 
Export to China, Hong Kong, etc., texts of orders revok- 
ing licenses, 58 
Inter-American, address (Miller at Va. Trade Conf.), 

949 
International Monetary Fund, part in, address (Tru- 
man), 501 
Shipping restrictions affecting Far Eastern ports, texts 
of transportation orders of Department of Com- 
merce, 59, 60 
Trade Promotion, Regional Conference on, of ECAFB, 

U.S. delegation, 036 
U.S.S.R. and satellites, suspension of tariff concessions, 
U.S. notes, proclamation, and letter (Truman to 
Snyder), 95, 96, 291, 913 
Western Europe, cooperation in security controls over 
exports to Iron Curtain countries, 759 
Trade agreements, reciprocal, with : 
Turkey (1939), cited, 576 
Venezuela (1939), negotiations for changes in, 17, 433 

Department of State Bulletin 



Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951 : 
Bulgaria, suspension of import concessions to, under, 

550, 914 
Czechoslovakia, suspension of trade concessions to, un- 
der, 621, 622, 914 
Proclamation, text, withdrawing trade-agreement con- 
cessions from U.S.S.R. and satellites, and letter 
(Truman to Snyder), 291 
Signature, statement (Truman), 16 
Termination or modification of agreements pursuant 
to, with U.S.S.R., Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, and 
Rumania, and fur embargo on Communist China, 
95, 96, 913 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, no- 
tice of negotiations with Venezuela on changes in 
trade agreement (1939), 434 
Trading with the enemy act (1917), status upon termina- 
tion of war with Germany, draft resolution, 92 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement signed with Uruguay, 

1016 
Armed forces, status of, treaty between NAT govern- 
ments, signed, 16 
Artistic and scientific institutions and historic monu- 
ments, inter-American treaty on protection of 
(1935), cited, 345 
Austrian state treaty, proposed negotiations, statement 

(Donnelly) and text of Austrian note, 486, 768 
Azores defense agreement, with Portugal, signature, 466 
Boundary waters (1909), IJC recommendations to pre- 
vent pollution approved by Canada and U.S., 947 
Brussels agreement (1947) on conflicting claims to 
German enemy assets, U.S. nominees for panel of 
conciliators under, 260 
Claims convention with Mexico, 10th Mexican pay- 
ment under, 948 
Commercial agreements : 
Bulgaria (1932), termination, U.S. notification, 95, 

550, 914 
Rumania (1930), termination, U.S. note, text, 95 
U.S.S.R. (1937, 1942), termination, U.S. note, text, 95, 
913 
Copyright laws, extension of time for compliance with : 
Finland, proclamation, 864 
Italy, text of proclamation, 1012 
Dhahran Airfield agreement, with Saudi Arabia, sig- 
nature, 150 
Double taxation : 

Canada, income and estate (1950), entry into force, 

909 
Japan, income and estate, proposed, 864 
Norway, income and estate (1949), ratification, 1014 
Switzerland, estate, signature, and income, ratifica- 
tion, 145, 575 
Economic assistance agreement, with Israel, exchange 

of notes, 1015 
Economic relations and amity, treaty with Ethiopia, 

signature, 497 
Educational exchange, under Fulbright Act (1946) : 
Australia, signature, 854 
Denmark, signature, 432 
Iraq, signature, 336 
Japan, signature of memorandum, 432 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Extradition convention, supplementary, with Canada, 
signature, 908 

Financial convention with Dominican Republic (1940), 
exchange of notes terminating, 299 

Friendship, commerce and consular rights : 

Hungary (1925), modification or termination, U.S. 

note, 95, 914 
Poland (1931), modification or termination, U.S. note, 
96, 913 

EYiendship, commerce and navigation : 
Denmark, signature, 575 
Greece, signature, 261 
Ireland (1950), discussed, 1058 
Israel, signature, 382 

Italy (1948), agreement supplementary to, signature 
and text, 568 

General agreement on tariflfs and trade (1947). See 
Tariffs and trade. 

Geneva conventions (1949), U.N. forces in Korea to 
observe, 189 

German sovereignty, joint statement by Western For- 
eign Ministers and German Chancellor, text, 891, 
1049, 1050 

Greenland, defense agreement, U.S. with Denmark, 
cited, 654, 697, 765 

Guided missiles tests, territory for, agreement with 
Dominican Republic, signature, 948 

Hague convention on laws and customs of war on land 
(1907), cited, 345 

Hospital units, for Korea, agreements with Sweden and 
Norway for logistical supiwrt of, 75, 530 

Lend-lease settlement, agreements signed or imple- 
mented with Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, 
Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico, 631 

Lend-lease settlement, negotiations resumed with 
U.S.S.R., and texts of U.S. notes, 145, 631 

Lend-lease settlement, with Mexico, payment of install- 
ment discussed, 260 

Migrant labor agreement, with Mexico, entry into force 
and statement (Truman), 199, 336 

Military and naval missions, agreements signed with 
Cuba, 436 

Military assistance agreement, with lugoslavia, signa- 
ture and text, 863 

Military mission, agreement signed with Venezuela, 300 

Mutual defense, treaty with Philippines, text, signa- 
ture, and statements (Truman, Quirino, Aelieson, 
and Romulo). 335, 394, 422, 423, 424, 620, 823 

Mutual defense, with Saudi Arabia, signature, 150 

North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement, be- 
fore Senate, 113 

North Atlantic treaty (1949) : 
Art. 2 cited, 524, 525 

Protocol for admission of Greece and Turkey, signa- 
ture, 571, 651 

North Pacific fisheries convention, proposed, U.S. dele- 
gation, 789 

Peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania 
(1947), violations of human rights and military 
provisions, 987 



Index, July to December 1 95 1 



1113 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Peace tresity with Italy (1947) : 

Economic provisions for Eritrea, agenda, General As- 
sembly, 7S7 
Question of Trieste, Soviet charge of violation by 

U.S., U.K., and France, and U.S. statement, 911, 912 
Revision of, joint declaration by U.S., France, and 

U.K., and exchange of notes, U.S. and Italy, 486, 

570, 1011, 1050 
Revision of, Soviet note replying to joint declaration 

by U.S., U.K., and France, and U.S. statement, 648, 

649 
Peace treaty with Japan. See Treaty of peace with 

Japan. 
Point 4 agreements signed with : 

Cuba, 19 ; Eritrea, 19 ; Ethiopia, 18, 149 ; Libya, 19 ; 

Mexico, 67 ; U.K., for dependent overseas territories, 

227 
Relief supplies, transportation of, agreement with India, 

signature, 146 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948), entry into 

force, 1017 
Security treaty, tripartite, with Australia and New 

Zealand, signature, draft text, and statements 

(Acheson, Dulles, Spender, and Berendsen), 147, 

148, 187, 299, 415, 495, 496, 620, 823 
Security treaty with Japan, signature, text, statements, 

and exchange of notes (Acheson, YoshUla), 187, 463, 

464, 465, 620, 823 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to in- 
clude Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, 

signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 914, 1038, 

1039 
Swedish Red Cross field hospital in Korea, Sweden to 

reimburse U.S. for logistical support, signed, text, 

75 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT). See 

Tariffs and trade. 
Torquay protocol. See Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on. 
Trade agreement with Turkey (1939), cited, 576 
Trade agreement with Venezuela (1939), negotiations 

for changes in, 17, 433 
Trieste. See Peace treaty with Italy. 
TV frequency channels, agreement with Mexico, ex- 
change of notes, 865 
U.N. forces, expenditures, agreement signed with ROK 

(1950), cited, 667 
Treaty Developments, U.S., 6th series, released, 236 
Treaty of peace with Japan : 
Allied Powers property compensation law, reference to, 

429, 432 
Collective security, principle of, statement (Dulles), 

132 
Declarations, draft texts, 137 

Draft, procedure in preparing, statement (Dulles), 132 
Exchange of notes (Ridgway and Yoshida), 383 
India, refusal to participate, exchange of notes with 

U.S. on, 385, 387 
Instrument of ratification, Japanese, deposit of, and 

statements (Takeuchi, Webb, Dulles), 945 
Invitation by U.S. to 50 nations for signature, text, and 

responses, 186, 383 

1114 



Treaty of peace with Japan — Continued 
Reparations, discussion, 457 
Report to President Truman (Dulles), 620 
Rules of procedure, text, 450 
Signatures, listed, 459 n. 

Soviet charges against, refutation (Dulles), 461 
Sponsorship by U.K. and U.S., statement (Dulles), 132 
Texts of treaty, revisions, declarations, and protocol, 

132, 349, 353, 354, 355 
U.S.S.R., attitude, exchange of memoranda and notes 

with U.S., 138, 143, 348, 461 
U.S. delegation, 187, 384, 442 
U.S. ratification, preliminaries to, 977 
Treaty of peace with Japan, addresses and statements : 
Opening address (Truman), 447 

Opening and closing statements (Acheson), 442, 450, 459 
Principles discussed (Rusk at Tacoma, Wash.), 821 
Problems in future (Allison at New York), 724 
Procedure in negotiating, and principles (Dulles), 132, 

346, 443, 4.52, 616, 974 
Reconciliation (Allison over NBC-TV), 388 
Trieste, Free Territory of : 

Division of, Soviet charge against France, U.K., and 
U.S. of violation of Italian peace treaty (1947), 911 
Problem of, address (De Gasperi), cited, 568 
U.S. policy toward, statement (McDermott), 131 
Yugoslav and Italian rights in division of, U.S. attitude, 
912 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, meetings and 

texts of communique, 35, 61, 358, 737, 894, 1021 
Truce talks. Sec Korean armistice. 
Truman, Harry S. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

American frontier, 1951 (at Detroit), 243 
American Samoa, transfer of administration, 105 
Armaments, reduction of, 799 
Armistice in Korea (at Tullahoma), 3, 78 
Arms, necessity for, 244 

Atomic Energy Commission an4 Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments, coordination, SOO 
Collective security t's. Soviet smear campaign (at 

Tullahoma), 3 
Constitution (Library of Cong.), 528 
Czechoslovak Ambassador Prochazka, on presenta- 
tion of credentials, 416 
Ecuadoran President, joint statement with, 68 
Free world, defensive strength (at San Francisco), 

415 
Freedom, defense of (4th of July address), 79, 83 
Friendship resolution, release by U.S.S.R. to Soviet 

peoples, 296 
Harriman, departure for Iran, 130 
Hungary, mass deportations, 208 I 

India Emergency Food Aid Act, 37 
International Bank and Fund, Boards of Governors, 

501 
Iranian oil controversy, suspension of negotiations, 

382 
Italy, statues from, dedication, 564 
Jessup, appointment to General Assembly, 736 
Mexican farm workers, legislation for, 336 
Mutual Security Act of 1951, signature, 646 

Department of State BuUetin 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
Neutrality, violation of, charges against U.S., in 

Korea, 391 
OAS Charter (1948), signing of ratification, 34 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, transfer of ad- 
ministration, 105 
Peace, policy (at Winston-Salem), 679 
Philippines, mutual defense treaty, signature, 422 
San Francisco Conference, oi)ening, 447 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, signed, 16 
Correspondence : 

Vice President Barkley, transmitting Wallace letter 

and his report on trip to Far East (1944), 541 
Vice President Barkley and Speaker Rayburn, on con- 
tributions for UNICEF, 313 
Turkish President Bayar and Greek Prime Minister 
Venizelos, on membership of Greece and Turkey in 
NATO, 571 
Committee on Appropriations, urging increased funds 

for organization, 312 
Congressional Committees, funds for Palestine Refu- 
gee Program of U.N., 259 
Congressional Committees, on further military and 

economic assistance to Tugoslavia, 826 
de Gaulle, Pierre, 2000th birthday of Paris, 87 
King Idris I of Libya, on U. S. recognition of Libya, 

1057 
Queen Juliana of Netherlands, refugee problem, 701 
Premier Mosadeq, on Iranian oil controversy, ex- 
change of messages, 129, 130 
Pakistani Begum Liaquat Ali Khan and Governor 
General Khwaja Nazimuddin. on death of Liaquat 
Ali Khan, 702 
Speaker Rayburn, termination of war with Germany, 

transmitting draft resolution, 90 
Shvernik, letter, sending McMahon-Ribicoff resolution, 

87 
Secretary Snyder, on withdrawal of trade-agreements 

concessions to U.S.S.R. and satellites, 291 
Prince Talal and The Emir Naif of Jordan, condolence 
on assassination of King Abdullah, 171 
Directive, establishing Psychological Strategy Board, 

36 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Finnish choral greeting, recorded, to, 1013 
Messages to Congress : 

Lend-lease operations, report, 631 

Migrant workers from Mexico, illegal entry, 197 

Resolution of Presidium of Supreme Soviet and 

Shvernik letter, 379 
Termination of war with Germany, with draft reso- 
lution, 90 
U.S. participation in U.N. (1950), report, 262 
Nomination of Gen. Mark W. Clark as Ambassador to 

Vatican, 894 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
Truman doctrine, quoted, 175, 812 
Trusteeship Council (TC) : 

British and French Togoland, progress, statement 

(Say re), 309 
Ewe problem, Anglo-French resolution, text as amended 
(July 25), with Btatement (Sayre), 271 

Index, July fo December 1957 



Trusteeship Council (TC) — Continued 

French Cameroons, administration by France, U.S. ob- 
servation of, statement (Sayre), 190 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, transfer of U.S. 
administration (Ex. Or. 10205), and statement 
(Truman), texts, 105, 100 
Report, annual, statement (Sayre), 1024 
Report, to General Assembly, agenda items, 776, "SO 
Somaliland, U.S. views, statement (Sayre), 32 
Turkey : 

Aid under Truman doctrine, results of, 175 
Middle East Command, texts of joint Pour Power pro- 
posal to Egypt and joint statement by Turkey, 
U.K., France, and U.S., and rejection by Egypt, 647, 
702, 817 
Middle East Command, Soviet attitude toward Four 

Power proposal, 1054, 1055 
Mutual Security Program, proposed part in, 214, 218 
North Atlantic Treaty, accession proposed, NAC com- 
munique, text of protocol, and correspondence 
(President Truman and President Bayar), 523, 571, 
650, 841 
Soviet interest in, article (Howard), 810 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, Torquay protocol, signature, 17. 576, 829 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Trade agreement, with U.S. (1939), cited, 576 
U.S. aid to, article (Howard), 812 
U.S. Ambassador (McGhee), appointment, 1000 
Turkish Straits, Soviet interest in, article (Howard), 811 
TV. See Television ; Telecommunications. 

UNCURK. See U.N. Commission for the Unification and 

Rehabilitation of Korea under Korea. 
Underdeveloped areas : 

Aid to, statements (Mansfield), and U.S. draft resolu- 
tion on financial arrangements, 989, 994, 995, 1003 
Economic development, ECOSOC report, agenda, Gen- 
eral Assembly, 779 
Economic development, financing, 395 
Financing of loans, part of International Bank in, 501 
Source of strategic materials, testimony (Rockefeller), 
329 
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific and 

Cultural Organization. 
UNICEF. See International Children's Emergency Fund. 
Unified Command. See under Korea. 
Union of South Africa : 

Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Racial segregation of Indians in, agenda. General As- 
sembly, 778, 1081 
U.S. Ambassador (Gallman), appointment, 415 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) : 
Agreements, secret, with Hungary (1947), 327 
Allied Council for Austria, rei)re.vi'ntative of (Sviridov), 

charges of U.S. remilitarization, 091 
AU-Union Central Committee, dissemination of Com- 
munist Party doctrine, 895 
Armaments, reduction of, propaganda efforts to con- 
fuse, address (Austin at Paris), 930 
Armistice negotiations in Korea, statement (Vyshin- 
sky), 6S8 

1115 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)— Con. 

Atomic enerfiy and conventional armaments, appeal for 
control of, address (Truman), 802 

Atomic explosion by (second), statement (Short), 611 

Attack on U.N. plane, alleged, communication (Austin 
to Lie), 909 

"Big Lie," propaganda efforts of, address (Barnard), 
Sol 

Communist Party, All-Union, philosophy of, discussed, 
719 

Constitution of, discussed (Truman at Library of 
Cong.), 529 

Cultural activities as propaganda, address (Barrett at 
New York), 903 

Disarmament proposal by U.S., U.K., and France, bal- 
anced reduction of forces, Soviet attitude, 834, 920, 
953, 1048 

Friendship resolution for Soviet peoples (S. Con. Res. 
11): 
Letter forwarding (Truman to Shvernik) and VOA 

broadcast, 87 
Shvernik's reply and Soviet resolution, 294 
Statements (Truman, Acheson), 296, 297 
Text, 381 
Transmittal of Soviet reply (Truman to Congress), 

379 
Withheld from Russian people, discussion, 144, 226 

German merchant vessels, exchange of notes with U.S. 
on distribution of, 254 

Germany, free elections in, Soviet protests in General 
Assembly, statement (Austin), 892 

Germany, objective of policy, address (McCloy), 252 

Hostile activities toward Yugoslavia, complaint before 
General Assembly on, statement (Cooper), 985 

Hungary, Soviet economic imperialism in, article (Hil- 
ton), 323 

Interference in affairs of other states and aggression, 
Soviet charge against U.S. Mutual Security Act 
(1951) and U.S. reply, 910, 921, 1010, 1042, 1056, 
1081 

Iranian oil controversy, objection to U.N. consideration 
of, statement (Austin), 615 

Japan, maneuver for, address (Dulles at Cleveland), 
974 

Japanese peace treaty, exchange of memoranda and 
notes with U.S. on Soviet attendance at San Fran- 
cisco Conference, and answers (Dulles) to Soviet 
charges against treaty, 138, 143, 348, 461 

Korean truce, Malik statement, text and discussion by 
Gromyko and U.N. representatives, 45, 78, 90 

Lend-lease vessels in U.S.S.R., texts of U.S. notes 
(Acheson) urging return of, and resumption of ne- 
gotiations, 145, 631 

Life in, address (Kirk at New York), 681 

Middle East Command, Soviet attitude, exchange of 
notes with U.S., 1054, 1055 

Military preparations, statements (Truman, Dulles, 
Jessup), 243, 938. 955 

Murder of American soldier (Gresens) in Vienna, ex- 
change of notes with U.S. on, 861, 862 

Mutual Security Act of 1951, Soviet note charging U.S. 
aggression and interference in affairs of other 
states, and U.S. reply, 910, 921, 1010, 1042, 1056, 1081 

1116 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) — Con. 

Near East, pressure on, article (Howard), 810, 811, 
812, 840 

Neics, English-language publication, U.S. attitude, 
171, 250 

"Peace offensive" of, relationship of International Con- 
ference in Defense of Children to, 935 

Problems lying behind U.S.S.R., analyzed (Acheson), 
126 

Propaganda, conflicting (Barrett at Colgate), 226 

Propaganda machine, article (Little), 367 

Russian imperialism, address (Dulles at Detroit), 938 

Soviet athlete in international competition, address 
(Walsh), 1007 

Soviet expansion, U.S. defense against, address (Ache- 
son at Detroit), 203 

Soviet policy and U.S. policy, address (Jessup, at Car- 
negie Endowment), 573 

Soviet tactics, address (Austin before Veterans of For. 
Wars), 425 

Thought control, article in three parts, 719, 844, 895 

Trade-agreements concessions under Trade Agreements 
Extension Act of 1951, text of U.S. proclamation 
withdrawing, 291 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial agreement with U.S. (1937, 1942), termi- 
nation, 95, 913 
Peace treaty with Italy (1947) : 

Revision, text of reply to joint declaration by U.S., 

U.K., and Prance, 649 
Trieste, provisions re, Soviet charge of violation by 
U.S., U.K., and Prance, and U.S. statement, 
911, 912 

U.N., obstructive tactics toward, 184, 425, 805, 834 

U.S. relations with, article (Kohler), 8 

U.S. wartime relations with, including Yalta agree- 
ments, testimony (Harriman), 371 

Violation of Soviet border by U.S. plane, alleged, state- 
ment (Gromyko), 909 n. 

VOA broadcast to Moslem peoples of, inauguration of, 
statement (Acheson), 102 

Vyshinsky, ridicule of disarmament plan, 834, 1048 

Youth festival. East Berlin, articles (McKee, Cox) and 
statement (Acheson), 407, 414, 483 

Yugoslav charge in General Assembly of hostile activi- 
ties, 985 
United Kingdom (U.K.). See also Allied High Commis- 
sion ; Foreign Ministers, Western. 

Anglo-American partnership in Middle East, discussed, 
705 

Colonial development in Africa, 99 

Commodity groups, joint statement, 26 

Cultural objects, measures to prohibit export, d-marche 
(1946), with U.S. and Prance, text, 340 

Disarmament, balanced reduction of forces, tripartite 
proposal, in U.N., with U.S. and Prance, 770, 799, 
802, 807, 874, 889, 920, 936, 054, 962, 1002, 1023, 
1042, 1047 

Eritrea, administering authority in, 787 

European continental community, support for, 485 

Flood victims in Kansas and Missouri, offer of aid 
to, 165 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



United Kingdom (U.K.) — Continued 

Free all-German elections, tripartite resolution with 
U.S. and France, text of draft, 1019 

German Debts, Tripartite Commission on, meeting, 61, 
358, 1021 

Guided missile tests over Dominican territory, coopera- 
tion with U.S., British and Dominican exchange of 
notes, 948 

Kashmir, demilitarization of, sponsorship, with U.S., of 
Security Council resolution on, 960 

Malayan tin, invitation to U.S. to observe industry, 581 

Middle East affairs, role in, address (Loftus at Windsor, 
Out.) 703 

Middle East Command : 

Four Power proposal (U.K., U.S., France, Turlfey) to 
Egypt to join, text, and rejection by Egypt, 647, 702 
Four Power statement, text, 817 
Soviet attitude, 1054, 1055 

Oil controversy witli Iran. See Iranian oil controversy. 

Togoland, British, progress, statement (Sayre), 310 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Peace treaty with Italy (1947) : 

Eritrea, economic provisions, agenda, General As- 
sembly, 787 
Revision, joint declaration by U.K., U.S., and 

France, and Soviet note in reply, 570, 649 
Trieste, Soviet charge against U.K.. U.S., and 
France of violations of provisions re, 911 
Peace treaty with Japan, sponsorship, with U.S., and 

signature, 1.32, 460 n. 
South Pacific Commission, Six Power agreement to 
include Guam and Trust Territory of Pacific Is- 
lands, signature, statement (Keesing), and text, 
914, 1038, 1039 

U.S. scientific attaches (Clarke, Farinholt), appoint- 
ment, 234 

Warships to Antarctica, Joint decision with Argentina 
and Chile to avoid sending, 941 

West German sovereignty, joint statement with France, 
West Germany, and U.S., text, 891 
United Nations (U.N.) : 

Armistice proposals and negotiations. See Korean 
armistice proposals. 

Budgetary proposals, 995, 1003, 1081 

Communist China, representation in, statements (Ache- 
son and Austin), 606, 917 

Documents listed, 60, 319, 362, 394, 598, 669, 712, 919, 
1037 

ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 

Embargo on shipments to Communist China and North 
Korea, U.S. report to Additional Measures Com- 
mittee, text, annexes, and statement (Gross), 54 

General Assembly. Sec General Assembly. 

Greece, UNSCOB report to 6th General Assembly, 
article, with chronology (Howard), 531 

Headquarters building loan, reimbursement to U.S. of 
first installment, 79 

Indians in South Africa, treatment of, committee pro- 
ceedings, 778, 1081 

International Court of Justice. See International Court 
of Justice. 

Iranian oil controversy, right to consider, statement 
(Austin), 615 

Index, July to December 195? 



United Nations (U.N.) — Continued 
Italy, proiwsed membership, 570, 1011, 1022, 1082 
Korea. See Korea. 

Land-reform problem, task of, statement (Lubin), 472 
Near East, relations, article (Howard), 839 
Palestine Refugee Program. See Palestine. 
Penal and Penitentiary Commission, International, 

transfer of activities to, 119, 358 
Peruvian documentation for membership, agenda. Gen- 
eral Assembly, 786 
Refugees, agenda, and appointment of Warren as U.S. 

delegate, 61, 79, 780 
Secretary-General (Lie), report to General Assembly, 

agenda, 775 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Somaliland, U.S. views on problems, statement (Sayre), 

32 
Telecommunications system, report of Secretary-Gen- 
eral, agenda. General Assembly, 783 
Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship Council. 
20-year program for peace, report by Secretary-General, 

agenda. General Assembly, 785 
U.N. Command Operations in Korea. See Korea. 
U.S. participation in : 
Addresses and statements (Acheson, Austin, Gross), 

128, 183, 425, 803, 834 
Annual report and message to Congress (Truman), 
262 
World Meteorological Organization as specialized 
agency, committee approval, 963 
United Nations Civil Assistance Command, discussed 

(Ridg\vay),305 
United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 

317, 639, 778 
United Nations Day, ceremonies and proclamation, 50O, 

722 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 
International Computation Center, Conference for 

Creation of, 918 
Librarians, Professional, Regional Conference of, on 
Development of Public Libraries in Latin America, 
U.S. delegation, 635 
United Nations Special Committee on Information, U.S. 

delegation, 554 
United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans 
(UNSCOB) : 
Report (1951), reviewed (Howard), 531, 777 
Resolution of General Assembly discontinuing, 1002 
United States courts, cases relating to liuman rights, 

cited, 1058, 1067 
United States Economic Survey Mission to the Philippines 
(1950) , E.xport-Import Bank to discuss grants of credit 
pursuant to recommendations of, OC 
United States in United Nations (weekly summary), 158, 
100, 2.^8, 271, 317, .302, 395, 443, 478, 518, .598, 604, 
713, 754, 770, 834, 874, 920, 962, 1002, 1042, 1081 
United States Information and Educational Exchange 
Program. See International Information and Edu- 
cational Exchange Program. 
United Stdtes Particiitation in the United Nations, re- 
leased, 262 n. 

1117 



United States troojis in Europe: 

Army training area in Bavaria, proposed enlargement, 

text of letter answering liavarian protest, 207 

Austria, American soldier on patrol duty (Gresens), 

murdered, exchange of notes with U.S.S.R. on, 861, 

862 

Uniting-for-peace resolution of General Assembly (Nov. 3, 

1950), action of Member Governments in accord with, 

317, 518, 639, 606, 733, 755, 772, 803, 875, 962, 1027 

UNKRA. Sec United Nations Korean Reconstruction 

Agency under Korea. 
UNSCOB. See U.N. Special Committee on the Balkans. 
Uruguay : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air Force mission, agreement signed with U.S., 1016 
Peace treaty with Japan, signed, 460 n. 
U.S. Ambassador (Roddau), appointment, 597 
USIE. See International Information and Educational 

Exchange Program. 
Utah colleges, part in Point Four contract. 111 

Van Fleet, Lt. Gen. .Tames A., statement on summer cam- 
paign in Korea, 589 
Vatican City, State of, nomination of Gen. Mark W. Clark 

as U.S. Ambassador to, 894 
Venezuela : 
Export-Import Bank loan for cement-plant expansion 

program, 706 
Foreign trade, address (Miller), 950 
Petroleum Convention, Venezuela National, U. S. dele- 
gation, 516 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military advisory mission, agreement signed, 300 
Peace treaty with .Japan, signed, 460 n. 
Trade agreement (1939), negotiations for changes in, 
17, 433 
U.S. Ambassador (Armour), resignation, 597 
Venizelos, Sophocles, Prime Minister of Greece, cor- 
respondence with President Truman, on proposed 
membership of Greece in NATO, 571, 650 
Vessels : 
Jutlandia, Danish contribution to Korean war, 654 
Lend-lease vessels in U.S.S.R., texts of notes (Acheson) 

urging return of, 145 
Merchant marine, German, exchange of notes with 

U.S.S.R. on Soviet demand for, 254 
U.S.S. Corregidor, transfer of jet planes to NATO 

countries, 208 
Warships to Antarctica, joint decision to avoid sending, 
941 
Vietnam {see also Indochina), peace treaty with Japan, 

signed, 460 n. 
Vincent, John Carter: 

China mission (1944), discussed in letter (Wallace to 

Truman), 541, 544 
Hearing requested, letter to Senator McCarran, 922 
Voice of America (VOA) : 

Communist smear tactics in Oatis trial, address 

(Stefan), 284 
Extent, address (Webb at Raleigh, N. C), 578 
Inauguration of new language programs, 102 
Increase in operations, address (Barrett at New York), 
903 

1118 



Voice of America (VOA) — Continued 
Japan, broadcast program for, 428 
McMahon-Ribicoff resolution (friendship resolution) : 
Text of resolution and President's covering message, 

broadcast to U.S.S.R., 87, 381 
Text of script, citing failure of U.S.S.R. to acquaint 
Soviet peoples with, 144, 226 
Outside commentators, writers, and private corpora- 
tions, use of, letter (Barrett to Rooney), 261 
Polish-language program from Munich, 653 
Ridgway's statement on Korean truce, 45 
Transmitter project, address, Barrett (Hot Springs), 
582 
Vorys, John M. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Italy, application for U.N. membership, 1022 
Mutual Security Act of 1951, Soviet charges against, 
1010 
U.S. representative to 6th session of General Assembly, 
680 
Vyshlnsky, Andrei, statement on armistice negotiations in 
Korea, 688 

Wallace, Henry A., China mission (1944), letter to Pres- 
ident Truman, enclosing report and messages to 
President Roosevelt, texts, 541, 543, 545, 546 

Walsh, Richard B., address on Soviet athlete In inter- 
national competition (Daytona Beach), 1007 

War with Germany, state of, text of proclamation termi- 
nating, 769 

Warne, William E., director of U.S. technical cooperation 
program for Iran, with rank of Minister, 833 

Warren, George L. : 
Article on refugees and displaced persons, 502 
U.S. delegate to U.N. conference on status of refugees 
and stateless persons, 61, 79 

Water supply In Iran, Point 4 project to increase, 1016 

Webb, Jaiues E., Under Secretary of State: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Atlantic community, building strength in, 946 
Atom bomb tests in Nevada, Communist propaganda, 

767 
Foreign affairs, present organization, 578 
Italy, flood-disaster assistance, 894 
Japanese ratification of peace treaty, 945 
Peruvian bond arrangement, 865 
Psychological Strategy Board, 36 

Wedemeyer, Gen. Albert C, testimony, correspondence of 
Representative Flood and Deputy Under Secretary 
Hnmelsine regarding, 670 

Well, Dr. Emil, credentials as Hungarian Minister, 299 

Western Pacific Region of WHO, 2d session of Regional 
Committee for, 554 

Whaling Commission, International, 3d aniuial meeting, 
U.S. delegation, 230 

Wheat, Export-Imixirt Bank loans to Spain for, 170 

Wheat Council, International, 7th session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 752 

WHO. See World Health Organization. 

Wiley, John C, confirmed as ambassador extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to Panama, 39 

Willson, Clifford, appointment as director of technical co- 
operation for India, with rank of Minister, 961 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Wilson, Charles E., Director of Defense Mobilization, 29 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization. 

Wood Technology, Mechanical, 2d Conference on, meeting, 

359 
Wool, international meetings on, article (Grindle), 116 
World affairs, U.S. position in, statement (Acheson over 

XBC-TV), with questions and answers on, 685 
World Federation of Democratic Women, agency of com- 
munism, cited, 935 
World Federation of Trade Unions, agency of communism, 

cited, 935 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Census, world, statistics of increase for past 50 years, 

308 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, as regional office of, 

sponsorship of nursing workshop, 146 
Regional Committee for the Americas, 3d meeting, 

U.S. delegation, 554 
Tribute (Ridgway) for services in Korea, 306 
Western Pacific Region of, 2d session of Regional Com- 
mittee, 554 
World Meteorological Organization : 

Executive Committee, 2d session, U.S. delegation, 637 
Specialized agency of U.N., committee approval, 963 



World situation, remarks analyzing (Acheson), 
World Tobacco Congress, U.S. delegation, 515 



123 



Yalta agreements, answer to criticisms, testimony (Har- 

riman), 371 
Yoshida, Shigeru, Prime Minister of Japan, statement on 
security treaty with Japan, and exchange of notes 
with Secretary Acheson and General Ridgway, 383, 
464, 465 
Yugoslavia : 

Complaint before General Assembly alleging hostile ac- 
tivities on part of U.S.S.R. and satellites, 985 
Deportations of Yugoslavs from border areas of Hun- 
gary, Rumania, and Bulgaria, charges, 987 
Diplomatic representatives, discriminatory practices by 

U.S.S.R. and Soviet bloc against, 987 
Iranian oil controversy, support of U.S.S.R. objection 

to U.N. consideration of, 615 
Military and economic assistance from U.S., letter 

(Truman to Congressional Committees), 826 
Military assistance agreement, with U.S., signature and 
text, 863 

Zents, Roger, U.S. pilot killed in Iran, 71 
Zones of occupation. See under Germany. 



U. S. COVERNMENT PRINTINC OFFICEi 1*82 



For sale by the SuiKrintendent of Documents. tJ. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. — Price 20 cents 



Index, July /o December I95J 



1119 



tJAe/ ^eh€(/i^twien(^ /C^ trvale^ 




WORKING TOGETHER FOR PEACE • Address by the 

President 3 

SOME REFLECTIONS ON RUSSIAN-AMERICAN RE- 
LATIONS • Article by Foy D. Kohler 8 

THE INTERNATIONAL MATERULS CONFERENCE • 

Article by Willis R. Armstrong 23 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXV, No.im 

t, 

July 2, 1951 




v^'""*. 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMtNTS 

JUL 181951 




Me Qje/ia^^e^t ^/ yCaie JDUllGllIl 



Vol. XXV, No. 627 • Publication 4278 
July 2, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OfiBce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to ujhich the 
United States is or may become a 
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Publications of the Department, as 
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currently. 



Working Together for Peace 



Address by the President ^ 



I am glad to be here in Tennessee to dedicate 
this great aviation development center. The 
great industrial progress of Tennessee, and of the 
whole south, makes it possible to build this key 
defense installation in this area. I am sure that 
the presence of this center here will contribute fur- 
ther to the growth and prosperity of this region. 

It is most appropriate that this center for pio- 
neering in the science of flight should bear the 
name of Gen. Henry H. Arnold. "Hap" Arnold 
was a great pioneer in the development of our 
air force. 

He was one of the first three officers in our 
Armed Forces to learn to fly a plane. He won his 
first flying trophy in a Wright biplane that had a 
40-horsepower engine turning two propellers by 
the chain and sprocket method — the same kind of 
power transmission a bicycle has. 

General Arnold lived to command a mighty air 
force of 80 thousand planes. Instead of 40 horse- 
power, some of the planes in that air force had 
10 thousand horsepower. And the power trans- 
mission system of some of those planes was more 
like a skyrocket than a bicycle. 

Cieneral Arnold had a "lot to do with those im- 
provements. He knew that you can't have a first- 
class air force with second-class aircraft. He 
would have been delighted with this air research 
center, which will do so much to make further im- 
provements possible. 

I am happy to dedicate this center to his memory 
and to name it, the "Arnold Engineering Develop- 
ment Center." 

The scientists who work here will explore what 
lies on the other side of the speed of sound. This 
is part of our effort to make our air power the 
best in the world — and to keep it tlie best in the 
world. This applies to the planes of our Air 
Force, our Navy, and our Marines. It applies to 

'Made at the dedication of the Arnold EnKlncering 
Development Center, TuUahoma, Tenn., on .Tune 25. Also 
printed as Department of State publication 4288. 

July 2, 1 95 1 



our guided missiles, and all the future develop- 
ments that science may bring. 

The purpose of our air power is to help keep 
peace in the world. This is our fundamental ob- 
jective. A large and powerful air force is one of 
the essential weapons we must have to prevent 
aggression — or to crush aggression if it is 
launched. 

We need many other weapons as well — military, 
economic, and psychological weapons — if we are 
to prevent a third world war. And we must keep 
finding new and better methods in each of these 
fields, just as we must keep developing faster and 
more powerful planes. 

We must use every possible means of securing 
and maintaining peace. Our whole policy is based 
on world peace. That has been our policy all 
along and it is still our policy. This has not 
changed one bit. 

Since World War II, we have done our utmost 
to build an international organization to keep 
peace in the world. We have done that in the 
interest of the United States, because the only sure 
way to keep our own country safe and secure is 
to have world peace. The United Nations is the 
most far-reaching attempt that man has ever made 
to protect himself against the scourge of war. 

But the rulers of the Soviet Union had a differ- 
ent idea. They did not want to cooperate in keep- 
ing the peace. The people of Russia want peace 
just as much as anj'one else, but their rulers in the 
Kremlin saw that the nations of tlie world had 
been weakened and demoralized by the agonies of 
the war. They saw a chance to move in and im- 
pose their own system of slavery on other nations. 

We tried to settle postwar problems with the 
Soviet Union on a decent and honoiable basis. 
But they broke one agreement after anotlier. We 
offered to place the means of atomic warfare inider 
effective international control. That was an offer 
to save mankind forever from the horror of atomic 
war. But the Soviet Union refused to accept it. 

Our actions showed that we were for peace. 

3 



Even though our eiForts were rejected by the Soviet 
rulers, our actions won for us the confidence and 
trust of other free nations. In spite of all the 
false and lying propaganda of the Kremlin, it was 
clear to all the world that we wanted peace. 

Peace — But Not Appeasement 

At the same time, we made it clear to all the 
world that we would not engage in appeasement. 
When the Soviet Union began its campaign of 
undermining and destroying other free nations, we 
did not sit idly by. 

We came to the aid of Greece and Turkey when 
they stood in danger of being taken over by Com- 
munist aggression in 1947. As a result, these 
countries today are free and strong and inde- 
pendent. 

We came to the aid of the peoples of France and 
Italy in their struggle against the political on- 
slaught of communism. In each of these coun- 
tries, communism has been defeated in two free 
elections since 1947. There is no longer any dan- 
ger that they will vote themselves into the hands 
of the Soviet Union. 

We came to the aid of the brave people of Berlin 
when the Kremlin tried to take them over. We 
and our allies kept Berlin alive by the airlift and 
it is still free today. 

We came to the aid of China when it was threat- 
ened by Communist civil war. We put billions 
of dollars worth of arms and supplies into China 
to aid the Chinese Nationalist Government. We 
gave them more help than we gave Greece or Italy 
or Berlin. The Government of Greece took our 
aid and fought for freedom. But many of the 
generals of Nationalist China took our aid and 
surrendered. 

We can investigate the situation in China from 
now until doomsday, but the facts will always re- 
main the same : China was taken over by the Com- 
munists because of the failure of the Nationalist 
Government to mobilize the strength of China to 
maintain its freedom. 

After all, our aid can be effective only when peo- 
ple help themselves. We are continuing to give 
aid to the Chinese Nationalists on Formosa, and 
that aid will be effective if they are now willing to 
do their part. 

On June 25, 1950, one year ago today, the Com- 
munist rulers resorted to outright war. They sent 
Communist armies on a mission of conquest 
against a small and peaceful country. 

That act struck at the very life of the United 
Nations. It struck at all our hopes for peace. 

There was only one thing to do in that situa- 
tion — and we did it. If we had given in — if we 
had let the Rcjiublic of Korea go under — no na- 
tion in the world would have felt safe. The whole 
idea of a world organization for peace would 
have melted away. The spirit of resistance would 
have been broken and the free nations would 
have been open to conquest one by one. 



We did not let that happen. For the first time 
in history, a world organization of nations took 
collective military action to halt aggression. 
And, acting together, we halted it. 

A year ago today, Korea looked like an easy 
conquest to the Soviet rulers in Moscow and their 
agents in the Far East. But they were wrong. 
Today, after more than a million Communist 
casualties — after the destruction of one Commu- 
nist army after another — the forces of aggression | 
have been thrown back on their heels. They are 
back behind the line they started from. 

Things have not turned out the way the Commu- 
nists expected. 

The United Nations has not been shattered. 
Instead, it is stronger today than it was a year 
ago. , 

The free nations are not demoralized. Instead, i 
they are stronger and more confident today than 
they were a year ago. 

The cause of world peace has not been defeated. 
On the contrary, the cause of world peace is 
stronger than it was a year ago. 

We have been fighting this conflict in Korea 
to prevent a third world war. So far we have 
succeeded. We have blocked aggression. And j 
we have kept the conflict from spreading. 

Men from the United States and from many 
other free countries have fought together in Ko- i 
rea. They have fought bravely, heroically, often : 
against overwhelming odds. Many have given \ 
their lives. [ 

No men ever did more for their country or for 
peace and freedom in the world. 

Positive Measures for Peace 

The attack on Korea has stimulated the free 
nations to build up their defenses in dead earnest. 
Korea convinced the free nations that they had 
to have armies and equipment ready to defend 
themselves. 

The United States is leading the way, with de- 
fense exjoenditures of 40 billion dollars. Other 
nations are devoting a large share of their na- 
tional effort to our mutual defense. 

Never before in history have we taken such 
measures to keep the peace. Never have the odds 
against an aggressor been made so clear before 
the attack was launched. 

The Kaiser, and Hitler, when they started their 
great wars of aggression, believed that the United 
States would not come in. They counted on being 
able to divide the free nations and pick them off 
one at a time. There could be no excuse for 
making that mistake today. 

We have the United Nations — which expresses 
the conscience and the collective will of the free 
world. 

AVe have the Organization of American States — 
which is building the strength of this hemisphere. 

We have the North Atlantic Treaty — which 

Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



commits all the nations of the Atlantic community 
to fipht together against aggression. 

We have unified land, sea, and air forces in 
Europe, under the command of General Eisen- 
hower. 

We are strengthening the free nations of the 
Far East and setting up collective security ar- 
rangements in the Pacific. 

We are building up our defenses and the de- 
fenses of other free nations, rapidly and 
effectively. 

Most important of all, we have shown that we 
will fight to resist aggi-ession. The free nations 
are fighting — and winning — in Korea. 

Never before has an aggi'essor been confronted 
with such a series of positive measures to keep the 
peace. Never before in histoi-y have there been 
such deterrents to the outbreak of world war. 

Of course, we cannot promise that thei'e will not 
be a world war. The Kremlin has it in its power 
to bring about such a war if it desires. It has a 
powerful military machine, and its rulers are ab- 
solute tyrants. 

We cannot be sure what the Soviet rulers will do. 

But we can put ourselves in a position to say to 
them: Attack — and you will have the united re- 
sources of the free nations thrown against you; 
attack — and you will be confronted by a war you 
cannot possibly win. 

If we could have said that to the Kaiser, or to 
Hitler, or to Tojo, the history of the world would 
have been very different. 

It hasn't been easy to bring the free nations to- 
gether into this united effort to resist aggression. 
It hasn't been easy to work out these alliances, 
and to build up our defenses, and to hold the line 
against gi-eat odds and discouragement in Korea. 
It hasn't been easy — but it is a record of tremen- 
dous progress in man's age-old struggle for peace 
and security. 

We have made great progress, but we are not out 
of danger yet. 

The Kremlin is still trying to divide the free 
nations. The thing that the Kremlin fears most 
is the unity of the free world. 

The rulers of the Soviet Union have been trying 
to split up the nations of the North Atlantic 
Treaty. They have been trying to sow distrust 
between us and other free countries. Their gi-eat 
objective is to strip us of our allies — to force us to 
"go it alone.*' 

If they could do that, they could go ahead with 
their ])];\n of taking over the world, nation by 
nation. 

Partisan Attacks on Foreign Policy 

Unfortunately, it isn't only the Kremlin that has 
been trying to separate us from our allies. There 
are some people in this country, too, who have been 
trying to get us to "go it alone." There are people 
here who have been sowing distrust of our allies 



and magnifying our differences with them. Some 
of these people are sincere but misguided. Others 
are deliberately putting politics ahead of their 
country. 

Now, I have no objection to honest political de- 
bate. That's the way things get decided in this 
country. 

But some of the people who are trying to get ns 
to "go it alone" aren't engaging in honest political 
debate. They know they couldn't win that way. 
So they have launched a campaign to destroy the 
trust and confidence of the people in their Gov- 
ernment. 

They are trying to set the people against the 
Government by spreading fear and slander and 
lies. They have attacked the integrity of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff. They have maliciously attacked 
General Bradley, who is one of the greatest sol- 
diers this country ever produced. They have 
tried to besmirch the loyalty of General Marshall, 
who directed our strategj' in winning the greatest 
war in history. They have deliberately tried to 
destroy Dean Acheson — one of the greatest Secre- 
taries of State in our history. 

That political smear campaign is doing this 
country no good. It's playing right into the 
hands of the Russians. 

Lies, slander, mud slinging are the weapons of 
the totalitarians. No man of morals or ethics will 
use them. 

It's time that smear campaign was stopped. 

As far as I am concerned, there ought to be no 
Democrats and no Republicans in the field of for- 
eign policy. W"e are all Americans, all citizens 
of the same great Republic. We have had a bi- 
partisan foreign policy in this country since Pearl 
Harbor. I would like to keep it that way. I know 
a great many Republicans who want to keep it 
that way, too. 

I say to them — this is the time, now, to show the 
real loyalty of the Republican Party to the great 
ideals on which this country is founded. Now is 
the time to put a stop to the sordid efforts to make 
political gains by stirring up fear and distrust 
about our foreign policy. Now is the time to say 
to the dividere and confusers: No political party 
ever got anywhere in the long run by playing fast 
and loose with the security of the nation in a time 
of great peril. 

Partisan efforts to label our foreign policy as 
"appeasement" — to tag it as a policy of "fear" 
or "timidity" — point to only one thing. They 
point to our "going it alone," down the road to 
World War III. 

Is it a policy of fear to bring the free nations 
of the world together in a great unified movement 
to maintain peace? Is it a policy of timidity to 
come to the aid of the Greeks and the Turks and 
the other free people who arc ligliting back against 
the Gomnuuiist threat? Is it a policy of ajipoase- 
mcut to fight armed aggression and hurl it back 
in Korea ? 



July 2, J 951 



Of course it is not. Everybody with any com- 
mon sense knows it is not. 

And look at the alternatives these critics have 
to present. Here is what they say. Take a chance 
on spreading the conflict in Korea. Take a chance 
on tying up all our resources in a vast war in Asia. 
Take a chance on losing our allies in Europe. 
Take a chance the Soviet Union won't fight in the 
Far East. Take a chance we won't have a third 
world war. 

They want us to play Russian roulette with the 
foreign policy of the United States — and with all 
the chambers of the pistols loaded. 

That's the kind of wisdom and thinking that has 
been coming out of the dividers and coufusers in 
the last few months. 

That is not a policy. That is not the way to 
defend this country and the cause of world peace 
in these dangerous times. No President who has 
any sense of responsibility for the welfare of this 
great country is going to meet the grave issues 
of war and peace on such a foolish basis as that. 

I am glad that we have had the recent hearings 
in the Senate on our foreign policy. These hear- 
ings have been thorough and have been conducted 
fairly. They have done a great deal to explain 
to our people the situation the woi'ld is in, and 
the way we are meeting it. They have demon- 
strated, again, that we are on the right course. 



The Problem of the Future 

But the important problem right now is not the 
past; it is the future. The world will not stand 
still while we examine the whole course of our 
foreign policy since 1941. 

We are right in the middle of a great effort 
to build up our defenses and to check aggression. 
We can't go on with this effort unless the Con- 
gress enacts certain basic legislation. 

Every group in the country has a vital part to 
play in our great effort for peace. The part of 
the Congress is to give the country the legislation 
we need to go forward. Without that, none of the 
rest of us can do our job. 

We must have effective laws to curb inflation 
and to boost defense production. 

We must have the appropriations needed to 
build up our defense forces. 

We nnist have legislation to enable us to con- 
tinue our policy of military and economic aid to 
our allies. 

To make our Nation safe, we must have strong 
allies. We cannot have them unless we help other 
free countries to defend themselves. Time is too 



short, and the danger too pressing to wait for these 
war-weakened countries to build up their own 
defenses without help from us. This aid is vital 
to our plans for defense, to our national security, 
to our hopes for peace. 

Let me show you how essential it is. We all 
know that our Air Force is very ini])ortant. But 
did you ever stop to think how much its effective- 
ness depends on our allies ? 

The Air Force has to have bases overseas to be 
in the right place to give full ]uotection to our own 
country, as well as to our allies. This is a clear 
example of how joining with other free nations for 
mutual defense helps all of us. 

Our allies cannot maintain and defend the neces- 
sary bases unless we give them aid. Giving aid 
to our allies is just as necessary as building air- 
planes if we are to have world peace. 

Our military build-up, our development of 
weapons, our economic strength at home, our 
foreign aid programs, our efforts in the United 
Nations, are all parts of a whole. They are all 
essential to our program of peace. 

There is no one weapon — no single service — no 
pai'ticular military or diplomatic device — that can 
save us by itself. All our efforts are needed. 

We now have a progi-am that is using all these 
elements of our national policy for the great pur- 
pose of peace. We are improving it as we go 
along. We are getting good results. 

We must get on with the job. 

We must build up our strength, but we must al- 
ways keep the door open to the peaceful settlement 
of differences. 

We are ready to join in a peaceful settlement 
in Korea now as we have always been. But it 
must be a real settlement which fully ends the 
aggression and i-estores peace and security to the 
area and to the gallant Korean people. 

In Korea and in the rest of the world we must 
be ready to take any steps which truly advance 
us toward world peace. But we must avoid like 
the plague rash actions which would take unneces- 
sary risks of world war or weak actions which 
would reward aggression. 

We must be firm and consistent and level- 
headed. If we get discouraged or impatient, we 
can lose everything we are working for. If we 
carry on with faith and courage, we can succeed. 

And if we succeed, we will have marked one of 
tlie most important turning points in the history 
of man. We will have established a firm peace 
for the whole world to last for years to come. 

That is a goal to challenge the best that is in us. 
Let us move toward it resolutely with faith in God 
and with confidence in ourselves. 



Department of State Bulletin 



First Anniversary of Unprovoked 
Attack Upon the Republic of Korea 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 
[Released to the press June 2i] 

A year has passed since the Communisis 
launched tlieir unprovoked attack upon the Re- 
public of Korea. 

As we look back over the year, there are four 
thou<jhts which come clearly to mind. 

First — we think of the brave and heroic fighting 
men, living and dead, of 16 nations who have 
served under the United Nations banner. They 
have given us a standard of devotion by which to 
measure our conduct here at home. 

Second — the United Nations action in Korea 
has been a success. Aggression has been effec- 
tively repelled. The Communists have failed to 
achieve their objective. 

Third — an historic step forward in building an 
effective system of collective security has brought 
us closer to our goal of preventing World War III. 
The free nations are stronger, and more unified 
than a year a^o. 

Fourtli — ICorea has exposed the falsity of Com- 
munist peace propaganda. They talk of peace 
and plan for war. The free world has shown 
that it is not deceived by this. 

Tliese thoughts are before us as we face the 
task ahead. The task is difficult, but our success 
is so crucial to the hopes of all mankind that we 
must and shall persevere in our efforts to build 
world peace. 



STATEMENT BY JOHN J. MUCCIO 
AMERICAN AMCASSADOR TO KOREA 

[Released to the press on June 25 at Pusan] 

One year ago today the people of the Republic 
of Korea were — without warning — faced by an 
aggressive and unprovoked attack by the Com- 
munist North Korean forces. The enemy lead- 
ers expected an easy and quick victory. They 
were wrong. The people of the Republic of 
Korea rallied to the support of their Government 
and to the defense of their country. Undaunted 
by superior numbers, arms, and equipment, Re- 
public of Korea armed forces resisted gallantly. 
Meanwhile the free nations of the world, recog- 
nizing the seriousness to the peace, rallied to de- 
fend Korea against the aggressors. However, as 
it takes a giant steam locomotive time to build up 
power and speed, the United Nations required 
time to muster their collective strength to meet 
the Communist onslaught. By holding on tena- 
ciously and courageously, the army and people of 



the Republic of Korea provided this time. In a 
few months the aggressors were practically driven 
from the Korean peninsula. 

At this point another Soviet satellite state en- 
tered the fray. The Chinese Communists put 
into the field huge numbers of troops against the 
United Nations and Republic of Korea forces. 
It was nece.ssary to regroup and fall back in order 
to cope with this second Communist thrust. And 
once more the free nations, through the collec- 
tive actions of the majority of the members of the 
United Nations organization, are proving that 
aggression is a very costly and profitless venture. 

From the start of the Communist invasion of 
Korea, the United Nations organization has 
worked strenuously to discharge its responsibili- 
ties as outlined in its Charter — the maintenance of 
international peace and security and the achieve- 
ment of international cooperation on solving in- 
ternational problems. To this end, an unrelenting 
effort has been made and will continue to be made 
to accomplish the objectives which the United 
Nations has set for itself in Korea. As recently 
reiterated by Secretary-General Trygve Lie these 
are 

... to repel aggression and to restore peace and 
security and to malse possible a united, independent, free 
and democratic Korea in which the Korean people, with- 
out outside interference of any kind, may settle their 
affairs for themselves, with such assistance in the res- 
toration of their ravaged land and the establishment of 
a unified government of their own choosing as the United 
States can render. 

The American people believe in collective se- 
curity and in the ideas and purposes of the United 
Nations and they and their Government whole- 
heartedly back the United Nations' objectives in 
Korea. I am sure that, with the continued co- 
operation of all the nations participating in the 
defense of freedom in Korea, peace and stability 
will be secured for the Korean people. 



Letters of Credence 

Cambodia 

The newly appointed Minister of Cambodia, 
Nong Kimny, presented his credentials to the 
President on June 20, 1951. For a text of the 
Minister's remarks and the President's reply, see 
Department of State press release 5;U of June 20. 

Finland 

The newly appointed Minister of Finland, 
Jolian Albert Nykopp, presented his credentials to 
the President on June 20, 1951. For a text of the 
Minister's remarks and the President's reply, see 
Department of State press release 530 of June 20. 



July 2, 195? 



Some Reflections on Russian-American Relations 



hy Foy D. Kohler 

Chief, International Broadcasting Division ^ 



Wliatever trend events may take in the world, 
or even within the Soviet Union or in the United 
States, the relations between these two great 
nations will be the major theme of the history of 
at least the next 100 years. These relations will 
affect the lives not only of every American citizen 
but also of every inhabitant of the globe. 

Most of the inhabitants of that globe are already 
looking to America for the leadershii) which corre- 
sponds to our power. Only by providing educa- 
tion and training — and that on an ever-increasing 
scale — can we prepare ourselves to meet the respon- 
sibilities they place upon us. 

Now, within the context of these remarks and 
at a considerable risk of oversimplification, I 
should like to suggest what I consider to be a 
couple of basic considerations connected with this 
subject of Eussian-American relations. 

Inevitability of Revolution in Soviet Union 

I have tried to follow developments in the 
Soviet Union for some years, as well as my various 
operational assignments would allow. I lived 
there for nearly 3 years, from 1947 through 1949. 
I believe the strongest conviction that has come 
out of this experience for me — and one I share 
with many colleagues — is the conviction that a 
Russian political and social revolution is abso- 
lutely inevitable. I hasten to add that I should 
not like to predict whether that revolution will 
take place in 5 years, or in 25 years, or only after 
a hundred years. I would add also that the result 
of that revolution will not be the sudden flowering 
in tlie Soviet Union of the real democracy we 
know, or of our free enterprise economic system. 

The Russians and the other peoples living in the 
Soviet Union have been subjected to long condi- 
tioning in tyranny and despotism. Today's ob- 
server in the Soviet Union is frequently utterly 
discouraged by the apparent political apathy of 
the Soviet population and manifestations of un- 

' This article is based on an aildress made before the 
Russian Institute of Columbia University, New York City, 
on May 2G. 



critical acquiescence in the regime's totalitarian 
controls and manipulation of the populace toward 
its own power ends. But, in the long view, the 
clock of civilization cannot be turned back and 
held back successfully for any great length of 
time. The contrast between conditions during the 
reign of Nicholas the First — so cogently described 
by the Marquis de Custine and so unhappily ap- 
plicable to the Stalinist regime today — and the 
great forward surge of Russian civilization after 
1860 vividly illustrates this point. Today even 
more than a century ago, evidence abounds of a 
basic disharmony between the reactionary nature 
of the Stalinist dictatorship and tlie aspirations 
of the Soviet peoples for a better and freer life. 

The more obvious manifestations of this dis- 
harmony have been widely reported and discussed. 
For this reason, but not to minimize their impor- 
tance, I shall not dwell on them. These include, 
of course, the tremendoiis police and infonner 
apparatus which the Soviet regime feels obliged 
to maintain; the lai-ge-scale desertions from the 
Red army during World War II ; the incarceration 
of many millions of Soviet citizens in slave-labor i 
camps ; and the countless controls imposed on the 
Soviet citizen. 

I may say parenthetically that during my stay 
in Russia I discussed many of these things with 
a Russian friend and got varying responses from 
him. Strangely enough, the thing that impressed 
him most in these discussions was the question of i 
freedom of internal movement. I was never able' 
really to convince him that it is not only possible 
but entirely customary to travel anywhere in the 
United States and even to settle anywhere in the 
United States without the necessity of carrying 
an internal passport and securing police visas. 

These major phenomena certainly indicate fearj 
on the part of the regime and real or potential j 
unrest on the part of the population. More sig- 
nificantly, they are a reflection of persisting or 
developing attitudes among the people ; and it is 
these attitudes which will determine the course of 
events in the long run. I think it is clear that' 
practically everyone in the Soviet Union now real- 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



izes he is being ruled not by revolution but by 
reaction. I know of no observer who has lived 
in the Soviet Union in recent years who has de- 
tected any evidence of a revolutionary spirit. The 
elan and the enthusiasm of 30 years ago have 
completely disappeared. 

Stalin's dictatorship has overpromised and nn- 
derperformed. In all major respects — equality 
and freedom for the individual, production for 
the use of the people, the withering away of the 
state — its performance has actually been the direct 
opposite of its promises. It has cried, "Wolf, 
wolf!" too often. The Soviet peoples have obvi- 
ously lost their early faith in its pronouncements. 
The regime in the Kremlin is no longer capable of 
arousing and sustaining the people's hopes for the 
future. The "new Soviet society" has rapidly de- 
veloped into what everj'one recognizes to be an 
old-fashioned class society. As it goes into its 
second generation, class distinctions become in- 
creasingly more pronounced and class conflict in- 
creasingly likely. 

Probably the most significant and hopeful phe- 
nomenon is the persistent dependence of the 
Kussian people for spiritual nourishment on the 
great body of classics produced by the flowering 
of Eussian culture during the century before the 
revolution and on the Western classics to which 
they still have access. Happily, the Soviet regime 
has greatly extended the range of literacy among 
the Russian peoples. While it has done so for its 
own propaganda purposes, it has thus unlocked 
for millions the treasures of this Russian culture. 
Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov, Gogol, Belinsky, 
Dostoievsky, Chekhov, Tolstoy — beside these great 
masters the regimented literary production of to- 
day falls flat indeed. Parts of this great heritage 
have been suppressed, it is true, but the bulk can- 
not be suppressed. And these great masters do not 
propagate the ideas of Soviet despotism. On the 
contrary, they offer a diet of subtle social protest 
and exalt the dignity of the individual. They 
stirred revolution once; they may well stir it 
again. 

It is observedly true that the works of IMarx, 
Lenin, and Stalin and their minions receive a 
tremendous circulation and that they are widely 
read. But it is obvious that the motivation of the 
readers is artificial ; that protective self-interest 
is the guide rather than honest enthusiasm. More- 
over, even these works are not wholly misleading 
to the quick Russian intelligence. One of the most 
interesting papers I have read in a long time was 
an analysis of the Soviet social and economic sys- 
tem written by a young Soviet defector in purely 
Marxist terms. He very aptly described the drain- 
ing off of the "surplus value" of Soviet j)roduc- 
tion for the benefit and purposes of tlie Soviet 
elite and the operation of this system in grinding 
down the level of the workers. 

A seeming contradiction in this general rule of 
the unpopidarity of Soviet propaganda works as 



compared with Russian classics is worth noting. 
Although a play exaltin^ the glories of life of the 
new Soviet man on a kolkhoz, for example, clearly 
lacks box office appeal, strictly anti-American 
propaganda seems to be very popular. This reac- 
tion was certainly true of the first major propa- 
ganda vehicle, the film version of Ru.sxki Vopro.<i, 
which played throughout the Soviet Union while 
I was there. I went to see it in an extremely 
crowded public theater. I was interested in the 
reaction of the audience. The film opened with 
some old newsreel shots of life in the United States 
during the great depression. A negro woman 
was shown doing her washing in a "Hooverville," 
in the very shadow of the great New York sky- 
scrapers. A murmur ran throughout the audience. 
It was not, as you might expect, a murmur of so- 
cial protest against the conditions of life being 
shown ; the "Hooverville," in fact, very closely re- 
sembled large sections of Moscow. No, the mur- 
mur was one of awe at the quantity of clothing 
the negro woman was hanging on the line. There 
was a similar reaction to the neat-looking Long 
Island cottage in which the play's hero lived, and 
still another when a great mass meeting was por- 
trayed in Madison Square Garden where the policy 
of the American Government was openly opposed. 
The lessons were not lost on the audience. 

The Soviet citizen apparently has the same sort 
of reaction when he reads the modern American 
books available to him. Generally speaking, these 
are limited to works of social criticism by such 
authors as Theodore Dreiser, Upton Sinclair, 
Ernest Hemingway, Erskine Caldwell. Not only 
do such works give him some real glimi^ses of 
American life, but they also raise in his mind the 
question as to how such works could have been 
published in the United States if our system were 
in fact that pictured in Kremlin propaganda. 

American Revolution Valid and Permanent 

These reflections on the nature of the Stalinist 
dictatorship and the attitudes of the Soviet citizen 
lead me to the second principle point which I 
should like to emphasize. 

The valid revolution for our time in history is 
the American Revolution. 

I do not speak here solely in the narrow terms 
of our war for independence, glorious as that 
event was and inspiring as it should be to other 
peoples who are today in the stage of develop- 
ment that we were two centuries ago. I am re- 
ferring rather to the dynamic polit ical, social, and 
economic concepts which flowed from that great 
liberating movement and have been incorporated 
in our social organization. These concepts have 
given us what may, in truth, be called the per- 
manent revolution. 

Now, the beginning of our national life coin- 
cided with the early years of the Industrial Revo- 
lution. I think the least that we can say for Karl 



July 2, 1 95 J 



Marx is that, somewhat belatedly, he described 
the evils of that era more graphically and more 
effectively than any other man. His prejudices 
and limitations, however, led him to the conclu- 
sion that these evils were incurable by any means 
other than a revolutionary upheaval. The very 
position of the United States in the world today 
is the negation of Marx' faulty analysis. We have 
demonstrated that monopoly can be curbed and 
competition and production stimulated by effec- 
tive antitrust laws. We have shown that society 
can successfully impose decent standards for 
working conditions and hours of labor. We have 
proved that labor, free to organize, will not be 
ground down into increasing poverty ; that, on the 
contrary, labor can become so powerful an ele- 
ment in the productive system that it must itself 
be subjected to restrictions on any abuse of its 
powder. We have shown that a free society can 
insure a high degree of equality and investment 
of its funds for the general welfare through such 
devices as credit controls and steeply progressive 
income taxes. We have shown that this perma- 
nent revolution is the way to a better life for more 
and more of the earth's population. 

I think the Kremlin leaders probably appreciate 
these facts better than we do. I think Lenin real- 
ized this when he wrote, many years ago, that the 
American Revolution was one of the epochal liber- 
ating and progressive forces in the history of the 
world. I think the Kremlin censors realized this 
when they removed Lenin's words on this sub- 
ject from an article to be published in our Rus- 
sian-language magazine A7nerika. I think that 
Soviet propaganda which attempts to beguile and 
mislead the outer world shows its awareness of 
this truth every day. Those of us who follow 
that propaganda cannot fail to be struck by the 
fact that it relies almost exclusively on our special 
vocabulary. This propaganda is loaded, in its 
upside-down way, with such borrowed terms as 
democracy and peace. There is little overt appeal 
for Marxist revolution. Inside the Soviet Union, 
elaborate hoaxes are contrived in an attempt to 
cover the nakedness of totalitarianism with the 
mantle of democratic procedures. A constitution 
is promulgated, 90 percent of which might have 
been written by you or me or indeed by our found- 
ing fathers. The 10 percent — the jokers like the 
single party provisions — which falsifies the whole 
document is usually glossed over. Stupendous 
elections are organized, with great fanfare and 
reference to such Western devices as "political 
speeches" and the "secret ballot." As an eminent 
Frenchman put it: "Hypocrisy is the tribute 
which vice pays to virtue." 

Yes, I think the Kremlin is probably more aware 
of our great revolutionary tradition than we are 
ourselves. We tend to take it for granted. Some- 
times worse, we tend to hide it under obsolete and 
misleading labels. We continue, for example, to 
call this dynamic system "capitalism." Thus we 



evoke in the mind of others the image of the ter- 
rible conditions portrayed by Marx, or at least 1 
the conditions which go under the name of capital- 
ism in their own countries, or indeed even the con- 
ditions which went under this name in the late 
years of czarist rule in Russia. 

We continue to talk of "rugged individualism" 
as characteristic of our society. It is true that 
we do try to develop indepenclence and self-reli- 
ance; but every American schoolboy learns that 
the first condition of liberty is that the individual's 
freedom ends where the other man's nose begins. 
We are the joiningest and cooperatingest people 
on earth; and we are socially disciplined like no 
one else, except perhaps our British cousins. 
Where else does a man wait for a light to change 
before crossing the street? "Wliere else is mer- 
chandise left on open counters? 

Let us, then, in studying the nature of Russian 
society not forget to study the nature of our own. 

The Task Ahead 

We Americans have devoted our first 17.5 years 
to developing this permanent revolution, to build- 
ing up this system which provides for man's free- 
dom in his personal life and opportunity in his 
individual clevelopment better than any system 
so far prevailing on this earth. We were able 
to do so because the security of the world was 
assured principally by othei's; because we were 
geographically remote. Suddenly we find that this 
situation no longer prevails. No longer are we 
able to preoccupy ourselves exclusively with our 
own development. Without having asked for it 
or desired it, we have had the position of world 
leadership thrust upon us, together with a whole 
range of problems with which we are little familiar 
and for which — it must be said — we are badly pre- 
pared. First of all, we do not have enough people 
with training and experience in history, geogra- 
phy, economics, and languages even to cope with 
these problems on a day-to-day basis. These are 
a first requirement and one which cannot be met 
overnight. The fact that such institutions as the 
Russian Institute have developed since the war 
shows that we are not unaware of our lack of pre- 
paredness, but even the specialists they train are 
not enough. 

In our kind of democracy, the conduct of foreign 
affairs is dependent on awareness of the problems 
and support of the policies adopted with respect 
to them, on the part of the entire population. Our 
educational system must be geared not only to 
provide specialists but also to instill in millions 
and millions of Americans the consciousness of our 
position in the world and of the prolilems and re- 
sponsibility that flow therefrom. This is a task 
which will take some time. Until it is accom- 
plished, we will inevitably go through a difficult 
growing period and suffer many of the kind of 
pains we are experiencing today. 

The sheltered existence which we have been 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



privileged to lead in the past has helped us de- 
velop a domestic system capable of solving our 
problems efficiently and neatly. We have still to 
learn that the same machinery does not exist 
throughout the rest of the world and that some 
of our new global problems are simply not sus- 
ceptible of easy and rapid solution. We still have 
to learn that we cannot just put our money on 
the barrel head and take away the goods all 
wrapped up in a nice package. 

Similarly, in our lack of knowledge of the out- 
side world, we tend to create it in our own image; 
to think of others as being like ourselves. I recall 
that when I was in school a pacifist movement was 
sweeping the campuses. It was very seductive. 
It attracted many adherents in my student gen- 
eration. It was generally assumed, I think, that 
if we were disarmed and unprepared and thus 
unprovocative we would be safe; obviously, no- 
body would attack such a creature, just as nobody 
would strike a man with glasses on. Hitler dis- 
abused us before long of this idea. But I fear 
the basic fallacy still persists. How many times 
do we hear it said with a sigh : "If only the Pres- 
ident would sit down and talk things out with 
Stalin!" 

Sometimes we show the reverse of this particu- 
lar medal. Instead of projecting our own image 
to others, we fail to think of them as human beings 
at all, with their own Vbx'y real sentiments and 
emotions, and historic and cultural traditions. 
Perhaps the best illustration of this faulty think- 
ing, in combination with our characteristic im- 
patience, is to be found in the small school which 
from time to time advocates preventive war on 
the Soviet Union. 

Happily, such a proposal is impossible under 
our constitutional system, as the Kremlin well 
knows, but let us examine it anyway, within our 
present frame of reference. I think it is probably 
true that from a strictly military point of view 
we could wreak utter destruction on the Soviet 
Union — such destruction, in fact, as would make 
any menace from that quarter out of the question 
for possibly as much as a generation. If it were 
possible for a great nation to think in terms of 
such short-range solutions of its immediate prob- 
lems, then preventive war might be a good idea. 
But I am afraid that those who advocate such a 
course have not paused to consider the fury of re- 
venge which would thus be engendered in the Rus- 
sian peoples. It would live and grow to pursue 
our sons and grandsons — yes, even beyond the 
seventh generation. All hope of ever securing the 



world in which Russians and Americans might 
live af' brothers, in peace, would be forfeit. Such 
a course would be a final denial of faith in our own 
democracy and of the moral principles for which 
we stand. 

A basic feature of the great debate on United 
States policy toward China during these recent 
years has been the question of whether the Com- 
munist ruler of China, Mao Tse-tung, is or is not 
purely a puppet of the Kremlin. I think it has 
been amply demonstrated that for all practical 
purposes we must consider Mao such a Kremlin 
puppet and that we must guide our policy accord- 
ingly for the presently foreseeable future. But 
if we take a really long view, I believe we must 
conclude that it is unthinkable that the Chinese 
people, over any extended period of time, would 
be satisfied to remain slaves and victims of a for- 
eign regime. Eventually that people will insist 
on coming into its own. Indeed, as we look further 
around the world, we must realize that many fac- 
tors will inevitably work toward a better dis- 
tribution and equilibrium of power among the 
various peoples who inhabit the earth, and a les- 
sening of the dangerous polarization of world 
power between the United States and the 
U.S.S.R., Germany, and Japan are on their way 
toward regaining their position in international 
society ; new and potentially powerful nations are 
arising in the East. None of these will be denied, 
but if we do the wise and right things, we can 
beneficially influence the direction of their devel- 
opment. 

^Meanwhile, we are experimenting with a world 
organization. In the 5 short years since the 
war, the United Nations has already progressed 
much further than the League did in the 20 years 
of its existence. It has, in fact, already cleared 
some of the obstacles which wrecked that organi- 
zation. We are impatient because it will not solve 
all of our new problems at once. But if we pause 
to survey its short history against the deep back- 
ground of historical perspective, then we can 
indeed take heart. 

There will be many and even greater debates 
than that now taking place before we, as a people, 
achieve enough patience and knowledge and un- 
derstanding worthily to play the leading role 
thrust upon us. I have tried to suggest to you 
the nature of some of the problems we shall face, 
and a few guiding lines I fliink might help in 
their solution. They are the most challenging 
problems which have faced any American genera- 
tion since the days of our founding fathers. 



July 2, ?957 



11 



U.S. Answers Czechoslovak Charges of Border Violations and False Broadcasts 



[Released to the press July 20] 



The follounng is the text of a note sent by the American 
Embassy at Prague to the Czechoslovak Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs on June 19, and released to the press at 
Prague today, in reply to the Czechoslovak OovemmenVs 
note of May 21 making various charges against the United 
titates imth reference to border violations, broadcasts, 
and other matters: 

The American Embassy presents its compli- 
ments to the Czechoslovak Alinistry of Foreign 
Affairs, and with reference to the Ministry's note 
of May 21, 1951, concerning the question of border 
violations, certain broadcasts in Czech and Slovak 
languages, and related matters, has the honor, 
pursuant to instructions of the United States Gov- 
ernment, to make the following reply : 

With respect to the charges of violations of the 
border between Czechoslovakia and the Federal 
Kepublic of Germany by United States military 
personnel, the Ministry's note states that on May 
4, at 6 or 7 a. m., military personnel in two autos 
crossed the Czechoslovak frontier between frontier 
markers 22 and 23, drove around frontier bar- 
riers on both sides of the frontier, studied frontier 
installations, used field glasses and photographed 
certain objects. 

The Embassy informs the Ministry that the 
United States Government does not condone any 
violation of the Czechoslovak frontier by mem- 
bers of its armed foi'ces whether on the ground 
or in the air. 

An investigation of the incident referred to in 
the Ministry's note has been made. The results 
of this investigation indicate that the crossing of 
the Czechoslovak frontier by American military 
personnel at the place indicated did in fact take 
place and that it was unintentional and inadver- 
tent. The American military personnel in ques- 
tion entered Czechoslovak territory to the maxi- 
mum depth of 95 yards and remained there ap- 
proximately 5 minutes. 

The report received by the Ministry is inaccu- 
rate in two respects: Members of the American 
patrol, which numbered six men, took no photo- 
graphs ; furthermore, they drove around one road 
barrier but not two, as they stopped before reach- 
ing the second barrier. 

The explanation of tliis unwitting crossing of 
the Czechoslovak frontier aj^pears to be that all 
members of the patrol, including the leader, were 

12 



unfamiliar with this segment of the frontier and 
were carrying out their first patrol in this area. 
Furthermore, there was no sign indicating the 
presence of the border which led the patrol leader 
to assume that the second barrier marked the in- 
ternational boundary. He, as well as members of 
his jjatrol, failed to see the unpainted border 
stones in line with the first barrier. No member 
of this pati-ol realized he had been in Czecho- 
slovakia until so informed later by the investigat- 
ing officer. 

Although the border crossing was unintentional, 
the investigating officer has recommended that 
disciplinary action be taken against the patrol 
leader on the grounds that his failure to make 
reconnaissance before passing the first barrier con- 
stituted a failure to exercise good judgment. 

The Embassy assures the Ministry that all pos- 
sible steps are being taken by the appropriate 
United States authorities to prevent the recur- 
rence of such an incident. 

As stated, the United States Government does 
not tolei'ate any violation of the Czechoslovak 
frontier by members of its armed forces and by 
the same token will not tolerate the violation of 
the United States Zone of Germany by Czecho- 
slovak personnel. In this connection the United 
States Government calls the attention of the 
Czechoslovak Government to two recent violations 
in which armed members of the Czechoslovak 
armed forces crossed the border. On May 24 from 
approximately 0930 to 1000 hours six Czechoslovak 
soldiers were illegally within the United States 
Zone of Germany at the Regnitz Eiver east of Hof 
in the American area. Furthermore one of these 
soldiers threatened a German national, Margarete 
Rausch, with a machine-pistol while within the ' 
United States Zone of Germany. 

At approximately 0930 May 24 two Czecho- 
slovak soldiers dismounted from vehicles in 
Czechoslovalda, crossed the border and the Regnitz 
River and penetrated into the territory of the 
United States Zone of Germany to the depth of 
approximately 35 yards. The soldiers told Mrs. 
Rausch that she had been cutting grass in Czecho- 
slovakia and must return with them. Despite her 
insistence that at no time had she been in Czecho- 
slovakia, one of the soldiers pushed a machine- 
pistol into her back and forced her to return across 

Department of Stafe Bulletin 



a stream to a place, likewise in Germany, where 
she had been working. Four more Czechoslovak 
soldiers joined the group and laughed when she 
told them they were all standing in Germany. Her 
husband. Max Rausch, came up and also told the 
soldiers they were in Germany. During the course 
of this conversation a seventh Czechoslovak sol- 
dier, presumably tlie one in command, remained 
in Czechoslovak territory near one of the border 
markers and finally signalled to the six soldiers 
who thereupon left the United States Zone. 

The .\jnerican military authorities were imme- 
diately notified of this violation of the United 
States Zone of Germany and on the same morning 
(May 24) undertook an investigation. The in- 
vestigating officer and a sergeant while standing 
at the spot in Germany where the Czechoslovak 
soldiers firet intercepted Mrs. Eausch noticed two 
Czechoslovak soldiers partially concealed in the 
brush on the Czechoslovak side of the border with 
their weapons aimed at them. As the American 
soldiei'S started towards the Eausch house, the 
Czechoslovak soldiers fired two shots, apparently 
not aimed at the American soldiers. 

From the circumstances in which this frontier 
violation occurred, particularly the fact that the 
Czechoslovak soldier who was apparentlj' direct- 
ing this operation took care to remain inside of 
Czechoslovakia, the Embassy is justified in draw- 
ing the conclusion that this was an intentional 
violation of the territory of the United States 
Zone of Germany. 

Between 11:00 and noon on June 6 a tractor 
dragging logs and carrying three unarmed civil- 
ians and a member of the uniformed Czechoslovak 
Security Police armed with a machine pistol, was 
observed crossing the border twice and penetrating 
the United States Zone each time to a depth of 
10 or 15 yards near Wies. The impi'ovised road 
used by the Czechoslovak personnel was clearly 
in the United States Zone. After the second un- 
authorized entry of the armed member of the Se- 
curity Police, he was apprehended by a patrol of 
the United States constabulary. He was I'eturned 
to Czechoslovak authorities at approximately 2330 
on June 7. 

The United States Government considers these 
actions as entirely uncalled for and regards the 
fir.st incident as particularly flagrant. The Min- 
istry is requested to undertake a careful investiga- 
tion to determine who was responsible for these 
border violations and to insure that the guilty 
person or persons be appropriately disciplinecl. 
The Embassy expects the Ministry to show the 
same diligence in informing it of the results of the 
investigation and in assuring it that measures to 
prevent recurrence have been taken, as was shown 
by United States authorities in coiniection witli 
the incident which is the subject of the first part 
of tliis note. 

As to radio broadcasts, the Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment asserts that the United States Govern- 



ment utilizes broadcasting stations for activities 
hostile to Czechoslovakia and in so doing broad- 
casts false news and propaganda of incitement 
against Czechoslovakia and its people. Although 
the Ministry may by this reference intend to make 
accusations against the Voice of America and 
Eadio Free Europe as well as purely commercial 
broadcasting stations, its statements on the subject 
appear to relate chiefly to Radio Free Europe. It 
should be made clear at once that the Voice of 
America represents a i-adio broadcasting organi- 
zation of the United States Government while 
Eadio Free Europe was organized and is operated 
by a group of private citizens. It is a division of 
a corporate body, the Natural Conmiittee for a 
Free Europe, which is incorporated in the State 
of New York. Moi-e than 16 million American 
citizens are supporting Eadio Free Europe. Thus 
while the American people have a direct interest 
in the activities of Eadio Free Europe, the United 
States Government does not. 

Since Eadio Free Europe has established broad- 
casting stations in Germany the interest of the 
United States Government as an occupying power 
is involved but it is limited to matters concerning 
frecjuency usage and observance by Eadio Free 
Europe of any laws and regulations of the Allied 
High Commission that may be applicable. Eadio 
censorship does not exist in the territory of the 
Federal Eepublic of Germany and freedom of 
speecli prevails there as in the United States. It 
is believed that this policy is fully in accordance 
with the obligations of international law. 

The United States Government cannot accept 
the view that a responsibility exists to requii'e the 
Eadio Free Europe or any private ^Vmerican radio 
organization to transmit only what will please the 
Czechoslovak authorities. The Czechoslovak 
Government will doubtless appreciate that free- 
dom of expi-ession, whether of the press, radio, or 
indi\nclual utterance, constitutes a fundamental 
principle of American democracy, indeed of the 
Western democracies generally. Faithfully ob- 
serving the principle of freedom of information 
the United States Government does not attempt to 
censor the American press, or nonoflicial radio 
transmissions either from the United States or 
the United States Zone of Germany. It is not, 
therefore, possible or desii-able to exercise control 
over these organizations in violation of the j^rin- 
ciple of freedom of information. 

Nothing in this policy violates any international 
agreement concerning Germany, or any other in- 
ternational agreement to which (lie United States 
Government is a party, or is contrary to any prin- 
ciple of international law in connection with 
broadcasting activities. The United States Gov- 
ernment, therefore, fails to find any foundation 
for tlie charges of the Czechoslovak Government 
in this connection. On the contrary in observing 
the principle of freedom of infonnation the 
(Continued on page 35) 



July 2, 1 95 1 



13 



U.S.-U.K.-French Declaration Expresses Hope For U.S.S.R. Agreement 
On Foreign Ministers Meeting 

JOINT DECLARATION 

[lieUaaed to the press Juno 21] 



The following is the text of a joint declaration 
delivered by the United States, British, and 
French representatives this afternoon at the depu- 
ties meeting at Paris : 

1. On June 15 the three western governments 
communicated a renewed invitation to the Soviet 
Government to attend a meeting of the four for- 
eign ministers on the basis of the large measure 
of agreement reached at the Paris conference on 
an agenda and taking into account the views of the 
Soviet Government and the three western govern- 
ments concerning the chief point in disagreement. 

2. As has been fully explained by the three 
representatives today, the Soviet Government's re- 
ply of June 19 constitutes a rejection of this invi- 
tation since it is a reaffirmation of the position 
previously taken up by the Soviet Government. 
The experience of the deputies in resuming then- 
meetings in accordance with tlie proposal made 
in the Soviet note of June 4 shows that the con- 
tinuation of this discussion has no practical utility. 

3. The invitation to the Soviet Government for 
a meeting of the four foreign ministers, in accord- 
ance either with the notes of the three western 
governments of May 31 or those of June 15, 1951, 
remains open and the three governments express 
the hope that the Soviet Government, after fur- 
ther consideration, will find it possible to transmit 
through the diplomatic channel its acceptance of 
this invitation. In this case, if necessary, repre- 
sentatives of the four governments could meet im- 
mediately in order to settle the date and other 
detailed arrangements for the meeting of 
ministers. 



STATEMENT BY PHILIP C. JESSUP 
AMBASSADOR-AT-LARGE ' 

The United States Government has examined 
the note of the Soviet Government dated June 20. 
It regrets to find that this note instead of indicat- 
ing the willingness of the Soviet Government to 
accept the invitation to attend a meeting of the 
four foreign ministers in fact rejects that invita- 

14 



tion. In contrast to the attitude of the Govern- 
ments of the United States, France, and the United 
Kingdom which, as they have stated in their notes 
of June 15, are ready to have the ministers pro- 
ceed to their task of seeking to reduce the existing 
tensions in Europe, the Soviet Government stiU 
persists in raising obstacles to prevent such a meet- 
ing from taking place. 

It is necessary to review the situation that has 
been created by the attitude of the Soviet repre- 
sentative in the 73 meetings which have been held 
in Paris since the fifth of March. 

The purpose of this preliminary meeting of 
deputies was to draw up an agenda for a meeting 
of the four foreign ministers. From the outset, 
the representatives of the United States, France, 
and the United Kingdom have tried to secure a 
simple listing of headings which would identify 
the problems to be discussed by the ministers. The 
Soviet representative, on the other hand, through- 
out the meetings has endeavored to draft the 
agenda in such a way as to prejudge the issues 
which the ministers would discuss or to advance 
some propaganda theme of the Soviet Govern- 
ment. The three representatives have refused to 
permit the discussion of drafting the agenda to 
be distorted in this way to serve the purposes of 
the Soviet Union. They have repeatedly pointed 
out the true nature of the task for which the 
Paris meeting was convoked. They have stated 
frankly that this preliminary meeting was not the 
place at which governmental decisions on ques- 
tions of policy were to be made. 

Since it became apparent that the Soviet repre- 
sentative was not willing to cooperate in bringing 
to a conclusion the preparatory work in Paris, the 
Government of the United States, together with 
the Governments of France and the United King- 
dom, addressed communications to the Soviet 
Government on May 31 and on June 15. These 
notes contained an invitation to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to attend a meeting of the four foreign 
ministers in Washington on the basis of any one 

' Made before an afternoon session of the Four-Power 
Deputies Meeting at Paris on June 21 and released to the 
press simultaneously at Washington. 

Department of State Bof/efin 



of several alternatives among which the Soviet 
Government was free to choose. In the note of 
June 15, after the Soviet rejection of the first pro- 
posal, it was proposed that the ministers should 
meet on the basis of the large measure of agree- 
ment already reached in Paris, the ministers tak- 
ing into account the agenda known as alternative 
B and the exchange of notes in which the outstand- 
ing point of disagreement M'as set forth. 

The Soviet (iovernment has again suggested 
that the deputies should continue their discus- 
sion concerning the inclusion of the Soviet pro- 
posal on "Atlantic treaty and American military 
bases." The positions of all four delegates in re- 
gard to this proposal have been fully stated and 
required no further clarification. The experience 
of the deputies in resuming their meetings in ac- 
cordance with the Soviet proposal in its note of 
June 4 proves that the continuance of this dis- 
cussion has no practical utility and merely delays 
the Ministers from proceeding with their task of 
seeking to reduce the existing tensions in Europe. 

In its note the Soviet Government asserts that 
it would be prepared to have its treaties of mutual 
assistance considered by the Foreign Ministers 
when they meet. The three delegates have not 
proposed that these treaties should be placed on 
the agenda. The Governments of the three West- 
ern Powers have always considered that their For- 
eign Ministers would be entitled to discuss the 
question of the Soviet treaties of mutual assist- 
ance with other countries, if they so desired, under 
the general clause of item I. The Soviet Foreign 
Minister, as has been fi'equently pointed out, is 
similarly entitled to discuss the North Atlantic 
Treaty. The general clause of item I in the 
agenda was included specifically for the purpose 
of permitting any of the Foreign Ministers to 
expound his point of view concerning the causes 
and effects of existing international tensions. 
What the three Western powers do not propose 
and will not do is to agree to include as a specific 
item on the agenda any item such as the North 
Atlantic Treaty or the Soviet treaties of mutual 
assistance, in regard to which the meeting of 
the four Ministers is not competent to negotiate 
and take action. 

The allegations in the note of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment re inequality are wholly specious. Dur- 
ing the discussions in Paris there has been free 
and equal negotiation. The results embodied 
in the agenda alternative B do not correspond en- 
tirely either with the original proposals of the 
Soviet delegates or with those of the other three 
delegates. Adjustments have been made on both 
sides. It is utterly fallacious to argue that, un- 
less every proposal of the Soviet delegate is ac- 
cepted, a position of inequality is created. No 
such i)rinciple has ever been thought to apply to 
an international negotiation. On the other hand, 
as already pointed out, each of the four P^oreign 
Ministers without discrimination will be able to 



bi'ing up and express his views on any question 
which he considers pertinent, whether it be the 
North Atlantic Treaty or military bases or the 
network of Soviet military treaties, the subver- 
sive activities of the Cominform or any other 
aspect of the international situation in Europe. 
The Western proposals provide, therefore, for 
complete equality of treatment of topics not suit- 
able for specific listing on the agenda. This equal 
freedom, which has never been questioned, has 
nothing whatever to do with the drafting of the 
agenda or with agreement upon proceeding to a 
meeting of the four Foreign Ministers in accord- 
ance with the invitations and suggestions of the 
three Western Governments. 

The statement in the Soviet note, that the 
United States has placed any condition upon the 
holding of the meeting of the four Ministers, is 
not correct. The proposal of the Xmited States 
in its note of June 15 was that without any fur- 
ther preliminaries whatsoever the Foreign Min- 
isters should meet on the basis of the results 
already obtained at Paris. It is the Soviet Gov- 
ernment, on the other hand, which seeks to make 
the meeting of the Ministers conditional upon 
the acceptance of an additional proposal advanced 
by the Soviet Government. 

Why does the Soviet Government now insist on 
this condition to a meeting of the four Foreign 
Ministers? Is it for the purpose of interposing 
an obstacle to the holding of a meeting^ Is it 
for the purpose of creating in some way the false 
impression that the Government of the United 
States would let the hopes and efforts of the peo- 
ple of 12 Allied nations to achieve security for 
themselves and to build their defenses become a 
subject for bargaining with the U.S.S.R. ? The 
individual and collective right of self-defense is 
inalienable. It is not for sale to the Soviet Union. 
No agenda which seeks to convey a contrary im- 
pression is acceptable. The efforts under the 
North Atlantic Treaty to achieve security and 
build a defense threaten no one. 

The United States Government has frequently 
proved and is prepared to demonstrate on any 
occasion that these efforts are undertaken in the 
spirit of the Charter of the United Nations and 
that they hold no menace of any kind for any na- 
tion that desires peace. It is not in these efforts 
that any cause of tension is to be found. 

What then is the obstacle to holding a meeting 
of the four Foreign Ministers? It is not that the 
Soviet Union will be prevented from saying what 
it wishes to at the meeting; it is not that any cause 
or effect of existing tension, real or imagined, is 
precluded from the discussion; it is not that the 
broadest possible avenue is lacking for a considera- 
tion of proposals for the international control and 
reduction of armaments and nrmed forces and 
other important subjects. The obstacle is that the 
Soviet Government wishes to impose a condition 
which it knows is unacceptable. 



July 2, 7 95 J 



15 



It is a complete deception for the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to pretend that there is any reason why 
the Foreign Ministers themselves shonld not pro- 
ceed to meet and deal as they see fit with any ques- 
tions remaining unresolved as a result of the pre- 
liminary meetings in Paris. The Foreign Minis- 
ters could have met without any such preliminary 
meetings taking place. It was the hope of the 
United States Government that the meetings 
would facilitate the work of the Ministers. It is 
the belief of the United States Government that 
the results already achieved at Paris would to a 
very large extent facilitate that work. As stated 
in the United States Government's note of June 
15, the Ministers should be able on this basis to 
proceed without delay to their task of seeking to 
reduce the existing tensions in Europe. It is only 
the stubborn obstructionist attitude of the Soviet 
Government which prevents this work of the Min- 
isters from going forward. 

The United States Government hopes that the 
Soviet Government will reconsider its attitude and 
that its Foreign Minister will be prepared to join 
the other three Ministers in their effort to make a 
contribution to the cause of peace. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ACHESON 

[Released to the press Jwne 21} 

Today in Paris the United States, Britain, and 
France renewed the invitation twice extended to 
the Soviet Government to join in a meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers in Washington at an early 
date.^ 

I earnestly hope that the Soviet Government 
will accept this invitation so that the Foreign 
Ministers may proceed without further delay to 
discuss the important problems causing trouble 
in Europe. 

We believe that because of the stalling tactics 
adopted by the U.S.S.R. through 74 sessions in 
Paris, continued meetings of the deputies serve no 
useful purpose. On the contrary, further meet- 
ings there would only cause delay. 



NAC Signs Treaty on 
Armed Forces Status 

[Released to the press June 19] 

The North Atlantic Council deputies at London 
today signed a treaty concerning the status of their 
military forces. The basic purpose is to define 
the juridical status of the forces of one North At- 
lantic Treaty country when stationed in the terri- 
tory of another treaty country. The most 

■ BUU.ETIN of June 11, 1951, p. 933, and June 25, 1951, 
p. 1021. 



important provisions lay down the rules concern- 
ing jurisdiction of offenses, claims, customs, taxa- 
tion, and immigration. In general, all persons 
covered by military law, whether military per- 
sonnel or civilians, will come under the provisions 
of the agreement. 

Statement hy U.S. Ambassador Charles Spof- 
ford, member and chairman NAC deputies: 

Tbe agreement on the status of armed forces which the 
North Atlantic Treaty (Nat) governments have signed 
today is an important addition to the structural frame- 
work of NATO. We believe we have developed a multi- 
lateral charter that provides a uniform and administra- 
tively workable basis for an orderly, consistent, and fair 
relationship between forces from one Nat country and 
any other Nat country where they may be assigned to 
serve. 

The agreement is part of the collective defense effort 
and is essential for the development of the integrated 
force under General Eisenhower's command. It gives 
the governments and the military authorities simple, 
practical procedures for regulating a complex relation- 
ship. It guarantees the members of the armed forces 
adequate legal protection, and at the same time, without 
infringing on the authority of the military command, 
fully recognizes the peacetime rights and responsibilities 
of the civilian authorities in the host countries. 

The development of collective defense in peacetime 
requires that forces of various countries which form part 
of the integrated force for the defense of the North At- 
lantic Treaty area be stationed in various other countries. 
They must be free to move from one country to another, 
in accordance with the demands of strategy and the orders 
of the Supreme Command. It is essential that there be 
uniformity of arrangements governing their status in 
countries other than their own and their relationship 
to the authorities and people of those countries. The 
conclusion of this agreement is an important step In our 
common effort to organize integrated strength adequate 
to keep the peace. 



Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1951 Signed 

Statement by the President 

[Released to the press by the White Bouse June 16] 

I have today signed H. R. 1612, the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1951. The act ex- 
tends until June 12, 1953, the authority of the 
President to enter into reciprocal trade agree- 
ments with other countries and, in connection with 
these agreements, to make certain changes in 
United States tariff rates. 

By extending this authority by an overwhelm- 
ing majority, the Congress has reaffirmed its con- 
tinued adherence to a program which has been a 
cornerstone of United States foreign policy for 
17 years. Under this authority, the trade agree- 
ments program will be administered with the 
same spirit and the same objectives that have ani- 
mated it from the beginning. Through our trade 
agreements with other nations, and in particular 
through the multilateral trade agreement known 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
the United States will continue its efforts with 
other countries to expand trade by the reduction 
or elimination of barriers, and thus to build up 
the strength of the free world. 

In signing the Trade Agreements Extension 
Act, however, I must point out that some of the 
new procedural provisions are cumbersome and 
superfluous. Although these provisions are in- 
tended to insure that American producers will 
not suffer serious injury from the operation of the 
pi-ogi-am, they do not materially add to the safe- 
guards which already exist under present admin- 
istrative procedures. 

I am very much concerned at the fact that some 
of these new provisions single out particular types 
of products lor special consideration. One of the 
basic principles of the trade agreements program, 
repeatedly enunciated in the Congress, is that the 
Congress should confine its legislative mandate in 
this field to general principles. The dangers of 
reverting to product-by-product legislation in the 
field of tariffs are obvious. 



Renegotiations With Venezuela 
on Trade Agreement Announced 

[Released to the press June 18] 

During his recent visit to the United States, the 
Minister of Foreign Relations of Venezuela, Dr. 
Louis E. Gomez Ruiz, informed the Department 
of State that his Government considered certain 
provisions of the trade agreement of November 6, 
1939, should be changed to conform to new condi- 
tions and that negotiations to this end should be 
commenced as soon as possible. Thereafter, the 
Venezuelan Foreign Office, in a note dated June 
7, 1951, formally requested that negotiations be 
undertaken. 

The Government of the United States is pleased 
to accede to the Venezuelan Government's desire 
to negotiate and has accordingly agreed to take 
the necessary steps to initiate proceedings. The 
usual formal notice of intention to negotiate, in- 
cluding notice of public hearings and the list of 
Products imported into the United States on which 
Tnited States concessions may be considered dur- 
ing the negotiations, will be issued at an early 
date. 



Countries Acceding to 
Torquay Protocol 

[Released to the press June 22] 

The United States has been informed by the 
headquarters of the United Nations at New York 

July 2, 1957 

955311—61 3 



that by June 20, 1951, more than the required 
number — 21 — of the contracting parties to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade had 
signed the decisions agreeing to accession of Aus- 
tria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Re- 
public of Korea, Peru, the Republic of the Philip- 
pines, and Turkey, to the General Agreement. 
These countries negotiated at Torquay, England, 
for such accession. Under the Agreement, at 
least two-thirds of the existing contracting parties 
must agree in the case of each new country in 
order to permit its accession. 

The newly acceding countries have until Octo- 
ber 21, 1951, to sign the Torquay Protocol and 
thus become contracting parties to the Agreement. 

Under the terms of the Protocol, concessions 
negotiated between an acceding country and other 
contracting parties are to be put into force 30 
days after that government signs the Protocol. 



Procedure for Filing War Claims 
With Belgium Changed 

[Released to the press June 19] 

American nationals seeking indemnification 
from the Belgian Government for war damage to 
private property in Belgium have, as announced 
on June 7, 1951, until September 2, 1951, to file 
their applications with the competent Belgian au- 
thorities.^ However, the Department stated in 
that announcement that American nationals may 
file their applications with the Belgian Ministry of 
Reconstruction. 

The American Embassy has now been informed 
by the Belgian Ministry for Foreign Affairs that 
the applications should be filed with the provincial 
director of the War Damage Department of the 
province in which the damage occurred, that forms 
and information may be obtained from the com- 
petent provincial authorities, and that the applica- 
tion must be made by the claimant to the exclusion 
of any agency or proxy. 

The addresses of the nine provincial war damage 
offices are as follows : 



Brabant 

4 Place du Petit Sablon 

Brussels 

Hainaut 

31 Avenue Reine Astrld 

Mods 

Liege 

192 Boulevard d'Avroy 

Liege 

LUXEMIiOURQ 

Clos des Seigneurs 
Neufcliateau 



Namur 

10 Avenue de Stassart 

Namur 

Antweupen 

FrankrljUlei, 71 

Antwerpeii 

West-Vlaanderen 

August Keynaertstraat 2, 

Kortrijk 

Oost-Vlaanderen 

Sint Pieters Aalststraat, 60 

Gent 

LiMBUHO 

Koning Albertstraat, 48 
Hasselt 



' Bulletin of June 18, 1951, p. 987. 



17 



If the damage was sustained to propertjr tem- 
porarily in Belgium, such as goods m transit, the 
application must be filed with the provincial au- 
thorities wherein the applicant is domiciled and if, 
in such cases, the applicant has no domicile in 
Belgium, the application must be filed with the 
Brabant Provincial War Damage authorities. 

The Belgian Ministry for Foreign Affairs adds 
that claimants should apply to the competent pro- 
vincial authorities without delay for (a) the forms 
requesting the intervention of the state, (b) the 
forms requesting priority, and (c) all useful in- 
formation pertaining to the manner in which the 
intervention of the state is requested. 



Point 4 Agreement 
With Ethiopia Signed 

[Released to the press June 19] 

Ethiopia and the United States on June 16 
signed a technical cooperation agreement under 
President Truman's Point 4 program. The pact 
was signed at Addis Ababa by American Ambas- 
sador J. Rives Childs and Ethiopia's Foreign 
Minister Aklilou. 

The pact just signed is a general or "umbrella" 
agreement under which specific projects will be 
set up when careful surveys of Ethiopia's needs 
have been made. 

Dr. Henry G. Bennett, Point 4 Administrator, 
who served as agriculture adviser to the Ethiopian 
Emperor in the spring of 1950, welcomed the new 
agreement. Dr. Bennett said : 

We have watched sympathetically the efforts of Emperor 
Halle Selassie to bring to his people a higher standard of 
living and improved health. Under the agreement just 
signed, American technicians will help in this undertaking. 

When I was in Ethiopia last spring, I saw evidence of 
great potential development in this remarkable country. 
Huge sources of untapped hydroelectric power are there. 
These will be studied by United States and Ethiopian 
experts and plans will be made to harness them to devel- 
opment of other rich resources. I saw countless herds of 
cattle, a potential source of meat for Europe and of In- 
come for the Ethiopians. Yet there the cattle remain, 
for lack of packing plants, refrigerated cars — and the 
rails to run them to the seaports. Because these things 
are not at hand, the cattle are killed for their hides — 
the only exportable item. And these hides arrive at 
the markets in such poor condition that they bring little 
return, after being transported a thousand miles on 
muleback. Thus another of the areas where our mutual 
efforts will be concentrated Is in that of transportation 
and refrigeration. 

The Ethiopian Government, realizing the gravity of 
this situation, in September of last year negotiated two 
loans for a total of 7 million dollars from the Interna- 
tional Bank for Reconstniction and Development. This 
sum Is to be spent in the development of the nation's high- 
ways and transportation systems. The Government, in 
accordance with the terms of the loans, has set up an 
Imperial Highway Authority, and it is with this organi- 
zation that the Point 4 specialists will collaborate. 

In some sections of the country health and sanitation 
conditions represent a serious problem. In the low-lying 

18 



tropical areas, malaria, typhus, dysentery, trachoma and 
tuberculosis are prevalent. Here doctors and sanitary 
engineers will be invaluable in teaching health education 
and in introducing clean water supplies to Improve the 
living conditions and health of the worker. Crop diver- 
sification is also Important with the view of providing 
more food and clothing for home consumption and more 
materials for export. 

The Ethiopian Government has made formal 
requests for technical assistance in a rural develop- 
ment project in the Harar province; the establish- 
ment of an agricultural college; aid to primary 
and secondary schools, including the establishmeni 
of an Ethiopian-American educational service 
separate from the Ministry of Education in under- 
taking teacher training work with materials pre- 
pared in the United States and under the direction 
of American educators; equipping 20 secondary 
schools with science equipment and library books ; 
vocational education for nurses and midwives; 
assistance in analyzing Ethiopian resources for 
new development projects; the establishment of a 
governmental statistical unit; land registration; 
livestock census; mineral surveys; the establish- 
ment of marketing grades and standards ; the anal- 
ysis of specific industries and fellowships for 
training along these lines; and a public health 
assistance program. 

The transportation problem will be studied with 
the idea of building a highway between the capital 
city and the sea, thus ending dependence on the 
one French-owned railroad from Addis Ababa 
to Djibouti. 

At present there are some primary and second- 
ary schools in such principal cities as Addis Ababa, 
Dessie, and Jimma and government schools for 
Moslems also exist but there is need for sizeable 
expansion of the nation's education facilities. In 
this connection, an education program to erase 
illiteracy with emphasis on adult education is 
under consideration. 



Lt. Gen. C. L. Bolte Sent 

on Good-will Mission to Ethiopia 

On June 11, the White House announced that 
the President is sending Lt. Gen. Charles Law- 
rence Bolte, Deputy Chief of Staff, United States 
Army, to Ethiopia as his personal representative. 
General Bolte is proceeding on a good-will mis- 
sion and will present to Haile Selassie I, Emperor 
of Ethiopia, a message of friendship from the 
President. The Emperor has strongly supported 
by acts, as well as words, the principle of collective 
security through the United Nations. 

Last summer, Ethiopia contributed $100,000 
(Ethiopian) for medical assistance for the United 
Nations forces in Korea. On May 6, 1951, nearly 
1,200 officers and men of the Ethiopian Expedi- 
tionary Force arrived in Korea to participate, as 

Department of State Bulletin 



the Emperor stated in his address to the departing 
troops, in a "Crusade in defense of that very prin- 
ciple for which we have so long fought — freedom 
and respect for the freedom of others." In this 
connection, General Bolte is authorized to discuss 
with the Emperor military matters of mutual in- 
terest to the Governments of the United States 
and Ethiopia. 

General Bolte is traveling by military aircraft 
and expects to arrive in Addis Ababa on June 12. 
The General will be accompanied by Lt. Colonels 
William J. Gallagher, Burton R. Brown, and 
Thomas R. Davis of the Army, and by Alfred E. 
Wellons of the State Department. General Bolte 
plans to depart from Addis Ababa on June 16 and 
return to Washington via Asmara, Eritrea ; Cairo, 
Egypt and North Africa. 



Point 4 Agreements With 
Libya and Eritrea Signed 

[Released to the press 'June 18] 

The United States Government on June 15 con- 
cluded two Point 4 general agreements for Libya 
and Eritrea. Both agreements were signed at 
London by Ambassador Walter S. Gifford. Libya 
will receive 150 thousand dollars to carry on an 
agricultural education program and a soil and 
water survey. Eriti'ea is also sponsoring an agri- 
cultural education program and will receive 50 
thousand dollars. 

The agreement for Eritrea was between the 
United States and Great Britain. The one for 
Libya received the signatures of the United States, 
Great Britain, and France. Both Libya and 
Eritrea are under temporary United Nations trus- 
teeship. The administration of Libya was en- 
trusted by the United Nations to Great Britain 
and France. Great Britain is the sole temporary 
trustee for Eritrea. 

On November 21, 1949, the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly adopted a resolution providing that 
Libya (composed of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and 
the Fezzan) should become an independent state 
not later than January 1, 1952. Libya's transi- 
tion to independence is taking place under the 
guidance of a United Nations Commissioner, ad- 
vised by a council of six nations (Egypt, France, 
Italy, Pakistan, Great Britain, and the United 
States) and four Libyan representatives. A con- 
stituent assembly has been set up to draft a 
national constitution as a first step toward self-' 
government. 

Since World War II, Eritrea has been admin- 
istered by Great Britain. In December 1950, the 
United Nations General Assembly decided that 
Eritrea should be federated with Ethiopia. This 
federation is scheduled to take place by September 



1952. Both countries were liberated from Italian 
control during World War II. 

Technical Cooperation Administrator Henry G. 
Bennett said : 

The Point 4 Program offers both peoples an opportu- 
nity of building a more stable and prosperous future for 
themselves. The economies of both are predominantly 
agricultural. Their main problem is to produce enough 
food for their own needs. The United States is happy to 
cooperate with them, under the Point 4 Program. 

In Libya, there is an urgent prolUem of soil erosion 
brought about by the destructive effects of the desert 
winds and the overgrazing of the "island" meadows scat- 
tered through the arid land. Eritrea faces a problem of 
conserving its water resources for purposes of irrigation 
and flood control. 



Point 4 Agreement 
With Cuba Signed 

[Released to the press June 20] 

A Point 4 general agreement between the Gov- 
ernments of Cuba and the United States was con- 
cluded in Havana today by an exchange of notes 
between the Cuban Ministry of State and the 
American Embassy. 

Technical Cooperation Administrator, Henry G. 
Bennett, said he is particularly glad to welcome 
Cuba into the Point 4 family because of the friend- 
ly relations which have been maintained between 
the two countries ever since Cuba gained her in- 
dependence. The new agreement, he said, makes 
it possible to continue and expand the successful 
experiments in the production and processing of 
kenaf which promise to add a major source of 
income to Cuba's economy. Dr. Bennett added: 

Cuba has depended for years on one crop to produce 
most of its income and to provide employment for its rural 
workers. This crop, of course, is sugar cane. Cuba is 
the largest producer of sugar in the world today and the 
largest exporting country. But in the fibre, kenaf, our 
neighbor now has another source of agriculture income 
which will become increasingly important as it is 
developed. 

Agronomists and botanists studying kenaf dis- 
covered that it grows taller and produces more 
fibre during the time when it is not blooming. 
"When not exposed to more than 121^ hours of 
sunshine daily, the plant blooms almost constantly. 
Cuba, even during the rainy season, has longer 
days which retard the blooming and produce more 
fibre. 

Cuba's first commercial crop of kenaf was grown 
in 1948 and was sold to spinners in the United 
States who have shown sustained interest in the 
fibre. In 1949 they bought almost all of the 
40,000 pounds of fibre grown. 

One of the major problems still facing kenaf 
growers is the finding of a way to efficiently ex- 
tract the fibre, which grows in the bark of the 
stalk. Considerable progress is being made in 
developing a completely mechanical process but. 



Juiy 2, 1 95 1 



19 



until that becomes a reality, growers still are 
forced to use machinery intended for henequen 
fibre or a two-process method of first stripiping 
the barlv in the field and then hauling the bark 
ribbons to retting tanks for removal of the fibre. 

From the beginning, the work with kenaf in 
Cuba has been one of cooperation between tech- 
nicians from the United States and Cuba as mem- 
bers of the Cooperative Fibre Commission, which 
coordinates the work. The Cuban Government 
provided facilities at its agi'iculture experiment 
station, including laboratories, fields, and ma- 
cliinery, and appropriated funds for labor, local 
transportation, and special equipment, while the 
United States Government provided the salaries, 
expenses, and international transportation of 
American technicians. Private industries in both 
the United States and Cuba have also made sub- 
stantial contributions to the subject. 

The strategy' of developing a soft-fibre crop in 
the Western Hemisphere is apparent. American 
markets are large and raw materials could become 
scarce in crises that clog world trade. 

The United States Department of Agriculture, 
at the request of the Cuban Government, sent an 
agricultural mission to Cuba in 1942. It had sent 
a small exploratory mission 3 years earlier. This 
first mission reported the potential value of kenaf 
and a permanent mission was dispatched to con- 
tinue the studies. Joe E. Walker, of Ola, Ark., 
is head of the three-man party now in Cuba. He 
has been there since 1945. 

With increased production and better methods 
of processing the kenaf fibre, more people will be 
employed and the problem of unemployment, 
which has faced the sugar cane workers in the off- 
seasons, will be relieved to some extent. 

Also under a Point 4 grant, a group of 10 Cuban 
students will come to the United States for ad- 
vanced study. Six will specialize in fibre research, 
animal husbandry, dairy industry, poultry hus- 
bandry, and vocational agi-iculture. Six will 
train in the field of rural education. 

Other trainees will come to specialize in child 
health and welfare, national income accounting, 
in-service agricultural training, and social secu- 
rity and social services. 



Farm Youth Delegation Commissioned 
as "Grass Roots Ambassadors" 

[Released to the press June 20] 

A delegation of 48 young Americans from farms 
in 33 States and Alaska were commissioned today 
by Francis H. Russell, Director of the Office of 
Public Affairs as "grass roots ambassadors." 
These young people are among 58 Americans who 



will leave on June 27 from New York on the SS 
Georgic for a 4-months stay on farms in 22 foreign 
countries. Young farmers from the same coun- 
tries are coming to the United States to stay on 
American farms this summer. The International 
Farm Youth Exchange progi-am, now in its fourth 
year of operation, is sponsored by the Extension 
Service of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture in cooperation with the Department of 
State. Expenses of the young delegates, who are 
now receiving orientation in Washington before 
embarking on their trip, are paid by local organi- 
zations and individuals here and abroad. 



Students Receive Fulbriglit 
Scliolarships for Study Abroad 

On June 15, the Department of State announced 
awards to 643 Americans for study abroad under 
the terms of the Fulbright Act. Selected by the 
presidentally appointed Board of Foreign Schol- 
arships, these students will spend a year of study 
or research in 18 countries which have signed 
agreements with the United States to utilize some 
of the foreign currencies accruing from surplus 
property sales for educational exchanges. This 
year's awards bring to a total of 1,866 the schol- 
arships received by Americans for study abroad 
under the act since the beginning of its operation 
in 1948. 

The distribution of this year's awards by coun- 
try is as follows: Australia, 20; Austria, 50; Bel- 
gium, 20 ; Burma, 2 ; Egypt, 8 ; France, 166 ; Greece, 
12; India, 16; Iran, 3; Italy, 101; Netherlands, 
30; New Zealand, 10; Norway, 23; Pakistan, 1; 
Philippines, 6; Thailand, 1; Turkey, 4; United 
Kingdom, 170. About 100 additional awards to 
American students will be announced in the near 
future. 

Competition for next year's awards was an- 
nounced on May 5, 1951. Americans interested 
in applying for these scholarships should do so 
through the Fulbright advisers on their campuses, 
or directly to the Institute of International Edu- 
cation, 2 West 45th Street, New York 19, New 
York. The deadline for applications is October 
15, 1951. 



Appointment of Officers 

Charles R. Burrows as Deputy Director, Office of 
Regional American Affairs, and alternate to the United 
States representative to the Council of the Organization 
of American States, effective May 21, 1951. 

William J. Sheppard as Executive Assistant to the 
Director, International Security Affairs, effective June 
8, 1951. 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MEETINGS 



Calendar of Meetings' 

Adjourned During June 1951 

Actuaries, 13th International Congress of The Hague June 7-12 

Aviation Organization, International, Civil (Icao): 

Assembly: Fifth Session Montreal June 5-18 

Canadian Trade Fair, Fourth International Toronto May 28-June 8 

Food and Agriculture Organization, of the United Nations (Fag) : 

Council: Twelfth Session Rome June 11-25 

Working Party on Long-Term Program Rome May 2&-June 9 

Foreign Ministers, Council of: 

Meeting of Deputies Paris March 5-June 21 

Journ6es M^dicales: 25th Session Brussels June 9-13 

Labor Organization, International (Ilo) : 

34th International Labor Conference Geneva June 6-30 

Governing Body: 115th Session Geneva May 28-June 2 

Medicine and Pharmacy, Thirteenth International Congress on 

Military Paris June 17-23 

Statistical Institute, Inter- American: 

Committee on the 1950 Census of the Americas: Fourth Session . . Washington June 11-16 

Committee for the Improvement of National Statistics Geneva June 2-8 

Textile Arts and Fashion, International Exhibition of: 

Art Exhibit Turin April 1-June 30 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic, Employment and Development Commission .... New York May 14- June 1 

Economic Commission for Europe: Sixth Session Geneva May 29-June 16 

Economic Commission for Latin America: Fourth Session . . . Mexico City May 28-June 16 

Universal Postal Union: 

Executive and Liaison Committee: 

14th Session St. Gallen May 21-June 1 

Wheat Council, International: 

Fifth Session London June 13-16 

Women, Inter- American Commission of: 

Second Assembly Santiago May 30-June 14 

World Health Organization (Who) : 

Executive Board: Eighth Session Geneva June 4-9 

In Session as of June 30, 1951 

Aeronautical Exposition, 19th International Paris June 15- 

Arts and Modern Architecture, Ninth International Exhibition of 

Decorative and Industrial Milan May 5- 

Crystallography, International Union of: 

Second General Assembly Stockholm June 27- 

Festival of Britain England May 3- 

German Debts, Tripartite Commission on London May 24— 

Materials Conference, International Washington February 26- 

Sugar Council, International London June 25- 

Swiss-AUied Accord, Four Power Conference on Bern March 5- 

Telecommunication Union, International (Itu) : 

International Radio Consultative Committee: Sixth Plenary As- 
sembly Geneva June'6- 

United Nations: 

General Assembly: Fifth Regular Session New York September 19, 

1950- 

Trusteeship Council: Ninth Session New York June 11- 

International Law Commission: Third Session Geneva May 15- 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(Unesco): 

General Conference: Sixth Session Paris June 18- 



July 2, 1 95 1 21 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled July 1-August 31, 1951 

American States, Organization of (Oas) : 

Inter-American Cultural Council: First Meeting Mexico City September 10 

Inter-American Economic and Social Council: Special Meeting . . Mexico City August* 

A%aation Organization, International Civil (Icao): 

Legal Committee: Eighth Session Montreal September 11- 

Search and Rescue Division: Third Session Montreal September 4- 

Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International — and 
International Monetary Fund: 

Sixth Annual Meeting of the Boards of Governois Washington September 

Building Exhibition, "Constructa": the 25th Hannover July 3- 

Chemistry, International Union of Pure and Applied: 

Sixteenth General Conference New York September 8- 

Chemistry, 12th International Congress on Pure and Applied . . . New York and Washington . September 8-9 
^^ . ^ and 14-15 

Chemists and Chemical Engineers, International Conclave of . . . New York and Washington . September 3- 

Cinematographic Art, Twelfth International Festival of Venice August 8- 

Education, 14th International Congress on Public Geneva July 12- 

Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh August 19- 

Entomology, Ninth International Congress of Amsterdam August 17- 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Fao) : 

Second Conference on Mechanical Wood Technology Igls, Austria August 6- 

Regional Meeting on Land Utilization in Tropical Areas of Asia and Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon . . . September 17- 
the Far East. 
Geodesy and Geophysics: International Union of: 

Ninth General Assembly Brussels August 21- 

Interparliamentary Union, XL General Assembly Istanbul September 6- 

Izmir International Fair Izmir, Turkey August 20- 

Labor Organization, International (Ilo) : 

Meeting of Committee of Experts on the Status and Conditions of 

Employment of Domestic Workers Geneva July 2- 

Governing Body: 116th Session Geneva July 2- 

Lifeboat Conference, Sixth International Ostend July 22- 

Penal and Penitentiary Commission, Meeting of International. . . . Bern July 2- 

Physics, International Union of Pure and Applied: 

Seventh General Assembly Copenhagen July 11- 

Physics, Conference on Problems in Quantum Copenhagen July 6- 

Poultry Congress, Ninth World's Paris August 2- 

Sanitary Organization, Pan American (Paso) : 

Fifth Session of the Directing Council and the Regional Committee 

of the World Health Organization Washington September 24- 

14th Meeting of the Executive Committee Washington September 20- 

Survey OfRcers, Conference of British Commonwealth London July 9- 

Tariffs and Trade, Sixth Session of the Contracting Parties to the 

General Agreement on Geneva September 17- 

Telecommunication Union, International (Ittj) : 

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference Geneva August 16- 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

13th Session Geneva July 30- 

Agenda Committee Geneva July 23- 

Economic Committee Geneva July 23- 

Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Draft Convention Relating 

to the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons Geneva July 2- 

Regional Conference of Non-governmental Organizations on 

United Nations Information Indonesia July 10- 

Committee on International Criminal Jurisdiction Geneva August 1- 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO): 

Executive Board: 26th Session Paris July 11- 

Seminar on Teaching of Visual Arts in General Education .... Bristol July 7- 

Seminar on Teaching of History Sevres July 11- 

Whaling, International Commission for the Regulation of: 

Third Meeting Capetown July 23- 

' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State, June 22, 1951. 
♦Tentative. 



\ 



22 Department of State Bulletin 



THE INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS CONFERENCE 



by Willis C. Armstrong, 

Acting Special Assistant, Offlce of International Materials Policy 



The industry of the world depends upon a wide 
range of raw materials. During the past decade, 
as a result of wartime and reconstruction needs, 

i the capacity of the world to process raw mate- 
rials has very greatly increased. This of course 
is a necessary development, if the output of fin- 

I ished goods is to keep pace with the growth of 

' the world's population. 

; The supply of most raw materials has also in- 

j creased, but in some cases it has not kept up with 
the increase of processing capacity, or with the 
great expansion of demand on the part of the 
economies and peoples of the world. 

In times of depression, the producers of raw 
materials frequently experience much distress. 
This is because mines and plantations have rela- 
tively fixed production costs and because a col- 
lapse in demand for raw materials may mean a 

i sharp reduction in price. This situation existed 
during part of the 1930's, and raw material prices 
and production were at a relatively low level for 
several years. 

Military preparations in the late thirties greatly 
stimulated the demand for raw materials, and 
prices and production rose accordingly. During 
the war the industrial capacity of the United 
States increased greatly, and since the war there 
lias been heavy expansion in the industries of other 
countries. This means that the world has con- 
tinued to require raw materials at a rate much 
higher than that which prevailed before World 
War II. 

The United States is fortunate in possessing 
large supplies of some of the most important agri- 
cultural and mineral raw materials. But there 
aro many raw materials which are located pre- 

Ju/y 2, J95T 



The International Materials Conference is the col- 
lective title of a group of separate international 
commodity committees charged with reviewing the 
supply position for essential materials which are 
in short supply, or in danger of becoming so, and 
with recommending to governments measures for 
increasing supplies and insuring equitable distribu- 
tion of such materials throughout the free world. 
The U.S., U.K., and France invited interested coun- 
tries to participate in the new organization in Janu- 
ary 1951. The tirst committee met at Washington 
on February 25. To date seven committees have 
been formed, with 27 countries participating. Edwin 
T. Gibson, Acting Administrator of the Defense Pro- 
duction Administration, is Chairman of the Central 
Group ; Charles W. Jefifers is Executive Secretary. 



doniinantly in other parts of the world. Con- 
sequently if our industry is to flourish, we must 
import an ever widening range of essential sup- 
plies, primarily from Asia, Africa, and South 
America. 

At the same time, other manufacturing coun- 
tries, primarily in Western Europe, look to us as 
an exporter of some of the raw materials which 
they require for their industrial establishments. 
A very high level of international trade in raw 
materials is therefore essential if the industries of 
the United States and the Western European coim- 
tries are to maintain their output of finished goods. 
Countries in other parts of the world which are 
primarily engaged in producing raw materials 
must import finished goods from Europe and the 
United States, especially if they are to continue 
and expand their production of the raw materials 
which we need. 

The United States has the largest demand for 
raw materials of any of the manufacturing coun- 
tries, because of our high standard of living and 

23 



the very size of our country. In addition, many 
countries look to us for material and financial 
assistance and expect to be able to buy from us the 
most highly developed instruments of production 
and capital equipment, so that they may proceed 
with the development of their own economies. Be- 
cause we are deficient in many materials, and be- 
cause we must be prepared to mobilize quickly for 
defense and to assist our friends in their defense, 
we decided several years ago to establish and main- 
tain stockpiles of critical items. These would be 
available, in the event of war, to supply our in- 
dustry in a full-scale war effort. Our stockpiling 
program thus is an additional factor in determin- 
ing our general requirements for raw materials. 



In addition, major changes in the political com- 
plexion of the world led to less concentration of 
control over important sources of raw materials. 
Whereas it had been possible during World War 
II for a small number of countries to control large 
supplies of raw materials, through their control 
over territories in Asia and Africa, and through 
wartime controls over private enterprise, particu- 
larly shipping, the situation changed quite 
markedly. A number of countries which are pri- 
mary producers of raw materials achieved politi- 
cal independence, and began to concern themselves 
with the important resources which were at their 
disposal and which are required by the industrial 
countries of North America and Europe. 



World War II Controls 

During World War II the United States 
and its allies established firm controls over raw 
materials which originated in their territories. 
In addition, arrangements were made for the or- 
derly buying of raw materials which came from 
other territories not under the political control 
of either side. Much effort and money were put 
into expanding the production of goods needed 
for the war effort, and careful arrangements were 
made for internal rationing of essential goods in 
the allied countries, and for an equitable distri- 
bution of available supplies among them. At the 
beginning of the war there was considerable scope 
for expanding the output of raw materials, and 
full advantage was taken of this possibility. By 
effective government controls, fixed prices were 
maintained, production was frequently subsidized, 
and competition in acquiring raw materials was 
eliminated or reduced. 

After the war, most countries dropped their 
price controls. In cases in which there had been 
government buying of raw materials and govern- 
ment control over raw material stocks, these too 
were eliminated, and business went back to pri- 
vate hands. The whole mechanism of interallied 
controls and allocations was scrapped and it was 
assumed that such extraordinary measures were 
no longer necessary. Some raw material pro- 
ducers expected a great decline in demand, but 
this did not develop as they anticipated. Instead, 
most raw materials maintained a rather firm price 
level, and the world demonstrated its ability to 
absorb much higher quantities than was the case 
in the preceding decade. 



Why International Cooperation? 

The interdependence of the modem world is at 
no point illustrated more forcefully than in the 
case of raw materials. Europe and North Amer- 
ica needs the goods which are produced by In- 
donesia, Thailand, India, Africa, and South 
America, if they are to maintain their industrial 
output and support their populations. By the 
same token, the countries of Asia, Africa, and 
South America cannot live without obtaining 
goods from Europe and North America. The 
development of new sovereign nations, particu- 
larly in Asia, means that any effort to solve prob- 
lems of shortage or surplus in raw materials must 
be developed on a basis of genuine effective co- 
operation among a fairly large number of sov- 
ereign states and peoples. If such a coopera- 
tive approach is not developed, countries may 
tend to bargain the raw materials they possess 
against the raw materials and manufactured goods 
they need; but to do this on a narrow bilateral 
basis leads only to holding back supplies, reducing 
levels of production and standards of living, and 
increasing international animosity. 

The free world faces a situation of danger be- 
cause of the threat of aggression. In order to 
meet this threat, the free world must be strong 
enough militarily to beat off actual aggression, 
must be strong enough economically to provide 
for maintaining and improving levels of living, 
and must be able to accomplish all this on the 
basis of free and willing international coopera- 
tion. In raw materials this means that each 
country of the free world has a responsibility to 
manage its own resources and deal with other 



24 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



( ountries in such a way that the free world ob- 
tains the most efficient use of supplies wliich are 
available. The needs of defense must be met, and 
so must the essential civilian needs of the peoples 
of the free world. No one country can accomplish 
this by itself, and all must work in cooperation. 
Instead of trading one specific commodity or I'e- 
source against another, countries must trade gen- 
eral cooperation in all commodities for general 
cooperation on the part of other countries. 

Korea and the Raw Materials Problem 

In the summer of 1950, the raw materials mar- 
kets of the world were disrupted by a rush of 
buying set off by the aggression in Korea. The 
surge in demand came in part from speculation, 
in part from emerging defense recjuirements, in 
part from consumers' efforts to lay in stocks 
against future shortages. Prices rose steadily 
during the summer and fall. Delivery dates 
lengthened. Widespread concern began to be felt 
among the free nations, as they saw they would no 
longer be able to assure themselves of deliveries 
of needed materials on time and at reasonable 
prices if conditions were allowed to go unchecked. 
Speculation and scare buying could be expected 
to subside, but because of mounting defense re- 
quirements no significant decline in demand 
seemed probable. Acquisition of essential goods 
in this sellers' market would continue to be de- 
termined by the bargaining power of consumers, 
without regard to the end use served. A threat 
was seen to the success of newly launched mili- 
tary production programs, the maintenance of 
stable economies, and the continuation of econom- 
ic development programs, all objectives of para- 
mount importance in the defense of the free world 
against the Soviet menace. 

Throughout the fall of 1950, governments took 
a number of first steps to meet specific and general 
problems of raw materials shortages. The 
L'nited States, in September, imposed export con- 
trols on cotton, to insure equitable distribution 
among importing countries. (The shortage in 
this case was clue chiefly to a poor crox^ in the 
United States.) The Congress of the United 
States passed and the President approved the De- 
fense Production Act of 1950, wliich gave the 
Government authority to stabilize prices and 
wages, allocate materials, reduce or eliminate non- 
I essential consumption, and expand production of 



scarce materials and of essential goods and serv- 
ices. At about the same time, the United States 
took the initiative in bringing together major 
wool-pz"oducing countries to determine whether a 
serious shortage was imminent, and if so, whether 
international allocation should be instituted. 
This conference was inconclusive, but it indicated 
how future international action on commodity 
problems could be planned. The Organization 
for European Economic Coojieration (Oeec) di- 
rected its commodity committees to begin com- 
prehensive studies of the supply and demand out- 
look in their respective fields. The Organization 
of American States (Oas) evidenced a similar in- 
terest. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(Nato) also began to examine the raw materials 
problem, as it had a bearing upon the military 
production programs of member nations. In No- 
vember and December, initial plans were drawn 
by interested governments for an intergovern- 
mental conference to study the need for interna- 
tional action on rubber. 

These scattered efforts confirmed and empha- 
sized the need for a standing international organi- 
zation to deal promptly with commodity shortages 
of all types in accordance with uniform principles. 
They also revealed that such an organization 
should be built upon a broader geographic base 
than was provided by the Oeec, Oas, Nato, or by 
any other existing international organization 
equipped to deal with both industrial and agri- 
cultural commodity problems. The geography of 
raw materials is a matter of chance, with no 
country or area self-sufficient in the materials it 
needs and with each controlling some resources 
to which others must have access. The United 
States and her Western European military allies 
do not by any means control all of the materials 
that are necessary to modern industry. The 
United States is certainly the most fortunate 
country in this respect. Yet we must, for ex- 
ample, import all our natural rubber, from such 
remote areas as Malaya, Indonesia, Cambodia, 
Ceylon, Thailand, and Liberia ; our tin from Jla- 
laya, Indonesia, and Bolivia; our industrial dia- 
monds from the Belgian Congo and South Africa. 
At the same time, the United States is the major 
source not only of manufactured goods, but of 
some of the raw materials, such as cotton, sulphur, 
and molybdenum, which other areas must import. 
An organization wide enough to embrace free 
countries in all areas of the world was required. 



{July 2, 1951 



25 



Formation of the International 
Materials Conference 

The way in which international action on raw 
materials could best be organized was widely dis- 
cussed within and among governments through- 
out the fall. Guided by the results of this study 
and recognizing that circumstances required ac- 
tion without additional delay, Prime Minister 
Attlee and President Truman, during the former's 
visit to Washington in November-December 1950, 
reached tentative agreement upon plans for an 
ad hoc intergovernmental organization specifi- 
cally designed to handle the raw materials prob- 
lems of the current period. These plans were 
then discussed with the government of France. 

On January 12, 1951, the three governments 
issued a joint statement reporting their agreement 
that : 

Proposals should be made to other interested govern- 
ments for the creation of a number of standing interna- 
tional commodity groups, representing the governments 
of producing and consuming countries throughout the 
free world which have a substantial interest in the com- 
modities concerned. These commodity groups would con- 
sider and recommend to governments the specific action 
which should be taken, in the case of each commodity, in 
order to expand production, increase availabilities, con- 
serve supplies, and assure the most effective distribution 
and utilization of supplies among consuming countries. 

Early action is called for with respect to certain com- 
modities. The Government of the United States has 
therefore agreed to send invitations immediately to other 
interested friendly governments for the establishment of 
certain of the standing commodity groups referred to 
above. Others can be created as the needs of the free 
world require. Also, the three governments will establish 
immediately in Washington a temporary Central Group 
to provide a servicing mechanism for the standing com- 
modity groups. There will be early consultations with 
interested governments and appropriate International or- 
ganizations with respect to the continuing functions and 
membership of the Central Group. 

This was the start of the International Ma- 
terials Conference. 



Organization and Activities of tlie IMC 

The temporary Central Group has now been sup- 
planted by a group of enlarged membership that 
is representative of the world-wide scope of the 
Imc. In addition to the original members, the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and France, 
representatives of Canada, Italy, India, Australia, 
Brazil, and of the Oeec and Oas now serve on the 
Central Group. This group has two principal 
functions: to service, although not to supervise, 
the work of the individual commodity committees 
and to issue invitations for new committees as the 
need is shown. 



To date, seven standing committees have been 
formed. They are virtually autonomous bodies, 
free to consider any aspect of the problem of 
world shortages in the commodities concerned. 
They have no sanctions, however, and are em- 
powered only to make recommendations to gov- 
ernments. No government has delegated to a 
committee authority to decide for it how much of 
the commodity it must make available or show 
much it shall be permitted to consume. It is the 
function of the committees to examine all possi- 
bilities for a better balancing of supply and de- 
mand, and it is their responsibility to devise solu- 
tions that will be acceptable to enough of the 
important producers and consumers of the 
commodity to achieve the necessary results. They 
are not specifically concerned with problems of 
price, but indirectly, through restoring order to 
world markets, they may be expected to make a 
considerable contribution to the stabilization of 
prices. 

Membership in each committee is limited to 
those countries which have a substantial produc- 
ing or consuming interest in the commodities con- 
cerned. In all, 27 countries are now directly rep- 
resented upon one or more committees. The table 
shows the country participation on the commit- 
tees and the Central Group as of June 20, 1951. 
For most commodities covered by the Imc, mem- 
ber countries together account for between 80 and 
90 percent of production and consumption in the 
free world. 

One of the purposes of the Imc would be nulli- 
fied, liowever, if the opportunity to participate in 
the work of the committees and share in the bene- 
fits were extended only to member countries. 
Therefore, each committee has taken steps to pro- 
tect the interests of nonmember governments in 
the free world. Questionnaires are circulated to 
these nonmember countries, just as they are to 
members, and the opportunity is extended to them 
to appear before the committees if they wish to 
explain their needs orally. 'Wliere allocation sys- 
tems are drawn up, supplies for both nonmember 
and member governments will be provided on an 
equitable basis. The weekly reports on the prog- 
ress of Imc are drafted with the information 
needs of nonmember governments specifically in 
mind and the Central Group has recently recom- 
mended that periodic restricted reports be pre- 
pared for nonmember governments. Much of the 
data with which the Imc deals would, if publicly 



26 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS CONFERENCE 





Central 
group 


Commodity Committees 


Countries and organizations 


Cnpper- 
zinc-Iead 


Sulphur 


Cotton- 
cotton 
1 in tors 


Tungsten- 
molybde- 
num 


Manganese- 
nickel- 
cobalt 


Wool 


Pulp-paper 


















X 


Australia 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


x' 


X 

x' 

X 

x' 


x 


X 
X 


X 
X 


"Roii via 








X 
X 


x' 

X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 




X 


Canada 

Chile 


X 


Cuba 








X 
X 
X 
X 








X 


X 
X 


X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 




X 




X 
X 






X 


X 


X 


X 










X 




X 




















X 








X 








X 








X 
X 






X 


X 








X 










. X 


















X 
. X 






















X 








X 












Turkey . . . 






X 
















X 
X 
X 




X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 




United Kingdom 

United States 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


Organization for European Economic Co- 


X 
X 













































revealed, have an important impact on commodity 
markets. Therefore, until action is ready to be 
taken, much information regarding the work of 
Imc must be held on a confidential basis. 

The Commodity Committees 

The seven committees now operating are : 

Copper, zinc and lead 

Sulphur 

Cotton and cotton linters 

Tungsten-molybdenum 

Manganese-nickel-cobalt 

AVool 

Pulp and paper 

Behind each of these committees is a story of 
acute shortages jeopardizing essential civilian in- 
dustries or defense preparations. Each com- 
modity covered is basic to our world today. Each 
is needed by countries around the world but pro- 
duced in adequate quantity by comparatively few 
of them. 

Copper, zinc, and lead are the basic nonferrous 
metals, used in one form or another in almost 
every segment of an industrial economy. Re- 



armament adds a further heavy demand for these 
materials. Ammunition requires brass, for in- 
stance, and brass cannot be made without copper 
and zinc. The United States has a large domestic 
production but must still import one-third of its 
requirements. Most of the other industrialized 
countries also import much of their copper, lead, 
and zinc. For a country like Chile, which is a 
major source of these imports, copper mining and 
trade are the very foundations of the economy. 

Manganese, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, and molyb- 
denum are all steel alloying materials required to 
make such products as tool steel and armor plate 
and are thus essential to the two main aspects of 
the mobilization program: the retooling of in- 
dustry for defense production and the manufac- 
ture of armament items. Manganese, in fact, is 
required for the manufacture of even the ordinary 
grades of steel which are needed for everything 
from zippers and nails to shijjs. The concentra- 
tion of world resources in a few locations, often far 
removed from the points of consumption, is well 
illustrated by several of these metals. The United 
States, which accounts for one-half to three- 
fourths of the world's consumption of these ma- 



Jo/y 2, 1957 



27 



terials, has to import all or a large part of its sup- 
plies of each, excepting molybdenum. The free 
world's manganese comes from India, South 
Africa, and Brazil; its cobalt from the Belgian 
Congo; its nickel from Canada and New Cale- 
donia. The major source of tungsten has been 
China ; new sources in such widely separated places 
as Portugal, Peru, Thailand, and Australia must 
be ojjened up. Of the world's resources of molyb- 
denum, on the other hand, the United States con- 
trols close to 95 percent. Here, where we are self- 
sufficient, we have a responsibility for supplying 
others. 

Sulphur has been perhaps the most troubling 
shortage for the largest number of countries in 
the current period. The uses of sulphur and its 
derivatives are legion. To cite a few diverse ex- 
amples, the production of newsprint, rayon, phos- 
phate fertilizers, aviation gasoline, DDT, and 
even such an everyday item as jello is dependent 
upon sulphur. There are a number of materials 
from which sulphur can be obtained but consumers 
are often not equipped to use anything but native 
sulphur. The United States is virtually the 
world's only source of native sulphur. Its prod- 
uct is shipped in normal times to virtually every 
country in the world that has any degree of in- 
dustrial development. 

Little need be said on the uses of cotton, wool, 
pulp, and paper. The sources of these com- 
modities for deficient countries are again few and 
scattered. The United States supplies almost half 
of the cotton in world trade. The second large 
exporter is Egypt, which can supply extra long 
staple cotton which the United States itself must 
import. American cotton finds its way directly 
or indirectly to nearly every country. The bulk 
of raw cotton expoits are to the mills of Western 
Europe (particularly the United Kingdom) and 
of Japan, but the textiles produced there are ex- 
ported to markets around the world. The United 
States, in addition, ships substantial quantities of 
raw cotton to various countries in Latin America 
and the Far East. For wool, Australia, Argen- 
tina, New Zealand, South Africa, and Uruguay 
are the world's principal exporters. The United 
States is the world's fourth largest producer but 
is still a deficit area, dependent upon imports for 
more than two-thirds of its supplies of apparel 
wool and all its carpet wool. Canada, Sweden, 
Finland, Norway, and Austria are the exporters 
to the free world of pulp, paper, and newsprint. 



The Soviet bloc is another rich source, but one 
upon which the free world cannot depend in the 
present period. It is in part because "Western 
European mills no longer receive their usual sup- 
plies of pulpwood and woodpulp from Eastern 
Europe that a shortage of pulp and paper products 
has developed. 

There may be surprise that tin and rubber are 
not among the commodities dealt with by the Imc, 
since both are world trade items currently in short 
supply. Procedures for international consulta- 
tion on these two commodities were already in 
use, however, at the time of the formation of the 
Imc and it was felt that there was no advantage 
in abandoning the approach already agreed upon. 

In the 4-month period during which the Imc 
committees have operated, a large amount of time 
has necessarily been devoted to two fundamental 
tasks, organization and the assembly of facts con- 
cerning supplies and requirements of member and 
non-member countries. For only a few commod- 
ities were there existing statistics that covered any 
large part of the field, even on a historical basis. 
Therefore, questionnaires have had to be distrib- 
uted to detennine production and consumption 
requirements, past, present, and projected for the 
future. 

Concurrently with their study of the probable 
supply requirements relationship, the committees 
have been looking into possibilities of increasing 
production and conserving supplies. Generally, 
subcommittees have been formed to deal with 
these problems. The two committees which deal 
with steel-alloying materials have a joint subcom- 
mittee of experts, to study means of reducing i^e- 
quirements for these materials, through improve- 
ments in metallurgical practices, changes in 
specifications, and increased use of substitutes and 
waste materials. The Sulphur Committee, 
within two months, made initial recommendations 
to Governments on measures for increasing and 
conserving supplies of sulphur-bearing materials. 

It is already clear that in many cases the deficit 
will be too large to be covered by increased pro- 
duction and by conservation. A need for some 
system of international allocation in these cases 
is indicated. Several committees are well ad- 
vanced in the development of plans for a system 
of distribution that will fulfill the purposes of 
the Imc and be acceptable to intei-ested Govern- 
ments. They have identified, as problems that 
must be dealt with or considered before agreement 



28 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



can be reached on a method of allocution, such 
factors as the principles of treating stockpile re- 
quirements, definitions of defense requirements, 
relative priorities of various types of civilian re- 
quirements, and the possible impact of allocations 
upon normal trading procedures and price 
mechanisms. 

When the Pulp and Paper Committee was 
formed, a newsprint shortage threatened to limit 
the ability of the free world's press to defend its 
institutions against the onslaught of Cominform 
and aggressor propaganda. As a first order of 
business therefore, the Committee created a Sub- 
committee on Emergency Supplies of Newsprint 
to investigate and provide relief to these coun- 
tries. As a stopgap measure in cases which could 
not wait until plans for a general system of allo- 
cation are completed, the Subcommittee has rec- 
ommended and the full Committee has approved 
two emergency allocations: 3,000 tons to France 
for urgent needs connected with the recent elec- 
tion campaign, and 9,550 tons to Greece, India, 
ilalaya, Singapore, Pakistan, the Philippines, and 
Yugoslavia, countries which normally have no 
domestic newsprint production, and which were 
found to be in a desperately difficult position. 
These allocations reveal vividly, if in minature, 
what useful work the Imc can do. 

Thus the free world has begim to deal with the 
shortage problems of important raw materials on 
a multilateral international basis. Obviously, 
however, there are additional commodities which 
are in short supply, and problems also arise in the 
production and distribution of finished goods. 
Some of these issues can be settled effectively by 
bilateral negotiation or agreement, particularly 
in cases where only one or two countries are in- 
volved in both the importing and exporting sides; 
some of them can be solved by the adoption of a 
unifoi'm and comprehensive policy by the coun- 
try which is the major or sole exporter. In the 
field of manufactured goods, priorities and sched- 
uling are important. These goods cannot be 
treated effectively by allocation methods alone, 
and they are not susceptible to much multilateral 
treatment, because of the variety of types and the 
marketing procedures normally in use. 

U.S. Foreign Allocations Policy 

In the course of the past several months, the 
United States has been gathering experience in 



these matters, and has been developing a general 
policy on the allocation of goods to other coun- 
tries. The policy expresses the United States 
attitude toward the international negotiations in 
the Imc, as well as covering cases in which the 
United States acts unilaterally. It was issued by 
Charles E. Wilson, director of Defense Mobiliza- 
tion, on May 29, 1951, as guidance to all agencies 
operating under the defense mobilization pro- 
gram. The text follows : 

The President, in his message to Congress, on May 24, 
1951, outlined our basic policy to strengthen the free 
nations of the world. 

In carrying out that policy, the following specific guides 
to the allocation of resources which are to he devoted by 
the United States to foreign needs sliould be followed : 

(1) When there are competing requirements of similar 
high essentiality in terms of the over-all objective, allo- 
cations policy should attempt to satisfy such requirements 
according to the degree to which they will contribute to 
the following results : 

(a) military production of the free world, and direct 
support for the expansion or Improvement thereof; 

(b) promotion of Increased supplies of all materials 
essential to strengthening the free world, and in par- 
ticular the production and acquisition of those materials 
required for the current mobilization effort of the United 
States (including military reserves and immediately nec- 
essary additions to stockpiles) and for similar mobiliza- 
tion efforts of nations actively associated with the United 
States In the defense of the free world ; 

(c) maintenance and necessary expansion of essen- 
tial services and production facilities, and maintenance 
of minimum essential civilian consumption requirements, 
in the free nations and in areas which they control ; 

(d) direct progress toward reduced future depend- 
ence upon military and economic assistance from the 
United States ; 

(e) lessened dependence of the free nations upon sup- 
plies from areas or countries within the Soviet bloc : 

(f) prevention of political deterioration in nations 
or areas essential to the combined strength of the free 
world. 

(2) Allocations by the United States form part of a 
wider give-and-take among the free nations. Among the 
countries sharing in such allocations the princliiles of 
self-help, mutual aid, and similarly effective application 
of Internal policies governing the allocation and use of 
scarce materials should prevail. 

After requirements of high essentiality have been met, 
the inter-country allocation of remaininir supplies by the 
United States (including allocation to American domestic 
consumers) should take into account the effects upon the 
respective civilian economies of the broad contribution 
of each area or country toward connudu defense, in direct 
military production or in increased political and economic 
strength, including the common aim of controlling infla- 
tion of world prices. Individual co\uitries differ widely 
iti their ability to make such contributions; the objective 
should be to bring about an e(|Uitalil(' distribution of the 
resulting burdens and sacrifices. This objective clearly 
excludes any nieclianical f(U'mula. or any mere leveling 
down to a uniform stamlard of lowered consumption. 

The foregoing principle Is admittedly dillicult to apply, 
since standards of consumption in different areas of the 
world are determined by a complexity of factors, such 
as normal levels of real incomes, customs, cultures, and 
climate. But its application is of higli importance for the 
attainment of the over-all objective of economic strength 
and morale in the free countries. 

(.'{) The establishment of a(l('(iuate export (piotas from 



July 2, 1951 



29 



the United States for materials and commodities under 
export control will not meet the criteria outlined above, 
if foreign purchasers cannot place orders or secure de- 
livery because United States suppliers prefer to satisfy 
their domestic customers. Commercial channels of trade 
should normally be used, but exports should be assured 
by priorities and/or directives to producers whenever 
necessary. When such assistance to exports is thus given, 
care should be exercised that correspondins assistance 
for domestic orders of similar essentiality is extended, 
if necessary. 

(4) Corresponding allocation objectives and policies 



on the part of other free countries should be promoted 
by the United States by all practicable means ; agreement 
on and implementation of such policies on the part of 
other countries is especially important to the development 
of adequate supplies of the materials, facilities, or serv- 
ices of which they control substantial portions of the total 
available world supply. 

(5) Allocations of available supplies for abroad shall 
be administered in conformity with statutory and execu- 
tive policy designed to prevent shipment or trans-shipment 
to the Soviet bloc of war-potential materials and 
products. 



Twenty-first Report of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 

FOR THE PERIOD MAY 115, 1951 > 



D.N. aoc. S/2204 
Transmitted June 10, 1951 

I herewith submit report number 21 of the 
United Nations Command Operations in Korea 
for the period 1-15 May, incUtsive. United Na- 
tions Command Communiques numbers 870-884, 
inchisive, provide detailed accounts of these 
operations. 

During the period of this report United Nations 
ground force operations consisted primarily of 
aggressive patrol activities in force designed to 
gain and maintain contact with the enemy, to 
determine the enemy's intentions, and to inflict 
maximum casualties. 

On the extreme eastern front from Umyang to 
the coast, United Nations forces advanced 5 to 7 
miles against variable resistance. Enemy forces 
resisted strongly in the Yonggok area, where 
fighting was virtually continuous, and numerous 

' Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council, on May 2.5. For texts of the first, second, third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh reports to the Security Council on U.N. command 
operation in Korea, see Bulletin of Aug. 7, 1950, p. 203 ; 
Aug. 28, 1950, p. 323; and Sept. 11, 1950, p. 403; Oct. 2, 
1950, p. 534 ; Oct. 16, 1950, p. 603 ; Nov. 6, 1950, p. 729 ; 
Nov. 13, 19.50, p. 759 ; .Tan. 8, 1951, p. 43, and Feb. 19, 1951, 
p. 304, respectively. The reports which have been pub- 
lished separately as Department of State publications 
3935, 3055, 3962, 3978, 398G, 4006, 4015, and 4108 respec- 
tively will appear hereafter only in the Bulletin. The 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth reports appear in the 
Bulletin of Mar. 19, 1951, p. 470 ; the fifteenth and six- 
teenth reports in the Bulletin of Apr. 16, 1951, p. 625 ; 
the seventeenth report in the Ruixbh-in of Apr. 30, 1951, 
p. 710 ; the eighteenth in Bulletin of May 7, 19.51, p. 755 ; 
a special report by the U.N Commanding General, in 
Bulletin of May 21, 1951, p. 828 ; the nineteenth report 
in Bulletin of June 4, 1951, p. 910 ; and the twentieth 
in Bulletin of June 11, 1951, p. 948. 



small engagements took place in the Umyang area 
from 6 to 12 May, as enemy screening forces were 
driven north of the Choyang River. The enemy 
offered somewhat less vigorous resistance to 
United Nations advances on the Nodong sector, 
until 13 May. However, by 14 May, in a series 
of heavy attacks, the enemy had forced United 
Nations units to shorten their lines and to dis- 
place 12 miles southward along the east coast to 
the vicinity of Hupchi. 

On the western and east-central fronts, enemy 
covering forces were driven northward 5 to 12 
miles by strong United Nations combat patrols 
which maintained firm contact and employed close 
air support, artillery, and tank fire to inflict 
heavy enemy casualties. The most intense fight- 
ing on the western front took place in the vicinity 
of Koyang and Uijongbu, about 10 miles north of 
Seoul. On the east central front, the most in- 
tense action occurred along the Choyang River 
between Chunchon and Naepyong. In these hold- 
ing actions, enemy covering forces consisted pri- 
marily of company and battalion-size units 
backed by somewhat more generous artillery and 
mortar support than has been experienced in pre- 
vious defensive actions, indicating that the enemy 
has made a considerable effort to overcome his 
deficiency in supporting weapons. In spite of 
this. United Nations forces continued the attack 
and the line of contact at the close of the period 
ran generally from Suyuhyon eastward through 
Uijongbu to Chunchon, and thence northeast 
through Umyang to Hupchi. 

The preponderance of enemy forces is still ar- 
rayed on the 55-mile front to the west of Chun- 
chon, where there appear to be 12 to 14 corps, i 
probably totalling more than 40 divisions. In I 



30 



Departmenf of State Bulletin ' 



the central portion of this sector, a dense concen- 
tration of 7 to 9 Chinese Communist forces armies 
is poised on a 22-mile front about 15 miles to the 
noith and northeast of Seoul. On the 55-mile 
front from Chunchon to the east, there are be- 
lieved to be only four enemy corps in forward 
areas, of which all but one are north Korean. 

In conjunction with the strong enemy build-up 
on the western front, there was a marked increase 
in vehicle sightings. An average of slightly more 
than 1,000 daily in April grew to more than 2,500 
from 1 through 10 May. Most of the traffic was 
on the western routes. There was also indication 
of increased activity and troop movements in for- 
ward areas, some of which the enemy attempted 
to conceal by means of smoke screens. Despite 
the failure of his costly April offensive, it is prob- 
able that the enemy will soon make another attack 
against the United Nations forces. The main ef- 
fort of such an offensive would probably be di- 
rected through the central portion of the western 
front. 

United Nations security forces continued to seek 
out and destroy enemy guerrilla bands in rear 
areas. The fact that there were no guerrilla 
forays against the United Nations re^r area instal- 
lations during the period is a tribute to the success 
of these operations. 

United Nations aircraft have retarded the 
nightly movement of enemy ground forces and 
supplies by increased attacks during hours of dark- 
ness. The use of flares for night observation and 
attack, while not new in air warfare, has been 
intensified many times in Korean operations. The 
employment of a new radar technique now per- 
mits close support attacks by medium and light 
bombers during periods of inclement weather or 
darkness witli an accuracy which compares favor- 
ably with that of visual bombing. Prisoners of 
war tell of an increasing sense of helplessness and 
futility among Communist front line units which 
heretofore have been moving with relative free- 
dom at night or in bad weather, and then con- 
cealing themselves during the day. 

The wars most concentrated attack on enemy 
air installations was delivered by approximately 
300 United Nations fighters and bombers on 9 
May. They bombed, strafed, and rocketed the 
facilities and an undetermined number of aircraft 
on the ground at Sinuiju. Extensive destruction 
was inflicted, but immediate evaluation was diffi- 
cult because of the many fires which cast a pall 
of smoke over the entire area. This attack was 
part of a continuing air campaign to keep enemy 
held Korean airfields inoperable. Close air sup- 
port missions continued and powerful blows 
against the enemy's transportation and supply 
system were concentrated on western supply routes 



converging on Pyongyang and on the network 
behind enemy front lines in central Korea. 

United Nations naval forces conducted patrol 
and reconnaissance operations which continued to 
deny to the enemy the waters surrounding Korea 
and to safeguard the movement of United Nations 
shipping in those waters. During the period of 
this report, the Republic of Colombia frigat 
Almirante Pad'dla joined the United Nations fleet. 

Coordinated United Nations surface ship-car- 
rier based aircraft interdiction operations were 
continued against the enemy main lines of com- 
munication in northeastern Korea with highly ef- 
fective results. The surface units concentrated 
their main efforts against road and rail crossings, 
tunnels and bridges in the Wonsan, Songjin, and 
Chongjin areas. On the west coast. United Na- 
tions carrier based aircraft interdiction operations 
were directed at the main highways and rail lines 
between Seoul and Pyongyang. 

United Nations carrier based and Marine shore 
based aircraft furnished daily close air support 
to United Nations ground elements, exacting a 
heavy toll of damage to enemy personnel and 
equipment. 

Naval gunfire support of United Nations ground 
forces was furnished by cruisers in the Seoul- 
Inchon area and by destroyers and cruisers on 
tlic east coast. 

Check minesweeping operations continued on 
both coasts of Korea, particularly in the Wonsan 
area and in the Chinnampo estuary. Consider- 
able numbers of drifting mines were sighted and 
destroyed by United Nations forces during the 
period of this report. 

Early in May, following the enemy's unsuc- 
cessful April offensive, an intensive campaign was 
launched to impress upon enemy soldiers in Korea 
the futility of the exorbitant sacrifice of life which 
their leaders have called upon them to sustain. 
United Nations leaflets, widely disseminated be- 
hind tlie lines as well as at the front, have em- 
phasized the extremely high enemy casualty rate 
in the April olTensive, the continuing materiel 
superiority of the United Nations forces, and the 
United Nations guarantee of humane treatment 
for all prisoners of war. Total dissemination of 
United Nations leaflets in Korea now stands 
at more than 388,000.000. United Nations radio 
broadcasts in Korean language continue to exploit 
United Nations constructive endeavors, provide 
world news, and explain the pattern of Chinese 
Connruinist aggression as related to the world- 
wide Communist program of aggression. Among 
recent program additions is a weekly quarter hour 
program presenting pertinent material concern- 
ing the United Nations. 



J«/y 2, 1957 



31 



U.S. Views Expressed on Staggering Problems in Somaliland 



Statement iy Amljossador Francis B. Sayre 
U.S. Representative in the Trusteeship Council'^ 



Diu-ing the Council's examination of this re- 
port,- I have been impressed, as I am sure other 
representatives here have been, by the full and 
forthright answers which the Special Representa- 
tive, Ambassador Fornari, has given to the many 
questions addressed to him. He has shown a ready 
desire to give every assistance to the Council in its 
examination of this newest trust territory. 

I do not feel that it is incumbent upon my dele- 
gation or indeed upon the Trusteeship Council 
to point out to the administering authority the 
nature of the staggering problems which it faces 
in Somaliland. The administering authority has 
shown that it is acutely aware of the problems of 
illiteracy, of the meagerness of educational facili- 
ties in the territory of nomadism, of the highly 
unfavorable balance of trade, and of the present 
inability of the people of the territory to maintain 
and finance their own governmental institutions — • 
to mention only a few of the major difficulties. 
Similarly, the administering authority has evi- 
denced its willingness — indeed its desire — to re- 
ceive advice and assistance from any responsible 
quarters in its eiforts to advance toward the objec- 
tives set out in the trusteeship agreement. It is 
in such a spirit of f i-iendly assistance that my dele- 
gation desires to make certain observations and 
suggestions with regard to the present situation in 
the trust territory. 

In tlie field of political advancement, my dele- 
gation welcomes the action of the administering 
authority in setting up at an early date the ter- 
ritorial council envisaged by article 4 of the Decla- 
ration of Constitutional Principles. The Trus- 
teeship Council may wish to take note of the 
establishment of the territorial council and of the 
significant statement of the special representative 
that since January 1 no legislative ordinances have 
been promulgated witliout having first obtained 
the advice of the Territorial Council. It may 

' Alade on .June 14 and released to the press liy the 
U.S. iuis.siou to the United Nations on the same date. 
' U.N. doc T/902. 



wish to express the hope that the administering 
authority will progressively extend legislative au- 
thority to the Territorial Council. The adminis-i 
tering authority should also, in the view of myi 
delegation, be encouraged to i^roceed with its pro-i 
gram for the establishment of municipal councilsj 
in the trust territory, since, in these bodies, demo- 
cratic government may be fostered and established 
in ways not possible under the existing tribal basis, 
Somali Youth League and the Conferenza are 
participating in the work of the territorial coun- 
cil and hope that the administering authority will 
continue to promote the participation of all parties 
which responsibly rej^resent public oiiinion in the 
councils within the territory. 

The special representative has informed tht 
Council that since the month May 1950, there have 
been no cases of collective violence or disorder ir 
Somaliland and that, in his opinion, there is nc 
likelihood of collective violence repeating itself 
Accordingly, the internal security situation in tb 
trust territory may be regarded as "normal." M^ 
delegation feels that this constitutes a tribute to th 
administration. We have noted with interest con 
sequent decisions of the administering authorit; 
to reduce substantially the Italian component o 
the Security Corps in Somaliland. 

In the economic field, it is noted that the ad 
ministration has requested from the United Na 
tions a technical assistance mission to carry on 
certain .studies, the results of which are intende* 
to guide requests for assistance for specific pro; 
ects. My delegation feels that every possibl 
method of gaining economic strength for the true 
territory must be explored. We should also hop 
that the various surveys undertaken will be inte 
grated into a comprehensive economic surve 
which will provide the basis for the preparatio 
of an over-all economic development program. 

The special representative has informed tli 
Council that about 50 percent of the sugar coi 
sumed in Somaliland is processed in the territor 
He has mentioned also that sugar can be produce 



32 



Department of State Bullett 



on a remunerative basis in Somaliland and that 
the construction of another factory woiikl not only 
permit tlie full satisfaction of the internal require- 
ments of the territory but also might permit ex- 
portation to neighboring territories. In view of 
the tangible benefits which would be derived from 
the construction of such a factory, my delegation 
feels that it would be to the best interests of the 
territory if the administering authority, failing to 
find private capital willing to undertake the ven- 
ture, should make every effort to finance the proj- 
ect througli its own or through international 
banking and development facilities. 

My delegation has noted that, in its efforts to 
bring about a reduction in the adverse balance of 
trade, the administration has endeavored to find 
a means of increasing the amount of those few 
products which the territory currently exports. 
The special representative has informed the Coun- 
cil that a school designed to instruct the inhabi- 
tants in better methods of preparing hides and 
skins for tlie world market is being established 
and that it is anticipated that this project is ex- 
pected to bring about a considerable increase in 
the value of this exported product. The Council 
will no doubt wish to take note of this project, to 
encourage its extension, and to be informed in 
due course as to its results. 

My delegation has noted in the report and in 
the remarks of the special representative that the 
territory is sorely deficient in its water supply and 
that, as a result, agricultural and pastoral activi- 
ties are curtailed in many areas. We have learned 
with satisfaction that the administration has al- 
ready taken measures to deal with this situation 
and that a water survey mission is now in Somali- 
land. 

Of particular concern to my delegation is the 
very high percentage of the Somaliland budget 
which is met by the Italian Government. We 
realize full well that at this early stage such gen- 
erous grants are necessary for the initiation of 
fimdamental developmental programs. It is felt, 
however, that the administering authority must 
be guided by tlie consciousness that in less than 10 
years the territory should be in a position to meet 
its budgetary requirements without outside assist- 
ance. Therefore, my delegation feels that the ad- 
ministering authority should thoroughly explore 
the possibility of reducing administrative costs 
without impairing the quality of governmental 
' services and also the means by which the inhabi- 
tants may bear an increasing share of the costs of 
their own governmental institutions. 
' Tlie administering authority recognizes, as we 
I all do, that nomadism is a fundamental problem 
I in the territory, afiecting adversely efforts to pro- 
I mote tlie political, economic, social, and educa- 
tional advancement of the inhabitants. However, 
' it cannot be legislated away and I know of no high 
j road to a rajiid solution of this problem. 

In the field of health, I endorse the suggestion 



of my New Zealand colleague, Carl Berendsen, 
relating to the possible use of displaced persons as 
physicians in the trust territory. I hope that this 
may be found to be a practicable method of in- 
creasing the number of trained doctors in Somali- 
land. Also, with regard to the training of medical 
personnel, the administering authority should be 
urged to proceed with its plans to establish a school 
for the training of indigenous inhabitants as medi- 
cal practitioners and nurses. 

It is obvious that intensified efforts in this field 
(education) are particularly necessary and that 
such efforts are basic to advancement in all other 
aspects of the territory's life. We recognize with 
the administering authority that the problems in 
the educational field, as in other fields, are very 
great, but it is a field where increased effort and 
expenditure now will pay rich dividends, within 
the period of trusteeship, by rendering the terri- 
tory more nearly self-sufficient in terms of trained 
manpower. We cannot but feel that the provision 
of about one million somolos in the 1950-51 budget 
for education is small in relation to the total of 
expenditures and in relation to the problem faced, 
and that the Council may wish to urge the admin- 
istering authority to devote an increasing propor- 
tion of government expenditure to education. 

We realize that the increase of expenditure of 
itself will not solve these problems. As in most 
of the trust territories, the fundamental need is 
for trained teachers. In a territory having a 
population of 1^4 million people, no final solution 
can be sought through increased recruitment of 
teachers from Italy. The only effective solution 
must lie in a greatly expanded indigenous teacher- 
training program. My delegation is glad to note 
that a start has been made in such a program. 
But in a territory having probably more than 200 
thousand children of school age, an increase of 60 
or 70 teacher-trainees is, as I am sure the admin- 
istering authority recognizes, far from adequate; 
and my delegation feels that tlie Council may wish 
to urge the administering authoritj' to place still 
greater emphasis on expanding this program. 

My delegation is gratified to note the establish- 
ment of a central educational council, with sub- 
stantial indigenous representation, as well as 
residency educational committees. We should like 
to express the hope that this council and these 
committees will form the nucleus of an increasing 
participation, an increasing sense of responsi- 
bility, in educational matters on the part of the 
indigenous inhabitants, as well as give them an 
opportunity to make their views felt in the de- 
velopment of educational policies. 

A specialized aspect of the administering au- 
thority's education program which my delegation 
feels is particularly worthy of commendation and 
encouragement is the School of Political Admin- 
istration. This institution derives directly, of 
course, from the urgent need of preparing quali- 
fied Somali administrative officials to take over 



July 2, 1951 



33 



the tasks of administration in 10 years. Progress 
along this line must necessarily be gradual; but 
its high importance calls for redoubled effort. 

There has been much discussion in this Council 
of the difficult problem of the language of instruc- 
tion in the schools. My delegation does not feel 
prepared at this stage to pass definitive judgment. 
It cannot but express its concern, however, over 
the possible consequences of a decision, however 
seemingly justified at the moment by practical 
considerations, to omit from the languages of in- 
struction the inhabitants' native tongue. My 
delegation quite appreciates the reasons for this 
decision and for its support by representatives of 
the population. It recognizes also the tentative 
nature of the decision. It will follow with much 
interest the technical studies made of the problem 
of reducing Somali to written form and expresses 
the hojie that information as to any conclusions 
reached will be made available to the Council 
when it considers the next report on Somaliland. 
My delegation feels that the linguistic values of 
the indigenous culture and their importance as a 
unifying element in the indigenous social struc- 
ture will not be overlooked by the administering 
authority and that they will be given due consid- 
eration before a definitive solution to the problem 
of language of instruction is evolved. 



Charter of OAS in Operation 

Statement by President Truman 

[Released to the press by the White House June 161 

It has been very gratifying to me to sign the 
instmnnent of ratification of the Charter of the 
Organization of American States. This Charter, 
drawn up and signed for the 21 American Repub- 
lics by their representatives at the Bogota con- 
fei'ence in 1948, provides the constitutional basis 
for Western Hemisphere unity, through consulta- 
tion and joint action within the framework of the 
United Nations. 

In the present period of world tension that unity 
assumes an even greater importance. Fortunately, 
the organization which the countries of this hemi- 
sphere have developed since 1890 has now been 
given a permanent structure, in this Charter, at a 
time when inter-American cooperation is increas- 
ingly important. The unity of the Western Hemi- 
spliere, which found its full wartime expression in 
the Act of Chapultepec in 1945, was reaffirmed and 
implemented by the Kio treaty in 1947. It was 
demonstrated more recently by the achievements 
of the Consultative Meeting of Foreign Ministers 
held in Washington a little over 2 months ago. 

The moral, material, and military strength of 
the Western Hemisphere is rooted in this unity in 
the cause of freedom. The destinies of our 21 



34 



nations are closely linked together for the secu- i 
rity and for the well-being of our respective peo- 
ples. We are bound together by a common past 
and by common beliefs; we must move forward 
together working always in close cooperation. 

The benefits of over a century of friendly asso- 
ciation of the nations of the Western Hemisphere 
are today providing an example for free sovereign 
peoples over the world. If there ever was a time 
for such an example, it is now. The foundations 
of inter- American unity, which are mutual respect 
and dignity among countries of sovereign equality, 
are just as vital to the maintenance of world peace. 
This is the true meaning and significance of the 
policy of the good neighbor. 



U.S. Ratification of OAS Charter 
Deposited With PAU 

Statement by Ambassador John C. Dreier 
U. S. Representative on OAS Council 

[Released to the press June 19] 

It has been an honor for me to deposit with the 
Pan American Union, on behalf of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, the instrument ratify- 
ing the Charter of the Organization of American 
States. 

This instrument of ratification was signed by 
President Truman last Saturday. At that time 
the President expressed in his own words the im- 
portance which he and the Government of the 
United States attached to the ratification of this 
document which "provides the constitutional basis 
for Western Hemisjihere unity, through consulta- 
tion and joint action." Eeaflirming the policy of 
the good neighbor, and the traditional ties which 
link our American countries. President Truman 
described the benefits of our inter- American asso- 
ciation today as an example for the cooperation 
of sovereign peoples everywhere. 

For me the act of deposit which I have been 
privileged to perform today has a personal as 
well as an official significance. The Charter of the 
Organization of American States means to me 
in a very real sense the cooperation of the Amer- 
icas, for I had the opportunity to participate with 
repi'esentatives of the other American Republics in 
drawing up the first drafts of this Charter. Later 
as a delegate to the Bogota Conference I partici 
pated in the final determination of its provisions. 
Every step in this process has been marked by a 
splendid spirit of cooperation and of devotion to 
the traditional principles of inter-American 
friendship. 

It is my sincere conviction that the Organiza- 
tion established in this Charter will constitute a 
growing force in support of the peace, solidaritjl 
and coojjeration of the American states. 

Department of State Bulletin 



U. S. APPOINTWENT TO TRIPARTITE 
COMMISSION ON GERMAN DEBTS 

On June 19, the Department of State announced 
that the President on June 16 appointed Warren 
Lee Pierson, chairman of tlie Board of Trans- 
World Airlines, as the United States representa- 
tive on the Tripartite Commission on German 
Debts with the personal rank of Ambassador. Mr. 
Pierson was sworn in as United States repre- 
sentative on the Tripartite Connnission at Rome 
by Ambassador James C. Dunn. The Tripartite 
Commission was established on May 24, 1951 ^ to 
represent the Governments of France, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States in the negotia- 
tions relative to the settlement of German prewar 
external debts and the claims of the thi-ee Govern- 
ments against the German Federal Kepublic on 
account of postwar economic assistance. 

The establishment of the Tripartite Commission 
on German Debts stems from the decision reached 
by tlie Foreign Ministers of France, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States at their meeting 
at London in May 1950 to develop a plan for the 
settlement of German prewar external debts. The 
three Foreign Ministers referred the problem to 
the Intergovernmental Study Group on Germany 
which was set up at London after the May meeting. 
On the basis of recommendations of the Intergov- 
ernmental Study Group, the Foreign Ministers, at 
their meeting in New York at the Waldorf-Astoria 
during September 1950, agreed upon the principles 
and scope of the settlement plan, stating that it 
would be in the interest of the reestablishment of 
normal economic relations between the German 
Federal Republic and other countries to work out 
such a plan as soon as possible. The Government 
of the German Federal Republic has in turn ex- 
pressed its desire to resume payments on the Ger- 
man external debt and has agreed to cooperate in 
the working out of the settlement plan. It is recog- 
nized by the Governments concerned that the plan 
should take into account the general economic posi- 
tion of the German Federal Republic and should 
be subject to revision as soon as Germany is 
reunited and a final peace settlement becomes 
possible. 

In his assignment as the United States repre- 
sentative on the Tripartite Connnission on Ger- 
man Debts, Mr. Pierson will be concerned with the 
largest international debt problem which has 
[arisen since the end of World War II. The settle- 
ment plan will deal with the liability of the Fed- 
leral Republic on the prewar external debt of the 
i German Government, including the Dawes and 
j Young Loans. It will also deal with the prewar 
external debts of states, municipalities, corpora- 
tions, and individuals located in the German 
Federal Republic. The latter involves in the 
I neighborhood of 100 issues of foreign curi-ency 
I bonds which were floated during the 1920's, as 

I ' Bulletin of June 4, 1951, p. 901. 



well as commercial and bank debts, including those 
involved in the Hoover moratorium. These obli- 
gations are held principally in the United States, 
the United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, Bel- 
gium, Holland, and Sweden. In addition, some 
15 other countries hold lesser amounts. While it 
has not been possible to determine the exact 
amount of debts outstanding, estimates range from 
the equivalent of 1 billion dollars to 2 billion 
dollars, exclusive of interest. 

The Tripartite Commission on German Debts 
will also deal with the settlement of the claims of 
the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
France against the German Federal Republic 
arising out of postwar economic assistance. 



U.S. Answers Charges — Continued from page 13 

United States Government considei-s that it is 
faithfully adhering to principles generally recog- 
nized among nations. If the Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment refers in this accusation to the use of wave 
lengths by Radio Free Europe allocated in accord- 
ance with the "Copenhagen Plan" it should be 
noted that neither the United States Government 
nor the LTnited States authorities in Germany were 
signatories to the Copenhagen agreement and that 
it is in no way binding upon them. It should also 
be noted that even some of the countries which 
signed this agreement have deviated from its fre- 
quency assignments. 

Objection is found by the Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment to the employment by Radio Free Europe 
of those persons described in the Ministry's note 
as "traitors of the Czechoslovak people from the 
ranks of the mercenary Czechoslovak emigration." 
These men are generally recognized by the world 
as political refugees simply desiring a free and 
democratic government. Aloreover whom the 
Radio Free Eui-ope employs seems an irrelevant 
matter clearly not appropriate for consideration 
by the Czechoslovak Government, as it is not by 
the United States Government. 

The Ministry's note finally refers to a regula- 
tion of the Minister of Finance of the Federal 
Republic of Germany dated February 10, 1951, 
allegedly on the treatment of per.sons claiming to 
be agents of the Western occupation powers upon 
entering the territory of the Federal Republic of 
Germany. The United States Government is not 
aware that any such notice had been officially 
promulgated by the Federal Republic of Germany 
on a nuitter presumably directed exclusively to its 
own administrative ollicials antl, before consider- 
ing (he question further, would be greatly in- 
terested in receiving a coi)y of the document in the 
possession of the Czechoslovak authorities to- 
gether with an explanation of how it was acquired 
and wliat means the Czechoslovak (ioverniuent has 
established in Western Germany for the gathering 
of such matter. 



Ju/y 2, 195? 



35 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Establishment of Psychological 
Strategy Board 

[Released to the press by the White House June 20] 

Following is the directive of the President es- 
tablishing tlie Psychological Strategy Board : 

DIRECTIVE TO : The Secretary of State 

The Secretary of Defense 
The Director of Central Intelli- 
gence 

It is the purpose of this directive to authorize 
and provide for the more eifective planning, co- 
ordination, and conduct, within the framework of 
approved national policies, of psychological 
operations. 

There is hereby established a Psychological 
Strategy Board responsible, within the purposes 
and terms of this directive, for the formidation 
and promulgation, as guidance to the departments 
and agencies responsible for psychological opera- 
tions, of over-all national psychological objectives, 
policies and progi-ams, and for the coordination 
and evaluation of the national psychological effort. 

The Board will report to the National Security 
Council on tlie Board's activities and on its evalua- 
tion of the national psychological operations, in- 
cluding implementation of approved objectives, 
policies, and programs by the departments and 
agencies concerned. 

The Board shall be composed of : 

a. The Undersecretary of State, the Deputy 
Secretary of Defense, and the Director of Central 
Intelligence, or, in their absence, their appropriate 
designees ; 

b. An appropriate representative of the head 
of each such other department or agency of the 
Government as may, from time to time, be deter- 
mined by the Board. 

The Board shall designate one of its members 
as cliairman. 

A representative of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 
shall sit with the Board as its principal military 
adviser in order that the Board may ensure that 
its objectives, policies, and programs shall be re- 
lated to approved plans for military operations. 

There is established under the Board, a director, 
wlio shall be designated by the President and who 
shall receive compensation of 16 thousand dollars 
per year. 



The director, within the limits of funds and per- 
sonnel made available by the Board for this pur- 
pose, shall organize and direct a staff to assist in 
carrying out his responsibilities. The director 
shall determine the organization and qualitica- 
tions of the staff, which may include individuals 
employed for this purpose, including part-time 
experts, and/or individuals detailed from the par- 
ticipating departments and agencies for assign- 
ment to full-time duty or on an ad hoc task force 
basis. Personnel detailed for assignment to duty 
under the terms of this directive shall be under 
the control of the director, subject only to neces- 
sary personnel procedures within their respective 
departments and agencies. 

The participating departments and agencies 
shall afford to the director and the staff such as- 
sistance and access to information as may be spe- 
cifically requested by the director in carrying out 
his assigned duties. 

The heads of the departments and agencies con- 
cerned shall examine into present arrangements 
within their departments and agencies for the con- 
duct, direction, and coordination of psychological 
operations with a view toward readjusting or^ 
strengthening them if necessary to carry out the 
purposes of this directive. 

In performing its functions, the Board shall 
utilize to the maximum extent the facilities and 
resources of the participating departments and 
agencies. 

Harkt S. Truman 



Statement hy Under Secretary Wehh 

[Released to the press June 20] 

In answer to questions as to the relationship be^ 
tween the Psychological Strategy Board, an- 
nounced today by the President, and the Inter 
departmental Committee which has been working 
in this field under the chairmanship of Edwarc 
W. Barrett, Assistant Secretary for Public Af 
fairs, the following statement was issued by Under 
Secretary James E. Webb : 

By agreement with my two colleagues on the Psycho 
logical Strategy Board, I can state it is now planned tha' 
the Interdepartmental Committee which has been servinj 
under the oliairmanship of the Assistant Secretary foi 
Public Affairs will continue in existence with responsibllit; 
for coordinating the execution of the United States for 
eign information programs under the name "Psychologica 
Operations Coordinating Committee." This Committee 
which has been serving in this field for the past yeai 
includes representatives from the Department of Defense 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Central Intelligence Agency 
the Economic Cooperation Administration, and the De 
partment of State. 

Other activities in the Department of State will con 
tinue as presently organized under the broad guidance o 
the new Psychological Strategy Board announced by th( 
President. 



36 



Department of State Bulletir 



THE CONGRESS 



\ct for Food Aid to India Signed 

Statement by the President * 

I am delighted to be able to sign this act of Con- 
gress which will make it possible for the United 
States to send to the people of India up to 2 million 
;ons of food grains. 

This act is an expression of the spontaneous, 
ieartfelt desire of the American people to help 
;he Indian people in their time of need. We are 
ieeply grateful to divine providence that we can 
Drovide that help. 

India suffered a series of terrible natural disas- 
;ers last year — earthquakes, floods, droughts, and 
ocust plagues — which seriously cut down India's 
Pood production and threatened millions of the 
Indian people with famine. 

India lias bought all the food she can with the 
funds she has. The United States alone is already 
sending India about a million, five-hundred thou- 
sand tons of food grains, much of it at reduced 
:ost. This food is flowing toward Indian ports at 
:he rate of 250,000 tons a month. 

Under this act, we shall be able to supply India 
5n special and easy credit terms the additional 
food which India needs but for which India does 
lot now have funds available. 

These shipments of food from the United States 
ivill supply nearly two-thirds of all the food which 
India is buying abroad to meet its emergency, 
rhese shipments will save untold millions of our 
fellow human beings in India from great suflPering. 

I note with particular satisfaction two provi- 
sions of the act. The first of these is designed to 
strengthen Indian-American understanding and 
friendship by permitting the use of 5 million dol- 
ars of the interest to be paid by India on the loan 
bring a greater number of Indian students, 
)rofessors, and technicians to the United States 
for study and to send more Americans to India. 

The other provision authorizes free ocean 
transportation for relief supplies to India given 
)y individuals and private organizations. This 
jmd of help to stricken humanity is a tradition of 
he Ameircan people — whether to the suffei'ers of 
he great Russian famine and the victims of the 
Fapanese earthquake in the early 20's or to the 
starving in Rumania in the late 40's. In India 
,oday American voluntary help is providing 
lighly nutritional foods, vitamins, and medicines 
the needy in the famine-thivatiMU'd areas. The 
American Red Cross is forwarding supplies for 

' Made on June 1.5 on the occasion of signing S. 072, "An 
let To l-'virnisli Emergency Food Aid to India," and 
eleased to the press by tiie White House on the same date. 

loJy 2, J 95 7 



community services in cooperation with and at the 
request of the Indian Red Cross. Crop — the 
Christian Rural Overseas Program — a union of 
Protestant and Catholic relief agencies — is col- 
lecting gifts in kind primarily for hospitals, 
orphanages, and welfare centers. Care, a fed- 
eration of many volimtary organizations, is deliv- 
ering packages including food, hand plows, and 
tools to further food production. 

This collective effort of the United States Gov- 
ernment and American voluntary agencies shows 
our humanitarian concern for all distressed people. 
In view of the great need in India, I urge that we 
continue and expand the voluntary aid being given 
by the American people through the voluntary 
agencies. 

In signing this act, I extend the heartfelt best 
wishes of the American people to the people of 
India and express our admiration for the courage 
and fortitude with which the Indian Government 
and people are moving ahead to solve the problems 
thrust upon them by natural disasters. 

A PROCLAMATION 2 

Activation and Operation of Vessels for Transportation 
of Supplies Under Section 5 of the India Emergency 
Food Aid Act of 1951 

Whekeas section 5 of the India Emergency Food Aid 
Act of 1951, approved June 10, 1951, provides that, not- 
withstanding the provisions of any other law, to the 
extent that the President, after consultation with appro- 
priate Govermnent officials and representatives of in'ivate 
shipping, finds and proclaims tliat private shipjiing is not 
available on reasonable terms and conditions for trans- 
portation of supplies made available under the said Act, 
the Keeonstruction Finance Corporation is authorized 
and directed to malie certain advances to the Departirent 
of Commerce as the President shall determine, for activa- 
tion and operation of vessels for such transportation 
under the conditions specified in the said section 5 ; and 

WiiEiiEAs I have consulted with appropriate Govern- 
ment officials and representatives of private shipping con- 
cerning the availability on reasonal)le terms and condi- 
tions of private shipping for transportation of supplies 
made available under the said Act, as required by section 
5 thereof ; and 

WiiEUEAs AS A result of such consultation it appears 
that private sliipping is not available on reasonable terms 
and conditions for transportation of supplies made avail- 
able under the said Act ; and 

WiiicitEAs I accordingly deem it necessary and appro- 
priate to exercise the authority set forth in section 5 of 
the said Act, in effectuation of the purposes of the Act : 

Now, theuefoiie, I Harry S. Truman, I'resident of tie 
United States of America, under and by virtue of the au- 
thority vested in me l\v the Constitulion and the laws 
of the United States, including tlie said India Emergency 
Food Aid Act of 1051 (berelnafler i-el'erred to as the 
Acl) and the act of August S, 1050, c. 046, G4 Stat. 419, 
do lind and proclaim as follows: 

1. After consultation with appropriate Government of- 
ficials and representatives of private shipping, I find 
and proclaim that private shipping is not available on 
reasonable terms and conditions for transportation of 
supplies made available under the India Emergency Food 
Aid Act of 1051. 

2. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation is hereby 



' Proc. 2931, 16 Fed. Reg. 5969. 



37 



authorized and directed to malie advances not to exceed 
in tlie aggregate $20,(X)(),(KW to tlie Department of Com- 
merce for activation and oijeration of vessels for such 
transportation, suliject to the terms and conditions of 
the Act, and in the manner hereinafter specified. 

3. The Director of the Bureau of the Budget is hereby 
authorized and directed to determine the amounts of such 
advances and the times when they may be made, subiect 
to the limitations and provisions of section 5 of the 
Act, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation shall 
make advances thereunder pursuant only to such deter- 
minations by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 

4. The Secretary of Commerce may place such advances 
in any funds or accounts available for such purposes, 
and, pending repayment of such advances, may place re- 
ceipts from vessel operations in such funds or accounts 
and may use such receipts for activating and operatiug 
vessels. 

5. Each officer or agency mentioned in this proclama- 
tion may issue such regulations or orders as are deemed 
necessary to carry out his or its functions under the 
provisions of the Act and this proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 

caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 

atlixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this nineteenth day of 

June in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

(seal) and fifty-one, and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

seventy-fifth. 




By the President : 
Dean Acheson 
Secretary of State. 



PUBLIC LAW 48 

AN ACT to furnish emergency food aid to India 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That this Act may be cited as the "India 
Emergency Food Aid Act of 1951". 

Sec. 2. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the 
Administrator for Economic Cooperation is authorized 
and directed to provide emergency food relief assistance 
to India on credit terms as provided in section 111 (c) (2) 
of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, as amended, in- 
cluding payment by transfer to the United States (under 
such terms and in such quantities as may be agreed to 
between the Administrator and the Government of India) 
of materials required by the United States as a result of 
deficiencies, actual or potential, in its own resources. 
The Administrator is directed and instructed that in his 
negotiations with the Government of India he shall, so far 
as practicable and possible, obtain for the United States 
the inunediate and continuing transfer of substantial 
quantities of such materials particularly those found to 
lie strategic and critical. 

Sec. 3. For purposes of this Act the President is au- 
thorized to utilize not in excess of .$190,000,000 during the 
period ending June 30, 19.52, of which sum (1) not less 
than .$100,000,000 shall be made available immediately 
from funds heretofore appropriated by Public Law 759, 
Eighty-first Congress, for expenses necessary to carry out 
the provisions of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, 
as amended; and (2) .$90,000,000 shall be available from 
any balance of such funds unallotted and unobligated as 
of June 30, 1951 : Provided, That if such amount unallotted 



38 



and unobligated is less than $90,000,000 an amount equal 
to the difference shall be obtained from the issuance of 
notes in such amount by the Administrator for the Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Administration, who is hereby au- 
thorized and directed to issue such notes from time to time 
during fiscal years 1951 and 1952 for purchase by the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to purchase 
such notes and, in making such purchases to use, as a 
public debt transaction, the proceeds of any public debt 
issue pursuant to the Second Liberty Loan Act as 
amended : And provided further. That $50,000,000 reserved 
by the Bureau of the Budget pursuant to section 1214 of 
Public Law 759 of the Eighty-first Congress from funds 
appropriated by the Act for expenses necessary to carry 
out the provisions of the Economic Cooperation Act of 
1948, as amended, shall not be available for purposes of 
this section. 

Sec. 4. (a) Funds made available for purposes of this 
Act shall be used only for the purchase of food grains or 
equivalents In the United States. 

(b) No procurement of any agricultural product within 
the United States for the purpose of this Act shall be made 
unless the Secretary of Agriculture shall find and certify 
that such procurement will not impair the fulfillment of 
the vital needs of the United States. 

(c) The assistance provided under this Act shall be for 
the sole purpose of providing food grains, or equivalents, 
to meet the emergency need arising from the extraordinary 
sequence of flood, drought, and other conditions existingi 
in India in 1950. 

(d) The assistance provided under this Act shall be 
provided under the provisions of the Economic Coopera-I 
tion Act of 1948, as amended, applicable to and consistent! 
with the purposes of this Act. 

Sec. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law 
to the extent that the President, after consultation withj 
appropriate Government officials and representatives of 
private shipping, finds and proclaims that private shipping 
is not available on reasonable terms and conditions foi 
transportation of supplies made availalile under this Act 
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized anc 
directed to make advances not to exceed In the aggregat< 
$20,000,000 to the Department of Commerce, in such man 
ner, at such times, and in such amounts as the Presideni 
shall determine, for activation and operation of vessel; 
for such transportation, and these advances may be placec 
in any funds or accounts available for such purposes, anc 
no interest shall be charged on advances made by thi 
Treasury to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation fo: 
these purposes: Provided, That pursuant to agreement: 
made between the Reconstruction Finance Corporatioi 
and the Department of Commerce, the Reconstructioi 
Finance Corporation shall be repaid without interest no 
later than June 30, 1952, for such advances either fron 
funds hereafter made available to the Department of ConJ 
merce for the activation and operation of vessels, or not 
withstanding the provisions of any other Act, from receipt 
from vessel operations: Provided further. That pendin 
such repayment receipts from vessel operations may b 
placed in such funds or accounts and used for activatin 
and operating vessels. 

Six;. 6. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law 
the Administrator for Economic Cooperation is authorize 
to pay ocean freight charges from United States ports t 
designated ports of entry in India of relief packages an 
supplies under the provisions of section 117 (c) of th 
Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, as amended, includin 
the relief packages and supplies of the American Re 
Cross. Funds now or hereafter available during the pi 
riod ending June .30, 19.52, for furnishing assistance und« 
the provisions of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1941 
as amended, may be used to carry out the purposes ( 
this section. 

Sec. 7. (a) Any sums payable by the Government ( 
India, under the interest terms agreed to between tl 
Government of the United States and the Government ( 

Department of State Bulleti 



ndia, on or before January 1, 1957, as interest on the 
irinciiial of any debt incurred under this Act, and not to 
xceed a total of $5,000,000, shall, when paid, be placed in 
special deposit account in the Treasui-y of the United 
Itates, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, to 
emain available until expended. This account shall be 
vailable to the Department of State for the following 
ises : 

(1) Studies, instruction, technical training, and other 
ducational activities in the United States and in its 
'erritories or possessions (A) for students, professors, 
ther academic persons, and technicians who are citizens 
f Inilia, and (B) with the approval of appropriate agen- 
ies, institutions, or organizations in India, for students, 
irofessors, other academic persons, and technicians who 
re citizens of the United States to participate in similar 
ctivities in India, including in both cases travel exjpenses, 
uition, subsistence and other allowances and expenses 
aci<ient to such activities ; and 

(2) The selection, purchase, and shipment of (A) 
Lmerican scientific, technical, and scholarly books and 
ooks of American literature for higher educational and 
esearch institutions of India, (B) American laboratory 
nd technical equipment for higher education and research 
a India, and (C) the interchange of similar materials 
nd equipment from India for higher education and re- 
earch in the United States. 

(b) Funds made available in accordance with the pro- 
isions stated above may be used to defray costs of ad- 
linistering the program authorized herein. 

(c) Disbursements from the special deposit account 
hall be made by the Division of Disbursement of the 
treasury Department, upon vouchers duly certified by 
be Secretary of State or by authorized certifying officers 
f the Department of State. 

Approved June 15, 1951. 



'IRST SHIPMENT OF GRAIN TO INDIA 

itatement hy Secretary Acheson 
Released to the press June 20'\ 

Yesterday, at Philadelphia, 4 days after the act 
furnish Emergency Food Aid to India was 
igned by the President, the first shipment of grain 
v'as loaded aboard a ship destined for India. The 
oading ceremony was attended by the Ambassa- 
lor of India, Madame Pandit, and by our Ambas- 
ador to India, Loy W. Henderson, by members of 
he Congress and representatives of Eca and other 
"overnment agencies, as well as by private citizens 
rho have taken an active part in bringing United 
itates help to the people of India. 

With tlie beginning yesterday of grain ship- 
aents under tiie act, the flow of United States 
jain to India will jump from the rate of approxi- 
oately 250,000 tons a month to about 400,000 tons 

mouth. I under.stand that when news reached 
ndia that United States aid was forthcoming, 
ood rations were increased. I am gratified to 
now that this has now been made possible. The 
|act that the United States Government and 
I'rivate organizations are playing a leading role 
n assisting India to meet and overcome the dan- 
er of famine and suffering is a source of deep 
itisfactioM. 



Legislation 

Fourth Supplemental Appropriation Bill, 1951. S. Rept. 
329, S2d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 3842] 
15 pp. 

Federal Wildlife Conservation Activities, 1950. Report 
of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive 
Departments. S. Rept. 317, S2d Cong. 1st sess. 232 pp. 

Restoration of Citizenship (Italian Elections) S. Rept. 351, 
S2d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. R. 400] 4 pp. 

Granting of Permanent Residence to Certain Aliens. S. 
Rept. 354, S2d Cong. 1st sess. [To accompany H. Con. 
Res. 90] 2 pp. 

Amending Chapter 213 of Title IS of the United States 
Code. S. Rept. 384, 82d Cong. 1st sess. [To accom- 
pany H. R. 2396] 2 pp. 

Tensions Within the Soviet Union. S. Doc. 41, 82d Cong. 
1st sess. 69 pp. 

Protocol Regarding the Regulation of Production and 
Marketing of Sugar, Signed in London, August 31, 
1950. Message from the President of United States 
transmitting a certified copy of a protocol dated in 
London, August 31, 1950, prolonging for 1 year after 
August 31, 1950, the international agreement, regard- 
ing the regulation of production and marketing of 
sugar, signed at London on May 6, 1937. S. Ex. 1, 
S2d Cong. 1st sess. 6 pp. 

Study of Monopoly Power. Hearings before the Subcom- 
mittee on Study of Monopoly Power of the Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 
82d Cong. 1st session, containing the proceedings of 
January 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, and February 1, 2, 5, 7, 
and 9, 1951. [Department of State, pp. 363-370] 
916 pp. 

Submerged Lands. Hearings before the Committee on 
Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, 
82d Cong. 1st session on S. J. Res. 20. ... Including 
Conferences with Executive Departments on S. 940 
. . . March 28 and April 10, 1951. [Department of 
State, p. 440] 525 pp. 

St. Lawrence Seaway. Hearings before the Committee 
on I'ublic Works, Hou.se of Representatives, 82d 
Congress, first session on H. J. Res. 2, H. J. Res. 3, 
H. J. Res. 4, H. J. Res. 15, H. J. Res. 102, H. J. Res. 122, 
H. J. Res. 159, and H. R. 2536 . . . Part 1, February 
20-23, 26-28, March 1, 2, 5-7, 1951. 630 pp. 

Military Situation in the Far East. Hearings before 
the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee 
on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 82d 
Congress, 1st session to conduct an inquiry into the 
military situation in the Far East and the facts sur- 
rounding the relief of General Douglas MacArthur 
from his assignments in that area. Part 1, May 3, 4, 
5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14, 1951. 724 pp. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

On June 19, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of Willard L. Beaulac to be Amba.ssador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary to Cuba. 

One Juno 19, 1951, the Senate confirmed the nomination 
of John C. Wiley to be Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary to Panama. 



The United States in the United Nations, 

a weekly feature, does not appear in this issue, but 
will be resumed in the issue of July 9. 



u/y 2, J 95 J 



39 



July 2, 1951 I n d 

Africa 

ERITREA: Point 4 Agreement Signed .... 19 

ETHIOPIA: 

Good-Will Mission (Bolte) Sent 18 

Point 4 Agreement Signed 18 

LIBYA: Point 4 Agreement Signed 19 

SOMALILAND: U.S. Views on Territorial Prob- 
lems: 
Statement (Sayre) 32 

ARricuUiire 

Farm Youth Exchange: American Delegates 

Commissioned 20 

First Shipment of Grain to India (Acheson) . . 39 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

INDIA: 

Emergency Food Act of 1951 Signed (Truman) . 37 

Emergency Food Aid. P. L. 48 38 

First Shipment of Grain (Acheson) .... 39 

Presidential Proclamation Granting Food Aid . 37 

American Republics 

CUBA : Point 4 Agreement Signed 19 

OAS: 

Charter in Operation (Truman) 34 

Charter Nears Permanent Status 34 

U.S. Ratification of Charter (Dreier) .... 34 

VENEZUELA: Trade Agreement Changes Re- 
quested 17 

Arms and Armed Forces 

NAC Signs Treaty on Armed Forces Status ... 16 

Asia 

CAMBODIA: Letter of Credence (Nong Klnmy) . 7 

INDIA: 

Emergency Food Aid. P. L. 48 38 

First Shipment of Grain (Acheson) .... 39 

Food Aid Act Signed (Truman) 37 

Presidential Proclamation on Food Aid Act . . 37 

KOREA: 

First Anniversary of Unprovoked Attack ... 7 
U.N. Command Operations: 

21st Report (May 1-15, 1951) 30 

Claims and Property 

Tripartite Commission on German Debts, U.S. 

Appointment (Pierson) 35 

Congress 

INDIA: 

Emergency Food Act of 1951, Proclamation . 37 
India Food Aid Act Signed (Truman) ... 37 
Program; Emergency Food Aid to India; P. L. 

48 : 38 

Trade Agreements Extension Act Signed 

(Truman) 16 

Europe 

BELGIUM: War Claims-Filing Procedure 

Changed 17 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: U.S. Answers Charges . . 12 

FINLAND: Letter of Credence (Johan A. 

Nykopp) 7 

GERMANY: Tripartite Commission on German 

Debts, U.S. Appointment (Pierson) .... 35 

U.S.S.R.: U. S. Relations (Kohler) 8 

Finance 

Tripartite Commission on German Debts, U.S. 

Appt. (Pierson) 35 

Foreign Service 

Ambassadors, Appointment of: Cuba (Beaulac); 

Panama (Wiley) 39 

Information and Educational Exchange Program 

Farm Youth Exchange: American Delegates 

Commissioned 20 

Pulbright Study Awards Announced 20 



ex 



Vol. XXV, No. 627 



International Meetings 

OAS Charter Nears Permanent Organic Status . 34 

Materials Conference: Report on 23 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

Working Together for Peace (Truman) .... 3 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

NAC Signs Treaty on Armed Forces Status ... 16 

Presidential Documents 

PROCLAMATION: India Emergency Food Aid 

Act of 1951 37 

Psychological Strategy Board Established (Di- 
rective) 36 

Protection of U.S. Nationals and Property 

Claims: Filing Procedure With Belgium 

Changed 17 

State, Department of 

Appointment of OfBcers 20 

Strategic Materials 

International Materials Conference 23 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT 4: 

Agreement With Cuba Signed 19 

Agreements With Libya and Eritrea Signed . . 19 

Trade 

Countries Acceding to Torquay Protocol ... 17 

Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951 Signed . 16 

Venezaielan Agreement, Renegotiations .... 17 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

BELGIUM: War Claims (Mar. 12. 1951); Pro- 
cedure Changed 17 

Countries Acceding to Torquay Protocol ... 17 

NAC: Treaty on Armed Forces Status Signed . . 16 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951 Signed 

(Truman) 16 

VENEZUELA: Trade Agreement (Nov. 6, 1939), 

Renegotiations 17 

Trust Territories 

Eritrea and Libya Sign Point 4 Agreements . . 19 
SOMALILAND: U.S. Views on Territorial Prob- 
lems (Sayre) 32 

United Nations 

SOMALILAND: U.S. Views on Territorial Prob- 
lems (Sayre) 32 

U.N. Command Operations in Korea; 21st Report 

(May 1-15, 1951) 30 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 7, 16, 37, 39 

Aklilou, Foreign Minister 18 

Armstrong, Willis C 23 

Austin, Warren R 30 

Beaulac, Wlllard L 39 

Bennett, Dr. H. G 18, 19 

Bolte, Lt. Gen. C. L 18 

Burrows, Charles R 20 

Childs, J. Rives 18 

Dreier, John C 34 

Gifford, Walter S 19 

Jessup, Philip C 14 

Kimny, Nong 7 

Kohler, Foy D 8 

Muccio, John J 7 

Nykopp, Johan A 7 

Pierson, Warren L 35 

Ruiz, Louis E. Gomez 17 

Sayre, Francis B 32 

Sheppard, William J 20 

Spofford, Charles 16 

Tiuman, President Harry S 3, 16, 34, 36, 37 

Webb, James E 36 

Wiley, John C 39 



U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9BI 



J/i€/ ^eha^tmen^/ ,(w t/tate^ 





ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT PLAZA OF ECUADOR 



68 



DEFENSES AGAINST MENACE OF EXTERNAL AND 

INTERNAL ATTACK • Statement by Secretary 
Acheson ••• 46 



ASSISTING GERMANY TO BECOME A PEACEFUL 

DEMOCRACY • Address by John J. McCloy .... 63 

PRELIMINARY TRUCE TALK IN KOREA • ... 43 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXV, No. 628 
July 9, 1951 



<-»Ae«^ 




•*TEa 



'J. S. SUPERINTENDfNT OF DOCUMENTS 

JUL 20 1951 




a a^^^y.. bulletin 



Vol.. XXV, No. 628 • Publication 4297 
July 9, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Docmnents 

U. S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bdllj;tin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department, Information is in- 
cluded concerning treaties and in- 
ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well OS legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently'. 



Arrangements Completed for Meeting To Discuss Truce in Korea 

The following is the text of a cotrvmumque issued iy the Unified GomrrMTid July 8 {Tokyo time') 
after the meeting ietween U.N. representatives cmd Communist officers at Kaenong:^ 

The United Nations liaison group composed of Col. A. J. Kinney, United States Air Force; Col. 
J. C. Murray, United States Marine Corps, and Col. Soo Young Lee, Republic of Korea Army, crossed 
the Inijin River by helicopter at 0900 8 July. 

The party landed at Kaesong at 0922 and was conducted by jeep to the location of the meeting. Tlie 
meeting was held in a conference room eighteen by fifteen feet at Kwangmun Dong, north of the center 
of Kaesong. 

The Communist liaison group consisted of three officers: Colonel Chang, North Korean Army; 
Lieutenant Colonel Chai, Chinese Communist Army, and Lieutenant Colonel Kim, North Korean Army. 

After exchanging credentials, the two liaison groups conferred on arrangements for the first meet- 
ing. The first meeting will be held on 10 July at the same location as the preliminary meeting. 

The United Nations delegation to the first meeting will be composed as follows: Vice Admiral C. 
Turner Joy, United States Navy; Maj. Gen. L. C. Craigie, United States Air Force; Maj. Gen. H. I. 
Hodes, Eighth United States Army; Rear Admiral Arleigh Burke, United States Navy; Maj. Gen. 
Paik Sun Yup, Republic of Korean Army. 

The Communist delegation to the first meeting will be composed of the following: Gen. Nam II, 
North Korean Army; Maj. Gen. Lee Sang Cho, North Korean Army; Gen. Tung Hua, Chinese Com- 
munist forces, and Gen. Hsieh Fang, Chinese Communist forces. 

The negotiations were carried out without incident, and the United Nations liaison group returned 
by helicopter at the conclusion of the conference, la nding at appi'oximately 1640 8 July. The meeting 
was harmonious throughout. 



Exchange of Messages Between the U.N. Commander-in-Chief 
And the North Korean and Chinese Communist Commanders ^ 



[June 30] 

Message to the Commander in Chief., Com,m,vm.ist 
Forces in Korea 

As Commander in Chief of the United Nations 
Command I have been instructed to conununicate 
to you the following : 

I am informed that you may wish a meeting to discuss 
an armistice providing for the cessation of hostilities and 
all acts of armed force in Korea, with adequate guaran- 
tees for the maintenance of such armistice. 

Upon tlie receipt of word from you that such a meeting 
is desired I shall be prepared to name my representative. 

' This communique, released to the press in Tokyo, was 
received as the r.ri.i.ETiN went to press. 

' General Rid«\vay's messages were hroadeast over the 
Armed Forces Radio ; those of the Communist command- 
ers, over the Peiping and Pyongyang senders. All dates 
are Tokyo time. F<ir .mldiliniiiil material, see "The United 
States in the United Nations," p. 78. 

Ju/y 9, 1 95 1 



I would also at that time suggest a date at which he could 
meet with your representative. I propose that such a 
meeting could take place aboard a Danish hospital ship 
[Jutlandia] in Wonsan harbor. 

M. B. RIDGWAY 
Oencral, O. 8. Armij, 
Commander in Chief, United Nations Command 

[July 2] 
General RnxjWAY, 

Commander in Chief of the United Nations 
Forces : 

Your statement of June 30 this year concerning 
peace talks has been received. 

We are authorized to inform you that we agree 
to meet your representative for conducting talks 
concerning cessation of military action and 
establisliment of peace. 

We propose that the place of meeting be in the 
area of Kaesong on the Thirty-eighth Tarallel. 
11' you agree, our representatives are prepared to 



43 



meet your representative between July 10 and 
July 15, 1951. 

Kim II Sung, 
Sufreme Commander of the Korean People's 
Army. 

Peng Teh-huai, 
Commander of the Chinese Volimteer Forces. 

[July 3] 

To General Kim II Sung 
Greneral Peng Teh-Huai 

I have received your reply to my message of 30 
June. I am prepared for my representatives to 
meet yours at Kaesong on July 10, or at an earlier 
date if your representatives complete their prep- 
arations before that date. Since agi-eement on 
armistice terms has to precede cessation of hos- 
tilities, delay in initiating the meetings and in 
reaching agreement will prolong the fighting and 
increase the losses. To insure efficient arrange- 
ment of the many details connected with the first 
meeting, I propose that not to exceed 3 of my liai- 
son officers have a preliminary meeting with an 
equal number of youi-s in Kaesong on 5 July, or as 
soon thereafter as practicable. If you concur, my 
liaison officers, the senior of whom will not be 
above the rank of Colonel will depart Kimpo Air- 
field, southwest of Seoul by helicopter at 2300 
GMT on 4 July (0900, 5 July, Tokyo time) or at 
the same hour on the day agreed upon for this 
meeting, proceeding direct to Kaesong. 

In the event of bad weather, these officers will 
proceed in a convoy of 3 unarmed 1-quarter ton 
trucks, commonly known as jeeps, along the main 
road from Seoul to Kaesong. Each vehicle will 
bear a large white flag. The convoy will cross the 
Imjin Kiver on the Seoul-Kaeson road at about 
2300 hours GMT, 4 July (0900, 5 July, Tokyo 
time) or at the same hour on the day agreed upon 
for this meeting. The convoy bearing your liaison 
officers to and from the meeting will be granted 
immunity from attack by my forces, providing you 
advise me of its route and schedule, and the man- 
ner by which my forces may identify it. 

Your reply is requested. 

M. B. RiDGWAT 

General, United States Army 
G ommander-in- Chief 
United Nations Command 

[July 4] 

General Ridgway, Commander in Chief of the 
U.N. Forces. Your reply of July 3 to us has been 
received. In order to guarantee effectively steps 
regarding various processes for the first confer- 
ence of representatives of both sides, we agree to 
the despatching of (3) liaison officers by each side 
to hold a preparatory conference in the Kaesong 
area as you proposed. If you agree to our pro- 
posal for setting the date for the conference of 

44 



liaison officers as July 8, we will notify you of 
further business preparations for the meeting of ' 
liaison officers from both sides. 

KiM Iij Sung, Supreme Comtnander of 

Korean Peoples Armed 

Forces. 

Peng Pe-huai, Commander of the 

Peoples Volunteer Forces. 

Pyongyang City. July ^, 1951. 

[July 5] 
General Kim II Sung 
General Peng Teh-Huai 

I have received your reply dated 4 July. 

The date of 8 July for an initial meeting is ac- 
ceptable. Reference is made to my message dated 
3 July. In addition to the 3 Liaison Officers speci- 
fied in that message, 2 interpreters will be sent. 
Positive assurance of safe conduct for this per- 
sonnel is requested. 

Your reply is requested. 

M. B. RiDGWAT 

General, United States Army 
Commander-in-Chief 
United Nations Comiruind. 



[July 6] 

General Ridgway, Commander in Chief of the 
U. N. Forces. 

We have received your second reply dated July 
5. We agree to the number of liaison officers and 
their aides that you are sending and the time of 
their departure for Kaesong. 

We undertake to assure their safe conduct, but 
for their more certain safety and to cut down the 
possibility of misunderstanding we suggest that 
they proceed to Kaesong by a convoy of jeeps 

At the same time, we inform you that our three 
liaison officers, one of whom is a colonel, together 
with two interpreters and reception personnel, will 
set out at 5 : 00 p. m. Pyongyang time on July 7 
the day before the preliminary meeting from the 
Pyongyang area on five jeeps and five motor trucks 
for the Kaesong area via Sariwon and Namchon- 
jom to prepare and take part in the preliminary 
meeting agreed upon by both parties. 

Each motor vehicle will have a white flag set 
on top of it. Please take note of this information, 

KiM II Sung, Supreme Commander of 

Korean Peoples Armed 

Forces. 

Peng Teh-Huai, Commander of the 

Peoples Volunteer Forces. 

To General Kim II Sung 
General Peng Teh-Huai 

I have received your message dated 6 July, 
agree to your plan of movement of your Liaisoi 
Group from Pyongyang via Sariwon and Nam 

Deparfmenf of %\a\e Bulletir! 



chonjom to Kaesong, leaving Pyongyang time on 
7 July in 5 jeeps and 5 motor transports carrying 
white flags. This convoy will be immune from 
attack by my forces during its travel from Pyong- 
yang to Kaesong. In addition, the area within 
a 5 mile radius from the center of Kaesong will 
be observed by me as a neutral zone from the time 
of arrival of your delegates in Kaesong. My dele- 
gates will proceed by helicopter or jeep as dictated 
by the weather. In either case they will cross the 
linjin River on the Seoul-Kaesong road at 0900 
Tokyo time, 8 July, and proceed to Kaesong along 
this route. Your assurance of safe conduct for 
these delegates is accepted. 

M. B. RiDGWAY 

General United States Army 
Commander-in-Chief i 
United Natio7is Commmtd 



Developments Leading to 
Preliminary Truce Talk in Korea 

STATEMENT CONCERNING MALIK BROADCAST 
OF JUNE 23 < 

[Released to the press June 25] 

If Mr. Malik's broadcast means that the Com- 
munists are now willing to end the aggi-ession in 
Korea, we are, as we have always been, ready to 
play our part in bringing an end to hostilities and 
in assuring against their resumption. But the 
tenor of Mr. Malik's speech again raises the ques- 
tion as to whether this is more than propaganda. 
If it is more than propaganda, adequate means for 
discussing an end to the conflict are available. 

RIDGWAY'S STATEMENT GIVEN WIDE 
CIRCULATION 

[Released to the Press June 30] 

A special Wireless Bulletin has been set up to- 
day by the State Department's International In- 
formation I'rogram to carry throughout the world 
latest development and comments on General 
Ridgway's offer of an armistice in Korea. 

'The broadcast by Jacob A. Malik, U.S.S.R. delegate 
to the United Nations, was the thirteenth in the series, 
"Price of I'eace", produced by the United Nations radio. 
At the conclusion of his talk, Mr. Malik said: 

The Soviet i^oples further believe that the most aiute 
problem of the present day — the problem of armed eontiict 
in Korea — could also be settled. 

This would require the rea<liness of the parties to enter 
on the path of a peaceful settlement of the Korean ques- 
tion. The Soviet peoples believe that as a tirst step dis- 
cussions should be started betvceen the belliKerents for a 
cea.<<e-tire and an armistice providing for the niutmxl with- 
drawal of forces from the 3Sth parallel. 

Can such a step be taken? I think it can, provided there 
is a sincere desire to put an end to the bloody fiKlitinf; 
in Korea. 

July 9, 1 95 1 



The International Broadcasting Division, in 
Voice of America progi-ams, carried the Ridgway 
statement in 45 languages, with heaviest emphasis 
on its output to Korea and China. 

Tlie statement is being stressed in each of three 
daily Korean language programs, which are re- 
laj'ed simultaneously by transmitters in Korea, 
Japan, Honolulu, and Manila. The Korean broad- 
casts are also relayed by additional transmitters 
in Japan at later hours. 

The Chinese language service is carrying the 
Ridgway offer in four dialects — Mandarin, Can- 
tonese, Amoy, and Swatow. 

The special Wireless Bulletin transmission to- 
day, monitored by 66 Usie missions throughout 
the world, is expected to carry a round-up of U.S. 
editorial comment. Congressional comment, and 
any further news developments on the Allied Su- 
preme Commander's offer. 

U.S. SEEKS CLARIFICATION 

OF SOVIET DELEGATE'S STATEMENT 

[Released to the press June 28] 

The United States has sought in New York and 
in Moscow a clarification on certain aspects of the 
statement made by Jacob A. Malik, the Soviet rep- 
resentative at the United Nations, on June 23. 

Deputy Foreign Minister Gromyko received the 
United States Ambassador in Moscow on June 27. 
In discussing Mr. Malik's statement, Mr. Gro- 
myko indicated that it would be for the military 
representatives of the Unified Command and of 
the Korean Republic Command, on the one hand, 
and the military representatives of the North Ko- 
rean Command and of the "Chinese volunteer 
units," on the other, to negotiate the armistice 
envisaged in Mr. Malik's statement. The armis- 
tice, Mr. Gromyko pointed out, would include a 
cease-fire and would be limited to strictly military 
questions without involving any political or terri- 
torial matters ; the military representatives would 
discuss questions of assurances against the re- 
sumption of hostilities. 

Beyond the conclusion of an armistice, the So- 
viet Government had no specific steps in mind 
looking toward the peaceful settlement to which 
Mr. Malik referred. Mr. Gromyko indicated, 
however, that it would be up to the parties in 
Korea to decide what subsequent special arrange- 
ments would have to be made for a political and 
territorial settlement. He said that the Soviet 
Government was not aware of the views of the 
Chinese Communist regime on Mr. Malik's state- 
ment. 

The implications of Mr. Gromyko's observa- 
tions are being studied. The Department of 
Stale is consulting with (lie representatives of 
other countries having armed forces in Korea un- 
der the Unified Command. 

45 



Defenses Against Menace of External and Internal Attack 



A PROGRAM FOR MUTUAL SECURITY 



Statement by Secretary Acheson ' 



The Mutual Security Program is an essential 
part of the total national effort to build our na- 
tional security. 

I believe it represents an economical, practical, 
and efficient program, carefully worked out to give 
this country maximum security per dollar cost. 

The funds requested total 8..5 billion dollars, of 
which G.3 billion dollars are for military aid and 
2.2 billion dollars are for economic aid. This as- 
sistance to other free nations will yield a larger 
and faster return in terms of our national security 
than we could obtain by inci'easing the budget for 
our own armed forces by the same amount. I urge 
you to judge the program by that test. It is the 
test we have applied in working it out. 

This {program has been developed to jn-otect the 
immediate and long-term interests of the United 
States. The practical steps to help build strength 
abroad under this program are essential to our 
own safety and well-being, as well as to the secu- 
rity of our allies abroad. 

This national program is part of a great effort 
by the free nations to rid the world of war and 
to make peace secure. 

That is our positive goal. That is the purpose 
which unifies the free nations. 

Weakness invites aggression. Now and in the 
future, strength is the precondition of peace. The 
free nations must be militarily strong to deter 
attack by the enemies of freedom. They must be 
politically and econcmiically strong to support the 
military forces needed for defense and to defeat 
attemjjts to subvert their institutions. They nmst 
also be strong of spirit, to keep on with their efforts 
to bridge the present dangers and to build toward 
a better and a safer future. 

These factors of strength — military, political, 
economic, and spiritual — depend on each other. 
That is why we have brought together in the Mu- 

' Made before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on 
June 26 and released to the press on the same date. 



tual Security Program the continuing elements of 
our various aid programs. j 

This is not essentially a new program. What isj 
new is the pulling together of economic, technical,! 
and military assistance programs into one bill! 
which directs all these going programs into the; 
building of strength, adapts them for flexibility 
and efficiency in meeting changes in the situation, 
and requires the administering agencies to employ 
these resources in a single-purposed drive for 
peace and security. 

I want to underline the interdependence of these 
different factors of strength. Military strength is 
important and costly, and military assistance is 
the largest component of the Mutual Security 
Program. But we have seen time and again how 
political and economic deterioration and loss oi 
morale can rot the fibers of military strength. Wt 
have also seen how political and economic recover} 
brings an upsurge of morale and an increase oi 
military strength. 

Economic and Technical Aid Essential 

'Wliile it is necessary to consider the needs ol 
individual countries and areas separately, the re 
lation of the parts of the program to the progran 
as a whole should not be lost sight of. The parti 
interlock — between countries and areas, and withii 
them. Frankly, what concerns me most at thii 
time is that too narrow a view might be taken o 
this problem of building strength, and that eco 
nomic and technical assistance might be reduce( 
because of a failure to demonstrate or recognia 
how essential this aid is in underpinning militar; 
strength. 

This program has been developed over a perio( 
of many months by teamwork between all the de 
partments and agencies concerned. They ha( 
available to them a vast amount of information 
assembled by them here and abroad, as well as th| 
plans and data of many international agencies iJ 



46 



Department of State Bulleth 



which the United States is represented — such as 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Or- 
ganization for European Economic Cooperation, 
the Inter-American Defense Board, and various 
United Nations agencies. 

This program as it stands is the result of the 
screening of this material and its coordination 
with our own plans and programs. The judgment 
of our highest authorities in military, economic, 
and foreign affairs is that the progi'am is needed 
in our own interests, that it will efficiently con- 
tribute to our own security, and that we have the 
means to carry it out. 

The presentation of the program to your Com- 
mittee will, like the preparatory work, be a team- 
work job. Following me, j-ou will hear General 
Marshall, Mr. Foster, General Bradley, Mr. Har- 
riman, and Mr. Cabot. Then the political, mili- 
tary, economic, and administrative aspects of the 
program in Euro]ie. the Near East, the Far East, 
and the Western Hemisphere will be presented by 
officials of State, Defense, and Ec.\, with assist- 
ance from other agencies on particular subjects 
of concern to them. Several witnesses from over- 
seas will give on-the-spot reports on conditions 
and prospects abroad and will discuss how the 
program will work in their areas. 

This teamwork will be carried over into the ad- 
ministration of the program, and will obtain a 
contiiuiity of thought and of action which will 
result in a single-minded application of funds to 
promote tlie security of our N^ation and of the free 
world as a whole. 

We ai'e proposing that the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram be administered under existing legislation, 
brought together and amended to further the ob- 
jectives of the program. The Mutual Defense 
Assistance Act, the Economic Cooperation Act, 
the Act for International Development, and other 
assistance acts provide adequate foundation for a 
mutual security program. They were all designed 
to further the national interests and national 
security of our country, and they can be linked to- 
gether to increase their effectiveness. 

The organizational arrangements under which 
the program will be operated also link to the 
arrangements under which these Acts have been 
administered in the past. Using the interdepart- 
mental International Security Affairs Committee, 
we intend to make use of the valuable experience 
gained in operations under existing legislation, 
and permit the new program to be carried out witli 
minimum disruption of current operations but 
with maximum speed and efficiency. 

Tlie amendments jjroposed to the existing Acts 
are not many in number, but they are important. 
All are designed to make the ajiplication of our 
resources more effective in furthering mutual 
security. 

The men who will testify in support of this pro- 
gram and who will be entrusted with its adminis- 
tration will not assert that it is a perfect program. 

July 9, J 95 1 



In a task as large and complex as this there will 
always be room for improvement and development, 
which is the reason why we seek some flexibility in 
the use of the funds requested. 

What we are prepared to show is that require- 
ments exceed resources; that they have been 
trimmed to fit our capabilities; and that funds 
have been requested only where there is a need, a 
clear opportunity, and the means to build strength. 
This strength is important to our own security ; it 
could not be obtained without our aid ; and it could 
not be matched by any use of the same funds here 
at home. These are the tests. 

The basic idea of this program, as of our foreign 
policy as a whole, is that time is on our side if we 
make good use of it. The vast potential of the free 
world is adequate to the job. The Mutual Secu- 
rity Program is part of our effort to make the best 
use of the time we have, and to lead the way in 
using the potential of the free world to rid the 
world of war and make peace secure. 

I would like to review with you, very briefly, the 
ways in which this Mutual Security Program is 
designed to support the basic elements of our for- 
eign policy. 

All our actions abroad, whatever form they may 
take, have a single purpose. That purpose is to 
advance the security and welfare of this country. 
There is no other possible justification for any pol- 
icy or program. There is no other justification for 
asking the American taxpayer to finance any foi-- 
eign policy or program. 

To recognize the enlightened self-interest in 
these activities does not detract from the humani- 
tarian character of some of them, nor from their 
contribution to the common goal of peace and 
security. 

Strong Allied Defenses Against Aggression 

Security begins at home. No foreign policy can 
ensure national security unless the nation has ade- 
quate defense forces. But in the world in which 
we live, no national defense policy can ensure se- 
curity unless the nation has strong and reliable 
friends and allies. 

We cannot afford to underestimate the impor- 
tance of our friends and allies to our own security. 
The United States is a rich and powerful Nation. 
We have an energetic, courageous, and resourceful 
pojmlation, loyal to our institutions and ideals, 
and fiercely determined to defend the way of life 
which we have created here. The United States 
occupies a favorable geographical position. Its 
total strength, actual and potential, is perhaps 
greater than that of any otlier country in the 
history of mankind. 

And yet no nation, incluiling our own, is strong 
enough to stand alone in the modern world. De- 
spite the great advantages with which our country 
lias l)een blessed, we are not self-sufficient. Our 
populat ion is limited in iiuiubcrs. We are depend- 

47 



ent on other areas for many vital raw materials. 
The oceans wliich have shielded us in the past have 
dwindled to lakes in the sweep of modern tech- 
nology. Even our unparalleled industrial estab- 
lishment, mighty as it is, could not match the in- 
dustrial power which would be leveled against us 
if a major part of the free world should be incor- 
porated within the Soviet empire. Finallj', we 
know that we could not continue to be the kind of 
a country we are, if we were to withdraw into a 
cave of isolation. 

The great majority of our people fully under- 
stand and appreciate these facts. But we must be 
sobered by the realization that the men in the 
Kremlin are no less aware of them. They have 
shown this by their persistent efforts to split us 
off from our allies. Using a combination of polit- 
ical, psychological, economic, and military tactics, 
the Soviet rulers are out to divide and conquer. 
In the case of the United States particularly, their 
first effort appears to be to isolate us. 

To put it bluntly, the Soviet Union wants to 
see the United States try to "go it alone." By 
sporadic aggression, by cautious retreat, by un- 
ending propaganda, by economic sabotage, by 
seizing control in one area, by playing on differ- 
ences in another — by all such acts, the Kremlin 
seeks to produce a situation in which the United 
States will ultimately be pushed into a position 
of trying to "go it alone." 

That is why, at the same time we are converting 
some of our potential military strength into actual 
military strength, our security program requires 
us to make sure that we have strong and reliable 
friends and allies. 

This interlocking character of foreign policy 
and national defense policy was formally recog- 
nized by the Congress when it established the Na- 
tional Security Council. The foreign policies and 
progi-ams of the United States have been adoptecl 
by the President after all the interdependent fac- 
tors, domestic and foreign, political and military, 
have been fully considered by the members of the 
Council. They are continuously reviewed and, 
when necessary, revised; policies and programs 
cannot remain static in a dynamic world. 

In reviewing our policy, we might begin with 
our own country, a center of strength in the free 
world, and work outward from it to the other areas 
affected by this program. 

The supreme test of our ability to survive is 
our ability to win if war is forced upon us. We 
nuist be prepared for that supreme test, and prep- 
aration for it offers the best chance of avoiding it. 
The danger of war can be measured by the readi- 
ness or lack of readiness to meet an attack upon 
our vital interest. The history of recent years 
should teach us that a dictator does not launch an 
attack against a state or a coalition of states unless 
he can calculate that he has the power to win and 
hold his objectives. His calculations are some- 
times wrong, as Hitler's were. But the error is 

48 



usually an error of political judgment. He thinks, 
that the free nations are disunited, or will not unite 
against him, and that he can pick off his victims 
one or two at a time. Or he thinks they will not 
have the determination to resist him in his con- 
quests. 

I do not think that the rulers of the Soviet 
Union will make this mistake. The reaction to the 
attack on Korea has made it clear that the free 
nations will not acquiesce in a strategy of piece- 
meal conquest. It has reduced the liKelihood of 
further creeping aggressions. 

The determined effort by the United States and 
other countries to prepare for defense against ag- 
gression, preparations which have been gi-eatly 
speeded up by the provocative action in Korea, 
can reduce the danger of general war. That dan- 
ger requires, however, greatly increased prepared- 
ness before we can be confident that the strength 
of our defenses will be so clear as to prevent fool- 
hardy calculations by the Soviet rulers. 

The core of our national policy is a rapid devel- 
opment of strength in our country, and the main- 
tenance of that strength so long as the threat con- 
tinues. That is the purpose of the 60 billion dol- 
lar defense budget which the President has re- 
quested for the coming fiscal year.^ 

The record of our accomplishment in buildingi 
strength has the most direct and significant bear-j 
ing on foreign policy and the world position of| 
this country. It heartens our friends and discour- 
ages our foes. It reenforces the means of winning 
through to a successful conclusion of the Korean 
conflict and of preventing new outbreaks of vio- 
lence. It is a solid backstop for our foreign policy 
efforts abroad to guard the nation's security. 

Let us look now at the world with which oui 
foreign policy is concerned. 

In the present state of the world, the crucial 
problem of war and peace centers around the chal- 
lenge presented to the rest of the world by the 
policies of the Soviet Government. 

Challenge of Russian Expansionism 

Historically, the Kussian State has had threfi 
great drives — to the West into Europe, to thq 
South into the Middle East, and to the East intc 
Asia. When it has been held in one area, it ha: 
sought opportunities in another. We have seei 
examples of this in the postwar period — in Czecho 
Slovakia, Iran, China, and Korea. Historicall] 
also the Russian State has displayed considerabL 
caution in carrying out those drives. The Rus 
sian rulers liked to bet on sure things; to be in ; 
position to cut their losses when events showec 
that they had overreached themselves. They havij 
not wanted to risk everything on a single throw o 
the dice. 

The Politboro has acted in this same way. 
has carried on and built on the imperialist tradi 
tion. What it has added consists mainly of ne^ 

= Bulletin of June 4, 1951, p. 883. 

Department of State Bulleth 



iweapons and new tactics — the weapons of con- 
ispiracy, subversion, psychological and ideological 
warfare, and indirect aggression, and tactics skill- 
fully designed to employ these weapons. It has 
been, given its aims and its power, cautious in its 
strategy. It still prefers to bet on a sure thing. 
Their discovery that Korea was not a sure thing 
was undoubtedly a great shock to the Politboro, 
which called for some sudden changes in their 
planning. 

I Three other aspects of Soviet policy need to be 
'mentioned. First, Eussian policy makers. Tsarist 
or Communist, have always taken a very long view. 
They think in generations where others may think 
lin terms of a few years or a decade at most. 
Second, they are landminded and have a deep and 
ibiding and, on the historical view, justified confi- 
dence in the vastness of Eussia as a factor in their 
security. Third, the ruling power in Moscow has 
ilong been an imperial power and now rules a 
greatly extended empire. It cannot escape the 
iiflBculties that history teaches us befall all 
empires. 

This is the challenge our foreign policy is re- 
quired to meet. 

. It is clear that this process of encroachment and 
consolidation by which Eussia has grown in the 
Hast 500 years from the Duchy of Muscovy to a 
vast empire has got to be stopped. This means 
hat we have to hold, if possible, against its drives 
tvherever they may be made. To hold means to 
lold against armed attack ; it equally means to hold 
igainst internal attack, which is the new weapon 
idded to the Eussian arsenal by the Communists. 

This also means that we have to develop collec- 
;ive strength and the political relationships which 
support collective strength so as to deter Soviet 
Irives against nations which, if they were stand- 
ng alone, might fall easy prey. 

Meanwhile, doing all in our power to deter and 
1,0 hold, we have to proceed confidently and posi- 
tively with the orderly development of our politi- 
l^al, social, and economic institutions in the free 
.vorld. If we push ahead vigorously with this 
|)art of our program, and demonstrate the 
superiority of the free way of life, we shall be able 
face the future with confidence. Although we 
lannot predict the final outcome of this conflict, 
ive can be confident that free societies can out- 
)uild, out-produce, and out-last societies based on 
yranny and oppression. 

The strength of the free nations is potentially 
io much greater than that of the Soviet Union 
hat it would be folly for all our nations to invite 
s-ar by leaving this jwtential of strength unde- 
i'eloped and unorganized. The free world in- 
cludes over two-tliirds of the total population of 
he earth. The free world encompasses nearly 
hree-quarters of the world's land area. The total 
productivity of the free world is many times tliat 
)f the Soviet Empire. And, most importantly, the 
'Tee world has resources of mind and spirit incal- 

uly 9, J 95 J 



culably greater than those under the totalitarian 
control of the Kremlin. 

The countries and the regions of the free world 
are interdependent, and it there can be created 
unity of purpose, resolution to meet the present 
danger, and the great strength that can come from 
nuztual security efforts — and this is what we are 
now doing — then the threat that faces us can be 
reduced to manageable proportions. Our United 
States policies are aimed at helping to bring about 
these conditions. 

Collective Security in the Americas 

Let us take the situation in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. 

No one should misinterpret our interest in the 
defensibility of the Americas. They are a vital 
base area for the free world's effort to achieve 
collective security. It is the part of prudence and 
sound strategy to ensure the defense of this base 
and to develop its potential. 

We are blessed with good neighbors to the north 
and south. Our relations with them are so close 
and are based on such deep common interests and 
shared experience that our energies can be devoted 
to woi'king cooperatively on such problems as 
arise. This is a unique and highly advantageous 
situation. 

The American states have long been engaged in 
developing a set of international relationships 
which ai'e a model of what is possible when states 
approach their problems with firm respect for and 
trust in each other and with determination that 
adjustments of difficulties should be accomplished 
by peaceful means. This did not just happen. It 
is not just an historical accident. It should not 
be taken for granted. It is the result of good will, 
patience, fair dealing, and hard work. Our for- 
eign policy toward our neighbors in the Americas 
is to develop and strengthen these relationships so 
that the Western Hemisphere shall have the secu- 
rity which will enable all of us to pursue our 
national ideals and purposes free from external 
and internal threats. 

Canada is a partner with us in the North Atlan- 
tic Treat}', is associated with us in the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Cooperation, and has 
sent forces to Korea. She has been, along with us, 
a large provider of aid to our European allies in 
the postwar years. She is a bulwark of strength 
to the north. 

We and our neighbors to the south are members 
of the Organization of American States. That 
organization has a history extending back over 6 
decades and is founded on common interests which 
were recognized far earlier. The ties of coopera- 
tion are close. 

Inter-American cooperation in military and 
other defense preparations was emphatically re- 
affirmed at the recently concluded Meeting of For- 
eign Ministers in Wasliington, where it was agreed 
that the American republics should, through self- 

49 



help and mutual aid. direct their military prepara- 
tions so that those armed forces best adapted to 
collective defense would be strengthened. The 
decisions of this meeting, which build upon the 
solid foundation for cooperative action previously 
established in the Rio treaty, also include the ap- 
proval of a directive to the Inter-American De- 
fense Board to prepare military plans for the 
common defense of the hemisphere as rapidly as 
possible. 

There are certain tasks of hemisphere defense, 
such as the protection of key installations and 
key sources of raw materials, which we believe our 
partners to the south are ready and willing to 
take over. Coordinated plans are being developed 
by the Inter-American Defense Board. The Mu- 
tual Security Progi-am provides for the first time 
for military assistance on a gi'ant basis to the 
Latin American countries which conclude bilateral 
agreements to undertake defense tasks in the West- 
ern Hemisphere. By performing such tasks, they 
will serve their interests and ours. This will re- 
lieve our forces so that they can perform essential 
defense tasks elsewhere. 

Many of the Latin American republics are rela- 
tively underdeveloped economically. The bulk of 
the job of economic development, so far as out- 
siders can help, can and will be done by private 
investment on a risk basis supplemented by private 
and public loans. These countries are now very 
important suppliers of materials to us, having fur- 
nished us in 1050 with 3.5 percent of our total 
imports, including nearly half our wool imports, 
three-fifths of our oil imports, and more than half 
our imports of copper, lead, and nitrates. They 
can and will become even more important sup- 
pliers in the years ahead. 

Certain loans from the Export-Import Bank 
and some of the technical assistance to be provided 
under the Mutual Security Program are directly 
or indirectly related to the expansion of produc- 
tion of these basic materials needed by our econ- 
omy. And for our part, we will have to make sure 
that the Latin American republics get a fair deal 
in obtaining the goods they need from us to keep 
their economies healthy. 

The gi-eatest part of the small technical assist- 
ance progi'am will be used to help the governments 
of our sister republics improve agriculture and 
food production, health, education, and other es- 
sential services. I wish that I had time to illus- 
trate the great benefits which have flowed from 
past programs of this kind. It is a story full of 
nope and challenge. These advances are the pos- 
itive and promising way to meet the future and 
the surest way to combat the efforts of subversive 
elements to exploit present tensions and economic 
difficulties. There are areas of unrest and dissat- 
isfaction which could become troublesome if neg- 
lected. This part of the program falls in the 
ounce of prevention category. I wish that we had 
acted in this way in similar situations before the 

50 



Second World War, and I believe that if we had, 
our problems might be much simpler today. 

This part of the program, amounting in all to 
62 million dollars, will help to keep the New 
World a symbol of hope for men everywhere, an 
evidence of man's ability to build a peaceful and 
secure and progressive way of life. It is well 
worth while. 

Strengthening Western Europe 

Let us look now at Europe, where there has been 
a substantially new development of United States 
policy in the postwar years. We are all familiar 
with the evolution of this policy from the Greek- 
Turkish programs through the European Recov- 
ery Program to the North Atlantic Treaty, and 
which now finds American units participating in 
an integrated force for the defense of Western 
Europe, with General Eisenhower as Supreme 
Commander of that force. 

Every reading of American public opinion 
shows that our people recognize the strength of 
the policy we have been following. Tliey support 
this policy as essential to our national security be- 
cause they are aware that Europe is one of the 
most decisive and critical areas. Europe contains 
the greatest pool of skilled labor in the world and 
industrial capacity second only to our own, and its 
more than 200 million people share with us a fun- 
damental community of interest which extends to 
every sphere of activity. Moreover, what hap- 
pens in Europe has direct and profound political, 
economic, and military repercussions elsewhere in 
the world — in Africa, the Middle East, the Far 
East, and Latin America. A Europe united in 
purpose, and strong economically, spiritually and 
militarily, can serve, particularly when associated 
with us, as a strong deterrent to all forms of ag- 
gression, not only in Europe, but in other areas as 
well. 

The primary emphasis in our policy toward our 
European partners in the North Atlantic Treaty 
is to make common use of the foundation of eco- 
nomic recovery to build up collective armed de- 
fenses rapidly to the point where Soviet aggres- 
sion would be foolhardy — where all Western 
Europe can be held. 

The Soviet rulers make a great to-do about what 
they call the aggi'essive character of the North 
Atlantic alliance. This commotion is a clue to 
their ambitions but not to our intentions. They do 
not want Western Euro])e to be defensible. They 
know that the North Atlantic Treaty countries are 
not even trying to build a force which could be 
used to invade the Soviet Union. They know 
that the force being built will be strong enough to 
hold on the ground and is already strong enough 
to retaliate with prompt and terrible power if 
Western Europe is attacked. 

In Europe as elsewhere, the basic idea of our 
policy is that the future belongs to freedom if free 
men will make good use of their time. 

Department of State Bulletin [ 



The program of aid to Europe totals nearly 7.0 
billion dollai-s, of which 5.3 billion dollars is for 
military aid and 1.7 billion dollars is for economic 
aid. The former is composed almost entirely of 
military end-items which will be used to equip 
forces now being raised and trained to use them. 
Most of the latter is also directly related to de- 
fense, for they are primarily concerned with the 
resources and the political and economic stability 
necessary to support the defense effort. 

We are encouraged by the significant increases 
which our European partners have made in their 
military budgets over the past year. We under- 
stand and appreciate the problems created for 
our partners by the impact on their economies of 
gi-eat increases in defense expenditures. We feel 
that progress has been made toward dealing with 
these problems, but even larger effort is necessary. 
We believe that we can, by cooperation and the 
utmost effort by all of us, achieve greater progress 
toward a level of military expenditure and pro- 
duction which will be adequate to ensure our com- 
mon safety. 

Security Needs of Near and Middle East 

I Along the southeastern reaches of Europe and 
into the Near and Middle East, the problems of 
foreign policy are to make even stronger the 
i several strong points, and to help other countries 
to strengthen themselves against the dangers of 
1 internal subversion. We are proposing military 
aid of 415 million dollars and economic aid of 1'25 
million dollars for these purposes. 

Russian ambitions in this area are centuries old ; 

so too are the internal problems which threaten 

the stability and security of this area. Our policy 

toward this vital area of the Near East is to help 

I the governments and peoples of this area to build 

I the kinds of military, i)olitical, and economic 

1 strength that will discourage aggression from 

without, protect them against subversion from 

within, strengthen their will to achieve stability 

and progi-ess. and help to remove some of the 

causes of unrest. It is our aim to provide aid pro- 

igrains of an impartial character, that will enable 

I the governments and peoples of this area to work 

lout their own solutions to their problems. 

We have long recognized the vital importance 
of Greece and Turkey and are ready to assist them 
further in developing their armed forces and in 
maintaining economic stability. Economic aid for 
Greece and Turkey is included in the total for 
Europe. 

The program takes into account the possible 
need for limited military assistance to countries of 
the Near East for the development of internal 
jsecurity forces. We are also proposing to help the 
igovernments and peoples of this important area 
ithrougli the provision of some technical and de- 
velopmental assistance. This impartial aid will 
Strike at the conditions of unrest and instability 

July 9, 1951 



in which the agents of the Krendin find oppor- 
tunities for subversion. 

We continueH to strive for an adjustment of the 
current disjjute between Iran and the United 
Kingdom which will recognize the right of the 
Iranian people to control their oil resources and 
at the same time protect legitimate British eco- 
nomic interests, thus ensuring continued flow of 
Iranian oil to the free worlcl. We reaffirm our 
interest in and concern for the independence and 
security of Iran and our readiness to assist the 
Iranian Government in building conditions of 
political and economic stability and resisting 
Communist subversion. 

We also have reason to be concerned with the 
importance of developing important resources in 
Africa, and the Mutual Security Program in- 
cludes modest sums for that purpose. 

Significance of Asia and the Pacific Area to Defense 

The remaining part of the program consists of 
930 million dollars, for military and economic aid 
to Asia and the Pacific area. 

In the gi'eat crescent which reaches from Japan 
to Afghanistan, there live almost 700 million peo- 
ple, about three out of ten people who inhabit the 
earth. 

This area includes South Asia: India, Pakistan, 
Afghanistan, Ceylon, and Nepal ; Southeast Asia : 
Thailand, Burma, Indonesia and the Associated 
States of Indochina; and the Philippines, For- 
mosa, and Korea. 

But it is not only its large population which 
gives this area significance in a survey of the de- 
fenses of the free world. In this crescent are large 
resources of strategic materials essential to the pro- 
ductivity of the free world : tin, rubber, jute, petro- 
leum, and many other materials. The location of 
this crescent is also of significant importance; 
astride the vital Pacific Ocean lines of communica- 
tion, and bordering the Communist-dominated 
central land-mass of Asia. 

Of key importance too is the industrial potential 
of Japan, which lies within this region but is not 
included in this aid program, since its needs are 
met in other ways. 

Our broad national objective in this area is to 
help the people develop independent and stable 
governments, friendly to the United States. 

The several elements of the Mutual Security 
Program for this area have been carefully worked 
out to further this aim. According to the different 
needs of these countries, both militai-y aid amount- 
ing to 555 million dollars aiul total economic aid 
of 375 million dollars are pioposed under the 
program. 

The entire area is under direct threat of Connnu- 
nist-impcrialist pressures. In addition to the in- 
ternal pressures of subversion and political 
penetration, the area is now confronted with the 
rise of a militant, Chinese Communist imperialism. 

51 



The immediacy of the military need is apparent. 
Open armed conflict is a reality in Indochina as 
well as Korea. The arms and ammunition beinji 
provided under this program to our friends and 
allies in Indochina and the Philippines are in 
actual and immediate use against the enemies of 
freedom. Witliout the aid that we have sent dur- 
ing the current year to Indochina, there is little 
doubt but that Indochina would long since have 
been overrun by the Conmiunist forces of aggres- 
sion, and the whole of Southeast Asia might either 
have been absorbed by this Commiuiist force or 
be in inunediate peril of such absorption. 

Substantial militai-y aid is also proposed for 
Formosa, pursuant to the President's policy state- 
ment of June 27, 1950.^ Supplementing this aid, 
which is deemed essential for the military defense 
of the island, it is proposed that economic assist- 
ance also be provided, in further support of the 
military effort. 

But military aid to these countries I have men- 
tioned, and to Thailand, is only part of the prob- 
lem of strengthening the security of this crescent 
in relation to the Communist landmass which it 
borders. The other part of the problem relates to 
the way people live, and in many respects, this part 
of the program affects not only the people with 
whom we deal directly, but also those millions 
whom we cannot reach directly, but who are 
watching what we do in Asia. 

As the false champion of Asian nationalism and 
economic improvement, the Communist movement 
has been successful in capturing some of the leader- 
ship of the nationalist movements in these coun- 
tries. Communism thrives on the wretchedly low 
standards of living that prevail in most parts of 
this area. 

Poverty, disease, illiteracy, and resentments 
against former colonial expioitations — these are 
the turbulent forces that seethe in Asia, that move 
people powerfully. The Communist movement 
has exploited these forces, and in the vital crescent 
I have described, it seeks to create attitudes rang- 
ing from neutralism to subversion, as part of its 
expansionist drive. 

Our first job, if we are to achieve our objective 
of helping the people of this area to maintain inde- 
pendent governments friendly to us, is to under- 
stand these forces at work in Asia, and to assure 
that the forces of nationalism and of the drive for 
economic improvement are associated with the rest 
of the free world instead of with communism. 

That is why an essential part of the Mutual 
Security Program in this area is designed to help 
the people of Asia to create social and economic 
conditions that will encourage the growth and 
survival of non-Communist political institutions, 
dedicated to the honest fulfillment of their basic 
needs and aspirations. 

Vast and challenging demands are now being 
made upon the leadership of free Asia arising from 



' Bui.ujriN of July 24, 1950, p. 123. 



52 



the new and heavy responsibilities of national 
independence. There are serious economic dis- 
locations in the area resulting from the recent war 
and from changing production and trade patterns. 
There is a great lack of teachers and of schools, and 
a lack of trained technicians and administrators 
both in the governments and in economic life. 

The pressure of population on food supply, anti- 
quated agricultural methods, disease, the lack of 
capital — these and the other difficulties I have 
described combine to threaten freedom and inde- 
pendence and to create opportunities for subver- 
sion. 

American materials and technical aid are needed 
to help the people of the area in dealing with these 
urgent economic problems. Our programs are 
designed to help build the economic, political, and 
social components of national strength and will 
provide a stimulus to maximum self-help in the 
area. This aid will enable the people of this area 
to develop their own rich resources for their own 
benefit, as well as that of the rest of the free world. 

The Mutual Security Program in Asia comple- 
ments United States policies in the Pacific. In 
relation to the conflict now raging in Korea, there 
is included in the program that you are consider- 
ing a recommendation that authorization be given 
for 112.5 million dollars in support of the United 
Nations Korean Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration. It is planned that the approach to 
the relief and rehabilitation operations in Korea 
will be made on an international basis in coopera- 
tion with other members of the United Nations 
which are contributing funds and supplies to the 
program. 

In considering the over-all security of the Pa- 
cific, as it relates to the Mutual Security Program, 
we also have in mind the importance of restoring 
sovereignty to Japan. The Committee is familiar 
with the progress we are making in the prepara- 
tion of a Treaty of Peace for Japan as the essen- 
tial first step in this direction. 

Deter, defend, and develop. These are the lines 
of foreign policy which the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram is designed to support. We seek to deter 
war, for peace, not war, is the only full answer 
to our present danger. We shall do what we can 
and shall cooperate with others to defend the free 
nations against the twin menaces of external and 
internal attack. We shall do what we can and 
cooperate with others in the spirit of the Charter 
of the United Nations to develop the economic, 
political, and military strength of free men and 
the extent of free institutions. 

By comparison with any other course, this ap- 
proach is more promising of success and it is more 
conservative of the lives and resources and ideals 
of free men than any other open to us. No guar- 
antee of success goes with it. But no other course 
will do as much, with the vast but not yet realized 
potential we of the free world have, to build the 
conditions of success, whatever turn events may 
take. 

Department of State BuUelin 



Presentation of Mutual Security Program to 
Congress* 

1. The preparation of material for the presentation of 
tile Mutual Security Program (MSP) to Congress is vir- 
tually complete. The Executive Group has consequently 
been dissolved and Col. C. H. Bonesteel will shortly return 
to London. 

2. Mr. Thomas Calwt, Director of International Security 
Affairs, will, from now on be responsible within the 
Department for (a) the direction of the presentation of 
the Mutual Security Program to Congress; (b) assuring 
that all necessary work by the Department in connection 
therewith is properly performed and properly coordinated 
(including the preparation of testimony, the brieling of 
witnesses, the gathering of information requested by com- 
mittees, etc.) ; and (c) assuring appropriate coordina- 
tion of the worlf of the Department with that of otlier 
governmental agencies. All bureaus and oflices of the 
Department are directed to provide him with such as- 
sistance and to carry out such tasks as he may request. 
Mr. Cabot has designated Mr. Charles Coolidge, Deputy 
Director, International Security Affairs, as his full-time 
deputy to discharge these responsibilities, and has named 
Messrs. Ben Brown, (Assistant Secretary), and John H. 
Ohly, (International Security Affairs), to assist Mr. 
Coolidge. 

3. The Department of Defense has designated Sam Efron 
and Lt. Col. Frank Murdock, and the Economic Coopera- 
tion Administration has designated Ambassador C. Tyler 
Wood, with Messrs. Najeeb Halaby and James Cooley 
assisting him, to perform, within their respective agencies, 
the same general types of duties and functions which Mr. 
Coolidge will perform in tlie Department of State. These 
individuals, together with Mr. Coolidge and his aides, 
will be responsible, as a group, under the Committee on 
International Security AlTairs for assuring from a total. 
Executive Branch standpoint, an effective and coordi- 
nated presentation of the entire program. 

4. This group, in addition to discharging the general 
duties indicated above, will resolve itself into two Infor- 

I mal, complementary subgroups, one of which, consisting 
of Messrs. Coolidge, Brown, Cooley and Efron, will consti- 
tute an interdepartmental legislative liaison team, and the 
other of which comprised of Mr. Ohly, Ambassador Wood 
(Mr. Halaby, alternate), and Lt. Col. Murdock, will make 
certain that the presentation is properly backstopped by 
their agencies. 

5. The interdepartmental legislative liaison team will 
make the necessary contacts with Congressional commit- 
tees and their staffs, arrange the details of hearings, con- 
stitute the sole channel through which information and 

i materials are transmitted to the Congress, and, in general, 
I perform all other tasks that need to be carried out at the 
Capitol. 

C. The interdepartmental backstopping team will see 

that testimony is prepared and properly coordinated, that 

I information requested by the legislative liaison team is 

I obtained, that witnesses are briefed, that issues requiring 

policy decisions are decided, and, in general, arrange for 

the performance of such other tasks as need to be car- 

j Tied out within each of the agencies concerned. 

7. Further to assist Mr. Coolidge, certain offices and 
I bureaus which have a direct concern with all or some 
major portion of the presentation have each designated, 
or will be asked to designate, one individual who will be 
directly responsible to Mr. Coolidge for assuring the i)er- 
I formance of all presentation work relating to or affecting 
'' such office or bureau (or with respect to a particular area 
i or subject). Messrs. Martin, Gardiner, Merchant, and 
Cale have already been named to perform such responsi- 
bilities with respect to Titles I, II, III and IV of the 
i Mutual Security Bill, respectively. Comparalile deslgna- 
' tions have ben made within the Department of Defense 



'Effective June 13, 1951. 
July 9, 1951 



and the Economic Cooperation Administration, and tliese 
Defense and Economic Cooperation Administration des- 
ignees, together with the above State Department des- 
ignees, will constitute four working groups which will be 
directly responsible to the central interdepartmental group 
for assuring, as to each of the four Titles, that there is an 
effective, coordinated presentation. These groups in effect 
repre.sent continuations of Task Force I (insofar as Eu- 
rope is concerned) and the working groups established to 
handle the appeals to the Bureau of the Budget. 



Unified Command Requests 
Additional Forces for Korea 

[Released to the piess 6j/ the V.S. Mission to the U.N. 
June 21] 

Communication from the Vnif-ed ComrniaTid to 
Secretary-General Trygve Lie on a new appeal 
for forces for Korea — June 21, 1951 

The acting representative of the United States 
to the United Nations presents his compliments to 
the Secretary-General of the United Mations and 
has the honor to address a communication on be- 
half of the United States, acting in its capacity 
as the Unified Command, concerning the need for 
additional ground troops from Member Govern- 
ments of the United Nations for the collective 
effort in Korea. 

The Unified Command has conducted and is now 
conducting extensive bilateral conversations in 
connection with this problem with various Mem- 
ber States and, in particular, is conducting con- 
versations with States which have already 
contributed armed forces. 

In order to further efforts of the Unified Com- 
mand in this respect, the Secretary-General is 
requested to send communications on behalf of the 
Unified Command to Member Governments which 
previously gave a favorable reply either to the 
Security Council's resolution of June 25, 1950, or 
to its resolution of June 27, 1950, but which have 
not yet contributed armed forces for the collective 
effort in Korea, advising the aforementioned 
Members of the need for further ground assistance 
in Korea. There is a real need for additional 
forces from Member States in the light of massive 
Chinese Communist concentrations in the area and 
of their continuing aggression. The Unified 
Command therefore requests the Secretary-Gen- 
eral in his communication to appeal to Member 
Governments which have given their support to 
the Security Council resolutions but liave not made 
contributions of armed forces that they give im- 
mediate consideration to malring an initial contri- 
bution of ground forces of substantial character, 
consonant with their respective capabilities and 
other responsibilities. 

Further, it is requested that Member Govern- 
ments be asked to notify the Secretary-General of 
offers in general terms, detailed arrangements to 
be made by the respective Member (irovernments 
and the Unified Command. 



53 



U.N. Embargo Action Against Chinese Will Shorten Hostilities 



U.S. SUBMITS REPORT 



By Ambassador Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative to the United Nations ^ 



The United States is now submitting its first 
report to the Additional Measures Committee es- 
tablislied by the General Assembly last May to 
supijort United Nations action against the ag- 
gression in Korea.^ 

Tlie practical effectiveness of the collective ef- 
fort to deprive the aggressors of imports useful 
to their war-making power is clearly shown by re- 
ports such as this from the member countries. In 
addition, discussion and review by the United Na- 
tions of these reports are a positive method of 
achieving the purpose of the United Nations 
resolution. 

In other words, the United Nations is not de- 
pending upon a paper resolution expressing intent 
and defining the terms of an embargo. Through 
the Additional Measures Committee the United 
Nations will follow through, in close consultation 
among the members of the United Nations, to in- 
sure that the loopholes are closed and that every 
practical device is used to carry out the embargo. 

I believe that this procedure is an important 
expression of the United Nations in action. It 
will demonstrate to the world the effectiveness of 
collective action and the value of continuous col- 
laboration through international machinery. 

In my judgment the economic measures being 
taken against the Chinese Communist aggressors 
will not only be impressive but, so far as the free 
world is concerned, veiy close to 100 percent effi- 
cient. 

By denying the aggressors the means to wage 
war, the 53 members of the United Nations who 
support United Nations action in Korea help bring 
closer tlie day when hostilities will be ended and 
United Nations objectives achieved through iDeace- 
ful processes. 

' Comments accompanying U.S. report to the Additional 
Mea.sures Committee June 16 and released to the press on 
the same date. 

' Buij-ETiN of May 28, 1951, p. 848. 



This expression of unity of the loyal supporters 
of the United Nations Charter will, if anything 
can, convince the aggressors of the folly of their 
present course. 

Following is the text of the first report of the United 
States to the Additional Measures Committee taken in 
aceordance with Resolution 500 (V), adopted by the Ocn- 
ernl Assemhly on May 18, 1951: 

Pakt I 

The controls iippliPd by the United States on shipments 
to the Cliinese Communists and the North Korean au- 
thorities are more comprehensive than those called for by 
Resolution r)OO(V) and were placed in effect before that 
Resolution was jiassed. Exports from the United States 
of arms, ammunition and implements of war (Annex I) 
and atomic; energy materials (Annex II) to North Korea 
and to Communist China have not been authorized at 
any time, and exports of a number of other stratesic 
articles were severely restricted and in some instances 
embargoed for some time prior to June 1950. Since the 
end of June 1950, the United States Government has i)er- 
niitted no shipments to North Korea and applied an em- 
barso on shipments to Communist China not only of 
arms and munitions but also of atomic energy materials, 
petroleum products, and other items of strategic value 
included in the United States Positive List. (Annex III). 

The scope of the economic measures applied against 
the Chinese Communists by the United "States was greatly 
extended when it became unmistakably dear that they 
were engaged in large-scale military oiierations against 
United Nations forces in Korea. Since December 1950, 
the United States has not exported any materials what- 
ever to Communist China. Vessels and aircraft docu- 
mented or registered under United States laws have not 
been permitted to touch at any Chinese Communist port 
or area or to carry any cargo destined directly or in- 
directly for Comnnmist C'hina. Strict control has been 
exerci.sed over commodities in transit through the United 
States destined for Communist China. All Commiuiist 
China and North Korea assets within the United States 
have been blocked and sub.iected to stringent controls. 

The United States believes that the United States Posi- 
tive List contains items which wouhi meet the intent of 
the General Assembly Resolution of May IS. Not all these 
items are included within the scope of paragraph 1 (A) of 
the Resolution. Nevertheless, the United States believes 
that the control of such items furthers the basic purpose 
of the Resolution. 



54 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



The scope and detail of the United States Munitions 

j List, the list of atomic enerj;y materials, and tlie United 

States Positive List may assist cooperatins States in 

effectins the embargo by providing a basis for tiat efB- 

cient customs administration, control of transit trade, 

and control over transport of prohil)ited car.soes which 

it is the purpose of the Resolution to accomplish. It 

may also contribute to the workiu,^ out of such further 

i measures in the field of economic controls as may become 

i appropriate or necessary. 

j The United States will prevent by all means within 

i its jurisiliction the circumvention cjf controls on shipments 

applied b.v other States under the Kesolution and cooi)erate 

fully with other States and the Additional Measures 

Committee in carrying out the purposes of this embargo. 

Part II 

The following is a summary of the measures taken by 
the United States to control its trade with the aggressors. 
The exixirt of arms, ammunition, and implements of 
war as defined by Presidential Proclamation 2776, of 
April 1.3, 194S, is controlled by the Secretary of State 
(Annex I). The export of atomic energy materials as 
j defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 is controlled by 
' the United States Atomic Energy Commission (Annex II). 
j Shipments of such materials to Communist China and 
I North Korea have not been authorized at any time. In 
November liMO, this policy was extended to include Hong 
Kong and Macao, as possible tran.sshipment points, and 
I only very limited materials for the use of these govern- 
ments have lieen licensed since that time. 

The export from the United States to foreign destina- 
1 tions of commodities in short supply and of strategic 
materials is controlled through the Positive List adminis- 
tered by the Department of Commerce under the authority 
of the Export Control Act of 1949 (Annex III). Com"- 
modities which appear on the Positive I-ist are placed 
there after ileterniination by the United States Govern- 
ment that they possess sufficient strategic value or are in 
such critical supply as to .lustify careful screening of 
destination and end-use. Such commodities cannot be 
exported to foreign destinations without validated export 
licenses. 

From .Tune 1950, shortly after the North Korean ag- 
gression against the Republic of Korea, until December 
1950. the United States Government was applying an 
embargci over shipments to Communist China of arms and 
munitions, petroleum products, atomic energy materials, 
and all other items on the United States Positive List. 

Since .June 19.50, no shipments of any kind have been 
IwrmittiHl to go to North Korea, and the subsequent meas- 
ures outlined lielow have been applied to North Korea 
as well as Communist China. 

j As a precaution, in the light of the Chinese Commimist 

I intervention in the Korean struggle, the Department of 

Commerce issued an order, effective December 3, 1950, 

subjecting all proposeil exports fi'om the United States 

i to the mainland of China or to Hong Kong and Macao 

; (as possible transshipment points) to a screening pro- 

jcedure in order to prevent Communist China from oli- 

I taining materials, the receipt of which by Communist 

China would lie contrary to the objectives of the United 

i Nations in Korea. The order revoked all General Licenses 

I for the e\)iortation of any commodity, whether or not 

included on the IVisitive List, to Communist China and to 

I Hong Kong and Macao. 

j On December 7, 1950, an additional Department of 

'Commerce <ir<ler was issued iiroviding authorization for 

I United States officials to stop shiimients loaded under 

jGeneral Licenses if the ships came into United States 

.ports en route. Since that date, accordingly, validated 

exi)ort licenses are required for all commodities intended 

for the destinations noted above if a vessel, whatever its 

registry, has n<it olitained clearance from the final port of 

departure in the United States for a foreign port or if, 

after receiving final clearance, the vessel transits the 

Panama Canal Zone. The order directed that shipments 

which were not licensed were required to be off-loadeil 

Jufy 9, J 95 1 



prior to final clearance or proceeding through the Canal 
Zone. Under Mepartment of Commerce orders effective 
December 4, and 6, 1950, sliipments of all commodities, 
whether or not on the Positive List, originating in any 
foreign country moving in transit through the United 
States or using the facilities of a foreign trade Z(me or 
manifested to the United States may not be exported to 
China, Manchuria, Hong Kong or Macao without a vali- 
dated export license. The foregoing actions were taken 
under the authority of the Export Control Act of 1949 
(See Annex IV). 

On December 8, 19.50, the Department of Commerce, 
Under Secretary for Transixirtation, under the authority 
granted by Section HJl of the Defense Production Act of 
19.50, issued Transportation Order T-1. This order 
directed that no person should transport in any ship 
documented under the laws of the United States or in 
an.v aircraft registered under the laws of the United 
States any commodities at the time on the Positive List, or 
any article on the Munitions List, or any article controlled 
for export under the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, to China, 
Manchuria, Hong Kong or Macao ; and no person should 
discharge from any such ship or aircraft any such com- 
modit.v at these ports or areas, or at any otlier ports in 
transit to such destinations, without a validated export 
lipen.se, or unless authorization bad been obtained from 
the Under Secretary of Commerce for Transportation. 
The prohibition applied to the ship or aircraft owner, 
master or any other officer or employee of the owner 
(Annex V). 

On December 16. 1950, the Department of State an- 
nounced that the United States was taking measures to 
place under control all Chinese Commuiust assets within 
United States jurisdiction and was issuing regulations to 
prohibit ships of United States registry from calling at 
Chinese Communist ports until further notice. These 
actions were necessar.v to accomplish the effective con- 
trol of the economic relationships between the United 
States and Communist China-North Korea envisaged by 
the December 3 requirement that no exports would be 
Iiermitted to these destinations from the United States 
without validated export licenses (Annex VI). 

The Department of the Treasury accomplished this 
financial control by action under the Foreign Assets Regu- 
lations (pursuant to the first War Powers Act of 1941 
and the Trading With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, 
as amended) blocking the United States assets of resi- 
dents of China and North Korea. The blocking regula- 
tions forbade all transactions involving bank accounts 
and United States assets of the Communist Chinese and 
the North Korean regimes and their nationals unless 
Treasur.v approval was obtained. A series of blanket 
authorizations were included in the regulations, protecting 
individual Chinese and Koreans in the United States and 
abroad, where these persons were not acting on behalf of 
the North Korean or Chinese Communist regimes (Annex 
VII). 

The Department of Commerce accomplished its shipping 
controls by the issuance of Transportation Order T-2, 
under the authority of Sectioi\ 101 of the Defense Pro- 
<luction Act of 19.50. This order provided, in substance, 
that no person should take any slnp or aircraft docu- 
mented or registered under the laws of the United States 
to jiny Chinese Communist port or area: that no person 
should transport, in any ship or aircraft doeumented or 
registered under the laws of the United States, cargo of 
any kind to Communist ports or to any other places under 
the control of the Chinese Commiunsts: that no person 
should take on board any stich sliip or aircraft any cargo 
if he knows or has reason to lielieve that it is destined, 
directly or indirectly, for Communist China; and that no 
per.son sboidd discharge from any sucli ship or aircraft 
an.v such cargo so destined at an.v place otlK^r than the 
jicirt where the cargo was loailed, cu- witliin territory under 
United Stales jurisdiction, or in .laii.an. This order was 
made applicable to the owner, master, or any other officer, 
employee or agent of the owner of the ship or aircraft. 
(Annex VIII). 



55 



List of Annexes 

I Enumeration of Arms, Ammunition, and Implements 
of War (Proclamation 2776 issued by the President 
of the United States on March 26, 1948) [See 13 Fed. 
Reg. 162.3, also Munitions Division Bulletin No. 1, 
Dept. of State April 1, 1948]. 
II List of Atomic Energy Materials. [Not here printed. 
See 12 Fed. Reg. 1855 and Amendment 14 Fed. Keg. 
1156 for List A. See 12 Fed. Reg. 7651 for List B.] 

III Positive List of Commodities. [Not here printed. 
See Sec. 399.1, Appendix A, Comprehensive Export 
Schedule, Office of International Trade, Dept. of 
Commerce.] 

IV Excerpts from Comprehensive Export Schedule. 
[For 384.4 see 15 Fed. Reg. 4744 ; for 384.5 and 384.6 
see 15 Fed. Reg. 8562, 8563; for 384.7 see 15 Fed. 
Reg. 9140.] 

V Transportation Order T-1. [See 15 Fed. Reg. 8777, 

Interpretation 15 Fed. Reg. 9145.] 
VI Statement issued by the Department of State on De- 
cember 16, 1950 regarding control of United States 
economic relationships with Communist China. 
[Not here printed. See Bulletin of December 25, 
1950, p. 1004.] 
VII Foreign Assets Control Regulations. [Not here 

printed. See 15 Fed. Reg. 9040.] 
VIII Transportation Order T-2. [See 15 Fed. Reg. 9063.] 



ANNEX I 

PROCLAMATION 2776 

Enumeration of Arms, Ammunition, and Imple- 
ments of War by the President of the United 
States of America 

A PROCLAMATION 

Whereas section 12 (i) of the .ioint resolution of Con- 
gress approved November 4, 1939. provides in part as 
follows (54 Stat. 11: 22 U. S. C. 4.52 (i)) : 

The President is hereby authorized to proclaim upon 
recommendation of the (National Munitions Control) 
Board from time to time a list of articles which shall be 
considered arms, ammunition, and implements of war for 
the purposes of this section * * • 

Now, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of 
the United States of America, acting under and by virtue 
of the authority conferred upon me by the said joint 
resolution of Congress, and pursuant to the recommenda- 
tion of the National Munitions Control Board, and in 
the interest of the foreign-affairs functions of the United 
States, hereby declare and proclaim that the articles 
listed below shall, on and after April 15, 1948, be consid- 
ered arms, amrauiiition, and implements of war for the 
purposes of section 12 of the said joint resolution of 
Congress : 

Category I -Small Arms and Machine Guns 

Rifles, carbines, revolvers, pistols, machine pistols, and 
machine guns (using ammunition of caliber .22 or over) ; 
barrels, mounts, breech mechanisms and stocks therefor. 

Category II -Artillery and Projectors 

Guns, howitzers, cannon, mortars, and rocket launchers 
(of all calibers) military flame throwers, military smoke, 
gas, or pyrotechnic projectors ; barrels, mounts and other 
components thereof. 

Category III -Ammunition 

Ammunition of caliber .22 or over for the arms enumer- 
ated under (I) and (II) above; cartridge cases, powder 
bags, bullets, jackets, cores, shells (excluding shotgun) ; 
projectiles and other missiles; percussion caps, fuses, pri- 
mers and other detonating devices for such ammunition. 



Category IV -Bombs, Torpedoes and Rockets 

Bombs, torpedoes, grenades, rockets, mines, guided mis- 
siles, depth charges, and components thereof ; apparatus 
and devices for the handling, control, discharge, detona- 
tion or detection thereof. 

Category V -Fire Control Equipment and Range Finders 

Fire control equipment, range, position and height 
finders, spotting instruments, aiming devices (gyroscopic, 
optic, acoustic, atmospheric or flash), bombsights, gun 
sights and periscopes for the arms, amnuinition and im- 
plements of war enumerated in this proclamation. 

Category VI -Tanks and Ordnance Vehicles 

Tanks, armed or armored vehicles, armored trains, 
artillery and small arms repair trucks, military half 
tracks, tank recovery vehicles, tank destroyers ; armor 
plate, turrets, tank engines, tank tread shoes, tank bogie 
wheels and idlers therefor. 

Category VII - Poison Gases and Toxieological Agents 

All military toxieological and lethal agents and gases; 
military equipment for the dissemination and detection 
thereof and defense therefrom. 

Category Vll-Propellants and Explosives 

Propellants for the articles enumerated in Categories 
III, IV, and VII : military high explosives. 

Category IX - Vessels of War 

Vessels of war of all kinds, including amphibious 
craft, landing craft, naval tenders, naval transports and 
naval patrol craft, armor plate and turrets therefor ; sub- 
marine batteries and nets, and equipment for the laying, 
detection, and detonation of mines. 

Category X - Aircraft 

Aircraft; components, parts and accessories therefor. 

Category XI - Miscellaneous Equipment 

(a) Military radar equipment, including components 
thereof, radar countermeasures and radar jamming 
equipment; (b) Military stereoscopic plotting and photo 
interpretation equipment ; (c) Military photo theodolites, 
telemetering and Doeppler equipment; (d) Military 
super-high speed ballistic cameras; (e) Military radio- 
sondes; (f) Military interference suppression equipment; 
(g) Military electronic computing devices ; (h) Military 
miniature and sub-miniature vacuum tubes and photo- 
emissive tubes; (i) Military armor plate; (j) Military 
steel helmets; (k) Military pyrotechnics; (1) S.vnthetic 
training devices for military equipment; (m) Military 
ultra-sonic generators; (n) All other material used in 
warfare which is classified from the standpoint of mili- 
tary security. 

Effective April 15, 1948, this proclamation shall super- 
sede Proclamation 2717, dated February 14, 1947. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be' 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 26th day of March 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and forty- 
eight, (SEAL) and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and seventy-second, 




By the President : 
G. C. Marshall, 
Secretary of State 



56 



Department of Sfafe BvUetir 



New Requirements Relating to the Licensing for 
Export and Import of Articles Defines as Arms, 
Ammunition and Implements of War 

Effective April 15, 1948, the attached Presidential Proc- 
bimation 2776, definins arms, ammunition, and imple- 
ments of war will supersede Proclamation 2717 of 
February 14, 1947. ALL ARTICLES INCI-UDED 
i THEREIN WILL BE SUB.JECT TO THE DEPART- 
! MKNT OF STATE EXPORT AND IMPORT LICENSING 
REQUIREMENTS. 

The principal changes in the new proclamation are the 
addition of: 

All commei'cial type aircraft and all aircraft compon- 
ents, parts and accessories ; fire control and ranse findinu; 
equipment ; certain military electronic devices including 
radar ; various military defence apparatus and training 
equipment ; arms and ammunition of caliber .22. 

It should be noted that the new proclamation repre- 
sents an extensive rearrangement of the categories listed 
in Proclamation 2717. 

Pending the issuance of a revised edition of the pam- 
phlet, "International Traflic in Arms" (Title 22, Sections 
201.1 to 201.41 Code of Fed. Reg.) this Bulletin is being 
circulated for the guidance of Collectors of Customs and 
shippers of arms, ammunition, and implements of war. 

A tentative interpretation of the various categories is 

set forth herein. Additions or deletions will be made 

from time to time. If an exporter or importer is unable 

to determine whetlier a particular article comes within 

' the scoiie of the new proclamation, he may submit the 

pertinent facts to the Slunitions Division, Department of 

i State, Washington 25, D. C, for a decision. Collectors 

1 are requested to do likewise. 

Application for export and import licenses should be 
made on current Department of State forms. 



TENTATIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE NEW 
PROCLAMATION BY CATEGORIES 

Category I. Small Arms and Machine Guns. 

Note that caliber .22 weapons, and stocks and complete 
breech mechanisms for all weapons, now require a license. 

Category II. Artillery and Projectors. 

Under this category there have been added rocket 
launchers and military smoke, gas and pyrotechnic pro- 
jectors. The term "other components thereof" shall be 
interpreted to consist of complete breech mechanisms, 
carriages, and hub assemblies. 

Category III. Ammunition. 

Note that caliber .22 ammunition now requires a license ; 
also jacket.s ; cores ; i>ercussion caps ; fuses ; primers ; 
otlier detonating-devices; and powder bags. 

Category IV. Bombs, Torpedoes, and Rockets. 

Note that rockets and the major components of bombs, 
torpedoes, rockets, and guided missiles have been added. 

Category V. Fire Control Equipment and Range 
Knders. 

All the articles in this category have been added to the 
list of llcensable articles. 

Category VI. Tanks and Ordnance Vehicles. 

The articles added in this category are : armed vehicles ; 
i artillery and small arms repair trucks; military half 
■ tracks, tank recovery vehicles; tank destroyers; tank 
I engines; tank tread shoes; tank bogie wheels and idlers. 
I An "armed vehicle" .shall be interpreted to be any vehicle 
, which has a fixed gun on it, while an "armored vehicle" 

July 9, 1951 

95647G — 51 3 



shall be one offering protection, and may be either armed 
or unarmed. 

Category VII. Poison Gases and Toxicological Agents. 

The term "lethal gases" shall be interpreted to mean : 
cyanogen chloride, diphos ; dipliosgene; tluorine (but not 
fluorene) ; Lewisite gas; mustard gas (dichloradiethyl 
sulfide) ; phenylcarbylamine chloride: phosgene. 

The term "toxicological agents" (gases) shall be in- 
terpreted to mean: Adamsite (diphenylaminechlor- 
arsine) ; dibromodimethyl ether; dichlorodimethyl ether; 
diphenylchloroarsine; dipbenylcyanarsine : ethyl dibro- 
marsine; ethyl dichlorarsine : metbyldichloroarsine; 
phenyldihromoarsine ; phenyldichloroarsine. 

The term "military equipment for the dissemination 
and detection thereof and defence therefrom" shall be 
interpreted to mean : military gas ma.sks ; filters for mili- 
tary gas masks ; military gas detection kits. 

Category VIII. Propellants and Bxi)losives. 

The articles included in this category are: propellent 
powders ; rocket and guided missile fuel, the following 
military high explosives: ammonium picrate; black soda 
powder, potassium nitrate powder, hexanitrodiphenyl- 
amine: pentaerythritetetranitrate (penthrite. ijentrite or 
PETN) ; nitrocellulose having a nitrogen content of more 
than 12.20 percent; tetryl (trinitrophenylmethylnitramine 
or "tetranitromethylaniline") ; trimethylenetrinitramine 
(RDX. Cyclonite, Hexogen or T4) ; trinitroanisol : trini- 
tronapthalene ; dinitronapthalene ; tetranitronapthalene ; 
trinitrotoluene ; trinitroxylene. 

Category IX. Vessels of War. 

Under this category the following are considered vessels 
of war : 

Combat Type Vessels : 

Battleship (BB) ; Battle Cruiser (CC) ; Flight Deck 
Cruiser (CF) ; Heavy Cruiser (CA) ; Large Cr\iiser 
(CB) ; Light Cruiser (CL) ; Aircraft Carrier (CV) ; Air- 
craft Carrier, Escort (CVE) ; Aircraft Carrier, Large 
(CVB) ; Aircraft Carrier. Small (CVL) ; British Aircraft 
Carrier, Escort (B.WG) ; Seaplane Carrier (CVS) ; 
Destro.ver (DD) ; Destroyer. Escort Vessel (DE) De- 
stroyer Leader (DL) ; Submarine (SS) ; Submarine Mine 
Layer (SM) ; Minelaying Cruiser (CM) ; Mine Sweeper, 
High Speed (DMS) ; Mine Vessel, Light Mine Layer 
(DM) : Crane Ship (AB) : High Speed Transport (APD) ; 
and Seaplane Tender (Destroyer) (AVD). 

Amphibious and Landing Vessels : 

Weasels (M-24) ; Landing Vehicle (LVT) ; Landing 
Vehicle, Armored (LVT-.\) : Landing Vehicles. Wheeled 
(LVW-DUKW). Landing Craft (LCC, LCM-S, LCM-6, 
LC-FF, LCI-L, LCI-M, LCI-R. LCS-L-3. LCVP, 
LCT-5, LCT-6, LCP-L. LCP-R. LCR-S. LCR-L, LCV). 
Landing Ships: (LSD, LSM, LSM-R. LST, LSV). 

Naval Tenders and Service Vessels : 

Airship Tender (AZ) ; Ammunition Ship (AE) ; Auxil- 
iary Miscellaneous (AG) ; Barge, Torpedo Testing 
(XTT) ; Barracks Ship, Self Propelled (APB) ; Cargo 
Ship Attack (AKA) ; Cargo Ship, Net (AKN) ; Cargo Ship 
and Aircraft Ferry (AKV) ; Destroyer Tender (AD) ; 
Distribution Box Boat (L) ; Dock. Advance Base (.^BD) ; 
Dock, Advance Base Section (ABSD) ; Drvdock, Floating 
(AFD, AFDL, AFDI^C, AFDM. AFDB) ; Lighter Cata- 
pult (AVC) ; Lighthouse Tender (AGL) ; Mine Layer 
(converted to merchant use) (CM) ; Mine Layer. Auxil- 
iary (ACM) ; Mine Layer Coastal (CMc) ; Mine Planter 
(MP) ; .lunior Mine Planter (.IMP) ; Mine Sweeper (AM, 
AMc, AMb) ; Jline Sweeper, Motor (VMS); Motor Tor- 
pedo Boat Tender (AGP) ; Net Laying Ship (AN) : N»t 
Tender (YN) ; Repair Ship (ARV-A. ARV-E. .\RR, 
ARL) ; Repair Dock (ARD. ARD-C) ; Rescue Boat. Air- 
craft (AVR) : Salvage Craft Tender (ARS-T) ; Salvage 
lifting Vessel (AR.'^-D) : Seaplane Tender (.\V, .\VP) ; 
Sulnn.irine Rescue Vessel (.\SR) ; Snlmiarine Tender 
(AS) ; and Surveying Ships (AGS, AGSc). 



57 



Naval Transports : 

Administrative Flagsliip (APF) ; Aircraft Transport, 
Lighter (TCBO) ; Amphibian Force, Flagship (AGC) ; 
Artillery Transport, Mechanized (APM) ; Artillery Trans- 
port, non-Mechanized (APN) ; Attack Transport (APA) ; 
Barge, Troop Class A (APP) ; Barge, Navy Troop Class 
B (APT) ; Coastal Transport, (APc) ; Ferry, Transport 
and Aircraft (APV) ; Rescue Transport (APR); Sub- 
marine Transport (ATS) ; Supporting Gunnery Ship, 
Transport (APG) ; Transport (AP) ; and Wounded Evac- 
uation, Transport (APH). 

Patrol Vessels : 

Coast Guard Gun Boat (WPG) ; Coast Guard Gun Boat 
(WPR) ; Coast Guard Subchaser (WSC) ; Coast Guard 
District Patrol Vessel (WYP) ; Coast Guard Cutter 
(CGC) ; Coast Guard Light Ship (WAL) ; Escort 180' 
(PCE, PCE-C) ; Escort, Rescue ISO' (PCE-R) ; Patrol 
Vessel, Eagle (PE) ; Patrol Vessel, Frigate (PF) ; Patrol 
Vessel, Gunboat (PG) ; Patrol Vessel, Motor (PGM) ; 
Patrol Vessel, Motor Torpedo Boat (PT) ; Patrol Vessel, 
River Gunboat (PR) ; I'atrol Chaser, Submarine Chaser 
(PTC) : Patrol Boat (AD) ; Patrol Vessel, Coastal Yacht 
(PTC) ; Patrol Vessel, Yacht (PY) ; Submarine Chaser, 
173' (PC, PC^C) ; Submarine Chaser 110' (SC, SC-C) ; 
Submarine Chaser 136' (PCS, PCS-C) ; Submarine Chaser 
174' Control (PCC) ; and other Patrol Craft larger than 
100' or in excess of 300 hoi-sepower capacity. 

(The Munitions Division Circular entitled "List of Ves- 
sels Coming Within the Classification of 'Vessels of War' " 
is no longer effective) 

In addition to vessels of war this category includes the 
following special naval equipment: 

Armor plate; turrets; submarine storage batteries and 
electric batteries of 1,000 ampere hour capacity and over; 
anti-submarine nets ; mine locating equipment towed from 
ships including: ordnance detector, Mark 2, pipe; ord- 
nance detector Mark 2, gear; power supplies, Mark 2; 
ordnance detector, Mark 3, and mine detonating equip- 
ment. 

Category X. Aircraft. 

It should be noted that all aircraft, components, parts 
and accessories are Included in the Proclamation. 

Aircraft ground handling and maintenance equipment, 
such as is listed in the Department of Commerce Sched- 
ule B under Commodity code No. 794960, and radio ground 
equipment used for the direction and navigation of air- 
craft, as listed under Schedule B 707640, are not listed. 

(The Munitions Division Circular MD-2/20/47 en- 
titled "New Requirements Relating To The Licensing For 
Export and Import of Aircraft, Components and Parts" 
and supplements thereto, are no longer in effect.) 

Category XI. Miscellaneous Equipment. 

All Articles (except armor plate) enumerated in this 
category have been added, and shall be interpreted to 
mean: 

(a) All Radar and components as follows: (1) An- 
tenna, micro-wave (i. e. frequency over 500 megacycles, 
or wavelength under 6/10 meter) or highly directional 
antenna, such as dish, parabolic or horn type antennae. 
(2) Receiver, micro-wave or broadband. (3) Transmit- 
ter, micro-wave or pulse modulated. (4) Modulator, 
pulsed (peak power rated). (5) Indicator, cathode ray 
tube. (6) Test equipment, as follows: echo box (ring or 
resonance chamber), synthesizer, range calibrator, radio 
frequency-oscillator (micro-wave), radio frequency 
meters. (7) Micro-wave wave-guide (pipe) or any in- 
strument containing it. 

Radar countermeasures and jamming equipment in- 
clude : 

Resnatron tubes ; electronic noise generators ; and spec- 
trum analyzers. 

(b) Only complete sets of equipment used for military 



measurements of maps and stereoscopic (three demen- 
tion) aerial photographs. 

(c) A Military photo theodolite is a transit type in- 
strument for photographing an object or target. Tele- 
metering and Doeppler equipment are radio locating de- 
vices functioning simultaneously on the ground and in 
an aircraft. 

(d) The term "super high speed" shall apply to cameras 
with a si)eed exceeding 64 frames a second. 

(e) A radiosonde is a set of meteorological recording 
instruments attached to a radio transmitter and carried 
by a balloon to transmit weather data to the ground. 

(f) Very high frequency (30 megacycles and above) 
filters, chokes and wave-traps. 

(1) Synthetic training devices will include Link-type 
trainers and similar apparatus. 

ANNEX IV 
Excerpts From Comprehensive Export Schedule 

384.4 

ORDER REVOKING VALIDATED LICENSES TO 
MANCHURIA AND CHINA 

Effective 4 : 00 p. m., eastern daylight time, July 20, 
1950, all outstanding validated licenses issued prior to 
the effective date hereof authorizing exportation of any 
commodity to Manchuria (including the Port Arthur 
Naval Base Area and Liaoniug I'rovince) and China (in- 
cluding the provinces of Suiyuan, C'hahar, Ningsia and 
Jehol, sometimes referred to as Inner Mongolia ; the 
provinces of Chinghai (Tsinghai) and Sikang; Sinkiang; 
Tibet; and Outer Mongolia), as described in Schedule C 
of the Bureau of the Census, are revoked. 

Holders of such outstanding validated licenses shall 
Immediately return them to the Oflice of International 
Trade, Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. 

This order shall not apply to exportations to the above 
destinations which have been laden aboard the exporting 
carrier prior to its effective date. 

384.5 

ORDER REVOKING CERTAIN GENERAL LICENSES 
TO MAINLAND OF CHINA (INCLUDING MAN- 
CHURIA), HONG KONG, AND MACAO' 

General Licenses GRO, GLR, GMC, and GCC, authoriz- 
ing exportation of any commodity, whether or not included 
on the Positive List of Commodities (399.1), are revoked 
to the following destinations; Manchuria (including the 
Port Arthur Naval Base Area and Liaoniug Province), 
and China (including the provinces of Suiyuan. Chahar, 
Ningsia, and Jehol, sometimes referred to as Inner Mon- 
golia ; the provinces of Chinghai (Tsinghai) and Sikang; 
Sinkiang; Tibet; and Outer Mongolia), and Hong Kong 
and Macao, but excluding Taiwan (Formosa) as described 
in Schedule C of the Bureau of the Census. 

This order aI.so applies to shipments through United 
States foreign trade zones to the foregoing destinations. 
It shall apply to all shipments whether or not laden on 
exporting carrier. Validated licenses are required for 
all commodities to these destinations if vessel has not 
obtained clearance from the final port of departure in 
the United States for a foreign port, or after receiving 
final clearance transits the Panama Canal Zone. Ship- 
ments not licensed must be off-loaded prior to final clear- 
ance or proceeding through Canal Zone. 

Shipments of perishable food products, not including 
frozen food products, ultimately destined to Hong Kong 
and Macao may continue to be made under General 
License (GRO up to 12:01 a. m., eastern standard time, 
January 2, 1951). 



' Order effective 12 : 01 a. m., eastern standai-d time, 
December 4, 1950, and amendment thereof issued and an- 
nounced December 6, 1950. 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



384.6 

ORDER EXTENDING VALIDATED LICENSE RE- 
QUIREMENTS TO IN-TRANSIT SHIPMENTS TO 
CERTAIN DESTINATIONS ' 

Notwithstanding any other provision of the export regu- 
lations, except 371.9 (b) (1), shipments of Positive List 
commodities originating in any foreign country moving 
in transit through the United States, or using the facili- 
ties of a foreign trade zone, or manifested to tlie United 
States, may not be exported to any destination iu Sub- 
group A (371.3), Hong Kong, or Macao, without a vali- 
dated export license. 

Shipments of all commodities, whether or not on the 
Positive List, moving in transit through the United States, 
or using tlie facilities of a foreign trade zone, or mani- 
fested to the United States, may not be exported to China, 
Manchuria, Hong Kong, or JIacao without a validated 
export license. This provision shall apply to in-transit 
shipment to such destinations if vessel has not obtained 
(learance from the final port of departure in the United 
States for a foreign i)ort. 

ORDER SUSPENDING VALIDATED LICENSES TO 
HONG KONG AND MACAO 

Effective 9: 00 p. m., eastern standard time, December 8, 
1950, all outstanding validated export licenses authorizing 
exportation of any commodity to Hong Kong or Macao are 
suspended. 

This order applies to commodities laden aboard the 
exporting carrier but not departed from final United States 
port of call. 



ANNEX V 
Title 32A— National Defense 

APPENDIX 

Chapter 9 — Under Secretary for Transportation, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 
(Transportation Order T-1) 
Part 1101- Shipping Restrictions. 

This Order is found necessary and appropriate to pro- 
mote the national defense and is issued pursuant to the 
authority granted by Section 101 of the Defense Pro- 
duction Act of 1950. Consultation with industry in ad- 
vance of the issuance of this Order has been rendered 
impracticable by tlie need for immediate issuance. 

AUTHORITY. Sections 1101.1 to 1101.6, is.sued under 
Sec. 704, Pub. Law 774, 81st Cong. Interpret or apply 
Sees. 101, 705, Pub. Law 774, 81st Cong. Sec. 101, E. O. 
10161, September 9, 1950, 15 F. R. 6105. 

Sec. 

1101.1 Prohibited transportation and discharge. 

1101.2 Applications for adjustment or exceptions. 

1101.3 Reports. 

1101.4 Records. 

i 1101.5 Defense against claims for damages. 
: 1101.6 Violations. 

j Sec. 1101.1 I'rnhihitcd transportatioti and discharge. No 
person shall trans-port in any .ship documented under the 
laws of the United States or in any aircraft registered 
under the laws of the United States any commodity at 
the time on the Positive List (as amended from time 
to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the 
Office of International Trade, Department of Conimene 
(15 C. F. R. Parts 370-399), any article on the list of 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war coming witliin 
the meaning of Proclamation No. 2776 of April 15, 1948 

'Order effective 12:01 a. m., eastern standard time, 
December 4, 19.50, and amendment thereof issued and an- 
nounced December 6, 1950. 



July 9, J 95? 



issued pursuant to Section 12 of the Joint Resolution 
approved November 4, 1939 (54 St;it. 10, 22 U. S. C. 4.52), 
or any commodity, including fissionable materials, con- 
trolled for export under the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 
(10 C. F. R. Parts 40 and 50), to any destination at the 
time in Sub-Group A of the Comprehensive Export Sched- 
ule (15 C. F. R. Part 371.3 (a)), to Hong Kong, or to 
Macao, and no person shall discharge from any such 
ship or any such aircraft any such commodity or "article 
at any such port or at any other port in transit to any 
such destination, unless a validated export license under 
the Export Control Act of 1949 or under Section 12 of 
said Joint Resolution approved November 4, 1939, has 
been obtained for the shipment, or unless authorization 
for the shipment has been obtained from the Under Sec- 
retary for Transportation. This prohibition applies to 
the owner of the ship or aircraft, the master of the ship 
or aircraft, and any other officer, employee or agent of 
the owner of the ship or aircraft who participates in the 
transportation. The consular officers of the United States 
are furnished with current information as to commodi- 
ties on the Positive List and will advise whether com- 
modities are currently on that List. 

Sec. 1101.2 Applications for adjustment or exceptions. 
Any person affected by any provision of this part may file 
an application for an adjustment or exception upon the 
ground that such provision works an exceptional hard- 
ship upon him, not suffered by others, or that its enforce- 
ment against him would not be in the interest of the 
national defense program. Such an application may be 
made by letter or telegram addressed to the Under Secre- 
tary for Transportation, Washington 25, D. C, reference 
T-1. If authorization is requested, any such application 
should specify in detail the material to be shipped, the 
name and address of the shipper and of the recipient of 
the shipment, the ports from which and to which the 
shipment is being made and the use to which the material 
shipped will be put. The application should also specify 
in detail the facts which support the applicant's claim for 
an exception. 

Sec. 1101.3 Reports. Persons subject to this part shall 
submit such reports to the Under Secretary for Trans- 
portation as he shall require, subject to the terms of the 
Federal Reports Act. 

Sec. 1101.4 Records. Each person participating in any 
transaction covered by this part shall retain in his pos- 
se.ssion, for at least two years, records of shipments in 
sufficient detail to permit an audit that determines for 
each transaction that the provisions of this part have been 
met. This does not specify any particular accounting 
method and does not require alteration of the system of 
records customarily maintained, provided s\icli' records 
supply an adequate basis for audit. Records may be re- 
tained in the form of microfilm or other photographic 
copies instead of the originals. 

See. 1101.5 Defense against claims for damages. No 
person shall be held liable for damages or penalties for 
any default under any contract or order which shall result 
directly or indirectly from compliance witli this part or 
any provision thereof, notwithstanding that this part or 
such provision shall thereafter he declared by judicial or 
other competent authority to be invalid. 

See. 1101.6 Violations. Any person who wilfully vio- 
lates any provisions of this part or wilfully conceals a 
material fact or furnishes false information in the course 
of operation under this part is guilty of a crime and upon 
conviction may be punished by fine or imprisonment or 
both. In addition, administrative action may be taken 
against any such person, denying him the privileges gen- 
erally accorded under this part. 

This part shall take effect on December 8, 1950 

Philip B. Fleming 
Under Secretary for Transportation 



59 



ANNEX VIII 
Title 32A— National Defense 

APPENDIX 

Chapter 9 — Under Secretary for Transportation, Depart- 
ment of Commerce (Transportation Order T-2) 

Part llQl-Shipping Restrictions. 

This Order is found necessary and appropriate to pro- 
mote the national defense and is issued pursuant to the 
authority granted by Section 101 of tlie Defense Produc- 
tion Act of 1950. Consultation witli industry in advance 
of the issuance of this Order has been rendered imprac- 
ticable by the need for immediate issuance. 

AUTHORITY. Sections 1101.10 to 1101.17, issued under 
Sec. 701, Pub. Law 774, 81st Cong. Interpret or apply 
Sees. 101, 705, Pub. Law 774, 81st Cong. Sec. 101, E. O. 
10161, September 0, 1950, 15 F. R. 6105. 

Sec. 

1101.10 Prohibition of movement of American carriers to 
Communist China. 

1101.11 Proliibition of transportation of goods destined 
for Communist China. 

1101.12 Persons affected. 

1101.13 Reports. 

1101.14 Records. 

1101.15 Defense against claims for damages. 

1101.16 Violations. 

1101.17 Amendments. 

Sec. 1101.10 Proliihition of movement of American car- 
riers to Communist China. No person shall sail, fly, navi- 
gate or otherwise take any ship documented under the 
laws of the United States or any aircraft registered under 
the laws of the United States to any Chinese Communist 
port or to any other place under the control of the 
Chinese Communists. 

Sec. 1101.11 Proliihition on transportation of goods des- 
tined for Communist China. No person shall tran.sport, 
in any ship documented under the laws of the United 
States or in any aircraft registered under the laws of 
the United States, to Communist Chinese ports or to any 
other place under the control of the Chinese Communists, 
any material, commodity, or cargo of any kind. No per- 
son shall take on board any ship documented under the 
laws of the United States or any aircraft registered under 
the laws of the United States any material, commodity, 
or cargo of any kinil if he knows or lias reason to believe 
that the material, commodity, or cargo Is destined, di- 
rectly or indirectly, for Communist China. No person 
shall discharge from any ship documented under the laws 
of the United States or from any aircraft registered under 
the laws of the United States, at any place other than the 
port where the cargo was loaded, or within teiTitory under 
the jurisdiction of the United States, or in Japan, any 
material, commodity, or cargo of any kind which he 
knows or has reason to believe is destined for Communist 
China. 

Sec. 1101.12. Persons affected. The prohibitions of Sec- 
tions 1101.10 and 1101.11 of this part apply to the owner 
of the ship or aircraft, to the master of the ship or air- 
craft, and to any other officer, employee, or agent of the 
owner of the ship or to any other person who participates 
in the prohiliited activities. 

Sec. 1101.13 Reports. The owner of any ship documented 
under the laws of the United States or any aircraft regis- 
tered under the laws of the United States which is making 
a voyage to Communist China at the time this Order 
Is issued shall report this fact promptly to the Under 
Secretary for Transportation, Department of Commerce, 
Washington 25, D. C, and advise what steps he has taken 
to comiJly with the rc(iuirements of Section 1101.10 of this 
part. The owner of any ship documented under the laws 
of the LTnited States or any aircraft registered under the 
laws of the United States which, at the time this Order 
is issued, is carrying any material, commodity, or cargo 



which the owner, the master of the ship or aircraft, or 
any other officer, employee or agent of the owner, knew 
or had reason to believe was destined for Communist 
China shall report this fact promptly to the Under Secre- 
tary for Transportation, Department of Commerce, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C, and advise what disposition has been or 
will be made of such cargo. (The above reporting re- 
quirements have been approved by the Bureau of the 
Budget under the Federal IJeports Act.) Persons subject 
to this part .shall submit such reports to the Under Secre- 
tary for Transport<ation, Department of Commerce, as he 
shall require, subject to the terms of the Federal Reports 
Act. 

Sec. 1101.14 Records. Each person participating in any 
transaction covered by this part shall retain in his pos- 
session, for at least two years, records of voyages and 
shipments in sufficient detail to permit an audit that will 
determine for each transaction that the provisions of this 
part have been met. This provision does not require any 
particular accounting method and does not require alter- 
ation of the system customarily maintained, provided 
such records supply an adequate basis for audit. Rec- 
ords may be retained in the form of microfilm or other 
photographic copies instead of the originals. 

Sec. 1101.15 Defense apainst claims for damaaes. No per- 
son shall be held lialile for damages or penalties for 
any default under any contract or order which shall re- 
sult directly or indirectly from compliance with this part 
or any provision thereof, notwithstanding that this part 
or such provision shall thereafter lie declared by judicial 
or other competent authority to be invalid. 

Sec. 1101.16 Violations. Any person who wilfully vio- 
lates any provisions of this part or wilfully conceals a 
material fact or furnishes false information in the course 
of operation under this part is guilty of a crime and upon 
conviction may be punished by fine or imprisonment or 
both. In addition, administrative action may be taken 
against any such person, denying him the privileges gen- 
erally accorded under this part. 

Sec. 1101.17 Amcnd77ients. This part may be amended 
by the Under Secretary for Transportation, Department 
of Commerce, pursuant to delegation pre\iously made to 
him. (15 F. R. 8739). 

This part shall take effect immediately, subject to 
Section 7 of the Federal Register Act (49 Stat. 502, 44 
U. S. C, Sec. 307). 



United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

Interim Commission for ITO 

The Attack on Trade Barriers. A Progress Report on the 
Oiieration of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade from January 1948 to August 1949. 32 pp. 
printed, 15^. 

Security Council 

Decisions Taken and Resolutions Adopted by the Security 
Council During the Year 1950. S/INF/4, February 1, 
1951. 24 pp. mimeo. 

Copper Import-Tax Suspension. S. Rept. 82d Cong. 1st 
sess. [To accompany H. R. 3336] 3 pp. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2060 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



60 



Department of State Bulletin 



Tripartite Commission and Creditors 
To Discuss German Debts 

[Released to the press June 25] 

A series of preliminary discussions between the 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts and 
representatives of creditors will begin at London 
i;oday. A list of those taking part is given below. 

The meetings will take place in Lancaster House, 
riiey are in preparation for the fuller discussions 
.vliich will follow early in July, when representa- 
; ives of the German Federal Government and of 
jerman debtors will also participate. 
j Membershii) of the Tripartite Commission is as 
irollows : 

PRANCE 

\iepresentatives: F. D. Gregh, R. Sergent 

bsflTED KINGDOM 

'tepresentativcs: Sir George Rendel, Sir David Waley 

JJNITED STATES 

teprescntatives: Warren Lee Pierson, Jolin W. Gunter 

The following will represent the creditors : 

'RANGE 

tepresentativcs: L^on Martin, Association Nationale des 
Porteurs Frangais de valeurs Mobi- 
lieres ; M. Barrault, Office des Biens 
et Int^rets Priv^s; Jean Velay, M. 
De Peyrecave, Pascal Leb^e, Banques 
et Instltuts financiers ; Louis Bouge- 
not, FM^ration Frangais des 
Soci6tfs d'Assurances ; M. Eude, 
Chambres de Commerce; M. Vienot, 
Association Frangaise pour la 
Sauvegarde des Biens et Int^r^ts 
Frangais k I'fitranger 

FNITED KINGDOM 

Representatives: Earl of Bessborough, Sir Otto Niemeyer, 
Mr. Loehhead, N. J. Leggett, E. P. 
M. Butler, Committee of Long-Term 
and Medium-Term Creditors; Sir 
Edward Reid, E. G. Kleinwort, L. 
St. C. Ingrams, R. A. Houseman, 
Committee of British Standstill 
Creditors; J. A. Pollen, L. Ward, 
British Insurance Interests ; V. 
Cavandi-sh-Bentnick, P. Taylor, 
British Commercial Creditors 

NITED STATES 

epreaentatives: James Grafton Rogers, Kenneth M. 
Spang, Dudley B. Bonsai, Foreign 
Bondholders Protective Council ; 
Andrew L. Gomory, U. S. Standstill 
Creditors ; H. Struve Hensel, 
Holders of Corporate Bonds 

) The meetings will also be attended by repre- 
jintatives of the Governments of Belgium, the 
jetherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who will 
i present as observers. 



Delegate Appointed to U.N. Conference 
on Status of Refugees 

[Released to the press June 29] 

George L. Warren, Adviser on Refugees and 
Displaced Persons, Department of State, has been 
designated United States delegate to the United 
Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries to con- 
sider the draft convention relative to the status of 
refugees which is to convene at Geneva, Switzer- 
land, on July 2, 1951. 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations 
has invited governments which are not members 
of the United Nations, as well as governments 
which are members, to participate in the forth- 
coming Conference for the purpose of completing 
the drafting of, and of adopting (1) a conven- 
tion on the status of refugees and (2) a protocol 
on the status of stateless persons. 

A draft convention and a draft protocol have 
been prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on 
Refugees and Stateless Persons which was estab- 
lished in August 1949 by the United Nations Eco- 
nomic and Social Council for the purpose of mak- 
ing recommendations for the legal protection of 
refugees and of persons who do not enjoy the pro- 
tection of governments. Pursuant to a resolution 
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly 
on December 14, 1950, the Conference will make a 
detailed examination of those two instruments and 
will also give special attention to the problem of 
arriving at a suitable definition of the term "ref- 
ugees." 



Extension for Claims-Filing Against 
Closed Institutions in Japan 

[Released to the press June 27] 

According to a recent announcement by the 
Closed Institutions Liquidating Commission, an 
agency of the Japanese Government, the time limit 
for the filing of claims arising outside Japan 
against closed financial institutions now being 
liquidated by the Commission has been e.xtended 
from July 16 to October 16, 1951.^ 

' For previous information see Bulletin of Apr. 9, 1951, 
p. 580. 



i/y 9, J 95 J 



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Department of State Bulletin 



Assisting Germany To Become a Peaceful Democracy 



By John J. McCloy 

JJ. S. High Commissioner for Germany ^ 



I am very happy to be back in this country for 
I short visit and to liave this opportunity to give 
70U a brief account of the situation in Germany 
IS I see it. 

When Germany is discussed, I think three major 
[uestions come to everyone's mind : 

1. Why is Germany important to the United 
states? 

2. Wliere does Germany stand in the great East- 
Vest struggle? 

3. What progress has been made toward achiev- 
ng a democratic state in Germany? 

i Germany is important to the United States for 
Inany reasons. Twice, within tlie lifetimes of 
Inany of us, Germany has compelled the United 
ptates to send troops to Europe to check her ag- 
l^ression. Now a strange twist of fate has placed 
iVestern Germany on the frontier of the free peo- 
!)les of the West. We have had to spend vast sums 
jnd gi'eat energies in the attempt to help this new 
jtate become a peaceful democratic country. 

The boundary line between freedom and sup- 
)ression runs through Germany from the North 
5ea to the Czechoslovakian border and along it 
Austria. Seventy miles from my office in Frank- 
ort, the Soviet Zone begins, and in that zone 
here are many fully-equipped and thoroughly 
rained Kussian divisions. I have another office 
b AVestern Berlin, which lies like a tiny island 
if freedom 100 miles inside the Soviet Zone. That 
dand is a frontier as well. It does not survive 
liere because of any indulgent attitude on the 
art of the Soviets. West Berlin survives because 
f the spirit of its people and because the Western 
'owers have made it clear that aggression there 

ould constitute aggression against the entire free 

orld. 

ttempts to Communize Germany 

Germany is one of the highest tension areas in 
le world. The Soviets are putting every possible 
BFort, short of outright military aggression, into 



' Address made over Mutual network at Washington 
1 June 26 and released to the press on the same date. 

ily 9, 1951 



a campaign to overwhelm the Germans and to 
make that country their greatest satellite. They 
know that if they could do this all Europe might 
be forced to succumb. Their menacing military 
forces in Eastern Germany, in the satellite coun- 
tries, and in Russia provide a base from which 
they launch an alternating campaign of fear and 
blandishment. This campaign is designed to 
break the will of the German people — and other 
free peoples — to resist and to live an independent 
life. In the Soviet Zone of Germany, every famil- 
iar technique of the police state is used to subju- 
gate the people — forced labor camps, secret police, 
rigged elections, political and economic pressure, 
and all other weapons of the totalitarian strategy 
of repression. 

A mighty Soviet propaganda machine is also at 
work which submits the Germans of both the East 
and West zones to an intense, incessant barrage of 
psychological warfare which you must experience 
to appreciate. No expense, no effort is spared to 
win the war of ideas. Every day powerful trans- 
mitters in the East Zone and in Russia pour out 
this material, some of it crude, some of it subtle. 
The Communists employ every distortion and take 
advantage of every element of weakness. Every 
person, group, institution, and organization is sub- 
jected to this flood in newspapers, films, posters, 
pamphlets, books, and letters. It is augmented 
and stimulated by infiltration of agents and ac- 
tivists. It adds up to an enormous expenditure of 
energy and wealth on the part of the Communist 
world. In recent months, it has been largely 
directed against the United States. 

This coming August in East Berlin a propa- 
ganda show, which may well be the greatest propa- 
ganda show of all times, will take place. Some 
1,750,000 young people will be regimented to 
marcn and demonstrate in favor of Soviet political 
aims. This march of the so-called Free German 
Youth, in reality Slave German Youth, will be a 
vast masquerade of these aims in the dross of such 
attractive slogans as Peace, Freedom, and Unity. 

What is tlie Communist goal in all this? The 
])rincijial objective of all tliese efforts is to destroy 
ifaith in the principles and power of tlie free 

63 



nations of the West. The Communists are trying 
to interfere with and destroy the unity of the free 
nations. They are trying to prevent German par- 
ticipation in the common defense of the West. 
They are trying to keep Europe weak. 

These efforts have to be constantly combatted 
on our side by a vigorous and sustained flow of 
truthful information, by demonstrating the 
strength and value of a free way of life, by evi- 
dence of our determination to defend that life if 
attacked. 

I think it requires no extensive argument to con- 
vince us all that the outcome of this struggle in 
the center of Europe is of the greatest importance 
to the Uuited States. 

Last June, when the Communists crossed the 
38th parallel in Korea, the analogy between Ger- 
many and Korea came to many an anxious mind. 
Both geographically and politically, that analogy 
in large part still holds. 

I stress this point because there has recently 
been so much discussion of whether the most im- 
portant front in the struggle against communism 
is in Europe or Asia. The answer is that both are 
important and vital. In Berlin and in West Ger- 
many, we meet in different form the same forces 
which we are meeting in Asia. In Berlin there is 
no shooting, but we are closer to the mainspring of 
the action which induces the shooting in Korea. 

Western Berlin and Western Germany are out- 
posts. Their fate is coupled with that of free 
people everywhere. We clo not jiropose to make 
them satellites or subject them to the doctrine of 
any single party or creed. We seek only to give 
them a free choice and a free life. We intend to 
respect their choice as long as it does not take the 
form of a new extreme leading to aggression. 

Germany's Alignment with the West 

This brings me to my second question : Wliere 
do the Germans stand in the struggle between East 
and West? 

This question has to be examined in several dif- 
ferent ways before one can get a full answer to it. 

In one sense, there is no doubt whatever of the 
answer. Germany feels itself a part of the West. 
And despite the great propaganda barrage, com- 
munism has steadily lost ground in Western Ger- 
many. In the elections during the past year in the 
U. S. Zone, the Communist P^irty lost all of its 
representatives in the state legislatures. 

Unlike the West Germans, the 18 million East 
Germans, living under Soviet-Communist domi- 
nation, have been unable to express themselves. 
There is no doubt that they too seek a free life, 
undominated by Communist influence. One day, 
the two zones must be united as a free state within 
a united Europe. 

The 47 million people of the Federal Republic 
have thus far withstood all Communist attempts 
to separate them from the West. The blandish- 
ments of the so-called peace plebiscites, staged by 



the Communists, have found no real response in 
Western Germany. The strategy of fear not only 
has failed to reduce the West Germans and the 
West Berliners to submission; it has evoked vig- 
orous counter-measures. 

All of the evidence indicates that the people of 
the Federal Republic identify themselves with the 
life of the West. Differences of opinion arise, 
however, on the question of active German par- 
ticipation in Western defense. Opposition to par- 
ticipation comes not only from Comnumists whose 
major aim is to weaken the West. Many Germans 
honestly oppose a contribution to defense because 
of their fear of anything suggesting the recrea- 
tion of a German army with its possible use as an 
aggressive instrument. Some oppose participa- 
tion because they see in it a threat to a unified 
Germany ; some, because they fear it might bring 
on a war in which their land might not be suffi- 
ciently protected by the Allied forces. Others 
simply hope for a neutral Germany which some- 
how will be able to avoid all the unpleasant con- 
sequences of taking a firm position. 

The debate has been going on since last Sep- 
tember when the Foreign Ministers in New York 
first raised the question of a German contribution 
to Western defense. Personally, I find the debate 
a healthy sign. Certainly, the German decision 
on a contribution to the defense of Europe will be 
a free one. If participation comes, as I think it 
will, it will come because the German people feel 
it is their responsibility to participate in the de- 
fense of their comitry as a member of the free 
community of nations. 

At the present time there is no clear decision. 
But the idea of neutralism seems to be less appeal- 
ing as it becomes apparent that such a policy would 
play so patently into the hands of the Commu- 
nists. The growing strength of the Western 
powers and their increased forces in Germany will 
bring greater confidence that defense of Europe 
and Germany is a tenable proposition. It is be- 
coming clearer that Germany will be accepted by 
the Allies as an equal partner in the Western 
community. Another factor is the growing aware- 
ness among the German people that it would be 
anomalous if the Germans themselves did not take 
a place at the side of non-Germans in the defense 
of Germany. 

Educating Germany for Democracy 

This brings me to my third aiid, in some ways, 
the most important question : How democratic is 
Germany today? Can the Germans be trusted 
with any arms at all ? 

There must be many people in this country who 
wonder whether this talk of a German military 
contribution, however safeguarded, is not dan- 
gerous and perhaps foolish. Does it mean, you 
may ask, that we have forgotten what Germany's 
militarism meant in the past? Are we not risking 
the same fearful consequences again? Six short 



64 



Department of State Bullellni 



years ago, the German armies were defeated in 
the most destructive war in history. Have we 
forgotten how we vowed that never again would 
we allow Germany to become a military power? Is 
not our present policy a reversal of this resolve; 
is it not a short-sighted policy of expediency ? 

These are all serious questions, and honesty de- 
mands that they be thoroughly explored. The 
answers will be more easily understood, however, 
if we can first be quite clear about exactly what 
policy we are now following toward Germany. 

In the first place, it is not a policy which advo- 
! cates or condones a revival of German militarism. 
The United States and its Allies are as determined 
as ever that there will be no German General Staff 
in the old Prussian sense, no military caste with 
the political and social power it once exercised, and 
! no German national army, which would be capable 
of becoming the source or the instrument of a 
future aggression. It is the fundamental principle 
of all proposals made to date that whatever Ger- 
man contribution to defense is made may only 
take the form of a force which is an integral part 
I of a larger international organization. These con- 
■ ditions of a German contrioution are of vital im- 
portance. If the German peojole decide to 
! contribute to Western defense, it will be on these 
terms, and every precaution will be taken to see 
that they are enforced. I am glad to say that we 
have evidence that the Germans themselves want 
;it this way. 

In the second place, our policy on participation 
does not mean that the United States and its 
Allies are making or will make any concessions 
toward nazism or neo-nazism. There must be 
guarantees for the future that such groups would 
not be permitted to guide or control any German 
contribution. 

As for expediency, the concept of German de- 
fenseparticipation is no more expedient than any 
other action which is needed to cope realistically 
with the present world situation. 

And now I come to the fundamental question — 
how democratic is Western Germany? 

As you know, the United States, Great Britain, 
and France, who occupy West Germany and West 
iBerlin, have given major attention to the problem 
jof bringing about a democratic government and 
social order in Germany. Six years is not a long 
itime to achieve such an end. A democracy is not 
produced by fiat; one cannot legislate it into 
Ibeing. It must come as a result of education, and 
in the last analysis it must be self-education. 

It must be borne in mind that Germany's social 
structure was a predominantly authoritarian one 
and that nazism was not some freakish phenome- 
non that appeared over night. It was a direct 
product of an authoritarian society in a great social 
crisis. In such a society, a totalitarian solution 
finds ready followers. 

It would be false to deny that a great deal of 
this authoritarian cultural pattern is still in exist- 

luly 9, 7951 



ence in Germany. It is there — it still exists in the 
whole sphere of human relations. 

In six years, even in this time of revolutionary 
transition, Germany could not be expected to have 
transformed itself into a democracy in the sense 
that we in America understand it — as a habitual 
social practice. But at the same time, one can 
truthfully say that the new Germany is moving 
to become a democracy. Starts have been made, 
and we have been devoting large efforts to further 
this development on every level of German 
society — in the schools and universities, in labor, 
church, and civic organizations, in radio and press, 
in the political and governmental structure. 

The form of a German democracy will never be 
entirely like ours, but its constitution and its gov- 
ernment are democratic and its chief political lead- 
ers are pro-democratic. The country has a free 
press. Freedom of speech and the rights of the 
individual are respected. All over Germany there 
are small gi-oups of people who really understand 
the principles of representative governmnent and 
the Bill of Rights. They are sincerely and effec- 
tually working for it. 

Economically, Western Germany has made a 
large recovery which helps not only the Germans, 
but also other peoples of the free world. Its level 
of production is now one third greater than before 
the war. The old cartels which once turned a large 
part of Germany's economy over to Hitler have 
been or are being broken up into smaller compet- 
ing units. If the German people recognize their 
own best interests, they will see to it in future 
that these concentrations do not reemerge. Al- 
though its economic and financial structure is still 
shaky. West Germany is now able to maintain a 
decent standard of living for the majority of its 
population. Compared with conditions in the 
Soviet Zone, the Federal Republic's economy is 
prosperous indeed. 

The Government of Western Germany has dis- 
played a salutary willingness to join various plans 
for international cooperation such as the Organi- 
zation for Eui-opean Economic Cooperation and 
the Council of Europe. Most significant, both 
politically and economically, has been the sign- 
ing of the Schuman Plan in which France, Ger- 
many, and the Benelux nations have agreed to 
share their coal and iron and steel resources for 
the common good. If France and Germany, tradi- 
tional enemies in Europe's wars, endorse this type 
of cooperation and carry it out, the cornerstone of 
European unity will be securely laid. The Schu- 
man Plan is a great, constructive step toward 
European peace and union. No issue mtist be 
allowed to get in its way. 

Of course, Germany faces many problems, which 
if not solved could produce dangerous opportuni- 
ties for radical groups of the Right and the Left. 
There is a shortage of capital for improving the 
industrial plant. High prices and taxes engender 
discontent among the working gi'oups. There are 

65 



still a great number of refugees, among the nine 
million who have streamed into West Germany 
since the war, who must be fully assimilated into 
the economy. 

In Germany, as in other countries, there are 
venal people. Some make money by selling strate- 
gic materials to the East Zone and other Com- 
munist-dominated areas. The long eastern border 
and the difficulty of adequate inspection controls 
have made it easier for them to carry on their 
harmful trade. I have requested the government 
of the Federal Republic to take action against 
these practices, and I am convinced that it is seri- 
ous about checking this trade. The Federal Chan- 
cellor has instituted a centralized licensing system 
to control closely all trade with the East. We 
have sent American inspection teams to augn^ent 
the work of German police along the border. 
These measures and others with German and Al- 
lied cooperation have greatly reduced and should 
continue to reduce the flow of strategic materials 
to Communist areas. 

Political Concepts Gradually Changing 

On the political front, we are watching closely 
the outcroppings of small fanatic parties, who 
seek to appeal to malcontent groups. 

In the state elections in Lower Saxony, in the 
British Zone on May 6, the Socialist Reichs Party 
(Srp), largely un-der leadership of former Nazis, 
won 11 percent of the popular vote and Ifi seats 
in the legislature. This has been widely publicized 
as a revival of nazism, and it is indisputably an 
outcropping of the old Nazi spirit. 

This event occurred in a state which was once 
a stronghold of nazism, where imemployment is 
exceptionally high, and where one-fourth of the 
population consists of refugees. Yet in that state, 
85 percent of the voters gave their support to par- 
ties which upheld the democratic idea. In my 
judgment, a group similar to the Srp could not 
marshal as much support in any of the other Ger- 
man states in the West Zone. 

Nevertheless, the potential threat of the Social- 
ist Reichs Party to German democracy must not 
be minimized. 

The Federal and state governments are alert to 
the danger, and possess the power to suppress ex- 
tremist political groups. Such action has already 
been taken against the Skp's strong-arm squads. 
Further action against the party itself may be 
taken when in the next few weeks the Constitu- 
tional Court, which alone can outlaw it, is es- 
tablished. 

A situation such as this gives the Germans a 
chance to show the strength of the Federal Re- 
public. The world will watch closely how the 
German authorities and people meet this test. I 
believe they will meet it successfully. They must, 
if the peoples of the world are not again to turn 
against Germany. 

Let me now try to summarize my answer on the 



question of democracy in Germany. I think there 
is a residue of authoritarian attitudes in German 
society, there is some aggressive nationalism, there 
is a feeling among certain groups of superioiity 
over other peoples. There is a reluctance among 
some to face the full significance of the terrible 
crimes of the Hitler years. 

And yet in West Germany and in West Berlin, 
particularly among the youth of the counti-y, 
there is a growing luiderstanding of and apprecia- 
tion for concepts of freedom and democracy ; there 
is a strong desire to become a part of a wider com- 
munity and to cooperate with the Western World. 
In the press and radio, in schools, in adult edu- 
cation groups, in civic organizations, in some of 
the political parties, and in parliaments, coui'a- 
geous men and women are emerging. They are 
trying to show the way to a democratic life. It 
is our i^olicy to help them. 

Not long ago, I had an ojiportunity to speak 
before the students of the University of Frank- 
fort. I was interested to know what the reaction 
would be when I made the following statement: 
"The time has come in Germany to stop debating 
the question whether or not democracy is the right 
form of government for the Germans. It is the 
only form in which men can live in freedom and 
decency." There was long and deep-felt applause. 
Tlie response of the students reflects a belief that 
is growing among the German people. 

Ten years from now we shall have a more defi- 
nite answer to the question of democracy in Ger- 
many. But, as I have said, I have confidence 
today that progress is being made. I am convinced 
that our programs to aid clemocratic developments 
in Germany are vital. Above all, I am convinced 
that German integration with Western Europe 
and with the Atlantic Community is the best way 
to ensure that Germany will be democratic. 

I want to emphasize this thought. Local solu- 
tions are no longer solutions anywhere in the 
world. There is no real solution of the German 
problem inside Germany alone. There is a solu- 
tion inside the European-Atlantic-World Commu- 
nity. Inside this wider community, there is room 
for the imagination and energies of all young 
Europeans, including the Germans, to flourish. 
In it some of the perennial minor disputes, onto 
which demagogues and nationalists like to fasten, 
would disappear. 

Our Basic Policy 

The basic aim of our policy in Germany has 
been and will remain the development of the Ger 
man Federal Republic into a cooperative member 
of the Western Community of free nations. In six 
years, as I have said, a significant start has been 
made. I believe that these beginnings are sound 
enough to warrant confidence in Western Germany 
as a partner in the defense of the West. 

In tlie attempt to carry out this policy, the For- 
eign jSIinisters met in Brussels last December. 



66 



Department of State Bulletin^ 



They decided that a logical counterpart to Ger- 
many's participation to Western defense would 
36 the return to Germany of a large measure of 
sovereignty. We are at present engaged in studies 
iirected toward the replacement of the present Oc- 
;upation Statute by a series of contracts with the 
[Federal Republic. These contracts will provide 
for the pi'otection of the interests and functions 
)f the Allies which are vital to their security and 
lefense. 

There are, of course, risks in our decisions on 
jrermany, but it is wise and necessary that we 
ake these risks. In the W^estern World, nations 
nust be free. The paramount necessity today is 
jhe alignment of the free nations into a deter- 
nined union in defense of a civilized social order 
vhich permits individual freedoms. 
: The nuxgnitude of the stakes warrants the ut- 
nost in effort and sacrifice from the democratic 
lations of the world. In this task, the United 
States has a tremendous responsibility of leader- 
hip. The biggest contribution we can now make 
s to give clear evidence to the world that we are 
apable of carrying out this responsibility. 

A few weeks ago, a prominent German said to 
;ne: "We Europeans like your great debates, but 
t's a little too much to have one every six weeks.'' 
lis thought is prevalent in the minds of many 
Europeans. It is of the greatest urgency today 
hat the people of the United States, who are mak- 
ng such large sacrifices for freedom, recognize the 
mportance of a united and firm policy, and sup- 
)ort it. The strength of such a policy will then 
low out to the rest of the democratic world. 

From my experience in Europe, I am convinced 
hat nothing would do more to strengthen the 
lemocratic forces in Europe, particularly in the 
oung republic of German3\ than such a mani- 
lestation from this country. I am convinced that 
it would invigorate the forces of freedom every- 
where, even those behind the Iron Curtain. It 
could help assure that peace and freedom will 
jirevail. 

'oint Four Agreement Signed 
Vith Mexico 

Released to the press June 27] 

Through an exchange of notes, effected June 27, 
lexico and the Government of the United States, 
lirough its Embassy in Mexico City, have agreed 
pon the terms of al'oint P^our general agi-eement 
.hich will in the future govern technical co- 
peration between the two Governments. 

The agreement, as its name indicates, sets forth 
lie general rules whicli will govern collaboration 
etween the two countries in the field of technical 
ssistance and which, witiiout refei-ring specifi- 
ivlly to any predetermined i)roject, will allow the 
xpaiision of that cooperation in such activities 
nd under such conditions as the two Governments 

i*/y 9, 195? 



may find to be to their mutual advantage. In 
short, it establishes principles which should be 
applied in each and every one of the concrete 
pi-ojects for technical assistance. 

Since the agreement is of a general nature, when 
the two Governments decide to carry out any spe- 
cific project of technical cooperation, they will 
draw up a supplemental agreement to the one tluit 
has just been signed. 

The United States and Mexico are already en- 
gaged in six technical-cooperation projects under 
the Point Four Program. These include the fields 
of mining, fisheries, health and sanitation, geo- 
logical investigations, and rubber development, as 
well as a number of student exchanges in a varietv 
of fields. ^ 

One of the first of these projects got under way 
in 1942 when the Institute of Inter-American 
Affair.s cooperated with the Mexican Government 
in setting up a joint health and sanitation "serv- 
icio." Uuring the past 9 years, the "servicio," 
composed of United States and ^lexican techni- 
cians, has developed a comprehensive public health 
and water supply program. Forty-five public 
water supplies and 22 sewer systems have been 
built, and 8 other water systems have received 
clilorination equipment. Five health centers have 
been established. Other activities include ma- 
laria and tuberculosis control, creation of mater- 
nal and child hygiene clinics, and the trainino- 
of doctors in tropical medicine and public healtli^ 
The "servicio'' employs a staff of 7 Americans and 
478 Mexicans. The Chief of the Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs Field Party is Dr. Alonzo 
Hardison, of Franklin, Tennessee. Dr. Hardison 
received degrees from the University of Tennessee 
and Johns Hopkins. 

]\Iexico is one of 10 Latin-American countries 
participating in a rubber development program. 
The project began in 1940 when war threatened 
United States sources of natural rubber in tlie Fiu- 
East. Seventeen agricultural technicians are 
providing guidance in the cooperating countries. 
Three are currently working in Mexico. 

Nine Department of Interior specialists in the 
fields of geology, mining, and fishery are cooperat- 
ing with iNIexican experts. Mineral resource find- 
ings and the solution of some of the mining, mill- 
ing, and metallurgical problems, under the ex- 
panding Point Four Program, will be of economic 
and strategic importance to both countries. The 
technicians are cooperating in investigation of 
metallic and non-metallic resources aiul coal de- 
posits while a representative of the Fish and Wild- 
life Service assists in the development of marine 
and inland fishery resources. 

Many Mexican technicians have received ad- 
vanced training in the United States. Forty-four 
of them recently completed studies in various sec- 
tions of the Departments of xVgriculture, Com- 
merce, Interior, Labor, and Federal Security 
Agency. 



67 



Address by President Plaza of Ecuador to the Congress of the United States 



The following is the text of an address made on June 21 
hy Galo Plaza, President of Ecuador, to the Congress of 
the United States.^ 

It is with deep appreciation that I have accepted the 
honor of speaking before the Congress of tlie United 
States of America in my capacity as President of a na- 
tion which, although small in size, can bring before you 
a record of moral achievement in having established, 
after years of political upheaval and despite heavy odds, 
a stable and truly democratic Government. 

The privilege which you have graciously afforded me 
on this occasion is definite proof that your great country, 
which was built upon faith in people and their ability to 
govern themselves, is happy to give recognition to people 
elsewhere who cherish the same faith and the same hopes, 
and that your high and noble aims will always be to 
strengthen human freedom and the inherent dignity of 
man throughout the world. 

If we look hack into history, we find that the Declara- 
tion of Independence of your Republic, the basic document 
of your public life, was a major inspiration for our own 
heroes who fought for the political indejjendence of Ecua- 
dor. Thanks in large measures to your splendid example, 
we are today a free and democratic nation. 

More than a century has gone by since those heroic 
days and as the nations of the world again face critical 
times, we, the young republics in Latin America, once 
more find compelling reasons to look to you for leadership. 
Now that destiny has thrust the responsibility for the 
future of mankind upon your mighty and prosperous land, 
your aims and aspirations differ dramatically from those 
of all the other powerful nations which throughout history 
have dominated the world at one time or another. You 
are not interested in conquering land and subjugating 
peoples, you are not interested in imposing your rule 
anywhere ; your purpose is far more noble and of far 
greater spiritual value. You want for the rest of the 
world what is already a reality in your own country. 
Tour people enjoy an economic structure which calls for 
continuous improvement and reform toward better living 
standards, improved labor conditions, participation in the 
benefits accruing from increased wealth without loss of 
personal freedom and the right to free speech, to work, 
to strike. These are your intentions and your plans for 
all mankind and we are with you in this fight against 
servitude, poverty, and injustice. 

This is why the free nations of the world must close 
ranks and fight for the principles that inspire your way 
of life. We have before us a powerful enemy of freedom, 
bent on bringing about confusion and disunion. They, 
the agents of a tyrannic imperialism, are creating a dan- 
gerously fanatic creed based on fal.se promises and to- 
talitarian solutions. In order to counteract this fanati- 
cism we must give democrac.v the passionate strength and 
spiritual in.spiration it had in the past. 

I hold to a deep-rooted faith that communi.sm has no 
chance to impose its doctrines upon the world, for that 
would mean the victory of two elements hostile to the 
best in human nature : brute force and dishonest propa- 



Rcleased to the press by the White Bouse June 25 

The President of Ecuador and the President of 
the United States are associated in their approval 
of the following statements : 

The President of the Republic of Ecuador and the 
President of the United States of America have met 
in Washington, D.C. and have reaffirmed their de- 
termination to continue their support of the efforts 
of the United Nations to reestablish peace in the 
world. They will remain steadfastly united in the 
present emergency. The two nations solemnly de- 
clare their attachment to the principles set forth in 
the Charters of the United Nations and of the Or- 
ganization of American States and in other inter- 
national agreements to maintain peace and security. 
They intend to defend themselves against aggres- 
sion, to settle their disputes by peaceful means, 
improve the living standards of their peoples, pro- 
mote their cultural and economic progress, and en- 
sure respect for the fundamental freedoms of man 
and the principles of social justice that are the 
bases of their democratic systems. 

President Plaza expressed the desire of his Gov- 
ernment to cooperate closely with the United States 
and other free nations in the adoption of measures 
for increasing the production and processing of 
basic and strategic materials for the defense emer- 
gency. At the same time, he also emphasized the 
need to strengthen the economy of his country, and 
the two Presidents discussed ways in which the 
United States might be of assistance. 

In recognition of the importance of Ecuadoran 
plans for fuller economic development, it has been 
agreed to make joint studies of the economic poten- 
tialities of Ecuador and the most effective means 
for furthering the fuller use of Ecuadoran resources 
to accelerate its economic and social progress. 

President Plaza expressed his recognition of the 
value of the Point Four technical cooperation now 
in progress in the fields of agriculture, health, sani- 
tation, education, transportation, and related fields 
and his gratification that the United States is pre- 
pared sympathetically to consider further requests 
for technical assistance from the Government of 
Ecuador. 

In the cultural field, it has al.so been agreed to 
enter upon the negotiation at an early date of a 
cultural convention between Ecuador and the 
United States to improve and broaden the cultural 
relations between the two countries. Such a con- 
vention would encourage and further stimulate the 
present cultural exchange between Ecuador and 
the United States. 



' Cong. Ree. of June 21, 1951, p. 7060. 



68 



ganda. While aggressive force pretends to do away wii 
clignity, false propaganda annuls intelligence. If dignill 
and intelligence are taken from man, it will mean h 
ultimate destruction. | 

These are the dangers we face today, which place 

Department of State Bullet 



I 

l:remendous responsibility upon this parliament, wliose 
tmpact on tlie course of history is recognized throughout 
:he world. 

The nations of the Americas do not believe in peace im- 
Dosed by tyranny. Our wars of independence in the nine- 
eenth century were inspired in our will for liberty. Now, 
ind always, we will be ready to defend freedom to the 
imit of our possibilities. We can accept the use of force 
i)nly as a last resort in defense of peace, never for domi- 
jation or for new aggressions. 

, I am speaking to you, gentlemen, in the name of a 
■3outh American Republic that has learned to cherish 
iberty and hence, to realize the dangers of losing it. 
Therefore we realize that we must all be ready and alert 
o defend it with conviction, through the printed word, in 
he classroom, in the workshop, and the public siiuare ; 
ind, if need be, if all else fails, if truth and reason cannot 
It last prevail, then on the field of battle. 
1 We should strive to tell the world that the strength of 
|iemocracy resides in freedom of discussion and conviction 
hrough reason, while the totalitarian system dei)ends 
lolely upon force and propaganda. This was the case 
vith fascism and it failed, this was the case with nazism 
ind that failed ; for the same reasons, any other totali- 
arian .system is doomed to inevitable failure. Any doc- 
rine which denies individual liberty and the right to free 
liscussion is reactionary, no matter what it calls itself. 
.Vhat projwganda tries to hide with purges and a govern- 
nent-controlled press is simply fear of the truth. It has 
)een said that one of the weaknesses of democracy is 
Excessive freedom of discussion. I believe that precisely 
here resides the greatness and the strength of democracy. 
lou here, gentlemen in this Congress, have given the world 
iniiif of the vitality of your way of life and your civic 
nstitutions, hy discussing freely and openly before the 
vhole world problems of history-making scope. This is 
That we also do today in my country, in parliament, in 
he press and public assemblies, without restrictions of 
iny kind, because our strength grows out of the fact that 
ve do not fear discussion nor the truth. Our governments 
lo not seek power through the imposition of a police 
tate, but by stimulating a vigorous public opinion. 

In Kcuador, I may say with pride, that anyone is free 

express his opinion and to criticize the Government. We 
Djoy unrestricted liberty of the press. 

This that would frighten a dictator, I consider our para- 
laount accomplishment, because constructive criticism is 
iin es.sential aid to good government. A real democracy 
« inconceivable without the right to freedom of expression. 
iVhoever reasons that the democratic formula of govern- 
aent. to be successful, can be applied only in a powerful 
nd highly developed nation, like your own, and that in 
■ ertain countries or regions of the world dictatorshiijs 
nd colonial regimes are more in accordance with the 
'sychology and temperament of the people, is unwittingly 
ir deliberately misleading world opinion. 

In our fight against aggression there is no sense in a 
losition of neutrality or indecision. The defense of de- 
luocracy is a defense of our own way of life, of our very 
life itself. This is why the resolute decision of the United 
{{aliens to finht aggression wherever it might appear, has 
he approval of the free world. This is why at the fourth 
aeeting of consultation of Foreign Jlinisters, the Ameri- 
an nations have sliown their firmness against aggression 
n any form. We realize that we must stand together 
nd strengthen ourselves, both physically and spiritually, 
t we are to keep the specter of a new war from casting 
.s dread shadow over all our homes. This is the only 
•'ay to teach the forces of confusion and chaos to respect 
jbe will of the democratic world. Only then will we live 
lo see, in the near future, an honorable peace which is 
fter all our ultimate and common goal. 

This is our tliinking in I,atin America, this is how we 
50k upon the crisis of today, how we evaluate democracy 
nd understand our resixjnsibilities; but, on the other 

and, we need also to l)e understood through knowledge 
f our realities and problems. 

1 Only the towering height of our mountains, the length 



of our great rivers and the vastness of our forests are 
comparable in magnitude to the problems we face. But 
these mountains and this virgin soil are not merely re- 
serves for the future progress of mankind, but a perma- 
nent challenge to the ability of the peoples of the Ameri- 
cas to advance their common interests through their own 
labors. 

The people of Ecuador have made it possible for me to 
sliow proof that democratic institutions are successful in 
a country weighed down with all kinds of limitations. 
Our very existence is a valiant struggle against poverty, 
ignorance and ill health. On the positive side of the 
ledger we can show progressive legislation which seeks 
to correct, gradually, social and economic patterns estab- 
lished over centuries. We are beginning to take good 
advantage of technical aid and above all, we live in a 
clime of liberty and respect for human dignity. 

The battle for freedom and the rejection of poverty and 
injustice should not have any geographical limitations. 
It should be carried out everywhere and in the case of 
Latin America it is wise to recall how near we are to 
you. We practically live in a wing of the same building; 
but if we overemphasize the good will and intentions and 
the patience of the peoples below the Rio Grande, we 
might be giving too much of a headway to the forces that, 
moving in the dark, with the weap<ms of falsehood and 
deception, intend to undermine our spiritual foundations. 
To meet this threat, we must give our masses the oppor- 
tunity to work and to seek their betterment, and we 
must do it now. 

Our vast majorities need urgent solutions of their prob- 
lems, solutions suited to our own realities, American solu- 
tions for American problems. These cannot be met by 
solutions designed for Europe or Asia ; but we should 
strive earnestly and jiromptly to remedy the dangerous 
disproportion that now exists between progressive econo- 
mies and the economies of underdeveloped areas. 

The time has come for you North Americans and us of 
Central and South America, for all of us throughout this 
new world discovered by Columbus, to strengthen our 
ties, face the responsibility to cooperate in the solution of 
our own mutual problems, the most important of which 
is the defense of our democratic institutions, by adopting 
a firm attitude against aggression. In my country as in 
all the others of Latin America, a sound policy of invest- 
ment for constructive progress designed to secure mutual 
benefits would be the most effective way to fight the infil- 
tration of subversive doctrines. When the peoples of 
Latin America realize that they can improve their living 
standards through their own efforts, thanks to proper 
guidance and assistance, their faith in our common demo- 
cratic destiny will unquestionably be strengthened. 

New industries and modern methods for production, 
based on our immense natural resources and developed 
with the aid of your technical know-how, will carry civili- 
zation to the most remote corners of our hemisphere so 
that the men of all the Americas may attain their rightful 
heritage. 

We all should gain from such a process which does not 
call for embarrassing and unnecessary handouts. Your 
industrial production would find lietter markets in coun- 
tries with a higher economic development than in those 
hardly .•ililt> to meet their exchange obligations thi'ough 
tli(> production of raw materials alone. Therefore the far- 
sighted concept of assistance to underdeveloped regions 
of the world set forth in President Truman's Point I'our 
Program, blueprinted by the riray report and the report 
to President Truman from the International Development 
Advisory lioard headed by that great citizen of the 
Americas. Nelson Kockefeller. if put into effect, would 
mean for the United States a great historic decision in 
keeping with its stature and its noble ("liristiau traditions. 
A program of this nature would cdnstitute a vital factor 
in elinnnating all possibility of communistic inliltration 
in the world in which we live. It would mean answering 
false promises with tangible aci'onii)lishments, lies witli 
tlie truth, a philosophy of imposition with one of freedom : 
freedom of thought and action, freedom to achieve that 



u/y 9, 1951 



69 



spiritual and material well-being which truly dignifies 
human living. 

Because a bold policy of credit and technical assistance 
for economic development would defeat poverty, which is a 
breeding ground for communism, such a policy is urgently 
needed. 

The vision of the statesmen and parliamentarians of 
today will profoundly alter the course of history. In your 
hands, gentlemen, is the shaping of events to come, and 
the fate of hundreds of millions of people whose future 
will be determined by the way your great Nation plays 
the role in which destiny has cast it. The men fi.2hting 
today in Korea are doing so in the name of the free world ; 
the hopes of all of us are with them. That free world 
wants an honorable peace, a peace that will permit us 
to live with honor, with tolerance for all ideas, religious 
beliefs, and political systems; not a peace without liberty 
in a world of fear. This is why we cannot trust in any 
solution that would not dispel the element of fear. 

The weak points in our democratic front, which are 
constantly exi)loited by the enemies of freedom, have to 
do precisely with low standards of living in the under- 
developed regions of the world. 

The countries of Latin America are far from prosperous. 
They demand a place under the sun which they justly 
deserve, and when their inhabitants can enjoy the benefits 
of constructive economic activity, they will certainly be 
more ready to defend what they have got. Freedom and 
political ideas mean little when you are walking around 
on bare feet with an empt.v stomach. If we can luiite 
our efforts and solve our nuitual problems for the benefit 
of all. there will never be a power strong enough to destroy 
Western civilization in our hemisphere. 

We have always considered the United States of America 
as tlie arsenal of democracy, not only the arsenal of battle 
during the tragic hours of war, but also the arsenal of 
ideas ami ideals which have insiiired our political consti- 
tutions, and, equally important, the arsenal of progress, 
of prosperity, of means for production, and of technical 
knowledge. If you can apply all this in global proportions 
you will lie fulfillinc: the sublime destiny which historical 
imperatives have created for you in this day and age: 
the salvation of mankind from fear and insecurity, the 
final proscrijition of war and a firm hope of lasting peace 
for all the world. 



RFC Studies Development 

of Hemp Production in Ecuador 

[Released to the press June 25] 

To meet the defense needs of the United States 
for abaca or Manila hemp, the Reconstruction Fi- 
nance Corporation (Rfc) has been investiijatinfr 
the possibility of establishing an abaca plantation 
in Ecuador. Under authority of the Abaca Pro- 
duction Act of 19.50 (Public Law 683) the Ere 
is authorized to develop abaca production in the 
Western Hemisphere, so that a supply of this 
stratpcic material will be available for stockpiling 
purposes to meet emergency requirements. 

A preliminary survey, which has been made by 
soil specialists of the United States Department 
of Agriculture under direction of Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation, indicates that conditions are 
suitable in Ecuador for the production of abaca on 
a plantation basis. The Efc is currently conduct- 
ing more detailed investigations of soils in 
Ecuador and, if the results are favorable, and 
ti-ansportation is available, the Rrc may estab- 

70 



lish, in agreement with the Government of Ecua-j 
dor, an abaca plantation. This plantation would ' 
comprise 7,000 to 8,000 acres and require an in- 
vestment of approximately 7 million dollars. It, 
is contemplated that the plantation would provide! 
employment for approximately 1,000 persons. \ 

Most of the abaca (or Manila) fiber used in thei 
United States is made into rope and cables forj 
ships, for which use it is particularly adapted, 
having the necessary high tensile strength, dura- 
bility, lightness, and resistance to salt water. 
Abaca rope absorbs water slowly and dries 
quickly, thus preventing, to a large extent, the 
rotting which ordinarily is so destructive to other 
types of rope in marine use. 

The Government of Ecuador has indicated to 
the Government of the United States its willing- 
ness to cooperate with this Government in increas- 
ing the production of this strategic fiber. 



Ecuador Granted Permit 
For Airline Route 

[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State announced today that 
during his recent visit to Washington, His Excel 
lency Galo Plaza, President of Ecuador, wai 
handed a copy of the foreign air carrier permit 
which the United States, through the Civil Aero 
nautics Board, issued June 22 to the Ecuadorai 
airline Aerovias Ecuatorianas, C. A. (Area) fo 
a route from tlie Republic of Ecuador via inter 
mediate points to Miami, Fla. This permit 
wliich was approved by the President of the Unitec 
States, was granted to cover services over thi 
route provided for in the United States-Ecuado: 
Bilateral Air Transport Agreement. 

The issuance of this permit in accordance wit! 
the terms of the existing agreement is furthej 
evidence of the desire of the United States to fosi 
ter the development of civil aviation in Latiil 
America in accordance with the Bermuda prin 
ciples of air transportation. 

This is the first Ecuadoran airline to be grantei 
a permit for scheduled air services between the tw 
countries and serves to emphasize the close coop 
eration whicli exists between them. 



Export- Import Bank Announces 
Credits for Ecuador 

[Released to the press 6i/ the Export-Import Bank June ', 

The Export-Import Bank announced June 2 
that the Board of Directors had authorized a cred 
of $500,000 in favor of the Republic of Ecuadc 



Department of State Bullett 



land that other credits for Ecuador are presently 
under active study in the Bank. 

The credit announced June 22 will assist in fi- 
nancing the costs of rehabilitation and improve- 
ment of the waterworks system of the city of 
Ambato in the province of Tungurahua, which 
I was damaged by the earthquake of August 1949. 
Ambato is the fifth largest city in Ecuador. It 
has many industries which are important to the 
Ecuadoran economy and is located in an agricul- 
tural section which supplies much of the needs of 
the thickly populated Ecuadoran sierra. Similar 
projects for several other municipalities in the 
area affected by that earthquake will be considered 
by the Bank as rapidly as the engineering studies, 
inow under way, are completed. 
i The waterworks credit for the Ambato project 
land the others like it which the Bank may ap- 
prove will be allocations of the commitment au- 
thorized by the Bank in December 1949 following 
the Ecuadoran earthquake. 

The Bank is also making urgent study of an ap- 
plication for a loan of 1 million dollars to assist 
Ecuador in financing the improvement and expan- 
sion of its airport facilities at the capital city of 
Quito and the principal seaport, Guayaquil. Im- 
provement and expansion of the Quito facilities 
are intended to make it possible for the big four- 
motored planes now used in international air traf- 
fic to land there and to provide improved terminal 
facilities. The application for the Guayaquil air- 
jport, an important stopping point in international 
lair traffic, is for extending and hard-surfacing 
[runways and expanding terminal facilities. 
i Among additional projects that have been pre- 
jsented for tlie consideration of the Bank are : build- 
ing material and construction machinery for the 
[earthquake zone, a hydroelectric plant at Rio 
Verde to supply power to the Ambato area, a sys- 
Item of grain storage and cleaning facilities which 
will be considered by the Bank as rapidly as the 
engineering .studies, now underway, can be com- 
pleted. 



Homage Paid to Pilot 
Killed in Iran 

[Released to the press June 27] 

Dr. Henry G. Bennett, administrator of the 
Technical Cooperation Administration, expressed 
deep regret over the death of pilot Roger Zents 
of Janesvilje, Wis., an employee of United States 
Overseas Airlines under contract to Point Four 
for locust-extermination work in Iran. 

2fents crashed on June 25 while spraying a field 
from his small airplane, one of eight, equipped 
with spraying apparatus, which were fiown to 

luly 9, 7 95 J 



Iran from the United States early in April at the 
urgent request of the Iranian Government. 

'"This bi-ave and devoted pilot died in the serv- 
ice of his country and of humanity," said Dr. Ben- 
nett. "He was an effective soldier of peace." 



Anniversaries of U.S. and Canadian 
Independence Observed 

Statem-ent hy Secretary Acheson ^ 

This month both Canada and the United States 
mark the anniversaries of our independence. 

We are not many generations removed from the 
founders of our countries. We are young nations. 

The ideals which inspired the founding of our 
countries upon the continent of North America 
are also young and vigorous. They are still gi'ow- 
ing and exciting among men devotion, dedication, 
sacrifice. 

The ideal of freedom, a fundamental tradition 
in our two countries, sometimes taken for granted 
among us, is desperately sought after by millions 
of our contemporaries. 

The ideal of simple human dignity — embodied 
in the declaration of those unalienable rights to 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, is still 
today a revolutionary conception in a world over- 
shadowed by a rebii'th of tyranny. 

The idea of self-government, proclaimed by our 
founders and maintained by succeeding genera- 
tions, is tested anew by the challenge of each age. 

The test which has fallen to us is to show that 
our countries under self-government can muster 
the material and spiritual strength to meet a chal- 
lenge of unprecedented complexity and virulence. 
We are called upon to demonstrate that the insti- 
tutions of self-government, which we have 
inherited, are capable of the decision and of the 
action now necessary to their survival. 

Even more difficult, we are called upon to 
achieve that strength and that capacity for deci- 
sion and action by means ^vhich do not themselves 
destroy our own values in the process. 

Our people are required to smnmon u]) their 
greatest resources of wisdom, of understanding, of 
maturity, and of restraint to sustain in these trials 
the confitlence of our founders in the institutions 
of freedom and self-government. 

I am confident that we shall do this and that 
the free peoples of North America, allied with free 
men everywhere, will prove that the cause of free- 
dom has not lost the powei- to awaken in men the 
utmost dedication and devotion. 

I am confident that the cause of freedom shall 
survive triumphant. 

'Made over National BroMdcastiiig Comimny and 
Canadian Broadcasting Corponitiim on J\ily 1 and re- 
leased to the press on the same date. 

71 



President Receives Letter 
From Iranian Prime Minister 

[Released to the jn-ess by the White House June 28] 

Following is the text of a letter to the President 
from His Excellency, Mohammed Mosadeq, Prime 
Minister of Iran: 

Dear Mr. President : The special interest you 
have shown on various occasions in the welfare 
of our country in general, and in the recent oil 
question in particular, and the personal message 
you were kind enough to send me on 3 June 1951, 
prompt me to inform you that the Imperial 
Iranian Government has been duty-bound to put 
into force the law enacted by the two Houses of 
Parliament concerning the nationalization of the 
oil industry all over Iran and the modus operandi 
of that law in the quickest possible time. 

Notwithstanding the urgency of the matter, the 
measures for the enforcement of the law were 
taken in a very gradual manner and with extreme 
care and caution, both in order to ensure the suc- 
cess of the preliminary steps, and also in order to 
bring about an understanding between the Gov- 
ernment of Iran and the former oil company, and 
to give ample time to the latter for negotiations 
between their representatives and this Govern- 
ment. 

The Imperial Iranian Government was ready in 
all sincerity to make the best possible use of this 
opportunity and it paid great attention to this 
matter especially in view of your kind message 
and the friendly mediations of the United States 
Ambassador in Tehran, and agreed with the re- 
quest of the former oil company for the extension 
of the time limit originally fixed for these nego- 
tiations. Thus no measures were taken during 45 
days after the enactment of the law. 

The Imperial Iranian Government had repeat- 
edly announced its readiness to enter into nego- 
tiations with the representatives of the company 
within the limits prescribed by the law fixing the 
modus operandi of its enforcement, and to discuss 
willingly various problems such as the question 
of the probable losses to the former oil company 
and the sale of oil to the former purchasers, etc. 
The Government, therefore, welcomed the arrival 
of the representatives of the former oil company, 
but it was found with great regret that the repre- 
sentatives of the former company wished to sub- 
mit proposals which were contrary to the text of 
the laws concerning the nationalization of the oil 
industry and which made it unable for this Gov- 
ernment to continue the discussions. 

Since the Imperial Iranian Government lias de- 
cided to prevent any stoppage, even for one day, 
in the exploitation of oil and its sale to the former 
purchasers, it has repeatedly announced its readi- 
ness to employ all foreign experts, technicians and 

72 



others in tlie service of the oil industry with the 
same salaries, allowances and pensions due to 
them, to provide them with all encouragement, 
to leave untouched the present organization and 
administration of the former oil company, and to 
enforce, so far as they may not be contrary to the 
provisions of the law, the regulations made by 
that company. 

It is. however, noticed with regret that the for- 
mer oil company authorities have resorted to cer- 
tain actions wliich will necessarily cause a stop- 
page in the exportation of oil ; for, firstly, they are 
encouraging the employees to leave their seiwices, 
and are threatening the Government with their 
resignation en masse; secondly, they force the oil 
tankers to refuse to deliver receipts to the present 
Board of Directors of the National Oil Company. 

Although the Iranian people have prepared 
themselves for every kind of privations in their 
resolve to achieve their aim, yet there is no doubt 
that the stoppage in the exploitation of oil ma- 
chinery is not only damaging to us but it is also 
damaging to Great Britain and to all other coun- 
tries which use the Iranian oil — a grave and serious 
matter which should be borne in mind by the au- 
thorities of the former oil company. 

There is no doubt that the Government of Iran 
will take every eifort with all the means at its 
disposal to prevent any stoppage, even tempo- 
rarily, in the flow of oil, but it would be the cause 
for OTeat I'egret if any stoppage occurred as the 
result of the resignation en masse of the British 
employees, or any delaying tactics in loading and 
shipping of the oil products because of the re- 
fusal on their part to give the receipts required. 
In such an eventuality the responsibility for the 
grave and undesirable consequences which might 
follow will naturally lie upon the shoulders of 
the former oil company authorities. 

It must be mentioned at this stage that in spite 
of tlie public fervor in Iran there is no danger 
whatever to the security of life and property of j 
the British nationals in Iran. Any spreading of' 
false rumors on the part of the agents of the for- 
mer oil company might, however, cause anxieties 
and disturbances; whilst if they acted in conform- 
ity with the expectations of the Iranian Govern-j 
inent, there will be no cause whatever for anyj 
anxiety, for the Imperial Iranian Government has 
the situation well in hand. 

Owing to the age-long and continuous cordial 
relations existing between the peoples of Iran and 
the United States, I am confident that no disturb- 
ances will ever occur in that happy relation, for 
the world regards the gi-eat and esteemed Ameri- 
can nation as the strong supporter of the fi-eedom 
and sovereignty of nations — a belief evidenced bj 
the sacrifices of the great-hearted nation in the 
last two World Wars. 

Such reflections have moved me to lay befon 
you, Mr. President, the recent developments ir 
Iran, and I am quite sure that the free nations oJ 

Department of Stale Bullelh 



. the world and especially the Government of the 
friendly nation of America will not hesitate to 
support us in achieving our national ideal. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to offer you, 
Mr. President, the expressions of my highest con- 
sideration and my most sincere wishes for the 
prosperity of the gi-eat American nation. 
Mohammed Mosadeq, 
Prime Minister of Iran 



Developments in Iran 
Cause Increased Concern 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

j [Released to the press June 27] 

1 

I The concern which I expressed last week over 

1 developments in Iran has been increased by what 
has taken place in that country during the past 
several days. I regret to say that the Ii'anian 
Government is proceeding with the nationaliza- 
tion of the oil industry in a manner which threat- 

, ens immediately to bring the great Abadan refin- 
ery to a halt and to result in instability and eco- 
nomic distress within Iran with all the ill effects 

jupon the Iranian people which that would entail. 

i The United States has repeatedly and publicly 
expressed its sympathy for the desires of the 
Iranian people to control their own resources. It 
has, however, strongly urged that changes in the 
relationship between the Iranian Government and 
the British interests involved be brought about on 
a basis consistent with the international responsi- 
bilities of both countries. It is the firm belief of 

;the United States that a basis for agreement can 
be found. We were therefore disappointed that 
the recent British offer to Iran, which accepted 
the principle of nationalization and which had 

jmuch to commend it, was summarily rejected by 
the Iranian Government without study to deter- 

|mine whether it could serve as a basis for further 
discussion. 

I Tlie present atmosphere in Iran appears such 

;as to render it most difficult for British techni- 
cians or technicians of any other country effec- 
tively to operate the vast oil producing and re- 
fining system. This atmosphere of threat and 
fear which results from hasty efforts to force co- 
operation in the implementation of the nationali- 
sation law cannot but seriously affect the morale 
of the employees and, consequently, their willing- 
ness to remain in Iran. Moreover the present 
stoppage of oil shipments indicates the depend- 
ence of tlie iinlnstry upon shipping and foreign 
marketing facilities. It is evident that unless 
arrangements are made very soon which would 
permit the tankers now tied up to move oil again, 



storage facilities will become filled and the re- 
finery will stop. I need not emphasize the effects 
that this would have. 

In view of the great dangers involved in the 
present situation in Iran, and because of the 
strong desire of the United States to see the Iran- 
ian people realize their national aspirations with- 
out endangering their economy and society, I 
earnestly hope that Iran will reconsider its pres- 
ent actions and will seek some formula which will 
avoid the dangers of the present course and per- 
mit the continued operation of the oil industry. 

If it is not possible at this time to agree upon a 
long-range basis for suitable collaboration, I sin- 
cerely hope that some interim arrangement can 
be made which will not prejudice the position of 
either side but which will, pending the develop- 
ment of something of a more permanent nature, 
permit British technicians to remain in Iran and 
the production and shipment of oil to be continued 
without interruption. 



Hungarian "Trial" Continues 
Communist Attack on Human Rights 

[Released to the press June 23] 

In the trial of Archbishop Grosz and eight other 
Hungarian citizens now being staged in Hungary, 
the Communist regime of that country has resorted 
once more to its favorite but well-worn device of 
persecution by prosecution. There are the famil- 
iar charges against the accused of "conspiracy" 
and violation of "currency regulations," the usual 
attempt to implicate the American Legation in 
BudajJest and the customary "confessions" which 
the Hungarian secret police have had ample op- 
portunity to extract from the victims. There are 
also the same Communist lackeys running the 
show — Vilmos Olti the "judge" and Gyula Alapi 
the "prosecutor" — Whose names and faces, by rea- 
son of their habitual association with such farcical 
proceedings, have become symbolic of the perver- 
sion of justice in the Hungarian Communist 
courts. 

The cases of Bishop Ordass, Cardinal ISIinds- 
zenty, and Archbishop Grosz all combine to make 
clear the pattern of Communist repression. Those 
who live in freedom and under a just and ethical 
system of law as well as tiie Hungarian people 
themselves will recognize the current "trial" in 
Hungary for exactly what it is — a continuation 
of Communist efforts to suppress all luinian rights 
and lil)erties in Hungary, to crush all elements 
who will not become sul)servient to tiie regime, 
and to destroy the moral and religious influence 
of the Churches. 



My 9, 1 95 J 



73 



Foreign Relations Volume 

on Europe and Near East Released 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The Department of State released today Foreign 
Relations of the United States, W3Jf, Volume tl, 
which contains the record of diplomatic relations 
between the United States and individual coun- 
tries of Europe, the Near East, and Africa during 
that period. 

This is the 130th volume in the annual series, 
which dates back to 1861. Forty special volumes 
concerned specifically with World War I, the Paris 
Peace Conference, 1919, Russia: 1918-1919, and 
Japan: 1931-1941 have also been published. Vol- 
nmes III and IV for 1934 dealing with the Far 
East and the American Republics respectively 
were previously released.^ Two other volumes. 
Volume I, covering multilateral negotiations, and 
the British Connnonwealth, and Volume V, The 
American Republics, will be issued as soon as they 
are ready. 

Subjects of particular interest in the present 
volume are the consolidation of Nazi party control 
over German domestic and foreign affairs, the 
initial phase of the Ethiopian-Italian conflict, and 
trade discussions stimulated by the trade agree- 
ments legislation of June 12, 1934. 

Documentation under the heading "Germany" 
exceeds that for any other country, partly because 
of background reports upon internal developments 
and their relationship to the advent of World War 
II. Nazification of German institutions of learn- 
ing, of labor groups, and political life proceeded 
evidently with little effective opposition; not so, 
however, in the regime's competition with German 
Protestantism and the Roman Catholic Church to 
gain control of German youth. 

Extension of Nazi activities to Czechoslovakia 
and Austria are also noted. In the latter counti-y, 
where an abortive Nazi putsch removed Chancellor 
Dollfuss by murder, the American Minister was 
provoked to observe that "National Socialism is a 
disease which attacks many worthwhile people and 
has some strange results. It is a disease which 
has to be eradicated if Germany and Europe are 
to be saved." 

Relations between the United States and Ger- 
many in this period were pronouncedly cool due 
to persecution of Jews, unsatisfactory trade rela- 
tions, instances of Nazi propaganda in the United 
States, and of Nazi resentment of criticisms of the 
Hitler regime from this country. 

The outbreak of hostilities between Ethiopian 
and Italian forces at Wal AVal in December re- 
sulted in an immediate appeal by the Ethiopian 
Government to the League of Nations. Subse- 



" See Bulletin of Dec. 25, 1050, p. 10:il and Bulletin 
of .July 17, 1050, p. !)5. 



quently, the Emperor expressed to the American 
Charge the desire that a gi'eat power would assist 
the appeal for a solution by arbitration or judicial 
means. The United States maintained that it 
could not usefully or properly take such action 
since the incident was before the League of Na- 
tions of which it was not a member. For the 
time being, the American Government preferred 
the role of observer to that of mediator, nor did 
it want to have the Kellogg Pact invoked prior 
to action by the League of Nations on the question. 

Efforts of the Department of State to protect 
and to improve American trade form a part of 
the negotiations with 19 of the 30 countries rep- 
resented in this volume. Of interest to students 
of international law is correspondence on treaties 
and other international acts relating to air navi- 1 
gation, claims, double taxation, dual nationality,! 
extradition (including documents on the Samuel 
InsuU case), military service, and naturalization. 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 193^, 
Volume II, Europe, the Near East and Africa. 
was compiled in the Division of Historical Policy 
Research under the direction of E. R. Perkins, 
Editor of Foreign Relations. Copies of this vol- 
ume (xcv, 1002 pp.) may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D.C., for $3.75 each. 



Point Four Contracts Signed With 
Latin American Countries 

On June 29, the Department of State announced 
that the Technical Cooperation Administration 
had signed contracts for surveys in Latin Amer- 
ican countries on the need and advisability of 
setting up construction materials demonstration 
centers and for the mechanization and expansion 
of the babassu industry in Brazil. 

The building materials demonstration center 
survey is to be made by the Armour Research 
Foundation of the Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy, at Chicago, and the babassu industry inves- 
tigation by the Southwest Research Institute, at 
San Antonio, Texas. 

Point Four Administrator Henry G. Bennett 
said: 

Both surveys are important since they may open up 
possible new sources of income and aid in solving some 
of the economic problems faced by our sister American 
Republics. 

The building materials demonstration center survey Is ^ 
designed to investigate the need and advisability of set- ' 
ting up centers in one or more of the Latin American 
countries to illustrate how best to utilize low-cost locally 
available materials in building highways, ports, railroads, 
docks, dams, irrigation systems, factories, houses, and 
many other things. 

The economic advancement of a country depends to a 
large extent on the availability of construction materials. 
If the initial survey by the Armour Research Foundation 



74 



Department of Sfafe BMet'in 



loonfirms what we have heard from other sources, we may 
decide, in cooperation with other countries, to contract 
for one or more training and demonstration centers. 

I The Governments of Brazil, Chile, Peru, Co- 
lombia, and other Latin Americait countries have 
shown interest in the development of local build- 
ing materials. The Or<^anization of American 
States also has endorsed the survey as one answer 
to the housing problem in Latin America. Its 
work will complement that of the International 
Housing Kesearch Center which the Pan Amer- 
lican Union is creating. 

I The Armour Research Foundation will send 
four experienced technicians to make the survey. 
If its report indicates that the program is feasible 
and practical, Point Four may undertake a 3-year 
project employing about "20 technicians to estab- 
lish a center to demonstrate the operation of a 
wood working plant, a small wall-board mill, 
semi-chemical paper and roofing felt manufac- 
turing plant, and possibly a small saw mill. In 
the earth and mineral products field, it would 
demonstrate simple machinery for making sta- 
bilized earth blocks, concrete blocks, brick and 
tile, asphalt emulsions, insulation materials, and 
aggregates. Improved kilns would be demon- 
strated for the production of gypsum plaster, 
standard high calcium and dolomite, and hydrau- 
lic lime. The techniques, though simple, would be 
an improvement over methods now in use in many 
areas. They would be kept within the financial 

.reach of rural enterprise. 

On the agreement with the Southwest Research 
Institute to develop a plan for the mechanization 
and expansion of the babassu industry. Dr. 
Bennett explained that this industry in Brazil has 
potentialities which could bring it into economic 
importance almost on a par with coffee. The oil 
extracted from the nuts is rich in practically all 
of the elements needed in the manufacture of 
plastics, detergents, emulsifiers, and many impor- 

jtant related materials. 

I The babassu jjalm, the Point Four Administra- 

'tor said, grows in many sections of Brazil and in 
great profusion. The problem has been one of 
transport as well as of efficient machinery for the 
cracking of tJie ntits and extraction of the oil. 
The survey will require 8 months to complete. It 
will investigate the kind of machinery to be used, 

i the most logical location of plants, and" the residual 
use of waste after the oil has been extracted. 

Coconut oil, heretofore, has been the cliief source 
of the oils needed in the manufacture of the prod- 
ucts listed above. During the last war, there was 
a serious shortage of these oils and the survey 
' niitemplated in the contract announced June 29 
is to endeavor to provide an adequate and constant 
source of this .strategic material. The project has 
the endorsement of the Government of Brazil 
which already has done some investigation to- 
wards increasing production. 
The agreements jjrovide Point Four funds of 



$48,000 to the Armour Research Foundation and 
$45,818 to the Southwest Research Institute for 
the surveys. 



U.S., Sweden Sign Agreement 
For Red Cross Field Hospital 

[Released to the press June 27] 

Secretary of State Dean Acheson and Ambas- 
sador Erik Boheman of Sweden signed an agree- 
ment, on June 27, under which Sweden agrees to 
pay in dollars for the logistical support furnished 
by the United States to the Swedish Red Cross 
field hospital participating in the United Nations 
operations in Korea. 

The Swedish Red Cross hospital unit arrived in 
Korea in September 1950 and is still providing 
medical care to the United Nations forces. At the 
conclusion of the signing ceremonies the Ambas- 
sador indicated that he would shortly turn over 
to the Department of Defense a check for $649,- 
940.43 to cover substantially all of the materials 
and services received by the Swedish hospital unit 
through December 31, 1950. Additional payments 
are to be made on a regular basis as vouchers are 
submitted by the United States and approved by 
the Swedish Government. 

The basic agreement with Sweden will be sup- 
pleinented by technical arrangements between the 
military departments of the two governments cov- 
ering administrative and accounting matters. 

The United States has undertaken to provide the 
United Nations forces with the materials, facili- 
ties, and services required in Korea which they are 
unable to furnish for themselves, either because 
they cannot procure the necessary supplies else- 
where or because it is not feasible to establish 
separate lines of supply. At the time arrange- 
ments are made for the participation of the forces 
of the United Nations m Korea, it has been the 
practice of the United States to reach an under- 
standing in principle that the United States would 
be reimbursed for the logistical support furnished. 
Under this procedure the task of working out the 
detailed agreements as to reimbursement has been 
carried out without delaying the movement of per- 
sonnel. Some of the governments receiving logis- 
tical support have been making interim payments 
to the United States even though they have not yet 
concluded the formal agreements. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT WITH SWEDEN 

Agreement Between the Oovernment of the. United States 
of Amcrha inul the dnvrrniiirnt of the Kimiilom of Sirrden 
(■oncrniiiu/ l'(ir/i(iii(ilion of a Sircdish Kid Cross Field 
Hospital ill the United Xati^oiis Oi)crution.t in- Korea 

This Agreement between the Government of the United 
States of America (tlie excculivc agent of tlio United 



July 9, 1 95 J 



75 



Nations Forces in Korea) and the Government of the 
Kingdom of Sweden shall govern relationships in matters 
speeitied herein for the Red Cross Field Hospital ( herein- 
after referred to as Field Hospital) furnished by the 
Government of the Kingdom of Sweden for the operations 
under the Commanding General of the Armed Forces of 
the Member States of the United Nations in Korea (herein- 
after referred to as "Commander") designated by the 
Government of the United States of America pursuant 
to resolutions of United Nations Security Council of June 
25, 1950, June 27, 1950, and July 7, 19.50. 

Article 1. The Government of the United States of 
America agrees to furnish the Field Hospital with avail- 
able materials, supplies, services, and facilities which the 
Field Hospital will require for these operations, and 
which the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is un- 
able to furnish. The Government of the Kingdom of 
Sweden and the Government of the United States of 
America will maintain accounts of materials, supplies, 
services, and facilities furnished by the Government of 
the United States of America to the Field Hospital. 
Reimbursement for such materials, supplies, services, and 
facilities will be accomplished by the Government of the 
Kingdom of Sweden upon presentation of statements of 
account by the Government of the United States of 
America. Such payment will be effected by the Govern- 
ment of the Kingdom of Sweden in United States dollars. 

Article 2. Pursuant to Article 1, appropriate technical 
and administrative arrangements will be concluded be- 
tween aiUhorized representatives of the Government of 
the United States of America and authorized representa- 
tives of the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden. 

Article 3. Classified items, specialized items, or items 
in short supply furnished to the Field Hospital by the 
Government of the United States of America will be 
returned to the Government of the United States of 
America upon request, upon the withdrawal of the Field 
Hospital from Korea, as a credit against the cost of 
materials, supplies and services previously furnished. 
If the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden determines 
at the time of redeployment of its Field Hospital that 
materials or supplies received from the Government of 
the United States of America hereunder are not desired 
for retention, such materials or supplies may be offered 
to the Government of the United States of America and 
if accepted, their residual value as determined by the 
Government of the United States of America will be used 
as a credit against reimbursement for materials, supplies 
and services previousl.v furnished. 

Article I,. Each of the parties to this agreement agrees 
not to assert any claim against the other party for in.iury 
or death of its personnel, or for loss, damage or destruc- 
tion of its propert.v or propert.v of its personnel caused 
in Korea by personnel of the other party. Claims of any 
other Government or its nationals against the Govern- 
ment or nationals of the Government of the Kingdom of 
Sweden or vice versa shall be a matter for disposition 
between the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden and 
such third government or its nationals. 

Article 5. Tlie Government of the Kingdom of Sweden 
will maintain accounts of materials, supplies, services. 
and facilities furnished b.v other governments to personnel 
or agencies of the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden, 
either directly or through the Commander. Settlement 
of any claims arising as a result of the furnishing of 
such materials, supplies, services, and facilities to the 
Government of the Kingdom of Sweden by such third 
governments, whether directly or through the Commander, 
shall be a matter for consideration between such third 
governments and the Government of the Kingdmu of 
Sweden. 

Article 6. The requirements of the Field Hospital for 
Korean currency will be supplied under arrangements 
approved by the Commander; provided, however, that 
.settlement of any obligation of the Government of the 
Kingdom of Sweflen for use of such currency will be a 
matter of consideration between the Government of the 

76 



Kingdom of Sweden and the competent authorities o 
Korea. If, with the approval of the Commander, th 
Field Hospital uses media of exchange other than Kc 
rean currency in Korea, obligations arising therefroi 
will be a matter for consideration and settlement betwee 
the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden and the othe 
concerned governments. 

Article 7. The Government of the Kingdom of Swede 
agrees that all orders, directives and policies of the Con 
mander issued to the Field Hospital or its personnel sha 
be accepted and carried out by them as given and tha 
in the event of disagreement \\ith such orders, directive 
or policies, formal protest may be presented subsequently 

Article 8. Nothing in this agreement shall be coi 
strued to affect existing agreements or arrangement 
between the parties for the furnishing of materials, sui 
plies, services or facilities. 

Article 9. This Agreement shall come into force upo 
the date of signature thereof, and shall apply to & 
materials, supplies, services and facilities furnished o 
rendered on, before or after that date, to all claims n 
ferred to in Article 4 arising on, before, or after tha 
date, and to all technical and administrative arrangf 
ments concluded pursuant to Article 2 before, on, or aft« 
that date. 

In Witness Whereof, the undersigned, being duly at 
thorized by their respective governments, have signe 
this agreement. 

Done at Washington, in duplicate, this 27th day o 
June, 1951. 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATE: 
OF AMERICA : 

Dean Acheson 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM 01 

SWEDEN : 
Erik Boheman 



Point Four Agreement Signed With 
Friends Service Committee in India 

[Released to the press June 22] 

The American Friends Service Committee wil 
midertake Point Four projects in India under ai 
agreement signed today with the Technical Coop 
eration Administration. 

At the request of the Government of India th 
Committee will carry on rural improvement wor] 
in demonstration areas, with emphasis on agriculi 
tural production, health and sanitation, and edu 
cation. An initial grant of $150,000 from Poin 
Four funds has been approved for the Commit 
tee's work. 

The agreement signed today by Dr. Henry G 
Bennett, Technical Cooperation Administrator 
and Lewis M. Hoskins, Executive Secretary of th 
Friends Service Committee, makes possible th 
continuation and expansion of work already ii 
progress. Since 1947 the Committee has been de 
veloping cooperative improvement projects in th 
villages of Pifa and Ragabpur, near Calcutta. It 
jnirpose has been to help the villagers to organiz 
community-wide programs in the fields of agri 
cultural production, health, primary and adul 
education, and child welfare. 

The Committee's experience of working ii 



Department of State BuUet'ii 



,ndia dates back to 1942 when it was responsible 
|or sending food, medicines, and $100,000 worth 
f milk to children's canteens during a period of 
cod shortage. Lately the emphasis of its work 
!.as shifted from relief to long-range projects on 

self-help basis. The Committee's work under 
he new agreement will parallel other Point Four 
irojects now under way in India, specifically an 
gricultural and village improvement work being 
arried on by Horace Holmes in cooperation with 
ndian technicians in three demonstration areas. 

Representing the Religious Society of Friends 
Quakers), the American Friends Service Com- 
jiittee was established in April 1917^-1 days after 
jhe United States entered World War I. Since 
hen its red and black star, firet used by the 
Jritish Friends on relief missions during the 
'>anco-Prussian War, has become a familiar sym- 
j'ol in France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Japan, 
Jhina, Poland, Austria, Israel, and Spain, as well 
s in sections of the United States, when emer- 
gencies arose. 

; Established originally as a relief agency, the 
!]!ommittee has broadened its interests to include 
long-range rebuilding and rehabilitation work as 
veil. When the Committee was formed its posi- 
ion and purpose were expressed in the following 
itatement : 

"We are united in expressing our love for our country 
nd our desire to serve her loyally. We offer ourselves 
the Government of the United States in any construc- 
ive work in which we can conscientiously serve 
umanity." 

Before the end of the first World War, more 
han 600 of the Committee's workers were in 
i^'rance distributing food and clothing, utensils, 
xnd farm animals, planting trees, caring for 
refugee children, setting up a maternity hospital, 
|.nd repairing and rebuilding war-damaged houses. 
i3y the end of 1919 the Committee had helped 
j)ver 46,000 families in 1,6G6 villages. 

Committee workers reached Russia as early as 
1917, and, between then and 19.31, programs of 
ramine relief and medical services were carried 
)ut. At the same time, missions in Poland and 
Serbia had undertaken similar work. In all three 
countries the medical services did their best to stop 
yphus which was threatening to sweep over 
Europe. 

' After the armistice, exploratory missions found 
nillions of children in Austria and Germany suf- 
fering from malnutrition. Cows and milk for the 
children became a major project so that, at one 
time, the Committee was the largest distributor of 
riiilk in Vienna. The program in Germany was 
inanced at first by the Herbert Hoover American 
iRelief Administration and later by Americans of 
ijerman descent. This program fed a million 
;hildren a day through two periods, first in 1921 



'o/y 9, 7 95 J 



and 1922 and again in 1924 when inflation crippled 
Germany. 

The scope of the Committee's activities had 
grown far beyond the dreams of the 14 Quakers 
who founded it. During its first 10 years it re- 
ceived and used approximately 12 million dollars 
in cash and more than that amount in drugs, cloth- 
ing, seeds, foods, and other goods. In 1946 its 
budget, for the relief phase alone, reached 7 million 
dollars. 

At the end of the second World War, the Com- 
mittee was called in by Unrra to help rebuild 
Italy. It worked also in France, Germany, and 
Eastern Europe. Emergency relief was again 
necessary but the parallel aim was to establish 
programs which would have a lasting effect on 
communities. India, Pakistan, Mexico, the Gaza 
strip in Arabia, Israel, Japan, China, and other 
countries were given technical help in health and 
sanitation and education. While Committee 
specialists were working with Arabs in 30 villages 
and in the Gaza strip, others were doing the same 
type of work in communities in Israel. When aid 
went to Spain during and after the civil war, it 
went to Republican and Falangist alike. There is 
no distinction of race or creed in the minds of the 
Committee. "VAIierever help is needed it is given. 

An outstanding example of the Committee's 
work is in the Morgantown area of West Virginia. 
Under a grant of $22.5,000 from the American 
Relief Administration the Committee established 
a community for coal miners and founded coopera- 
tive industries which made it possible for the 
people to become the owners of their homes and to 
participate in the activities of the factories. To- 
day, they have become self-sufficient and no longer 
depend solely on the coal mines for their liveli- 
hood. 

Tlie Department of the Interior called on the 
Afsc to work with the Indians in the Southwest. 
Under the sponsorship of American institutions, 
the Committee also has carried out community 
activities in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Illinois. 

The fact that most of its workers are volunteers 
makes it possible for the Committee to use a large 
percentage of its funds for actual rehabilitation. 
Those working in foreign fields receive mainte- 
nance only. 

The Friends Service Committee is the eighth 
private nonsectarian agency of proven experience 
and competence to undertake technical coopera- 
tion work under a Point Four grant. Previous 
agreements have been made between the Technical 
Cooperation Administration and the Near East 
Foundation, the Unitarian Service Committee, the 
American University of Beirut, Athens College, 
the American Farm School, Greece, Booker Wash- 
ington Institute in Liberia, and the University of 
Arkansas. 



The United States in the United Nations 



[June Z2-^uly 5, 1951'] 



Korea 

June 25, 1951, marked the first year of success- 
ful United Nations efforts to repel the Communist 
aggression against the Republic of Korea. 

Two days prior, June 2S, 1951, Jakov A. Malik, 
Soviet representative at the United Nations, in a 
radio broadcast on the United Nations program, 
"The Price of Peace," stated : 

Thp Soviet peoples further believe tliat the most 
acute problem of the present day, the problem of the armed 
conflict in Korea, could also be settled. This would re- 
quire the readiness of the parties to enter on the path of 
a peaceful settlement of the Korean question. The Soviet 
peoples Iielieve that as a first step discussions should be 
started between the belligerents for a cease-fire and an 
armistice providing for the mutual withdrawal of forces 
from the Tliirty-eighth Parallel. 

Later that evening, the Department of State 
stated : 

If Mr. Malik's broadcast means that the Communists 
are now willing to end the aggression in Korea, we are, as 
we have always been, ready to phay our part in bringing 
an end to hostilities and in assuring against their resump- 
tion. But the tenor of Mr. Malik's speech again raises 
the question as to whether this is more propaganda. If it 
is more tlian propaganda, adequate means for discussing 
an end to the conflict are available. 

Secretary-General Trygve Lie telephoned from 
Oslo, June' 24, to United Nations Headquarters: 

In recent weeks the qu,alified spokesmen of many of the 
Governments whose forces are participating in the United 
Nations action in Korea and I, as Secretary-General, have 
expressed hope for a military cease-fire in Korea, in the 
vicinity of the .3Sth Parallel. . . . 

The United Nations forces have been fighting in Korea 
to uphold peace and security under the United Nations 
Charter. From the outset the United Nations has made it 
clear again and again tliat the first step to the restoration 
of peace in Korea nuist be a cease-fire. Such a cease-fire 
should involve only the military arrangements necessary 
to stop the fighting and to ensure against its renewal. 

. . . If such a cease-fire can be attained, the political 
issues involved in the restoration of peace and security in 
Korea can then be appropriately discussed in the compe- 
tent organs of the United Nations. 

President Truman, in his address of June 25 at 
the dedication ceremonies of the aviation develop- 
ment center at Tullahoma, Tenn., stated : 

. . . We are ready to join in a peaceful settlement in 
Korea now as we have aiwnys been. But it must be a real 
settlement which fully ends the aggression and restores 
peace and security to the area and to the gallant Korean 
people. 



78 



In Korea and in the rest of the world we must be read; 
to take any steps which truly advance us toward work 
peace. But we must avoid like the plague rash actions 
which would take unnecessary risks of world war or 
weak actions which would reward aggression. ( 

Ambassador Nasrollah Entezam (Iran), Presi 
dent of the Fifth General Assembly, and Chair 
man of the Good Offices Committee, commented 
June 26, that new paths toward peace had beer 
opened : 1 

. . . It is our duty to follow along these paths in th( 
hope that we shall attain the consummation which we al 
seek : to put an end to the war in Korea and establisl 
there a just and lasting peace. 

The representatives of the Ifi members of th( 
United Nations with forces in Korea made thi 
following statement on June 27 : 

. . . The high purposes of tlie Charter of the United 
Nations, by which the Members of the United Nations ar« 
soleumly bound, oblige them to take effective collective 
measures for the prevention and removal of threats tt 
the peace and for the suppression of acts of aggressior 
or other breaches of the iieace. It was in accordance 
with these purposes that United Nations forces have beer 
and are committed in Korea. 

Tlie United Nations cliarter also enjoins its members 
to settle their international disputes by peaceful means 
in such a manner that international peace and seeuritj 
and justice are not endangered. The representatives ex 
pressed their view that their governments have always 
been and still are ready to take part in action designee 
to bring about a genuine and enduring peace in Korea. 

The United States Government, through its 
Ambassador to Russia, Admiral Alan G. Kirk, on] 
June 27 requested from the Soviet Deputy Foreign! 
Minister, Andrei A. Gromyko, clarification oii 
certain aspects of the statement made by Mr 
Malik (U.S.S.R.) on June 23. , 

On June 28 the Department of State stated : 

. . . Mr. Gromyko indicated that it would be for thd 
military representatives of the Unified Command and of] 
the Korean Republic Command on the one hand and the 
military representatives of the Nortli Korean CommanQ 
and of the "Chinese volunteer units" on the other td 
negotiate the armistice envisaged in Mr. Malili's statement] 

. . . Beyond the conclusion of an armistice the S' 
Viet Government had no specific steps in mind lookini 
toward the peaceful settlement to whicli Jlr. Malik re 
ferred. Mr. Gromyko indicated, however, that it wouli 
lie up to the parties in Korea to decide what subsequeni 
special arrangements would have to be made for a i»liti- 
cal and territorial .settlement. He said that the Soviel 
Government was not aware of the views of the Chinese 
Communist regime on Mr. Malik's statement. 

Secretary-General Tryg\'e Lie, after his return 
to United Nations Headquarters on June 28 
stated : 



Department of State Bultetm 



... I have long believed and stated that the best 
hanee of tiriiifring to an end the fighting in Korea lay 
a the negotiation of a purely military cease-flre and 
ruce or armistice by the respective military commands. 

The three officers representing the United Na- 
ions Command at the preliminary meeting, Sun- 
lay, July 8, at Kaesong to make arrangements for 
he armistice discussions were Col. Andrew J. 
unney, United States Air Force; Col. James C. 
iurray. United States Marine Corps; and Lt. Col. 
Soo Young Lie of the Army of the Republic of 
Corea. 

The gi"oup of officers designated by General 
lidgway to represent the United Nations in the 
Korean armistice discussions beginning Tuesday, 
! uly 10, at Kaesong will be headed by Vice Ad- 
liral Charles Turner Joy, Commander of the U.S. 
s'aval Forces in the Far East; the other officers 
re Maj. Gen. L. C. Craigie, U.S. Air Force, Vice 
Commander of Far East Air Forces; Maj. Gen. 
Ilenry I. Hodes, U.S. Eighth Army Deputy Chief 
If Staff; Rear Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, U.S. 
ii'avy; and Maj. Gen. Paik Sun Yup, Commander 
f the First South Korean Army Corps, Rok. 

[ I am of the opinion that the Unified Command is aii- 
Iborized under the resolutions of the Securit.? Council to 
onduct such military negotiations on behalf of the United 
iiations. leaving political questions to be negotiated later 
li or under the authority of the appropriate organs of the 
Ilnited Nations. 

On June 29 United States Ambassador Ernest 
L. Gross forwarded to the Secretary-General in 
>ehalf of his Government in its capacity as the 
Tnified Command of the United Nations Forces in 
Corea, the summarized observations made by Mr. 
iromyko for circulation to the members of the 
Inited Nations, as well as the initial message 
jirhich Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway, Commander- 
ja-Cliief, United Nations Command, sent to the 
Commander-in-Chief, Communist Forces in 
iorea" on June 29.^ 

President Truman in his Fourth of July address 
ommemorating the 175th anniversary of the Dec- 
laration of Independence stated : 

. . . Now, once more, we are engaged in launching 
new ideal — one that has been tallied about for centuries, 
ut never successfully put into effect. . . . We are 
reating a new kind of international organization. We 
ave joined in .setting up the United Nations to prevent 
'ar to safeguard ])eace and freedom. 
We believe in the United Nations. We believe it is based 
n the right ideas, as our own country is. We believe it 
an grow to be strong, and to accomplish Its high purposes. 
, But the United Nations faces stci-n, determined opposi- 
lon. . . . Today, the idea of an international organ- 
Mtion to liecp the peace is being attacked and under- 
lined and fou^'ht b.v reactionary forces everywliere — and 
articularly by the forces of Soviet communism. 
' United Nations will not succeed without a struggle, just 
,s the Declaration of Independence did not succeed with- 
[ut a struggle. But the American people are not afraid. 
jVe have taken our stand beside otlier free men, because 

I ' The various messages exchanged between Gen. Mat- 
pew R. Ridgway and the Communist Oenerals in Korea 
|re printed in full in the front pages of this issue of the 
|Jtjlletin. 



we have known for 175 years that free men must stand 
together. We have joined in the defense of freedom 
without hesitation and without fear, because we have 
known for 175 years that freedom must be defended. 

On this day, sacred to those who established freedom 
in the United States, we should all pay tribute to the men 
who are lighting now to preserve our freedom. The troops 
under the command of General Ridgway, Including not 
only our own but those of sixteen other free nations, con- 
stitute, I believe, tlie most magnificent army on the face of 
the globe today. We are all familiar with the splendor 
of their heroic deeds. 

. . . Our aims in Korea are just as clear and just 
as simple, as the things for which we fought in the Amer- 
ican Revolution. . . . We are not fighting there to 
conquer China, or to destroy the Soviet Empire. We are 
lighting for a simple aim — as important to us today as the 
goal of independence was in 1770 — the aim of securing 
the right of nations to be free and to live in peace. 



United Nations — General 

Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.) is President of the 
Security Council for tlie month of July. 

George L. Warren, adviser on Refugees and Dis- 
placed Persons, Department of State, is the United 
States delegate to the United Nations conference 
of plenipotentiaries which opened at Geneva on 
July 2. The conference will consider establish- 
ing a new convention relating to the status of 
refugees, together with a protocol on the status 
of stateless persons. 

The following members were appointed, June 
26, on the Ad Hoc Commission on Prisoners of 
War : Countess Bernadotte, Judge J. G. Guerrero, 
Vice President of the International Court of Jus- 
tice; and Judge Aung Khine, Judge of the High 
Court, Rangoon, Burma. 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations 
and the Director-General of the International 
Labor Organization (Ilo) announced, June 27, the 
establishment of the Ad Hoc Committee on Forced 
Labor with the following membership : Paal Berg, 
former Chief Justice of the Norwegian Supreme 
Court ; Sir Ramaswami Mudalier, former Presi- 
dent and now Vice President of the Economic and 
Social Council ; former Prime Minister of Mysore, 
head of the Indian delegation at the San Francisco 
conference of 19-15; Sr. Felix Fulgencio Palavi- 
cini, distinguished statesman and diplomat of 
Mexico, and former Ambassador to England, 
France, and Italy. 

Arrangements for the transfer of the functions 
of tlie International Penal and I'enitcntiary Com- 
mission (Irpc) to the United Nations is being dis- 
cussed at its final meeting at Bern, Switzerland, 
Jidy 2-7. United States Commissioner, Sanforcl 
Bates, Department of Institutions and Agencies, 
State of New Jersey, and Alternate United States 
Commissioner, Thorsten Sell in, I'rofessor of So- 
ciology, University of Pennsylvania, are attending 
the conference. 

The United Nations paid on Juiu' 28 the initial 
installment of 1 million dollars to the United 
States in repayment of the headquarters building 
loan. 



jo/y 9, 1957 



ll 



79 



July 9, 1951 



Index 



Vol. XXV, No. 628 



Agriculture 

Ecuadoran Soil Survey (RFC) 70 

INDIA: Point Four Projects of Friends Service 

Committee ''6 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

ECUADOR: Export-Import Bank Announces 

Credits 70 

Mutual Security Program Described (Acheson) . 46 

American Republics 

BRAZIL: Contracts for Survey Signed (TCA) . 74 

ECUADOR : 

Export-Import Bank Extends Credits .... 70 

Permit for Airline Route Granted 70 

President Plaza Addresses U.S. Congress ... 68 

RFC Conducts Soil Survey 70 

Truman and Plaza Agree to Cultural Conven- 
tion 68 

MEXICO: General Point Four Agreement With 

U.S. Signed 67 

Arms and Armed Forces 

Request for Additional Forces for Korea ... 53 

Asia 

INDIA: Point Four Signed With Friends Serv- 
ice Committee 76 

IRAN: 

Homage Paid Pilot Zents (Bennett) .... 71 
Nationalization of Oil Industry (Mosadeq 

Letter to Truman ) 72 

Oil Situation Discussed (Acheson) .... 73 
JAPAN: 

Extension of Time Limit for Filing Claims . . 61 
Military and Economic Aid Provided for in 

MSP (Acheson) 46 

KOREA: 

Request for Additional Forces 53 

Truce Proposal Discussed 43 

U.N. Embargo Against China Will Shorten 

Hostilities 54 

Aviation 

Ecuador Granted Permit for Airline Route ... 70 
Homage Paid Pilot Zents Killed in Iran .... 71 

Canada 

Anniversary of Canadian and U.S. Independ- 
ence (Bennett) 71 

Contribution to MSP (Acheson) 46 

Claims and Property 

Period for Filing Claims vs. Closed Institutions 

in Japan Extended 61 

Communism 

Human Rights Suppressed (Hungary) .... 73 

MSP Combats Communism (Acheson) .... 46 

Threat to Germany (SRP) (McCloy) 63 

Congress 

ECUADOR: President Plaza Addresses (June 21, 

1951) 68 

Mutual Security Program (MSP) Presented 

(Dept. Announcement 125, Text) .... 53 

Europe 

GERMANY: 
Assisting Germany to Become a Peaceful De- 
mocracy (McCloy) 63 

Debts Discussed by Tripartite Commission and 

U.K. Creditors 61 

Organization of German Federal Govern- 
ment (Chart) HICOG 62 

HUNGARY: Trial of Archbishop Grosz and 8 

Hungarians 73 

SWEDEN: Agreement Signed to Reimburse U.S. 

for Aid to Hospital in Korea 75 

U.K. 

Iranian Oil Situation (Acheson) 73 

Tripartite Commission on German Debts 

Meets With Creditors in London 61 

Finance 

Claims vs. Closed Institutions in Japan; Filing 

Period Extended 61 



Export-Import Bank Extends Credits for Ecua- 
dor 70 

Tripartite Commission. Creditors to Discuss 

German Debts 61 

Health 

Sweden Reimburses U.S. for Aid to Hospital in 

Korea 75 

Human Rights 

VIOLATIONS: Communist Trial of Grosz and 8 

Hungarians Discussed 73 

Industry 

Oil Situation in Iran (Acheson) 73 

Information and Educational Exchange Pro- 
gram 

Student Exchange Program With Ecuador Dis- 
cussed (Truman and Plaza) 68 

International Meetings 

U.S. Delegations: Tripartite Commission on Ger- 
man Debts 61 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

Germany's Participation in Western Defense 

Discussed (McCloy) 63 

Mutual Security Program (MSP) Presented to 

Congress (Dept. Announcement 125, Text) . 53 

Presidential Documents 

Oil Industry of Iran (Mosadeq Letter to Tru- 
man) 72 

Publications 

Foreign Relations, 1934, Vol. I, To Be Released . 74 
Recent Releases: Foreign Relations of the United 

States, 1934, Vol. II 74 

Refugees and Displaced Persons 

U.N. Conference To Draft Convention on Status . 61 

State, Department of 

Announcement 125: Mutual Security Program 

(MSP) Presented to Congress, Text .... 53 

Strategic Materials 

Abaca Hemp Plantations in Ecuador Discussed . 70 
Coconut Oil: Point Four Contracts Signed for 

Survey To Provide Source 74 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT FOUR: 

Agreement Signed With Friends Service Com- 
mittee in India 76 

Contracts Signed for Survey in Brazil (TCA) . 74 
General Agreement With Mexico Signed ... 67 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

Point Four Agreement Signed With Mexico . . 67 
SWEDEN: Agreements To Reimburse U.S. for 

Logistical Support of Hospital, Text ... 75 

United Nations 

Conference of Plenipotentiaries: Warren Desig- 
nated U.S. Delegate 61 

Resolutions: Embargo Action Against China 

Will Shorten Hostilities 54 

Unified Command Requests Additional Korean 

Forces 53 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 46, 71, 73, 75 

Bennett, Henry G 71, 74, 76 

Boheman, Erik 75 

Cabot, Thomas 53 

Fleming, Philip B 59 

Gross, El-nest A 54 

Grosz, Archbishop 73 

Hoskins, Lewis M 76 

Lie, Secretary-General Trygve 53 

McCloy, John J 63 

Mosadeq, Mohammed 72 

Plaza, Galo 68, 70 

Truman, President Harry S 56, 70, 72 

Warren, George L 61 

Zents, Roger 71 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9SI 



jAe/ z!l)eha/yi7nen^ ^ t/taie^ 





THE DEFENSE OF FREEDOM • Addresshy 

the President 83 

CONSTANT VIGILANCE TO COMBAT THREAT OF 

AGGRESSION Statement by W. Averell Harriman ... 88 

AFRICA'S ROLE IN THE FREE WORLD TODAY • 

By George C. McGhee 97 

THE ENGINEER AND POINT FOUR • Remarks by Dr. 

Henry G. Bennett 107 

BROADCASTING LOOKS AHEAD IN NORTH 

AMERICA • Article by Mary Louise Smith 113 

RECENT INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSIONS ON 

WOOL' • Article by ^an L. Crindle 116 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXV, No. 629 
July 16, 1951 





^/le z/)efta/)tl^€^t 



./s/Li, bulletin 



Vol.. XXV, No. 629 • Publication 4303 
July 16. 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovernmeni Printing OfBce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price; 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

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been approved by the Director of the 
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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained iiert'in may 
he reprinted. Citation of the Dep.\rtme.nt 
Of State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as icell as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
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ternational agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a 
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Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
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currently. 



The Defense of Freedom 



Address hy the President ^ 



THIS is a very special occasion. Here in 
Washington tonight, in Philadelphia, and 
throughout our whole country, we are celebrating 
in anniversary of great importance. On this day, 
175 years ago, the representatives of the American 
people declared the independence of the United 
States. 

Our forefathers in Philadelphia not only estab- 
llished a new nation — they established a nation 
jased on a new idea. They said that all men were 
breated equal. They based the whole idea of gov- 
ernment on this God-given equality of men. They 
said that the people had the right to govern them- 
selves. They said the purpose of government was 
[to protect the inalienable rights of man to life, 
iliberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

These were sensational proposals. In 1776, a 
nation based on such new and radical ideas did 
not appear to have much chance of success. In 
those days, power centered in Europe. Monarchy 
svas the prevailing form of government. The di- 
yine right of kings was still widely accepted. 

The new Nation was small, remote, poor, and, 
in 1776, apparently friendless. Europe did not 
for a moment believe this new kind of government 
would work, and, to tell the truth, fully a third 
3f our own people did not believe it either. We 
:an hardly imagine the courage and the faith it 
took to issue the Declaration of Independence in 
those circumstances. 

Today, we can see that the members of the 
Continental Congress were right. Less than 2 
centuries later, the Nation born that day, instead 
)f being small, stretches across a whole continent. 



' Madp lit WashinRton, D.C. on .Tuly 4 and released to 
:he press on the same date. Also printed as Department 
)f State publication 4288. 

»u/y 16, 1 95 1 



Instead of being poor, the United States is 
wealthier than any other nation in the world. 
Instead of being friendless, we have strong and 
steadfast allies. 



The Cost of Freedom 

The transformation during these 175 years seems 
to be complete; but it is not. Some things have 
not changed at all since 1776. 

For one thing, freedom is still expensive. It 
still costs money. It still costs blood. It still 
calls for courage and endurance, not only in sol- 
diers but in every man and woman who is free 
and is determined to remain free. Freedom must 
be fought for today, just as our fathers had to 
fight for freedom when the Nation was born. 

For another thing, the ideas on which our 
Government is founded — the ideas of equality, of 
God-given rights, of self-government — are still 
revolutionary. Since 1776, they have spread 
around the world. In France in 1789, in Latin 
America in the early 1800's, in many parts of 
Europe in the mid-nineteenth century, these ideas 
produced new governments and new nations. 
Now, in the twentieth century, these ideas have 
stirred the peoples in many coimtries of the 
Middle East and Asia to create free governments, 
dedicated to the welfare of the people. The ideas 
of the American Revolution are still on the march. 



The United Nations and Freedom 

There is another way in which our situation 
today is much like that of the Americans of 1776. 
Now, once more, we are engaged in launching a 



83 



new idea — one that has been talked about for 
centuries but never successfully put into effect. 
In those earlier days, we were launching a new 
kind of national government. This time we are 
creating a new kind of international organization. 
We have joined in setting up the United Nations 
to prevent war and to safeguard peace and 
freedom. 

We believe in the United Nations. We believe 
it is based on the right ideas, as our own country is. 
We believe it can grow to be strong and accom- 
plish its high purposes. 

But the United Nations faces stern, determined 
opposition. This is an old story. The Declara- 
tion of Independence was also met by determined 
opposition. A spokesman for the British King 
called the Declaration "absurd," "visionary," and 
"subversive." The ideas of freedom and equality 
and self-government were fiercely opposed in every 
country by the vested interests and the reaction- 
aries. Today, the idea of an international or- 
ganization to keep the peace is being attacked and 
undermined and fought by reactionary forces 
everywhere — and particularly by the forces of 
Soviet communism. 

The United Nations will not succeed without a 
struggle, just as the Declaration of Independence 
did not succeed without a struggle. But the 
American people are not afraid. We have taken 
our stand beside other free men because we have 
known for 175 years that free men must stand 
together. We have joined in the defense of free- 
dom without hesitation and without fear because 
we have known for 175 years that freedom must 
be defended. 

This determined stand has cost us much in the 
past year. I do not intend to dwell upon the 
money cost on the Fourth of July, the day on 
which we dedicated "our fortunes" as well as "our 
lives and our sacred honor" to the cause of free- 
dom. I am much more deeply concerned that our 
stand has cost the lives of brave men. I report it 
with sorrow, but with boundless pride in what 
they have done — for the men who have fallen in 
tiie service of the United States during the past 
year have died for the same cause as those who 
fell at Bunker Hill and Gettysburg, in the Argonne 
forest and on the Normandy beaches. They have 
died in order that "government of the people, by 
the people, for the people shall not perish from 
tlie earth." They have died in order that other 
men might have peace. 



Aim in Korea 

On this day, sacred to those who established 
freedom in the United States, we should all pay 
tribute to the men who are fighting now to preserve ' 
our freedom. The troops under the command of 
General Ridgway, including not only our own but 
those of 16 other free nations, constitute, I believe, j 
the most magnificent army on the face of the globe | 
today. We are all familiar with the splendor of j 
their heroic deeds. 

I should like to say something to that army, 
something that I think is felt by free men in every 
country in the world: Men of the armed forces 
in Korea, you will go down in history as the first 
army to fight under the flag of a world organi- 
zation in the defense of human freedom. You 
have fought well and without reproach. You have 
enslaved no free man, you have destroyed no free 
nation, you are guiltless of any country's blood. j 
Victory may be in your hands, but you are winning! 
a greater thing than military victory, for you arel 
vindicating the idea of freedom under inter- 
national law. This is an achievement that serves j 
all mankind, for it has brought all men closer to 
their goal of peace. 

It is an achievement that may well prove to be 
a turning point in world history. 

Our aims in Korea are just as clear and just as 
simple as the things for which we fought in the 
American Revolution. We did not fight that war 
to drive the British out of the North American 
Continent. We did not fight it to destroy the 
military power of England, or to wipe out the 
British Empire. We fought it for the simple, 
limited aim of securing the right to be free, the 
right to govern ourselves. We fought it to secure 
respect for the principles of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

It is much the same with Korea. We are not 
fighting there to conquer China or to destroy the 
Soviet Empire. We are fighting for a simple 
aim — as important to us today as the goal of 
independence was in 1776 — the aim of securing the 
right of nations to be free and to live in peace. 

The Charter of the United Nations says that 
its purpose is to "maintain international peace 
and security" and "to take effective collective 
measures . . . for the suppression of acts of 
aggression." We are fighting to uphold this pur- 
pose of the United Nations. Tliat is what we have 
been doing in Korea. We have made it clear that 
those words mean what they say. We have taken 



84 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



collective measures to suppress aggression, and we 
are suppressing it. We have shown the world 
that the United Nations Charter is not just a 
scrap of paper but something veiy real, and verj' 
powerful. To establish this is worth all the 
sacrifices and all the effort we have been making, 
because this is the way to peace. 

Our constant aim in Korea has been peace, under 
the principles of the United Nations. Time and 
again, since the aggression started, we have pro- 
posed that the fighting be stopped and that peace 
be restored in accordance with those principles. 
Now. at last, the Communist leaders have offered 
to confer about an armistice. It may be that they 
have decided to give up their aggression in Korea. 
If that is true, the road to a peaceful settlement 
of tlie Korean conflict is open. 

But we cannot yet be sure that the Communist 
rulers have any such intention. It is still too 
early to say what they have in mind. I do not 
wish to speculate on the outcome of any meetings 
General Ridgway may have with the commanders 
on the other side. I hope these meetings will be 
successful. If they are not, it will be because the 
Communists do not really want peace. Mean- 
while, let us keep our heads and be vigilant and 
ready for whatever may come. 

We must remember that Korea is only part of 
a wider conflict. The attack on freedom is world- 
wide. And it is not simply an attack by fire and 
sword. It is an attack that uses all the weapons 
that a dictatorship can command : subversion, 
threats, violence, torture, imprisonment, lies, and 
deceit. 

We cannot ignore the danger of military out- 
breaks in other parts of the world. The greatest 
threat to world peace, the tremendous armed 
power of the Soviet Union, will still remain, even 
if the Korean fighting stops. The threat of Soviet 
aggression still hangs heavy over many a coun- 
try — including our own. We must continue, 
therefore, to build up our military forces at a 
rapid rate. And we must continue to help build 
up the defenses of other free nations. 

Our Continued Effort Toward World Peace 

Furthermore, we must continue the struggle to 
overcome the constant efforts of the Soviet rulers 
to dominate the world by lies and threats and 
subversion. 

The Soviet rulers are trying to destroy the very 

July 16, 1951 



idea of freedom in every part of the world. They 
are trying to take from us the confidence and 
friendship of other nations. They hate us not be- 
cause we are Americans but because we are free — 
because we are the greatest example of the power 
of freedom. 

The Soviet rulers are engaged in a relentless 
effort, therefore, to persuade other nations that we 
do not, in fact, stand for freedom. They are try- 
ing to convince the people of Europe that we 
intend to exploit them. They are telling the 
people of Asia — who are for the most part ill 
informed about our purposes — that we mean to 
fasten new chains upon them. They are trying 
to make the rest of the world believe that we want 
to control them for our own profit — that the ideas 
of our Declaration of Independence are a sham 
and a fraud. 

This shrewd, this unscrupulous, this evil propa- 
ganda attack we cannot overcome with military 
weapons. You cannot transfix a lie with a bayonet 
or blast deceit with machine-gun fire. The only 
weapons against such enemies are truth and fair 
dealing. 

The way to meet this attack is to show that it is 
false — to live up to our ideals — to prove that we 
mean them. 

The world looks to us. This country is living 
proof that personal liberty is consistent with 
strong and stable government. This country 
proves that men can be free. As a result, the 
freedom of the American citizen means a great 
deal more than his individual safety and happi- 
ness. It means that men everywhere can have the 
freedom they hope for. 

Anyone who undertakes to abridge the right of 
any American to life, liberty, or the pursuit of 
happiness commits three gi-eat wrongs. He 
wrongs the individual first, but in addition he 
wrongs his country and he betrays the hopes of 
mankind. 

It is for this reason that persecution of minor- 
ities, which is wrong anj'where, is worse in 
America. It is for this reason that vilifying men 
because they express unpopular opinions is less 
to be tolerated here than in any other country. 
It is for this reason that holding men in bondage — 
personal, political, or economic — is a graver 
scandal here than elsewhere. It is for this reason 
that "to promote the general welfare'' is more 
urgently required of the American Government 
than any other. 

85 



The United States and Freedom 

We have made great strides in broadening free- 
dom here at home. We have made real progress 
in eliminating oppression and injustice and in 
creating security and opj^ortunities for all. I am 
proud of our record in doing these things. 

Today, more than ever before, it is important 
that we continue to make progress in expanding 
our freedoms and impi-oviiig the opportunities of 
our citizens. To do so is to strengthen the hopes 
and determination of free men everywhere. 

Moreover, it is doubly important today that we 
set an example of sober and wise and consistent 
self-government. We face a long period of woi'ld 
tension and great international danger. We have 
the hard task of increasing production and con- 
trolling inflation in order to support the strong 
armed forces we must have for years to come. 

One of our most difficult tasks, because it is new 
to our people, is that of organizing civil defense. 
Because we have been spared the rough schooling 
which the people of Europe have had, too many 
Americans are still skeptical and tardy. 

All these tasks challenge the ability of free 
people to govern themselves with both reason and 
resolution. There are people who say our demo- 
cratic form of government cannot do these things. 
They say we cannot stick to a hard, tough policy 
of self-denial and self-control long enough to win 
the struggle. They say we are no match for the 
steady, ruthless way the Soviet rulers seek their 
goals. 

These people, and they are not all Communists 
by any means, say that we can't take it, over the 
long pull. They say we will either lose our heads 
and rush into a world war or that we will relax and 
give up our efforts to maintain peace. They say 
that the demagogs and the special interests will 
tear us apart from within. These people do not 
believe that free men and self-government can 
survive in the struggle against Communist 
dictatorship. 

I think these prophets of doom are wrong. I 
think the whole histoi-y of our country proves they 
are wrong. I believe the last few months show 



that we will not be stampeded into war or broken^ 
up by distrust and fear. 

But we are going through a period that will 
test to the utmost our self-control, our patriotism, 
and our faith in our institutions. The very idea 
of self-government is being put to the test in the 
world today as it has never been tested before.j 

If we do not succeed in this country — if we del 
not succeed in building up our armed forces, in 
controlling inflation, and in strengthening our 
friends and allies — then the cause of self-govern-; 
ment, the cause of human freedom, is lost. If we] 
with all that we have in our favor do not succeed, 
no other free government can survive — anywhere 
in the world — and the whole great experiment that 
began in 1776 will be over and done with. 

I believe we will succeed. 

"Proclaim Liberty Throughout All the Land . . ," 

The principles of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence are the right principles. They are sound 
enough to guide us through this crisis as they have 
guided us through the crises of the past. Freedom 
can overcome tyranny in the twentieth century as 
surely as it overcame the tyrants of the eighteenth 
century. 

There is a text inscribed on the Liberty Bell, 
the bell that rang out 175 years ago to announce 
the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 
Wlien the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly 
ordered that bell for the Statehouse in Phila- 
delphia, they directed that it should bear certain 
words, "well-shaped in large letters." You re- 
member what those words were : "Proclaim Liberty 
throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants 
thereof." 

We should write these words again today. We 
should write them in everything we do in this 
country — "well-shaped in large letters" — by every 
deed and act, so that the whole world can read 
them. We have written them in the deeds of our 
soldiers in Korea — for the men of Asia and all 
the world to see. Let us write them in all that 
we do, at home and abroad, to the end that men 
everywhere may read them and take hope and 
courage for the victory of freedom. 



il 



86 



Department of State Bulletin^ 



President Urges U.S.S.R. To Inform 
People of U.S. Friendship 

[Released to the press hy the White House July 7] 

The President today sent the following commu- 
lication to His Excellency Nikolai Mikhailovich 
Shvernik, President of the Presidium of the Su- 
ureme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, transmitting S. Con. Res. 11 : ' 

I have the honor of transmitting to you a reso- 
ution adopted by the Congi-ess of the United 
States with a request that its contents be made 
known by your government to the people of the 
Soviet Union. 

I This resolution expresses the friendship and 
iZood will of the American people for all the peo- 
ples of the earth and it also reemphasizes the pro- 
found desire of the American Government to do 
jjverything in its power to bring about a just and 
ilasting peace. 

I As Chief Executive of the United States, I give 
jthis resolution my sincere approval. I add to it 
'a message of my own to the Soviet people in the 
learnest hope that these expressions may help form 
a better understanding of the aims and purposes 
of the United States. 

The unhappy results of the last few years dem- 
onstrate that formal diplomatic negotiations 
among nations will be largely barren while bar- 
riers exist to the friendly exchange of ideas and 
information among peoples. The best hope for 
a peaceful world lies in the yearning for peace and 
brotherhood which lies deep in the heart of every 
human being. But peoples who are denied the 
normal means of communication will not be able 
jto attain that mutual understanding which must 
'form the basis for trust and friendship. We shall 
inever be able to remove suspicion and fear as po- 
Itential causes of war until communication is per- 
Imitted to flow, free and open, across international 
jboundaries. 

I The peoples of both our countries know from 
personal experience the horror and misery of war. 
They abhor the thought of future conflict which 
{they know would be waged by means of the most 
jhideous weapons in the history of mankind. As 
leaders of their respective governments, it is our 
Isacred duty to pursue every honorable means 
jwhich will bring to fruition their common longing 
jfor peace. Peace is safest in the hands of the 
; people and we can best achieve the goal by doing 
all we can to place it there. 

' The McMahon-Ribicoff resolution renflSrmed "the his- 
toric iind abiding friendship of the American people for 
jail other jwoples, including the peoples of ttie Soviet 
I Union" und requested that the President call upon the 
(Soviet Ooverruuent "to acquaint the peoples of the Soviet 
Union with the contents of this resolution." See Bulle- 
tin of Apr. 2, 1951, p. 556. 

Jo/y 16, 195? 



I believe that if we can acquaint the Soviet peo- 
ple with the peace aims of the American people 
and government, there will be no war. 

I feel sure that you will wish to have carried 
to the Soviet people the text of this resolution 
adopted by the American Congress. 



VOA To Broadcast Resolution on 
American Friendship 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The Voice of America will broadcast to the 
Soviet Union the McMahon-Ribicoff "Friendship 
Resolution" and the President's transmittal mes- 
sage to the Soviet Government twice each hour, 
24 hours a day, for the next 3 days. This was an- 
nounced today by the Department of State, which 
explained that these broadcasts would make known 
to the Soviet people that President Truman had 
asked the Soviet Government to disseminate this 
resolution of American friendship. 

In addition to Russian, the Voice has been 
broadcasting in the languages of the Baltic States 
taken over by the Soviet Union : Lithuania. Latvia, 
and Esthonia. The Voice has also been broadcast- 
ing in Ukrainian and has recently inaugurated 
new programs to the U.S.S.R. in Georgian, Tatar, 
Azeri (Azerbaijani), Turkestani, and Armenian. 
All these languages will carry the "Friendship 
Resolution" as well as the President's message to 
the Kremlin. 

A friendship resolution was introduced in both 
Houses of Congress early this year. The final 
version, which was approved by the House with 
the Senate concurring on June 26, requested the 
President to transmit the resolution to the Soviet 
Government. 



President Sends Birthday Greetings 
to Paris 

[Released to the press July 8] 

The President today sent the following message 
to Mayor Pierre de Gaulle of Paris, France, on 
the occasion of the 2000th birthday of Paris: 

To the City of Light on its 2()00tli l)irthday, I express 
the profound appreciation of free men for the conlril)U- 
tion Paris has made throughout its long life to knowledge, 
to art, and to the virile defense of the heritage of the 
Christian world. 

Harby S. Truman 



87 



Constant Vigilance to Combat Threat of Aggression 



Statement hy W. Averell Harriman 
Special Assistant to the President ^ 



I appreciate the opportunity to testify again 
before this Committee. I have a brief statement 
underlining the broader aspects of the Mutual 
Security Program which, in my opinion, make it 
a vital and integral part of our security policies. 

I first want to reiterate what I have said to you 
before — that I still believe it is possible that an- 
other world war can be prevented — providing we 
give the essential inspiration and leadership to 
the free woi-ld, and that we act with wisdom and 
vigor, and above all, consistency of purpose. 

As the threat of Communist imperialism has 
unfolded, our country has supported unprec- 
edented policies and progi-ams which have been 
successful in thwarting in many areas the Krem- 
lin's aggressive designs. Your Committee has 
played a notable role in developing and carrying 
through these jjolicies and programs. 

I believe that we are now in the acute phases 
of the struggle. The effort that our country will 
be required to make, including our own rearma- 
ment program and the program for mutual secu- 
rity, will be very great particularly for the next 
3 or 4 years. If we carry out these programs 
effectively and are successful in preventing a gen- 
eral war, we can look forward to a tapering off 
of our dornestic military expenditures and a sharp 
reduction in our foreign assistance. The greatest 
part of our own effort and that of our allies will 
be to build the necessary military forces in being 
and trained reserves, and to produce equipment 
needed for both. Wlien this build-up has been 
completed, the annual cost will be very much re- 
duced. Thus, our intensive efforts in the next few 
years will be in fact a capital investment in 
security. 

The Kremlin respects nothing but strength. I 
firmly believe that when we and our allies are 
strong enough we will find an entirely different 

' Made before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on 
July 3 and released to the j)ress by the White House on 
the same date. 



political situation in the world. Confidence wil 
replace fear among the free countries. The Krem 
lin will find that it mvist adjust its policies, am; 
the processes of disintegration may begin behimj 
the Iron Curtain. i 



Maintaining all Security Programs 

To arrive at this situation, however, will requin 
our carrying out all of the security programs thai 
we are now planning — the development of oui 
own military strength, aid to help our friends anc 
allies rearm, and an economic program for an ex- 
panding economy in the free world. 

There would be only disaster if we attempted 
to "go it alone." Our associates can develop miL 
itary forces exceeding our own in manpower, but 
these forces cannot be effectively equipped without 
our help. These nations have not the industrial 
capacity or the economic resources to produce in 
time all the weapons necessary for modern war-j 
fare. We must bear in mind that we produce 
industrially as much as the rest of the world put] 
together, including the Soviet bloc. By a rel- 
atively small investment on our part to help arm 
other free countries, a vast addition to our own 
and to world security can be attained. To me, it 
is imtenable that we should deny our own fighting 
men the benefit of well-equipped allies, should 
trouble come. 

The Kremlin has at its command in Russia anc 
its satellites only a small fraction of the industrial 
capacity of North America and Western Europe. 
It has been estimated that the gross national prod- 
uct of Russia and her European satellites totals 
less than 100 billion dollars. In spite of their pre- 
tensions for peace, the Kremlin rulers are forcing 
their enslaved populations to produce for military 
purposes at the expense of civilian needs in a man- 
ner utterly unthinkable in free countries. They 
are exploiting their European satellites by bring-j 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing down the standard of living of these unliappy 
peoples to that of Russia. They are increasing 
the military forces of these satellites and divert- 
ling output for Soviet use. 

i If they had succeeded, as I believe they thought 
i'hey could, in taking over continental Western 
JEurope through subversion during the economic 
?haos of the early postwar years, they would have 
nore than doubled the industrial resources at their 
l.'ommand. By applying the same system of ex- 
Iploitation to these countries, they could have de- 
yeloped military strength of staggering dimen- 
jdons. We would, at best, have been forced into 
j:he total mobilization of a garrison state, and at 
svorst, faced with an unmanageable situation. 

These designs were thwarted by the Marshall 
:P]an. And now, tln'ough the North Atlantic 
Treaty, we have vigorous allies who are working 
jtvith us to develop and combine our mutual 
i5trength in a common effort to make the free world 
Imassailable against external aggression as well 
lis internal subversion. 

Had it not been for the new rearmament effort, 
i;he Marshall Plan would have accomplished its 
Ipurposes, in all but a few countries with special 
lifSQulties, within the 4 years as planned, and at 
I cost of several billion dollars less than originally 
estimated. Continued economic and technical as- 
sistance to Europe is now required on a much re- 
iuced basis to make possible the realization of its 
military potential, and at the same time, to sustain 
X sound economic base from which increased total 
production can be developed. 



Expanding^Production In Underdeveloped Areas 

Military strength alone can not win this bas- 
ically ideological struggle. The only solid foun- 
dation on which to build security is economic de- 
velopment — a free world expanding economy. 
Otherwise, we would be building on quicksand. 
|An expanding economy is essential to bear the cost 
inf adequate military forces for defense, and at the 
■same time give hope to free men for a better life. 
The industrial countries can increase their pro- 
duction if adequate raw materials are available. 
We, in this country, know that shortages of raw 
materials now limit our total production. The 
same is true in Europe. We must work together 
to increase production of essential raw materials in 
the underdeveloped countries. This will have the 
double value of making it possible for the indus- 
trial countries to expand their economies, and at 
the same time impi'ove conditions in the underde- 
veloped areas. 

But it is not enough only to expand raw mate- 
rials production in the underdeveloped areas. 
Their vast populations are engaged largely in 
agriculture. We must help them to increase their 
food production. I know you are familiar with 

io/y 16, 1 95 J 



what has already been accomplished with our help 
in some of these countries. The underdeveloped 
countries need our technical assistance and capital 
under the broad concept of Point Four. 

This country is the principal reservoir of capital 
in the world. It should be our policy to encourage 
as far as possible the flow of private capital to 
contribute to the needed developments. At some 
time, investments must also be made through the 
World Bank and the Export-Import Bank in those 
projects which are not appropriate for private 
financing, such as improved transportation, power, 
irrigation, drainage, and so forth. I hope that 
the Congress will approve the recommendation 
for the addition of one billion dollars to the lend- 
ing authority of the Export-Import Bank. 

The Mutual Security Program includes some 
grant funds for economic development and tech- 
nical assistance. The increased earnings of the 
countries producing raw materials makes it pos- 
sible for them to finance a considerable part of 
their development needs. However, there is real 
need for the grants that have been requested, to 
set in motion increased production and to help 
create conditions favorable to sound future inter- 
national investment. It is planned that the admin- 
istration of grants and of loans by the Export- 
Import Bank will be closely concerted to achieve 
the over-all objectives. 

The reports by Gordon Gray and by the Inter- 
national Development Advisory Board under the 
chairmanship of Nelson Rockefeller have made a 
valuable contribution to our understanding of the 
problems of the underdeveloped countries and 
their interdependence with ourselves and the other 
industrial countries. These reports bring out 
clearly the dependence of our economy for its life 
and expansion on the development of other parts 
of the world. 

We are almost wholly dependent on imports 
from overseas for such raw materials as manga- 
nese, tin, natural rubber, chrome, asbestos, cobalt, 
crucible graphite, industrial diamonds, hard fibers, 
and a number of other metals vital to military pro- 
duction. We also require very large imports of 
other basic metals, including copper, lead, zinc, 
tungsten and uranium, as well as other products 
such as vegetable fats and oils, and wool. 

A part of this Mutual Security Program is di- 
rected towards expanding raw materials produc- 
tion abroad. The bulk of such expansion is pri- 
vately financed, or promoted through Government 
loans and purchases for stockpiling or resale for 
military and other industrial production. Some 
of the development projects in this program, more- 
over, are for transportation and other purposes 
directly related to strategic materials develop- 
ment. In the underdeveloped areas generally, the 
program is designed to help create political and 
economic conditions making possible expanded 
raw materials production and assuring their con- 
tinuing availability. 

89 



We cannot expect political stability under the 
conditions of misery that are so widespread. The 
false promises of communism have already made 
alarming inroads, and it is clearly essential that we 
help in showing that real improvement in economic 
conditions can only be obtained in a free society. 
This requires cooperative policies and actions on 
the part of all free countries. 

A danger which overhangs us all is that of in- 
flation. Like an infectious disease, it spreads from 
country to country. We must not only combat in- 
flation at home but work with other countries to 
combat it on an international basis. Inflation has 
already caused great difficulties in the rearma- 
ment eifort of Western Europe as well as in our 
own. 



In Relaxation Lies Greatest Danger 

Perhaps the greatest danger of all is the danger 
of relaxation. Already, with the hope of an ar- 
mistice in Korea, there are those who are asking 
whether we cannot reduce our efforts. Relaxation 
can only lead to disaster. I believe that the United 
Nations action in Korea has been a crucial step 
in preventing another world war. The main pur- 
pose of our greatly enlarged I'earmament program, 
however, was not to fight the Korean war — but to 
develop strength rapidly to prevent a world war, 
or to be prepared should it be forced upon us. If 
we were to relax now, the sacrifice of our men in 
Korea might have been made in vain. 

I believe that the Kremlin considers the attack 
on Korea as a major blunder. They expected to 
attain an easy victory, demoralize the United Na- 
tions, and discredit American leadership. Not 
only has this plan failed, but the aggression in 
Korea has aroused our country and our allies to 
undertake greatly accelerated rearmament for de- 
fense. The Kremlin would like nothino; better 
than to have us think that we can safely relax, 
while the Soviets continue to build their military 
strength. 

The Kremlin is convinced that free society can- 
not organize itself for survival, and that free na- 
tions cannot remain united. The Kremlin always 
seeks to divide the free countries, and we must 
be ever on our guard. This is the moment when 
the United States must take the lead in going for- 
ward vigorously with all the security programs 
on which we have embarked. I earnestly believe 
that we are today facing a supreme test — whether 
we are prepared to make the present-day efforts 
to assure our security and the continuing growth 
and vigor of a free society. 

U.N. MEMBERS DISCUSS KOREA 

[Released to the press June 27] 

Representatives of the 16 Members of the United 
Nations with forces in Korea met today for a 



regular twice-a-week briefing on the military situ-- 
ation in Korea. The representatives also dis- 
cussed briefly the statement of Jacob A. Malik of 
June 23 and various comments which have beeni 
made thereon. There was a consensus that the! 
situation called for further clarification, and it 
was noted that steps are being taken to obtain such| 
clarification. 

The high purposes of the Charter of the United 
Nations, by which the Members of the United 
Nations are solemnly bound, oblige them to take 
effective collective measures for the prevention and 
removal of threats to the peace and for the sup- 
pression of acts of aggression or other breaches of 
the peace. It was in accordance with these pur- 
poses that United Nations forces have been and 
are committed in Korea. 

The United Nations Charter also enjoins its 
Members to settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means in such a manner that inter- 
national peace and security and justice are not en- 
dangered. The representatives expressed theiri 
view that their governments have always been and 
still are ready to take part in action designed to 
bring about a genuine and enduring peace in 
Korea. 



President Recommends Termination 
of State of War With Germany 

[Released to the press hp the White Eoiise Jiihi 9] 

The President has today sent the following letter 
to Alhen W . Barkley^ Vice President^ and a simi- 
lar letter to Sam Rayhitrn, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives : 

Dear Mr. Vice President : The progress which has 
been made in the recovery of Europe and in the 
strengthening of democratic institutions there 
makes it appropriate at this time to end the status 
of Germany as an enemy country. Bit by bit in 
recent years we have carried out a policy, agreed 
upon with our allies, of building up a freely 
elected German government, and returning to the 
German people an increasing degree of control 
over their affairs. This policy has been most suc- 
cessful. As a legal matter, however, we are still 
in a state of war with Germany. It therefore be- 
comes desirable, in pursuance of our policy, to 
bring this state of war to an end. 

Six years ago, when the wartime allies achieved 
complete victory over Germany, the country was 
destitute and there was no effective German gov- 
ernment. Allied control was the only way to man- 
age the prostrate country. We went forward with 
a clearly stated policy which anticipated that after 
a period of Allied occupation and reconstruction 
we would be able, together with our allies, to con- 
clude a treaty of peace with a newly-established 



90 



Department of State Bulletin] 



German government — a government truly repre- 
sentative of the German people, willing to assume 
iits responsibilities as a member of the world com- 
Imunity and anxious to work with its free neighbors 
in maintaining the peace and fostering the pros- 
iperity of Europe. 

I We have never deviated from this policy. 
Neither have our British and French allies. Un- 
fortunately for all of us, however, and especially 
for the people of Germany, Soviet Russia has ac- 
tively prevented the growth of a representative 
democratic government in a unified Germany, and 
has thus made impossible for the time being the 
arrangement of a final peace settlement. The 
Soviet effort has been, instead, to cut the eastern 
third of Germany away from the rest of the coun- 
try and to develop it as a province of the new 
Soviet Empire. 

As it became plain that we could not expect 
[Soviet cooperation in rebuilding all of Germany 
|as a self-respecting, democratic and peaceful na- 
tion, we were forced to change our approach. The 
ultimate fulfillment of our German policy had been 
delayed, but we were determined to do all we 
could to advance that policy in the part of Ger- 
many under our control. We were joined in our 
efforts by the British and French governments. 
Together with them, we gave the German people 
under our jurisdiction the chance to create their 
own government. Now, approximately two-thirds 
of the area of prewar Germany and three-fouiths 
of the German people are free of Soviet control, 
within the present borders of the German Federal 
Republic. The Government of the Federal Re- 
public rests on a democratic constitution worked 
out by representatives of the people themselves 
and approved by the Western Occupying Powers. 
Since its birth in September 1949, this German 
government has shown steadily increasing respon- 
sibility and readiness to take its place in the com- 
jmunity of free nations and to do its share toward 
building peaceful and cooperative relationships 
with its neighbors of the West. 

On their side, the occupying powers have shown 
faith in the German people and in the government 
of the Federal Republic by a continuing process 
of relaxing occupation controls on the one hand 
and increasing the scope of the Federal Republic 
government's responsibility on the other. This 
process has been accompanied by a changing atti- 
tude on both sides. The relationship of conqueror 
and conquered is being replaced by the relationship 
|of equality which we expect to find among free 
men everywhere. 

• La-st September, the governments of Great 
Britain, France, and the United States took an- 
other step in harmony with their developing i)ol- 
icy when they joined in the following statement 
|regarding continuation of a state of war with 
iGermany : 

In the spirit of the new relationsliiii wliioh they wish 
to esfalilisli with the Federal Republic, the three govern- 



ments have decided, as soon as action can be taken in 
all three countries in accordance with their respective 
constitutional requirements, lo take the necessary steps 
in their domestic legislation to terminate the state of 
war with Cermany. 

This action will not atTect the rights and status of the 
Three Towers in Germany, which rest upon other bases. 
It will, however, create a firmer foundation for the de- 
veloping structure of peaceful and friendly relationships 
and will remove disabilities lo which German nationals 
are subject. It is hoped th.it other nations will find it 
possible to take .similar action in accordance with their 
own constitutional practices. 

In this statement, our Government and the gov- 
ernments of the other Western Occupying Powers 
clearly recognized the desirability of bringing the 
existing technical state of war to a close, and 
pledged themselves to take action in collaboration 
with one another to that end. Since this declara- 
tion was issued, discussions have been held with 
the other friendly countries who are also in a tech- 
nical state of war with Germany, and most of them 
have indicated their willingness to take similar 
action in the near future — thus lifting Germany 
from its present enemy status. 

Ending the state of war with Germany will have 
many tangible benefits. Germans who wish to 
travel or do business here will receive the status 
accortled to nationals of other friendly govern- 
ments. They will no longer be classed as enemies. 
While Germans have been permitted to have com- 
mercial relations with this country since the 
Presidential proclamation of December 31, 194G, 
declaring hostilities at an end, German citizens are 
still subject to certain disabilities, particularly 
with respect to suits in United States courts. Gen- 
eral disabilities of this kind will be eliminated by 
the termination of the present state of war. 

The termination of the state of war with Ger- 
many will not affect the status of the occupation. 
The rights of the occupying powers do not rest 
upon the existence of a state of war, as such, and 
will not be affected by its legal termination. The 
rights of the occupying powers result from the 
conciiiest of Germany, accompanied by the disin- 
tegration and disappearance of its former govern- 
ment, and the Allied assimiption of supreme 
authority. We are not surrendering these rights 
by terminating the state of war. We do intend, 
however, in agreement with our allies, to grant the 
Federal Republic increasing authority over its 
own affairs, and eventuiilly to see Germany re- 
stored as a fully sovereign nation. 

Similarly, the termination of the state of war 
will not affect in any way the rights or privileges, 
such as the right to reparations, which the United 
States and its citizens have acquired with respect 
to (ieiinany as a result of the war. 

Furthermore, it is iu)t intended that the termi- 
nation of the state of war shall in any way change 
or alter the program, which Congress has author- 
ized, of seizing, under the Trading With the 
Enemy Act, German property in this country on 
or before December 31, lUlG, and using the pro- 



IJu/y 16, 1 95 1 



91 



ceeds to pay just and legitimate claims arising 
from the war in accordance with the War Claims 
Act of 1948. The vesting of German property 
under this program does not extend to property 
acquired since the resumption of trade with Ger- 
many on January 1, 1947, following the cessation 
of hostilities. It is limited to German property 
and rights located here before or during the period 
of hostilities. 

Most of this German property has already been 
identified and vested. This government does not 
intend to embark on any new program in this field. 
However, some of the property already subject 
to vesting is believed to be cloaked or hidden and 
not yet discovered, and some is still under exami- 
nation or subject to legal proceedings. Most of the 
property remaining unvested is involved in prob- 
lems of conflicting jurisdiction between this and 
other governments, which are in the process of 
settlement by negotiation under authority of legis- 
lation which was enacted in September of last 
year. 

Should the vesting power lapse immediately, 
this government would find it difficult to wind up 
this program in an orderly way, or to carry out 
its commitments for the equitable settlement of 
intergovernmental differences relating to enemy 
property. 

Completion of the vesting of wartime enemy 
property, even after the conclusion of peace, is 
commonly accepted practice in connection with 
the settlement of claims between the nations which 
were at war. Our peace treaties with Bulgaria, 
Hungary, Rumania and Italy all authorize the 
continued vesting and retention of such jsroperty. 

In the absence of treaty provisions, however, 
there may be legal obstacles to the continued vest- 
ing of German property, after the termination of 
the state of war, unless there are changes in our 
existing statutes. According to the terms of the 
Trading With the Enemy Act, many of its powers 
expire at the "end of the war," a phrase which the 
Act defines to mean the date of proclaiming the 
exchange of ratifications of a treaty of peace, or 
an earlier date fixed by Presidential proclamation. 
There is some doubt that the vesting powers of the 
Trading With the Enemy Act can be exercised 
after the termination of the state of war, imless 
expressly provided for in new legislation. 

This doubt should be eliminated, and it should 
be made clear that the Congress intends the vest- 
ing of German property for the purpose of pay- 
ing war claims to continue. 

In these circumstances, I believe that the best 
method for terminating the state of war with Ger- 
many would be by the enactment of appropriate 
legislation in advance of the issuance of a Presi- 
dential proclamation. 

Such action will give the German people a new 
demonstration of our desire to help bring them 
back to membership among the nations of the free 
world. It will represent another and logical step 



on the road which leads toward the eventual res- 
toration of German independence. 

I will ai^preciate it if you will lay this matter 
before the Congress for its consideration. For the 
convenience of the Congress, I am attaching a 
draft of a joint resolution that would be appro- 
priate to achieve these objectives. 

Very sincerely yours. 




[Enclosure] 
DRAFT RESOLUTION 

To terminate the state of war between the United States 
and the Government of Germany. 

Resolved hy the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States in Congress Assembled. That the state 
of war declared to exist between the United States and 
the Government of Germany by the Joint Resolution of 
Congress approved December 11, 1941, shall be terminated 
and such termination shall take effect on such date as the 
President shall by proclamation designate : 

Provided, however, that notwithstanding this resolution 
and such proclamation by the President; any property or 
interest which prior to January 1, 1947, was subject to 
vesting or seizure under the provisions of the Trading 
With the Enemy Act of October 0, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as 
amended, or wliich has heretofore been vested or seized 
under that Act, including accruals to or proceeds of any 
such property or interest, shall continue to be subject 
to the provisions of that Act in the same manner and to 
the same extent as if this resolution had not been adopted 
and such proclamation had not been issued. Nothing 
herein and nothing in such proclamation shall alter the 
status, as it existed immediately prior hereto, under that 
Act, of Germany or of any person with respect to any such 
property or interest. 



AP Correspondent's Trial Called 
Travesty of Justice 

[Released to the press Julij 4] 

The mock trial of the Associated Press repre- 
sentative at Prague, William N. Oatis, has now 
been brought to a conclusion. The sentencing is 
but an epilogue to this ludicrous travesty of justice 
in which the victim was required to speak his pre- 
fabricated "confession" as a part of a public spec- 
tacle exhibiting all the usual Communist trial 
techniques. This was prepared and rehearsed in 
advance under police auspices and by customary 
Communist police procedures when Oatis was held 
incommunicado for 70 days between his arrest and 
presentation in court. 

The proceedings revealed the flimsiest kind of 
alleged "evidence," even more insubstantial than 
the Communists are accustomed to produce in 
trumped-up trials of this type. For example, the 
normal routine requests of the Associated Press 
for news reports, openly transmitted by wire, were 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



distorted into "espionage missions on oi'ders from 
centers in New York and London." 

Such an attempted lioax on the intelligence of 
world opinion will fool no one. Wliile it had all 
the trappings of legal procedure, it was in fact a 
kangaroo court staged before the klieg lights of 
propaganda. Its purpose was purely intimida- 
tion and propaganda designed to strike at the 
United States press services and against the free 
press of the world. 

The "confession" of "espionage" was in truth 
but the admission of an American reporter that, 
in the high traditions of his profession, he was at- 
tempting under the most unfavorable conditions 
to report a true picture of conditions and events in 
Czechoslovakia as he saw them. 

The Czechoslovak regime has clearly demon- 
strated that it considers legitimate and normal 
news gathering and reporting as "espionage." As 
the prosecutor publicly stated, Oatis was held to 
be a particularly dangerous "espionage" agent 
because he insisted on obtaining accurate, correct, 
and verified information. To do this is "a crime," 
according to the concepts of the present Czecho- 
slovak authorities, who find any press activity ex- 
cept the transmission of official propaganda to be 
"espionage." The Czechoslovak Government thus 
rejects completely the principle of freedom of in- 
formation. It is presumed that the press of the 
free world will so view this turning back of the 
clock. 

The proceedings of this especially arranged 
spectacle also included a number of groundless ac- 
cusations against the American Ambassador and 
other members of the United States Embassy staff. 
These were invented as a part of the entire propa- 
ganda performance in attacking the United States. 

This action comes as a climax in the treatment of 
American citizens in Czechoslovakia. It has ac- 
cordingly been necessary to recognize that it is no 
longer safe for American citizens to go to that 
country and to prohibit private travel there until 
further notice. 

If further evidence were needed, the arrest, the 
detention for months without access to friend, Em- 
bassy representative, or trusted legal counsel, the 
forced confession" to fabricated charges, the 
shabby "conviction" of William N. Oatis shows 
that the present regime in Czechoslovakia fears 
truth, hates liberty, and knows no justice. 



U. S. Asks Czechs To Free Planes 

[Released to the press June 26] 

FollOiving is the text of a note sent on June 2i hy the 
United States Ambassador at i'raiiue, Ellis 0. Briggs, to 
the Czechoslovak Minister of Foreign Affairs, Viliam 
Biroky: 

I have the honor to refer to the Embassy's Note 
No. 651 of June 17 ^ and Your Excellency's reply 



' Bulletin of July 2, 1951, p. 12. 
July J 6, J 95 7 



of June 21 concerning the unintentional landing 
near Prague on June 8 of two United States jet 
planes, the pilots of which are still being detained 
by the Czechoslovak Government. 

Your Excellency's reply takes the position that 
notwithstanding the unequivocal statements made 
by me during my conversation with you on June 
15 and confirmed by the Embassy's note of June 
17, the Czechoslovak authorities must examine 
"whether this really was a training mission and 
whether the Czechoslovak aerial border has truly 
been violated unintentionally." Your communica- 
tion indicates that the investigation is still in 
progress, apparently seeking thereby to justify the 
continued detention of the two pilots. 

My Government directs me strongly to reiterate 
the request made orally on June 15 and repeated 
in the Embassy's note of June 17 that the pilots 
in question be released without further delay. 
Your Excellency is reminded that these two young 
men have already been in the hands of the Czech- 
oslovak authorities for 16 days, although all the 
information the pilots could possibly possess con- 
cerning their having become lost on a training 
flight and their landing in Czechoslovakia must 
have been communicated by them to the authori- 
ties during the first few hours, if not during the 
first few minutes after their emergency landing in 
this country on June 8. 

Your Excellency is further reminded that al- 
though during our conversation on June 15 you 
declared the pilots are not prisoners, they have 
been and are still being held incommunicado, and 
efforts on the part of the Embassy to visit them 
and ascertain their personal welfare have been 
unavailing. 

With respect to the statement in Your Excel- 
lency's note that the United States planes inten- 
tionally and systematically cross the Czechoslovak 
border, my Government declares that such charges 
are false and furthermore an unintentional cross- 
ing of the border by lost planes, as occurred on 
June 8, does not constitute, and would not be so 
considered by nations generally, "flagrant viola- 
tion of the most fundamental principles of inter- 
national law prohibiting any flights of military 
planes over the territory of another state without 
its expi'ess consent." 

Furthermore, with reference to 116 alleged vio- 
lations of Czechoslovak territory referred to in 
the enclosure to Your Excellency's note of June 
21, it is remarked that no identification numbers 
and no description of any kind concerning the 
planes are given, and therefore it is difficult for 
a proper investigation to be made by the appro- 
priate authorities. I may mention that the Em- 
bassy already brought to the Ministry's attention 
the importance of specific data to support alleged 
violations. 

In view of the fact that it was not the intent of 
the flight to enter Czechoslovakia, the presence of 



93 



guns and ainimmition therein was unintentional 
vis-a-vis Czechoslovakia as was the presence of the 
aircraft themselves. Loaded guns are frequently 
carried on United States military aircraft on op- 
erational training flights within the United States 
Zone as is common of air forces of all nations when 
planes are over territory within their jurisdiction. 
The key point in the matter after all is that the 
planes were lost and did not cross the Czecho- 
slovak frontier by intention. 

I must again remind the Ministry, as the Em- 
bassy did in Note No. 558, February 7, that no 
reply was received to the Embassy's Note No. 422, 
August 28, 1950, requesting that investigation be 
made of a number oi violations of the United 
States Zone of Germany by Czechoslovak air- 
craft. The aircraft guilty of these violations were 
described in detail. Also, the requested assurances 
that suitable instructions be issued to Czechoslo- 
vak aviators to prevent such violations have not 
been received. Furthermore, the Embassy has 
been informed that such violations are continuing. 

The United States Government does not admit 
tlie right of Czechoslovakia to continue to detain 
the two pilots of the jet planes landing here un- 
intentionally on June 8, the immediate release of 
whom is again requested. 



U.S. Condemns Ruthless Measures 
In Hungary 



IReleased to the press July 7] 

Following is the siibxtantive portion of a note 
which the American Charge d Affaires in Buda- 
pest, Gerald A. Mokma, on histructions from the 
Department has communicated to the Hungarian 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs in reply to the Hun- 
garian Government's note of July 2, which alleged 
improper activities on the part of officers of the 
American Legation in Hungary: 

The Government of the United States categori- 
cally rejects the allegations directed against the 
Legation of the United States and membei's of 
its staff by the Hungarian Government in its note 
of July 2 and regards the demands put forward by 
the Hungarian Government on the basis of these 
charges as arbitrary and unwarranted. The ac- 
tivities of the United States Legation in Hungary 
have been legitimate in every respect and in full 
conformity with international diplomatic prac- 
tice. The United States Government concludes, 
therefore, that the conduct of United States Lega- 
tion officials has been called into question only to 
serve the propaganda aims of the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment. 

In the view of the United States Government, 
the proceedings in the trial of Ai-chbisliop Urosz 



establish nothing except the fact that the Hun-i 
garian authorities are continuing by ruthless and 
unconscionable measures to terrorize the Hun-i 
garian people into mute submission to the existing 
regime and its totalitarian program. In this in- 
stance, as on many past occasions, the Hungarian 
Government has contrived a tissue of falsehoods 
in a brazen though futile attempt to justify before 
the world its continuing campaign to crush all 
dissent and to suppress the human rights and 
fundamental freedoms of its citizens. It is also 
evident that the Hungarian note of July 2 re- 
flects the extreme annoyance of the Hungarian 
Government that the Hungarian people, despite 
unending Communist propaganda and repression, 
continue to maintain their feelings of deep friend- 
ship for the United States as well as their firm 
confidence that the United States Government will 
not cease to concern itself with their tragic plight. 
Without accepting or crediting in any way the 
preposterous charges which the Hungarian Gov- 
ei'iiment has advanced, the United States Gov- 
ernment has taken the decision to discontinue! 
certain cultural and informational activities men-j 
tioned in the Hungarian Government's note, since j 
it is clear that the Hungarian Government hasj 
rendered impossible the maintenance of open andj 
normal contacts and the free exchange of ideas] 
ai-d information between the two peoples. The 
United States Government believes, however, that 
the attitude of the Hungarian Government in this 
regard will be viewed with deep resentment and 
regret by the Hungarian people, who have shown 
a great interest in cultural contacts with the people 
of the LTnited States and who are fully aware that 
this policy of the Hungarian Government is aimed 
at further isolating them from the free world. By 
its behavior in this matter, the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment has effectively demonstrated before the 
entire world that it dare not tolerate, even to a 
limited degree the exercise of freedom of opinion. 



Italy Cooperates in Defense Effort 



[Released to the press Jime 30] 

Arrangements have been made with the Ital- 
ian Government through Ambassador James C. 
Dunn at Rome, to facilitate the movement across 
Italy of supplies for United States forces in Eu- 
rope. These supplies will move through the Port 
of Leghorn and across Italy by rail. 

For the purpose of assisting in this movement 
of supplies a detachment of technical personnel 
from United States forces will be stationed in 
Leghorn. The conclusion of this arrangement is 
another demonstration of Italy's cooperation in 
the mutual defense within the framework of the 
North Atlantic Treaty. 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S.S.R. and Satellites Denied 
Import Tariff Concessions 



[Released to the press July G] 

Sections 5 and 11 of the Trade Agreements Ex- 
tension Act of 1951, which was signed recentlj- by 
President Ti-uman, requires the President, as soon 
jas practicable, to take action to deny the benefits 
|of trade agreement concessions to imports fiom tlie 
'U.S.S.R. and its satellites and to prevent the im- 
iportation of certain furs from the U.S.S.R. and 
j Communist China. The Department of State 
laccordingiy delivered to the Soviet Embassy on 
June 23, 1951, a note giving notice, according to 
; provisions of the agreement, of the termination of 
jthe commercial agreement of August 4, 1937, with 
Ithe U.S.S.R. as renewed by the exchange of notes 
isigned on July 31, 1942. The agreement will ter- 
minate <■> months from the date of notice of in- 
tention to terminate. On June 27 similar action 
was taken to terminate the provisional commercial 
agreement of August 20, 1930, with Rumania, 
which pi'ovides for a 30-day notification of in- 
tention to terminate. 

A request to notify the Bulgarian Government 
of termination of the provisional commercial 
agreement of August 18, 1932, with Bulgaria has 
been conveyed to the Government of Switzerland. 
This procedure is being followed in view of the 
suspension of relations between the United States 
and Bulgaria in February 1950. The agreement 
with Bulgaria provides for advance notice of three 
mouths for denunciation. 

With Hungary and Poland, the most -favored- 
nation provisions in customs matters are parts of 
broader ti-eaties of friendship, commerce, and con- 
sular rights. In the treaty between the United 
States and Hungary signed June 24, 1925, the 
mnst-favored-nation provisions appear in article 
VII. In the treaty between the United States and 
Poland, signed on June 15. 1931. the most-favorcd- 
nation provisions are contained in article VI. The 
Hungarian treaty requires that notice of termina- 
tion be given 1 year in advance; the Polish treaty 
prescribes a 6-month period of notice. 

Notices to modify these treaties by terminating 
articles VII and VI respectively, or to terminate 
the treaties as a whole, were delivered to the Hun- 
garian and Polish representatives in Washington 
on July 5. 1951. It is also anticipated that the 
President will promptly take action to set in mo- 
tion the operation of section 5 (denial of tariif 
concessions) of the newly enacted Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act in the case of satellite coun- 
tries and areas with which the United States has 
no commercial agreement, as well as section 11 (fur 
embaigo) with respect to Communist China. 

Texts of the notes to the U.S.S.R., Rumania, 
Hungary, and Poland follow (text of the note 
to Bulgaria will be released when notification of 

Jo/y 16, 1 95 J 



delivery has been received from the Government 
of Switzerland) : 

Note to UjS.S.E. of June 23: 
Sir: 

I refer to the agreement between the United 
States of America and the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics, effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington on July 31, 1942, which agreement 
continued in force the agreement of August 4, 
1937, regarding commercial relations. 

In accordance with the procedure prescribed in 
the above-mentioned notes of July 31, 1942, the 
Government of the United States of America gives 
notice hereby of its desire that the agreement be 
terminated, and, notice having thus been given, the 
agreement of August 4, 1937, as renewed and con- 
tinued in force, will terminate six months from 
this date. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high 
consideration. 

Mr. Boris I. Karavaev, 

Charge (TAjf aires ad interim of 

the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 



Note to Rumania of June 27 : 

Sir: 

I have the honor to refer to the provisional com- 
mercial agreement between the United States of 
America and Rumania, signed at Bucharest on 
August 20, 1930. 

In accordance with the procedure presci'ibed in 
the above-mentioned agreement, the Government 
of the United States of America gives notice 
hereby of its intention that the agreement be ter- 
minated, and, notice having thus been given, the 
agreement of August 20, 1930 will terminate thirty 
days after the date of this note. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 

The Honorable 

MiiiAi Magheru, 

Minister of the Rumanian Pea'ple's Re- 
public. 



Note to Hungary of July 5: 

Sir: 

Pursuant to Article XXV of the Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights be- 
tween the United States of America and Hungary 
signed at Washington on June 24, 1925, I wisli to 
propose modification of the Treaty by the termina- 
tion of Article VII. 

If this proposal is acceptable to the Government 
of the Hungarian People s Republic, the modifica- 
tion suggested will be considered effective on the 
date of the acceptance. 

If, however, it should not be possible to reach 

95 



agreement with respect to the proposed modifica- 
tion of the Treaty, it is considered necessary tliat 
the Treaty terminate in its entirety. Therefore, 
in accordance witli the procedure prescribed in 
Article XXV of the Treaty, the Government of 
tlie United States of America gives notice that, in 
the absence of agreement to the proposed modifica- 
tion, the Treaty will, pursuant to that Article, 
terminate one year from the date of this note. 

Accept, Sir, "the renewed assurances of my high 
consideration. 

Mr. Lajos Nagy, 

Charge d'' Affaires ad interim 

of the Hungarian PeopWs Republic. 



Note to Poland of July 5: 

Sib: 

Pursuant to Article XXX of the Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights be- 
tween the United States of America and Poland 
signed at Washington on June 15, 1931, I wish to 
propose modification of the Treaty by the termi- 
nation of Article VI. 

If this proposal is acceptable to the Government 
of Poland, the modification suggested will be con- 
sidered effective with respect to territory to which 
the treaty may be applicable on the date of the 
acceptance. 

If, however, it should not be possible to reach 
agreement with respect to the proposed modifica- 
tion of the Treaty, it is considered necessary that 
the Treaty terminate in its entirety. Therefore, 
in accordance with the procedure prescribed in 
Article XXX of the Treaty, the Government of 
the United States of America gives notice that, in 
the absence of agreement to the proposed modi- 
fication, the Treaty will, pursuant to that Article, 
terminate six months from the date of this note, 
with respect to territory to which the treaty may 
be applicable. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high 
consideration. 

Mr. Tadeusz Jaworski, 

Charge (P Affaires ad interim of Poland. 



Export- Import Bank Bolsters ECA Aid 
to Philippines 

[Released to the press June 16] 

The American Embassy in Manila announced 
today that it delivered a note to the Philippine 
Government stating that the Export-Import Bank 
of Washington is, in further implementation of the 
Bell Mission recommendations,^ prepared to enter 
into discussions with the Philippine Government 

^ Bulletin of Nov. 6, 1950, p. 723. 



looking toward the establishment of credits for 
productive projects in the Philippines. The Ex- 
port-Import Bank loan operations will be most 
closely integrated and coordinated with the Eca 
aid program and will together comprise a single 
integrated and coordinated progi'am of U. S. aid 
to the Philippine Government designed to help 
build economic strength in the Philippines and 
assist in meeting the needs and aspirations of the 
Philippine j^eople. 

The aid program begun by the United States 
Government on April 6, 1951, was of an interim 
character designed to promote the economic 
strengthening and betterment of the Philippines. 
That program, for which 15 million dollars has i 
already been allocated, resulted from the substan- ! 
tial implementation by the Philippine Congress of ' 
the Qiiirino-Foster Agreement and from the rec- 
ommendations of the U. S. Economic Survey Mis- 
sion in September 1950. The President of the 
United States in his message to Congress on May 
24, 1951, on foreign aid requested funds which 
would make it possible for the Eca to make addi- 
tional grants to the Philippine Government in 
fiscal year 1952 for the purpose of substantially 
expanding the initial program already started in 
the Philippines. 

It is expected that the Export-Import Bank will 
send representatives to the Philippines to investi- 
gate and develop specific loan proposals by the 
Philippine Government. The full text of the note 
delivered by the American Embassy to the Philip- 
pine Government is as follows : 

The economic aid program launctied by the United 
States Government on April 6, 1951, was of an interim 
character designed to promote the economic strengthen- 
ing and betterment of the Philippines until the United 
States Congress could be asked for authority to establish 
an enlarged program of financial and technical aid. Tliis 
program, for which 15 million dollars has already been 
allocated, proceeded from the substantial implementation 
by the Philippine Congress of the Quirino-Foster Agree- 
ment of November 1950, and from the earlier recommenda- 
tions of the U. S. Economic Survey Mission in September 
1950. 

In further implementation of the Quirino-Foster Agree- 
ment (a) the President of the United States in his mes- 
sage to the Congress on May 24, 1951, on foreign aid, has 
requested funds which would make possible additional 
grants in fiscal year 1952, for the purpose of substantially 
expanding the initial program already started in the 
Philippines by the Economic Cooperation Administration ; 
and (b) the Export-Import Bank of Washington is pre- 
l)ared to enter into discussions with representatives of 
the Philippine Government looking toward the establish- 
ment of credits for productive projects in the Philippines. 

In extension of grant and loan assistance, the Economic 
Cooperation Administration and the Export-Import Bank 
will be closely associated to the end that both loans and 
grants shall be utilized as part of a single integrated and 
coordinated program of United States aid, and Philippine 
Government efforts designed to help build economic 
strength in the Philippines and assist in meeting the needs 
and aspirations of the Philippine people. 

These actions reiJect the confidence of the Government 
of the United States that continued progress will be made 
in carrying out the recommendations of the United States 
Economic Survey Mission. 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



Africa's Role in the Free World Today 



hy George C. McGhee 

Assistant Secretary for N ear Eastern^ South Asianand African Affairs ^ 



I am honored to take part in tliis — the first Sum- 
mer Institute on Contemporary Africa to be held 
on an American universitj^ campus. An outstand- 
ing and internationally known pioneer in the field 
of African studies, Professor Herskovits, has for 
many years attracted to Northwestern University 
I African specialists from all over the world, to 
i concentrate on that fabulous area lying south of 
■ the Sahara Desert. In turn, he has sent his grad- 
uate students to various parts of Europe and 
Africa to undertake field studies. The Depart- 
ment of State is pleased to have the opportunity 
to coopei'ate in some of these endeavors through 
the Smith-Mundt. Fulbright. and Point Four pro- 
grams. It welcomes the opportunity of sending 
some of its own personnel to Evanston this sum- 
mer to participate in this Institute, and to ex- 
change views with others who have gathered here 
to advance knowledge and understanding of the 
vast African Continent. 

For my brief talk this evening, I will offer an 
analysis of the role that Africa plays in the free 
world today and then discuss what the free world 
is doing for Africa — in particular what the United 
States is doing to assist in the development of that 
Continent in concert with the metropolitan 
powers. 

Africa today remains oriented toward the free 
world both economically and politically, but we 
must not make light of the difHculties which face 
us — the peoples of the free world — if it is to re- 
main so oriented. Communism as such appears 
to have made no substantial progress in the area, 
but contiiuiation of this state of affairs cannot be 
taken for granted. Recent developments have fo- 
cused attention on Africa's increasingly important 
role in global affairs. It provides a sizable pro- 
portion of the strategic materials now required by 
the Western powers, including such minerals as 
copper, chrome, cobalt, manganese, bauxite, as- 

' Address made at Northwestern University, Evanston, 
m., on June 27 and released to tlie press on the same date. 

Ju/y 76, 1 95 1 

957384—51 3 



bestos, tin, industrial diamonds, and uranium. It 
also provides rubber, sisal, hardwoods, hides, fats, 
and oils. 

Since three-fourths of the Continent's inhabi- 
tants are under European control, and the sov- 
ereign countries of Africa are allied both economi- 
cally and politically with Europe and the United 
States, Africa is firmly associated with the free 
world. The Europeans regard their African ter- 
ritories as essential to their economic well-being, 
their military security, and their political position 
in the world community. Since the Second World 
War, Africa's importance to them has been greatly 
enhanced. 



A Fertile Field for Communism 

The Soviet rulers have also become increasingly 
aware of the importance of Africa to the free 
world and are accelerating their efforts to weaken 
Euroi^ean prestige and control with the hope of 
ultimately including the African territories in 
the Soviet bloc. In Africa there is fortunately 
time to apply preventive rather than curative 
methods against communism. But, as Elspeth 
Huxley recently pointed out : "We run a race with 
time, on the one hand, our good iiitentions, our 
needs, and our resolve to remake and enlighten, 
and, on the other hand, the natural and gathering 
impatience of the half-educated, fed on the vapor 
of our own philosophy — to be done with an alien 
ruler." 

Conditions exist in many parts of Africa which 
could well play into the hands of Communist agi- 
tators — low standards of living, altitudes of white 
supremacy, and disintegration of tribal authority. 
In the war of proj)aganda and diplomacy which 
the Soviets are waging throughout the world, the 
central purpose is to destroy the unity of the free 
world, to i)it against each other Americans, Euro- 
peans, Asians, and Africans. Soviet propagan- 
dists accuse Americans and Europeans of talking 

97 



of democracy and liberty !ind yet confinino; their 
application to a small minority. The Russians 
accuse the West of preachintr justice and practic- 
ing inequality, leaving masses of people in pov- 
erty. Russia exploits grievances and poverty, in- 
cites resistance to authority, and encourages class 
and race hatred. 

While the Russians have not attempted to es- 
tablish states in Africa based on Communist ideol- 
ogy, they desire to disrupt the existing govern- 
ments and ci'eate revolutionary conditions which 
would, if successful, react unfavorably on Europe. 
Communists in Africa infiltrate wherever possible 
into labor unions and nationalist movements. 
They attempt to subvert to Communist ends, move- 
ments sincerely designed to improve the position 
of the African. 

In meeting the Soviet threat in Africa, the 
Department of State attempts to expose Commun- 
ist lies and to reveal the true nature of "Soviet 
imperialism." AVe point out that no nation in 
modern times has annexed so much territory, or 
extended its ruthless imperialistic control over 
so many of her neighbors, as has Russia since the 
end of the Second World War; that since 1939 
the Soviet Union has actually annexed 264,000 
square miles of new territory with more than 24 
million people. Russia rules with an iron hand 
over nine supposedly sovereign European states, 
not counting her dictatorial occupation of Eastern 
Germany and her interference in Chinese affairs. 

We point out Russia's duplicity in posing as 
the champion of all colonial peoples while she 
herself rejects all moral and ethical standards in 
her treatment of peoples under her control ; that 
between 3 and 4 million human beings are in 
Russian concentration camps; and that slave 
labor forms the very foundation of the Soviet 
economy. 

Russia is herself an empire, and Russia's treat- 
ment of minorities living within that empire is 
well known. In 1946, for example, one-half rail- 
lion Moslems living in the Caucasus, Crimea, and 
Volga areas were exiled to Siberia. Six thousand 
mosques and 8,000 Moslem schools were converted 
to stables, dance halls, and antireligious museums. 
Wherever Russian connmmism has prevailed, 
there has resultetl loss of freedom and lowering 
of standards of living. While Russia proclaims 
elsewhere in the world the right of self-determi- 
nation, there is, neither in Russia nor in her colo- 
nial satellites, freedom of self-government, the 
right of peoples to live their own lives — to follow 
their own traditions. » 



Preparations for Self-Government 

Exposing the falsities of Soviet propaganda, 
however, is not sufficient. To provide an answer 
to Russia's propaganda we must reaffirm our faith 
in the principles of the free world and its way 
of life. We must show to the Africans and others 



that their individual and national aspirations can 
best be achieved in company with the free world 
community. 

We could do much worse than take the advice 
of Chief Kidahu of Tanganyika, the first African 
member of the Executive Council in East Africa, 
who recently suggested: ''The prime duty of Eu- 
ropean, Asian, and African leaders is to find and 
develop points of agreement." He added signifi- 
cantly : "We Africans will not be misled by ex- 
tremists if the mass of the people come to feel that 
the Africans are being given fair i-epresentation." 

If a true partnership can be worked out be- 
tween Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Amer- 
icans — based on mutual self-respect and under- 
standing and the acceptance of mutual responsibil- 
ities — non-Africans will be less apt to confuse the 
African of today with his unprivileged grand- 
father, and Africans will not confuse the present- 
day European with his less liberal grandfather. 
Justified resentment against the practices of nine- 
teenth century colonialism, tainted as it was with 
human exploitation and racial discrimination, will 
be i-ej^laced by a respect for the constant growth 
of international accountability for dependent 
peoples under the aegis of the United Nations. 

Africans rightly insist, however, that words 
must be backed up with deeds. On the whole, the 
postwar performance of the metropolitan powers 
shows that ste2:)S are being taken in the right di- 
rection. Contrasted with the retrogressive Rus- 
sian imperialism, in fact, the so-called capitalistic 
colonialism appears most progressive. Since 1945, 
countries containing over 5.'')0 millions of people 
have become independent. Six new nations of 
Asia — India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma, the Phil- 
ipfiines, and Indonesia — have come into existence. 
In addition, there are Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, 
Israel in the Middle East, while Libya, Somali- 
land, the new states of Indochina, and others are 
moving forward toward indepenclence. 

Immediate independence is, however, not the 
cure for all colonial problems. The United States 
Government has always maintained that prema- 
ture independence for primitive, uneducated peo- 
ples can do them more harm than good and subject 
them to an exploitation bj' indigenous leaders, un- 
restrained by the civic standards that come with 
M'idespread education, that can be just as ruthless 
as that of aliens. Also, giving full indei^endence 
to peoples unprepared to meet aggression or sub- 
version can endanger not only the peoples them- 
selves but the security of the free world. 

It is, however, the traditional policy of the 
United States to support orderly movements 
toward self-government. We have followed with 
interest, therefore, the efforts of the various Eu- 
ropean govermiients over the years to promote 
the political, economic, social, and educational 
advancement of the peoples in African territories 
and the spread of genuine African nationalism. 
African nationalism derives in part from the acute 
nationalism prevalent in other parts of the world 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



and, in part, is a reaction to foreign propaganda 
against colonialism. It is also derived, however, 
from an emerging belief that Africans as such 
must stand together. 



Establishing a Constitution for the Gold Coast 

Of especial interest have been the recent polit- 
ical developments in British West Africa. Jan- 
uary 1, 1951, marked an historic day in the Gold 
Coast. It may well mark an historic day in Africa. 
It was on this day that a new constitution became 
effective in the Gold Coast, establishing popular 
elections and granting to the African himself 
broad competence over his own aifairs for the first 
time in African colonial history. This last month 
I had the privilege of welcoming to Washington 
on behalf of my government two distinguished 
visitors from the Gold Coast, Mr. Nkrumah, the 
Leader of Government Business, and Mr. Botsio, 
the Minister of Education and Social Welfare, 
following Mr. Nkrumah's reception of an honorary 
doctorate at his alma mater, Lincoln University. 

I took this occasion to point out to our honored 
guests that, while the far-reaching developments 
in British colonial policy had produced misgivings 
in certain quarters, we ourselves had no such mis- 
givings — that we had observed the efficient manner 
with which the preliminary stages of this bold 
experiment had been worked out cooperatively be- 
tween the British officials and the Afi-icans, and 
the moderation and sense of responsibility shown 
by the African leaders since the constitution be- 
came operative. I pointed out that we were con- 
fident that this significant beginning in African 
administration would succeed; that it must suc- 
ceed in order to prove that the African is capable 
of governing himself. I also cautioned that peo- 
ple were watching with some degree of anxiety. 
Knowing that there are serious obstacles to over- 
come. Foremost among these will be the difficulty 
of unifying a diverse people, a people differing in 
language and customs and in degree of political 
consciousness and economic development. The 
boldness of the experiment could only be measured 
in the light of these difficulties. 

Mr. Nkrumah in return spoke feelingly of his 
awareness of the difficulties and the responsibili- 
ties, as well as the opportunities, involved m setting 
up a new government which he hoped in the not 
too distant future would attain full dominion 
status within the British Commonwealth. 

Elections will soon take place in Nigeria, and 
a new government will be elected under the new 
constitution which will, like the Gold Coast Con- 
stitution, represent a significant step in the direc- 
tion of full self-govermnent. These and other 
constitutional developments in British Africa of- 
fer convincing evidence of a sincerity of purpose 
in carrying out the long-avowed objectives of Brit- 
ish colonial policy of advancing dependent peoples 
to self-government as rapidly as conditions per- 



mit. They represent an incontestable denial of 
the oft-repeated charges of the Kremlin that the 
British and other European nations are intent on 
keeping dependent peoples in permanent subjec- 
tion. Only by helping responsible African leaders 
create a state of society which the mass of the 
people will find infinitelv preferable to the alter- 
native offered by the dommunists, can the full 
cooperation of the African be assured to the free 
world. 

Among many of the peoples living in Africa, 
only slightly touched by modern civilization, the 
immediate problem is not political status but im- 
provement of health, sanitation, living and work- 
ing conditions, and education and training in the 
fundamentals upon which successful participation 
in government can be achieved. 

Within the framework of the United Nations, 
the various Member nations having overseas ter- 
ritories have assumed specific obligations with re- 
spect to the dependent peoples of Africa. They 
have declared that they "recognize the principle 
that the interests of the inhabitants of these ter- 
ritories are paramount" and that "they accept as 
a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the 
utmost . . . the well-being of the inhabitants of 
these territories." Furthermore, in accepting the 
doctrine of international accountability they 
agreed to send regularly to the United Nations 
information on the economic, social, and educa- 
tional conditions in their colonies. If one reviews 
these reports and the huge development and wel- 
fare schemes of the various metropolitan powers 
with territories in Africa, as I am sure you plan 
to, one cannot help but be impressed with the 
steps that have been taken since World War II to 
promote the political, economic, social, and educa- 
tional advancement of the peoples of their 
territories. 

To summarize them only briefly : the United 
Kingdom has allotted some 500 million dollars 
under the Colonial Development and Welfare Act 
of 1915 to promote the development of the re- 
sources of the colonies and the welfare of their 
inhabitants. By the end of March 1950, 10-year 
plans for 23 British territories had been approved, 
providing for expenditiu'es on specific projects of 
600 million dollars. Of this sum, abovit 180 mil- 
lion dollars includes contributions by the terri- 
tories themselves. Most of the planning for the 
projects is done by development committees in 
the territories, subject to over-all approval by the 
Colonial Office in London. 

Progress in Development Programs 

Although most of the development programs 
are heavily weighted on the side of economic de- 
velopment, thej- also stress education, health, sani- 
tation, water supply, connnunity development, and 
resettlement of populations in healthier and more 
fertile areas. Illustrative of the latter is the very 



July 16, 1 95 1 



99 



successful Anchan Resettlement Scheme in Ni- 
geria, which was accomplished over a period of 
three or four years after World War II. During 
this time a native population of some 60,000 living 
in an agriculturally impoverished area infested 
with tsetse flies was moved to a fertile region free 
from the scourge of sleeping sickness. This was 
no forced transfer of unwillincj populations, as is 
so common in the Soviet Empire, but was carried 
out in a spirit of mutual cooperation. The An- 
chan Resettlement Scheme provided new housing, 
health facilities, a potable water supply, and neces- 
sary agricultural equipment for the resettled 
population. 

In the field of public health it may be pointed 
out that about 3 million dollars was spent in the 
Gold Coast alone during fiscal year 1949-50 for 
the improvement of health facilities. A Train- 
ing School for Nurses and several hospitals were 
constructed in the Gold Coast during that time. 

In 1949-50 appropriations for education in the 
Gold Coast exceeded $4,500,000. Plans were 
drafted for the expansion of primary, secondary, 
and higher education. Recent progress in tech- 
nical education is represented by the reopening of 
the Government Technical School at Takoradi 
and the establishment of two trade-training cen- 
ters in 1948-49. Construction of several new 
technical institutes was started in Kumasi in 1949. 

The Belgian Congo 10- Year Plan which was an- 
nounced last year proposed the expenditure of 
500 million dollars for the following main proj- 
ects: (1) construction of a railway line to con- 
nect the Lower Congo Katanga Railway with the 
Upper Congo-Great Lakes Railways; (2) electrifi- 
cation of the Matadi-Leopoldville Railway; (3) 
building of 12,000 kilometers of roads; (4) en- 
largement and reequipment of all ports, both mari- 
time and river ones; (5) buoying of rivers and 
improvement of their channels; (6) construction 
of a new airfield at Leopoldville, and seven other 
airfields; (7) building of four hydroelectric 
power stations and increase in the power of seven 
stations already commissioned; (8) building of 
medical and pharmaceutical depots, building of 
eight new hospitals and enlarging and improving 
of 24 others, 14 laboratories, 10 tuberculosis sana- 
toria, 7 hospitals for the insane, and 6 hospitals 
for incurables. In addition, there is planned a 
vast expansion of the elementary and secondary 
schools, agricultural and professional schools, and 
eventually a university college in the Congo, estab- 
lishment of local industries, and development of 
vast housing schemes. 

Similarly, the French Government has begun an 
extensive development program in its African 
territories, and is planning to spend the equivalent 
of approximately V/^ billion dollars on various 
projects. Schools, hospitals, and roads will be 
provided to many primitive and backward areas. 
Irrigation and hydroelectric developments are 
steadily improving the supply of food and power 



in North Africa. In French West Africa, the 
Niger Development Scheme has introduced the 
more extensive use of agricultural machinery. 

In general, all administrations in Africa have 
been concerned with increasing agricultural pro- 
ductivity so as to eliminate hunger and famine and 
to improve the quality and the quantity of the 
native diet. Administrators in Africa face great 
obstacles to agricultural development because of 
irregular supply or total lack of water, soil erosion, 
and the primitive agricultural methods of the 
native poi^ulations. 

By and large, the most concrete accomplish- 
ments have been made in the field of transporta- 
tion and communications. Basic to all other de- 
velopment programs are more and better roads, 
jDorts, railroads, telephone and wireless communi- 
cations. 

Various forms of cooperation exist among the 
administering powers in Africa, primarily in the 
fields of health, labor, control of animal diseases, 
soil conservation, communications, and transpor- 
tation. An international organization responsible 
for supervising these cooperative activities, called 
the Commission for Technical Cooperation South 
of the Sahara, was set up in 1949. Numerous con- 
ferences among the metropolitan countries have 
been held to discuss ways and means of improving 
liealth conditions, labor welfare, soil conservation, 
etc. Many special bureaus exist under the Com- 
mission of Technical Cooperation in Africa South 
of the Sahara, which deal with such specific prob- 
lems as sleeping sickness, education, et cetera. 

ECA Aid to African Dependencies 

Through Eca, extensive aid has been provided, 
in the form of both gi-ants and loans, to the African 
dependencies of France, United Kingdom, Bel- 
gium, and, to a smaller extent, Portugal. 

Since France has elected to utilize a substantial 
portion of her regularly allotted Eca program 
funds for recovei-y and development purposes in 
her overseas territories, as well as considei'able 
franc allotments from EcA-generated counterpart 
funds, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the large 
French territories south of the Sahara have been 
the largest recipients of Eca aid. Altogether, the 
French have used approximately 285 million dol- 
lars in Eca counti-y pi'ogram funds for territorial 
impoi'ts, and, in addition, about 140 million dollars 
equivalent in local currency counterpart funds to 
the overseas territories. 

The Eca has also provided considerable aid, 
through grants and loans, to the African De- 
pendent Overseas Territories from a special re- 
serve fund for overseas development. Up to the 
present time, the Eca aid approved from this 
source to British, French, and Belgian territories 
has come to more than 62 million dollars. As- 
sistance from this fund, which has been more 
and more closely related to critical sectors in the 
cui'rent investment programs for the overseas ter- 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



ritories. has been provided in support of a wide 
range of projects including road developments, 
improvements in river navigation and port fa- 
cilities, agricultural projects, power installations 
j where these are required in support of expanding 
I production, irrigation schemes, and the like. 

Aid provided through Eca has also been made 

available in the form of technical assistance. 

Through Maj- 31, 1951, 49 technical-assistance 

projects in the dependent overseas territories had 

been approved b}' Eca at a total cost of about 

$710,000. The scope of assistance thus provided 

has been quite wide, including surveys of mineral 

j and other resources, engineering aid in planning 

transportation routes, and recommendations for 

I health-control measures. In the handling of 

: these projects, Eca has emphasized continuously 

■ the importance of transfer of "know-how" to local 

j technicians in order that the benefits of the as- 

; sistance provided may be permanent in character. 

Additional Assistance Through Point Four 

A^liile Eca has given substantial assistance to 
the dependent overseas territories in Africa, little 
or no aid has been extended to the neighboring 
I independent countries. The Point Four agree- 
ments which have been signed with Liberia, Libya, 
Eritrea, and Ethiopia will tend to fill this gap. 

The Republic of Liberia was the first of the 
independent countries to sign a Point Four agree- 
ment with the United States. Liberia has, of 
course, received considerable technical and finan- 
cial aid from the United States over a long period, 
which has contributed to the great progress made 
in Liberia in the last 10 j^ears. The U. S. Navy, 
with the use of lend-lease funds made available 
during World War II, constructed a 20-million- 
dollar port at the capital city of Monrovia which 
is supporting Liberia's economic expansion. The 
cost of this port is, incidentally, being repaid the 
United States from port revenues. An airfield 
and several roads were also constructed during the 
war by the U.S. Army. 

U.S. aid to Liberia has not been confined to 
wartime efforts, however. Since 19i4 we have had 
an Economic Mission in Liberia. The Mission has 
conducted surveys of the mineral and agricultural 
resources of Liberia, leading to the development of 
many of these resources on a scale never previously 
known in that nation. 

The U.S. Public Health Service has also had 
a mission in Liberia since 1944. The mission has 
established a school of nursing, has trained lab- 
oratory technicians, helped in a malaria-control 
program, and done valuable studies of tropical 
diseases. In addition to these missions, the United 
States is helping in the development of Liberia 
through the instrument of the Export-Import 
Bank and the Point Four Program. 



July 16, 1 95 1 



The Liberian Point Four Program was designed 
to coincide with a proposed Liberian Government 
5-year program for economic development. The 
number of technicians already assigned to Liberia 
is the largest of any country participating in the 
Point Four Program. Projects in operation in- 
clude development and improvement of Liberian 
agriculture, public health, education, public works 
and government services. The program for fiscal 
1951 had a budget of $765,000 from Point Four 
funds. The Liberian Government agreed to allo- 
cate 20 percent of its annual revenue, which should 
exceed 7 million dollars, to the program. 

The projects under Point Four for Ethiopia, 
Libya, and Eritrea are still in the planning stages 
but will include agricultural, educational, rural 
development, and transportation undertakings 
which will enable these countries to improve the 
standard of living of their peoples and will make 
it possible for them to play an increasingly signifi- 
cant role in the community of free nations. 

Evidence of Cooperative Activity 

From the foregoing, it may be seen that there 
is today a vast ferment of cooperative activity in 
the development of Africa. It will be effective 
only if all concerned have an appreciation of cer- 
tain basic facts. Europeans and Americans hav- 
ing responsibilities in Africa must clearly recog- 
nize that there is no short and easy path to eco- 
nomic development which ignores the social 
complex and the psychological needs of African 
society. The African peoples must realize that 
if social and economic evolution is to become inte- 
grated effectively into African life, then they 
themselves must be prepared to assume a large 
share of the burden and responsibilities which it 
involves. Both African and non-African must 
realize that each has a separate but valuable con- 
tribution to make in the development of this vast 
Continent, and that maximum results will be ob- 
tained only by combining the African peoples' 
traditional and intuitive knowledge of their coun- 
try with the European and American heritage of 
scientific and industrial advance. 

The new era of progress and growing inde- 
pendence which has started in Africa with the 
help of the free nations of the world stands out in 
bold contrast to the dark spirit of reactionary 
colonialism which animates Russian expansionist 
philosophy. The peoples of Africa must realize 
that the greatest danger to the full realization of 
their economic, social, and spiritual development 
lies in the menace of Communist imperialism, 
which tlircatens the security of the entire free 
world and a.ssures for the Africans as colonial 
peoples — not self-government but a dark future of 
political and cultural enslavement. 



101 



Further Expansion of VOA Programs 



[Released to the press June 23] 



The Voice of America will step up its campaign 
of truth to the Soviet Union with the inauguration 
Sunday, June 24, of daily broadcasts in Tatar, 
Turkestani, Azerbaijani, and Armenian. New 
programs also will be initiated o\\ the same date in 
Malayan and Burmese. 

Translated statements by Vice President Bark- 
ley will be broadcast in the opening Malayan and 
Burmese programs, and statements by Secretary 
Acheson, translated into each of the languages, 
will be used in all six of the inaugural programs. 
The Burmese broadcast also will include a state- 
ment by James Barrington, Burmese Ambassador 
to the United States, and the Armenian program 
will include a sermon by the Rev. M. Manigian, 
oldest Armenian minister in the United States. 

The new daily 15-minute programs to the Soviet 
Union will be beamed from transmittei-s in the 
United States, with simultaneous relays hy broad- 
casting facilities at Munich and Tangier, on the 
following schedule : Tatar, 9 : 30 a.m., e.d.t. (5 : 30 
p.m. area time); Turkestani, 9:45 a.m., e.d.t. 
(6:45 p.m., area time); Azerbaijani, 10 a.m., 
e.d.t. (6 p.m., area time) ; Armenian, 10:45 a.m., 
e.d.t. (6:45 p.m., area time). The new programs 
will supplement broadcasts already being beamed 
to listeners in the Soviet Union in Russian, 
Ukrainian, and Georgiaii. 

Additional coverage to Soviet-controlled areas 
has recently been initiated in Estonian, Latvian, 
and Lithuanian broadcasts. 

The daily 15-niiiuite Malayan and Burmese pro- 
grams will be broadcast from stateside transmit- 
ters with sinndtaneous relay by Manila and 
Honolulu. The schedule willbe: Malayan, 9: 30 
a.m., e.d.t. (9 p.m., area time); Burmese, 9:45 
a.m., e.d.t. (8 : 15 p.m., area time). 

All of the new programs will feature news and 
commentary. 

Also on June 24, the Voice of America will add 
daily 15-minute programs to the pi-esent schedules 
in Italian and Turkish. This will increase the 
Italian language output to one hour and 25 
minutes daily and the Turkish language output 
to one hour daily. 



The additions will increase the total output of 
the Voice of America to more than 48 program 
hours daily in 45 language services and will com- 
plete the programing expansion for the current 
fiscal year, which began with a total of 29 jDrogram 
hours in 24 languages. 



SOVIET MOSLEM BROADCASTS 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

I am very happy to have this opportunity to say 
a few words to the Moslem peoples of the Soviet 
Union. For some while now, the Voice of America 
has been bringing its message of truth and liberty 
to the peoples of the free world including Islamic 
peoples of Asia and Africa. Today, we are proud 
to broadcast to the Tatar, the Azerbaijani, and 
the Turkestani peoples in the U.S.S.R. who for 
more than three decades have been denied access 
to the truth by the Communists. 

We Americans admire the brave manner in 
which all the peoples of the Soviet Union includ- 
ing the Tatars, the Azerbaijanis, and the Turke- 
stanis are striving to maintain their religions, their 
traditions, their own way of life, despite the efforts 
of the Communist regime to replace religion with 
godlessness, to replace the glorious histories of 
the peoples of the Soviet Union with the false 
folklore of Stalinism. 

The people of the United States have a friendly 
regard for the Moslem peoples of the U.S.S.R. 
The proud history of the Tatars of the Volga, 
who have maintained their ancient culture and 
traditions despite all obstacles; the brave Azer- 
baijanis and other mountain people of the Cau- 
casus whose centuries-old struggle for their 
human rights has provided some of history's most 
glorious pages; the peoples of Turkestan whose 
ancient cities of Bokhara, Samarkand, Merv, and 
Tashkent represent monuments of a lofty culture; 
these, like the other God fearing peoples of the 
Soviet Union, are regarded by us Americans as 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



staunch pillars against atheistic, materialistic 
tyranny. 

Tlie Voice of America will hencefortli bring 
vou in your own languages tlie truth which the 
"Communists fear and try to keep from you. We 
shall tell you what is happening in the free world 

land particularly in those regions of the free world 

[linked with you by religion, tradition, and culture. 
We .shall keep you informed of the aggressive ac- 
tions of tliose disturbing world peace. We shall 
tell you how free men are standing firm against 

(the further spread of despotism. 

I As I said last month to the people of Georgia, 
the goal of the American people and their Gov- 
ernment is a peaceful world where all men can 
live and work freely and happily, without want 
or fear and with the right to worship God in their 

'own way. This is our vision of the future; we 
invite you to share it. 

I I extend to you Moslems of the Soviet Union, 
in the name of the American people, our sincere, 
friendly greetings. 



SOVIET ARMENIAN PROGRAM 

Statement by Secretaiy Acheson 

I am happy to have this opportunity to say a 
, few words to the people of Soviet Armenia. Here 
in the United States, a quarter of a million Ameri- 
can citizens of Armenian origin are living proof 
of the magnificent character and spirit of this 
virile race. Among the leaders in American life 
today we find such names as Saroyan, Mamoulian, 
and Kazanjian; men who have contributed much 
to the cultural and scientific progress of modern 
America. Working under conditions of freedom 
and equality, these and other Americans of Arme- 
nian origin have shown that the same people who 
produced such luminaries in the fields of art and 
literature as Mesrop. Mashtots, and Mofses 
Khorenadzi can contribute in every field of en- 
deavor. 

Although not many ^Vmericans have had the 

good fortune of visiting Armenia, your land and 

; people are well known to us. We admire the 

; brave manner, in which j'ou, like the other peoples 

\ of the Soviet Union, liave succeeded in preserving 

i your national j)crs(inality, your ancient traditions, 

I and your will to stand up for your human rights. 

I You are known to us as a people who early adopted 

Christianity and maintained a Christian culture 

and civilization through the ages. You, like the 

other God fearing peoples of the Soviet Union, 

are regarded by us Americans as staunch pillars 

against atheistic, materialistic tyranny. 

The Voice of America will, henceforth, bring 
you in the Armenian language the truth of what 
is happening in the outside world, the truth which 
the Communists are trying to keep from you. We 

Ju/y 16, 1 95 1 



shall keep you informed of the aggressive actions 
of those disturbing world peace. We shall tell 
you how free men are standing firm against the 
further spread of despotism. 

The ultimate goal of the American people and 
their Government is a peaceful world where all 
men can live and work in freedom, without want 
or fear, with the right to worship God in their 
own way. 

This is America's vision of the future. We are 
confident the people of Soviet Armenia share it. 

I extend to you Armenians in the name of the 
American people, our sincere and friendly greet- 
ings. 



MALAYAN PROGRAM 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

I am happy to greet the people of Singapore 
and the Federation of Malaya today on this new 
program of the Voice of America in the Malay 
language. Through these daily broadcasts we 
hope to strengthen the friendship that has existed 
between us for so many years. The people of the 
United States welcome this opportunity to share 
our ideas and ideals with you in Singapore and in 
the Federation of Malaj^a. 

The part Malaya is taking in the free world 
struggle to preserve the peace and independence 
of all people is a bright ray of hope in these dark 
hours. Your courageous efforts in combating 
communism on the home front and the words and 
deeds of j'our leaders are living proof of your 
determination to build a world in which all peo- 
ples can enjoy peace and freedom. 

As you listen to this new jorogram and hear the 
voices of both American and Malayan friends, 
we hope it will serve to remind 3'ou of American 
friendship for Malaya and Singapore and of our 
common aims and ho^Des. 

Statement hy Vice President Barkley 

This is the first broadcast of the Voice of xVmer- 
ica to the people of Singapore and Malaya. I send 
you greetings from the American i)eople. 

We in the United States are learning more and 
more each day about Southeast Asia. It is our 
hope that these Voice of America broadcasts, 
which you will hear each day, will tell j-ou some- 
thing about us. I iujpe that this lunv avenue for 
the transmission of information and knowledge 
will strengtiien the ties of Malayan-American 
friendship, and that we may better work together 
for our mutual desire of peace in the world. 

Statement hy Assistant Secretary Rush 

I am happy to be able to speak (o you today on 
this first Voice of America bioadcast in Malay 
to Singapore and the Federation of Malaya. 

103 



The daily broadcasts which will follow will be 
dedicated, above all, to reporting the facts in the 
woi'ld situation. I hope that these broadcasts will 
prove to be not merely a message from the United 
States to you but will stimulate tlie exchange of 
knowledge and ideas between us. 

We in America have learned that we live in a 
world in which each is dependent in a very real 
sense upon all. We believe that we cannot solve 
our problems unless men elsewhere solve theirs. 
We see the single great problem of men every- 
where to be that of creating and preserving a world 
in which all nations can live in peace and move 
forward to a better life for all their citizens. 

I know that these Voice of America broadcasts 
in the Malayan language will contribute to the 
understanding and friendship between our peo- 
ples which is essential to the great constructive 
tasks which confront us both. 



PROGRAM TO BURMA 

Statement by Vice President Barkley 

It gives me great pleasure to greet the people 
of Burma today on this initial broadcast of a con- 
tinuing series of Voice of America broadcasts in 
the Burmese language. 

Through this new channel of education and in- 
formation, we hope to strengthen the friendship 
that has existed between our two countries for so 
many years. The people of the United States are 
glad to have this opportunity to share our ideas 
and ideals with you in Burma. On these new pro- 
grams, 3'ou will hear from both Burmese and 
American friends, and it is my hope that the 
friendship for Burma, which is so pronounced in 
the United States, will be strengthened by these 
broadcasts. 

You izi Burma can be proud of the part your 
nation is playing in the tremendous world struggle 
to preserve peace. Your courage is a lantern of 
hope in this dark period. We in the United 
States, who obtained our own independence less 
than two hundred years ago, can understand and 
appreciate the multitude of problems faced by a 
new independent government such as yours. The 
words and deeds of your leaders are an inspiration 
to us and to free people everywhere. 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

It is my great privilege today to express the 
good wishes of the people of the 'United States to 
the people of Burma on the occasion of the first 
Voice of America broadcast in the Burmese 
language. 

It is more important today than ever before, for 
the free nations of the world to have a full and 
free flow of information. It is essential that the 



free world not be divided by barriers between the \ 
minds and hearts of free men. It is our hope that 
these Voice of America broadcasts will play a i 
great part in the elimination of those barriers 
raised by distance and by the efforts of those who 
wish to see us divided. 

The peoples of the nations of the free world 
have watched with interest and deep concern the 
struggles of the Union of Burma to consolidate ; 
its position within the family of free nations in | 
the face of adverse domestic conditions. The ex- 
ample of the courage of the people of Burma in 
the face of these difficulties is an inspiring one. 
The faithfulness of the Union of Burma to the 
principle of collective security under the United 
Nations and to the cause of world peace gives hope | 
and comfort to all the nations of the free world. 

It is indeed an honor for me to reaffirm the 
friendship of the people of the United States to- 
ward the people of Burma and to send to you our 
best wishes for a prosperous future as a democratic 
member of the family of nations. 

State^nent hy James Bamngton \ 

Ambassador of Burma \ 

It gives me great pleasure to be here on this | 
inauguration of the Voice of America Burmese 
service. 

It is now nearly 4 yeai's since the Union of 
Burma entered into diplomatic relationship with 
the United States. They have happilj^ been years 
of cordial understanding and cooperation between 
our two countries. I have been in the United 
States now for nearly 9 months. During this time, 
I have come to learn that the people of the United 
States have a genuine interest in Burma and that 
they and their Government are solicitous for the 
welfare and prosperity of our people. This in- 
terest and solicitude is fully reciprocated by the 
Government and people of the Union of Burma. 
The cultivation and strengthening of this mutual 
interest and solicitude is of the greatest importance 
not only for our two countries but also for the 
world in general. 

With every year that passes, science draws the 
countries of the world physically closer to each 
other. To maintain the balance of the world, it is 
imperative that this performance in the physical 
sphere should be matched by corresponding ad- 
vances in the political, cultural, and spiritual 
siDheres. In other words, the peoples of the world 
themselves must be brought closer. Each of us 
must not only be able to present our own point of 
view and try to get it understood by the peoples 
of the world, but we must in turn try to become 
acquainted with, and endeavor to understand, the 
points of view of the other peoples who inhabit 
the globe. 

The service which is being inaugurated today is 
a step in this general direction. As such, I warmly 
welcome it and wish it all success. 



104 



Deparfmeni of State Bulletin 



Regional Office of Private 
, Enterprise Cooperation Opens 

[Released to the press July 1'] 

A soutliern regional office to vrork with busi- 
ness, industry and other private enterprise in 
furthering the government's international in- 
formation and educational exchange progi'am will 
open at New Orleans July 2. 

A branch of the State Department's Office of 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, the new unit will 

I be located in the International Trade Mart. 

' Vaughn M. Bryant, formerly director of public 

I relations for International House at New Orleans, 

I will be in charge. 

! New Orleans was selected for this new office 

i because of its importance as a great port and in- 
ternational gateway. It has gained widespread 
recognition in recent years for its unique and 

1 effective international program to develop world 

I trade and understanding. 

Edward W. Barrett, Assistant Secretary for 
Public Affairs, in pointing out the reasons for 

j the selection of New Orleans for the southern re- 
gional office, said : 

We consider New Orleans the gateway between the 
I vast mid-Continent area of the United States and the 
I rest of the world, particularl.v Latin America. Our office 
1 there will be able to serve this area, working with pri- 
vate enterprise in the Mississippi Valley and over the 
South from Florida to Texas. 

The Office of Private Enterprise Cooperation was cre- 
ated nearly 3 years ago at the direction of Congress to 
i enlist the aid and support of business, industry, educa- 
tion, and other private enterprise in the Campaign of 
Truth against Soviet-hate propaganda. A branch office 
was later opened in New York and expanding activities 
have now resulted in the New Orleans office and one 
opened in San Francisco last month. 

Today, private enterprise is working in hundreds of 
different ways with the government in its far-flung In- 
formation and Educational Exchange Program. This is 
the Program with which we are meeting and refuting the 
Kremlin lies which Moscow is hammering out 24 hours 
a day in a ruthless war for men's minds. 

By throwing its physical, material, and financial re- 
sources into this tight, private enterprise here in the 
United States has made a tremendous contribution to the 
success of this program already. Cooiieration by private 
enterprise in all phases of our operation has become one 
of our most important weapons. 

We have only begun to explore the possibilities of this 
cooperation, however. There are hundreds of new ways 
in which private enterprise can help, and we know that 
throughout the South there are projects which can be 
undertaken and carried out which will have a telling 
efCect in our campaign to make friends with the world. 

The purpose of private enterprise cooperation offices 
is to work with groups to develop these projects. No 
business, school, club, or other organization is too small 
or too large to help. This is essentially a truth cam- 
paign from people to people. We need all the friends 
everywhere we can get. Moscow would stop us from 
getting them. We need every citizen to work with us 
and we want his interest, his suggestions, and his help. 

July 16, 1 95 1 



Responsibility for Samoa Transferred 
From Navy to interior Department 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House June 29^ 

I have today signed Executive Orders trans- 
ferring administrative responsibility for the Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands and for American 
Samoa from the Secretary of the Navy to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, effective July 1, 1951. 

The establishment of civilian administration in 
these Island areas is an historic event. It con- 
forms with a long-established American tradition 
of conducting the affairs of civil populations under 
civilian authority. It is one further step in the 
extension of additional civil rights to the Island 
territories under our jurisdiction. A similar 
transfer of responsibility from the Secretary of 
the Navy to the Secretary of the Interior was car- 
ried out on Guam on August 1, 1950, simultane- 
ously with the enactment of organic legislation for 
that Territory. 

For 50 years American Samoa has been served 
well and faithfully by the United States Navy, 
which, as the administering authority, had as its 
primary concern the well-being of the Samoan 
people. Since the end of the Second World War, 
the United States Navy has exercised similar func- 
tions in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 
The concern of the Department of the Navy for 
the well-being of the peoples of these areas was an 
expression of the interest of the people and Gov- 
ernment of the United States in the people and 
culture of these Pacific Islands. That interest 
will continue and will grow under civilian ad- 
ministration. The experience of the Department 
of the Interior in promoting the political, eco- 
nomic, and social advancement of our Territories 
will serve as assurance to the people of the United 
States and of the Islands concerned that sound 
policies looking toward their welfare will be car- 
ried forward without interruption in American 
Samoa and in the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. 

It is a matter of particular satisfaction to me 
that this transfer of responsibility has been worked 
out in a planned, orderly manner, in which the 
Department of the Navy and the Department of 
the Interior have collaborated through administra- 
tive agreements. These agreements, embodied in 
memoranda which were approved by the Presi- 
dent, will assure the people of the Islands con- 
cerned of the continuation of their essential serv- 
ices, and will assure the people of the United States 
of the greatest possible economy and most efficient 
administration. 



105 



Text of Executive Order 10264 > 

Transfer of the Administration of American Samoa 
From the Secretary of the Na\t to the Secretary of 
THE Interior 

Whereas the Island of Tutnila of the Samoan group 
and all other islands of the group east of longitude 171 
degrees west of Greenwich, known as American Samoa, 
were placed under the control of the Department of the 
Navy by Executive Order No. 12,')-A of February 19, 1900 ; 
and 

Whereas the joint resolution of February 20, 1929, 4.5 
Stat. 12.j3, provides that until the Congress shall provide 
for the government of such islands all civil, judicial, and 
military powers shall be vested in such person or persons 
and shall he exercised in such manner as the President 
of the United States may direct ; and 

Whereas a committee compo.sed of the Secretaries of 
State, War, the Navy, and the Interior recommended on 
June 18, 1947, that administrative responsibility for 
American Samoa be transferred to a civilian agency of 
the Government at the earliest practicable date as de- 
termined by the President ; and 

Whereas plans for the orderly transfer of adminis- 
trative responsibility for American Samoa from the Sec- 
retary of the Navy to the Secretary of the Interior are 
embodied in a memorandum of understanding between 
the Department of the Navy and the Department of the 
Interior, approved by me on September 2:^, 1940, and it is 
the view of the two departments, as expressed in that 
memorandum, that such transfer should take effect on or 
about July 1, Idiil ; and 

Whereas the transfer of administration of American 
Samoa from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary 
of the Interior, effective July 1, 1951, appears to be in 
the public Interest: 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the said joint resolution of February 20. 1029, and 
as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows: 

1. The administration of American Samoa is hereby 
transferred from the Secretary of the Navy to the Sec- 
retarv of the Interior, such transfer to become effective 
on July 1, 1951. 

2. The Department of the Navy and the Department 
of the Interior shall proceed with the plans for the trans- 
fer of administration of American Samoa as embodied 
in the above-mentioned memorandum of understanding 
between the two departments. 

3. When the transfer of administration made by this 
order becomes effective, the Secretary of the Interior shall 
take such action as may be necessary and appropriate, 
and in harmony with applicable law, for the administra- 
tion of civil government in American Samoa. 

4. The executive departments and agencies of the Gov- 
ernment are authorized and dii-ected to cooperate with 
the Departments of the Navy and Interior in the effectu- 
ation of the provisions of this order. 

5. The said Executive order of February 19, 1900, is 
revoked, effective July 1, 1951. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House, 
June 29, 1951. 



Text of Executive Order 10265 ^ 



Transfer op the Administration op the Trust Terri- 
tory OF THE Pacific Islands From the Secretary op 
THE Navy to the Secretary of the Interior 

Whereas the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 
(hereinafter referred to as the trust territory) was placed 



■ 16 Fed. Rrg. 6417. 
' 16 Fed. Reg. 6419. 



106 



under the trusteeship system established by the Charter 
of the United Nations by means of a trusteeship agree- 
ment approved by the Security Council of the United 
Nations on April 2, 1947, and by the United States Gov- 
ernment on July IS, 1947, after due constitutional pi'ocess; 
and 

Whereas the United States, under the terms of the 
trusteeship agreement, was designated as the administer- 
ing authority of the trust territory, and has assumed 
obligations lor the government thereof; and 

Whereas Executive Order No. 9S75 <if July IS, 1947, 
delegated authority and responsibility for the civil admin- 
istration of the trust territory to the Secretary of the 
Navy on an interim basis; and 

Whereas a connuittee of the Secretaries of State. War, 
the Navy, and the Interior reconunended on June 18, 1947, 
that administrative responsiliility lor the tiiisf territory 
he transferred to a civilian agency of the Government at 
the earliest practicable date; and 

Whereas iilans for the orderly transfer of administra- 
tive responsibility for the trust territory from the Secre- 
tary of the Navy to the Secretary of fbe Interior are 
embodied in a memorandum of luidc'stanillim between 
the I)(>p;irtnient of the Navy and the D p^irfent of the 
Interior, ajiproved by me on Se|itember 23. 1949. and it is 
the view of the two departments, as c xpri^sscd in that 
memorandum, that such transfer should take effect on 
July 1. 19.".1; and 

Wfiereas the transfer of adiTunistrntinn of the trust 
teriltory from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary 
of the Interior, effective July 1, 1951. npiiears to be In the 
public interest : 

Now. THF.HEfOHE, by vlrtiie of the autlio: itv vested in me 
as President of the United ■'States, if is or'i"re<l as fol'ows: 

1. The administration of the trust territory Is hereby 
transferred from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secre- 
taiy of the Interior, such tran.sfer to become effective on 
July 1, 1951. 

2 'I'he Depirtment of the \nvv and th" tV-artment of 
the Interior shall proceed with the plans for the transfer 
of adiinnistration of the trust territory ns einb d'ed in 
the above-mentioned memorandum of understanding be- 
tweeti the two departments. 

3. When the transfer of administration made by tills 
or(ler becomes effective, t''e Secrrtarv of tlie In'e''or shall 
take such action as may be necessar.v and appropriate, and 
in harmony with applicable law. for the adniMilstrat'on 
of civil government in the trust territory and shaM. sub- 
ject to such policies as the Piesident may from time to 
time prescribe and, when ai)iiroprlate. In collaboi-itlon 
with other departments or agencies of the Government, 
cany out ilie obligations assumed by the United States 
as the administering authority of tlie trtist territory under 
the terms of the trusteeship agreement a)iproved by the 
United States on July IS, 1947, and under the Charter 
of the United Nations: Prorichd. Iitiircrir. that the au- 
thority to siiecify parts or all of the trust territory as 
closed for security reasons and to determine the extent 
to which ,\rticles 87 and RS of the ('barter of the 
United Nations shall be applic.'ib'e to such closed areas, 
in accordance with Article 13 of the trusteeship agreement, 
shall be exercised by the President: .\nd pravidrd fiir- 
tfirr, that the Secretary of the Interior shall keep the 
Secretary of State currently informed of activities in the 
trust territory affecting the foreign policy of the United 
States atid shall consult the Secretary of State on ques- 
tions of policy concerning the trust territory which relate 
to the foreign policy of the United States, and that all 
relations between departments or agencies of the Gov- 
ernment and appropriate organs of the United Nations 
with respect to the trust territory shall be conducted 
through the Secretary of State. 

4. The executive departments and agencies of the Gov- 
ernment are authorized and directed to cooperate with 
the Departments of the Navy and Interior in the effectua- 
tion of the provisions of this order. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The Engineer and Point Four 



Remarks hy Dr. Henry G. Bennett 

Administrator of the Technical Cooperation Administration ' 



Engineering is a modest profession. It does not 
shout its accomplishments from the liousetops, so 
that most people are unaware of the contributions 
that engineers have made and are making to our 
safety, well-being, and happiness. 

Science makes the advancement of civilization 
possible, but it is the engineers who apply scien- 
tific discoveries and inventions to everyday life 
for the benefit of ordinary people. Dr. Fleming 
and his colleagues gave us penicillin, but engi- 
neers worked out the methods of mass-producing 
the drug and bringing it within reach of millions 
of people. Pasteur found how to combat disease 
with antitoxins, but engineers put those life-saving 
materials at the disposal of everybody. Edison 
perfected the incandescent lamp, but it was the 
engineers who spread light by developing tech- 
niques for manufacturing millions of bulbs at the 
cost of a few cents each. McCormick had the in- 
spiration to build a mechanical reaper that would 
do the work of hundreds of men, but engineers 
showed us how to produce these marvelous ma- 
chines in quantity, so that no one in our country 
need suffer for lack of daily bread. 

Almost everything we see or touch in our daily 
life is in some way the product of an engineer. 
Food engineers processed our breakfast food. The 
clothes we wear are spun, woven, colored, cut, and 
sewn by processes evolved by engineers. The house 
we live in was built according to engineering 
principles. The water we drink from the tap with- 
out a qualm — and this is one of the few countries 
of the world where it can be done — is safeguarded 
and delivered to us by the sanitary and the chemi- 
cal engineer. The car we drive, the road we 
travel — they too are the products of the engineer's 
skill. 

When we stop to think of how dependent we 
Americans are on engineering and how much the 
engineer has contributed to our modern society, 
we begin to realize that the gap between our condi- 

' Made before the National Society of Professional 
Engineers at Minneapolis, Minn., on June 16. 



tions of life and those in some other parts of the 
world is mainly a gap in engineering skills. 

The Point Four Program is designed to bridge 
that gap by making some of our knowledge and 
skill available to other people in their struggle for 
a better life, so it is obvious that the various 
branches of engineering must play an important 
part in this effort. 

Civil Engineering 

One of the major handicaps of the underdevel- 
oped countries is lack of transportation and com- 
munications. Take Africa as an example — a 
continent more than 5,400 miles from north to 
south and 4,500 miles from east to west, with no 
through routes, either railroads or highways, for 
transporting people or merchandise. In fact 
there are few miles of railroads or reliable high- 
ways on the whole continent. The same problem 
exists in many parts of Latin America and Asia. 
In some areas the wheel is still unknown. Yet the 
building of roads is possibly the greatest single 
means of opening up new regions to development 
and quickening the economic life of a people. 

Under Point Four we are sending engineers of 
the Bureau of Public Roads to countries that ask 
for technical help in solving their transportation 
problems. Often, their surveying and planning 
paves the way for private American engineering 
firms to build roads under contract. We hope that 
the services of private companies will be increas- 
ingly in demand as our Point Four technicians 
point up the need of building roads and show how 
it can be done. 

In Bolivia there is a great potential food-pro- 
ducing region, larger than Texas, lying east of the 
high Andes. American agricultural technicians 
are working with the Bolivians to solve the tech- 
nical problems of growing food, raising cattle, and 
cutting timber under humid, tropical conditions. 



July 16, 7957 



107 



But probably the real key to the situation is trans- 
portation to get the food from tlie fertile lowlands 
to the food-deficient high plains of the Andes, 
where the majority of the Bolivian population is 
concentrated. A highway is now being built by 
American contractors to connect with a railroad 
leading to the capital. The Bolivian Government 
is paying for this, partly with its own funds and 
partly with a loan from the Export-Import Bank. 



Aeronautical Engineering 

Many of these countries, although still needing 
railroads and highways for bulk transportation, 
have leaped into the air age while still depending 
mainly on the oxcart. In some countries the air- 
plane is the only means of cross-country travel. 
They need new, improved airports and all the 
services that go with air transportation. Aero- 
nautical engineering itself, with its constant im- 
provement of plane design and performance, will 
continue to contribute to the economic develop- 
ment of these countries. 



Nautical Engineering 

Some underdeveloped areas possess extensive 
water-highways — great river systems like the 
Amazon, which could accommodate far more ship- 
ping than is now using these waters. 

This situation, it seems to me, is a challenge to 
nautical engineering. There must be ways, yet 
undiscovered, for designing craft for more eco- 
nomical and efficient operation in areas where 
waterways are the main arteries of travel and 
trade. 

Harbor development and dock facilities are also 
among the urgent needs of many countries that 
want to expand their foreign trade. Wlien I was 
in Ecuador recently, the Government there re- 
quested the assistance of American engineers in 
developing plans for opening up the port of Guay- 
aquil to ocean shipping, so that large ships could 
take on and discharge cargo there, instead of hav- 
ing to stop some distance down the river and use 
"lighters," as at present. We promptly sent an 
experienced American engineer to look into the 
possibilities of that project. 

Sanitary Engineering 

I have mentioned the fact that in this country 
we take safe-drinking water for granted. Even 
in the capital cities of most other countries, the 
American visitor doesn't dare drink water from 
the tap for fear of water-borne diseases, which are 
common in those countries and are a main cause 
of death and sickness. Many young doctors in the 
United States have never seen a case of typhoid 
fever, which used to be prevalent in this country 

108 



too. Our sanitary engineers in our public-health i 
services have given us safe drinking water and 
efficient sewage and waste disposal systems. What 1 
has been done in this country can be done, and | 
urgently needs to be done, in other countries to ! 
safeguard the health of the people. 

Our records are filled with examples of amaz- 
ing results achieved by American sanitary engi- ; 
neers working abroad. The water supply and 
sewage systems they have planned and supervised 
in communities in Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and other 
countries have brought a dramatic drop in typhoid 
and dysentery. The draining of swamps, coupled 
with the application of insecticides and other 
measures, has brought an equally dramatic reduc- 
tion in the incidence of malaria, the scourge of 
the Tropics. 

Geological and Mining Engineering 

We all know that one of man's great sources of ' 
real wealth is the minerals brought out of the ! 
ground. Yet probably half the world has never j 
had a thorough geological survey with modern ' 
methods. Most people consider Africa a poor con- j 
tinent, without stopping to think of the gold, dia- 
monds, and other treasures taken from African 
mines. 

Yet today precious metals and gems are not the 
most valuable materials we get from the earth. 
In the aggregate, the oil and coal extracted every 
year ai-e worth far more than the gold and dia- 
monds. 

One of the greatest needs of many countries is 
to find and use sources of economical fuel. The 
baser metals, including iron ore, are essential to 
economic development. Nor are metals and fuels 
all we need. I was told recently in Bolivia, where 
fortunes in gold, silver, tin, and other minerals 
have been mined, that the Government would like 
to have a geological survey in the hope of finding, 
among other things, phosphate and lime that 
would help the country produce enough food. 

Under Point Four, we have geologists in 12 
countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia help- 
ing to make inventories of mineral wealth and 
ground water supplies. In some instances, our 
mining engineers are helping to work out more 
economical and efficient extraction methods. 
American geologists working with Brazilian geol- 
ogists have scientifically confirmed the existence 
of rich manganese deposits, with the result that 
American steel companies are going into part- 
nership with Brazilian capital to develop these 
deposits. I am convinced that unknown treasures 
remain to be discovered and mined in Africa, Latin 
America, and other parts of the world, and that 
our geological and mining engineers can help the 
people of those countries find and develop vast 
new sources of wealth. 

Deparfmeni of Sfafe Bulletin 



ilectrical Engineering 

Many countries without coal or oil have another 
^reat source of energy — waterpower. Civiliza- 
ion really begins with the harnessing of heat en- 
?rgy for the work of man. Human slavery has 
ijeen eliminated largely because man has round 
ijther and far more efficient sources of energy — 
mechanical power that has enabled our own people 
in this country to multiply their own physical 
strength many times over. Our coal, oil, and 
waterpower have made possible our amazing in- 
dustrial development, and the same is true of 
Britain, Germany, and other industrialized na- 
:ions. And rural electrification has done more to 
increase our agricultural production than many of 
as realize. 

The same thing can be done in the less developed 
countries. We know that Africa, for example, has 
some of the greatest unused waterpower in the 
'world — in the Nile, the Zambezi, and other rivers. 
iThe same is true of many countries in Latin Amer- 
ica. In the development and utilization of hydro- 
electric power, America can furnish much of the 
engineering knowledge to provide other countries 
with the mechanical energy that is essential for 
their progress. 



Agricultural Engineering 

Here is one of the most varied and most promis- 
ing fields of all. Most of the underdeveloped 
countries are in the Tropics, where the rain falls 
in torrents in some seasons and there is drought in 
iother seasons. Under these conditions the nu- 
itrients are rapidly leached out of the soil. "Wlien 
we clear and cultivate the land under these condi- 
tions, we have to protect it with dams, catchments, 
terracing, cover crops, and other methods that are 
well-known. These measures are necessary to 
keep the top soil from washing away and the plant 
food from being lost. 

The major limiting factor on food production 
and economic development in general in the semi- 
arid areas of North Africa and the Near East is 
lack of water. The people of that area need to 
store up the water in the rainy season and use it 
for irrigation in the dry season. The Romans 
largely solved that problem 2,000 years ago. All 
ithrough North Africa and the Middle East, we find 
I the remnants of the dams, reservoirs, and canals 
i which in Roman times enabled that area to support 
imuch larger populations than can exist there 
today. We recently made a contract with the 
I American engineering firm of Knappen, Tibbetts, 
I and Abbott to go into Jordan and show the people 
I how to restore and expand these old Roman works 
'so that they will have enough water. The same 
j thing can be done in other countries of that area, 
jit is not a costly process, because most of the work 
jean be done by the people themselves, with local 
I materials. 



We have many examples in the western part of 
our own country of what can be done to bring 
more land under cultivation by irrigation. I am 
looking forward to attending the opening in Au- 
gust of the Central Valley project in California, 
developed by the engineers of the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation. This project will make it possible to 
move water from the shadows of Mount Shasta 
500 miles southward to the Central Valley where 
it is needed to make more land pi'oductive. This 
is a dramatic example of what can be done to in- 
crease the amount of land under cultivation. 

I want to explain, however, that Point P'our is 
not in the business of building or financing large- 
scale projects in other countries. We help with 
the planning and technical direction, but the cost 
of construction must be borne by the other country 
with its own money, with help from private in- 
vestors, or with loans from international lending 
agencies. Many of these projects can be financed 
on a self-liquidating basis. At any rate, the cost 
need not fall on the American taxpayer. 

For the last 8 or 9 years, American agricultural 
technicians, including engineers, have been coop- 
erating with Peru in a joint service under the able 
leadership of Jack Neale of the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs. I want to tell you about just 
one of the things that have been done. 

Along the coast of Peru, as you know, is a strip 
of desert, caused by unusual climatic conditions. 
There is no vegetation except where the few rivers 
run from the mountains into the sea, and some- 
times even these dry \ip. One such river is the 
Piura, in northern Peru. In normal years the 
farmers in the Piura Valley grow the only crop 
of long-staple Pinui cotton in Peru. It sells at a 
premium and ordinarily brings in about 8 million 
dollars a year. But for the last 3 years the river 
has ijractically dried up. The loss in the cotton 
crop is conservatively estimated at 15 million 
dollars. 

Nearby is another river that does not dry up. 
Agricultural engineers of the joint service made 
studies that showed that the waters of the con- 
stantly flowing river could be diverted to the 
Piura. This would not only assure a cotton crop 
every year, but also add another 50,000 acres to 
the 75,000 now under cultivation. As a result of 
those studies, the Peruvian Government is now 
considering contracting with an American engi- 
neering firm to construct a short tunnel to save 
the cotton farmers. 

Even more important than bringing new land 
under cultivation, however, is the multitude of 
little things which, repeated by large numbers of 
farmers, are increasing production on the land 
already in use. These are simple things. In some 
cases, it means designing a suitable steel plow to 
replace or supplement an inpfiicient wooden ])low. 
It means introducing a little better cultivating 
or threshing implement. We need engineers with 



I July 16, J 95 1 



109 



the vision and the ability to work out and adapt 
these simple improvements that the people them- 
selves can apply with their own resources. 

Food Engineering 

In most underdeveloped areas, harvesttime is 
feast time; the rest of the year is hungi-y time. 
The people have no way of conservinji; food in 
order to tide them over to the next harvest. In 
the United States, we probably lose 10 percent of 
our agricultural products through spoilage, insect 
infestation, and waste. In some countries, the loss 
must be 25 percent or more. In Africa I have seen 
millions of cattle, and not a packing plant. 

In parts of Costa Eica the farmers can produce 
two crops of corn a year, but the rainfall is so 
heavj' that the grain sprouts on the stalk, and much 
of wliat is harvested is ruined by mold and insects. 
Point Four technicians there showed the farmers 
how to build a simple corn drier, which resulted 
almost immediately in better prices for corn and 
an increase in production. An expert in milling 
was brought from Kansas for a few months, and 
as a result of his technical advice, an agency of 
the Costa Rican Government has built modern 
grain elevators, a quick-freeze plant, and cold stor- 
age facilities with its own funds. In Peru a fish- 
eries expert from our Department of Interior is 
helping the fishermen increase their catch. An- 
other American agricultural engineer has helped 
construct a cold storage plant in Lima that will 
assure the people a constant supply of fish at rea- 
sonable cost. 



Chemical Engineering 

Closely related to food engineering is chemical 
engineering, with the contributions it has made to 
the food industry. Cliemical engineers can make 
many valuable contributions to the progress of 
other peoples. The insecticides, weed-killers, and 
the like already in use in our own country, if ap- 
plied and adapted for use in other areas, can in- 
crease the production and utilization of food. I 
understand that there is a .shoi-tage of wood pulp 
and other material for cellulose products in the 
industrial nations. Yet in the tropical regions 
are wide stretches of forests waiting to supply the 
demand. 

Actually, we have hardly begun to assess or use 
the wealth of the Tropics. When I think of the 
things developed in our own South, through the 
work of such men as George Washington Carver, 
who developed new products from peanuts, clay, 
and other common materials at hand, I am con- 
vinced that we haven't even scratched the surface 
of the potential wealth of tne world. 

One of the most intriguing possibilities of all 
is that chemists will devise an economical, efficient 
way to purify sea water by removing the salts, 
and make that limitless source of water available 



for irrigating desert places like the Sahara and "' 
the west coast of South America. Two things are 
needed to make this dream a reality: first, prac- i 
tical processes for purifying the water in large i 
volume, and, second, cheap power, possibly from 
atomic energy or solar energy. We must look 
to engineering for both answers. 

i 
Industrial Engineering 

An increase in agricultural production naturally 
leads to industrial development. But it is a step- 
by-step process — little industries that eventually I 
lead to big industries. As the people learn to pro- 
duce more food and as surplus food production 
frees labor from the field, raw materials for small 
industries become available, along with the labor 
to process them. 

This is a gap that needs to be closed in most 
of the rural countries. I referred to the millions 
of cattle I saw in Africa, without packing plants 
to process and preserve the meat, the hides, and by- 
products. The people there, and in comparable 
areas, don't need large, expensive factories. They 
need a little local packing plant, a little local shoe 
factory, a little local textile mill. They don't need 
vast amounts of cajiital from outside. They need 
to know how to use their own capital, their own 
raw materials, their own resources, to produce for 
their own vast internal markets. An American 
technician in Bolivia reports that Bolivians have 
asked him how they might profitably and safely 
invest a million dollars in local enterprises. There 
is a job — an almost limitless job — for American in- 
dustrial engineering in the other regions of the 
earth. 



Architectural Engineering 

A house, or a hospital, or a factory, is not just 
four walls and a roof. It is a product of engineer- 
ing that plans and constructs each building to 
serve a particular purpose. The underdeveloped 
countries need the techniques of American de- 
signers and structural engineers. They need the 
advice of our housing experts. And it isn't just 
a question of exporting our own designs and tech- 
niques. We have got to use imagination and in- 
geiniity in the use of local materials to meet local 
economic, climatic, and social conditions that vary 
widely from country to country. In some coun- 
tries the best material for housing is bamboo; in 
others ranmied earth may be the best answer; in 
still others, tile from local clays. 

This Point Four Program, in all its implica- 
tions, is one of the greatest challenges to engineer- 
ing I can think of. Believe me, technical skill by 
itself isn't enough. What we need is men with 
inuigination and the pioneering approach, men 
who can translate American engineering into 
African, or Asian, or Latin American engineering, 
under conditions peculiar to those areas. We need 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



;men who are willing and able to take knowledge 
(into strange, unknown, untried situations and 
I adapt it to different and sometimes quite primitive 
! conditions. 

I think the challenge of Point Four to American 
engineering is one of the most exciting thino;s that 
has ever hiippened to a romantic, though largely 
i unsung, profession. 



Point Four Contract Signed With 
Road Federation 

[Releascil to Die press July 2] 

Technical Cooperation Administrator Henry G. 
Bennett today announced the signing of a contract 
with the International Road Federation for a 
Point Four cooperative good roads campaign de- 
signed eventually to cover Latin America, the 
Near East, and Southern Asia. 

A grant of 8.5 thousand dollars provided by the 
Point Four Administration will be matched with 
an equal amount in equipment and services by the 
Federation to carry out the initial program, which 
includes two pilot schools for training operators 
and mechanics of farm and highway machinery 
and equipment; the inauguration of "Point Four 
[Fellowships" for foreign highway engineers to 
I study advanced technique in United States uni- 
versities: and a survey to determine the kind and 
\ extent of technical assistance required for a long- 
range road development program. 

The two pilot schools will be located in Latin 
America. They will be operated by the Federa- 
tion to determine the best methods to be followed 
in other countries. The first group of advanced 
trainees will consist of 11 graduate highway en- 
gineers to be selected fi'om various countries. 
They will study at Yale and Ohio State Univer- 
sities for 1 year. 

The International Road Federation is sponsored 
by more than 350 United States firms, including 
oil, automobile, rubber, and construction equip- 
ment interests. Its affiliated national good roads 
associations in more than 30 countries are spon- 
sored locally by industry, business, and agricul- 
tural interests. The Federation and its associates 
will supi)ly technicians, machinery, equipment 
materials, and space for certain educational proj- 
ects outlined in the Point Four agreement. 

Point Four Administrator Bennett said that he 
considei's the program contemplated "an impor- 
tant phase of the technical cooperation plan we 
are developing throughout most of the world. It 
is especially interesting since it includes the co- 
operation of private industry in Point Four 
through the sponsors of the International Road 
Federation. One of the prime purposes of the act 

July 16, 195 1 



setting up the Technical Cooperation Administra- 
tion was to seek the participation of private agen- 
cies and persons to the highest extent practical. 

"Every country today is faced with intricate 
road problems, and, in those where highway sys- 
tems are rudimentary, there is immediate need for 
expansion and improvement to promote satisfac- 
tory standards of living. 

"Roads and the fullest utilization of highway 
transportation are not only essential to the de- 
velopment of a country's agriculture, resources, 
and industry but also to health, education, and 
the everyday necessities of society." 

In addition to establishing schools and pro- 
viding fellowships, the program will include the 
production and wide distribution of highway pro- 
motional films and literature and the translation 
and proper use of technical manuals and texts, 
including standard specifications in highway con- 
struction and maintenance. 

The International Road Federation naaintains 
offices in Washington, London, and Paris. It is 
a consultant to the Transport Committee of the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Na- 
tions and to the transport commission of the In- 
ternational Chamber of Commerce. 



Point Four Agreement Signed With 
Utah Colleges 

[Released to the press July 6] 

The present Point Four village development and 
rural improvement program in Iran will be 
stiengthened and widened as a result of contracts 
signed this week between the Technical Coopera- 
tion Administration and the Brigham Young Uni- 
versity, the Utah State Agricultural College, and 
the University of Utah. The three colleges will 
collaborate in the Iran rural improvement pro- 
gram by providing personnel to conduct elemen- 
taiy education, rural sociology, agronomy, animal 
husbandry, health and sanitation, and nursing 
projects. Point Four Administrator, Henry G. 
Bennett, said : 

Ttie contracts with the Utah schools will result in the 
aiiiplilicalion of the effective work now being coniluctod 
liy roiiit Knur (lirpctl.v and under u contract with the 
Near East Foundation. . 

It is believed that the existing large pool of technically 
trained Iranians, with the guidance of technicians and 
materials provided for in these new contracts, can achieve 
a profound ch;inge in Iranian village life. 

Aliout twenty technicians wili l)e sent to Iran to become 
incorpor;Ued with tlie team of experts already in the field 
worliiMg with their Iranian colleagues. They will partici- 
pate in the "grass roots" method of working which brings 
modem methods to the villagers in a lorin readily under- 
stood by them and easily adapted to their immediate 
problems. 

m 



Invitations to tlie University of Utah, Brigham Young 
University, and tlie Utah State Agricultural College to 
participate in the program were issued in recognition of 
the resource of experience and special competence that 
resides in the State of Utah. Climatic, topographical, and 
agricultural similarities in Iran and Utah have encouraged 
the interchange of specialists and students between Utah 
and the Near East for many years. The institutions in 
Utah train the greatest number of Iranian students in the 
United States in the field of agriculture, and several spe- 
cialists from Utah institutions served with distinction in 
the past in advisory capacities to the Government of Iran. 

The Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the De- 
partment of Agriculture will be responsible for technical 
guidance to the agricultural phases of the work and will 
assist in executing the program. 

The Utah technicians, some of whom will leave within 
the next few weeks, are the type of specialists ideal for the 
job in prospect. They have been trained to meet condi- 
tions approximating those they will find in Iran, and many 
of them have had actual experience with Iranian people. 
Some of them have even had experience in the country 
itself. I am extremely gratified to have the cooperation 
in I'oint Four of these three outstanding educational insti- 
tutions in a job which I feel sure will leave a lasting and 
beneficial impression on Iranian rural life and on its rural 
population. 



for cooperation with these countries in their efforts 
toward economic development. 

The Grovernment of the United States looks for- 
ward to further cooperation with the countries 
of South and Southeast Asia in their efforts to 
raise productivity and standards of living. The 
Government of the United States intends to effect 
the greatest possible coordination between the de- 
velopment programs it has undertaken or may 
undertake in that area and any operative pro- 
grams under United Nations or Commonwealth 
auspices. We extend our wishes for success to the 
countries participating in the Plan and, with reali- 
zation of the spirit which has brought the Plan 
to its official beginning, are confident of its ulti- 
mate success. 



OAS Charter Moves Closer 
To Permanent Organic Status 



Official Beginning of Colombo Plan 

[Released to the press July 3] 

The Colombo Plan for cooperative economic de- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia officially 
went into effect on July 1, 1951. The Government 
of the United States commends the initiative and 
the friendly spirit of cooperation which has re- 
sulted in a program of cooperative development 
for a large part of Asia. 

Wliile the United States did not participate in 
the formulation of the report which has come to 
be known as the Colombo Plan, we are deeply in- 
terested in its potentials for genuine economic 
progress and, therefore, note with particular 
I^leasure the official beginning of the Plan, 
bince the release of the report last fall, the United 
States has participated in a meeting of the Con- 
sultative Committee on Economic and Social De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia which 
took place at Colombo, Ceylon, last February. 

The United States has taken a deep interest 
in the needs of the peoples of this area. Eecently, 
we have extended loan assistance of up to 190 
million dollars for the emergency procurement of 
food grain for India. 

We have followed closely and sympathetically 
the effort toward the achievement of economic and 
social development in the countries of this region. 
We are pleased to have made some contribution 
to this development in our programs of technical 
assistance and other economic aid. It is hoped that 
such programs as we may undertake through the 
proposed mutual security program in South and 
Southeast Asia will provide further opportunity 



[Released to the press ty OAS June 19] 

The charter of the Organization of American 
States moved a step nearer to entering into force 
today when the United States deposited its instru- 
ment of ratification of the charter at a brief cere- 
mony in the Pan American Union. The United 
States thereby became the thirteenth of the 21 
American member rejsublics to give its final ap- 
proval to the document since it was adopted at the 
Conference of Bogota oil May 1, 1948. 

Deposit of the instrument of ratification was 
made by Ambassador John C. Dreier, U.S. repre- 
sentative on the Council of the Oas, and was 
accepted on behalf of the Oas by Dr. Alberto 
Lleras, Secretary General of that organization. 

One more ratification, bringing to two-thirds 
the number of countries indicating their accept- 
ance of the charter, will jJut the document into 
force and give permanent organic status to the Oas 
as a regional organization within the United Na- 
tions. Countries which previously had completed 
ratification of the charter were Bolivia, Brazil, 
Costa Kica, the Dominican Kepublic, Ecuador, El 
Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, and Paraguay. Ratification is still 
awaited in the final form from Argentina, Chile, 
Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Peru, Uruguay, and 
Venezuela. 

The Oas charter — often known as the Bogota 
charter — was one of two treaties and two conven- 
tions adopted at the Ninth International Confer- 
ence of American States 3 years ago at Bogota. Its 
provisions include the principle that an aggression 
against one American state is an aggression 
against all, and it provides procedures for settling 
inter- American disputes before they are referred 
to the Security Council of the United Nations. 



112 



Department of State Bulletin 



Broadcasting Looks Ahead in North America 



By Marie Louise Smith 



Senate hearings will shortly be held on the 
North American Kegional Broadcasting Agree- 
ment (Narba) and the protocol thereto. The 
draft treaty was transmitted by the President on 
February 5, 1951, for advice and consent to rati- 
fication. It is the third of a series of agreements 
among counti*ies of the Xorth American region 
designed to govern the international aspects of 
standard (AM) broadcasting throughout the re- 
gion. Its purpose is to enable member countries 
to make the most effective technical use of the 
radio frequency bands available for this type 
broadcasting with a minimum of interference be- 
tween stations of the several countries. And, most 
important, it provides a framework of interna- 
tional stability for each country's domestic broad- 
casting services. 

Because of the inability of these countries to 
work out a mutually acceptable agreement, there 
has been no formal intergovernmental regulation 
of standard band broadcasting in North America 
since the expiration of the interim agreement in 
March 1919.' During this interval, a majority 
of the countries involved has continued on a volun- 
tary basis to respect the terms of the interim agree- 
ment. The new treaty will bring under regulation 
all unorthodox usage of frequencies and will elim- 
inate some of the interference caused by chan- 
nel-jumping tactics on the part of a few countries 
in the absence of a formal binding agreement. 

The new agreement was finalized at the third 
North American Regional Broadcasting Confer- 
ence. The Conference was held in two sessions — 
tlie first in Montreal, September-December, 1949 ; 
the second in Washington September-November, 
1950.= The proposed treaty was signed in Wash- 
ington on November 15, 1950, by representatives 
of the United States, the United Kingdom (for 
the territories of Bahamas and Jamaica), Canada, 

'For backgrountl on rogional regulation of stanrlard- 
liand liroadeasting, see article on North American Broad- 
cMsting Problems in Bulletin of Feb. l.'{, ]'.)."i(l, ii. 2.^8. 

'Ibid, for an account of the first session of the (bird 
Xarba conference. 



Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. Although 
the agreement was not signed by Mexico or Haiti, 
both of which are included in the North American 
region as defined in the agreement, provision is 
made in the treaty for adherence by either or both 
at some later date. 

Narba will enter into force when ratified or ad- 
hered to by the Governments of at least three of 
four designated countries, including Canada, 
Cuba, Mexico, and the United States. The agree- 
ment will become effective the fifteenth day after 
the date on which the third of the necessary in- 
struments of ratification or adherence is deposited. 
It shall be valid only between Governments which 
have deposited their instruments of ratification or 
adherence. Narba will remain in force for a 
period of 5 years and if no new agreement enters 
into force by the expiration of that period, shall 
remain effective until superseded by a new agree- 
ment. Thus, in the absence of denunciation, the 
uncertainty and dislocation which has existed over 
the past few years because of the absence of an 
on-ropmput will be circumvented for the future. 



Features in Draft Agreement 

Essential features of the draft Narba include 
the classification of broadcasting channels and sta- 
tions ; the recognition of the right by each country 
to permit the operation of specific stations on 
specified channels; a delineation of the degree of 
flexibility permitted each country in modifying 
existing ojierations; specifications for the degree 
of lU'otection from interference associated with 
each station or class of stations; methods of noti- 
fying proposed changes to all concerned; and 
methods for the procurement of facts concerning 
operations, tlie settlement of disputes, and modifi- 
cation of the agreement. 

In common with earlier regional agreements, the 
draft Narba acknowledges the sovereign right of 
each country with respect to the use of all standard 



July ?6, 1 95 J 



113 



broadcasting; channels. It sets no ceiling on the 
total number of stations any country may have. 
However it provides for an agreed system of jirior- 
ities and engineering standards designed to mini- 
mize interference and assure tlie orderly use of 
broadcasting channels in the North American re- 
gion. These provisions are directed toward insur- 
ing that the broadcasting operations of any coun- 
try will be free of interference from the broad- 
casting operations of any other country. To this 
end, it sets forth engineering standards to be ob- 
served with regard to the operation of broadcast- 
ing stations ; lists certain priorities to be observed ; 
establishes protection criteria to be maintained 
with agreed-upon yardsticks for determining in- 
terference patterns; and states the procedures to 
be followed in bringing new stations into being. 
Each proposed new station is submitted to other 
countries which are parties to the treaty for tech- 
nical comment as to whether interference will re- 
sult from operation of the projected station. If 
no objections are received, the station ultimately 
goes on the air. From that point on, the operation 
of that station must be taken into consideration 
when considering applications for subsequent 
stations. 

Parties to the agreement are mutually bound 
to cooperate in the investigation and elimination 
of objectionable interference. Provisions are in- 
cluded for compulsory arbitration of disputes in 
the event such disputes are not otherwise settled 
and for holding administrative conferences per- 
mitting frequent consideration of engineering 
matters and necessary revisions of the broadcast- 
ing regulations during the period between pleni- 
potentiary conferences. 

A procedure is provided whereby any contract- 
ing government may denounce the agreement. 
Provision is made for the convening of a plenipo- 
tentiary conference to be held not later than 4 
years after the agreement comes into force for 
the purpose of revising the agreement. 

Channel Station Assignments 

The most controversial features of the agree- 
ment, and those which delayed its finalization, 
pertain to clear channel station assignments. 
These channels had been designated under the 
original Narba of 1937 wherein provision was 
made for priority of use in designated countries 
to a number of such channels under conditions 
protecting them throughout the area of the coun- 
try having the priority. In all, 38 clear channels 
were assigned: 25 to the United States; 6 to 
Canada; 6 to Mexico; and 1 to Cuba. In addition 
to the provisions establishing these priorities for 
the use of clear channels, priorities also were es- 
tablished for stations on other clear channels, and 
for regional and local stations. Procedures were 
set up for subsequent notifications under which 
priorities for additional stations could be estab- 



lished. Under these procedures, new stations were ■ 
required to protect previously assigned stations 
from undue interference and, in turn, became en- j 
titled to protection from interference of stations : 
covered by subsequent notifications. | 

Under the new agreement, the United States 
M-ould retain priority in the use of 25 clear chan- 
nels for class 1-A stations. These stations serve i 
wide areas at considerable distances fiom the ! 
transmitter location and form the backbone of 
bi-oadcasting services to our rural population. 
None of the United States 1-A stations would be i 
required to change its operation. On 19 of these j 
channels all other countries parties to the agree- i 
ment would protect United States stations to our 1 
national boixlers. On six of these channels the j 
United States stations would receive a degree of 
jiiotection which, though somewhat less than full 
1-A protection, is greater than that accorded any 
other type of station and would still permit them 
to render service over extensive ai-eas hundreds of 
miles from the station. Greater flexibility will be 
possible in the domestic breakdown of class 1-A 
stations, at the same time retaining full protection. 

It will not be necessary for any United States 
1-B station to change its operations. These sta- 
tions also are intended to serve wide areas through 
skywave service. Although stations of this class 
do not receive protection from foreign interfer- 
ence at the border of this country, they do receive 
a high degree of protection in areas in which their 
service is useful. 

Class II stations operate on clear channels, but 
their operation is subordinate to the class I opera- 
tion on the same channel. lender the new agree- 
ment, existing class II stations would receive a 
degree of protection from changes in existing class 
I assignments and from future class I assignments. 
To accommodate certain frequency changes in 
Cuba, which are part of a general reallocation in 
that country, three United States class II stations 
would be required to change frequency, with con- 
sequent changes being required in their antennas 
and equipment. On 11 cliannels, Cuba would be 
entitled to a relatively high degree of protection 
fi'om future assignments in other countries. 

The new Narba incorporates a principle long 
favored by American operators. It provides that 
no broadcasting station need be protected from 
interference at any point outside the boundary 
of the country in which such broadcasting sta- 
tion is located. 

Basic Needs of Other Countries 

The agreement is a practical instrument for the 
accommodation of existing and anticipated needs 
in the tremendously expanding broadcasting in- 
dustry. While it is not 100 percent ideal from the 
standpoint of any one country in the region, it 
represents the best possible workable arrange- 
ment, taking into account the existing circum- 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



[stances and the diverse interests which have to be 
iiccommoduted. In order to secure acceptance by 
other countries of established United States sta- 
llions and agreement upon technical standards es- 
sential for the protection of the vast number of 
;3tations in this country, it was necessary for the 
lUnited States to accept provisions essential to 
meet basic needs of other countries. In some in- 
stances, this meant less favorable provisions for 
Ithe United States than were contained in the pre- 
ifious Narba. The other countries participating 
jin the new Narua fare at least as well as they did 
lander the previous agreement, and in many im- 
jportant respects their situation is substantially 
[improved. This is particularly true in the case of 
Cuba and, to some extent, in the cases of Canada, 
iJamaica, and the Dominican Republic. These 
jadjustments were necessitated by changed condi- 
itions in the field of standard bi-oadcastinf^ since 
-;he agreements of lO.'lT and U)-K), especially the 
very rapid growth in broadcasting activity in all 
countries affected during that period. 

Adoption of this agreement would provide a 
significant improvement for the United States 
lover the increasingly chaotic situation which has 
existed over the last year and a half since the ex- 
piration of the interim agreement of 194(). In the 
absence of a new agreement, this situation can be 
expected to continue, probably becoming worse. 
Moreover, relatively few stations will be adversely 
affected by the terms of the new Narba. In prac- 
itical effect, the agreement would make it possible 
to maintain the same general level of broadcasting 
service now enjoyed by the people of the United 
States. Since it would be possible within the 
framework of the new agreement to effect needed 
improvement in existing service, the new agree- 
iment would facilitate rather than hinder efforts to 
[accomplish such improvement. 

The proposed treaty is endorsed by the executive 
lagencies of the government as in the best interests 
of the people of the United States and of the broad- 
casting industry as a whole. Under its provisions, 
conditions of damaging interference to many of 
our stations will be completely eliminated or 
greatly reduced. And many United States sta- 
tions, which otherwise would be subject to a con- 
iStant threat of interference from foreign stations, 
;will be assured of continued protection not other- 
'wise available. Millions of American radio listen- 
lers, particularly farmers and residents of snudl 
towns, will got more and better radio reception 
than they now have. The governnicut-industry 
jteam, which represented the United States in the 
[.series of negotiations leading to the finali/.ation of 
this agreement, is convinced that failuie to secure 
the necessary ratifications would perpetuate a sit- 
uation of uncertainty and possibly lead to further 
confusion in the standard broadcasting band. 
• Mary Louise Smith is a foreign affairs officer 
in. the Office of Transport and Coriimunications 
Policy. 

July 16, 1 95 1 



Syria Withdraws From GATT 

[Released to the press June 28] 

The United States Government has been in- 
formed by the United Nations at New York that 
on June 7, 1951, the Government of Syria iiotified 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations of 
its intention to withdraw from the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade, effective August 6, 
1951. Under the terms of the Protocol of Pro- 
visional Application of the General Agreement, 
any contracting party may withdraw on (50 days' 
written notice to the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations. 

Syria and Lebanon, which were joined in a 
customs union, became contracting parties to the 
General Agreement after the tariff negotiations at 
Geneva in 1947. The customs union was later 
dissolved, and Lebanon withdrew from the Gen- 
eral Agreement, effective Febi'uary 25, 1951. 
Since the concessions granted by the United States 
to the customs union at Geneva were of substantial 
interest to Syria, and in some cases to other con- 
tracting parties, there were no changes in United 
States customs duties as a result of Lebanon's 
withdrawal from the agreement. 

The interdepartmental trade-agreements or- 
ganization is now considering the question of with- 
drawal or retention of United States concessions 
initially negotiated with the Syro-Lebanese cus- 
toms union, looking to the initiation of consulta- 
tion with other interested contracting parties. 

Any interested person who wishes to give in- 
formation or present views with regard to this 
matter should do so, in writing, not later than 
August 1, 1951. Such communications, of which 
there should be 11 copies either typed, niimeo- 
giaphed, or printed, should be addressed to the 
Chairman, Committee for Reciprocity Informa- 
tion, Tariff Commission Building, Washington 
25, D.C. 

Dutiable products on which the United States 
initially negotiated concessions with the Syro- 
Lebanese customs union at Geneva are : un- 
stemmed Latakia leaf tobacco (tariff paragraph 
601); dried, desiccated, or evaporated apricots 
(paragraph 7:55) ; apricot pulp (paragiaph 752) ; 
preserved chickpeas or garbanzos (paragraph 
7(i9) ; and unground thyme leaves (paragraph 
781). 

At Geneva, the United States obtained from the 
Syro-Lebanese customs union concessions, includ- 
ing duty reductions and bindings of existing cus- 
toms treatment, on various automotive products, 
machinery and appliances, lubricating oils, certain 
chemical and pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, 
and other miscellaneous items. After withdraw- 
ing from the General Agreement, Syria will no 
longer be obligated to maintain these concessions. 

115 



Recent International Discussions on Wool 



Jy Nan L. Grindle 



During the postwar years the wool picture has 
developed in a fashion quite different from what 
traditional wool-market conditions had led the 
world to expect. Depressed prices resulting from 
a buyer's market, which had dominated the pre- 
war scene, were no longer problems, and the U.K.- 
Dominion Wool Disposals, Limited (the Joint 
Organization), established to liquidate wartime 
accumulated stocks without unduly depressing 
prices, had completed a task in 6 years which, it 
had been estimated, would take twice that time. 
For the last few years consumption of apparel 
wool has exceeded current production, but because 
the supplies held by the Joint Organization filled 
the gap, for some time no problem was created by 
the unusually high levels of consumer demand. 

By the summer of 1950, however, it had become 
apparent that the wool situation might soon be- 
come critical. To the relatively large mill con- 
sumption for civilian use had now been added a 
military requirement greatly enlarged by the 
mobilization program. World stocks of apparel 
wool were at a low level, a;id only a small quan- 
tity of generally poor quality wool remained in 
the hands of the Joint Organization. As there 
was little prospect of an early increase in produc- 
tion the world was faced with a situation where 
supplies would be inadequate to fulfill all appar- 
ent requirements. This fact was reflected at the 
auctions which opened in the late summer in 
Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa, where prices were substantially higher 
than they had been a few months before. 

A review of the wool situation by interested 
agencies within the United States Government 
pointed up the seriousness of the situation and 
the need to take steps to deal with it. Since the 
United States is dependent on imports to meet a 
large part of its requirements of wool, it was ob- 
viously not possible to devise a unilateral solution 



to the problem. In August 1950 this country! 
notified the main wool producing and consuming! 
countries that the defense program would involve! 
heavy purchases of wool and that a preliminary! 
evaluation of the supply position indicated the! 
need for special measures to meet this military 
requirement. If special measures were not taken, 
it was feared that United States requirements 
would be met only at the cost of adverse effects on 
the market and unnecessary hardship to the econo- 
mies of all consuming countries. Countries with 
which the United States discussed the question 
agreed that the facts presented by the United 
States pointed to the possibility of a serious situa- 
tion and that international discussions should be 
held to clarify the supply and demand situation 
and to consider what action should be taken. 

Fourth Meeting of International Wool Study Group 

Machinery for sucli international talks already 
existed, since the International Wool Study Group 
had been established in 194G for the express pur- 
pose of providing an opportunity for leading 
wool producing and consuming countries to dis- 1 
cuss the world wool situation and conmion prob- 1 
lems. The Group also had the responsibility of \ 
recommending to participating governments pos- 
sible solutions to problems which were unlikely 
to be settled by ordinary developments of the 
world wool trade. The fourth annual meeting 
had already been scheduled for the fall of 1950, 
and developments of the past few months gave 
added significance to the event. 

Held in London from October 2 to 10, the meet- 
ing was attended by representatives of the Gov- 
ernments of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Can- 
ada, Cuba. Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, 
Finland, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, 
Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Paki- 



116 



Depanment of State Bulletin 



3tan, Peru, Poland, Switzerland, Union of South 
Africa. United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, 
and Yugoslavia. Also attending as observers 
were representatives of the following organiza- 
tions: Conunonwealth Economic Committee, In- 
iternational Wool Textile Organization, Food and 
'Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
UJiv.-Dominion Wool Disposals, Limited, Inter- 
national AVool Secretariat, and Organization for 
lEuropean Economic Cooperation. 
I A review of the world wool situation by the 
IStudy Group led to the conclusion that although 
the over-all supply and demand for 1951 would 
probably be roughly in balance, a supply problem 
would exist within a certain range of grades. The 
1951 over-all supply of apparel wool, consisting 
of the 1950-51 clip and sales by the Joint Organ- 
jization and excluding any possible contribution 
ifrom existing trade stocks, would be 1,954 million 
pounds, clean basis, an amount sufficient to main- 
tain a consumption level only 90 percent of that 
prevailing in the first half of 1950. Available evi- 
dence, however, pointed to the possibility that 
consumer resistance to high prices and the fact 
Ithat the backlog in demand had been filled might 
iwell reduce mill consumption below the rate exist- 
jing in the first half of 1950. Consumers' ward- 
robes which had been depleted during the war had 
been largely replenished, and this stocking-up 
process might well be coming to an end. In addi- 
tion, there was an increasing amount of substitu- 
tion of other fibers and use of reprocessed wool. 
.Despite this relatively favorable over-all picture, 
I however, it was recognized that a supply prob- 
ilem would exist in the finer crossbred and medium 
merino wools, since it was in this range of grades 
'that the principal military requirements of the 
United States would fall. 

The Wool Study Group also considered pro- 
posals submitted by the Governments of Australia, 
New Zealand, and South Africa for a reserve price 
scheme which was designed to stabilize wool prices 
and especially to prevent a sharp decline in prices 
at any future time. These proposals, which would 
operate in a manner similar to the reserve price 
feature of the Joint Organization system, would 
provide for the establishment of a minimum price 
1 at which wool would be bought in times of declin- 
; ing prices. When wool prices reached higher 
i levels the wool which had been bought when prices 
were low would be placed on tlie market and 
would tend to curb upward price movements. The 
desirability from the standpoint of both producers 
and consumers of preventing unduly wide fluctua- 
tions in wool prices and the appropriateness of 
international action to achieve this aim were gen- 
erally accejited. Nevertheless, the Study Group 
I concluded that in the near futui'e there was little 
! prospect of a major decline in wool prices and 
that establishment of a reserve price system would 
be unlikely to have a material effect on market 
prices. If at any future time, buying-in opera- 
tions at reserve prices could be expected to as- 

July 16, 1 95 1 



sume substantial proportions it was agreed that 
there would be full international consultation in 
the light of any international agreement on com- 
modity policy which might be in existence. At 
that time further consideration would be given to 
the question of adequate representation for con- 
sumer interests. 

Because of the rapidly changing wool situa- 
tion the Study Group agreed that its Management 
Committee, which had been established in 1949 
to consider problems arising between the Study 
Group's annual meetings, should meet at inter- 
vals of not more than 3 months. It could thus 
maintain a continual review of the world wool 
situation, and it was instructed to circulate a re- 
port of each meeting to all governments which had 
participated in this fourth meeting of the Study 
Group. 

U.S.-Commonwealth Wool Talks — London 

The conclusion of the Wool Study Group that 
the gap between current consumption and avail- 
able supplies would be bridged meant that at that 
time a complete change in the marketing process 
was probably not justified. Except under the 
most pressing circumstances it was natural that 
the Southern Commonwealth producers would be 
reluctant to part with the traditional auction sys- 
tem, which in normal times had proved to be an 
efficient method of marketing the great variety of 
grades and types of wool. Nevertheless, the Wool 
Study Group had confirmed the existence of a 
problem in those grades of wool in which United 
States military requirements largely fell, and spe- 
cial measures appeared to be necessary to meet 
this problem. Since govei-nment representatives 
familiar with wool problems were already in Lon- 
don for the Wool Study Group meeting, advan- 
tage was taken of this fact to discuss the impact 
which United States military demands would 
have on the market. The wool talks included rep- 
resentatives of the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and the major producing countries of 
Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa. North Atlantic Treaty powers with a 
substantial interest in wool were Kept informed 
of the progress of the discussions. 

The wool-producing Southern Commonwealth 
countries had earlier indicated their willingness 
to cooperate in helping to fulfill the military wool 
requirements of the United States. Discussions 
held with the Commonwealth countries were con- 
cerned with the concrete problem of devising the 
best method of meeting tliat part of the United 
States military wool requirements whicli was rep- 
resented by the 100 million pound, clean basis, 
emergency reserve authorized by the Supple- 
mental Appropriations Bill of September 27, 
1950. This emergency wool reserve differs from 
a stockpile program, since wool or garments ac- 
quired under the reserve system can be released 
for use at any time. Under a stockpile program, 

117 



however, wool cannot be released except in case 
of full scale mobilization. At the time of these 
international talks no decision had been made to 
stockpile wool. These discussions did not include 
consideration of methods of filling civilian and 
current military requirements since these were to 
be met througii ordinary channels of commerce. 

Because it had been indicated that the supply 
problem would be centered within a narrow range 
of grades and would not include all varieties of 
wool, the Australian representatives proposed 
that a system of preemption be discussed rather 
than one for allocation. It was considered that 
the introduction of an allocation system would 
present many practical and legal difficulties and 
should be resorted to only when absolutely neces- 
sary and after exhausting other methods. Tlie 
report said that existing conditions did not seem 
to demonsti'ate that an allocation system was nec- 
essary, desirable or practicable. Under these cir- 
cumstances the best alternative appeared to be the 
Australian proposal for a prcemjition system 
whereby the three Commonwealth producing 
countries would withhold an agreed amount of 
Avool from the auctions and sell it to the United 
States for the emergency reserve. 

On October 2G an announcement was made that 
a further meeting of the five countries would be 
held soon to examine a system of preemption of 
enough wool to meet the emergency needs of the 
United States but not such quantities as would 
harm the auction system. After calculating the 
quantities which the United States could expect to 
obtain from other sources it was estimated that 
the share of the United States emergency reserve 
which woidd be provided by the Southern Com- 
monwealth countries would be less than the total 
requirement of 100 million pounds. If a practi- 
cable and acceptable system were devised the three 
countries agreed to introduce it with the least pos- 
sible delay unless some alternative method of se- 
curing the United States military reserve was 
found to be more satisfactory. 

U.S.-Commonwealth Wool Talks — Melbourne 

Before the U.S.-Commonwealth Wool Talks 
reconvened in Melbourne, ste]is had been taken to 
implement the authorization given by the Supple- 
mental Appropriations Act for acquisition of a 
100 million ]iound emergency wool reserve. On 
October 20 the Department of the Army, which 
had been designated by the Department of De- 
fense to procure this reserve, announced that it 
had requested the Commodity Credit Corporation 
to buy SO million pounds of the reserve as raw 
wool through ordinary commercial channels and 
in an orderly fashion so as to avoid disruption 
of the market. The balance of the reserve was 
to be bought by the Army in the form of wool 
fabrics. Contracts would be placed with private 
manufacturers by June 30, 1951, with deliveries 
to extend into the next fiscal year. Manufac- 



turers obtaining these contracts would purchase 
the wool as they needed it through ordinary trade 
channels. Since purchases of wool for the reserve 
were to be spread over a substantial period the; 
total impact would not hit the market at any one! 
time. \ 

At the Melbourne talks from November 15 to; 
24, 1950, it was agreed that a preemption systemj 
could not be of any significant assistance to the 
United States in the near future. The decision by; 
the Department of the Army and the Commodity! 
Credit Corpoiation that the use of private trade 
channels would be adequate to fulnll the emer- 
gency reserve meant that no special arrangements! 
would be necessary. In addition, a preemption 
system could not be put into operation witJiout a 
time lag, because it would first be necessary to 
overcome certain legal and administrative diffi- 
culties. It was agreed, nevertheless, that at some 
future time the need might arise for introducing 
special measures to meet essential wool require- 
ments. Therefore, careful study was made of 
preemption systems and of legal and administra- 
tive measures necessary to implement them. 

International Materials Conference 

Toward the end of 1950 it became apparent that 
the wool situation was steadily deteriorating and 
that market adjustments were not being made as 
had been anticipated at the meeting of the Wool 
Study Group. Demand continued to exceed the 
supply, a fact that was reflected in the sharp in- 
crease in prices. By the beginning of 1951 raw- 
wool prices had increased approximately 100 per- 
cent over the past year and were continuing to 
rise. Demand for wool showed every indication 
of remaining at high levels for at least several 
years. 

Scarcities were becoming evident in an increas- 
ing number of essential materials in addition to 
wool and were of concern to many nations as well 
as to the United States. Accordingly, on January 
12 the Governments of France, the United King- 
dom, and the United States announced that invi- 
tations were being sent to major producing and 
consuming countries of the free world asking them 
to join in establishing a number of international 
commodity groups. Seven groups have been es- 
tablished, one of them concerning itself with prob- 
lems relating to wool. The commodity groups, 
together with a Central Group, are known as the 
International Mateiials Conference.' The Wool 
Committee convened in Washington on April 2 
and countries which have participated in its work 
are Australia, Belgium (for Benelux), France, 
Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, New Zea- 
land, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, 
United States, and Uruguay. The Committee has 
the responsibility of considering and reconmiend- 
ing to governments measures to increase produc- 

' For an article on the International Materials Confer- 
ence, see BxJi-LETiN of July 2, 1951, p. 23. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



t tion of wool and to ensure the most effective dis- 
tribution and use of available supplies. 



Conclusion 

Since it first became apparent in the summer of 
1950 tliat the supply of wool would probably not 
be adequate for all needs, the United States Gov- 
ernment has kept the situation under constant 
review. Developments of the past months have 
demonstrated that forecasts of inadequate supply 



have been accurate and that some international 
action is probably required to assure fulfillment of 
the most essential requirements. Producing and 
consuming countries of the free world have indi- 
cated their willingness to cooperate in considering 
solutions to problems related to wool, and with 
sufficient determination it should be possible to 
devise an adequate solution. 

• Nan L. Grindle is an international economist 
on the Agricultural Products Staff, Office of Inter- 
national Materials Policy. 



U. S. Delegations to International Conferences 



International Union 

of Pure and Applied Physics 

The Department of State announced on July 2 
that Copenhagen, Denmarli, is to be tlie site of tlie 
Seventh General Assembly of the International 
Union of Pure and Applied Physics, at which 
physicists from many countries of the world will 
have an opportunity from July 11 through 14, 
1951, to confer on problems of common interest. 
The United States Government will be represented 
at the conference by the following delegation : 

Delegates 

John A. Wlieeler, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Princeton 
University. Princeton, N. J., Chairman 

Henry A. Barton, Ph. D., Director, American Institute of 
Physics, New Yorli, N. Y. 

David M. Deiinison, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Univer- 
sity of Micliigan, Ann Arljor, Mich. 

Har.Tld H. Nielson, Pii. D., Professor of Physics, Ohio 
State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Louis A. Turner, Ph. D., Chairman, Physics Division, Ar- 
gonne National Laboratory, Chicago, 111. 

Alternate Delegates 

Karl K. Darrow, Ph. D., Physicist, Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories, New York, N. Y. 

Elmer Hutchisson, Ph. D., Dean of Faculty, Case Insti- 
tute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio 

Thomas Lauritsen, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Physics, 
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. 

John C. Slater, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

The General Assembly, which is the governing 
body of the Union, normally meets every 3 years 
to adopt basic measures for the administration of 
the Union, to formulate new programs for re- 
search in the fields of pure and applied physics, 
and to review the progress and results of work 
carried on bj' commissions established to carry 
out specific research programs. Of the 15 com- 
missions which will submit reports to the Seventh 
Assembly, United States physicists have taken an 
active part in those dealing with (1) high altitude 
stations, (2) physico-chemical data and stand- 

July 76, 195 J 



ards, (3) physics abstracting, (4) standards, con- 
stants, and units of radioactivity, (5) radiobiol- 
offji (^) spectroscopy, (7) symbols, units, and 
nomenclature, (8) therniod3'namics and statis- 
tical mechanics, (9) cosmic rays, (10) very low 
temperatures, and (11) optics. 

International Penitentiary Commission 

The Department of State annoiuiced on July 2 
that the International Penal and Penitentiary 
Commission will hold its final meeting at Bern, 
Switzerland, July 2-7, 1951. The meeting will 
be attended by the U. S. Commissioner, Sanford 
Bates, Department of Institutions and Agencies, 
State of New Jersey, Trenton, N. J. ; and by the 
alternate U. S. Commissioner, Thorsten Sellin, 
professor of sociology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The prevention of crime and the treatment of 
offenders — the principal fields of activity of the 
International Penal and Penitentiary Commis- 
sion since its organization in 1872 as a permanent 
executive body for the series of international penal 
and penitentiary congresses — have been matters 
of concern to the United Nations, in particular 
the Social Commission of the U. N. Economic and 
Social Council, since 1946. Because of a desire to 
avoid duplication of work, and because 18 of the 
26 members of the Commission are also members 
of the United Nations, representatives of the Com- 
mission and of the United Nations conducted ne- 
gotiations in 1949 and 1950 for the integration of 
the Commission into the U. N. Secretariat. A res- 
olution authorizing such integration was adopted 
by the U. N. General Assembly on December 1, 
1950. 

At its forthcoming n;ieeting, the Commission 
will make arrangements for the transfer of its 
functions and activities to the United Nations. 



The United States in the United Nations 

A weekly feature does not appear in this issue, 
but will be resumed in the issue of July 23. 



119 



July 16, 1951 I n d 

Africa 

Challenge of Point 4 to American Engineering . 107 
Role in the Free World Today (McGhee) ... 97 

Agriculture 

Improvements In Africa 97 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

Constant Vigilance to Combat Threat of Aggres- 
sion (Harriman) 88 

EGA: 

Extension of US. Aid to Philippines .... 96 
Program In Africa 97 

American Republics 

Broadcasting Agreement Proposed 113 

BOLIVIA: Point 4 Projects Discussed (Bennett) . 107 

COSTA RICA: Point 4 Projects Discussed . . . 107 

OAS: U.S. Ratifies Charter 112 

PERU: Point 4 Projects Discussed (Bennett) . . 107 

Arms and Armed Forces 

Korean Military Situation Discussed (U.N.) . . 90 

Asia 

BURMA: Opening of VOA Program 102 

IRAN: Point 4 Agreement Signed with Colleges . Ill 
KOREA: Military Situation Discussed (U.N. Bi- 
weekly Meeting) 90 

MALAYA: Opening of VOA Program (Acheson, 

Barkley, Barrington) 102 

PHILIPPINES: Credit for Protective Projects 

Otlertd tay Export-Import Bank 96 

SYRIA : Withdrawal from GATT 115 

U.S.S.R.: 

Opening of VOA Moslem Broadcasts, State- 
ment by Acheson 102 

Urged to Inform People of U.S. Friendship 

(Truman) 87 

Communism 

Threat in Africa (McGhee) 97 

Constant Vigilance to Combat Threat of Aggres- 
sion (Harriman) 88 

In Defense of Freedom (Truman) 83 

Europe 

ARMENIA : Opening of VOA Program, Statement 

by Acheson 102 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA : 

Czechs Asked to Release U.S. Planes .... 93 
Travel by American Citizens Prohibited . . 92 
FRANCE: Message on 2000th Birthday of Paris 

(Truman to de Gaulle) 87 

GERMANY: Termination of State of War With 

Germany Proposed (Truman) 90 

HUNGARY: U.S. Condemns Ruthless Measures . 94 
ITALY: Arrangement for Movement of U.S. 

Supplies 94 

U.S.S.R.: 

Further Expansion of VOA to Soviet Repub- 
lics 102 

Import Tariff Concessions Denied .... 95 
Inform People of U.S. Friendship Urges 

President 87 

VOA To Broadcast Friendship Resolution . . 87 

Finance 

Export- Import Bank To Extend Credit to Philip- 
pines 96 

Financing of Point 4 Projects (Bennett) . . . Ill 

Health 

Anchan Resettlement Scheme In Nigeria 

(McGhee) 97 

Point 4 Projects Discussed (Bennett) .... Ill 

Human Rights 

Violations in Czechoslovakia: 

Mock Trial of American Citizen 92 

U.S. Pilots Being Held Incommunicado ... 93 

Information and Educational Exchange 
Program 

FULBRIGHT ACT: U.S. -Africa Exchange Stu- 
dents 97 

Office of Private Enterprise Cooperation Opened 

in New Orleans 105 



e X Vol. XXV, No. 629 

VOA: 

Friendship Resolution Broadcast to U.S.SJl. . 87 
Increase of Programs to U.S.S.R 102 

International Meetings 

Recent International Discussions on Wool . . 116 
REPORT ON: U.N. Biweekly Meeting; Discussion 

of Korean Situation 90 

U.S. Delegations: 

International Penal and Penitentiary Com- 
mission 119 

International Union of Pure and Applied 

Physics 119 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

Italy Assists in Movement of U.S. Supplies . . 94 
MSP: Constant Vigilance To Combat Aggres- 
sion 88 

The Defense of Freedom (Truman) .... 83 

Presidential Documents 

ADDRESS: In Defense of Freedom 83 

CORRESPONDENCE : Message to Mayor of Paris . 87 
EXECUTIVE ORDERS : Responsibility for Samoa 
Transferred to Interior Department 

(10264-5) 105 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS : Proposal of State of 

War With Germany Terminated .... 90 
U.S.S.R. Urged to Inform People of U.S. Friend- 
ship (Truman) 87 

Protection of U.S. Nationals and Property 

Release of U.S. Pilots In Czechoslovakia Re- 
quested (Briggs to Slroky) 93 

Travel to Czechoslovakia Prohibited .... 92 

Strategic Materials 

Africa's Role in the Free World Today (McGhee) . 97 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Belgian Congo 10-Year Plan (McGhee) ... 97 

MSP: 

Colombo Plan; Beginning of 112 

Constant Vigilance To Combat Aggression 

(Harriman) 88 

POINT FOUR: 

Development of Liberia (McGhee) .... 97 
International Road Federation Signs Contract. Ill 
Iran and Utah Colleges Sign Agreement ... Ill 
The Engineer and Point Four (Bennett) . . 107 

Telecommunications 

Broadcasting in North America 113 

Trade 

GATT: Syria Withdraws 115 

U.S.S.R. and Satellites Denied Import Tariff 

Coiicession 95 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

Import Taria Concessions Denied to U.S.S.R. 
and Satellites: Trade Agreements Extension 
Act of 1951 95 

North American Regional Broadcasting Agree- 
ment Proposed 113 

OAS Charter Ratified by U.S 112 

Trust Territories 

NON-SELF GOVERNING: Responsibility for 
Samoa transferred to Interior Dept. (Ex. 
Or. 10264) 105 

United Nations 

Members Discuss Military Situation .... 90 

Name Index 

Barrett, Edward W 105 

Bennett, Henry G m 

Briggs, Ellis 93 

Bryant, Vaughn M 105 

de Gaulle. Pierre 87 

Dreier, John C 112 

Dunn. James C 94 

Grindle, Nan L 116 

Groz, Archbishop 94 

Harriman, W. Averell 88 

McGhee, George C 97 

Mokma, Gerald A 94 

Oatis. William N 92 

Siroky, Vlliam 93 

Smith, Marie Louise 113 

Truman, President 83, 87, 90, 95, 105 

U. 5. GOVERNMENT PPINTING OFFICE: 



4- 



l^c^ 



//v& z^ehavi^nieni^ AW jtaX& 




AN ESTIMATE OF THE PRESENT WORLD SITUA- 

TION • Remarks by Secretary Acheson 123 

CONSULTATIONS WITH IRAN ON ANGLO-IRAN- 
IAN OIL DISPUTE • 129 

DRAFT PEACE TREATY WITH JAPAN • 132 

DRAFT TRIPARTITE SECURITY TREATY • . . . . 147 

ARMISTICE NEGOTIATIONS IN KOREA • 151 



For index see back cover 



XXV, No. 630 
July 23, 1951 





**^^y5^^ bulletin 



Vol. XXV. No. 630 • PnBiicATiON 4306 
July 23, 1951 



For sale by the Superintendent o( Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

C2 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 

been approved by the Director of the 

Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bullxtin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
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the Department. Information is in- 
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United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
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Publications of the Department, as 
welliis legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



"•S.SUPER,NreNDCNT Of DOCUMENTS 

^i^G 9 1951 
An Estimate of the Present World Situation 

By Secretary Acheson ^ 



Ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be with 
you this afternoon. It is particularly pleasant 
since it gives me the opportunity to thank all of 
you who gave so generously of your time and ef- 
forts, both working here at home and through the 
special panel which went abroad, to help us on our 
overseas information service. You did a tremen- 
dous job for us and we are very deeply grateful. 

This afternoon I am going to try something of 
an experiment. I am asked to speak with you on 
what is called "The Present World Situation." 
Now that is something of a problem, because I 
have also asked my associates who are dealing 
■with the various geographical portions of our 
work to come and tell you in some detail about it, 
and I do not want to anticipate what they are 
going to say. Therefore I thought we might 
spend a little time on trying to discover what the 
present situation is; and, if we can get that in our 
minds, then perhaps some of the things that my 
associates say to you may have a little more mean- 
ing. 

There are several preliminary observations I 
would like to make about the present situation. 
One of them is that it is not a situation clouded in 
obscurity. There is a blinding light thrown upon 
it — in fact, so much light that the question arises 
whether the light is not too strong and too multi- 
colored for reading purposes. I have had a few 
figures collected for me on some of the contribu- 
tions to knowledge on this subject which are being 
Eut out by Government and by you, who are sitting 
ere. My own Department, the State Department, 
puts out each year 1,200 press releases dealing with 
the present international situation. Every day 
we put out 320,000 words over all channels of the 
Voice of America. Every day we put out 40,000 
words through the Sve Wireless Bulletins which 
we send to all parts of the world. Each year we 
put out 20 publications in the field of documenta- 

' A stenographic transcript of remarks made off the 
record and from notes to a group of magazine and book 
publishers on June 29 and released to the press on 
July 15. 



tion of diplomacy, each one of these volumes con- 
taining from 100 to 1,500 pages. We put out 70 
volumes a year in the field of current informa- 
tion, running from 100 to 500 pages. We put out 
200 volumes a year, each running from 20 to 500 
pages, on treaties and international actions. 

The EcA, the Treasury, the Department of 
Commerce, and the Federal Reserve Board prob- 
ably put out together some three times as much as 
we do on the international situation. 

The Congress has made this one of its main 
subjects of interest, and you have with you this 
afternoon the two leading contributors to a Con- 
gressional work of 2 million words on Far East- 
ern policy. I think I led with 418,000 words and 
General Bradley came a poor second with 278,000 ! 

Outside of the governmental field, there are 500 
books a year printed on international affairs and 
the present international situation, and there are 
3,000 magazine articles a year which are suffi- 
ciently important for bibliographical listings. 
Of course I cannot even begin to estimate the 
number of words put out in the news columns and 
the editorials. 

So you see there is plenty of light being thrown 
on the present international situation. As I say, 
the light may be too strong, and it may be too 
varied for reading, but the situation certainly is 
not developing in gloom. 

There are three things that I would like to talk 
with you about for a moment in the light of all 
these volumes of words I have talked about. I 
have had some 20 or 30 important monographs in 
the Library of Congress examined from three 
points of view. One was to find out when the 
writers of these monographs thought the present 
situation began. When is "present", in other 
words? The second thing was, what do these au- 
thors, these writers of these important mono- 
graphs, believe to be the common characteristic, 
or what is the outstanding characteristic, of the 
present, as distinct from the past or the future? 
The third was, what are the essential steps rec- 
ommended for dealing with the present? 



Juf/ 23, 1 95 1 



123 



The Problem of the Present 

You will be interested to know some of the re- 
sults of this inquiry. Let's take first of all when 
the present situation began. Wlren is "present" ? 
One writer says the present situation began in 
1905 with Japanese victory over the Russians in 
the Russo-Japanese war. Another writer says it 
began with the conference at Yalta. Another 
says it began with General Marshall's mission to 
China in 1945-46. Another says it began with 
the invention of the airplane. Another says it be- 
gan with the great upsurge of population which 
took place when modern medicine checked the 
death rate of the last century. Another one, who 
is not quite so modern, says it began with the Prot- 
estant Reformation. Another says it began with 
the collective action taken against aggi-ession in 
Korea. Another, a medievalist, says it began 
with the Portuguese exploring the Senegal River 
500 years ago. Another says the "present"' began 
with the dropping of the atom bomb. 

The main point in common that we can find in 
all these writings is that the present is upon us 
now. All we can say is what the little boy said 
to the little girl when he was looking over the 
fence and she was on the sidewalk. She asked, 
"Are you going to Mary Brown's party?" and he 
answered, "I am to it." All we know is that we 
are in the present, but when it began we cannot 
tell. We can say that there is no one moment 
when it began. We can say that there will prob- 
ably be no one moment when it will end. But it 
is with us. Human experience is not like a book ; 
it is not written in chapters. 

The next thing that I had examined was, what 
is the fundamental quality of the present? How 
do you tell the present ? How do you know some- 
thing is present and is not characteristic of the 
past ? Going through these monographs, we come 
upon these theories. One is that the fundamental 
quality of the present situation is that it is a con- 
tention between great ])owers over the control of 
territory and that in this contention between great 
powers ideological differences not only are second- 
ary but really obscure the real meaning of the 
present time. Another writer says that the funda- 
mental characteristic of the present is that it is 
a conflict between ideologies and that the old con- 
flicts of states about territory have nothing to do 
with the present. Another says that it is funda- 
mentally a struggle between the rule of law, im- 
posed in the classic conception of the state, and a 
conspiracy, on the other hand, which is the revolt 
of men against the state. Another says that it is 
the struggle between the awakened peoples of 
Asia and the decadent peoples of the AVest. An- 
other says that the fundamental quality of the 
present situation is that nations have tended to 
renounce the healthy interest in national self- 
interest and have run off after the will-o'-the-wisp 
of collective secuiity. Another one says that the 
quality of the present is that nations have not re- 



124 



nounced their interests in national security and - 
have failed to set up collective security in a world 
commonwealth. 

All that we get out of these analyses of the i 
quality of the present is that struggle is at the j 
heart of the times in which we live, that the times ' 
in which we live are onerous, but that there is 
hope for manliind if we will keep our minds on the i 
heart of the problem. 

When we come to look for the heart of the prob- i 
lem, we find it somewhat confusing. It reminds 
me of some words in the introduction of Henry 
Nevinson's book, Changes and Chances — you re- 
member that is the first of three volumes in his 
autobiography. He was a wonderful man, whom 
many of you I am sui'e knew while he was alive. 
He was a great war correspondent of the Man- 
chester Guardian. In his book he discussed one 
of the prayers in the Booh of Common Prayer. 
The words I refer to are : 

That .so, among tlie sundry and manifold changes of 
the world, our hearts may surely there be fixed where 
true joys are to be found. 

Nevinson said that he always thought the writer 
of that prayer was slightly naive, because, if one 
only knew what the true joys were, it would be 
no difficulty to keep one's heart fully fixed upon 
them. If we only knew what the heart of the 
problem was at the present time, it would not be 
difficult to keep our minds on it. 

The Necessary Line of Action 

Now we come to the third thing that I asked to 
have looked up in these monographs — what is the 
line of action necessary to deal with the present 
situation? One writer says that we must recog- 
nize that what we are involved in is the struggle 
for the minds of men and that we must spend 
vastly more money on that and not waste our funds 
on economic or military expenditures. Another 
one says that the minds of men are trivial things 
at best, and that the minds of men follow their 
stomachs and, therefore, the thing to do is to con- 
centrate on economic activities, and intellectual 
and ideological results will follow. Another 
writer says military power is the only thing that 
counts in our time — forget all this nonsense about 
pi-ojiaganda and economics and concentrate on the 
military pi-oblem. Another one says that the real 
heart of the matter is a struggle for power as based 
upon position and therefore what we must do to 
settle the contention of our times is to come to 
agreement dividing the world into power areas. 
Another one says that the heart of the matter is 
to get away from the outmoded ideas of national 
sovereignty and go in for world government so 
that all differences between nations will be mere 
partisan friction, and war, if there ever is any 
war, will become merely small civil disturbances. 

Summing up all of this, what you get out of 
the people who are writing most seriously about 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



pur time is that there is no sovereign remedy ; that 
;here is no one course to pursue; that there are 
nany courses, many attitudes, which we must take. 
t think this is a rather long-winded way of coming 
1 a conchision wliich all of you recognize is in- 
lerently sensible, that there is not any one char- 
icteristic of our time, there is not any one answer 
i:o it. It has many characteristics and there must 
36 many answers to it. 

I venture to put down here some of the attitudes 
isvhich seem to me essential for us to have in mind 
is we struggle with the times in which we live. 

The first attitude which seems to me essential is 
;he recognition that, whenever the present began 
md whenever the present will end, it will be with 
IS for a verj' long time. If we will get that firmly 
m mind, we will begin to get over the impatience 
(vhich leads people to try to find magic solutions, 
[f we will recognize that we have before ns a long 
period of work, then we have the beginning of 
itvisdom. Once we understand that we have a 
tong period of work before us then we can see that 
ihe object of our efforts is not to remove these 
problems. They are not removable. The object 
:)f our work is to reduce these problems to manage- 
ible proportions. 

\ Sense of Continuing Responsibility 

If we can reduce them to manageable propor- 
tions, and if we will then accept continuity of 
besponsibility in managing those problems, we 
begin to see some daylight ahead. But we cannot 
for a moment believe, if we are really sensible in 
facing the present, that the problems can be es- 
caped. We must believe over and over again, and 
mderstand over and over again — as though we 
leard them for the first time — Lincoln's great 
words in his message to Congress of December 
11862: "We cannot escape history." We cannot 
escape the problem of the present. We can only 
escape it by death or defeat. If we are going to 
leal with tliose problems, we must be willing to 
leal with them for a long time. We must be 
killing to reduce them from almost impossible 
problems to manageable problems, and we must 
|iave a sense of continuing responsibility in deal- 
ing with them. 

The second very important attitude for us to 
ake in dealing with the problems of the present 
!S to avoid overdramatizing any particular prob- 
lem or overemphasizing it. That is always our 
Janger not peculiar to the United States but com- 
inon to everybody. The particular problem with 
.which we are dealing seems to us to be the over- 
whelming problem of all time. Take Korea, for 
nstance, wliicli God knows is important enough. 
There is a jihrase which has been a])plied to it 
livhich is typical of tliis attitude which I am urg- 
"K jou to avoid. The activities of the U. N. 
Ln Korea have been described as "the reluctant 
brusade." That phrase seems to connote that 
Korea is (he place wliere the showdown be- 

july 23, 1957 



tween the East and West is going to occur. 
"The reluctant crusade" — reluctantly the East 
and West get into the showdown. Now if 
anything is important, if anything is true about 
the situation in Korea, it is the overwhelming 
importance of not forcing a showdown on our 
side in Korea and 7iot permitting our opponents to 
force a showdown. 

That has been the whole heart and essence of 
the policy which the Administration has been fol- 
lowing and which General Marshall and General 
Bradley so brilliantly described in the hearings 
before the Joint Committee. Korea's significance 
is not the final crusade. It is not finally making 
valid the idea of collective security. It is impor- 
tant perhaps for the inverse reason that in Korea 
we prevented the invalidation of collective 
security. 

Collective security is not something which is 
established once and for all by some dramatic 
gesture. Collective security is like a bank ac- 
count. It is kept alive by the resources which 
are put into it. In Korea the Russians presented 
a check which was drawn on the bank account of 
collective security. The Russians thought the 
check would bounce. They thought it was a bad 
check. But to their great surprise, the teller paid 
it. The important thing was that the check was 
paid. Tlie importance will be nothing if the next 
check is not paid and if the bank account is not 
kept strong and sufficient to cover all checks which 
are drawn upon it. 

The third attitude which I think is important 
for us to have in mind is a proper sense of pro- 
portion about the problems and difficulties which 
come before us. 

In getting the proper sense of proportion about 
our difficulties, the first thing that we must do 
is to understand that the present situation is a 
great deal more serious than the United States as 
a whole has yet come to realize. We must under- 
stand that the Soviet Union is a much tougher 
adversary than the United States has yet realized. 
We must not only understand that, but we must 
understand something else, and that is that the 
Soviet Union is not the only difficulty that we 
have. Behind and beyond the Soviet Union, and 
our problems with the Soviet Union, lie other diffi- 
culties, perhaps even gi-eater. The important 
thing about our actions in the present is that we 
must so act in dealing with the immediate difficulty 
that we manage also the more long-range ones. 

What do I mean by those general words? 
Twice in our lifetime we have dealt with problems 
before us as though tlie solution of tlie jiroblems 
was the solution of all problems. AVe dealt with 
the Kaiser as thougli the defeat of the Kaiser 
was the defeat of all such menace to the world. 
And yet there imnu>diately grew up after that 
Hitler and Tojo. Then we dealt with Hitler and 
Tojo, and then we found looming behind them 
Stalin and the menace of communism and the 
Soviet Union. 

125 



Now what lies behind the Soviet Union ? I see 
two problems. I am not saying these are caused 
by the Soviet Union, but I am saying that here 
are problems which we must reduce to manageable 
proportion in our dealing with the present. One 
is the awakening of the vast populations of Asia, 
populations which are beginning to feel that they 
should have and should exercise in the world an 
influence which is proportionate to their numbers 
and worthy of their cultures. The force is a force 
which can be turned to good, or it can be a force 
which can rend to pieces a world which has im- 
prudently managed its immediate problem and 
which finds itself weakened, perhaps shattered in 
facing these upsurging forces of Asia. Therefore, 
in thinking about the Soviet Union, we must think 
about this shadow on the rock behind it. We 
must manage our difficulties so prudently that we 
have strength and initiative and power left to 
help shape and guide these emerging forces so 
that they will not turn out to be forces which 
rend and destroy. 

In addition to the emergence of these peoples of 
Asia with the ambitions and possible power — 
which has to be thought about in relation not only 
to the existing power but also to the power which 
might be left after some imprudently inaugurated 
struggle had torn the Western world apart — there 
are the great problems of the world's growing 
hunger, of its growing numbers, of its deficient 
knowledge of the very elemental methods of 
staying alive. 

These are the problems, these are the shadows 
on the rock behind the Soviet Union, of which we 
must never lose si<Tht. All of this has to do with 
getting the proper perspective on the difficulties 
before us. 



Balance Between Commitment and Capabilities 

Another attitude which we must always keep 
in mind is the need to match our strength with 
the interests which we must defend. We hear it 
said — and it is wisely said — that there must be a 
balancing of commitments and capabilities. Too 
often people say that when they mean that we 
should reduce our commitments to meet whatever 
our capabilities may be at any time. Nothing 
could be more erroneous than that. What we 
must do is to be conscious of our national interests. 
A commitment is a national vital interest of which 
we have become conscious and for which we have 
made provision, but we may have national in- 
terests, which are just as valid, of which we have 
not become conscious and for which we have not 
made provision — about which we should im- 
mediately become conscious and about which we 
should immediately make provision. 

Another attitude which we must have in mind 
is that there is no unitaiy approach. I suggested 
this a moment ago when I talked about cures which 
have been put forward for our modern evils. To 



think that there is a unitary approach is a fallacy.' 
We must use all means at our hand, whatever theyj 
are, and not say that one is the answer, or one or 
two are the answers. If you take, for instance, the 
views of those who urge that propaganda is the 
sole necessary weapon to survive and win in the 
modern world, you easily find yourself in the ri 
diculous position where you may have all the 
people of a nation on your side, but those people 
are politically organized as an effective oppositior 
to you. To a very large extent — not completely 
but to a very large extent — that is the situatioi 
which exists in China. I believe that the vast 
masses of the people in China are sympathetic tc 
the United States, and yet those masses of people 
in China are organized effectively against us sc 
that they are a very strong opponent. So propa- 
ganda is not the sole answer. It is an important 
weapon, and we must use it — we must use it fuUj 
but it is not the sole answer. 

Neither is dealing with governments alone the 
sole answer. The idea that we can make arranj^ 
ments with this, that, or the other government 
without regard to popular support founded or 
free consent would all too probably involve us ir 
excessively brittle alliances. We have a very gooo 
illustration of that sort of brittleness in the ar- 
rangements which were made between Hitler and 
Mussolini; they seemed very fine but they were 
very brittle, and when the pressure was put upor 
them they broke down. As it turned out, not 
the nation but only their passing masters proved 
to be the parties to the alliance. 

We must be aware of both the fallacy of re- 
covery without defensive strength and the fallacj 
of military strength upon a shaky economic foun- 
dation. These two things are of vital importance. 
They go together and they are at the heart of cm 
efforts at the present time in the North Atlantic 
Treaty countries. There you have a community, 
an important community, a virile one, one which' 
has come through grave and deep economic 
troubles and has been fighting its way up for some! 
time. ' 

Economic well being is not enough by itself.; 
The countries which we have aided along the up- 
ward road now see that the situation demands a 
tremendous effort to build up, along with us, mili- 
tary strength as well as economic strength. De- 
fensive strength is as integral to recovery as a 
fence is to a cornfield. Yet in seeking to replenish 
military strength it is necessary to avoid putting 
too great a load on our allies or on ourselves, foi 
that matter. 

There must be a very carefully worked out bal- 
ance between the firm economic foundation and 
the strong military defense so that the militarj 
defense does not bring down the economic strue' 
ture in ruins and so that the economic structure 
is built up for the purpose of defending itsell 
with its military components. ) 



126 



Deparfmenf of S/ofe Bulletin 



'No Substitute for Central Strength 

I We must also recognize that there is no substi- 
Itute for strength at the center. Alliances are im- 
portant. It is of vital importance to us that our 
.allies in the North Atlantic Treaty and in the 
JRio treaty be strong and that the bonds between 
jthem and us be strong. But it is equally im- 
portant, if not more important, that there be 
strength at the center of these groups — the 
strength of the United States, its economic 
strength, its military strength, which will, in it- 
self, breed strength at the periphery of our as- 
sociations. The same applies in the United Na- 
tions. In that union of nations there is no sub- 
stitute for the strength of the United States at the 
heart of the great group of powers which share our 
determination to uphold the principles of the 
Charter. 

In building that strength it is very important 
that we should not underestimate ourselves. We 
have to meet and face limitations and difficulties. 
But if every time a difficulty comes along some- 
body says, "Oh, to do that will wreck the economy 
1 of the United States," that is underestimating our- 
t selves. I have no doubt that there is a point be- 
lyond which the United States cannot go, but I 
am equally sure that we are not anywhere near 
that point. Therefore the thing to do is not to 
be timid about ourselves but to realize that our 
great strength is there to be used, and to use it 
wisely and economically and sensibly to create 
the defenses which we need. 

May I say right here in connection with this 

business of creating strength at the center, we 

imust not for one second allow any development 

which may occur in Korea to lull us into a belief 

that now we have turned the corner, and now 

things are going to get better, and therefore we 

do not need to make the effort which we have 

been making. I think we need to make it even 

more than we made it before. If it is possible 

to bring about an end of the fighting in Korea, 

it will be because of the efforts which we have 

already made and the sacrifices of the men in 

Korea. The success of our policy will mean only 

one thing, and that is that we have held off this 

conspiracy against us and that we have some time 

now which, if used wisely, will give us the power 

and give us the union with powerful allies which 

can deter World War III. If we do not do that, 

if we allow ourselves to be lulled by Korea, I 

t can assure you that, just as certainly as you are 

j sitting here, we will be hit within the next 6 

j months to a year with a much tougher blow some- 

1 where else. If we do not make the efforts now, 

I we will be unprepared for that blow. We may 

, completely deter it if we now all bend together 

every effort we can to going forward with the 

program. 

Another point is that we must believe that time 
is on our side. I concede to you that in saying 
this there is an element of faith. There is an 



element of faith because I believe that we are 
people who act. Time is not on our side if we 
merely sit in the shade and fan ourselves. Time 
is on our side if we go to work. We can do much 
in time. We can strengthen ourselves, we can 
strengthen our allies. We have a vast productive 
power which is now not harnessed, much greater 
than those opposed to us. We can harness it. 
There is much we can do and, if we will do it, time 
is on our side. If we don't do it, it is not. 

Therefore, we come to the matter of will. We 
have a strong geographical position. We have 
people who are skilled in industry, who have cour- 
age, who make fine soldiers and producers. We 
have natural resources. We have the productive 
plant. All of those things are no good at all un- 
less they are cemented together and thrown into 
action by will. I believe that the American 
people have that will and that they can put that 
will strongly behind everything of a material 
nature that they have so that they, along with 
their allies, will secure for the future the things 
they value. 

Another attitude of the utmost importance is 
that we must keep constantly before us the goal 
toward which we are working. What we are work- 
ing toward is a situation in which the normal 
course of settling disputes will be negotiation. 
We are enthusiastic people, and occasionally we 
get so enthusiastic about what we are doing that 
we believe that is the end instead of the means. 
We must never get ourselves into the state of 
mind where we say that we are building this 
strength in order to use it. We are building this 
strength in oixler that we may never have to use 
it, in order that we may get to the point where the 
normal way to settle things is to sit down, to argue 
about them, to negotiate about them, and to find 
a solution with which all parties concerned can 
live, even though it is not ideal for any of us. 

That is not really a hopeless ambition. It seems 
a long way off — and it is a long way off when 
you are dealing with the Soviet Union under the 
present imbalance of power — but we have reached 
a situation in the Western Hemisphere where ne- 
gotiation is the normal way of settling disputes. 
The normal way for the American republics to 
settle all their differences — and there are very 
grave and serious difficulties — is by negotiation 
and reasonable settlement. That has taken nearly 
'60 years to work out. It has taken all of that time 
to build up the trust of the American republics 
among themselves and between them and us. For 
years we were called the "Colossus of the North," 
and we took actions from time to time which made 
the other American republics apprehensive of us, 
but I think that no longer exists. I do not believe 
there ever took place in the world a more harmoni- 
ous or constructive meeting than the recent meet- 
ing between the Foreign Ministers of the American 
republics, in which all sorts of questions, vitally 
affecting all our countries, were taken up and dis- 



JuJy 23, ?95l 



127 



cussed. Sometimes points of view were very far 
apart. On one very tough economic question it 
took staying up all night for three nights to get 
people to realize that there was a good deal in 
common between them ! But we solved that ques- 
tion and we will solve other differences in this 
Hemisphere in that way. 

Pattern of Responsibility for Leadership 

There is one last attitude which I should like 
to stress, and that is that we must always keep in 
mind that we must deal with these problems within 
a pattern of responsibility. I should like to talk 
a little bit about what I mean by a pattern of 
responsibility. I mean that we must act with the 
consciousness that our responsibility is to interests 
which are broader than our own immediate Ameri- 
can interests. Great empires have risen in this 
world and have collapsed because they took too 
narrow a view. There is no divine command 
which spares the United States from the seeds of 
destruction which have operated in other great 
states. There is no instruction to that one of the 
Fates who holds the shears that she shall with- 
hold them from the thread of life of the United 
States. We must operate in a pattern of responsi- 
bility which is greater than our own interests. We 
cannot yield to the temptation, because we are 
virile and enthusiastic, of thinking that, because 
we believe a thing, it just must be right. We must 
not confuse our own opinions with the will of 
God. 

That is essential for leadership. It is not merely 
a moral dissertation which I am making. It is 
essential to leadership among the free nations if 
we are going to maintain the sort of coalition 
which we have. We cannot take the attitude that 
we will coerce nations, that we are so right that if 
they do not do exactly what we want them to do 
we will withhold economic aid, or we will with- 
hold military aid, we will do this, we will do that. 
If we take that attitude, then we are creating a 
relationship indistinguishable from that which 
exists between the Soviet Union and countries as- 
sociated with it. That must never be our attitude. 
We are the leader. We are accepted as the leader. 
But we will continue to be accepted as the leader 
only if the other countries believe that the pat- 



tern of responsibility within which we operate isi 
a responsibility to interests which are broader 
than our own — that we know today what Thomas 
Jefferson was talking about when he spoke of the 
need of paj'ing a decent respect to the opinions 
of mankind. 

How can we institutionalize that sense of re-, 
sponsibility? The means are at hand, have been 
used, and must continue to be used. The means 
lie in the United Nations. There is much talk! 
these days that the United Nations has proved' 
itself ineffective — it does not do this, it does not 
do that, we must scrap it in favor of some other 
kind of coercive machinery. I do not agree with 
any of those views. 

I don't think anyone is more conscious than 
I am, unless it be General Bradley, of the diffi- 
culties of working within a coalition as large as 
the group in the United Nations who are associ- 
ated together in Korea. There are a thousand 
problems in working with so many nations, con- 
sidering their points of view, and modifying your 
own so that you may maintain a true friend. 
But I assure you that it is worth it a million times, i 
Whatever loss there is in efficiency of operation is 

fained a million times by the strength which comes 
rom the group's believing that the leader is pay- 
ing attention to other people's points of view. We 
should be forever grateful to the United Nations 
for furnishing a forum where the United States 
of America, to maintain its leadership, must enter 
and must explain itself to the rest of the world, 
and do so in terms which are so persuasive that 
countries will be convinced, do so under circum- 
stances where the United States and its representa- 
tives listen to the representative of the smallest 
country in the world who has a point of view 
which he wishes to express, do so under circum- 
stances where we make every effort to harmonize 
the views, adjust views, and may not force views 
down other people's throats. If we do that, then 
I believe the United States will avoid that narrow 
view which has led to the destruction of great 
powers and great empires in the past. The United 
States will lead into a new course in which the 
free nations will continue to be free nations, freely 
associated, f I'eely, willingly, and eagerly accepting 
leadership which they believe considers their in- 
terests as deeply as it does its own. 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



Consultations With Iran on Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute 



MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN TO 
IRANIAN PRIME MINISTER 

[Released to the press hy the White House July 9] 

The folloicing communication vms sent yesterday ty the 
President to the Prime Minister of Iran (the communica- 
tion was telairaphcd by the Secretary of State to Ambassa- 
dor Orady at Tehran for delivery to the Prime Minister): 

I am most grateful to Your Excellency for giv- 
ing me in your recent letter a full and frank 
account of the developments in the unhappy dis- 
pute which has arisen between your Government 
and the British oil interests in Iran. This matter 
is so full of dangers to the welfare of your own 
country, of Great Britain, and of all the free 
world, that I have been giving the most earnest 
thought to the problems involved. I had hoped 
that the common interests of the two countries 
directly involved and the common ground which 
has been developed in your discussions would open 
the way to a solution of the troublesome and com- 
plicated problems which have arisen. You know 
of our sympathetic interest in this country in 
Iran's desire to control its natural resources. 
From this point of view we were happy to see that 
the British Government has on its part accepted 
the principle of nationalization. 

Since British skill and operating knowledge can 
contribute so much to the Iranian oil industry I 
had hoped— and still hope — that ways could be 
found to recognize the principle of nationalization 
and British interests to the benefit of both. For 
these reasons I have watched with concern the 
breakdown of your discussions and the drift to- 
ward a collapse of oil operations with all the at- 
tendant losses to Iran and the world. Surely this 
is a disaster which statesmanship can find a way 
to avoid. 

Recently I have come to believe that the com- 
plexity of the problems involved in a broad settle- 
ment and the shortness of the time available before 
the refinery must shut down — if the present situ- 
ation continues — require a simple and practicable 
modus vivendi under which operations can con- 
tinue and under which the interests of neither side 
will be prejudiced. Various suggestions to this 
end have failed. The time available is running 
out. 

July 23, 195? 



In this situation a new and important develop- 
ment has occurred. The International Court of 
Justice, which your Government, the British Gov- 
ernment, and our own, all joined with other na- 
tions to establish as the guardian of impartial 
justice and equity, has made a suggestion for a 
modus vivendi. 

Technical considerations aside, I lay great stress 
on the action of the Court. I know how sincerely 
your Government and the British Government be- 
lieve in the positions which you both have taken 
in your discussions. However, I am sure you be- 
lieve even more profoundly in the idea of a world 
controlled by law and justice which has been the 
hope of the world since the San Francisco con- 
ference. Apart from questions of jurisdiction, no 
one will doubt the impartiality of the World 
Court, its eminence, and the respect due to it by 
all nations who signed the United Nations treaty. 

Therefore, I earnestly commend to you a most 
careful consideration of its suggestion. I suggest 
that its utterance be thought of not as a decision 
which is or is not binding depending on technical 
legal considerations, but as a suggestion of an im- 
partial body, dedicated to justice and equity and 
to a peacefiil world based upon these great concep- 
tions. A study of its suggestion by your Govern- 
ment and by the British Government will, I am 
sure, develop methods of implementing it which 
will carry out its wise and impartial purpose- 
maintaining the opei-ation of the oil industry and 
preserving the positions of both Governments. 
Surely no government loses any element of its 
sovereignty or the support of its people by treating 
with all possible consideration and respect the 
utterance of this great Court. Our own Govern- 
ment and people believe this profoundly. Should 
you take such a position I am sure that the stature 
of Iran would be greatly enhanced in the eyes of 
the world. 

I have a very sincere desire, Mr. Prime Minister, 
to be as helpful to you as possible in this circini- 
stance. I have discussed (his matter at length with 
W. Averell Harriman who, as you know, is one of 
my closest advisers and one of our most eminent 
citizens. Should you be willing to receive him, I 
should be happy to have him go to Tehran as my 

129 



personal representative to talk over with you this 
immediate and pressing situation. 

May I talie this opportunity to assure Your Ex- 
cellency of my highest consideration and to convey 
to you my confidence in the future well-being and 
prosperity of Iran. 



REPLY FROM IRANIAN PRIME MINISTER TO 
PRESIDENT TRUMAN 

[Released to the press hy the White Bouse July 11^ 

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your 
friendly message of 8th July handed to me by His 
Excellency the Ambassador of the United states 
in Teheran just after the Government of Iran had 
taken its decision with regard to the findings of 
the International Court of Justice at The Hague. 
I deem it my duty to thank you once again, Mr. 
President, for the care you have always taken in 
the welfare of this country. 

As I mentioned in my previous letter, the Gov- 
erment and people of Iran recognize the Govern- 
ment and the people of the United States as the 
staunch supporters of right and justice and ap- 
preciate therefore, with complete sincerity, the in- 
terest you are taking in the solution of the economic 
difficulties of Iran in general and in the oil ques- 
tion in particular. 

I am extremely glad to note your reference, 
Mr. President, to the sympathy and interest of the 
American Nation in the realization of Iran's na- 
tional aspirations and the acceptance of the prin- 
ciple of nationalization of the oil industry; for 
Iran has liad and is having no aim other than the 
acceptance of this principle by virtue of the laws 
ratified by the two Houses of Parliament, and has 
always been ready, within the terms of these laws 
to take any measures for the removal of the present 
disputes. It is, therefore, a matter of great regret 
that, insofar as Iran can judge, no proposal or 
suggestion have been made, up to the present, by 
the former oil company denoting their acceptance 
of the principle of nationalization of the oil in- 
dustry in accordance with the laws ratified by the 
Parliament — laws which the Government is duty 
bound to put into force. On the contrary, in their 
note of 29th June, the representatives of the 
former oil company made proposals which were 
against the provisions of these laws and which 
resulted in the termination of the discussions. 

Provided, of course, that our indisputable na- 
tional rights are respected in accordance with the 
laws concerning the nationalization of the oil in- 
dustry, the Government and the people of Iran 
are ready to enter into immediate discussions with 
the aim to remove all the disputes so that there 
may be no stoppage in the production and exploi- 
tation of oil — a situation which the Government 
of Iran has always been anxious to avoid and 

130 



which, as you have mentioned, Mr. President, is. 
causing losses to all concerned. 

With reference to your desire, Mr. President, t(i 
help our country I must state without hesitatior 
that the Iranian Nation and Government fulljl 
appreciate this high intent in all sincerity anc; 
candor, more so when they find that you havjj 
shown your readiness, Mr. President, to send tci 
Teheran as your special representative Averel 
Harriman, one of the most distinguished Ameri- 
can citizens, for consultations. 

In the light of our knowledge of Mr. Harri- 
man's personality and his vast experiences, and 
considering the fact that he will act as your rep- 
resentative, the Iranian Government welcomes 
this gesture and hopes to take full advantage ol 
consultations with a man of such high standing, 
In the meanwhile it would also give him the op- 
portunity to become directly acquainted with our 
views and to obtain first hand knowledge of qui 
living conditions and requirements. ! 

May I avail myself of this oportunity to offer 
you, Mr. President, the expressions of my best 
and most sincere regards. 



OFFICIAL REMARKS MADE AT AMBASSADOR 
HARRIMAN'S DEPARTURE 

The President : I want to express to you my appreciB' 
tion for your willingness to undertake this trip to Iran. 
It is a very important job that you have undertaken, and 
one which I think you can handle with satisfaction and 
success. 

All of us want to wish you a pleasant trip, and I hope 
that you will express to the Iranian Government that our 
interest is the interest of world peace, and the welfare of 
Iran and the rest of the world. 

We have no selfish interest in the matter whatever. 

Secbetabt Acheson : Mr. Harriman, you carry the good 
wishes of all of us with you, and I know this mission could 
not be in better hands than yours. 

I wish you all the success and luck in the world. 

Geneeal Marshall : I wish you a safe trip and look 
for success in carrying out your objective. 

I have seen you in many parts of the world, and on some 
very difficult occasions, and I have complete confidence 
in your ability in this particular issue. 

Mr. Harriman : Mr. President, Mr. Acheson, General 
Marshall : It seems to me that there is great mutuality of 
interest between and among the needs of the people of 
Iran, the British, and the many parts of the world — the 
people in Europe and the Far East who have been depend- 
ent upon the oil that has been coming from Iran. 

Under these circumstances, if we can create a spirit of 
good will, a way can be found to work out the difliculties 
which are now causing so much trouble. 

I go with great appreciation of your confidence, Mr. 
President, and hope that with that confidence results can 
be achieved. 

The President : Good luck ! 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



STATEMENT BY GEORGE C. McGHEE, 
ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR NEAR EASTERN, 
SOUTH ASIAN AND AFRICAN AFFAIRS' 

The events which lead to my appearing on this 
program are very significant for all of us. 

Just two days ago President Truman received 
a message from the Iranian Prime Minister wel- 
i coming the President's offer of July 8 to send 
;Mr. Harriman to Iran as the President's personal 
representative, for consultations on the British- 
I Iranian oil controversy. Mr. Harriman has al- 
j ready started on a 7000 mile airplane flight to 
t Tehran, the capital of Iran. Shortly after his ar- 
rival there on Sunday he will meet with the 
Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mosadeq and 
with other high Iranian officials. 

The question of Iranian oil is an extremely com- 
plex and controversial matter. The roots of this 
E resent crisis go back many years. Although the 
oviets stand to benefit greatly from the Iranian 
oil dispute, the sources of the present difficulty are 
to be found primarily within Iran — not outside. 
They stem from the deep desire of the Iranian 
people to better their way of life, to eliminate 
poverty, illiteracy, and disease. A danger in Iran 
is that this understandable spirit of nationalism, 
and the legitimate desire of the Iranian nation to 
receive greater benefits from its oil resources, may 
lead to hasty or emotional acts detrimental to the 
long-range best interests of Iran. 

A stalemate between the parties to the dispute 
has now lasted for almost 6 weeks. As a result, 
no oil has left Iran for 3 weeks. The great 
Iranian oil production and refining industry, 
■which constitutes Iran's largest single source of 
revenue, is threatened with collapse — the conse- 
quences of which could be very serious indeed. 
The President, the Secretary of State, and the 
American press and radio have on numerous oc- 
casions in recent weeks emphasized the critical and 
urgent nature of the Iranian situation. 

The United States for its part has a deep in- 
terest in the continued independence and terri- 
torial integrity of Iran. It has sought also to 
further the welfare and economic betterment of 
the Iranian people. When the Soviet Union left 
military forces in Iran in 1946, we gave strong 
support to the Iranian case in the U.N. Security 
Council. As a result of Iran's steadfastness and 
of her support by the United Nations, in which the 
United States played an important role, Soviet 
troops were withdrawn. The Soviet objective of 
obtaming control of Iran has, however, remained 
unaltered and Soviet pressures have continued 
imabated. 

We can be sure that the Kremlin is losing no 
opportunity to fish in the troubled oil of Iran, for 
Iran would be a great and strategic prize quite 



' Made on "Battle Report" over NBC Television Network 
on July 13 and released to the press on the same date. 

July 23, 1 95 1 



apart from oil. Control of Iran, an area approxi- 
mately as large as the United States east of the 
Mississippi River, would put the Soviet Union 
astride the communication routes connecting the 
free nations of Asia and Europe. 

Thus the issues at stake in Iran go far beyond 
the question of oil, important as oil is for Iran and 
for the other nations of the free world. There 
are issues involved wlich affect the very founda- 
tions of law and justice which the free nations of 
the world have, during the twentieth century, 
been trying so hard to establish as the basis for 
settling international disputes. 

The United States has consistently urged 
moderation on the part of the Iranian government 
and of the British oil interests. We are convinced, 
as the President said in a press conference 2 weeks 
ago, that there is plenty of opportunity for a 
settlement of the oil controversy on a mutually 
satisfactory basis. 

As personal representative of President Tru- 
man, Mr. Harriman is flying to Iran to learn as 
much as he can about the Iranian situation. He 
will attempt to carry out the President's expressed 
desire "to be as helpful as possible in this circum- 
stance." He will consult with Iranian officials 
and report to the President. 

We have no magic formula for solving this criti- 
cal problem which has arisen between our two 
friends. We do hope that before it is too late — 
and time is very short — some arrangement, 
temporary if need be, can be found which will 
permit the Iranian nation to receive maximum 
benefit from the exploitation of its oil resources 
and the West to continue to make its contribution 
to the Iranian oil industry and to benefit from it. 



U.S. Policy on Trieste 
Remains Unchanged 

The follou-ing is an oral statement issued to the press on 
July 11 hy Michael J. McDermott, Chief Press Offlcer: 

The American Ambassador at Rome has been 
authorized to inform Prime Minister de Gasperi 
that the United States Government has noticed 
that there has recently been speculation in the 
Italian press about United States policy regard- 
ing Trieste. Accordingly, the IJnited States 
desires to assure tlie Prime Minister that United 
States policy in this respect remains unchanged. 

That policy continues to be guided by the spirit 
of the March 20, 1948, declaration and by the be- 
lief that a permanent and peaceful settlement of 
the Trieste question can best be realized by agree- 
ment between the parties directly concerned, Italy, 
and Yugoslavia. 

131 



Draft Peace Treaty With Japan and Japanese Declarations 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR DULLES 

IReleased to the press July 11] 

We now have a draft Japanese peace treaty 
which we believe will be generally acceptable to 
the 50-odd nations at war with Japan. No one 
will be 100 percent satisfied but almost everyone 
should be about 95 percent satisfied. 

There are some unique features. One is pro- 
cedure. We have used diplomatic discussions in- 
stead of a general conference because some of the 
nations concerned are not on speaking terms with 
each other and could never be brought together 
in a conference. This has meant many separate 
discussions and personal visits. I myself have 
been to seven of the countries principally con- 
cerned in the Pacific, and my deputy, Mr. Allison, 
has been to two more. Our procedure, M'hile per- 
haps slower than a general conference, has given 
every country an even better chance to present 
its views. 

A second unique fact is that the proposed treaty 
does not put Japan under any permanent restric- 
tions or disabilities which will make her different 
or less sovereign than any other free nation. The 
treaty will, in fact, restore Japan as a sovereign 
equal, and the treaty is truly one of reconciliation. 
Never in modern times have the victors in a great 
and bitter war applied this principle. They have, 
in the name of peace, imposed discriminations and 
humiliations, which have bred new war. The pres- 
ent treaty would avoid that great error. 

Another unique feature is the proposed treat- 
ment of the so-called problem of Japanese rearma- 
ment. Usually victors impose treaty limitations 
upon the rearmament of their enemy. These re- 
strictions are rarely enforced, and because they 
are discriminatory, they often provoke the very 
result sought to be avoided. We are planning 
a new and modern approach, inspired by the prin- 
ciples of the United Nations. That principle is 
to seek security on a collective basis. A byprod- 
uct of that is that national forces are so combined 
with each other that no national force, alone, is 
an aggressive menace. That is what is contem- 
plated in relation to Japan. Under a collective 
security treaty there will be a combination of 



United States and future Japanese forces, and 
perhaps others, so that it would be materially im^ 
possible for Japan to wage a war of revenge. 
That is the modern and enlightened way to deal 
with the problem. 

The present draft is sponsored not just by the 
United States but also by the United Kingdom. 
That is appropriate. Of the 15 nations principally 
concerned, 7 are members of the British Common- 
wealth. The French Government is also in accord. 
So we have striking evidence of unity as between 
our 3 great democracies. Also we have reason 
to hope that the new independent nations of Asia 
will want to go along with the kind of a peace 
treaty which we have evolved and which largely 
takes their views into accord. India and Pakistan, 
for example, have both taken a lively interest in 
the evolution of this text. 

In addition to international unity, there is a 
unique measure of domestic unity. As the Presi- 
dent's representative and with his full backing I 
have had complete cooperation from the Depart- 
ment of State and the Department of Defense. 
We have kept in close touch with the appropriate 
congressional committees and, despite sharp dif- 
ference of opinion as to many aspects of Far 
Eastern policy, Democrats and Kepublicans have 
united behind the principles of this treaty. 

I believe that the peace conference scheduled for 
San Francisco in September will, more than any 
other yet held, reflect the ideals of the United Na- 
tions which was born at San Francisco. 



TEXT OF DRAFT TREATY AND DECLARATIONS 

[Released to the press July 12] 

[A draft peace treaty with Japan and tioo declarations 
hy Japan have been prepared by the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Government of the United Kingdom 
on the basis of (1) a United States draft treaty, circu- 
lated the latter part of March to the Governments of the 
countries most closely concerned with the war against 
Japan; (2) an independently prepared United Kingdom 
draft circulated at about the same time to the British 
Commonwealth nations, and (S) comments and observa- 
tions received from the governments concerned in relation 
to the two preceding drafts. 



132 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



The draft u-as circulated to the countries principally 
concerned loith the tear against Japan, except irhere spe- 
cial circiimstaiwes exist, during the week of July 2-6. It 
[was circulated informally to other nations at war icith 
Japan on July 9. The draft will be revised on or about 
July 21) in the light of any comments received from the 
\nations principally conecrned. It u-ill then be formally 
icirculatcd to all nations at ivar icith Japan, except tchere 
special circumstances exist, trith a request for any com- 
ments they mail hare and an inrilalion to a conference 
for final consideration and signature of the peace treaty 
which, it is planned, will be held at San Francisco, Calif., 
on or about September S, 1951. 

\ Texts of the draft treaty and of the two declarations 
by Japan follow:] 

Preamble 

Whereas the Allied Powers and Japan are resolved 
'that henceforth their relations shall be those of nations 
1 which, as sovereisn equals, cooperate in friendly associa- 
ition to promote their common welfare and to maintain 
international peace and security, and are therefore desir- 
ous of concluding a Treaty of Peace which will settle 
questions still outstanding as a result of the existence of 
a state of war between them ; 

Whereas Japan for its part declares its intention to 
apply for membership in the United Nations and in all 
circumstances to conform to the principles of the Charter 
jof the United Nations; to strive to realize the objectives 
I of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ; to seek to 
icreate within Japan conditions of stability and well-being 
|as defined in Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter of the 
[United Nations and already initiated by post-surrender 
Japanese legislation ; and in public and private trade and 
commerce to conform to internationally accepted fair 
practices ; 

Whereas the Allied Powers welcome the intentions of 
Japan set out in the foregoing paragraph ; 

The Allied Powers and Japan have therefore determined 
to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have ac- 
cordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 
who, after presentation of their full iwwers, found in 
good and due form, have agreed on the following 
provisions. 

Chapter I: PEACE 

Article 1. 

The state of war between Japan and each of the Allied 
j Powers is hereby terminated as from the date on which 
the present Treaty comes into force between Japan and 
the Allied Powers concerned, as provided for in Article 23. 

Chapter II: TERRITORY 

Article 2. 

(a) Japan, recognizing the independence of Korea, 
renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including 
the islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet. 

(b) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to 
Formosa and the Pescadores. 

(c) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to 
the Kurile Islands, and to that ixirtion of Sakhalin and 
the islands adjacent to it over which Japan acquired 
sovereignty as a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth 
of SeptembPr 5, 1005. 

(<1) Japan renounces all right, title and claim in con- 
nection with the Ueague of Nations Mandate System, 
and accoiits the acticm of the United Nations Security 
Council of April 2. IfHT, extending tlie trusteeship system 
to the Pacific Islands formiMly under mandate to Japan. 

(e) Japan renounces all claim to any riuht or title 
to or interest in connection with any part of the Antarctic 
area, whether deriving from the activities of Japanese 
nationals or otherwise. 

(f ) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Spratly 
Island and the Paracel Islands. 



Jufy 23, J 95 1 



Article S. 

Japan will concur in any proposal of the United States 
to the United Nations to place under its trusteeship system, 
with the United States as the sole administering au- 
thority, Nansei Shoto south of 20° north latitude (includ- 
ing the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands), the 
Nanpo Shoto south of Sofu Gan (including the Bonin 
Islands, Rosario Island and the Volcano Islands) and 
Parece Vela and Marcus Island. Pending the making of 
such a proposal and atHrmative action thereon, the United 
States will have the right to exercise all and any powers 
of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction over the 
territory and inhabitants of these islands, including their 
territorial waters. 

Article 4- 

(a) The disposition of property of Japan and of its 
nationals in the areas referred to in Articles 2 and 3, and 
their claims, including debts against the authorities pres- 
ently administering the areas referred to above and the 
residents (including juridical persons) thereof, and the 
disposition in Japan of proiierty of such authorities and 
residents, and of claims, including debts, of such authori- 
ties and residents against Japan and its nationals, shall 
be the subject of special arrangements between Japan and 
such authorities. The property of any of the Allied 
Powers or its nationals in the areas referred to in Articles 
2 and 3 shall, in.sofar as this has not already been done, 
be returned by the administering authority in the condi- 
tion in which it now exists. (The term nationals when- 
ever used in the present Treaty includes juridical 
persons. ) 

(b) Japanese owned submarine cables connecting Japan 
with territory removed from Japanese control pursuant to 
the present Treaty shall be equally divided. Japan re- 
taining the Japanese terminal and adjoining half of the 
cable, and the detached territory the remainder of tUe 
cable and connecting terminal facilities. 

Chapter III : SECURITY 
Article 5. 

(a) Japan accepts the obligations set forth in Article 2 
of the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular 
the obligations 

(i) to settle its international disputes by peaceful 
means in such a manner that international peace and 
security, and justice, are not endangered ; 

(ii) to refrain in its international relations from the 
threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or 
political independence of any state or in any other manner 
inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations ; 

(iii) to give the United Nations every assistance in any 
action it takes in accordance with the Charter and to 
refrain from giving assistance to any state against w'hich 
the United Nations may take preventive or enforcement 
action. 

(b) The Allied Powers confirm that they will be guided 
by the principles of Article 2 of the Charter of the United 
Nations in their relations with Japan. 

(c) The Allied Powers for their part recognize that 
Japan as a sovereign nation possesses the inherent right 
of individual or collective self-defense referred to in Ar- 
ticle 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and that 
Japan may voluntarily enter into collective security ar- 
rangements. 

Article 6. 

(a) All occupation forces of the Allied Powers shall 
be withdrawn from Japan as soon as possible after the 
coming Into force of the jiresent Treaty, and in any case 
not later than 90 days thereafter. Nothing in this pro- 
vision sli;ill however jirevent the stationing or retention of 
foreign armed forces in Japanese territory under or in 
consequence of any bilateral or nniltilaleral agreements 
which have been or may be made between one or more of 



133 



the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Japan on the 
other. 

(b) All Japanese property for which compensation has 
not already been paid, which was supplied for the use of 
the occupation forces and which remains in the posses- 
sion of those forces at the time of the coming into force 
of the present Treaty, shall be returned to the Japanese 
Government within the same 90 days unless other ar- 
rangements are made by mutual agreement. 

Chapter IV: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CLAUSES 

Article 7. 

(a) Each of the Allied Powers, within one year after 
the present Treaty has come into force between it and 
Japan, will notify Japan which of its prewar bilateral 
treaties with Japan it wishes to continue in force or revive, 
and any treaties so notified shall continue in force or be 
revived subject only to such amendments as may be neces- 
sary to ensure conformity with the present Treaty. The 
treaties so notified shall be considered as having been con- 
tinued in force or revived three months after the date 
of notification and shall be registered with the Secretariat 
of the United Nations. All such treaties as to which Japan 
is not so notified shall be regarded as abrogated. 

(b) Any notification made under paragraph (a) of this 
Article may except from the operation or revival of a 
treaty any territory for the international relations of 
which the notifying Power is responsible, until three 
months after the date on which notice is given to Japan 
that such exception shall cease to apply. 

Article 8. 

(a) Japan will recognize the full force of all treaties 
now or hereafter concluded by the Allied Powers for 
terminating the state of war initiated on September 1st, 
1939, as well as any other arrangements by the Allied 
Powers for or in connection with the restoration of peace. 
Japan also accepts the arrangements made for termi- 
nating the former League of Nations and Permanent 
Court of International Justice. 

(b) Japan renounces all such rights and interests as 
she may derive from being a signatory power of the 
Conventions of St. Germain-en-Laye of September 10, 1919, 
and the Straits Agreement of Montreux of July 20, 1936, 
and from Article 16 of the Treaty of Peace with Turkey 
signed at Lausanne July 24, 1923. 

(c) Japan renounces all rights, title and Interests 
acquired under, and is discharged from all obligations re- 
sulting from, the Agreement between Germany and the 
Creditor Powers of January 20, 1930, and its Annexes, 
including the Trust Agreement, dated May 17, 1930, the 
Convention of January 20, 1930, respecting the Bank for 
International Settlements, and the Statutes of the Bank 
for International Settlements. Japan will notify to the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris within six months of 
the coming Into force of the present Treaty its renuncia- 
tion of the rights, title and interests referred to in this 
paragraph. 

Article 9. 

Japan will enter promptly into negotiations with the 
Allied Powers so desiring for the conclusion of bilateral 
and multilateral agreements providing for the regulation 
or limitation of fishing and the conservation and develop- 
ment of fisheries on the high seas. 

Article 10. 

Japan renounces all special rights and interests in 
China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from 
the provi.i«ions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 
September 7, 1901, and all annexes, notes and documents 
supplementary thereto, and agrees to the abrogation in 
respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes and 
documents. 



134 



Article 11. 

Japan accepts the judgments of the International Mili- 
tary Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War 
Crimes Courts both within and outside Japan, and will 
carry out the sentences imposed thereby upon Japanese 
nationals imprisoned in Japan. The power to grant 
clemency, reduce sentences and parole with respect to such 
prisoners may not be exercised except on the decision of 
the Government or Governments which imposed the sen- 
tence in each instance, and on the recommendation of 
Japan. In the case of persons sentenced by the Inter- 
national Military Tribunal for the Far East, such power 
may not be exercised except on the decision of a majority 
of the Governments represented on the Tribunal, and on 
the recommendation of Japan. 

Article 12. 

(a) Japan declares its readiness promptly to enter into 
negotiations for the conclusion with each of the Allied 
Powers of treaties or agreements to place their trading, ' 
maritime and other commercial relations on a stable and 
friendly basis. 

(b) Pending the conclusion of the relevant treaty or 
agreement, Japan will, during a period of four years from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty : — 

(1) accord to each of the Allied Powers, its nationals, 
products and vessels ] 
(i) most-favored-nation treatment with respect to j 

customs duties, charges, restrictions and other | 
regulations on or in connection with the Im- 1 
portation and exportation of goods ; 
(11) national treatment with respect to shipping, 
navigation and imported goods, and with re- 
spect to natural and juridical persons and their 
interests — such treatment to include all mat- 
ters pertaining to the levying and collection of 
taxes, access to t,he courts, the making and 
performance of contracts, rights to property, 
participation in juridical entities constituted 
under Japanese law, and generally the conduct 
of all kinds of business and professional 
activities. 

(2) ensure that external purchases and sales of Jap- 
anese state trading enterprises shall be based solely 
on commercial considerations. 

(c) In respect to any matter, however, Japan shall be 
obliged to accord to an Allied Power national treatment, 
or most-favored-nation treatment, only to the extent that 
the Allied Pow^r concerned accords Japan national treat- 
ment or mosr-favored-nation treatment, as the case may 
be, in respect of the same matter. The reciprocity en- 
visaged in the foregoing sentence shall be determined, in 
the case of products, vessels and juridical entities of, and 
persons domiciled in, any non-metropolitan territory of 
an Allied Power, and in the case of juridical entities of,( 
and persons domiciled in, any state or province of an 
Allied Power having a federal government, by reference; 
to the treatment accorded to Japan in such territory, 
state or province. 

(d) In the application of this Article, a discriminatory! 
measure shall not be considered to derogate from the' 
grant of national or most-favored-nation treatment, as 
the case may be, if such measure Is based on an exceptionj 
customarily provided for in the commercial treaties of 
the party applying it, or on the need to safeguard that 
party's external financial position or balance of payments^ 
(except in respect to shipping and navigation), or on the 
need to maintain its essential security interests, and pro- 
vided such measure is proportionate to the circumstances! 
and not applied in an arbitrary or unreasonable manner.! 

(e) Japan's obligations under paragraph (b) of thisi 
Article shall not be affected by the exercise of any Allied! 
rights under Article 14 of the present Treaty; nor shall| 
the provisions of that paragraph be understood as limiting 
the undertakings assumed by Japan by virtue of Article 
15 of the Treaty. j 

Department of State Bulletin' 



Article IS. 

(a) Japan will enter into negotiations with any of the 
Allied Powers, promptly upon the request of such Power 
or Powers, for the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral 
agreements relating to international civil air transport. 

(b) Pending the conclusion of such agreement or agree- 
ments, Japan will, during a period of four years, extend 
to such Power treatment not less favorable with respect 
to air-traffic rights and privileges than those exercised by 
any such Powers at the time of coming into force of the 
present Treaty, and will accord complete equality of op- 
portunity in respect to the operation and development of 
air services. 

(c) Pending Its becoming a party to the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation in accordance with Article 
93 thereof, Japan will give effect to the provisions of 
that Convention applicable to the International naviga- 
tion of aircraft, and give effect to the standards, prac- 
tices and procedures adopted as annexes to the Convention 
in accordance with the terms of the Convention. 

Chapter V : CLAIMS AKD PROPERTY 

Article H. 

(a) It is recognized that, although Japan should in 
principle pay reparation for the damage and sulfering 
caused by it during the war, nevertheless Japan lacks the 
capacity, if it is to maintain a viable economy, to make 
adequate reparation to the Allied Powers and at the same 
time meet its other obligations. 

However, 

1. Japan will promptly enter Into negotiations with 
Allied Powers so desiring, whose present territories 
were occupied by Japanese forces and damaged J)y 
Japan, with a view to assisting to compensate those 
countries for the cost of repairing the damage done, 
by making available the skills and industry of the 
Japanese people in manufacturing, salvaging and other 
services to be rendered to the Allied Powers in question. 
Such arrangements shall avoid the imposition of addi- 
tional liabilities on other Allied Powers, and, where the 
manufacturing of raw materials is called for, they shall 
be supplied by the Allied Powers in question, so as not 
to throw any foreign exchange burden upon Japan. 

2. (I) Each of the Allied Powers shall have the right to 
seize, retain, liquidate or otherwise dispose of ^11 
property, rights and interests of 

(a) Japan and of Japanese nationals 

(b) persons acting for or on behalf of Japan or 
Japanese nationals, and 

(c) entities owned or controlled by Japan or Japanese 
nationals 

which on the coming into force of the present Treaty 

were subject to its jurisdiction, except : 

(1) property of Japanese nationals who during the 
war resided with the permission of the Govern- 
ment concerned in the territory of one of the 
Allied Powers, other than territory occupied by 
Japan, except property subjected during that 
period to measures not generally applied by the 
Government of the territory where the property 
was situated to the property of other Japanese 
nationals resident in such territory; 
(11) all real property, furniture and fixtures owned 
by the Government of Japan and used for diplo- 
matic or consular purposes, and all personal 
furniture and furnisliings and other private 
property not of an investment nature which was 
normally necessary for the carrying out of diplo- 
matic and consular functions, owned by Japa- 
nese diplomatic and consular personnel ; 
(ill) property belonging to religious bodies or private 
charitable institutions and used exclusively fpr 
religious or charitable purposes ; 

July 23, 1951 



(iv) property rights arising after the resumption of 
trade and linancial relations between the coun- 
try concerned and Japan before the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, except in the case 
of any rights resulting from transactions con- 
trary to the laws of the Allied Power concerned; 

(v) obligations of Japan or Japanese nationals, any 
right, title or interest in tangible proi>erty located 
in Japan, Interests in enterprises organized 
under the laws of Japan, or any paper evidence 
thereof ; provided that this exception shall only 
apply to obligations of Japan and its nationals 
expressed in Japanese currency. 

(II) Property referred to in exceptions (1) to (v) above 
shall be returned subject to reasonable expenses for its 
preservation and administration. If any such property 
has been liquidated the proceeds shall be returned 
instead. 

(III) The right to seize, retain, liquidate or otherwise 
dispose of Japanese property referred to above shall be 
exercised in accordance with the laws of the Allied Power 
concerned, and the Japanese owner shall have only such 
rights as may be given him by those laws. 

(IV) The Allied Poviers agree to deal with Japanese 
trade-marks and literary and artistic property rights on 
a basis as favorable to Japan as circumstances ruling in 
each country will permit. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided in the present Treaty, 
the Allied Powers waive all reparations claims of the 
Allied Powers, other claims of the Allied Powers and 
their nationals arising out of any actions taken by Japan 
and its nationals in the course of the prosecution of the 
war, and claims of the Allied Powers for direct military 
costs of occupation. 

Article 15. 

(a) Upon application made within nine months of the 
coming into force of the present Treaty Japan will, within 
six months of the date of such application, return the 
property, tangible and intangible, and all rights or inter- 
ests of any kind in Japan of each Allied Power and its 
nationals which was within Japan at any time between 
December 7, 1941, and September 2, 1945, unless the 
owner has freely disposed thereof without duress or 
fraud. Such property shall be returned free of all en- 
cumbrances and charges to which it may have become 
subject because of the war, and without any charges for 
its return. Property whose return is not applied for by 
the owner within the prescribed period may be disposed 
of by the Japanese Government as it may determine. In 
cases where such property was within Japan on December 
7, 1941, and cannot be returned or has suffered injury 
or damage, compensation will be made in accordance with 
Law No. enacted by the Japanese Diet on 1951. 

(b) With respect to industrial property rights impaired 
during the war, Japan will continue to accord to the 
Allied Powers and their nationals benefits no less than 
those heretofore accorded by Cabinet Orders No. 309 ef- 
fective September 1, 1949, No. 12 effective January 28, 
1950, and No. 9 effective February 1, 1!).50, all as now 
amended, provided such nationals have applied for such 
benefits within time limits prescribed therein. 

(c) (i) Japan acknowledges that the literary and 
artistic property rights which existed in Japan on the 
6th December, 1941, in respect to the published and un- 
published works of the Allied Powers and their nationals 
have continued In force since that date, and recognizes 
those rights which have arisen, or but for the war would 
have arisen, in Japan since that date, by the operation 
of any conventions and agreements to which Japan was 
a party on that date, Irrespective of whether or not such 
conventions or agreements were abrogated or suspended 
upon or since the outbreak of war by the domestic law of 
Japan or of the Allied Power concerned. 

(ii) Without the need for application by the proprietor 
of the right and without the payment of any fee or com- 
pliance with any other formality, the period from the 

135 



7th December, 1941, until the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, shall be excluded from the running of 
the normal term of such rights ; and such period, with an 
additional period of 6 months, shall be excluded from the 
time within which a literary work must be translated 
into Japanese in order to obtain translating rights in 
Japan. 

(Note : Paragraph (a) of this Article is dependent upon 
the acceptability of the legislation to be passed by Japan. 

Article 16. 

As an expression of Its desire to Indemnify those mem- 
bers of the armed forces of the Allied Powers who suffered 
undue hardships while prisoners of war of Japan, Japan 
will transfer its assets and those of its nationals in coun- 
tries which were neutral during the war, or which were 
at war with any of the Allied Powers, or at its option the 
equivalent of such assets, to the International Committee 
of the Red Cross which shall liquidate .such assets and dis- 
tribute the resultant fund for the benefit of former pris- 
oners of war and their families on such basis as it may 
determine to be equitable. The categories of assets de- 
scribed in Article 14 (a) 2 (I) (ii) through (v) of the 
present Treaty shall be excepted from transfer. It is 
equally understood that the transfer provision of this 
Article has no application to the 19,770 shares in the Bank 
for International Settlements presently owned by Japa- 
nese Financial Institutions. 

[Note: The status of Japanese assets In Thailand is 
subject to further consideration.] 

Article 17. 

(a) Upon the request of any of the Allied Powers, the 
Japanese Government shall review and revise in con- 
formity with international law any decision or order of 
the Japanese Prize Courts in cases involving ownership 
rights of nationals of that Allied Power and shall supply 
copies of all documents comprising the records of these 
cases, including the decisions taken and orders issued. 
In any case in which such review or revision shows that 
restoration is due, the provisions of Article 15 shall apply 
to the property concerned. 

(b) The Japanese Government shall take the necessary 
measures to enable nationals of any of the Allied Powers 
at any time within one year from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty to submit to the appropriate Japa- 
nese authorities for review any judgment given by a 
Japanese court between 7th December, 1941, and the 
coming into force of the present Treaty in any proceedings 
in which any such national was unable to make adequate 
presentation of his case either as plaintiff or defendant. 
The Japanese Government shall provide that, where the 
national has suffered injury by reason of any such 
judgment, he shall be restored in the position in which 
he was before the judgment was given or shall be afforded 
such relief as may be just and equitable in the 
circumstances. 

Article IS. 

(a) It is recognized that the intervention of the state 
of war has not affected the obligation to pay pecuniary 
debts arising out of obligations and contracts (including 
those in respect of bonds) which existed and rights which 
were acquired before the existence of a state of war. and 
which are due by the Government or nationals of Japan 
to the Government or nationals of one of the Allied 
Powers, or are due by the Government or nationals of 
one of the Allied Powers to the Government or nationals 
of Japan. The intervention of a state of war shall equally 
not be regarded as affecting the obligation to consider 
on their merits claims for loss or damage to property or 
for personal injury or death which arose before the 
existence of a state of war, and which may be presented 






or re-presented by the Government of one of the Allied 
Powers to the Government of Japan, or by the Govern- 
ment of Japan to any of the Governments of the Allied 
Powers. The provisions of this paragraph are without 
prejudice to the rights conferred by Article 14. 

(h) Japan affirms its liabilities for the prewar external 
debt of the Japanese State and for debts of corporate ; 
bodies subsequently declared to be liabilities of the Jap- 
anese State, and expresses its intention to enter into nego- 
tiations at an early date with its creditors with respect 
to the resumption of payments on those debts ; to facili- 
tate negotiations in respect to private prewar claims and 
obligations ; and to facilitate the transfer of sums 
accordingly. 

Article 19. 

(a) Japan waives all claims of Japan and its nationals 
against the Allied Powers and their nationals arising out 
of the war or out of actions taken because of the existence 
of a state of war, and waives all claims arising from the 
presence, operations or actions of forces or authorities 
of any of the Allied Powers in Japanese territory prior 
to the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

(b) The foregoing waiver includes any claims aris- 
ing out of actions taken by an.v of the Allied Powers with 
respect to Japanese ships between 1st September, 1939, 
and the coming into forpe of the present Treaty, as well 
as any claims and debts arising in respect to Japanese 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in the hands of 
the Allied Powers. 

(c) Subject to reciprocal renunciation, the Japanese 
Government also renounces all claims (including debts) 
against Germany and German nationals on behalf of the 
Japanese Government and Japanese nationals, including 
intergovernmental claims and claims for loss or damage 
sustained during the war, but excepting (a) claims in 
respect of contracts entered into and rights acquired be- 
fore the 1st September, 1939, and (b) claims arising out 
of trade and financial relations between Japan and Ger- 
many after the 2nd September, 1945. 

Article 20. 

Japan will take all necessary measures to ensure such 
disposition of German assets in Japan as has been or 
may be determined by those powers entitled under the 
Protocol of the proceedings of the Berlin Conference of 
194.5 to dispose of those assets, and pending the final dis- 
position of such assets will be responsible for the con- 
servation and administration thereof. 

Article 21. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 25 of the 
present Treaty, China shall be entitled to the benefits 
of Articles 10 and 14 (a) 2; and Korea to the benefits 
of Articles 2, 9 and 12 of the present Treaty. 

Chapter VI : SETTLEMENT OP DISPUTES 

Article 22. 

If in the opinion of any Party to the present Treaty 
there has arisen a dispute concerning the interpretation 
or execution of the Treaty, which is not settled by other 
agreed means, the dispute shall, at the request of any 
party thereto, be referred for decision to the International 
Court of Justice. Japan and those Allied Powers which 
are not already parties to the Statute of the International 
Court of Justice will deposit with the Registrar of the 
Court, at the time of their respective ratifications of the 
present Treaty, and in conformity with the resolution 
of the United Nations Security Council, dated 15th Oc- 
tober, 1946, a general declaration accepting the juris- 
diction, without special agreement, of the Court generally 
in respect to all disputes of the character referred to in 
this Article. 



136 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Cbapter VII : FINAL CLAUSES 
Article 23. 

Ill) The present Treaty shall be ratified by the States 
vhic-h sign it, including japan, and will come into force 
lor all the States which have then ratified it, when in- 
itruinents of ratifipation have been deposited by Japan 
tnd by a majority, includiiiir the United States of Amer- 
ica as the principal occupyins Power, of the following 
States, (here would appear the names of such of the fol- 
lowing States as are signatories to the present Treaty) 
lianieiy, Australia, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, P'rance, India, 
;;ndnnesia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the 
Philippines, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
ind the United States of America. The present treaty 
;hall come into force for each State which subsequently 
•atifies it, on the date of the deposit of its instrument of 
•atification. 

lb) If the Treaty has not come into force within nine 
^noiiths after the date of the deposit of .lapan's ratiflca- 
jiion, any State which has ratified it may bring the Treaty 
into force between itself and Japan by a notification to 
that effect given to the Government of Japan and of 
the United States of America not later than three years 
ifter the date of deposit of Japan's ratification. 

Article 2^. 

All instruments of ratification shall be deposited with 
Ithe Government of the United States of America which 
(will notify all the signatory States of each deposit and 
|of any notifications made under paragraph (b) of Article 
|23 of the present Treaty. 

Article 25. 

For the purposes of the present Treaty the Allied 
Powers shall be the States at war with Japan which have 
jsigned and ratified it. Subject to the provisions of 
'Article 21, the present Treaty shall not confer any rights, 
ititles or benefits on any State which is not an Allied 
Power as herein defined; nor shall any right, title or in- 
terest of Japan be deemed to be diminished or prejudiced 
by any provision of the Treaty in favor of a State which 
is not an Allied Power as so defined. 

Article 26. 

Japan will be prepared to conclude with any State which 
signed or adhered to the United Nations Declaration of 
1st January, 1942, and which is at war with Japan, which 
is not a signatory of the present Treaty, a bilateral Treaty 
nt' Peace on the same or substantially the same terms as 
an' provided for in the present Treaty, but this obligation 
on the part of Japan will expire three years after the 
'•■■niing into force of the present Treaty. Should Japan 
make a peace settlement or war claims settlement with 
any State granting that State greater advantages than 
those provided by the present Treaty, those same ad- 
vantages shall be extended to the parties to the present 
Treaty. 

Article 27. 

The present Treaty shall be deposited in the archives of 
tlio Government of the United Statas of America which 
>\\n[\ furnish each signatory State with a certified copy 
ilicreof and notify each such State of the date of the 
I iniing into force of the Treaty under paragraph (a) of 
Article 2;? of the present Treaty. 

In faith whkbeof the undersigned Plempotentlaries 
have signed the present Treaty. 



this 



, day of 



Done at 

l!r>l, in the English, French, IMssian and 

i Spanish languages, all lieing equally authentic, and in 
the Japanese language. 

July 23, 1 95 1 



Declaration 

With respect to the Treaty of Peace signed this day, 
the Government of Japan makes the following Dec- 
laration : 

1. Except as otherwise provided in the said Treaty of 
Peace, Japan recognizes the full force of all presently 
effective multilateral international instruments to which 
Japan was a party on 1st September, 1939, and declares 
that it will, on the coming into force of the said Treaty, 
resume all its rights and obligations under those instru- 
ments. Where, however, participation in any instrument 
involves membership in an international organization of 
which Japan ceased to be a meuilier on or after 1st Sep- 
tember, 1939, the provisions of the present paragraph 
shall be dependent on Japan's readmission to membership 
in the organization concerned. 

2. It is the intention of the Japanese Government for- 
mally to accede to the following international instruments 
within six months of the coming into force of the Treaty 
of Peace : 

(1) Protocol opened for signature at Lake Success on 
11th December 1946 amending the agreements, con- 
ventions, and protocols on narcotic drugs of 23rd 
January, 1912, 11th February, 1925, 19th February, 
1925, 13th July, 1931, 27th November, 1931, and 26th 
June, 1936 ; 

(2) Protocol opened for signature at Paris on 19th 
Novemlier, 1948 bringing under international con- 
trol drugs outside the scope of the convention of 
13th July, 1931 for limiting the manufacture and 
regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs, as 
amended by the protocol signed at Lake Success on 
11th December, 1946 ; 

(3) International Convention on the Execution of For- 
eign Arliitral Awards signed at Geneva on 26th 
September, 1927. 

(4) International Convention relating to Economic 
Statistics with Protocol signed at Geneva on 14th 
December, 1928 and Protocol amending the Inter- 
national Convention of 1928 relating to Economic 
Statistics signed at Paris on 9th December, 194S. 

(5) International Convention relating to the simplifica- 
tion of Customs Formalities, with Protocol of signa- 
ture, signed at Geneva on 3rd November, 1923. 

(6) Agreement for the prevention of false Indications 
of origin of goods signed at London on 2nd June, 
1934; 

(7) Convention for the unification of certain rules re- 
lating to international transportation by air, and 
additional protocol, signed at Warsaw on 12th Oc- 
tober, 1929 ; 

(8) Convention on safety of life at sea opened for 
signature at London 19th June, 1948; 

(9) Geneva conventions of 12th August, 1949 for the 
protection of war victims. 

3. It is equally the intention of tlie Japanese Govern- 
ment, within six months of the coming into force of the 
Treaty of Peace, to apply for Japan's admission to par- 
ticipation in (a) the Convent icm on International Civil 
Aviation opened for signature iit Chicago on the 7th De- 
cember, 1944, and .-is soon as Japan is itself a party to 
that Convention, to accept the International Air Services 
Transit Agreement also openeil for signature at Chicago 
on 7th December, 1944; and (b) the Convention of the 
World Meteorological Organization signed at Washington 
under date of October 11th, 1947. 



Declaration 

With respect to the Treaty of Peace signed this day, 
the Government of Japan makes the following Declara- 
tion : 

Japan will recognize any Commission, Delegation or 
other Organization authorized by any of the Allied Powers 

137 



958202—51- 



to Identify, list, maintain or regulate its war graves, ceme- 
teries and memorials in Japanese territory ; will facilitate 
the work of such Organizations, and will, in respect of 
the above-mentioned war graves, cemeteries and memo- 
rials, enter into negotiations for the conclusion of such 
agreements as may prove necessary with the Allied Power 
concerned, or with any Commission, Delegation or other 
Organization authorized by it. 



EXCHANGE OF MEMORANDA WITH U.S.S.R. 
Soviet Memorandum of June 10 

FoUoimng is an unofficial English translation of 
the Soviet niemorandum concerning a Japanese 
Peace Treaty tohich was handed the American 
Ambassador at Moscow on June 10 : 

The Government of the U.S.S.K. received from 
the Government of the United States of America 
on May 19, 1951, a memorandnm representing an 
answer to the "remarks of the Government of the 
U.S.S.R. on the United States of America draft 
peace treaty with Japan" of May 7, 1951. 

The Soviet Government takes notice of the 
statement of the (Jovernment of the United States 
that it, having examined the remarlvs of the Gov- 
ernment of the Soviet Union on tlie memorandum 
of the Government of the United States of 
America of March 29, 1951, considers that the di- 
vergencies which exist between the views of the 
Government of the U.S.S.R. and the peace terms 
set forth in the American March draft are not so 
great as to prevent achievement of agi'eement on 
a peace treaty. 

Inasmucli, however, as along with the statement 
mentioned, considerations respecting the "remarks 
of the Government of the U.S.S.R. on tlie United 
States of America draft peace treaty with Japan" 
of May as set fortli in the American memoranchim 
of May 19 which give an interpretation that is in- 
coiTect and that in several instances distorts the 
meaning of these remarks, the Soviet Government 
for the purpose of introducing full clarity con- 
siders it necessary to state the following: 

1. Concerning basic positions in Ainerican draft 
peace treaty with Japan. 

(a) For the Soviet Union as well as for other 
countries interested in a guarantee of lasting peace 
in the Far East question tliat Japan not become an 
aggressive state again and that revival of Japanese 
militarisyn he prevented possesses most important 
significance. 

As is known, little more than 10 years ago a 
militaristic Japan attacked the Soviet Union in 
the region of Vladivostok. In the course of 15 
years Japane.se imperialism, invading China, 
harassed the Chinese people causing them gi'eat 
hardships. Japanese imperialists did not stop at 
attacking the United States and later a whole 
series of states in Asia including India, which un- 
leashed war in the entire Far East. 

Is there in the American draft peace treaty with 



Japan a guarantee against the rebirth of Japan- 
as an aggressive states' Acquaintance with tliis 
draft shows that it does not possess any guarantee ' 
in this respect. 

In connection with this it was stated in the "re- ! 
marks of the Soviet Government on the U.S.A. 
draft peace treaty with Japan" that the "Ameri- 
can draft not only does not contain guarantees 
against the restoration of Japanese militarism, but 
in general does not set forth any limitations with 
respect to the size of the armed forces of Japan," 
as was done, for example, in the peace treaty with 
Italy, altliough there is no basis for such a privi- 
leged position for Jajian in comparison with Italy. 

Having no possibility of refuting tiiis assertion 
of the Soviet Government, the Government of the 
United States of America in its statements on this 
question in its memorandum of May 19 falls into 
patent contradiction. On the one hand, in this 
memorandum it states that allegedly no agree- 
ments "exist in reality" between the powers on 
tlie question of demilitarization of Japan "except 
decisions concerning the period of occupation." 
However, on the other hand, the Government of 
the United States of America refers here to the 
Potsdam declaration of the Four Powers concern- 
ing the situation of Japan, whereas the basic pur- 
pose of the occupation of Japan is set forth there 
as the task of obtaining "convincing proof that 
the capacity of Japan to wage war has been de- 
stroyed," which refers, as is obvious, not only to 
the period of occupation but also to the subsequent 
period. 

Furthermore, there exists directives of the Far 
Eastern Commission, which as early as June 19, 
19-17, took an important decision, contained in its 
document Basic Policy with Respect to Japan 
After its Capitulation. In this basic document of 
the Far Eastern Commission adopted with the 
participation of rejD resent atives of Australia, 
Canada, China, France, India, Holland, Xew Zea- 
land, the Philippines, U.S.S.R., England, and the 
United States of America, the task was placed in 
the forefront : 

Of accomplishing the physical and spiritual demilitari- 
zation of .Japan by means of the execution of a series of 
measures requiring the establishment of a period of strict 
control, including complete disarmament, the carrying out 
of economic reform the purpose of which would be to 
deprive .Japan of the possibility of waging war, the eradi- 
cation of militaristic influences and carrying out of strict 
justice with respect to war criminals. 

Naturally, this decision also concerns not only 
the period of occupation. 

After the facts cited, it becomes clear how far 
from reality is the assertion of the Government of 
the United States of America that allegedly no 
agreements "exists in reality" between the powers 
with respect to the demilitarization of Japan "ex- 
cept decisions concerning the period of oc- 
cupation." 



138 



Deporfmenf of State Bulletin 



After the facts cited, it cannot be denied that, 
inasmuch as no limitations on the armed forces 
'of Japan are contained in the American draft, 
Ithere are no guarantees there atjainst tlie restora- 
jtion of Japanese militarism and the possibility of 
repetition of Japanese aggression. It is clear that 
no state that experienced the aggressive attack of 
Japan and is interested in the guarantee of last- 
ing peace in the Far East can agree with such a 
position. 

Together with this, the Government of the 
United States of America, with the help of its 
occupation authorities, is in reality- already carry- 
ing out a policy of restoring Japanese militarism. 
This is evident from the fact that the American 
occupation authorities are not only not taking 
measures for the liquidation of military bases in 
Japan but. on the contrary, are trying to expand 
them considerably, modernize, and utilize them for 
aggressive purposes. In Japan they have already 
begun the recreation of a land army and of naval 
and air fleets; are restoring and expanding the 
work of former Japanese militai'y arsenals and 
military enterprises; are freeing Japanese war 
criminals; are restoring military organizations, 
and more and more promoting propaganda of 
war; and are elevating the role and influence of 
the supporters of the rebirth of militarism in the 
governmental apparatus. Moreover, the United 
States, as the Government of the United States of 
America basically admits itself in its memoran- 
dum of May 19, has already begun the utilization 
of the industrial and human resources of Japan 
for its military intervention in Korea which is 
being carried out illegally under the flag of the 
United Nations organization. 

The draft peace treaty of the United States of 
America, as well as the ]iolicy carried out by the 
American occupation authorities in Japan, testify 
to the fact that the Government of the United 
States of Amei'ica is not observing obligations it 
took upon itself in international agreements not 
to allow the rebirth of Japanese militarism. In 
essence, the American draft peace ti-eaty with 
Japan, and likewise the memorandum of the 
United States of America of May 19 pursue not 
the peaceful purposes of prevention of a repetition 
of Japanese aggression but the aggressive pur- 
poses of reestablishment of Japanese militarism. 

No guarantees are contained in the American 
draft peace treaty with Japan for assuring the 
future security of countries which suffered from 
the aggression of militaristic Ja])an, although 
it is clear to anyone that this should be one of the 
main tasks of the peace treaty. Instead of this 
it is especially stiimlated in the draft that Japan 
shovdd be accorded the opportunity to make "a 
contribut ion toward assurance of its own sccui'ity," 
which allegedly corresponds to the "right to iiuli- 
vidual and collective self defense" provided for 
member countries of the United Nations in the 
United Nations Charter. 

July 23, ?95I 



This question is even more frankly discussed in 
the memorandum of the United States of America 
of May 19. In this memorandum it is stated that 
the Government of the United States of America 
intends "to enter into an agreement concerning 
security with Japan for the period after the con- 
clusion of the treaty," i. e. the conclusion of a 
military agreement between the United States of 
America and Japan is envisaged. 

From this it follows that the task of not permit- 
ting the rebirth of Japanese militarism and guar- 
anteeing in the future the security of countries 
that suffered from Japanese aggression is being 
replaced by the Government of the United States 
of America by the conclusion of a military agree- 
ment with Japan which would push Japan even 
more toward the restoration of militarism. In- 
asmuch as it is perfectly obvious that such coun- 
tries as the Chinese People's Republic and the 
Soviet Union are excluded from ])articipation in 
this military agreement of the United States of 
America with Japan, there can be no doubt that 
this military agreement of the United States of 
America with Japan is directed primarily against 
these very states and possesses an obvious aggres- 
sive character. 

After this it becomes clear that all references 
to the Charter of the United Nations, to the "right 
to individual and collective self-defense" in this 
case obviously have no substance and are false 
throughout. 

It is likewise not necessary to prove that the 
references of the American memorandum also to 
the statement of J. V. Stalin, made on March 
10, 1939, on the matter of struggle with aggression 
and the collective security of peaceloving coun- 
tries are not only completely inappropriate here 
but are also hypocritical. 

Thus, the memorandum of the United States of 
America of Alay 19 shows that the American draft 
peace treaty with Japan not only did not jsro- 
vide guarantees against the rebirth of Japanese 
militarism which has caused such hardships for 
peaceloving peoples but, on the contrarj', pushes 
Japan on the path of aggression that has already 
led the Japanese Government to the verge of ruin, 
and consequently fundamentally runs counter to 
the interests of guaranteeing lasting i)eace in the 
Far East, as well as to the national interests of 
Jajjan itself. 

(6) Concenung Termination of tlie Occupa- 
tion of Japan and Withdrawal of Foreign Troops 
from Japanese Territory. 

In its comments of May 7, the Soviet Govern- 
ment proposed that precise mention be made in 
the treaty that "after conclusion of the peace 
treaty with Japan all occuinition troops should be 
withdrawn from Japanese territoi-y within not 
more than one year and that no foreign states 
should have troops or military bases in Japan." 

As is known, in the peace treaty with Italy, as 
well as with other peace treaties with European 

139 



countries, it is specifically mentioned that the oc- 
cupation sliould be tenninuted in the shortest pos- 
sible time and in anj' event not more than 90 days 
from the date of the entry of the peace treaty into 
force. However, in the American draft peace 
treaty with Japan no time limit is mentioned for 
the withdrawal of occupation forces from Japan. 
The vapue statement contained in the memoran- 
dum of the United States of America of May 19 
that the "occupation will cease with the entry of 
the treaty into force" without mention of any time 
limit for withdrawal of the occupation troops can 
only lead to confusion; all the more since it is 
evident from this memorandum that the United 
States of America in reality does not intend to 
withdraw its troops even after the conclusion of 
the peace treaty but intends to leave its armed 
forces in Japan, allegedly "not as occupation 
troops." 

In refusing to set a time limit for the with- 
drawal of the occupation troops from Japanese 
territory, the Government of the United States of 
America breaks one of its important obligations 
under international agreements. Leaving foreign 
troops in Japan after conclusion of a peace treaty, 
under whatever pretext it is done, contradicts the 
Potsdam declaration of July 26, 194.5, which pro- 
vides for the withdrawal of foreign troops from 
Japan and signifies camouflaged prolongation of 
the occupation of Japan for an indefinite pro- 
tracted period. 

In intending to prolong the occupation even 
after the conclusion of the peace treaty, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America is thus 
aspiring to remain the real master in Japan for a 
long time. In such a situation, the Government 
of the United States of America can count on the 
preservation of those privileges which it has guar- 
anteed for itself during the years of occupation, 
it can count on prolongation of the political and 
economic dependence of Japan on the United 
States of America and can count not only on the 
retention but even on the further expansion of its 
military bases on Japan. It is clear that all this 
can only harm the course of peaceful settlement 
with Japan and the strengthening of peace in the 
Far East. 

Therefore it is necessary that in the peace treaty 
with Japan the time limit for withdrawal of oc- 
cupation troops from Japanese territory be pre- 
cisely fixed and that in this treaty it should be 
established that no foreign state should have 
troops or military bases in Japan. 

(c) Conccrming the Inadmissibnity of Partici- 
pation hy Japan in a Coalition Against States 
Having an Interest in Signing a Peace Treaty 
with Her. 

In connection with what has been set forth, it 
becomes clear why the Government of the United 
States of America does not agree in its memoran- 
dum with the proposal of the Soviet Un on to 
oblige Japan not to enter into a coalition directed 

140 



against any state having an interest in signing a' 
jieace treaty with Japan. The reference of the 
Government of the United States of America to 
the fact that Japan should, in conformity with 
article 2 of the United Nations Charter refrain 
from aggression or from application of force 
against the territorial integrity of political inde- 
pendence of any state is obviously without sub- 
stance. Experience has shown that the Govern- 
ment of the United States utilizes the political 
and economic dependence of other United Nations 
member states (first of all — participants in the 
North Atlantic Union and the Latin American 
Republics) in order to transform the United Na- 
tion into a weapon for nnleasing aggressive war 
in the Far East. The reference to article 2 of the 
United Nations Charter in the memorandum of the 
Government of the United States of America, and 
also in article 6 in the American draft peace 
treaty was calculated on utilization of Japan as 
well for this purpose. 

Besides, it is not difficult to understand that the 
proposal of the Soviet Goveniment concerning the ' 
nonparticipation of Japan in a coalition acquires 
important and immediate significance on the 
strength of possible military agreement of the 
United States of America with Japan. 

[d) Concemitig the Removal of Limitatiom 
From.' the Peaceful Economy of Japan and From 
the Trade of Japan with Other Countries. 

The memorandum of the United States of 
America of May 19 bypasses the question of the 
peacetime economy of Japan being placed in ser- 
vile dependence on the United States of America 
as the result of all kinds of limitations with re- 
spect to the Japanese peacetime economy and the 
establishment of privileges for American firms 
sponsored by American occupation authorities. 
Japan is deprived of the opportunity of engaging 
in normal trade with neighboring states, which 
still further harms prospects for the upsurge of 
Japanese national economy. 

The Soviet Government considei-s that without 
the effective removal of these restrictions imposed 
from outside, it would be impossible to create 
conditions for the upsurge of a peaceful economy 
and for improving the life of the Japanese people. 

(e) Concerning the Guarantee of Democratic 
Rights to the Japanese People. 

Judging from the memorandum of the United 
States of America of March 19 everything essen- 
tial has already been achieved with respect to the 
democratization of Japan. But this is wholly un- 
true. In fact, in Japan, police suppression of 
organs of the democratic press, repressions against 
trade unions and other democratic organizations 
and persecutions for political convictions are be- 
ing fully revived, with the cooperation of the 
occupation authorities, and a return to the pre- 
war fascist order in jajDan when the shameful 
law on the struggle against "dangerous thoughts" 
existed, is taking place. 

Department of State Bulletin 



I All this confirms the necessity for adopting 
'hose proposals concerning the democratization 
)f Japan which were put forward in the com- 
ments of the Soviet Government. 

(/) Concerning Fulfillment of the Cairo Decla- 
■'ation, the Potsdam DecJavation and the Yalta 
Agreement With Regard to the Territorial Ques- 
tions. 

As far as the territorial questions are concerned, 
he Soviet Government proposes only one thing— 
:juarantee of the honorable fulfilment of the inter- 
lational agreements mentioned above, under 
ijvhich stantls the signature of the United States 
if America itself. 

As is known, it is stated in the Cairo declara- 
:ion that the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores 
[slands should be returned to the Chinese Repub- 
lic. Inasmuch as the Chinese Republic has been 
transformed into the Chinese People's Republic 
md only the Chinese People's Republic expresses 
the will'of the Chinese people, it is clearly obvious 
that Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands should 
be transferred to the Chinese People's Republic. 
In the contrary event the Cairo Agreement will 
not be fulfilled and the entire responsibility for 
this would fall on the Government of the United 
[States of America. 

I As far as the Ryulr^'u, Bonin, Rosario, Volcano, 
Pares Vela, and Marcus Islands are concerned, the 
memorandum of the United States of America of 
May 19 contains nothing which would require 
fresh confirmation on the part of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment of what was set forth in the comments of 
the Soviet Government of May 7. 

{g) Concerning Slanderous Attacks Against 
the U.S.S.R. 

In the memorandmn of the Government of the 
United States of America of May 19 it is stated : 
"In view of the known fact of the acquisition by 
the U.S.S.R. of zones of interest in IManchuria. 
the Government of the United States of America 
hastens to inquire the significance of the desire 
jof the Soviet government to avoid references to 
ithe return of Manchuria". The Soviet Govern- 
ment considers it necessary to state in this respect 
that the U.S.S.R. does not possess any zones of 
interest in Manchuria, and as is known to all con- 
siders Manchuria as an inseparable part of the 
Chinese People's Republic. In view of this the 
above-mentioned statement of the American mem- 
lorandum must be held as deplorable fabrications 
I of idle people and malicious slander of the 
U.S.S.R. 

It cannot be unknown to tlie Government of the 
United States of America tiiat the Soviet Union 
after defeating the Japanese Kwantung army lib- 
erated Manchuria and refurned it to the lawful 
j authority of the Chinese people. As far as the 
rights to the naval base of Port Artluir and to 
. the Chinese-Changchun railway, which were 
granted to the Soviet Union according to the Yalta 

July 23, 1951 



agreement and the Sino-Soviet agreement of 
August 14, 1945, are concerned, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment voluntarily and without compensation 
renounced these rights in favor of the Chinese 
People's Republic. Appropriate agreements con- 
cluded in Moscow on February 14, 1950, were 
published at the time and of course are known to 
the Government of the United States of America. 

According to this agreement the Soviet Union, 
as is known, is to liquidate not later than 1952 its 
naval base at Port Arthur and withdraw its troops 
thence. 

According to the opinion of the Soviet Govern- 
ment it would be much better if the Government 
of the United States of America would refrain 
from slander of the U.S.S.R. on the subject of 
Manchuria and concern itself with the withdrawal 
of its armed forces from Taiwan and the Pesca- 
dores Islands and return these illegally seized 
territories to their lawful owner — the Chinese 
People's Republic. 

In the memorandum of the Government of the 
United States of America of May 19 it was also 
stated that the Soviet Government allegedly "in 
violation of the surrender terms is delaying the 
return of ap[)roximately 200,000 Japanese soldiers 
to their homes and peacetime life." 

There can be no doubt that the Government of 
the United States of America itself does not attach 
any credence to this statement. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment considers it necessary to recall that as 
early as April 22, 1950, the otBcial report of the 
termination of repatriation of Japanese war jiris- 
oners from the Soviet Union was published, 
which, as were subsequent communications on this 
matter, were brought to the notice of the powers. 
In the report mentioned above it was pointed out 
that only 1,487 Japanese war prisoners, convicted 
and undergoing investigation for military crimes 
committed by them, 9 Japanese war prisoners sub- 
ject to repatriation after the completion of medi- 
cal treatment, and 971 Japanese war prisoners who 
had committed serious crimes against the Chinese 
people and would be transferred to the jurisdic- 
tion of the Chinese People's Republic, renu^ined 
unrepatriated. 

Consequently, the assertion in the memorand»nn 
of the United States of America that the Soviet 
Governnu'nt is delaying the return to their home- 
land of api)roximately 200,000 Japanese soldiers 
is a trifling slaiulerous attack and strikes only 
slanderers. 

As far as the remarks in the memorandum of 
the United States of America that the Soviet 
T'nion participated only 6 days in the war with 
Japan and that the role of the military efforts of 
the Soviet Union in this war were allegedly insig- 
nificant are conceriu'd. the Soviet l^nion considers 
it necessary to state tlu^ following: first, the So- 
viet Union entered the war with Japan exactly at 
the time fixed at the Yalta conference witliout any 
delay whatever. Secondly, the Soviet Army 

14T 



fought a bloody engagement with Japanese troops 
not for 6 days but in tlie course of a month, since 
the Kwantung army continued resistance for a 
long time in spite of the imperial declaration of 
capitulation. Thirdly, the Soviet Army smashed 
22 Japanese divisions in Manchuria — the main 
forces of the Japanese Kwantung army, and took 
about 600,000 Japanese soldiers and ofllcers pris- 
oner. Fourthly, Japan came to capitulation only 
after the first decisive blow of Soviet troops at 
the Kwantuns army. Fifthly, even before the 
entry of the U. S. S. R. into the war with Japan, 
during 1941-45, the U. S. S. R. kept up to 40 
divisions on the frontiers with Manchuria and 
tied up the whole Kwantung army, thus facilitat- 
ing the operations of China and the United States 
of America in the war against the Japanese 
militarists. 

All these facts are, of course, known to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America, and if, 
despite these facts, the Government of the United 
States of America permits itself to minimize the 
leading role of the Soviet Union in the matter of 
the defeat of Jajianese militarism, this can only 
be explained by the fact that the Government of 
the United States of America does not have any 
convincing arguments, in view of which it is 
obliged in this case to resort to slanderous fabri- 
cations against the U. S. S. R. 

2. Concerninci Preparation of an Over-all Peace 
Treaty rrith Japan instead of a Separate Treaty. 

In addition to the comments on the draft treaty 
made above, the Soviet Government has in view 
the expressing of other remarks on the substance 
of this draft when the meeting of interested coun- 
tries takes place. 

{a) In its memorandum of May 19 the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America has re- 
frained from answering the comments of the So- 
viet Government where the text of the Potsdam 
Agreement was cited, from which it is evident that 
the Council of Foreign Ministers is set up with a 
composition of the Five Powers — United States 
of America, U. S. S. R., China, Great Britain, and 
France — fii-st of all for "preparatoi'y work on a 
peace settlement" and that in the drafting of the 
corresponding peace treaties "the Council will 
consist of members representing those states which 
have signed surrender terms dictated to that 
enemy state which the given task concerns." 

In the meantime, the references to the Potsdam 
Agreement cited furnish the basis for drawing 
the following indisputable conclusions: 

First, in setting up the Council of Foreign ]\Iin- 
isters composed of the Five Powers, "preparatory 
work on a peace settlement" was directly men- 
tioned as its main task, moreover the peace settle- 
ment was not limited to Europe; 

Secondly, the Council of Foreign Ministers 
should engage on its preparatory work on a peace 
settlement with a composition of members "repre- 
senting (hose states which have signed capitula- 



^ 



tion terms," from which it follows that the prep 
aration of a peace treaty with Japan is placed' 
upon four countries — the United States of Amer-I 
ica, U.S.S.R., Great Britain, and China, whicli 
signed the Japanese surrender document. 

Consequently, fulfillment of the Potsdam Agree- 
ment with respect to preparation of a peace treaty' 
with Japan requii-es the calling of the Council oi' 
Foreign Ministers composed of representatives ol 
the United States of America, U.S.S.R., Great 
Biitain, and China and objection to this on the 
part of the Government of the United States oi 
America is without grounds. 

The unfounded nature of the objections against 
calling a Council of Foreign Ministers for such 
reasons as that it could allegedly delay prepara- 
tions of a peace treaty with Japan is likewise per- 
fectly obvious. These objections have already 
been put forth for several years past and they 
have led only to dragging out the matter. Mean 
while preparation of the treaty could already have 
been finished during this time, and the treaty could 
have been signed, as took place duly with the 
peace treaties of five other states — Italy, Bulgaria, 
Rumania, Hungary, and Finland, which were pre-i 
pared by the Council of Foreign Ministers. 

The statement tliat the procedure of the Coun- 
cil would accord a "secondary role" to some allied 
states is also without substance. It is sufficient to 
point out that under the pi'ocedure being imposed 
by the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica all allied states are in reality excluded from 
preparation of the treaty since the Government of 
the United States of America has gone along the 
path of seizing this matter exclusively into its own 
hands. 

(6) In its remarks of j\Iay 7 the Soviet Gov- 
ernment emphasized the inadmissibility of ex- 
cluding China from the preparation of a peace 
treaty with Japan. These Chinese people were 
obliged to wage a long and heavy war with mili- 
taristic Japan, which had invaded its territory, 
and bore uniquely great sacrifices in this struggle, 
and therefore the government of the Chinese 
People's Republic as the sole legal expression of | 
will of the Chinese people cannot be excluded j 
from preparation of a treaty which should serve 
to establish lasting peace in the Far East. The 
statement of the government of the Chinese 
People's Republic of May 22, 1951, confirms its 
legal right and unique intei'est in the preparation 
of the treaty, which other states cannot ignore. 

In the meantime the American draft treaty and 
the memorandum of the United States of America 
of May 19 testify to the fact that the Government 
of the United States of America is going on with 
direct violation of the national rights of China 
with respect to its territory in refusing to fulfill 
the Cairo agreement regarding the return of Tai- 
wan island and the Pescadores Islands to China, 
as well as with exclusion of China from prepara- 
tion of a peace treaty with Japan. 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



In rejecting the established procedure for prep- 
ration of peace treaties, the Government of the 
jnited States of America is endeavoring to ex- 
lude the Cliinese People's Republic and the Soviet 
Jnion and also other interested countries from 
)reparation of the treaty and, ignoring their 
legal rights and interests, intends to dictate terms 
!f treaty to Japan in accordance with its own 
udgment, inasnuich as the Japanese Government, 
Ihich is dependent upon American occupation 
uthorities, is prepared to enter into such an ar- 
langement with the United States of America. 
' All this speaks for the fact that the Govern- 
aent of the United States of America does not 
jvant Japan to have a peace treaty with all the 
Itates that were in a state of war with her. In- 
|tead of an over-all peace treaty the United States 
jif America wants to impose upon Japan a sepa- 
ate peace treaty with the Government of the 
ijnited States of America and its satellites. 
: It cannot be considered accidental that the Gov- 
jrnment of the United States of America does 
lot want an over-all peace treaty with Japan, but 
spires to a separate treaty. Only with conclu- 
ion of a separate treaty can the United States of 
Vmerica secure the dependence of Japan for sev- 
ral j'ears hence, and inasmuch as the conclusion 
■f a military agreement between the United States 
if America and Japan is also envisaged by the 
iraft treaty it becomes clear that the goal of the 
eparate treaty is the transformation of Japan into 
j shameful weapon for carrying out the aggressive 
!)lans of the United States of America in the Far 
']ast. 

If the Government of the United States of 
\nierica does not desist from its intention to ex- 
hide the Soviet Union and Chinese People's Re- 
)ublic from the preparation of a peace treaty 
vith Japan and imposes a separate peace treaty 
m Japan, this will signify, first, that the United 
itates has taken the path of gross violations of its 
nternational obligations, including the United 
'i^ations Declaration of Jan. 1, 19i2, which imposes 
ihe obligation not to conclude a separate peace, 
Ind, secondly, that the present policy of the United 
Dtates of America will lead not to restoration and 
jtrengthening of peace in the Far East but to the 
Ireation of a new aggressive grouping in the Pa- 
■ific Ocean. 

; Responsibility for the consequences of such a 
i)olicy will lie entirely on the Government of the 
iJnited States of America. 

I (c) As far as the repeated statement of the 
ijovernment of the United States of America 
ihat negotiations concerning the draft peace 
reaty with Japan took place between representa- 
ives of the U.S.S.R. and United States of America 
IS concerned, the Soviet Government is obliged 
ligain to emphasize that there have not been and 
j'ould not be any negotiations concerning the work- 
ing out of a draft peace treaty, since the Govcrn- 
Inent of the U.S.S.R. has stood and does stand 



against any form of separate negotiations on this 
question. Of course, personal meetings have 
taken place between Jacob A. Malik and Dulles at 
the personal request of Dulles, as have also the 
transmittal by Dulles of his ideas concerning a 
peace treaty with Japan and the posing of ques- 
tions by Malik for clarification of Dulles' views. 
However, it would be absolutely incorrect to con- 
sider such personal meetings as negotiations be- 
tween the U.S.S.R. and the United States of 
America concerning the working out of a peace 
treaty with Japan. 

3. FuUy confirming its proposals of May 7, the 
Soviet Government insists on the following basic 
princij)les xvith respect to a peace treaty tvith 
Japan. 

First. The peace treaty with Japan should be 
over-all and not separate, for which purpose no 
country participating in the war with Japan 
should be excluded from the preparation and 
signing of the treaty. 

Second. The peace treaty with Japan should 
be worked out on the basis of the Cairo declara- 
tion, the Potsdam declaration and the Yalta 
Agreement. 

Third. A peace conference of representatives 
of all states which participated with their armed 
forces in the war with Japan should be called in 
July or August, 1951, for consideration of the 
available drafts for a peace treaty with Japan. 

U.S. Memorandum of July 9 

[Released to the press July lJi'\ 

Following is the text of a memorandum de- 
livered to the Soviet Embassy at Washington on 
July 9, 1951, in response to the Soviet Memoran- 
dum of June 10 concerning a Japanese Peace 
treaty. 

The Department of State, having transmitted 
to the Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Rej^ublics in Washington a revised (July 3. 1951) 
draft of a prospective Treaty of Peai-e with Japan, 
takes this occasion to allude to the memorandum 
of the Government of the Soviet Union of June 10, 
1951, dealing with the earlier draft of March 29, 
1951. 

Section 1 of that memorandum dealt with the 
substantive terms of that draft. It failed to cite 
any language of the draft as objectionable. In 
essence, the Soviet memorandum objected not to 
anything contained in the draft treaty but be- 
cause the treaty would not restrict Japan with 
respect to the right of individual or collective self- 
defense, a right rex^ognized by the United Nations 
Charter as "inherent." The Government of the 
Soviet Union would have the peace treaty deny 
to Japan the right hereafter to enter into col- 
lective security arrangements with othei' countries 
of its choosing. This is a viewpoint which the 
Government or the United States cannot accept. 



o/y 23, 1 95 J 



143 



Section 2 of the Soviet memorandum dealt with 
procedure. It again "insists on observance of the 
Potsdam Agi'eement"' which, according to the 
Government of the Soviet Union, means that 
'•preparation of a peace treaty with Japan is 
placed upon four countries — the United States of 
America, U.S.8.R., Great Britain, and China" 
constituting the Council of Foreigii Ministers. 

This would conunit the preparation of the treaty 
to the veto-bound processes of that Council and 
would exclude from the preparatory work France 
and many Pacific and Asiatic countries which bore 
a far heavier burden in the Jajianese war than did 
the Soviet Union. 

The Soviet Govei-nment's memorandum does not 
attempt any reasoned reply to the analysis of the 
Potsdam Agreement contained in Section I of the 
United States aide memoire of May 19, which 
proves irrefutably that the Potsdam Agreement 
between the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union 
and the United States neither mentions nor relates 
in any way to the Japanese peace, probably be- 
cause the Potsdam Agreement was made on Au- 
gust 1, 1945, before Japan's surrender and when 
the Soviet Uiiion was still a neutral in the Pacific 
war. 

In the concluding Section .S of its memorandum 
of June 10, 1951, the Soviet Government says that 
the "peace ti'eaty with Japan should be multi- 
lateral and not separate" both as to preparation 
and as to signing. 

The July 3, 1951. draft reflects the operation 
of those very principles. Many interested nations 
have participated in its preparation. The fact 
that they have done so through diplomatic chan- 
nels makes their participation no less real than 
if they had participated in some other manner. 
The terms of the treaty would recognize and pro- 
tect equally the legitimate interests of each and 
every state which took part in the Japanese war. 
At the same time the terms embody not merely 
the formality of peace, but the spirit of peace. 
The Government of the Soviet Union will further 
observe that, as it desires, the text is prepared 
as a multilateral instrument. 

The Soviet Memorandum, after having first de- 
manded that the preparation of a draft treaty 
should now be started over again by the Council 
of Foreign Ministers, suggests, in its final para- 
graph, that when there are available drafts, there 
should be a conference of all active belligerents 
in the Japanese war, for consideration of these 
drafts. 

The Government of the United States antici- 
pates that there will be a general conference early 
in September to conclude a peace on the basis 
of the draft of July 3, 1951. It will welcome 
participation in that conference, and adherence 
to the resultant Treaty, by the Government of 
the Soviet Union. 

Department of State, 
W ashington. 



U.S.S.R. Fails To Inform Soviet Peoplesi 
of Friendship Resolution j 

[Released to Vie press Jiilii i-}] | 

! 

The Voice of America today began calling toi 
the attention of the Soviet Government its failure 
to transmit the McMahon-Ribicofl Friendship 
Eesolution to the Soviet peoples. 

For the next several days the Voice of America 
will stress in all Russian language programs the 
number of days that have elapsed since July 7, 
when President Truman forwarded the Friend- 
ship Resolution to the President of the Presidium 
of the Supreme Soviet. 

The first of this series of basic scripts follows: 

TRUMAN MESSAGE NOT PUBLISHED IN 
U.S.S.E. 

Good Evening. This i.s On July 7, Pre.si(ient 

Truman sent a iiJe.s.sage to His Excellency Nikolai 
Mikhailovich Shvernik, President of the Presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
It was a simple request. That those who head the Soviet 
Union transmit to the people of the Soviet Union, a reso] 
lution passed by the elected representatives of the Ameri-j 
can people, the Congress, expressing to them the feelingj 
of friendship. To date, there is no evidence that the 
President's request has been complied with. 

The Resolution of Friendship has api>eared in no Soviet 
newspaper; it has not been heard on any Soviet radio; 
nor has any Stalin prize winning actor stepiied to tbe 
footlights to read it to his audience. Of course, there 
may be a delay — papers, letters, books, articles of all 
kinds have to go through a great many hands in the 
Soviet Union before seeing the light of day. Or, perhaps, 
it is being studied, as the diplomats say. but what there 
is to study about a simple expression of friendship from 
1.50 million people it is difficult to understand. Or, per- 
haps, the Resolution itself isn't phrased correctly — after 
all, phraseology in the Soviet Union is a special science — 
but then it would be sucli a simple matter just to tele- 
phone Washington and ask for the definition or meaning 
of any word. For instance, if there's any difficulty with 
tbe American word "friendship" the word "comradeship" 
could be substituted. If it's difficult to telephone out of 
Moscow — I hear there are difficulties sometimes — Am- 
bassador Kirk is right at hand, and he is an excellent j 
grammarian. 

But if it is none of these things — the nonappearance 
of the American people's resolution in any Soviet media, ' 
the ignoring of its President's simple request — is exceed- I 
ingly strange, and we nujst look elsewhere for the reasons, j 
Perhaps it's in the body, the actual words, in the j 
Resolution itself. 

Now let's see — it says "The deepest wish of America is 
to join with all other nations in preserving the dignity 
of man, and in observing those moral principles which 
alone lend meaning to his existence . . ." 

Now, what could he in there that wouldn't translate. 
I'm sure there are Russian phrases equivalent to "the 
dignity of man" and for "moral principles." If not in 
the new rapidly changing Soviet language, then back a 
little in the old Russian. And, there would be enough 
citizens who still understand the old phrases to be able 
to convey their meaning to the younger folk. 

What else is in the Resolution? Oh yes — that "the 
American people offer to share all that is good in atomic 
energy, a.sking in return only safeguards against the evil 
in the atom." That would translate, I'm sure, for every- 
body in the new Russian; after all, the atom is much 
younger than the Soviet Union itself. No — they could 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



nderstand that part; it wouldn't be that section that 
'ould keep it out of the newspapers. 

I What about the part which says "the goal of the 
Lmerican people is now, and ever has been, a just and 
listing peace." No — that's not it. That translates into 
ny language, just as it is. 

"That the American people and their Government de- 
ire neither war with the Soviet Union nor the terrible 
onsequences of such a war . . ." Well, that may be 

little difficult, seeing as how Soviet typesetters have not 
et these words up in such a sequence for so long a 
ime — but no, that can't be it: it would take a little 
practice, perhaps, but they could get it right. 

Ah, here is a difficult passage — "the American people 
leeply regret the artificial barriers which separates them 
irom the peoples of the Union of Soviet Socialist Ke- 
Lublics, and which keep the Soviet peoples from learning 
he desire of the American people to live in friendship 
Ivith all other peoples . . ." — Yes, that might be it; 
ihere's a difficult word to translate in there — I mean in 
he modern Russian — the word "barrier." I admit that it's 
'lard for — not the Soviet people — but the pedants of bu- 
l-eaucracy to find a word for "barrier." There is a word, 
iir two words, "stockade" is one, or "barbed wire" is 
mother — these are in use, but they are actual things, 
ietual barriers. The Soviet people will understand that 
[lerhaps the difficulty is with the word "artificial." Maybe 
jhat's it. I don't know. 

j But, as I said before, there's the telephone or Ambas- 
feador Kirk right at hand for difficult translation prob- 
lems. Outside of this, I can't understand why the 
President's request has so long been ignored. Here in 
imerica, if we were to receive such a request from Gen- 
eralissimo Stalin, for instance, every librarian, professor, 
Russian speaking editor would immediately be at work, 
rhe message would appear in every newspaper in a matter 
bf hours. But then, if the Russian people were to send 
fis the real message in their hearts, perhaps it would be 
jmore easily translatable into English . . . and now, this 

is , saying goodby, look for the message, and 

see you again. 



Soviet Action on Lend-Lease Urged 

[Released to the press July 6] 

The following are the texts of two notes sent hy 
Secretary Acheson on July 2, J951, to the Soviet 
Charge at Washington, Boris I. Karavaer, one 
concerning So'vief failure to reply to the United 
States demand of April 6 that all lend-lease vessels 
be immediately returned, the second noting that 
no reply has been received to the United States 
proposal for arbitration of the question of a finan- 
cial settlement of the lend-lease account: 



The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and refers to the re- 
quest of the Government of the United States in 
its note of February 7, 1951 and reiterated in its 
note of A])ril G, 1951 tliat the Government of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics promptly re- 
turn to the United States all vessels loaned to the 
Soviet Union under the terms of the Master Lend- 
Lease Agreement of June 11, 1942. 

iuly 23, 1951 



In view of the clear and undeniable obligation 
of the Soviet Government under Article V of the 
Master Lend-Lease Agreement to return these 
vessels, immediate notitication of the intentions of 
the Soviet Government with respect to this matter 
is requested. 

// 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and refers to the 
proposal of the Government of the United States, 
as set forth in its note of April 27, 1951, that there 
be submitted to arbitration the question of what 
would be fair and reasonable terms of financial 
settlement by the Soviet Government for the lend- 
lease articles having civilian utility except ships, 
which were not lost, destroyed or consumed dur- 
ing the war and which are not returned to the 
United States. 

In view of the extended period of time which 
has elapsed without response from the Soviet Gov- 
ernment, the Government of the United States 
expresses the hope that the Soviet Government 
will promptly reply to the proposal of April 27, 
1951. 



Estate Tax Convention 
With Switzerland Signed 

[Released to the press July 9] 

On July 9, Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, 
and Charles Bruggmann, Swiss Minister in Wash- 
ington, signed a convention between the LTnited 
States and Switzerland for the avoidance of double 
taxation with respect to taxes on estates and inheri- 
tances. 

The estate-tax convention with Switzerland is 
basically similar to, and has the same objectives as, 
estate-tax conventions now in force between the 
United States and Canada, France, and the United 
Kingdom and such conventions concluded but not 
yet in force between the United States and Greece, 
Ireland, Norway, and the Union of South Africa. 
As applied to the taxes imposed in tlie United 
States, the convention with Switzerland deals 
solely with the Federal estate taxes and does not 
affect the estate or inheritance taxes imposed by the 
several states, territories, or possessions of the 
United States or the District of Columbia. 

The convention will be submitted to the Senate 
for its advice and consent to ratification. It is 
provided in the convention that instruments of 
ratification sliall be exchanged and that tiie con- 
vention shall become effective on the day that ex- 
change takes place, but shall be applicable only to 
estates or inlieritaiices in the case of persons who 
die on or after that date. 



145 



Agreement With India 
For Relief Supplies 

[Released to the press July 9] 

An agreement to facilitate the movement and 
distribution of packages and supplies donated for 
relief and rehabilitation in India was signed today 
at the Department of State by Madame Vijaya 
Lakshmi Pandit, the Indian Ambassador, and 
Secretary Acheson. 

The agreement applies to certain foods, medical 
supplies, hospital equipment, and agricultural 
implements shipped to India under an amend- 
ment to the India Emergency Food Aid Act of 
1951. This amendment authorizes the adminis- 
trator for economic cooperation to pay the ocean 
freight charges on these types of supplies when 
donated through organizations qualified as volun- 
tary non-profit relief agencies under applicable 
EcA regulations and registered for operations in 
India with the Department of State's Advisory 
Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid. 

According to the terms of the agreement signed 
today, the Government of India will allow duty- 
free entry and defray the inland transportation 
charges on the relief supplies mentioned above. 
These actions, by materially reducing the cost of 
handling shipments, will increase considerably the 
effectiveness of the distribution of the gifts do- 
nated by the American people through the relief 
agencies. 



Norway Signs Torquay Protocol 

[Released to the press July 9] 

The United States Government has been in- 
formed by the headquarters of the United Nations 
that the Government of Norway, on July 3, 1951, 
signed the Torquay Protocol to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade. The terms of the pro- 
tocol require that the concessions negotiated be- 
tween the United States and Norway at the i-ecent 
tariff conference at Torquay, England, but which 
have heretofore been withlield, be put into effect 
on the thirtieth day — August 2, 1951 — after Nor- 
way's signature of the instrument. 

At Torquay, Norway granted substantial con- 
cessions on its imports of both agricultural and 
nonagricultural products of the United States. 
More than half of these concessions were reduc- 
tions in duty ; the remainder consisted of binding 
of existing duties or duty-free treatment. 

Norwegian duties were reduced on fresh apples 
and pears ; dried apricots, prunes, apples, peaches, 
pears, and other fruits; and various vegetable 

Iuices. Present moderate duties on lard were 
lound; duty-free status of soybeans was bound. 

146 



Duty-free treatment of ash lumber was bound, as" 
was the moderate rate of duty on certain types of 
plywood. 

Concessions were granted on various chemical! 
products, on lubricating oil, and on petrolatum. 
There were duty reductions on tractors and a wide 
range of machinery and tools. Present duties on 
aircraft parts were bound. In addition to the con-| 
cessions directly negotiated with the United States 
at Torquay, Norway made numerous concessions^ 
to other countries on products of interest to Unitedj 
States exporters. 

Among the products to which United States! 
concessions initially negotiated with Norway ap- 
ply are: special types of canned sardines and 
herrings and certain other fish products; certain 
kinds of cheeses; reindeer meat; chrome or chro- 
mium metal and certain other metals and metal 
alloys; certain artificial abrasives; certain chemi- 
cal pigments; fish hooks; and certain kinds of 
paper. j 

The specific United States concessions which j 
will be put into effect as a result of Norway's signa- j 
ture of the Torquay Protocol will be announced; 
as soon as possible. 



WHO American Office Opens 
Nursing Workshop In Guatemala 

[Released to the press 'by the V.N. Department of Public 
Information June 28] 

A nursing workshop on the principles of super- 
vision and administration in communicable dis- 
ease nursing opens on Sunday, July 1, in Guate- 
mala City, under the auspices of the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, regional office of the World 
Health Organization. The workshop is being 
financed with technical assistance funds by the 
Oi"ganization of American States. 

Three bureau specialists in public health nurs- j 
ing and three specialists from Latin America — one 
from Brazil and two from Chile — are conducting 
the workshop, a 6-weeks' intensive study course in- 
tended for directors, instructors, and supervisors 
of schools of nursing and public health services. 
It will operate July 1 through August 12 and is 
designed to serve nurses from the six Central 
American Republics and Cuba, the Dominican Re- 
public, Haiti, and Mexico. Two nurses in posi- 
tions of leadership from each of the 10 countries 
have been invited to attend as students. 

The Government of Guatemala is housing the 
workshop meetings in its new school or nursing, a 
completed unit on the grounds of a thousand-bed 
hospital now under construction in the capital city 
of the Republic. The Government is also con- 
tributing personnel, services, and facilities for the 
course. 

Department of State Bulletin 



J.S., Australia, New Zealand Negotiate Security Treaty 



iTATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR DULLES 
CONSULTANT TO THE SECRETARY 

[Released to the press July 12] 

During the latter part of February 1951, 1 had 
several days of discussion at Canberra, Australia, 
with Mr. Spender, then the Foreign Minister of 
Australia, and Mr. Doidge, the Foreign Minister 
lof New Zealand. We explored the possibility of 
:an arrangement between our three countries, pur- 
suant to the United Nations Charter, which would 
make clear that, in the event of an armed attack 
on any of them in the Pacific, each of the three 
would act to meet the common danger. 
j After I had reported our conclusions to Presi- 
Ident Truman, he asked the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of Defense, and me as his special repre- 
isentative, to pursue this matter further. 

This has been done and has resulted in the ne- 
gotiation of a proposed security treaty for con- 
sideration by the Governments of Australia, New 
Zealand, and the United States of America. This 
is the draft now being made public. 
j As said by President Truman in his statement 
I of April 19, 1951, this arrangement between our 
three Governments is one of a series of arrange- 
ments, described in the preamble to the draft 
f treaty, now being worked out by the United States 
to strengthen the fabric of peace in the Pacific. 
These arrangements on which we are now work- 
ing are, in turn, as the President said in his April 
19 statement only "initial steps." It is e.xpected 
that, in due course, these initial steps will be fol- 
lowed by others in order to achieve what the pre- 
I amble and article viii of the draft treaty describes 
i as "the development of a more comprehensive sys- 
j tern of regional security in the Pacific Area." 

It is expected that this treaty will be signed at 
j about the same time as the signing of the Japanese 
peace treaty. There has not yet been any final 
decision as to the place or precise date of signing. 
I am very happy to join with Ambassadors 
Spender and Berendsen in announcing the results 
or our discussions. It has been a great pleasure 
to work with both of them and with other officials 
of the Australian and New Zealand Governments. 
I am confident that what we have done will be an 
important step on the road to peace. 

July 23, 1 95 J 



STATEMENT BY PERCY C. SPENDER 
AUSTRALIAN AMBASSADOR TO U.S. 

[Released to the press July 12] 

The end of the negotiations which have resulted 
in the initialling for identification, on behalf of 
the three countries concernedj of this draft secu- 
rity agreement marks the beginning not only of a 
new and important relationship between our three 
countries in the Pacific but a historic occasion of 
profound significance to the free world. 

For too long this part of the world has not re- 
ceived the attention which its growing impor- 
tance merited. This draft agreement which will 
be formally signed at an agreed and not distant 
date is but one but nonetheless an exceedingly 
important step in building up the security of the 
Pacific area. Based upon mutuality of interest 
and obligation what in substance it does is to rec- 
ognize that any armed attack on one of the parties 
is an armed attack on all and obligates the others 
to come to the assistance of the party attacked. 

Based upon the close and intimate understand- 
ing which already exists between the three coun- 
tries, an understanding which was fortified and 
developed by the great comradeship which arose 
between the men of the three countries in the peril- 
ous days of the last conflict, Australia, dedicated 
to the cause of peace, is happy to join in this great 
association of free peoples and confidently faces 
the future in the firm knowledge that we stand 
together. 

I would like to record how much the Australian 
Government appreciates the great labours which 
have been put in the negotiations by Mr. Dulles 
and the officials associated with him. The splen- 
did consultations which liave taken place between 
us is a happy augury for the progress of this pro- 
posed agreement. At all times he and his asso- 
ciates have been frank, reasonable, and prepared 
to see a different point of view. 

My own satisfaction in being so intimately asso- 
ciated with these negotiations is I hope under- 
standable. But merely as an Australian I know 
I speak for my countrymen when I say that the 
successful conclusion of these negotiations will be 
warmly hailed by Australia. 

147 



STATEMENT BY CARL BERENDSEN 
NEW ZEALAND AMBASSADOR TO U.S. 

[Released to the press July 12] 

It is my privilege to initial this draft treaty 
on behalf of New Zealand, and I wish to pay my 
tribute to the invaluable assistance rendered in 
this matter by John Foster Dulles and his asso- 
ciates. 

These proposals appear to me to meet the es- 
sential requirements of all useful international 
engagements in that they conform with an exist- 
ing situation, with the facts and the necessities of 
the time and the area. On completion, this pact 
will formally record what so clearly and happily 
exists today — the close relation between the in- 
terests of the parties in the Pacific, the warmth 
of the regard of their peoples one for the other, 
their common desire for peace, and their common 
intention to resist aggression. And this pact when 
completed will be more than a piece of paper — 
it will be an engagement between thi'ee parties 
who, in the defence of liberty, have in the past 
fought side by side on many a hard-won field; 
who know and respect each other's character and 
capacity; who trust each other in all circum- 
stances; and who have proved their determina- 
tion and their ability at all times to honour their 
pledged word. 

I believe that this treaty, when concluded, will 
be entirely in conformity with the aims, the ideals 
and the principles of the Charter of the United 
Nations; that it will prove a useful measure to 
maintain and preserve peace in the Pacific; and 
that it will be of real and lasting benefit to all its 
signatories and indeed to the world. 



TEXT OF DRAFT TRIPARTITE SECURITY TREATY 

[For consideration hy the Governments of 
Australia, New Zealand, and the United States 
of America'] 

[Released to the press Julij 12] 

The Parties to this Treaty, 

ReafRrining their faith in the purposes and principles 
of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to 
live in peace with all peoples and all Governments, and 
desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace in the Pacific 
Area, 

Noting that the United States already has arrangements 
pursuant to which its armed forces are stationed in the 
Philippines, and has armed forces and administrative re- 
sponsibilities in the Ryukyus, and upon the coming into 
force of the .Japanese Peace Treaty may also station 
armed forces in and about .Tapan to assist in the preserva- 
tion of peace and security in the .Tapan area. 

Recognizing that Australia and New Zealand as mem- 
bers of the British Commonwealth of Nations have mili- 
tary obligations outside as well as within the Pacitic 
Area, 

Desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense 

148 



of unity, so that no potential aggressor could be unde 
the illusion that any of them stand alone in the Pacifl| 
Area, and j 

Desiring further to coordinate their efforts for colleCi 
five defense for the preservation of peace and securit; 
pending the development of a more comprehensive systen 
of regional security in the Pacific Area, 

Therefore declare and agree as follows : 

ARTICLE I 

The Parties undertalie, as set forth in the Charter o 
the United Nations, to settle any international dispute; 
in which they may be involved by peaceful means ii 
such a manner that international peace and security ant 
justice are not endangered and to refrain in their inter 
national relations from the threat or use of force li 
any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the Unitec 
Nations. 

ARTICLE II 

In order more effectively to achieve the objective o: 
this Treaty the Parties separately and jointly by means 
of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid wil 
maintain and develop their Individual and collective capac 
ity to resist armed attack. 

ARTICLE III 

The Parties will consult together whenever in the; 
opinion of any of them tlie territorial integrity, jwlitical 
independence or security of any of the Parties is threat-, 
ened in the Pacific. 

ARTICLE IV 

Each Party recognizes that an armed attack in the| 
Pacific area on any of the Parties would be dangerous toj 
its own peace and safety and declares that it would act' 
to meet the common danger in accordance with its con- 
stitutional processes. 

Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a 
result thereof shall be immediately reported to the Se- 
curity Council of the United Nations. Such measures 
shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken 
the measures necessary to restore and maintain interna- 
tional peace and security. 

ARTICLE V 

For the purpose of Article IV, an armed attack on any 
of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack on 
the metropolitan territory of any of the Parties, or on the 
island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or 
on its armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the 
Pacific. 

ARTICLE VI 

This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted 
as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the 
parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the 
responsibility of tlie United Nations for the maintenance 
of international peace and security. 

ARTICLE VII 

The Parties hereby establish a Council, consisting of 
their Foreign Ministers or their Deputies, to consider 
matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. 
The Council should be so organized as to be able to meet 
at any time. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Pending the development of a more comprehensive sys- 
tem of regional security in the Pacific Area and the de- 
velopment by the United Nations of more effective means 
to maintain international peace and security, the Coun- 
cil, established liy Article VII, Is authorized to maintain 
a consultative relationship with States, Regional Organi- 
zations, Associations of States or other autlioritles in the 
Pacific Area in a position to further the purposes of this 
Treaty and to contribute to the security of that Area. 

Department of State Bulletin 



ARTICLE EX 

This Treaty shall be ratified by the Parties in accord- 
jince with their respective constitutional processes. The 
Instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as 
Wsible with the GoTernment of Australia, which will 
liotify each of the other signatories of such deposit. The 
Preaty shall enter into force as soon as the ratifications 
j)f the signatories have been deposited. 

ARTICLE X 

This Treaty shall remain in force indefinitely. Any 
-^arty may cease to be a member of the Council established 
ly Article VII one year after notice has been given to the 
iovernment of Australia, which will inform the Govern- 
inents of the other Parties of the deposit of such notice. 

ARTICLE XI 

This Treaty in the English language shall be deposited 
n the archives of the Government of Australia. Duly 
■ertified copies thereof will be transmitted by that Gov- 
'rnment to the Governments of each of the other 
agnatories. 

In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries 
lave signed this Treaty. 

I Done at this day of 

1951. 



rCA Adopts Plan For Use Of 
,\merican Science Books 

Released to the press July 9] 

Adoption of a plan for the selective use of Amer- 
can scientific and technical books in the Point 
F^our Program was announced today by Dr. Henry 

. Bennett, Technical Cooperation Administrator. 

The plan was worked out in cooperation with the 
^jnerican Book Publishers Council, Inc.. Amer- 
ican Textbook Publishers Institute, and American 
Association of University Presses, representing 
he principal book publishers in the United States. 
[t calls for the distribution of American scientific 
md technical books on a limited scale by American 
:echnicians engaged in Point Four projects in 
)ther countries. The books will be presented to 
jninistries, institutions, and individual teclmicians 
Jf the other countries with wliom the American 
fechnicians are working. In all cases, the books 
yvill be presented only when it is determined that 
such works printed in English can be used to 
idvantage and will contribute to the furtherance 
)f the Point Four Program. Dr. Bennett said : 

We recognize that American scientific and technical 
pooks can be a valuable means of sharing our knowledge 
vlth other peoples. In fact, the distribution of such books 
s one of the most effective ways of disseminating sci- 
entific and technical knowledge which other people will 
|3nd useful in increasing their productivity, developing 
[heir economic resources, and improving their standards 
)f living. 

At the same time, we want to make sure that every 
look purchased with Point Four funds will serve a prac- 
ical purpose. Therefore we are adopting this plan for 
imited distribution of such books by American tech- 
licians who will select specific titles fur presentation to 
he scientists and technicians with whom they are work- 
ng directly in other countries. 

My 23, J 95 1 



Dr. Bennett pointed out that in many countries 
in wliich the Point Four Program operates, many 
individuals and institutions that can use scientific 
and technical books in English have very limited 
dollar funds for such purposes. 

The selective distribution of such books under 
the Point Four Program will be coordinated both 
in the United States and in other countries with 
the general book distribution program being car- 
ried on as part of the foreign information and 
educational exchange program operated by the 
Department of State. 



Point Four Administrator 
Visits Ethiopia 

[Released to the press July 10] 

Technical Cooperation Administrator Henry G. 
Bennett left Washington July 9 for a 2-week visit 
to Ethiopia to consult with Ethiopian authorities 
on the program of technical cooperation under a 
Point Four General Agreement signed June 14, 
1951. Dr. Bennett is accompanied by Ben- 
jamin H. Hardy, director of the Public Affairs 
Staff of the Tca. 

Dr. Bennett served as agricultural adviser to 
Emperor Haile Selassie in the spring of 19.50. 
Many of the projects which now come under the 
Point Four Program in Ethiopia are the results 
of recommendations he made following his studies 
of the Ethiopian economy. 

The Point Four Administrator said that the 
technical cooperative plan includes the establish- 
ment of an agricultural college staffed by Ameri- 
can technicians and teacliing the most modern rural 
practices in their adaptation to local conditions. 
Other projects are for aid to primary and second- 
ary schools, including the establishment of an 
Ethiopian-American educational service separate 
from the Ministry of Education in undertaking 
teacher training work with materials prepared in 
the United States under the direction of Ajnerican 
educators. 

Dr. Bennett said that the last time he was in 
Ethiopia he saw evidences of great potential de- 
velopment. He stated : 

Huge sources of untapped hydroelectric power are there. 
These will be studied by United States and Ethiopian ex- 
perts with the view toward harnessing them to the develop- 
ment of other resources. 

I saw countless herds of cattle, a potential source of 
meat for Europe and income to tlie Ethiopians. Yet the 
lack of packing plants, and refrigerated transportation 
deny the benefit of this great industry both to Europe and 
Ethiopia. 

The Tca administrator also declared that con- 
ferences will be held with Ethiopian Government 
officials and members of the United States Em- 
bassy in Addis Ababa for the purpose of discussing 
other projects on wliich Etiiiopia has requested 
assistance under the Point Four Program. 

149 



U.S. Signs Defense Agreements 
With Saudi Arabia 

[Released to the press July 13] 

The United States Government signed the 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program and Dha- 
hran Air Field agreements with the Saudi Arabian 
Government at Jidda on June 18, 1951. 

The Mutual Defense Assistance Program agree- 
ment was concluded following the designation of 
Saudi Arabia as eligible for cash reimbursable 
military assistance under Public Law 329, as 
amended. This act provides such assistance may 
be extended any nation whose ability to defend 
itself or to participate in the defense of the area 
of which it is a part is important to the security 
of the United States. Saudi Arabia is the first 
Arab country so designated. The United States 
is prepared to provide military training in the 
use of the equipment to be purchased by the Saudi 
Arabian Government in order that Saudi Arabia 
may maintain its internal security, its legitimate 
self-defense, or participate in the defense of the 
area of which it is a part. The Saudi Arabian 
Government agrees not to undertake any act of 
aggression against another state. 

The Dhahran Air Field Agreement is for a pe- 
riod of 5 years with provision of renewal for a 
similar period. The complete title to and sover- 
eignty over the Dhahran Air Field by the Saudi 
Arabian Government is safeguarded, but the 
United States Government is permitted to use the 
field for the maintenance, repair, and other tech- 
nical services of United States Government air- 
craft. The training of Saudi Arabian students in 
airfield maintenance and operation will be con- 
tinued under the new agreement. 



Department Confirms Suspension of 
Two Foreign Service Officers 

[Released to the press July 12] 

The Department of State confirmed today the 
suspension from duty of John Patton Davies, Jr., 
and Oliver Edmund Clubb, career officers of the 
Foreign Service. The Department made it 
known that Davies and Clubb had been suspended 
on June 27 as the result of recommendations by 
the Department's Loyalty Security Board that 
hearings be held by the Board on both cases. In 
emphasizing that the Department's suspension ac- 
tion is mandatory under Public Law 733, the stat- 
ute which governs the Department's security pro- 
cedures, it was explained that the Department is 
required to suspend any employee when it has 
been determined that security charges should 
be preferred and formal hearings conducted. 
Suspension, it was pointed out, does not indicate 

150 



that a person is guilty of misconduct or is a st 
curity risk; but suspension is a mandatory leg; 
requirement (PL 733) in any case in which , 
hearing is held. The Department made it cleai 
that the purpose of a hearing is to ascertain tl\ 
complete facts and thus hearings are for the pre; 
tection of both the Government and the individua 

The Department stated that the date of heai 
ing of Davies' case before the State Departmei 
Loyalty Security Board has been set as July £ 
ancl the date on Clubb's case as July 31. Tl 
chairman of this Board is Conrad E. Snow, wai 
time Army General and former secretary of tl: 
New Hampshire Bar Association. 

It was stated that the Department would mal 
no further comment upon the two cases until tl 
cases are completely adjudicated. 



Department of State Conducts 
Seminar on Foreign Affairs { 

[Released to the press July 11] 

Ten outstanding young men and women, repp 
senting that many different colleges and univej 
sities throughout the Nation, are now attendin 
the Graduate Student Summer Seminar on Fo 
eign Affairs conducted by the Department ( 
State. 

The seminar is designed to give the academi 
circles of the country a more comprehensive pi 
ture of the State Department's role in the condu( 
of foreign affairs. It will provide an opportunit 
for students at the graduate level to undertal 
or continue certain types of studies or projects i 
which the Department is concerned and to exper 
ence at first hand some of the day to day operatioi 
of the Department. 

Classes began July 10 in the Foreign Servi( 
Institute where members of the 2-month cour 
gathered to hear top flight specialists from a 
areas of the Department. The seminar was ofl 
cially launched with a welcome from Walter I 
Scott, deputy assistant secretary for administr: 
tion. 

The 8-week program will be concluded Septei 
ber 1. 

One-hundred twelve colleges and universiti 
participated in the Nation-wide program by nom 
nating candidates on the basis of individual inte 
ests in international relations as well as scholast 
and leadership merit. A similar type program hi 
been offered for the past 2 years. This, howeve 
is the first time it has been possible to offer fina 
cial assistance to the participants. The funds a 

frovided jointly by the Carnegie Endowment f< 
nternational Peace and the Department of Stat 
Members of the seminar course are classified •■ 
temporary employees of the Department. 



Deparfmenf of State Bullet 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MEETINGS 



ocuments Relating to the Armistice Negotiations in Korea 



.N. Communique Issued July 11 

The second meeting of the armistice negotiations 
pnvened in the vicinity of Kaesong, Korea, at 

) a. m., today, 11 July 1951, Wednesday [8 p. m., 

uesday, eastern daylight time]. 

The- principal delegates of both negotiating 
tirties were the same as for the first meeting, 
iice Admiral Joy, United States Navy, was the 
Inior United Nations Command delegate, and 
leneral Nam II, North Korean Army, was the 
•nior Communist delegate. 

It was evident to all United Nations Command 
blegates that the Communists exhibited less stiff- 
ess and were less formal than on the previous day. 
his atmosphere permitted a better understanding 
;tween the negotiating parties. 

One of the delays in conducting and expediting 
iese negotiations is the difficulty inherent in the 
Lnguage barrier. Considerable time was spent 
h the part of both negotiating delegations in as- 
iring themselves that they had correctly inter- 
reted and understood the statements of the other 
arties. 

Today, the agenda items were more thoroughly 
xplored and discussed by both parties and there 
ow exists a better understanding of the intended 
;ope by all concerned. 

There still exist some differences of opinion re- 
arding the priority of items for the agenda. 

Certain administrative i\greements were reached 
iicluding the relaxation of certain restrictions on 
loyement and arrangement for mutual communi- 
jition facilities. 

I Today's negotiations adjourned shortly after 
|p. m. There is a general feeling among United 
lations delegates to the armistice negotiations 
Hat progress is being made. 

The delegation for the next meeting will include 
pproximately 20 news media representatives, 
fhey will be permitted within the area of the ne- 
lOtiations but will not be allowed to enter the 
inference room. 

i/y 23, 1 95 J 



U.N. Memorandum of July 12 

At the first meeting with the Communist dele- 
gation, Admiral Joy proposed the admission of 
newsmen to the vicinity of the conference. His 
proposal was that 20 selected newsmen be per- 
mitted to move to and from the conference area 
as a part of the United Nations Command delega- 
tion. He emphasized that they would not be ad- 
mitted to the conference room but only to the area 
of the conference. 

General Nam II at first accepted this proposal 
but later reversed his decision, saying that he com- 
municated the question to his Supreme Com- 
mander. Until he receives the answer he would 
like to postpone the matter. Admiral Joy stated 
that his liaison officer would go to Kaesong at 7 : 30 
a. m. July 11 to get their reply. 

At that time, Col. J. C. Murray, U.S.M.C, 
landed in a helicopter on the landing strip at Kae- 
song to receive the Communist reply. 

He was met at the airstrip on arrival by Lt. 
Col. Chai Chengwan, Chinese Communist forces, 
and his interpreter, Pi Shi-lung. Colonel Chai 
stated he was instructed to advise: 

Since the conference at the present stage is still strictl.v 
a military one, and even the ajjenda has not heen aiireed 
upon, our Supreme Commander considers that it is not 
the time yet for the press to come in. However, we are 
still considering this matter. 

Admiral Joy, on the second day of the con- 
ference, again raised the question of the press, 
stating that the United Nations Command delega- 
tion desired the presence of professional newsmen 
at the site of the conference. 

The United Nations Command delegation [Admiral Joy 
said], on instruction of the Commander in Chief of the 
United Nations Command, must therefore insist that news- 
men be admitted to the area of this conference without 
further delay. 

General Nam II replied that the meeting was 
being held under war conditions and that the 
agenda had not been agreed upon and the Com- 

151 



munist delegation did not consider the presence 
of newsmen desirable at this time. 

At a later time, Admiral Joy again raised the 
question and General Nam II replied : 

I don't mean to say I refuse the newspapermen to come 
to the conference site area, but for the time being the 
matter must be reserved. 

Toward the end of the session, Admiral Joy 
stated he had received a dispatch from the Com- 
mander in Chief United Nations Command, which 
he read : 

I desire that you inform the Communist delegates as 
follows — The presence of a selected number of newsmen 
at a conference of such major importance to the entire 
world is considered an inherent right by members of the 
United Nations. Therefore, a selected group of profes- 
sional newsmen, photographers and newsreel cameramen, 
numbering approximately twenty, will accompany and be 
an integral part of the United Nations Command delega- 
tion to any and all future sessions beginning 12 July. 

Thereupon, Admiral Joy informed the Com- 
munist delegation that if, by tomorrow morning, 
newsmen are still unacceptable at the site of the 
conference, it is requested that we be informed by 
7 : 30 a. m. tomorrow on what date it will be possi- 
ble to resume the conference with newsmen pres- 
ent at the conference site. 

Communications by liaison officers meeting at a 
half-way point between the Imjin River and Kae- 
song were agreed upon. At 7 : 30 a. m., 12 July, 
Col. J. C. Murray, in company with an interpreter, 
landed at the enemy outpost at Panmunjon to re- 
ceive the answer of the enemy delegation. The 
spokesman of the enemy delegation was a captain 
of the North Korean Army who stated : 

I have been instructed by our senior delegate to inform 
you formally with regard to the question of correspond- 
ents that we are in favor of having newsmen from both 
sides come to Kaesong at the opportune time. 

When agreement is reached on our negotiations we shall 
welcome newsmen to come here to do their press coverage. 
We wish that we can state a definite date and we hope 
that such a date will arrive very soon, but this dei^ends on 
the efforts made by both sides during the conference and 
cannot be determined by our side alone. 

Colonel Murray replied : 

On the assumption that you would not allow the con- 
ference to be delayed over the issue of admitting 20 news- 
men to the conference area we placed our convoy on the 
road to arrive on time to prepare for the conference at 9 
a. ni. This convoy Includes 20 newsmen. If you refuse 
the convoy permission to proceed, the officer in charge has 
been directed to return to our lines. 

The convoy reached the enemy outpost at 8 : 37 
a. m. An armed guard stopped the convoy and 
noted the presence of the accompanying newsmen. 
The Communist officer in charge refused to permit 
the convoy to proceed with correspondents as an 
integral part. 

Captain McAllister, the convoy commander, 
stated that he would wait until 9 : 30 a. m., at which 
time, if his complete convoy, including the 20 
newsmen, liad not been passed, he would return 



to the lines of the United Nations Command. Atj 
9 : 30 a. m., the enemy outpost having received no 
additional instructions, the convoy returned to the 
positions of the United Nations forces. 



Message to Vice Admiral Joy from the Chief Com- 
munist Delegate, July 13 

Vice Admiral Joy, United States Navy. 
"I have received your letter. The following is 
my answer: 

1. We did not stop your group of delegates from 
coming to the meeting at 0746 12 July. Since we 
have not agreed concerning correspondents who 
had come along in the vehicles, naturally we could 
not allow them to come into the area of our meet 
ing. It is without reason that your group of dele- 
gates refused to come to the meeting because of 
this. 

2. Our opinion on the problem of news reporters 
and representatives of the press is that neither 
side's news reporters or news representatives can 
come into the area of the meeting until both sides 
have agreed. 

3. We proposed that the meeting will be con-' 
tinued at 0900 today. 

General Nam II, 
Senior Delegate, Korean Peofle^s Army. 
Chinese PeopWs Volunteer Delegation. 

0600 13 July, 1951 



U.N. Commander's Message to the Communist 
Delegates, July 13 

General Matthmo B. Ridgway, Commander in 
Chief United Nations Forces, transmitted the fol- 
lowing message over the Armed Forces Radio: 

To Gen. Kim II Sung and Gen. Peng Teh-huai; 

In my initial message to you on 30 June I pro- 
posed that representatives meet aboard a Danish 
hospital ship. I suggested this site since it would 
have afforded equal freedom of access to both; 
parties, including any elements such as newsmen 
associated with the party. It would have pro- 
vided a completely neutral atmosphere free of the 
menacing presence of armed troops of either side 
It would have provided equal communication fa- 
cilities of all kinds. 

Your reply to my message made no reference tc 
my proposed meeting place. Instead you pro- 
posed Kaesong. In the interest of expediting the 
end of bloodshed and to demonstrate the good 
faith under which the United Nations Commanc 
was proceeding, I accepted Kaesong as the site, 
for our discussion. j 

In so doing, I expected the conditions referreq 
to above, vital to the success of any such discussion! 
would be afforded at Kaesong. In order to proj 
vide further assurances that such conditions woulq 



152 



Deparfmenf of S/afe Bu//e/in, 



ii fact exist at the conference site, my liaison ofE- 
ers in their initial meeting with yonrs on 8 July 
Toposed that a ten-mile-wide corridor centered 
'n the Kumchon-Kaesonj; Munsun road and 
imited by Kumchon on the north and Mnnsanni 
n the south be established as a neutral zone free 
f any hostile action by either party. 
They further recommended that United Na- 
ions forces within this corridor remain south of 
i.n east-west line to the south edge of Kaesong 
ivhile your forces within this corridor remained 
lorth of an east-west line to the north edge of 
kaesong, leaving the town of Kaesong restricted 
o entry only by those individuals in the delegation 
)arty. 

Agreement on this proposal would have assured 
'Teedom of movement to both delegations to and 
from the meetings and within the town of Kaesong. 
However, your liaison officers declined to agi'ee to 
i,his proposal, stating that it was not needed to 
nsure satisfactory conditions at the conference 
Inte for both delegations. To show good faith and 
jivoid delay I accepted your assurances instead of 
ny proposal to establish a neutral zone. Since the 
opening of the conference it has been evident that 
the equality of treatment so essential to the conduct 
of armistice negotiations is lacking. Since the first 
meeting at Kaesong your delegation has placed re- 
strictions on movement of our delegation. It has 
subjected our personnel to the close proximity of 
your armed guard. It has delayed and blocked 
passage of our couriers. It has withheld its co- 
operation in establishment of 2-way communica- 
tions with our base even though it agreed to do so 
immediately. It has refused admittance to the 
conference area certain personnel in our convoy 
which I desire and for whose conduct I stated I 
assumed full responsibility. Extension of the 
present recess and the delay in resuming the con- 
ference of our delegation is solely due to those 
unreasonable and unnecessary restrictions against 
which my representatives have repeatedly pro- 
tested. 

As pointed out to j'our representatives by Vice 

Admiral Joy, my personal representative in the 

first meeting of 10 July, the hope for success of 

these discussions rested upon the good faith of 

both sides. With good faith mutual confidence 

might be established, an atmosphere of truth 

created and the attainment of an honorable and 

enduring settlement brought measurably nearer. 

j The record of the United Nations Command 

I delegation to date is open for world inspection. 

I It establishes beyond any shadow of doubt their 

I honorable intentions and good faith at every stage 

I of the proceedings. With full and solemn realiza- 

' tioii of the vital importance of our conference to 

■ all the peoples of the world, the United Nations 

Conunand delegation is prepared to continue our 

discussions in tlie same spirit of good faith at any 

time that we receive assurance that your delegation 

will proceed in like spirit. 



The assurances which I require are simple and 
few. They include as primary prerequisites the 
establishment of an agreed conference area of 
suitable extent completely free of armed personnel 
of either side. Each delegation must have com- 
plete reciprocity of treatment to include complete 
and equal freedom of movement to, from and 
within the agreed conference area and complete 
and equal freedom at all times in the selection of 
the personnel in its delegation party to include 
representatives of the press. 

I therefore now propose that a circular area 
with its center approximately at the center of 
Kaesong and with a five-mile radius be agreed 
upon as a neutral zone. The eastern limit of the 
neutral zone shall be the present point of contact 
of our forces at Panmunjon. I propose that we 
both agree to refrain from any hostile acts within 
this zone during the entire period of our confer- 
ence. I propose that we agree that the area of the 
conference site and the roads leading there to use 
by personnel of both delegation parties be com- 
pletely free of armed personnel. 

I further propose we both agree that the total 
personnel of each delegation within the neutral 
area at any time be limited to a maximum of 150. 
I propose that we agi-ee that the composition of 
each delegation party within the foregoing limits 
be subject solely to the determination of its com- 
mander. It is understood that personnel to be 
admitted to the actual conference chamber should 
be limited to those agreed upon by your represent- 
atives and mine. 

If you agree to these proposals the present recess 
can be terminated and the conference resumed 
without delay and with some expectation of prog- 
ress. Radio telephone is available to you for com- 
munication to me of your reply. If you prefer 
to send your reply by liaison officer I guarantee his 
safety within my lines during daylight providing 
you inform me of the time and route oy which 
he will travel and the manner by which he may 
be identified. 

Should you continue to insist that restrictions 
are necessary for our personal safety or for any 
other reason I propose that the conference site 
be moved to a locality which will afford the few 
simple assurances I have specified herein. 

Communist Delegates' Reply to the U.N. 
Commander, July 14 

The folJovnng message was hroadcast in English 
over the Peiping radio: 

General Ridgway: 

Your letter dated July 1.") has been received. 
In order to eliminate misunderstanding and ar- 
guments over some side questions and to enable 
the work of peace negotiations to proceed 
smoothly, we agree to your proposal of fixing the 
Kaesong area as a neutral zone during the period 
of the meeting, and that both parties do not carry 



Jo/y 23, 1 95 1 



153 



out hostile acts of any kind within this area, and 
all armed personnel be excluded from the area 
of the meeting place and from the routes through 
which your delegation and our travel to the area 
of the meeting place. As to the size of the area 
of the meeting place and other related concrete 
questions, we propose that these be left to the 
delegations of both sides to settle at a single 
session. 

With regard to the question of news reporters, 
which gave rise to the holding up of the meeting, 
this has nothing to do with the question of the 
fixing of a neutral zone. Your delegation never 
raised the question of fixing of a neutral zone 
after your liaison officers raised it once on July 
8, but the task of the liaison officers was to discuss 
questions of detail. They had no power to discuss 
a question of this nature — a question of fixing 
a neutral zone. 

The question of news reporters which gave rise 
to the present suspension of the meeting is a tri- 
fling one. It is not worth while suspending the 
meeting for this, much less is it worth breaking 
up the meeting for this. Your delegation had 
raised this question at the meeting. Our dele- 
gation at the time considered that the arrival of 
news reporters of various countries in Kaesong 
to be inappropriate, as the meeting had not yet 
achieved any result and even the agenda had not 
yet been passed. Thus on this question no agree- 
ment was reached. 

We insist on the principle that all matters must 
be agreed upon by both sides before they can be 
executed. We hold that this principle is fair 
and irrefutable. Since agreement was not reached 
on the question of news reporters, your side 
should not one-sidedly and forcibly put it into 
operation. 

For the sake of preventing the meeting, from 
being suspended for a long time or broken up by 
this trifle, we now agree to your proposal : to 
include the 20 news reporters of your side as a 
part of the personnel of your delegation. 

We have already ordered our delegation to 
provide facilities to your side on this question too. 

Kim II Sung, Supreme Commander of the 
Korean Peoples Army; Peng Teh-iiuai, Com- 
mander of the Chinese Peoples Volunteers. 

July 14, 1951. 

U.N. Communique Issued July 15 

The third meeting of the Korean armistice ne- 
gotiators convened at 2 : 09 p. m. today, Sunday, 
15 July 1951 at the same conference site that has 
been used for the two previous meetings. 

When the helicopters carrying the members of 
the United Nations Command delegation landed 
near the conference site, no North Korean or 
Chinese on guard were apparent. 

Admiral Joy, who had traveled to Kaesong by 
jeep, took the initiative and opened the meeting. 

154 



He extended his regrets for being nine minutes 
late, but stated that the delay was occasioned by 
actions of sentries in holding up 2 one-quarter toe, 
trucks (jeeps) of his convoy. The admiral's jeepi 
and one other had gone ahead of the convoy ir 
order to arrive at the conference at the scheduled! 
time. Sentries delayed the admiral until the coni 
voy closed. He further stated that he expectec 
no repetition of such an event on the part of th( 
Communist forces. 

The senior members of the United Nations Com- 
mand delegation then elaborated on certain detaili 
previously advanced in General Ridgway's mes- 
sage of 13 July and proposed that : 

1. The road leading to the conference site ol 
Kaesong shall be open to unrestricted use by ve- 
hicles of the United Nations Command delegation 
No notice will be required for such movement. 

2. The neutral area, five miles in radius, wit! 
traffic circle in Kaesong as its center, would con 
tain no armed personnel except the minimun: 
needed for military police purposes. Such per 
sonnel could be armed with small arms. 

3. Any personnel required for security at the 
conference site would be unarmed. The con- 
ference site would be defined as an area having a 
radius of one-half mile centered on the conferenct 
house. 

At 2 : 22 p. m., General Nam U, senior Com- 
munist delegate, requested a 15-minute recess tc 
discuss with his delegation Admiral Joy's 
proposals. 

At the end of the recess General Nam II agreed 
in principle and accepted the United Nations 
Command proposals. It was suggested and 
agreed upon, that it would be appropriate for the 
liaison officers of the two delegations to work out 
the minute details of establishing the neutral area 
of the conference. 

Significant of the desires of both delegations to! 
get on with the main work of the conference was 
the complete absence of any controversy over the 
arrangement for neutrality of the site. The dele- 
gation then proceeded for the remainder of the 
meeting to discuss agenda items. 

Supplementary Announcement 

During a meeting of the liaison officers, which 
immediately followed the negotiation session held 
between the United Nations Command delegation 
and the North Korean-Chinese delegation this 
afternoon at Kaesong, all of the proposals made 
by Vice Admiral Charles Turner Joy relating to 
the neutrality of the zone for the discussion were 
reviewed. 

No particular problems in implementing the 
provisions are anticipated and, for the most part, 
the proposals have already been placed into effect. 

Colonel Chang, senior Communist liaison offi- 
cer, appeared to be very anxious to resolve any 
future difficulties on a liaison officer level in order 
that the delegates might not be diverted. 

Department of State Bulletin 



rwenty-second Report Of U.N. Command Operations In Korea 



FOR THE PERIOD MAY 16-31, 19511 



IJ.N. doc. S/2217 
'ransmittetl June 28, 1951 

i I herewith submit report No. 22 of the United 
[STations Command Operations in Korea for the 
jjeriod 16-31 May, inclusive. United Nations 
Command Communiques numbers 875-905, inclu- 
isive, provide detailed accounts of these operations. 
I This twenty-second report records a battle cycle 
'characteristic of the current Korean tactical op- 
ijrations, and records also the enemy's most costly 
reversal since the intervention in Korea of the 
Chinese Communist Armies in November of last 
year. The enemy launched the anticipated second 
phase of his spring offensive on 16 May, commit- 
ting 21 Chinese Communist force divisions on the 
75-mile front from Tokchong to Nodong. By 21 
May, the attack had generally passed its climax as 
United Nations forces exacted heavy casualties 
at a relatively small cost to themselves. On 19 
May a counterattack was launched by forces on the 
left of the United Nations line followed 2 days 
later by the counterattack of the remaining United 
Nations Forces on the right, thus initiating a pow- 
erful counteroffensive which, by the end of the 
month, had thrust the exhausted enemy forces 
northward 15 to 30 miles. The close of the period 
found enemy resistance stiffening, and the oppos- 

' Transmitted to the Security Council by the acting U.S. 
representative to the Security Council on June 28. For 
text.s of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh reports to tlie Security 
Council on U.N. Command operation in Korea, see Bul- 
letin of Aug. 7, 1950, p. 203 ; Aug. 28, 1950, p. 323 ; and 
Sept. 11, 1950, p. 403 ; Oct. 2, 1950, p. 534 ; Oct. 16, 1950, 
p. 603 ; Nov. 6, 1950, p. 729 ; Nov. 13, 19.50, p. 759 ; Jan, 8, 
1951, p. 43, and Feb. 19, 1951, p. 304, respectively. The 
reports which have been published separately as Depart- 
ment of State publications 3935, 3955, 3962, 3978, 39S6, 
4006, 4015, and 4108 respectively will appear hereafter 
only in the Bulletin. The twelfth, thirteenth, and four- 
teenth reports appear in the Bulletin of Mar. 19, 1951, 
p. 470 ; the fifteenth and sixteenth reports in the Bulletin 
of Apr. 16, 1951, p. 625; the seventeenth report in the 
Bulletin of Apr. ,30, 1951, p. 710 ; the eighteenth in the 
Bulletin of May 7, 1951, p. 755 ; a special report by the 
U.N. Commanding General, in the Bulletin of May 21, 
1951, p. 828; the nineteenth report in the Bulletin of 
June 4, 1951, p. 910; the twentieth report in the Bul- 
letin of June 11, 1951, p. 948; and the twenty-first report 
in the Bulletin of July 2, 1951, p. 30. 



ing forces arrayed in positions approximating 
those of 1 January, in the vicinity of the 38th par- 
allel. The enemy suffered extremely heavy cas- 
ualties, for the first time giving up large numbers 
of Chinese prisoners and losing substantial quan- 
tities of weapons and supplies. 

The hostile effort was made in two major sectors. 
Six Chinese Communist force divisions attacked 
on a 25-mile front in the Yongyang-Kapyong sec- 
tor in the western part of the front. Having pene- 
trated to a line passing about 3 miles south of 
Masogu and Munye by 20 May, the enemy drive 
was contained and then converted into a retreat 
by counterattacking United Nations forces. Chi- 
nese Communist force units fought fairly strong 
delaying actions near Yongyang on May 24 and 
25, and in the Chiam area, about 25 miles north of 
Munye, from 25-28 May. 

The most desperate fighting of the Korean cam- 
paign developed in the east central part of the 
front, in the vicinity of Hangye. Six Chinese 
Communist force divisions launched a powerful 
attack against strongly held United Nations lines 
on a 20-mile front to the north of that town, on 
16 May. Though United Nations units were thrust 
southward about 12 miles by 22 May, combat ele- 
ments equivalent to at least three enemy divisions 
were destroyed. The remainder of the attacking 
force was hurled back 18 miles to the 38th parallel. 
By 28 May, trapped enemy units were attempting 
to escape past the west end of the Hwachon Res- 
ervoir. In this action, the United States 2d In- 
fantry Division and attached units including the 
French and Netherlands infantry battalions dis- 

f)layed extraordinary heroism, performing bril- 
iantly against an enemy numerically vastly su- 
perior. Staunch resolution of these forces in face 
of great odds provided a major contribution to 
the success of United Nations forces. 

In an eastward extension of the above action, 
three enemy divisions made a strong effort on a 
12-mile front from Inje to Nodong, near the coast. 
In this sector, the enemy scored numerous pene- 
trations in the United Nations lines, forcing a 
series of withdrawals which carried defending 
forces about 30 miles southward. The situation 



July 23, 1951 



155 



stabilized by 22 May, a few miles to the north of 
Changdong and Hajinbii. In this action, fighting 
was particularly intense in the vicinity of Komsan, 
Changdong. and Kusnng. However, the enemy's 
calamitous losses on other parts of the front com- 
pletely neutralized this temporary success, and he 
resisted only moderately as the United Nations 
counteroffensive forced him back toward the 38th 
parallel. 

Front lines at the close of the period ran gen- 
erally northeast from Munsan, along the Imjin 
Eiver to Chongong, thence eastward through 
Hwachon to Inje, southeast to Sori, and northeast 
to Yongchon. 

In spite of his severe losses, the enemy retains 
a stiong potential for aggressive action, though he 
probably will require a minimum of several weeks 
to reorganize for another major effort. In addi- 
tion to the 21 Chinese Communist forces and 9 
north Korean divisions now in contact with United 
Nations Forces, there are 33 Chinese Communist 
forces and 14 north Koi-ean divisions, or a total of 
77 infantry divisions available to the enemy for 
further operations. Of the 15 Chinese Communist 
force divisions which undertook the main burden 
of the offensive, at least 8 suffered so heavily that 
they will require an extended period for reorgani- 
zation. Though these losses constitute a serious 
depletion of enemy strength, they are not such as 
to preclude future offensive operations. 

Guerrilla activities continued at a minimum dur- 
ing the period, and were mainly confined to forag- 
ing, and to small scale defensive actions, as United 
Nations Security units sought out dissident bands. 

United Nations naval forces continued the con- 
stant patrol and reconnaissance operations which 
throughout the Korean war have so effectively 
denied to the enemy the use of Korean waters and 
assured the unrestricted movement of United 
Nations shipping to and from Korea. 

Carrier based and Marine shore based aircraft 
directed the principal weight of their effort to close 
support of United Nations ground forces, as the 
enemy's renewed offensive reached its high water 
mark and began to recede. These operations re- 
sulted in heavy losses to the enemy. 

United Nations surface units and carrier based 
aircraft continued a coordinated program of inter- 
diction of enemy railroads and highways in north- 
eastern Korea, with the naval gunfire phase of this 
program concentrated largely in the Wonsan- 
Songjin-Chongjin areas. Similar interdiction 
operations were conducted on the west coast, par- 
ticularly in the Chinnampo area and along the 
Seoul-Pyongyang axis. 

During the period of this report, surface units 
wei'e active in providing gunfire support to United 
Nations ground units on the east coast of Korea. 

Check minesweeping operations continued on 
both coasts of Korea, mainly for the protection of 
ships engaged in shore bombardment. Drifting 
mines continued to be sighted and destroyed in 
substantial numbers. 

156 



The heaviest night air attacks of the war weri 
unleashed during the fortnight by United State 
Far East Air Force medium and light bomber, 
ranging the entire battlefront. Employing rada 
techniques, the bombers have delivered hundred 
of tons of explosives upon the advancing enemj 
masses with an accuracy comparable to that at; 
tained in visual bombing. Temporarily divertei 
from the role of intercliction, the bombers havj 
imjDosed severe losses upon the enemy forces a| 
they renewed their Spring offensive. Additiona 
night sorties by light bombers and fighters con 
centrated upon transport attempting to sustaii 
the enemy's drive. 

Incessant daylight attacks by United States Ai 
Force, United States Marine, and South Africai 
planes exacted huge tolls by strafing, napalming 
and bombing. Ground observers advancing witl 
counter-attacking United Nations forces repor 
thousands upon thousands of enemy killed by aij 
action. In one single smashing attack, 16 pilotj 
of the 27th Fighter Wing inflicted over 700 casui 
alties and destroyed 50 vehicles near Inje. I 

Airfields, supply dumps, bridges, and tunnelij 
were repeatedly struck by all types of combat air' 
craft, though enemy personnel in the immediate 
battle zone constituted the primary target whili 
their attack was being repulsed and the Unitec 
Nations coimterattack being developed success] 
fully. ; 

Kain and low clouds reduced the number oi 
sorties on many days but contributed to the effec- 
tiveness of some attacks by permitting surprist 
attacks upon an enemy relying upon cloud covei 
to conceal his movements and to ground Unitec 
Nations aircraft. 

Reconstruction of airfields in hostile territorj 
receives much attention, but other than at Sinuiju 
no effort to utilize these fields has been revealed, 
Pyongyang is the site of a unique attempt to de- 
velop an airfield in the center of the city by using 
a widened avenue as an air strip and adjacent 
streets as taxiways to dispersal areas and revet- 
ments. 

Air conflicts were relatively few. However, in 
aerial combat, United Nations Air Forces are in- 
creasing their extremely favorable proportion o| 
hea\'y enemy losses to negligible friendly losses. 

Air lift and air drop operations by the United 
States 315th Air Division continuerl their mate- 
rial contribution to the success of United Nations 
ground successes. 

Exemplifying the importance of the interdic- 
tion program to the United Nations is the tremen- 
dous effort of the north Koreans and Chinese to 
maintain river crossings over the Chong-Chon 
River one and one half miles north of Sinanju 
At the time the north Korean Army invaded South 
Korea, the river was spanned at this point by a 
rail bridge and a highway bridge, each about 3,500 
feet long. Preliminary work had been completed' 
upon another rail bridge. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Other tlian during the freeze-over period in 
aidwinter when the crossings have little signifi- 
ance as a choke point, this bridge complex has 
;2en neutralized repeatedly as United Nations air 
lower has countered reconstruction and by-pass- 
iig activities. In addition to attempted repair 
|f the existing spans, the enemy has undertaken 
I) maintain two temporary bridge bypasses and 
liTO ferry crossings despite repeated disruptive 
ttacks by United Nations air. 
There remains a void of reliable information 
'oncerning United Nations soldiers who have fal- 
m into the hands of the enemy. In spite of their 
itatements to the United Nations, the enemy has 
eliberately ignored the provisions of the Geneva 
|onvention, which require that a civilized nation 
lirovide for the safety of, and render reliable re- 
iiorts on, prisoners of war who fall into their hands, 
ifeports which have already been submitted de- 
ribe the atrocities to which captured United 
i^'ations soldiers have been subjected. The atroci- 
ties are attested by both photographs and docu- 
aents in the files of the United Nations Command. 
L^he aggressors have furnished no informa- 
iion on United Nations prisoners to the Inter- 
'lational Committee of the Red Cross, or to any 
'fficial intermediary recognized by the United 
■■fations, except for two short incomplete lists. 
'nstead, the enemy has consistently pursued a 
•iciously misleading program wherein highly 
olored propaganda has been substituted for the 
)flBcial, confirmed data required by the Geneva 
;onvention. The International Red Cross has 
ried but has not been permitted to establish 
: iaison with United Nations prisoners held by the 
Communists, or to carry out other services usuallj' 
provided by the Red Cross organization. 

The United Nations Command has endeavored 
10 inform the enemy soldier in Korea of the fright- 
jful, but fruitless, sacrifice of human life caused by 
i:heir Communist masters. By leaflets and loud- 
speaker broadcasts there is pointed out to him the 
opportunity to escape the Communist-created 
aolocaust by electing surrender as an honorable 
dternative. United Nations radio broadcasts con- 
dnue to keep the Korean people accurately in- 
lormed on the course of the war. 
I Heavy Communist losses during the winter and 
spring have been followed by malicious Com- 
jmunist propaganda alleging that United Nations 
iforces have resorted to bacteriological and chem- 
|ical warfare. These charges are wholly groundless 
'and manifestly absurd. Rut it has been definitely 
established that not only the enemy's armies, but 
also the civilian populatiim under their domina- 
tion, have suffered terrible losses to disease be- 
cause of the lack of basic preventive and curative 
measures. By depriving the civilians of their nor- 
jinal food stocks, the Chinese and North Korean 
master have aggravated the effects of communi- 
cable disease; by providing virtually no medical 
care, they alone bear the guilt of wanton and 
inhuman neglect. 

Jo/y 23, J 95 J 



Communiques Regarding Korea 
to the Security Council 

The headquarters of the United Nations Com- 
mand has transmitted communiques regarding 
Korea to the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations under the following United Nations docu- 
ment numbers: S/2171, May 28; S/2177, May 31; 
S/2187, June 6; S/21S9, June 8; S/2190, June 11; 
S/2192, June 11; S/2195, June 13; S/2196, June 
13; S/2198, June 15; S/2199, June 15; S/2200, 
June 19; S/2205, June 20; S/2206, June 20; 
S/2208, June 21 ; S/2209, June 22 ; S/2210, June 
25; S/2214, June 27; S/2215, June 27; S/2222, 
June 29 ; S/2223, July 2 ; S/2224, July 2. 



IVIerwin L. Bohan Named to U.S.-Brazii 
Joint Commission 

The Department of State announced on June 
12 that the position of U. S. Member on the United 
States-Brazil Joint Commission for Economic De- 
velopment under the Point Four Program left 
vacant by the sudden and unfortunate death of 
Francis Adams Truslow will be filled by Merwin 
L. Bohan until a new appointment is mad© by 
President Harry S. Truman. 

The Joint Commission was established, as part 
of the Point Four Program, by an agreement made 
on December 19, 1950, between the Governments 
of Brazil and the United States. Mr. Truslow 
was named the American member and Mr. Ary 
Frederico Torres, prominent Sao Paulo business- 
man, the Brazilian member. Staffs of advisers 
to the two members are being provided by the 
respective Governments. It is anticipated that 
the Joint Commission will commence its work 
immediately upon the arrival in Brazil of Mr. 
Bohan who plans to leave for Rio de Janeiro by 
air shortly. 

The purpose of the Joint Conamission is to study 
the development needs of Brazil and make rec- 
ommendations for development and improvement 
in specific fields, particularly transportation, elec- 
tric power, food and agriculture, and minerals. 

Mr. Bohan, U.S. Representative on the Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council, has had 
many years of experience in Latin American eco- 
nomic development projects. He was chief of the 
U.S. Economic Mission to Bolivia in 1941-42 
which laid out abroad economic dcveloi)ment jiro- 
gram wliich is still being followed in that country. 
He was appointed to the Council with the per- 
sonal rank of Ambassador in March of this year. 

Mr. Truslow, who resigned as President of the 
New York Cuib Exchange and was appointed 
U.S. Member of the Joint Commission by the 
President in May of this year, died July 8 at sea 
while en route to Rio de Janeiro. 

157 



The United States in tlie United Nations 



tJuly 13-19, 1951] 



General Assembly 



General Assembly Resolution 500 (F) — ^^Ad- 
ditional Measures To Be Emfloyed To Meet The 
Aggression In Korea)'' — A report issued by the 
United Nations Secretariat, July 12, 1951, con- 
tains 55 communications received from govern- 
ments (43 Member States and 12 non-Member 
States) concerning the implementation of the 
United Nations embargo resolution adopted May 
18, 1951, against the Communist aggressors in 
Korea — the Central People's Government of the 
People's Republic of China and the North Korean 
authorities. 

The following 34 Members advised that they 
■were complying fully with the resolution require- 
ments : Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, 
Colombia, Denmark, El Salvador, Ethiopia, 
France, Greece, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Pakistan, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, Union of 
South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, 
Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, and Yugoslavia. 
The Governments of Ecuador and Mexico advised 
that special consideration was being given to the 
matter. Burma and India, whose governments 
abstained from voting on the resolution, advised 
that the strategic items on the prohibited list were 
in short supply in their own countries and had to 
be imported from abroad, and that therefore 
their use was strictly controlled and re-export 
prohibited. 

The United Nations members comprising the 
Soviet bloc stated that the resolution was "illegal" 
and therefore they would not give consideration 
to its recommendations. Three other satellite, 
non-member countries — Albania, Hungary, and 
Rumania — replied similarly. 

Communications from the following nine non- 
Members stated that their governments were either 
giving the matter favorable consideration or were 
unanimously supporting the resolution : Austria, 
Cambodia, Finland, Germany (Federal Republic 
of), Italy, Jordan, Laos, Spain, and Vietnam. 

The Secretariat will issue subsequent reports 
upon receipt of additional communications. 

158 



United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agen 
(Unkra) — The Department of State and t 
Department of Defense announced on July : 
1951, that 

an agreement has been concluded between the Uni jl 
States Government, acting in its capacity as Unifll 
Command pursuant to resolutions of the United Natlop, 
and Mr. J. Donald Kingsley, Agent General of the Uul'l 
Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency, governing !» 
relationships in Korea of the United Nations Commal 
and the Unkra during the present phase. 

While active hostilities continue, the U.N. Commall 
will have sole responsibility for all relief and short-teli 
economic aid essential to the military operations, li 
United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency will |. 
snme full responsibility for relief and rehabilitati 
operations when the military situation permits this h 
sponsibility to be relinquished by the United Natl(B 
Command. In the meantime Unkr.v will expand S 
present staff in Korea to prepare for its full-scale ope,- 
tions, will render technical advice and assistance to iB 
Korean Government, will plan for long-range rehabilir- 
tion and reconstruction, and will carry out any progr » 
of economic aid in addition to the program of the Uniil 
Nations Command which may be found feasible, le 
plans and activities of the Unkra staff will be clos? 
coordinated with the work in the relief field of the Uniii 
Nations Command. 

This agreement is designed to introduce the Unbi 
into the relief operation as it progresses in order to rate 
the eventual transfer of responsibility as smooth as poij.- 
ble, while preserving the integrity of General RidgvvaB 
military command during hostilities. 

Collective Measures Committee (Cmc) — Tb 
committee held its fifth meeting on July 17. Te 
chairman. Ambassador Joao Carlos Muniz (Bi- 
zil), pointed to the current armistice negotiatics 
in Kaesong and said that if a satisfactory agi''- 
ment on Korea could be reached it would ma£ 
the first time an attempt to enforce peace by c - 
lective measures would have been achieved, .it 
the same time, he warned that any relaxation if 
efforts now in the direction of collective measuis 
would invite further aggression. He describji 
the number of replies that had been received p 
connection with implementation of paragraph^ 
of the "Uniting for Peace" resolution adopted \f 
the General Assembly on November 3, 1950. 

The Secretary-General on June 25 distributi 
to the members of the General Assembly cops 
of ten replies and four acknowledgments that hi 
been received as of that date in answer to te 

Department of State Bullet 



I 



ijtter he sent to all members, April 16, 1951, at 
he request of the Cmc. This letter called atten- 
ion to paragraphs 8 and 9 of section C of the 
Uniting for Peace" resolution which states: 

8. Recommends to the States Members of the United 
fations that each Member maintain witliin its national 
rmed forces elements so trained, organized, and equipped 
aat they could promptly be made available, In accordance 
?ith its constitutional processes, for service as a United 
I'ations unit or units, upon recommendation by the 
ecurity Council or the General Assembly, without preju- 
Ice to the use of such elements in exercise of the right 
f individual or collective self-defense recognized in 
ijticle 01 of the Charter ; 

9. Invites the Members of the United Nations to inform 
he Collective Measures Committee provided for in para- 
jTaph 11 as soon as possible of the measures taken in 
mplementation of the preceding paragraph ; 

I The communications were received from Can- 
ida, Colombia, France, Guatemala, Honduras, 
India, Norway, Pakistan, United Kingdom, and 
,,he United States; the acknowledgments were 
from China, Luxembourg, Mexico, and the Union 
i)f South Africa. 

I S\ibsequent communications have since been re- 
:eived by the Secretary-General from Brazil, 
Greece, Philippines, New Zealand, and Yugo- 
'ilavia. Mr. Joseph Nisot (Belgium) and Mr. 
!K. C. O. Shann (Australia) advised the Collective 
Measures Committee that replies from their Gov- 
ernments would be forthcoming shortly. 
I Canada, France, United Kingdom, and the 
'United States replied that their respective armed 
(forces serving under the United Nations Unified 
iCommand in Korea and their obligations under 
the North Atlantic Treaty were considered as ful- 
filling at this time the purposes of the General 
Assembly recommendations in the "Uniting for 
Peace" resolution. These countries further stated 
that their Governments would keep this matter 
[under constant review in the light of changing 
icircumstances and in furtherance of the policy of 
|the United Nations to build up an effective collec- 
tive security system. Canada stated that its unit 
Jin Korea has been established under legislation 
providing for a permanent Canadian force avail- 
,able for service under appropriate United Nations 
recommendations. Norway advised that in addi- 
,tion to the unit placed at the disposal of the Nato 
it has "decided to designate a unit of battalion 
.strength as an additional Norwegian contribution 
'to the forces at the disposal of the United Nations 
'for collective action at the call of the General 
I Assembly or the Security Council." New Zealand 
stated, "If in any future case the United Nations 
, should again call upon Member States to make 
armed forces available, the New Zealand Govern- 
ment would make every effort to comply with such 
a request as they have done in the Korean case." 



The Philippines advised, "The status of the con- 
tingent of Philippine armed forces now serving in 
Korea is subject to further consideration by the 
appropriate organs of the Philippine Govern- 
ment in accordance with the developing system of 
collective security under the United Nations." 

Brazil noted that "it will do its utmost to main- 
tain within its national armed forces elements so 
trained, organized, and equipped that they could 
be made available in accordance with its consti- 
tutional processes, for service as a United Nations 
unit or units, . . ." 

Greece stated, "The Greek Government is now 
in principle resolved that, even after the termina- 
tion of the war in Korea, it will maintain in readi- 
ness a military force in any case not inferior to 
that at present serving in Korea . . . with a view 
to an immediate availability for service on the 
recommendation of the Security Council or the 
General Assembly." 

Yugoslavia advised that because it must guard 
its frontiers against pressure by the Soviet Union 
and its satellites, it cannot earmark forces for 
service to the United Nations. Guatemala, Hon- 
duras, India, and Pakistan advised that they were 
unable to make available any armed forces to the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Harding F. Bancroft, the United States 
Deputy Representative on the Collective Measures 
Committee proposed the establishment of a Sub- 
committee on Military Measures, whose task it 
would be to discuss methods, procedures, and ar- 
rangements which could be used by Member States 
for utilization of their armed forces as envisaged 
in section C of the "Uniting for Peace" resolution. 
This, Mr. Bancroft stated, would ensure stream- 
lining the procedures whereby United Nations 
Members could bring their strength to bear against 
an aggressor. The Subcommittee would deal with 
the collation of offers as well as with methods for 
coordinating military measures and general guid- 
ance for the Panel of Military Experts. The 
Committee also approved the composition of the 
Subcommittee as proposed by Mr. K. C. O. Shann 
(Australia), namely, Brazil, France, Philippines, 
Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and 
Yugoslavia. Ambassador Muniz (Brazil) to act 
as Chairman. 

The Committee approved (13-0-1, Egypt), with 
a few changes, the report of the working group 
on the general functions of the Panel of Military 
Experts, and the Advisory Committee on Admin- 
istrati-^e and Budgetary Questions was directed 
to consider the financing aspects as broadly as 
possible. 



July 23, 1957 



159 



July 23, 1951 



Index 



Vol. XXV, No. 630 



Africa 

ETHIOPIA: Point 4 Administrator Visits . . 149 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

Agreement With India For Relief Supplies . . 146 

American Republics 

GUATEMALA: Nursing Workshop Opened by 

WHO 146 

Asia 

INDIA: Agreement for Relief Supplies ... 146 

IRAN: 

Consultations on OH Dispute 129 

Harriman Departs for Iran; Consultations 

on Oil Dispute 129 

Truman Message to Prime Minister .... 129 
JAPAN: 

Draft Peace Treaty, Declarations, Text . . . 132 
Exchange of Memoranda With U.S.S.R. 

Soviet Memorandum of June 10 ... . 138 

U.S. Memorandum of July 9 143 

KOREA: 

Communiques to the Security Council ... 157 
Documents on Armistice Negotiations . . . 151 
U.N. Command Operation, 22d Report (May 

16-31, 1951) 155 

SAUDI ARABIA : MDAP Agreement Signed With 

U.S 150 

Australia 

Security Treaty Proposed (Spender) , Text . . 147 

Communism 

Documents on Armistice Negotiations In Korea . 151 

Europe 

ITALY: U.S. Policy on Trieste Unchanged . . 131 

NORWAY: Signs Torquay Protocol 146 

SWITZERLAND: Estate Tax Convention Signed 

With U.S 145 

U.S.S.R.: 

Friendship Resolution Not Published . . . 144 
Memoranda on Japanese Peace Treaty 

Soviet Memorandum of June 10 ... . 138 

U.S. Memorandum of July 9 143 

U.S. Notes on Lend-Lease Articles (July 2 and 

Apr. 6, 1951) 145 

Health 

WHO Opens Nursing Workshop In Guatemala . 146 

International and Educational Exchange Program 

VOA: Broadcasts Soviet Failure To Publish 

Friendship Resolution 144 

International Meetings 

Bohan Named To U.S.-Brazll Joint Commis- 
sion 157 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

MDAP Agreement Signed With Saudi Arabia . 150 

New Zealand 

Security Treaty Proposed (Berendsen), Text . 147 



Presidential Documents 

CORRESPONDENCE: Truman Message to 

Iranian Prime Minister (Mosadeq) . . . 129 

•State, Department of 

Conducts Seminar on Foreign Affairs .... 150 
Suspension of 2 Foreign Service OflScers (Clubb, 

Davles) 150 

Taxation 

Switzerland Signs Estate Tax Convention With 

U.S 145 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT FOUR: 

Administrator Visits Ethiopia 149 

Plan Adopted for Use of American Science 

Books 149 

Trade 

Norway Signs Torquay Protocol 146 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

Agreement With India for Relief Supplies . . 146 
JAPAN: 

Draft Peace Treaty, Declarations, Text . . . 132 

Soviet Memorandum of June 10 138 

U.S. Memorandum of July 9 143 

NORWAY: Signs Torquay Protocol 146 

Proposed Security Treaty With Australia, New 

Zealand 147 

SWITZERLAND: Signs Estate Tax Convention 

With U.S. 
U.S.S.R.: U.S. Notes on Lend-Lease Articles 

(July 2 and Apr. 6, 1951) 145 

United Nations 

Command Operations in Korea (May 16-31, 

1951) 155 

Documents on Armistice Negotiations in Korea . 151 

U.S. in U.N. (Weekly Summary) 158 

WHO: Opens Nursing Workshop In Guatemala . 146 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 123, 145, 146 

Bennett, Henry G 149 

Berendsen, Carl 148 

Bohan, Merwln L 157 

Bruggmann, Charles 145 

Clubb, Oliver E 150 

Davles, John P., Jr 150 

Dulles, John Foster 132, 147 

Harriman, W. Averell 129 

Joy, Vice Admiral 151 

Karavaev, Boris 1 145 

Kim II Sung (Gen.) 154 

Lie, Secretary-General Trygve 157 

Mosadeq, Mohammed 129 

McDermott, Michael J 131 

McGhee, George C 129 

Nam II (Gen.) 151 

Pandit, Mme. Vijaya L 146 

Peng Teh-Huai 151 

Rldgway, Gen. Matthew B 151 

Spender, Percy C 147 

Truman, President Harry S 129, 144 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRIHTIN6 OFFICE: 19S1 



f/ie/ ^ehcf/Fi'meni/ ^ t/tate^ 




UNITY OF WESTERN EUROPE ESSENTIAL FOR 

WORLD SECURITY • By General Dtcight D. Eisenhower . 163 

UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARD THE MIDDLE 

EAST • By Assistant Secretary McGhee 174 

THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED STATES— 

JULY 1951 • By Ambassador Ernest A. Gross 183 



TOURING THE BORDER • Article by W. J. Caldwell 



166 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXV, No. 631 
July 30, 1951 




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U. S. SUPERINTENDf NT OF DOCUMENTS 

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Vol. XXV, No. 631 • Publication 4310 
July 30, 1951 



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a weekly publication compiled and 
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Unity of Western Europe — Essential for World Security 



By General Dwight D. Eisenhoiver 
Supreme Allied Commander, Eur ope ^ 



One hundred seventy-five years ago, the found- 
ing fatliers of the Anierican Republic declared 
their independence of the British Crown. Little 
could they have known — in the heat and bitterness 
of the hour — that the severance, accomplished in 
passion, would through the years flower into an 
alliance of such fitness and worth that it was never 
recorded on legal parchment, but in the hearts of 
our two peoples. The bond that joins us— stronger 
than blood lines, than common tongue and common 
law — is the fundamental conviction that man was 
created to be free, that he can be trusted with 
freedom, that governments have as a primary 
function the protection of his freedom. 

In the scale of values of the English-speaking 
people, freedom is the first and most precious 
right. Without it, no other right can be exercised, 
and human existence loses all significance. This 
unity of ours in fundamentals is an international 
fact. Yet on more than one occasion, it has been 
obscured in Britain and in my own country by con- 
cern with trifles and small disputes, fanned into the 
flames of senseless antagonisms. 

Serious differences in conviction must be beaten 
out on the anvil of logic and justice. But scarcely 
need they be dragged into the public forum, in the 
petty hope of capturing a fleeting local acclaim, 
at the expense of an absent partner ! There are 
men in this room with whom, in World War II, I 
had arguments, hotly sustained and of long dura- 
tion. Had all these been headlined in the press of 
our two countries, they could have created i)ublic 
bitterness, confusing our peoples in the midst of 
our joint effort. Decisions were reached without 
such calamitous results, because those at otlds did 
not find it necessary to seek justification for tlieir 
personal views in a public hue and cry. Inciden- 
tally, a more personal reascm for tliis expression of 
satisfaction is a later conclusion that my own posi- 

' Notes for address iiiad(> beftire tho Knglish Speaking 
Union at London on July 3 and released to the press b.v 
Shape on the same date. 



tion in the arguments was not always right. In 
any case, may we never forget that our common 
devotion to deep human values and our mutual 
trust are the bedrock of our joint strength. 

In that spirit our countries are joined with the 
peoples of Western Europe and the North Atlantic 
to defend the freedoms of Western civilization. 
02)posed to us — cold and forbidding — is an ideo- 
logical front that marshals every weapon in the 
arsenal of dictatorship. Subversion, propaganda, 
deceit, and the threat of naked force are daily 
hurled against us and our friends in a globe- 
encircling, relentless campaign. 

We earnestly hope that the call for a truce in 
Korea marks a change in attitude. If such a 
welcome development does occur, the brave 
men of the United Nations forces did much to 
bring it about. We entered the conflict one year 
ago, resolved that aggression against free and 
friendly South Korea would not be tolerated. 
Certain of the nations furnishing forces had heavy 
demands elsewhere, including postwar reconstruc- 
tion at home. Nevertheless, every contingent 
added evidence of the solidarity and firmness of 
the free nations in giving an object lesson to ag- 
gression. Our success in this difficult and distant 
operation reflects the fortitude of the Allied troops 
and the leadei-ship that guided them. 

Realism and Might Against Communism 

The stand in Korea slioulil serve notice in this 
area, as well a-s in the Far East, that we will resist 
aggression with all the force at our command. 
Our effort to pi'ovide secui-ity against the possi- 
bility of another and even greater emergency — an 
emergency which will never be of our making — 
must go forward with the same resolution and 
courage that has characterized our Korean forces. 
The member nations in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization (Nato) need not fear the futui-e or 
any Communistic threat if we are alert, realistic, 



Jo/y ZQ, J 95 J 



163 



and resolute. Our community possesses a poten- 
tial might that far surpasses the sinister forces of 
slave camps and chained millions. But to achie_\'e 
the serenity and the confidence that our potential 
can provide, we must press forward with the 
mobilization of our spiritual and intellectual 
strength : we nnist develop promptly the material 
force that will assure the safety of our friends 
upon the continent and the security of the free 
world. 

This is the cliallenge of our times that, until 
satisfactorily met, establishes priorities in all our 
thoughts, our work, our sacrifices. The hand of 
the aggressor is stayed by strength — and strength 
alone ! 

Although the security of each of us is bound up 
in the safety of all of us, the immediate threat is 
most keenly felt by our partners in Europe. Half 
the continent is already within the monolithic 
mass of totalitarianism. The drawn and haunted 
faces in the docks of the purge courts are grim evi- 
dence of what Communistic domination means. 
It is clearly necessary that we quickly develop 
maximum strength within free Europe itself. Our 
own interests demand it. 

It is a truism that where, among partners, 
strength is demanded in its fullness, unity is the 
first requisite. Without unity, the eilort becomes 
less powerful in application, less decisive in result. 
This fact has special application in Europe. It 
would be difficult indeed to overstate the benefits, 
in these years of stress and tension, that would 
accrue to Nato if the free nations of Europe were 
truly a unit. 

But in that vital region, histoi-y, custom, lan- 
guage, and prejudice have combined to hamper 
integration. Progress has been and is hobbled by 
a web of customs barriers interlaced with bilateral 
agreements, multilateral cartels, local shortages, 
and economic monstrosities. How tragic ! Free 
men, facing the spectre of political bondage, are 
crippled by artificial bonds that they themselves 
have forged, and they alone can loosen ! Here is 
a task to challenge the efforts of the wisest 
statesmen, the best economists, the most brilliant 
diplomats. 

European leaders, seeking a sound and wise 
solution, are spurred by the vision of a man at 
this table — a man of inspiring courage in dark 
hours, of wise counsel in grave decisions. Winston 
Churchill's plea for a united Europe can yet bear 
such greatness of fruit that it may well be remem- 
bered as the most notable achievement of a career 
marked by achievement. 

The difficulties of integrating Western Europe 
of course appear staggering to those who live by 
ritual. But great majorities in Europe earnestly 
want liberty, peace, and the opportunity to pass 
on to their children the fair lands and the culture 
of Western Europe. They deserve, at the very 
least, a fair chance to work together for the com- 



mon purpose, freed of the costly encumbrances 
they are now compelled to carry. 

Europe cannot attain the towering material 
stature possible to its peoples' skills and spirit so 
long as it is divided by patchwork territorial 
fences. They foster localized instead of common 
interest. They pyramid every cost with middle- 
men, tariffs, taxes, and overheads. Barred, abso- 
lutely, are the efficient division of labor and 
resources and the easy flow of trade. In the politi- 
cal field, these barriei's promote distrust and sus- 
picion. They serve vested interests at the expense 
of peoples and prevent truly concerted action for 
Europe's own and obvious good. 

This is not to say that, as a Commander, I 
have found anything but ready cooperation among 
the Governments of Western Europe. Time and 
again, I have saluted from my heart the spirit of 
their armed services — of officers and men alike — 
from the mountains of Italy to the fjords of Nor- 
way, from Normandy to the Curtain. Within 
political circles, I have found statesmen eager to 
assure the success of their current defense pro- 
grams. I have no doubts as to the capacity of 
Nato to surmount even the formidable obstacles 
imposed upon us by the political facts of present 
day Europe. Yet with the handicaps of enforced 
division, it is clear that even the minimum es- 
sential security effort will seriously strain the 
resources of Europe. We ignore this danger at 
our peril since the effects of economic failure 
would be disasti-ous upon spiritual and material 
strength alike. True security never rests upon the 
shoulders of men denied a decent present and the 
hope of a better future. 



Security in Achievement of Unity 

But with unity achieved, Europe could build 
adequate .security and, at the same time, continue 
the march of human betterment that has char- 
acterized Western civilization. Once united, the 
farms and factories of France and Belgium, the 
foundries of Germany, the rich farmlands of Hol- 
land and Denmark, the skilled labor of Italy, will 
produce miracles for the conunon good. In such 
unity is a secure future for these peoples. It 
would mean early independence of aid from 
America and other Atlantic countries. The cof- 
fers, mines, and factories of that continent are not 
inexhaustible. Dependence upon them must be 
minimized by the maximum in cooperative effort. 
The establishment of a woi-kable European federa- 
tion would go far to create confidence among 
people everywhere that Europe was doing its full 
and vital share in giving this cooperation. 

Any soldier contemiilating this problem would 
be moved to express an oi^inion that it cannot be 
attacked successfully by slow infiltration, but only 
by direct and decisive assault, with all available 
means. 



164 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



The project faces the deadly danger of procras- 
tination, timid measures, slow steps and cautious 
stages. Granted that the bars of tradition and 
habit are numerous and stout, the greatest bars 
to this, as to any human enterprise, lie in the 
minds of men themselves. The negative is always 
the easy side, since it holds that nothing should be 
done. Tlie negative is happy in lethargy, con- 
I templating, almost with complacent satisfaction, 
the difficulties of any other course. But difficul- 
\ ties are often of such slight substance that they 
I fade into nothing at the first sign of success. If 
obstacles are of greater consequence, they can 
always be overcome when they must be overcome. 
And which of these obstacles could be so important 
as peace, security, and prosperity for Europe's 
populations? Could we not help ? We, the peoples 
of the British Commonwealth and of the United 
States, have profited by unity at home. If, with 
our moral and material assistance, the free Euro- 
pean nations could attain a similar integration, 
our friends would be strengthened, our own eco- 
nomies improved, and the laborious Nato 
machinery of mutual defense vastly simplified. 

A solid, healthy, confident Europe would be the 
greatest possible boon to the functioning and ob- 
jectives of the Atlantic Pact. 

But granting that we cannot reach maximum 
security without a united Europe, let us by no 
means neglect what is within our immediate grasp 
or deprecate the achievements already attained. 



From Figures to Reality 

Look back, I ask you, over a space of 2 years 
only. Consider the dangerous level to which 
morale and defensive strength had descended : the 
despairing counsel of neutralism, appeasement, 
and defeatism tliat then existed. Against such a 
backdrop, the accomplishments of the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization are magnificently 
manifest. We are joined together in purpose and 
growing determination; we know the danger, 
we have defined our goals. Each day we make 
headway. The basic economies of European na- 
tions are on the upswing : the chaos and flounder- 
ing of the postwar years are definitely behind. 
The international forces of Atlantic defense are 
no longer merely figures on paper; the interna- 
tional organization is no longer a headquarters 
without troops. The forces — ground, naval, and 
air — are assembling. They are training together 
and the spirit of mutual respect and cooperation 
that marks their joint maneuvers is heartening 
and encouraging. Still far too few in numbers 
and short of equipment, their ranks are filling; 
machines and weapons reach them in a steady 
stream. The military and political leaders of the 
participating nations no longer slowly feel their 



July 30, 1 95 1 



way forward in an endeavor without guiding prec- 
edent. Caution that is inescapable in a new and 
unique enterprise has been replaced by confidence 
born out of obstacles overcome. The Allied 
Powers in Europe are constituting a team for 
defense, one capable of assuring a lasting and 
secure peace. 

The winning of freedom is not to be compared 
to the winning of a game — with the victoiy re- 
corded forever in history. Freedom has its life 
in the heart, the actions, the spirit of men, and so 
it must be daily earned and refreshed — else like a 
flower cut from its life-giving roots, it will wither 
and die. 

All of us have pledged our word, one to the other, 
that this shall not be. We have cut the pattern 
for our effort — we are devoting to it available re- 
sources for its realization. We fight not only our 
own battle — we are defending for all mankind 
those things that allow personal dignity to the 
least of us — those things that permit each to be- 
lieve himself important in the eyes of God. We 
are preserving opportunity for men to lift up their 
hearts and minds to the highest places — there must 
be no stragglers in such a conflict. 

The road ahead may be long — it is certain to be 
marked by critical and difficult passages. But if 
we march together, endure together, share to- 
gether, we shall succeed — we shall gloriously 
succeed toerether ! 



U.K. Offers Aid to Flood Victims 



[Released to the press July ifl] 

The following note was delivered to the Depart- 
ment of State today by the British Embassy : 

His Majesty's Ambassador for the United Kingdom 
presents his compliments to the Secretary of State and 
has the honour to inform him that he has been instructi>d 
by His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs to inquire whether there is any aid which His 
Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the 
British people can give to those who have been afflicted by 
the disastrous fires and floods which have recently oc- 
curred in the States of Kansas and Missouri. Sir Oliver 
Franks would he grateful if Mr. Acheson would let him 
know what suggestions the United States Administra- 
tion wish him to transmit to His Majesty's Government 
in the United Kingdom. 

British Emb.\ssy, 
A\'AsmNGT0N, D. C. 

19th July, 1951. 

The Department is deeply gratified by this 
token of friendship by the Government and peo- 
ple of the United Kingdom for those alllicted by 
fires and floods in Kansas and Missouri. The De- 
partment is exploring suggestions which niaj' be 
made to this generous oiler of aid. 



165 



Touring the Border^ 



By ^Y. J. Caldwell 



The sleepy Bavarian hamlet of Moedlareuth 
typifies the results of the Communist doctrine ot 
divide . . . and utter confusion. 

There, as in many other communities lying 
astride the Iron Curtain which wraps snake-like 
around miles of Bavaria's twisting northern and 
eastern frontiers, the demarcation line between 
East and West lies flush in the center of town. 

Citizens of Moedlareuth tell you that having the 
home town split in two with a forbidden wall to 
keep lifelong neighbors and friends apart is no 
joke. One man living on the Bavarian side of 
town hadn't visited his brother, a resident of the 
Soviet half of the town, for more than 18 months 
despite tlie fact they live only a stone's throw 
apart. Countless others experience similar family 
splits. But many, with a sly wink, admit that 
Russian vigilance has not prevented an occasional 
"sneak" journey across the border. 

"A community of two nations," grunted one 
leathery-faced native as he leaned on his cane on 
the Bavarian side of town. 

"Yah," sighed a peasant woman as she snatched 
up an unwary cliild of three toddling in the direc- 
tion of the unpainted fence which marked the 
zonal dividing line, "two nations side by side — 
but so distant." 

Moedlareuth was a typical German farming 
community situated partly in the county of Hof, 
in the extreme nortlieast corner of Bavaria, until 
that fateful day when the Russians put up the 
fence in the middle of the village. The half which 
the Soviets claimed lies in adjacent Thuringia. 
That original barrier, which follows the course of 
a small stream which forms the state border, was 
later made more imjjenetrable by the Soviets. 
They dug a trench parallel to the fence and then 



' This article, reprinted from the June issue of the Hicoo 
Information Bulletin, is an account of a tour of Bavaria's 
northern and eastern borders, overlooking the Soviet Zone 
of Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Austria, made in May by 
20 press, radio, magazine, and newsreel correspondents. 
The tour, arranged l)y the Public Relations Division, 
HicOG, enabled them to observe first-hand how people live 
and work within tlie shadows of the Iron Curtain. 



added another wooden fence as a triple deterrent 
to East- West relations. Reinforcement of the 
Iron Curtain at that point followed swiftly on the 
heels of two Curtain-defying incidents. 

A young Bavarian, on the day of his wedding, 
wanted to celebrate the nuptial occasion by pub- 
licly flaunting the Soviets. He brazenly drove 
his car across Moedlareuth's main street, smashing 
the fence to a splintered loop, and then driving 
triumphantly back through another section of the 
wavering Curtain to western safety. 

The second Iron Curtain-busting incident which j 
prompted the three-layer border barrier involved ! 
a trucking company whose owner decided it was 
healthier to go west. Mobilizing his fleet of trucks 
and tractors, he convoyed the rumbling exodus 
across town, through the hapless wooden barrier, 
to a safe haven on the Bavarian side. 

Moedlareuth as a whole comprises approxi- 
mately 210 natives and some 50 houses, many dat- 
ing back centuries. The Bavarian side of town 
was left without a school, a store, a post office and a 
community well by the Soviet's decision to parti- 
tion the community. Fortunately, one enterpris- 
ing woman on the Bavarian side of town had, ' 
with true womanly intuition, opened a tiny shop j 
in her home which served bottled beer. Her fore- ; 
sight saved the Bavarian side from a complete 
drought. 

William G. Keen of Chattanooga, Tenn., U.S. 
resident officer of county Hof, said the Soviet- 
inspired division had created quite a problem for 
the hamlet's Bavarian citizens. 

"In normal times," 38-year-old Keen drawled, 
"the kids on the Bavarian side of town merely 
crossed the road into Thuringia and in a matter 
of minutes were in school. The school is now 
barred to them so they have to walk two miles 
to the nearest Bavarian school at Toepen. There 
was also the mail problem. At first the Bavarian 
residents were able to walk to the Soviet border 
and have their mail handed to them over the fence. 
But the Russians stopped that, so now mail has to 
be routed to theiu from Toepen, the closest Ba- 
varian village having a post office." 



166 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



I The likable resident officer said the community's 
jspater well posed one of the greatest problems. 
The more daring Bavarians have sneaked across 
the border at night for their pail of water. But 
it's risky. One hajiless woman, wife of a Bavarian 
(border policeman, was apprehended by a Soviet 
iZone so-called "People's Police" as she was kneel- 
ing by the forbidden well. Her captors drove her 
six miles to Soviet headquarters, where she was 
thoroughly grilled. She later was released but 
had to walk back. The Bavarian side of town 
now is building its own well to avoid the risk of 
more serious consequences befalling its citizens. 

It was mid-afternoon when we drove into 
iMoedlareuth and the streets on both sides of the 
frontier were deserted except for two "People's 
Police" guarding the Soviet side of the barrier. 
:Our arrival attracted natives from both sides of 
town. On the Soviet side, a score of men, women 
and children gathered near the barrier. They 
waved and exchanged pleasantries, seeming not to 
mind the two rifle-toting "People's Police." 
Shortly after we reached the town, the two "Peo- 
ple's Police" hurried to a field telephone and min- 
! utes later more than a dozen "People's Police" 
reinforcements arrived from various directions. 
They clustered in a group 200 feet from where we 
stood. 

A chicken pecked its way across the churned up 
border and just as nonchalantly returned over the 
"no-man's" strip. Citizens on the Soviet side 
watched with envy. 

We had been at the border about an hour when 
a warning whisper was hissed among the Eastern 
onlookers that "the Russians are coming." Frantic 
mothers on the eastern side of the border grabbed 
their offspring and together with their menfolk 
fled into their houses. Within seconds the Soviet 
part of Moedlareuth was deserted except for the 
gaping "People's Police." On the Bavarian side 
of town, the citizens remained unperturbed. They 
smiled, joked and seemed to say, "Gosh, ain't free- 
dom wonderful." 

A cloud of dust rose from the nearby hill where 
the Kussian soldiers reportedly were on guard. 
The dust cloud moved rapidly closer and then 
from it emerged a battered (ierman-army "jeep" 
of World War II vintage. The lumbering vehicle, 
manned by two uniformed "People's Police," rum- 
bled over the dirt road toward us and then about 
25 feet away it followed the road which runs 
parallel to the zonal boundary. The veliicle 
skidded to a stop by the group of "People's Po- 
lice,'' but nothing more happened. The border 
guards continued to stare at us until we finally 
departed.^ 

Moedlareuth is just one of many towns strad- 
dling the zonal border which have been halved by 



' Ten minutes after the correspondents departed, a de- 
tail of approximately .50 armed Russian soldiers arrived 
at the burder town but there was no incident. 



the Soviets' zonal policy. At towns lying partly 
in Bavaria and partly in Czechoslovakia, Com- 
munist officials have created a barren no-man's 
buffer corridor by demolishing houses on their 
side of the frontier. The unfortunate occupants 
were obliged to find shelter elsewhere. 

Resident Officer Keen pointed to border police 
statistics to show how ineffective the Commimist 
zonal policy is. The illegal border traffic is one- 
sided all along the Iron Curtain frontier, with 
many times more Easterners seeking to enter the 
western zones of Germany. 

"The Easterners," the resident officer pointed 
out, "risk death, slave labor or other primitive 
forms of punishment to escape to the West. 
Many of them bring stories which would make 
your hair curl. Still others, with families in the 
East whom they don't dare desert through fear 
of Soviet reprisals, slip across the border merely 
to visit relatives and friends, to get a square meal 
or to purchase other necessities of life unavailable 
or beyond reach of their pocketbooks in the Soviet 
Zone." 

Mr. Keen was quick to admit that the people 
living in the Hof area, as in other border counties, 
have their problems — mainly housing, unemploy- 
ment, a steady influx of refugees, the flight of in- 
dustry westward, the acquirement of needed raw 
materials for the border area's manifold industries, 
and new markets for the finished goods. 

"Being human," he said, "many of the citizens 
complain — some probably too much. But on the 
whole the people seem thankful they are free and 
have been given the opportunity, mainly through 
American financial aid, to better their living con- 
ditions. The Marshall Plan was a big factor in 
restoring self-confidence. It helped show them 
democracy is not just talk, but cooperative action." 

Wliile many Bavarians complain of the drain 
on their economy from the refugees, some are well 
aware of the contributions these refugees have 
made in bringing new industries to their area. 
The Neuerer porcelain factory in Hof is a good 
example. This world-famous concern, one of 
many border factories visited by the correspond- 
ents, formerly was located in Czechoslovakia. It 
moved west and in addition to providing employ- 
ment for hundreds of Hof workers, it is now earn- 
ing much-needed dollars for the AVest German 
economy by exporting the bulk of its products to 
the United States. 

The correspondents visited three Bavarian bor- 
der areas — Hof, Coburg and I'assau — and in each 
there was one postwar problem most frequently 
voiced. Creation of the Iron Curtain along the 
border had caused a major trade dislocation, since 
in normal times the bulk of commercial relations 
these areas had were with the East. Coal and 
other raw materials had been obtained clieaply 
from ncai'by Czechoslovakia and other countries 
now behind the Iron Curtain. And the finished 
products formerly were marketed in the East. 



July 30, 1 95 J 



167 



Today, except for authorized crossing-points, 
roads and railroad lines connecting Bavaria with 
her eastern markets have been blocked oflf at the 
border. Consequently, manufacturers have had 
to turn west — getting coal from the more distant 
Kuhr and seeking markets in far-off western Eu- 
ropean countries and the United States. 

Hans Peter Thomsen of Madison, Wis., resident 
officer in the coimties of Coburg and Neustadt since 
last August, said this problem is especially acute 
in Coburg, which jets peninsula-like into the 
Soviet Zone. The countv is rimmed by the Iron 
Curtain on the west, nortli and east, forcing traffic 
to follow a 90-degree route between Coburg and 
western Europe. 

It greatly increases the operating costs of Co- 
burg's manufacturers, making it difficult for the 
area's businesses, which comprise small industrial 
enterprises producing mainly toys, ceramics, 
chinaware, furniture, electric cables and Christ- 
mas tree ornaments, and 5,000 small farms, to com- 
pete on the world's free markets. This is one rea- 
son why unemployment in the Coburg area is 
higher than the over-all Bavarian average. Gen- 
erally speaking, the people living on Bavaria's 
borders facing Communist-dominated lands are 
trying to make the best of their lot. Eoads link- 
ing them with the west are being repaired and new 
ones built, and housing slowly but resolutely is 
being provided in most area's to accommodate 
workers seeking employment in old and new in- 
dustries. 

In some border communities, which in prewar 
days attracted tourists from far and wide, the local 
officials have been more reluctant about marring 
their beautiful landscape with smoke and soot- 
erupting factories. Passau, which faces Austria 
and where William "J. Garlock of Bloomfield, N. J., 
serves as resident officer, has launched a large 
power project as an economy aid. However, many 
of Passau's leading citizens still frown on indus- 
tries which they fear would deter future tourist 
trade when life there once more becomes normal. 

All along the border, the problem of training 
youth for democratic living was heard. The Com- 
munist-dominated youth movement (Fdj) in the 
Soviet Zone of Germany, freely financed by the 
Communist Party, is making a determined effort 
to convert Bavarian youth to their cause. The 
highly-regimented FnJers have made surpris- 
ingly few inroads on Bavarian youth, however, 
despite the impetus a movement of their kind nor- 
mally receives when substandard economic condi- 
tions and widespread unemployment exist. 

The anti-Communist youth movement in the 
border areas generally has received less financial 
support from local government officials, but their 
unregimented organization has grown — a growth 
which many observers attribute in part to the 
proximity of Communism itself. The Bavarian 
youth, like their elders, don't have to be told about 
the evils of a Communist state. Stories recounted 



by refugees of life under Red rule has been con- 
vincing proof for most of the youth that while 
conditions in their own Bavarian communities 
may be bad, their life still is a paradise to that in 
the East. 

HicoG, through its resident officers, and U.S. 
Military authorities are working hand in glove 
with Bavarian officials to maximize work and 
play opportunities for Bavarian youth. In Co- 
burg, for instance, a youth home was established 
in the summer of 1950 through the joint efforts 
and cooperation of local Bavarian authorities, 
HicoG and the U.S. Army. 

The Hof area, as part of its energetic youth pro- 
gram, has completed plans for an international 
youth forum and camp on the border — one of many 
such activities planned this summer to promote 
greater understanding with other nations and to 
provide, for the benefit of the East zone, an ex- 
ample of unregimented youth activity. 

The U.S. resident officer — the American Gov- 
ernment's so-called "grass-roots ambassador" — 
desei'ves much of the credit for introducing the 
western brand of democracy to a people who, geo- 
graphically, are exposed to Eastern influences. 

Only a person who has never taken the trouble 
to observe the resident officer in action can doubt 
the vital role he is playing in postwar Germany. 
His job is a round-the-clock one, with endless con- 
ferences, meetings and discussions with local offi- 
cials and citizenry representing all facets of com- 
munity life. 

Sandwiched into his never-ending schedule of 
activities are the many problems the resident offi- 
cer is expected to solve — a controversy stemming 
from a hunting incident involving a member of 
the Allied governments stationed in Grermany, 
liaison between American and German officials 
on a project affecting the interests of both nations, 
engineering Hicog's exchanges program at the 
county level, answering questions or providing in- 
formation in defense of Western democratic con- 
cepts and principles. These are just a few of the 
jobs which daily demand of the resident officer 
Solomon-like judgment, wisdom, and discretion. 

Traditional rivalry between city and county gov- 
ernment officials in Coburg — a rivalry which 
existed long before 1920 when Coburg, the an- 
cestral home of the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha, ceased its historic role as a duchy and was 
incorporated into the Bavarian state — had re- 
tarded community cooperation. This condition 
was further heightened by the fact that the Co- 
burg area politically leans toward two extremes — 
right and left. 

Resident Officer Thomsen sensed this rivalry 
shortly after he took up his post there. He inves- 
tigated, analyzed the situation, consulted the more 
open-minded community leaders, and then took 
some positive steps. Mr. Thomsen intensified 
Hicog's educational program by organizing youth 
forums and discussion groups. In the field of 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



iidult education he induced the adult people's 
Ischool (Volkshochschule) to institute a series of 
[lectures, conducted by elected city and county offi- 
cials of the area, on local civic affairs, explainino; 
that "this development is significant if you will 
bear in mind the traditional philosophy of the 
l^overnment official — namely, to govern." Mr. 
rhomsen said of the lectures: "Slowly but surely, 
,the concept of the public official as a public serv- 
ant, responsible to the citizens of his community, 
is taking root." 

Mr. Thomsen succeeded in getting the citizens 
interested in problems pertaining to their par- 
iticular fields, but bringing them together to tackle 
problems on a community-wide basis was another 
thing. Public officials were reluctant to look at 
the over-all welfare of the community. Coburg 

jcity officials, the majority members of the Free 

'Democratic Party (Fdp). and Coburg county of- 
ficials, predominantly Social Democrats (Spd), 
were at odds for reasons primarily of political 

|dogma. 

I The resident officer finally solved that problem 
by hitting upon the community planning council 

I idea. 

"Citizens not only have a right to determine by 

'whom they should be governed," Mr. Thomsen 
argued, "but how their schools and parks should 
look, how their hospitals and streets should be 
built. In other words, they have the right to help 

jplan their community." 

I The attitude of officialdom toward community 
planning in its earlier stages was succinctly ex- 
pressed by Coburg's mayor, Dr. Walter Langer, 

I who told Mr. Thomsen : "It is easy for you Ameri- 
cans to plan because you have the dollars." Ee- 
torted Mr. Thomsen : "No, Dr. Langer, we have 
dollars because we have planned." 

The resident officer was determined to show 
political diehards that community-wide planning 
was not a matter of dollars but common sense. His 
first success was among the area's educators and 
scholars, who, at his suggestion, formed a city 
planning group late in 1950. The group attracted 
interested citizens from both the city and county, 
including some government officials who, while 
tliey still suspiciously eyed community planning, 

, were sufficiently politically-minded to heed the 
views of their constituents. 
The planning committee grew, and both county 

I and city government heads began taking an active 
role. However, at the beginning community plan- 
ning was limited to city or county — never the two 

I jointly. 

City and county officials, sitting with local citi- 
zens on the planning committee, at first glared at 
each other. Then they began wrangling. Mr. 
Thomsen was encouraged when he noticed they 
were beginning to agree occasionally on minor 
problems affecting either city or county. The big 
turning point came early this year when the two 
rival political camps decided lo meet to discuss 

Jo/y 30, 1951 



problems common to both city and county. That 
history-making meeting was held late last January 
when city and county officials, along with govern- 
ment representatives from Munich and Bonn, sat 
down at one table with an eye on their common 
community problems. 

Mr. Thomsen had reason to be proud of an ac- 
complishment for which he was mainly re- 
sponsible. 

Duplicating the truce declared by city and 
county officials of Coburg, Bavarian citizens along 
the border are meeting and solving many of their 
problems. And in seeking to better their own way 
of life, they are not turning their back on their 
less fortunate fellow countrymen who live across 
the zonal border in the Soviet Zone. 

At virtually every village and hamlet we visited 
we were asked by Bavarians : "Do you realize that 
the Gerjnans living in the East also are waiting to 
be liberated by you Americans?" 

More than once we were told that "whenever the 
Americans withdraw their troops from a border 
point, it causes even greater concern among the 
eastern Germans than among the Bavarians. The 
eastern Germans feel safer knowing the American 
soldiers are nearby." 

And many Bavarians relayed this message they 
said they had received from relatives and friends 
in the Soviet Zone : "Please remind the Americans 
that most of us are Communists by force^not of 
our own free will." 

• W. J. Caldwell is Chief of the Public Relations 
Branch, Office of Land C ommissioner, Bavaria. 



U.S. Concessions to Sweden Under 
GATT Made Effective 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The President, in a letter of July 3, 1951, to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, authorized the appli- 
cation, as of July 7, of certain United States tariff 
concessions negotiated at the 1950-51 tariff con- 
ference at Torquay, England, under the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This action 
was taken as a result of the signature, by Sweden, 
on June 7, 1951, of the Torquay Protocol to the 
General Agreement.^ 

I'nder the Torquay Protocol a country negoti- 
ating there may withhold the concessions initially 
negotiated with another country until the thirti- 
eth day after tliat country has signed the protocol 
and made provision for putting into effect its own 
concessions. 

The United States is continuing to withhold 
practically all the concessions initially negotiated 



' Bulletin of June 25, 1951, p. 1020. 



169 



with Austria, Brazil, Denmark, the Federal Ke- 
public of Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Nor- 
way, Peru, and Turkey, until those countries have 
signed the Torquay Protocol. In addition to 
Sweden, six other counti-ies with which the United 
States negotiated at Torquay — the Benelux Cus- 
toms Union (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Lux- 
embourg), Canada, France, and the Dominican 
Republic — had previously signed tlie protocol and 
United States concessions to those countries were 
put into effect on June 7. 

The President's letter to the Secretary of the 
Treasury was published in the Federal Register.'^ 
Copies of schedule XX of the General Agreement, 
as negotiated at Torquay, are available for inspec- 
tion at the field and regional offices of the De- 
partment of Commerce. 

A detailed discussion of the concessions ex- 
changed between tlie United States and Sweden 
is contained in the Preliminary An-ali/sis of the 
Torquay Protocol of Accession^ Schedules, and 
Related Documents (State Department pub. 4209) 
also available by purchase from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents (Price $1.00) . 



U.S. Begins Conversations on 
Spain's Role in European Defense 

[Released to the press July IS] 

At his press conference today, Secretary Ache- 
non made the following statement regarding the 
July 16 conversation hetiueen Admiral Forrest P. 
Sherman, Chief of Naval Operations, and Gen- 
eralissimo Francisco Franco: 

Admiral Sherman's interview with General 
Franco on Monday lias caused widespi'ead specu- 
lation in the press, both here and abroad. The 
facts are as follows : 

Military authorities are in general agreement 
that Spain is of strategic importance to the general 
defense of Western Europe. As a natural corol- 
lary to this generally accepted conclusion, tenta- 
tive and exploratory convei-sations have been 
undertaken with the Spanish Government with 
the sole purpose of ascert^iining what Spain might 
be willing and able to do which would contribute 
to the strengthening of the common defense 
against possible aggi-ession. 

We have been talking with tlie Britisii and 
French Governments for many months about the 
possible role of Spain in relation to the general 
defense of Western Europe. We have not been 
able to find a common position on this subject 
with these Governments for reasons of which we 

' 16 Fed. Reg. G607. The schedule is also included in 
Treasury Decisions No. 52739, published by the Treasury 
Dejiartment on .Tune 7 and available by purchase from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
(Jffice, Washington 2.5, L). C. (Price 15 cents). 



are aware and understand. However, for the 
strategic reasons outlined above, the United States 
lias initiated these exploratory conversations. 

Any understanding which may u