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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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VOLUME XXVI: Numbers 654-679 

January 7- June 30, 1952 






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INDEX 



^Vl«^NT O*. 




.LiPERINT£ND£NT OF DOCUMENIS 

OCT 22 1952 



Corrections in Volume XXVI 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call at- 
tention to the following errors : 

January H, page 48, right-hand column, 5th 
line from hottom. In place of on that date read 
December 20. 

March 24, page 414, left-hand, column, 2d line 
from hottom. In place of banks read backs. 

Apiil 7, page 549, left-hand column. 10th line. 
In place of iiolitical read potential. 

June 2, 1952, page SSI, left-hand column. The 
title of Mr. Under should read Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Economic Affairs. 

June 9, page 9U2. In the second paragraph of 
the first note read Herrnburg not Horrenberg. 
On the .same page the second note is dated May 
29 not Hay 30. 



CU^YUAX^y 






INDEX \^r^ 

Volume XXVI: Numbers 654-679, January 7-June 30, 1952 



Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State: 
Addresses and statements : 
Australian Prime Minister (Menzies), visit, 826 
Austrian Chancellor (Figl), visit, 826 
Berlin, road from West Germany, Soviet interference, 

820 
Clubb, Oliver E., investi.sation of, 437 
Courier, dedication ceremony, 422 
Disarmament Commission, U.S. position, 461, 1030 
Economic Conference, International, significance, 447 
Escape clauses of trade agreements, U.K. aide- 

mimoire protesting increased U.S. use of, 737 
European Defense Community, treaty, 895, 932, 972 
European unity, 649, 651 

Food and Agriculture Conference, 6th session, 200 
Foreign policy objectives (before Amer. Socy. of 

Newspaper Editors), 647 
Foreign policy of U.S. in 1951 (before Jewish War 

Veterans), 3 
"Germ warfare" charges in Korea, denial of, 427, 

529, 649, 666, 777 

German peace treaty, Soviet proposals and intentions, 

530, 650, 777 

Germany, contractual agreements, 887, 931, 971 
Hungarian consulates in U.S. closed and U.S. travel 

to Hungary prohibited, 7 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 10th anniversary, 

584 
Japanese peace treaty and Pacific security treaties, 

Senate approval and entry into force, 185, 491, 687 
King George VI, eulogy on, 248 
Korea, U.S. voluntary aid, 693 

Korean armistice, proposals by U.N. Command, 788 
Korean epidemic victims, U.S. supports WHO's offer 

of aid, 495 
Law, legislative function, 694 
Loyalty and Security Board, 437 
McCloy, John J., High Commissioner, tribute, 851, 

932, 071 
Malaya, British policy in, U.S. support, 427 
Military-diplomatic cooperation, 813 
Mutual Security Program (testimony), 463 
NAC, 9th se.ssion, at Lisbon, accomplishments, .363, 

370 
NAT, protocol for accession of Greece and Turkey, 

140 
NAT, protocol of guaranty to EDC, 895, 932, 972 
NAT, 3d anniversary of signing, 569 
Point 4, shirt-sleeve diplomacy (at New YorU), 1.55 
Point 4 program, in action, 611 
Queen Juliana's visit to U.S., 580 

Index, January to June T952 

219025—52 2 



Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State — Continued 
Addresses and statements — Continued 
Ridgway, General, appointment as SACEUR, 743 
Saar question, U.S. views on settlement, 495 
Schuman Plan treaty, ratification of, 92, 1023 
Security treaties with Japan and Australia and New 
Zealand, and mutual defense treaty with Philip- 
pines, Senate ratification, 185, 491, 687 
Soviet draft disarmament resolution, 126, 138 
Soviet "peace offensive," exposure of, 666 
Soviet proposal on Korean armistice, 46 
Trieste, tripartite meeting (U.S., U.K., Italy), 585 
Tunisian question, U.S. position on, 678 
World Trade Week, 863 
Correspondence 

Acting Attorney General Perlman, State Department 
policy re sovereign immunity of foreign govern- 
ments, 984 
Dulles, John Foster, completion of assignment as Con- 
sultant, 602, 603 
NAC chairman, 3d anniversary of signing NAT, 568 
NATO, Secretary General, 3d anniversary of signing 

NAT, 568 
Polish Ambassador, on I'olish press release, 498 
President Truman, transmitting contractual agree- 
ments with Germany, 949 
Red Cross, investigation of germ warfare charges, 
452, 453 

Representative Javlts, on Tunisian question, 799 
Senator Gillette, on settlement of German external 

debts, 799 
Senator Knowland, status of vessels transfeiTed under 

lend-lease to U.S.S.R., 879 
Senator Maybank, on Section 104 of Defense Produc- 
tion Act, 517 
Senator Wiley, on threat of Communist invasion of 

Japan, 355 
Soviet Ambassador Panyushkin on lend-lease settle- 
ment and on travel restrictions, 86, 87, 88, 451 
General Assembly, 6th session, U.S. representative, 632 
North Atlantic Council, 9th session, U.S. representative, 

307 
Sovereign immunity of foreign governments, letter to 
Acting Attorney General Perlman, 984 
Acheson Plan (1950), purpose, 729 
Administrative agreement with Japan, signature, text, and 

exchange of notes, 215, 382, 389 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, U.S., 6th 

semiannual report, 252 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid, report, 256 

1047 



Aeronautics, civil, Point 4 agreement with Honduras, 

signed, 428 
Afghanistan, economic aid under Mutual Security Act, 

question, 238 
Agricultural and cooperative credit, international con- 
ference on, 837 
Agricultural-mechanical college to be established by Point 

4 agreement in Ethiopia, 906 
Agricultural workers, migrant labor agreement with 

Mexico (1951), extension, 359, 500, 985 
Agriculture, domestic, effect of U.S. trade restrictions on, 

letter (Acheson to Maybank), 518 
Aid to foreign countries. 8ce Mutual Security Program. 
Air traflBc, special meeting on, U.S. delegation and agenda, 

258 
Albania, restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 736 
All, Mohammed, credentials as Pakistani Ambassador to 

U.S., 429 
Alien land law of California (1920), ruled invalid by 

Supreme Court of California, 744, 959 
Allen, George V., Ambassador to Yugoslavia, Yugoslav 

relations with U.S., address (over NBC-TV), 380 
Allied High Commission for Germany (HICOM) : 
Abolishment, 948, 950, 972, 976 
Contractual agreements, summary, 888 
Summaries of letters exchanged with German Chancel- 
lor, 894 
Allied Middle East Command, joint communique. Presi- 
dent Truman and I'rime Minister Churchill, 83 
Allison, John M. : 

Addresses and statements: 

Japanese peace settlement, 212, 455, 653, 656, 689 
U.S. policy in the Far East, 455, 652 
Confirmation as Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern 
Affairs, 351 
American Friends Service Committee, 294 
American International Institute for the Protection of 

Childhood, U.S. delegates, 109 
"American peace crusade," exposed as Communist, state- 
ment (Russell), 583 
American Republics {see also Organization of American 
States; Treaties; and the individual countries) : 
American International Institute for the Protection of 

Childhood, 109 
Copyright Experts, Meeting of, U.S. delegation, 136 
Educational exchange under convention on inter-Ameri- 
can cultural relations (1936), 667, 1023 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 10th anniversary, 

statements (Acheson, Truman), 584 
Inter-American Indian Institute, U.S. representatives, 

758 
Inter-American radio agreement, entry into force, 500 
Mutual Security Program in, background, 469, 473 
Pan American Railway Congress, 8th, 592 
Point 4 program, and address (Miller), 167, 390, 542, 544 
U.S. trade relations with, principles (Miller), 208 
VOA radio transmitter for broadcasts to, announced, 211 
Amerika, article in Time not regarded as accurate by 

State Department, 1043 
Anderson, Frederick L., designation as deputy U.S. special 
representative in Europe, 615 



Andrews, Stanley, appointments : 
Administrator of TCA, 843 
Special Consultant for Point 4 Program, 111 
Anglo-American unity, address (Churchill), 116 
Antietam battlefield, address (Humelsine), 938 
Arab property abandoned in Israel, question of compen- 
sation, 760 
Arab refugees from Palestine, relief for, statements and 
text of General Assembly resolution, 129, 177, 224, 
226, 635 
Arab States, complaint submitted in U.N. on violation of 

human rights in Morocco, 634 
Araki, Eikichi, Japanese Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 

983 
Arbitration Tribunal, charter of, annexed to convention 
on relations between Three Powers and Germany, 
summary of, 889, 950, 977 
Argentina : 

Escape clause in trade agreement with, 146 
La Prensa, case mentioned, 509, 511, 516 
Arms and armed forces (see also Korea) : 
Defense production, address (Truman), 849 
Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Com- 
mission. 
French and German, new relationship, 411, 464 
Rights and obligations of foreign forces in Germany, 
convention between Germany and Three Powers, 
signature and summary, 887, 891, 9.50, 977 
Soviet draft disarmament resolution, text, and state- 
ment (Acheson), 126, 127, 138 
U.S., U.K., and France to station in Germany, tripar- 
tite declarations, 325, 897 
U.S. fiirces in Austria, Commanding General (Hays), 

appointment, 643 
U.S. forces to remain in Germany after Occupation 

ends, 325, 931, 950, 971, 976 
U.S.-Japanese administrative agreement, disposition of 
U.S. armed forces in Japan, and statement (Rusk), 
215, 382 
Asia. See Consultative Committee on Economic Develop- 
ment in South and Southeast Asia. 
Associated Press, report on international censorship of 

news, cited, 510 
Associated States. See Indochina. 
Atomic energy and conventional armaments : 
Control, address (Mrs. Roosevelt at Paris), 94 
Coordination of U.N. Atomic Energy Commission and 

Commission for Conventional Armaments, 633 
Disarmament Commission, control by, U.S. proposal for, 
text, and statements (Cohen), and text of General 
As.sembly resolution (.Tan. 11), 501, 503, 504, 507 
U.N. plan for control and Soviet attitude, statement 
(Cohen), 872 
Atomic Energy Commission, termination of, text of Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution (Jan. 11), .507 
Atomic-powered submarine, Navtihis, address by Pres- 
ident Truman at laying of keel, 1007 
Auerbach, Frank L., address on immigration based on 

Statistics of Visa Division, 980 
Austin, Warren R. : 

Disarmament Commission. U.S. representative, 434 
General Assembly, 6th session, U.S. representative, 632 



1048 



Department of State Bulletin 



Australia : 
Prime Minister (Meuzies), visit to U.S., 826 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, income and estate, negotiations, 211 

Security treaty with U.S. and New Zealand (1951), 

U.S. Senate approval and ratification, statements 

(Acheson, Truman, Dulles), 18,5, 180, 212, 311, 491, 

658 

Austria : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Lowenthal-Chlumecky), creden- 
tials, 305 
Chancellor Figl, visit to U.S., 585, 746, 826 
Commanding General of U.S. Forces in (Hays), ap- 
pointment, 643 
Double taxation conventions, income and estate, nego- 
tiations, 450 
Mutual Security Prosram in, 407, 469 
U. S. Ambassador (Donnelly), confirmation, 352 
Austrian state treaty negotiations : 
Exchange of notes between Soviet Embassy in London 

and Austrian Treaty Deputies, 160, 326, 327 
Identic U.S., U.K., and French notes to U.S.S.R., with 
draft of treaty, 379, 448, 778 
Aviation. See International Civil Aviation Organization 

Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 
(1925). Soviet attempt to tie "germ warfare' charges 
to, statements (Cohen, Gross), 911, 1041 
Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground, agreement with 

U.K. for extension of, signed, 166 
Balkan Subcommission : 

Establishment of by U.N. resolutions, article (Howard), 
and statements (Cohen), 283, 286, 288, 328, 331, 
332, 333 
Observers dispatched to Greece, at request of Greek 

Government, and report of, 283, 333, 760 
Peace Observation Commission sets up Balkan sub- 
commission pursuant to recommendation of Gen- 
eral As.sembly, 178, 333, 635 
Balkans, U.N. Special Committee on (UNSCOB), General 
Assembly resolution (Dec. 7, 1951) discontinuing, text, 
article (Howard), and statements (Cohen), 328, 331, 
332 
Bancroft, Harding P., U.S. deputy representative to U.N., 
statement in Collective Measures Committee, 677, 682 
Bank for International Settlements, relation to EPU, 734 
Barnard, Thurman L., designation in State Department, 

191 
Barrett, Edward W., resignation as Assistant Secretary 

for Public Affairs, 191 
Battle Act (Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, 1951), 

720 
Belgium : 

Export-Import Bank, loan for expansion of U.S. im- 
ports, 897 
Migration, Conference on, at Brussels, and Committee 
for Movement of Migrants from Europe, 2d session, 
308 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
European Defense Community, treaty establishing, 

signature. 895 
Schuman Plan treaty, ratification of, 1023 



Belgium — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador (Cowen), confirmed, 843 
Western defense, part in, statement (Murphy), Old 
Bell Mission report, cited, 456 
Bennett, Henry G., Technical Cooperation Administrator, 

death in airplane crash in Iran, 37 
Berlin: 

Aid for, provisions in contractual agreements, 889 

Allied Kommandatura, declaration, 894 

Armed forces of U.S., U.K., and France to be maintained 

in, tripartite declaration, 897, 951 
Interference by Soviet personnel with U.S., U.K., and 
French access to, statement (Acheson) and tri- 
partite identic notes to General Chuikov, 820, 902 
Binder, Carroll, U.S. representative, U.N. Subcommission 
on Freedom of Information, statement on freedom 
of information, present world status, 508 
Bissell, Richard M., Jr., Deputy Director for MSA, resig- 
nation of, 124 n. 
Blanks, Charles P., designation under TCA, 274 
Blowers, George A., Governor of the Board of Directors 
of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, nomination, 
1018 
Bogota charter (OAS charter), entry into force, address 

(Dreier), 9 
Bolivia : 

Export-Import Bank, loan to Pacuni tungsten mine in, 

167 
U.S. Ambassador (Sparks), aijpointment, 109 
Boochever, Louis C, Jr., Office of European Regional 

Affairs, article on EPU, 7.32 
Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909) : 

Level of waters in Great Lakes, reference to IJC, 903, 

904, 905 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project, presidential 
messages urging Congress to act on 1941 agreement, 
and exchange of notes with Canada, 232, 234, 235, 
514, 719 
U.S.-Canadian advisory boards on control of pollution 
named to assist IJC, 428 
Bowles, Chester B., Ambassador to India, address on 

India's agricultural and political status, 161 
Boyd, Richard F., designation under TCA, 297 
Boynton, Herbert F., representative of U.S. creditor 
groups, International Conference on German Debts, 
461 
Brannan, Charles F., Secretary of Agriculture, report on 

6th session of FAO, 195 
Brazil : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Salles), credentials, 983 
Export-Import Bank loans to railroads and electric 

utility companies, 1019 
Military-assistance agreement, signed, 47, 93, 450 
Point 4 appointment, 191 
Brown, Winthrop G., director. Office of International Ma- 
terials Policy, address on distribution of strategic 
materials, 253 
Bruce, David K. E., Under Secretary of State and Acting 
Secretary : 
Addresses and statements : 

France, political and economic situation, 533 
Germany, contractual agreements, testimony. 973 
Refugees, aid to, testimony, 920 



Index, January /o June 1952 



1049 



Bruce, David K. E. — Contiuued 

Addresses and statements — Continued 

Treaties and executive agreements, limitations pro- 
posed by Senate resolutions, testimony, 952 
Confirmation as Under Secretary, 351 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
enemy assets, 1947 (Brussels intercustodial agree- 
ment) : 
Deadline under, 821 
U.S. claims to property in Norway, 746 
Brussels treaty (1948), cited, 523, 69G 
Budget, Bureau of, report to President on powers of Di- 
rector for Mutual Security, under sec. 502 (c) of 
Mutual Security Act (1951), 555 
Budget of the U.S. Government for year ending June SO, 

1953, excerpts on foreign relations, 179 
Bulgaria : 

Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 736 
Trade-agreement concessions, suspension by U.S., 947, 
1019 
Bullitt, William C, former U.S. Ambassador to Soviet 

Union, impressions, 768 
Bunker, Ellsworth, Ambassador to Italy, nomination con- 
firmed, 479 
Burma : 

Economic aid under Mutual Security Act, question, 238 
U.S. Ambassador (Sebald), confirmation, 762 

Cady, John C, designation under TCA, 274 

Calendar of international meetings, 14, 174, 347, 546, 710, 

868 
Cambodia (.see also Indochina) : 

Ambassador Nong Kimny, conversations in Washington 
on Communist aggression in Indochina, 1009, 1010 
U.S. Legation, elevation to Embassy, 979 
Campaign of Truth (.see alio International Information 
Administration) : 
Cited, 484, 647, 671 

Coiirier's role in, addresses (Truman, Acheson), 421, 422 
U.S. position vs. Soviet in war of ideas, 621 
Canada : 

Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Boundary waters treaty (U.S.-U.K., 1909), IJC sets 

up advisory boards on control of pollution, 428 
Boundary waters treaty (U.S.-U.K., 1909), reference 
to IJO of high-water level in Lake Ontario, 903, 904, 
905 
Fisheries of North Pacific, draft text of convention 
(U.S., Canada, Japan) and protocol, signed, 343, 346, 
830, 1022 
Great Lakes, promotion of safety on, by means of 

radio, signed, 338 
Radio equipment, convention with U.S., ratification, 

905 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project. Presidential 
messages urging Congress to act on 1941 agreement, 
and exchange of notes with Canada, texts, 232, 234, 
235, 514, 719 
Tripartite Fisheries Conference (1951), article (Her- 
rington), and text of conference resolutions, 340, 
342, 343, 346 
U.S. restrictive customs practices, effect on trade with, 
761 



Cannes International Film Festival, U.S. delegation, 636 
Cannon, Cavendish W., Ambassador to Portugal, nomina- 
tion confirmed, 479 
Capital, investment abroad, foreign economic development 
and treaty provisions to safeguard, 292, 407, 747, 882 
Caribbean bases, U.S. to release area to British colonies 

for agricultural use, negotiations with U.K., 833 
Caribbean Commission : 

Appointments to U.S. Section (Negron Lopez and Des- 
cartes), 335 
Fisheries, conference on, U.S. delegation, 593 
14th meeting, U.S. delegation, 756 
Carillon, Netherlands gift to U.S., address (Truman), 613 
Carl Schurz award. West German to receive, 745 
Carl Schurz Memorial Foundation, addre.ss by Henry J. 

Kellermann, 807, 851 
Central America, significance of construction of Inter- 
American Highway to economic progress of, 357 
CFM. See Foreign Ministers, Council of. 
Chattey, John K., designation under TCA, 274 
Chauvel, Jean, President of Security Council, statement 

re continuation of negotiations on Ka.shmir, 714 
Childhood, American International Institute for the Pro- 
tection of, 109 
Children, conference in defense of, exposed as false "Peace 

Movement," 540 
Children, developments in international programs, article 

by Katherine F. Lenroot, 962 
Children's Emergency Fund, U.N. See International 

Children's Emergency Fund. 
Chile: 

Military-assistance agreement, signed, 168, 630 
Point 4 appointment, 191 
China : 

Chinese-Soviet treaty (1945), Soviet violation of, state- 
ment (Cooper), and text of General Assembly reso- 
lution (Feb. 1), 177, 219, 220, 635 
Disarmament Commission, Chinese representative, atti- 
tude, 917 
Japanese Government's support of, exchange of notes 

(U.S. and Japan), 120 
Military and economic aid to Formosa under MSP, 472 
Refugees of, issuance of immigration visas to, under 

Displaced Persons Act, 121 
United Nations, representation in, U.N. proceedings on, 

435, 635 
U.S. support of National Government of China on For- 
mo.sa, addresses (Allison), 457, 657 
China Aid Act (1948) and China Area Aid Act (1950), 

cited, 557, 559 
China (Communist) : 
American prisoners in, correspondence (Webb-Know- 

land) on release of names of, 11, 239 
Embargo on shipment of arms to, by Haiti and Mexico, 
subsequent to General Assembly resolution (May 18, 
1951), 75 
India, relations with, address (Bowles), 165 
Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 736 
U.S. policy toward, addres.ses (Allison), 457, 657 
Churchill, Rogers P., review of Foreign Relations of the 

United States, Soviet Union (1933-1939), 767, 822 
Churchill, Winston : 
Anglo-American unity (address before Congress), 116 



1050 



Department of State Bulletin 



Churchill, Winston — Continued 

Scarce materials and Atlantic Command, joint com- 
muniques with President Truman, 115, 116 
World issues, joint communique with President Truman, 
83 
Claims (see also Brussels agreement on conflicting 
claims) : 
Poland, decree sets limits for tiling claims for valuables 

on deposit, 8 
Secured Fund in Japan, distribution among Allies by 

Supreme Commander, 428 
U.S.-Japanese administrative agreement, provisions for 

filing of claims under, 387 
U.S.-Panama claims convention, extension of time for 
filing, 544 
Clark, Gen. Mark W., appointment as Commander in Chief 
U.N. Command for Korea and of U.S. Par East Com- 
mand, statement (Truman), 743, 760 
Clubb, Oliver E., loyalty investigation of, 437 
CMC. See Collective Measures Committee. 
Coal Production Committee, German, cited, 378 
Cochran, Merle, Ambassador to Indonesia, expression of 

confidence in (Webb), 399 
Cohen, Benjamin V. : 

Addresses and statements : 

Atomic energy control, U.N. plan and Soviet attitude, 

872 
Balkan Subcommission, U.N. resolution establishing, 

331 
Collective Measures Committee, 74, 98 
Disarmament, U.S. proposals, 501, 503, 586, 600, 752, 

759 
Disarmament, U.S. proposals, Soviet misrepresenta- 
tions, 504, 753, 912, 1029 
Disarmament and international law, 834 
French, U.K., and U.S. proposal for ceilings on armed 

forces, 907, 910 
"Germ warfare," Soviet charges, 506, 911, 1030 
Reservations to multilateral conventions, statement 
re General Assembly resolution on, 71 
U.S. deputy representative to Disarmament Commission 
and U.S. alternate representative to 6th session. 
General Assembly, 434, 632 
Collective Measures Committee (CMC) : 

Extension, U.N. committee proceedings and resolution 

by General Assembly (Jan. 12), 74, 107, 634, 877 
Report to General Assembly, excerpt, and statements 

(Cohen, Muniz), 98, 100 
Soviet proposal to abolish, 47 

U.S. deputy representative to U.N. (Bancroft), state- 
ment in, 677, 682 
Collective security, addresses and statements : 
Allison, Far East, 455 
Bancroft, U.N. system, 677, 682 
Cohen, Collective Measures Committee, 98 
Harriman, NATO anniversary, 570 
Humelsine, Antietam anniversary, 938 
Ti-uman, message on MSP, 404, 405 
Colombia : 

Export-Import Bank loans for cotton shipment and 

power plant, 339, 631 
Point 4 appointment, 274 
Point 4 project with, for agricultural colleges, 167 



Colombia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), before 

Senate, 881 
Military-assistance agreement, signed, 168, 709 
OAS charter, ratification deposited, 9 

Colombo Plan. See Commonwealth Program; Consulta- 
tive Committee on Economic Development. 

Commander in Chief, U.N. Command (Ridgway). See 
Ridgway 

Commerce. See Friendship, commerce and navigation 

Commercial agreement with Soviet Union (1935, 1937), 
background, 769 

Commercial treaties, background of, testimony (Linder), 

881 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, winter tomatoes, 

hearings, 829 
Commodity Problems, Committee on, of FAO, 19th meet- 
ing and U.S. delegation, 965 
Commonwealth Program for Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia (see also Con- 
sultative Committee) financial aid to Pakistan, 1013 
Communism : 

"American peace crusade," exposed as Communist, 

statement (Ru.ssell), 583 
Capital investment abroad, a potential weapon against, 

751 
Children, conference In defense of, exposed as false 

"Peace Movement," 540 
Containment and counteroffenslve, U.S. policies (Fisher 

at Chicago), 243 
Cultural offensive in India and Japan, 535, 537 
Czechoslovak students' resistance to, significance of, 

statement (Truman), 394 
Economic Conference, International, objectives, 447 
Europe, decline in, address (Fisher), 620 
France, situation in, testimony (Bruce), 533 
Free world vs. police state, address (Russell), 727 
Free world vs. Soviet menace, addresses (Fisher), 243, 

618 
"Germ warfare" charges in Korea. See "Germ war- 
fare." 
"Hate America" campaign, address (Sargeant), 780 
India's attitude toward, address (Bowles), 165 
Indochina, aggression in, address (Hoey), and U.S. aid 

to French Union, 454, 1009, 1010 
Japan, Soviet threat to security of, address (Sebald), 

493 
Labor, land reform, and peace, VGA exposes Soviet 

propaganda on, article (Kretzmaun), 249 
News sui>pression in Soviet Russia and satellite coun- 
tries, statement (Binder) 510 
Obstructionism, policy of, 648 
Oppression and resistance in U.S.S.R. and satellite 

areas, a year's review, 84 
Passports to Communists, Senate subcommittee's state- 
ment, 110 
Propaganda, exposition of, article (Sargeant), 483 
Reaction to VOA, address (Compton), 671 
Refugee problem in Europe, relation to, 552, 553, 554 
Religion in American life, IIA's attitude toward Com- 
munist attacks, 252 



Index, January fo June 1952 



1051 



Communism — Continued 

Southeast Asia, threat of aggression in, discussed in 

U.N. committee, 177 
Southern Italy, trade restrictions lead to propaganda, 

518, 664, 742 
War of ideas, U.S. position vs. Soviet in, 621 
Communist International, 7th Congress, appraisal by U.S. 

Embassy, 770 
Compton, Wilson : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

International information program, 44.3, 668 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, 966 
Water's edge, VOA at, 864 
World faith, 827 
Appointment as Administrator of IIA, 151 
Concheso, Aurelio F., Aml)assador of Cuba, credentials, 

820 
Conflicting claims to German enemy assets (1947), 746, 821 
Congress : 

Churchill, Winston, address, 116 

Contractual agreements with Germany, testimony 

(Acheson, Bruce, MeCloy), 971, 973, 974 
Council of Europe, meeting with representatives of, 

528 
Customs procedures, simplification of, testimony (Lin- 

der), 761 
Displaced Persons Act (1948), as amended, address on 

programs completed under (L'Heureux), 121 
Displaced Persons Act (1948), as amended, U.S. par- 
ticipation in Conference on Migration pursuant to, 
article (Warren), 169 
Duty on tuna, increase proposed (H.R. !5693), statement 

(Acheson) on Peruvian protest, 821 
Duty on tuna, statement (Linder), 352 
Emergency powers. President's identic letters to Pres- 
ident of Senate and Speaker of the House requesting 
extension of, 641 
European federation, Senate draft resolution, exchange 
of letters (President Truman and Senators Ful- 
bright, McMahon, and Sparkman), and statements, 
275, 276 
Inter-American Cultural and Trade Center, at Miami, 

under joint resolution, text of proclamation, 211 
Inter-American Highway and Rama Road, testimony 

(Miller), 3.57 
Japanese peace treaty, effect of U.S. ratification on 

Japan (Acheson, letter to Wiley), 355 
Japane.se peace treaty, hearings, excerpt of committee 

report, 455 
Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, address, 580 
Legislation listed, 239, 309, 454, 479, 540, 612, 762, 799, 

841, 951, 1003, 1010 
Madden Committee, U.S. note protests Polish press re- 
lease on, 498 
Messages from President : 
Annual message, 79 

Battle Act, continued aid to Netherlands under, 
identic letters to chairmen of Congressional com- 
mittees, 720 
Budget, excerpt, 179 

Contractual agreements with Germany, transmittal, 
947 



Congress — Continued 

Jlessages from President — Continued 

Migration from Europe, legislation to aid victims 
of communism and to resettle persons from over- 
populated areas, 551 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 4th and final 

semiannual report, 312 
Mutual Security Program, 179, 312, 315, 403, 471 
Puerto Rican Constitution, recommending approval, 

721 
Rubber Act (194S), extension recommended, 149 
St. Lawrence seaway, urging Congre.ssional action to 
carry out 1941 agreement, and exchange of notes 
with Canada, 2.32, 234, 235, 719 
Trade-agreement escape clauses, report on, 143 
Mutual Security Act (1951), Presidential actions under 

terms of, 317, 555, 602 
Mutual Security Act (1951), Soviet charges of U.S. 
interference in Soviet affairs, statements (Gross, 
Mansfield), 28, 29 
Mutual security legislation, correspondence between 
Senator Connally and General Eisenhower on 
funds, 840 
Mutual Security Program, testimony (Acheson, Harri- 

man, Bruce), 463, 467, 533 
North Atlantic Treaty, accession of Greece and Turkey 

to, testimony (Acheson), 140 
N.\T, excerpt of report of Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions recommending ratification, 100 
Passport operations. Senate subcommittee's criticism, 

statement (Shipley), 110 
President's Economic Report to, excerpts, 182 
Refugees, testimony by Under Secretary Bruce, 920 
Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B., address, 924 
Security treaties with .Japan, Australia and New 
Zealand, and the Philippines, Senate ratification, 
statements (Acheson, Dulles, Truman), 185, 186, 
212, 314, 491, 658 
Trade-agreement escape clauses, report of Trade 
Agreements Committee, with appendixes, text, 143 
Treaties and executive agreements, texts of Senate 
resolutions proposing restrictions on making of, 
memorandum (Truman) and testimony (Bruce), 
952, 953 
Treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation, with 

five countries, testimony (Linder), 881 
UNICEF, U.S. contribution. President's letters request- 
ing, 477 
U.N. Technical Assistance Program, U.S. contribution 

authorized, 310 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, 5th report, 
cited, 338 
Connally, Senator Tom, correspondence with General 
Eisenhower on funds for military aid and defense 
support, 840 
Constitution : 

Force of treaties and laws under, article (M.vers), 371 
Invalidation of California alien land law under, 744 
Consular convention with Ireland (19.50), protocol, signed, 

427 
Consultative Committee on Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan) : 
India, program of technical assistance in, 293 



1052 



Department of State Bulletin 



Consultative Committee, etc. — Continued 

Meeting, U.S. delegates, progress of Colnnitxi iilan, 548 
Summary of report, 832 
Containment, jjolicy of, significance, 701 
Contractual agreements tietvveen Three Powers and 
Germany : 
Addresses and statements (Aclieson), 887, 931, 071 
Reparations out of current production not to be claimed 

by U.S., U.K., and France, 979 
Summary by Allied High Commission, 888 
Transmittal to U.S. Senate, letters (Truman, Acheson), 
and testimony (Acheson, Bruce, McCloy), 947, 949, 
971, 973, 974 
Control Council, in Germany, cited, 894 
Cooper, John Sherman : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Chinese charge of Soviet violation of treaty, 219 
German elections, free, tripartite resolution request- 
ing investigation of conditions, 54, 58 
Southeast Asia, Communist threat, 177 
Yugoslav resolution, U.S. support of, 62 
U.S. alternate representative to 6th session. General 
Assembly, 632 
Copyright : 

Denmark, proclamation extending, text, 257 
Draft universal convention, at UNESCO meeting, 136 
Corbett, Jack C, appointment as Director, Office of Finan- 
cial and Development Policy, 603 
Costa Rica, Point 4 appointment, 191 
Cotton Advisory Committee, U.S. delegation to 11th 

meeting, 838 
Council Deputies of NATO, functions replaced by NAG, 

368 
Council of Europe: 

Creation ond accomplishments, article, 523 
Statute, signed (1949) and revised, 523, 526, .528 
U.S. Congress, meeting with members of, 528 
Courier, dedication ceremony, addresses (Truman, Ache- 
son), 306, 421, 422, 489 
Cowen, Myron M., Consultant to the Secretary : 

Addresses on Mutual Security Program, component 

parts, 327, 702 
Confirmation as Ambassador to Belgium, 843 
Cox, Henry B., article, postwar efforts to unify Germany, 

563 
Credit, agricultural and cooperative, international con- 
ference on, 837 
Crilley, Albert C, death in plane crash in Iran, 37 
Cuba: 
Ambassador to U.S. (Fernandez Concheso), credentials, 

820 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military-assistance agreement, signed, 211, 4.50 
Navigation dues, exemption of pleasure craft, ex- 
change of notes with U.S., 11 
U.S. recognition of new Government, 540 
Cultural relations, convention for promotion of inter- 
American (1936), exchange of students, 667, 1023 
Customs simplification, testimony (Linder), 761 
Czechoslovakia : 

Comnmnist conquest of, significance of, statement 
(Truman), 394 

Index, January to June 1952 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 

"Defense of peace" law. Communist attempt to combat 

Campaign of Truth, 487 
Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 736 
Trade-agreement concessions, suspension by U.S., 947, 

1019 

Daniels, Paul C, U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador and chair- 
man of U.S. delegation to 4th Inter- American Travel 
Congress, 637 
Davis, H. Jackson, designation under TCA, 191 
Death of missing persons, convention on declaration of, 

entry into force (1952), 49 
Defense Materials Procurement Agency (DMPA), estab- 
lishment of, 558 
Defense Production Act (1951), section 104: 

Protest by several nations, 660, 900 
' Restrictions on trade of friendly foreign countries 

(Acheson, letter to Senator Maybank), 517 
Defense Production Administrator (Fleischmann), ad- 
dress on international cooperation in materials, 297 
Defense Production Board, functions replaced by NAC, 368 
Defense support, under MSP, definition, 404, 406, 413, 

621, 704 
Denmark : 

Copyright protection, proclamation extending, text, 257 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), before 

Senate, 881 
Torquay protocol (1951), signed, 8 
(Dependent peoples, U.N. Fourth Committee, criticism 

voiced of alien rule over, 625 
Descartes, Sol Luis, appointed U.S. member on Caribbean 

Commission, 335 
Diplomatic relations : 
Cuba, recognized, 540 

Phnom Penh, Cambodia, elevation of Legation to Em- 
bassy, 979 
Saigon, Vietnam, elevation of Legation to Embassy, 979 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 
Credentials, presentation of: 

Austria (Loewenthal-Chlumecky), 305; Brazil 
(Salles), 983; Cuba (Fernandez Concheso), 820; 
Haiti (Leger), 758; India (Binay Ranjan Sen), 49; 
Japan (Takeuchi and Araki), 687, 983; Liberia 
(Simpson), 778; New Zealand (Munro), 381; 
Pakistan (Mohammed All), 429; Philippines 
(Romulo), 305; Thailand (Phot Sarasin), 983 
Disarmament, Subcommittee on, proceedings, 17, 634 
Disarmament, youth's attitude toward phra.ses, Mrs. 

Roosevelt, address (at Paris), 94 
Disarmament and international law, address (Cohen), 

834 
Disarmament Commission for regulation, limitation and 
balanced reduction of forces, set up by General Assem- 
bly resolution (Jan. 11) : 
Amendments and comments of Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, 

statement (Jessup), 26 
Appointment of U.S. deputy representative (Cohen), 

434 
Background, 107, 138, 633 
Consultant panel, appointment, 792 

1053 



Disarmament Commission, etc. — Continued 

Disclosure, verification, etc., test of U.S. proposals for, 

503, 586, 600 
Meetings, proceedings, 231, 310, 436, 461, 501, 515, 516, 

600, 759, 797, 878, 917 
Principles, six, proposed by U.S. as basis for effective 
disarmament, texts, and statements (Cohen), 752, 
753, 759 
Revisions, draft texts, and statements (Jessup) 21, 23, 

24, 26 
Soviet proposals, and draft texts, 24, 25, 126, 127, 138, 

515, 635 
Text of General Assembly resolution (Jan. 11), 507 
Tripartite proposal for limitation of armed forces, draft 
of working paper sponsored by Fi'ance, U.K., and 
U.S., and statement (Cohen), 907, 910 
U.S. proposals, 501, 503, 586, 600, 752, 759 
Work plan, French draft, cited, 516 
Work plan, U.S. propc/sals for, text and statements 

(Cohen), 501, 503 
Work plan and other proposals, Soviet attitude, state- 
ments (Cohen), 504, 753, 912, 1029 
Displaced Persons Act : 

Accomplishments under, 551, 638 
Administration of, address (L'Heureux), 121 
Lost visas under, recommendations to replace, 554 
DMPA. See Defense Materials Procurement Agency. 
Dominican Republic, Point 4 appointment, 274 
Donnelly, Walter J., Ambassador to Austria, confirmation, 

352 
Double taxation. See Taxation, double. 
Draper, William H., Jr., designated U.S. permanent rep- 
resentative to NAC, and U.S. special representative 
in Europe, 123, 124, 615 
Drees, Willem, Netherlands Premier, to visit U.S., 92 
Dreier, John C, OAS charter, entry into force, address 

at Pan American Union, 9 
Drew, Gerald A., appointment as Director General of the 

Foreign Service, 519 
Dudle.v, Edward R., appointed President's personal rep- 
resentative at inauguration of President of Liberia, 
13 
Duke, Angler Biddle, confirmation as Ambassador to El 

Salvador, 843 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Free world unity, excerpts, 91 
Japanese peace treaty and security treaty, entry into 

force, 186, 213, 688 
Security treaties with Australia and New Zealand, 
and the Philippines, 186 
Correspondence : 
Japanese Prime Minister Ycshida, 120 
Secretary Acheson, on completion of assignment as 
Consultant, 602 
Duncan, Paul, designation under TCA, 603 
Dunn, James Clement, Ambassador to France, nomination 
confirmed, 479 

EGA. See Economic Cooperation Administration. 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East. 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe. 



Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 

llth-14th sessions, U.S. delegation, 510, 875, 876, 877, 

917 
Forced Labor, Committee on, 1042 
Freedom of information and press, subcommission on, 

5th session, proceedings, 435, 508, 516, 1041 
Human rights. See Human rights. 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on, 7th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 637, 797 
Restrictive Business Practices, ad hoc Committee on, 

proceedings, 259, 311 
Social Commission, 8th session, proceedings, 795, 878, 

1041 
Soviet misrepresentations of U.S. economy, statement 

and memorandum (Lubin), 1032 
Status of Women, Commission on, 6th session, U.S. 

delegation and proceedings, 593, 601 
World economic situation, review, 918, 989 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(ECAFE) : 
8th session, proceedings, 311 
India, program of economic development in, 293 
Japan, admission as associate member of, 311 
Subordinate committees, meetings, 136, 137 
Working Party on Standard International Trade Clas- 
sification (SITC), 109 
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) : 
Purpose, 523 

7th session, proceedings, 436 
Economic Cooperation Act (1948), functions transferred 

to MSA, 555, 556, 558 
Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), summary 

of results, and replacement by MSA, 43, 662, 666 
Economic coordination agreement, with Korea, signed, 943 
Economic Report of the President Transmitted to the 

Congress, excerpts, 182 
Economic situation, world, and U.S. economy, statements 

and memorandum (Lubin), 918, 934, 989, 992, 1032 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador : 

Export-Import Bank loan to, for housing reconstruction, 

544 
Military-assistance agreement, signed, 168, 336, 391 
Point 4 appointment, 274 
U.S. relations with, address (Miller), 390 
EDC. See European Defense Community. 
EDF. See European Defense Force. 
Education, Iranian students, emergency assistance pro- 
gram for, 658, 659 
Educational exchange : 
Agreement with South Africa, signed, 630 
American republics, fellowships, 667, 1023 
Background, article (Sargeant), 484 
Chinese students, 785 
Germany, appointments, 439, 519 
Program, opportunities, 906 
Turkey, students and professors, 774 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 6th 
semiannual report, pre.sentation of U.S. religious val- 
ues, 252 
Edwards, Corwin D., U.S. repre.sentative at ad hoc Com- 
mittee on Restrictive Business Practices, of ECOSOC, 
259 



1054 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Edwards, Daniel K.. designation under NAC, 015 
Egypt : 

Disarmament, attitude toward General Assembly reso- 
lution, 2S 
Efoiioniic aid under Mutual Security Act, question, 238 
Eisenliower, Dwight D., Supreme Allied Commander, 
Europe : 
Correspondence : 

Defense Secretary Lovett, release from European as- 
signment, 614 
NATO, Standing Group Chairman (Ely), release from 

European assignment, 614 
Senator Connally, funds for military aid and defense 
support, 840 
Report, 1951-1952, of SHAPE. 572 
El Encanto lands, disputed title, cited, 545 
El Salvador: 

Point 4 agreement with U.S., signed, 631 
Point 4 program, U.S. and Salvadoran share in, 631 
U.S. Ambassador (Duke), confirmed, 843 
Elections, free, in Germany : 

General Assembly resolution for U.N. Commission (Dec. 

19, 1951), text, statements (Cooper), and letters to 

HICOM and Soviet Control Commission, 54, .55, 58, 

310, 350, 600 

German proposal for investigation of conditions for, 377. 

567, 651 
Soviet attitude, summary, and statement (Acheson), 

620, 634, 650 
Three Powers and U.S.S.R., exchange of notes, 530, 531, 
817, 819 
Electric High Tension Systems, International Conference 
on Large (CIGRE), 14th se.ssion and U.S. delegation, 
915 
Electrotechnical Commission, International, 915 
Embargo : 

Haiti and Mexico, on arms shipment to China, 139 
Trade with Soviet bloc restricted, 901, 1032 
Emergency, state of national, proclamation terminating, 

text, 743 
Emergency powers. President's identic letters to Congress 

requesting extension of, 641 
EPU. See European Payments Union. 
Erkin, Feridun C, Ambassador of Turkey, statement on 

accession of Turkey to NAT, 334 
ERP. See European Recovery Program. 
Ethiopia : 

Point 4 appointment, 603 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), before 

Senate, 881 
Point 4 agreement signed providing lor agricultural 
mechanical college, 906 
Europe (see also European Defense Community) : 

Airways system for Western Europe, plan for, report of 

special meeting on air traffic (Carter), 258 
Communism in, decline of, address (Fisher), 620 
Council of. Statute for, signature (1949) and accom- 
plishments, 377, 523, 526, 527, 528, 529 
Defense of Western Europe, report (Eisenhower), 572 
Economic aid, transfer of funds under Mutual Security 
Act, letters (Truman to Congress, Harriman to 
Truman), and country statements, 317, 318, 319 

Index, January fo June 1952 



Europe — Continued 

Economic Commission for 486, 523 

Economic progress (1951), 575 

Migration from. See Provisional Intergovernmental 

Committee for Movement of Migrants from Europe. 
Mutual Security Pro.nram and North Atlantic Treaty 

Organization, objectives, 464, 468, 471, 472 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 

results, 43, 405, 523, 802 
Refugees, increa.se in U.S. immigration quotas for, 

requested (Truman), 551 
Refugees, "Out-of-zone," issuance of visas to, under 

Displaced Persons Act, address (L'Heureux), 121 
U.S. books and trade, attitude toward, 986 
U.S. contribution to collective strength, 405, 413 
VOA radio transmitter for broadcasts to, announced, 211 
European Army : 

NAC plans for creation of, 363, 364, 367, 368, 370 
Pleven plan for, 528 
European Coal and Steel Community (Schuman Plan) : 
Cited, 44, 313, 411, 534, 577 
Treaty establishing signed (1951) and ratified, 377, 527, 

528, 1023 
European Coal and Steel Community, addresses and 
statements : 
Acheson, German ratification and European unity, 92, 

696 
McClo.v, French and German partnership, 978 
Truman, MSP continuance, 405 
European defense : 

France, contribution to, testimony (Bruce), 534 
President Truman and Prime Minister Churchill, joint 

communique, 83 
European Defense Community (EDC) : 
Cited, 315, 316, 463, 464, 468, 469, 471 
Establishment of, 365, 367, 368, 370 
France and Germany, military forces to merge in, 

411, 464, 897 
German participation in. NAC attitude, 363, 365, 367, 368 
German unification, relation to, addresses (McCloy, 

Acheson), 323, 651 
Germany's role in quadripartite communique, issued by 

Western Foreign Ministers and German Chancellor, 

325 
NATO, relation to, described in Lisbon communique and 

in statements (Acheson, Truman, Harriman), 363, 

367, 405, 412, 463, 467, 472 
NATO, relation to, tripartite communique (U.S., U.K., 

France), 325 
Outline of, 576, 696 

Protocol to EDC, giving guaranty to NAT nations, de- 
scribed, 951, 974 
Protocol to NAT, giving assurances of support to EDC, 

signature, text, statement (Acheson), and testi- 
mony (Bruce), 895, 896, 932, 973 
Treaty establishing, signature, statements (Acheson, 

McCloy), and letters (Truman, Acheson, McCloy), 

895, 948, 950, 972, 974 
Tripartite declaration Isy U.S., U.K., and France, giving 

assurances of support to EDC, signature, text, and 

statements (Acheson), 895, 897, 033, 951, 972 
U.S. contribution to, 621 

1055 



European Defense Force (EDF) : 

Foreign Ministers, Paris meeting, Germany's attitude 

toward, report (McCIoy), 377 
Plans for, report to NATO (Eisenhower), 576 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for. See 

Organization for European Economic Cooperation. 
European federation : 

Proposal cited (Aclieson), 464 
Senate draft resolution on, text, 276 
European Movement, cited, 523 
European Payments Union (EPU) : 
ECA contributions to, 558 
European unity, part in, 405 

Germany, Federal Republic of, 1951 account with, 304 
Organization and accomplishments, article (Boochever), 

732 
Origin, 43, 696 
European Recovery Program, Soviet refusal to partici- 
pate in, significance, 648 
European union, Germany, attitude, article (Kellermann), 

854 
E^iropean unity : 

Council of Europe, contribution to, 528, 529 
Germany, part in, discussed in exchange of notes be- 
tween Soviet Union and Three Powers, 817 
OEEC contribution to, 405 
U.S. attitude, 405, 406 
Evans, Luther, Chairman of U.S. delegation to meeting of 

Copyright Experts of American Republics. 136 
Ewe problem, hearings in U.N. Fourth Committee, 625 
Exchange of persons program. See Educational Exchange. 
Executive agreements, text of S. J. Res. 122 to impose 
limitations on, memorandum (Truman), and testi- 
mony (Bruce). 952, 9.53 
Executive Orders : 

Escape clauses in (Ex. Or. 9832, 10004, and 10082), 146 
Mutual Security Act, responsibilities of Chiefs of U.S. 
Diplomatic Missions under (Ex. Or. 10338), text, 
642 
Security, classification of information, establi.shment of 
standards for (Ex. Or. 10290), excerpt of Presi- 
dent's letter, 190 
Export-Import Bank, loans to: 

Belgium, for expansion of U.S. imports, 897 
Bolivian tungsten mine, 167 

Brazilian railroads and electric utility companies, 1019 
Colombia, for U.S. cotton shipment and Colombian power 

plant, 339. 631 
Ecuador, for housing reconstruction, 544 
Frencli cotton importers, 902 

Germany, Western, for purchase of U.S. tobacco, 1019 
Indonesia, to finance U.S. imports, 494 
Japan, for U.S. cotton shipment, 339 
Mexico, cited, 499 
Spain, for purchase and shipment of U.S. cotton. 47, 709 

Falc6n Dam, U.S.-Mexican joint construction, 499 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Far East ; 
Joint communique. President Truman and Prime Min- 
ister Churcliill, 84 
Mutual Security Program in. analysis of (Acheson, 
Harriman, Truman), 466, 469, 472 

1056 



Far East — Continued 
U.S. policy in, addresses (Dulles, Allison), 91, 455, 652 
VOA broadcasts to, transmitter announced for, 93, 160 
Far Eastern Economic Assistance Act (1950), cited, 559 
Fernandez Concheso, Aurelio, Ambassador of Cuba, cre- 
dentials, 820 
Fig], Leopold. Chancellor of Austria, visit to U.S., 585, 

746, 820 
Film festival, at Cannes, U.S. delegation, 636 
Film Festival of India, U.S. delegation to, 175 
Finance convention between Three Powers and Germany, 

signature and summary, 887, 893, 950, 977 
Financial and Economic Board, functions replaced by 

NAC, 368 
Findlen. I'aul J., designation under TCA, 439 
Finland, double taxation conventions, income and estate, 

signed, 422 
Fisher, Adrian S., legal adviser, addresses : 
U.S. foreign policy, basic principles, 243 
U.S. vs. U.S.S.R. in war of ideas, 618 
Fisheries : 

Caribbean Commission, conference on, U.S. delegation, 

593 
Conservation programs, and international commissions 
for, articles (Herrington), 340, 1021, 1022 
Fisheries, North Pacific : 

Commission, International North Pacific, set up by 

treaty between U.S., Canada, and Japan, 830 
Conservation of, articles (Herrington), 340, 1021 
Convention and protocol, between U.S., Canada, and 
Japan, draft texts and signature, 343. 340, 8.30, 1022 
Tripartite conference at Tokyo (1951), 340, 830, 1022 
Fisheries, Northwest Atlantic, International Commission 

for, iianel for sub-area V, U.S. delegation, 398 
Fleischnwnn, Manly, Defense Production Administrator, 
address on international cooperation in materials, 297 
Fluker, J. Robert, designation under TCA, 297 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 

Committee on Commodity Problems, 19th meeting, U.S. 

delegation, 965 
15th session of Council, U.S. delegation, 1002 
Increase in food production, attitude, 992 
International Grassland Congress, sponsored by U.S. 

Government and, 309 
International Rice Commission, 3d session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 757 
Gth session, report on (Brannan), and statement (Ache- 
son), 195, 200 
Technical assistance program, 198, 293, 628 
Working Parties on Rice Breeding and Fertilizers, U.S. 
delegations, 757 
Food production : 

India and Pakistan, Point 4 iDrojects to increase, 1013, 

1015, 1017 
World, decrease in, statements by Mr. Lubin, 935, 991 
Foot and mouth disease, eradication in Mexico, 499 
Forced Labor, U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on, proceedings, 

1042 
Ford Foundation, schools and training centers in India 

and Pakistan, 294, 1013, 1015 
Foreign Bondholders Protective Council, representation 
at international conference on German debts, 397 

Department of State Bvllelin 



Foreign Ministers, Council of (CFM) : 
Austrian settlement, progress, 448 
London and Moscow meetings (1947), cited, G47, 050 
Paris meeting (1949), proposals for German unity, 563, 
650 
Foreisn Ministers, Western : 
London communiques, 325 

Summaries of letters exchanged with German Chan- 
cellor re contractual agreements, 894 
Washington meeting (1951), results, 566 
Foreifin Relations, 1933, vol. V, American Republics, re- 
leased, 762 
ForcUjn Relations, 1934, vol. I, General, British Common- 
wealth, released. 38 
Foreign Relations, Soviet Union, 1933-1939, summary, 767, 

822 
Foreign Service : 

Ambassador to Indonesia (Cochran), expression of 

confidence in (Webb), 399 
Ambassador to Japan (Murph.v), address, 719 
Ambassadors, appointments and confirmations : 
Austria (Donnelly), 352; Belgium (Cowen), 843; 
Bolivia (Sparks), 109; Burma (Sebald), 762; 
El Salvador (Duke), 843; France (Dunn), 479; 
Italy (Bunker), 479; Philippines (Spruanee), 352; 
I'ortugal (Cannon), 479; Spain (MacVeagh), 351; 
Turkey (McGhee), 352; U.S.S.R. (Kennan), 479, 
643 
Ambassadors, resignation : 

Spain (Griffis), 191; U.S.S.R. (Kirk), 3.52 
Director General (Drew), appointment, 510 
Ministers, confirmations : 

Jordan (Green), 843; Libya (Vilbnrd), 352 
Travel restrictions, U.S. officials In U.S.S.R., 452 
U.S. Assistant High Commissioner for Germany 

(Reber), appointment, 643 
U.S. Foreign Service — A Career for Young Americans, 

excerpts, 549, 582 
U.S. permanent representative to NAC (Draper), alter- 
nate U.S. permanent representative (Merchant), 
and deputies (Porter, Edwards), designated, 615 
U.S. special representative in Europe (Draper) and 
deputy U.S. special representative (Anderson), 
designated, 615 
Vincent, denial of communism, and letter (Humelsine 
to Vincent) clearing of disloyalty charges, 274, 351 
Foreign Service Institute : 

Director of (Hawkins), resignation, 191 
Orientation course for TCA assignments, 38, 351, 479 
Formosa. See China. 
France : 

Armed forces to be maintained in Europe, tripartite 

declarations, 325, 897 
Armed forces to merge with German and other European 

forces, 411, 464 
Associated States, conversations by Washington officials 

with representatives of, 1009 
Austrian state treaty delayed by U.S.S.R., note from 
Austrian Treaty Deputies, and identic French, U.S., 
and U.K. notes to U.S.S.R., with draft text, 160, 326, 
327, 379, 448, 778 
Cotton importers, loan from Export-Import Bank, 902 



France — Continued 

Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Com- 
mission. 
Economic situation and defense program, MSA state- 
ment, 318 
European Defen.se Conununity, relation to NATO, tri- 
partite communique, with U.S. and U.K., and 
quadripartite communique, with German Chan- 
cellor, 325 
Foreign policy, world leadership in, 534 
German elections, free, investigation of conditions for, 
text of tripartite resolution (France, U.S., U.K.), 
and statements (Cooper), 54, 55, 58 
German peace treaty, proposed, statements (Acheson), 
Soviet draft and notes, and text of identic replies 
by France, U.S., U.K., 530, 531, 532, 650, 777, 817, 
819 
Gross national product and defense expenditures, table, 

424 
Palestine refugees, sponsorship of General Assembly 

resolution for relief, 177, 226 
Political and economic situation, testimony (Bruce), 533 
Rousset trial, in Paris, exposure of slave labor in 

U.S.S.R., 250 
Saar question, to negotiate .settlement with Germany, 

495 
Soviet interference with traffic to Berlin, identic notes 

to General Chuikov, 902 
Strasbourg, seat of Council of Europe, 525 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

European Defense Community, tripartite declaration 
giving assurances of support, signature and text, 
895, 897, 933, 972 
Germany and Three Powers, contractual agreements, 
signature, and statement re reparations, 887, 979 
Nortli Atlantic Treaty, protocol, guaranteeing sup- 
port to BDC, signature and text, 895, 896 
Schuman Plan treaty, ratification (1951), 377 
Tunisian question, U.S. position on, statements (Ache- 
son, Gross), 678, 679, 683 
U.N. Fourth Committee, criticism voiced of French rule 

in Morocco, 625 
U.S. Ambassador (Dunn), nomination confirmed, 479 
Yugoslavia, program of economic aid, discussed by 
French, U.S., and U.K. representatives, 359, 746 
Free world, unity of, goal of opponents of communism 

(Dulles, Acheson), 91, 647 
Freedom of information, present world status, statement 

(Binder), 508 
Freedom of information, proposed convention cited, 516 
Freedom of Information and Press, U.N. Subcommission 

on, 5th session, proceedings, 4.35, 508, 516, 1041 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights (1925), with 
Hungary, notice of U.S. suspension of concessions 
under, 946, 1019 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), treaties 
before Senate with Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, 
Greece, and Israel, testimony (Linder), 881 
Friendship and alliance, China and U.S.S.R. (1945), sta- 
tus discussed in U.N. committee, 177, 219, 220, 635 
Fulbright Act (1946), cited, 906 



Index, January to June 1952 



1057 



Gabbert, Howard M., designation under TCA, 191 
Gandy, Theodore I., designation under TCA, 191 
Gases, protocol for prohibition of use in war of asphyxiat- 
ing, poisonous, or other gases (1925), reference, 911, 
1041 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. 
Gay, Merrill C, U.S. representative to 8th session of 

ECAFE, 136 
General Assembly: 

Collective Measures Committee. iSee Collective Meas- 
ures Committee. 
Declaration of death of missing persons, convention on 

(1950), enters into force, 49 
Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Commis- 
sion. 
Greeli question, proceedings on, 283, 328, 333 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, proceedings, 107 
Interference in internal affairs of states, Soviet charge 

against U.S., 28, 29, 32, 128, 635 
Lib.va, admission to U.N., proceedings, 635 
Resolutions : 
Balkan Subcommission of the Peace Observation Com 
mission, text of resolutions establishing (Dec. 7, 
1951; Jan. 23, 1952), article (Howard), and state- 
ments (Cohen), 283, 286, 288, 328, 331, 332, 333 • 
Chinese representation in U.N., 635 
Chinese resolution, charging Soviet violation of Sino- 
Soviet treaty (1945), adopted (Feb. 1), text, and 
statement (Cooper), 177, 219, 220, 635 
Disarmament Commission, for regulation, limitation 
and balanced reduction of forces (Jan. 11), text, 21, 
126, 501, 507, 633 
Embargo on shipment of arms to Communist China 
(May IS, 1951) implemented by Haiti and Mexico, 
75, 139 
Germany, commission to investigate conditions for 
free elections in, text of tripartite resolution, U.S., 
U.K., France (Dec. 19, 1951), and statements 
(Cooper), 54, 55, 58, 310, 377, 531, 564, 567, 634 
Korean armistice, special session upon conclusion of 

(adopted Feb. 5), 260, 634 
Multilateral conventions, resolution and amended 
resolution on reservations to, adopted (Jan. 4; 
Jan 12), and statement (Colien), 71, 73, 107 
Palestine, U.N. Relief and Works Agency's program 
for refugees (Jan. 26), text, 138, 177, 224, 226, 635 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, continuance of 
(Jan 26), draft text and statement (Jessup), 129, 
130, 177, 635 
Repatriation of Greek children, continuance of Stand- 
ing Committee on (Feb. 2), text, and article (How- 
ard), 283, 328, 333 
Soviet draft disarmament resolution, text, and state- 
ment (Acheson), 126, 127, 138 
Soviet draft resolution condemning Mutual Security 
Act, text, excerpt, and statement (Mansfield), 128 
Soviet draft resolution defining aggression, text and 

statement (Maktos), 131, 135 
Uniting for peace (Nov. 3, 1950), cited, 6.34, 677, 678, 
682 



General Assembly — Continued 
Resolutions — Continued 

UNSCOB, termination of, and Peace Observation 
Commission to establish Balkan subcommission 
(Dec. 7, 1951; Jan. 23, 1952), text, article (How- 
ard), and statements (Cohen), 283, 286, 288, 328, 
331, 332 
Yugoslav resolution (Dec. 14, 1951), text, and U.S. 
statement (Cooper), 62, 634 
6th session, report on (Howard), 283, 328 
6th session, report on (Taylor), 632, 673 
U.S. delegates to 6th session, 632 
Geneva protocol for prohibition of use in war of asphyxi- 
ating, poisonous, or other .i;ases, and of bacteriological 
methods of warfare (1925). See Bacteriological un- 
der Germ warfare. 
"Germ warfare" in Korea, Soviet charges : 
American fliers, alleged confessions, 777 
Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 
(1925), Soviet attitude toward, statements (Cohen, 
Gro.ss), 911, 1041 
Red Cross investigation of Communist charges, mes- 
sages to Red Cross (Acheson) and statement (Red 
Cross), 452, 4.53 
Soviet charges, 506, 515, 516, 649, 1030 
Statements denying (Acheson), 427, 529, 649, 666, 777 
German Corporate Dollar Bonds, U.S. Committee for, 461, 

821 
German Debts, Tripartite Commission on : 
Conference under auspices of, 397, 461, 821 
Pierson, Warren Lee, U.S. representative, 206, 461 
Terms of settlement proposed, 378, 474 
German enemy assets : 

Conflicting claims to, deadline, 821 
U.S. and Norway, conflicting claims, 746 
German External Debts, International Conference on : 
Correspondence, Senator Gillette and Assistant Secre- 
tary McFall, 473, 475 
Plans and proposed terms, 206, 378, 397, 461, 821 
Germany (see also Berlin) : 

Armed forces to merge with French and other European 

forces, 411, 464, 897 
Brussels agreement (1947) on conflicting claims to Ger- 
man enemy assets, deadline under, 821 
Carl Schurz award. West German to receive, 745, 807. 

851 
Chancellor Adenauer, conference with Western Foreign 

Ministers, 325, 376, 423 
Chancellor Adenauer, summaries of letters exchanged 
with Western Foreign Ministers and High Commis- 
sioners on contractual agreements, 894 
Coal production, increase in 1951, 378 
Communist Party in, action before court to outlaw, 379 
Court, Federal Constitutional, first decision, 379 
Debts. .S'ee German external debts. 
Defense contribution, report by members of Executive 

Bureau of TCC, 423 
Economic and political progress, address and report 

(McCloy), 323, 378 
Economic developments in 1951, report (Miller), 302 
Elections. See Elections. 

European unity, relation to. See European unity. 
Exchange-of-persons program, appointments, 439 



1058 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Germany (see also Berlin) — Continued 

Export-Import Banli, loan for purchase of U.S. tobacco, 

1010 
Gros.s national product and defense expenditures, table, 

424 
IRO prd.sjrani in, termination of, 379 
Marshall Plan objectives reached (McCloy), 45 
NATO, potential economic contribution to, 576 
Nazism, present German attitude toward, 159 
9th quarterly report, to State Department and to MSA, 

transmittal letter (McCloy), 376 
Occupation, end of, and repeal of statute, 363, 365, 855, 

887, SSS, 931, 948, 950, 971, 976 
Peace treaty (proixised), statements (Acheson), Soviet 
draft and notes, and text of identic replies by U.S., 
U.K., and France, 530, 531, 532, 650, 777, 817, 819 
Political conditions, testimony (McCloy), 974 
Potsdam agreement on eastern frontier, cited, 531, 650 
Reorganization of southwestern states, 379 
Reparations not to be claimed by U.S., U.K., and France, 

under contractual agreements, 979 
RIAS, 24-hour service inaugurated, 489 
Saar question, to negotiate settlement with France, 495 
Student's role today (McCloy), 159 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Arbiti-ation Tribunal, charter annexed to convention 

on relations with Three Powers, 889, 950, 977 
Armed forces, foreign, in Germany, rights and obliga- 
tions of, signature with Three Powers and summary, 
887, 891 
Contractual agreements, article (Kellermann) and 

address (McCloy), 855, 857 
Contractual agreements with Three Powers, signa- 
ture, statements (Acheson, McCloy), summary, and 
transmittal to U.S. Senate, 887, 888, 931, 947, 949, 
971, 973, 974 
European Defense Community, creation of, si.gnature, 

895 
EDC, question of German role in, tripartite com- 
munique (U.S., U.K., France), quadripartite com- 
munique with German Chancellor, and NAG plans 
for, 316, 325, 363, 367, 411, 531, 620, 650 
Finance convention with Three Powers, signature and 

sunuuary, 887, 893, 950, 977 
GATT, protocol on tariff concessions, signature, 758 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, signa- 
ture, statements (Acheson, McCloy), and summary, 
887, 888, 971, 976 
Rights and obligations of foreign forces in Germany, 
between Three Powers and Germany, signature and 
summary, 887, 891, 950, 977 
Schuman Plan, ratification of, statement (Acheson), 

92 
Settlement of matters arising out of war, convention 
signed with Three Powers, signature and summary, 
890, 950, 977 
Unification, proposals, article (Cox), exchange of notes 
by U.S.S.R. with Three Powers, and address (Mc- 
Cloy), 377, 531, 563, 564, 651, 817, 857 
U.S. policy in, articles based on address by Mr. Keller- 
mann before Carl Schurz Memorial Foundation, 
807, 851 



Germany, Allied High Commission for (HICOM). See 

AUied High Commission. 
Germany, U.S. High Commissioner, Office of (HI COG) : 
Motion Pictures Program, appointment of chief (Tem- 

pleton), 762 
New location, 379 
Public-safety project, appointment of specialist 

(Roach), 519 
U.S. Assistant High Commissioner (Reber), appoint- 
ment, 643 
Germany, U.S. High Commissioner for (McCloy) : 
Achievements, statements (Acheson), 851, 032, 971 
Report, 9th quarterly, and testimony on political condi- 
tions, 376, 974 
Germany, U.S. High Commissioner for. Acting (Reber), 
notes to General Chuikov on Soviet obstruction of 
traffic, 902 
Gill, Earle, designation under TCA, 297 
Gillette, Senator Guy M., letter to Assistant Secretary 
McFall on settlement of German external debts, 473 
Gordon, Marcus J., designation under TCA, 603 
Gorrie, Jack, U.S. representative, U.S.-Canadian confer- 
ences on St. Lawrence seaway project, 514 
Graham, Frank P., U.N. representative for India and 
Pakistan : 
Kashmir, demilitarization of, 2d and 3d reports to 

Security Council, excerpts, 52, 712, 760 
Negotiations on Kashmir continuation, 231 
Grasslands. See International Grassland Congress. 
Great Lakes, safety promotion by radio, agreement with 

Canada, signed, 338 
Greco, George J., designation under TCA, 274 
Greece : 

Balkan Subcommission to send observers at request of 

Greek Government, 283, 333, 760 
Economic situation and defense program, MSA state- 
ment, 319 
General Assembly proceedings, article (Howard), 283, 

328 
Mutual Security Program, part in, 469, 472 
NATO ground and air forces of, under command of 

SACEUR, 367 
Refugees of, issuance of immigration visas to, under 

Displaced Persons Act, 121 
Repatriation of Greek children. General Assembly pro- 
ceedings and resolution, and article (Howard), 283, 
284, 328, 333 
Soviet charges in U.N. against Greece, and against U.S. 

and U.K. for intervention, 288, 290 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), be- 
fore Senate, 881 
NAT, accession to, U.S. support, statement (Acheson), 
protocol on accession, and deposit of instrument of 
accession, statements (Webb, Politis), 140, 306, 334 
U.N. military observers in, report of, 760 
UNSCOB, termination of and establishment of Balkan 
Subcommission, text of resolutions, article 
(Howard), and statements (Cohen), 28.3, 328, 331, 
332, 333 
Green, Joseph C, confirmation as Minister to Jordan, 843 
Greene, Joseph N., Jr., U.S. representative at tripartite 
meeting re Trieste, 585 



Index, January to June 7952 



1059 



Grlffis, Stanton, resignation as Ambassador to Spain, 191 
Gross, Ernest A. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 

(1925), Soviet attitude, 1041 
Interference in internal affairs, Soviet charge, 28 
Italy's application for U.X. memljership, 35, 36, 310 
Korean armistice, special session of General Assembly 

upon conclusion of, 260 
Tunisian question, U.S. position on, 679, 683 
Correspondence with Secretary-General, re appointment 
of Commander in Chief, U.N. Command (Clark), 
760 
U.S. alternate representative to 6th session. General 
Assembly, 632 
Gruenther, Alfred M., Chief of Staff to SACEUR, extension 
of appointment, statements (Truman, Acheson), 743 
Guatemala, accession to convention on declaration of 
death of missing persons, 49 

Haiti : 

Ambassador (Leger) to U.S., credentials, 758 
Embargo on shipment of arms to Chinese Communists, 

75, 139 
Point 4 appointment, 274 
Hardy, Benjamin H., TCA officer, death in airplane crash 

in Iran, 37 
Harriman W. Averell, Director for Mutual Security: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Mutual Security Program, statements and testimony, 

124, 411, 467 
NAT, 3d anniversary, 570 
Correspondence : 

Congressional Committees, on allotment of Mutual 
Security funds to U.K. for support of defense pro- 
gram, 236, 237 
Congressional Committees, on status of negotiations 
with Iran, Afghanistan, Burma, Egypt, Iraq, and 
Ireland under Mutual Security Act (1951), 238 
President Truman, on transfer of MSA funds from 
military to economic category, 318 
Havana Charter, measures recommended by ECOSOC 
resolution for business practices in accord with, 311 
Hawkins, Harry C. resignation, 191 
Hays, George P., Commanding General, U.S. Forces in 

Austria, ai^pointment, 643 
Health (see also World Health Organization) : 

Inauguration in Latin America of health and sanitation 

programs, 390 
World problems reviewed, address (Thorp), 541 
Heath, Donald R., U.S. Ambassador Designate to Cam- 
bodia and Vietnam, 979 
Herrington, William C, Special Assistant to Under Secre- 
tary for Fisheries and Wildlife, articles on fisheries, 
340, 1021 
HICOG. See Germany, U.S. High Commissioner. 
HICOM. See Allied High Commission for Germany. 
Hoey, Robert E., officer in charge, Vietnam-Laos-Cambo- 
dian Affairs, address on U.S. policy in Indochina 
(over NBC-TV), 453 
Holmes, Julius C, U.S. representative at tripartite meet- 
ing re Trieste, 585 



Honduras : 

Point 4 appointment, 274 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Point 4 agreement, establishing civil-aviation mission, 

exchange of notes, 428 
Radio, inter-American agreement, enters into force, 
500 
Hopkins, David Luke, appointment in NATO, 933 
Housing in U.S., statements (Mrs. Roosevelt, Lubin) in 

answer to Soviet statements, 1026, 1035 
Howard, Harry N., article on Greek question, proceedings, 

6th session of General Assembly, 283, 328 
Human rights : 

Hungarian violations, retention of Amercian fliers, and 
U.S. note, submitting evidence of violation of peace 
treaty (1947) provisions, 7, 496 
U.N. Charter provisions on, superseded by domestic 
legislation, 744 
Human Rights, Commission on : 

Drafting of two covenants, proceedings, 674, 683, 798, 

877, 918 
8th session, U.S. delegation, 632, 680 
U.S. representative, (Mrs. Roosevelt) statements, 59, 
1024, 1042 
Human rights, convention on, signed (1950), and protocol 

drawn up by Council of Europe, 528 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of, cited, 628 
Humelsine, Carlisle H., Deputy Under Secretary for Ad- 
ministration, letter to Vincent and address on Antie- 
tam, 351, 938 
Hummel, John L., designation under TCA, 274 
Hungai'y : 

American fliers, U.S. efforts for release, statement 

(Acheson), 7 
Consulates in U.S. closed, note and statement (Ache- 
son), 7 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights treaty 
(1925), notice of U.S. suspension of concessions 
under 946, 1019 
Nationalization decree, notice to protect U.S. property 

interests, 540 
Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, statement 
(Acheson), 7, 736 
Hutchison, Claude B., designation under TCA, 351 
Hyde, Henry van Zile, designation under TCA, 351 
Hydrographic conference, international, 6th, U.S. delega- 
tion, 636 

IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 
Iceland, escape clause in trade agreement with, 147 
IIA. iSee International Information Administration. 
IJC. See International Joint Commission 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
IMC. See International Materials Conference. 
Immigration, examined by data of Visa Division and by 

quota nationality, excerpts from address by Prank 

L. Auerbach, 980 
Immigration of European farm workers, relation to U.S. 

production, 553 



1060, 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



India : 

Agricultural conditions and political attitude, address 

(Bowles), 101 
Aid, financial, from U.S., 1015, 1017 
Ambassador to U.S. (Binay Ranjan Sen), credentials, 

49 
Economic development, address (Thorp), 291 
Film Festival, international, U.S. delegation, 175 
Indo-Anierican Fund, 611 

Kashmir, demilitarization of, excerpts of reports 
(Graham), to U.N., text of Security Council resolu- 
tion, and statements (Ross, Chauvel), 52, 202, 712, 
713, 714 
Kashmir, dispute with Pakistan, negotiations, 231, 760 
Malaria control in, 541 
Mutual Security Program in, statements (Acheson, 

Cowen), 465, 705 
Point 4 agreement and supplementary agreement, 
signed, and projects under, organization and funds, 
47, 294, 1015, 1017 
Point 4 program in, addresses (Thorp, Acheson, Cowen), 

291, 611, 705 
Technical assistance programs in, 293, 294 
India Emergency Food Aid Act (1951), cited, 559 
Indian Institute (Inter-American), U.S. representatives, 

758 
Indo-American Fund, cited, 611 
Indochina : 
Conversations in Washington with representatives of 

France and Associated States, 1009 
Military situation in, 314 
U.S. aid in arms and munitions, 1009, 1010 
U.S. policy in, addresses (Hoey, Allison), 453, 654, 657 
Indonesia : 

Export-Import Bank, additional loan for U.S. imports, 

494 
U.S. Ambassador (Cochran), expression by Acting Sec- 
retary Webb of confidence in, 399 
Industrial property. See Copyright; Patents. 
Information. See International Information Administra- 
tion. 
Information, U.N. Subcommission on Freedom of, 5th ses- 
sion, proceedings, 4.35, 508, 516, 1041 
Information, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 5th report, 

cited, 338 
Insecticides, U.N. Working Party on, established, 272 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs : 

Anniversary, 10th, statements (Truman, Ache.son), 584 
Ecuador, sanitation and housing programs in, 390, 544 
El Salvador, technical assistance program in, 631 
Regional office of TCA in Latin America, 191, 428, 542, 
544 
Inter-American Cultural and Trade Center at Miami, text 

of proclamation, 211 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention for pro- 
motion of (1936), exchange of graduate students, 
667, 1023 
Inter-American Defense Board, plans, 336, 630, 709 
Inter-American Highway and Rama Road, Congressional 

testimony re construction, 357 
Inter-American Indian Institute, U.S. representatives, 758 
Inter-American radio agreement, entry into force, 500 



Inter-American Travel Congress, 4th U.S. delegation to, 

637 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, work of, 1022 
Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security, ap- 
pointment of executive seeretai-y to subcommittee 
(Trapnell), 190 
International Authority for the Ruhr, Schuman Plan High 

Authority to replace, 377 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD) : 
Iran, reference to, for financial aid, 494 
Loans to : 

India, 294, 295 
Mexico, 499 
Pakistan, 1013 
Technical assistance program, loans, 628 
International Boundary and Water Commission, Falc6n 

Dam, U.S.-Mexican joint construction, 499 
International Children's Elmergency Fund, U.N. 
(UNICEF) : 
Budget for 1952, 760 
Program Committee and Executive Board meetings, 

article by Miss Lenroot, 962 
Relationship to other agencies, 963 
U.S. contribution. President's letters to Congress urg- 
ing, 477 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 

Air-traffic control, plan for Europe, report of Paris 

meeting to ICAO council, 258 
Assembly, 6th session and U.S. delegation, 916 
European-Mediterranean Regional Air Navigation, 3d 

meeting, U.S. delegation, 433 
Personnel Licensing Division, 4th session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 176 
Standing Committee on Performance, 2d meeting, U.S. 
delegates, 796 
International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fish- 
eries, Panel for Sub-area V, U.S. delegation, 398 
International Court of Justice : 

Compulsory jurisdiction, acceptance by Japan in respect 

to Japanese peace treaty, 12 
Iranian oil dispute, interim measures suggested, 314 
Lend-lease vessels, question of return to U.S. by U.S.S.R. 

U.S. proposal for adjudication, 86, 87, 88 
Reservations to multilateral convention on prevention 
and punishment of crime of genocide, advisory opin- 
ion (May 28, 1951), 72, 73 
International Development Advisory Board, Johnston, 

Eric, accepts chairmanship (letter to Truman), 168 
International Economic Conference, U.S. attitude, state- 
ment (Acheson), 447 
International Fisheries Commission, 1023 
International Grassland Congress, 6th, to be held in the 

United States, 309 
International Hydrographlc Conference, 6th, U.S. delega- 
tion, 636 
International Information Administration (IIA) : 

Administrator (Compton), addresses, 443, 668, 670, 827, 

864, 966 
Amerika, inaccuracy of article in Tune on, 1043 
Background of its development and reorganization, 

article (Sargeant), 483 
Cultural interchange, 539 



Index, January fo June ?952 



1061 



International Information Administration — Continued 
Educational Exchange Program. See Educational 

Exchange. 
Established as agency within State Department, 151, 

446 
Private Enterprise Cooperation, Chicago office, 966 
Sargeant, addresses, 202, 483, 535, 707, 780 
VOA. See Voice of America. 
International Institute for Unification of Private Lave, 

cited, 526 
International Joint Commission (IJC) : 
Boundary waters treaty (with U.K., 1909), IJC estab- 
lished by sets up advisory boards on control of 
pollution, 428 
Lake Ontario, question of high-water level to be referred 

to, 903, 904, 905 
St. Lawrence power project, question of referral to, 232, 
234, 235, 514, 719 
International Labor Conference, 35th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 1001 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Cited, 524, 529 

Iron and Steel Committee, 4th session, 838 
Regional Conference of American States Members, 5th, 
U.S. delegation, 681 
International law and disarmament, address (Cohen), 834 
International Law Commission, report on reservations 

to multilateral conventions, statement (Cohen), 71 
International Materials Conference (IMC) : 
Allocations of scarce materials, system, testimony 

(Thorp), 802 
Central Group, U.S. representative, 795 
Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee, allocations, 15, 589 
Creation of, address (Brown), 255 

Defense Materials Procurement Agency, creation, 558 
Defense Production Administrator (Fleischmann), ad- 
dress on international cooperation, 297 
Description of, letter (Thorp to Ferguson), 277 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee, allocations, 16, 70, 

308, 590 
Pulp-Paper Committee, allocation of newsprint, and 

reports, 279, 708, 914 
Report (Feb. 26, 1951-Mar. 1, 1952), highlights, 793 
Sulphur Committee, membership and allocations, 16, 176 
Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee, allocations, 69, 591 
International Mathematical Union, 1st general assembly, 

U.S. delegation, 433, 870 
International Organization for Standardization, address 

(Tliorp), 1036 
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 1023 
International plant protection convention (1929), revision 

approved by FAO conference, 6th session, 198 
International Refugee Organization (see also Refugees 
and displaced persons) : 
Achievements, 921 
Cited, 529, 551, 638 

8th and 9th (final) sessions of council, reports and finan- 
cial statements, 50, 458 
Germany, termination of program in, 379 
Liquidation, proceedings and establishment of Board of, 

50, 273, 379, 458, 459 
U.S. contribution, 460 



International Telecommunication Union, Administrative 

Council, 7th session, U.S. delegation, 636 
International Wheat Council, Sth session, U.S. delegation, 

681 
Intervention in internal affairs of other states : 

Soviet charges against section of U.S. Mutual Security 
Act, statements (Gross, Mansfield), and U.N. pro- 
ceedings, 28, 29, 32, 128, 635 
Soviet charges against U.S. and U.K. with reference to 
UNSCOB in Greece, 288 
Investment of private capital abroad, 292, 407, 747, 882 
Iran : 
Escape clause in trade agreement with, 147 
Military-assistance agreement, continuance of supplies, 

238, 746 
Oil dispute, developments (1951), 314 
Point 4 agreement, signed, 217 
I'oint 4 program in, address (Thorp), 541 
Point 4 projects, 658, 659 
Student emergency assLstance program, 659 
U.S. financial aid, U.S. answer to request for, 494 
Iraq: 

Disarmament draft resolution, Iraqi comments, state- 
ment answering (Jessup), 26 
Economic aid under Mutual Security Act, question, 238 
Point 4 appointments, 274, 479 
Ireland : 

Mutual Security Program, inability to subscribe to, 238 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Consular convention (1950), protocol, signed, 427 
Double taxation, income and estate (1949), ratified, 8 
IRO. See International Refugee Organization. 
Iron and Steel Committee of ILO, U.S. delegation to 4th 

session, 838 
Iron Curtain, resistance in the satellite areas, a year's re- 
view, 84 
Israel : 
Arab property in, U.N. proceedings on question of, 760 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation ( 1951 ) , treaty 

before Senate, 881 
Refugee resettlement program in, U.S. contribution 
under MSP, 381, 746 
Italy : 
Administration of Zone A of Free Territory of Trieste, 
tripartite communique and memorandum of under- 
standing with U.S. and U.K., 585, 779 
Economy of, effect of U.S. trade restrictions on, exchange 
of notes with U.S., and memorandum, 518, 660, 661 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Euroijean Defense Community, treaty establishing, 

signature, 895 
Schuman Plan treaty, ratification of, 1023 
U.N. membership, Soviet attitude and U.S. attitude, 

statements (Gross), 35, 310 
U.S. Ambassador (Bunker), nomination confirmed, 479 

Jago. John W., appointed as director of technical coopera- 
tion program in Libya, 218 

Japan : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Araki), credentials, 9S3 
Charge d'Affaires (Takeuchi), credentials, 687 
Defense of free world, role in, address (Sebald), 493 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 



Japan — Continued 
ECAFB, admission as associate member of, 311 
Export-Import Bank, loan for U.S. cotton shipment, 339 
International Court of Justice, declaration accepting 

jurisdiction of, 12 
Land reform and industrial reform, addresses (Tobias, 

Sebald), 63, 491 
Secured Fund, distribution among Allies, by Supreme 

Commander, 428 
So\'iet retaliation, question of danger in Japanese status, 
letter (Acheson to Wiley) enclosing MacArthur 
statement, 355 
Support of Nationalist China, exchange of notes with 

U.S., 120 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Admiui.strative agreement, U.S. -Japan, signature, 
statement (Rusk) at negotiations, text, and ex- 
change of notes, 215, 382, 389 
Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, with U.S. and 
Canada, text of convention and protocol, 343, 346, 
830, 1022 
Peace and security treaties with Japan (1951), U.S. 
ratification, proclamation, and entry into force, 491, 
658, 687, 688 
Peace settlement, addre.sses and statements : 
Acheson, 185, 491, 687 
Allison, 212, 455, 6.53, 656, 689 
Dulles, 91, 186, 213, 688 
Sebald, 490 
Truman, 658, 687 
Yoshida, 689 
Tripartite Fisheries Conference (1951), article (Her- 

rington), and text of resolutions, 341, 342 
Tuna-fish imports into U.S., 3.53 
U.S. Ambassador to (Murphy), address, 719 
U.S.-Japanese relations, addresses (Dulles, Allison, 
Ridgway), 91, 212, 652, 926 
Javits, Jacob K., Congressman, correspondence with Secre- 
tary Acheson on Tunisian case, 799 
Jeppsen, Ernest C, designation under TCA, 274 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Disarmament Commission for balanced reduction of 
forces, revision of General Assembly resolution, 21, 
26 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, U.S. support, 129 
Soviet behavior pattern, 264 
General Assembly, 6th session, U.S. representative, 632 
Johnston, Eric A. : 
Addresses on Point 4 program and role of private capital 

in, 391, 747 
Letter to Truman, 168 
Joint Brazil-U.S. Economic Development Mission, mem- 
ber (Knapp) appointed director of technical coopera- 
tion for Brazil, 191 
Joint Committee for consultation, established under U.S.- 
Japanese administrative agreement, 388 
Jordan : 

Point 4 agreements, signed, 48, 334 
Point 4 appointments, 439, 603 
U.S. Minister (Green), confirmation, 843 
Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands : 
Address before Congress, 580 



Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands — Continued 

Carillon, presentation to U.S., address (Truman), 613 
Visit to U.S. and presence at NAT ceremonies, 495, 548 

Kashmir : 

Demilitarization of, excerpts of report (Graham) to 
U.N., text of Security Council resolution (Mar. 30, 
1951), and statements (Ross, Chauvel), 52, 231, 262, 
712, 713, 714, 760 
Status of, address by Ambassador to Pakistan 
(Warren), 1014 
Katyn Forest massacre, text of U.S. note re Polish press 

release on, 498 
Kellermann, Henry J., article on Germany, based on ad- 
dress before CJarl Schurz Memorial Foundation, 807, 
851 
Kennan, George F., Ambassador to U.S.S.R., confirmation 

and statement of, 479, 643 
King, James F., named as U.S. representative on Central 

Group of IMC, 795 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., resignation as Ambassador to 

U.S.S.R., 352 
Knapp, J. Burke, designation under TCA, 191 
Knaus, Karl G., designation under TCA, 297 
Knowland, Senator William F., correspondence with: 
Secretary of State on status of vessels transferred under 

lend-lease to U.S.S.R., 879 
Under Secretary Webb on release of names of Ameri- 
can prisoners in China, 11, 239 
Kommandatura, Allied, in Berlin, declaration, 894 
Korea : 

Armistice negotiations. See Korean armistice negotia- 
tions. 
Economic coordination, agreement with U.S., signature, 

943 
"Germ warfare," charges of. See "Germ warfare." 
Japanese contribution to U.N. operation in, 493 
Military aid to U.N., status of offers, 311 
Military operations in, address by General Ridgway 

before Congress, 924 
Presidential mission to, announced, 602 
Prisoners of war, text of proposals of U.N. Command 
for exchange of, and statements (Libby, Ridgway, 
Ti-uman, Acheson), 105, 106, 786, 787, 788 
U.N. Command, appointment of Commander in Chief 

(Clark), statement (Truman), 743, 760 
U.N. Command operations, 30th through 41st reports 
(Sept. 16, 1951-Mar. 15, 1952), 266, 268, 270, 395, 
4.30, 512, 594, 597, 715, 788, 998, 1038 
U.S. policy in, addresses (Allison, Muccio), 455, 654, 656, 

939 
U.S. voluntary aid to, statement (Acheson), 693 
WHO'S of'l'er of assistance to epidemic victims, U.S. 
support, statement (Acheson), 495 
Korean armistice negotiations : 

Address before Congress, by General Ridgway, 925 
Background, report on MDAP (Truman), 314 
General Assembly to be called in special session upon 
conclusion of negotiations, text of resolution and 
statement (Gross), 260, 634 
Prisoners of war, principles set forth by U. N. Command 
for exchange of, 105 



Index, January to June 1952 



1063 



Korean armistice negotiations — Continued 
Soviet i)roposal that Security Council act on, U.S. atti- 
tude, text, 46, 47, 74 
U.N. Command, proposal on tliree issues, statements 
( Ridg-way, Truman, Aclieson ) , 786, 787, 788 
Kretzmann, Edwin M. J., policy adviser, article on three 
psychological victories by VOA, 249 

La Prensa, suppression mentioned, 509, 511. 516 
Land : 

Arid, development of, discussion in ECOSOC, 918 
6th International Grassland Congress, plans, 309 
Land law, alien, of California (1920), declared invalid by 

California Supreme Court, 744, 959 
Land reform : 

FAO Conference, 6th session, discussion of, 196, 202 

India, progress in, address (Bowles), 162 

Japan, under U.S. Occupation, 491 

Land holdings in underdeveloped areas, address 

(Lubin), 935 
U.N. program, cooperation of ECAFE with FAO and 

ECOSOC, 311 
U.S. and U.N activity in (Tobias), 63 
Land Tenure Conference, World, Results of, 838 
Lands (El Encanto) in Panama, American-owned, dis- 
puted title, 545 
Laos. See Indochina. 
Law : 

International, and disarmament, address (Cohen), 834 
Legislative function of, address (Acheson), 694 
Private, International Institute for Unification of, 526 
Lease of naval air bases in Caribbean (1941), agreement 
with U.K., negotiations for release by U.S. of areas 
for affi'icultural use, 833 
Lebanon : 

Amendments to disarmament draft resolution, U.S. atti- 
tude on, statement (Jessup), 28 
Point 4 appointment, 479 
Leger, Jacques, Ambassador of Haiti, credentials, 758 
Lend-lease settlement : 
Liberia, 13 

U.S.S.R., proposal by U.S. for adjudication by Inter- 
national Court of Justice, exchange of notes with 
U.S.S.R., 86, 87, 88 
Ves.sels transferred to U.S.S.R., status, correspondence 
between Senator Knowland and Secretary of State, 
S79 
Lenroot, Katharine F., article on international programs 

for children, 962 
Letourneau, Jean, French Minister of the Associated 

States, conversations with U.S. officials, 1009 
L'Heureux, Herv6 J., Chief, Visa Division, statement on 

administration of Displaced Persons Act, 121 
Libby, Hear Admiral R. E., U.S.N., statement, U.N. Com- 
mand recommendations for exchange of war prisoners 
and civilians, 105 
Liberia : 

Ambassador to U. S. (Simpson), credentials, 778 
Point 4 program in, 13 

President Tubman's inauguration, U.S. delegation to, 13 
Libya : 

American Minister (ViUard), confirmation, 352 
Point 4 general agreement, signed, 218 



Lil)ya — Continued 
Revenues, lack of sufficient, and source of loans, 624 
United Nations, admission to, proceedings on, 635 
Lichtenberger, Allan R., designation in exchange-of- 

persons programs, 4.39 
Linder, Harold P., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs : 
Addresses and testimony : 

Customs, simplification of, 761 
Duties on tuna-fish imports, 352 
Trade expansion, 898 

Treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation with 
Colombia, Greece. Israel, Ethiopia, and Denmark 
(testimony), 881 
Litvinov, Maxim M., 28, 32 

Locke, Edwin A., Jr., U.S. Member of Advisory Commis- 
sion of UNRWA, confirmation, 351 
Locust-infested areas of Pakistan and India, Point 4 

projects, 1013, 1017 
Lodge Act (19.50), cited, 553 
Loewenthal-Chlumecivy, Max, credentials as Austrian 

Ambassador, 305 
Lovett, Robert A., Secretary of Defense, correspondence 
with General Eisenhower on release from assignment 
as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers Europe, 614 
Loyalty and Security Board, State Department, procedure, 

statement (Acheson), 437 
Lubin, Isador : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Soviet misrepresentations of U.S. economy, 1032 
Underdeveloijed countries, effect of social revolution 

on, 934 
World economic situation, 989 
Memorandum on world economic situation and U.S. 
economy, 1035 
Luxembourg, signature of treaty establishing European 
Defense Community, 895 

MacArtliur, Gen. Douglas, statement re effect of Japanese 

peace treaty on Soviet-Japanese relations, 356 
McCloy, John J., U.S. High Commissioner for Germany: 
Achievements, statements (Acheson), 851, 932, 971 
Addresses and statements : 

German student's role today (at Freiburg), 159 
German unification (RIAS broadcast), 323 
Germany, contractual agreements, testimony, 974 
Marshall Plan objectives accomplished in Western 

Germany (over NBC-TV), 45 
Threshold of sovereignty, 857 
Report, 9th quarterly, and testimony on political con- 
ditions, 376, 974 
McCormick, Admiral, Lynde D., appointment. Supreme 

Allied Commander, Atlantic, 248 
McFall, Jack K., Assistant Secretary of State, 475, 799 
McGhee, George C. : 

Address at Istanbul, on Turkish-American partnership, 

774 
Confirmation as Ambassador to Turkey, 352 
MacVeagh, Lincoln, Ambassador to Spain, confirmation, 

351 
Maktos, John, U.S. delegate to General Assembly, state- 
ment on Soviet draft resolution on aggression, 131 



1064 



Department of State Bulletin 



Malaya : 

Anglo-American solidarity of purpose, statement 

(Acheson), 427 
Political situation In 1951, address (Allison), 457 
Manchuria, Soviet actions in, in violation of Sino-Soviet 

treaty (Cooper), 222 
Mansfield, Mike J. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Interference in Internal affairs, answer to Soviet 

charge (at General Assembly), 29, 128 
Prisoners of War, U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on, 228 
U.S. representative to 6th ses.sion. General Assembly, 
and to U.N. Commission on Prisoners of War, 349, 
632 
Marshall, Charles B., member. Policy Planning Staff: 
Address on principle of responsibility in U.S. foreign 

policy, 698 
Article on U.S. foreign policy, 415 
Marshall Plan : 

Cited, 406, 413, 662, 663, 664 

Common action under, address (Acheson), 696 

Completion and accomplishments of, 43, 574, 620, 728, 

742 
European eiforts to contribute to, 574 
Martin, Haywood P., appointment as Assistant Adminis- 
trator for Management of TCA, 966 
Mathematical Union, International, 1st session, 870 
MDAP. See Mutual Defense Assistance Program. 
Mendes Vianna, A., Chairman, U.N. Commission to Inves- 
tigate Conditions for Free Elections in Germany, let- 
ter to HICOM, 350 
Menzies, Robert G., Australian Prime Minister, visit to 

U.S., 826 
Merchant, Livingston T., designated alternate U.S. per- 
manent representative to NAC, 615 
Mesta, Perle, Minister to Luxembourg, address on 

European opinion of U.S., 986 
Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 

anniversary, address (Miller), 498 
Mexican-U.S. Commission for Eradication of Foot and 

Blouth Disease, cited, 499 
Mexico : 

Cooperation in trade and agriculture with U.S., address 

(Miller), 498 
Embargo on arms to Communist China, 75, 139 
Treaties, etc. : 
Agricultural workers, migration of (1951), exten- 
sion, 359, 500, 985 
Military assistance, negotiations, 211 
Radio, inter-American agreement, entry into force, 
500 
Meyer, Clarence, Chief of ECA Mission in Austria, to 

head Presidential mission to Korea, 602 
Migration, labor agreement with Mexico, extended, 359, 

500, 985 
Migration from Europe. See Provisional Intergovern- 
mental Committee for Movement of Migrants. 
Military aid. See Mutual Security Program. 
Military and diplomatic cooperation, address by Secre- 
tary Acheson at Armed Forces Day dinner, 813 
Military-assistance agreements : 

Brazil, negotiations and signature, 47, 93, 450 
Chile, signature, 168, 630 



Military-assistance agreements — Continued 
Colombia, signature, 168, 709 
Cuba, signature, 211, 4.50 

Ecuador, negotiatiims and signature, 168, 336, 391 
Iran, continuance of supplies, 238, 746 
Mexico-, negotiations, 211 
Peru, signature, 93, 336 
Spain, negotiations for use of facilities, 450 
Uruguay, negotiations, 630 
Military mission to Turkey, results of, 775 
Miller, Edward G., Jr., Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Ecuador, U.S. relations with, 390 
Trade relations with American republics, 208 
U.S.-Mexican cooperation, 498 
Miller, William K., economist, OflBce of German Affairs, 

report on West German economy ( 1951 ) , 302 
Missing persons, convention on declaration of death, entry 

into force, 49 
Mitchell, James T., death in plane crash in Iran, 37 
Moral strength, policy of peace through, address (Rus- 
sell), 731 
Morocco : 
Arab States submit complaint in U.N. on violation of 

human rights in, 634 
U.N. Fourth Committee, criticism voiced of French rule 
in, 625 
Moscow Declaration (1943), cited, 379, 448 
Moslem peoples of Pakistan and international Moslem 

organizations, address (Warren), 1012 
Motor touring, international, under road traffic conven- 
tion (1949), 545 
Motor traffic, convention relative to (1926), cited, 545 
MSA. See Mutual Security Agency. 
MSP. See Mutual Security Program. 
Muccio, John J., Ambassador to Korea, address on Korean 

situation, 939 
Multilateral conventions and agreements, international: 
Reservations, report of International Law Commission, 

statement (Cohen), 71 
Status (1951), U.N. table, 103 
Muniz, Joao Carlos, chairman of U.N. Collective Measures 

Committee, statement on report of, 98 
Munro, Leslie Knox, Ambassador of New Zealand, creden- 
tials, 381 
Murphy, Rev. Max E., designation in exehange-of-persons 

program, 439 
Murphy, Robert D. : 

Ambassador to Belgium, statement on Belgium's con- 
tribution to Western defense, 616 
Ambassador to Japan, remarks on taking oath of oflBce, 
719 
Mutual assistance in raw materials, agreement with U.K., 
signed, exchanging steel for aluminum and tin, 115, 
297 
Mutual Defense Assistance Act (1949), 312 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, 1951 (Battle 

Act), aid to Netherlands under, 720 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program (MDAP) : 
President's 4th and final report to Congress, 312 
Purposes, 574, 620, 729 



Index, January fo June 7952 



1065 



Mutual defense treaty, with Philippines (1951), U.S. rati- 
fication, and statements (Aeheson, Dulles, Truman), 
185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 658 
Mutual Security Act of 1951 : 

Approval date, 312 

Chiefs of U.S. Diplomatic Missions, responsibilities 
under, 642 

Conditions to be met by countries for aid under, and 
report (Harriman to Congress), 238, 652, 657 

Director, powers under, President's letter to Congress 
and Budget Bureau report re, 555, 556 

Interference in internal affairs of states, Soviet charge 
and statements (Gross, Mansfield), 28, 29, 128, 635 

Refugee resettlement in Israel, U.S. contribution for, 
381, 746 

Refugees from coniiuunism, aid under section 101, ref- 
erence to NATO forces, Tresident's message and 
identic letters to Congress, and testimony (Bruce), 
553, 602, 922 

Transfer of funds under, for economic aid to France, 
U.K., Greece, Turkey, and Yugoslavia (letter from 
President to chairmen of Congressional committees, 
with enclosures), 317, 318, 319 
Mutual Security Agency (MSA) : 

Agricultural and cooperative credit, international con- 
ference, part in, 837 

Creation of new agency, replacing EGA, 43 

Director for. President's letter to Congress and Budget 
Bureau report re powers of, 555, 556 

Organizational structure of, 124, 312, 315, 404 

U.S. Special Representative in Europe (Draper), nomi- 
nation of, 123, 124, 615 
Mutual Security Program (MSP) : 

Addresses and testimony (Harriman), 411, 467, 570 

Annual message to Congress (Truman), 79 

Bacljground development, 312, 404, 620, 729 

Bases on foreign soil, 403 

Budget message to Congress (Truman), excerpt, 179 

Coordination of military, economic, and technical-as- 
sistance programs under, testimony (Aeheson, Har- 
riman, Truman ) , 463, 467, 471 

Funds for, correspondence between Senator Connally 
and General Eisenhower, 840 

India, significance of MSP in (Aeheson), 465 

Indochina, U.S. military aid, address (Allison), 457 

Iran, military assistance, continuance, 238, 746 

Ireland, inability to subscribe to, 238 

Israel, U.S. contribution for relief of refugees in, 746 

Joint communique (Truman and Churchill), text, 83 

Military-assistance agreements, gee Military-assist- 
ance agreements. 

Mutual defense treaty with Philippines, and security 
treaties with Japan and with Australia and New 
Zealand. U.S. ratification, testimony and state- 
ments (Aeheson, Dulles, Truman), 185, 186, 491, 
658 

Philippines, U.S. military aid, address (Allison), 456 

President Truman, message to Congress, recommending 
continuance for coming year and summary of first 
report to Congress, 403, 471 

Strategic materials, agreement with U.K. for mutual 
assistance in, article (Fleischmann), 297 



Mutual Security Program — Continued 

Strength through mutual security, addresses (Cowen), 

327, 703 
Testimony at hearings (Aeheson, Bruce), 463, 533 
U. K. defense program, allotment of funds to, letters 
(Harriman) to Congressional Committees, 236, 237 
Vietnam, U.S. military aid, addres.s (Hoey), 454 
Yugoslavia, economic aid to, 317, 359 
ftlyers, Denys P., Office of Legal Adviser, article on treaties 
and laws under the Constitution, 371 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council. 

N^arcotic drugs, U.N. commission on, 7th session, U.S. dele- 
gation and proceedings, 637. 683, 797 
NAT. Sec North Atlantic Treaty. 
National Citizens' Committee, chairman (Weil), 591 
National emergency, state of, text of proclamation termi- 
nating, 743 
National Security Council, appointment of Executive Sec- 
retary (Trapnell) to Interdepartmental Committee on 
Internal Security subcommittee, 190 
National Security Resources Board, cited, 151 
Nationalization, Hungarian decree, 540 
NATO. Sec North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Nautilus, atomic-powered submarine, address by President 

Truman at laying of keel, 1007 
Neale, John R., designation under TCA, 274 
Near East Foundation, administration of Point 4 project 

in Iran, 659 
Negron Lopez. Luis, appointed U.S. member on Caribbean 

Commission, 335 
Nelson, Wesley R., designation under TCA, 479 
Netherlands : 

Allocation of crude oil imports, with reduced duty, 

proclamation, 92 
Carillon, presentation to U.S., address (Truman), 613 
Premier (Drees) to visit U.S., 92 
Queen Juliana, visit to U.S. and address to Congress, 

495, 548, 580, 613 
Refugee resettlement program, supported by, 613 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

European Defense Community, treaty establishing, 

signature, 895 
Reimbursement of U.S. for logistical support of 
Netlierlands forces in Korea, signature, 831 
U.S. aid. President's identic letters to Congressional 
committees on continuation of, under Battle Act, 
720 
U. S. relations, address (Truman), 613 
New Zealand : 

Ambassador (Munro) to U.S., credentials, 381 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation on income, entry into force of conven- 
tion (1948), 12 
Security treaty with Australia and U.S., Senate ap- 
proval and ratification, statements (Aeheson, 
Dulles, Truman), 185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 658 
Western Samoa, grant of legislative powers to, 627 
News, international, current restrictions on distribution, 

statement (Binder), 511 
News, proposed convention on international transmission 
of, cited, 516 



1066 



Department of State Bulletin 



Newsprint, IMC allocation of, 279, 708 
Nicaragua : 

Point 4 appointment, 274 

Radio, inter-American agreement, enters into force, 500 

Rama Road, signiticance to U.S. relations with, 3.57 
North Atlantic Council (NAC) : 

Communique at Lisbon of NAC, text, 367 

Council Deputies, Defense Production Board, Financial 
and Economic Board, functions replaced by NAC, 
368, 615 

Deputy U.S. Representative (Spofford), resigns, 123 

9th session, at Lisbon, U.S. delegation and addresses 
(Acheson, Truman, Harriman), 307, 363, 370, 406, 
411 

Permanent headquarters in Europe, plans, 366, 367 

Permanent session, establishment of, and appointment 
of U.S. permanent representative and deputies, 615 

Reorganization, 367, 615 

Report to NATO (Eisenhower), 572, 614 

Temporary Council Committee. See Temporary Council 
Committee. 
North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, 4th 

session and U.S. delegation, 876 
North Atlantic Treaty, 1949 (NAT) : 

Anniversary, 3d, of signing treaty, addresses and mes- 
sages (Truman, Acheson, Harriman), 548, 568, 569, 
570 

Background, 696 

European Defense Community, protocol of EDC guaran- 
teeing support to NAT, cited, 951, 974 

European Defense Community, protocol of NAT guar- 
anteeing support to EDC, signature, text, letters 
of transmittal (Truman, Acheson), and statements 
(Acheson, Bruce), 895, S96, 9.32, 947, 949, 972, 973 

Greece and Turkey, entry into force of protocol pro- 
viding for accession to NAT, deposit of instruments 
of accession, and statements (Acheson, Webb, 
Erkin, Politis), 140, 306, 334, 365, 367, 370 

Turkey. .S'ee Greece and Turkey, supra. 

U.N. Ciharter, relation to, statement (Cohen), and 
excerpt of Committee on Foreign Relations report, 
100 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) : 

Assistant Secretary General for Defense Production 
(Hopkins), appointment, 933 

Atlantic Command, temporary agreement with U.K., 
joint communique (Truman, Churchill), 116 

Brussels conference (19.50), sets up command, 620 

Common efforts, address (Acheson), 696 

European Defense Community, relations, described in 
Lisbon communique and in statements (Acheson, 
Truman, Harriman), 363, 367, 368, 405, 412, 463, 
467, 472 

European Defense Community, relations, tripartite 
communique (U.S., U.K., France), and quadripar- 
tite communique, with German Chancellor, 325 

European defense expenditures and defense build-up, 
464, 467, 468, 471, 472 

European members, contribution to NATO, 414, 621, 
705, 721 

France, contribution of, testimony (Bruce), 533 

Germany, defense contribution, report by members of 
Executive Bureau of TCC, 423 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 

Military forces, status and equipment, 406, 412, 413, 414 
Military forces, under Mutual Security Act escapees 
from Soviet-dominated areas may join, Soviet 
charges and U.S. statements, 28, 29, 128, 553, 035 
Overpopulation in Europe, relation to defense of, 553 
Petroleum Planning Committee, 1st meeting and U.S. 

delegation, 593 
Reorganization at Lisbon and increase of forces, 316, 

363, 364, 367, 368 
SHAPE, report and letter of resignation (Eisenhower) 

to Chairman (Ely), Standing Group, 572, 614 
Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (Admiral McCor- 
mick), appointment, 248 
North Pacific tisheries. See Fisheries, North Pacific. 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries. See Fisheries, Northwest 

Atlantic. 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission, 398, 1022 
Norway, German enemy property in, conflicting claims by 
U.S. and Norway, 746 

OAS. S'ee Organization of American States. 
Oatis, William N., Czechoslovak trial, cited, 511 
Occupation of Germany and Occupation Statute, end, 855, 

887, 888, 931, 948, 950, 971, 976 
OEEC. See Organization for European Economic Co- 
operation. 
Oil, British-Iranian dispute (1951), 314 
Oil, crude, allocation of imports from Venezuela, Nether- 
lands, etc., 92 
Okazakl, Katsuo, Japanese Minister of State, note to 

Dean Rusk, 389 
Olympic Games, proclamation of Olympic Week, 850 
Ontario, Lake, question of reference of high-water level 

to International Joint Commission, 903 
"Operation Vagabond" project, seagoing VOA transmitter 

developed under, 306 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC) : 
Controls on scarce products, 802 
Council of Europe, liaison committee with, established, 

524, 527 
Relation to EPU, 732 
Results, 43, 405, 523, 524, 696 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 
Address (Truman), 667 
Charter, entry into force, 9 
Foreign Ministers, 4th Meeting of Consultation, results, 

630 
Technical cooperation program, U.S. part in, 405 
Tourist travel, interest in, 637 
Our Foreign Policy, 1952, released, 478 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, administration of, 

U.S. annual report to U.N., excerpts, 66, 601, 627 
Padilla Nerve, Luis, president of General Assembly, 
transmits report of Subcommittee on Disarmament, 
17, 634 
Pakistan : 

Aid from sources other than U.S., 1013 

Ambassador (Mohammed All) to U.S., credentials, 429 



Index, January to June ?952 



1067 



Pakistan — Continued 

Kashmir, demilitarization of, excerpts of reports to U.N. 

(Graham), text of Security Council resolution, and 

statements (Ross, Chauvel), 52, 231, 262, 712, 713, 

714, 760 

Point 4 agreement (1951), amended, and projects under, 

296, 1013 
Point 4 appointment, 351 

Political and other conditions in, address by Ambassa- 
dor Warren, 1011 
Palestine Conciliation Commission : 

Continuation of, draft of General Assembly resolution, 

and statement (Jessup), 129, 130, 177, 635 
Question of Arab property in Israel, 760 
Palestine refugees, UNRWA program for relief of, text of 
General Assembly resolution, and statement (Jessup), 
13S, 177, 224, 226, 635 
Pan American Railway Congi-ess, 8th, 592 
Pan American Sanitary Organization, 16th meeting of 

Executive Committee, U.S. delegation, 718 
Pan American Union, cited, 544, 667 
Panama : 

Claims filing under U.S.-Panama convention, extension 

of, 544 
Inter-American Highway, significance of construction to 

economic progress of, 357 
Lands, American-owned, disputed title, 545 
Point 4, appointment, 274 
Panama Canal, value of Inter-American Highway to, 358 
Paraguay : 

Escape clause in trade agreement with, 147 
Point 4, appointment, 274 

Radio, inter-American agreement, enters into force, 500 
Passports : 

Authority of Secretary of State to issue or refuse, 919 
Restriction on travel to U.S.S.R. and satellite countries, 

to be endorsed on. 736 
Senate subcommittee's criticism of State Department, 

110 
Standardization by Council of Europe, 528 
U. S.-.Iapanese administrative agreement, exemptions 
of U.S. armed forces under, 384 
Patents, unifying procedures, by Council of Europe, .528 
Patents Institute at Tlie Hague, International, 529 
Patterson, Albion W., designation under TCA, 274 
Patterson, Richard C, U.S., Minister to Switzerland, state- 
ment on Switzerland's part in world security, 617 
Pauley Mission, report of, excerpts, 221, 222 
"Peace Movement," Communist, cited, 540, 650, 666 
Peace Observation Commission : 

Balkan Subeommission established, pursuant to recom- 
mendation of General Assembly, 178, 283, 286, 635 
Resolution establishing Balkan Subeommission, article 
(Howard), and statements (Cohen), 328, 331, 3.33 
Peace treaties : 
Japan (1951), U.S. ratification, proclamation, and entry 

into force, 491, 658, 687, 688 
Rumania (1947), U.S. charges Rumania with violations 
of human-rights provisions, text of U.S. note with 
documents as evidence, 496 
Peru : 

Military-as.slstance agreement, signed, 93, 336 
Point 4 appointment, 274 

1068 



Peru — Continued 
Tuna, increased import duty into U.S., Peruvian atti- 
tude and statement (Acheson), 353, 821 
Peters, Hollis W., designation under TCA, 479 
Petitions, Standing Committee on, established by TC, 435, 

601 
Petroleum. See Oil. 
Petroleum Planning Committee (NATO), 1st meeting, 

U.S. delegation, 593 
PliannacoiJocia, Iiifcniiitioiiiil, cited, 543 
Philippines : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Romulo), credentials, 305 
Mutual defense treaty (1951). U.S. ratification, state- 
ments (Acheson, Dulles, Truman), 185, 186, 212, 
314, 491, 658 
Progress in 1951, address (Allison), 654 
U.S. Ambassador (Spruance), confirmation, 352 
U.S. military aid, address (Alli.son), 456 
Phillips, Jcseph B., appointment as Deputy Assistant 

Secretary for Public Affairs, 519 
Phot Sarasin, Thai Ambassador to U.S., credentials. 983 
PICMME. See Provisional Intergovernmental Committee 

for Movement of Migrants from Europe. 
Pierson, Warren Lee, U.S. representative at International 
Conference on German External Debts, and on Tri- 
partite Commission on German Debts, 206, 397, 461, 
821 
Pleven Plan, cited, 528 

Point 4. See under Technical cooperation programs. 
Poison gases, use in war, Soviet attitude, statement 

(Cohen, Gross), 911, 1041 
Poland : 

Claims, filing, for valuables on deposit. Polish decree, 8 
Disarmament, attitude toward General Assembly reso- 
lution, 28 
Greek question in U.N., charge of foreign interference in 

Greece, 290 
Katyn Forest massacre, U.S. note protests Polish press 

release on, 498 
Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 7.36 
Trade-agreement concession, suspension by U.S., 947, 

1019 
War veterans in U.K., visas, 121 
Politis, Athanase G., Ambassador of Greece, statement on 

accession of Greece to NAT, 334 
Population : 

Distribution, address (LTibin). 935 
World conference to be held, 1042 
Porter, Paul R., Director of European Office of MSA and 

Deputy for Economic Affairs of NAC. 124, 615 
Portugal, U.S. Ambassador (Cannon), confirmation, 479 
Potsdam Agreement on German eastern frontier, cited, 

531, 563, 565, 566, 650, 820 
Prague meeting of Soviet and satellite Foreign Ministers, 

communique, excerpts, 565 
Presidential war powers, extension, identic letters (Tru- 
man to Houses of Congress), 641 
Prisoners of war : 

Soviet detention of German POW's, address (McCloy), 

858 
U.N. Command, proposal for exchange of, text, and 
statement (Libby), 105, 106 

Department of State Bulletin 



Prisoners of war, U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on: 
Geneva meeting, 2(1 session, report, 349 
Soviet participation in, question of, exchange of notes 
(U.S. and U.S.S.R.), 90, 228 
Private Enterprise Cooperation of IIA, Chicago oflBce, 966 
Proclamations : 

Allocation of crude oil imports, with reduced import 

tax, to Venezuela, Netherlands, etc., text, 92 
Denmark, extension of copyright protection, text, 257 
Hatters' fur, modification of U.S. tariff concession on, 
under Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951) and 
GATT (1947), 96 
Inter-American Cultural and Trade Center, at Miami, 

test, 211 
Japan, termination of state of war with, text, 688 
Olympic Week and U.S. participation in Olympic Games, 

text, 850 
State of national emergency, termination, text, 743 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property {see also 
Claims) : 
American fliers held in Hungary, U.S. efforts for release 

of, statement (Acheson), 7 
American prisoners in Communist China, Senator 

Knowland's reply to Under Secretary Webb, 239 
Hungarian nationalization, possibility of appeal, 540 
Travel to Hungary prohiliited, statement (Acheson), 7 
Travel to U.S.S.R., and satellite countries, restriction, 
736 
Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for Movement 
of Migrants from Europe (PICMME) : 
Background, 552, 921, 996 
Conference on Migration at Brussels, report (Warren), 

169 
1st and 2d sessions, reports (Warren), 172, 638 
IRO, trust fund for visaed refugees, established, 459 
Resolution establishing, text, 171 
U.S. contribution to, 639 

U.S. delegations to 2d and 3d sessions, 308, 997 
Public Affairs, Ofiice of, reorganization, 446 
Public support of foreign policy, 731 
Publications : 

Foreign Relations, 1933, vol. V, released, 762 

Foreign Relations, 1934, vol. I, released, 38 

Foreign Relations, Soviet Union, 1933-39, .summary, 767, 

822 
Lists : 

Congress, 239, 309, 454, 479, 540, 612, 799, 841, 951, 

1003, 1010 
State Department, 13, 252, 257, 394, 399, 497, 603, 622, 

659, 723, 763, 842, 966 
United Nations, 20, 102, 127, 346, 434, 462, 500, 519, 
640, 755, 792, 839, 876, 916, 1028 
Our Foreign Policij, 1952, released, 478 
Treaty Developments, U.S., 6th release, 967 
U.S. Foreign Service — A Career for Young Americans, 
excerpts, 549, 582 
Puerto Rico, Constitution of Commonwealth of. Presi- 
dent's message to Congress, recommending approval, 
721 
Pulp-Paper Committee, of IMC, report, 708, 914 
Purcell, Ganson, representative of U.S. creditor groups, 
International Conference on German Debts, 461 



Radio {see also Voice of America) : 

Convention with Canada concerning use of equipment 

in another country, ratification, 905 
Inter-American radio agreement, enters into force, 500 
Safety promotion on Great Lakes by means of radio, 
agreement signed with Canada, 338 
Radio Free Europe (RFE), comparison with VOA, article 

(Sargeant), 488 
Radio in American Zone (RIAS), 24-hour service inaugu- 
rated, 489 
Railway Congress, 8th Pan American, 592 
Rama Road and Inter-American Highway, Congressional 

testimony on construction of, 357 
Raw materials. See Strategic materials. 
Reber, Samuel, Jr. : 
Appointment as U.S. Assistant High Commis.sioner for 

Germany, 643 
Notes to General Chuikov on Soviet interference with 
traffic, 902 
Red Cross, proposed investigation of Soviet charges of 
"germ warfare" in Korea : 
American fliers, alleged confessions, 777 
Soviet attitude, 506, 515, 516, 649, 10.30 
U.S. position, statements (Acheson) and exchange of 
messages with Red Cross (Acheson), 427, 452, 453, 
529, 649, 666, 777 
Red Cross Societies, League of, purpose, 543 
Refugees and displaced persons : 

Council of Europe, activities, 524, 528, 529 

Displaced Persons Act (1948), amended (1950), address 

on programs completed under (L'Heureux), 121 
Escapees from Soviet-dominated Europe, message and 

identic letters (President to Congress), 551, 602 
Greek children, repatriation of. General Assembly pro- 
ceedings, resolution, and article (Howard), 283, 
284, 328, 333 
IRO. .SVp International Refugee Organization. 
Israel, U.S. contribution for relief of refugees in, 381, 

746 
Korea. See Korea. 

Migration, Conference on, at Brussels, articles (War- 
ren), 169, 308 
Mutual Security Act (19.51), attacked by Soviet Russia, 

statements" (Gross, Mansfield), 28, 29, 31, 128, 635 
Palestine refugees, UNKWA program. General Assembly 

resolution for relief of, 138, 177, 224, 226, 635 
PICMME. See Provisional Intergovernmental Commit- 
tee for Movement of Jligi-ants from Europe. 
Resettlement, supported by Netherlands, 613 
Resettlement of refugees and movement of migrants, 

testimony (Bruce), 920 
U.S. voluntary exports of goods and funds for foreign 
aid, 256 
Relations, convention between Three Powers and Ger- 
many, signature, statements (Acheson. McCloy), sum- 
mary, and transmittal to Senate, 887, 888, 947, 949, 
971, 976 
Reparations from Germany, U.S., U.K., and France not to 

claim out of current production, 979 
Reservations to multilateral conventions. General Assem- 
bly resolution and amended resolution on, adopted 
(Jan. 4; Jan. 12), and statement (Cohen), 71, 73, 107 



Index, January to June 7952 



1069 



Revolution in tliiulsing of underprivilegeil peoples, address 

(Lubin), 934 
RFB. See Radio Free Europe. 
RIAS. See Radio in American Zone. 
Rice Commission, International, 3d session and U.S. dele- 
gation, 757 
Riddleberger, James W., appointment as Director of Bu- 
reau of German Affairs, 843 
Ridgway, Gen. aiatthew B., Commander in Chief, U.N. 
Command : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Military operations in Korea, armistice, and relations 

with Japan (before Congress), 924 
U.N. Command's proposal for Korean armistice set- 
tlement, 786 
Appointment as Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, 
statements (Truman, Acheson), 743 
Rights and obligations of foreign forces in Germany, con- 
vention between Three Powers and Germany, sum- 
mary, 891, 950, 977 
Roach, William J., assignment as public-safety specialist 

in Germany, 519 
Road traffic convention (1949), entry into force, 359, 545 
Rockefeller Foundation, cited, 294, 542 
Rogers, Vance, designation under TCA, 274 
Rohrbaugh, Louis H., designation under TCA, 274 
Romulo, Carlos P., credentials as Ambassador of the 

Philippines, 305 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Disarmament proposals (before Les Jeunes Amis), 95 
Human Rights, Commission on, 59, 1024, 1042 
Soviet caricature in Human Rights Commission of 
conditions in U.S., answer to, 1026 
U.S. representative at General Assembly and on Com- 
mission on Human Rights, 632, 680 
Roosevelt-Litvinov agreement (1933), Soviet charge of 
U.S. violation of, statements (Gross, Mansfield), 28, 
32 
Ross, John C, statement on Kashmir, demilitarization of, 

reports (Graham) to Security Council, 262 
Rousset trial, in Paris, exposure of slave labor in U.S.S.R., 

2.50 
Rubber : 

Estimated rubber production and consumption by coun- 
tries, 914 
U.S. synthetic rubber program, status, 150 
Rubber Act (1948), President's message to Congress rec- 
ommending extension of, 149 
Rubber Study Group, International, 9th meeting, 796, 913 
Rumania : 

Peace treaty (1947), violations of human-rights clauses, 
U.S. note, submitting facsimiles of documents in 
evidence, 496 
Restriction on travel by U.S. citizens to, 736 
Ruml, Beardsley, representative of U.S. creditor groups. 

International Conference on German Debts, 461 
Rusk, Dean, Special Representative: 

Administrative agreement, with Japan, statement, 215 
Note to Katsuo Okazaki, Japanese Minister of State, 
389 



Russell, Francis II., Director, Office of Public Affairs : 
Addresses and statements : 

"American peace crusade," exposure of, 583 
Moral strength in U.S. foreign policy, 727 
I'roblems in U.S. foreign policy, 8.59 

Saar settlement, French Foreign Minister and German 

Chancellor to negotiate, 495 
SACBUR. Sec Supreme Allied Commander Europe. 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project : 
Presidential messages, texts, urging Congressional ac- 
tion to carry out 1941 agreement, and exchange of 
notes with Canada, 232, 234, 235, 719 
U.S.-Canadian conferences on apiilications to Interna- 
tional Joint Commission, 514 
Salles, Walther Moreira, Brazilian Ambassador to U. S., 

credentials, 983 
Sanitary regulations, international, cited, 543 
Sarasin, Phot, Thai Ambassador to U. S., credentials, 983 
Sargeant, Rowland H. : 

Addresses and statements : 

International information ijrograra (at War College), 

483 
Soviet cultural offensive, U.S. attitude, 535 
U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, 3d confer- 
ence, 202 
Western Hemisphere unity, 707 
World understanding necessary, 780 
Confirmation as Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, 
479 
Saudi Arabia : 
Financial adviser, nomination, 1018 
Monetary Agency, Saudi Arabian, establishment, 1018 
Point 4 appointment, 274 

Point 4 general agreement (1951), signed, 1018 
Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, establishment, 1018 
Sayre, Francis B. : 
Address on problems of underdeveloped areas in Asia 

and Africa, 623 
U.S. representative at 10th session. Trusteeship Coun- 
cil, 398, 435 
SC. See Security Council. 
SCAP ( Supreme Commander Allied Powers, Japan) . See 

Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B. ; Clark, Gen. Mark W. 
SCAPR. See Supreme Commander, Allied Powers, 

Europe. 
Scarce commodities. See Strategic materials. 
Schuman Plan. See European Coal and Steel Community. 
Schurz, Carl, award, 745 
Schurz, Carl, Memorial Foundation, address by Mr. 

Kellermann, 807, 851 
Scientific Official Conference, British Commonwealth, U.S. 

representative (Joyce), 273 
Sebald, William J., Political Adviser to SC.'\P (Japan) : 
Address on Japan's role in free world, 490 
Confirmation as Ambassador to Burma, 762 
Security : 
Hearings in cases of Oliver E. Clubb and John Carter 

Vincent, 274, 437 
Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security, 

190 
Loyalty and Security Board, statement (Acheson), 437 



1070 



Department of State Bulletin 



Security controls (U.S.), over strategic exports to Soviet 

bloc, 1032 
Securit.v Council: 

Bacteriological warfare iu Korea, Soviet charge, 1041 
Disarmament Commission, composition of, 231, 436 
Italy, admission to membership vetoed, 35, 310 
Kashmir, demilitarization of, excerpts of reports (Gra- 
ham), text of resolution (Mar. 30, 1951), and state- 
ments (Ross, Chauvel), 52. 231, 262, 712, 713, 714, 
760 
Membership, discussions, 310, 1041 
Military and relief assistance for Korea, summary, 311 
Proceedings, 231, 310, 436, 515, 600, 759, 797, 878, 917, 

1041 
Tunisian question, U.S. position on, statements 
(Acheson, Gross), 678, 679, 683, 799 
Security treaties : 
Australia and New Zealand, tripartite (1051), U.S. 
ratification and statements (Acheson, Dulles, Tru- 
man), 185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 658 
Japan (1951), U.S. ratification and statements (Ache- 
son, Dulles, Truman), 185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 658 
/Set FujU V. The State of California, 959, ruling in, 744 
Sen Binay Ranjan, credentials as Indian Ambassador, 49 
Settlement of matters arising out of the war, conven- 
tion signed by Three Powers and Germany, summai-y, 
890, 950, 977 
SHAPE. Sec Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, 

Europe. 
Shipley, Ruth B., Chief of Passport Division, State De- 
partment, in defense of operations, 110 
Shipping. See Vessels. 
Simpson, Clarence Lorenzo, Liberian Ambassador to U.S., 

credentials, 778 
Snedegar, Emijean, death in plane crash in Iran, 37 
Social Commission (ECOSOC), 8th session, proceedings 

and U.S. representatives, 795, 878, 1041 
Somaliland, revenues and responsibilities, problems of, 

624, 626 
Sorenson, Frank E., designation under TCA, 762 
South Africa, Union of: 
Hearings in U.N. committee for tribes of South-West 

Africa, attitude. 025 
Indians in, treatment of, proceedings in General Assem- 
bly, 107 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange agreement, signed, 630 
GATT, protocol on tariff concessions, signature, 758 
South Pacific Commission, 9th session, U.S. delegation, 

718 
Southeast Asia («ee a7so Consultative Committee) : 
Communist aggression in Indochina, 1009, 1010 
U.S. policy in, address (Allison), 457 
South-West Africa, hearings in U.N. Committee, attitude 

of Union of South Africa, 625 
Sovereign immunity of foreign governments, restrictive 
rather than classical theory to be followed by Depart- 
ment of State, 984 
Spain : 

Cotton purchases from U.S. financed by Export-Import 

Bank loan, 47, 709 
Military facilities in, negotiations with U.S. for use of, 
450, 469 



Spain — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador (Griffis), resignation, 191 
U.S. Ambassador (MacVeagh), confirmation, 351 
Sparks, Edward J., appointed Ambassador to Bolivia, 109 
SpolTord, Charles M., Deputy U.S. Representative to NAC, 

resignation of, 123 
Spruance, Raymond A., confirmation as Ambassador to 

Philippines, 352 
Standardization, International Organization for, address 

(Thorp), 10.36 
Standstill Creditors of Germany, American Committee for, 
representation at international conference on German 
debts, 397 
State Department : 
Appointments and confirmations: 

Allison, John M., as Assistant Secretary for Far East- 
ern Affairs, 351 
Andrews, Stanley, as Administrator, TCA, 843 
Bruce, David K. E., as Under Secretary, 351 
Corbett, Jack C, as Director of Oflice of Financial and 

Development Policy, 603 
Drew, Gerald A., as Director General of the Foreign 

Service, 519 
Hyde, Henry van Zile, as Director of Point 4 Health 

Staff, 351 
Locke, Edwin A., Jr., as U.S. Member of Advisory 

Commission of UNRWA, 351 
Phillips, Joseph B., as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 

Public Affairs, 519 
Riddleberger, James W., as Director of Bureau of 

German Affairs, 843 
Sargeant, Howland H., as Assistant Secretary for 
Public Affairs, 479 
Clubb, Oliver E., investigation of, statement (Acheson), 

437 
Dulles, John Foster, completion of assignment, ex- 
change of letters (Acheson and Dulles), 602, 603 
Loyalty and Security Board, procedure, statement 

(Acheson), 437 
Passport operations, answer to Senate criticism (Ship- 
ley), 110 
Passports, policy in regard to denial of, 919 
Publications listed, 13, 252, 257, 394, 399, 497, 603, 622, 

659, 723, 763, 842, 966 
Resignations : 

Barrett, Edward W., as Assistant Secretary for Public 

Affairs, 191 
Webb, James E., as Under Secretary, 191 
Security, Interdepartmental Committee on Internal, 

190 
Security, Loyalty and Security Board, 437 
Sovereign immunity of foreign governments, policy re- 
specting, 984 
U.S. International Information Administration, estab- 
lished, 151 
Vincent, John Carter, hearing before Senate subcom- 
mittee, 274 
Stone, Marshall H., article on International Mathematical 

Union, 870 
Stra.sbourg, France, seat of Council of Europe, 525 
Strategic materials : 

Agreement signed with U.K. for mutual assistance in, 
exchanging steel for aluminum and tin, 115, 297 



Index, January fo June 1952 



1071 



strategic materials — Continued 
Allocations by IMC. See International Materials 

Conference. 
Defense Materials Procurement Agency, creation, 558 
Equitable distribution of, for jiefense, address (Brown), 

253 
Export restrictions. Communist attitude, 447 
Interdependence of free nations for sources of supply, 

298, 403, 410, 413 
International materials, policy, article (Fleischmann), 

297 
International Materials Conference, description of ac- 
tivities, letter and testimony (Thorp), 277, 802 
Iron and steel, 1951 increased production iu Western 

Germany, report (Miller), 302 
Joint communiques on supply of, President Truman and 

Prime Minister Churchill, 84, 115 
Oil, crude, allocation of imports from Venezuela, and 

Netherlands, 92 
Rubber Act (1948), extension recommended, 149 
Tungsten, from Bolivia, 167 
Stratton, Samuel S., designation under TCA, 274 
Strauss, Anna Lord, U.S. alternate representative to 6th 

session. General Assembly, 632 
Students, exchange of. See Educational Exchange. 
Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) : 

Greek and Turkish ground and air forces of NATO, 

command of, 367 
Ridgway, Gen. Matthevs' B., appointment, statements 
(Truman, Acheson), 743 
Supreme Commander, Allied Powers Europe (SCAPE) : 
Eisenhower, release from assignment as, correspond- 
ence with Defense Secretary (Lovett) and Standing 
Group Chairman (Ely), 614 
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe (SHAPE) ; 
EDC, relationship, 406, 412 

Eisenhower, release from European assignment, 614 
Establishment, 313, 315, 620 
Report of past year (Eisenhower), 572, 620 
Switzerland : 

Escape clause in trade agreement with, 148 
Free world security, contribution to, statement (Patter- 
son), 617 
Syria, comments on disarmament draft resolution, an- 
swered, statement (Jessup), 27 

Taft, Charles P., chairman. Advisory Committee on Volun- 
tary Foreign Aid, report on exports of goods and 
funds, 256 
Takeuchi, Ryuji, Charge d'Affaires of Japan, credentials, 

687 
Tanganyika, Trusteeship Council report on, 629 
Tariff, concessions denied under Trade Agreements Ex- 
tension Act (1951) to countries dominated by Com- 
munism, 946 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT, 1947) : 
Crude oil imports from Venezuela, Netherlands, etc., 
allocation, with reduced import tax, proclamation, 
92 
Defense Production Act, contracting parties' attitude 

on trade restrictions of, 517, 662, 663, 665, 666 
Escape clauses in, 147, 661, 663, 666 



Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on — Continued 
Hatters' fur, proclamation modifying U.S. tariff con- 
cession, 96, 663, 666 
Torquay protocol, signatories to : 

Denmark and U.K. (1951), 8 
Torquay protocol, supplementary concessions, signed by 
U.S., Germany, South Africa, and other contracting 
parties, 758 
Taxation, double, conventions with : 

Australia, income and estate, negotiations, 211 
Austria, income and estate, negotiations, 450 
Finland, income and estate, .signed, 422 
Ireland, income and estate (1949), ratified, 8 
New Zealand (1948), entry into force, 12 
Taxation, U.S.-Japanese administrative agreement, tax 

exemption of U.S. armed forces under, 385 
Taylor, Paul B., Bureau of U. N. Affairs, report on 6th 

session of General Assembly, 632, 673 
TC. See Trusteeship Council. 
TCC. See Temporary Council Committee. 
Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA) : 
Administrator Andrews, appointment, 843 
Administrator Bennett, death, with assistants, in air- 
plane crash in Iran, 37 
Agricultural and cooperative credit, international con- 
ference, part in, 837 
Appointment of Assistant Administrator for Manage- 
ment (Martin), 966 
Foreign Service Institute orientation course, 38, 351, 

479 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, TCA regional office 

in Latin America, 191, 428, 542, 544, 584 
Point 4 appointments. 111, 191, 218, 274, 351, 439, 479, 

603, 762 
Program Information and Reports Staff, appointment of 

director (Duncan), 603 
Relation to MSP, 404, 414 
Technical cooperation programs (see also Mutual Secu- 
rity Program) : 
Budget, U.N. advances and pledges, 624, 628 
Budget, U.S. contributions, 61, 294, 297, 624, 628, 631, 

1015 
Capital, private, role in, addresses (Johnston, Thorp),, 

168, 292, 391, 747 
Consultative Committee for Economic Development in 

South and Southeast Asia, program. 293 
ECAFE, part in technical assistance, 293, 311 
FAO, program on technical assistance, 198, 293, 628 
IBRD, loans for technical assistance, 628 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, part in, 191, 428, 

542, 544, 584 
International Development Advisory Board, 16S 
International exchange of technological "know-how," 

article (Fleischmann), 300 
Libya, U.N. and U.S. aid, 624 

Mutual Security Program, plans under, 404, 407, 408, 414 
Netherlands participation in, address (Queen Juliana), 

581 
OAS, coordination with U.S. program, 405 
Point 4, purpose, 729 



1072 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Technical cooperation programs — Continued 
Point 4 agreements signed with : 

El Salvador, 631 : Ethiopia, 906 ; Honduras, 42S ; India, 
47, 294, 1015; Iran, 217; Jordan, 48, 334; Libya, 
218; Pakistan, 296, 1013; Saudi Arabia, 1018 
Point 4 projects with : 

American Republics, 167, 409, 542, 544 ; Colombia, 167 ; 

Ecuador, 390, 544; Ethiopia, 906; India, 293, 294, 

541, 1015, 1017; Iran, 541, 658, 659; Liberia, 13; 

Saudi Araliia, 1018 

U.N. aid to Pakistan, 1013 

U.N. and agencies, coordination with U.S. program, 405, 

624 
U.N. technical assistance program, contribution to 

budget of ^^'H0, 543 
UNESCO and WHO, program in India, 293 
Technical cooperation programs, addresses and state- 
ments : 
Acheson, 155, 200, 465, 609, 697 
Bowles, on India, 161 
Compton, 669 
Cowen, on India, 705 
Harrlman, 414, 409 
Johnston, 391, 747 
Thoi-p, 291, 541 

Truman, 179, 404, 407, 408, 409, 607 
Telecommunications. See Voice of America and Interna- 
tional Telecommunication Union. 
Templeton, George, appointment as Chief of Motion Pic- 
tures Program (HICOG),762 
Temporary Council Committee (TCC) : 
Chairman (Harrlman), 412, 575 
France, increase of defense contribution by, 534 
Germany, financial capacity, report by members of 

Executive Bureau, 423 
Report to NAC on defensive strength of NATO nations, 
and statements (Truman, Harrlman, Elsenhower), 
315, 363, 368, 412, 467, 472, 575 
Territorial waters, Soviet confiscation of Japanese fishing 

craft for "violation" of, 493 
Thailand, Ambassador to U.S. (Phot Sarasin), creden- 
tials, 983 
Thomas, Elbert D., U.S. special representative for Trust 

Territory of the Pacific Islands, 435, 601 
Thorp, Willard L., Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
India's economic progress, 291 

International Organization for Standardization, 1036 
U.S. foreign policy, economic aspects, 739 
World health problems, review, 541 
Correspondence with Senator Ferguson, on IMO, 277 
Testimony re trade restrictions of Defense Production 
Act and of bill to limit import of products made 
from scarce materials, 800 
U.S. representative at U.S., U.K., and French conference 
on program of economic aid to Yugoslavia, 359 
Tibet, imports from, U.S. suspension of concessions on, 

1018 
Time magazine, article on Aiiicrika not regarded as accu- 
rate by State Department, 1043 



Tobias, Channing H. : 

Land reform, address on U.S. and U.N. activity in, 63 
U.S. alternate representative to 6th session. General 

Assembly, 632 
Tomatoes, question of trade-agreement negotiations, 829 
Tonnage measurement of ships, conference on and U.S. 

observer delegates, 997 
Torquay protocol. See under Tariffs and trade, general 

agreement on. 
Trade : 
Allocation of crude oil imports, with reduced tax, to 

Venezuela, Netherlands, etc., text of proclamation, 

92 
Canada, attitude toward U.S. customs practices, 761 
Cooperation in, address (Russell), 862 
Customs procedures, simplification of, testimony (Lin- 

der), 761 
Defense Production Act (1951), question of restrictions 

on foreign trade, exchange of notes with Italy, 518, 

660, 661, 901 
Defense Production Act (1951), recommendations 

against extension (Acheson, letter to Maybank), in 

view of protests of parties to GATT, 517 
Economic aspects of U.S. foreign policy, addresses 

(Thorp), 291, 541, 739, 1036 
Escape clauses, effect of use on U.S. foreign policy, 517, 

518, 660, 661, 737, 741, 800, 858, 900 
Europe, economic developments (1951), 313 
European Payments Union, contribution to European 

economic progress (Boochever), 732 
Expansion and world iieace, address (Linder), 898 
Hungary, suspension by U.S. of concessions under treaty 

of friendship, commerce, and consular rights ( 1925 ) , 

946, 1019 
International Trade Classification, Working Party on, 

U.S. delegation and agenda, 109 
Mexico, mutual increase with U.S., address (Miller) , 499 
Peaceful goods, U.S. not opposed to trade in, statement 

(Lubin), 1033 
Restrictions under Defense Production Act and under 

bill to limit import of products made from scarce 

materials, testimony (Thorp), 800 
Restrictive business practices, U.N. committee on, pur- 
pose and proceedings, 259, 311 
Security controls over trade with Soviet bloc, 650, 901, 

1032 
Trade Agreements Extension Act. See Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act. 
Tuna from Peru, proposed increase in U.S. import duty, 

and statement (Acheson), 352, 821 
U.S. relations with Latin America, address (Miller), 208 
World Trade Week, statement (Acheson), 863 
Trade agreement with Venezuela, negotiations for supple- 
mentary, 631 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on : 
Report on escape clauses in trade agreements, 143 
Tomatoes, proposal to regularize marketings, 829 
Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951) : 

Escape clauses, increasing use, British aide-m&moire 

protesting, and U.S. reply, 737, 858, 900 
Proclamation modifying U.S. tariff concession on hat- 
ters' fur, under provisions of, 96, 663, 737 



Index, January to June 1952 



1073 



Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951) — Continued 

Report to Congress pursuant to, on escape clauses in 
trade agreements, 143 

Suspension of tarifif concessions to Bulgaria, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Poland, U.S.S.R., and Tibet, 
946, 1018 
Trade Agreements Program, Reciprocal, background, 899 
Trapnell, Edward R., appointment as Executive Secretary 

to Internal Security Suljcommittee, 190 
Travel Congress, Inter-American, 4th, U.S. delegation to, 

637 
Travel restrictions : 

Soviet officials in U.S., note from Secretary Acheson to 
Ambassador Panyuslikin, 451 

U.S. citizens, restriction on travel to U.S.S.R. and satel- 
lite countries, 452, 736 

U.S. officials in U.S.S.R., summary of regulations, with 
map, 452 
Treaties : 

Executive agreements, text of S. J. Res. 122 to impose 
limitations on, memorandum (Truman), and testi- 
mony (Bruce), 9.52, 953 

Multilateral agreements, multilateral, status (1951), 
U.N. table, 103 

Negotiations, new methods in Japanese peace settlement, 
address (Allison), 689 

Non-self-executing, superseded by domestic legislation, 
744 

Supreme law of the land, article (Jlyers), 371 
Treaties, agi-eements, etc. : 

Administrative agreement with Japan, signature, state- 
ment (Rusk) at negotiations, text, and exchange of 
notes, 215, 382, 389 

Agricultural workers, with Mexico, extension, 3.59, 500, 
985 

Arbitration Tribunal, charter annexed to convention on 
relations between Three Powers and Germany, 889, 
950, 977 

Armed forces, foreign, in Germany, rights and obliga- 
tions of, signature and summary of convention be- 
tween Three Powers and Germany, 887, 891 

Austrian state treaty delayed by U.S.S.R., note from 
Austrian Treaty Deputies, and identic U.S., French, 
and U.K. notes to U.S.S.R., with draft text, 160, 326, 
379, 448, 778 

Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 
(1925), Soviet attitude toward, statement (Gross), 
1041 

Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground, agreement with 
U.K. for extension of, signed. 166 

Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909), respecting 
Canada, U.S. to cooperate with Canada in referring 
St. Lawrence seaway project to International Joint 
Commission, exchange of notes, 2.32, 514, 719 

Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909), U.S.-Cana- 
dian advisory boards on pollution of waters estab- 
lished, 428 

Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909), water level 
in Great Lakes, reference to IJC, 903, 904, 905 

Brussels agreement (1947) on conflicting claims to Ger- 
man enemy assets, 746, 821 

Brussels Pact (1948), cited, 523, 626 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Commercial agreement with Soviet Union (1935, 1937), 
background, 769 

Consular convention with Ireland (1950), protocol, 
signed, 427 

Contractual agreements between Three Powers and 
Germany, reparations out of current production not 
to be claimed by U.S., U.K., and Prance, 979 

Contractual agreements between Three Powers and 
Germany, signature, statements (MeCloy, Ache- 
.son), and summary, 857, 887, 888, 931, 971 

Contractual agreements between Three Powers and 
Germany, transmittal to Senate, letters (Truman, 
Acheson), and testimony (Acheson, Bruce, Me- 
Cloy), 947, 949, 971, 973, 974 

Convention on relations between Three Powers and 
Germany, signature, statements (Acheson, Me- 
Cloy), summary, and transmittal to Senate, 887, 
888, 947, 949, 971, 976 

Cultural relations, convention for promotion of inter- 
American (1936), exchange of students, 667, 1023 

Death of missing persons, entry into force (1952) of 
convention on declaration of, 49 

Double taxation conventions with : 
Australia, income and estate, negotiations, 211 
Austria, income and estate, negotiations, 4,50 
Finland, income and estate, signed, 422 
Ireland, income and estate (1949), ratified, 8 
New Zealand, income (1948), entry into force, 12 

Economic coordination, with Korea, signature, 943 

Educational exchange agreement with South Africa, 
signed, 630 

European Defense Connnunity, tripartite declaration 
by U.S., U.K., and France, text and statements 
(Acheson), 895, 897, 933, 951, 972 

Finance convention between Three Powers and Ger- 
many, signature and summary, 887, 893, 9.50, 977 

Fisheries of North Pacific, convention, U.S., Canada, 
Japan, and protocol, draft texts and signature, 343, 
436, 830, 1022 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, with 
Hungary (1925), U.S. suspension of concessions 
under, 946, 1019 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation (1951), treaties 
before Senate with Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, 
Greece, and Israel, testimony (Linder), 881 

GATT, signatories to Torquay protocol and signatories 
to supplementary concessions to Torquay protocol, 
8, 758 

German peace treaty (proposed), statements (Ache- 
son), Soviet draft and notes, and text of identic 
replies by U.S., U.K., and France, 530, 531, 532, 650, 
777, 817, 819 

Great Lakes, promotion of safety on, by means of radio, 
agreement with Canada, signed, 338 

Inter-American cultural relations, convention for pro- 
motion of (1936), exchange of students, 667, 1023 

Japan, treaty of peace (art. 22), Japanese acceptance 
of compulsory juri.sdiction of International Court of 
Justice, 12 

Lease of naval and air bases in Caribbean (1941), agree- 
ment with U.K., negotiations for release by U.S. 
of areas for agricultural use, 833 



1074 



Department of State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Lend-lease settlement with U.S.S.R., status of vessels 
transferred by U.S. under, correspondence (Know- 
laud, Acheson), S79 
Lend-lease settlement with U.S.S.R., U.S. proposal for 
adjudication by International Court of Justice, ex- 
change of notes with U.S.S.R., 86, S7, 88 
Migrant labor agreement, with Mexico (1951), exten- 
sion, 359, 500, 985 
Military-assistance agreements : 
Brazil, signature, 47, 93, 450 
Chile, signature, 168, 630 
Colombia, signature, 168, 709 
Cuba, signature, 211, 450 
Ecuador, signature and text, 168, 336, 391 
Iran, continuance of supplies, 238, 746 
Mexico, negotiations, 211 
Peru, signature, 93, 336 
Spain, negotiations for use of facilities, 450 
Uruguay, negotiations, 630 
Missing persons, convention on declaration of death, 

entry into force, 49 
Multilateral conventions and agreements deposited 

with U.N., status (1951), table, 103 
Mutual assistance in raw materials, with U.K., signed. 

exchanging steel for aluminum and tin, 115, 297 
Mutual defense treaty, with Pliilippines (1951), Sen- 
ate ratification and statements (Acheson, Dulles, 
Truman), 185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 658 
Navigation dues, exemption of pleasure craft, ex- 
change of notes with Cuba, 11 
North Atlantic Treaty, protocol guaranteeing support 
to EDC, signature, text, letters of transmittal 
(Truman, Acheson), and statements (Acheson, 
Bruce) , 895, 896, 932, 947, 949, 972, 973 
North Pacific Fisheries, convention and protocol, with 
Canada and Japan, draft texts and signature, 343, 
346, 830, 1022 
Organization of American States, charter of (1948), 

entry into force, 9 
Peace and security treaties with Japan (1951), U.S. 
ratification, proclamation, and entry into force, 491, 
658, 6S7, 688 
Peace treaty with Rumania (1947), U.S. charges Ru- 
mania with violation of human-rights provisions, 
text of U.S. note, with facsimiles of documents as 
evidence, 496 
Point 4 agreements signed with : 

El Salvador, 631; Ethiopia, 906; Honduras, 428; 

India, 47, 294, 1015; Iran, 217; Jordan, 48, 334; 

Libya, 218 ; Pakistan, 296, 1013 ; Saudi Arabia, 1018 

Radio, inter-American agreement, enters into force, 500 

Radio equipment, convention with Canada, ratification, 

905 
Reimbursement of U.S. for logistical support of Nether- 
lands forces in Korea, agreement with Nether- 
lands, signature, 831 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, signa- 
ture of convention, statements (Acheson, McCloy), 
summary, and transmittal to Senate, 887, 888, 947, 
949, 971, 976 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Rights and obligations of foreign forces in Germany, 
between Three Powers and Germany, summary, 887, 
891, 950, 977 
Road traffic convention (1949), enters into force, 359, 

545 
Roosevelt-Litvinov agreement (1933), with U.S.S.R., 
Soviet charge of U.S. violation of, statements 
(Gross, Mansfield), 28, 32 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project (1941, not 
ratified). President's message to Congress, and 
exchange of notes with Canada, texts, 232, 234, 235, 
514, 719 
Security treaty, with Australia and New Zealand 
(1951), U.S. Senate approval and ratification, state- 
ments (Acheson, Truman), 185, 186, 212, 314, 491, 
658 
Security treaty, with Japan (1951). See Peace. 
Settlement of matters arising out of war, convention 
signed by Three Powers and Germany, summary, 
890, 950, 977 
Sino-Soviet treaty (1945), text of General Assembly 
resolution (Feb. 1) charging Soviet violation of, 
and statement (Cooper), 177, 219, 220, 635 
Trade-agreement concessions, suspended by U.S. on im- 
ports from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, 
Poland, and U.S.S.R., 946, 947, 1018 
Trade agreement with Venezuela, negotiations for sup- 
plementary, 631 
Treaty Developments, U.S., 6th release, 967 
Trieste, Free Territory of. Zone A, tripartite communique 
and memorandum of understanding between U.S., 
U.K., and Italy, 585, 779 
Tripartite Commission on German Debts, activities, 206, 

378, 397, 461 
Truman, Harry S., President: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Atomic-powered submarine, keel laying, 1007 
Clark, Gen. Mark W., appointment to Far East and 

U.N. Commands, 743 
Courier, dedication ceremony, 421 
Czechoslovakia, anniversary of fall, 394 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 10th anniversary, 

584 
Japanese peace treaty and Pacific security treaties, 

U.S. ratification and entry into force, 658, 687 
King George VI, eulogy on, 248 
Korean armistice, proposals by U.N. Command on 

three issues, 787 
NAT, 3d anniversary of signing, 568 
Netherlands relations with U.S., 613 
OAS, anniversary, 667 
Point 4 program, significance, 007 
Repatriation, forced, of prisoners, 787 
Ridgway, appointment as SACEUR, 743 
West Point, 847 
Correspondence : 
Admiral McCormick, appointment as Supreme Allied 

Commander, Atlantic, 248 
Congressional committees, identic letters re: 
Battle Act, aid to Netherlands under, 720 
Mutual Security Act (1951), procedures, 317, 555, 
602 



Index, January to June 7952 



1075 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Congressional committees — Continued 

St. Lawrence Seaway project, 719 
Executive agencies, memorandum re treaty-making 

powers, 052 
Executive agencies, re Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee, 100 
Senator Barkley and Speaker Rayburn, re extension of 

emergency powers, 641 
Senator Barkley and Speaker Rayburn, re funds for 

UNICEF, 477 
Senators Fulbright, McMahou, and Sparkman, on 
Euro|iean federation, 275 
Economic Report to Congress, excerpts, 182 
Emergency powers, identic letters to President of Sen- 
ate and Speaker requesting extension, 641 
Executive Orders. See Executive Orders. 

Joint communiques with Prime Minister Churchill, 
83, 115 
Messages to Congress : 
Annual message, 79 
Budget, excerpt, 179 
Contractual agreements with Germany, transmittal 

to Senate, 947 
Immigration from Communist-dominated areas, aid 

to escapees under Mutual Security Act, 551 
Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 4th and final 

semiannual report, 312 
Mutual Security Program, 179, 312, 315, 403, 471 
Puerto Riean Constitution, recommending approval, 

721 
Rubber Act (1948), extension recommended, 149 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project, 232 
Trade-agreement escape clauses, report, 143 
Presidential mission to Korea, 602 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
U.S.-U.K. agreement on scarce materials and Atlantic 
Command, joint communiques with Churchill, 115, 
116 
Truman Doctrine, cited, 728, 775 

Trust Territory of the Pacitic Islands, administration of, 
U.S. annual report to Trusteeship Council, 66, 601, 627 
Trust territories : 

Ewe and Togolaud, U.N. committee proceedings, 75, 625 

List of, 966 

Problems of underdeveloped areas in Asia and Africa, 

address (Sayre), 623 
Tanganyika, Trusteeship Council, report on, 629 
Western Samoa, Trusteeship Council mission to, 627 
Trusteeship Council (TC) : 

Fourth Committee, U.N., criticism of French, South 
African, and British rule over dependent jieople, 
625 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, U.S. annual report 

to TC on administration of, excerpt, 66, 601, 627 
Petitions. Standing Committee on, 75, 435, 601 
States members, 966 
10th and 11th sessions, proceedings, and U.S. delegation, 

398, 435, 601, 918, 965 
Underdeveloped areas, question of independence with- 
out revenues and abilities, 626, 627 
U.S. representative (Sayre), address, 623 



Tuna : 

Question of increase of duty, article (Linder), .352 

U.S. liill proposing increased import duty, statement 
(Acbeson), on Peruvian protest, 821 
Tunisia, discussion in Security Council : 

Correspondence by Secretary Acheson with Representa- 
tive Javits, 799 

U.S. position on autonomy, statements (Acheson, 
Gross), 678, 679, 683 
Turke.v : 

Economic situation and defense program, MSP state- 
ment, 319 

Mutual Security Program, part in, 469, 472 

NAT, accession to, U.S. support of (Ache.son), entry 
of protocol into force, and statements (Webb. 
Erkin), 140, 306, 334 

NATO, ground and air forces of, under command of 
SACEUR, 367 

Palestine refugees, sponsorship of General Assembly 
resolution for relief of, 177, 226 

U.S. Ambassador (McGhee), confirmation and address 
at Istanbul, on partnership with U.S., 352, 774 
Turnage, William, designation under TCA, 297 

U.K. See United Kingdom. 
U.N. .See United Nations. 
Underdeveloped areas in Asia and Africa: 
Address by U.N. representative on TC (Sayre), 623 
Independence, without revenues or defense, question 
of stability, 626 
Unemployment in U.S., statements (Mrs. Roosevelt, 
Lubin), in answer to Soviet statements, 1027, 1032, 
1035 
UNESCO. See U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization. 
UNICEF. .See International Children's Emergency Fund. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) : 
Aggression, draft resolution defining, text, and U.S. 

statement (Maktos), 131, 135 
Austrian state treaty delayed by U.S.S.R., exchange 
of notes, by Soviet charg6 at I^ondon with Austrian 
Treaty Deputies, and identic U.S., French, and 
U.K. notes to U.S.S.R., with draft text, 160, 326, 
327, 379, 448, 778 
Berlin, interference with Allied patrols on road from 

West Germany, 820, 902 
Chinese representation in U.N., protest, 435, 635 
Collective Measures Committee, proposal in U.N. to 

abolish, text, 47 
Cultural offensive, U.S. response, address (Sargeant), 

535 
Disarmament, Soviet proposals and draft texts, 24, 25, 

126, 127, 138, 515, 635 
Disarmament Commission, Soviet attitude, addresses 

(Cohen), 504, 753, 759, 912, 1029 
Economic conference at Moscow, subsequent to World 

Peace Council's resolution, 447, 901 
"Germ warfare" charges against U.N. forces in Korea, 
attitude, 506, 515, 516, 649, 1030 



1076 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

Gemiaa elections, Soviet attitude toward U.N. Commis- 
sion's investigation of conditions, statement 
(Cooper), notes from U.N. Commission to General 
Chuikov, and exchange of notes between U.S.S.R. 
and Three Powers, 54, 58, 350, 5.30, GOO, 620, 634, 
650, 817 
German peace treaty (proposed), statements (Ache- 
sou), Soviet draft and notes, and text of identic 
replifts by U.S., U.K., and France, 530, 531, 532, 650, 
777, 817, 819 
German unification, attitude, 377, 531, 563, 651, 817, 

857 
Greek question in U.N., Soviet charge against Greece 
of inhumanity, and against U.S. and U.K. of in- 
tervention, 288, 290 
Human Rights Commission, Soviet caricature of human 
rights in U.S., statement in U.N. (Mrs. Roose- 
velt), 1026 
Interference in internal affairs of states, Soviet charge 
in U.N. against Mutual Security Act, statements 
(Gross, Mansfield), 28, 32, 128, 635 
Interference with traffic to Berlin, identic notes to 

General Chuikov, 820, 902 
Italy's admission to U.N., Soviet attitude, 35, 310 
Japanese-Soviet relations upon ratification of peace 
treaty, letter (Aeheson to Wiley), and statement 
(MacArthur), 355, 356 
Korean armistice, proposal that Security Council act 

on, text, 46, 47, 74 
Lend-lease status of vessels transferred by U.S. under, 

correspondence (Knowland, Aeheson), 879 
Lend-lease settlement, U.S. proposal for adjudication by 
International Court of Justice, exchange of notes, 
86, 87, 88 
Mutual Security Act (1951), Soviet charges of U.S. in- 
terference in internal affairs, 28, 32, 128, 635 
Obstructionism, policy of, statements (Jessup, Ache- 
son), 264, 648 
"Peace offensive," exposure of, statement (Aeheson), 

666 
Prague communique, excerpts, 505 

Prisoners of War, U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on, Soviet 

participation in, exchange of notes with U.S., 90, 228 

Resistance to oppression in U.S.S.R. and satellite areas, 

a year's review, 84 
Slave-labor camp songs broadcast by VOA, 778 
Trade offers, insincerity of, address (Aeheson), 650 
Trade policy of Soviet bloc, remarks (Llnder, Lubin), 

901, 1032 
Travel restrictions, Soviet officials in U.S.. and U.S. 

citizens in U.S.S.R. and satellites, 451, 452, 730 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Chinese-Soviet treaty (1945), Soviet violation of, U.S. 
statement (Cooper), and test of General Assembly 
resolution (Feb. 1), 177, 219, 220, 635 
Commercial agreement with U.S., (1935, 1937), back- 
ground, 769 
Geneva protocol (1925) on bacteriological methods of 
warfare, Soviet charges of violation by U.N. forces, 
911, 1041 
Trade-agreement concessions suspended by U.S., 947, 
1019 



Union of Soviet Socialist Kepublics — Continued 

U.N. membership, admission of states, attitude, 35, 310 

U.S. Ambassador (Kennan), confirmation and state- 
ment, 479, 643 

U.S. Ambassador (Kirk), resignation, 352 

U.S. information program, effectiveness behind Iron 
Curtain, article (Sargeant), 487 

VOA filter combats Soviet jamming, 534 

World revolution, statement by Red officer, 8G1 

Yugoslavia, aggressive activities of Soviet bloc against. 
General Assembly resolution (Dec. 14, 1951), and 
statements (Cooper, Allen), 62, 380 
United Kingdom : 

Anglo-American unity, address before Congress 
(Churchill), 116 

Armed forces, draft of working paper sponsored by 
U.K., France, and U.S. proposing limitations of, 907, 
910 

Armed forces to be maintained in Europe, tripartite 
declarations, 325, 897 

Atlantic Command, NATO, joint communique 
(ChurchiU, Truman), 116 

Austrian state treaty delayed by U.S.S.R., note from 
Austrian Treaty Deputies, and identic U.K., U.S., 
and French notes to U.S.S.R., with draft text, 160, 
326, 327, 379, 448, 778 

British Commonwealth Scientific Official Conference, 
U.S. representative (Joyce), 273 

Churchill, Winston, Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 83, 
115 

Disarmament. See Disarmament Commission. 

Economic situation and defense program, MSP state- 
ment, 318 

E.scape clauses of trade agreements, U.K. aide-memoire 
protesting increased U.S. use of, and statement 
(Aeheson), 737 

European Defense Community, relation to NATO, tri- 
partite communique, with U.S. and France, and 
quadripartite communique, with German Chan- 
cellor, 325, 412 

European federation, attitude, 526 

German elections, free, investigation of conditions for, 
text of tripartite resolution by U.K., U.S., and 
France, and statements (Cooper), 54, 55, 58, 350, 
600, 817 

German peace treaty (proposed), statements (Ache- 
son), Soviet draft and notes, and text of identic 
replies by U.K., U.S., and France, 530, 531, 532, 650, 
777, 817, 819 

Gross national product and defense expenditures, table, 

424 
Insecticides, Working Party on, established, 272 
Iranian oil dispute, developments, (1951), 314 
King George VI, eulogy on (Aeheson, Truman), 248 
Malaya, Anglo-American solidarity of purpose, state- 
ment (Aeheson), 427 
Palestine refugees, sponsorship of General Assembly 

resolution for relief, 138, 177, 226 
Polish veterans in, issuance of immigration visas to, 

under Displaced Persons Act, 121 
Soviet interference with traffic to Berlin, U.K., U.S., 
and French identic notes to General Chuikov, 820, 
902 



Index, January to June 1952 



1077 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Strategic materials, joint communique (Cliurchill, 

Truman), 115 
Trade, excliange of aide-memoire on increasing use of 

escape clauses in trade agreements, 737, 858 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Baliamas Long Range Proving Ground, agreement 

with U.S. for extension of, signed, 166 
Contractual agreements between Three Powers and 
Germany, signature, and statements re reparations, 
887, 979 
European Defense Community, tripartite declaration 
concerning, text and statements (Acheson), 895, 
897, 933, 951, 972 
Lease of naval and air bases, with U.S. (1941), nego- 
tiations for release by U.S. of area for agricultural 
use, 833 
Mutual assistance in raw materials, with U.S., signed, 

exchanging steel for aluminum and tin, 115, 297 
North Atlantic Treaty, protocol, guaranteeing support 

to EDC, signature and text, 895, 896 
Torquay protocol (1951), signed, 8 
Trieste, Zone A of Free Territory of, tripartite commu- 
nique and memorandum of understanding with U.S. 
and Italy, 585, 779 
U.N. Fourth Committee, criticism voiced of British rule 

in P)ritish Honduras, Cyprus, and Yemen, G25 
U.S. support of defense program, allotment to U.K. of 
Mutual Security funds, letters (Harriman to Con- 
gress), 2.36, 237 
Yugoslavia, program of economic aid, discussed by 
U.K., U.S., and French representatives, 3.59, 746 
United Nations ( for U.N. organs and specialized agencies, 
see specific bodies. General Assembly, International 
Court of Justice, etc.) : 
Budget for U.N. programs and for specialized agencies, 

U.S. part in, 61, 310, 675 
Chine.se representation, U.N. proceedings, 435, 635 
Collective Measures Committee. Sec Collective Meas- 
ures Committee. 
Commission to Investigate Conditions for Free Elections 

in Germany. See U.N. Commission. 
Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Commis- 
sion. 
Documents listed, 20, 102, 127, 346, 434, 462, 500, 519, 640, 

755, 792, 839, 876, 916, 1028 
Fourth Committee, criticism voiced of rule by France, 
South Africa, and U.K. over dependent peoples, 625 
"Germ warfare" charges. See "Germ warfare." 
German elections. See U.N. Commission To Investigate 

Conditions for Free. 
Information, Subcommission on Freedom of, 5th ses- 
sion, proceedings, 435, 508, 516, 1041 
International Law Commission, report on reservations 
to multilateral conventions, statement (Cohen), 71 
International Refugee Organization (IRO), plans for 

liquidation, 50 
Italy's application for membership, support by U.S., 

statements (Gross), 35, 310 
Japanese contributions, address (Sebald), 493 
Korea. See Korea. 

Land reform, statement (Tobias), and ECOSOC, FAO, 
and ECAFE programs, 63, 311 



United Nations — Continued 

Legislation, international, progress under, 697 

Peace Observation Commission. See Peace Observation 

Commission. 
Prisoners of War, Ad Hoc Commission on, 90, 228, 349 
Restrictive business practices, committee on, proceed- 
ings, 259, 311 
Technical assistance conference, 2d, 310 
Technical assistance programs, contributions by U.S. 
and U.N. agencies, 198, 293, 310, 405, 543, 624, 628, 
1013 
Treaties and agreements, multilateral, status (1951), 

table, 103 
U.N. Command Operations in Korea. See under Korea. 
United Nations Ad Hoc Commission on Prisoners of War, 

90, 228, 349 
United Nations Charter, ruling by Supreme Court (Calif.) 

on relation to domestic legislation, 744 
United Nations Commission To Investigate Conditions for 
Free Elections in Germany : 
German proposal for, 377, 567, 651 

Resolution of General Assembly (Dec. 19, 1951), state- 
ments (Cooper), and letters from U.N. Commission 
to HICOM and to Soviet Control Commission, 54, 
55, 58, 310, 350, 600 
Soviet attitude, summary and statement (Acheson), 620, 

634, 650 
Three Powers and U.S.S.R., exchange of notes, 530, 531, 
817, 819 
United Nations Day (Oct. 24), observance, 591, 592 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 
Copyright specialists, of 6th General Conference of, 

draft of universal copyright convention, 136 
Council of Europe, relation to, 524 
Technical assistance programs in India, 293 
U.S. National Commission for, 3d conference, 202 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, relation 

to liquidation of IRO, 460, 529 
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, 

477, 760, 962, 963 
United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) : 
U.S. contribution to, 683 

Voluntary contributions, negotiations authorized, 260 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) : 
Advisory Commis.sion, U.S. member (Locke), 351 
General Assembly resolution (Jan. 26), text, and state- 
ment (Jessup), 177, 224, 226, 635 
United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans 

(UNSCOB), termination, 283, 284, 290 
United States Advisory Commission on Information, 5th 

report to Congress, cited, 338 
United States Committee for German Corporate Dollar 

Bonds, 461, 821 
United States foreign policy, general statements on : 
Acheson, Secretary, review of past year, 3, 647 
Fisher, Adrian, formulation, 243, 618 
Marshall, Cliarles B., of Policy Planning Staff, 415, 698 
United Siafes Foreign Service — A Career for Yomtg 

Americans, excerpts, 549, 582 
United States gross national product and defense expendi- 
tures, table, 424 



107a 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG). 
See Germany. 

United States Information and Educational Exchange 
Program (USIE), cited, 483 

United States International Information Administration. 
See International Information. 

United States National Commission for UNESCO, 3d 
national conference, address (Sargeant), 202 

United States-Panama claims convention, cited, 544 

United States special representative in Europe and U.S. 
permanent representative to NAC, posts combined, 
615 

United States voluntary exports for relief and rehabili- 
tation, report, 256 

Uuiting-for-peace resolution (Nov. 3, 1950), authority for 
Peace Observation Commission's establishment of 
Ballsan Subcommission, 2S3, 280, 634, 677, 678, 682 

Universal Postal Union (UPU), 13th Congress, U.S. dele- 
gation, 757 

UNKRA. See United Nations Korean Reconstruction 
Agency. 

UNRWA. See U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Pales- 
tine. 

UNSCOB. See U.N. Special Committee on the Balkans. 

UPU. See Universal Postal Union. 

Uruguay : 

Escape clause in trade agreement with, 140 
Greece, death sentences in, proposal in General Assem- 
bly re, 289 
Alilitary-assistance agreement, negotiations, 630 
Point 4 appointment, 191 

USIE. See U.S. Information. 

USSR. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Venezuela : 

Allocation of crude oil imports, vs/ith reduced duty, 
proclamation, 92 

American investment in, results of, 750 

Trade agreement with U.S., supplementary, negotia- 
tions, 631 
Vessels : 

Courier, seagoing broadcasting station, commissioned, 
306, 421, 422 

Government-owned merchantmen, immunity waived by 
governments, 985 

Navigation dues, exemption of pleasure craft, exchange 
of notes with Cuba, 11 

North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, 
4th session and U.S. delegation, 876 

Submarine, atomic-powered, laying of keel, 1007 

Tonnage measurement, conference on, U.S. observer 
delegates, 997 

U.S.S.H., question of return of lend-lease vessels, ex- 
change of notes with U.S.S.R., and correspondence 
of Senator Knowland with Secretary of State, 86, 
87, 88, 879 
Vietnam (see also Indochina) : 

Ambassador Tran, Van Kha, conversations in Wash- 
ington on Communist aggression in Indochina, 
1009, 1010 

U.S. Legation, elevation to Embassy, 979 
Villard, Henry S., confirmation, American Minister to 
Lili.va,.'!.'2 



Vincent, John Carter, denial and clearance of disloyalty 

charges, letter (Humelsine to Vincent), 274, 351 
Visa Division, data on persons registering for immigra- 
tion, address by Mr. Auerbach, 980 
Voice of America (VOA) : 

Courier, seagoing broadcasting station, commissioned, 

306, 421, 422 
Courier, visit to Latin America, 489 
Domestic programs on VOA activities for U.S. public, 

110 
EfCectiveness of programs, address (Compton), 485, 671 
Filter device combats Soviet jamming, 534 
Nonpartisan character of, address (Compton), 864 
Soviet propaganda on labor, land reform, and peace, 

exposure of, article (Kretzmann), 249 
Soviet slave-labor camp songs, broadcasts, 778 
Spiritual values in American life, broadcasts, 828 
10th anniversary, addresses (Truman, Acheson), 421, 

422 
Transmitter, short-wave, for broadcasts to Far East, 
Europe, and Latin America, 93, 160, 211 
Vorys, John M., U.S. representative to Gth session, Gen- 
eral Assembly, 632 

War, termination of state of war with Japan, 688 
War powers, presidential, extension of, 641 
Warren, Avra M., Ambassador to Pakistan : 
Address on conditions in Pakistan, 1011 
U.S. representative at Con.sultative Committee on Eco- 
nomic Development in South and Southeast Asia, 
548 
Warren, George L. : 

Reports on Sth session of IRO, on Conference on Mi- 
gration, and on 2d session of Provisional Intergov- 
ernmental Committee for Movement of Migrants 
from Europe, 50, 169, 638 
U.S. representative on PICMME, 2d session, 308 
Warrick, L. F., chairman, U.S. advisory board. Interna- 
tional Joint Commission, on control of pollution of 
boundary waters, 429 
Water control and utilization, international cooperation, 

discussion in ECOSOC, 918 
Water's edge. Voice of America at, 864 
Wattumull Foundation, 294 
Webb, James E. : 

Correspondence with Senator Knowland, unauthorized 
release of names of Americans imprisoned in Com- 
munist China, 11 
NAT, accession of Greece and Turkey, statement, 334 
Resignation as Under Secretary, 191 
Wedemeyer report, excerpt, 222 
Weil, Frank L., chairman for U.N. Day, 591 
Welling, Tracy R., designation under TCA, 603 
West Point Military Academy, address by President Tru- 
man, 847 
Western Hemisphere unity, address (Sargeant), 707 
Western Samoa, legislative powers granted by New Zea- 
land, 627 
Whaling Commission, International, 4th annual meeting 

and U.S. delegation, 915 
Whearty, Raymond P., Chairman, Interdepartmental 
Committee on Internal Security, 190 



Index, January fo June J952 



1079 



Wheat Council, International, U.S. delegation to 8th 

session, CSl 
WHO. See World Health Organization. 
Willson, Clift'oi-d, appointed consultant to Ambassador 

Bowles to direct Point 4 program in India, 48 
Women, Commission on Status of: 

Report on, discussion in ECOSOC, 877 
Cth session, U.S. delegation and proceedings, 593, GOl 
World Bank. See International Bank for Reconstruction 

and Development. 
World economic situation and U.S. economic situation, 

statements (Lubin), 9S9, 1032 
AVorld Health Organization (WHO) : 
Budget, 543 

Executive Board, 0th session, U.S. delegation, and 
Standing Committee on Administration and 
Finance, 70 
Korean epidemic victims, U.S. supports offer of assist- 
ance, statement (Acheson), 495 
Relations with other organizations, 543, 962 



World Health Organization — Continued 
Technical assistance program in India, 293 
World Health Assembly, 5th, U.S. delegation, 755 

Yoshida, Shigeru, Prime Minister of Japan: 
Correspondence with John Foster Dulles, 120 
Statement on entry into force of Japanese peace treaty 
and security treaty, 689 
Young, Arthur, financial adviser to Saudi Arabia, 1018 
Yugoslavia : 
Economic aid, conference, U.S., U.K., and French rep- 
resentatives, 359, 746 
Economic situation and defense program, MSP state- 
ment, and funds provided under MSP, 319, 407, 414, 
469 
Relations with U.S.S.R. and satellite states, memo- 
randum, text of General Assembly resolution (Dec. 
14, 1951), and U.S. statement, 62, 284, 634 
U.S. relations with, address (Allen), 380 

"Zaibatsu," dissolution under Occupation of Japan, 491 



DEPARTJIENT OF STATE 

Publication 4679 

Released October 1952 

OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIU.S 
DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS 



U. S. SOVERNMCNT FBINTINS OmCli 1951 



For'sale by tbe Superinterdcnt of Dccurnents, U. P. GoTerrment Printing OfBce 
Washineton 25, D. C. • Price 20 cents 



1080 



Department of State Bulletin 



tJAe/ z/le^a^t^ten{/ ,(w tnate^ 




A TRIAL BALANCE OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN 

1951 • Address by Secretary Acheson ......> 3 

U.S. RELATIONS WITH HUNGARY: 

Release Sought for American Fliers Held in Hungary . 7 

Statement by Secretary Acheson 7 

U.S. Orders Closing of Hungarian Consulates ... 7 

OAS CHARTER COMES INTO EFFECT • Address by 

John C. Dreier 9 

SOVIET CHARGES AGAINST EFFORTS OF FREE 
NATIONS TO ACHIEVE COLLECTIVE SECURITY: 

Statement by Ernest A. Gross 28 

Statement by Mike J. Mansfield 29 

DIVERGENT VIEWS ON DISARMAMENT DISCUSSED . 17 
Statements on Tripartite Resolution by Philip C. 
Jessup 21 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXVI, No. 6 
January 7, 1952 




'-*tes o* 



U. S. 5UPER1NTfNDFNT OF DOCUMENT! 

jAu 25 1952 







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Vol. XXVI, No. 654 • Publication 4451 
January 7, 1952 



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a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, proindes the 
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i 



A Trial Balance of U.S. Foreign Policy in 1951 



Address hy Secretary Acheson ^ 



For this honor I am deeply grateful. And I 
accept it, not for myself alone, but for all those 
who serve faithfully in the line of foreign policy. 
They, and I, will be encouraged and strengthened 
by it. 

This occasion comes as an old year passes and 
a new one approaches. The junction of years is 
by tradition a time for taking stock of the j^ast 
and resolving about the future. 

As a public servant in an accountable Govern- 
ment, I would like to respond to this honor you 
have bestowed uj^on me by giving an account of 
what has been done and what remains to be done 
in the field of our foreign policy. 

One of my predecessors, John Hay, was able to 
sum up tlie foreign policy of his day in the prin- 
ciples of the Monroe Doctrine and the Golden 
Rule. 

We find ourselves in a more difficult situation. 
Without departing, we hope, from either doctrine 
or rule, we have moved into a world grown vastly 
more complex. 

Our country now must bear responsibilities that 
were imdreamed of when most of us were growing 
up. Our national decisions in these postwar years 
may be judged by history to be as fateful as any 
of the great decisions of our national life. They 
influence the course of events not only for us but 
throughout the world. 

At the same time, foreign policy, instead of re- 
maining the province of a few professionals, has 
become a part of the everyday life of our people. 
The state of the world has become a personal ques- 
tion for each one of us. No one knows this bet- 
ter than you who have served your country with 
honor and gallantry. Many of our countrymen 
are discovering it once again in Korea, as you dis- 
covered it in Europe and the Pacific only a few 
years ago. 

It is not only your right but your duty to ask 
those who are acting for you in the field of for- 
eign affairs: 

'Made before the Jewish Vfav Veterans at New York 
on Dec. 30 and released to the press on the same date. 



How are we doing ? Ai-e we making some head- 
way toward peace in the world? Are we any 
better off than we were a year ago? How much 
longer must we live in the shadow of the danger 
of war? 

These are hard questions. No one can answer 
them with absolute certainty. But we must try to 
answer them as well as we can, and that is what I 
would like to do this evening. 

So before we turn the page of the calendar, I 
would like to look back with you over the ground 
we have been covering in our foreign policy, so 
that we can see where we stand now, and what 
things look like for 1952. 

Let us take a trial balance on the year's develop- 
ments in foreign policy in three important areas 
of the world — the North Atlantic area, the Near 
and Middle East, and the Far East. These areas 
do not cover the whole range of our policy or in- 
terests. 

When we look at Europe and Asia, we look at 
tliem from the vantage point of the Western Hem- 
isphere, which is the foundation of our position 
in the world. One of our main assets is the cir- 
cumstance that in this hemisphere we are among 
friends with common purposes and common inter- 
ests. And here cooperation among nations is an 
established habit. 

That circumstance was never more strikingly 
demonstrated than in tlie special session of the 
Organization of American States held last spring. 
The trust, confidence, and cooperation existing in 
this hemisphere is the product of 60 years of or- 
ganized work together. It is a possession of all our 
republics beyond price. 

Decisions for Defense of Europe Await Action 

To begin our survey, we see that in the North 
Atlantic area, the year 1951 has been a period of 
progress and growth, much of it beneath the sur- 
face. In the weeks before spring comes there is 
intense activity in the earth. Life in every form 
has cracked the shell that holds it, and is pushing 
up through the half-frozen earth. Some hardy 



ianuary 7, 1952 



forms are already through. Over all hangs the 
threat of a late frost. So, I believe, it is here. 

A year ago, the defense of Europe was only a 
hope. While it is by no means finished, we know 
now that in the short span of a year, the nations of 
the North Atlantic area have been able to create 
both an organization and a spirit which will be 
capable of defending that area. We know — and 
our friends in Europe know — that we can build 
sufficient strength — both military and economic — 
to deter aggression or check it. 

In the closing days of last year, the Supreme 
Headquarters of Allied Powers in Europe 
(Shape) was created by the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization (Nato). President Truman 
was asked to permit General Eisenhower to serve 
as Supreme Commander. The engagements were 
made to create a unified force under his command. 

At the beginning of this year, General Eisen- 
hower assumed his command. With gi-eat vigor 
and leadership, and the devoted help of his inter- 
national staif, he has made Shape — the Supreme 
Headquarters — a dynamic reality. But the de- 
fensive force still had to be made adequate. This 
has meant tackling the toughest of all questions — 
men, money, equipment, and organization. 

This is the work which has gone forward, 
largely unseen, and gone far. 

It lias brought us to the point where we can see 
that the job is do-able, and that by the end of 1952, 
we can be well along toward our goal. But if we 
are to achieve that position by the end of 1952, 
there are three important decisions we shall have 
to make in the early months of 1952. 

The first of these decisions has to do with the 
quantity and quality of the forces the European 
nations will furnish. 

As you know, tlie committee of the 12 Nato 
nations, of which Mr. Harriman is chairman, and 
(vhich General McNarney so ably served, had had 
the task of reviewing the military needs for Eu- 
rope against the economic capabilities of the Nato 
members. They have tried to reduce to concrete 
terms how large a military force is needed, and 
how soon we can have it. 

In the background of these questions is the dark 
shadow of Euroj^e's grave economic and financial 
problems. They represent a difficulty and a dan- 
ger for our European friends and for us. But 
the North Atlantic community has the resources 
and the skill to surmount them. 

Mr. Harriman and the other members of the 
Nato committee have dug out the facts and drawn 
up a plan of action. The decision on the forces 
Europe will create is ready to be acted upon by 
the Governments of the Nato countries. 

A second decision that lies ahead in 1952 has to 
do with Germany. During the past year we have 
made great strides in working out an agi-eement 
which will restore Western Germany to a place of 
equality in the world community. It is our hope 
and belief that this issue will be brought to a suc- 



cessful conclusion early in 1952. As you will see, 
this decision and the next one go hand-in-hand 
for together they provide for German participa- 
tion in the defense of Euroj^e without reviving the 
menace of German militarism. 

The third decision will have to do with the crea- 
tion of a European defense community and a 
European army. 

Within the past few days, the Foreign Ministers 
of a number of European countries have been meet- 
ing again on this complex problem. Many of the 
difficulties have been worked out, by patient nego- 
tiation, and if we can move forward toward a fa- 
vorable decision on this issue, it will create a frame- 
work in which Western Europe can realize its 
whole, rich potential for defense and for peaceful 
progress. 

Tlie Schuman Plan for the European manage- 
ment of coal and steel, and the European army and 
defense community, taken together with the deci- 
sions on Germany and the Harriman committee 
recommendations — all these, we and our European 
friends are making every effort to bring into being 
in the year before us. 

We have come to the threshold of these decisions 
only with tremendous effort on all sides. But this 
effort to move toward unity in Western Europe 
may prove to be the most important step forward 
taken in the passing year. And 1952 can be a year 
of historic decision for Europe — the year in which 
Europe can enter into a new era. 

Increasing Responsibilities in Near and Middle East 

In the Near and Middle East, however, the pic- 
ture has been quite different. Here, I think we 
have lost some ground in 1951. 

This is a region of great importance to us, be- 
cause of its people, its resources, strategic position, 
and vital communications arteries. 

Danger spots in this area are the crisis over the 
defense of the Suez waterway and the impassei 
over the development of Iran's petroleum re- 
sources. Both offer dangerous opportunities for 
exploitation by the Kremlin. 

Bright spots in the area are Greece and Turkey. 
These two countries, with United States assistance, 
have made great progress in building up their 
economic and military defenses. Both have stead- 
fastly withstood continued pressure from the 
Soviet Union and are to become a part of the 
Nato defense system. 

As a part of the effort to deal with the under- 
lying conditions of life in the Near East, the 
United States has formulated for 1952, a substan- 
tial program of financial and technical assistance. 
American experts are already at work on agricul- 
tural and industrial development, on social serv- 
ices, and public health. 

One week ago, on a mission of this kind, a num- 
ber of Americans lost their lives in a plane crash 
near Tehran. One of them was Henry G. Bennett, 



Deparfment of State Bulletir 



chief of the Point Four Program of technical 
, cooperation. 

j If peace can have its heroes, then these men 

' deserve tlie name of hero. They have given their 

I lives, as before they gave unsparingly of their 

energies, in what President Truman has described 

as "the only kind of a war we seek" — the war 

against want. 

It was a tragic loss to our country, and to tlie 
world whom they served. We shall miss their 
help, but we are resolved to carry forward with 
their program of aid and cooperation, not only in 
the Near East, but wherever in the world there is 
need and a desire for our help. 

In addition, some military assistance will be 
j made available to this area under the Mutual Se- 
I curity Program. But tlae best means for insuring 
the defense of this region, we believe, is by coop- 
erative effort. The proposed Middle East Com- 
mand can provide for an association of full and 
equal partners and could be a strong bulwark in 
defense of tlie freedom of this important part of 
the world. 

Meanwhile, the United States continues its ef- 
forts through the United Nations to promote peace 
between Israel and its Arab neighbors. The new 
state of Israel has made remarkable progress. 
But if the large expenditures of capital for border 
defenses could be allocated to economic develop- 
ment and the natural trade routes could be opened 
once more, the whole area could prosper. To 
reach a condition of mutual trust and friendliness 
will require the continued efforts of men of good 
will. 

For 1952, it is clear that developments in the 
Near and Middle East will call upon us with a 
critical urgency for still further resources of lead- 
ership, and for a willingness to assume increasing 
responsibilities in this ai'ea. 

Problems and Progress in the Far East 

The third area we want to look at is the Far 
East. 

The year's transformation in Korea has been 
great. At this time in 1950, the Chinese Commu- 
nists were mounting their massive drive to push 
the U.N. forces into the sea, and the outlook was 
far from encouraging. Now the aggressor has 
been driven back and denied the pi-ize of conquest, 
with terrible losses to his troops. The brave men 
who did this thing with their nerve and their blood 
will deserve forever the gratitude of all people who 
love freedom. 

They have done more than repel a specific ag- 
gression; they have helped arrest the general 
forces of aggression. 

They have proved that collective security can 
work. They liave enabled the United Nations to 
cope successfully with the same sort of attack 
wliicli destroyed the League of Nations and 
brought on World War 11. But how much this 
principle of collective security means in the future 



will depend upon us — upon the will and resources 
with which we and our allies support it. 

In 1951, a very great deal w^as accomplished in 
Korea. 

Military success against the aggressors drove 
them out of South Korea. This was done without 
spreading the war to other areas in the Far East 
and without increasing the danger of general war 
in the world. 

We contended against aggression with firm reso- 
lution and sensible restraint, the two qualities most 
needed for the long pull ahead. 

And we maintained unity with our allies in 
the face of great danger to that unity. The 
forces of 16 nations fought side-by-side under a 
U. N. command, backed by a united policy toward 
the struggle. It was an unprecedented and prom- 
ising example of international cooperation to 
support law and order in the world. 

The job in Korea is far from done. 

Negotiations for an armistice are still going on. 
Our representatives have been doing a superb job ; 
they have been patient and firm in support of our 
objectives in Korea. 

We do not yet know whether or when we shall 
have an end to the fighting in Korea, but this 
much is certain : We shall not rest until our men 
who are being held prisoner are released. And 
we shall stand firm against any settlement that 
rewards aggression, or compromises the security 
of the Republic of Korea. 

But even if an armistice is signed, the need for 
vigilance and effort will not be over. We shall 
have to remain on guard against a renewal of 
Communist treachery. There will remain the 
task of rehabilitating that suffering land. And 
there will remain the task of realizing the U. N. 
political objective of unifying Korea on a basis 
that provides a decent chance for the Koreans to 
live as free men. 

Half a continent away from Korea lies South- 
east Asia. 

A year ago, the chance of holding off Communist 
penetration in Indochina looked doubtful in even 
the most optimistic estimate, though the defenders 
had shown signs of taking the initiative. 

During the year, the Communist threat in 
Indochina has been contained — a development 
attributable to French courage, to an increasing 
determination on the part of the Indochinese peo- 
ple to preserve their freedom against Communist 
encroachment, and to American aid. The good 
fight has not been lost, but it remains far, far from 
won. There are dangerous signs of further 
trouble from Communist aggression in Indochina, 
and also in Burma, which will require continued 
vigilance in 1952. 

The course of events in the Philippines over 
the past year is also one to hearten free men. 

A year ago, the young Republic was in trouble. 
It was under rising pressure from an extensive 
Communist-inspired rebellion. 



January 7, J 952 



In the interval, the Filipinos have found new 
resources of internal strength. The armed threat 
has been gradually reduced. The foundations of 
the future now look strong. Aid from tlie United 
States helped in producing these changes, but the 
finest ingredient was Philippine courage. 

1951 was also a year in which important prog- 
ress was made toward building a structure of 
peace in the Pacific. 

By a series of security treaties, the United 
States has established firm defense ties with Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Japan. 

Another element in this structure of peace was 
the Treaty of Peace with Japan. Under U.S. 
leadership, the Japanese peace treaty developed 
from its first stages through the stage of ratifica- 
tion by Japan during the year. The process 
brought a heartening demonstration of imity by 
the free nations in the face of threatening efforts 
by the adversaries of peace at the San Francisco 
conference. 

The treaty brings Japan back into full status in 
the society of nations. 

The unfinished business for the year aliead 
includes: 

The ratification of the Japanese peace treaty 
and the Pacific mutual defense treaties; 

the completion of specific joint defense arrange- 
ments with Japan ; 

tlie regeneration of Japanese strength in a col- 
lective pattern that will bar the possibility of ag- 
gression, and the translation into action of the 
terms of the peace and defense treaties. 

The Far East as a whole provides much that is 
hopeful on the balance sheet for 1951. 

Yet the significance of wliat has been done will 
be lasting only if further action in 1952 malces it 
so. Nothing has yet been done that we can turn 
away from as a task completed. 

U.S. Leadership Inspires Faitli in Freedom 

This summary gives us not a total picture but 
only a sampling of developments within the free 
world. 

It has to omit much that counts heavily in the 
balances and trends. It does not take account of 
developments behind the Iron Curtain. It does 
not deal with the total effect of the tremendous 
increase in our productive power here at home. 
Nor does it deal with a host of serious problems 
in almost every part of the world. 

But it gives us enough, I think, to draw some 
conclusions. 

What it adds up to, it seems to me, is that we 
have had both gains and losses in 1951, but that 
we are better off than we were a year ago. 

During the past year the free world has gained 
in strength and moved appreciably towards 
greater unity. There are grounds for confidence, 
but there are no grounds for complacency. We 
cannot afford to let down at all in vigilance, pur- 
pose, and effort. 



We are not yet "over the hump." The outcome 
in the contest between a better future and a return 
to the Dark Ages is still undetei'mined. 

It is hard to say that any one year is more crit- 
ical than another, but it seems to me certain that 
we will have it in our power in 1952 to take action, 
or to witlihold action, whicli will have a decisive 
effect upon the cause of peace. 

The central responsibility in this cause will re- 
main with the United States. Our nation pro- 
vides the one great repository of strength for 
those who value freedom. It is the one nation 
having margins to share with others. 

Our position — lying in both the Western and the 
Northern Hemispheres, stretching from the 
tropics to the Arctic, and facing on both the At- 
lantic and the Pacific — imposes upon us heavy 
responsibilities and great opportunities. 

For a century and a half, the American people 
have been the leaders in the revolution of the com- 
mon people. 

The greatest asset we have in all the world — 
even greater than our material power — is the 
American idea. No one needs to tell an American 
audience all the things that this holds for us. It 
is so much a part of our everyday lives that we do 
not stop to define it, or to put it into packages for 
export. 

But throughout the world, wherever people are 
oppressed, wherever people dream of freedom and 
opportunity, they feel the inspiration of the Amer- 
ican idea. 

What we are trying to do, in our foreign policy. 
is to make possible a world in which our own peo- 
ple, and all people who have the same determina- 
tion, can work in their own way toward a bettei 
life, without having to bear the yoke of tyranny 

Our belief in freedom is a burning and fighting 
faith. Freedom is essential to our individual lift 
and our national life. We would suffocate anc 
perish in any other atmosphere. 

Wliat we are up against, in our present defens* 
of freedom, is perhaps the hardest test our nation 
has ever faced since the days of its founding. 

It is hardest because it calls upon us, not for 
sudden burst of patriotic effort, but for steadi 
ness, perseverance, maturity, and understanding 

All that we do here in this country, all that w 
say and do to each other, whether it is worthy o 
us or not, echoes abroad among the people wh 
look to us for leadership and a sense of respons 
bility. 

In addition to being a critical year in worl 
affairs, 1952 will also be an election year here f 
home. If we are to continue to bear our respons 
bilities in the world — on which the issue of peac 
or war hangs in the balance — we cannot afford t 
let excesses of partisan zeal blind us to the sob( 
requirements of our national interest. 

And we must always remember that we cann( 
find security for ourselves, nor inspiration 1 
those who are on our side, if we here in Ameri( 



Departmenf of State Bullet: 



trample our own best triulilions by prejudice or by 
a hysterica] distortion of t lie tii;]it ao-ainst tyranny. 

Tiiis is a time when resolutions for the new year 
are made. 

If we are to make a resolution for 1952, let it be 
that we shall strive to be true to ourselves, true to 
our own best traditions of justice and freedom. 

The task ahead will be long, for history, unlike 
the accounts we keep, is measured not year by year, 
but in lifetimes. 

But if we are true to ourselves and to our hope 
of tlie future, we must persevere in the course we 
are on. 

You will remember the words of Abraham Lin- 
coln : "With firmness in the right, as God gives us 
to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work 
we are in." 



U.S. Seeks Release of American 
Fliers Held in Hungary 

[Rrlrased to the press Decemher 26] 

Since the U.S. Air Force plane was forced down 
in Hungary on November 19, it has been the con- 
stant and urgent endeavor of the U.S. Govern- 
ment to obtain the release and return of the four 
U.S. Air Force fliers. The announcement on De- 
cember 23 of their trial by a Hungarian military 
court and the assessment against them of fines 
or 3 months in jail created a new situation. It 
remains the primary policy of the U.S. Govern- 
ment to seek their release. 

The American charge d'affaires in Budapest 
has since December 24 had three meetings with 
officials of the Hungarian Foreign Office in con- 
nection with the release of the fliers. Under in- 
structions he has indicated that, provided the 
fliers are released promptly, this Government will 
pay the fine imposed on them. Allegedly because 
of the holidays, the Hungarian Foreign Office has 
been unable to provide either an official copy of 
the Hungarian court record or any statement as 
to the time and manner in which the fliers would 
be released to American authorities. 



Statement by Secretary Acheson 

[Released to the press December 2S] 

Every American will be relieved that the four 
American fliers are now safely in our hands. But 
underlying relief is a deep current of indignation 
over the treatment they have received. 

The American people are rightfully indignant. 
Because we value the welfare of the individual 
above all else, we have paid the so-called "fines." 
But we have not paid willingly, and we state 
clearly, in order that there may be no misunder- 



standing of our attitude in the future, that our 
patience is not inexhaustible. 

In this whole performance, the Budapest regime 
has ignored the basic rules of long-established 
international conduct. 

Repeated requests were made to the Hungarian 
authorities to permit American officials to visit 
the airmen. No such access was allowed either 
before trial or subsequently when the request was 
renewed. In the circumstances, in view of the re- 
fusal of the Hungarian authorities to permit 
American officials to exercise this normal right, 
which is basic to the extension of customary con- 
sular protection to American citizens abroad, the 
U.S. Government will no longer validate the pass- 
ports of American citizens for travel in Hungary. 
Furthermore, since the reciprocal basis of the 
exchange of consular privileges has been nullified 
by Hungary, this Government is also notifying 
the Hungarian Legation in Washington that the 
Hungarian consulates in this country, which are 
located in Cleveland and New York, should be 
closed immediately. 

Any further statement on this matter must await 
the opportunity to talk with the released airmen. 



U.S. Orders Closing of 
Hungarian Consulates 

[Released to the press December 23] 

On December 28 the following note wa-s deliv- 
ered to the Hungarian Legation in Washingtan 
toith reference to the detention in Hungary of fou/r 
niemhers of the U.S. Air Farce: 

The Government of Hungary in this instance 
has again clearly failed to live up to the accepted 
standards of international practice with regard to 
the right of consular officers to exercise protective 
functions in behalf of nationals of their country. 
The detention of four Americans from November 
19, 1951, to December 28, 1951, and the refusal by 
the Hungarian Government, despite repeated re- 
quests of the American Charge d'Alfaires, to per- 
mit any access to them or communication with 
them on the part of American consular officers in- 
dicate that the Hungarian Government continues, 
as in previous cases, to place serious restrictions on 
the exercise of normal consular rights by United 
States representatives in Hungary. 

In these circumstances, the Government of the 
United States is not prepared to permit the con- 
tinued operation of the Hungarian consulates gen- 
eral in Cleveland, Ohio, and New York, N.Y. 
The Minister is accordingly informed that these 
offices are required to cease all operations immedi- 
ately and to be closed by midnight, December 31, 
1951. 



January 7, 1952 



Polish Decree on Valuables 
On Deposit In Poland 

The following was released on Decemher 28 as 
of interest to otvners of movables, valuables, nego- 
tiable papers, etc., deposited by them mith Polish 
institutions, banks, enterprises, etc., before May 9, 

The Ameiican Embassy at Warsaw has for- 
warded translation of a Polish Government deci'ee 
of September 6, 1051, under which such owners are 
allowed 6 months from the date the decree was 
published in Poland (the original decree is to be 
found in Dziennik Vstaw No. 47, Sept. 8, 1951) to 
withdraw these items from deposit. Failing such 
withdrawal, the decree provides that the objects 
shall become state property, unless claim has been 
filed and deposits cannot be returned under Polish 
regulations. Deposits with museums are specifi- 
cally excluded from the legislation. 

Persons in the United States who have reason 
to believe that the Polish decree affects them may 
obtain a translation of the full text of the decree 
by writing to the Division of Protective Services, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

The Department of State cannot undertake to 
supply interpretations or opinions concerning the 
applicability of foreign law or regulation in any 
given case. 

Owners should therefore communicate with the 
Polish institutions which hold their deposits, di- 
rectly or through their agents or attorneys in 
Poland, rather than with the Department of State 
or with the American Embassy at Warsaw. 



Tax Conventions With Ireland 
Enter into Force 

[Released to the press December 20] 

On December 20, 1951, Secretary Acheson and 
John Joseph Hearne, Irish Ambassador at Wash- 
ington, exchanged the instruments of ratification 
of the two tax conventions between the United 
States and Ii-eland which were signed at Dublin 
on September 13, 1949. The two conventions, one 
relating to taxes on income and the other relating 
to taxes on the estates of deceased persons, there- 
upon entered into force in accordance with tlieir 
respective terms. 

The Senate, on September 17, 1951, gave its 
advice and consent to the ratification of both of 
the conventions. Senate approval of the conven- 
tion relating to income taxes was made subject to 
certain reservations as follows : 

The Government of the United States of America does 
not accept Article XIV of tlie convention, relating to the 
exemption of residents of Ireland from United States tax 
on capital gains. 



The Government of the United States of America does 
not accept Article XVI of the convention, relating to tlie 
exemption of Irish corporations from United States tax 
on accnmnlated or undistributed earnings, profits, income 
or surplus. 

Those reservations were accepted by Ireland. 
The estate-tax convention, which was approved by 
the Senate without reservations, was ratified by the 
President on October 18, 1951. The income-tax 
convention was ratified by the President on De- 
cember 13, 1951, subject to the reservations quoted 
above. A proclamation with respect to the entry 
into force of each of the two conventions will be 
issued by the President. 



Denmark, U.K. Sign Torquay Protocol 

[Released to the press Decemher 29] 

The U.S. Government has been notified by the 
headquarters of the United Nations that on De- 
cember 21, 1951, Denmark signed the Torquay 
protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. The United Kingdom signed the protocol 
on December 19, 1951. 

As a result of its signature of the protocol, Den- 
mark will put into effect on January 20, 1952, the 
concessions which it granted at the recent confer- 
ence held at Torquay, England. It may, however, 
withhold concessions which were initially nego- 
tiated with countries which have not yet sigiaed 
the protocol. 

The United States signed the Torquay protocol 
on April 21, 1951, and withheld most of the con- 
cessions initially negotiated with countries which 
had not signed it. As additional countries signed 
the protocol, the United States gave effect to the 
withheld concessions initially negotiated with 
them. In accordance with the established proce- 
dure, the President will send a letter authorizing 
the Secretary of the Treasury to give effect on 
January 20 to the concessions which were initially 
negotiated with Denmark but which have been 
withheld. 

Since the United States and the United King- 
dom did not negotiate any new concessions at 
Torquay, no changes in United States tariff rates 
will result from the United Kingdom's signature 
of the protocol. 

Danish concessions initially negotiated with 
the United States will ajjply to a variety of Amer- 
ican products, including tomato juice, fuel oils and 
chemical {products, metal products, and machines 
and apparatus. Concessions negotiated by Den- 
mark at Torquay with a number of countries other 
than the United States will, when put into effect, 
benefit additional U.S. exports to Denmark.^ 



'For information relating to U.S. concessions initially 
negotiated with Denmark, to come into effect on .Jan. 20, 
19.52, see Department of State press release No. 1120. 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



OAS Charter Comes Into Effect 



By John C. Dreier, U.S. Representative to and 
Chairman of the Council of the OAS^ 



Today we mark an important event in the 
history of inter-American relations. We have 
witnessed the deposit of the fourteenth instrument 
of ratification of the Charter of the Organization 
of American States (Oas). As a result of this 
action by the Ambassador of Colombia and the 
Secretary General of the organization, the con- 
stitutional document of our organization comes 
into full legal effect. 

Three years ago this month, on December 3, 
1948, a similar ceremony was held in this hall. 
At that time the Government of Costa Eica 
deposited the fourteenth ratification of the 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, 
bringing that important document into effect. 
Today tne foundation of our oi'ganization is com- 
pleted, providing the basis for all the manifold 
aspects of inter-American relations which are in- 
corporated in the charter of Bogota. 

The broad scope of our organization is best 
indicated by the charter itself, which states the 
following essential purposes : 

a) To strengthen the peace and security of the 
continent ; 

b) To prevent possible causes of diflSculties anil to en- 
sure the pacific settlement of disputes that may arise 
among the Member States ; 

c) To provide for common action on the part of those 
States in the event of aggression ; 

d) To seek the solution of political, juridical and 
economic problems that may arise among them; and 

e) To promote, by cooperative action, their economic, 
social and cultural development. 

The action bringing into effect the treaty of 
Rio de Janeiro appeared to stimulate the remain- 
ing governments to complete their constitutional 
processes for its ratification. We may hope, there- 
fore, that the action which we have witnessed to- 
day will be followed within a short time by the 
deposit of ratifications of the charter by the re- 
maining seven governments in order that all 
members of the organization may stand upon an 
equal footing of benefits and responsibilities. 

' Excerpts from an address' made on the occasion of 
the coming into effect of the Oas Charter at the Pan 
American Union at Washington, D. C, on Dec. 13 and 
released to the iwess by the Pan American Union on the 
same date. 



Development of OAS 

Although the Organization of American States 
has, under one name or another, been in continuous 
existence for more than half a century, this is the 
first time that a formal treaty has been adopted for 
its constitution. To be sure, at the Sixth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States, held at 
Habana in 1928, a convention regarding the Pan 
American Union was drawn up and subsequently 
ratified by a number of states. However, it never 
received sufficient ratifications to fulfill its own re- 
quiremeiits for becoming effective. Until today, 
the Organization of American States and its fore- 
runners operated on the basis of resolutions 
adopted at various inter-American conferences. 

The fact that we now, after 62 years of informal 
existence, have put into effect a constitutional 
treaty is perhaps in more ways than one a sign of 
the times in which we live. The drawing up and 
adoption of the charter of Bogota represents the 
culmination of a long period of political evolution 
in the relations of the American states. Ever since 
the days of Bolivar, the concept of a united con- 
tinent had fired the imagination of American 
statesmen. Sixty-two years ago — in 1889 — there 
was held at this city of Washington the First 
International Conference of American States. 
One of its main accomplishments was the estab- 
lishment of an organization through which certain 
common interests of the American Republics could 
be carried out. After considerable deliberation, 
the Conference adopted a resolution establishing 
the International Union of American Republics, 
with a permanent secretariat to be located at 
Washington and to be known as the Commercial 
Bureau of the American Republics. The function 
of this infant agency, from which has grown our 
present organization, was primarily to exchange 
commercial information. The Commercial Bu- 
reau was placed under the supervision of the Sec- 
retary of State of the United States as the host 
government. The Conference saw to it that this 
first permanent organization — predecessor of the 
Pan American Union — was kept within modest 
dimensions. It was allowed a staff of 10 people, 



January 7, 1952 



including the porter, and a budget of $36,000 a 
year ! 

Within a few years, however, changes were made 
in the infant organization, responding to the needs 
and desires of the member countries. In fact, the 
very next inter-American conference started the 
familiar process of "reorganization" ! New func- 
tions were given to the permanent bureau, the 
name of which was subsequently changed to the 
Pan American Union. The United States Govern- 
ment, anxious to share responsibility in the conduct 
of the Union, invited diplomatic representatives 
of the other member governments at Washington 
to meet with the Secretary of State and decide 
upon matters regarding the Union. This arrange- 
ment was confirmed by the second conference, 
establishiuir a Governing Board for that organiza- 
tion, the progenitor of the Council of the organi- 
zation of today. 

As time went on and succeeding conferences of 
the American states met and considered the sub- 
stance and form of inter-American cooperation, 
further changes and additions were made to the 
structure of the inter-American organization. 
Duties in the field of international law were early 
given to the new organization. Cultural relations 
were added to economic affairs as a basic field of 
inter-American cooperation. Specialized organi- 
zations were established to promote technical co- 
operation in a number of areas that were of vital 
importance to the welfare of the peoples of 
America. 

Perhaps of even greater significance was the 
clarification during successive inter-American 
meetings of the principles which would become the 
guiding light of the inter- American organization. 
These principles are well known to all of us. 
Among them are the peaceful settlement of inter- 
American disputes; solidarity against aggression; 
nonintervention; consultation and cooperation for 
the solution of common problems. They are all 
rooted in the concept of equality among sovereign 
nations, in a desire to benefit by cooperation and 
in a common devotion to liberty and independence, 
which all the American countries share. 

During World War II, for the first time in many 
decades, the independence of the Western Hemi- 
sphere was seriously threatened from abroad. The 
inter-Amei'ican organization responded with vig- 
orous and creative action to this jn-oblem. In 
the Meetings of Foreign ^linisters at Panama, 
Habana, and Rio de Janeiro, and finally at the 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War 
and Peace held at Mexico in 1945, the concept of 
hemisphere solidarity was advanced to a new point. 
From these meetings emerged the great American 
doctrine that an attack upon one American state 
from any source constitutes an attack upon all. 

So vast were the achievements made in this 
process of inter-American cooperation, particu- 
larly from the time of the Seventh International 
Conference of American States at Montevideo in 



lO.nS to the conference of Chapultepec in 1945, that 
it became evident that some form of charter was 
highly desirable, if not absolutely necessary. It 
was to be a document that would, on the one hand, 
incorporate and fit into a more orderly pattern 
the organizational structure created during this 
period of half a century. It would, moreover, 
incorporate in a single document the principles 
of cooperation in economic, cultural, and social 
fields and lay down the basis for defending the 
peace anci security of the Americas. This is the 
charter that was drawn up at Bogota. Tliis is 
the document which enters into force today. 

Integration of OAS Under the Charter 

Now, it will be clear to all those who know the 
story of what has gone before — a story which I 
have briefly summarized — that the charter of 
Bogota is not a document of radical innovations. 
It has set up no startlingly new organs of coopera- 
tion endowed with unprecedented jjowers. It has 
made no dramatic contribution in the form of new 
principles of inter- American cooperation. Wliat 
it has done is, first, to consecrate and clarify those 
principles which the American states have found 
to be worthy. It has stated the purposes which 
respond to the needs of the peoples of our respec- 
tive countries. And finally it has clarified and 
improved upon the organization and procedures 
through which these ends shall be sought and those 
principles realized. 

There is need as never before to demonstrate the 
validity of the system of international relations 
which "we have developed in the American region. 
The world would like to know whether we can 
continue to make it work effectively as an organi- 
zation, and whether we can make its principles in- 
creasingly effective in fact. 

We have now the blueprint of our organization. 
Already much of it has been put into effect, and 
we may take pride in the tangible achievements 
already made in the preservation of peace and in 
cooperation for human welfare. 

It is worth bearing in mind, however, that a 
treaty such as the charter of Bogota is essentially 
a statement of how and under what conditions a 
group of sovereign governments intend to coop- 
erate toward stated ends. The charter does not 
set up any supernational authority that can exer- 
cise its own sovereign powers. Nor do the political 
bodies established in the charter relieve the indi- 
vidual member governments of their responsibility 
for determining policies and actions of the inter- 
American organization. On the other hand, the 
charter does amply provide for the organs neces- 
sary to carry out inter-American cooperation in 
any important field of mutual interest. Moreover, 
its provisions include sufficient flexibility so that 
as time goes on the structure and functioning of 
the branches of our organization can be adapted 
to meet the requirements of our regional coopera- 
tion. We have in our charter a constitution with- 



10 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



in which inter- American cooperation can work, 
live, and grow. 

The organization which we have today under 
our charter represents a great contrast to the 
small and simple organization whicli existed even 
as recently as 20 years ago. Its objectives are 
broader, its organs more numerous, and its activi- 
ties and achievements vastly more impressive. On 
the one hand, it presents a vastly greater oppor- 
tunity for constructive work. On the other hand, 
it represents for each of the member governments 
a vastly increased responsibility for efficient, clear- 
sighted direction. Like a complex machine of 
modern science, it requires constant and skillful 
attention so that its potentialities for useful em- 
ployment may be realized. 

The far-flung and sometimes unrelated activi- 
ties of the various organs of the inter-American 
system are, under the charter, to- be brought into 
a more colierent and effective whole. Progress to- 
ward this integration has already been made 
through the application of the organizational fea- 
tures of the charter during the past 2' years. How- 
ever, much remains to be done in the effective reali- 
zation of this important goal. These are the prob- 
lems of wise management, requiring a clear under- 
standing of what an inter-American organization 
can and cannot do and a prudent care of the re- 
sources placed at our disposal. 

But above and beyond the problems of organiza- 
tion and management lies the challenge of making 
effective the principles on which our organization 
is founded. 

In its statement of principles and purposes, the 
charter sets forth the whole context of our inter- 
American relationship. It describes our devotion 
to the principles of peace and mutual respect, our 
belief in the dignity of man and (he validity of 
democratic ])rocesses, and our determination to 
make human life a materially and spiritually more 
rewarding adventure. These basic principles are 
written into the charter not as things completely 
acliieved, but as great goals whicli must ever in- 
spire the members of our inter-American com- 
miniity. Tliey stem fi'om deep moral concepts 
upon whicli, in our belief, must rest any sound 
system of human relationships. 



conclude an arrangement with the Cuban Government 
with a view to exempting on a basis of reciprocity the 
pleasure yachts of the two countries from navigation 
dues and from usual requirements of entry and clearance. 

In this relation, I have the honor to inform Your Ex- 
cellency that yachts used and employed exclusively as 
pleasure vessels and belonging to any resident of the 
United States are allowed to arrive at and to depart from 
any Cuban port without entering or clearing at the cus- 
tomhouse thereof and without the payment of any entry 
or clearance charges, tonnage taxes, or charges for cruising 
licenses. 

If your Government consents to grant on a basis of 
reciprocity the same facilities to pleasure yachts belong- 
ing to any resident of Cuba, I permit myself to propose 
that the ijresent note and your reply will serve as an 
arrangement between our two countries. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my most distin- 
guished consideration. 

Db. Luis Machada, 
Ambassador of Cnha 



December 17, 1951 

ExcEi,LENCT : I have the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of your note No. 574 of December 12, 1951, inquir- 
ing whether the Government of the United States would 
be disposed to conclude an arrangement with the Govern- 
ment of Cuba with a view to exempting on a basis of 
reciprocity the pleasure yachts of the two countries from 
navigation dues and from usual requirements of entry 
and clearance. 

In reply I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that, in view (1) of the statements in your note concern- 
ing the extent of such privileges granted by Cuba to 
pleasure vessels belonging to any resident of the United 
States and (2) of the provisions of Section 104, Title 46 
of the United States Code, the Government of the United 
States agrees to grant on a reciprocal basis the same 
privileges to pleasure yachts belonging to any resident of 
C^^lla. 

The Government of the United States further agrees, in 
accordance with your Excellency's proposal, that the note 
under acknowledgment and this note will serve as an 
arrangement between our two countries. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

Thomas C. Mann 
Acthu; Assistant Secrrtnrii of State 



Release of Names of American 
Prisoners in China Regretted 



U.S., Cuba Exempt Yachts 
From Navigation Dues 

[Released to the press Decemlier 17] 

Following are texts of notes exchanged between 
the United States and Cuba exempting yachts and 
pleasure craft from navigation dues : 

December 12, 1951 

Excellency : I have the honor to inquire whether the 
Government of the United States would be disposed to 



[Released to the press December 2S] 

Following is the. text of a letter from Under 
Secretary of State Janies E. Webb to Servator 
William. F. Knotoland of Calif oi'nia^ which Sena- 
tor Knowlund released to the press on Decerro- 
ber 26: 

December 14, 1951 

Dear Senator Knowland: It was with deep 
regret that I learned of your release to the press 
of the names of the American citizens imprisoned 
in Communist China. Mr. Rusk sent you this list 
in confidence under cover of his letter of October 
19. He explained to you that it was the consid- 



January 7, J 952 



11 



ered judgment of the Department that the list 
should not be made public. In response to your 
telegraphed request of November 30 for further 
information on this subject, you were told on De- 
cember 1 that such information would be sent you 
and it was sent on December 7. I note from the 
press that you decided to release the list on your 
own responsibility because you did not consider 
Mr. Rusk's reasoning valid, and that you did so 
before receiving the Department's letter of De- 
cember 7. 

The Department of State has given full pub- 
licity to the fact that Americans are imprisoned 
by the Chinese Communist regime. It had with- 
held publication of the names of individuals for 
three 2>rincipal reasons : 

(1) We could not guarantee that such a list was 
exact, since it depended upon pieces of informa- 
tion from a wide range of sources ; 

(2) In many cases either the persons themselves 
or their relatives or associates have asked that no 
publicity be given for fear of impairing I'escue 
moves or for fear of serious consequences to the 
individuals themselves ; 

(3) The governments which are seeking to aid 
these individuals have warned that publicity 
might jeopardize their efforts. 

As you were informed, the Department of State 
has attached considerable importance to the re- 
quests of these people primarily interested in the 
welfare of the imprisoned persons and of the 
friendly governments trying to help them, and 
the Department determined after a thorough con- 
sideration of all the facts involved that release of 
individual names or comment on tlieir situation 
would be contrary to the welfare of these impris- 
oned citizens. 

It need hardly be pointed out that under the 
President's constitutional authority for tlie con- 
duct of foreign relations, it is the President and 
the authorized officers of the Department of State 
acting as his agents who have sole responsibility 
for handling this matter and for determining 
whether and when this information should be 
released. 

As a United States Senator, you have in the 
past been given access to classifiecl information on 
the understanding that it was not to be released 
to the public. Although the question of whether 
particular information should or should not be 
made public may be susceptible to an honest dif- 
ference of opinion, the decision must be made by 
the person responsible. I regret that in tliis in- 
stance you chose to disregard this fundamental 
principle and to take independent action. 
Sincerely yours, 

James E. Webb 
Acting /Secretary 



Japan Accepts Jurisdiction 
Of International Court 



International Court of Justice 

Conimunif|U(? No. 51/5.5 

Tlie Hague, December 10, 1951 



T/)e following information has heen unoffhciaTly 
commvnicated hy the Registry of the International 
Court of Justice : 

On December 10, 1951, the Registrar of the 
International Court of Justice received the visit 
of Takezo Shimoda, Jajjanese Permanent Delegate 
at The Hague, and of Keiichi Tatsuke, Secretary 
of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Japan. 
The latter had come especially to deliver to the 
registrar a declaration of the Japanese Govern- 
ment accepting the compulsory jurisdiction of the 
Court over ditTerences concerning the interpreta- 
tion and application of the peace treaty with 
Japan of September 8, 1951. This declaration was 
made by application of article 22 of this treaty. 



Text of article 22 reads as follows : 

If in the opinion of any Part.v to the present Treaty 
there has arisen a dispute concerning the interpretation 
or execution of the Treaty, which is not settled b.v ref- 
erence to a special claims tribunal or by other agreed 
means, the dispute shall, at the request of any party 
thereto, be referred for decision to the International Court 
of .lustice. Japan and those Allied Powers which are not 
already parties to the Statute of the International Court 
of Justice will deposit with the Registrar of tlie Court, at 
the time of their respective ratitlcations of the present 
Treaty, and in conformity with tlie resolution of the 
United Nations Security Council, dated October 15, 19-16, 
a general declaration accepting the jurisdiction, without 
special agreement, of the Court generally in respect to all 
disputes of the character referred to in this Article. 



Tax Convention With New Zealand 
Enters into Force 

[Released to the press December IS] 

On December 18, 1951, Secretary Acheson and 
Sir Carl Berendsen, Ambassador of New Zealand, 
exchanged tlie instruments of ratification of the 
convention between the United States and New 
Zealand, signed at Washington on March 16, 1948, 
for the avoidance of double taxation with respect 
to taxes on income. The convention thereupon 
entered into force in accordance with its terms. 

The Senate, on September 17, 1951, gave its 
advice and consent to the ratification of the con- 
vention, subject to a reservation as follows : 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Government of the United States of America does 
not accept paragraph (4) of Article IX of the convention 
relating to the profits or remuneration of ijublic enter- 
tainers. 

That reservation was accepted by New Zealand. 
The convention was ratified by tlie President on 
December 10, 1951. A proclamation with respect 
to the entry into force of the convention will be 
issued by the President. 




Delegates to Liberian 
Inauguration Ceremonies 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 29 that the President has designated a 4-man 
delegation to represent him during the inaugura- 
tion ceremonies of the President of the Republic of 
Liberia, W. V. S. Tubman, which will be held at 
IMonrovia, Liberia, January 5 throtigh January 14, 
1952. 

Chief of the American delegation to the cere- 
monies will be the American Ambassador to Li- 
beria, Edward E. Dudley. Other members of the 
delegation are to be Maj. Gen. James S. Stowell, 
U.Si^iV.F., Mary McLeod Bethune of Daytona 
Beach, Fla. and Washington, D.C., and Carl 
Murphy of Baltimore, Md. 

The United States enjoys particularly close re- 
lations with the West African Republic of Liberia. 
One of the most important missions of the Tech- 
nical Cooperation Administration, or Point Four, 
is operating in Liberia. The United States, 
through the Export-Import Bank, has furnished 
the capital necessary for the construction of badly 
needed roads into the Liberian interior and for the 
installation of a water and sewage system in the 
capital city of Monrovia. Liberia is one of the 
few nations in the world to undertake to repay the 
United States for the total amount of lend-lease 
aid given it during World War II, aid which went 
principally to the construction of a modern port at 
Monrovia. 

In addition to these governmental interests, 
there are many private American interests in Li- 
beria. American firms are engaged in the produc- 
tion of rubber and the mining of high-grade iron 
ore in Liberia as well as in the development of a 
cocoa industry and other similar activities. Rep- 
resentatives of several of these American firms are 
planning to attend the inaugiu'ation ceremonies of 
President Tubman. 

President Tubman is being inaugurated for his 
second term of 6 years. Before beginning his first 
term as President in 1914, he made a visit to the 
United States as a guest of, the late President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hi/ the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, ^\'ashington 25, D. C. Address re- 
guests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Telecommunications: Telegraph Regulations (Paris Re- 
vision, 1949 with Final Protocol). Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2175. Pub. 4105. 365 pp. $1. 

Telegraph Regulations between the United States and 
Other Governments — Signed at Paris Aug. 5, 1949; 
entered into force with respect to the United States 
Sept. 26, 1950. 

Agriculture: Cooperative Program in Honduras. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2209. Pub. 4161. 15 
pp. 10<*. 

Agreement between the United States and Hondura.? — 
Signed at Tegucigalpa .Ian. 30, 1951; entered into force 
.Ian. 30, 1951. 

Education: Cooperative Program in Ecuador. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2215. Pub. 4172. 12 
pp. ii<*. 

Agreements between the United States and Ecuador — 
Signed at Quito Aug. 15 and 24, 1949 ; entered into 
force Aug. 25. 1949. Signed at Quito Aug. 16 and 21, 
194S ; entered Into force Aug. 25, 1948. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Panama. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2220. Pub. 
4183. 16 pp. 10^. 

Agreement between the United States and Panama — 
Signed at Panama Feb. 26, 1951 ; entered into force 
Feb. 26, 1951. 

Charter of the Allied High Commission for Germany. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2225. Pub. 
4204. 18 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and France — Signed at Paris June 20, 1949; 
entered into force Sept. 21, 1949. 

Revision of the Charter of the Allied High Commission 
for Germany. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2235. Pub. 4208. 11pp. 5^. 

Agreement, with annex, between the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France — Signed at London Mar. 
6, 1951 ; entere<l into force Mar. 7, 1951. 

Technical Cooperation: Joint Commission for Economic 
Development. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2240. Pub. 4242. 21pp. 10(f. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — 
Dated at Rio de Janeiro Oct. 21 and Dec. 19, 1950; 
entered into force Dec. 19, 1950. 

Conference for the Conclusion and Signature of the 
Treaty of Peace With Japan. International Organization 
and Conference Series II, Far Eastern 3. Pub. 4392. 
468 pp. ?1.25. 

Record of Proceedings of the Japanese Peace Con- 
ference, held at San Francisco, Sept. 4-8, 1951. 

(Continued on page 39) 



January 7, 1952 



13 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of IVIeetings^ 



Adjourned during December 1951 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference Geneva Aug. 16-Dec. 3 

Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) : 

Latin American Training Center on Agricultural and Allied Santiago Sept. 26-Dec. 20 

Plans and Projects. 

Sixth Session of the Conference Rome Nov. 19-Dec. 6 

Latin American Meeting on Fertilizer Production, Distribution, Rio de Janeiro Dec. 4-12 

and Utilization. 

Fourteenth Session of the Council Rome Dec. 7 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Fourteenth Session of the Council Montreal Sept. 28-Dec. 14 

Third Session of the Facihtation Division Buenos Aires Nov. 21-Dec. 7 

Who (World Health Organization) : 

Statistical and Census Conference Cairo Oct. 15-Dec. 15 

Tripartite Conference to Negotiate a North Pacific Fisheries Tokyo Nov. 5-Dec. 14 

Convention. 

Special Meeting re Air Traffic Coordination in Western Europe . . Paris Nov. 20-Dec. 3 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Seminar on Labor Statistics New Delhi Nov. 21-Dec. 4 

Inland Transport Committee: 4th Session Genoa Dec. 4-15 

Asian Manpower Technical Conference Bangkok Dec. 12-22 

Conference to Facilitate the Movement of European Migrants . . Brussels Nov. 26-Dec. 8 

Joint U.K., U.S., Canadian Discussions on Administrative and London Nov. 26-Dec. 13 

Scientific Problems relating to Food Aspects of Civilian 
Defense. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization) : 

Second Regional Conference of Representatives of National Bangkok Nov. 26-Dec. 10 

Commissions. 

Special Meeting of the Board of the American International In- Montevideo Nov. 30-Dec.l 

stitute for the Protection of Childhood. 

Third Congress of the Pan American Alliance of the Doctors of Mexico City Dec. 2-8 

Medicine. 

Seminar on Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments Statistics . Panama City Dec. 3-15 

Twenty-seventh Session of the International Statistical Institute . New Delhi and Calcutta . . Dec. 5-18 

Fourth International Congress on Mental Health Mexico City Dec. 11-19 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 

Railway Working Party Bangkok Dec. 11-15 

Inland Transport Committee Bangkok Dee. 17-21 

Subcommission on Statistical Sampling: 5th Session Calcutta Dec. 19-29* 

In Session as of December 31, 1951 

International Materials Conference Washington Feb. 26- 

Four Power Conference on Swiss-Allied Accord Bern Mar. 5- 

United Nations: 

General Assembly: 6th Session Paris Nov. 6- 

Economic and Social Council: 13th Session, Reconvening of . Paris Dec. 18- 



1 Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State, Dec. 17, 1951. 
♦Tentative. 

14 Deparfment of Stale Bullef'in 



Scheduled January l-March 1952 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

Legal Committee, Subcommittee on the Revision of the Warsaw 
Convention. 

Personnel Licensing Division: 4th Session 

Council: 15th Session 

European-Mediterranean Regional Meeting: 3d Session .... 
United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 

Working Party to Coordinate Work of Governments for the 
Adoption of a Standard International Trade Classifica- 
tion. 

Subcommittee on Electric Power 

Committee on Industry and Trade: 4th Session 

Eighth Session 

Economic Commission for Latin America: 

Ad Hoc Meeting to Approve Report to Ecosoc. 

Economic Commission for Europe: 7th Session 

Subcommission on Freedom of Information of the Press: 5th 
Session. 

Committee on Nongovernmental Organizations 

Commission on the Status of Women: 6th Session 

Technical Assistance Committee 

Trusteeship Council: 

Special Session. 
Who (World Health Organization): 

Standing Committee on Administration and Finance 

Executive Board: 9th Session 

Meeting of Copyright E.xperts of the American Republics 

Upd (Universal Postal Union): 

Meeting of p]xecutive and Liaison Committee 

International Film Festival of India 

West Point Sesquicentennial 

Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): 

Council: 9th Session 

"Colombo Plan" Exhibition 

British Commonwealth Scientific Official Conference 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): 

Advi.sory Committee on Salaried Employees and Professional 
Workers 

Governing Body: 118th Se-ssion 

Second International Industries Fair 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization): 

Executive Board: 28th Session 

First General Assembly of the International Mathematical Union . 

Second Chicago International Trade Fair 

Fourth Inter-American Conference on Social Security 



Paris Jan. 7- 

Montreal Jan. 22- 

Montreal Jan. 29- 

Paris Feb. 26- 

Bangkok Jan. 7- 

Rangoon Jan. 1 1- 

Rangoon Jan. 18- 

Rangoon Jan. 29- 

Santiago Feb. 10-14 

Geneva Mar. 3- 

New York Mar. 3- 

New York Mar. 18- 

Geneva Mar. 24- 

New York Mar. 24^ 

Paris Jan.* 

Geneva Jan. 7- 

Geneva Jan. 21- 

Washington Jan. 14- 

Bern Jan. 21- 

Calcutta, Madras and New Jan. 24- 

Delhi. 

West Point, New York . . . Jan.-June 

Lisbon Feb. 2- 

Colombo, Ceylon Feb. 15- 

Canberra and Melbourne . . Feb. 18- 

Geneva Feb. 18- 

Geneva Mar. 11- 

Karachi Mar. 1- 

Paris Mar. 3- 

Rome Mar. 6- 

Chicago Mar. 22- 

Mexico Citv Mar. 24- 



*Tentative. 



International Materials Conference 



Copper and Zinc All ocaf ions 

The Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee of the Inter- 
national Materials Conference on December 20 an- 
nonncotl allocations of copper and zinc for the 
first quarter of 1952.^ This is the second consecu- 
tive quarter that copper and zinc have been allo- 
cated by the Imc. 



' For table of allocations, see Imc press release of 
Dec. 20. 



The governments of the 12 countries represented 
on the Committee have accepted these allocations. 
They are Australia, Belgium (representing Bene- 
lux), Canada, Chile, France, the Federal Republic 
of Germany, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Peru, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States. In ac- 
cepting the Committee's recommendation, the 
Chilean Government has made one reservation 
which is explained below. 

The two clistribution plans have been forwarded 
to the governments of all countries not represented 



ianuary 7, ?952 



15 



on the Committee to which allocations were made. 
Requii^ements of nonmember countries were con- 
sidered alono; with those of member countries. 

Only primai-y copper and zinc have been allo- 
cated. Semi fabricated products have not been 
allocated. Exports of semif abricated products are 
to be maintained, however, at a level commensu- 
rate with the exporting country's allocations of 
metal. 

The demands for defense and essential civilian 
needs have increased over the fourth quarter of 
1951. In view of these increased demands, it has 
been decided, temporarily, to make no provision 
for strategic stockpiling, without prejudice to the 
principle of making such provision in future allo- 
cations. 

The Committee has allocated the total estimated 
production available to the free world on the 
same basis, in general, except for strategic stock- 
piling, as it did for the fourth quarter of 1951. 

The allocations for each participating country 
are again in the form of a "total entitlement for 
consumption" — the amount of metal which may 
be processed or consumed by the country con- 
cerned, either from domestic production or im- 
ports. They do not specify from which source, or 
sources, a country's metal shall be obtained. Par- 
ticipating countries are. therefore, free within 
their allocation to purchase from any source or 
sell to any destination, but it is suggested that, so 
far as possible, the normal patterns of trade should 
be followed. 

In accepting the distribution plans, govern- 
ments assume the responsibility for seeing that 
their allocations are not exceeded. 

The Chilean Government accepted again the 
Committee's recommendations with respect to 80 
percent of the copper production of its large 
mines. With respect to the remaining 20 percent 
and the production of its small and medium mines 
it reserves the right to dispose of this tonnage 
without reference to the allocation scheme. Not- 
withstanding this reservation, the Chilean Gov- 
ernment restated that it will give careful consid- 
eration wherever possible to the Committee's 
recommendations. 

The Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee is not recom- 
mending the allocation of lead, but is keeping the 
supply-demand position under review. 

■ Mexico and Siveden Named 
to Sulphur Coirvmittee 

The International Materials Conference an- 
nounced on December 20 that Mexico and Sweden 
have accepted its invitation to be represented on 
the Sulphur Committee.- 



- Thei-e are 28 member countries in the Imc. Mexico 
is represented also on the Copper-Ziiic-Lead and 
Cotton-Cotton Linters Committees; Sweden has mem- 
bership also on tlie Tungsten-Molybdenum and Pulp-Paper 
Committees. 



This brings to 16 the number of countries now 
represented on this Committee. They are Aus- 
tralia, Belgium (representing Benelux), Brazil, 
Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, 
Sweden, Switzerland, the Union of South Africa, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

The Mexican Government has designated 
Alfonso Cortina, Minister and Economic Coun- 
selor at the Embassy in AVashington, as its repre- 
sentative. Agustin Ochoa, Economic Attache at 
the Embassy, has been named as alternate. 

The Swedish representative on the Committee 
will be Hubert de Besche, Economic Counselor of 
the Embassy in Washington and his alternate, 
Carl Henrik von Platen, First Secretary of the 
Embassy. 

Temporary Arrangement on Exfort and Import 
of Primary Nichel 

The International Materials Conference an- 
nounced also on December 28 that the Manganese- 
Nickel-Cobalt Committee has established a pro- 
visional list of export sales and import purchases 
of primary nickel for the month of January 1952.^ 
This will allow producers to continue sales during 
that month, while the Committee develops a plan 
of allocation for the first quarter of 1952 or any 
other period which it may deem more appropriate. 
It is the intention of the Committee to recommend 
such a plan before the end of January, at which 
time the temporary arrangement expires. 

As in the case of cobalt, the Committee's work 
has been delayed because some governments were 
late in submitting their replies to the question- 
naire on first quarter 1952 requirements. 

It has been agreed by member governments that, 
as recommended by the Committee, all marketable 
forms of primary nickel should fall within the 
allocation from the first of January 1952. These 
primary forms include some elements which were 
not allocated in the fourth quarter of 1951, namely, 
ferro-nickel, nickel, cast-iron, and mattes used di- 
rectly by consumers of nickel. Conversely, nickel 
salts which were under allocation in the fourth 
quarter are excluded from the new arrangement. 

In view of these changes in the products to be 
covered by the allocation, the Committee under- 
takes to make a complete review of the historical 
pattern of consumption and of the requirements 
of each country before recommending an equi- 
table scheme of distribution. This scheme will 
absorb the export sales and import purchases made 
in compliance with the provisional arrangement. 

All interested governments have been notified 
of this list of sales and purchases, with which they 
are requested to conform without prejudice to 
whatever allocation may be agreed upon at a later, 
date. 



' for list of sales and purchases see Imc press re- 
lease of Dec. 28. 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



Divergent Views on Disarmament Discussed 



On December 10, Luis Padilla Nervo of Mexico, 
President of the General Assembly and chairman 
of the special subconnnittee appointed to discuss 
proposals for disarmament,^ transmitted to the 
chairman of Committee I (Political and Security) 
the following memorandum, which he had pre- 
pared at the i-equest of the subcommittee and which 
the latter had unanimously approved: 

U.N. doc. A/C.l/677 
Dated Dec. 10, 1951 



Part I. Areas of Agreement 

1. Although the discussions in the Sub-Committee have 
revealed the continued existence of a number of serious 
divergencies of views between the sponsors of the tri- 
partite draft resolution (A/C.1/667) and of the USSR 
amendment (A/C.1/66S) on points of major importance, 
they have also revealed a number of points of importance 
on which there appears to be either agreement or the 
possibility of agreement. These include certain of the 
general objectives of the two proposals, the machinery 
to be used in attaining those objectives, and some of the 
tasks that are required to be performed. 

Oeneral objectives 

2. The two proposals are in agreement with respect to 
certain of the general objectives which they seek to 
achieve. The first paragraph of the preamble of the 
tripartite draft resolution, which reads : 

"The Oeneral Assembly, 

'•Desiring to lift from the peoples of the woi'ld the 
burden of increasing armaments and the fear of war, 
and to liberate new energies and resources for positi\e 
programmes of reconstruction and development," 

has been accepted by the USSR and no amendment thereto 
has been proposed. The third paragraph of the first 
item of the Soviet amendment reads : 

"Convinced that if all governments sincerely combine 
their efforts in order to co-operate in an effective and 
substantial limitation of armed forces and of arma- 
ments and also in an immediate and unconditional pro- 
hibition of the production of atomic weapons and the 
establishment of strict international control over the 
enforcement of this prohibition, the danger of war will 
be considerably averted and the security of all nations 
strengthened". 

Paragraph 2 of the tripartite statement (Annex to docu- 
ment A/1943) reads: 

"They also believe that if all governments sincerely join 
in the co-operative and effective regulation and limita- 
tion of armed forces and armaments, this would greatly 



' BtTLLETiN of Dec. in. ms], p. 957. 



reduce the danger of war and thus enhance the security 
of all nations." 

Paragraph 3 (a) of the tri-partite draft resolution reads: 

"It is a primary objective of the United Nations to 
bring about the limitation and balanced reduction of 
all armed forces and all armaments to levels adequate 
for defence but not for aggression and to achieve ef- 
fective international control to ensure the ijrohibition 
of atomic weapons." 

So far as concerns the general objectives referred to 
above, and the specific means of attaining those objectives, 
there is a fundamental divergence between the positions 
adopted by the delegation of the Soviet Union on the 
one hand and the delegations of the United States of 
America, the United Kingdom and France on the other 
hand. That is evident from the three-Power draft reso- 
lution and the amendments to it by the USSR delega- 
tion, as well as from the attitudes adopted by the dele- 
gations of the USSR, the United States of America, the 
United Kingdom and France during the discussion of 
that matter in the Sub-Committee. 

The Coiiimission 

3. The sponsors of the two proposals have agreed to 
the establishment of a new commission to take the place 
of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Commission 
for Conventional Armaments, which are accordingly to 
be dissolved. The three Powers have agreed to accept 
item 4 of the USSR amendment, namely that the new 
commission shall be called the "Atomic Energy and Con- 
ventional Armaments Commission". There is agi'eement 
between the two proposals that the new commission shall 
be "under the Security Council", and also agreement with 
respect to its membership and its rules of procedure. The 
three Powers have accepted the formulation proposed by 
the USSR in item number 2 of its amendments in place 
of t!ie fourth paragraph of the preamble of the draft 
resolution, namely : 

"Noting the recommendation of the Committee of 
Twelve established by resolution 496 (V) that the Gen- 
eral Assembly should establish a new commission to 
carry on the task originally assigned to the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments". 

The Task of the Commission 

4. There is some agreement between the two proposals 
with respect to the task to be performed by the new Com- 
mission. The Commission is to prepare proposals or 
measures which are to be embodied in a draft treaty or 
treaties (conventions). 

These proposals or measures are intended to achieve, 
in the words of resolution A/C./675 of 30 November 1951, 
"the universal desire for peace, for the regulation, limi- 
tation and balanced reduction of all armed forces and all 
armaments, and for the abolition of atomic and other 
weapons for mass destruction". 

The representative of the USSR preferred to define 
these objectives as the prohibition of atomic weapons, the 



January 7, 1952 

'.isl.-,10 — 52 



17 



effective (.strict) interuatioual control of atomic energy 
and its use for peaceful (civilian) imrposes only, and the 
limitation and reduction of armaments and armed forces. 

There are, notwithstanding, grave divergencies of opin- 
ion as to the principle.? and methods according to which 
these tasks should be executed. 

It should nevertheless be observed that during the 
discussion of this matter in the Sub-Committee opinions 
were expressed on the possibility of embarking on a com- 
mon course to achieve solution of the problems jxised by 
these questions. 

Terms of Reference of the Commission 

ri. Here too, while there are several points upon which 
agreement has not been achieved at the present time, 
there is a considerable area of common ground on the 
following matters to the extent explained below: 

(a) the type of armed forces and armaments to be 
included ; 

(b) the necessity for disclosure; 

(e) the necessity for verification and inspection; 
(d) the necessity for safeguards. 

(a) The type of armed forces ami urinameiits 1o he 

included 
Both proposals agreed that all armed forces (including 
para-military, security and police forces) and all arma- 
ments (including atomic) should be included in the terms 
of reference of the commission. 

(b) The necessity for disclosure 

Both proposals agree that there should be full dis- 
closure of information regarding all armaments and all 
armed forces. While there are some differences with 
regard to the publication of the information disclosed, 
it does not appear that these differences are impossible 
of soluti(in, and they might well be left to the Commission. 

The representative of the USSR, however, who favours 
the simultaneous disclosure of information on both atomic 
and non-atomic weapons within one month, is absolutely 
opposed to the whole concept of "progressive" disclosure 
or disclosure by stages. The representatives of France, 
the United Kingdom and the United States wish to make it 
clear that in their view disclosure should be both progres- 
sive and on a continuing basis. 

(c) Veriflcntion and inspection 

All four I'owers agree on the necessity for verification 
and inspection. The USSIt amendment, like the three 
Power proposal, referred to the necessity for "effective 
international in.spection" ; the USSR Representative 
stated that such inspection included verification. More- 
over, all four Powers agree that the verification and 
inspection should apply to all armed forces and all 
jirmaments. 

The USSR representative objected to "inspection on 
a continuing basis", pointing out that the permanent 
presence of inspectors or controllers at the establishments 
in question would hinder their efficient operation and was 
incompatible with State .sovereignty. He was prepared to 
agree that the international control organ should elicit 
information on all armed forces, including semi-military 
forces, security and police forces, and all armaments, 
including atomic weapons, and should estalilish effective 
international inspection to be carried out in accordance 
with the decisions of the aforesaid intei'national control 
organ, provision being made for control to include also 
verification of the information sulimitted. 

In addition he was prepared to agree that, in cases of 
a suspected breach of the convention on the prohibition of 
atomic weapons, special inspections or investigations could 
be carried out. 

The representative of the USSR considered that the 
resolution to be adopted by the Assembly should also 
provide for the Commission to be entrusted with the task 
of working out all details and procedures in the draft 
convention. 

The meaning attributed by the three Powers to the 



18 



phrase "inspection on a continuing basis" is that the whole 
inspection process, whether in the disclosure and veri- 
fication aspect or in the control aspect, must function 
continuously once it has been established and must not be 
limited to a single operation of inspection or verification. 
This would not necessarily require the permanent station- 
ing of inspectors at all plants. The three Powers also 
wish to make it clear that inspection should be possible 
at any time whether or not there is reason to suspect that 
violations may have taken place. In their view, the 
control of atomic energy cannot be ensured if it is 
dependent on inspection alone. 

AH four Powers appear to agree that the control organ 
should decide the times and places of inspection and that 
a majority decision by the control organ in that regard 
would be binding on all, with no right of "veto". 

(d) Safeguards 

All four Powers are in agreement with the necessity 
for safeguards to ensure observance of the i)rogramme. 
The repre.sentative of the USSR stated that he had no 
objections in that respect, since the international control 
organ would have the right to carry out special investi- 
gations when suspicions of a breach of the convention 
on the prohibition of atomic weapons arose. The Three 
Powers pointed out that the safeguards which they have 
in mind are more extensive in nature than special in- 
vestigations alone, and furthermore that these safeguards 
apply to conventional armaments as well as to atomic 
energy. 

The USSR representative stated that that formula 
would involve inspection on a permanent basis, and that 
the USSR delegation objected to such a measure. The 
USSR delegation did not, however, object to the appli- 
cation of such safeguards to the reduction of conventional 
armaments. 

Relations of the Commission with the Organs of the 
United Nations 

6. As has been noted above, both proposals agree that 
the commission should be established "under the Security 
Council". The T'SSR has proposed that the commission 
should submit its draft convention and its other proposals 
to the Security Council ; the three Powers have proposed 
that it should report periodically not only to the Security 
Council but also to the General Assembly or its Members. 
The representative of the USSR has stated that in the 
Commission he would be bound only by majority de- 
cisions which he accepted, and that the principle of una- 
nimity would obviously also continue to apply in the 
Security Council. He pointed out, however, that since 
ultimately the convention would require agreement for 
its ratification, the question was of no great practical 
importance, since unanimity of the powers represented 
in the commission would, in any event, be essential if it 
was desired that they should sign and ratify the 
convention. 

The Draft Convention or Treaty 

7. The Three Power proposal provides that the com- 
mission, which would start work within thirty days of 
the adoption of the resolution by the General Assembly, 
would submit its draft treaty to a world conference when 
any part of its programme was ready for submission to 
governments. The USSR proposal on the other hand pro- 
vides that the commission would submit its draft con- 
vention to the Security Council by 1 February l!)."i2. The 
USSR proposed the deletion of paragraph (5 of the tri- 
partite draft resolution. It appears from the discussion 
that the USSR prefers a time limit for the submission 
of the draft treaty or convention but is prepared to adjust 
its suggested time-table if agreement is possible on major 
points. The representative of the USSR also proposes 
that the General As.sembly should instruct the Atomic 
Energy and Conventional Armaments Commission to pre- 
pare within three months and submit for the consideration 
of the Security Council practical proposals for the appli- 
cation of the decisions of the General Assembly. 

Department of State Bulletin 



riir IiitcriKifioiKiI Cdtifiol Oigni\ 

S. Only tlie USSR iimeiulinent refers explicitly to the 
establishment of an international control organ ; the 
tliree Powers regard the establishment of such an organ 
as being implicit in their draft resolution. Moreover, 
the four Powers are apparently in agreement that the 
organ's composition, rights and duties woiild haye to be 
(ictined in the draft convention. 

I'riations of the IntcrnntioiutJ Control Organ irith Orriaim 
of the Uiiitril Xntions 
0. The USSR proposal provides that the control organ 
should be established "within the frame-work of the Se- 
curity Council". The Itepresentative of the USSR, how- 
ever, stated that ma.lority decisions of the control organ 
should be liindins on all. with no "veto" right. The rcp- 
i-esentative of the United Kingdom observed that the 
i|Uestion accordingly might not cause great difficulty and 
cnnld possibly be disposed of as a matter of drafting by 
l)roperly defining in the Treaty the respective functions 
■ ■f the control organ and of the Security Council. 

Tlir World f'onfrrence of All States 

10. Both proposals envisage the calling of a world con- 
ference to include all states. Members of the United Na- 
tions as well as non-Members. The discussions in the 
Sub-Committee appear to assume that the idea of the 
conference was a matter of common ground. Neverthe- 
less, there were some substantive differences of opinion 
with regard to the method and time of convening the 
world conference, in view of the fact that the three- 
I'ower draft resolution rendered the matter dependent 
on the Commission's decision, whereas the USSR amend- 
ments provided for convening the conference as soon as 
possible and not later than 1 .Tune 1952. 

Some differences of opinion also developed over the 
formulation in the Three Power draft resolution of the 
proposition that the treaty must be ratified by all na- 
tions having "substantial" armed forces. The representa- 
tive of the USSR objected to the word "substantial" 
as being too vague and therefore capable of causing 
subsequent disagreement. It appears, however, tliat all 
four Powers are In agreement on the principle that the 
treat.v or convention must be i-atifled by every country 
whose armed forces were so important that its failure 
to ratify would make it unsafe for other countries to 
be bound. 

Staff of the Commission 

11. Paragraph 9 of the tripartite draft resolution, deal- 
ing with the provision of staff and facilities for the com- 
mission, was accepted by the USSR without amendment. 

Part II. Areas of Disagreement 

12. As was ijreviously indicated, a number of serious 
and fundamental divergencies of views exist between the 
sponsors of the tripartite draft resolution (A/C.1/667) 
and of the USSR auiendments (A/C. 1/668) on points of 
ma.ior importance. These include the specific means for 
attaining the general objectives of the two proposals, and 
the principles that are to be established for the guidance 
of the Commission. 

13. Specifie means for attaining the general ohjectives 
The two different conceptions which demonstrate the 

grave basic divergences dividing the Three Powers from 
the USSR are Illustrated by the following quotations re- 
garding the specific means for attaining tie general 
objectives. 

The second paragraph of the preamble of the Three- 
Power proposals reads as follows : 

"Believing that the necessary means to this end is to 
the development by the United Nations of comprehen- 
sive and co-ordinated plans, under international control, 
for the regulation, limitation and balanced reduction to 
levels adequate for defence but not for aggression of 
all armed forces and all armaments, and for the effec- 
tive international control of atomic energy to ensure 



the prohibition of atomic weapons and the use of atomic 
energy for peaceful purposes only," 

The first paragraph of the first item of the Soviet amend- 
ments reads as follows: 

"Recognizing as a primary and most important task the 
unconditional prohibition of the production of atomic 
weapons and the establishment of strict international 
control over the enforcement of this prohibition and 
also the reduction by one-third of the other types of 
armaments and armed forces of the five Powers: the 
United States of America, the United Kingdom, l<"'rance, 
China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
within one year of the adoption of the relevant decision 
by the General Assembly and on the basis of the level 
of armaments and armed forces at the time the afore- 
said decision Is taken," 

14. The Three Powers propose that the resolution should 
provide for: 

(a) the regulation, limitation and balanced reduction 
of all armed forces and all armaments. 

The USSR opposes the idea of a system based on "bal- 
;inced" reduction as it states that balanced reduction is 
linked to the Idea of "levels" and that the emphasis on 
"balance" detracts from and would postpone the actual 
decisions on reduction. 

(b) [Balanced reduction] to levels adequate for de- 
fence but not for aggression. 

The USSR opposes this formulation on the ground that 
the levels envisaged might mean an increase of arma- 
ments rather than a decrease and, in any event, this does 
not constitute a concrete proposal for the reduction of 
armaments. 

(e) The achievement of effective International control 
to ensure the prohibition of atomic weapons. 

The USSR opposes this formulation on the ground that 
it does not provide for the Immediate and unconditional 
l>rohibition of atomic weapons, that it puts control before 
])rohlbition, and that unless there is prior prohibition 
there is nothing to control. 

1.5. The USSR proposes that the resolution should pro- 
\ ide for the General Assembly immediately and simul- 
taneously to : 

(a) declare the unconditional prohibition of the pro- 
duction of atomic weapons. 

This is opposed by the Three Powers on the ground 
that, until a system of control is in operation, the prohi- 
bition would be unenforceable and illusory. 

(b) declare the establishment of strict international 
control over the enforcement of the proliibition. 

The Three Powers hold the view that the mere declara- 
tion would have little meaning unless there were prior 
agreement on the precise nature of the control and the 
control system was put into operation. 

(c) recommend to the Great Powers to reduce their 
[existing] armaments and armed forces by one-third 
within one year. 

The Three Powers are of the opinion that this re- 
duction, carried out by a fraction arbitrarily fixefl, would 
preserve or, possibly, even Intensify the present imiialance 
between them and the USSR. Moreover, they state that 
the measure of the necessary balanced reduction can be 
determined only on the basis of verified information as 
to the existing state of armaments. 

16. Principles for the guidance of the Commission 
The extent of the area of agreement on the terms of ref- 
erence of the Commission has been previously outlined, 
while it was at the same time indicated that the Three 
Powers and the USSR were not in agreement on all the 
proposed terms of reference. The discussions revealed 
serious divergencies on several matters, which centre 
around the following: 

(a) International control of atomic energy: 

(b) The system of stages of disclosure: 

(c) The directives to be given to the Commission 



January 7, 1952 



19 



(a) Iniernntional control of atomic energy 

17. The Three Powers while expressing a willingness to 
examine other plans, stated that the United Nations plan 
for the International control of atomic energy and the 
prohibition of atomic weapons should continue to serve 
as the basis for the control of atomic energy unless 
and until a better or no less effective system could be 
devised. They stated that this plan had been carefully 
worked out over a long period of time and had been 
accepted by the vast majority of the United Nations as 
the only effective system of control so far devised. 

The representative of the USSR stated that this plan 
of the ma.iority of the United Nations (the Baruch Plan) 
was completely unacceptable for the many reasons re- 
peatedly advanced by the USSR, the main of which were 
that the plan would be an infringement on the sovereignty 
of nations, it would set up a monopolistic trust under the 
United States, and that the prohibition of the atomic 
weapon would be indefinitely postponed. 

18. The USSR proposed that the system of control should 
be implemented by an international control organ respon- 
sible for control of the enforcement of the prohibition of 
atomic weapons, provision also being made for effective 
international inspection to be carried out in accordance 
with the decisions of the control organ. The representa- 
tive of the USSR stated that unless there was a prior 
decision for the prohibition of the atomic weapons there 
would be no prohibition to enforce and nothing to control. 
Once the basic decision had been taken on the prohibition 
of atomic weapons and on the establishment of inter- 
national control for the enforcement of that prohibition, 
the Commission could within a short time work out meas- 
ures to ensure the implementation of the General Assem- 
bly resolution on the prohibition of atomic weapons, the 
cessation of their production, the use of atomic bi>nibs 
which have already been manufactured for civilian pur- 
poses only and the establishment of strict international 
control of the enforcement of the said measures, provided 
for by an appropriate convention. 

The representatives of the Three Powers stated that the 
USSR plan was completely unacceptable to them. They 
also pointed out that there would be a time-lag between 
a General Assembly "decision" to establish control and 
the actual putting into effect of this control, even If the 
existing broad disagreement as to the nature of the con- 
trol plan was overcome. In any event, inspection alone 
was not an adequate safeguard. 

The USSR representative stated that the USSR dele- 
gation's proposal for a declaration by the General Assem- 
bly of an unconditional ban on atomic weapons and the 
establishment of strict International control over the 
enforcement of that ban was a matter of principle with 
great moral and political signlficauce, and that it was 
only if there were .such a decision that practical steps 
could be taken to ensure the Implementation of that 
decision. The USSR representative indicated his dis- 
agreement with the position of the Three Powers, which 
in his opinion could only be regarded as delaying the 
prohibition of atomic weapons. 

(b) The system of stages of disclosure 

19. The Three Powers maintained that there must be 
progressive and continuing disclosure and verification, 
carried out concurrently in regard to conventional arma- 
ments and armed forces and atomic energy. They con- 
sidered that the implementation of plans for such dis- 
closure and verification is a first and indispensable step 
in carrying out the disarmament programme. 

The representative of the USSR was absolutely opposed 
to the concept of disclosure by stages, which he stated 
could only result in the indefinite postponement of dis- 
closure of information on the most destructive and dan- 
gerous arms, such as atomic weapons. 

(c) Directives to 6e given to the Commission 

20. The USSR is opposed to the directives to be given 
to the Commission, which are set out in paragraph 5 of 
the tripartite draft resolution, concerning the fonmulation 

20 



of criteria, proposals for overall limits on armed forces and 
armaments and the allocation of armed forces and arma- 
ments within national military establishments. The 
Three Powers maintained that it was necessai-y to give 
the Commission directives for working out its plans. The 
USSR representative had no objection to the Commission 
being given directives and proposed that the Commission 
should be Instructed to prepare and submit to the Security 
Council within three months practical proposals for the 
implementation of the General Assembly resolution on 
that matter. 



Conclusion 

21. The points contained in Parts 1 and II siirvey the 
areas of agreement, possible agreement and dlsagi'eement 
wbicli have been disclosed and clarified in the Sub-Com- 
mittee. Despite the disagreements which exist on a 
number of matters of major importance in the two pro- 
jxisals, it seems clear tliat there is some agreement on 
a number of aspects ot the two programmes. The dl.scus- 
sions in the sub-committee appear to have helped to widen 
the areas of agreement on some points of the two proposals. 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

Economic and Social Council 

Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. Third 
Report of the Technical Assistance Board to the Tech- 
nical Assistance Committee. E/20.">4, .luly 19, 19.51. 
.367 pp. mimeo. 

Security Council 

Letter Dated 15 October 19.51 from Dr. Frank P. Graham. 
United Nations Representative for India and Pak- 
istan, to the Secretary-General Transmitting His 
Report to the Security Council. S/2375, October 15. 
1951. 56 pp. mimeo. 

Plight of Survivors of Concentration Camps. Second 
progress report by the Secretary-General. E/2087, 
August 21, 1951. 72 pp. mimeo. 

Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. Report 
of the Technical Assistance Committee. E/2102, 
August 29, 1951. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Organization and Operation of the Council and its Com- 
missions. E/2145, September 27, 1951. 16 pp. mimeo. 

First Progress Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Forced 
Labor to the Economic and Social Council and to the 
Governing Body of the International Labour Office. 
E/21,")3, E/AC.36/10, October 30, 1951. 18 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 29G0 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or iwocessed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an 
Offlcinl Records series for the General Assembly, the 
Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the 
Trusteeship Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission, 
which includes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and 
reports of the various commissions and committees. 
Information on securing subscriptions to the series may be 
obtained from the International Documents Service. 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Discussion of Tripartite Resolution on Disarmament 



State^nents ^y Philip C. Jesxup 

U.S. Delegate to the General AsKemhly 



U.S. PRESENTS REVISIONS' 

Mr. Chairman, at our session on Wednesday, tlie 
delefration of tlie Soviet Union tabled document 
668/Rev. 1, a revision of the Soviet amendments 
to the tripartite disarmament resohition. 

Yesterday, the delegations of the United King- 
dom, France, and the United States tabled docu- 
ment 667/Rev. 1, a revision of the tripartite 
resolution.^ 

I regret that the revised Soviet amendments 
disclose few changes. I had hoped that our earnest 
discussions in the Four-Power subcommittee might 
have led to some measure of flexibility in the So- 
viet position. 

With respect to the discussions in the subcom- 
mittee, the distinguished delegates of the United 
Kingdom and France have explained the views of 
the three powers regarding the work done there — 
and they have also explained our views on the work 
which remains to be done here in the First Com- 
mittee. We do not blink at the difficulties, but the 
task of disarmament is vital and we intend to get 
on with that task. With this in mind, and in the 
light of the discussions in the subcommittee and 
the many thoughtful opinions advanced by other 
members of this committee, we have revised docu- 
ment G67, the original tripartite draft resolution. 
It is to our revised resolution that I wish to ad- 
dress myself this morning. 

It is apparent from a reading of the revised 
Soviet amendments and our revised draft resolu- 
tion that fundamental differences on matters of 
principle remain. They are recognized by us and 
by the Soviet delegate and by all the other mem- 
bers of this Committee. Nevertheless, we have 
wished to go as far as possible toward meeting 
the Soviet delegate — "to widen the areas of agree- 

' Made In Committee I (Political and Security) on Dec. 
14 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the 
U.N. on the same date. 

' For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1951, p. 889. 



ment," as it was put by the President of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, who presided with such patience 
and skill over the deliberations of the subcommit- 
tee. It is in the spirit of widening the areas of 
agreement that we submit our revised draft. 

I turn now, Mr. Chairman, to the text of our re- 
vised draft. The first paragraph of the preamble 
is unchanged; that language was agreed upon in 
the subcommittee. 

There is a new second paragi-aph in the pream- 
ble: 

Reaflirming its desire that the United Nations develop 
an effective collective security system to maintain the 
peace and that the armed forces and armaments of the 
vyorld be progressively reduced in accordance with the 
Pui-poses and Principles of the Charter. 

This paragraph had its genesis in the thought 
expressed by the distinguished delegate of Leb- 
anon at the meeting of this Conmaittee on the •2;5d 
of A^ovember. He suggested that the possibility 
of collective security should be explicitly formu- 
lated. We agree that this is an important con- 
cept which might well be included in so important 
a General Assembly resolution. 

In what is now the third pai'agraph of the pre- 
amble (formerly the second paragi-aph), we have 
deleted the phrase "to levels adequate for defense 
but not for aggi-ession." The Soviet delegate, as 
well as several other delegates, questioned this for- 
mulation. In connection with the Soviet views, 
I call your attention to the report of the Chairman 
of the subcommittee. [Doc. 677, p. 10, paragraph 
14(b).] 

The phrase we have deleted was designated to 
express certain ideas which, surely, everyone 
accepts. 

Pending the development of a collective security 
system, now referred to in new paragraph 2 of 
the preamble, surely no state can afford to neglect 
its defense and the right of self-defense recognized 
in article 51 of the charter. 



January 7y J952 



21 



All would agree that a prime objective is to i^re- 
vent aggression, and no state should be armed in 
such a way as to make aggression possible. 

But since these ideas are clear and the general 
objectives are adequately indicated by the rest of 
the tripartite resolution, we eliminate this phrase, 
and thereby eliminate one other particular point 
of disagreement. 

In what is now the fourth paragraph of the pre- 
amble, we are proposing another change designed 
to clear up what has struck some delegates as an 
ambiguity. The Soviet delegate argued in the 
subcommittee that the phrase "substantial armed 
forces" was unclear, the word "substantial" being 
essentially a matter of subjective opinion. We 
have attempted to meet his point hei"e by substitut- 
ing the jjhrase "whose military resources are such 
that their failure to accept would endanger the 
system." We believe this phrase is within the 
area of agreement stated in the report of President 
Nervo. [Doc. 667, p. 8, par. 10.] 

In the last paragraph of the preamble, the three 
sponsors have accepted the second Soviet amend- 
ment contained in document 668. The Soviet dele- 
gate objected to some portions of the report of the 
Committee of Twelve [Doc. 677. p. 3, ]iar. 2] ; we 
three regard the recommendation favoring the es- 
tablishment of a new commission as being the im- 
portant thought in this paragraph, and we are 
glad to meet him here. 

On the first operative paragraph, we again 
tried to meet the view expressed by the Soviet 
delegate in the subcommittee by agreeing to his 
proposal that the Conunission be called the 
"Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments 
Commission"' [Doc. 677, p. 3, par. 3]. The name, 
as my British and French colleagues have already 
observed, is rather unwieldy and does not in fact 
describe the finictions of the new commission, we 
think, as effectively as does our original name. 
"Disarmament Commission.'" However, in our 
revised text we, of course, include this change 
agreed uj^on in the subcommittee. 

In the second operative paragraph there is no 
change. 

In the first part of our operative paragi-aph 3, 
we have added a phrase at the end of the first sen- 
tence to make it clear that the new Commission is 
to prepare proposals 

for effective international control of atomic energy to 
ensure tlie proliibition of atomic weapons and the use of 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes only. 

This, of course, was always our intention; we 
considered that the thought was covered in the 
original formidation which dealt with "all armed 
forces and all armaments." This phrase, in our 
view, includes atomic-energy control. However, 
we certainly have no objection to stating this ex- 
plicitly to make our meaning perfectly clear. 
Nevertheless, we recognize that this is a paragraph 
in which one of the fundamental points of dis- 
agreement must appear. 



In view of the foregoing change in paragraph 
3, we have deleted the old subparagraph 3(a) be- 
cause it seems unnecessary to restate the objective 
.so often. The deletion of subparagraph (a) and 
the relettering of the remaining subparagraphs is 
merely a matter of drafting. 

New (a) is old (b) with no change. 

New (b) is old (c). Here we have added a 
phrase, 

this inspection to lie carried out in accordance with the 
decisions of the international control organ to be estab- 
lished. 

This again represents an effort to meet the point 
of view of the Soviet delegate, who wished this 
thought to be made explicit. [Doc. 677, p. 6, par. 
5 (c), and p. 7, par. 8; cf. par. 4 of revised 
resolution.] 

Subparagraph (c), which is the old subpara- 
graph (d), is introduced by a new sentence: 

Tlie Commission shall be ready to consider any pro- 
ixisals or plans for control that may he put forward in- 
volving eitlier conventional armaments or atomic energy. 

The three powers believed that this idea was 
clearly implicit in their first draft, but, in view of 
the observations of the Soviet delegate, we desire 
to underscore it. For instance, the Soviet dele- 
gate yesterday said, "the three governments of the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and France 
do not wish to depart one iota" from the United 
Nations plan for the control of atomic energy. 
We maintain the view that the new Commission 
should take advantage of the work of the United 
Nations approved by the General Assembly dur- 
ing the last 5 years, and we therefore believe it is 
absolutely necessary to retain the rest of this para- 
graph as originally drafted. The new sentence, 
however, emphasizes the point that the new com- 
mission should be ready to consider any proposals 
in the field of atomic-energy control or in regard 
to control in the field of conventional armaments. 
Since the Soviet Union does not agree with the 
plan repeatedly endorsed by the General Assem- 
bly, we hope that its representatives will submit 
new proposals which the Commission will study. 

The changes in paragraph 3 (e) are again draft- 
ing changes corresponding to a change in the pre- 
amble and designed to clarify the thought and to 
make it clear that the states embarking on this 
program can decide among themselves which of 
them have military strength of such importance 
that they must become parties before the treaty 
or treaties shall enter into force. 

Paragraph 4 is new. This contains the same 
thought as is contained in Soviet amendment num- 
ber 5, and, like our revised 3 (b), makes explicit 
what was implicit in the original three-power 
draft : that there must be an international control 
organ to ensure the implementation of the dis- 
armament plan. In view of the opinions expressed 
in the subcommittee [Doc. 677, p. 7, par. 8], we 
have been glad to insert this paragraph to reassure 
the Soviet delegate. 



22 



Department of State Bulletin 



New paragraplis 5 and C> are old paragraphs -1 
and 5 without change until we reach the subpara- 
graphs of new paragraph 6. 

With respect to old 5 (a) and (b), various dele- 
gations, including that of the Soviet Union, have 
found difficulty with the idea of criteria which 
could be used in devising proposals for limiting 
and restrictiiig armed forces and armaments. 
Secretary of State Acheson explained fully our 
view on this.^ We continue to believe that sucli 
criteria can be found. However, in order to avoid 
the difficulty and in order once again to make it 
clear that the Commission is free to devise its 
methods of work, we have deleted old subpara- 
gi'aphs 5 (a) and (b) and replaced them by new 
6 (a) which provides that the General Assembly 
simply direct the commission "to determine how 
ovei'-all limits and restrictions on all armed forces 
and all armaments can be calculated and fixed." 
We hope this will be considered as goin^forward 
toward meeting the Soviet view stated in President 
Nervo's report. [Doc. 677. p. 12, par. 20.] 

Subparagraph 6 (b) is old 5 (c) without change. 

We have added a sentence at the end of para- 
graph 7 directing the commission to submit its 
p'rst report not later than June 1, 19.52. This is 
to give further emphasis to our view that the new 
commission should go to work quickly and press 
forward as rapidly as possible. It also seeks to 
meet the Soviet delegate's desire to fix a specific 
date. We still think that the dates suggested by 
the Soviet delegate as .absolute requirements are 
unrealistic. 

I have attempted to explain the amendments in- 
cluded in our revised draft. 

It may be said we have not accepted all the 
Soviet amendments. Indeed, we have not. I re- 
peat what I said at the outset — that there are fun- 
damental points of disagreement between the 
Soviet amendments and the several resolutions of 
the General Assembly in the past years. 

Our proposed i-esolution takes those earlier reso- 
lutions of the General Assembly as points of de- 
jxirture. We do not accept the view which we 
think would be retrogressive, that all of the hard 
work, the discussions and decisions of the past 5 
years should be thrown aside and that we should 
.start all over again. 

Our common agreement on the point that the 
General Assembly should establish a new com- 
mission to carry the woi-k forward is important, 
because genuine progress towards disarmament 
is likely to be possible only when the commission 
has worked out the details of the program. 

We hope it will there become apparent to the 
Soviet Union that there is nothing in the jirogram 
inimical to its best interests, or inconsistent with 
the independence and security of the Soviet 
Union or any other state. 

We do not propose a program of disarmament 

" BtTLLETiN of Dec. 3, 1951, p. 879. 
January 7, 1952 



in which the benefits will be on any one side. We 
propose a program in which the people of the 
Soviet Union will be as much a beneficiary as all 
other peoples. We seek no advantage save that of 
sharing in the general increase in security and 
the liberation of vast new energies and resources 
for world economic development. 

In the new commission the work of negotiation 
must continue. All agree that the results of the 
negotiation must be included in a treaty or treaties 
which will be subject to ratification. As our new 
revised text makes even more clear, the Commis- 
sion will consider all proposals and plans which 
are advanced. As M. Moch said on Tuesday, we 
must start from where we are today. The tri- 
partite revised draft resolution does start from the 
actualities of the jaresent. It also looks to the fu- 
ture by establishing an appi'opriate forum — the 
new Commission of Twelve — in which negotiation 
can proceed. 

Speaking for the three sponsors of this resolu- 
tion, I can say we shall enter those negotiations 
with the fixed desire and hope that they will re- 
sult in agreement. 



TEXTS OF REVISIONS TO TRIPARTITE RESOLU- 
TION 

U.S., France, and U.K. 

IT.N. doc. A/C.l/667/Rev. 1 
Dated December 13, 1951 

The general assembly. 

Desiring to lift from the peoples of the world the bur- 
den of increasing armaments and the fear of war, and to 
liberate new energies and resources for positive pro- 
grammes of reconstruction and development. 

Reaffirming its desire that the United Nations develop 
an effective collective security system to maintain the 
peace and that the armed forces and armaments of the 
world be progressivel.v reduced in accordance with the 
Purposes and Principles of the Charter, 

Bexieving that a necessary means to this end is the 
development by the United Nations of comprehensive and 
co-ordinated plans, under international control, for the 
regulation, limitation and balanced reduction of all 
armed forces and all armaments, and for the effective 
international control of atomic energy to ensure the pro- 
hibition of atomic weapons and the use of atomic energy 
for peaceful purposes only. 

Recognizing that a genuine system for disarmament 
must include all kinds of armed forces and armaments, 
must be accepted by all nations whose military resources 
are sucli that their failure to accept would endanger 
the system, and must include safeguards that will en- 
sure the compliance of all such nations. 

Noting the recommendation of the Committee of Twelve 
established by Resolution 496 (V) that the General As- 
sembly should establish a new commission to carr.y 
forward the tasks originally assigned to the Atomic En- 
ergy Commission and the Commission for Conventional 
Armaments, 

1. Establishes under the Security Council an Atomic 
Energy and Conventional Armaments Commission. This 
Commission shall have the same membership as the 
Atomic Energy Commission and the Commission for Con- 
ventional Armaments, and shall function under the rules 
of procedure of the Atomic Energy Commission with such 
modifications as the Commission shall deem necessary ; 

23 



2. Dissolves the Atomic Energy Commissiou and rec- 
ommends to the Security Council that it dissolve the Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments ; 

3. Directs the Atomic Energy and Conventional Arma- 
ments Commission to prepare proposals to be embodied 
in a draft treaty (or treaties) for the regulation, limita- 
tion and balanced reduction of all armed forces and all 
armaments, and for effective international control of 
atomic energy to ensure the prohibition of atomic weapons 
and the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only. 
The Commission shall be guided by the following 
l)rinciples : 

(a) In a system of guaranteed disarmament there 
must be progressive disclosure and verification on a con- 
tinuing basis of all armed forces — -including para-military, 
security and police forces — and all armaments including 
atomic ; 

(b) Such verification must be based on eiTective in- 
ternational inspection to ensure the ndequacy and accu- 
racy of the information disclosed; this inspection to be 
carried out in accordance with the decisions of the 
international control organ (or organs) to be established : 

(c) The Commission shall be ready to consider any 
proposals or plans for control that may be put forward 
involving either conventional armaments or atomic energy. 
Unless a better or no less effective system is devised, 
the United Nations plan for the international control of 
atomic energy and the prohibition of atomic weapons 
should continue to serve as the basis for the international 
control of atomic energy to ensure the prohibition of 
atomic weapons and the use of atomic energy for peaceful 
purposes only ; 

(d) There must be an adequate system of safeguards 
to ensure observance of the disarmament programme, so 
as to provide for the prompt detection of violations while 
at the same time causing the minimum degree of inter- 
ference in the internal life of each country ; 

(e) The treaty (or treaties) shall .specifically be open 
to all states for signature and ratification or adherence. 
The treaty (or treaties) shall provide what States must 
become parties thereto before the treaty (or treaties) 
shall enter into force ; 

4. Directs the Commission, when preparing the pro- 
posals referred to in the preceding paragraph, to formu- 
late plans for the establishment within the frameworii 
of the Security Council of an international control organ 
(or organs) to ensure the implementation of the treaty 
(or treaties). The functions and powers of the control 
organ (or organs) shall be defined in the treaty which 
establishes it : 

ft. Directs the Commission, in preparing the proposals 
referred to in paragraph 3 above, to consider from the 
out-set plans for progressive and continuing disclosure 
and verification, the implementation of which is recog- 
nized as a first and indispensable step in carrying out 
the disarmament programme envisaged in the present 
resolution ; 

6. Directs the Commission, in working out plans for the 
regulation, limitation, and balanced reduction of all armed 
forces and all armaments, 

(a) to determine how overall limits and restrictions 
on all armed forces and all armaments can be calculated 
and fixed; 

(h) to consider methods according to which States 
can agree among themselves, under the auspices of the 
Commission, concerning the allocation within their re- 
si)ective national military establishments of the permitted 
national armed forces and armaments; 

7. Directs the Commission to commence its work not 
later than thirty days from the adoption of this resolution 
and to report periodically, for information, to the Security 
Council and to the General Assembl.v or to the Members 
of the United Nations wlien the General Assembly is not 
in session. The Commission shall submit its first report 
not later than 1 June, 1952 ; 

8. Declares that a conference of all States should be 
convened to consider the proposals for a draft treaty (or 



treaties) prepared by the Cummlssion as soon as the 
work of the Commission shall have progressed to a point 
where in the judgment of the Commission any part of its 
programme is ready for submission to governments ; 

9. Requests the Secretary-cieneral to convene such a 
conference when so advised liy tlie (commission; 

10. Requests the Secretary-General to furnish such ex- 
perts, staff and facilities as the Commission may consider 
necessary for the effective accomplislunent of the purposes 
of the present resolution. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

U.N. doc. A/C.l/668/Rev. 1 
Dated December 11, 1951 

1. Replace the second and third paragraphs of the pre- 
amble by the following text : 

"Recognizing as a primary and most important task the 
unconditional prohibition of the production of atomic 
weapons and the establishment of strict international 
control over the enforcement of this prohibition and also 
the reduction by one-tliird of the other types of armaments 
and armed forces of the five Powers: the United States 
of America, the United Kingdom, France, China and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, within one year of 
the adoption of the relevant decision by the General As- 
sembly and on the basis of the level of armaments and 
armed forces at the time the aforesaid decision is taken, 

"Noting that tliese measures will serve the purpose of 
strengthening the peace and security of nations and con- 
tribute to lightening the heavy economic burden borne by 
the peoples of the various countries as a result of the 
ever-increasing expenditure on armaments and re-arma- 
ment, 

"Convinced that if all governments sincerely combine 
their efforts in order to co-operate in an effective and 
suljstantial limitation of armed forces and of armaments 
and also in an immediate and unconditional prohibition 
of the production of atomic weapons and tlie establishment 
of strict international control over the enforcement of this 
prohibition, the danger of war will be considerably 
averted and the security of all nations strengthened", 

2. Word the fourth paragraph of the preamble as follows : 
"Noting the recommendation of the Committee of 

Twelve established by resolution 406 (V) that the Gen- 
eral Assembly should establish a new commission to carry 
on the task originally assigned to the Atomic Energy 
Commission and the Commission for Conventional 
Armaments", 

3. Insert the following as paragraph 1 of the operative 
part: 

"The General Assembly, recognizing the use of atomic , 
weapons as an instrument of aggression and mass destruc- 
tion of peoples to be contrary to the honour and the con- 
science of nations and incompatible with membership 
of the United Nations, hereby declares an unconditional 
ban on atomic weapons and the establishment of strict 
international control over the enforcement of this ban ; 

"The General Assemblij instructs the Commission on 
Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments to draw up, 
and to submit for the consideration of the Security Coun- 
cil b.v 1 February 19.52, a draft convention providing for 
measures to ensure the implementaticm of the General 
Assembl.v's decisions relating to the proliibltion of atomic 
weapons, the cessation of their production, the u.se, solely 
for civilian purposes, of the atomic bombs already pro- 
duced and the establishment of strict international con- 
trol over the implementation of the said convention". 

4. Word the first sentence of paragraph 1 of the operative 
part of the draft resolution as follows and Insert it after 
the new paragraph 1 given above : 

"The General Assembly .shall set up under the Security 
Council an Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments 
Commission" ; 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



5. Insert a new paragraph 3 after paragraph 2 of the draft 
resolution, reading as follows : 

"The General Assembly KECociNizES that any sincere 
plan for a substantial reduction of all armed forces and 
armaments must include the establishment, within the 
framework of the Securit.v Council, of an international 
control organ, which shall be responsible for control of 
the reduction of all t.vpes of armaments and armed forces 
and for control of the enforcement of the prohibition of 
atomic weapons, so that such prohibition is carried out 
ver.v accurately and conscientiously, and that this inter- 
national organ must elicit information on all armed forces, 
including semi-military, security and police forces, and all 
armaments, including atomic weapons, provisions also 
being made for effective international inspection, to be 
carried out in accordance with the decisions of the afore- 
said international control organ and for control to include 
also verification of the information submitted." 

6. Replace paragraph 3 of the draft resolution by the fol- 
lowing paragraph 4: 

"The draft convention shall provide that the aforesaid 
international control organ be entrusted with control of 
the prohibition of atomic weapons, and shall define its 
composition, rights and duties ; 

"The international organ responsible for control of the 
prohibition of atomic weapons .shall, immediately after the 
conchision of the aforesaid convention, carry out an in- 
spection of all establishments for the production and stor- 
ing of atomic weapons in order to see that the convention 
for the prohibition of atomic weapons is being enforced" ; 

7. After the above paragraph, insert the following para- 
graph in the draft resolution : 

"Recommends the permanent members of the Security 
Council — the United States of America, the United King- 
dom, France, China, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics — to reduce the armaments and armed forces 
at their disposal at the time when this decision is adopted 
by one third within one year, from the date of adoption 
of this decision ; 

Deems it essential for the governments of States Mem- 
bers of the United Nations and also States which are not 
at present members of the Organization to submit to the 
international control organ forthwith, and in any case 
not later than one month after the adoption hy the General 
Assembly of the decisions for the prohibition of atomic 
weapons and the reduction of armaments and armed 
forces, complete information regarding the state of their 
armed forces and all types of armaments, including atomic 
weapons, at the time of acceptance of the said provisions;" 

8. Delete paragraph 4 of the draft resolution. 

9. Replace paragraph 5 of the draft resolution by the fol- 
lowing paragraph : 

"The General Assejirly considers it essential to in- 
struct the .Joint Atomic Energy and Conventional Arma- 
ments Commission to prepare within a period of three 
months and submit for the consideration of the Security 
Council practical proposals for the application of this 
decision ;" 

10. Delete paragraph 6 of the draft resolution. 

11. Replace paragraph 7 of the draft resolution by the 
following : 

"The General Assembly invites the governments of 
all States, both Members of the United Nations and States 
not at present members of the United Nations, to examine 
at a world conference the question of a substantial reduc- 
tion of armed forces and armaments and also of practical 
measures for the prohibition of atomic weapons and the 
establishment of international control over the enforce- 
ment of such prohibition. 

"Recommends that the said world conference be con- 
vened at the earliest possible moment and in any case not 
later than 1 June 1952." 

12. Delete paragraph S of the draft resolution. 
January 7, J 952 



Union of Soviet Socialist RepuhUcs 

TI.N. doc. A/C.l/668/Rev. 2 
Dated December 18, lOSJl 

1. Replace the third and fourth paragraphs of the pre- 
amble by the following text : 

"Recognizing as a primary and most important ta.sk 
the unconditional prohibition of the i)roduction of atomic 
weapons and the establishment of strict international con- 
trol over the enforcement of this prohibition and also the 
reduction by one-third of the other types of armaments 
and armed forces of the five Powers : the United States of 
America, the United Kingdom, France, China and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, within one year of 
the adoption of the relevant decision of the General 
Assembly and on the basis of the level of armaments and 
armed forces at the time the aforesaid decision is taken, 

"Noting that these measures will serve the purpose of 
strengthening the peace and security of nations and con- 
tribute to lightening the heavy economic burden borne by 
the peoples of the various countries as a result of the 
ever-increasing expenditure on armaments and re- 
armament, 

"Convinced that if all governments sincerely combine 
their effort.? in order to co-operate in an effective and 
substantial limitation of armed forces and of armaments 
and also in an immediate and unconditional prohibition 
of the production of atomic weapons and the establishment 
of strict international control over the enforcement of this 
prohibition, the danger of war will be considerably averted 
and the security of all nations strengthened". 

2. Insert the following as paragraph 1 of the operative 
part : 

"The General Assembly, recognizing the use of atomic 
weaiions as an instrument of aggression and mass destruc- 
tion of peoples to be contrary to the honour and the 
conscience of nations and incompatible with membership 
of the United Nations, hereby declares an unconditional 
ban on atomic weapons and the establishment of strict 
international control over the enforcement of this ban. 

"The Genek.\l Assembly instkucts the Commission on 
Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments to draw up, 
and to submit for the c(msideration of the Security Coun- 
cil by 1 February 19.52, a draft convention providing for 
measures to ensure the implementation of the General 
Assembly's decisions relating to the prohibition of atomic 
weapons, the cessation of their production, the use solely 
for civilian purposes of the atomic bombs already pro- 
duced, and the establishment of strict international con- 
trol over the implementation of the said convention". 

.3. Insert a new paragraph after paragraph 2 of the draft 
resolution, reading as follows : 

"The General Assembly recognizes that any sincere 
plan for a substantial reduction of all armed forces and 
armaments must include the establishment, within the 
framework of the Security Council, of an international 
control organ, which .shall lie responsible for control of 
the reduction of all types of armaments and armed forces 
and for control of the enforcement of the pr(ihiliiti<in of 
atomic weapons, so that such prohibition is carried out 
ver.v accurately and conscientiously, and that this inter- 
national organ must elicit information on all armed forces, 
including semi-military, security and police forces, and 
all armaments, including atomic weapons, provision also 
being made for effective international inspection, to be 
carried out in accordance with the decisions of the afore- 
said international control organ and for control to in- 
clude also verification of the information submitted." 

4. Replace paragraph 3 of the draft resolution by the 
following paragraph : 

"The draft convention shall provide that the aforesaid 
international control organ be entrusted with control of 
the prohibition of atomic weapons, and shall define its 
composition, rights and duties. 

25 



"The internntional organ responsible for control of the 
prohibition of atomic weapons shall, Immediately after 
the conclusion of the aforesaid convention, carry out an 
inspection of all establishments for the production and 
storing of atomic weapons in order to see that the conven- 
tion for the prohibition of atomic weapons is being 
enforced." 

5. After the above paragraph, insert the following para- 
graph in the draft resolution : 

"Recommends tlie permanent members of the Security 
Council — the United States of America, the United King- 
dom, France, China, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics — to reduce the armaments and armed forces at 
their disposal at the time when this decision is adopted 
by one thii-d within one year from the date of adoption 
of this decision ; 

"Deems it essential for the governments of States 
Members of the United Nations and also States which are 
not at present members of the Organization to submit 
to the international control organ forthwith, and in any 
case not later than one month after the adoption by the 
General Assembly of the decisions for the prohibition 
of atomic weapons and the reduction of armaments and 
armed forces, complete information regarding the state 
of their armed forces and all types of armaments, includ- 
ing atomic weapons, at the time of acceptance of the 
said provisions ;" 

6. Delete paragraphs 4 and 5 of the draft resolution. 

7. Replace paragraph of the draft resolution by the 
following paragraph : 

"The General Assembly considers it essential to in- 
struct the Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments 
Commission to prepare within a period of three months 
and submit for the consideration of the Security Council 
practical proposals for the application of this decision" 

S. Delete paragraph 7 of the draft resolution. 

0. Replace paragraph S of the draft resolution by the 
following : 

"The Genek.\l Assembly invites the governments of 
all States, both Jlembers of the United Nations and States 
not at present members of the United Nations, to examine 
at a world conference the question of a substantial reduc- 
tion of armed forces and armaments and also of practical 
measures for the prohibition of atomic weapons and the 
establishment of international control over the enforce- 
ment of such prohibition. 

"Recommends that the said world conference be con- 
vened at the earliest possible moment and in any case not 
later than 1 June 1952." 

10. Delete paragraph 9 of tlie draft resolution. 



ANSWERS TO COMMENTS AND AMENDMENTS 
OF IRAQ, SYRIA, AND LEBANON* 

The distinguished representative of Iraq con- 
cluded his comments at yesterday morning's 
meeting of this Committee by asking the three- 
powers and the Soviet Union what was their 
objective in presenting these amenchnents and their 
original resolutions. I cannot, of course, answer 
what are the objectives of the representative of 
the Soviet Union. I think, however, that the ob- 

' Made in Committee I on Dee. l.o and released to the 
press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 
For text of Mr. Jessup's statement on the Egyptian amend- 
ment of Dec. 18, which was received too late to print here, 
see press release No. 13.j5 of the U.S. delegation to the 
General Assembly. 



jectives sought by France, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States are quite clear by now. As 
Secretary Achesoii pointed out in his statement 
before this Committee on November 19, we want to 
reach an international system which will include 
the regulation and reduction of all armed forces 
and all armaments of all types. We wish to at- 
tain an international system which includes all na- 
tions in the world which have substantial military 
forces. We wish to attain a system which both 
prohibits and actually secures the abolition of the 
use of atomic weapons. We wish to attain a sys- 
tem which includes safeguards by which all of this 
can be done with security to all nations involved. 
We want to create the kind of world in which no 
country will be terrified that some other country 
or some other group of countries is pro- 
2)osing to attack it or to threaten it or to overawe 
it. International security is not a problem for 
four or five powers alone. The distinguished 
representative of Bolivia, whose great con- 
tributions to peace tlirough international organi- 
zations in both the League and the United Nations 
is a matter of historic record, has eloquently 
brought out that point this morning — the point 
that international security is a general problem 
with which we are all concerned. It may be true 
that some countries may be called upon to make 
greater contributions tlian others. The three are 
prepared to do their part; our countries are pre- 
pared to do their part. We want to reach that 
point of security of which I have spoken by bring- 
ing about a reduction in the level of armaments, by 
bringing about the prohibition of the atomic bomb 
as the result of an effective system of international 
control over atomic energy, by bringing about a 
situation where everyone Iniows what the situation 
is in regard to armaments and keeps on knowing 
it. Those are our objectives. 

The distinguished representative of Iraq asks 
in fact wliether we seek here a practical solution 
which will lead into some agreed upon results 
from which we can expect a general reduction in 
world tension. On the other liand, he asks do we 
merely wish a theoretical result here in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, drawing up a basis nijon which 
charges and indictments can be based. Speaking 
for the three-powers, I say emphatically that it is 
the former course we follow. We are not asking 
here to lay a basis for charges or for propaganda 
advantage. As Secretary Acheson said in his 
statement before this Committee on November 19, 
the proposals we put forward : 

are not ends in themselves. There is no magic in them 
which by itself can solve the troubles of this very griev- 
ously stricken world. They are proposals which may be 
a key to solutions in the future. They are proposals 
which in my estimation oiien up a broad highway along 
whicli we can all march together to find solutions to our 
problems, to reduce the tensions and difficulties between 
us, to move toward peace, toward cooperation and away 
from the very dangerous rapids which all of us can see 
before us. We can follow that broad, clear path, or we 
can turn aside into the dark and noisesome alle.vs of 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



propagaiicla and bickering and assertion and counter- 
assert urns. We c-an fritter away tlie liope of the world. 
We can fritter it away into little small advantages that 
are taken of one another here and there for minor and 
really silly purposes. Or we can seize this great oppor- 
tunity before us. My country is willing to seize it. Our 
eoUeagues in France and Great Britain are willing to 
seize it with us. 

Tltat, Mr. Chairman, represents the objectives 
of the tliree-powers. 

With the Cliairman's {permission, I would also 
like, at this time, to reply to the comments of my 
<listinguishecl friend from Syria. Faris El- 
Khouri Bey su<i;gested that this Committee should 
recommend setting up a new disarmament com- 
mission, with very general and vague terms of ref- 
erence including only points of agreement reached 
hy the United Kingdom, France, the United 
States, and the U.S.S.R. during tlie Four-Power 
subcommittee meetings last week. The distin- 
guished representative from Syria, in addition, 
suggested that, if this proposal were not accept- 
able to the four great powers, then the subcommit- 
tee should be reinstituted so that, under the 
guidance of the President of the General Assem- 
bly the Four Powers might reach agreement on a 
resolution of this nature. 

I must state frankly that I cannot agree with 
the idea advanced by my distinguished colleague, 
although I fully appreciate the sincere concern 
whicli prompted the suggestion. In the view of 
the three powers, such an approach would be a 
retrogression on the part of the General Assembly. 
We would have given up basic concepts already 
adopted by the General Assembly and reaffirmed 
for .5 years. Those basic concepts are valid. It 
would be dishonest for us to pretend that tlie nego- 
tiations in the new Commission can start with the 
abandonment of basic principles. Dishonesty on 
our part or the evasion of facts is not a saund basis 
for negotiation. AVe believe, however, that within 
the framework of those principles and with the 
flexibility which the revised tripartite resolution 
leaves to the new Commission, we can proceed to 
reach agreed solutions in that Commission. As I 
said yesterday, we hope that in the negotiations 
in that Commission, it will become apparent to 
the Soviet Union that there is nothing in the pro- 
gram inimical to its best interests, or inconsistent 
with the independence and security of the Soviet 
Union or any other state. We are convinced that 
we must try to advance toward our common goals, 
using as guideposts or measuring rods the general 
concepts already recognized as valid by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

We understand just as well as any other nation 
represented at this table that it is impossible to 
start disarming without a firm commitment by the 
Soviet Union to accept and go along with a partic- 
ular program. We are convinced, however, that 
we must plan for this event. We are heartened by 
the fact that we have all found here certain agi'eed 
points. Our revised resolution, as we have said, 



seeks to widen the areas of agreement. We ear- 
nestl}' hope that this process will continue, and we 
think that the new Commission is the proper forum 
for development of the process. 

Actually, our amended resolution does attempt 
to do what the representatives of Syria and Iraq 
proposed in their interventions yesterday. Look 
at paragraph 3 (c), for example, in the operative 
section, which provides that the Commission shall 
be ready to consider any proposals or any plans 
for control that may be put forward involving 
either conventional armaments or atomic energy. 

My distinguished friend, the representative of 
Syria, understood this to be limited merely to 
proposals for control, but that is not what we in- 
tended. We believe that the Commission should 
consider any proposals which are made, or any 
plans for control, that may be put forward in 
either the nonatomic or atomic fields. The prob- 
lem of controls embraces questions of inspection 
and other safeguards, and matters of determining 
priorities and practical steps. 

Now that gives the Commission the broad, gen- 
eral terms of reference which the representative 
of Syria so strongly desires. However, it gives 
these terms of reference within a framework which 
emphasizes objectives to be sought by the new 
Commission, and principles for the guidance of 
the new Commission, which are substantially 
points either agreed upon by the Four Powers or 
based upon concepts strongly affirmed and reaf- 
firmed in the past by the General Assembly. 

In fact, it seems to me that the revised tripartite 
proposals follow very much the general concept 
sought by the representative of Syria, but retain 
the necessary guideposts established by past Gen- 
eral Assemblies. 

In his intervention this morning, the distin- 
guished representative of Poland indicated that he 
was inclined to favor the suggestion made yester- 
day by the distinguished representative of Syria 
with regard to a simple resolution merely setting 
up the Commission without dealing with any of 
the substantive matters; but even as he indicated 
his favorable attitude, he hastened to add that of 
course we should start by accepting the Soviet 
amendments to the tripartite resolution. Our po- 
sition is, as I have tried to outline it, in terms of 
moving forward on a solid basis for negotiation. 

I am confident that there is no substantial dif- 
ference between my views and the views of either 
of my distinguished friends from Syria or Iraq. 
In any event, on behalf of the United Kingdom 
and France, as well as the United States, I would 
like the distinguished representatives of Syria and 
Iraq, and likewise the distinguished representative 
of Paki.stan to know that we lielieve the resolution 
which they sponsored, and which brought about 
the Four-Power subcommittee meetings, was a 
most useful contribution to advancing towards 
some progress in this most difficult field. We be- 
lieve that both the Soviet Union and ourselves are 



January 7, 7952 



27 



convinced of the. necessity for continuing the ef- 
forts to reach agreement. We do not believe, how- 
ever, that we can reach agreement by abandoning 
liere in this Committee some of the principal stand- 
ards which have been affirmed and reaffirmed in 
the past by the General Assembly, and leaving the 
new Commission to start all over again from the 
beginning. 

Mr. Chairman, while I am speaking, I should 
like also to refer to the amendments submitted by 
the distinguished representative of Lebanon and 
laid before us on document A/C. 1/678. I shall 
comment only on those parts of the amendments 
which apply to the preamble, reserving observa- 
tions on the fourth amendment until we reach the 
appropriate paragraph. 

The distinguished representative of Lebanon 
suggested a new first paragraph of the preamble 
which reads : 

Moved by anxiety at the general lack of confidence 
plaguing the world and leading to the burden of increased 
armaments and the fear of war. 

I can say, Mr. Chairman, that on behalf of the 
three sponsors of the tripartite resolution that we 
accept the suggestion for inserting this new para- 
graph in the preamble. The reasons which were 
given by the distinguished representative of Leb- 
anon need not be repeated by me. They are con- 
vincing. 

Now as to his second amendment, I understand 
that this i^roposes merely inconsequential and 



stylistic changes in the second paragraph of the 
preamble, which is at present the first paragraph. 
In regard to that proposal I would remind the 
Committee that in the subcommittee of four, 
agreement was reached upon the text of the pres- 
ent first paragraph of the preamble. In view of 
that fact, we would not like to commit ourselves 
to any changes in that agreed i^aragraph unless it 
appears that the Soviet Union is also willing to 
accept the first new paragraph proposed by Leb- 
anon and therefore accepts the consequential 
changes in the second paragraph. On that final 
point, Mr. Chairman, we will await the views ex- 
pressed by the Soviet Union on the acceptability 
of this first paragraph which as I say the three- 
powers accept. 

Editoe's NoTic : On December 19, Committee I approved 
the proposal on disarmament by the U.S., U.K., and France 
by a vote of 44 in favor, 5 again.st, and 10 abstentions. 
Those voting against were Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, 
Poland, the Soviet Union, and the Ukraine. The absten- 
tions came from Afghanistan, Argentina, Egypt, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and 
Yemen. Burma did not take part in the vote. 

Earlier, in a paragraph by paragraph vote, the com- 
mittee re.lected all amendments moved by the Soviet 
Union. It also rejected Egyptian amendments calling for 
unconditional prohibition of atomic weapons and the 
drafting of a treaty toward this end by Committee VI 
(Legal). 

Finally, the Committee rejected a Polish draft resolu- 
tion which would have suggested that the new disarma- 
ment commission, to be .set up under the tripartite plan, 
be left free to consider both Western and Soviet disarma- 
ment schemes. The vote was 6 to 3(j with 10 abstentions. 



Soviet Charges Against Efforts of Free Nations 
To Achieve Collective Security 



STATEMENT BY ERNEST A. GROSS 

U.S. DELEGATE TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY' 

On November 21, 1951, the Soviet Government 
presented to my Government a note concerning the 
United States Mutual Security Act of October 10, 
1951, protesting the enactment of this law as an 
aggressive act toward the Soviet Union and a rude 
violation by the United States of obligations con- 
tained in the Roosevelt-Litvinov agreement of 
November 16, 1933. In that note the Soviet Gov- 
ernment stated that it expected the Government of 
the United States to take proper measures for 
revocation of the above-mentioned law. 



' Made in plenary session on Dec. 13 and released to the 
press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 
Ambassador Gross is permanent U.S. deputy representa- 
Uve to the U.N. 



On the following day, November 22, before my 
Government had had a sufficient opportunity to 
consider the Soviet note and make a reply to it, 
the Soviet delegation here in Paris proposed for 
inclusion in the agenda of the Assembly's sixth 
session a new item on this subject as an important 
and urgent matter. 

This Soviet complaint brought against the 
United States is based on a distortion of words in 
the Mutual Security Act of 1951. The Congress 
of the United States never intended that any ap- 
propriations authorized by the ISIutual Security 
xlct should be used for any aggressive activities 
contrary to the U.N. Charter. The United States 
has not carried on such aggressive activities, is 
not doing so now, and has no intentioia of doing so 
in the future, whether from the $100,000,000 au- 
thorization ajipearing in the Mutual Security Act, 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



or otherwise. There is nothing in the Mutual 
Security Act to justify the Soviet Union's charge 
of United States "direct interference" in Soviet 
affairs. 

In accordance with the long-standing policy 
of my Government, however, the United States 
made" no objection to the inclnsion of this item in 
our agenda wlien the matter was considered by the 
General Committee. The United States took this 
position even though tlie item in question does not 
refer to any action which has been taken by the 
United States under the Mutual Security Act but 
refers merely to the passage of the law, nnder 
which the Soviet delegation has said that some 
action may be taken. The United States in the 
General Committee did not object to the inclusion 
of this item even though there had been no attempt 
to deal with the matter by direct discussion, as is 
contemplated by the U.N. Charter. 

Despite these defects, the United States has not 
objected and does not now object to the inclusion 
of the new Soviet item in our agenda. We wel- 
come inquiry into the new Soviet item because it 
affords an opportunity for exposing the falsity of 
the charges of tlie Soviet complaint. Public dis- 
cussion is basic to the process of government in 
the United States, and we are ready to engage in 
it even with a government whose basic principle is 
the exact opposite. We do this in the belief that if 
the Soviet Union would conduct its governmental 
affairs in the open, much of the fear wliich now 
grips the world would disappear. If tlie Soviet 
Union were willing to join in open international 
discussions of its Government's operations, many 
misunderstandings and suspicions would be re- 
moved. Tlius, Mr. President, my delegation sup- 
ports the recommendation of the General Com- 
mittee that this item be included in the agenda 
of the sixth session. 

The General Committee recommended that the 
item in question be referred to the Political and 
Security Committee for consideration there. 
After reviewing the work-load and the current 
status of business in the two political committees, 
and bearing in mind the Soviet assertion that the 
new item is an urgent and important matter, my 
delegation questions whether the new Soviet item 
can receive adequate consideration at an early date 
if, in line with the General Committee's recom- 
mendation, tlie item is referred to one of tlie polit- 
ical committees. The United States, therefore, 
pi'oposes that the new Soviet item be considered 
directly in plenary session of the General Assem- 
bly. There exists ample precedent for such a pro- 
cedure in the action which the Assembly has taken 
at previous sessions on such matters as atomic 
energy, membership, and the Secretary-General's 
twenty-year program for peace. Indeed, the spe- 
cial committee on the Assembly's methods and 
procedures recommended that there should be in- 
creased use of the practice of direct plenary con- 
sideration of selected items. 



We believe that the issues relating to the new 
Soviet item are clear-cut. We do not think they 
are of such a character as to call for consideration 
in a committee before they are dealt with by the 
General Assembly itself. There would be full op- 
portunity in plenary session for a proper consider- 
ation of this item. 

Accordingly, my delegation proposes that the 
Assembly, in' approving the recommendation of 
the General Committee that the new Soviet item 
be included in the agenda of the sixth session, de- 
cide not to refer this item to a committee but to 
consider it in plenary session. 

STATEMENT BY MIKE J. MANSFIELD 

U.S. DELEGATE TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ^ 

The United States denies without reservation or 
qualification the Soviet allegation that we are in- 
terfering in the domestic affairs of the Soviet 
Union or the states responsive to its control. 

The United States has not committed and will 
not commit any act of aggression against the So- 
viet Union or any other country. The entire his- 
tory of the American people and their system of 
government underscore the fundamental fact that 
the United States holds aggression to be a criminal 
act. Let there be no doubts on this score whatever. 

What is the charge against the United States 
which the Soviet Union has placed before the 
Assembly ? 

It is based exclusively on the language of an 
amendment to the United States Mutual Security 
Act of 1951 enacted by Congress earlier this year. 
The amendment permits the President to spend up 
to $100,000,000 to organize refugees from Iron 
Curtain countries into "elements of the military 
forces supporting the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization." 

It may be useful to point out that two members 
of the United States delegation, Mr. Vorys and 
myself, are well acquainted with the provisions of 
the Mutual Security Act and with the intentions 
Congress had in mind under the act.^ We are both 
members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, 
which considered this legislation. We also sat on 
the joint conference committee of the House and 
the Senate which reconciled the differences be- 
tween the House and Senate versions of the law. 

The amendment on Iron Curtain refugees must 
be understood in terms of the purposes of the 
Mutual Security Act itself. 

The broad objective of the law is "to maintain 
the security and promote the foreign policy and 
provide for the general welfare of the United 
States by furnishing assistance to friendly nations 

= Made before Committee 1 (Political and Security) oa 
Dec. 19 aud released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the 
U.N. on the same date. 

' For a statement by Mr. Mansfield and Mr. Vorys, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 24, 1951, p. 1010. 



January 7, 1952 



29 



in the interests of international peace and secu- 
rity." 

As a regional defense association similar to the 
Organization of American States, it derives its 
purposes from those of tlie U.N. Cliarter, which 
it serves in letter and spirit. The North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization military forces, still modest 
compared to the mass armies on the other side of 
the Iron Curtain, are nevertheless growing. We 
have high hopes that, pending Soviet agreement 
to join in a United Nations program of effective 
world disarmament, they will have the effect of 
discouraging any furtlier efforts to extend the 
Iron Curtain westward. 

It is only a regime which projects its own 
image upon the world outside that would see the 
North Atlantic Pact as an aggressive threat. I 
think M'e must remember that no Communist gov- 
ernment has ever come to power with majority 
su]>port in a free and honest election. Regimes 
of the totalitarian type are not fooled liy their 98 
and 99 percent votes in favor of the Communist 
candidates. They know that these are mechani- 
cal demonstrations, not votes of confidence. Thus 
the Soviet tj'pe of state has no feeling of con- 
fidence in the people it dominates. 

This lack of confidence leads the regime to an 
obsession with its physical safety that is unknown 
in the free world. The regime begins to lash 
out at shadows and mythical enemies. There is 
soon a vicious circle of distrust and suspicion 
until fear permeates the entire state structure. No 
one is safe, not even the highest and most re- 
spected members of the party, as all of us around 
this table know only too well. 

High government and party officials sometimes 
disappear without a trace. Others are shot or 
imprisoned after highly publicized but trans- 
parently fake "treason" trials, where tlie accused 
is declared guilty before he is tried. The names 
of these Communist leaders are matters of public 
record and could easily be cited. 

When you have a political organization which 
devours its own members, is it any wonder that 
its leaders attribute all manner of sinister motives 
to the governments of foreign countries? 

Wlien aviators from my country wander off 
their course into Hungarian territory they are 
forced down by Soviet fighters and alleged to be 
on an "espionage" mission. Newspaper corre- 
spondents from free countries have been tried for 
"espionage" and thrown into prison. Iron Cur- 
tain regimes regard our diplomats as "spies." It 
would appear as though anyone who enters these 
countries and who has breathed the air of freedom 
is looked ujjon as a secret agent. 

And when the men who control these govern- 
ments search among the masses of their own popu- 
lation for scapegoats and conduct mass arrests, is 
it any wonder that thousands upon thousands of 
people yearn for escape ? 

Finally, is it any wonder that many of these 

30 



people insist tliat they be allowed to join any 
defensive effort to prevent an extension of the 
system they have escaped ? 

It is these people, Mr. Chaiiman, who are the 
"escapees" referred to in the amendment to the 
Mutual Security Act. 

There is no safety valve for legitimate political 
ojiposition behind the Iron Curtain. The average 
citizen who disapproves of the regime has few 
alternatives: he can stay and take it, hoping for 
better days; he can go into underground opposi- i 
tion and risk imprisonment and execution; or he 
can try to escape. 

In order to achieve that general objective. Con- 
gress authorized military, economic, and technical 
assistance to friendly countries "to strengthen the 
individual and collective defenses of the free 
world; to develop their resources in the interest 
of their security and independence and the na- 
tional interest of tlie United States ; and to facili- 
tate the effective ]:)articipation of those countries 
in the United Nations system for collective se- 
curity." 

Thus the act was drawn up in the spirit of arti- 
cle 1 of tlie Charter. It implements the purpose 
of the Charter "to take effective collective meas- 
ures for the prevention and removal of threats 
to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of 
aggression or otlier breaches of the jjeace." 

The Mutual Security Act, Mr. Chairman, is 
only tlie latest illustration of our fundamental 
jiolicy to lielp in the building of a strong and 
healthy international community through eco- 
nomic development and collective security. 

The emergence of this policy and the various 
measures we have put foiward to carry it out con- 
stitute the most significant chapter in the history 
of the United States since the war. When the 
war ended, many countries lay in ruins. Other 
less-developed countries could not get aid from 
their more powerful industrial neiglibors, who had 
poured most of their resources into the defeat of 
the Axis Powers. 

It seemed to us that the solution to the problem, 
lay in the concept of mutual assistance. Out of 
this concept grew the Economic Recovery Pro- 
gram, in which the U.S.S.R. and other Eastern 
European countries were invited to participate, 
and ])rograms of technical assistance to under- 
developed countries. Witliin the United Nations 
there developed other agencies for economic de- 
velopment which the United States firmly sup- 
ported. All of these efforts were and are designed 
to help people help themselves. 

But the concept of mutual assistance also in- 
volved a j'firallel and related effort to achieve 
collective security against any act of aggi-ession 
or a general war. This effort was made necessary 
by armed Communist coups d'etat in Eastern Eu- 
I'ope and unmistakable attempts to extend the 
Iron Curtain into other free countries. It pro- 
duced such regional defense associations as the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Then, brutally and suddenly, the collective se- 
curity system of the United Nations itself was 
called into action to stop the Communist attack 
oil the Republic of Korea. This led inevitably 
to an intensification and acceleration of our pro- 
i:rams of military assistance. 

The provisions of the Mutual Security Act of 
r.>.")l reflect the broad outlines of the policy de- 
veloped in the early postwar years — the policy of 
mutual aid as a means of building a community 
(if free nations, economically strong and capable 
of defending themselves against attack. 

This is a free-world program. If it is under- 
M-ritten to a great extent by the United States, it 
is because Americans identify their own freedom 
and security with the rights, liberties, and national 
independence of the law-abiding members of the 
world community. 

The total appropriations under the Mutual Se- 
curity Act come to nearly 71/2 billion dollars of 
economic and military assistance to other free 
countries. Of this total program of aid a large 
share will go to support the defense effort of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

On August 17 of this year, when the act was 
being debated on the floor of the House, an amend- 
ment was offered to the section of the bill which 
deals with the defense of the North Atlantic area. 
The amendment was accepted and incorporated 
in the law. It became known as the "escapee 
rlause" because it authorized the President to pro- 
vide funds for people who had fled from persecu- 
tion and tyranny behind the Iron Curtain and 
who wished to joint the Nato defense forces. 

It is interesting to observe that neither in its 
note to the United States, nor in the charge it 
flled almost simultaneously with the United Na- 
tions, did the Soviet Government quote the entire 
amendment.^ For in addition to the so-called Peo- 
jile's Democracies of Eastern Europe, the amend- 
ment also refers specifically to people who escape 
from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and — in the 
wording of the act — "the Communist dominated or 
Connnunist occupied area of Germany and Austria 
and any other countries absorbed by the Soviet 
Union." 

Meaning of "Escapee Clause" Amendment 

We can only speculate as to why the Soviet 
Union omitted these references in the amendment 
to the three Baltic countries which it seized in 1940 
in violation of solemn pacts of nonaggression and 
nonintervention. Why did it also leave out the 
Soviet zone in Austria, or Eastern Germany, from 
which people have been escaping at the rate of 
more than 15,000 a month? 

In point of fact, the Soviet delegation places 
relatively little stress on the real purpose of the 
amendment: to assist refugees from political 
persecution to take part in the defense of the 

' Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1951, p. 910. 



North Atlantic comnuniity, if they elect to 
do so. The Soviet case hangs almost entirely on 
certain deductions drawn from two words in the 
amendment. 

The amendment refers to "selected persons who 
are residing in or escapees from" the countries and 
Communist-dominated areas listed. Taking off 
from this point, the Soviet delegation has conjured 
up a melodramatic picture of a new fifth column 
behind the Iron Curtain which stands poised to 
strike at the old fifth column now in power. In 
essence, the Soviet argument rests on the assump- 
tion that the two words "residing in" constitute 
a frima facie case of aggression and domestic 
interference. 

Perhaps that would be true in a land where 
wishful thinking about freedom can be a crime 
against the state. 

The U.S. Congress, which passed the Mutual 
Security Act, is, I think, the best authority as to 
what the "escapee clause" was actually intended 
to be. Since this amendment was adopted on the 
floor of the House and not in committee, the House 
committee report did not refer to it. 

Therefore, the intent of Congress is best ex- 
pressed by the report to the Senate of the Senate 
Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed 
Services on the Mutual Security Act. The com- 
ment of the Senate committee report on the amend- 
ment was as follows : 

This paragraph authorizes the sum of not to exceed 
$100,000,000 of the sum authorized to form selected es- 
capees from iron curtain countries into elements of mili- 
tary forces supporting the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation. In adopting this provision the .ioint committee 
desires to make it clear that persons who might be formed 
into such units would do so only of their own free will. 

This was the only formal comment on the amend- 
ment by a congressional committee. 

This amendment applies only to those people 
who have managed to flee to this side of the Iron 
Curtain. The President can nse the authority and 
the funds Congress gave him under the amend- 
ment, but it is not mandatory upon him to do so. 

In any case, the ultimate determination as to 
whether these people will form part of the Nato 
defense forces will depend upon the decision of the 
Nato partners themselves. If, in the judgment of 
members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion, men who escape from behind the Curtain 
shotdd be allowed to participate in the defense of 
Europe, the President has congressional authority 
to use funds for this purpose. 

Up to the present time, no tangible step of any 
kind has been taken, beyond the passage of a piece 
of permissive legislation. Neither the President 
nor the administrative authorities established by 
the Mutual Security Act have taken any action. 

If, as the Soviet delegation claims, all of this 
constitutes an act of aggression and domestic in- 
terference, then we are, indeed, living in a world 
where words have lost their meaning. 



ianuatY 7, 7952 



31 



Soviet Distortion of Motives of Foreign Governments 

But assuming; that the words still mean the same 
to the vast majority of mankind, we can only ask 
■why the Soviet Government has made this baseless 
charge against the United States. How could the 
Soviet regime twist and distort this amendment to 
an American domestic law into an act of aggres- 
sion and interference in the affairs of the Soviet 
Union and the other Iron Curtain states ? 

One explanation is that the Soviet Union has 
been casting about for something new to say 
against the defense efforts of the IS^orth Atlantic 
community and the wider effort to achieve collec- 
tive security throughout the free world. 

I do not believe it is necessary here to dwell at 
length on the origin, purpose, and defensive nature 
of Nato, except to say this: Nato, or something 
like it, was the inevitable response of the countries 
of the North Atlantic area to the extension of So- 
viet power by force and subversion in Eastern 
Europe and the clear threat to extend that power 
further. Nato is an attempt to pool resources in a 
given geographical region to achieve a measure of 
collective security against this aggressive threat. 

It may be that the population of Eastern Eu- 
rope is a fifth column against the regimes in 
power. If there is such a fifth column, it has 
nothing to do with a phrase in the United States 
Mutual Security Act of 1951, or with the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

Such a fifth column would be the product of 
the brutal liquidation of independent political 
parties, of forced labor without trial for political 
dissidents, of the denial of all civil rights. It 
would reflect the denial of all normal relations 
with foreigners or the world outside, through rig- 
idly enforced state secrets acts, by which casual 
conversation can be legally changed into espio- 
nage, or treason. 

It would stem from the uprooting of thousands 
of families from their homes by force deporta- 
tions in all of the Iron Curtain countries. We 
know that within the Soviet Union, for example, 
several so-called autonomous republics wei-e 
simply extinguished both during and after the 
war and that their inhabitants — a million or more 
people — were sent in cattle cars to Central Asia. 

Hundreds of thousands of Soviet citizens, left 
stranded in Germany at the end of the war, re- 
fused to return home and sought instead to seek 
a new life abroad. Many of them are now re- 
building their homes and families in the New 
World. But by Soviet law these ordinary people, 
farmers and workers, are traitors and would be 
shot if they returned to the Soviet Union. 

Since the seizure of power by Communist mi- 
norities in Eastern Europe since the war, under 
the protection of the Soviet Army, there has been 
a tragic new wave of political refugees. From 
Eastern Germany into Western Berlin and the 
territory of the Federal Republic, there has been 

32 



nothing less than a mass movement involving 
hundreds of thousands of people. 

But then it is relatively easier to ci'oss the line 
in Germany than to cross it on the Czechoslovak 
or Hungarian frontiers where the heavily rein- 
forced border guards are on patrol day and night. 
Human ingenuity is such, however, that men, 
women, and children continue to get through. 
Some 1300 to 1500 people manage to break through 
the Iron Curtain every month, and tens of thou- 
sands have come out since 1940. 

Special administrative measures have been 
necessary to take care of the new refugees from 
persecution. There is maintained in the Ameri- 
can zone of Western Germany a transient receiv- 
ing camp for non-German refugees. Although 
people from the camp are being resettled as rap- 
idly as possible, the inflow from behind the Iron 
Curtain continues daily. You will find in the re- 
ceiving center at any one time the representatives 
of a dozen or more different nationalities from the 
Soviet ITnion and Eastern Europe. 

Can these people be described as traitors? Is 
the Ukrainian peasant, or the engineer of a Czech 
locomotive, or the Polish miner who manages to 
make his way westward a war criminal, as the 
Soviet delegation calls these refugees? 

How are we to react when these people ask us 
whether there is something they do to prevent the 
extension of the system they have risked their 
lives to escape? Our answer is that they should 
have the right to join in the defense of free 
Europe. 

If these unfortunate people are granted asylum, 
if they are permitted to join the Nato defense 
forces at their own request, does it then follow 
that the United States or the Nato powers col- 
lectively are interfering in the domestic affairs of 
the Soviet Union and the other Communist states? 

It most assuredly does not, Mr. Chairman. 

Soviet Violations of Roosevelt-Litvinov Agreement 

Yet, in effect, this is the Soviet contention. 
Moreover, the Soviet Government charges that the 
United States has thereby violated the Roosevelt- 
Litvinov Agreement of 1933. 

Tlie Roosevelt-Litvinov Agreement preceded the 
establishment of diplomatic relations between the 
United States and the Soviet Union. In the light 
of the activities and professed goals of the Com- 
munist International, President Roosevelt took 
the initiative for a clear statement on the principle 
of noninterference. 

The agreement included a pledge by the Soviet 
Government not to permit the formation on Soviet 
territory of any group whose aim was the over- 
throw of the Government of the United States. 
Wlien President Roosevelt had received the neces- 
sary assurances from Mr. Litvinov, he stated that 
the United States would adhere reciprocally to 
the pledge given by the Soviet Government. 

Department of State Bulletin 



For all practical purposes, the Soviet Govern- 
jiieiit made a dead letter of the Roosevelt-Litviiiov 
Agreement shortly after it was signed. On its 
jiart, however, the United States has adhered to its 
reciprocal pledge from that day to this. 

Shortly after the establishment of diplomatic 
relations, the President instructed our Ambassa- 
dor in Moscow to make oral protests against the 
violation of the Roosevelt-Lit vinov Agreement by 
the Soviet Union. When in 1935, the Comintern 
met in Moscow and instructed the American Com- 
nuinist Party to use "Trojan-Horse"' tactics 
against the American Government, the President 
sent a strong note of protest to the Soviet Govern- 
ment. He said the United States anticipated the 
most serious consequences if the Soviet Govern- 
ment refused to prevent further acts in disregard 
of the solemn pledge given by it to the United 
States. 

The Soviet Government replied that it was in 
no way responsible for the activities of the Com- 
intern. But hardly a month after the Soviet 
regime seized power in 1917, all Allied and neutral 
missions in Petrograd received this circular note 
from the Soviet leaders : 

The Soviet power considers diplomatic relations neces- 
sary not only with governments, but also with revolu- 
tionary-socialist parties seeking the overthrow of existing 
governments. 

In the light of the use of the Comintern and now 
the Cominf orm by Soviet leaders, we ask the Soviet 
delegation whether this does not continue to be 
the policy of the Soviet Government. The Outline 
Histomj of the Communist In.ternation.al, pub- 
lished in Moscow in 1934, states : 

Comrade Stalin took a leading part in the working out 
of the program of the Communist International. There is 
not a single important decision of the Communist Interna- 
tional, not a forecast which is not permeated with Stalin's 
farsiglitedness, his ability to map out a line of attack and 
strike a crushing bhiw at the enemy. 

It is not surprising that Secretary of State Cor- 
dell Hull described the Soviet reply to our note 
of protest as a repudiation of the Soviet pledge 
"almost in so many words." 

Soviet Aggressive Intervention Policy 

Soviet interference in the domestic affairs of 
foreign countries continues to be one of the chief 
causes of tension in the world today. It is indeed, 
one of the supreme ironies of all time that the 
Soviet regime should be j^ressing a charge of do- 
mestic interference against any foreign govern- 
ment, let alone the United States. 

The Soviet Union continued to use the Comin- 
tern as an instrument for direct action against 
foreign governments until its formal dissolution 
in 1943. Who can forget the shameful period be- 
tween 1939 and 1941 when every Communist Party 
throughout the world, on orders from IMoscow, 
tried to sabotage the desperate efforts of the de- 



mocracies to defend themselves against Nazi 
aggression ? 

Since the end of the war, the Soviet Government 
has persistently followed a policy of aggressive 
intervention in the domestic affairs of other nations 
and peoples. Upon the very countries listed in 
the complaint before this Committee, the Soviet 
Union has imposed dictatorial Communist re- 
gimes, responsible not to their own people, but to 
the Soviet Government itself. The profoundest 
feelings for family and country of Poles, Czecho- 
slovaks, Hungarians, and others have been delib- 
erately trampled upon. 

Only a short time ago the Yugoslav delegation 
presented to the Assembly a case history of Soviet 
intervention in the domestic affairs of a foreign 
nation, in this instance Yugoslavia. When the 
Yugoslav Communist Party was expelled from the 
Cominform, the highest leaders of the Soviet state 
then demanded that the Yugoslav people over- 
throw the Yugoslav Government. 

Nor will the world ever forget the most out- 
standing case of intervention of all, the Coramu- 
nist attack on the Republic of Korea, supported 
by Soviet equipment, training, and propaganda. 
Here was a brutal attempt by a Communist minor- 
ity to conquer by armed force a small nation that 
had withstood threats and bluster, a state estab- 
lished under United Nations auspices and now de- 
fended by the United Nations. But these are only 
the most spectacular cases. 

The Soviet Government also undertook to use 
the international Communist apparatus to under- 
mine the policies of other governments beyond its 
immediate grasp. The signal for this campaign 
was given in 1947 with the re-creation of a new 
model of the Comintern in the shape of the 
Cominform. 

Communist Apparatus Abroad 

The activities of the Communist apparatus 
abroad, centrally directed by the Soviet Govern- 
ment, have macie it almost impossible for us to 
have normal disagreements with the Soviet Union. 
For when the Soviet Government disagrees with 
you on an important matter of policy it uses the 
particular Communist instrumentality in your 
country to wreck that policy by every means 
possible. 

I am not talking about secret directives or un- 
derground channels, or mysterious subsidies for 
the Communist press or anything that is not in the 
public domain. 

I am speaking only of direct instructions sent 
openly by leaders of the Soviet state to Communist 
outlets abroad. 

I am speaking of the actions of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. 

In 1947, when it was invited to participate in 
the program for European recovery, not only did 
the Soviet Government refuse that invitation, it 
also ordered the governments of Eastern Europe 



ianuaty 7, 7952 



33 



to do likewise, an open case of domestic interfer- 
ence in their internal affairs. 

Tliis could have been a simple disagreement on 
a matter of policy. But in Septeml)er 1947, the 
Soviet regime organized the Cominform and 
called on all Communists to smash the Marshall 
Plan. The late Andrei Zhdanov, then a member 
of the Soviet Politburo, told the first meeting of 
the Cominform in September 1947 : 

As far as the U.S.S.R. is concerned the U.S.S.R. will 
make every effort to prevent this plan from lieins realized. 
The Communists must be the leadins force in the struggle 
against the new U.S. expansionist plans. 

The highly unsuccessful effort of the Comin- 
form to sabotage the recovery of Europe imme- 
diately followed. 

Two years later, the North Atlantic community 
made its first steps toward rearmament in the face 
of the aggressive policies of the Soviet Govern- 
ment. At a meeting in Bucharest, a more urgent 
directive for direct action within the North At- 
lantic community was given to the members of 
the Cominform by M. A. Suslov, editor of Pravda, 
chief organ of the Soviet Communist Party. 

He called, indeed, for "energetic, concrete 
action" in order to frustrate the North Atlantic 
defense effort. He praised the use of "strikes and 
demonstrations" and other "forces and levers" for 
the_ smashing of the policy opposed by the Soviet 
Union. Mr. Suslov declared : 

It is necessary to use varied forms and methods : mass 
demonstrations, meetings, gatherings, petitions and pro- 
tests, public opinion polls, the formation of peace com- 
mittees, in town and countryside. One should not act 
in a stereotyped fashion. The concrete conditions of each 
country should be considered. 

These instructions, openly delivered to members 
of other Communist Parties by an important 
Soviet representative, indicate a total disregard 
for the whole principle of noninterference. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, there is the whole net- 
work of so-called "peace" committees, organized 
by the Cominform under Soviet direction. These 
so-called "peace" organizations have duped many 
innocent people. They are in fact instruments 
of Soviet foreign policy in foreign countries. 

Their prime purpose is not to promote peace, or 
even to carry on peaceful propaganda. They are 
part of a general ap])aratus designed for direct 
action. We find that special attention is given to 
the establishment of so-called "peace" committees 
in plants and factories so as to encourage the 
workers to sabotage the defense efforts of their 
countries. 

Thus the World Federation of Trade Unions, an 
international Communist agency, sent out the fol- 
lowing instructions to its members on December 
9,1950: 

Organize even more resolute action . . . against 
the transport and production of armaments. 

Draw up and put into effect a plan for a powerful unity 
movement to hinder the rearmament program. 



Link closely the struggle for peace with the struggle to 
satisfy the urgent and vital demands of the working 
people. 



Organized Efforts Against Soviet Interference 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that the vast majority 
of the peoples represented here know that their 
interests lie in the defense of their own countries 
and not in promoting the aggressive policies of 
the Soviet Union. I cite these examples of ap- 
peals for direct action only as indications of what 
actually takes place when the Soviet Government 
is against you on any important matter of policy. 
You are immediately confronted with an organ- 
ized attempt by the Soviet Government to inter- 
fere with the policy on your own soil. Nor is 
there any secret about it, as the public statements 
I have quoted have demonstrated. 

Here is another reason why the American peo- 
ple and, I am sure, the people of many other coun- 
tries have found it supremely ironic that a charge 
of domestic interference against the United States 
has come from the self-appointed center of the 
international Communist movement. Through 
the Comintern, then the Cominform, and through 
local Communist Parties, the Soviet Union has 
raised domestic interference to the status of an 
international profession providing employment to 
many thousands of people. 

The American people and many other people 
have spoken out against this interference. They 
have spoken out against the domination by the 
Soviet Government of the states of Eastern Eu- 
rope, the states listed in the complaint against us. 
Until the Eastern Euro{>ean countries are once 
again independent, and in control of their own in- 
terests and destinies, Americans will continue to 
speak out against the tyranny imposed upon them. 

It is not an act of aggression, Mr. Chairman, 
to hope that a people in chains will one day be 
free. It is not an act of domestic interference 
to express that hope in public. 

This hope of ours that freedom and independ- 
ence will be world-wide is shared with many mil- 
lions of people. For Americans, this hope is 
anchored deep in our own national philosophy. 
We abide by the self-evident truths stated in our 
own Declaration of Independence: that govern- 
ments exi.st to secure for all men certain inalien- 
able rights; that governments derive their just 
powers from the consent of the governed; that 
when government becomes destructive of these 
ends, it is the right of the j^eople to alter or abolish 
it, and to institute new government. 

The American people have no intention of re- 
pealing the Declaration of Independence. 

We wish to see the day when all people who have 
sought asylum with the free nations will have the 
chance to return peacefully to their homes and 
start their lives anew in the country of their birth. 

It lies within the power of the Soviet Govern- 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



iiient to brino; this peaceful and happy change 
about. 

Eeal security for tlie Soviet state does not and 
cannot rest on tlie domination of other peoples. 
Real security for any state does not depend upon 
domination of any kind, but upon the consent of 
the governed. In that sense, the interests of the 
Soviet Union and the peoples of Eastern Europe 
•will best be served if the Iron Curtain refugees of 
today can become the tourists of tomorrow. 

Mr. Chairman, the intentions of the United 
States down through its entire history have been 
to live and let live. We have desired no territory 
and we have emerged from two world wars with 
no conquests of territory. We have sent our men 
abroad to fight in foreign countries at the side of 
other nations struggling to save their freedom. 
We have done so for ideals we thought worth 
fighting for. 

We have placed great trust in the written and 
the spoken words of other governments because we 
do not care to see a world in which no trust exists. 
As an expression of that trust we demobilized our 
armies after World War II; scrapped our air 
fleets and put our navy in mothballs. 

We have thouglit it worthwhile to offer help to 
other countries, including the Soviet Union, be- 
cause the help was needed. Moreover, our ties 
with foreign countries are close. We are a nation 
in whicli Frenchmen, Englishmen, Czechs, Poles, 
Hungai-ians, Italians, Russians, Chinese, Japa- 
nese, Africans, Scandinavians, Baits, and many 
other national groups have somehow found a com- 
mon denominator in the concept of freedom. 
Where there is imperfect fi-eedom in the United 
States you will inevitably hear many voices of pro- 
test shouting from the housetops. 

We Americans — immigrants and the descend- 



ants of immigrants from every corner of the 
world — have no aggressive ambitions. Every- 
thing we do we discuss in the open for all the 
world to hear. We have no hidden motives nor 
designs against any people anywhere. Nor would 
this be possible in a nation where all public life 
goes on in the greatest goldfish bowl in the world. 

We liave, it is true, come by great international 
responsibilities in the very recent past. But we do 
not feel that a position of leadership suddenly 
arrogates to the leader all the wisdom in the 
world ; or what is worse, the self-delusion of know- 
ing all the answers. 

So far as the defense effort of the world is con- 
cerned, we regard it as the product of the collec- 
tive wisdom of free men. But it is instinctive 
with people who have the power to make up their 
own minds to seek the way of common sense. Tha (, 
is why we have joined with France and the United 
Kingdom on disarmament proposals designed to 
lessen international tension and make the world a 
more peaceable place to live in. 

All of us in the United Nations have a responsi- 
bility which is not served by making baseless 
charges against one another. We are now ap- 

Eroaching a great religious anniversary that will 
e observed in many lands. But the spirit of 
which this occasion is a symbol is common to ail 
the great religions of the world. 

In that spirit, which all peoples share in com- 
mon, let us express the hope that we can shortly 
return to the great constructive tasks that lie be- 
fore us : the reduction of tensions through effective 
disarmament; the raising of living standards 
throughout the world; the extension of human 
rights to all peoples; and the establislunent of a 
firm peace, based on justice, tolerance, and mutual 
understanding. 



U.S. Supports Admission of Italy to the U.N. 



Statement hy Ernest A. Gross 

Deptitij U.S. Bepresentative to the U.N.^ 



I shall, of course, address myself to the special 
case presented by the question of Italy's admission 
to the United Nations, althougli, of course, there 
ai-e other applicants whose admission my Govern- 
ment warmly supports. According to the plan of 
the Charter, as we understand it, each applicant 
for membei'ship is entitled to have its application 
considered in the Security Council and in the 
General Assembly. Article 4 of the Charter en- 
titles each applicant to the judgment of the organi- 
zation and several speakers who have preceded me 

' Made in the Security Council on Dec. 19 and released 
to the press on the same date by the U.S. Mission to the 

U.N. 



at this meeting have made that point amply clear. 
It needs no repetition on my part. 

The General Assembly in several resolutions has 
expressed its judgment that Italy is a peace-loving 
state within the meaning of article 4 of the Charter 
and that Italy is able and willing to carry out 
the obligations of the Charter. The General As- 
sembly, therefore, considers that Italy should be 
admitted to membershij) in the United Nations. 

In the view of my delegation, Mr. President, 
the Security Council should pay the greatest def- 
erence and respect to the solemn judgment of the 
General Assembly, a judgment which has time and 
again commanded the widest support and author- 



January 7, 1952 



35 



ity. To characterize that judgment, as the Soviet 
delegate has done at our meeting today, as a — 
wliat lie referred to — dictate to the Security Coun- 
cil is, I think, simply another way of saying that 
the clearly exjiressed wish of the majority is en- 
titled to no weight and to no respect. 

Moreover, Mr. President, the General Assem- 
bly's most recent resolution points out to this 
Council that Italy now has a unique and special 
qualification based upon her trusteeship responsi- 
bilities. That has been made clear, and is known 
to all. The General Assembly has entrusted to 
Italy the trust territory of Somaliland. Italy has 
accepted this responsibility for the future of the 
peoples of that area and she has also demonstrated 
that she is willing to carry it out. 

We do not agree with the comment wliich was 
made by the distinguished delegate of the Soviet 
Union that it is irrelevant or indecisive to note 
the fact that Italy does have these special respon- 
sibilities. They imply and involve actions in and 
through the United Nations in which Italy on that 
account alone would have every right to partici- 
pate. 

For these reasons, even if they stood alone, there 
would be every presum]:)tion in favor of the appli- 
cation of Italy to membership in the United Na- 
tions. We think, Mr. President, that it is an act 
of utter irresponsibility for any member of the 
Security Council to ignore or to reject the repeated 
expressions of opinion on this question by such a 
large majority in the General Assembly. 

The U.S. Government feels that Italy is en- 
titled to a favorable reconnnendation from the 
Security Council and to her seat in the United 
Nations on the basis of her own unique merits 
and with an unassailable legal foundation under 
the Charter. 

The U.S. Government stands for separate con- 
sideration of applicants for membership. We 
feel that Italy's application should not be placed 
in a pool with other applications, some of whom 
may have very sound and others very illusory 
claims for membership in this organization. To 
ojierate under any other theory would, in our 
judgment, be to deny careful consideration on the 
merits se])arately for each application. 

Tlie representative of the Soviet Union refuses 
to acknowledge the existence of article 4 of the 
Charter, and therefore misunderstands what the 
U.S. representative obviously had in mind in re- 
ferring to the policies of certain applicants, the 
change of whose policy in our judgment would be 
needed to enable them to qualify for admission 
under article 4. It is the ignoring of article 4 
which I think has led the Soviet delegate astray 
and has led him to misconstrue the statements 
made by responsible representatives of my Gov- 
ernment with regard to the necessity for a change 
of policy in order to enable some of these appli- 
cants to qualify for membership. 

We think that the Soviet delegate ignores not 



only the Charter, article 4 in this respect, but the 
very language of the International Court of Jus- 
tice in its opinion of May 28, 1948, which is also 
ignored by the representative of the Soviet Union. 
I should like to quote a few sentences from the 
opinion so that there may be no doubt in any one's 
mind as to the clarity of view of the Court in this 
matter. 

The provi.sinns of Article 4 necessarily imply that every 
application for admission should be examined and voted 
on separately and on its own merits ; otherwise it would 
be impossible to determine whether a particular appli- 
cant fulfills the necessary conditions. To subject an 
ntfirmative vote for admission of an applicant state to 
the condition that other states be admitted with that 
state would prevent Members from exercising their judg- 
ment in each case with complete liberty, within the scope 
of the ijrescribed conditions. Such a demand is incom- 
patible with the letter and spirit of Article 4 of the 
Charter. 

In the same opinion of May 28, 1948, the Court 
went on to say that it was of the opinion that 

. . . in particular, a Member of the Organization 
cannot, while it recognizes the conditions set forth in 
that provision to be fultilled by the State concerned, sub- 
ject its affirmative vote to the additional condition that 
other States be admitted to membership in the United 
Nations together with that State. 

The illegal conduct to which the Court points 
is subjecting an affirmative vote to the condition 
that other states be admitted. I have restated the 
exact phrase which the Court used. 

Now let us look at what the representative of 
the Soviet Union proposes. Yesterday he said, and 
I quote now from the verbatim record of yester- 
day's proceedings, page 10, "The Security Council 
has 13 applications before it including that of 
Italy. The Soviet delegation proposes that all 
these applications, including that of Italy be con- 
sidered and that a resolution to admit all the 13 
states to the United Nations be adopted." He had 
stated earlier, and I quote, "If we consider the 
question of the admission of Italy first, reach no 
agreement and take no decision, the matter will 
not be expedited at all." He has made clear from 
his statement at today's meeting precisely what he 
meant yesterday. 

In short, as we understand it, his point as he 
stated it yesterday and restated it again today is 
that 13 applications must be considered together 
and the Security Council should admit those 13 
applications or else the Soviet Union will vote 
against tlie admission of Italy. 

This we think is a public confession of a policy 
and a position flatly contrary to the opinion of 
the International Court of Justice. It is an open 
admission that the Soviet Union is not willing to 
let each applicant for membership state its own 
ca.se and that it will abuse the veto to prevent this 
from happening. 

All the U.S. (xovernment asks is that every ap- 
plicant for membership be judged on its own mer- 
its. Tliat is what article 4 of the Charter requires 
for every applicant for membership in the United 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



Nations. This is not a rule laid down by the U.S. 
Government. It is a rule of law of the Charter, 
ami affirmed by the International Court of Justice. 

(^f course, it must also be pointed out, Mr. 
President, that there are 14 pendinji applications, 
all of which are referred to by the General As- 
.scmbly in its 1950 resolution, and of which the 
( ieneral Assembly found that 9 are qualified for 
admission to the organization. It is a matter of 
some interest and possible sifjnifieance that the 
lepresentative of the Soviet Union has referred 
merely to 13 ajiplicants. There are actually 14. 
Although announcing his supi)ort for a selected 
group of applications conditioning his approval 
of each one on all of the others, the representative 
(if the vSoviet Union would have the Security 
Council belieA'e that he is not opposed to Italy's 
admission to the United Nations. 

When the Security Council last had before it 
Italy's application for membership in September 
of 1949, there were 9 members of this Council who 
voted in favor of Italy, and the action of the 
Council was frustrated by a Soviet veto based 
upon reasons which had nothing to do with Italy's 
qualifications under article 4 of the Charter, but 
on reasons which the International Court of 
Justice had considered incompatible with the let- 
ter and spirit of article 4 of the Charter. 

Yesterday I referred to the application of In- 
donesia which was considered by the Security 
Council on September 26, 1950. The representa- 
tive of the Soviet Union at yesterday's meeting 
took the position without explaining it further 
that the Indonesian case was wholly irrelevant be- 
cause the question, as he said, was a special one, if 
I understood his words correctly, but that the ap- 
plication of Italy should not be isolated as a special 
question. 

The law of the Charter and of the International 
Court of Justice is that every membership appli- 
cation is a special case in a sense that it is entitled 
to separate examination and a vote on its own 
merits, to use the exact words of the International 
Court of Justice. 

As has been so well said here today, the basic 
fact is that the United Nations needs Italy and 
her contribution to this organization. She is en- 
titled to take her place among us on her own 
merits. The special circumstances arising out of 
her trusteeship make her a special case. That is 
M-hy it is before us today. The ITnited States has 
always supported the right of Italy to member- 
ship by our voice and by our votes; both here and 
in the General Assembly I think my Government 
has made this clear. As often as the U.S. rejjre- 
sentative has raised his hand in the Security 
Council in support of that application, so often 
has the Soviet Union vetoed it. 

How is it possible to regard a vote against the 
Italian application except as a simple and clear 
demonstration of lack of faith in the Italian 
people ? 

January 7, ?952 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Point Four Officials Die in 
Plane Crash Near Tehran 

[Released to the press December 23] 

The Department of State regrets to announce 
the deaths in a crash of a Misr airplane in Iran of 
Henry G. Bennett, Administrator, Technical Co- 
operation Administration of the Department; his 
wife. Vera Connell Bennett, both from Stillwater, 
Okla. ; Albert Cyril Crilley, Special Assistant to 
the Administrator, Washington, D. C. ; Benjamin 
Hill Hardy, Public Affairs Officer, Tca, Barnes- 
ville, Ga.; and James Thomas Mitchell, Audio- 
Visual Educational Specialist, Tca, Stillwater, 
Okla. 

Also aboard the plane were Jesse Lee Smith of 
the Centennial Cotton Gin Company, Columbus, 
Ga.; Louis Hendrik Jordal, identified as a former 
soldier and apparently a member of the Depart- 
ment of Botany, University of Michigan; and 
Emijean Sneideegar, said to be an American of 
Iranian origin, in transit from Cairo [later iden- 
tified as Emijean Snedegar of District Heights, 
Md., director of nursing for the medical program 
for Foreign Service employees]. 

The IMiSR plane with the Bennett party aboard 
crashed on the evening of December 22, apparently 
between 8 and 9 o'clock in a blinding snowstorm, 
about 5 miles northwest of Tehran. There were 
16 passengers and 5 crew members aboard. It 
was clear that all were instantly killed. Most of 
the bodies were burned beyond recognition, al- 
though a certain amount of identification is being 
made with the help of unburned papers, jewelry, 
et cetera. Mr. and Mrs. Bennett were not burned 
and their bodies were found lying together near 
the wreckage. 

The MisR airplane left Baghdad so late as to 
put it in Tehran after dark. A heavy snowstorm 
had set in before the plane arrived over the field 
at Tehran at 7 : 10 p.m. The ceiling was low and 
the tower fired repeated flares and was in radio 
communication with the plane until 8 : 45 p.m. 
The last message reported received from the plane 
was, "AVe now see the runway." A large crowd 
which had gathered to receive the party heard 
the plane turn and go out of earshot. Among 
those at the airfield awaiting the plane were Am- 
bassador Loy Henderson and William E. Warne, 
director of the United States technical and eco- 
nomic aid program for Iran. 

Ambassador Henderson returned to the Em- 
bassy at 9 p.m., leaving Mr. Warne and other 
Americans at the airport. Mr. Warne waited at 
the airport until 11:30, making every effort to 
get word of the plane. 

37 



The gendarmerie and other Iranian officials 
searched for traces of the plane all night under 
the direction of Ahmad Shafiq, director of Civil 
Aviation. Wreckage was sighted early on the 
morning of December 23 during a lull in the snow- 
storm by an Iranian searching plane in which were 
Shafiq and Maj. Luther Freas, Assistant Air 
Attache. Ambassador Henderson, Mr. Warne, 
and Vice Consul Lewis Hoffacker arrived with the 
first search party at the scene at which there was 
no living person. The wreckage was within 5 
miles of the airport in a deep gulley among low 
hills. The plane had hit one hill, leaving tire 
tracks; hit a second hill, leaving two propellers; 
and crashed against the side of the gulley. 

Ambassador Henderson reports that the Chief 
of Protocol of the Foreign Office has called on 
him to express condolences on behalf of the Prime 
Minister, the Foreign Minister, and other mem- 
bers of the Cabinet at the loss of the distinguished 
American citizens in the plane crash. Dr. Mosa- 
deq has telephoned Ambassador Henderson to ex- 
press his grief and is sending Mr. Bousheri, Min- 
ister of Roads, to call at the Embassy on his behalf. 



Assignment of Point Four Technicians 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 21 that 26 technicians scheduled for Point 
Four work in 15 countries of Latin America, the 
Near East, and Africa have finished a 4-week 
orientation course. 

Eighteen are agi-icultural specialists; four are to 
work in health programs ; and the others will serve 
in the fields of metallurgy, education, and census. 
This group of technicians represents 17 states, 
Alaska, and Hawaii. 

The orientation course emphasizes understand- 
ing of the customs, religions, cultures, and lan- 
guages of the peoi^le among whom the technicians 
will live and work. 



New Foreign Relations 
Volume Released 

The Department of State released on Decem- 
ber 18 Foreign Relations of the United States, 
193!t, volume I {General., The British Comrwon- 
wealth). More than two-thirds of the approxi- 
mately 800 documents in this volume relate to 
political and economic problems, the multilateral 
aspects of which do not permit treatment un- 
der separate country headings. The other one- 
third concerns bilateral relations with the several 
members of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 
principally those with Canada. 



The political problem of major concern to Amer- 
ican negotiators in the area of multilateral diplo- 
macy was that of disarmament. As a follow-up 
to President Roosevelt's 1933 appeal for the even- 
tual abolition of oflPensive weapons and for a gen- 
eral pact of nonaggi'ession, the American delegate 
to the General Disarmament Conference indicated 
his Government's willingness to achieve, by a sepa- 
I'ate international agreement if necessary, an effec- 
tive system for suj^ervision and control of the 
manufacture of and trade in arms. 

This represented a withdrawal from a former 
objection on constitutional grounds to a conven- 
tion obligating the United States to establish 
national supervision of arms manufacture. The 
United States would also agree to a provision for 
automatic and continuous inspection under the 
direction of an international body. 

Sponsorship by the United States of a treaty 
limited to the manufacture of and traffic in arms 
was uiidertaken after field reports indicated that 
the deepening atmosphere of distrust among Euro- 
pean governments precluded the negotiation of 
a general disarmament convention in the near 
future. 

The American Govermnent, vitally interested 
in the maintenance of European pea^e and pre- 
pared to cooperate in bringing about a general 
agi-eement on disarmament, repeatedly asserted 
its determination to disassociate itself from what 
it regarded as purely European political negotia- 
tions and settlements. It was the political in- 
volvement phase, according to Secretary Hull, 
which would not permit his Government to make 
any positive commitment on a So^'iet pro]30sal for 
a permanent disarmament conference. The latter 
project, together with that of a so-called "Eastern 
Locarno" pact of mutual guarantee, was part of 
the diplomatic maneuvering among the European 
jDowers to deal with the critical issue of the Ger- 
man demand for arms equality and the French 
insistence on adequate security guarantees. 

The documents on Anglo-American discussions, 
preliminary to a London naval conference in 1935, 
reveal that insistence by the Japanese on equality 
of naval armaments dominated the talks. The 
American representatives sought to pave the way 
for a percentage reduction on total treaty tonnage 
of all categories except aircraft carriers, without 
modification of the ratio established by the Wash- 
ington treaty of 1922 on naval limitation. 

The conversations, which in the final stage in- 
cluded the Japanese, failed to resolve the differ- 
ences between the Japanese and American Gov- 
ernments as to the fundamentals of future naval 
limitation. Subsequently, on December 29, 1934, 
the Japanese Government gave notice that it was 
denouncing the Washington treaty, to be effective 
on December 31, 1936. 

Other multilateral negotiations covered by the 
documents include those relating to a Senate com- 
mittee investigating the munitions industry; in- 



38 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



tergoveiiimental debts; an international agree- 
ment on rubber production ; acceptance by the 
' United States of an invitation to join the Inter- 
national Labor Organization; and protests by for- 
eign governments against tlie National Recovery 
Administration shipping code. 

This volume is the fourth in a gi'oup of five 
covering tlie record of American diplomacy for 
1034. Volumes II (Europe, Near East, Africa), 
III (The Far East), and IV (The American Re- 
publics) have already been published. Volume V, 
a second volume on the American Republics, will 
be issued in 1952. 

The principles which guide in the compilation 
and editing of Foreign Relations together with the 
names of Department officers responsible for the 
preparation of the series are included in a preface 
by the editor. Foreign ReJationx of the United 
States. 193Ii, volume 1. was compiled in the Divi- 
sion of Historical Policy Research under the di- 
rection of E. R. Perkins, editor of Foreign Rela- 
tions. Copies of this volume (xcvi, 1030 pp.) may 
be purchased from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments for $3.75 each. 



'Recent Releases — Continued from page IS 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Chile. 

Trpaties and Other International Aet.s Series 2213. Pub. 
4214. 13 pp. 5(«. 

Agreement.'! between the United States and Chile — 
Signed at Santiago July 1 and 31, 1949 ; entered into 
force Aug. •'i, 1949. Signed at Santiago Dec. 28, 1948, 
.Ian. 10, 1049, and Jan. 20 and 21, 1949 ; entered Into 
force Jan. 22, 1949. 

Claims: Reciprocal Indemnity for War Damage to Private 
Property. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
2248. Pub. 4243. 11pp. 5«(. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium — 
Signed at Brussels Dec. 5, 1949, Mar. 17 and Dec. 1, 
1950, and Mar. 12, 1951; entered into force Mar. 12, 
1951. 

Economic Cooperation With the British/United States 
Zone, Free Territory of Trieste Under Public Law 472, 
80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2261. Pub. 4285. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and the British/ 
United States Zone, Free Territory of Trieste — Signed 
at Trieste Mar. 29 and Apr. 19, 1951 ; entered into 
force Apr. 19, 1951. 

Technical Cooperation: Assistance for Eritrea. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2269. Pub. 4315. 
4 pp. 5(}. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom — Signed at London June 1.5, 1951 ; entered 
into force June 15, 1951. 



I 



I 



Economic Cooperation With the United Kingdom Under 
Public Law 472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2277. Pub. 4332. 3 pp. 
5(«. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom — Signed at London May 25, 1951 ; entered 
into force May 25, 1951. 



January 7, J 952 



Economic Cooperation With Austria Under Public Law 

472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2283. Pub. 4339. 2 pp. 5(». 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — • 
Signed at Vienna Jan. 16 and Mar. 7, 1951 ; entered 
into force Mar. 7, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation With the Netherlands Under Pub- 
lic Law 472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2285. Pub. 4341. 3 pp. 5<f. 

Agreement between the United States and the Nether- 
lands — Signed at The Hague Mar. 7 and Apr. 3, 1951 ; 
entered into force Apr. 3, 1951. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. Treaties and Other Interna- ' 
tional Acts Series 2289. Pub. 4345. 6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Saudi 
Arabia — Signed at Jidda and at Mecca June 18, 1951 ; 
entered into force June 18, 1951. 

Defense of Greenland. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2292. Pub. 4349. 14 pp. 5«(. 

Agreement between the United States and Denmark — 
Signed at Copenhagen Apr. 27, 1951 ; entered into 
force June 8, 1951. 

International Information and Educational Exchange 
Program: Fifth Semiannual Report of the Secretary of 
State to Congress. International Information and Cul- 
tural Series IS. Pub. 4374. 70 pp. Limited distribution. 

Report of expenditures made and activities carried on 
under authority of the U.S. Information and Educa- 
tional Exchange Act of 1948 (P. L. 402, SOth Cong.) 
during the period Jan. 1-June 30, 1950. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: Dec. 23-29, 1951 

Releases may be obtained from the Ofl5ce of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D. C. Items marked (*) 
are not printed in the Buixetin. 

Subject 
U.S., Cuba; navigation dues 
Relea.se of Foreign Relations 

volume 
New Zealand : tax conventions 
Ireland : tax conventions 
As.signment of Pt. 4 technicians 

TcA officials dead in plane crash 
Acheson : Death of Tca officials 
Acheson : Death of C. M. Ains- 

worth 
Trial of U.S. fliers in Hungary 
Memorial service for Tca officials 
Webb : Americans imprisoned in 

China 
Valuables on deposit in Poland 
Acheson : Release of U.S. fliers 
Closing of Hungarian consulates 
U.K., Denmark sign Torquay pro- 
tocol 
Delegation to Liberian inaugura- 
tion 
Acheson : Review of foreign policy 



No. 


Date 


1094 
1095 


12/17 
12/18 


1097 
1104 
1108 


12/18 
12/20 
12/21 


1111 

1112* 

1113* 


12/23 
12/23 
12/23 


1114 

1115* 

1116 


12/26 
12/28 
12/28 


1117 
1118 
1119 
1120 


12/28 
12/28 
12/29 
12/29 


1121 


12/29 


1122 


12/29 



39 



January 7, 1952 



Index 



Vol. XXVI, No. 654 



Africa 

LIBERIA: Presidential inauguration ceremo- 
nies, U.S. delegation to 13 

American Republics 

CUBA: Agreement with U.S. exempting yachts 

from navigation dues 11 

Oas Charter comes into effect (Dreier) .... 9 

Asia 

CHINA: Release of names of American prisoners 

regretted 11 

IRAN: Point 4 officials killed in plane crash . . 37 
JAPAN: International Court of Justice Juris- 
diction accepted 12 

'KOREA: U.S. foreign policy in 1951 (Acheson) . 3 

Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments 

Disarmament Commission discussions ... 21 

Claims and Property 

Polish decree affects Americans' valuables on 

deposit 8 

Europe 

DENMARK: Torquay protocol signed .... 8 

HUNGARY : 

Consulates closed in U.S., text of note ... 7 

U.S. seeks release of held American fliers . . 7 

IRELAND: Tax conventions with U.S. enter 

into force 8 

ITALY: Admission to U.N. supported by U.S. 

(Gross) 35 

POLAND: Decree affects Americans' valuables 

on deposit 8 

U.K.: Torquay protocol signed 8 

U.S. foreign policy in 1951 (Acheson) .... 3 

U.S.S.R.: Charges against Mutual Security Act 

answered (Gross, Mansfield) 28 

International Meetings 

Calendar of meetings 14 

IMC: Copper-Lead-Zinc Committee announces 

allocations 15 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

U.S.S.R. charges against Mutual Security Act 

answered (Gross, Mansfield) 28 

New Zealand 

Tax convention with U.S 12 

Protection of U.S. Nationals and Property 

Hungarian consulates closed because of Ameri- 
can fliers imprisonment, text 7 

Release of names of American prisoners in 

China regretted (Webb to Knowland) . . 11 

Publications 

Foreign Relations of the U.S., 1934, vol. I re- 
leased 38 

Recent releases 13 



State, Department of 

Foreign Relations of the U.S., 1934, vol. I re- 
leased 38 

U.S. seeks release of American fliers held in 

Hungary 7 

Strategic Materials 

IMC: Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee announces 

allocations 15 

Taxation 

Conventions between Ireland and U.S., entry 

into force 8 

New Zealand, tax convention with 12 

Trade 

GATT: Denmark, U.K., sign Torquay protocol . 8 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT 4: Officials killed in plane crash ... 37 
Technicians complete orientation course for 

work in Latin America, Near East, Africa . 38 

Treaties and Other International Agreements 

IRELAND: Tax conventions with U.S., entry 

in force 8 

U.S. and Cuba exempts yachts from navigation 

dues 11 

United Nations 

Disarmament Commission discussed, U.S. pre- 
sents revisions (Jessup) 21 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY: Tripartite resolution 
on disarmament (U.S., U.K., France) , text of 
revisions to 23 

International Court of Justice Jurisdiction ac- 
cepted by Japan 12 

Italy's admission supported by U.S. (Gross) . 35 

Memorandum of special subcommittee on dis- 
armament proposals, text 17 

U.N. bibliography: selected documents ... 20 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 3, 7, 8 

Bennett, Henry G 37 

Dreier, John C 9 

Dudley, Edward R 13 

Gross. Ernest A 28, 35 

Hearne, John Joseph 8 

Jessup, Philip C 21 

Keiichi Tatsuke 12 

Knowland, William F 11 

Mansfield, Mike J 29 

Padilla Nervo, Luis 17 

Takezo Shimoda 12 

Tubman. W. V. S 13 

Webb, James E 11 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1952 



-X 



^oSr 



tJAe/ u)eha/^tmen(/ 4W t/tafe^ 




ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN: 

EGA Summarizes European Recovery 43 

Western Germany's Progress • Statement by John J. 
McCloy 45 

AGTION ON GERMAN ELECTION PLAN IN THE U.N. • 

Statements by John Sherman Cooper 54 

REPLY TO ATTACKS ON U.S. ATTITUDE TOWARD 

HUMAN RIGHTS • Statement by Mrs. Franklin D. 
Roosevelt .,........•...•• 59 



For index see back cover 



\Vol. XXVI, No. ( 
January 14, 195. 



VlBNT Ofr 




'ates o* 



,^«NT o» 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

FEB 1 1952 



•^«i.a o« 



^e Qj^/ia^^e^ ^/ y^ale JOUllGlill 



Vol. XXVI, No. 655 • Publication 4457 
January 14, 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Oflice 

Washington 2fi, D.C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated; 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



I Achievements of the Marshall Plan 



' ECA SUMMARIZES EUROPEAN RECOVERY 

The following was released to the press hy ECA 
on December 30: 

The American people tomorrow close the books 
on the most daring and constructive venture in 
peacetime international relations the world has 
ever seen : The Marshall Plan. 

It comes to an end tomorrow along with the 
Economic Cooperation Administration (Eca), the 
agency which built a fact out of the plan. 

While the Marshall Plan is thus marked com- 
plete exactly 6 months ahead of the June 30, 1952 
schedule laid down by Congress, the legal powers 
and functions given to Eca are to finish out their 
allotted span under the newly created Mutual Se- 
curity Agency (Msa) . Into this new agency, with 
the new job of helping Europe to gird itself against 
possible Communist aggression, go also most of 
the U.S. Government workers who, for 3 years and 
9 months, guided the progi'am that changed not 
only the face of a continent but its whole state of 
mind. 

These workers, totaling only 2,400 in the Wash- 
ington headquarters and in 25 missions around the 
world, are credited with spending the largest sum 
in history on such reconstruction efforts at an ad- 
ministrative cost of less than a third of a cent per 
dollar. It has been said that "never in human 
history has so much been spent by so few with such 
great results." This has been accomplished with- 
out "hint of graft or cloud of scandal." 

The recovery of Europe from the chaos of 1947, 
when it was hungry, cold, disorderly, and fright- 
ened, can be measured in cold statistics : Industrial 
production, 64 percent above 1947 and 41 percent 
above prewar; steel production, nearly doubled in 
less than 4 years ; coal production, slightly below 
prewar but still 27 percent higher than in 1947; 
aluminum, copper, and cement production, up re- 
spectively 69, 31, and 90 percent from 1947; food 
production, 24 percent above 1947 and 9 percent 
above prewar levels. 

But the best illustration of the recovery of Eu- 
rope is the fact that she is now able — even though 
with great sacrifice — to shoulder part of the heavy 
burden of rearmament. 

And while production figures are impressive, the 
long-range benefits of what has been called "one 



of the most significant demonstrations of inter- 
national cooperation in peacetime history" lie 
beyond these, according to Acting Eca Adminis- 
trator Richard M. Bissell, Jr. Now Deputy Di- 
rector for Mutual Security under W. Averell 
Harriman, Bissell becomes operating head of the 
new Msa, charged not only with economic assist- 
ance to the European reannament program, but 
also with continuing the j^rogram of U.S. economic 
and technical assistance to Asia. 

"When future historians look back upon the 
achievements of the Marshall Plan," Bissell said, 
"I believe they will see in it the charge that blasted 
the first substantial cracks in the centuries-old 
walls of European nationalism — walls that once 
destroyed will clear the way for the building of a 
unified, prosperous, and, above all, peaceful 
continent." 

Effects of the Plan on European Nationalism 

The first of these substantial cracks in the walls 
of European nationalism resulted directly from 
the "self-help" proviso tied to the offer of Amer- 
ican aid in the famed June 5, 1947, address at 
Harvard University by the then Secretary of 
State, Gen. George C. Marshall. 

Before the U.S. could proceed much further in 
helping to start Europe on its way to recovery, 
General Marshall said, "there must be some agree- 
ment among the countries of Europe as to the 
requirements of the situation and the part those 
countries themselves will take. . . . The initia- 
tive . . . must come from Europe." 

■ That initiative took the form of the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Cooperation (Oeec). 
For the first time in history, governments of 18 
free nations of Europe banded together to work 
out common solutions to common economic prob- 
lems and make the best possible use of American 
aid. Thanks largely to the efforts of the Oeec, 
some 75 percent of the restrictions which formerly 
hampered the free movement of goods between 
countries of Europe have now been removed, and 
the volume of intra-European trade is now virtu- 
ally double what it was in 1947." 

Out of the Oeec, too, developed the second sub- 
stantial crack in the barriers to unification, the 
European Payments Union (Epu), a general 



ianuary 14, 7952 



43 



clearinghouse for the varied currencies of Europe 
that is lielping overcome payments difficulties 
which stood in the way of a free development of 
trade between nations. 

Primed with U.S. dollar aid, Epu has weathered 
several crises in its first year and a half and has 
given Europe its first major plunge into the chal- 
lenging task of economic integi'ation. 

The second major step toward economic inte- 
gration, now almost virtually assured, lies in the 
dramatic Schuman Plan to fuse the six major 
continental steel and coal-producing countries into 
a single market area. Under it, member govern- 
ments will voluntarily relinquish their sovereign 
rights to interfere with the production and dis- 
tribution of ste«l and coal within their borders, 
delegating those rights to a supra-national 
authority. 

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(Nato), made possible through the ties of friend- 
ship knit during the first years of the Marshall 
Plan, is another move toward solidifying Europe. 

Finally, in the creation of a single European 
Army under Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's com- 
mand, the nations of free Europe may take still 
another in the series of steps toward unity that 
could only be classed as a dream before the impetus 
that was provided in the Marshall Plan. 

A Survey of Achievements 

The Economic Cooperation Administration has 
expended nearly 12 billion dollars in grants and 
loans in carrying out the European Recovery Pro- 
gram — equal to nearly 80 dollars for every man, 
woman, and child in the United States. To this, 
the countries of Europe have added the equivalent 
of another 9 billion dollars in its own currencies 
to match the American grant-aid dollars. Of the 
U.S. funds, about 5.5 billion dollars have been used 
to purchase industrial commodities, mostly from 
the United States, and another 5.2 billion dollars 
for the purchase of food and other agricultural 
commodities such as cotton. Over 800 million 
dollars has alone gone into the cost of ocean freight 
for goods sent to Europe. The U.S. contribution 
to the setting up of the Epu was 350 million dollars 
and another 100 million dollars has been used since 
then to help the payments union over rough spots. 

In their turn, the Marshall Plan countries in the 
past 3 years completed or are pushing to comple- 
tion a total of 27 major projects for the increase of 
power and 32 major projects for modernizing and 
expanding the production of iron and steel. 
Major petroleum refining works number 11 and 
the volume of refining has quadrupled over pre- 
war. Other industrial projects costing the equiv- 
alent of a million dollars or more bring the total 
of such projects to 132, costing the equivalent of 
over two billion dollars. About half a billion 
dollars of the U.S. commodity and technical aid 
has gone into these projects. 



Into other major recovery projects have gone 
also the equivalent of billions of dollars of the 
counterpart currencies generated in the Marshall 
Plan countries to match American dollar aid. 
Such counterpart funds are used by the respective 
countries for recovery projects approved by the 
EcA. Biggest single use — equivalent to more than 
a billion dollars — has been for the improvement of 
electric, gas, and power facilities, an improvement 
that is helping to make possible Europe's rearma- 
ment program today. 

Similarly vital to Europe's defenses has been the 
rehabilitation of the continent's run-down and 
war-smashed railway network, with approved 
projects for use of counterpart funds totaling 
more than the equivalent of half a billion dollars. 
Similarly, counterpart projects for the reconstruc- 
tion of merchant fleets, port and shipping facilities, 
and inland waterways have been completed or are 
in the process of completion in the Marshall Plan 
countries. Airports, too, have been built or im- 
proved with EcA-generated local currencies. 

Through such double-barreled use of dollar aid 
and local funds, Marshall Plan nations, in less 
than 4 years, have rebuilt their economies to a 
point that could well persuade the Kremlin that 
the Europe which looked like such easy pickings 
in 1946 and 1947 is indeed a formidable bastion 
today. 

Steel production, for example, so necessary to 
a strong peace or war economy, has risen from less 
than 31 million tons in 1947 to nearly 60 million 
tons in 1951. Soviet Russia and her satellites 
combined have a steel production rate of about 
35 million tons. 

The average volume of crude oil refined in 
Europe in prewar years was 12 million tons an- 
nually. In 1950-51 the volume of refined prod- 
ucts reached 46.8 million tons, or nearly four times 
prewar. 

In 1947, Europe's average monthly electrical 
production was I31/2 million kilowatt hours. In 
mid-1951 the wheels of Europe's industi'y were 
being turned with 20% million kilowatt hours per 
month. From a monthly cement production 
average of less than 2 million metric tons in 1947, 
Europe's production rose to 4 million tons monthly 
during the first half of 1951. 

Cotton-yarn production in free Europe has risen 
from a monthly average of 82,000 metric tons in 
1947 to 125,000 tons in 1951 ; wool yarn production 
is up from 33,000 tons monthly iii 1947 to 44,000 
tons in 1951. 

One of the most dramatic improvements, and 
one closely tied to Europe's defense capabilities, 
is in the production of motor vehicles. Monthly 
production, running at the rate of 54,000 vehicles 
in 1947, is up to 145,000 vehicles in 1951. 

Agricultural production is up 9 percent over 
prewar and 24 percent over 1947^8, but at the 
same time there are many more mouths to feed 
(population is up from 250 million in 1938 to over 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



'275 million in 1951) and Europe is not j'et self- 
sufficient in food production. 

Overall, Europe's gross national product — the 

' total sum of its production of goods and services — 

' rose by nearly 25 percent in the less than 4 years 

of Marshall Plan aid to over 125 billion dollars in 

1950. This is a 15 percent increase over prewar 

levels. 

But Europe by no means considers its job fin- 
ished. Member countries of the Oeec recently 
issued a manifesto declaring their intention to 
, work for an expansion of total production in West- 
; ern Europe by 25 percent over the next 5 years. 
With her industrial plant rebuilt to better than 
! prewar years, Europe's hope for meeting or sur- 
passing this goal must rest on improved produc- 
tion methods and greater productivity — increased 
output of goods with the same amount of man- 
, power, machines, and management. 
I Because it is in this field in particular that the 
'United States far outstrips the rest of the world, 
it is in this field assistance to Europe is now being 
concentrated, and that priority aid will continue to 
be given to Free Europe tlirough the Mutual 
Security Agency. 

Under the productivity and technical-assistance 
program of Eca, more than 6 thousand repre- 
sentatives of European industries — management, 
technicians, and workei'S — have come to the United 
States for varied periods of intensive studies of 
U.S. production methods. Nearly 5 thousand 
American industrial plants and organizations 
tiave thrown open their doors to these visitors and 
?iven freely of their techniques in everything from 
plant layout to labor-management relations. 

Last month, nearly 300 of Europe's top indus- 
trialists — owners or managers of European indus- 
ries worth nearly 7 billion dollars — came to this 
country for a study of the "climate" and the atti- 
tudes of American management and American 
abor that have made the United States the world's 
production leader. 

One major key to that high production rate is 
he theory of "shared-out productivity" — the dis- 
ribution of the benefits of increased production 
ifficiency to the consumer, in the form of lower 
trices; to the worker, in the form of higher wages, 
md to management in the form of adequate 
)rofits. 



/lutual Security Agency To Continue Field Assist- 
ince to Europe 

To help bring that key element to the industries 
)f Free Europe, Eca has laid the groundwork 
'or — and the Mutual Security Agency will carry 
)ut — a program for providing U.S. technical as- 
istance at the plant and industry level in Europe 
tself and for the sharing of productivity knowl- 
■dge and experience among Europe's industries on 
1 continent-wide basis. 



Through this concentration on productivity — 
and particularly on the widest possible sharing of 
its benefits — the Msa will continue where the Mar- 
shall Plan leaves off in the ideological battle 
against the snares of communism. 

"Wliile it is still a potent force in some key areas 
of Europe, the expansion of communism in West- 
ern Europe has been abruptly halted and the tide 
sharply turned back in the years of the Marshall 
Plan. In country after country, free elections 
have seen the Communist Party overwhelmed 
almost to the point of extinction. In France and 
Italy, while Communist-dominated unions still 
hold the biggest bloc of workers, their membership 
losses have been staggering. In France, it is esti- 
mated that the powerful Cgt has lost from half a 
million to three million members. In Italy, the 
Communist-dominated Cgil, has lost about 21/^ 
million members. 

Wliile the growth of free trade-unions has not 
matched the losses in the Red-dominated unions, 
the declining strength of communism is evidencecl 
in the failure, despite concentrated efforts, to close 
the ports of France and Italy to arms-aid ship- 
ments from the United States. 

There are still many dark spots in Europe's 
economic picture. Darkest of all is the widening 
dollar gap brought on by the inflationary pres- 
sures of the free world's rearmament effort. It 
is a dollar gap that makes mandatory continued 
economic aid to Europe through the burdensome 
period of rearmament. But the free world's lead- 
ers are convinced that the economic and moral 
foundation rebuilt by Europe in the past 4 years 
with the help of the American people through the 
Marshall Plan will hold firm. 

The vision of a new Europe, economically 
strong, unified as it had never been before, stand- 
ing resolutely in the ranks of the free countries of 
the world, has become a fact. 

Tomorrow, that chapter of American history 
which made this possible — the Marshall Plan — is 
finished. Heavily criticized by some; labeled "the 
give-away program" by many, it has had the con- 
tinuous support of the Congress, industry, labor, 
and nearly every other segment of American life. 

To them, the American people who have sup- 
ported it, belongs whatever verdict is handed down 
by the unbiased eyes of future history. 

WESTERN GERMANY'S PROGRESS 
UNDER MARSHALL PLAN 

&y John J. McCloy 

U.S. High Commissioner for Germany^ 

A review of developments in Western Germany 
covering the past 4 years strikingly shows that the 
great objectives of the Marshall Plan have been 
largely accomplished. 

' Statement made over NBC television on Jan. 6 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



hnuary 14, 1952 



45 



A very few years ago Western Germany was 
broken, chaotic, and near starvation. 

The transformation whicli has occurred since 
then might ahnost be called a miracle. With 
Marshall Plan help, West Germany has largely re- 
established itself as a solid, productive country. 
Its production has increased from 1947 three-fold 
until it has become the second largest industrial 
producing country in Western Europe. Despite 
the fact that Western Germany borders Soviet con- 
trolled areas, communism has been definitely 
blocked. 

Germany has likewise made tremendous strides 
in the production of food, despite the loss of the 
rich East German farm lands. The influx of 10,- 
000,000 refugees seriously aggravated the food 
shortage and seriously intensified the grave hous- 
ing {Droblem, for so much of Germany's housing 
was lost during the war. Western Germany's rec- 
ord of rebuilding is phenomenal, yet in some sec- 
tions people are still living five or six to a room. 
One house in every five built since 1948 has re- 
ceived Marshall Plan aid. 

Economic problems of a large order still persist. 
These must be solved and the economic gains must 
be consolidated to establish a firm front against 
Soviet pressure — pressure which is probably 
greater here than anywhere else in Europe. We 
must continue to promote an expanding economy 
capable of sustaining the defense burden. To this 
end, the Mutual Security Agency, successor to the 
Economic Cooperation Administration, is de- 
signed to help build for defense. To a large ex- 
tent, the staff used by Eca will be used to carry 
forward these aims. Western Germany still 
heavily depends upon outside areas for much of 
its raw materials and some 40 percent of its food 
supplies. This requires an ever-active industry 
and markets if the country is to maintain an eco- 
nomic — and in the long run a political — balance. 
But the German people are hardworking and 
imaginative. Moreover they see now what they 
failed to see for a long period after the close of the 
war — a glimpse of hope. Others can help, but the 
chief aid must come from within. 

In Germany this economic progress is reflected 
in political progress for they are related. A 
freely elected parliament has been functioning for 
over 2 years, the German Government is a re- 
spected active force in international meetings, and 
the press and people are free. Although the Fed- 
eral Republic is not yet a member of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, it is working on 
plans to make an appropriate defense contribution 
and to participate in the European defense com- 
munity. In the face of incessant opposition from 
the East, the question here is no longer so much 
whether Germany should participate in a Western 
defense system but rather what should be the form 
and extent of her participation. 

As for the extent of true democratic progress 
in Germany, I think we can also take some satis- 



faction. I have said that reactionary forces from 
the extreme right have also been blocked but some 
are still about, and one day they may again make 
their bid for power. I doubt that they will again 
prevail — they certainly will not if Germany be- 
comes, as I believe she will, definitely aligned with 
the democracies of the West. The habit of de- 
mocracy in Germany may not yet be ingrained, 
but it is growing. 

In short, on the basis of the economic and po- 
litical progress already made, I feel one can have 
real faith that a satisfactory way will be found to 
meet the complex and heavy problems that lie 
ahead of the German Federal Republic and that 
it will develop into a constructive and reliable 
force for democracy in this part of the world. 



Secretary Acheson Views Soviet 
Proposal on Korean Negotiations 

Wlien asked at his news conference on Januai-y 
4 to comment on Andrei Y. Vyshinsky's proposal 
to break the Korean peace-truce deadlock, Secre- 
tary Acheson said that we had to start off by 
looking at what Mr. Vyshinsky proposed. He 
noted that the first thing Mr. Vyshinsky proposed 
was to undo one vei'y imi^ortant thing which had 
already been done by the General Assembly, the 
setting up of the Collective Measures Committee. 
Secretary Acheson said Mr. Vyshinsky's proposal 
that the Security Council be called in order to 
'"break the deadlock in Korea" calls for a look at 
past actions. He pointed out that Mr. Vyshinsky's 
colleague, Mr. Malik, in August 1950 had pro- 
duced such a deadlock as had never been seen 
before in the whole United Nations.^ Secretary 
Acheson said that this was not a veiy promising 
proposal, stating that the discussions in Korea on 
the armistice had gone forward over a long time 
slowly but with definite pi'ogress. The Secretary 
went on to say that the discussions were being con- 
ducted admirably by General Ridgway and his 
associates and he could not see how the conduct 
of this matter could be improved by being trans- 
ferred elsewhere. He said that it could only be 
delayed and hampered. Secretary Acheson said 
that he felt that specific parts of what Mr. Vyshin- 
sky proposed were nothing short of disastrous. 

Secretary Acheson went on to say that as far 
as a general meeting to relieve tensions was con- 
cerned, we had had a meeting of 17 weeks early 
last year in Paris to try to arrange the very thing 
that JNIr. Vyshinsky wanted to bring about and 
the Russian delegate, Mr. Gromyko, had done 



' Yakov Malik, Soviet representative in the Security 
Council, .served as president of the Council during August 
1950. For statements concerning his tactics as presiding 
officer, see Bulletin of Aug. 21, 1950, p. 283; Aug. 28, 
1950, p. 326; and Sept. 18, 1950, pp. 451 and 455. 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



everytliin<i in his power to obstruct and frustrate 
that meeting. Secretary Acheson said lie felt 
that one liad to conchide that Mr. Vyshinsky, by 
holding out some bait — a meeting to relieve ten- 
sions — was really attempting to utterly destroy 
the two things which were going forward satis- 
factorily, the Collective Measures Committee and 
negotiations in Korea. He said we would vote 
against this proposal for the reasons he had just 
given. 

Text of Soviet Proposal 

Following is the text of the Soviet proposal as 
introduced in Committee I (Political and Secu- 
rity) of the General Assembly on January 3 by 
Andrei Y. Vyshinslry : 

U.N. doc. A/C.l /688 
Dated January 3, 1952. 

Considering that a basic task of the United Nations is 
to secure and strengthen international peace and security, 
and bearing in mind that under the Charter tlie main 
responsibility for maintenance of international peace and 
security has been conferred on the Security Council, 

The General Assembly 

1. Decides to abolish the Collective Measures Com- 
mittee, 

2. Recommends the Security Council : 

in accordance with Article 28 of the Charter, to convene 
without delay a periodic meeting to consider what mea.s- 
ures might ensure the removal of tlie tension at present 
existing in international relations and the establishment 
of friendly relations between countries ; 

to examine at a periodic meeting in the first place the 
measures which tlie Security Council should take to help 
to bring to a successful conclusion the negotiations being 
held in Korea for the cessation of hostilities. 



Military Assistance Agreement 
With Brazil 

[Rdeased to the press .January 3] 

The Departments of State and Defense an- 
nounced on January 3 the initiation of the first 
bilateral negotiations under the program of mili- 
tary-grant aid for Latin America, authorized in 
the Mutual Security Act of 1951. 

Conversations will begin on January 3 in Rio de 
Janeiro between representatives of the Govern- 
ments of Brazil and the United States looking to 
the conclusion of a bilateral military assistance 
agreement. This agreement would involve the 
provision of grant aid by the United States to pro- 
mote the defense of the Western Hemisphere. 

The American Ambassador in Eio de Janeiro, 
Herschel V. Johnson, will be assisted in the nego- 
tiations by representatives of the Department of 
Defense. It is anticipated that similar conversa- 
tions will be held with the governments of several 
other American Republics. Announcements will 
be made as arrangements for their initiation are 
completed. 



Cotton Credit for Spain 

Credits of up to 12 million dollars for financing 
the purchase and shipment of U.S. cotton to Spain 
were announced by the Export-Import Bank on 
January 4. 

The credits are to be established in favor of 
Spanish commercial banks with the guaranty of 
the Bank of Spain and the Instituto Espanol de 
Moneda Extranjera. They will bear interest at 
2% percent per annum and be repayable in 18 
months and will be available until June 30, 1952, 
for financing U.S. cotton contracted for and 
shijjped as from the date of establishment of the 
credits. 

The details regarding the operations and pro- 
cedures under the credits will be announced as 
soon as they are completed. 



U.S., India Expand Point Four Program 

[Released to the press January 5] 

American assistance under an expanded Point 
Four Program for speeding up the economic de- 
velopment of India will be made available under 
an agreement signed on January 5 in New Delhi 
between India and the United States. The agree- 
ment was signed at 4 p.m. New Delhi time (5 : 30 
a.m. Washington time). The Prime Minister of 
India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and the United States 
Ambassador to India, Chester Bowles, signed on 
behalf of their respective Governments. 

Under the agreement, the United States will 
make available 50 million dollars during the cur- 
rent fiscal year, ending June 30, 1952, to be de- 
posited in a special Indo-American Technical 
Cooperation Fund. The Government of India has 
agreed to contribute rupees for the projects to be 
financed out of this Fund. It is estimated that this 
will result in at least a total amount for the pro- 
gram of rupees 50 crore, which in terms of dollars 
is the equivalent of 100 million dollars. 

The projects to be financed by this Fund will be 
administered in close cooperation with the central 
and state Governments. Projects under the Fund 
will be aimed primarily at raising the level of 
agricultural production and increasing the food 
supply of the country, to help reduce India's pres- 
ent dependence on food imports. These imports 
now average about 5 million tons a year and cost 
the country about 500 million dollars in foreign 
exchange, which otherwise could be used for eco- 
nomic development. 

Of major importance is the community-develop- 
ment jDrogram which has been tentatively agreed 
upon between the two Governments for financing 



January 14, 1952 



47 



out of this Fund. This program contemplat«s the 
setting up of about 50 rural-urban development 
areas in different parts of the counti-y, each con- 
sisting of about 200,000 people in about 300 vil- 
lages. Many of these areas may be selected around 
the new river-valley projects. Others will be 
around the new tube well-development projects to 
be financed by the Fund and also by the central 
and state Governments in India. 

The proposed rural-urban development program 
is expected to draw upon the combined ex]7erience 
of the Uttar Pradesh Government at the Etawah 
development project and the newly built town- 
ships for displaced persons at Faridabad and 
Nilokheri. At Etawah, in 3 years time, 79,000 
people from 102 villages, covering an area of 100 
square miles, have demonstrated how, with cooper- 
ative and planned endeavor, food production can 
be substantially increased. They have also be«n 
successful in eliminating, to a large extent, ma- 
laria, rinderpest, and other diseases, and in greatly 
improving literacy. In Faridabad and Nilokheri 
again, in less than 3 years, good planning and 
enthusiastic cooperation of the people have en- 
abled modern townships to be built with up-to- 
date housing, good schools, improved health facili- 
ties, and a wide variety of industrial opportuni- 
ties. 

The agreement provides for the formation of 
an independent central committee of the Indian 
Government which will determine their policies 
and provide general supervision of the projects 
imdertaken. Members of the committee will be 
appointed by the Government of India. Clifford 
Willson, representing the Technical Cooperation 
Administration of the U. S. Department of State 
in India, will be available as consultant to this 
committee. 

The Indo-American Technical Cooperation 
Fund, in which the American funds will be de- 
posited, will be administered jointly. An officer 
of the Central Ministry of Finance will be the 
nominee of the Government of India for this pur- 
pose, wliile Clifford Willson, working under the 
general supervision of the United States Ambassa- 
dor in India, will be the nominee of the United 
States Government. As projects of economic de- 
velopment are approved by the joint administra- 
tors, the United States will deposit the required 
dollars in the Fund. 

The new agreement is a supplement to the gen- 
eral Point Four Agreement which was signed 
between the Governments of the United States and 
India on December 28, 1950.^ The agreement 
represents a considerable expansion of the Point 
Four Program in India, as provided for in the 
Mutual Security Act of 1951. In fiscal year 1951, 
about 711,000 dollars were obligated for expendi- 
ture in India on technical-cooperation projects in 



' Bulletin of Jan. 8, 1951, p. 67. 



agriculture, industrial development, education, 
public health, rural improvement, mineral and 
hydro-electric development, handicrafts, and 
laboratory investigations. 

Thus far in fiscal year 1952, approximately 
1,500,000 dollars has been allocated for similar 
work. Of the existing allocations, 185,000 dollars 
is for training of 48 Indian nationals in the United 
States in these and related fields. As much as 
2,500,000 dollars additional may be expended by 
the United States in fiscal year 1952 for employ- 
ment of American technicians in India, making a 
total of about 4 million dollars available for 
projects in addition to the joint Fund. 

Members of the American negotiating team 
which helped work out the agreement, besides Mr. 
Willson, are: 

John A. Loftus, economic advi-ser to the Assistant Secre- 
tary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and 
African Affairs, who is serving the negotiating group 
as principal economic adviser 

John P. Ferris, Chief of Regional Planning Development 
Studies Branch of the Tennessee Valley Authority, 
serving as valley development expert 

Horace Holmes, widely known chief of Point Four agri- 
cultural activities in India, advising the negotiators 
in his field 

Prank W. Parker, expert in soils and agronomy, U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, advising on fertilizer pro- 
duction and usage 

Willis Rich, former Chief of Scientific Inquiry, Bureau of 
Fisheries, U.S. Department of the Interior; and chief 
fisheries expert. Soap. Japan, advising on fisheries 

Dr. Estelle Ford Warner, Medical Director, U.S. Public 
Health Service, with the rank of colonel, advising on 
public health matters 

Mr. Willson, who has the personal rank of minis- 
ter, was appointed November 29, 1951, to direct 
the whole Point Four Program in India in consul- 
tation with Ambassador Bowles. He has been in 
charge of planning the Colorado River Great 
Basin development for the Department of the In- 
terior. He recently returned as Eca settlement 
adviser to the Government of Turkey in settling 
120,000 Turkish refugees from Bulgaria. 



U.S. Ships Wheat to Jordan 

[Released to the press December IS] 

The United States is to supply 9,650 long tons 
of wheat to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 
to help that country cope with a serious food 
shortage caused by failure of the wheat crop, the 
Department of State announced on December 18. 

An agreement between the Governments of the 
United States and Jordan to cover the terms of 
the wheat grant was signed in Amman on that 
date. A general agreement for technical coop- 
eration between Jordan and the United States has 
been in effect since February 27, 1951. 

Ordinarily, Jordan is self-sufficient in wheat 



48 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



production and is able to export small amounts. 
Wheat is the main crop of this predominantly 
agricultural economy. 

The wheat shipment will cost about $1,400,000 
including transportation. It is being financed 
under the Mutual Security Act of 1951, as a part 
of the program of technical cooperation and eco- 
nomic assistance in the Near East. The Govern- 
ment of Jordan will sell the wheat through com- 
mercial channels. The proceeds will provide 
local currency (Jordan dinars) with which that 
Government will share the expenses of Point Four 
development projects in agriculture, health, edu- 
cation, water resources, and small-scale industries. 

The wheat is being supplied by the Commodity 
Credit Corporation from its stocks in inventory. 
It will be loaded at Baltimore on or about De- 
cember 26 aboard the S. S. Sky Star. 



Convention on Declaration of 
DeatFi of Missing Persons 

Following the receipt of an instrument of ac- 
cession by Guatemala, the convention on the Dec- 
laration of Death of Missing Persons will come 
into force on January 24, 1952, the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the United Nations announced on Decem- 
ber 27. 

Formal receipt of the Guatemalan notification 
is dated Christmas Day, December 25, and, accord- 
ing to the convention's provisions, it will come into 
force 30 days following deposit of the second in- 
strument of accession. The first, by China, was 
made on December 20, 1950. 

The convention on the Declaration of Death 
of Missing Persons was drafted by an interna- 
tional conference of plenipotentiaries convened by 
the General Assembly in the spring of 1950 and 
opened for accession on April 6, 1950. It stemmed 
directly from international concern over the dis- 
appearance of millions of persons, without any 
evidence of their death, after the Second World 
War — mostly because of deportations, concentra- 
tion camps, and other methods of extermination 
practiced by the Nazis. 

Lack of certainty as to whether they did die and, 
if so, on what date, has led to legal complications, 
particularly in cases of remarriage and inherit- 
ance. The convention, prepared by represent- 
atives of 26 governments, applies to persons whose 
last known residence was in Europe, Asia, or 
Africa, and who disappeared between 1939 and 
1945 under circumstances which give reasonable 



ground to infer that they have died because of 
the war or because of racial, religious, political, 
or national persecution. It will also be applicable 
to persons missing since 1945 in similar circum- 
stances but only in those contracting states which 
notify the Secretary-General that they agree to 
this provision. 

The convention accords competence to declare a 
person dead to coui-ts at the missing person's last 
known residence (whether forced or voluntary), 
at the place of supposed death of the country of 
which the missing person was a national and of 
the country where his property is located. The 
date of death is to be fixed as the date of disap- 
pearance defined as that of the last known indica- 
tion of the person's existence. 

The convention set up an International Bureau 
for Declarations of Death to serve as an interna- 
tional clearinghouse of information, and to enable 
tribunals of different states to exchange informa- 
tion. Though not yet established, the Bureau cost 
is provided for in the current U.N. budget esti- 
mates. 

Letter of Credence 

h^d/a 

The newly appointed Ambassador of India, 
Binay Ranjan Sen, presented his credentials to 
the President on December 19, 1951. For the text 
of the Ambassador's remarks and for the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 1100 of December 19. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: Dec. 29, 1951-Jan. 5, 1952 

Releases may be obtained from the Office of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D. C. Items marked (*) 
are not printed in the Bulletin ; items marked (t) 
will appear in a future issue. 

No. Date Subject 

1098 12/18 Wheat to Jordan 

1100 12/19 India : Letter of credence (rewrite) 

1123t 12/29 New Tca administrator 
Visitors to U.S. 
Anniversary of Haiti 
Information Services merged in U.K. 
Military assistance to Brazil 
U.S. Delegation to Who 
Anniversary of Burma 
VoA programs for U.S. public 
McCloy : Marshall Plan in Germany 
U.S.-India Point 4 expanded 



1* 


1/2 


•>* 


1/2 


3t 


1/2 


4 


1/3 


5 


V3 


6* 


1/5 


vt 


1/5 


8 


1/5 


9 


V5 



January 14, 1952 



49 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Plans for Liquidation of IRO 



REPORT ON SESSIONS HELD AT GENEVA, OCTOBER 18-27, 1951 



l)y George L. Warren 



The General Council of the International Refu- 
gee Organization (Iro) held its eighth session at 
Geneva from October 22 through October 27, 1951. 
The Executive Committee met concurrently from 
October IS through October 26, 1951. 

The General Council received from the Execu- 
tive Committee comments on the annual report of 
the Director General for the year ending June 30, 
1951, the financial statements and the report of 
the auditors for the same period, the status of 
contributions, the revised plan of expenditures 
for the supplementary and closure periods begin- 
ning July 1, 1950, a report on plans for the termi- 
nation of operations, and a statement by the Di- 
rector General on residual problems anticipated 
to exist after the termination of Iro. 

The Director General, in his report for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, referred to the 
liberalization of the immigration criteria of re- 
ception countries which had provided resettlement 
opportunities for 70 thousand additional refugees 
who would not have been able to move under cri- 
teria previously in force. He indicated that con- 
siderable jarogress had been made in arranging 
facilities for refugees and their dependents who 
require continual institutional care and treatment. 
Only 7,10i refugees in this group remained the 
concern of the Organization on June 30, 1951. By 
September 30, 1951, this number had been reduced 
to 2,564. Only 477 remained for whom no satis- 
factory arrangements had been completed as of 
that date. Of the 111 thousand refugees for whom 
responsibility had been transferred to the govern- 



ments and authorities of AVestern Europe, Ger- 
many, and Austria on July 1, 1951, many had been 
resettled overseas in the intervening period. 

A recent important development in the experi- 
ence of the Organization had been the use of the 
Organization for the movement on a full-cost 
reimbursable basis of migrants of different na- 
tionalities ineligible for Iro services, thus per- 
mitting more flexibility in the movement of refu- 
gees and economy in the use of ships than would 
have been possible otherwise. The report also in- 
dicated that 166,985 refugees had been resettled 
during the year under review and 2,169 repatri- 
ated, bringing the total of refugees resettled by 
the Organization up to June 30, 1951, to 955,141, 
and the number repatriated to 72,423. Resettle- 
ment operations during the third quarter of the 
calendar year 1951 enabled the members of the 
Council to participate at Geneva during the ses- 
sion in ceremonies commemorating the movement 
of the one millionth refugee and his family. The 
Netherlands Government announced at the session 
that in response to the personal wishes of Queen 
Juliana, the Netherlands Government would grant 
admission to an additional 100 to 200 refugees re- 
maining under the care of Iro who require con- 
tinual custodial care. 



Financial Position 

The financial statements, considered and ac- 
cepted by the council, showed that the resources 
available to the Organization during the year 



50 



Depariment of Stale Bulletin 



ending June 30, 1951, totaled $105,015,393, in- 
cluding stocks on hand on July 1, 1951, valued at 
$6,774,447. During that period $71,173,122 in cash 
resources had been utilized and inventory values 
were reduced by $3,550,362, leaving a net of $30,- 
291,909 in available resources as of July 1, 1951. 
' Miscellaneous income anticipated during the re- 
maining period of operations and contributions 
due but not received brought the total resources 
available for use in the period after June 30, 1951 
to $31,072,474, of which $27,848,389 were in the 
form of liquid assets. 

The council also learned that two important 
items of receivable assets still under negotiation 
were not included in the foregoing figures. The 
first was a credit balance chie the (Organization on 
the food replacement account in Germany, 
amounting to an estimated $5,311,395, and the 
second was a claim against the Government of 
Australia for $1,651,060 arising out of the costs 
of moving refugees to Australia. To the extent 
that any part of the sums involved in these two 
items under negotiation become available to the 
Organization, it was considered possible that re- 
settlement operations might be continued during 
January 1952 and that arrangements might be 
made for additional refugees and their dependents 
who require continual institutional care and who 
might otherwise be left without assistance upon 
the termination of the Organization. 

After close examination of the financial state- 
ments and the auditors' report, the council con- 
cluded that the financial position of the Organiza- 
tion was satisfactory in that, with the exception of 
the German food ci-edit and the Australian claim, 
all assets would be realized in the intervening 
period before closure and all liabilities would be 
satisfactorily settled in the same period. 

Plans for Liquidation of IRO 

The council, after full consideration, approved 
the revised plan of expenditure of the supple- 
mentary and closure periods beginning July 1, 

1950. 'As against the total amount of $100,356,962 
approved by the council at its previous session, the 
revised plan proposed the expenditure of $99,- 
021,511, of which $5,198,503 was allocated to the 
administrative budget, $92,633,008 to the opera- 
tional budget, and the remaining $1,190,000 to the 
closure budget. The revised plan was based on 
the use of all income which could reasonably be 
anticipated before the end of the calendar year 

1951, and depended especially upon the continua- 
tion of favorable factors affecting the shipping 
program. In the event of failure of any of the 
income to materialize, the program would have to 
be curtailed. The plan provided for the resettle- 
ment of a total of 231,400 refugees in the period 
subsequent to July 1, 1950, 9 thousand more than 
the number estimated in the earlier plan of ex- 
penditure. It was noted, however, that unless the 



German food credit account and the Australian 
claim are settled satisfactorily, some 12 thousand 
refugees expected to receive visas for the United 
States and other countries will remain in Europe 
after January 1, 1952, without the possibility of 
transport. Dependent on these items also is a 
more satisfactory disposition of the remaining 
refugees in Shanghai, in the Philippines, in Tri- 
este, and in Greece and Italy. 

The council tentatively approved plans for the 
final liquidation of the Organization which will 
be reconsidered at a final meeting of the council 
in late January 1952. These plans call for the 
liquidation of all of the affairs of the Organiza- 
tion during a 6-nionth period starting immediately 
after the date of cessation of operations. At the 
cessation of operations the estimated staff will 
total 650, of which 175 will constitute the liquida- 
tion staff. Two weeks after the cessation of op- 
erations the staff will be reduced to 175 persons 
and after an additional two weeks to 127 persons. 
The cost of liquidation, excluding an amount of 
$440,000 for final payments to personnel, is esti- 
mated at $750,000. 

Residual Refugee Problems 

The General Assembly of the United Nations, 
at its fifth session, had invited the General Coun- 
cil of the Iro (Kesolution No. 430 (V) December 
14, 1950) to submit a comunication on the problem 
of assistance to refugees remaining uncared for 
upon the termination of Iro. The drafting of this 
communication was one of the most important 
actions of the council at its eighth session. The 
council decided to transmit to the General As- 
sembly a factual communication describing the 
residual problems of refugees previously eligible 
for Iro assistance as distinguished from recom- 
mendations to the General Assembly for the solu- 
tion of these problems. None of the governments 
represented on the council were prepared to pre- 
sent their views as to the actions which the United 
Nations might take on the basis of the Iro com- 
munication. The communication transmitted 
(U.N. document A/194S, November 10, 1951) in- 
dicated that the Iko had sufficient funds to con- 
tinue operations until January 1, 1952, and 
possibly to assist and reestablish several thousand 
additional refugees during January and Febru- 
ary 1952; that the Organization had already re- 
jiatriated and resettled over 1,000,000 refugees; 
and that it had made reasonably satisfactory pro- 
vision for approximately 47 thousand refugees, 
including their dependents who require continuing 
custodial care. There will remain, however, in 
certain areas such as Shanghai, the Philippines, 
Trieste, Greece, and Italy, limited numbers of 
refugees whose problems will not have been satis- 
factorily resolved for economic, political, and 
other reasons. 



January 14, 1952 



51 



The following 15 member governments of Iro 
were represented at this session of the council : 



Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Norway 
Switzerland 
United Kingdom 
United States 
Venezuela 



Australia 

Belgium 

Canada 

Denmark 

Dominican Republic 

France 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

The Governments of China, Guatemala, and Ice- 
land, members of the Organization, were not rep- 
resented. The Governments of Austria, Brazil, 
Germany, Israel, Mexico, and Sweden, as well as 
the Holy See, the United Nations, and the Inter- 
national Labor Organization were represented by 



observers. The U.N. High Commissioner for 
Kef ugees was also present as an observer. 

F. Leemans of Belgium presided as chairman of 
the council for the session, N. St. C. Deschamps of 
Australia served as first vice chairman, J. Sturm 
of Luxembourg as second vice chairman, and P. J. 
de Kanter of the Netherlands as rapporteur. The 
council adjourned on October 27, 1951, having de- 
cided to reconvene at Geneva for its final session 
late in January 1952. The Executive Committee 
will reconvene a few days prior to the meeting of 
the General Council in January. 

*Mr. Warren, author of the above article, is 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, De- 
partment of State. Mr. Warren was U.S. repre- 
sentative to the Octoier sessions of the IRO. 



Demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir 



SECOND REPORT BY THE U.N. REPRESENTATIVE FOR INDIA AND PAKISTAN 



On December 18, Frank P. Graham, U.N. rep- 
resentative for India and Pakistan, transmitted to 
the Secretary-General his second report to the Se- 
curity Council (U.N. doc. S/21:4S) .^ As a result of 
private negotiations with representatives of India 
and Pakistan, Dr. Graham reported that he had 
been successful in enlarging the area of agreement 
on steps leading toward the holding of a plebiscite 
in the disputed state. Agreement still has not 
been reached on four basic points of the compro- 
mise plan prepared by Dr. Graham. 

Parts I and II of the second report outline 
tlie terms of reference given by the Security Coun- 
cil to the U.N. representative and the procedure 
which he adopted in continuing his negotiations. 
Following is the text of the remainder of the 
report : 



U.N. doc. S/2448 

Dated December 19, 1951 

[Excerpts] 



Editoe's Note. On Nov. 10, 1951, the Security Council 
instructed Dr. Graham to continue his efforts to obtain 
agreement on a plan for demilitarizing the State of Jammu 
and Kashmir along the lines indicated in his report of 
Oct. 15. 

'For excerpts from Dr. Graham's Oct. 15 report and 
from his statement to the Security Council on Oct. 18, 
see Bulletin of Nov. 5, 1951, p. 738. For a statement on 
Dr. Graham's mission by Amb. Ernest A. Gross, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 10, 1951, p. 958, and for the Security 
Council's resolution of Nov. 10, see ihid., p. 959. 



Ill 



Points of Difference Between the Two Governments 

The points of difference of the two Governments In 
regard to their interpretation and execution of the resolu- 
tions of the Uncip of 13 August 1048 and 5 January 1949 
remain on the fundamental issues as they appear in the 
first report of the United Nations Representative. 

Concerning the points of difference between the Gov- 
ernments on the proposals of the United Nations Repre- 
sentative of 7 September 1951, the conversations held by 
the United Nations Representative with the parties, as 
well as the answers he has received to the different ques- 
tions put to them by him, have convinced him that at this 
stage of the negotiations the parties could not achieve 
agreement on the draft agreement as a whole, submitted 
to them by the United Nations Representative on 7 Sei)- 
tember 1951. 

As explained above, the United Nations Representative 
concentrated his efforts on what in his opinion constituted 
the two fundamental points of difference between the 
Ijarties with regard to his proposals for agreement, 
namely, 

(a) The minimum number of forces to be left on each 
side of tlie cease-fire line at the end of the period of 
demilitarization, and 

(b) The day on which the Government of India would 
cause the Plel)iscite Administrator to be formally ap- 
pointed to office. 

Minimum o/ Forces 

In his statement to the parties of 7 December 1951 ' the 
United Nations Representative pointed out that, 

' Annex III, not here printed. 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



"The niiuilier of armed forces to remain at the end of 
the period of demilitarization should be decisively reduced 
to the smallest numher possible for the final disposal by 
the Plebiscite Administrator." 

In the questionnaires submitted to the parties,^ the 
United Nations Representative had in mind that the 
Government of India had repeatedly stated that the Gov- 
ernment of India was responsible for the security of the 
State of Jammu and Kashmir, and security could not be 
made dependent solely on assurances offered, but must be 
related to the actual conditions prevailing in the area. 
The United Nations Representative also took into account 
the fact that in August 1951 the Government of India, in 
answering a question submitted by the United Nations 
Representative, had said, 

"The expression 'security of the State' referred to In 
question 9 is Intended to connote the security of the State 
of Jammu and Kashmir against incursion of tribesmen, 
Pakistan nationals and regular Pakistan forces whether 
I acting separately or in concert". 

In its answer to the questionnaire the Government of 
India said^ (paragraph 7), 

"It should be noticed that the Indian troops remaining 
in the State of Jammu and Kashmir at the end of the 
period of demilitarization under this plan are over T.OOO 
less than the minimum, stated in paragraph 8 of the Prime 
Minister's letter of September 11th." 

Furthermore, in paragraph 8 of its answer to the ques- 
tionnaire, the Government of India said : 

"The quantum of troops proposed in paragraph 5 above 
should be compared with the force of about a dozen bat- 
talions of infantry plus artillery, cavalry and other pro- 
tective forces which were maintained by the State of 
Jammu and Kashmir before the partition of India, when 
the borders of the State were secured against any ex- 
ternal threat by the presence of large garrisons in British 
India at all the strategic approaches to the State, and 
when conditions of comparative iwace and security pre- 
vailed on the sub-continent and in the neighbouring coun- 
tries. Not only has the State since suffered two inva- 
sions, but on some of its frontiers extremely unsettled 
conditions still prevail. These factors must inevitably 
nfluence the strength of the forces now required for its 
security. It should also be pointed out that any apprecia- 
ion affecting the security of the territory and the strength 
)f the forces required to ensure it, must remain the 
•esponsibility of the Government of India." 
The Government of Pakistan maintains that, 
"... a force of no more than 4 infantry battalions 
twith the necessary administrative units) should be left 
m each side of the ceasefire line. The Pakistan Govern- 
nent are, however, prepared to agree that so long as the 
'orces on each side of the ceasefire line are of the order 
ndicated above, some slight difference in the strength or 
lescription of the two forces should not stand in the way 
if an agreement being reached." 

During the discussions at the military level information 
■eeeived indicated that at some stage of the tentative plan 
if domilitarization the withdrawals of armed forces would 
imouiit to a great proportion compared with those that 
vere there on 1 January 1949. However, the disparity 
letween the number and character of the forces proposed 
ly the parties to be left at the end of the period of domili- 
arization were so wide that any agreement on the whole 
)lan concerned as a single continuous process could not 
le reached at this stage. 

Appointment of the PleMseite Administrator 

The opinions of the Governments of India and Pakistan 
oncerning the induction into office of the Plebiscite Ad- 
ninistrator were so irreconcilable that the United Nations 
tepresentative could not see the possibility of obtaining an 
greement at this stage. 



The Indian Government insisted that the Plebiscite Ad- 
ministrator should be appointed as soon as conditions in 
the State, on both sides of the cease-flre line permitted of 
a start being made with the arrangements for carrying 
out the plebiscite, and that to appoint the Plebiscite Ad- 
ministrator before he could function effectively would be 
premature. On the other hand, the Government of 
Pakistan emphasized the importance of appointing the 
Plebiscite Administrator formally to office as much In 
advance of the final day of demilitarization as possible. 

IV 

Views of the United Nations Representative 
Concerning the Problem Confided to Him 

The United Nations Representative has endeavoured In 
the preceding part of his report to present to the Security 
Council a summary of his efforts to implement the resolu- 
tion of the Council of 10 November 1951. 

In the report to the Security Council dated 15 October 
1951 the United Nations Representative reported that 
the two Governments had indicated agreement on four 
of the twelve proposals for an integrated plan of de- 
militarization submitted to the Prime Ministers of India 
and Pakistan on 7 September 1951. 

The four proposals on which agreement had been reached 
were paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4.' 

The United Nations Representative can now report 
agreement on four more proposals, namely, paragraphs 
8, 9, 11 and 12." 

The representative of India agreed to accept paragraph 
12 of the draft agreement on the understanding that the 
reference made there was not to differences arising in the 
process of drawing up a programme of demilitarization, 
but only to differences upon technical details concerning 
the actual implementation of the agree<l programme. The 
United Nations Representative agreed with this interpre- 
tation of paragraph 12. 

Agreement has not been reached on the four most basic 
proposals of the twelve, namely, paragraph 5, 6, 7 and 10. 
Agreement on these four paragraphs is most essential for 
carrying out the plan of demilitarization envisaged as an 
integrated whole in the twelve proposals. 

The four basic proposals on which agreement between 
the parties has not been reached are as follows : 

"'>. Agree that subject to the provisions of paragraph 11 
below the demilitarization of the State of Jammu and 
Kashmir contemplated in the Uncip resolutions of 13 
August 1948 and 5 January 1949 shall be effected in a 
single, continuous process ; 

"6. Agree that this process of demilitarization shall be 
completed during a period of 90 days, unless another 
period is decided upon by the representatives of the Indian 
and Pakistan Governments referred to in paragraph 9 
below ; 

"7. Agree that the demilitarization shall be carried out 
in such a way that at the end of the period referred to 
in paragraph 6 above the situation will be : 

A. On the Pakistan side of the cease-fire line : 

(i) the tribesmen and Pakistan nationals not nor- 
mally resident therein who had entered the State for 
the purpose of fighting will have been withdrawn ; 

(11) the Pakistan troops will have been withdrawn 
from the State, and 

(iii) large-scale disbandment and disarmament of 
the Azad Kashmir forces will have taken place. 

B. On the Indian side of the cease-fire line : 

(i) the bulk of the Indian forces in the State will 
have been withdrawn ; 

(11) further withdrawals or reductions, as the case 
may be, of tJie Indian and State Armed forces remain- 
ing in the State after the completion of the operation 
referred to in B (i) above will have been carried out; 



" Annex VI, not here printed. 
'anuary 14, 1952 



* BtTLLETIN of Nov. 5, 1951, p. 740. 
'Ihid., p. 741. 



53 



so that at the end of the period referred to In paragraph 
6 above there will remain on the present Pakistan side 

of the cease-fire line a force of Civil Armed Forces, 

and on the Indian side of the cease-fire line a force 

of . 

"10. Agree that the Government of India shall cause 
the Plebiscite Administrator to be formally appointed to 
office not later than the final day of the demilitarization 
period referred to in paragraph 6 above;" 

The United Nations Representative has carefully con- 
sidered the situation on the sub-continent with regard 
to the relations between India and Pakistan in general 
and the Kashmir problem in isarticular. Furthermore, 
he has paid careful attention to the views put forward by 
both parties, and he has sought to narrow the differences 
between the parties on the basis of the twelve proposals 
of the plan as a whole which was noted with approval by 
the Security Council on 10 November 1951. 

Accordingly, and with reference to paragraph 4 of the 
resolution of the Security Council of 10 November 1951, 
the United Nations Representative now wishes to express 
his view on the problem arising from the lack of an agree- 
ment on four of the twelve proposals, as follows : 

(a ) With regard to paragraph 5 which reads as follows : 
"Agree that subject to the provisions of paragraph 11 

below the demilitarization of the State of Jammu and 
Kashmir contemplated in the Uncip resolutions of 
1.3 August 1948 and 5 .January 1949 shall be effected in 
a single, continuous process :" 
the United Nations Representative repeats the view ex- 
pressed on page 25, paragraph .50, of his report of 15 Octo- 
ber 1951 which reads as follows ; 

"Agreement that the demilitarization of the State of 
Jammu and Kashmir should be effected in a single, con- 
tinuous process implied, in the opinion of the United 
Nations Representative, the implementation of part II of 
the 13 August 1948 resolution, together with paragraph 4 
(a) and (b) of the 5 January 1949 resolution as a 
whole . . ." 

(b) In his opinion, paragraph 6 should read as follows : 
"Agree that this process of demilitarization shall be 



completed on 15 July 19.52, unless another date is de- 
cided upon by the representatives of the Indian and 
Pakistan Governments referred to in Paragraph 9;" 
(c) Paragraph 7 should read as follows : 

"Agree that the demilitarization shall be carried out 
in such a way that on the date referred to in paragraph 
6 above the situation will be: 
A. On the Pakistan side of the cease-fire line: 

(i) the tribesmen and Pakistan nationals not nor- 
mally resident therein who had entered the State for 
the purpose of fighting will have been withdrawn ; 

(ii) the Pakistan troops will have been witlidrawn 
from the State, and 

(iii) large-scale disbandment and disarmament of 
the Azad Kashmir forces will have taken place. 
E. On the Indian side of the cease-fire line: 

(i) the bulk of tlie Indian forces in the State will 
have withdrawn ; 

(ii) further withdrawals or reductions, as the case 
may be, of the Indian and States Armed forces remain- 
ing in the State after the completion of the operation 
referred to in B (i) above will have been carried out; 
so that on the date referred to in paragraph 6 above 
there will remain on each side of the cease-fire line the 
lowest possible number of armed forces based in propor- 
tion on the number of armed forces existing on each side 
of the cease-fire line on 1 January 1949". 

(d) Paragraph 10 to be maintained as It stands, 
namely : 

"Agree that the Government of India shall cause the 
Plebiscite Administrator to be formally appointed to 
oflice not later than the final day of the demilitarization 
period referred to in paragraph 6 above;" 
The United Nations Representative, in accordance with 
tlie request of the Security Council that he give his views 
on the problem confided to him, has presented this analysis 
of the problem and his views thereon, with the hope that 
they will help the Council to assist the parties in reaching 
an agreement on the problem of demilitarization of the 
State of Jammu and Kashmir in the more hopeful atmos- 
phere on the subcontinent. 



U.N. Committee Approves German Election Plan 

Statements l)y John Sherman Cooper 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly 



TOWARD A UNITED GERMANY > 

My purpose in speaking again upon the resolu- 
tion presented by the United Kingdom, France, 
and the United States is to direct the attention of 
the Committee to the central issues which the dele- 
gation of the United States believes have devel- 
oped from our deliberations. 

At the outset I wish to express the appreciation 
of my delegation for the genuine interest expressed 
by ail members of the Committee in the problems 
related to the proposal made by the Governments 

' Made in the Ad Hoc Political Committee of the General 
Assembly on Dec. 17 and released to the press by the U.S. 
Mission to the U.N. on the same date. For a statement 
by Mr. Cooper on Dec. 5, see Bulletin of Dec. 24, 1951, 
p. 1018 ; for text of the tripartite draft resolution, see ihid., 
p. 1019. 



of France, the United Kingdom, and my country. 
We welcome the constructive amendments which 
have been tabled by the delegations of Bolivia, 
Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, and Uruguay," and by 
Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Netherlands, and 
Norway.^ We believe that these amendments have 
improved the original resolution and have made 
more explicit certain points which were implied 
in the original draft. My Government fully sup- 
ports the tripartite resolution as modified by these 
amendments. 

The object of this resolution is to secure the aid 
of the United Nations in taking a necessary step 
toward the unification of Germany. The unifica- 



'U.N. doc. A/AC.53/L.18, dated Dec. 15, 1951. 
' U.N. doc. A/AC.53/L.17, dated Dec. 14, 1951. 



54 



Depar/menf of Sfafe Bulletin 



tion of Germany is, as every one of us knows, the 
most profound wish of the German people. In 
this case, their wish accords with the fundamental 
interest of the United Nations — the preservation 
and promotion of peace. 

A divided Germany must always endanger the 
stability of Europe. A united Germany, demo- 
cratic and nonaggressive in practice and spirit, 
would reduce the tensions and fears of the people 
of both Western and Eastern Europe. It could 
remove one of the major differences between the 
three AVestern Powers and the Soviet Union. The 
unification of Germany will mark a substantial 
advance toward peace. 

The only legal and just way by which Germany 
can ever be united is as a result of free elections 
held throughout all of Germany. An apparent 
agreement on this point by those having responsi- 



bility in Germany has been established during this 
debate. The German people say this is true; the 
representatives of the Federal Republic of West 
Germany and the representatives of the Soviet 
zone say this is true; the three Western Powers 
aiul tlie Soviet Union say this is true. 

Real Issue Between East and West Germany 

But when we come to discuss the terms of free 
electiojis, the real point at issue between the Fed- 
eral Republic of West Germany and the repre- 
sentatives of East (Germany and between the three 
Western Powers and the Soviet Union becomes 
clear. The real point of difference is this — What 
are the conditions which make elections really 
free? 

The representatives of every free nation sitting 
at this table know that there can be no free elec- 



Text of Resolution 

O.N. doc. A/ AC. 53/L. 11/Rev. 2 
Adopted December 19, 1951 

Whereas the Governnients of the United Kingdom, 
the United States and France, acting on a proposal 
made by the German Federal Chancellor, have brought 
before the General Assembly a request for the appoint- 
ment of an impartial international commission to 
carry out a simultaneous investigation in the Federal 
Republic of Germany, in Berlin, and in the Soviet Zone 
of Germany in order to determine whether existing con- 
ditions there make it possible to hold genuinely free 
elections throughout these areas. 

Whereas the statements made by the representa- 
tives of the Federal Government of Germany, of Berlin 
and of the Soviet Zone of Germany before the Ad Hoc 
I'olitical Committee reveal differences of opinion with 
regard to the conditions existing in these areas, which 
makes it essential that such an investigation shall be 
carried out by an impartial body ; 

The General Assembly, 

Having regard to the Purposes and Principles of 
the United Nations as set out in the Charter, taking 
due account of tlie responsibilities of the four Powers 
regarding Germany, and desiring to make its contribu- 
tion to the achievement of the unity of Germany in 
the interests of world peace, 

1. Considers it desirable to give effect to the above 
request ; 

2. Resolves to appoint a Commission composed of 
representatives of Brazil, Iceland, Netherlands, Pakis- 
tan and Poland which shall carry out immediately 
a simultaneous Investigation in the Federal Republic 
of Germany, in Berlin, and in tlie Soviet Zone of Ger- 
many to ascertain and report whether conditions in 
these areas are such as to make possible the holding 
of genuinely free and secret elections throughout these 
areas. The Commission shall investigate the follow- 
ing matters in so far as they affect the holding of free 
elections ; 

(a) The constitutional provisions in force in these 
.areas and their application as regards the various as- 
pects of individual freedom, in particular the degree 
to which. In practice, the individual enjoys freedom 
of movement, freedom from arbitrary arrest and de- 
tention, freedom of association and assembly, freedom 
of speech, press and broadcasting ; 



(b) Freedom of political parties to organize and 
carry out their activities. 

(c) The organization and activities of the judiciary, 
police and other administrative organs ; 

3. Calls upon all authorities In the Federal Republic, 
in Berlin, and in the Soviet Zone to enable the Commis- 
sion to travel freely throughout these areas; and to 
allow the Commission freedom of access to such per- 
sons, places and relevant documents as it considers 
necessary in the course of executing its task and to 
allow it to summon any witnesses whom it wishes to 
examine; 

4. (a) Directs the Commission to report at the 
earliest practicable date to the Secretary-General, for 
the consideration of the four Powers and for the in- 
formation of the other Members of the United Nations, 
the results of Its efforts to make the necessary arrange- 
ments with all the parties concerned to enable It to 
undertake Its work according to the terms of the pres- 
ent resolution ; 

(b) Directs the Commission, if it is able to make the 
necessary arrangements throughout the areas con- 
cerned, similarly to report the findings resulting from 
its investigation of conditions in these areas, it being 
understood that such findings may include recommen- 
dations regarding further steps which might be taken 
in order to bring about conditions in Germany neces- 
sary for the holding of free elections in these areas ; 

(c) Directs the Commission, if it Is unable forthwith 
to make these arrangements, to make a further attempt 
to carry out its task at such time as it is satisfied that 
the German authorities in the Federal Republic, in 
Berlin and in the Soviet Zone will admit the Commis- 
sion, as it is desirable to leave the door open for the 
Commission to carry out its task ; 

(d) Directs the Commission in any event to report, 
not later than 1 September 10.52, the results of its ac- 
tivities to the Secretary-General, for the consideration 
of the four Powers and for the information of the 
other Members of the United Nations ; 

5. Declares that the United Nations is prepared, 
after being satisfied that the conditions throughout 
the areas concerned are such as to make possible the 
holding of genuinely free and secret elections, to offer 
its assistance in order to guarantee the freedom of 
the elections ; 

6. Requests the Secretary-General to furnish the 
Commission with the necessary staff and facilities. 



lanuary 14, J 952 



55 



tions any place where there is not general freedom. 
When l' speak of freedom, I speak of a freedom 
that is honored, that is practiced, and that is pro- 
tected by law. There may be much talk of 
constitutions and of laws, but if the freedom pro- 
claimed by such documents is violated in practice, 
their existence serves only to make more repre- 
hensible the wrong done to man. 

We have heard the statements of representatives 
from the Federal Republic of West Germany and 
from the Soviet zone, and have noted the sharp 
conflict in their views. 

One fact stands out clearly. The spokesmen of 
the Soviet zone indicated that they do not want 
to reveal to an impartial international conunission 
the conditions which exist in their area. The 
Federal Republic, on the other hand, stated its 
desire to expose itself to such a test. 

The representatives of the Federal Republic 
spoke of the development of democratic govern- 
ment in Western Germany. It is a developing 
government. In Western Germany, as in all of 
Germany, there are some remnants of Nazi sym- 
pathy which will demand the continuing opposi- 
tion of the German people. 

The distinguished delegate from Israel has 
spoken of the dangers of a revival of nazism in 
Germany. The delegation of the United States 
understands the concern of his country, one which 
derives from its experience with Nazi Germany. 
It is an experience whose recurrence all free na- 
tions, and certainly those who were the subjects 
of its aggression, are striving to prevent. The 
United States, with tlie United Kingdom and 
France, has adhered faithfully to the policy and 
conviction that these influences should never again 
become effective. 

My Government has not overlooked the factors. 
The criteria established in the resolution are broad 
enough to include any real and effective resurgence 
of nazism. Those who oppose the revival of na- 
zism or totalitarianism of any form should be first 
to support this inquiry. 

But most important, we can say that the insti- 
tutions which free peoples believe are the true 
means of preventing force and repression exist in 
Western Germany. I speak of free elections, free 
information media, and the civil and political 
rights of the individual. 

The guarantee of freedom in Germany lies in 
the growth of these institutions and in the fulfill- 
ment of the natural desire of the German people 
for self-government. 

Can we believe that similar institutions of 
freedom exist in East Germany ? The represent- 
atives of the Federal Republic, drawing upon 
their own knowledge and from information fur- 
nished by thousands of refugees from the Eastern 
zone, told the story of conditions in East Germany. 
Some members have suggested that too much at- 
tention was devoted to these conditions. It was 
an unpleasant story, but at times it is necessary 
that unpleasant stories be heard to serve truth. 

56 



Just a few years ago, many people did not want 
to believe that arbitrary arrest, the secret police, 
and concentration camps existed in Nazi Germany. 
It was an unpleasant story. Today, it is un- 
pleasant and fearful to know that these same of- 
fenses against liberty and the human spirit exist 
in somewhat different but equally dangerous 
forms. But this knowledge is necessary if these 
conditions are to be changed. 

The delegation of the United States believes 
that the conditions described by the representa- 
tives of the Federal Republic exist. If they do ; 
not, it is difficult to explain why hundreds of 
thousands of people will leave their homes and 
even their families to flee from East Germany to 
West Germany. This strange one-way traffic — 
strange because it is against every normal instinct 
of mankind — flows not from West to East, but 
only from East to West. 

Decisions Facing the General Assembly 

Mr. President, the first decision that we must 
make is to determine whether the General As- 
sembly will undertake any responsibility toward 
helping solve this very serious world problem. It 
must decide if the Three Power resolution is 
reasonable and appropriate as an affirmative step 
in this direction. In making these decisions, I 
believe that we ought to take into account the influ- 
ence that the positive interest and action of the 
United Nations can bring to bear upon the solution 
of this problem, and we should not allow that 
influence to be conditioned on the acceptance or 
i-ejection of the resolution by any of the occupying 
powers. 

Now, how does this draft resolution help us in 
this problem? 

If it is permitted to function, the commission 
established by this resolution would ascertain 
whether the conditions for free elections exist. 
If this commission were to report that such condi- 
tions do exist, the way would l)e clear for tlie Four 
Powers to agree upon the actual holding of the 
elections as a first step towards a unified Germany. 
If the report reveals that conditions in any part 
of Germany do not permit the holding of free elec- 
tions, it would at the same time provide impartial 
findings and recommendations which the four oc- 
cupying powers could use as a basis for further 
negotiations. 

The reason why a disinterested determination 
of fact by an impartial body is needed became per- 
fectly apparent when the German spokesmen ad- 
dressed the Committee. Each group made serious 
charges against the other. A United Nations com- 
mission could report the facts impartially; then 
action could follow. 

It is essential that the German people shall be 
able to express their will freely and without fear 
of reprisal. It is important also that they know 
and have confidence that they can do so. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Whatever the report of the commission may be, 
it is of the utmost importance that it be made by 
an independent and impartial authority, in whom 
all the German people may have confidence. It is 
a necessity which argues strongly for the establish- 
ment of a commission by the United Nations. 

I would like now to address myself to the al- 
ternative proposals which are the subject of reso- 
lutions before the Committee, or which have been 
suggested in speeches. 

U.S.S.R.'s Proposal 

The delegate of the Soviet Union has stated that 
the determination of fact proposed by this resolu- 
tion is one that can be made only by the German 
people through the representatives of the Federal 
Republic and of the Soviet zone. 

It is a fact, of course, that there are no freely 
elected representatives of the Soviet zone. But 
let us suppose such a conference should be called. 
It is certain that the first question which must be 
advanced by the representatives of the Federal 
Republic is whether conditions exist in East Ger- 
many which would permit the holding of free 
elections. It would be an academic exercise to go 
forward with the formulation of an election law 
and arrangements for holding an election until 
this prerequisite is established. 

The argument of the delegate of the Soviet 
Union has a superficial appeal. On closer exami- 
nation, it is another reflection of their policy — 
that of emphasizing the machinery of elections 
and minimizing the basis of free elections — the 
conditions of freedom in both zones. 

It has been urged by others that this Committee 
should take no action and defer the question of 
United Nations assistance until the Four Powers 
have agreed that conditions suitable to the hold- 
ing of free elections exist throughout Germany. 
This proposal finds expression in the resolution 
introduced by the distinguished delegate of Swe- 
den on behalf of his delegation. My delegation 
is mindful of the interest which has led to this 
proposal and to its support by several delegations. 
Nevertheless, we cannot agree that a recommenda- 
tion that the four occupying powers should at- 
tempt at this time to reach agreement on this 
matter, is the most affirmative and productive 
action that can be taken by the General Assembly. 

The three Western Powers have submitted this 
new approach to the General Assembly precisely 
because our efforts to reach agreement with the 
Soviet Union have failed. 

I have already spoken of the efforts made by 
the three Western Powers over the past few years 
to reach agreement with the Soviet Union on the 
holding of free elections throughout Geraiany. 
Their fruitlessness is best recalled by the record 
of the 73 futile sessions which the four Deputy 
Foreign Ministers held in Paris earlier this year. 

"\Aniatever agreement in principle might be 

January 14, 7952 

982373—52 3 



found, assuming this much could be achieved in 
a Four Power meeting, the problem of achieving 
an impartial determination of conditions affecting 
elections would still remain. It is our view that 
the practical effect of the Swedish resolution is to 
deny the possibility of success for this new pro- 
posal and to make delay a certainty. 

From larger considerations, my delegation can- 
not join in the view that a resolution of the Gen- 
eral Assembly will be a nullity because the Soviet 
Union and the representatives of the Soviet zone 
have expressed their opposition. 

I do not believe that the General Assembly 
should assume that the Soviet Union and the rep- 
resentatives of East Germany can always dis- 
regard the recommendations of the United Nations 
and its offer of aid toward the solution of a prob- 
lem which they say they seek so passionately. 

But, if the Soviet Union and Eastern Germany 
shall continue to refuse the aid and to ignore the 
recommendations of the General Assembly, the 
United States still believes that this action by the 
Assembly is necessary and valuable. 

General Assembly's Moral Responsibility 

The great authority- of the General Assembly 
does not come from any power to coerce. It comes 
from the power to recommend — the power to set an 
international standard of conduct against which 
actions can be judged by the people of the world. 
For the General Assembly to refuse to exercise 
this power because of the fear that its recommen- 
dations will not be followed is for it to abdicate 
its moral I'esponsibility, to cast aside the oppor- 
tunity which it uniquely possesses of raising the 
standards of the conduct of nations. This As- 
sembly, we believe, should establish this commis- 
sion because it is the I'ight thing to do. 

To refrain from taking this action because of 
the threat of a veto by the Soviet zone authorities 
would lower the prestige and diminish the effec- 
tiveness of the United Nations. As a practical 
matter, this case has already demonstrated the 
moral force of world opinion, including the opin- 
ion of the peoi^le of Germany, on the actions of the 
Soviet Union and its representatives in Eastern 
Germany. Originally, the East zone authorities 
opposed free and secret elections. Originally, 
General Chuikov would not answer letters of the 
High Commissioners of the three Western Powers 
on this subject. But the Federal Republic and the 
Three Powers continued to press the point. Now, 
the East German authorities and the Soviet repre- 
sentatives alike proclaim their devotion to the idea 
of free and secret elections. Originally, the 
Soviet representatives opposed the Pakistani res- 
olution inviting German representatives to express 
their views before this Committee. But the Com- 
mittee adopted this resolution. The Federal Re- 
public and the Government of Western Berlin 
promptly accepted the invitation. The Soviet 

57 



Union found itself depicted to the world as a 
power denying- Germans the right to be heard in 
the United Nations. It revei'sed its policy, and 
spokesmen from the Soviet zone suddenly ap- 
peared before the Committee. 

The distinguished delegate of the Netherlands 
said in his able speech that the policy of the occu- 
pying powers is affected and influenced continu- 
ously by the opinion of the German people in all 
zones of Germany. 

We recall that Maj'or Keuter told us that con- 
ditions in the Eastern zone of Berlin are better 
than in the major part of the Soviet zone, because 
of the example of life in the Western zone and 
the force of its opinion. 

The fact that the United Nations has concerned 
itself with this problem and that it has offered its 
aid, to be effective immediately, will have its in- 
fluence on opinion and may hasten the betterment 
of conditions. I believe that the General As- 
sembly should be confident about the influence of 
its recommendations. 

The opposition expressed here to the sending 
of the commission should not deter us from adopt- 
ing this resolution, if we think it is the right thing 
to do. Not to do so, in my judgment, would be 
very unwise. It would be a set-back to the hopes 
of all Germans for progress toward the unity of 
their country. Specifically, for the people of the 
Eastern zone, it would dash the hopes which have 
been aroused by this proposal. The mere exist- 
ence of this commission will be a standing re- 
minder to the people in the Eastern zone of Ger- 
many that the rest of the world has not forgotten 
them. Its existence will be a standing reminder 
of the responsibility to those who by their policies 
delay the growth of democracy throughout Ger- 
many. We have offered this resolution because we 
want to see Germany unified, but with freedom. 
We have offered it with the purpose of hastening 
the day when a luiified Germanj' can play a con- 
structive role in the community of nations. 

U.S. VIEWS ON RESOLUTION 2 

The U.S. delegation voted for this resolution 
because it believes that the resolution can open the 
way to the establishment of a unified and inde- 
pendent Germany, free to take a responsible place 
in the community of nations. This was the same 
reason which prompted my delegation to join with 
the delegations of France and the United King- 
dom in presenting this proposal to the General 
Assembly. 

The present resolution is the product of care- 
ful consideration in the Ad Hoc Political Com- 



mittee. Other delegations have, in the opinion 
of the si^onsors, improved the original draft a 
great deal with their amendments and suggestions. 
We believe the resolution as it now stands is a 
true United Nations document, reflecting the views 
of many members and reflecting also a basic pur- 
pose of our Charter — to eliminate sources of in- 
ternational tension and thus to improve the pros- 
I^ect of peace. 

It has been argued against this proposal that 
the four occupying powers should settle all these 
matters among themselves. But it has been pre- 
cisely the refusal of the Soviet Union to come to 
reasonable agreement on any problem concerning 
Germany which led the other thi'ee occupying 
]>owers to request help from the United Nations. 
It has been further argued that representatives of 
East and West Germany should settle this par- 
ticular question of elections. But it was apparent 
to all who heard these representatives in the Com- 
mittee that there was no basis of mutual confidence 
between them. When there is such basic disagree- 
ment on facts and conditions and indeed objectives, 
then is a good time for the United Nations to exer- 
cise its unique functions of impartial investigation. 

This investigation in Germany, we believe, can 
do nothing but good. If the commission reports 
that conditions are such as to make the holding of 
genuinely free elections possible, the way will be 
open for the Four Powers to reach agreement on 
the actual holding of the elections. If the com- 
mission finds conditions unfavorable, corrective 
action can be taken. In either case, progress can 
be made toward the objective of free and secret 
elections i-esulting in the unification of Germany. 

My Government is not much troubled by the 
statement of the Eastern zone authorities that they 
will not give entry to the commission. We think 
they may change their minds when it becomes evi- 
dent to the Soviet Government that its refusal to let 
the commission in provides too startling a contrast 
with its professed devotion to the idea of German 
unity. We are similarly not too concerned by 
Poland's refusal to serve on the commission. We 
think they may change their minds, and we hope 
they will. In any case, we believe the place for 
Polantl should be kept open on the commission in 
order to demonstrate what I am sure is the desire 
of the General Assembly: that the commission 
should be a balanced one giving expression to the 
chief differing points of view. 



' Press statement made by Mr. Cooper following the 
adoption of the resolution on the German item by the 
Ad Hoc Political Committee on Dec. 19. 



CORRECTION 



In the Bulletin of December 3, 1951, p. 
879, footnote no. 1 should read: "Made be- 
fore Committee I (Political and Security) 
on Nov. 19 and released to the press on the 
same date." 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



Reply to Attacks on U.S. Attitude Toward Human Rights Covenant 



Statement hy Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly '^ 



This statement is a reply to the views expressed 
by Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, the 
Ukraine, and the U.S.S.E. concerning the United 
States in this Committee. My observations in this 
statement accordingly relate to these five coun- 
tries. 

I am interested that these five countries place 
so much stress on the unity of the provisions of 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 
our debates here. In 1948 those five countries did 
not vote for the Declaration. At that time they 
were critical of it. Now they cite it for their own 
purposes. They seem to praise the Declaration 
one time and minimize its importance another 
time, so that I must question the sincerity of their 
i-eliance on the Declaration at this point. 

The delegates of a number of these countries 
expressed concern that an "illusoi*}'" Covenant on 
Human Rights might be drafted in the United 
Nations. The term "illusory" is descriptive of 
the type of covenant which the delegates of these 
countries are seeking to have drafted in the United 
Nations. For example, the Soviet Union lias re- 
peatedly taken the initiative in the General As- 
sembly and in the Commission on Human Rights 
for the elimination of any provision in the Cov- 
enant on implementation. In the General Assem- 
bly last year, the Soviet Union proposed that these 
articles be deleted on the ground that "their in- 
clusion would constitute an attempt at intei'ven- 
tion in the domestic affairs of states and would 
encroach on their States sovereignty." This pro- 
posal was rejected in the Third Committee last 
year in a roll-call vote. Only the five members of 
this Committee now attacking the United States 
voted for this proposal. A similar proposal was 



'Made in Committee III (Social, Humanitarian, and 
Cultural) on Dec. 20 and released to the press by the U.S. 
Mission to the U.N. on the same date. For an earlier 
statement by Mrs. Roosevelt on the Human Rights Cove- 
nant, see BtixLETix of Dec. 31, 1951, p. 1059. 



rejected by the Commission on Human Rights at 
its 1951 session. 

These countries protest that the implementation 
of the provisions of the Covenant would be "shame- 
ful." \Vliat nonsense is this? A Covenant on 
Human Rights would indeed be illusory if the 
proposal of the U.S.S.R. were accepted to delete 
all implementation jirovisions from it. It seems 
to me that freedom must be preserved primarily 
as we were reminded yesterday. The right to 
think and freedom to speak freely are among the 
most important rights, and some of you may 
realize that these are rights that have become 
rather illusory in some countries. 

Even Mr. Vyshinsky himself acknowledges the 
lack of freedom in his country when he observes 
in the book he edited on The Law of the Soviet 
State that in his state "there is and can be no 
place for freedom of speech, press, and so on, for 
the foes of socialism." Thus he proclaims a so- 
called freedom for only those supporting the dic- 
tates of the state. Freedom is not really freedom 
unless you can differ in thought and in expression 
of your thought. 

The speakers from these five countries insist 
over and over again a condition of perfection exists 
in their countries. It always seems to me that 
when things are so absolutely perfect that it would 
almost shine out and you would not have to express 
it so frequently. I can only say that I wish it 
were possible for all of us to be allowed to go to 
the Soviet Union, for example, to see for ourselves 
the actual conditions which exist there. It would 
be very helpful if even some impartial observers 
were allowed to report to us on the actual condi- 
tions existing there. 

Now let me turn to the charge made by some 
of the delegates of these five countries that the 
United States is disregarding the interests of the 
Negroes in our country. Unfortunately there are 
instances of American Negroes being victims of 
unreasoning racial prejudice in my country. 



January 14, 1952 



59 



However, we do not condone these acts in the 
United States. We do everything possible to 
overcome and eliminate such discrimination and 
racial prejudice as may still exist. Racial dis- 
crimination in my countrj^ is irreconcilable with 
the fundamental principles of humanity and 
justice which are embodied in our Bill of Rights. 



The Negro in the U.S. 

Affirmative steps are continually being taken 
to combat racial discrimination. Recently the 
President of the United States issued an Execu- 
tive order to insure protection against racial dis- 
crimination in employment under Government 
contracts. 

The President has on several occasions estab- 
lished advisory commissions to provide evalua- 
tions of the progress being made in the United 
States. The recommendations of these commis- 
sions have served to spur further action to obtain 
the equality we are seeking in my country. Chan- 
ning Tobias, now on the United States delegation 
to the United Nations, was one of the Negroes who 
served on some of these commissions. Some of 
the recommendations and reports of those com- 
missions were quoted here which show that we 
do not hide anything that is wrong. 

Acts of prejudice and discrimination by private 
individuals or groups in my country are more than 
merely deplored by the Government and by the 
vast majority of the people of the United States. 
Not only through laws but also by the process of 
education and in many other ways, efforts are con- 
stantly being made to eliminate racial discrimina- 
tion. It is the official policy of the U. S. Gov- 
ernment, as expressed on many occasions by Presi- 
dent Tnnnan, that the remaining imjDerfections in 
oui' practice of democracy, which result from the 
conduct of small groups of our people, must be 
corrected as soon as possible. 

Increased activity in the political life of our 
country has been characteristic of Negro Ameri- 
cans. They have become a vital factor in the life 
of our local, State, and National Government. A 
reflection of this is seen in the number of Negroes 
holding Government Civil Service appointments. 
In 1938 there were 80,000 Negroes holding such 
appointments ; this number has increased to 270,- 
000. Not only has there been an increase in the 
number of such appointments, but also they are 
constantly assuming more and more responsible 
positions in the Government. 

Negroes in the United States are voting in in- 
creasing numbers in all sections of our country. 

It was suggested here that in certain places they 
were still having difficulty under the poll-tax laws. 
Those laws are rapidly being changed and in many 
parts of the country where it was not possible it 
is now possible for Negro citizens to vote. 



In addition, the years from 1940 to the present 
have seen the election of Negro citizens to a num- 
ber of important local, state, and national offices. 

At the same time I wish to point out we do not 
claim to have reached perfection. We feel that 
our recognition of how much more yet remains to 
be done is a source of strength to us because it 
serves as a stimulant to press ahead with our task 
in this respect. 

It so happens that the very countries which are 
criticizing the United States in this Committee are 
not themselves progressing in the fields of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms in their own 
countries. That may be only because of the diffi- 
culty of communication, but it seems to us that 
there is a great silence among the people of those 
countries. It is the silence of a people shut up 
behind an Iron Curtain where human rights and 
life are being stifled. 

I will not take the time of the Committee to list 
all the many economic and social advances taking 
place in my country. They are well-known to all 
of you even though the five countries to whom I 
am addressing my remarks repeatedly disclaim 
knowledge of these facts. Many of you have 
traveled in the United States. I will simply 
mention, however, one point — the number of hours 
per week that the working man is now working in 
my country. The Federal Fair Labor Standards 
Act has established a standard workweek of 40 
hours and serves as a deterrent against longer 
hours by requiring penalty payments for overtime 
labor. The average of hours worked in all manu- 
facturing industries has now declined to 401/2 
hours a week. In the railroad transportation in- 
dustry, the average is 40^2 hours a week. In 
power laundries 42 hours a week is the average. 
In textile mills, production workers average 41 
hours a week. In printing and publishing, work- 
ers average slightly less than 40 hours a week. 

The charge has also been made that the United 
States favors two covenants on human rights in- 
stead of a single covenant because the United 
States does not favor economic and social progress 
in other countries. This is obviously a ridiculous 
and false argument. It perhaps is unnecessary to 
answer this argument, since its falsity is so ob- 
vious; yet, I should stop for a few minutes to 
answer it frankly, since from time to time by the 
repetition of a particular argument, its falsity may 
soon be forgotten and the fact that it has been 
repeated so many times without answer tends to 
lull some into thinking that there perhaps is some 
merit to the assertion. 
What does the record show ? 



U.S. Aid to Other Countries 

The United States Government, in the course of 
the past 6 years, has made available over 30 billion 
dollars in the form of loans and grants to various 
countries. Of this amount, a total of over 51/0 



60 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



billion dollars has been made available to countries 
in underdeveloped areas. This financial assist- 
ance by the U.S. Government does not include our 
subscription of 635 million dollars to the Interna- 
tional Bank. Nor does it include contributions 
which we have made to U.N. progi'ams such as the 
International Children's Emergency Fund, the 
International Refugee Organization, Relief and 
Reliabilitation for Refugees of Palestine, and the 
U.N. expanded Technical Assistance Program, 
contributions which have in large part been used 
to assist in the improvement of economic and social 
conditions in unclerdeveloped areas. 

During the fiscal year 1951 alone, the U.S. Gov- 
ernment made available on a grant basis over a 
quarter of a billion dollars for programs of tech- 
nical and economic assistance to underdeveloped 
areas. 

As is well-known in this Committee, of the total 
financial contributions to Unicef — some 155 mil- 
lion dollars — the United States has contributed 
about 100 million dollars. 

Of the 5I/2 billion dollars made available to 
underdeveloped areas during the past 6 years by 
the United States, almost I14 billion dollars was 
made available by the U. S. Export-Import. Bank. 
This assistance has been in the form of loans for 
economic-development purposes to Latin America, 
the Near East, Africa, and Asia. During a recent 
period of 1 year, the Bank loaned over 395 million 
dollars. Of this amount over 96 percent went to 
underdeveloped areas. 

Meeting the needs of underdeveloped areas for 
basic facilities in such fields as transportation, 
power, communications, and public health serves 
as a springboard for attaining higher standards of 
living for the peoi^le in these areas. 

I have cited these figures of capital made avail- 
able for economic development from the United 
States not for the figures themselves, nor for self- 
praise. I have cited them only as concrete evi- 
dence that the Government and people of the 
United States are very much interested in the eco- 
nonic development of otlier countries — and in 
more than an academic way. 

The Congi-ess of the United States this year de- 
cided to increase the lending authority of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank an additional 1 billion dollars. 
This brings the basic lending capacity of the Bank 
up to 414 billion dollars at the present time. 

In addition, Congress recently appropriated 
over 400 million dollars to support a widespread 
program of economic and technical assistance to 
agriculture and industry in the Near East, Africa, 
Latin America, and Asia. These funds are to be 
made available almost entirely on a grant basis. 

The U. S. Technical Cooperation Administra- 
tion, established about a year ago, has been con- 
stantly gaining momentum. During the first year 
of its expanded program, almost 500 requests for 
technical assistance were approved. By August 



of this year, programs were under way in 36 
countries in every part of the world. 

In addition, Congress has provided that up to 13 
million dollars may be available as the United 
States contribution to the United Nations ex- 
panded Technical Assistance Progi-am for the next 
fiscal period. 

I might also mention that the United States 
share of the 1950 gross assessment budget of the 
many specialized agencies, including the Inter- 
national Labor Organization, the International 
Children's Emergency Fund, and the Palestine 
Refugee Organization, is always a good and fair 
share. I would like to point out that no contri- 
butions to these organizations have been made by 
the nations attacking the United States. 

We understand the difficulties faced by the 
Soviet Union in rebuilding her economy after the 
war. We also understand that she is expending 
funds to assist the countries along her borders 
whose economy she is now dominating. But if 
the Soviet Union would cut down the large ex- 
penditures she has continued to make since the 
end of the war for her large armed forces, she 
would have more funds and resources with which 
to build a peaceful economy and to assist other 
countries. 

I am not suggesting that the Soviet Union 
undertake to assist the economic development of 
other countries as much as the United States is 
doing — that would not be possible since our 
economy is so much stronger than that of the 
Soviet Union — but I am suggesting that the Soviet 
Union should make some contribution to the many 
economic and social programs of the United 
Nations and the specialized agencies, to show in 
practice as well as in their speeches that it has a 
real interest in the economic and social progress 
of other nations, particularly the underdeveloped 
countries. 

I ]ioi)e, Madame Chairman, that I have made it 
amply clear that the support of my delegation for 
two covenants on human rights does not stem from 
any lack of interest in the economic and social 
progress of jjeople in our own country or any dis- 
interest in the economic and social progi-ess of 
other countries. 

The United States supports two covenants be- 
cause we believe that two covenants would con- 
stitute a practical approach to the question before 
us. We do not believe it advisable as proposed 
by some delegations that everything go into one 
covenant. For all the reasons I have previously 
stated in this Committee, we would make much 
greater progress in the achievement of human 
rights and freedoms in the world by the simul- 
taneous completion of two documents — one on 
civil and political rights and the other on eco- 
nomic, social, and cultural rights, and the attacks 
of the countries which I have been answering have 
not changed my point of view on this subject. 



January 14, 1952 



61 



U.S. Explains Vote on Yugoslav item 



Statement ty John Sherman Cooper 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assemhly ^ 



On behalf of the delegation of the United States, 
I would like to speak briefly of the considerations 
■which led my delegation to support the Yugoslav 
resolution which has been adopted by the General 
Assembly. 

We have given this resolution our support be- 
cause it provides a series of reasonable recom- 
mendations which, if followed, can lessen the ten- 
sion between Yugoslavia and the seven states listed 
in the Yugoslav complaint. It cannot be reason- 
ably doubted that such tension exists. In the Ad 
Hoc Committee, we heard Mr. Djilas describe in 
detail and with thorough documentation the ag- 
gressive campaign which is being pressed by the 
Soviet Union and the Governments of Bulgaria, 
Hungary, Eumania, Albania, Czechoslovalda, and 
Poland against the Yugoslav Government. The 
countercharges made against Yugoslavia during 
the Committee debate by these seven states con- 
firmed at the very least the existence of a serious 
state of tension. 

The resolution is very mild in its terms and in 
substance recommends that all of the governments 
concerned should conduct their relations in ac- 
cordance with the spirit of the United Nations 
Charter. It notes the statement of Yugoslavia that 
it is ready to contribute on its pai't all that is nec- 
essary to carry out these recommendations. It is 
difficult to understand why the Soviet Union and 
the other members of the Soviet group oppose so 
strongly this mild resolution. It is difficult to 
understand how these states can thus deny their 
clear obligation to conduct their relations with 
Yugoslavia or with any other state in accordance 
with the spirit and letter of the United Nations 
Charter. 

Again, Mr. President, in voting for the Yugo- 
slav resolution, my delegation supported the Char- 
ter principles of national independence, territorial 

' Made in a plenary session of the General Assembly on 
Dec. 14 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to 
the U.N. on the same date. 



Text of Yugoslav Resolution 

U.N. doc. A/L.9 

Adopted December 14, 1951 

The General Assembly, 

Having Considered the complaint submitted to 
it by the delegation of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugo.slavia concerning the activities of the Gov- 
ernment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, Ro- 
mania and Albania, as well as the Governments of 
Czechoslovakia and Poland, against Yugoslavia, 

Viewing with serious concern the tension be- 
tween Yugoslavia on the one side, and the other 
above-mentioned countries on the other side. 

Mindful of the purpose of the United Nations 
"to develop friendly relations among nations based 
on respect for the principle of equal rights and 
self-determination of peoples, and to take other 
appropriate measures to strengthen universal 
peace". 

Mindful of the authority of the General Assembly 
to "recommend measures for the peaceful adjust- 
ment of any situation, regardless of origin, which 
it deems liliely to impair the general welfare or 
friendly relations among nations", 

1. Takes note of the declaration of the Yugoslav 
delegation that the Goveriunent of Yugoslavia for 
its part is ready to do all that is necessary for the 
carrying out of the recommendations of the present 
resolution ; 

2. Recommends that the Governments concerned : 

(a) Conduct their relations and settle their dis- 
putes in accordance with the spirit of the United 
Nations Charter ; 

(b) Conform in their diplomatic intercourse 
with the rules and practices which are customary 
in international relations ; 

(c) Settle frontier disputes by means of mixed 
frontier commissions or other peaceful means of 
their choice. 



integrity, and self-determination of people. In 
the case of Yugoslavia, these principles are threat- 
ened by aggressive pressures designed to subvert 
and overthrow the Yugoslav Government. If this 
campaign continues, there is the danger that it 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



could lead to serious trouble in the Balkans, with 
repercussions throughout the world. It is clear to 
all of us that any new recourse to aggression in 
the world today might strain to the breaking point 
the fabric of world peace. It is our duty to strive 
to reduce these strains on peace and to lessen ten- 
sion wherever it exists. 

The Soviet Union and others in its group have 
called attention to the economic and military as- 
sistance now being provided by my country to 
Yugoslavia. As we have said so often, we are 
providing this assistance at the request of Yugo- 
slavia in order to help that country increase its 
ability to defend itself and to maintain its inde- 
pendence. In this connection, our delegation re- 
called in the Committee the substantial assistance 
provided by the American people to the Soviet 
Union during the war against Nazi Germany. 
This aid was pi'ovided, as it is now provided to 



Yugoslavia, despite the fact that the people of the 
United States reject the Communist philosophy 
and system. We have provided aid in each case 
because fundamental principles of national in- 
dependence and territorial integrity were involved 
in opposition to aggression. We have provided 
aid to strengthen the security of the free nations, 
including the United States, against aggression. 
These principles, set forth so clearly in the Char- 
ter, the United States has always supported. 

Yugoslavia has declared in the resolution that 
has been adopted that it is prepared to contribute 
on its part all that is necessai-y to carry out its rec- 
ommendations. We must hope that the countries 
listed in the Yugoslav complaint will heed the 
recommendations that now go to them from the 
General Assembly, and that they will not ignore 
its spirit. For in truth, that is all the General 
Assembly really asks. 



Importance of Land Reform 



Statement hy Channing Tobias 

U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly ^ 



The U.S. delegation is of the opinion that it is 
highly appropriate that the question of land re- 
form be considered under the topic of economic 
development of the underdeveloped countries. 
This problem, as the Economic and Social Council 
has stated, is a necessary part of any effective and 
co'mprehe?isive program of economic development. 

Indeed, the U.S. delegation feels that the prob- 
lem of land reform has an importance that extends 
beyond the economic sphere. As the distin- 
guished delegate of India stated at the recent Con- 
ference of the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion — "Individual ownership of land by the farm- 
ers themselves is one of the best means of promot- 
ing the dignity of the individual and of stabilizing 
the democratic structure of society." He then 
went on to say that land reform "is fundamental 
to the democratic future of the world." 

We are glad to note that the 66 countries who 
are members of the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation agreed with this view and adopted a strong 
resolution on the subject of land reform. They 
declared that the elimination of anachronisms and 

niade in Committee II (Economic and Financial) on 
Dec. 20 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the 
U.N. on the same date. 



defects from the existing agrarian structures is es- 
sential to economic progress. They stated further 
that such measures will materially contribute to 
human freedom and dignity. They emphasized 
the fact that such measures are needed in order 
to achieve social stability and democratic develop- 
ment. 

Land reform is of transcendent importance. 
It affects the daily lives of that three-quarters of 
the world's entire population that depends upon 
the land for its livelihood. In vast areas of 
Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, 
and Africa, where the great majority of the popu- 
lation are farmers, land is at the present time the 
main source of wealth. Unless that land is held 
through a system of ownership which best reflects 
the needs of the people, and unless that land is cul- 
tivated by methods best calculated to get maxi- 
mum results, the economy of the entire world will 
suffer. 

The excellent report which the Secretary-Gen- 
eral has prepared in response to the resolution 
adopted by the fifth session of the General Assem- 
bly shows that over a large part of the world such 
systems of ownership and efficient methods of 
cultivation do not prevail. 



January 14, J952 



63 



What Is Land Reform? 

Tlie Food and Agriculture Organization has just 
enumerated a number of the aspects of this many- 
sided problem. Its Conference declared '"''that in 
many countries the agrarian structure has rnost 
senous defects.^'' The Fag Conference pointed 
particularly to the uneconomic size of farms, the 
fragmentation of holdings, the maldistribution of 
landownership, excessive rents, inequitable sys- 
tems of taxation, insecurity of tenure, perpetual 
indebtedness, and the lack of clear title to land 
and water. 

If I may be more specific: Let us take a look 
at the question of interest rates which a farmer 
must pay in order to buy the seed or the equipment 
which he needs. In some cases, these rates range 
from 50 percent to 100 percent a year. 

Or, take the question of rents. In some coun- 
tries tenant farmers have to pay landlords — fre- 
quently absentee landlords — rentals as high as 50 
to 70 pei'cent of the value of the crops which they 
jjroduce. Sometimes, they must also pay, in addi- 
tion, what is in effect, the salary of a middleman — 
the rent collector. 

Sometimes, indeed, the tenant has no assurance 
that he will be allowed to remain on his land from 
year to year. How then can he be expected to have 
either the resources or the desire to improve that 
land ? It has been said that "a man will fight for 
his farm or his home, but not for a stack of rent 
receipts." But he will strive to improve his farm 
or his home if he owns them, or if he has a feeling 
of security of tenure. 

Now, what is it that we have in mind when we 
talk of land reform ? The popular conception of 
land reform is the breaking up of large estates. 
Our concept of agrarian reform goes far beyond 
tliis. Our concern is with the people who work on 
the land. Our concern is with a whole series of 
measures looking toward improving the way of 
life of the man who actually tills the soil. 

To be sure, opportunity to own the land one 
works is a key part of this concept. But there are 
other equally important aspects. They include 
the means for obtaining credit on reasonable terms 
to purchase land and to acquire the necessary facil- 
ities for agricultural production and improved 
rural living. They include facilities for market- 
ing agricultural commodities at a fair return. 
They include a system of farm taxation that is not 
inequitable. They include opportunity for learn- 
ing improved techniques of agricultural produc- 
tion. They include improved conditions of rural 
living. 

Illustrations of Land Reform 

We have already heard the statement of the dis- 
tinguished representative of China with regard to 
what has been accomplished through land reform 
in Taiwan. We look forward to hearing from 
other of our colleagues as to the accomplishments 
in their respective countries. 



At the recent Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion Conference the Japanese delegate described 
what has recently been accomplished in his 
country. He stated that before the implementa- 
tion of the land-reform law, two-thirds of all 
Japanese farmers rented all or part of the land 
they cultivated. Rents were usually paid in kind 
on the basis of about 50 percent of the "normal" 
crop of the land rented. This, in fact, meant 70 
percent or more of the actual harvest. The tenants 
had no bargaining power. They had no guaran- 
tees of secure tenure. Economic instability and 
social strife were all too prevalent. Tenant dis- 
putes and tenant riots occurred frequently. 

As a result of the 1946 land-reform laws in 
Japan the Government purchased rented agricul- 
tural land and resold it to the cultivators. The 
land was paid for with 24-year bonds of the 
Japanese Government, bearing 3.6 percent inter- 
est. Thus, the entire process of shifting owner- 
ship was financed locally. 

The results have been impressive! The culti- 
vated area operated by tenants has already been 
reduced from 46 percent of the total cultivated 
area to 10 percent. Land which is still being 
rented is subject to fixed rental ceilings. The 
landlord-tenant relationship is now based on model 
leases, thus giving the tenant security of tenure. 
Moreover, in order to insure that the progress 
which has been achieved will be maintained, the 
purchase of agricultural land is restricted to those 
who will actually cultivate it. 

The results of the Japanese experiment were 
summarized by the Japanese delegate to the Food 
and Agriculture Organization in the following 
words : "The successful completion of the reforms 
in land tenure can be considei'ed a major factor for 
tlie future improvement of Japanese agriculture 
and the alleviation of rural unrest. The Japanese 
farmer today already enjoys a better living stand- 
ard than ever before as a result of the land reform 
programme. Even more important however, he 
has achieved a new social and political status free 
of domination by nonagrarian interests." 

The United States Interest in Land Reform 

As many of my colleagues will recall, the sub- 
ject of land reform ^vas first introduced into this 
body by Secretary of State Acheson in the opening 
plenary session of the fifth assembly. He raised 
this question because of its vital significance to the 
world. 

Our own land-reform history is a long one. It 
is a democratic one. It goes back to Thomas Jef- 
ferson, one of the founders of our country. It was 
his philosophy that those who till the soil should 
own it. To him the small landholder was "the 
most precious part of a state." This is still our 
philosophy. 

As our Secretary of Agriculture has recently 
said : "Evidently a little bit of land, a little bit of 



64 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



opportunity can do for world peace something that 
great armies cannot possibly accomplish. It is 
something that happens inside a person. It is 
something that cannot be shot or chained." 

Mr. President, the statements of Mr. Jefferson 
and our present Secretary of Agriculture are not 
very different. Both agree that a nation of farm 
owners, a nation where tenants have the oppor- 
tunity to become farm owners, is a nation possess- 
ing tiie basic elements of political stability. 

The legislative history of our land reform began 
in 1862. In that year my Government started a 
program to insure that the undeveloped lands in 
the western part of the United States would be 
owned by those who cultivated them. 

In that year thi'ee steps were taken which have 
shaped the development of American land reform 
down to the present. 

The first was the parceling out of free 160-acre 
farms to families who would live on them and till 
them for 5 years. 

The second stejD was the establishment of a 
national department of agriculture. Its job is to 
gather and make available information for the 
benefit of the farmer. It carries on vast research 
projects. It makes the results of its experiments 
available so that the farmer may improve the 
yield of his land. It carries on extension courses 
in every field of rural life. 

The third thing the Federal Government did in 
1862 was to give the States large tracts of land 
for endowing agricultural colleges. Many of our 
great agricultural institutions today obtain a large 
part of their income from these lands. 

The American people appreciate the fore.sight 
of their forefathers. They feel that our f amily- 
owned-and-operated farms have strengthened our 
national economy. We have benefited from the 
advances made possible by the research and edu- 
cational services that were begun almost a hun- 
dred years ago. The result has been constantly 
increasing agricultural harvests. In the past 10 
years, our farm production has risen 40 percent. 

In the meantime we have striven to keep our 
farm lands in the hands of their cultivators. Over 
the years we have developed a coordinated system 
of farm credit at reasonable interest rates. Ameri- 
can farmers today can obtain long-term mortgage 
credit, short-term operating credit, and emergency 
disaster loans. We have started a system of crop 
insurance against unavoidable losses due to 
weather, insects, and plant diseases. 

To aid the farmer in purchasing his materials 
and selling his crops we have encouraged the de- 
velopment of cooperatives. Today, our coopera- 
tives do an annual business of 9 billion dollars. 
They are active in the fields of production, market- 
ing, purchasing, and servicing farm machinery. 
They have been particularly successful in making 
credit available to our farmers. 

We have aided the farmer through soil-conser- 
vation measures. We have established grading 



and standards for his produce. We maintain 
State and Federal inspection services. 

Our Government has also been active in raising 
the standards of rural living. Through the Fed- 
eral Rural Electrification Authority, we are help- 
ing the small and the poorer farmers to bring elec- 
tricity into their homes and farm buildings. Fif- 
teen years ago, when this Government program 
was started, about 10 percent of our farm families 
had electricity. Today almost nine out of every 
ten have it. 

Our approach to our farm problem is based on a 
simple fundamental concept. It is to help the 
farmer help himself. This approach has pro- 
duced results. Within the past 15 years the num- 
ber of tenants — those who rent all the land they 
operate — has declined from 42 percent to 26.8 
percent. Share croppers represent less than 8 
percent of the rural population. Even in our 
southern States, where admittedly conditions have 
been far from perfect and where the problem has 
been accentuated by racial inequalities, the propor- 
tion of farms operated by share croppers has de- 
creased from 21 percent in 1935 to 12 percent at 
the present time, a decline from 716,000 to 350,000. 

Mr. Chairman, what I have said does not in any 
way imply that we have solved the problem of land 
tenure in the United States. We still have prob- 
lems that must be resolved. We still have prob- 
lems of tenure, land distribution, and migratory 
farm labor. We are applying ourselves to their 
solution and we shall continue to do so. 

We recognize, of course, that the program devel- 
oped to meet the needs of the farmer in the United 
States cannot be applied automatically every- 
where. We do feel, however, that some of our 
techniques might be adaptable to other countries. 
We intend to do our best to make the results of 
our own experience available to those who wish to 
profit by them. 

What Has Been Done Since Last Year 

Mr. Chairman, my delegation wants to express 
its great appreciation of what has been accom- 
plished since our last session in the field of land 
reform. We wish to compliment the Secretai-y- 
General for his comprehensive report. It has 
served to spotlight the problems and the difficul- 
ties which exist in this field throughout the world. 

As a consequence of this report, the Economic 
and Social Council adopted a resolution which my 
delegation had the honor to sponsor. That reso- 
lution, while recognizing clearly that no one meas- 
ure or group of measures can be expected to meet 
all situations, nevertheless draws to the attention 
of governments some 16 major types of measures 
which might be used singly or in combination to 
remedy existing anachronisms and defects. The 
resolution also recommends that the United Na- 
tions and the specialized agencies pursue certain 
specific lines of activity. It provides for regular 



January 14, 1952 



65 



reporting on this j^i'oblem and on the progress 
achieved. 

The Food and Agriculture Organization has 
this very month completed its first full-scale con- 
sideration of agrarian reform. The delegates 
from its 66 member countries took this matter 
with the greatest seriousness. The Food and 
Agriculture Organization resolution, to which I 
have already referred, lays out its own detailed 
program of work in this field. We hope that the 
International Labor Organization (Ilo) and the 
UNESCO will take similar steps. 

The ground work has been laid for action. We 
shall look forward to watching progress achieved 
in member countries. 

The Tenets of Land Reform 

Meanwhile, if land reform is to become a real- 
ity, there are six tenets which we must constantly 
keep in the forefront. 

1. Land reform must come largely from the 
efforts of governments themselves. It will not 
come from the outside, irrespective of any assist- 
ance that can be made available by other govern- 
ments or by intergovernmental organizations. 
Land reform requires a conviction, not only among 
the peoi^le who live on the land. It requires con- 
viction among public officials and national leaders. 

2. If the work of the intergovernmental organ- 
izations is to be productive in the field of land 
reform, they will need the full cooperation of 



their member governments. This means that th& 
questionnaire called for by the Economic and 
Social Council, and which governments will be 
receiving from the Secretary-General, must be 
treated seriously. 

3. There can be technical assistance in the field 
of land reform only if it is requested by govern- 
ments. 

4. To be most effective, requests for technical 
assistance in land refoi-m should be related to 
comfDlementary programs in the field of rural in- 
dustrial development. 

5. There is no one formula that can be applied 
across-the-board in all countries. Every country 
has its own problems. Each type of agriculture 
involves different problems. Every country must 
determine its own problems. 

6. Land reform must be started now. There 
is little time to ponder over the perfection of ideal 
schemes. Progress must not be held back merely 
because one of the many elements of a plan may 
not be ready for implementation. 

The resolution which we are proud to cosponsor 
with our friends from Brazil, Pakistan, and Thai- 
land requires no further elaboration on the part 
of the U.S. delegation. It calls for action. We 
in the United States stand ready — both through 
the United Nations and bilaterally — to help in 
carrying forward this great work. I know that 
the hundreds of millions of people throughout the 
world who will be benefited will wish the United 
Nations success in this matter. 



U.S. Reports on Pacific Trust Territory 



The U.S. Mission to the United Nations on 
December 18 made public the report of the United 
States on its administration of the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands for the year ending 
June 30, 1951. The report covers the last years 
of administration by the Department of the Navy. 
By Presidential order, the administration of the 
islands was transferred on June 30, 1951, to the 
U.S. Department of the Interior, the branch of the 
Federal Government responsible for the conserva- 
tion and development of natural resources and for 
the administration of non-self-governing peoples 
under United States jurisdiction.^ 

The trust territory is composed of the Marshall, 
the Caroline, and the Mariana Islands (except 
Guam) covering some 3 million square miles of 
the Western Pacific Ocean north of the equator. 
The 96 island units, made up of 2,141 individual 

' Bulletin of July 16, 1951, p. 105. 



islands with a total land area of approximately 
6S7 square miles, are spread over a region 2,727 
statute miles in width and 1,477 miles north and 
south at its widest point. The territoiy formerly 
was mandated to Japan and was wrested from that 
country during World War II. 

The indigenous population of the territory on 
June 30, 1951, was 55,730. Three-fifths of the 
inhabitants live on the six princi])al island units: 
Saipan, the Palaus, Yap, Truk, Ponape, and Ma- 
juro. The people are INIicronesians, meaning peo- 
ple of the tiny islands. Their cultures vary 
markedly among island groups and even among 
islands and atolls in the same geographic areas. 
This is further complicated by differing degrees 
of acculturations acquired from contacts with 
Spaniards, Germans, Japanese, and Americans, 
each of whom have had a part in history of the 
islands over the last century and a half. Nine 



66 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



individual languages are spoken and most of these 
are subdivided into distinctive local dialects. 

On November 6, 1946, while the islands were 
under military occupation, President Truman an- 
' nounced that the United States was prepared to 
place the islands under trusteeship, with the 
United States as administering authority. The 
draft trusteeship agreement was formally sub- 
mitted to the Security Council on February 17, 
1947, and after slight modification was unani- 
mously approved on April 2, 1947. While the 
administration of the islands has been conducted 
by the Department of the Navy, a civilian-type 
administration (as distinct from military govern- 
ment) has been employed by order of the Secre- 
tary of the Navy since July 18, 1947. The Com- 
mander in Chief, Pacific, and United States Pa- 
cific Fleet, continued to hold the office of High 
Commissioner of the trust territory until January 
8, 1951, when President Truman appointed the 
Hon. Elbert D. Thomas, former U.S. Senator from 
Utah, as the first civilian High Commissioner. 

The 230-page report, including a pictorial sup- 
plement, is preceded by the following review of 
developments during the year : 

During the year July 1, 1950, to June 30, 1951, the 
peoples of Micronesia have demonstrated increasing abil- 
ity to undertake responsibility for their political, economic, 
social, and educational advancement. Understanding and 
acceptance of democratic principles and procedures have 
contributed to greater indigenous participation in self- 
government and judicial affairs. Increased opportunities 
for interisland contact have stimulated social conscious- 
ness of the relations between the various cultures in the 
Territory. Sharing in the development of economic proj- 
ects initiated by the Administration has given the people 
experience in business ventures. Appreciation of the worth 
of education has increased the numbers of students in the 
.schools and made possible the expansion of the curricula. 



Political Developments 

Political achievements have been noteworthy both on 
the municipal and district level. Thirteen more munici- 
palities have chosen to elect their magistrates, thus in- 
creasing the number of elected magistrates to 70 percent 
of those holding office. 

The Palau Congress has continued to function well. 
The Marshall Islands Congress met for the first time on 
July 4, 1950, and in its deliberations has shown a keen 
realization of problems of the area. A charter for the 
Ponape Congress has been prepared in accordance with 
previously expressed desires of the jaeople and is now 
being studied by the Provisional Congress which met for 
the first time in the spring of this year. A charter for 
the Saipan Congress, giving the Congress advisory powers, 
is now being discussed by the Saipanese. 

Legislative studies have continued to be made at the 
staff level and recognition of local customs is reflected in 
the planning for extension of indigenous participation in 
government. The teaching of the functions of democracy 
in the schools as well as civil guidance by Administration 
officials have contributed greatly to the extension and im- 
plementation of democratic attitudes. The responsibility 
for direction of Administrative programs was clarified b.v 
the issuance of Interim Regulation No. S-50, reorganizing 
the Staff of the High Commissioner. 

The islanders are playing an increasing part in the 
judicial system of the Territory. They are members of 



several courts and thus are in positions where they can 
correlate modern law and local indigenous law. Criminal 
procedures, provisions for law enforcement, provisions 
for protecting the public health, safety, and morals of 
indigenes by orders restricting residence, and the Judicial 
Code have been formalized by the promulgation of Interim 
Regulations No. 2-51, No. J,-51, No. G-51, and No. 8-51. 
A "Public Defender and Counselor" was appointed in the 
fall of 1950 to provide protection for the legal rights of 
the people and to advise and represent them in civil cases 
before the courts. The Pacific Islands Insular Constabu- 
lary has been reorganized and representative members 
trained In police and penal procedures at the Constabu- 
lary Training School at Truk. 

Economic Affairs 

The economic situation of the Territory has shown con- 
siderable improvement during the past year. This is due 
both to the further diversification of island economy by 
Administration-sponsored projects, and to increased pro- 
duction of copra and the high price which it brought on 
the world market during much of the year. The policy 
recently adopted by the Administration of making the 
Island Trading Company the sole exporter of copra and the 
operation of the previously established Copra Stabilization 
Fund, benefited copra growers when the price of this com- 
modity collapsed in the spring of 1951. 

Money available from the Island Trading Company's 
Economic Development Fund has been invested in several 
new projects including poultry and duck breeding, and the 
planting of cacao. Itc has set aside an additional $150,000 
for the purchase of boats to be used in island passenger 
and cargo service and two have alread.v been acquired and 
are in operation. Control of shipping for the benefit of 
the indigenes has been provided for by Interim Regulation 
No. 7-51. 

A survey has been made of the possibility of establishing 
cattle ranches in the Northern Marianas. Research and 
survey projects by the Pacific Science Board sponsored by 
the Office of Naval Research, the United States Geological 
Survey, and the United States Department of Agriculture 
have contributed to initiation of further conservation, 
entomological, and ecological projects. 

The Administration has enacted measures for the con- 
ti'ol of fires and the weed pest lantana by the promulgation 
of Interim Regulations No. 5-51 and No. 3^1. Extensive 
public works involving improvement of existing facilities, 
especially dispensaries, schools, and roads, have been con- 
structed. The settlement of land problems has been un- 
dertaken in accordance with two Land and Claims Regula- 
tions issued during the year and some land has alrady been 
returned to the owners. Banking facilities have been 
established by the Island Trading Company and plans 
for the settlement of various t.vi)es of claims against the 
Japanese are in preparation. 



Social Improvement 

Various programs for social improvement have con- 
tinued to further a sense of security among the people. 
More thorough study of conditions in all areas of the Teni- 
tory has been made possible by the appointment of anthro- 
pologists at District Headquarters and in specific areas 
by the initiation of administrativf^niedical field trips. 

A nutrition survey of both high and low islands, con- 
ducted during the year, will provide better information in 
resi^ect to the efficient utilization of existing food sources. 
The construction of the model village on Ebeye has been 
completed and is being utilized by the Marshallese workers 
employed on Kwajalein. The issuance of Interim Regula- 
tion No. 1-51 has provided laws for divorces, annulments, 
and adoption. 

The medical program has continued to be of great worth 
to the people and each year sees a corresponding improve- 
ment in their health. The medical survey ship U.S.S. 
Whidbey completed its cruise of the Territory in the spring 



January 14, 1952 



67 



of 1951 and the data which its staff collected is now being 
evaluated for use in further improving the health condi- 
tions and combatting diseases not yet under control.^ A 
special study of the filariasis problem is being made in the 
Truk District. Health Department Orders No. 1 and 2Vo. 
2 provide for the care of leprous patients and the reorgani- 
zation of the public health system. 



Education 

The public schools of the Trust Territory are continuing 
to provide not only academic schooling, but also train- 
ing in health, improving living conditions, and the 
responsibilities of citizenship. The number of students 
in the elementary and intermediate schools has in- 
creased ^ and more indigenes are teaching in the inter- 
mediate schools. The Trust Territory Schools for Medi- 
cal and Dental Assistants at Guam were closed in De- 
cember 1950 and the students transferred to the Central 
Medical School at Suva, Fiji. In the fall of 19.50 the 
Pacific Islands Teacher Training School opened a school 
of agriculture. A larger number of students are study- 
ing abroad in schools of higher education. Vocational 
training and adult education courses have been established 
as part of the intermediate school curriculum. 

Illiteracy has continued to decline and the appointment 
of a Supervisor of Languages will further assist in solving 
this problem. The library program has been expanded 
by the establishment of libraries at each District Head- 
quarters, directed by indigenes trained at the School of 
Library Administration held at Truk in the spring of 
1951. The fostering of indigenous culture remains an 
integral part of all educational programs. 

Change in Administrative Authority 

The transfer of administrative responsibility for the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands from the United 
States Department of the Navy to the United States De- 
partment of the Interior became effective July 1, 1951, 
pursuant to Executive Order 10265, issued by "the Presi- 
dent on June 29, 1951. The transfer was accomplished 
in accordance with the recommendation of the Secretaries 
of State, War, the Navy, and the Interior on July 18, 1947, 
that administrative responsibility for the Trust Territory 
be transferred to a civilian agency of the Government 
at the earliest practicable date. 

Mechanical details of the transfer were worked out 
by representatives of the Navy and Interior Departments 
in the spring of 1951 with a view to making the Govern- 
ment of the Trust Territory independent of naval facili- 
ties as rapidly as possible. Title to all personal property 
and structures owned by the Navy and employed by the 
Naval Government of the Trust Territory in the adminis- 
tration of civil affairs of the Trust Territory, and all 
funds controlled by the Government of the Tru.st Terri- 
tory were transferred to the Department of the Interior 
or the Trust Territory Government. 

The United States Navy provided for civilian-manned 
sea transportation and air services in the Trust Terri- 
tory to replace the logistic support hitherto given by 
Naval vessels and planes. Accordingly, a contract for 
sea transportation was awarded to the Pacific Micronesian 
Lines, Inc., a subsidiary of the Pacific Far East Lines, 
Inc., to service the area. Seven Naval ships, one large 
cargo vessel and six smaller cargo vessels, with spare 
parts, were transferred to the Department of the In- 



^ The WMdbey's survey cruise lasted 4 years. About 75 
percent of the inhabitants received individual physical 
examinations. 

^More than 90 percent of the children of school age 
are enrolled in schools. Attendance is about 95 percent 
of those enrolled. 



terior to form the fleet as soon as they could be provided 
with civilian crews. As of June 30, 1951, these ships 
had been overhauled and fitted with improved passenger 
accommodations. 

In addition, the Navy transferred eight service craft 
and thirty small craft. A contract for air transport was 
awarded to Transocean Airlines and four Naval PBY-5A 
aircraft, overhauled and fitted with spare parts, were 
transferred on June 30. 

All Navy communications stations in the Territory and 
their equipment were transferred, and the Department of 
the Interior assumed their operation and maintenance. 
The Island Trading Company took over the operation of 
commissary stores, hotels, and messes and will operate 
them on a self-supporting basis. Navy post offices were 
disestablished on July 1 and replaced with civil post offices 
established by the United States Post Office Department. 
The United States Weather Bureau took over the opera- 
tion of the weather stations. 

The timely substitution of civilian personnel for Naval 
personnel involved the greatest problem of the transfer. 
A civilian High Commissioner, appointed by the President 
on January 8, 1951, arrived at Staff Headquarters at Pearl 
Harbor on .January 27. 

In order that the continuity of administration might be 
maintained in so far as possible, the Navy agreed to re- 
lease from the service both regular and reserve personnel 
on active duty with the Trust Territory Naval Administra- 
tion for employment with the Department of the Interior 
Administration. Seven officers and thirty-nine enlisted 
personnel transferred to the new administration. Be- 
tween February 1 and June 30 the majority of the mem- 
bers of the Naval Staff both at headquarters and in the 
field were gradually replaced by civilians. Naval per- 
sonnel remained after the arrival of their successors for 
as long as was necessary to train the new employees in 
their duties. Five Naval officers and thirty-five enlisted 
personnel were retained beyond June 30 for the conven- 
ience of the Department of the Interior. 

In addition, personnel of Naval Construction Battalions 
employed on public works projects in the Territory were 
to remain until their tasks were completed. The Naval 
Staff at Pearl Harbor prepared a booklet of "Basic Facts" 
and conducted a brief indoctrination course for the new 
employees prior to their departure for the field. 

The transfer of administration was accomplished with 
no disruption of administrative services to the people of 
the Trust Territory. Civil Administrators and field trip 
officers in each District discussed the transfer with in- 
digenous leaders who in turn explained it to their people. 
The inhabitants of the Territory cooperated fully in all 
aspects of this operation. 

The Micronesians are fast coming of age in a modern 
world. They are adopting democratic attitudes and ap- 
plying them to their government ; they are becoming more 
proficient in economic affairs ; they are accepting educa- 
tion designed primarily to assist them in improving their 
own environment. They are showing an increased under- 
standing of their position as inhabitants of a Trust Terri- 
tory. The progress of the people in all fields is a tribute 
to the indigenous culture which the Administering Au- 
thority continues to respect in accordance with the re- 
quirements and desires of a free people. 

Expenditures during the j'ear amounted to 
$1,346,509, divided as follows : 

General administration, $211,000: legal and public 
safety, $159,000; public education, $385,000; commerce, 
industry and agriculture, $65,000 ; medical care, public 
health and sanitation, $299,000 ; and public works, $227,000. 
Local revenues for the year amounted to $346,326. Funds 
appropriated by the United States totalled $1,014,000. Spe- 
cial appropriations for projects connected with the ad- 
ministrative transfer amounted to $1,011,400. 



68 



Deparimenf of State Bulletin 



I 



International Materials Conference 



TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM ALLOCATIONS 



The International Materials Conference an- 
nounced on December 19 that the member govern- 
ments of the Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee 
liave accepted recommendations for a plan of dis- 
tribution of tungsten and molybdenum ores, con- 
centrates, and primary products for the first cal- 
endar quarter of 1952. 

The 13 member countries are Australia, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

This is the third consecutive quarter that these 
iwo metals have been allocated by the Imc. Great 
pressure on available supplies of both tungsten 
md molybdenum continues. Nevertheless, the 
[Committee is glad to note that the production of 
loth commodities, especially of tungsten, has in- 
Teased considerably. Along with these increases, 
lowever, the total requirements for defense and 
issential civilian needs have also increased, and 
estimated requirements still greatly exceed esti- 
nated production. 

For the first calendar quarter of 1952, the Com- 
nittee estimates the total production of tungsten 
n the free world at 3,700 metric tons, and of 
nolybdenum at 4,800 metric tons (metal content 
n each case) . 

The Committee has not yet had time to study 
"ully the replies received from governments to its 
(uestionnaire on their requirements of tungsten 
ind molybdenum in the first two quarters of 1952. 
The present plan of distribution is, therefore, pro- 
visional for the first quarter of 1952 only, with 
he understanding that a firm plan for the first 
) months of the year will be worked out, for both 
netals, as soon as there has been time to complete 
he study of the replies to the questionnaire. The 
Committee has recommended that a firm 6-months' 
)lan of distribution for both metals be adopted not 
ater than March 1, 1952. The present provisional 
dlocation will then be merged into the firm 6- 
nonths' plan. 

In making this latest allocation, the Committee 
listributed tungsten ores and concentrates on the 
iame basis as it did for the fourth quarter of 1951, 
vith an increase of 12i^ percent in the quota for 



each country and with the creation of a reserve 
of about 62 tons for emergency claims and other 
needs. 

In the case of molybdenum, the plan of distribu- 
tion is identical, so far as concerns the ores and 
concentrates retained by each country for its own 
consumption, with the plan adopted for the fourth 
quarter of 1951. Certain changes have been made 
in the quotas of primary products allotted, and a 
reserve has been created of about 40 tons for emer- 
gency claims and other needs. 

In carrying out the allocations agreed upon, the 
governments, both of the producing and of the 
consuming countries, are expected to continue to 
take upon themselves the obligation of taking 
whatever action is necessary to render the agreed 
quotas effective. Consuming countries are asked, 
if necessary, to buy any part of their quotas which 
their private importers might refuse to purchase, 
and producing countries are urged to insure, to the 
best of their ability, that estimates of production 
are realized in order to fulfill the pattern of 
distribution. 

Existing contracts will be respected, so far as is 
possible, in carrying out the allocation arrange- 
ments. If, however, such contracts provide for the 
supply of tungsten or molybdenum to any one im- 
porting country in excess of the amounts allocated, 
it is proposed that the importing country should 
divert shipments to other importing countries 
which have not yet filled their import quotas, so 
far as is possible without upsetting the original 
contractual arrangements. 

Procedures for the review of the operation of the 
plan, for the adjustment of quotas, and for reports 
will again be the same as those laid down for the 
two previous allocations. The operation of the 
plan will be kept under constant review by the 
Committee by a system of monthly reviews. Any 
adjustments necessary because of the nonfulfill- 
ment of any part of this plan will be rectified in 
the 6-months' period following the end of the 
quarter. 

Other interested governments which are not 
members of the Committee have been informed of 
the plan of distribution. Under the Committee's 



ianuary 14, 7952 



69 



rules of procedure, any such governments may, 
upon request, present further explanations of their 
interests orally to the Committee.^ 

COBALT ALLOCATION 

The International Materials Conference an- 
nounced on December 28 that the governments of 
the 11 countries which are represented on the 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee have ac- 
cepted the Committee's recommendations for a 
provisional allocation of cobalt for the first calen- 
dar quarter of 1952." These countries include Bel- 
gium (representing Benelux), Brazil, Canada, 
Cuba, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, 
India, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the 
United Kingdom, and tlie United States. 

The Committee has estimated that the total pro- 
duction of cobalt metal, oxides, and salts in the 
free world will increase in the first quarter of 
1952 to reach approximately 2,200 metric tons. 
The fourth quarter 1951 production is now pre- 
sumed to be about 1,960 tons, which is less than 
previous estimates on which fourth quarter allo- 
cations had been based. 

Although cobalt output is expanding in the free 
world, requirements for both direct defense and 
essential civilian consumption are growing to such 
an extent that they will still greatly exceed the 
availabilities. In view of this situation, it has 
been agreed that cobalt should be maintained 
under allocation. 

Owing to the lack of time, the Committee has 
not yet had the opportunity to examine in detail 
the Governments' replies to the questionnaire on 
requirements for the first quarter of 1952, as many 
of the returns were not received on the date by 
which they had been requested. 

The present quarterly plan of distribution is 
provisional only. The Committee intends to rec- 
ommend at the earliest possible time a final alloca- 
tion based on a careful study of each country's 
situation, as reflected in its reply to the question- 
naire. This allocation would cover the first 6 
months of 1952 or any other period which may 
be found more appropriate. The present provi- 
sional plan will then be incorporated into this final 
allocation. 

The provisional plan of distribution has been 
forwarded to all interested governments for im- 
mediate implementation. Governments are ex- 
pected to take whatever action is necessary to 
make this plan effective, it being understood that 
it will be superseded by a final allocation plan at 
a later date. 



' For table of allocations, see Imc press release of 
Dec. 19. 

^ For table of allocations, see Imc press release of 
Dec. 28. 



70 



U.S. Delegation to 
InternationaB Conference 



World Health Sessions (WHO) 

On January 3 the Department of State an- 
nounced that two organs of the World Health 
Organization (Who) are to hold meetings at 
Geneva, Switzerland, in January 1952. The 
Executive Board's Standing Committee on Ad- ; 
ministration and Finance will convene on Jan- 
uary 7. The ninth session of the Executive Board i 
will open on January 21. 

Because of the inability of H. van Zile Hyde, 
U.S. representative on the Executive Board, to 
attend the forthcoming meetings, the President 
has designated Frederick J. Brady, assistant chief, 
International Organizations, Division of Inter- 
national Health, Public Health Service, Federal 
Security Agency, to serve as acting U.S. repre- 
sentative. Other members of the U.S. delegation 
to the two meetings are 

Advisers 

Howard B. Calderwood, Office of U.N. Economic and So- 
cial Affairs, Department of State 

Donald Blaisdell, U.S. representative for specialized ' 
agency affairs, Geneva, Switzerland 

The Executive Board Standing Committee on 
Administration and Finance, composed of seven 
members, makes recommendations to the Board on 
subjects pertaining to personnel and financial 
policies, administrative matters, and on the Di- 
rector General's budget proposals. 

The Executive Board, which meets at least twice 
yearly, is composed of representatives designated 
by 18 member nations elected by the Assembly for 
3-year terms. Acting as the executive organ of 
the World Health Assembly, the Board gives effect 
to the decisions and policies of that body. The 
last session of the Executive Board was held at 
Geneva, June 1-8, 1951. 

The agenda for the forthcoming meetings in- 
cludes consideration of numerous items, such as 
program and budget for 1953 ; technical-assistance 
programs for 1953 ; continuation of study on or- 
ganizational structure and administrative effi- 
ciency of the Who; the applications of certain 
nongovernmental organizations for official rela- 
tions with the Who; the assignment of Pacific 
territories for purposes of regional organization; 
medical-supply services to member states; action 
arising out of the resolutions of the fourth AVorld 
Health Assembly (Geneva, May 7-25, 1951) re- 
garding international sanitary regulations and 
related matters; and the reports of various expert 
and regional committee meetings. 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.N. Considers Reservations to Multilateral Conventions 



STATEMENT BY BENJAMIN V. COHEN i 

We should like to make a few observations on 
the question of reservations to multilateral con- 
tentions. The observations which we shall make 
•elate both to the opinion of the International 
Court of Justice regarding reservations to the Con- 
i-ention on Genocide and to the report of the Inter- 
lational Law Commission on this subject. 

It has been the general practice of the United 
States to accept and follow the advisory opinions 
)f the Court, even in cases — like that of right of 
he United Nations to present claims for injuries 
sustained in the service of the United Nations — 
ivhere the United States advanced in its arguments 
jefore the Court views different from those 
•eached by the Court in its opinions. We believe 
,hat the Court's conclusions in its opinion regard- 
ng reservations to the Convention on Genocide 
ire generally sound, and we hope that they will be 
iccepted by all states concerned. 

We appreciate that broad generalizations on the 
effects of reservations to multilateral treaties may 
5e dangerous. Reservations may be readily com- 
jatible with the object and purpose of some uni- 
ateral conventions and not with the object and 
Durpose of others. We strongly approve the rea- 
;oning of the Court in the genocide case that 
reservations are not necessarily incompatible with 
I multilateral treaty merely because of the objec- 
ion of one of the parties. On the other hand, we 
vould not suggest that reservations acceptable to 
iome of the parties should always be regarded as 
compatible with a multilateral convention unless 
expressly excluded by its terms. Even in the 
vbsence of express treaty provisions, the nature 
md character of some multilateral treaties like 
that of the Charter of the United Nations might 
clearly exclude reservations save with unanimous 
consent. 

But we cannot agree with the International Law 
Commission's suggestion that, in the absence of 
treaty provisions to the contrary, reservations to 



' Made in Committee VI (Legal) of the General Assem- 
hly on Dec. 5, 1951, and released to the press by the U.S. 
Mission to the U.N. on the same date. Mr. Cohen is a U.S. 
delegate to the General Assembly. 



a multilateral treaty should be allowed only if 
unanimously accepted by all parties. Such a sug- 
gestion would not only give every party the right 
to decide whether it would itself accept a reserva- 
tion, but would give it the right to veto the accept- 
ance of a reservation by every other party to the 
treaty. 

We think it important to distinguish between 
the undoubted right of a state, party to a treaty, to 
refuse to accept so far as it is concerned a reserva- 
tion made by another state from the question of 
its right to prevent other parties from accepting a 
reservation if they wish to do so. In our view, a 
party to a treaty has a right to object to a reserva- 
tion so far as it is concerned whether or not the 
reservation is compatible with the object and pur- 
pose of the treaty. 

We also suggest that a party to a multilateral 
treaty may object to a reservation affecting a par- 
ticular and separate part of the treaty and refuse 
to be bound by that particular and separate part 
of the treaty in its relations to the reserving state 
without objecting or intending to object to the 
reserving state becoming a party to the treaty in 
all other respects. If we wish to encourage the 
progressive development of intei-national law 
through multilateral treaties, we should avoid 
hasty generalizations regarding the unexpressed 
intention of the parties in regard to the legal 
consequences of objections to reservations. 

We can see no sound reason for treating the 
objection of a single party as conclusive, irref- 
utable proof of the incompatibility of the reser- 
vation with the object and purpose of a multilateral 
treaty so far as other parties are concerned, or 
even as conclusive, irrefutable proof of the unwil- 
lingness of the objecting state to accept the reserv- 
ing state as a party to the treaty in any respect. 
If the parties to a multilateral treaty intend any 
such result, let them say so. If they do not evince 
any such intention, we see no reason for atti'ibuting 
to "them such an intention. There is little basis in 
fact for assuming the general existence of such an 
intention in light of the accepted and widespread 
practice to the contrary among American states. 

We have had considerable experience in recent 
years with the operations of the principle of 



January 14, 7952 



71 



unanimity in the Security Council. Experience 
with the operation of the veto in the Security 
Council does not warrant the extension of the prin- 
ciple of veto to the treatment of reservations to 
multilateral treaties. Indeed, in our judgment, 
experience counsels strongly against the extension 
of the principle of veto into this field of treaty- 
making. 

While we believe, as the International Law Com- 
mission suggests, that organs of the United 
Nations, specialized agencies, and states should in 
the course of preparing multilateral treaties give 
thought to the insertion therein of provisions 
relating to the admissibility or nonadmissibility of 
reservations and to the effect to be attributed to 
them, we recognize tliat in many cases the con- 
tracting parties may prefer to rely upon the gen- 
eral principles apjDlied by the International Court 
of Justice in the Genocide opinion than attempt in 
advance to determine what reservations would and 
what reservations would not be compatible with 
the treaty. It is not always easy in advance to 
state the specific standards to be applied in deter- 
mining the compatibility of many reservations the 
exact character of which cannot be clearly foreseen 
or readily defined. 

If we assume the parties do not wish to exclude 
the possibility of reservations compatible with the 
object and purpose of the treaty, then we do see 
why the question of the compatibility of a particu- 
lar reservation should be subject to liiervm, veto 
by any one party not only in relation to its own 
rights but in relation to those of all other parties. 
The fact that diffei'ent parties take different views 
regarding the compatibility of a particular reser- 
vation with a multilateral treaty presents no more 
difficult problem than that presented when differ- 
ent parties take different positions regarding other 
important matters arising out of a multilateral 
treaty. A dispute as to the compatibility of a par- 
ticular reservation with a treaty — the question 
whether its acceptance by some states adversely 
affects the rights of nonaccepting states — can be 
determined in the same way as other disputes 
under the treaty. 

If the parties to a particular treaty should wish 
to have the issue of compatibility determined by 
a poll of the jjarties, we should tliink that it would 
probably be preferable for them to have the treaty 
leave the decision to a majority vote than accord 
a right of veto to every party. But even in such 
a case it would be unwise to generalize without 
knowing the nature and object of the particular 
treaty. 

Certainly in light of our own experience and 
that of other American states we repeat that there 
is little or no basis in fact for assuming that the 
parties to a multilateral treaty intend to exclude 
all reservations not unanimously accepted by the 
parties. We believe that the adoption of any arti- 
ficial rule wliich would attribute any such intention 
to the parties or to give such an effect to the absence 



of a reservation clause would unjustifiably and 
arbitrarily limit the treaty-making power of 
sovereign states. 

Let us remember that we have not yet developed 
for most matters which are the subject of multi- 
lateral treaties a world legislature. We must 
therefore rely in many fields upon treaties to 
supply workable rules of laws between the parties. 
In our judgment we do not advance the progressive 
development of international law through multi- 
lateral treaties by insistence on unanimous consent 
to reservations. 

We recognize the desirability of uniformity, 
simplicity, and certainty in international law, but 
not at the expense of throttling the process of mul- 
tilateral treaty-making. Generally speaking we 
do not favor a theoretical uniformity which mili- 
tates against the widest possible acceptance of 
treaty law. 

It is possible that a flexible rule regarding res- 
ervations may have a tendency to some extent to 
stimulate the making of reservations, but it should 
be remembered that the flexible rule which we urge 
does not impose a duty on any state in relation to 
its own rights to accept any reservation. A unani- 
mous consent rule regarding reservations may 
discourage reservations, but it will also discourage 
not only the ratification but the signing of multi- 
lateral treaties. 

Some may say that negotiators should not sign 
unless they are willing to ratify as signed. But 
if negotiators feel tliat their governments must 
accept a treaty as signed without reservations, 
negotiators may become increasingly reluctant to 
sign. When it is recalled, that the wording of 
clauses in a multilateral treaty may be determined 
in a conference by a small majority including some 
states which may never sign or ratify, the wisdom 
of attaching excessive importance to maintaining 
the absolute integrity of the original text may well 
be questioned. 

In this connection I should like to quote from 
the advisory opinion of May 28, 1951 of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice : 

. . . The majority principle, wliile facilitating the 
conclusion of multilateral conventions, may also make it 
necessary for certain States to make reservations. This 
observation is confirmed by the great number of reserva- 
tions which have been made of recent years to multi- 
lateral conventions. 

In this state of international practice, it could certainly 
not be inferred from the absence of an article providing 
for reservations in a multilateral convention that the con- 
tracting States are prohibited from making certain reser- 
vations. Account should also be taken of the fact that 
the absence of such an article or even the decision not to 
insert such an article can be explained by the desire not 
to invite a multiplicity of reservations. Tlie character of 
a multilateral convention, its purpose, provisions, mode of 
preparation and adoption, are factors which must be 
considered in determining. In the absence of any express 
provision on the subject, the possibility of making reser- 
vations, as well as their validity and effect. 

Bearing in mind the way that the texts of 
multilateral treaties are prepared, we think that 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



t is quite unrealistic to say that negotiators should 
lot sign a ti'eaty unless they ai'e satisfied that their 
covernments will ratify as signed. It may be that 
tat«s having a cabinet-parliamentary form of 
government may feel that tlieir representatives 
f they sign a treaty can go rather far in commit- 
ing themselves to favoring ratification without 
•eservations. But representatives of states like the 
Jnited States in which the executive and legisla- 
ive branches of government are separate and 
ndependent, simply cannot be certain whether 
heir legislatures will be prepared to ratify a 
reaty as signed without reservations. 

In some cases, like the Charter of the United 
■fations, it is clear that states must ratify without 
eservation or not at all. But we reiterate we do 
lot think that that is the situation with the gener- 
lity of multilateral treaties. 

We do not, of course, mean to suggest that those 
vho participate in the negotiation of multilateral 
reaties do not have a responsibility to discourage 
he attacliment by their national legislatures to the 
atification of multilateral treaties of confusing 
,nd incompatible reservations. We think that the 
nternational Law Commission has performed a 
aluable service in calling attention to this respon- 
ibility and the very genuine difficulties which 
aay arise from the making of confusing and in- 
ompatible reservations, particularly in the case of 
luiltilateral treaties. 

But the political factors and difficulties involved 
11 treaty-making and treaty ratification cannot be 
lispelled by any simple rule of law. Politics is an 
rt rather than a science. A rule of law which 
iestroys a state's reservations to a treaty may also 
estroy a state's participation in a treaty. A treaty 
widely accepted, although not absolutely uniform 
u its application to all parties, may be far more 
ireferable than a treaty, theoretically uniform in 
ts application, but effective only as between a 
elatively few states. 

If this Committee or tlie Assembly is to make 
iny recommendations regarding reservations to 
iiultilateral treaties, we feel that we must subordi- 
late the yearning of our profession for uniformity, 
implicity, and certainty to the facts of political 
ife which determine the actions of states. We feel 
hat the conclusions of the International Law Com- 
nission, if accepted, might possibly simplify the 
aw relating to reservations to nmltilateral treaties, 
)ut would make that law a much less useful instru- 
uent in the adjustment of relations between states 
n the world in which we live. 

We see no reason for attempting to give judicial 



significance to the administrative functions per- 
formed by the Secretary-General in connection 
with the ratification of treaties. The task of the 
Secretary-General should be to receive ratifications 
with or without reservations, to inform all states 
concerned thereof and to receive such objections 
as they may make thereto, and to notify all states 
concerned of such objections. If the Secretary- 
General has a doubt as to his duty under any treaty, 
he may seek the advice of the Assembly or, through 
tlie Assembly, of the Court. 

We are proposing a resolution which will au- 
thorize the Secretary-General to continue to 
perform the valuable administrative services 
wliich he has performed in connection with the 
deposit of documents relating to ratifications of 
and reservations to treaties without passing on the 
legal effects of the documents. We think it unwise 
that we should attempt to anticipate and decide in 
advance the legal rights of the parties under differ- 
ent treaties and under varying circumstances. 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION 



U.N. doc. A/C. 6/L. 205 
Adopted Jan. 4, 1952 

The General Assembly, 

Bearing in mind the provisions of resolution 478 (V) 
which (1) requested the International Court of Justice to 
give an advisory opinion regarding reservations to the 
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the 
Crime of Genocide and (2) invited the International Law 
Commission to study the question of reservations to multi- 
lateral conventions. 

Noting the Court's advisory opinion of May 28, 1951, 
rendered pursuant to the said resolution, and the Commis- 
sion's report, rendered pursuant to the said resolution. 

Recommends that the organs of the United Nations, the 
specialized agencies and states should, in the course of 
preparing multilateral conventions, consider insertion 
therein of provisions relating to the admissibility or non- 
adniissibility of reservations and to the effect to be attrib- 
uted to them ; 

Requests the Secretary-General in relation to reserva- 
tions to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment 
of the Crime of Genocide, to conform his practice to the 
advisory opinion of the Court of May 28, 1951 ; 

Recommends to all states that they be guided in regard 
to the Convention on Genocide by the advisory opinion of 
the International Court of Justice of May 28, 1951 ; 

Invites the Secretary-General in respect of future con- 
ventions concluded under the auspices of the United Na- 
tions of which he is depositary : 

(A) to continue to act as the depositary in connection 
with the deposit of documents containing reservations or 
objections,- without passing upon the legal effect of such 
documents, and 

(B) to communicate the text of such documents relat- 
ing to reservations or objections to all states concerned, 
leaving it to each state to draw legal consequences from 
such communications. 



fanuary 14, 1952 



73 



The United States in ttie United Nations 



[December 27, 1951-January 9, 1952] 

General Assembly 

Committee I {Political and Security) — A reso- 
lution carrying forward tlie recommendations of 
the Collective Measures Committee (Cmc) and 
dii-ecting it to continue for another year its work 
of strengthening the United Nations collective 
security system was adopted by the Committee 
January 8 following a one-week debate. The vote 
on the resolution, which was sponsored by the 
United States along witli 10 other members of the 
14-member Cmc, was 51-5 (Soviet bloc) -3 (India, 
Indonesia, Argentina) . A Soviet move to abolish 
the Cmc failed 52 (Argentina) -5-2. 

The approved text, which was revised during 
the course of tlie debate to meet certain detailed 
objections by groups of Latin American and Mid- 
dle Eastern States, recommends that member 
states take a number of specified measures to en- 
able them — and the specialized agencies and re- 
gional defense arrangements to which they 
belong — to contribute promptly and eflPectively to 
United Nations collective action. 

Speaking in support of the joint proposal, U. S. 
Kepresentative Benjamin Cohen said, in part : 

The report of the CMC and the resolution before us . . . 
are based on the proposition that the more effectively the 
members of the United Nations are organized to unite 
their strength to maintain international peace and se- 
curity, the less likely it is that world peace will be 
challenged. . . . The program we in this Assembly are 
embarked on is designed to be universal in application, 
to meet any aggression from any source. It is not di- 
rected against any State or group of States. . . . We hope 
the day will come soon when the Soviet Government will 
see that its best interests are served by the development 
of an effective United Nations collective security system, 
and will lend its active support to the work. . . . 

Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Vyshinsky 
angrily denounced the 11-power resolution as a 
"monstrous" and "war-like" move, and submitted 
a counterproposal for an inunediate high-level 
Security Council meeting to remove international 
tension, with "measures ... to help to bring to a 
successful conclusion the negotiations being held 
in Korea'' as the first order of business. However, 
by the time the Soviet formulation, which was 
strenuously opposed by the United States and 



others as an attempt to delay the cease-fire talks 
and frustrate Assembly efforts to develop collec- 
tive security, came to a vote, it had been amended, . 
on the joint initiative of France, the United King- 
dom, United States, and Brazil to provide simply 
for a high-level Security Council meeting when- 
ever the Council considered that this might prove 
useful to ease world tension. The revised text, 
which made no mention whatever of Korea, was 
adopted on January 9 by a vote of 50 (U.S., 
U.S.S.K.)-0-8. 

Later the same day, the Committee approved, 
47-6 (Soviet bloc, Chile) -3 (Burma, Afghanistan, 
Mexico) a United States motion to postpone con- 
sideration of the next agenda item on the inde- 
pendence of Korea. This action was taken on the 
understanding — voiced by U.S.- Representative 
Ernest Gross — that 

if as we hope, the armistice negotiations are success- 
fully concluded — or, if other developments in Korea should 
require the matter to be reconsidered, the Committee 
would take up the many important questions regarding 
Korea which would then fall within its province. 

Ad Hoc Political Committee — Action on Treat- 
ment of Indians in South Africa was completed 
by the Committee January 5 with the adoption 41 
(tj.S.)-2 (Australia, South Africa)-13 of an 
amended India-Indonesia-Iruq-Burma-Iran res- 
olution recommending the establishment of a 8- 
member commission to assist the parties (India, 
Pakistan, and South Africa) to carry through ap- 
propriate negotiations. The Secretary-General 
was requested, in the event the members of the 
commission were not nominated within 60 days, 
himself to undertake the task of helping the three 
nations to negotiate a settlement of their long- 
standing dispute. 

The idea of having the Secretary-General act 
as intermediary if the commission plan failed was 
advanced by Israel in the form of an amendment 
to the joint draft, after support had developed 
for an earlier United States suggestion to bring 
the United Nations official into the pictui'e. The 
United States abstained on a provision — adopted 
31-9-17^ — calling on South Africa to suspend im- 
plementation of the Group Areas Act. 

On January 7 the Committee opened considera- 
tion of the report of the Palestine Conciliation 



74 



Deparfment of Sfofe Bulletin 



umniission. A U.S.-U.K.-French-Turkish res- 
cution was introduced continuing the Commission 
\itli its terms of reference unchanged but trans- 
frring its headquarters from Jerusalem to New 
iork. Tlie United Nations, IT. S. Representative 
'ailip Jessup hekl in support of the four-power 

■oposah had the right to expect the parties to 
,ake every endeavor to settle their differences 
temselves, but it should at the same time always 
1: ready to aid them. 

Committee II {Eeonomic and Financial) — Con- 
fleration of the subitem on integrated economic 
(;velopment was completed by the Committee at 
jeetings January 2-5, with the adoption of two 
isolations on this question. Approval 26 (U.S.)- 
C14 was given to an amended Haitian proposal, 
Mich, as redrafted by the United States, requests 
te Economic and Social Council to study "vary- 
ig ways in which the productivity of peoples 
eerywliere can be increased by the application 
c existing scientific and technological knowledge." 
lie other resolution — a unanimously-approved 
cmpromise text reconciling a Polish proposal 
^th United States and other amendments there- 
t— dealt with current price and supply problems 
^thout mentioning the fact that they had their 
cigin in defense needs. Specifically, it called 
c tJ.N. members to consider entering into com- 
iTcial agreements to facilitate the movement to 
iiderdeveloped countries of machinery, equip- 
imt, and industrial raw materials. 

On January 7, the Committee opened discus- 
sm of the subitem on land reform. Two resolu- 
t'ns have been introduced, a joint U.S.-Pakistan- 
'lailand-Brazil-Israel text calling for a broad 
aproach to the problem based on the conditions 
£ d needs of individual countries, and a Polish 
caft stressing large-scale material assistance to 
inners, return of foreign-held agricultural 
1 ids, etc. 

In submitting the joint text, U.S. delegate 
(lanning Tobias explained that the United States 
; proach to the problem of land reform was 
' ased on a simple, fundamental concept. It is 
\ help the farmer to help himself. . . . Our 
(iicern is with the people who work the land." 
hllowing conclusion of the general discussion, 
iiich centered on the experiences of individual 
(untries, the chairman requested the sponsors of 
t3 various proposals and amendments to attempt 
t work out an agreed text. 

Committee III (Social, Hunianitariam, and Cul- 
iral) — Examination of the refugee problem was 
iaugurated in the Social Committee January 2 
vth a statement by G. J. Van Heuven Goedhart, 



U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, in which 
he urged the Assembly to authorize his office to 
issue an appeal for (vohmtary) contributions to 
a 3 million dollar fund for emergency assistance to 
the most needy of the approximately 11/2 million 
refugees under his mandate. He also sought au- 
thority to open branch offices in various parts of 
the world and asked the Committee to help him 
persuade governments to ratify the recently 
adopted Convention on the Status of Refugees. 

Committee IV (Trusteeshif) — The Anglo- 
French resolution on the Ewe and Togoland uni- 
fication problem was adopted by the Committee 
January 2 following incorporation of a sei'ies of 
amendments sponsored by a group of non ad- 
ministering powers. The vote was 3.5 (U.S.)-O- 
12, with France and the United Kingdom abstain- 
ing on the ground that the revised text would have 
the effect of delaying a settlement of the problem. 

The approved resolution recommends that Brit- 
ain and France consult fully with the various in- 
digenous groups concerned before going through 
with their plan to set up a Joint Council for Togo- 
land Affairs to advise them on matters of common 
concern to their adjacent trust territories (French 
and British Togoland) . (The prounification par- 
ties have objected to the procedures devised for 
selecting the Council.) Is also recommended ex- 
tending the scope of the Council and instructed 
the Trusteeship Council to arrange for an on-the- 
spot study of the problem. 

The Committee then went on to approve a series 
of resolutions arising out of the report of the 
Trusteeship Council. These included U.S.-sup- 
ported proposals to request the Council (1) to 
constitute a Standing Committee for the Examina- 
tion of Petitions to meet between as well as during 
Trusteeship Council sessions, and (2) "to examine 
the possibility of associating the inhabitants of 
the trust territories more closely in its work," as 
well as a U.S.-opposed text recommending associa- 
tion of nonmemb'cr countries of the Council with 
the activities of its subsidiary organs. 

'■'■Additional Measwes To Be Employed to Meet 
the Aggression in Korea" — Haiti and Mexico have 
informed the U.N. Secretariat that they have 
embargoed the shipment of arms, ammunition, 
implements of war, etc. to areas under Chinese 
Communist or North Korean control, as recom- 
mended by the General Assembly in its May 18, 
1951 resolution. A total of 09 communications 
concerning implementation of this resolution have 
now been received from 62 member and non- 
member nations. 



.nuatY 74, 7952 



75 



January 14, 1952 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXVI, No. 655 



Agriculture 

Importance of land reform (Tobias) ..... 63 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

EGA: 

Closing of, functions replaced by Mutual 

Security Administration 43 

Marshall Plan, completion and successful 

accompUsnments 43 

Marshall Plan objectives in Western Germany 

largely accomplished 45 

American Republics 

BRAZIL: Military assistance negotiations with 

U.S 47 

GUATEMALA: Declaration of death of missing 

persons, convention on 49 

Asia 

INDIA: Point 4 agreement signed 47 

JAMMU AND KASHMIR: Demilitarization of, 2d 

report (Graham) 52 

JORDAN: To receive wheat from U.S 48 

KOREA: Soviet proposal on armistice negotia- 
tions, U.S. views (Acheson), text .... 46 

Europe 

GERMANY: 

U.N. committee approves election plan, state- 
ments (Cooper), text of resolution ... 54 

Marshall Plan objectives largely accomplished 

(McCloy) 45 

SPAIN: Granted cotton credit by Export-Import 

Bank 47 

U.S.S.R.: Proposal on Korean armistice nego- 

tlons, U.S. views (Acheson), text .... 46 

YUGOSLAVIA: U.S. support of resolution ex- 
plained (Cooper), text of resolution ... 62 

Finance 

Spain granted cotton credit by Export-Import 

Bank 47 

Foreign Service 

Letter of credence (Sen) 49 

Human Rights 

Defense of U.S. attitude (Mrs. Roosevelt) ... 59 

International Meetings 

IMC: Tungsten and molybdenum allocations . 69 

IRO: Report on (Warren) , ath session .... 50 

U.S. DELEGATION: Executive Board (Who), 

9th session 70 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

Brazll-U.S. negotiations on military assistance . 47 
Jordan to receive U.S. wheat 48 

Strategic Materials 

Cobalt allocations 70 

Tungsten and molybdenum allocations by Imc . 69 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT 4: 

Agreement signed with India for expansion 

of program 47 

Treaty Information 

Point 4 agreement signed with India, expan- 
sion of program 47 

Reservations to multilateral conventions con- 
sidered by U.N. (Cohen) 71 

Trust Territories 

NON- SELF- GOVERNING: Trust territory of the 

Pacific Islands, U.S. report on 66 

United Nations 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY: 

Convention on death of missing persons to 

enter into force 49 

German election plan approved (Cooper), 

text 54 

Korean armistice negotiations, Soviet propo- 
sals, U.S. views (Acheson), text 46 

U.S. support of Yugoslav resolution explained 

(Cooper), text 62 

Human rights, defense of U.S. attitude toward 

(Roosevelt) 59 

IRO : Report on ( Warren ) , 8th session .... 50 

Reservations to multilateral conventions con- 
sidered (Cohen) 71 

SECURITY COUNCIL: Demilitarization of 

Jammu and Kashmir, 2d report 52 

Trust territory of the Pacific Islands, U.S. report 

on 66 

U.S. in the U.N. (weekly summary) 74 

WHO: Executive Board, 9th session 70 

Na me Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 46 

Bowles, Chester 47 

Cohen, Benjamin 71 

Cooper, John Sherman 54, 62 

Evans, S. Joseph 78 

Johnson, Herschel V 47 

McCloy, John J 45 

Nehru, Jawaharlal 47 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D 59 

Sen, Binay Ranjan 49 

Tobias, Channlng 63 

Warren, George L SO 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi I9tt 



7 3 5 o . ■ ' 



\m 



^Ae/ ^eha/)^men(/ ,(w tnaie^ 





THE STATE OF THE UNION • Message of the President 

to the Congress 79 

COLLECTIVE SECURITY UNDER LAW • Statement 

by Benjamin V. Cohen 98 

THE PRESIDENT EXCHANGES VIEWS WITH 
PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL • Joint 

Communique 83 

RESTLESSNESS OF YOUTH: AN ASSET OF FREE 

SOCIETIES • Address by Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt . . 94 

BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN: A YEAR-END 

REVIEW 84 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXVI, No. 656 
January 21, 1952 



^ENT o^ 




■^tes o* 




•"^^T.. O' ' 



*..,«^y*. bulletin 



Vol. XXVI, No. 656 • Publication 4467 
January 21, 1952 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

FEB 1 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10 25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (July 29, 1949). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OP State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BVLLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications^ 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



The State of the Union 



Message of the President to the Congress ^ 



Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the 
Congress: 

I have tlie honor to report to the Congress on 
the state of the Union. 

At the outset, I should like to speak of the neces- 
sity for putting first things first as we work to- 
gether tliis year for the good of our country. 

The United States and the whole free world 
ire passing through a period of grave danger. 
Every action you take here in Congress, and every 
action I take as President, must be measured 
igainst the test of whether it helps to meet that 
ianger. 

This will be a Presidential-election year — the 
iind of year in which politics plays a larger part 
n our lives than usual. That is perfectly proper. 
But we have a great responsibility to conduct our 
oolitical fights in a manner that does not harm 
:he national interest. 

We can find plenty of things to differ about 
tvithout destroying our free institutions and with- 
out abandoning our bipartisan foreign policy for 
Deace. 

When everything is said and done, all of us — 
Republicans and Democrats alike — all of us are 
?Vniericans ; and we are all going to sink or swim 
together. 

We are moving through a perilous time. Faced 
ivith a terrible threat of aggression, our Nation 
las embarked upon a great effort to help establish 
;he kind of world in which peace shall be secure. 
Peace is our goal — not peace at any price, but a 
peace based on freedom and justice. We are 
:iow in the midst of our effort to reach that goal. 
3n the whole, we have been doing very well. 

Last year, 1951, was a year in which we threw 
oack aggression, added greatly to our militaiy 
strength, and improved the chances for peace and 
freedom in many parts of the world. 

This year, 1952, is a crucial year in the defense 
?ffort of the whole free world. If we falter, we 

'Excerpts from the President's message delivered to 
:Iie Congress ort Jan. 9, and released to the press by the 
White House on the same date. 



can lose all the gains that we have made. If we 
drive ahead with courage and vigor and deter- 
mination, we can by the end of 1952 be in a posi- 
tion of much greater security. The way will be 
dangerous for years ahead, but if we put forth 
our best efforts this year — and next year — we can 
be "over the hump" in our effort to build strong 
defenses. 

When we look at the record of the past year, 
1951, we find important things on both the credit 
and the debit side of the ledger. We have made 
great advances. At the same time, we have run 
into new problems which must be overcome. 

Let us look at the credit side first. 

Achievements in 1951 

Peace depends upon the free nations sticking 
together, and making a combined effort to check 
aggression and prevent war. In this respect, 1951 
was a year of great achievement. 

In Korea, the forces of the United Nations 
turned back the Chinese Communist invasion — 
and did it without widening the area of coniiict. 
The action of the United Nations in Korea has 
been a powerful deterrent to a third world war. 
However, the situation in Korea remains very 
hazardous. The outcome of the armistice nego- 
tiations is still uncertain. 

In Indochina and Malaya, our aid has helped 
our allies to hold back the Communist advance, 
although there are signs of further trouble in 
that area. 

In 1951 we strengthened the chances of peace 
in the Pacific region by the treaties with Japan 
and by defense arrangements with Australia, New 
Zealand, and the Philippines. 

In Europe, combined defense has become a 
reality. The free nations have created a real 
fighting force. This force is not yet as strong .■;S 
it needs to be; but it is already a real obstacle to 
any attempt by hostile forces to sweep across 
Europe to the Atlantic. 

In 1951 we also moved to strengthen the security 



ianuary 21, 1952 



79 



of Europe by the agreement to bring Greece and 
Turkey into tlie North Atlantic Treaty. 

The United Nations, the workl's great hope lor 
peace, has come tlirough a year of trial stronger 
and more useful than ever. The free nations 
have stood together in blocking Communist at- 
tempts to tear up the Charter. 

At the present session of the United Nations in 
Paris, we, together with the British and the 
French, offered a plan to reduce and control all 
armaments under a foolproof inspection system. 
This is a concrete, practical proposal for dis- 
armament. 

But what happened? Vyshinsk.v laughed at it. 
Listen to what he said: "I could hardly sleep 
at all last night ... I could not sleep be- 
cause I kept laughing." The world will be a long 
time forgetting the spectacle of that fellow laugh- 
ing at disarmament. 

Disarmament is not a joke. Vyshinsky's laugh- 
ter met with shock and anger from people all over 
the world. And, as a result, Mr. Stalin's repre- 
sentative received orders to stop laughing and 
start talking. 

If the Soviet leaders were to accept this pro- 
posal, it would lighten the burden of armaments, 
and permit the resources of the earth to be de- 
voted to the good of mankind. But until the 
Soviet Union accepts a sound disarmament pro- 
posal, and joins in peaceful settlements, we have 
no choice except to build up our defenses. 

During this past year, we added more than a 
million men and women to our armed forces. The 
total is now nearly 31/0 million. We have made 
rapid progress in the field of atomic weapons. 
We have turned out 16 billion dollars' worth of 
military supplies and equipment, three times as 
much as the year before. 

Economic conditions in the country are good. 
There are 61 million people on the job; wages, 
fai'm incomes, and business profits are at high 
levels. Total production of goods and services in 
our country has increased 8 percent over the last 
year — about twice the normal rate of growth. 

Perhaps the most amazing thing about our eco- 
nomic progi'ess is the way we are increasing our 
basic capacity to produce. For example, we are 
now in the second year of a 3-year program which, 
will double our output of aluminum, increase our 
electric-power supply by 40 percent, and increase 
our steel-making capacity by 15 percent. We can 
then produce 120 million tons of steel a year, as 
much as the rest of the world put together. 

This expansion will mean more jobs and higher 
standards of living for all of Us in the years 
ahead. At the present time, it means greater 
strength for us and for the rest of the free world 
in the fight for peace. 

New Problems Arise 

Now, I must turn to the debit side of the ledger 
for the past year. 



The outstanding fact to note on the debit side 
of the ledger is that the Soviet Union, in 1951, 
continued to expand its military production and 
increase its already excessive military power. 

It is true that the Soviets have run into increas- 
ing difficulties. Their hostile policies have awak- 
ened stern resistance among free men throughout 
the world. And behind the Iron Curtain, the 
Soviet rule of force has created growing political 
and economic stresses in the satellite nations. 

Nevertheless, the grim fact remains that the 
Soviet Union is inci'easing its armed might. It is 
still producing more war planes than the free 
nations. It has set off two more atomic explosions. 
The world still walks in the shadow of another 
world war. 

And here at home, our defense preparations are 
far from complete. 

During 1951 we did not make adequate progress 
in building up civil defense against atomic attack. 
This is a major weakness in our plans for peace, 
since inadequate civilian defense is an open invi- 
tation to surprise attack. Failure to provide ade- 
quate civilian defense has the same effect as adding 
to the enemy's supply of atom bombs. 

In the fiekl of defense production, we have run 
into difficulties and delays in designing and pro- 
ducing the latest types of airplanes and tanks. 
Some machine tools and metals are still in ex- 
tremely short supply. 

In other free countries, the defense build-up has 
created severe economic problems. It has in- 
creased inflation in Europe and has endangered 
the continued recovery of our allies. 

In the Middle East, political tensions and the 
oil controversy in Iran are keeping the region in 
a turmoil. In the Far East, the dark threat of 
Communist imperialism still hangs over many 
nations. 

This, very briefly, is the good side and the bad 
side of the picture. 

Taking the good and bad together, we have 
made real progress this last year along the road 
to peace. We have increased the power and unity 
of the free world. And while we were doing this, 
we have avoided world war on the one hand, and 
appeasement on the other. This is a hard road 
to follow, but the events of the last year show that 
it is the right road to peace. 

We cannot expect to complete the job overnight. 
The free nations may have to maintain for years 
the larger military forces needed to deter aggres- 
sion. We must build steadily, over a period of 
years, toward political solidarity and economic 
progress among the free countries in all parts of 
the world. 

Our task will not be easy ; but if we go at it with 
a will, we can look forward to steady progress. 
On our side are all the great resources of free- 
dom — the ideals of religion and democracy, the 
aspiration of people for a better life, and the 
industrial and technical power of a free civiliza- 
tion. 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



These advantages outweigh anything the slave 
world can produce. The only thing that can de- 
feat us is our own state of mind. We can lose if 
we falter. 

The middle period of a great national effort 
like this is a very difficult time. The way seems 
long and hard. The goal seems far distant. Some 
oeople get discouraged. That is only natural. 

But if there are anj' among us who thinlc we 
)ught to ease up in the fight for peace, I want to 
■emind tliem of three things — just three things. 

First : The threat of world war is still very real. 
We had one Pearl Harbor — let's not get caught off 
ruard again. If you don't think the threat of 
I!ommunist armies is real, talk to some of our men 
)ack from Korea. 

Second : If the United States had to try to stand 
done against a Soviet-dominated world, it would 
lestroy tlie life we know and the ideals we hold 
tear. Our allies are essential to us, just as we are 
ssential to them. The more shoulders there are 
o bear the burden the lighter it will be. 

Third : The things we believe in most deeply are 
aider relentless attack. We have the great re- 
ponsibility of saving the basic moral and spiritual 
alues of our civilization. We have started out 
rell — with a program for peace that is unparal- 
3led in history. If we believe in ourselves and the 
aith we profess, we will stick to the job. 

'asks Ahead Require Courage 

This is a time for courage, not for grumbling 
nd mumbling. 

Now, let us take a look at the things we have 
5 do. 

The thing that is uppermost in the minds of all 
f us is the situation in Korea. We must — and we 
'ill — keep up the fight there until we get the kind 
f armistice that will put an end to the aggression 
nd protect the safety of our forces and the se- 
arity of the Republic of Korea. Beyond that, 
'e shall continue to work for a settlement in 
[orea that upholds the principles of the United 
ations. We went into Korea because we knew 
lat Communist aggression had to be met firmly 
' freedom was to be preserved in the world. We 
ent into the fight to save the Republic of Korea, 

free country, established under the United Na- 
ons. These are our aims. We will not give up 
ntil we attain them. 

Meanwhile, we must continue to strengthen the 
jrces of freedom throughout the world. 

I hope the Senate will take early and favorable 
jtion on the Japanese peace treaty, on our se- 
irity pacts with Pacific countries, and on the 
greement to bring Greece and Turkey into the 
orth Atlantic Treaty. 

We are also negotiating an agreement with the 
ferman Federal Republic under which it can play 
n honorable and equal part among nations and 
ike its jDlace in the defense of Western Europe. 

But treaties and plans are only the skeleton of 
ar defense structure. The sinew and muscle of 



defense forces and equipment must be provided. 

In Europe we must go on helping our friends 
and allies to build up their military forces. This 
means we must send weapons in large volume to 
our European allies. I have directed that weap- 
ons for Europe be given a very high priority. 
Economic aid is necessary, too, to supply the mar- 
gin of difference between success and failure in 
makmg Europe a strong partner in our joint 
defense. 

In the long run, we want to see Europe freed 
from any dependence on our aid. Our European 
allies want that just as much as we do. The steps 
that are now being taken to build European unity 
should help bring that about. Six European coun- 
tries are pooling their coal and steel production 
under the Schuman Plan. Work is going for- 
ward on the merger of European national forces 
on the Continent into a single army. Tliese great 
projects should become realities in 1952. 

We should do all we can to help and encourage 
the move toward a strong and united Europe. 

In Asia the new Communist empire is a daily 
threat to millions of people. The peoples of Asia 
want to be free to follow their own way of life. 
They want to preserve their culture and their tra- 
ditions against communism, just as much as we 
want to preserve ours. They are laboring vnider 
terrific handicaps — poverty, ill health, feudal sys- 
tems of land ownership, and the threat of internal 
subversion or external attack. We can and must 
increase our help to them. 

That means military aid, especially to those 
places like Indochina which might be hardest hit 
by some new Communist attack. 

It also means economic aid, botli technical know- 
how and capital investment. 

This last year we made available millions of 
bushels of wheat to relieve famine in India. But 
far more important, in the long run, is the work 
Americans are doing in India to help the Indian 
farmers themselves raise more grain. With the 
help of our technicians, Indian farmers, using 
simple, inexpensive means, have been able since 
1948 to double the crops in one area in India. One 
farmer there raised 63 bushels of wheat to the 
acre, where 13 bushels had been the average before. 

Our Technical Missionaries 

This is our Point Four Program at work. It is 
working — not only in India — but in Iran, Para- 
guay, Liberia — in 33 countries around the globe. 
Our technical missionaries are out there. We 
need more of them. We need more funds to speed 
their efforts, because there is nothing of greater 
importance in all our foreign policy. There is 
nothing that shows more clearly what we stand 
for, and what we want to achieve. 

We have recently lost a great public servant who 
was leading this effort to bring opportunity and 
hope to the people of half the world. Dr. Henry 



onuary 21, J 952 



81 



Bennett and his associates died in the line of duty 
on a Point Four mission. It is up to us to carry 
on the great work for which they gave their lives. 

During the coming year, we must not forget the 
suifering of the people who live beyond the Iron 
Curtain. In those areas, minorities are being 
oppressed, human rights violated, religions pei'se- 
cuted. We should continue to expose those 
wrongs. We should continue and expand the 
activities of the Voice of America, which brings 
our message of hope and truth to those peoples and 
other peoples throughout the world. 

I have just had an opportunity to discuss many 
of these world problems with Prime Minister 
Churchill. We have had a most satisfactory series 
of meetings. We thoroughly reviewed the situa- 
tion in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. 
We both look forwai-d to steady progress toward 
peace through the cooperative action and team- 
work of the free nations. 

Turning from our foreign policies, let us now 
consider the jobs we have here at home as part of 
our program for peace. 

The first of these jobs is to move ahead full 
steam on our defense program. 

Our objective is to have a well-equipped, active 
defense force large enough — in concert with the 
forces of our allies — to deter aggression and to in- 
flict punishing losses on the enemy immediately 
if we should be attacked. This active force must 
be backed by adequate reserves, and by the plants 
and tools to turn out the tremendous quantities of 
new weapons that would be needed if war came. 
We are not building an active force adequate to 
carry on a full scale war, but we are putting our- 
selves in a position to mobilize very rapidly if we 
have to. 

This year I shall recommend some increases in 
the size of the active force we are building, with 
particular emphasis on air power. This means 
we shall have to continue large-scale production of 
planes and other equipment for a longer period of 
time than we had originally planned. 

Planes and tanks and other weapons — what the 
military call "hard goods" — are now beginning to 
come off the production lines in volume. Deliv- 
eries of hard goods now amount to about a billion 
and a half dollars' worth a month. A year from 
now, we expect this rate to be doubled. 

We shall have to hold a high rate of military 
output for about a year after that. In 1954 we 
hope to have enough equipment so that we can re- 
duce the production of most military items sub- 
stantially. The next 2 years should therefore be 
the peak period of defense production. 

Defense needs will take a lot of our steel, alumi- 
num, copper, nickel, and other scarce materials. 
This means smaller production of some civilian 
goods. The cutbacks will be nothing like those 
during World War II, when much civilian produc- 
tion was completely stopped. But there will be 
considerably less of some goods than we have been 
used to these past 2 or 3 years. 



Meeting the Crisis With Moral Strength 

This demonstration of the way free men govern 
themselves has a more powerful influence on the 
people of the world — on both sides of the Iron 
Curtain — than all the trick slogans and pie-in- 
the-sky promises of the Communists. 

But our shortcomings, as well as our progress, 
are watched from abroad. And there is one short- 
coming I want to speak plainly about. 

Our kind of government above all others cannot 
tolerate dishonesty among its public servants. 

Some dishonest people worm themselves into 
almost every human organization. It is all the 
more shocking, however, when they make their 
way into a Government such as ours, which is 
based on the principle of justice for all. Such 
unworthy public servants must be weeded out. 
I intend to see to it that Fedei-al employees who 
have been guilty of misconduct are punished for 
it. I also intend to see to it tliat the honest and 
hard-working majority of our Federal employees 
are protected against partisan slander and 
malicious attack. 

I have already made some recommendations to 
the Congress to help accomplish these purposes. 
I intend to submit further recommendations to 
this end. I will welcome the cooperation of the 
Congress in this effort. 

I also think that the Congress can do a great 
deal to strengthen confidence in our institutions 
by applying rigorous standards of moral integrity 
in its own operations — and by finding an effective 
way to control campaign expenditures — and by 
protecting the rights of individuals in congres- 
sional investigations. 

To meet the crisis which now hangs over the 
world, we need many different kinds of strength — 
military, economic, political, and moral. And of 
all these, I am convinced that moral strength is 
the most vital. 

When you come right down to it, it is the 
courage and the character of our Nation — and of 
each one of us as individuals — that will really 
decide how well we meet this challenge. 

We are engaged in a great undertaking at home 
and abroad — the greatest, in fact, that any nation 
has ever been privileged to embark upon. We are 
working night and day to bring peace to the 
world and to spread the democratic ideals of 
justice and self-government to all people. Our 
accomplishments are already remarkable. We 
ought to be full of pride in what we are doing — 
and full of confidence and hope in the outcome. 
No nation ever had greater resources, or gi-eater 
energy, or nobler traditions to inspire it. 

And yet, day in and day out, we see a long 
procession of timid and fearful men who wring 
their hands and cry out that we have lost the 
way — that we don't know what we are doing — 
that we are bound to fail. Some say we should 
give up the struggle for peace, and others say we 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



p 



t honld have a war and get it over with. They 
cant us to forget the great objective of prevent- 
ng anotlier world war — the objective for which 
lur soldiei-s have been fighting in tlie liills of 
vorea. 

If we are to be worthy of all that has been done 
or us by our soldiei-s in the field, we must be true 
o the ideals for which they are fighting. We must 
eject the counsels of defeat and despair. We 
lust have the determination to complete the great 
rork for which our men have laid down their 
ives. 
In all we do, we should remember who we are 
nd what we stand for. We are Americans. Our 
orefathers had far greater obstacles than we 
ave, and much poorer chances of success. They 
id not lose heart, or turn aside from their goals. 
n that darkest of all winters in Ameincan history, 



at Valley Forge, George Washington said "We 
must not, in so great a contest, expect to meet with 
nothing but sunshine." With that spirit, they won 
their fight for freedom. 

We must have that same faith and vision. In 
the great contest in which we are engaged today, 
we cannot expect to have fair weather all the 
way. But it is a contest just as important for this 
country and for all men as the desperate struggle 
that George Washington fought throiigh to 
victory. 

Let us prove, again, that we are not merely 
sunshine patriots and summer soldiers. Let us go 
forward, trusting in the God of Peace, to win the 
goals we seek. 

Haert S. Truman. 

The White House, 
January 9, 195S. 



'he President Exchanges Views With Prime Minister Churchill 



I 



OINT COMMUNIQUE 

Released to the press hy the White House January 9] 

The President and the Prime Minister held four 
leetings at the White House on January 7 and 
, 1952. The Prime Minister was accompanied by 
le Foreign Secretary, Mr. Anthony Eden, by the 
ecretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, 
lOrd Ismay, and by the Paymaster-General, Lord 
iherwell. The President's advisers included the 
ecretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, Mr. 
'harles E. Wilson, and Mr. W. Averell Harriman. 
'he visit of Mr. Churchill and his colleagues also 
fforded opportunities for a number of informal 
leetings. 

At the end of the talks the President and the 
'rime Minister issued the following announce- 
lent: 

During the last two days we have been able 
D talk over, on an intimate and personal basis, 
le problems of this critical time. Our discussions 
ave been conducted in mutual friendship, respect 
nd confidence. Each of our Governments has 
aereby gained a better understanding of the 
loughts and aims of the other. 

The free countries of the world are resolved to 
nite their strength and purpose to ensure peace 
nd security. We affirm the determination of our 
rovernments and peoples to further this resolve, 
"i accordance with the purposes and principles of 
iie United Nations Charter. The strong ties 
i'hich unite our two countries are a massive con- 

anuaty 21, J952 



tribution to the building of the strength of the 
free world. 

Under arrangements made for the common de- 
fense, the United States has the use of certain bases 
in the United Kingdom. We reaffirm the under- 
standing that the use of these bases in an emer- 
gency would be a matter for joint decision by His 
Slajesty's Government and the United States Gov- 
ernment in the light of the circumstances prevail- 
ing at the time. 

We share the hope and the determination that 
war, with all its modern weapons, shall not again 
be visited on mankind. We will remain in close 
consultation on the developments which might in- 
crease danger to the maintenance of world peace. 

We do not believe that war is inevitable. This is 
the basis of our policies. We are willing at any 
time to explore all reasonable means of resolving 
the issues which now threaten the peace of the 
world. 

The United States Government is in full accord 
with the views expressed in the joint statement 
issued in Paris on December 18, 1951, at the con- 
clusion of the Anglo-French discussions. Our 
two Governments will continue to give their full 
support to the efforts now being made to establish 
a European Defense Community, and will lend all 
assistance in their power in bringing it to fruition. 
We believe that this is the best means of bringing 
a democratic Germany as a full and equal partner 
into a purely defensive organization for European 
security. The defense of the free world will be 
strengthened and solidified by the creation of a 

83 



European Defense Community as an element in 
a constantly developing Atlantic Community. 

Our Governments are resolved to promote the 
stability, peaceful development, and prosperity of 
the countries of the Middle East. We have found 
a complete identity of aims between us in this part 
of the world, and the two Secretaries of State will 
continue to work out together agi-eed policies to 
give eilect to this aim. We think it essential for 
the furtherance of our common purposes that an 
Allied Middle East Command should be set up as 
soon as possible. 

As regards Egypt, we are confident that the 
Four Power approach offers the best prospect of 
relieving the present tension. 

We both hope that the initiative taken by the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment will lead to a solution of the Iranian oil 
problem acceptable to all the interests concerned. 

We have discussed the many grave problems 
affecting our two countries in the Far East. A 
broad liarmony of view has emerged from these 
discussions ; for we recognize that the overriding 
need to counter the Communist threat in that area 
transcends such divergencies as there are in our 
policies toward China. We will continue to give 
full support for United Nations measures against 
aggression in Koi-ea until peace and security are 
restored there. We are glad that the Chiefs of 
Staff of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
and France will be meeting in the next few days to 
consider specific measures to strengthen the secu- 
rity of Southeast Asia. 

We have considered how our two countries could 



best help one another in the supply of scarce ma- 
terials important to their defense programs and 
their economic stability. The need of the United 
Kingdom for additional supplies of steel from the 
United States, and the need of the United States 
for supplies of other materials, including alumi- 
num and tin, were examined. Good progi-ess was 
made. The discussions will be continued and we 
hope that agreement may be announced shortly. 

We have reviewed the question of standardiza- 
tion of rifles and ammunition in the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization. Neither country 
thinks it wise at this critical time to take the 
momentous step of changing its rifle. In the in- 
terest of economy, both in time and money, we 
have agreed that the United States and the United 
Kingdom will continue to rely upon rifles and 
ammunition now in stock and currently being pro- 
duced. In the interest however of eventual stand- 
ardization, we have also agreed that both countries 
will produce their new rifles and ammunition only 
on an experimental scale while a common effort is 
made to devise a rifle and ammunition suitable for 
future standardization. 

The question of the Atlantic Command is still 
under discussion. 

Throughout our talks we have been impressed 
by the need to strengthen the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization by every means within our 
power and in full accord with our fellow members. 
We are resolved to build an Atlantic community, 
not only for immediate defense, but for enduring 
progress. 



Behind the Iron Curtain: A Year-End Review 



1951 proved to be an unhappy year behind the 
Iron Curtain. Month after month, and in coun- 
try after country, the story has been the same. 
It is one of increasing dissatisfaction, unsuccess- 
ful repression, new jDurges, mass deportations, and 
other forms of Communist frightfulness in the 
now familiar Soviet pattern. 

In the free world, by contrast, 1951 has been 
a year of rising strength, rising hope, and rising 
production, combining to build new bulwarks 
against Soviet aggi-ession and promote the cause 
of peace. 

China 

In China, one of the coimtries where food pro- 
duction has fallen in spite of so-called "land re- 
form," mass executions, and the liquidation of 
landlords, year-end reports describe a growing 
coolness between Peiping and Moscow. 



Soviet Zone of Germany 

A January death sentence against an 18-year- 
old resistance worker was commuted to 15 years 
because of a wave of public anger which greeted 
the penalty pronounced originally. The radio 
had carried the youth's words to millions of other 
Germans : He preferred death to life without free- 
dom. 

In August the Soviet Union assembled some 
2 million youths from all over the world in Berlin 
for mass exlaibition and indoctrination. The pro- 
gram backfired when more than half of those as- 
sembled visited the free zones of Berlin. There 
they learned they had been fed with lies concern- 
ing conditions in the Western world. Hundreds 
of the youthful visitors disobeyed Communist 
oi'ders to ask asylum on free soil. 

Late in the year Lt. Col. Fedya Astrachov, head 
of Russia's uranium-mining project in East Ger- 



84 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



II Bankruptcies in Soviet Zone of Germany 

More than 16,000 private industrial, trade and 
handicraft enterprises in the Soviet zone have gone 
out of business since the beginning of the year, ac- 
cording to the trade registers of the individual 
Soviet zone states, said Die Xeiie Zeitnng Sejit. 18. 

In addition, the East zone authorities have re- 
ceived 10,000 applications for deletion from the 
trade registers. The number of banliruptcies of 
private enterprises in the Soviet zone is still on the 
increase. 

— Hicoo Information Bulletin, 
December, 1951 



lany and a Stalin prize winner, likewise fled to 
freedom in the West. 

Then at the year's end, Soviet censorship was 
-eimposed on all communications in the Russian 
5one of Germany, particularly private mail. 

'JzechosIovaMa 

As a climax to the steady exodus of Czech and 
Slovak refugees, a trainload fled to freedom in 
September. 

Jaroslav Konvalinka and Karel Truska, the 
:wo Czecli trainmen who took the freedom train 
hrough the Iron Curtain into Western Germany, 
ire now in the United States enjoying the freedom 
;hey sought in leaving their native land. 

In October — a month later — declining coal pro- 
iuction in the Ostrav-Karvina region posed a 
problem for the Communist regime which it has 
lot yet solved. The Czech Communist organ 
Rude Pravo called the production rate "utterly 
msatisfactory," and ''disgraceful and inexcus- 
ible" and Interior Minister Vaclav Nosek con- 
!eded that his program of overtime work and Mos- 
cow-inspired slogans had failed to produce the 
;oal needed. He predicted a "coal disaster." 

Another Czechoslovak news development dur- 
ing the year was the arrest of Rudolpli Slanslcy, 
Moscow-trained Communist leader who had been 
responsible for the earlier removal and arrest of 
former Foreign Minister Vladimir Clementis. 
Slansky had been Secretary-General of the Com- 
munist Party in Czechoslovakia, and later was 
\''ice Premier. Until his arrest and imprisonment 
Dn charges of espionage and related offenses he was 
presumed to be a Moscow favorite. 

Poland 

In Poland on October 31, the Communist regime 
announced the arrest of former Vice Premier 
Wladyslaw Gomulka and four other high officials. 
Gomulka was charged with "activities esiaecially 
dangerous during the reconstruction of Poland." 

Food supplies were getting shorter in Poland 
also as the so-called reconstruction program 
lagged. A new meat-rationing system was ex- 
plained officially in December as intended to take 
care of such privileged meat-eating classes as po- 



lice agents, factory managers, miners, and mem- 
bers of the armed forces. A Warsaw radio broad- 
caster reported that these groups were to have 
more meat than other Poles because "they are more 
important than others." 

Stettin reported the "first sizable anti-Soviet 
demonstrations in Poland since 1945." A drunken 
Russian major who had killed five Poles was 
stoned. Several Polish militiamen were killed by 
the crowd. There were some two thousand arrests. 

Himgary 

In Hungary thousands of innocent persons were 
deported. Deportations from Budapest started 
in mid-May. They were halted 2 months later fol- 
lowing a wave of suicides, and after the purge 
program had become a world scandal. Then, in 
November, they were quietly resumed, and at last 
reports were continuing. 

The Budapest Government found it necessary 
to "explain" during the summer interruption in 
the deportations that "only" 4,000 members of 
"the former ruling class" had been deported. But 
according to unbiased evidence from nongovern- 
ment sources, the number of disappearances to- 
taled between 60,000 and 80,000. Whole families, 
including children and the aged and sick, were 
herded into boxcars and shipped to unannounced 
destinations. Their property was confiscated. 

On June 28 Archbishop Groesz, Catholic primate 
of Hungary and successor to the impi'isoned 
Cardinal Mindszenty, was convicted on false 
charges of espionage, and sentenced to 15 years in 
prison. The trial followed the Mindszenty pat- 
tern of 2 years ago. The charges were almost 
identical and in addition to espionage included 
black marketeering and plotting to overthrow the 
Communist regime. Another of his "offenses" 
was refusal to sign the latest Communist "peace 
manifesto." 

Hungary also suffered from inflation. Prices 
of food and industrial goods soared when ration- 
ing was ended. Vice Premier Matyas Rakosi pre- 
dicted that removal of restrictions wovild end the 
high free-market prices. Actually, prices on 
many items jumped as much as 60 and 100 percent. 

Rumania — Bulgaria 

Rumanian partisans first showed their hand 
openly in April when they disrupted a railroad 
and fought a 3-day battle with the Rumanian 
militia. There were similar episodes both in Ru- 
mania and Bulgaria later in the year as resistance 
to Communist rule was expressed in sabotage and 
other demonstrations by partisans fighting for 
freedom. 

Austria 

Soviet authorities in Vienna showed their sen- 
sitivity to discussions of Communist slave labor 
by seizing and destroying thousands of books on 
this subject prepared by the American Federation 



January 21, 1952 



85 



of Labor. This action was designed to prevent 
the books from falling into tlie hands of anti- 
Communists in Austria and neighboinng coun- 
tries. The vohimes seized contained maps show- 
ing the exact locations of shave camps within the 
Soviet Union, with estimated numbers of their in- 
mates. 

Soviet Oppression Elsetvhere 

In Brussels an international commission of jur- 
ists heard testimony from former inmates of So- 
viet slave-labor caiiips and ruled that the Soviet 
Union's oppression in this respect equaled that 
of Hitler. Prosecutor David Rousset estimated 
that between 15,000,000 and 25,000,000 persons are 
being worked as Soviet forced laborers. Assistant 
Prosecutor E. de Beer said 17 percent of the total 



populations of Latvia and Lithuania had been 
arrested by Soviet authorities in these areas and 
tliat 60,000 Lithuanians had been deported to Rus- 
sia. 

Troubles also mounted in the Soviet Union it- 
self. From the Ukraine, Russian Georgia, and 
peripheral areas of Russia to the east and south- 
east came reports of both violent and passive re- 
sistance to Moscow's rule, necessitating reinforce- 
ment of Soviet garrisons in these Russian districts. 

These reports, together with a rising tide of 
escapes and escape attempts as thousands of refu- 
gees left or tried to leave Russian territory, con- 
tributed additional detail to the story of Soviet 
troubles and human courage in resisting oppres- 
sion. 



U. S. Proposes To Submit Soviet Lend-Lease 
Issue To International Court 

[Released to the press January 9] 



On January 7, 1952, Secretary Acheson trans- 
mitted a note to the Soviet Ainhassador at Wash- 
ington, Alexander S. Panyushkin, replying to the 
Soviet notes of August 21 and August 28, 1951. 

The Soviet note of August 21 had again rejected 
U.S. requests for Soviet return of all lend-lease 
vessels. The Soviet note of August 28 rejected 
the U.S. proposal made on April 27, that the 
question of a satisfactory lend-lease financial 
settlement he submitted to international arhitra- 
tion.^ 



U. S, NOTE OF JANUARY 7, 1952 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
Government's Note No. 71 of August 21, 1951 
concerning the request of the Government of the 
United States that the Soviet Government return 
to the United States naval, military and merchant 
vessels loaned to your Government under the Lend- 
Lease Act and the Master Lend-Lease Agreement 
of June 11, 1942. I also have the honor to refer 
to your Government's note No. 73 of August 28, 
1951 concerning the proposal of the Government 
of the United States that the question of the de- 
termination of a fair and reasonable lend-lease 
financial settlement be submitted to arbitration. 



' For texts of U.S. notes of Feb. 7, Apr. 6 and 27, and 
July 2, see respectively Bulletin of Feb. 19, 1951, p. 302 ; 
Apr. 23, 1951, p. 646 ; May 7, 1951, p. 744 ; and July 23, 
1951, p. 145. 



In the latter note your Government rejects the 
proposal of tlie Government of the United States 
that the question of a satisfactory financial settle- 
ment be submitted to arbitration. In addition a 
verbal proposal of $300 million was made by the 
Soviet representative on August 24, 1951. It was 
indicated at tliat time that the Government of the 
United States considers this amount as far from 
fair and reasonable compensation for lend-lease 
articles of the United States which remained in 
Soviet custody at the end of the year. Furtlier- 
more, in your note of August 21, 1951, your Gov- 
ernment again indicates that it does not intend to 
meet its obligation to return the lend-lease vessels 
as requested by the President of the United States. 
Instead your Government continues to evade this 
obligation, which is clearly and specifically stated 
in Article V of the Lend-Lease Agreement of June 
11, 1942, to return lend-lease articles as requested 
by the President of the United States. In attempt- 
ing to justify its evasion of this obligation your 
Government refers to "understandings" relating 
to the sale of some of the vessels. 

These so-called "understandings," however, were 
offers made long ago by the Government of the 
United States which were explicitly conditioned 
upon the prompt conclusion of a mutually satisfac- 
tory over-all lend-lease settlement. This condition 
was not met by your Government. Therefore, 
the Government of the United States, acting 
within its legal rights and in full accord with 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



he terms of the Lend-Lease Agreement of June 
1, 1942, informed representatives of the Soviet 
■rovernment on January 27, 1951, that all of the 
?nd-lease vessels which were loaned to the Soviet 
Jovernment under lend-lease procedures and re- 
lain tlie property of the Government of the 
Jnited States, are of use to the Government of the 
"nited Gtates; and, at the same time, the return 
f these vessels to the United States was requested 
1 accordance with Article V of the Lend-Lease 
Lgreement of June 11, 1942. Moi'eover, on the 
une date representatives of the Soviet Govern- 
lent were informed that the previous conditional 
tiers by the Government of the United States to 
?11 some of the vessels had long since lapsed and 
hat none of the vessels were available for sale 

I the Soviet Government. On February 7, 1951, 
le Government of the United States confirmed in 

note its request for the return of all the lend- 
■ase vessels. 

It is to be noted that on October 12, 1948, the 
rovernment of the United States demanded the 
?turn to the United States of 186 naval craft in 
ddition to 3 icebreakers and 28 frigates. These 
86 vessels at no time had been offered for sale to 
le Soviet Government on any basis. Even in 
lis instance the Soviet Government has refused 
) meet its obligation. 

It is the view of the Government of the United 
tates that the return of all lend-lease vessels is 
isential to the conclusion of a satisfactory over- 

II lend-lease settlement. It is also the view of this 
overnment that the Soviet Government is clearly 
1 default on its obligations by not returning these 
sssels to the United States. 

If the Soviet Government remains unwilling to 
^turn these vessels to the United States, the Gov- 
"nment of the United States suggests that the 
iiestion be resolved by submission of the matter 
) the International Court of Justice for adjudi- 
ition. For that pui'pose, the Government of the 
United States proposes that the Soviet Govern- 
lent join with it in submitting the following 
uestiou to the Court with the understanding that 
Dth Governments will be governed by the Court's 
ecision. 

Does the failure of the Soviet Government to return 
ncMease vessels to the United States, as requested by 
le Government of the United States, constitute a default 
1 the Soviet Government in its oblifration wider Article 

of the Master Lend-Lease Agreement of .Tune 11, 1942, 
I return lend-lease articles when so requested? 

lie Government of the United States therefore 
^quests that the Soviet Government immediately 
lake the necessary arrangements for the return 
f the lend-lease vessels as requested or agree to 
le submission of the question of the vessels as 

ated above to the International Court of Justice 
3r adjudication. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
ly highest consideration. 

Dean Acheson 



SOVIET NOTE OF AUGUST 21, 1951 

[Unofficial translation] 
No. 71 

Sir : In connection with your note of April 6, 
1951, 1 have the honor to communicate the follow- 
ing: 

The references in your note to a previous ex- 
change of notes fully confirm the fact that an 
understanding concerning the sale of lend-lease 
vessels to the Soviet Union was reached earlier 
between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and 
the United States of America. At the same time 
these references indicate that the Government of 
the United States of America itself valued this 
understanding as a necessary part of a mutually 
satisfactory general settlement of lend-lease ob- 
ligations resulting from the Soviet-American 
agreement of June 11, 1942. 

Thus, it is stated in the note of the Government 
of the United States of America of February 27, 
1948, in connection with the agreement of the 
Government of the U.S.S.R. to buy 36 merchant 
vessels of wartime construction received under the 
Lend-Lease Act at prices announced by the United 
States, that the agreement of the Soviet Govern- 
ment concerning these vessels "solves one of the 
several questions necessary for a general satis- 
factory settlement of obligations" resulting from 
the Soviet- American agreement of June 11, 1942. 

In the note of the Government of the United 
States of America of August 8, 1949, agreement 
was expressed to sell to the Soviet Union lend- 
lease merchant vessels of prewar construction for 
the sum of 13 million dollars offered by the Soviet 
Government and it was also indicated that "the 
agi-eement on this question satisfactorily solves one 
more of several questions of a general settlement." 
By requesting the return of all lend-lease vessels 
now, the Government of the United States of 
America violates the understanding reached earlier 
concerning the sale of the merchant vessels and 
some of the naval vessels to the Soviet Union, in 
which connection a legitimate doubt arises in the 
mind of the Soviet Government as to the earnest- 
ness of the statements of the U. S. Government 
concerning its desire to reach a speedy and mutu- 
ally satisfactory general settlement of lend-lease 
accounts. The U. S. Government's renunciation 
of the undei'standing reached on individual ques- 
tions can only make the achievement of a general 
settlement more difScult. 

As has been repeatedly stated earlier, the Gov- 
ernment of the U.S.S.R. longs for a very rapid 
achievement of an agreement with the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America concerning 
a full and final settlement of lend-lease accounts 
and has repeatedly sent its representatives to 
Washington to conduct negotiations with the rep- 
resentatives of the United States. It is toward 
this very goal that the efforts are directed of the 
Soviet representatives in the lend-lease negotia- 



on uar/ 27, 7952 



87 



tions which were i-esumed on January 15 of this 
year in Washington and are taking place at the 
present time. For this very purpose there is also 
a Soviet naval expert in Washington. 

It is well known that in the course of the pre- 
vious negotiations and exchange of notes the Soviet 
Government, guided by the ardent desire to 
achieve an agreement with the Government of 
the United States of America, made essential con- 
cessions and introduced a number of constructive 
proposals which create the possibility of a suc- 
cessful completion of the negotiations concerning 
the settlement of lend-lease accounts. 

In the light of the foregoing, the attempts of 
the Government of the United States of America 
to justify its renunciation of the understanding 
reached earlier concerning the lend-lease vessels 
by referring to the alleged avoidance by the So- 
viet party [to the negotiation] of the achievement 
of a speedy and satisfactory settlement and hence 
the nonfulfillment of the conditions under which 
these vessels could be sold, are groundless, and run 
counter to the true state of affairs. 

Insisting, in spite of the understanding, on the 
return of an insignificant number of merchant 
vessels by the Soviet Union while three-fifths of 
the whole tonnage of the merchant marine of the 
U.S.S.R. is laid up, and also requesting the re- 
turn of an insignificant number of very dilapi- 
dated small naval vessels while much larger naval 
ships are being sold up to this time by the United 
States to other countries, the Government of the 
United States of America takes a position which 
appears as discrimination with respect to the So- 
viet Union and which contradicts the principles 
of the agreement between our countries of June 
11, 1942, and obviously makes the achievement of 
an agreement difficult. 

The Soviet Government considers that a stead- 
fast observance of the understanding reached 
earlier is a necessary condition for the achieve- 
ment of a general and mutually satisfactory set- 
tlement of lend-lease accounts. 

Accept, Sir, the assurances of my high con- 
siderations.: 

B. Karavaev 
{CharffS) 



SOVIET NOTE OF AUGUST 28, 1951 

[Unofficial translation] 
No. 73 

Sir : In connection with your note of April 27, 
1951, which contains the proposal of the United 
States Government to transfer to an arbitration 
court for decision the question of payment for the 
residue of lend-lease in the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Eepublics, I have the honor, on the instruc- 
tions of the Government of the U.S.S.R., to 
communicate the following: 

The Government of the Soviet Union is aiming 



as before at the quickest attainment of agreement I 
with the Government of the United States of , 
America on a full and final settlement of the lend- 
lease accounts by means of bilateral negotiations. 
From the practice of international relations it is 
well known that, in the presence of good will on 
the part of both nesotiating parties, it is just such 
bilateral negotiations which are the best and most 
rapid way of attaining a mutually satisfactory 
agreement. The agreements on payment for the 
use in the U.S.S.R. of the patents on oil refining 
processes, which were achieved in the course of 
the present negotiations between the U.S.S.R. 
Purchasing Commission in the United States of 
America and four American firms, can serve as an 
example of this. Implementation of the proposal 
of the United States Government regarding trans- 
fer to an arbitration court for decision of the ques- 
tion of payment for lend-lease residue would mean 
the termination of direct bilateral negotiations be- 
tween the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the , 
United States of America and would in essence ! 
represent a rejection of the very possibility of 
achieving agreement on a full and final settlement 
of the lend-lease accounts. 

The Government of the United States tries to 
base its proposal on the fact that direct negotia- 
tions regarding the over-all sum have not resulted 
in the achievement of an agreement on this ques- 
tion. However, it is well known to the Govern- | 
ment of the United States of America that such : 
an agreement was not achieved only because the 
American side set an excessively high sum as com- 
pensation for the residue of lend-lease goods of 
the so-called "civilian type." 

The United States Government indicates in its 
note that it tried to reach an agreement on lend- 
lease with the Soviet Union allegedly on the basis 
of those principles which were applied in the set- 
tlement of the accounts of the United States of 
America with Great Britain. This statement does 
not correspond with reality either with regard 
to the size of the over-all sum of compensation or 
with regard to the conditions of its payment. 

Lend-lease deliveries to the Soviet Union were, 
it is known, at least two times less than the de- 
liveries made by the United States to Great Brit- 
ain. Moreover, the figure of $800,000,000 set by 
the United States Government for the lend-lease 
residue in the U.S.S.R. is almost twice as large 
as the sum subject to payment by Great Britain, 
which, as is known, consisted of $472,000,000. The 
American side tries to base the excessively high 
sum of compensation proposed to the Soviet Union 
on an arbitrary division of lend-lease residue into 
ai'ticles of "civilian" and "military" types. In 
this connection it is appropriate to point out that 
with regard to the U.S.S.R. the American Gov- 
ernment unfoundedly counted as articles of "civil- 
ian" type many articles which were considered as 
articles of "military" type in the accounts of the 
United States of America with Great Britain. 



88 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Naturally such a discriminatory attitude to- 

ard the Soviet Union cannot contribute to the 

■ttlement of the lend-lease accounts. 

From a comparison of the conditions proposed 

) the Soviet Union for the payment of compensa- 

on with the conditions on which were settled the 

:nd-lease accounts with Great Britain, it is also 

>en that the credit conditions proposed to the 

oviet Union place the U.S.S.R. in a signifi- 

mtly worse position than Great Britain. The 

)nditions proposed to the Soviet Union provide 

)r the payment of compensation in 30 annual in- 

. ailments with payments beginning from July 1, 

!)51, and with the calculation of interest during 

i.veral years before the signature of the agree- 

■ent, while at the same time for Great Britain 

uese conditions provide for payment of compen- 

i.tion in 60 annual installments with pavnients 

I'ginning and interest calculated only irom 5 

;?ars after the conclusion of the agreement. From 

i comparison of these conditions, it follows that 

ith the same nominal two percent annual in- 

■ rest rate, the interest rate paid by Great Britain 

■oves to be significantly lower and for the Soviet 

nion significantly higher than the indicated 

jDminal rate. 

Thus the proposals of the United States Gov- 

nment with regard to the size of the total 

nount and the conditions of its payment have a 

scriminatory character and therefore cannot be 

basis for a mutually satisfactory agreement. 

Such proposals advanced by the United States 

' overnment contradict the principles of the June 

, 1942 agreement, according to which the final 

i nd-lease settlement must be made with calclila- 

on of the advantages received by the Soviet 

nion from the United States of America as well 

; those advantages which the United States of 

merica received from the military efforts of the 

5viet Union, whose huge contribution in the at- 

inment of victory over the common enemy is 

merally known. 

In its note the United States Government states 
lat it is not asking payinent for lend-lease arti- 
es used by the Soviet Union in the war period 
id that this fact allegedly bears witness that it 
illy recognizes the contribution of the Soviet 
nion to the victory over the common enemy, 
ach a statement by the American Government 
at least misplaced, since according to the basic 
nd-lease agreement between the U.S.S.R. and 
le United States of America of June 11, 1942, 
le United States of America has no gi'ounds for 
lising the question that the Soviet Union com- 
jnsate the United States for the value of the 
nd-lease articles delivered to the Soviet Union 
id destroyed, expended, or used during the war 
Briod. The agreement of June 11, 1942, obligates 
le Government of the United States to calculate 
recisely at the time of settlement of the lend- 
:ase residue accounts, the contribution of the 



Soviet Union to the military efforts against the 
common enemy and all advantages which the 
United States Government received from the op- 
eration of this agi'eement. As is known, accord- 
ing to the definition of President Roosevelt set 
forth in the preamble of the basic lend-lease agree- 
ment, "the defense of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics against agression is vital to the de- 
fense of the United States." This means that all 
deliveries of lend-lease articles to the Soviet Union 
were made for purposes vitally important to the 
United States of America. The position taken by 
the United States Government in the negotiations 
for settlement of the lend-lease accounts does not 
correspond with this agreement and contradicts 
the allegation contained in the note that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States gives "great recog- 
nition of the community of interest of our two 
Governments in the achievement of the common 
victory and takes full cognizance of the part 
played by the Soviet Government in this effort." 

The agreement between the U.S.S.R. and the 
United States of America of June 11, 1942, is not 
a commercial transaction or loan; its very title 
states that it is an agreement regarding the "prin- 
ciples applied to mutual aid in the prosecution of 
the war against aggression." In this connection 
the reference contained in the note of April 27 of 
this year that "the Government of the United 
States has never agreed to give most-favored-na- 
tion treatment in connection with any lend-lease 
settlement whatsoever" can scarcely fail to call 
forth astonishment. Taking a discriminatory 
position toward the U.S.S.R. in the question of 
settlement of the lend-lease accounts, the United 
States Government by this very fact ignores the 
principles serving as the basis of the lend-lease 
agreement of June 11, 1942. Such a position of 
the United States Government contradicts its affir- 
mation of striving to attain a quick, mutually- 
satisfactory agreement on the settlement of the 
lend-lease accounts. 

In the light of what is set forth above and also 
in view of the fact that in the lend-lease agree- 
ment of June 11, 1942, such a system of settling 
disagi-eements was not provided for, the Soviet 
Government considers unacceptable the proposal 
of the United States Government for arbitration, 
advanced in its note of April 27, 1951. 

The Soviet Government again reaffirms its 
readiness to settle the lend-lease accounts by 
means of direct bilateral negotiations and ex- 
presses the hope that in the future course of these 
negotiations the Government of the United States 
of America will show the necessary cooperation 
for the rapid conclusion of the negotiations. 

Accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest con- 
sideration. 

B. ICaravaev 
{Charge) 



snuary 21, 1952 



89 



U.N. Commission To Discuss Prisoners of War 



[Released to the press January 9] 



U.S.S.R. ASKED TO PARTICIPATE 

On January 8, 1953, the American Charge 
d'' Affaires at Moscoto, Hugh S. Ciimming, Jr., de- 
livered a note to Deputy Soviet Foreign Minister 
Fedor T. Gusev informing the Soviet Government 
of the U.S. intention to send a representative to a 
meeting of the United Nations Ad Hoc Commis- 
sion on Prisotiers of War which is schedided to 
convene at Geneva on January 21, 1952.^ The note 
urges that the Soviet Government likewise par- 
ticipate and afford the Commission every assistance 
in the discharge of its humanitarian task. Text 
of the note follows : 

On December 11, 1951, J. G. Guerrero, Chair- 
man of the Ad' Hoc Commission on Prisoners of 
War established by the resolution of December 
14, 1950, of the United Nations General Assembly, 
addressed a letter to the United States Govern- 
ment." In this letter Mr. Guerrero indicates the 
decision of the Commission to invite those Govern- 
ments directly interested in the Prisoners of War 
problem to establish contact with the Commission 
with a view to studying jointly the measures 
which it would be possible to take in this connec- 
tion and requests the U.S. Government to desig- 
nate a representative with whom the Commission 
could confer during its session which is scheduled 
to start in Geneva on January 21, 1952. It is the 
understanding of the U.S. Government that the 
Soviet Government has also received an invita- 
tion to participate. The United States has already 

' The Ad Hoc Commission was established by a resolu- 
tion of December 14, 1950, of the U.N. General Assembly 
to investigate the situation of World War II prisoners 
of war who are still in custody, and about whom no in- 
formation has been received, and take whatever steps 
possible to facilitate their repatriation. For text of the 
resolution and statement made thereon by Edith S. Samp- 
son, alternate U.S. representative to the General As- 
sembly, see Bulletin of Jan. 8, 1951, p. 68. 

^ Not printed here. 



informed the Commission of its intention to send 
a representative to this meeting. 

It is the hope of the U.S. Government that the 
Soviet Government, despite refusal to date to as- 
sociate itself with the afore-mentioned resolution 
or to assist the Commission in its attempts to ob- 
tain factual information, will now agree to co- 
operate to the fullest extent possible in this most 
recent attempt to find a satisfactory solution to 
the prisoners of war issue. 

The human tragedy involved in the continued 
detention of hundreds of thousands of German 
and Japanese nationals taken into Soviet custody 
in the course of the war, who have been neither 
repatriated nor accounted for, hardly needs elabo- 
ration. It is therefore the earnest hope of the 
U.S. Government — a hope which we know is fer- 
vently shared by the families of these unfortunate 
individuals — that the Soviet Union will join other 
interested nations in affording the Commission 
every assistance in its efforts to bring about the 
return of all those still alive and to account for 
those who have died. 



U. S. COOPERATES WITH COMMISSION 

The U. N. Commission on Prisoners of War, 
which has invited certain interested governments, 
among them the United States, to a meeting at 
Geneva beginning on January 21, was appointed 
by the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
in accordance with the resolution passed at the 
fifth session of the General Assembly on Decem- 
ber 14, 1950.^ Sponsored by the United States, 
the United Kingdom, and Australia, the resolu- 
tion provided for the establishment of an im- 
partial, humanitarian commission to investigate 
the situation of World War II prisoners of war 
still unaccounted for and to take such steps as it 



' Bulletin of Jan. 8, 19.51, p. 73. 



90 



Deparfment of Sfate Bu//efin • 



iiicht find possible to facilitate the repatriation 
Df all those now alive. 

It is a tragic fact that 6I/2 years after the ces- 
sation of hostilities in World War II hundreds 
if thousands of prisoners of war, Germans, Jap- 
inese, and Italians, known to have been in Soviet 
lands, have not been returned to their home coun- 
ries nor has information regarding their where- 
ibouts and situation been furnished their home 
governments, relatives, or friends. 

It is our earnest hope that the U.N. Commission 
.vill be successful in its humanitarian task. This 
jovernment is cooperating fully with the Com- 
nission and is sending a representative to the 
jreneva meeting. 



I 



'ree World Unity 

Released to the press January 9] 

The foUoioing is a suvxmaTy of remarks mxide 
)n January 9 hy John Foster Dulles, Consultant 
o the Secretary, hefore the Association of Ameri- 
■an Colleges at Washington: 

Mr. Dulles took as his theme George Washing- 
on's statement that in every society each member 
nust "g've up a share of liberty to preserve the 
•est." He said that the nations which wei'e niem- 
)ers of the free world were not yet doing that 
ufficiently to preserve their liberty from total 
OSS in the face of the monolithic unity of the 
soviet Communist world. 

The United Nations 

"The United Nations," Mr. Dulles said, "as the 
Town Meeting of the World,' exerts a unifying 
nfluence on free-world opinion. This is of im- 
nense value ; but it does not provide organic unity 
'or security which is needed to match the organic 
inity for offense by which the free nations are 
hreatened. This kind of unity must be developed 
,hrough voluntai-y associations which are pro- 
vided for by articles 51 and 52 of the U.N. 
Charter." 



iuropean Unity 

Mr. Dulles recalled his own long advocacy of 
greater European unity as indispensable for 
European strength and security and expressed 
lope that through economic measures such as the 
Schuman Plan, and defense measures including 
the Pleven proposal for a European Defense 
Community, there was developing European 
unity "which can alter for great good the future 
course of history." He said General Eisenhower's 
part in stimulating this effort was an outstanding 
achievement. 



Mr. Dulles recalled that he had told the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee in 1947, when it 
first considered interim aid for Europe, that any 
such aid "would work in reverse, if it merely 
makes temporarily tolerable a European structure 
which is obsolete." 



Asian Unity 

Turning to Asia, Mr. Dulles foresaw gi-eater 
difficulty in achieving unity because Russia's 
"Asia first" policy was formidable and because 
Western colonialization had left, as an aftermath, 
much distrust between the free East and the free 
West. He hailed the initiative represented by the 
Japanese peace treaty and the security treaties 
with Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and 
Japan. He recalled that these had largely 
stemmed from General MacArthur's insistence, 
forcibly expressed in June 1950, that the United 
States take an initiative for peace and security 
in that part of the world. 

"Our occupation policies, now crowned by a 
liberal jDeace, mean" Mr. Dulles said, "that Japan 
can soon emerge as an important factor in world 
defensive strategy against militant communism. 
That is the goal of our policy. There is dire 
need for more effective participation by the peoples 
of the East in the defense of freedom." 



Japan and Soviet Russia 

The highest testimonial yet paid to the success 
of our policy is Premier Stalin's New Year's Day 
message to the Japanese people. Until then, the 
Soviet leaders had treated the Japanese with con- 
tempt. They refused themselves to make peace 
and they tried to prevent others from making 
peace by threatening that this might lead the 
Soviet Union to revive active hostilities against 
Japan ; they refused to return Japanese prisoners 
of war as they had solemnly promised; they de- 
manded that the Emperor be hanged ; they seized 
without warrant Japanese islands and unjustifi- 
ably closed the seas to Japanese fishers ; they de- 
manded that Japan be permanently disarmed and 
permanently subjected to Russian' military dom- 
inance through a Red navy monopolistic patrol 
of the very waters which flow between Japanese 
home islands. 

"When I was in Tokyo last April I discussed 
the tactics of terrorism which the Soviet Com- 
munists were then employing and I said that if we 
persisted honorably and courageously in our 
search for peace such 'tactics of Bolshevik com- 
munism cannot prevail.' This is now proved by 
the fact that the Soviet leaders, seeing that Japan 
cannot be frightened, now reverse their tactics and 
talk to Japan as a nation to be wooed. 

"The Japanese naturally and properly want to 
restore peaceful relations with all of their former 
enemies ; but they will, I predict, not accept Rus- 



January 21, 1952 



91 



sian words as a substitute for Russian deeds. The 
Japanese, as they return to independent status, 
will face many problems that are new and un- 
familiar to them. But some of the old problems 
will still be there and one of these, unhappily, is 
the problem of Russian imperialism. The Jap- 
anese, perhaps, better than any other people in 
the world, know that danger and the need to be 
ever alert." 

Conclusion 

Mr. Dulles concluded with the hope that the 
development of United States-Japanese relations 
would show that the East and West can cooperate 
in equal fellowship; that the East need not fear 
arrogance or domination by the West; and that 
there can consequently be broader and closer as- 
sociation for securing and expanding freedom in 
Asia. 



Progress of the Schuman Plan 

Statement hy Secretary Acheson 

[Released to the press January ll'\ 

Now that Germany has ratified the Schuman 
Plan, a critical corner has been turned in the polit- 
ical evolution of postwar Europe. In the brief 
span since the end of World AVar II, Germany, 
Italy, France, and the Benelux nations have gone 
far in fashioning the political and economic ties 
which should mean the end of centuries of spo- 
radic hostilities among them. The progress made 
so far is a tribute to the courage and imagination 
of the people and the statesmen of these countries. 



Visit of Netiieriands Premier 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
uary 9 that Willem Drees, Netherlands Premier, 
will pay an informal visit to the United States 
from January 12 until January 24. 

Mr. Drees will arrive at New York on January 
12. The Netherlands Premier will also visit 
Bridgeport, Conn., as an example of a small-sized 
American industrial city. 

Mr. Drees, who is the Labor Party head of his 
country's Government and a leader of the labor 
movement, will meet with labor leaders at New 
York. 

At Pittsburgh, Mr. Drees will inspect some steel 
plants and the national headquarters of the United 
Steel Workers of America. 

At Washington, Mr. Drees will call on Presi- 
dent Truman and Secretary Acheson and will 



have luncheon with the President and several 
Cabinet members. Mr. Drees will pay an informal 
visit to the Capitol and to a military establish- 
ment in the neighborhood of Washington. 



Allocation of Crude Oil 
For Venezuela 

[Released to the press January 7] 

The President, on January 5, 1952, signed a 
proclamation which continues for 1952 the 1951 
allocation by countries of imj^orts of crude oil, 
topped crude oil, and fuel oil which are permitted 
entry into the United States at a reduced rate of 
import tax. The 1952 quota allocation is as fol- 
lows : Venezuela 59.4 percent ; the Netherlands (in- 
cluding overseas territories) 18.7 percent ; all 
other countries 21.9 percent. The calendar years 
1946-49 are taken as the representative period 
specified in the proclamation for the purpose of 
determining the allocation by country. 

Under the trade agreement with Venezuela 
signed in 1939, imports of crude oil, topped crude 
oil, and fuel oil which are subject to import tax 
are permitted enti-y at the rate of IOI/2 cents a 
barrel, up to and not in excess of 5 percent of the 
total quantity of crude petroleum processed in re- 
fineries in continental United States during the 
preceding calendar year. Imports of these prod- 
ucts subject to import tax in excess of the 5 per- 
cent quota enter the United States at a higher 
rate of 21 cents a barrel. 

The quantities of petroleum products allocated 
to each country of export under the 1952 quota will 
be announced by the Treasury Department after 
determination by the Department of the Interior 
of the total quantity of crude petroleum processed 
in refineries in continental United States in 1951. 
In November the Bureau of Mines estimated that 
the crude runs to stills in the United States in 
1951 would reach approximately 2.4 billion bar- 
rels. In 1951 approximately 104.5 million barrels 
were imported at the lOi/2-cent rate out of an 
estimated total import figure for 1951 of 309 mil- 
lion barrels. 

The text of the proclamation follows: 

A PROCLAMATION' 

1. Wherem,s on December 29, 1950 I proclaimed such 
allocation among countries of production of the quantity 
of crude petroleum, topped crude petroleum, and fuel oil 
derived from petroleum, including fuel oil known as gas 
oil, entitled to a reduction in the rate of import tax during 
the calendar year 1951 not in excess of the annual amount 
equal to 5 per centum of the total quantity of crude 
petroleum processed in refineries in the continental United 
States during the preceding year as would be required or 
appropriate to carry out (1) the definitive trade agree- 



' 17 Fed. Reg. 185. 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



inent with Venezuela entered into on November 6, 1939 
(54 Stat. 2377), particularly Article VII and Item 3422 
of Schedule II thereof, and (2) the trade agreement 
entered into on October 30, 1947 consisting in part of the 
Genera! Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (Parts 
5 and 6) A", All, and A2051), particularly Article XIII 
thereof ; 

2. Whereas under the terms of said proclamation of 
December 29, 1950 the aggregate quantity of crude petro- 
leum, topped crude petroleum, and fuel oil derived from 
petroleum including fuel oil known as gas oil, entitled to 
a reduction in the rate of import tax during the calendar 
year 1951 up to not in excess of an annual amount equal 
to 5 per centum of the total quantity of crude petroleum 
processed in refineries in continental United States during 
the preceding year was allocated among countries of 
export on the basis of the proportions of the total Imports 
for consumption in the United States of America supplied 
during the calendar years 1946 through 1949, which years 
were representative of the trade in such products ; 

3. Whereas the proportions of total imports into the 
United States of America of such petroleum and fuel oil 
supplied by countries of export during the years 1946 
through 1949 were as follows : 

Venezuela .59.4 per centum 

Kingdom of the Netherlands (including 

its overseas territories) 18.7 per centum 

Other foreign countries 21.9 per centum 

4. Where^as Venezuela has requested the allocation 
among the countries of export of the quantity of such 
petroleum and fuel oil entitled to a reduction in duty by 
virtue of the said Item 3422 of Schedule II annexed to 
the said definitive trade agreement with Venezuela and 
that the representative period specified in recital 2 hereof 
be retained for the calendar year 19.52 ; 

5. Whereas I find that, taking into account special 
factors affecting the trade, imports into the United States 
of America from all countries of such petroleum and fuel 
oil during the years 1946 through 1949 as specified in re- 
citals 2 and 3 hereof are representative of the trade in 
such products ; 

Now, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of 
the United States of America, acting under and by virtue 
of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the statutes, Including section 350 of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended, do proclaim that, of the total aggregate 
quantity of crude petroleum, topped crude petroleum, and 
fuel oil derived from petroleum, including fuel oil known 
as gas oil, entitled, during the calendar year 1952, to a 
reduction in the rate of import tax by virtue of the said 
Item 3422 of Schedule II of the said definitive trade agree- 
ment with Venezuela, no more than 59.4 per centum shall 
be the pi-oduce or manufacture of the United States of 
Venezuela, nor more than 18.7 per centum the produce or 
manufacture of the Kingdom of the Netherlands ( includ- 
ing its overseas territories), nor more than 21.9 per 
centum the produce or manufacture of other foreign 
countries. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this fifth day of .January 

in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 
[seal] fifty-two and of the Independence of the United 

States of America the one hundred and 

seventy-sixth. 



By the President: 
Dean Acheson, 

Secretary of State 

Janystry 2 J, 7952 

983309—62 3 




Military Assistance Negotiations 
With Peru 

[Released to the press January 7] 

Tlie Departments of State and Defense have an- 
nounced that negotiations are being initiated on 
January 7 at Lima with the Govermnent of Peru 
looking to the conclusion of a bilateral military- 
assistance agreement. The American Ambassador 
at Lima, Harold H. Tittman, is b«ing assisted by 
representatives of the Department of Defense in 
the negotiations. They are being carried on under 
the terms of the Mutual Security Act of 1951, 
which authorized a program of military gi-ant aid 
for Latin America. 

It was announced on January 3 at Washington 
and Rio de Janeiro that similar bilateral negotia- 
tions were being initiated between the Govern- 
ments of Brazil and the United States.^ 



New VOA Transmitter for 
Broadcasts to Far East 

[Released to the press January 10] 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
uary 10 that bids had been accepted for a 7-million 
dollar short-wave transmitter plant to be located 
on the west coast which will give the Voice of 
America a powerful new signal to carry its mes- 
sage to the Far East. 

The exact location of the transmitter has been 
narrowed down to two sites, both in the State of 
Washington, and as soon as a final selection is 
made, contracts will be awarded and immediate 
construction will begin. The two sites, one located 
in the Grays Harbor area and the other in the 
Port Angelis area, both satisfy technical consider- 
ations. Location will depend upon a number of 
cost factors, such as land-clearance expenses. 
These are now being determined, and the Depart- 
ment expects to reach a decision very soon. 

This new plant, and a sister transmitter which 
will broadcast from the east coast, will be among 
the most powerful known to exist in the world. 
They were authorized by Congress as another step 
in the continuing effort of the U.S. Government 
to reach people everywhere with the Campaign of 
Truth. 

The transmitter is expected to be completed in 
18 months. 



^ Bulletin of Jan. 14, 1952, p. 47. 



93 



Restlessness of Youth: An Asset of Free Societies 



hy 3Irs. FrcmJcUn D. Roos&velt ^ 



Youth is never satisfied with tilings as they are. 
Young people in all countries wish to protest 
against the injustices they see about them. They 
are not easily fooled by facades of high-sounding- 
words thrown up to conceal bad deeds. They tend 
to cut through words to the heait of an issue. 

When they hear the phrase "free world" they 
want to know what is meant. They are not satis- 
fied with the way things are going in any part of 
the world. They see great tasks and hard strug- 
gles ahead of them to make a better life. The 
'•free world" cannot be used as a j^ious phrase to 
suggest that the people in one part of the woi'ld 
have achieved the full freedom they seek. It is 
rather a phrase which points the direction toward 
which the peoples can move and are moving. 

In the "free world" the dissatisfaction with 
things as they are, the striving for ideals and 
hopes, can find peaceful expression through free 
institutions. The restlessness of youth is a pre- 
cious asset of free societies because it always prom- 
ises regeneration of new vitality from decade to 
decade. 

But where fundamental freedoms and human 
rights have been suppressed by ruling oligarch- 
ies, the youth has no outlet for its struggles 
against the status quo. Its dynamic urges are 
channeled through marching clubs, military ma- 
chines, and propaganda organizations in support 
of a ruling class which is self-perpetuating. 

Wliile such a dictatorship is in the first bloom 
of its own youth, it can attract the youth by revo- 
lutionary words, by pageantry, and by vigorous 
activities. But tyrants grow old and become in- 
creasingly corrupted by arbitrary power. 

Their high-sounding words soon stand in bleak 
contrast to their evil deeds. Their promises are in 
contrast to their performances. It is my deep 

^An address made before Les Jeunes Amis de la 
Liberty at Paris on Dec. 18 and released to the press by 
the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. Mrs. 
Roosevelt is a U.S. delegate to the sixth session of the 
General Assembly. 



conviction that any society which does not pro- 
vide freedom for the upcoming generations to 
work openly and honestly for their aspirations 
contains within it the seeds of its own destruction. 
A tyrant can never tell who is for him or against 
him because he cannot enter the secret heart of 
any man. 

Youth's Obligations 

Youth which is free to work for a better life in 
the open with the tools of human rights has first 
of all the obligation to strengthen this freedom 
and preserve it against all attacks. Young people 
who are still free to read, to discuss, to question 
and to seek the truth can find out for themselves 
how freedom has been bludgeoned in Eastern Eu- 
rope and in the Soviet Union. They can see for 
themselves the growing ^aps between words and 
deeds behind the Iron Curtain. They can take 
direct testimony from those who are fleeing from 
these slave societies. 

They can read for themselves the new laws in 
the so-called people's democracies which state 
plainly that anything which is not published as a 
government hand-out is to be regarded as a state 
secret, and whoever inquires about such things is 
guilty of espionage or spying. They can see that 
these laws make it impossible for the people to 
find out from the public press or radio anything 
which the government doesn't want them to know. 

Of course, these laws are in themselves proofs 
of the weakness and fear of the ruling minorities 
who try to impose them. You and I know that 
they cannot work for long, because people, and 
especially young people, have ways of satisfying 
their hunger for news and truth. 

Yet, it is a sad thing to have to suffer long years 
of darkness, and to have to struggle for a new 
light of freedom. 

You have precious freedoms which you do not 
have to lose if you will use them in your struggles 
for a better life and defend them against both the 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



wiles of propagandists and the threats of aggres- 
sors. 

You know from bitter experience wliat it is like 
to live under a dictatorship imposed by an ag- 
gressoi'. You know how precious freedom is by 
recalling your own experience of the Nazi occupa- 
tion. And you know, as we have learned in the 
United States, that freedom can be preserved or 
rewon only by the collective effort of free men. 

The United Nations is the greatest agency we 
have thiough which free men may cooperate to 
preserve their freedom by collective actions. In 
the United Nations they can work together for 
social and economic improvements, and thus 
strengthen their free societies. In the United Na- 
tions they can unite their moral, political, eco- 
nomic, and military strength for collective defense. 

The foi'ces against freedom understand that 
their only hope of imposing dictatorial regimes on 
new ai'eas of the world lies in the disunity of the 
free world. Hence, they use every propaganda 
trick to sow confusion and dissention in the ranks 
of fi'ee peoples. They exploit every feeling of 
fear and antagonism to divide the free nations, 
and break the spirit for collective resistance to ag- 
gression. 

If we are determined not to lose our freedoms, 
we must use our heads in an active campaign to 
exi^ose the propaganda designed to divide us, and 
to promote the unity and cooperation of free peo- 
ple. 

At this General Assembly, we are engaged in a 
great effort to keep the issues clear on the questions 
of peace and security, in the hope that the Soviet 
Union will I'ecognize the determined will and 
clarity of thought of the people of the free world 
and abandon its policy of substituting propaganda 
for honest negotiation on real disarmament. 



Truth vs. Slogans 

We should realize that the truth about complex 
problems is harder to understand than slogans and 
emotional appeals that do not meet the issue. 
Therefore, those who wish to defend their free- 

tdoms have a difficult task of education to perform 
constantly in order to prevent the sloganized prop- 
aganda from misleading people. 

One of the main issues on which we must all be 
clear is the question of peace and disarmament. 
As you know, France, the United Kingdom, and 
the. United States joined in putting before the 
General Assembly a proposal for the limitation, 
control, and balanced reduction of all arms and 
• armed forces. This proposal has been ridiculed by 
Mr. Vyshinsky, who has put forward old Soviet 
proposals which are simple and beguiling. His 
main purpose is to confuse the issues of peace and 
to slow up or stop our actions to build collective 
security. 

The people of this world want peace itself, not 
mere words in new pacts of peace. They got j^acts 



of nonaggression from Hitler as his favorite pre- 
lude to his blitzkriegs. Now they want deeds, not 
words. 

Let us remember that the making of war itself 
is an international crime. This was firmly es- 
tablished at the Niirnberg trials. This was 
accepted by every government which ratified the 
United Nations Charter. This means that the 
use of any weapon from a gun to an atomic l^omb 
to attack or to threaten another state is prohibited. 
Kegardless of what weapons may be used, aggres- 
sion is a crime and is strictly prohibited. We have 
all signed the paper containing this promise. 

But this is not enough. The people want us to 
translate our promise into performance. 

Knowing as they do the terrible destruction that 
armies, planes, and tanks and guns can cause, they 
will not accept a mere paper i^rohibition of one 
weapon. They want all weapons and all armies 
put under international control so that war itself 
is effectively prohibited. 

When a nation only wants to prohibit the one 
weapon that happens to offset its mass armies, its 
hypocritical purpose is easy to expose. The real 
test for a nation is its willingness to submit to 
international control its whole military machine so 
that it becomes impossible for any nation to launch 
an aggression. 

On the problem of the control and prohibition 
of the use of atomic energy for weapons, there is 
a i:)erfect illustration of the need for clarity of 
thought on the part of free people in order not 
to be cleluded by Soviet tricks of propaganda. 
Let me try to put the issue in the simplest way. 

Suppose I held in my right hand a small block 
of Uranium 235. It is often called ''fissionable 
material." I am going to call it "the stuff that 
explodes." This stuff is what people the world 
over want to have put under international control 
so it cannot be used in weapons. 

Suppose I held in my left hand a piece of paper 
on which I had written these words: "Cross rny 
heart, I promise never to use the explosive stuff in 
a bomb if you will agree to let me keep it and use 
it as I please." 

This, in my right hand, is the stuff that threatens 
destruction. This, in my left hand, is the paper 
pledge to prohibit the use of it in a bomb. 

Now I ask you : Do you want signatures of 
foreign ministers on this piece of paper, or do 
you want to have the United Nations control this 
stuff? Wliich will be effective in prohibiting its 
use for destructive purposes? 

Would you trust any signature on the paper if 
the signer refused to give up his possession of the 
stuff to an international authority ? 

Only Soviets Say "No" 

The United Nations plan calls upon all nations 
to put this explosive stuff in the hands of an inter- 
national guard. So far only the Soviets have 



January 21, 1952 



95 



said "no." They have insisted on having and 
controlling the explosive stuff to use for purposes 
they say are "peaceful." 

They just Avant a new piece of paper which says 
none of us shall use this explosive stuff m bombs. 
After we sign such a piece of paper, they say we 
can probably work out some sort of inspection to 
find out whether anybody actually has any con- 
tainers of this stuff "labeled "bombs." However, 
the inspectors will not be allowed to find out how 
much of this stuff anyone may have in containers 
labeled "peacetime use." 

There is only one simple fact that people have to 
understand to see that this affords no protection 
at all. The simple fact is that the stuff that ex- 
plodes is exactly the same for bombs as for peace- 
time use. 

We say, "Let's have international control of the 
stuff that goes bang." 

They say, "Let's just sign a paper promising not 
to let tiie stuff explode." 

They ask the people of the world to take their 
word. We ask that the United Nations take con- 
trol of the stuff itself so nobody can break his 
word. 

Ah, but we are told that this would prevent 
countries from doing what they please with this 
explosive stuff. It certainly would. 

The people aren't afraid of words and labels; 
they are afraid of the stuff that explodes. They 
aren't so simple as to feel safe if this explosive 
stuff is nicely labeled "peacetime use only," when 
they know it can become bombs by just putting it 
in special boxes marked "A-bombs." 

The United Nations plan says each country can 
have as much of the stuff as it can use up in peace- 
ful project? wcfk by week, month by month. We 
must ha\o an international authority to guarantee 
mat atomic stuff is being used as each country 
claims it is being used. 

But if each nation has a big warehouse of the 
atomic stuff, and it is even a secret how much they 
have, the labels can be changed overnight from 
"peacetime use" to "bombs." Wliat kind of pro- 
hibition is that? Who would feel safe under 
that kind of control? 

Wliy do the Soviet spokesmen reject the idea of 
getting what they need as they need it from the 
United Nations authority? Oh, they claim they 
couldn't trust the international authority to let 
them have what they need. 

You see, we come back to the question of trust. 
They want us to trust them on their own word 
not to change the labels on this explosive stuff 
and use it in bombs. But they won't trust the 
authority composed of all nations to allot to them 
what they need for peacetime use. 

In other words, they simply refuse to put this 
stuff under international control. 

The United Nations plan is the best way advo- 
cated so far to control the explosive stuff and thus 



prohibit its use in weapons. We are ready to con- 
sider any other plan that will control the explosive 
stuff as 'effectively. But we demand real control 
of the stuff that explodes. 

This is only one illustration of why clear and 
realistic thinking is required if free men are not 
to lose their freedom in a fog of confusion and 
sophistry. 

It goes without saying that no man would know- 
ingly give up his freedom for mere promises of 
food or shelter or employment. Most people real- 
ize that these things have to be produced and can- 
not be promised or merely voted by politicians. 
The basic question is: Will they be produced by 
free men or by slaves? 

Free men have never deliberately chosen the 
path of dictatorship. They have never in a free 
election voted for parties advocating totalitarian 
doctrines. In a clear contest between the prin- 
ciples of freedom and the doctrine of dictatorship, 
there is no doubt where the overwhelming majority 
will stand. 

The danger comes from the confusions and dis- 
sensions which the skilled propagandists of totali- 
tarian parties disseminate — not primarily to win 
supporters but to divide and weaken their adver- 
saries. 

You have the great opportunity of helping this 
generation to face its problems with responsibility 
and realism. You can help unite freedom-loving 
people to prevent aggression and promote peace. 



U.S. Modifies Concession 
On Hatters' Fur 

[Released to the press January 7] 

The President has signed a proclamation modi- 
fying a U.S. tariff concession on certain grades of 
hatters' fur, effective after the close of business 
February 8, 1952.' The concession was originally 
made in the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade concluded at Geneva in 1947. The action 
modifying the concession is based on an investi- 
gation and report to the President by the U.S. 
Tariff Commission and is being taken under sec- 
tion 7 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1951 and in accordance with the provisions of 
article XIX (the "escape clause") of the General 
Agreement. 

The Presidential proclamation puts into effect 
higher rates of duty on certain hatters' fur in 
accordance with the recommendations of the 
Tariff Commission following the Commission's 
investigation. This investigation was conducted 
in response to an application to the Tariff 

' 17 Fed. Reg. 187. 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



Commission by representatives of the domestic 
industry. 

The Tariff Commission's report and the Presi- 
dent's action apply to "hatters' fur, or furs not 
on the skin, prepared for hatters' use, including 
fur skins carroted," described in item 1520 of the 
U.S. schedule (schedule XX) of the General 
Agreement. The pi-esent rate of duty is 15 per- 
cent. The new rate of duty will be 471/2 cents per 
pound, but not less than 15 percent or more than 
35 percent ad valorem. Under this new duty the 
maximum rate of 35 percent will apply to hat- 
ters' fur valued at $1.36 or less; the minimum rate 
of 15 percent will apply to fur valued at $3.16% 
or more per pound; and the rate of 47i/^ cents 
per pound will apply to imports valued between 
those two prices. Thus there will be no change 
in the duty on hatters' fur valued at $3.17 or more 
per pound. Imports of hatters' fur in recent 
years have come principally from Belgium, 
France, and Italy. 

The escape clause (article XIX) of the Gen- 
eral Agreement requires that any contracting 
party invoking it shall notify the other parties 
of its action and shall consult with regard to 
that action if consultation is desired. If agree- 
ment is not reached in such consultations and the 
action is nevertheless taken, other contracting 
parties having a substantial interest in exporta- 
tion of the product may take compensatory action. 
They may suspend substantially equivalent con- 
cessions which they have granted to the contract- 
ing party invoking the escape clause, unless such 
suspension is disapproved by the contracting 
parties to the General Agreement acting as a 
group. The required notice in this case has been 
given to the other contracting parties and con- 
sultations have been begun with the countries 
principally concerned. 



In its report to the President the Tariff Com- 
mission stated that it "will keep developments 
with respect to hatters' fur under constant review 
for the purpose of making whatever recommenda- 
tion may hereafter be warranted by changed con- 
ditions." The White House has released a letter 
from the President to the Chairman of the Tariff 
Commission in which the President expresses the 
opinion that it would be worthwhile to adopt a 
regular procedure for periodic review and report 
with respect to every instance of modification of 
a trade-agreement concession pursuant to an es- 
cape clause. The President's letter indicates that 
while it is essential to safeguard American indus- 
try from serious injury, it is also necessary to 
insure that trade-agi'eement concessions are not 
modified for a period longer than required to 
prevent or remedy the injury. The letter states 
that retention of the modifications for a longer 
period could have various adverse effects. It 
could harm American exporters by encouraging 
other countries to apply retaliatory withdrawals 
of concessions. It could injure American con- 
sumers by unnecessarily adding to the cost of 
goods they buy. It could also impede American 
foreign-policy objectives by denying other 
friendly nations the opportunity to earn dollars 
needed for their economic recovery and mutual 
defense. Accordingly, the President states that 
he has requested that an Executive order be pre- 
pared for his consideration which would call for 
a full investigation and report by the Tariff' Com- 
mission on each escape clause modification at 
periodic intervals in order to determine whether 
or not the modified concession should be continued. 

Copies of the Tariff Commission's report to the 
President are obtainable from the Commission. 
The President's letter to the Chairman of the 
Commission and his proclamation are incorpo- 
rated in White House press release of January 7. 



January 27, 1952 



97 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Collective Security Under Law 



Htatevient hy Benjamin V. Cohen 
U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly ^ 



The Collective Measures Committee has carried 
out its study of methods to strengthen inter- 
national peace and security in a constructive 
spirit. 

In these beginning steps we are advancing to- 
ward a primary goal of the Charter — tlie creation 
of a system of collective security under the United 
Nations. Progress toward this goal is gaining 
momentum through the collective action in Korea ; 
through the Uniting for Peace resolution last 
year; through the labors of the Collective Meas- 
ures Committee reflected in its report. Our atten- 
tion now should be directed to ways and means 
of carrying forward this momentum and of giv- 
ing to the United Nations the means that it needs 
to preserve the peace and to insure that its 
strength and that of individual states will not be 
used save in the conuiion interest. 

The learned and judicious chairman of the Col- 
lective Measures Committee, the distinguished 
representative of Brazil, Ambassador Muniz, has 
already explained to us, in his opening statement 
on December 3, the spirit and purpose with which 
the Committee approached its work. As he has 
stated : 

The Report of the Collective Measures Committee is not 
a political proposition for the United Nations General 
Assembly to act upon. It is essentially an enquiry into 
methods, procedures and techniques which may guide 
United Nations action in coordinating and integrating 
the resources of Member States In the event of a b/each 
of the peace or act of aggression. It should be viewed 
as a study, an analysis, an exploration of collective 
means of defense and coordinated action by nations de- 



' Made before Committee I (Political and Security) on 
Jan. 2 and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to 
the U.N. on the same date. 



termined to defend the purposes and principles of the 
Charter and resolved not to recognize tbe use of force 
or threat of force as a valid means for the prosecution 
of political ol)jectives. 

Tlie report of the Collective Measures Commit- 
tee and the resolution before us, which we are 
cosponsoring and supporting, are based on the 
jDroposition that the more effectively the members 
of the United Nations are organized to unite their 
strength to maintain international peace and se- 
curity, the less likely it is that world peace will be 
cliallenged.^ This report and resolution empha- 
size the fact tliat the more promptly the members 
of the United Nations are prepared to act in de- 
fense of peace and law under the Charter, the less 
likely it is that local aggression will take place or 
if it occurs will develop into a world war. They 
make clear that the organization of a system of 
collective security is not intended to exclude but 
to facilitate efforts to obtain peaceful settlement 
in accordance with the Charter. As the chairman 
of the Committee explained, the report is directed 
not to the creation of alliances against any state 
or group of states, but to the organization of peace 
and law. 

The resolution is intended to strengthen the 
cause of peace and to diminish the chance of war. 
Furthering the purposes of the Uniting for Peace 
resolution, this resolution seeks to give practical 
expression to the will of the people of this earth 
for collective security under law. It recognizes, 
as the report itself points out, that "the increasing 

'' For text of the report, see U.N. doc. A/1891 ; and for 
text of resolution see Bulletin of Dec. 24, 1951, p. 1027. 
For article based on the report, see Bulletin of Nov. 12, 
1951, p. 771. 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



difficulty of localizing any conflict, and the de- 
struction, suffering and chaos that would result 
from another world war make the need for an 
effective system of collective security greater than 
ever before." 



Collective Action in Korea 

We all hoped at San Francisco and we all voiced 
our intentions there that the United Nations should 
provide an effective system of collective security. 
Our hopes wei'e long deferred. They took on new 
life when the United Nations acted in Korea. De- 
spite the sombre tragedy of Korea, resolute United 
Nations action there showed the United Nations 
can act if there is the will on the part of its mem- 
ber states and their people to act. Korea has 
proved that collective action under the Charter 
can be achieved. The Uniting for Peace resolu- 
tion reflects the determination of the United Na- 
tions that Korea should mark the beginning of the 
progressive development of an effective collective- 
security system. We earnestly hope that all mem- 
bers of the United Nations without exception will 
unite in this development. 

Now the report of the Collective Measures Com- 
mittee opens further avenues toward progress. 
The report shows how the system can be improved. 
The draft resolution underscores the first and most 
important truth about collective security : that 
states must understand and accept the responsi- 
bilities of United Nations members in making col- 
lective security work. The United Nations is not 
a body distinct from its membere, but a body which 
derives its strength from its members; it is a living 
institution through which the members can concert 
their actions and combine their strength if, and 
only if, they have the will and purpose to do so. 

This report suggests measures by which we can 
concert our actions and combine our strength in 
case of need if that is our will and that is our 
purpose. The steps envisaged in the resolution 
will contribute to increased faith and confidence 
in the United Nations as a security organization. 
As this faith and confidence grow, there is greater 
likelihood that states, individually and collec- 
tively, can take further steps to strengthen the 
system of collective security. We are only begin- 
ning to realize the great potentialities of the 
Charter. 

In our discussions now, it is natural that Korea 
will be much in our thoughts. We have already 
learned much from the Korean experience — much 
that should be done and much that should not be 
done. One lesson Korea teaches is that all of us 
have a stake in collective action. It is a matter 
of self-interest for each of us to contribute to any 
such action as much as we can. Only thus can we 
insure the broadest United Nations character of 
any operation and make the aggressor feel the full 
moral force of world action in support of world 
law. Only thus can we make more nearly equi- 



table the sharing of the burden and the sacrifice. 
Only thus can we — by repelling aggression, when- 
ever or wherever it may occur — deter potential 
aggression in the future. 

We must all hope that an armistice will soon be 
arranged in Korea. Not only will this end the 
suffering and bloodshed : It will mark the first 
time in history tliat an aggressor has been forced 
to abandon his adventure by the collective action 
of an international organization. But the job is 
not done. The moral and material strength of 
the United Nations is still needed. If, despite all 
our efforts, an armistice is refused, renewed mili- 
tary efforts will be essential to meet continued ag- 
gression. Even if there is an armistice, members 
will still face the need of maintaining forces in 
Korea until peace and security are fully restored; 
they will also face the need of contributing to the 
relief and rehabilitation of the Korean people. 

Principal Parts of Proposed Resolution 

I should now like to comment briefly on some 
of the principal parts of the proposed resolution. 

In the first place the resolution takes note of the 
report of the Collective Measures Committee and 
approves its conclusions. 

The body of the report deals with the methods 
and techniques througli which the combined action 
of states can be made most effective against an 
aggressor. It does not attempt to anticipate spe- 
cific situations or to lay down inflexible rules to be 
applied to any and all cases. On the contrary, the 
guiding principles developed in the report are 
principles of general application which can be 
adapted to the circumstances of a specific case. 
Thus if the United Nations should again have to 
undertake collective action to meet aggression, its 
members would not have to start afresh and impro- 
vise the necessary steps from the outset, as was 
done in Korea. The procedures and arrangements 
outlined in the report are ready for use and can 
readily be adapted for the coordination of national 
and international action if they are ever needed. 

The conclusions of the report were carefully 
worked out by the Committee on the basis of its 
studies. My Government fully supports them, 
and the resolution before us provides for their 
adoption by the General Assembly. Indeed the 
principal operative clauses of the resolution are 
derived from the conclusions of the report. Most 
of these are to insure that states take the necessary 
preparatory action for the great cooperative enter- 
prise of making the United Nations a more effec- 
tive instrument of collective security. The reso- 
lution specifically urges member states to take such 
further action as is necessary to maintain within 
their national armed forces elements which can 
be made promptly available for service as United 
Nations units. It further urges member states to 
take such steps as may be necessary to provide as- 
sistance and facilities to United Nations forces 



lanuary 21, 1952 



99 



engaged in collective military measures under- 
taken by the Security Council or the General As- 
sembly. It recommends that member states exam- 
ine their legislation and administrative regulations 
to insure that they can carry out promptly and 
effectively United Nations collective measures. 
It recommends further tha^ they continue the 
survey of their resources to determine the nature 
and scope of the assistance they may be able to 
extend in support of collective security. 

The responses from member states to the recom- 
mendation in the Uniting for Peace resolution that 
they maintain elements for United Nations serv- 
ice in their national forces were, on the whole, 
encouraging. Most members affirmed their sup- 
port of the principle of that resolution, and their 
desire to increase their ability to join in United 
Nations collective measures. But obviously more 
needs to be done. Many states have not replied. 
Others have indicated that they are not yet in a 
position to translate their moral support into ma- 
terial action. But the Uniting for Peace resolu- 
tion envisaged a continuing program, and hopes 
cannot be translated into action overnight. AVhat 
is important is that states recognize their respon- 
sibility to be in a position of readiness to contrib- 
ute to collective action. To assist the states in 
meeting this responsibility, the proposed resolu- 
tion also requests the Secretary-General to estab- 
lish the Panel of Military Experts provided for 
in the Uniting for Peace resolution so that techni- 
cal advice regarding the organization of United 
Nations units may be available to states requesting 
it. 

The proposed resolution also recommends to 
member states that, in addition to their individual 
participation in the collective security system of 
the United Nations, they seek to secure the maxi- 
mum support from other international arrange- 
ments or agencies to which they belong. As the 
Collective Measures Committee points out in its 
report, 

There should be a mutally supporting relationship be- 
tween the activities of such arrangements or agencies and 
the collective measures taken by the United Nations. 
Thus, collective self-defense and regional arrangements or 
agencies may, within the limits of their constitutional 
status, provide effective forces and facilities in their re- 
spective areas in order to carry out the Purposes and 
Principles of the Charter in meeting aggression. 

Mutually Supporting Relationship 

In his opening address in the plenary debate this 
year, the U.S. Secretary of State urged that this 
principle of the mutually supporting relationship 
be developed.^ It is easy to see why the principle 
is important. The United Nations system is 
stronger when it is bolstered by the combined de- 
fensive strength of states which have joined to- 
gether for their own security. These individual 
states have increased their collective strength by 

= Bulletin of Nov. 19, 1951, p. 803. 



combining together ; their combination adds to the 
strength of an international organization. It is 
requisite in today's troubled world, and consonant 
with the Charter, for states to cooperate in defen- 
sive arrangements. So long as these states remain 
faithful to their obligations under the Charter, 
such arrangements cannot fail to serve the pur- 
poses of the Charter. By relating such arrange- 
ments expressly to the universal collective-security 
system, we help assure that such arrangements will 
be employed in the service of Charter principles 
and will not degenerate into mere military alli- 
ances, employing force or the threat of force for 
the achievement of narrow purposes inconsistent 
with the Charter. 

The mutually supporting relationship between 
local or regional defensive arrangements and the 
United Nations has been clearly recognized by my 
Government. This has been particularly true in 
the case of the North Atlantic Treaty. Article 7 
of the treaty which is a clear expression of the 
relationship of the treaty to the Charter provides : 

This Treaty does not affect, and shall not be interpreted 
as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under 
the Charter of the Parties which are members of the 
United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Secu- 
rity Council for the maintenance of international peace 
and security. 

In recommending ratification of the treaty to 
the U.S. Senate, the Committee on Foreign 
Relations had this to say in its report : 

Lest there be any misunderstanding about the relative 
position of the treaty and the United Nations Charter, 
article 7 makes clear tlie overriding character of the 
Charter with resiject to the obligations of the signatories 
who are also members of the United Nations. This 
principle is in accordance with the provisions of article 
103 of the Charter which stipulates that — 

"In the event of a conflict between the obligations of 
the Members of the United Nations under the present 
Charter and their obligations under any other inter- 
national agreement, their obligations under the present 
Charter shall prevail." 

The provisions of the Charter tlius govern, wherever 
they may be applicable, any activities undertaken under 
the treaty. 

The Charter also bestows upon the Security Council 
the primary responsibility for the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. In the opinion of the com- 
mittee the treaty rightly recognizes the primary respon- 
sibility of the Security Council in this field and makes 
clear the intent of the signatories not to compete with 
this responsibility or interfere with it in any way. 

This desire not to compete with or impair the authority 
of the United Nations is applicable not only to the Secu- 
rity Council but to other organs of the United Nations. 
which, the committee understands, the parties intend to 
use wherever appropriate. 

This was the position of my Government when 
we ratified the North Atlantic Treaty. It is and 
has been our position in relation to the Organiza- 
tion of American States and other defensive ar- 
rangements, as well as in relation to the North 
Atlantic Treaty. The 21 American Republics 
which have combined their strength in the Organ- 
ization of American States have in similar fashion 
recognized the mutually supporting relationship 



TOO 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



between that organization and the United Nations, 
both in the Charter of tlie Organization of Ameri- 
can States and in tlie Inter-American Treaty of 
Reciprocal Assistance. Article 1 of the Oas 
Charter states expressly that "Within the United 
Nations, the Organization of American States is 
a regional agency." The Treaty of Reciprocal 
Assistance provides in article 10 that "None of the 
provisions of this Treaty shall be construed as 
impairing the rights and obligation of the High 
Contracting Parties under the Charter of the 
United Nations," and all of its other provisions 
reflect its perfect concordance with the IJ.N. Char- 
ter. The Charter provides the purposes and prin- 
ciples governing such arrangements. Thus within 
the Charter and in accordance with its purposes 
and principles, such arrangements contribute to 
the collective security system of the United 
Nations. 

The proposed resolution further invites states 
not members of the United Nations to take note 
of the report of the Collective Measures Com- 
mittee and to consider ways and means in the 
economic, as well as in other fields, whereby they 
could contribute most effectively to collective 
measures undertaken by the United Nations. We 
have not yet achieved the universality of mem- 
bei-ship which the Charter envisaged and which 
most of us ai'e sincerely anxious to see. Until 
we are able to reach this goal, we can at least in- 
vite states, not yet members, to associate them- 
selves with us in contributing to collective meas- 
ures undertaken under the Charter. 

Finally the proposed resolution directs the Col- 
lective Measures Committee to continue its studies 
for another year. The Committee, in our view, has 
made an admirable beginning. But it has had a 
difficult and complex assignment. Much work re- 
mains to be done. In this connection I miglit 
mention one topic in which my Government con- 
tinues to be interested, and that is the possibility 
of a United Nations Legion, as suggested by the 
Secretary-General and others. A truly interna- 
tional force serving only the United Nations is 
certainly a matter worthy of study. Perhaps the 
practical difficulties make it difficult of realization 
in the near future. Still we feel that the matter 
should be explored. 

Universality of Collective Measures Program 

My Government, Mr. Chairman, views the first 
year's work of the Committee with satisfaction, 
and is proud of having participated in it. In that 
work we have sought ordy the goal of the Charter : 
To strengthen the fabric of the world community 
and thus to strengthen peace. Collective security 
is an indispensable element in moving toward that 
goal.* 

* For a statement embodying U.S. views on the Report 
of the Collective Measures Committee, see Bulletin of 
Oct. 22, 1951, p. 666. 



My mind goes back to San Francisco, Mr. Chair- 
man, to the words of a speaker who said : 

Only if conditions are created such as will guarantee 
that no violation of the peace or the threat of such a 
violation shall go unpunished, and the adoption of neces- 
sary punitive measures is not too late, will the organiza- 
tion of security be able to discharge its responsibility 
for the cause of peace. Thus, the point at issue is the 
creation of an effective organization to protect the general 
peace and security of nations for which all the sincere 
partisans of the peaceful development of nations have 
long been yearning but which has always had numerous 
irreconcilable enemies in the camp of the most aggressive 
imperialists. After innumerable sacrifices born in this 
war and after suffering and hardships experienced in 
these past years, the urge of nations- for the establishment 
of such an organization is especially strong. 

The speaker was Mr. Molotov, then Foreign 
Secretary of the Soviet Union. His words are as 
true today— after the "suffering and hardships 
experienced in these past years" — as they were 
when he spoke them. If all the Great Powers 
would cooperate and use their strength for greater 
security under the United Nations, the hopes that 
were dimmed after San Francisco would bum 
brightly once again. 

The program we in this Assembly are embarked 
on is designed to be universal in application : To 
meet any aggression from any source. It is not 
directed against any state or group of states. As 
far as my Government is concerned, it will always 
remain that way. We hope the day will come 
soon when the Soviet (xovernment will see that its 
best interests are served by the development of an 
effective United Nations collective-security sys- 
tem, and will lend its active support to the work. 

Last year, we all agreed that the Security 
Council should continue its efforts to provide the 
United Nations with forces under the provisions 
of article 43 of the Charter; and that the col- 
lective-measures progi-am now under discussion 
should simultaneously go forward. The report 
of the Collective Measures Committee makes it 
clear that, by giving the United Nations the 
strength it needs under this progi-am, we are not 
doing anything inconsistent with or in deroga- 
tion of the prompt application of article 43. On 
the contrary, the experience of the United Na- 
tions and its member states in preparing for col- 
lective action and in developing a collective- 
security system, will affirmatively assist the appli- 
cation of article 43 whenever the time comes that 
that article can be applied. 

Relation of Collective Action and Disarmament 

I should like to stress the fact that there is an 
intimate relationship between a program of col- 
lective security and a program of disarmament. 
The two, by their nature, go hand in hand. In the 
disarmament field, we look to the day when no 
nation will have armed forces or armaments which 
could pose a threat to a neighbor. In the collec- 
tive-security field, we look to the day when nations 



January 21, 1952 



101 



will rely not so much on their own forces as on 
the United Nations for their security. If states 
ai-e assured that in case of attack they will not 
stand alone, they will need fewer arms for their 
defense. As progress is made in disarmament, 
the task of building collective security becomes 
simpler. As collective security is built, the task 
of disarmament becomes simpler. The two march 
together. That is why the disarmament resolu- 
tion adopted by this Committee on December 19 
reaffirms the desire that "the United Nations de- 
velop an effective collective security system to 
maintain the peace and that the armed forces and 
armaments of the world be progressively reduced 
in accordance with the Purposes and Principles 
of the Charter." The goal is a world order where 
disputes are settled by peaceful means, where force 
is used onl}^ under international sanction to pre- 
serve the peace, and where men turn their energies 
and resources to peaceful and productive uses. 
Disarmament and collective security are the two 
great enterprises for peace that this General As- 
sembly has before it. 

There is one other relationship I must mention 
before I conclude. That is the relationship be- 
tween collective measures and the pacific settle- 
ment of disputes. The pacific settlement of dis- 
putes is a chief function of the United Nations; 
most of our time here in the political field is de- 
voted to it. Some have expressed the fear that 



On January 8 ConiniiHee I approved the Collective 
Security Resolutions by a vote of 51 to 5 (Soviet bloc), 
with 3 abstentions, Argentina, India, and Indonesia. 



by emphasizing collective measures we are in some 
sense detracting from pacific settlement. My 
Government regards pacific settlement and col- 
lective measures as inseparable parts of collective 
security under the Charter. 

As the Secretary-General, in his annual report 
this year, has said : 

I believe that the development of a strong and effective 
United Nations collective security system combined with 
renewed efforts at mediation and conciliation, can im- 
prove the chances of ameliorating and, in time, settling 
the great political conflicts that most endanger world 
peace today. The greater the ability of the United Na- 
tions to foil attempts to solve conflicts of national in- 
terest by force, the more likely will it be that those 
conflicts can be settled by negotiation. 

These are the thoughts we must keep before us. 
If we succeed in building an effective security 
system, there will be less likeliliood that an aggres- 
sor will risk the penalties bound to follow aggres- 
sion. The object of effective collective security is 
to relieve tlie world of the scourge of war and the 
fears of war. Thus by building collective security 
we can release the constructive energies of the 
world for the constructive tasks of peace and 



human welfare. We can open up new possibilities 
for pacific settlement and the processes of peaceful 
change. We can proceed to promote human rights, 
fundamental freedoms, and human well-being 
and give everyone a stake in the peace worth 
I^reserving. 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

General Assembly 

Measures to Combat the Threat of a New World War and 
to Strengthen Peace and Friendship among the 
Nations. A/1962, November 17, 1951. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Coordination Between tlie United Nations and the 
Specialized Agencies. Administrative budgets of the 
specialized agencies for 19r)2, and development of 
common services. Seventh report of 1051 of the Ad- 
visory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions. A/1971, November 24, 1951. 21 pp. 
mimeo. 

Appointment of an Impartial International Commission 
Under United Nations SuiJervision to Carry Out a 
Simultaneous Investigation in the Federal Republic 
of Germany, in Berlin, and in the Soviet Zone of 
Germany in Order To Determine Whether Exist- 
ing Conditions There Make it I'ossible to Hold 
Genuinely Free Elections Throughout These Areas. 
A/AC..53/L.13, December 7, 1951. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Information Transmitted by Governments Concerning 
Prisoners of War. A/AC.46/R.l/Rev.l, December 26, 
1951. 19 pp. mimeo. 

Compilation of Replies From Governments on Prisoners 
of War. A/AC.46/7, December 31, 1951. 19 pp. 
mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Survey for Latin America 1950. Recent trends 
and developments in the Argentine economy. E/Cn. 
12/217/Add.l, April 9, 1951. 96 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Guatemala. E/CN.12/218/ 
."Vdd.l, May 2. 1951. 63 pp. mimeo. 5 charts. 

Theoretical and Practical Problems of Economic Growth. 
E/CN.12/221, May 18, 1951. 113 pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council. Twelfth Session, February 
20 to March 21, 1951 (Santiago) and Special Meeting 
on April 13, 1951 (Lake Success). Disposition of 
agenda items. E /INF/44, June 25, 1951. 126 pp. 
mimeo. 

Secretariat 

Documents Index Note No. 36. Check List to the 
Economic and Social Council and to its Subsidiary 
Organs, as of 1 June 19.yi. 53 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Document Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 29(V> Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an 
Oflicial Records series for the General Assembly, the Se- 
curity Council, the Economic and Social Council, the 
Trusteeship Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission, 
which includes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and 
reports of the various commissions and committees. In- 
formation on securing subscriptions to the series may be 
obtained from the International Documents Service. 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



status of International Agreements at end of 1951. 

The tabulation below, released to the press by the United Nations on J anuary 3, 1952, shows the progress 
or status of the multUateral conventions and agreements deposited loith the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations, with the exception of those relating to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade (1947) and its Protocols. 

[Asterisks added by the editor of the Bulletin indicate agreements to which the United States is a 
party."] 

Action in 1951 



Title 



Convention on Priv- 
ileges and [ mmu- 
nities of United 
Nations.* 



Constitution of the 
World Health 
Organization.* 

Protocol concerning 
the Office Inter- 
national d'Hygifene 
publique.* 

Convention on the 
Prevention and 
Punishment of the 
Crime of Genocide. 

Protocol amending 
agreement, Conven- 
tion.s, and Protocols 
on Narcotic Drugs 
concluded in 1912, 
1925, 1931, 1936.* 

Protocol to amend 
Convention for the 
Suppression of the 
Circulation of and 
Traffic in Obscene 
Publications 
(1923). 

Protocol to amend 
conventions of 1921 
and 1933 for the 
Suppression of the 
Traffic in Women 
and Children, and 
Women of Full Age. 

Convention on the 
Inter-Governmental 
Maritime Consul- 
tative Organiza- 
tion.* 



Agreement on Most- 
Favored-Nation 
Treatment for 
Areas of Western 
Germany under 
Military Occupa- 
tion.* 

Protocol bringing 
under international 
control drugs out- 
side the scope of the 
1931 convention as 
amended by the 
1946 protocol.* 

January 21, 1952 



Date 



Feb. 13, 1946— 
adopted by 
General 
Assembly. 



July 22, 1946— 

signed at New 

York. 
July 22, 1946 

signed at 

New York. 

Dec. 9, 1946 — 
adopted by the 
General Assem- 
bly. 

Dec. 11, 1946— 
signed at Lake 
Success. 



Nov. 12, 1947— 
signed at Lake 
Success. 



Nov. 12, 1947— 
signed at Lake 
Success. 



Mar. 6, 1948- 
signed at 
Geneva. 



Sept. 14, 1948- 
signed at 
Geneva. 



Nov. 19, 1948— 
signed at Paris. 



Slniatures with 
reservations 



Greece 



Greece 



Signatures without 
reservations 



Ratification, accept- 
ance, or accession 



Panama, Japan, 

Spain, 

Germany 
Panama 



Denmark, 
China, Bel- 
gium 

Haiti, Ecuador 



Ireland, Burma, 
Belgium 



Indonesia, Bel- 
gium. 



Date in force 



In force with re- 
gard to each 
state on deposit 
of instrument of 
accession. Total 
to end of 1951: 
38 

Apr. 7, 1948 
Membership 
total (1951): 78 

Oct. 20, 1947 



Jan. 12, 1951 



Dec. 11, 1946, be- 
tween signatories 
without reserva- 
tions or states 
depositing instru- 
ment of accession. 

Nov. 12, 1947 
Amendments in 
force as of Feb. 
2, 1950 



Nov. 12, 1947 
.Amendments in 
force as of Apr. 
24, 1950 



On the day that 21 
states, of which 7 
shall each have a 
total of at least. 
1,000,000 gross 
tons of shipping, 
have become 
parties. Total 
to end of 1951: 8 

Oct. 14, 1948 



Dec. 1, 1949 



103 



Protocol amending 
International Con- 
vention Relating to 
Economic Statistics 
(1928). 

Revised General Act 
on the Pacific Set- 
tlement of Dis- 
putes. 

Protocol amending 
International 
Agreement for the 
Suppression of the 
White Slave Traffic 
(1904) and Inter- 
national Convention 
for Suppression of 
White Slave Traffic 
(1910).* 

Protocol to amend 
the Agreement for 
the Suppression of 
the Circulation of 
Obscene Publica- 
tions (1910).* 

Agreement providing 
for the Provisional 
Application of the 
Draft International 
Customs Conven- 
tions on Touring, 
Commercial Road 
Vehicles, and the 
International 
Transport of Goods 
by Road. 

Protocol relating to 
International 
Transport of Goods 
by Containers 
under the Tir Car- 
net Regime (addi- 
tional protocol to 
above) . 

Agreement for Facil- 
itating the Inter- 
national Circula- 
tion of Visual and 
Auditory Materials 
of an Educational, 
Scientific, and Cul- 
tural Character, 
with Protocol of 
signature.* 

Memorandum of Un- 
derstanding Rela- 
tive to Application 
to the Western 
Sectors of Berlin of 
the Agreement on 
Most-Favored- 
Nation Treatment 
(Above).* 

Convention on Road 
Traffic. * 



Dec. 9, 1948— 
signed at Paris. 



Apr. 28, 1949— 
adopted by Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

May 4, 1949— 
signed at Lake 
Success. 



May 4, 1949— 
signed at Lake 
Success. 



June 16, 1949— 
signed at 
Geneva. 



March 11, 19.50- 
signed at 
Geneva. 



July 15, 1949— 
opened for sig- 
nature at Lake 
Success. 



Aug. 13, 1949- 
signed at 
Annecy. 



Sept. 19, 1949- 
signed at 
Geneva. 



Signatures with 
reservations 



Signatures without 
reservations 



Ratification, accept- 
ance, or accession 



Norway 



Czechoslovakia, 
Yugoslavia, 
Union of 
South Africa 



Czechoslovakia, 
Pakistan. 



Syria 



Monaco 



Date in force 



Dec. 9, 1948 

Amendments in 
force as of Octo- 
ber, 9, 1950 

Sept. 20, 1950 



May 4, 1949 
(amendments in 
force June 21, 
1951, as regards 
agreement of 
1904 and August 
14, 1951, as re- 
gards convention 
of 1910) 



May 4, 1949 

Amendments in 
force as of March 
1, 1950 



January 1, 1950 



March 11, 1950 



90 days after de- 
posit of 10th in- 
strument of ac- 
ceptance or ac- 
cession. Total 
to end of 1951: 5 



Aug. 13, 1949 



30 days after de- 
posit of 5th 
instrument of 
ratification or 
accession. 
Total to end of 
1951: 4 



104 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Title 


Date 


Signatures with 


Signatures without 


Ratification, accept- 


Date in force 




reservations 


reservations 


ance, or accession 




Protocol concerning 
Countries or Terri- 


Sept. 19, 1949— 
signed at 


















tories at Present 


Geneva. 










Occupied.* 












Protocol on Road 


Sept. 19, 1949— 






Monaco 


15 months after 


Signs and Signals. 


signed at 
Geneva. 








deposit of 5th 
instrument of 
ratification or 
accession. 
Total to end of 










1951: 2 


Agreement on the 


Nov. 22, 1950— 


Afghanistan, France, Iran, New 


Thailand, 


The day the tenth 


Importation of 


signed at Lake 


Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden (sig- 


Yugoslavia, 


instrument of 


Educational, Scien- 


Success. 


natures must be followed by 


Cambodia 


ratification is 


tific, and Cultural 




ratification) 




deposited. 


Materials. 








Total to end of 
1950: None 


Convention for the 


March 21, 1950— 


Yugoslavia, Denmark, Brazil (sig- 


Yugoslavia 


July 25, 1951 90 


Suppression of the 


signed at Lake 


natures must be followed by rati- 




days after the 


Traffic in Persons 


Success. 


fication). 




date of deposit of 


and of the Exploi- 










the second in- 


tation of the Pros- 










strument of rati- 


titution of Others. 










fication or ac- 
cession 


Convention on the 


April 6, 1950— 






Guatemala 


January 24, 1952. 


Declaration of 


signed at Lake 








Total to end of 


Death of Missing 


Success. 








1951: 2 


Persons. 












Convention relating 


July 28, 1951— 


Austria, Bel- 


Israel, Norway, 




90 days after the 


to the Status of 


signed at Ge- 


gium, Colom- 


Liechtenstein, 




date of deposit of 


Refugees. 


neva. 


bia, Denmark, 


Sweden, Swit- 




the sixth instru- 






German Fed- 


zerland. 




ment of ratifica- 






eral Republic, 






tion or accession. 






Luxembourg, 






Total to end of 






Netherlands, 






1951: None 






Turkey, 












United King- 












dom, Yugo- 












slavia. 









Korean Armistice Negotiations 

Prisoner of War Problems 

The following is a statement of principles recommended 
by the United Nations Command for the cxchuntie of prix- 
oners of war and civilians, which Rear Admiral R. E. 
Libhy, V. S. N., delivered on January 2 at a meeting of the 
military siihcommittee discussing prisoner exchange: 

Certain areas of agreement and certain differences of 
opinion have emerged from our exchange of views on the 
prisoner of war prolilem during the period it has been 
under discussion. Among them are these : 

First, your side wants all the POWs to be released fol- 
lowing the signing of the armistice. The UNC agrees that 
this should be done, under an equitable formula. 

Second, your side has incorporated into your army 
many tliousands of our soldiers who fell into your hands 
as POWs. From your standpoint, your action in this con- 
nection was in accordance with your traditional policy 
toward POWs. According to you, the POWs were "re- 
educated" and "released at the front". The fact that 
practically all of them later reai^peared in your own 
army is explained away by the alleged fact that they 
exercised their own volition in joining it. 

From our standpoint, the wholesale incorporation of 
POWs into your army is contrary to the rules of warfare 
and a violation of the rights of the men concerned, since 
there is reasonable doubt that the prisoners were free 

January 21, 1952 



from duress in making this decision. The rules of war- 
fare and the rights of the individual under those rules 
require that you refrain from using POWs in work con- 
nected with military operations and that you shelter the 
prisoners from the effect of military operations. Mani- 
festly, these requirements are not met by the incorporat- 
ing of POWs into your own military forces. It is the 
view of the UNC that all former soldiers of the Republic 
of Korea Army who were incorporated into your army 
through your mechanism of impressment should be re- 
turned to their status as POWs. 

Moreover, since the outbreak of hostilities on 25 June 
1950 your side has conscripted many civilian nationals of 
the ROK and accepted a certain number of deserters from 
the ROKA into your army. Both of these practices are 
consistent with your doctrines of warfare. But both are 
inconsistent with ours. It is our view that deserters, just 
as involuntary captives, should be accorded a POW status. 
The fact that it was with his consent that you placed a 
deserter from our forces in your army does not change 
our view that he should now, for the purpose of prisoner 
of war exchange, be placed in a POW status. 

Third, your side takes the position that all POWs should 
be returned to the side with which they were identified 
when they were captured. The UNC, on the other hand 
takes the view that all bona-fide residents of the ROK 
as of 25 June 1950 are nationals of that state. From that 

105 



fact they derive their certain rights and have certain re- 
sponsibilities whicli are not set aside by the accident of 
war. Consequently, the disposition of iwrsons of this 
category who have been tal^en into custody by the UNO 
while fightinf; asainst the ROK is a matter for our side 
alone to determine. It is of no concern whatever to your 
side. 

Fourth, the tides of warfare in Korea have displaced 
many civilians of both sides from their homes. Some- 
times this resulted from accident ; sometimes from mili- 
tary necessity. Whatever tlie cause, many former resi- 
dents of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are 
now in the territory under the control of the ROK and 
vice versa. Your side has alluded frequently during these 
discussions to the conditions under which these refugees 
are living. You have expressed the thought that these 
displaced civilians should be permitted to return to their 
homes as soon as the armistice is signed. The DNC, too, 
sees no reason why displaced civilians should not be per- 
mitted, if they so desire, to return to their former homes 
under the armistice agreement. Moreover, it considers 
tliat failure on the part of the armistice delegations to 
insert a permissive provision in the Armistice Agreement 
would be to disregard the needs of these people unneces- 
sarily. 

In determining its opinion on the question of release 
and exchange of POWs the UNO has accorded recognition 
to the viewpoints of both sides as set forth above and 
has developed a proposal which in large measure recon- 
ciles them. Our proposal provides for the relea.se of all 
POWs. In this respect it is consistent with the principle 
advocated by your side. With respect to repatriation, 
the UNG propo.sal differs from yours in that it expressly 
provides that all repatriation will be voluntary. 

To accomplish this the UNO proposal embodies the 
principle, advanced and advocated by your side, that a 
soldier from one side who becomes a POW of the other 
side can, upon his "release," exercise his individual option 
as to whether he will return to his own side or join the 
other side. However, the application of this principle 
of freedom of choice as regards repatriation is extended, 
under the UNO proposal, to include all personnel who 
are, or should be eligible for repatriation under concepts 
held by either side. The proposal extends the right of 
individual self-determination to former ROKA soldiers 
who came under your control and who are now in your 
army. It extends it to the residents of the ROK who 
were inducted into the Korean Peojjle's Army following 
the outbreak of war. It extends it to nationals of the 
ROK who fought on your side but who are now in our 
hands as interned civilians or as POWs. Finally, it ex- 
tends it to displaced civilians on both sides. Specifically, 
the principle is applied to the following groups. 

A. Approximately 16,000 nationals of the ROK who were 
identified with the KPA and the Chinese People's Volun- 
teers and whom the UNO now holds as POWs. 

B. Approximately 38,000 nationals of the ROK who 
were incorrectly classified initially as POWs and who 
liave since been reclassified as interned persons. 

C. All former ROKA soldiers who came into the cus- 
tody of the KPA and CPV and who were subsequentiv 
incorporated into the KPA. 

D. All bona-fide residents of the ROK who were in- 
ducted into the KPA subsequent to 2.5 .Tune 1950. 

E. Approximately 11,000 soldiers of the UN and of the 
ROKA who are now held as POWs by the KPA and 
the CPV. 

P. Approximately llfi.OOO soldiers of the KPA and CPV 
who are now held as POWs by the UNC. 

G. Foreign civilians interned' by either side. 

H. All civilians who, on 25 June 19.50, were bona-fide 
residents of the territory under control of one side and 
who are, at the time of the signing of the armistice, 
within the territory under control of the other side. 

The principle of individual self-determination is a 
valid principle only if adequate machinery is provided 
to insure that the decision of the individual is made 



freely and without duress. Neither side would be satis- 
fied that persons were accorded an opportunity to ex- 
press their desires on reiJatriation freely and without 
duress if the interviewing process was conducted by or 
under the unilateral aegis of one of the respective 
belligerents. Thus, there is a requirement under the 
UNC proposal for an impartial neutral organ to conduct 
and supervise the interview in which the individual ex- 
presses his choice as regards repatriation. 

The fact that both sides have, to a degree, accepted 
the services of the International Committee of the Red 
Cross suggests that this agency, which is ideally suited 
and fully qualified, perform this function. Therefore, the 
UNC proposal provides that the ICRC be requested to 
supervise the exercise of the right of individual self- 
determination as relates to both POWs and displaced 
civilians. To afford additional assurances to both sides 
the proposal provides that, in the case of POWs, the in- 
dividual expression of choice on repatriation will be made 
at the exchange point or points. There, the process will 
be under the close scrutiny of representatives of both 
belligerents. 

In order that neither side will gain a military ad- 
vantage through the exchange of POWs under the Armis- 
tice Agreement, the UNC proposal contains a parolj 
feature. Under this provision, POWs repatriated by one 
side after all POWs held by the other side have been 
exchanged will be required to give their parole not to 
bear arms against the captor in the future. The delivery 
of the POW is subject to acceptance of this agreement 
by the military authorities of the side to whom the POW 
is delivered. 

The UNC proposal is as follows : 

1. POWs who elect repatriation shall be exchanged on 
a one-for-one basis until one side has exchanged all such 
POWs held by it. 

2. The side which thereafter holds POWs shall re- 
patriate all those POWs who elect to be repatriated in a 
one-for-one exchange for foreign civilians interned by the 
other .side, and for civilians and other persons of the 
one side who are at the time of the signing of the armis- 
tice in the territory under control of the other side, and 
who elect to be repatriated. POWs thus exchanged shall 
be paroled to the opposing force, such parole to carry with 
it the condition that the individual shall not again boar 
arms against the side releasing him. 

3. All POWs not electing repatriation shall be released 
from POW status and shall be paroled, such parole to 
carry with it the condition that the individual will not 
again bear arms in the Korean conflict. 

4. All remaining civilians of either side who are, at the 
time of the signing of the armistice, in territory under 
control of the other side, shall be repatriated if they so 
elect. 

5. In order to insure that the choice regarding repatria- 
tion is made without duress, dele.gates of the ICRC sliall 
be permitted to interview all POWs at the points of 
exchange, and all civilians of either side who are at the 
time of the signing of the armistice in territory under the 
control of the other side. 

6. For the purposes of paragraphs 2, 4 and 5, civilians 
and other persons of either side are defined as those who 
on 25 .Tune 1950 were bona-fide residents of either ROK 
or the DPRK. 

In summary, the UNC proposal provides for the re- 
lease of all POWs, including soldiers of the other side 
who may have been incorporated into the army of the 
detaining power. Thus, it is consistent with the first prin- 
ciple advanced by your side that all POWs be released. 
As regards repatriation, it permits freedom of choice on 
the part of the individual, thus insuring that tliere will 
be no forced repatriation against the will of an individual. 
It provides repatriation not for POWs alone but for those 
other victims of war, the displaced civilians. All those 
who desire it are permitted to return to their former 
(Continued on page 111) 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



The United States in the United Nations 



[January 10-16, 1952] 

General Assembly 

The U.S.-U.K.-Frencli resolution establishing 
a 12-member Disarmament Commission to meet 
within 30 days and prepare proposals for the regu- 
lation, limitation, and balanced reduction of all 
armed forces and all armaments, including atomic, 
■was adopted by the General Assembly January 11 
by a vote of 42-5 (Soviet bloc)-7 (Argentina, 
Burma, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, 
Yemen ) . The next day, the Assembly, by vote of 
51-5 (Soviet bloc)-3 (Argentina, India, Indo- 
nesia), approved the 11-power power resolution 
carrying forward the recommendations of the 
Collective Measures Committee and extending its 
life for another year. 

Tlie proposal for a high-level Security Council 
meeting whenever the Council feels such a meet- 
ing would serve to remove international tension 
carried 57-0-2 (China, Argentina). Soviet 
charges of "interference" and "aggression" against 
provisions of the Mutual Security Act of 1951 
were rejected (42-5-11) for the second time. The 
Ad Hoc Political Committee plan for a three- 
member commission to assist India, Pakistan, and 
South Africa to settle their dispute concerning the 
treatment of Indians in South Africa was ap- 
proved 44 (U.S.) -0-14. 

Also adopted were 10 resolutions dealing with 
various aspects of economic development, includ- 
ing technical assistance, financing, and land re- 
form. The vote on the highly controversial 
Cuba-Chile-Burma-Egypt-Yugoslavia proposal, 
requesting the Economic and Social Council to 
prepare detailed plans for a special fund to make 
grants and loans to underdeveloped countries was 
30-16 (U.S.)-ll. Finally, the Assembly adopted 
32 (U.S.) -17-5 an amended United States resolu- 
tion on reservations to multilateral conventions 
which had been approved by the Legal Committee 
January 4 following a 3-week debate, /jiter alia, 
the approved text recommended that United Na- 
tions organs, specialized agencies and states 
should, in preparing multilateral conventions, con- 
sider the insertion therein of provisions relating to 
the admissibility of reservations. The Secretary- 
General was requested to continue to perform his 
depositary functions "without passing on the legal 
eflfect" of reservations or objections. 



Committee I (Political and Security) — Discus- 
sion of the Soviet item on "Measures to combat 
the thi-eat of a new world war and to strengthen 
peace and friendship among the nations" was 
opened in the Committee January 14 with the 
submission by the U.S.S.R. of a revised text of the 
8-part proposal which it introduced at the begin- 
ning of the session. The new text provides that 
the prohibition of atomic weapons and the institu- 
tion of international control should be put into 
eifect simultaneously, and that the international 
control organ would have the right to carry out 
inspection on a "continuing basis" provided it did 
not interfere in domestic affairs. 

The Soviet-bloc countries have tried — with little 
or no success — to convince the Committee that 
these provisions represent important "concessions" 
on the part of the Soviet Union. Meantime, strong 
support has developed for a U.S.-U.K.-French 
motion to refer all five parts of the Soviet resolu- 
tion which deal with disarmament to the newly 
created Disarmament Commission. United States 
Representative Ernest Gross stated in support of 
the three-power proposal : 

The testing ground for Soviet good foith — and our 
own — is and sliould be the Disarmament Commission. 
In the Disarmament Commission, we will be prepared not 
only to submit our own proposals but also to examine with 
care these and all other proposals submitted by the Soviet 
Union. We hope that the Soviet Union will reciprocate. 

There has been little or no support from non- 
Soviet sources for the other three parts of the 
Soviet resolution — declaring participation in the 
Atlantic Pact illegal, stressing the necessity of an 
immediate armistice in Korea and withdrawal of 
foreign troops, and recommending conclusion of 
a Big Five peace pact. 

Ad Hoc Political Committee — A resolution 
maintaining the Palestine Conciliation Commis- 
sion in existence to assist the Arab States and 
Israel in reaching agreement on outstanding Pal- 
estine issues was adopted by the Committee Jan- 
uary 15 at the conclusion of an 8-day debate. 
However, so far reaching were the changes made 
in the original U.S.-U.K.-French-Turkish pro- 
posal to continue the Commission that none of the 
four sponsoring powers was able to vote for the 
final text. 

The main effect of these changes — which were 
sponsored by Pakistan and Colombia, among 



January 2?, 1952 



,107 



others, and supported by the Arab States— was to 
enlarge the Commission (which heretofore con- 
sisted of the United States, France, and Turkey) 
to seven members, to stress strict observance of 
(all) previous Assembly resolutions (whether ap- 
plicable or not) and to place special emphasis 
on repatriation and/or compensation of Arab 
refugees. 

The vote on the amended resolution as a whole 
was 43-13 (Soviet bloc, U.S., France, U.K., Israel, 
Netherlands, Peru, New Zealand, Uruguay)-2 
(Turkey, Sweden). 

Committee II {Economic and Financial) — A 
composite resolution on land refonii, which, to 
quote United States Representative Channing 
Tobias, "can go a long way ... to raise 
the standards of living of the hundreds of mil- 
lions of people who work the land," was adopted 
by the Committee January 10 by the over- 
whelming vote of 43 to nothing with the five Arab 
States abstaining. The approved text, which was 
.sponsored jointly by the United States, the United 
Kingdom, Brazil, Chile, France, India, Israel, 
Pakistan, and Thailand, combines the essential 
features of the original U.S.-Pakistan-Thailand- 
Brazil text with most of the main provisions of 
the much narrower Polish proposal. 

On January 11 the Committee opened dis- 
cussion of a U.S. -Chilean resolution designed to 
pave the way for prompt, concerted, and effective 
action by governments, intergovernmental organi- 
zations and voluntary organizations in the event 
of emergency famines. Among other things, the 
two-nation proposal urges governments to pro- 
mote and facilitate the work of voluntary non- 
governmental agencies organized to meet famine 
conditions and to promote agi'icultural develop- 
ment, and to correlate and integrate the resources 
and programs of such agencies with their re- 
sources and programs. 

The importance of voluntary aid was under- 
scored by United States Representative Channing 
Tobias in his introductory statement. "We be- 
lieve," he said, "that one of the most rapid and 
effective ways ... to meet (famine emer- 
gencies) will be by taking the fullest advantage 
of aid offered on a voluntary basis . . ." 

The two sponsors have accepted a number of 
amendments, most of which had the effect of plac- 



ing greater emphasis on long-range measures and 
chronic problems, and it appears from the debate 
thus far that the revised text will be adopted by 
a large majority. Also before the Committee is a 
Czech resolution — entitled "Deterioration of the 
position of the working population as a result of 
tiie armaments race in a niunber of countries" — 
which has been used by the Soviet bloc for an- 
other in its series of broad-gauged attacks on 
United States policies. 

Committee III (Social, Ilumanitariun and Cul- 
tural) — The Committee January 10 approved a 
seven-nation resolution authorizing the High 
Commissioner for Refugees to issue an appeal for 
funds for emergency aid to the most needy among 
the l,.'JOO,000-odd refugees within his mandate. 
The vote was 39-5 (Soviet bloc)-6 (U.S.). In 
explaining the United States abstention, Mrs. 
Roosevelt made it clear that there was "no pros- 
pect" that the United States Government would 
contribute to the proposed fund. The approved 
resolution also appeals to states to give refugees 
within the mandate of the High Commissioner 
every possible opportunity to benefit from migra- 
tion programs. 

Committee IV {Trusteeship) — During the week, 
the Committee completed action on a number of 
resolutions arising out of the report of the Trus- 
teeship Council and other agenda items dealing 
with the administration of trust territories. These 
included (1) an amended Haiti-India-Lebanon- 
Philippines- Yemen resolution — adopted 38-7 
(U.K., France) -6 (U.S.) — which, inter alia in- 
vites administering authorities to submit informa- 
tion on the "period of time in which it is expected 
that the trust territory shall attain the objective 
of self-government or independence"; (2) an 
amended Brazil-France text — approved 45 
(U.S.) -0-5 — following up previous Assembly rec- 
ommendations for the "complete abolition" of 
corjjoral punishment in trust territories; and (3) 
an amended India-Philippines pro^Dosal — passed 
33-7 (U.S.)-7— requesting the Trusteeship Coun- 
cil to prepare for the next Assembly session a spe- 
cial report analyzing each of the administrative 
unions to which a trust territory is a party, and 
setting up a special Assembly committee to make 
a preliminai-y examination of the Council's 
re^Dort. 



108 



Department of State Bulletin 



Delegates Named to Child 
Protection Institute 

The Department of State announced on January 
12 that the President has appointed Martha M. 
Eliot, M.D., Chief, Children s Bureau, Social Se- 
curity Administration, Federal Security Agency, 
as U.S. technical delegate, and Elisabeth Shir- 
ley Enochs, Chief, International Technical Mis- 
sions, Office of the Commissioner for Social 
Security, Federal Security Agency, as alternate 
U.S. technical delegate on the Directing Council 
of the American International Institute for the 
Protection of Childhood (Aiipc) . Both appoint- 
ments are for 3-year terms. 

Formally established in 1927, the American In- 
ternational Institute for the Protection of Child- 
hood is an intergovernmental body which serves 
as a center of action, information, advice, docu- 
mentation, and study on all questions relating to 
child life and welfare in the Americas. The In- 
stitute conducts bibliographical research, collects 
information by correspondence, and, on the re- 
quest of member states, the 21 American Repub- 
lics, undertakes field studies and gives advisory 
service. United States participation in the Insti- 
tute was authorized by an act of Congress, ap- 
proved May 3, 1928. Meetings of the Directing 
Council, which serves as the governing body of the 
Institute, are held annually at Montevideo, Uru- 
guay. The last session was held November 30- 
December 1, 1951. 



In July 1950, Ecosoc approved the Sitc, which 
was designed to replace the old League of Nations 
Minimum List of Commodities for International 
Trade Statistics as a basis for systematic analysis 
of world trade and as a common basis for the re- 
porting of trade statistics to international agen- 
cies. Ecosoc recommended that all governments 
make use of the Standard Classification, either 
by adopting it, with such modifications as might 
be necessary to meet national requirements, as 
a basis for compilation of data on imports 
and exports; or by rearranging their statistical 
data in accordance with the Sitc for purposes 
of international comparison. The wide accept- 
ance of this recommendation by countries impor- 
tant in world trade, together with the coordinated 
efforts of regional groups of experts, such as 
the forthcoming Working Party meeting at 
Bangkok, have greatly facilitated the collection 
and analysis of comparable figures on the foreign 
trade of different countries. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Appointment of Officer 

On December 14 the President announced the recess 
appointment of Edward J. Sparks of New York to be 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to 
Bolivia. 



U.S. Delegations to International 
Conferences 

International Trade Classification 

The Department of State has announced that 
a meeting of the Working Party on Standard In- 
ternational Trade Classification (Sitc) of the 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(Ecafe) will convene at Bangkok, Thailand, 
January 7-12, 1952. Stuart A. Rice, Assistant Di- 
rector for Statistical Standards, Bureau of the 
Budget, and U.S. representative on the Statistical 
Commission of the Economic and Social Council 
of the United Nations (Ecosoc) , will serve as U.S. 
representative to the meeting. Flourney H. Coles, 
Jr., Special Technical Economic Mission, Bang- 
kok, will serve as an adviser. 

The principal agenda item of the forthcoming 
meeting is consideration of uniform methods for 
the adoption and use of the Sitc by countries of the 
region and possible adaptations of the Classifica- 
tion to meet special regional needs. The findings 
of the meeting will be submitted in a report to 
Ecafe. 



Checit List of Department of State 


Press Releases: Jan. 7 12, 1952 


Releases 


may be obtained from the Office of the 


Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 


of State, Washington 2.5, D. C. Items marked (*) 


are not printed in the Bulletin. 


No. Date 


Subject 


1099 12/18 Answer to attack on passport operations 


1123 12/29 Appointment of Pt. 4 special consultant 


7 1/5 


VoA to supply scripts to U.S. public 


10* 1/7 


Visitors to U.S. 


11 1/7 


Venezuelan tariff on crude oil 


12 1/7 


Military assistance to Peru 


13 1/7 


Higher duty on hatters' fur 


14 1/7 


Working Party Meeting (Ecafe) 


15* 1/8 


Anniversary of Saudi Arabia 


16 1/9 


Acheson : Replies to U.S.S.R. lend-lease 


17 1/9 


Note : Prisoners of war 


18 1/9 


Dulles : Free world unity 


19 1/9 


Investigation of prisoners of war 


20 1/9 


Point 4 Director to Iraq (rewrite) 


21 1/9 


Visit of Netherlands Premier (rewrite) 


22 1/10 New VoA transmitter 


23* 1/10 Spruanee : Ambassador to Philippines 


24* 1/11 


Visitor ,to U.S. 


25* 1/11 


Acheson : Death of Gen. de Lattre 


26 1/11 


Acheson : Progress of Schuman Plan 


27 1/12 Childhood Protection Institute 



January 21, 1952 



109 



THE DEPARTMENT 



VOA To Supply Scripts to U.S. Public 

[Released to the press January 5] 

To satisfy a long-felt demand of American 
broadcasters and the listening public for back- 
ground material on the activities of the Voice of 
America, a transcribed dramatic series has been 
prepared expressly for domestic radio stations. 
Availability of the programs as a public service 
and at no charge to stations was announced on 
January 5 at Washington, by George E. Hughes, 
Vice President of the Associated Broadcasters, 
Inc., and William A. Wood, Chief of Eadio, 
Department of State. 

Based upon actual files of the State Department, 
the series consists of 13 quarter-hour programs, 
each dramatizing a ditferent phase of the inter- 
national broadcasting organization. 

The Voice, in its campaign of truth, is fighting 
a verbal battle for the minds of men. This series 
of dramatizations portrays the techniques used by 
the Voice in its broadcasts to free nations and 
Iron Curtain areas, as well as the extent of cover- 
age and effectiveness. 

Entitled "Your Voice of America," the series is 
recorded in Hollywood and features Gerald Mohr, 
motion-picture actor currently under contract to 
Universal-International films, plus a host of pro- 
fessional radio talent. Programs are produced by 
Will H. Voeller, written by Robert C. Vinson, and 
directed by Frank K. Danzig with music by Del 
Castillio and his orchestra. The series utilizes a 
documentary format witli Mohr as narrator. It 
is designed to provide U.S. broadcasters with a 
suitable series telling the story of the Govern- 
ment's international broadcast operation. 

"Your Voice of America" is contributed by 
Wesley I. Dunn, Chairman of the Facilities Group 
of the Radio Advisory Committee to the U.S. Ad- 
visory Commission on Information, and president 
of the Associated Broadcasters, Inc., of San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., which is producing, recording, proc- 
essing, and distributing the series. 

Radio stations within the continental limits of 
the United States can obtain the series without 
charge by writing The Associated Broadcasters, 
Inc., Box 87, Hollywood, Calif. Programs 1 
through 8 will be mailed by January 15, with the 
remaining five chapters in the series available 
innnediately thereafter. 

Following is a synopsis of the 13 programs, out- 
lining topics and types of material used : 

No. 1 — Why the Voice Speaks 

Introductory program on the work of the Voice of 
America, with examples of absurd Soviet lies and effec- 
tiveness of the Voice program. 



No. 2 — Cardinal Mindszenty Story 

Dramatized history of the trial of the Hungarian Cardi- 
nal and one way in which the Voice of America told the 
truth about Red persecution of this prelate. 

No. 3 — Money Talks 

A dramatic story of how the Voice of America forced 
the Hungarian Communist Government to delay the issu- 
ance of new "forint" banknotes for 7 months. 

No. 4 — As One Free Nation to Another 

Includes many of the unusual approaches used by the 
Voice of America in broadcasting to a free nation, this 
time Italy. 

No. 5 — Escape to Freedom 

The story of Madam Kasenkina, the Russian school 
teacher who leaped from the third floor of the Soviet Con- 
sulate in New Tork and now lives in peace in this country. 
Amazing account of what the Voice of America broadcast 
within 5 minutes after the incident occurred. Whole 
story heard on the streets of Moscow within 1 hour. 

No. 6— The Uninvited Guest 

The unwelcome reception given to the 2S-man Rumanian 
delegation that visited Bulgaria for May Day celebrations 
June, 1950. . . . four of them never returned ! And 
despite Bulgarian efforts to hush the story . . . the Voice 
of America learned of it, broadcast it, and the people 
heard. . . . ! 

No. 7 — Two Weeks in August 

Dramatized story of how the Voice of America Invited 
the young Red delegates to the August 1951 Berlin Youlh 
Festival to visit the West zone of Berlin and see the free 
world for themselves. The youth came. . . . ! 

No. 8 — The President Speaks 

How the Voice of America beams the words of the 
President to the four corners of the world. 



Answer To Attack on Passport Operations 

[Released to the press December 7S] 

Ruth B. Shipley, Chief of the Passport Di- 
vision, Department of State, on December 18 took 
sharp exception to a statement released by the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate 
that passports were being granted to known Com- 
munist agents. Mrs. Shipley — recalling that dur- 
ing her more than 23 years as Chief of the Pass- 
port Division, Congress had time and again 
conmiended not only the efficiency of the Division 
but also its scrupulous adherence to both the spirit 
and letter of all laws governing passports — said 
that she was at a loss to understand the subcom- 
mittee's unjustified attack on the passport opera- 
tion. She added that Senator McCarran, chair- 
man of the Internal Security Subcommittee, had 
recently congratulated her and praised the work 
of the Division in no uncertain terms. 

Mrs. Shipley characterized the subcommittee's 
allegations that the Department had issued pass- 
l^orts to known Communists and to people known 
to have Communist connections as "preposterous." 
She made the following statement : 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



During 1951 the Passport Division issued and renewed 
considerably more than a quarter of a million passports 
to American citizens who were going abroad for various 
purposes. Any system of investigations or checljings 
which would have disclosed the adverse information re- 
garding the IS persons mentioned would have resulted 
in the delay of sailings of thousands of reputable Ameri- 
can citizens and completely disorganized various trans- 
portation systems. 

The applications of the 18 persons mentioned by Sena- 
tor McCarran came in during the time the Passport Di- 
vision was receiving 1,500 to 2,000 applications each 
day. No information available to the Passport Division 
or contained in the applications indicated that the ap- 
plicants were Communists or that they were going to 
the Soviet Union. 

The Passport Division is primarily an oflBce which 
renders a valuable and necessary service to citizens 
of the United States who travel abroad. The bulk of 
the American traveling public are reputable, law-abiding 
citizens and are probably above the average in education, 
intelligence, and stability. The Department does not 
feel in view of its experience over many years that it 
is warranted in treating this large group of citizens as 
potentially subversive by establishing at this time pro- 
cedures which would delay and hinder hona fide travelers 
in an effort to detect cases such as those mentioned by 
the Subcommittee. Even the most simple form of checkup 
would delay the issue of passports from 2 weeks to 3 
months and would require considerable additional per- 
sonnel, for which no appropriation has been made. 

During the iieriod from February 11)51 to the present 
time the Department in endeavoring to carry out the 
spirit of the McCarran Act has refused or withdrawn pass- 
port facilities in hundreds of ca.ses. Included in the 
"withdrawals" are the 18 in the statement attributed to 
Senator McCarran. 

It is of course as difficult to prevent the issue of pass- 
ports upon the basis of false application as it is to prevent 
the commission of other crimes which involve fraud and 
perjury. Whenever such fraud is discovered the matter 
of prosecution is taken up promptly with the appropriate 
authorities. A number of leading Communists and Soviet 
agents have been convicted of passport violations includ- 
ing Earl Browder, William Weiner, Nicholas Dozenberg, 
Harry Kweit, Charles Krumbein, Pat Devine, Ossip Gar- 
bor, Edward Blatt, and Aaron Sharfln. At the present 
time it is not possible to prosecute a Communist who ob- 
tains a passport without fraud or uses a passport since 
the penal provisions of the McCarran Act are not effective. 
When such provisions become effective it is believed that 
they will have a deterring effect upon Communists wishing 
to travel abroad. 



Cooperation Administrator, was engaged at the 
time of his death in an airplane crash near Tehran. 

In making the announcement, Secretary Ache- 
son pointed out that Mr. Andrews is thoroughly 
familiar with the Point Four Program and was 
one of Mr. Bennett's closest advisers. 

Jonathan B. Bingham, Deputy Administrator 
of the Technical Cooperation Administration, who 
has served as Acting Administrator since Mr. Ben- 
nett's departure from the United States, will con- 
tinue in that capacity. 

The trip begun by Mr. Bennett was for the pur- 
pose of inspecting Point Four programs in oper- 
ation and negotiating agreements with countries 
in which programs are not yet under way. 

The Point Four Program, which has been in 
operation a little over a year in the Near East and 
South Asia, now has American teclniicians in 11 
countries of those areas on a variety of projects, 
mainly in the fields of agriculture, natural-re- 
sources development, health and sanitation, and 
education. More than 200 trainees and leaders 
from these countries are studying in the United 
States or at regional training centers under Point 
Four training grants. 

Corrections 

In the Bulletin of December 24, 1951, p. 1018, 
the first sentence of footnote No. 1 should read: 
"Made before the Ad Hoc Political Committee of 
the General Assembly on Dec. 5 and released to 
the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the 
same date." 

In the BuLi.ETiN of December 31, 1951, p. 1058, 
the end of tlie .second sentence sJiould read 
". . . . enacted by the Federal Congress, E.xecu- 
tive Orders, Regulations, and decisions of the Fed- 
eral Courts." 

In the same Bulletin, p. 1064, the continued 
head should read "Roosevelt — Continued from 
page 1059:' 



Stanley Andrews Appointed 
Special Consultant for Point 4 

[Released to the press December 29] 

Secretary Acheson announced on December 29 
that Stanley Andrews, Director of the Office of 
Foreign Agricultural Relations, U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, has been appointed Special Con- 
sultant to the Secretary of State to assist in the 
development and execution of the Point Four Pro- 
gram of technical cooperation in underdeveloped 
areas. Mr. xlndrews is taking temporary leave 
from the Department of Agriculture to accept this 
assignment and will leave at once to complete the 
mission on which Henry G. Bennett, Technical 



Armistice Negotiations — Continued from page lOG. 

homes. Finally the proposal provides for a supervisory 
orsan to interview the persons involved to insure that, 
wliatpver their choice, such choice will be made freely and 
without duress. 

in advocating your proposal of an all-for-all exchange 
of prisoners of war your side has many times asked the 
question, "What could be fairer than the relea.^e and 
repatriation of all prisoners of war following the armis- 
tice?" Today, in the proposal, the UNC gives you the 
answer to that question. The release of all persons who 
are or should be classified as prisoners of war, and the 
repatriation of those who desire to be repatriated, is 
fairer than the release and forced repatriation of nil 
prisoners of war. Moreover, it is fairer to permit dis- 
placed civilians who so desire to return to their former 
homes, under the Armistice Agreement, than to neglect 
their interests in that agreement. 

We ask your earnest consideration and early accept- 
ance of this proposal. 



January 27, 1952 



111 



January 21, 1952 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXVI, No. 656 



American Principles 

Free world unity (Dulles) 91 

American Republics 

PERU: Military assistance negotiations with 

US 93 

VENEZUELA: Crude oil allocation (proclama- 
tion by Truman) 92 

Asia 

KOREA: Armistice negotiations 105 

VGA plans new transmitter for Far East broad- 
casts 93 

Claims and Property 

U.S. proposes International Court settlement of 

lend-lease issue with U.S.S.R 86 

Communism 

Behind the Iron Curtain; a year-end review . 84 

Congress 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: The State of the 

Union (Truman. Jan. 30) 79 

Europe 

NETHERLANDS : Premier to visit U.S 92 

Schuman plan, progress of (Acheson) . . . 
U.S.S.R.: 

Behind the Iron Curtain: A year-end review . 84 
Participation in prisoner of war discussions 

asked, text of U.S. note 90 

U.S. proposes International Court settlement 

of lend-lease dispute, text of notes ... 86 

Human Rights 

Delegates to directing Council. Anpc .... 109 
Restlessness of youth; an asset of free societies 

(Mrs. Roosevelt) 94 

U.S. to be represented at meeting of commission 

on prisoners of war 90 

VIOLATIONS: U.S.S.R. participation in prisoner 

of war discussions asked, text of note . . 90 

Information and Educational Exchange Program 

Voa: 

New transmitter for Far East broadcasts 

planned 93 

To supply scripts to U.S. public 110 

International Meetings 

Directing Council, American International In- 
stitute for Protection of Childhood . . . 109 

U.S. DELEGATION: Working Party on Standard 

International Trade Classification (Ecafe) . 109 

U.S. to be represented at meeting of commission 

on prisoners of war 90 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

Joint communique on Truman and Churchill 

discussions 83 

Peru-U.S. negotiations on military assistance . 93 

Presidential Documents 

Joint communique on Truman and Churchill 

discussions 83 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: The State of the 

Union (Jan. 9, 1952) 79 

PROCLAMATIONS: Crude oil allocations for 

Venezuela 92 

State, Department of 

Answer to attack on passport operations . . 110 
APPOINTMENTS: 

Andrews as special consultant on Point 4 

administration Ill 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

Special consultant appointed for Pt. 4 . . . Ill 

Trade 

GATT: Hatters' fur. duty on certain grades 

modified 96 

Venezuela allocated crude oil (proclamation by 

Truman) 92 

Working Party on Standard International Trade 

Classification meeting (Ecafe) 109 

Treaty Information 

Status of international agreements at end of 

1951 103 

United Nations 

Collective measures resolution, discussion of 

(Cohen) 98 

Current U.N. bibliography: selected documents . 102 

Korean armistice negotiations 105 

Status of international agreements, end of 1951 . 103 

U.S. in the U.N. (weekly summary) .... 107 

Name Index 

Acheson. Secretary Dean 86, 92 

Andrews, Stanley Ill 

Churchill, Winston 83 

Cohen, Benjamin V 98 

Drees, Willem 92 

Dulles, John Foster 91 

Eliot, Martha M 109 

Enochs, Elisabeth Shirley 109 

Panyushkin, Alexander S 86 

Rice, Stuart A 109 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D 94 

Shipley, Ruth B 110 

Sparks, Edward J 109 

Tittman, Harold H 93 

Truman, President Harry S 79.83.92 



^ ^tSi. * Pi 'bo 



tJrie/ z/)eha^7}^e7^{/ ^(w tnaie^ 





MUTUAL ASSISTANCE PROBLEMS DISCUSSED BY 
U.S. AND U.K.: 
President Truman and Prime Minister Churchill Issue 
Communiques on: 

Supply of Scarce Materials 115 

NATO Operations in the Eastern Atlantic 116 

CLOSE ANGLO-AMERICAN UNITY URGED FOR DE- 
FENSE OF GLOBAL FREEDOMS • Prime Minister 
Churchill's Address Before Congress 116 

GOALS OF MUTUAL SECURITY AGENCY DE- 
SCRIBED 124 

DISPLACED PERSONS ACT • Address by Hervi J. 

L'Heiireux 121 

NEW SOVIET DISARMAMENT PROPOSAL EXAM- 
INED • Statement by Secretary Acheson 126 



For index see back cover 



Vol. XXVI, No. 6 
January 28, 195. 



^ent o^ 




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*•■ ^. SWPERINTfNOfNT OF OOCUMENIS 




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Vol. XXVI, No. 657 • Publication 4471 
January 28, 1952 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
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Mutual Assistance Problems Discussed by U.S. and U.K. 



PRESIDENT TRUMAN AND PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL ISSUE COMMUNIQUES 

[Released to the press by the White House January 18'] 



SUPPLY OF SCARCE MATERIALS 

In their communique of January 9, 1952, the 
President and the Prime Minister announced that 
they had considered how the United States and 
the United Kingdom could best help each other in 
the supply of scarce materials and that discussions 
were continuing.^ 

These discussions have now been completed. 
Agreements have been reached which, taken to- 
gether within a framework of mutual assistance, 
will make it possible for the two countries to carry 
out more effectively their common task of con- 
tributing to the strength and security of the free 
world. The United States will help the United 
Kingdom to meet its most serious shortage, steel, 
and the United Kingdom will help alleviate one of 
the United States most serious shortages, alumi- 
num, and will also assist the United States in 
getting supplies of tin. 

The United Kingdom requirements of steel for 
1952 were reviewed in detail. On the basis of 
these requirements, and after allowing for supplies 
of foreign ore to be diverted to the United King- 
dom by arrangement between the United Kingdom 
and the United States steel industry, the United 
States undertook to make available "to the United 
Kingdom for purchase during 1952 steel (includ- 
ing scrap and pig iron now earmarked for the 
United States from overseas sources^ to a total 
figure of 1,000,000 long tons. This includes the 
steel allocated for the first quarter in the previ- 
ously announced arrangement. About 80 per cent 
of the amount supplied will be steel, mostly in the 
form of ingots. This represents less than one per 
cent of the total United States production. It has 
been agreed that the United States may vary the 
proportions between the steel products and the 
steel making materials to be supplied. 

This will be of the greatest assistance to the 
United Kingdom in meeting its defense and essen- 
tial civilian needs, and will help the United King- 
dom industry to take care of some of the essential 
needs of other friendly countries for structural 
steel and plate steel, thereby relieving the pressure 
on overburdened United States facilities. 
_ In the absence of a change in tlie present supply 
situation, it is not anticipated that any of the steel 
to be furnished to the United Kingdom will be 
supplied in structural or plate or in shapes that 

" Btjlletin of Jan. 21, 1952, p. 83. 

January 28, 1952 



are in serious short supply in the United States. 
Most of the steel will be supplied in the last half 
of 1952 when a portion of the United States steel 
expansion program will have been completed. 
Deliveries to the United Kingdom will be con- 
fined to those items in reasonably free supply. 

The steel shipments to Britain will be so ar- 
ranged as to time and types that no cut will be 
required in steel allocations already made to 
United States industry for the first and second 
quarters of 1952. 

United States requirements for aluminum and 
tin were also reviewed. On the basis of these re- 
quirements, the United Kingdom agreed to make 
available to the United States a total of 55,100,000 
pounds of aluminum. This represents an increase, 
to be spread evenly over the last three quarters of 
1952, of 33,060,000 pounds of aluminum over the 
arrangements made recently with the United 
States by the United Kingdom. This quantity 
is equivalent to about 10 percent of the total 
United Kingdom annual supply. The United 
States has agreed that it will replace this alumi- 
num by the middle of 1953. It is expected that 
much of the United States aluminum expansion 
program will be in operation by that time. 

The United Kingdom has agreed to make avail- 
able to the United States 20,000 long tons of tin 
during 1952 at $1.18 per pound, f.o.b. Singapore. 
Both Governments agreed that it would be de- 
sirable if more normal arrangements for the con- 
duct of the tin trade could be established as soon 
as possible. 

These arrangements will enable the United 
States to more nearly meet its essential tin plate 
requirements and improve its aluminum alloca- 
tions to defense and civilian industries. 

It was noted that both countries would continue 
to use their best efforts to expand and accelerate 
their programs for increasing production of 
scarce materials, both at home and overseas. 

The two Governments also reviewed and ex- 
pressed satisfaction with the progress which has 
been made through the International Materials 
Conference toward effecting equitable distribution 
of key raw materials. 

These arrangements should make a valuable 
contribution to the defense programs of the two 
countries, and increase their ability to meet the 
acute shortage in the free world of steel, tin plate, 
and other strategic materials. 



115 



NATO OPERATIONS IN EASTERN ATLANTIC 

The President and the Prime Minister with 
their advisors have had several discussions relat- 
ing to the arrangements about the Atlantic Com- 
mand recommended by Natg and accepted by the 
late Government of the United Kingdom. As a 
result of their discussions they agreed that His 
Majesty's Government and the United States Gov- 
ernment would recommend to Natg certain alter- 
ations in the arrangements designed to extend the 
United Kingdom home command to the 100 fathom 
line. They also agreed on the desirability of cer- 



tain changes which would provide greater flexi- 
bility for the control of operations in the Eastern 
Atlantic. These changes however do not go the 
full way to meet the Prime Minister's objections 
to the original arrangements. Nevertheless the 
Prime Minister, while not withdrawing his objec- 
tions, expressed his readiness to allow the appoint- 
ment of a Supreme Commander to go forward in 
order that a command structure may be created 
and enabled to proceed with the necessary plan- 
ning in the Atlantic area. He reserved the right 
to bring forward modifications for the consider- 
ation of Nato, if he so desired, at a later stage. 



Close Anglo-American Unity Urged for Defense of Global Freedoms 



Address iy the British Prims Minister, Winston ChurchiU, to the Congress'^ 



Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the 
Congress, this is the third time it has been my for- 
tune to address the Congress of the United States 
upon our joint affairs. I am honored indeed by 
these experiences, which I believe are unique for 
one who is not an American citizen. 

It is also of great value to me on again becoming 
the head of His Majesty's Government to come 
over here and take counsel with many trusted 
friends and comrades of former anxious days. 

There is a lot for us to talk about together, so 
that we can understand each other's difficulties, 
feelings, and thoughts, and do our best for the 
common cause. Let us therefore survey the field 
this afternoon with cool eyes, undimmed by hate 
or passion, guided by righteous inspiration and not 
uncheered by hope. 

I have not come here to ask you for money — to 
ask you for money to make living more comfort- 
able or easier for us in Britain. Our standards of 
life are our own business, and we can only keep our 
self-respect and independence by looking after 
them ourselves. 

During the war we bore our share of the burden 
and fought from first to last unconquered, and for 
a while alone, to the utmost limit of our resources. 

Your majestic obliteration of all you gave us un- 
der lend-lease will never be forgotten by this gen- 
eration of Britons or by history. 

Dollar Exchange and Sterling Area Finance 

After the war, unwisely as I contended and cer- 
tainly contrary to American advice, we accepted as 
normal debts nearly 4 thousand million pounds 

' Made on Jan. 17 and reprinted from Cong. Rec. of Jan. 
17, 1952, p. 279. 



sterling of claims by countries we had protected 
from invasion or had otherwise aided, instead of 
making counterclaims which would at least have 
reduced the bill to reasonable proportions. 

The thousand-million loan we borrowed from 
you in 1946 and which we are now repaying was 
sjjent not on ourselves, but mainly in helping oth- 
ers. In all since the war, as the late Government 
affirmed, we have lent or given to Euroi^ean or 
Asiatic countries 30 hundred-million pounds in 
the form of unrequited exports. This, added to 
the cost of turning over our industi'y from war to 
peace and rebuilding homes shattered by bombard- 
ment, was more than we could manage without 
an undue strain upon our life energies from which 
we shall require both time and self-discipline to 
recover. 

Why do I say all this? Not to compare our 
financial resources with yours, for we are but a 
third of your numbers and have much less than a 
third of your wealth ; not to claim praise or reward 
but to convince you of our native and enduring 
strength and that our true position is not to be 
judged by the present state of the dollar exchange 
or by sterling area finance. 

Ovir production is half as great again as it was 
before the war ; our exports are up by two-thirds ; 
recovery while being retarded has been continuous 
and we are determined that it shall go on. 

As I said at Fulton, in Missouri, 6 years ago, 
under the auspices of President Truman, let no 
man underrate the abiding power of the British 
Commonwealth and Empire. Do not suppose we 
shall not come through these dark years of priva- 
tion as we came through the glorious years of 
agony, or that half a century from now you will 
not see 70 or 80 millions of Britons spread about 



116 



Department oi State Bulletin 



the world and united in defense of our traditions 
and way of life and of the world causes which you 
and we espouse. 

If the population of the English-speaking com- 
monwealths be added to that of the United States 
we will all have such cooperation with all that such 
cooperation implies, in the air, on the sea, and all 
over the globe, and in science, industry and moral 
force, there will be no quivering precarious bal- 
ance of power to offer its temptation to ambition 
or adventure. I am very glad to be able to say the 
same to you here today. 

The Problem of New Rearmament 

It is upon this basis of recovery in spite of bur- 
dens, that the formidable problem of the new re- 
armament has fallen upon us. 

It is the policy of the United States to help for- 
ward in many countries the process of rearmament. 
In this we who contribute ourselves two-thirds as 
much as the rest of Europe put together require 
your aid if we are to realize in good time the very 
high level of militai-y strength which the Labor 
government boldly aimed at and to which they 
committed us. It is for you to judge to what ex- 
tent the United States interests are involved. 
Whether you aid us much or little, we shall con- 
tinue to do our utmost in the common cause. But, 
Members of the Congi'ess, our contribution will 
perforce be limited by our own physical resources 
and thus the combined strength of our two coun- 
tries and also of the free world will be somewhat 
less than it might be. 

That is why I have come here to ask, not for 
gold but for steel, not for favors but equipment, 
and that is why many of our requests have been so 
well and generously met. 

At this point I will venture, if I may, to make a 
digression. After a lot of experience I have 
learned that it is not a good thing to dabble in the 
internal politics of another country. It is hard 
enough to understand one's own. But I will tell 
you something about our British politics all the 
same. 

In our island we indulge from time to time in 
having elections. I believe you sometimes have 
them over here. We have liad a couple in 20 
months, which is quite a lot and quite enough for 
the time being. We now look forward to a steady 
period of administration in accordance with the 
mandate we have received. Like you we tend to 
work on the two-party system. The differences 
between parties on our side of the Atlantic, and 
perhaps elsewhere between British parties, are 
often less than they appear to outsiders. In mod- 
ern Britain the dispute is between a form of social- 
ism which has hitherto respected political liberty 
on the one hand, and, on the other, free enterprise 
I'egulated by law and custom. These two systems 
of thought, whose differences, I assure you, give 
plenty of room for argument between political op- 



ponents, fortunately overlap quite a lot in 
practice. 

Our complicated society would be deeply in- 
jured if we we did not practice and develop what 
is called in the United States the bipartisan habit 
of mind, which divides, so far as possible, what is 
done to make a party win and bear in their turn 
the responsibility of office and what is done to 
make the nation live and serve high causes. 

I hope here. Members of Congress, you will al- 
low me to pay a tribute to the late Senator Van- 
denberg. I had the honor to meet him on several 
occasions. His final message in these anxious 
j'ears gave the feeling that in this period of United 
States leadership and responsibility all great 
Americans should work together for all the things 
that matter most. That, at least, is the spirit 
which we shall try to maintain among British 
leaders in our own country and that was the spirit 
which alone enabled us to survive the perils of the 
late war. 

But now let me return to my theme of the many 
changes that have taken place since I was last 
here. There is a jocular saying: To improve is 
to change, to be perfect is to have changed often. 
I had to use that once or twice in my long career; 
but if that were true, everyone ought to be getting 
on very well. The changes that have happened 
since I last spoke to Congress are indeed astound- 
ing. It is hard to believe we are living in the same 
world. Former allies have become foes; former 
foes have become allies ; conquered countries have 
been liberated; liberated nations have been en- 
slaved by communism. Eussia, 8 years ago our 
brave ally, has cast away the admiration and good 
will her soldiers had gained for her by their val- 
iant defense of their own country. It is not the 
fault of the Western Powers if an immense gulf 
has opened between us. It took a long succession 
of deliberate and unceasing words and acts of hos- 
tility to convince our peoples, as they are now con- 
vinced, that they have another tremendous danger 
to face and that they are now confronted with a 
new form of tyranny and aggression as dangerous 
and as hateful as that which we overthrew. 

Communist China, Korea, and Japan 

When I visited Washington during the war I 
used to be told that China would be one of the Big 
Four Powers among the nations and most friendly 
to the United States. I was always a bit skepti- 
cal ; and I think it is now generally admitted that 
this hopeful dream has not yet come true, but I am 
by no means sure that China will remain for gen- 
erations in the Communist group. The Chinese 
said of themselves several thousand years ago: 
"China is a sea that salts all the waters that flow 
into it." There is another Chinese saying about 
their country which is much more modern. It 
dates only from the fourth century. This is the 
saying: "The tail of China is large and will not 
be wagged." I like that one. 



January 28, 1952 



117 



The British democracy approves the principle 
of movable party heads and unwaggable national 
tails. It is due to the working of these important 
forces that I have the honor to be addressing you 
at this moment. You have rightly been resolute, 
Members of the Congress, in confronting Chinese 
Communist aggression. We take our stand at your 
side. We are grateful to the United States for 
bearing nine-tenths or more of the burden in Korea 
which the United Nations have morally assumed. 
I am very glad, but whatever diplomatic diver- 
gencies there may be from time to time about 
procedure, you do not allow the Chinese anti-Com- 
munists on Formosa to be invaded and massacred 
from the mainland. We welcome your patience 
in the armistice negotiations and our two countries 
are agreed that if the truce we seek is reached only 
to be broken, our response will be prompt, resolute, 
and effective. What I have learned over here con- 
vinces me that British and United States policy in 
the Far East will be marked by increasing har- 
mony. I can assure you that our British hearts go 
out in sympathy to the families of the 100,000 
Americans who have given their lives or shed their 
blood in Korea. We also suffer these pangs for the 
loss of our own men there, and not only there, but 
in other parts of Asia as well under the attack by 
the same enemy. 

Whatever course events in Korea may take in 
the near future, and prophecy will be difficult, 
much too difficult for me to embark upon it, I am 
sure our soldiers and your soldiers have not made 
their sacrifice in vain. 

The cause of world law has found strong and 
invaluable defense, and the foundations of the 
world instruments for preserving peace, justice, 
and freedom among the nations have been deep- 
ened and strengthened. They stand now not on 
paper but on rock. 

Moreover, the action which President Truman 
took in your name and with your full support in 
his stroke against aggression in Korea has pro- 
duced consequences far beyond Korea, conse- 
quences which may well aiBFect the destiny of 
mankind. The vast process of American reai-ma- 
ment, in which the British Commonwealth and 
Empire and the growing power of united Europe 
will play their part to the utmost of their strength, 
this vast process has already altered the balance of 
the world and may well, if we all persevere stead- 
fastly and loyally together, avert the danger of 
a third world war or the horror of defeat and sub- 
jugation should one come upon us. 

Mr. President and Mr. Speaker, I hope the 
mourning families throughout the gi'eat Republic 
will find some comfoit and some pride in these 
thoughts. 

Another extraordinary change has taken place 
in the Far East since I last addressed you. Peace 
has been made with Japan. There, indeed, I con- 
gratulate you upon the policy which, in wise and 
skillful hands, has brought the Japanese Nation 



from the woe and shame of defeat in their wicked 
war back to that association with the western 
democracies upon which the revival of their tradi- 
tions, dignity, and happiness can alone be regained 
and the stability of the Far East assured. 

Southeast Asia 

In the anxious and confused expanses of South- 
east Asia, there is another sphere where our aims 
and interests and those of the French, who are 
fighting bravely at heavy cost to their strength in 
Europe, may find a fertile field for agreement on 
policy. I feel sure that the conversations we have 
had between our two foreign Secretaries, Mr. 
Eden and Mr. Acheson, men whose names and ex- 
perience are outstanding throughout the world, 
will help to place the problems of Southeast Asia 
in their right setting. 

It would not be helpful to the common cause — 
for our evils all spring from one center — if an 
effective truce in Korea led only to a transference 
of Communist aggi'ession to these other fields. 
Our problems will not be solved unless they are 
steadily viewed and acted upon as a whole in their 
integrity as a whole. 

The Middle East 

In the Middle East enormous changes have also 
taken place since I was last in power in my own 
covmtry. When the war ended, the western nations 
were respected and predominant throughout these 
ancient lands, and there were quite a lot of people 
who had a good word to say about Great Britain. 
Today it is a somber and confusing scene. Yet 
there is still sunshine as well as shadow. From 
the days of the Balfour declaration I have desired 
that the Jews should have a national home, and 
I have worked for that end. I rejoice to pay my 
tribute here to the achievements of those who have 
founded the Israelite State, who have defended 
themselves with tenacity, and who offer asylum to 
great numbers of Jewisli refugees. 

I hope that with their aid they may convert 
deserts into gardens. But if they are to enjoy 
peace and prosperity, they must strive to renew 
and preserve their friendly relations with the Arab 
world, without which widespread misery might 
swallow all. 

Britain's power to influence the fortunes of the 
Middle East and guard it from aggression is far 
less today, now that we have laid aside our impe- 
rial responsibility for India and its armies. It 
is no longer for us alone to bear the whole burden 
of maintaining the freedom of the famous water- 
way of the Suez Canal. That has become an inter- 
national rather than a national responsibility. I 
welcome the statesmanlike conception of a Four- 
Power approach toward Egypt announced by the 
late British Government, in which Britain, United 
States, France, and Turkey may share with Egypt 



118 



DeparlmenI of State Bulletin 



in the protection of the world interest involved 
among which Egypt's own interests are para- 
mount. 

Such a policy is urgent. Britain is maintaining 
over 50,000 troops in the Suez Canal zone who 
again might be well employed elsewhere — not for 
national vainglory or self-seeking advantage, but 
in the common interest of all nations. We do not 
seek to be masters of Egypt. We are there only as 
the servants and guardians of the commerce of 
the world. It would enormously aid us in our 
task if even token forces of the other partners in 
the Four Power proposal were stationed in the 
canal zone as a symbol of the unity of purpose 
which inspires us. I believe it is no exaggeration 
to state that such token forces would probably 
bring into harmony all that movement by which 
the Four Power policy may be made to play a 
decisive part by peaceful measures and bring to 
an end the wide disorders of the Middle East, in 
which, let me assure you, there lurk dangers not 
less great than those which the United States has 
stemmed in Korea. 



Europe 

Now I come to Europe where the greatest of all 
our problems and dangers lie. I have long worked 
for the cause of a united Europe, and even of a 
United States of Europe, which would enable that 
continent, the source of so much of our culture, 
ancient and modern, and the parent of the New 
World, to resume and revive its former splendors. 
It is my sure hope and conviction that European 
unity will be achieved and that it will not ulti- 
mately be limited only to the countries at present 
composing Western Europe. I said at Zurich in 
1946 that France should take Germany by the 
hand and lead her back into the family of nations, 
and thus end the thousand-year quarrel which has 
torn Europe to pieces, and finally plunged the 
whole world twice over into slaughter and havoc. 
Real and rapid progress is being made toward 
European unity, and it is both the duty and the 
policy of both Great Britain and our Common- 
wealth, and of the United States, to do our ut- 
most — all of us — to help and speed it. As a fore- 
runner of a united Europe there is the European 
army which could never achieve its necessary 
strength without the inclusion of Germany. If 
this necessary and urgent object is being achieved 
by the fusion of the forces of the continental na- 
tions outside what I have called, in former times, 
the Iron Curtain, that great operation deserves our 
fullest support. But, Members of Congress, fusion 
is not the only way in which the defense of West- 
ern Europe can be built. The system of a grand 
alliance, such as has been created by the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, is no bar to the fu- 
sion of as many of its members as wish for this 
closer unity ; and the United States, British, and 
Canadian troops will stand, indeed are already 



standing, shoulder to shoulder, with their Euro- 
pean comrades in defense of the civilization and 
freedom of the west. We stand together under 
General Eisenhower to defend the common cause 
from violent aggression. What matters most is 
not the form of fusion or melding — a word I 
learned over here — but the numbers of divisions 
and of armoi'ed divisions, and the power of the air 
forces and their weapons available for unified 
action under the supreme commander. 

We in Britain have denuded our island of mili- 
tary formations to an extent I have never seen 
before ; and I cannot accept the slightest reproach 
from any quarter that we are not doing our full 
duty, because the British Commonwealth of Na- 
tions, spread all over the world, is not prepared to 
become a state or group of states in any continental 
Federal system on either side of the Atlantic. 

The sooner strong enough forces can be assem- 
bled in Europe under united command, the more 
effective will be the deterrents against a third 
world war. The sooner also will our sense of secu- 
rity and the fact of our security be seen to reside 
in valiant, resolute, and well-armed manhood, 
rather than in the awful secrets which science has 
wrested from nature. These are at present, it must 
be recognized, the secrets, the supreme deterrent 
against a third world war and the most effective 
guarantee of victory in it. 

If I may say this. Members of the Congress, be 
careful above all things, therefore, not to let go 
of the atomic weapon until you are sure, and more 
than sure, that other means of preserving peace 
are in your hands. 

It is my belief that by accumulating deterrents 
of all kinds against aggi'ession we shall in fact 
ward off the fearful catastrophe, the fears of 
which darken the life and mar the progress of all 
the peoples of the globe. We must persevere 
steadfastly and faithfully in the task unto which, 
under the United States' leadership, we have 
solemnly bound ourselves. Any weakening of our 
purpose, any disruption of our organization will 
bring about the- very evils which we all dread, 
from which we all suffer and from which many 
of us would perish. 

We must not lose patience and we must not lose 
hope. It may be that presently a new mood will 
reign behind the Iron Curtain; if so, it will be 
easy for them to show it, but the democracies must 
be on their guard against being deceived by a 
false dawn. 

We seek or covet no one's territory ; we plan no 
forestalling war; we trust and pray that all will 
come right. Even during these years of what is 
called the cold war material production in every 
land is continually improving through the use of 
new machinery and better organization, and the 
advance of peaceful science. But the great bound 
forward in progress and prosperity for which 
mankind is longing cannot come until the shadow 
of war has passed away. There are, however, his- 



January 28, J 952 



119 



toric compensations for the stresses which we 
suffer in the cold war. Under the pressure and 
menace of Communist aggression the fraternal 
association of the United States with Britain and 
the British Commonwealths and the new unity 
growing up in Europe, nowhere more hopeful than 
between France and Germany, all these harmonies 
are being brought forward perhaps by several 
generations in the destiny of the world. If this 
proves true, and it has certainly proved true up 
to date, the architects in the Kremlin may be 
found to have built a different and a far better 
world structure than what they planned. 

Bismarck once said that the supreme fact of the 
nineteenth century was that Britain and the 
United States spoke the same language. Let us 
make sure that the supreme fact of the twentieth 
century is that they tread the same path. 



Japan's Future Policy 
Toward China 

Folio wing is an exchange of correspondence 
heticeen Shigeni, Toshida, Prime Minister of 
Japan, and John Foster Dulles, considtant to the 
Secretary of State; texts of the letters tvere re- 
leased to the press on January 16 and 17 
respectively. 

December 24th, 1951 

Dear Ambassador Dtjlles : Wliile the Japanese 
Peace Treaty and the U. S.-Japan Security 
Treaty were being debated in the House of Rep- 
resentatives and the House of Councillors of the 
Diet, a number of questions were put and state- 
ments made relative to Japan's future policy 
toward China. Some of the statements, separated 
from their context and background, gave rise to 
misapprehensions which I should like to clear up. 

The Japanese Government desires ultimately to 
have a full measure of political peace and commer- 
cial intercourse with China which is Japan's close 
neighbor. 

At the present time it is, we hope, possible to 
develop that kind of relationship with the Na- 
tional Government of the Republic of China, 
which has the seat, voice and vote of China in the 
United Nations, which exercises actual govern- 
mental authority over certain territory, and which 
maintains diplomatic relations with most of the 
members of the United Nations. To that end my 
Government on November 17, 1951, established 
a Japanese Government Overseas Agency in For- 
mosa, with the consent of the National Govern- 
ment of China. This is the highest form of 
relationship with other countries which is now 
permitted to Japan, pending the coming into 
force of the multilateral Ti-eaty of Peace. The 
Japanese Government Overseas Agency in For- 



mosa is important in its personnel, reflecting the 
importance which my government attaches to re- 
lations with the National Government of the Re- 
public of China. My government is prepared as 
soon as legally possible to conclude with the Na- 
tional Government of China, if that government 
so desires, a Treaty which will reestablish normal 
relations between the two Governments in con- 
formity with the principles set out in the multi- 
lateral Treaty of Peace. The terms of such 
bilateral treaty shall, in respect of the Republic 
of China, be applicable to all territories which are 
now, or which may hereafter be, under the control 
of the National Government of the Republic of 
China. We will promptly explore this subject 
with the National Government of China. 

As regards the Chinese Communist regime, that 
regime stands actually condemned by the United 
Nations of being an aggressor and in consequence, 
the United Nations has recommended certain 
measures against that regime, in which Japan is 
now concurring and expects to continue to concur 
when the multilateral Treaty of Peace comes into 
force pursuant to the provisions of Article 5 (a) 
(iii), whereby Japan has undertaken "to give the 
United Nations every assistance in any action it 
takes in accordance with the Charter and to re- 
frain from giving assistance to any State against 
which the United Nations may take preventive 
or enforcement action". Furthermore, the Sino- 
Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual 
Assistance concluded in Moscow in 1950 is virtu- 
ally a military alliance aimed against Japan. In 
fact there are many reasons to believe that the 
Communist regime in China is backing the Japan 
Communist Party in its program of seeking vio- 
lently to overthrow the constitutional system and 
the present Government of Japan. In view of 
these considerations, I can assure you that the 
Japanese Government has no intention to con- 
clude a bilateral Treaty with the Communist re- 
gime of China. 

Yours sincerely, 

Shigeru Yoshida 



January 16, 1952. 

My dear Mr. Prime Minister: I acknowledge 
the receipt by pouch of your letter of December 
24, 1951 in which you express the intentions of 
your Government with reference to China. This 
clear statement should dispel any misapprehen- 
sions which, as you suggest, may have arisen from 
statements, separated from their context and back- 
ground, made during the course of debate in 
Japan on the ratification of the Japanese Peace 
Treaty and the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty. 

I am grateful to you for your letter and I re- 
spect the courageous and forthright manner in 
which you face up to this difficult and controver- 
sial matter. 

Sincerely yours, 

John Foster DtnLLES 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



Administration of Displaced Persons Act: An Example 
of Democracy in Action 



hy Herve J. L''Heureux 
Chief of the Visa Division ^ 

When Congress in 1950 amended the Displaced 
Persons Act of 1948, the Department and its con- 
sular officers were given the major responsibility 
for the administration of four new programs : 

1. The issuance of up to 18,000 immigration visas to 
Polish veterans in Great Britain ; 

2. The issuance of up to 4,000 immigration visas to 
refugees from China ; 

3. The issuance of 7,500 immigration visas to Greek 
refugees and of 2,500 visas to Greek immigrants entitled 
to preference status under their quota ; 

4. The issuance of immigration visas to European refu- 
gees in Europe outside Germany, Austria, and Italy, 
usually referred to as out-of-zone refugees. 

While the Department carried out these four 
programs jointly with the Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service, the Department shai-ed with 
the Displaced Persons Commission and the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service the responsi- 
bility for the immigration of all other classes of 
immigrants benefiting under the Displaced Per- 
sons Act. 

Of the four programs for which the Department 
carried the primary responsibility, the first three 
terminated with the expiration of the pertinent 
provisions of the law on December 31, 1951. Let 
me briefly review to what extent we were able to 
complete these programs satisfactorily. 



Issuance of Visas to Refugees 

Of the 4,000 visas authorized for refugees from 
China, approximately 3,300 have been issued. 
Most of these refugees had fled from Communist 
China to the Island of Samar in the Philippines. 
A member of my staff was assigned to go to Samar 
as visa consul. He and his American staff shared 
all hardships, cheerfully, with those they came to 
help. The office of the American consulate on 
Samar consisted of a flimsy hut surrounded by 
refugee tents. The offices were separated from 
each other and from the public waiting room by 
strips of canvas. The nine men on the consular 
staff shared a small hut for living quarters. When 
our consular office was opened, about 3,300 refu- 
gees were on the island. About 2,700 of these were 



' Address made before the Third National Resettlement 
Conference of the Displaced Persons Commission at Chi- 
cago, 111., on Jan. IS and released to the press on the same 
date. 



found to be qualified and were issued immigration 
visas for the United States. Most of the others 
were received by other countries. While our staff 
was rightfully proud of their work on Samar they 
also discovered that life on this South Sea island 
was not exactly the way it is painted in Hollywood 
and "South Pacific." 

While administrative facilities for the issuance 
of visas to Polish war veterans in Great Britain 
were available without any serious difficulty or 
staff limitation, the number of visas issued fell 
considerably short of the authorized number of 
18,000. Only approximately 11,100 visas were is- 
sued to this group of immigrants. This was due 
primarily to the fact that not enough Polish vet- 
erans applied for visas. Many of them had found 
a permanent home in Great Britain and therefore 
did not avail themselves of this opportunity to 
gain admission to the United States. 

The 7,500 visas authorized for Greek refugees 
were all issued. Of the 2,500 visas authorized for 
the so-called Greek preferential group, approxi- 
mately 1,500 were issued since there were not 
enough qualified applicants who could benefit 
from this provision of the Displaced Persons Act. 

The quota numbers authorized, which were not 
used by these special groups, have not been lost. 
You will recall the Displaced Persons Act pro- 
vided that the number of visas autliorized for these 
special groups was to come out of the total of 
341,000 visas authorized for displaced persons in 
general. Numbers not used by these groups were 
made available to the general gi-oup of displaced 
persons. The problem of reserving sufficient num- 
bers for these special groups, to meet the antici- 
pated demand and, on the other hand, to make 
them available to the general group of displaced 
persons once the special demand was satisfied, was 
one of the major responsibilities of the Visa Divi- 
sion under the Displaced Persons Act. This called 
for much planning and calculation and keeping in 
close touch with the day-to-day operations. Dur- 
ing the last months and weeks of the program, 
some 11,000 numbers which had been held avail- 
able for special groups, particularly for Polish 
war veterans and certain orphan children, were 
released for the use of other displaced persons 
when it became reasonably clear these special 
groups would not use them. 



ianuary 28, 1952 



121 



Regulations for Out-of-Zone Refugees 

The fourth group of displaced persons, for 
whom the Department has been assigned the pri- 
mary responsibihty, consists of the so-called out- 
of-zone refugees for whom visa issuance is author- 
ized under section 3 (c) of the amended DisjDlaced 
Persons Act. This group is different from all 
others in various respects. First of all, visas may 
be issued to this group through June 30, 1954. In 
order to qualify for visa issuance under section 3 
(c) of the Displaced Persons Act, an alien must 
have entered an area or country in Europe outside 
Italy or the American, British, or French sectors 
or zones of Germany and Austria between Sep- 
tember 1, 1939 and January 1, 1949 and they must 
establish that they are persons of European na- 
tional oi'igin displaced from the country of their 
birth or nationality, or of their last residence as a 
result of events subsequent to the outbreak of 
World War II. They also are required to estab- 
lish that they are unable to return to. any of such 
countries because of jiersecution, or fear of perse- 
cution, on account of race, religion, or political 
opinions. Also, they must not have been firmly 
resettled in any other country. The law provides 
that between July 1, 1950 and June 30, 1954, 50 
percent of the nonpreference portion of the immi- 
gration quotas under the 1924 Act are to be made 
available to these aliens. 

In order to carry out the mandate of Congress 
with respect to this group of refugees, our quota 
control officer must first satisfy the visa demand 
from persons entitled to first and second pref- 
erence quota status. Since the Immigration Act 
of 1924 gives the first call on 50 percent of each 
quota to first preference quota immigi-ants and 
first call on the other 50 percent to second pref- 
erence quota immigrants, there may be no non- 
preference portion left if the demand for visas 
by these preference groups is sufficiently large. 
In other words, 50 percent of that portion of each 
quota which is not used by these preference 
groups is to be made available to the out-of-zone 
refugees. The calculation of this figure is com- 
plicated by the fact that under the law the first 
and second preference demand under quotas over 
300 is to be satisfied on a month by month basis, 
while for the purpose of the out-of-zone refugees 
the law prescribed that quotas be computed on 
an annual rather than on a monthly basis. To 
comply with this provision we have to estimate 
the probable demand for preference quota visas 
within each of the 4 fiscal years during which visas 
may be issued to the out-of-zone refugees, and on 
the basis of these estimates we have to decide how 
many quota numbers we can safely authorize for 
the out-of-zone refugees without exhausting all 
available quota numbers for which a demand may 
arise if our estimates should prove to be incorrect. 

Here are some data which may be of interest to 
you in connection with the issuance of visas to 
out-of-zone refugees. In all, about 5,000 visas 

122 



have been issued to these refugees during the last 
18 months. By far the largest nimiber, approxi- 
mately 2,700 visas, went to natives of Poland. 
The next largest group of out-of-zone refugees 
are natives of Czechoslovakia, who were issued ap- 
proximately 680 visas. In addition, substantial 
numbers of visas have been issued under section 
3 (c) of the Act to natives of Hungary, Lithuania, 
Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Latvia. We had 
even two Swiss, one French, one British, and one 
Irish quota immigrant who qualied as out-of- 
zone refugees. 

All numbers presently available for the issu- 
ance of visas under section 3(c) have already been 
allocated under the quotas of Bulgaria, Estonia, 
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania, 
Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia. Some few addi- 
tional quota numbers authorized under section 3 
(c) of the Displaced Persons Act will become 
available in March. Section 3 (c) numbers are 
currently available from the quotas of the follow- 
ing countries : Albania, Austria, Czechoslovakia, 
Danzig, Germany, and Italy. 

Many of the agencies represented here today 
have been accredited by the Department of State 
for the out-of-zone refugee progi'am. Those of 
you who are interested in helping with this pro- 
gram but have not yet applied for their accredita- 
tion, should do so without delay since our consular 
officers are not permitted to accept agency assur- 
ances, unless the organizations are approved for 
the specific section of the Displaced Persons Act 
under which they wish to sponsor the admission 
of aliens. Also, may I remind you that different 
from all other programs, in connection with the 
visa application of out-of-zone refugees only as- 
surances identifying the particular applicant by 
name, so-called named assurances, may be ac- 
cepted by consular officers. Regulations exclude 
the submission for section 3 (c) cases of so-called 
unnamed assurances which request the admission 
of an alien having specific skills or other qualifica- 
tions without identifying the applicant by name. 

I know you are all interested in the total num-. 
ber of visas which have been issued under the Dis- 
placed Persons Act up to December 31, 1951. I 
had hoped I could bring these data with me today 
but unfortunately we have not yet received the 
final figures from all consulates concerned with 
the administration of the program. On the basis 
of the reports already received I believe it can be 
estimated that some 312,000 visas have been issued 
to the so-called Iro refugees and persecutees under 
section 2 (c) of the Act. 

Effect of Displaced Persons Act on Future Im- 
migration 

Before I conclude my remarks I should like to 
discuss briefly the effect the admission of dis- 
placed persons will have on the volume of future 
immigration. As you know, with few exceptions, 
persons admitted under the Displaced Persons Act 

Department of State Bulletin 



are quota immigrants. The Congi'ess facilitated 
their admission to the United States by permitting 
that visas issued to them be charged to the quotas 
for future years, with a future quota charging 
limit of 25 percent of the respective quotas for 
the years 1950 to 1954 and a limit of 50 percent 
of each quota for the years thereafter. While 
this provision permitted the rapid movement of 
displaced persons to the United States it will of 
course liave a bearing upon the volume of future 
immigration. 

The extent to which the admission of displaced 
persons will affect the volume of future immigra- 
tion, becomes evident from the following data 
which show the fiscal year up to which annual 
quotas have in part been absorbed by visas issued 
to displaced persons : 

Country : Year 

Albania 1956 

Austria 1955 

Bulgaria 1963 

China (white) 1964 

Czechoslovakia 1958 

Danzig 1958 

Estonia 2146 

Greece 2013 

Hungary 1985 

Iran 1956 

Latvia 2274 

Lithuania 2087 

Poland 1999 

Rumania 2004 

Trieste 1958 

Turkey 1964 

U. S. S. R 1978 

Yugoslavia 2001 

Those of us in the Department of State and in 
the Foreign Service concerned with the displaced 
persons program have done everything possible to 
make it a successful one. During the last days 
of December members of my staff in the Visa Divi- 
sion were available on a 24-liour schedule to handle 
last minute calls for quota numbers from Frank- 
fort, Munich, and other places. The Consulate 
General in Frankfurt in a preliminary report on 
the closing stages of the major part of the dis- 
placed persons program wrote that work was car- 
ried on all day on Saturdays, Sundays, and holi- 
days in order to process the maximum number of 
applicants. The subconsular office at Funkkaserne 
near Munich, for example, which had a normal 
complement of 10 officers, obtained the service of 
seven additional vice consuls from the Munich 
Consulate General, for the final days of the pro- 
gram. All officers worked until midnight on De- 
cember 30 and December 31. 

Our part in the program, however, could not 
have been accomplished had it not been for the 
fine cooperation we had from many agencies, par- 
ticularly the voluntary agencies, many of which 
are represented here today. We also had the 
splendid cooperation of John Gibson, the chair- 



man of the Displaced Persons Commission, and 
the other members of the Commission and his 
staff, as well as from the Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service and Public Health Service. I 
think the fact that we could resolve satisfactorily 
the many new and challenging problems pre- 
sented by the displaced persons program was a 
telling example of democracy in action and I be- 
lieve we can be proud of this achievement. 



Nomination of Special Representative 
For MSA Program in Europe 

On January 14 the President nominated Wil- 
liam H. Draper, Jr., to be U.S. special represen- 
tative in Europe with the rank of Ambassador. 

Mr. Draper will represent the U.S. Government 
as a whole and will be responsible to the President. 
He will be concerned with the various aspects of 
the Mutual Security Program in Europe. He will 
act for the Director for Mutual Security in pro- 
viding on a regional basis coordination, continu- 
ous supervision, and general direction of the mili- 
tary and economic assistance programs. He will 
be charged with seeing that these programs are 
effectively integrated and administered so as to 
assure that the defensive strength of the nations 
concerned shall be built as quickly as possible on 
the basis of continuous and effective self-help and 
mutual aid. He will also exercise general super- 
vision over the European activities of the Mutual 
Security Agency. 

The U.S. special representative will maintain 
close liaison with the American Ambassadors to 
the various European capitals, the U.S. deputy to 
the North Atlantic Council, and the Commanding 
General of the U.S. European Command. He will 
also maintain close contact with the U.S. members 
of the various North Atlantic Treaty agencies in 
Europe and with the United States elements of 
General Eisenhower's headquarters. 

Proposals for improvements in the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization are presently under 
active consideration. As this reorganization 
moves forward, it is expected that the U.S. special 
reijresentative will become the senior United 
States civilian representative in Europe respon- 
sible for North Atlantic Treaty as well as Mutual 
Security Program matters. 

Charles M. Spofford Resigns 

The President on January 14 accepted the resignation 
of Charles M. Spofford as deputy U.S. representative to 
Nac. For texts of letters exchanged between Mr. Spof- 
ford and President Truman, see White House press release 
of Jan. 14. 



January 28, 7952 



,123 



Goals of Mutual Security Agency Described 



W. Averell Harriman, Director for Mutual Se- 
curity, on January 15 announced the organiza- 
tional structure of the new Mutual Security 
Agency (Msa) and described it as "a stream- 
lined set-up with far-reaching objectives geared 
to the tempo of world conditions of 1952." 

Pointing out that the Msa was created by Con- 
gress as a global agency with equal responsibilities 
in Asia and Western Europe, Mr. Harriman said 
the role of the new agency was more challenging 
and far reaching than that of its predecessor, the 
Economic Cooperation Administration. He ex- 
plained : 

EcA was created to aid in the economic recovery of 
Western Europe from World War II and was later ex- 
tended to administer economic assistance to the Far East. 
In Europe, the new Msa will work towards the creation 
of a "dynamic and expanding" economy capable of achiev- 
ing the present rearmament goals of the North Atlantic 
Ti'eaty Organization countries, and, at the same time, lay- 
ing the basis for improved standards of living which can 
be realized after completion of the military buildup. In 
the Far East, Msa will work to help the free people realize 
their aspirations. 

The Free World must build sufficient military strength 
to deter communist aggression any place in the world. 
At the same time our job is to help improve standards 
of living, particularly among the lower income groups, 
create political stability, sound currencies, and expanding 
economies. 

Mr. Harriman, who is responsible for the coor- 
dination of foreign-aid activities of tlie State De- 
partment, Defense Department, and Msa, an- 
nounced the delegation of all operating functions 
of Msa to Kichard M. Bissell, Jr., Deputy Direc- 
tor for Mutual Security.^ 

"As so much of my time must be devoted to the 
work of coordinating the economic, military and 
technical assistance programs authorized by the 
Congress in the Mutual Security Act," Mr. Har- 
riman said, "I have placed the operating activities 
of the Msa in the hands of my Deputy." 

To provide for coordination of the military and 
economic assistance programs in Europe, the 
President yesterday nominated William H. 
Draper, Jr., to be U.S. special representative in 
Europe. In this post, Mr. Draper will act for 
Mr. Harriman in providing coordination, continu- 

' On Jan. 17 the White House announced the resignation 
of Mr. Bissell, effective Jan. 18. His successor has not 
yet been announced. 



ous supervision, and general direction of the pro- 
grams of the Msa and Department of Defense on 
a regional basis. 

Paul R. Porter, who has been acting chief of 
EcA activities in Europe, becomes director of the 
European Office of the Mutual Security Agency. 
In this position, Mr. Porter will head Msa's 
European regional office with headquarters in 
Paris. 

Explaining Msa's operating structure, Mr. Bis- 
sell said that the agency will tackle its global 
task with a single purpose — the building of 
strength for the free world. He noted that its 
methods will differ greatly between the Far East 
and Western Europe. 

"Around the world, however," Mr. Bissell said, 
"Msa will work towards providing hope for a bet- 
ter life and a free society." 

Technical Assistance in Asia 

In the Far East, Mr. Bissell said, Msa will be 
primarily engaged in helping newly independent 
and underdeveloped countries to build strong gov- 
ernments and expand their economies to provide 
for the basic human needs of their people. This 
goal can be reached, he said, through a program 
of tecltnical assistance coupled with a small 
amount of commodity and equipment aid. 

The Msa's Asian program will be of a self-help 
nature with the participating countries making 
very substantial contributions by meeting local 
costs both through payments into counterpart 
funds and directly from their budgets. The pro- 
grams will emphasize the grass-roots, village-level 
approach witli projects designed to have an im- 
mediate broad impact as well as assistance at focal 
points of the local economy. 

Mr. Bissell said that the work in the Far East 
would include activities in the fields of agricul- 
ture, forestry, fislieries, transportation, power, 
jjublic health, handicraft and other small indus- 
tries, education, public administration, and gen- 
eral engineering advisory services. 

The agency will assist these countries in the de- 
velopment of raw materials which are needed by 
the industrial countries of Europe and the United 
States. 

In Europe, Mr. Bissell said, Msa will attempt 
to aid in the creation of a "dynamic and expand- 



124 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



ing" economy, by promoting the economic and po- 
litical unification of Europe, together with a drive 
to increase industrial and agricultural produc- 
tivity. 

Because of the present threat of Communist 
aggression, Mr. Bissell said, Msa in Europe must 
give priority to projects in support of the defense 
program of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion (Nato). In this connection, Msa will pro- 
vide people — highly trained production special- 
ists — as well as dollars and assistance in helping 
Western Europe to secure the necessary raw ma- 
terials and tools to meet their production goals. 

Referring to the Benton Amendment to the Mu- 
tual Security Act,^ Mr. Bissell said that Msa would 
give major attention to the job of creating a 
healthier, expanding economy with participation 
of free private enterprise, the elimination of 
cartels and monopolistic business practices, and 
the development and strengthening of free labor 
union movements. 

"We will continue to give strong support to the 
Organization for European Economic Coopera- 
tion (Oeec) in its efforts to break down trade 
barriers," Mr. Bissell said. "The creation of a 
larger market area will powerfully stimulate com- 
petitive enterprise, increased output and a greater 
well-being. The goal we will urge is a single 
market for all of Western Europe." 

European Unification 

The economic and political unification of Eu- 
rope, Mr. Bissell said, is the long-range target of 
the Mutual Security Program. 

"Only Europeans can take the steps necessary 
to achieve real unification," the Deputy Mutual 
Security Director declared, "but our backing can 
be a powerful boost." 

Among the important steps taken under the 
Marshall Plan toward economic unification, Mr. 
Bissell particularly noted the successful establish- 
ment of the European Payments Union and the 
overwhelming majorities by which the legislative 
bodies of both France and Germany recently rati- 
fied the revolutionary Schuman Plan for pooling 
Europe's major coal and steel industries. 

Emphasizing that these forward steps must be 



^ "Sec. 516. It i.s hereby declared to be the policy of the 
Congress that this Act shall be administered in such a 
way as (1) to eliminate the barriers to, and provide the 
incentives for, a steadily increased participation of free 
private enterprise in developing the resources of fnreign 
countries consistent with the policies of this Act, (2) to 
the extent that it is feasilile and does not interfere with 
the achievement of the purposes set forth in this Act, to 
discourage the cartel and monopolistic business practices 
prevailing in certain countries receiving aid under this 
Act which result in restricting production and increasing 
prices, and to encourage where suitable competition and 
productivity, and (3) to encourage where suitable the 
development and strengthening of the free lalior union 
movements as the collective bargaining agencies of labor 
within such countries." 



continued, Mr. Bissell listed the following as pos- 
sibilities that should be considered by the Euro- 
pean countries: a European-wide customs union, 
a "Schuman Plan" in the fields of agriculture and 
transportation, and a single European monetary 
system. 

The Msa's program in the Far East will pro- 
vide technical and economic aid to the countries 
of Burma, the Associated States of Indochina, In- 
donesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Formosa. 
In Europe, Msa will provide economic and/or 
technical assistance to Austria, Belgium, Den- 
mark, France, Greece, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, 
Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, Trieste, Tur- 
key, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Some 
of the Western European countries are not ex- 
pected to require any direct dollar assistance but 
may participate in the technical assistance pro- 
gram and other phases of Msa's activities. Par- 
ticipation of these countries in the Msa aid pro- 
gram is conditioned on their entering into agree- 
ments required by the Mutual Security Act. 

One of the most significant changes wrought by 
Mr. Bissell in the set-up of Msa is a heavily in- 
creased emphasis on assistance to the Far East 
with an assistant director in charge of this phase 
of the agency's activities. 

Although stressing that the enlarged Asian pro- 
gram does not signify a let-up in the European 
program, Mr. Bissell said the Far East program 
"is reaching this new operational phase at a time 
when the whole question of U.S. economic aid 
policy in the area has become a matter of major 
importance." 

To assist in the operation of the Msa, Mr. Bis- 
sell announced the appointment of C. Tyler Wood 
as Associate Deputy Director; D. A. FitzGerald 
as Assistant Director for Supply; and Harlan 
Cleveland as Assistant Director for Europe. The 
Assistant Director for the Far East will be named 
shortly. 

Mr. Wood, a former Eca Assistant Administra- 
tor, has been Deputy U.S. special representative 
in Europe for the last year and a half. Mr. Fitz- 
Gerald, who came to Eca in April 1948 from the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, served for more 
than 3 years as director of Eca's Food and Agri- 
culture Division before becoming Eca Assistant 
Administrator for Supply in July 1951. Mr. 
Cleveland has served as Deputy Assistant Admin- 
istrator for tlie Program for the last 28 months. 

A new defense production division is to be added 
to the staff of the Assistant Director for Europe. 
Its major function will be to maximize European 
defense production and to strengthen the Nato 
machinery in tliis field. It will work with Msa's 
Washington staff to relate Msa defense production 
objectives and activities to the aid allotment 
process and the use of counterpart funds— foreign 
currency deposited to match American grant aid — 
(Continued on page 137) 



January 28, 1952 



125 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



New Soviet Disarmament Proposal Examined 



Press Conference Statement hy Secretary Acheson^ 



The General Assembly has passed a resolution 
endorsin<j the fundamental principles of the reg- 
ulation, limitation, and balanced reduction of all 
armaments and armed forces and creating a dis- 
armament commission to carry out such a pro- 
gram.- It directed this commission to consider 
from the outset plans for jjrogressive and con- 
tinuing disclosure and verihcation of all armed 
forces and armaments as the first and indispensa- 
ble step in carrying out the over-all program. 

Only the Soviet bloc voted against this resolu- 
tion. The next day the Soviet Union reintroduced 
what they called new proposals on disarmament. 
The same Soviet bloc that had first voted against 
our proposals characterized their proposals as a 
momentous step toward an acceptance of the West- 
ern position. 

If this were true, then, indeed, a great step for- 
ward would have been taken. But what do the 
Soviet proposals really amount to ? We have ex- 
amined them very carefully, and unfortunately 
the advertised concessions are more apparent than 
real. 

We have here one more attempt by the Soviet 
Union to get the General Assembly to condemn 
atomic weapons as "weapons of aggression," to 
"proclaim the unconditional prohibition of atomic 
weapons," and to "proclaim the establishment of 
strict international control over the enforcement 
of such prohibition." These proclamations would 
take place now. At some later date, provided 
agreement were reached, this "proclaimed" pro- 
hibition and "proclaimed" control would be put 
into effect simultaneously. The Soviet objective is 
obvious. They continue to seek a "paper" pro- 
hibition and give no assurance that they would 
agree to any effective control system which would 
insure prohibition. 

■ Made on Jan. 16 and released to the press on the same 
date. 
^ Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1952, pp. 23 and 28. 



The idea that prohibition of atomic weapons 
and the institution of a control system be made 
simultaneous was first submitted by Mr. Vy- 
shinsky himself Z^o years ago during the Paris 
Assembly of 1948. When it became clear at that 
time that the controls that the U.S.S.R. had in 
mind were their own inadequate proposals — made 
almost 5 years ago — the General Assembly re- 
jected this maneuver. Apparently, this idea has 
now been dusted off and resubmitted. 

The Soviet Union also states that the interna- 
tional control organ shall have "the right to con- 
duct inspection on a continuing basis ; but it shall 
not be entitled to interfere in the domestic affairs 
of States." What the Soviet Union would appear 
to give with one hand it takes away with the other. 

But neither of these points goes to the heart 
of the real issue. Wliat we must have in the field 
of international control is a control system giving 
an international agency sufficient powers to in- 
sure that atomic weapons would be effectively pro- 
hibited. TMs is not a question of semantics. 

On January 19, the disarmament portion of the Soviet 
proposal was sent to the Disarmament Commission by a 
General Assembly vote of approval on Committee I's 
recommendation. The vote was 40 to 5 (Soviet bloc), 
with 3 abstentions, India, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. 

It is perfectly clear that no system of inspec- 
tion alone, be it periodic or continuous, can insure 
the effective prohibition of atomic weapons. This 
has been recognized by all members of the United 
Nations with the exception of the Soviet Union 
and its satellites. Under the U.N. plan the inter- 
national control agency would own all the atomic 
materials and would own, operate, and manage 
all atomic facilities that make or use such mate- 
rials in dangerous quantities. A system of control 
based upon these safeguards is the only one so 
far devised that can be both workable and effec- 
tive. We are prepared to examine any other pro- 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



posals that might be equally or more workable and 
effective. We are also prepared to examine these 
latest dressed-up Soviet proposals in the Disarma- 
ment Commission just created by the General As- 
sembly. At this time, however, we do not see how 
or in what manner these proposals advance the 
cause. 



Text of Soviet Draft Disarmament Resolution 

U.N. doc. A/C. 1/698 
Dated Jau. 12, 1952 

1. The General A.ssembly declares participation in the 
aggressive Atlantic bloc and the creation by certain States, 
and primarily by the United States of America, of mili- 
tary, naval and air bases in foreign territories incom- 
patible with membership of the United Nations. 

2. The General Assembly recognizes it to be essential 
that: (a) The countries taking part in the Korean war 
should Immediately end military operations, conclude an 
armistice and withdraw their forces from the 38th parallel 
within a period of ten days ; 

(b) All foreign troops and also foreign volunteer units 
should be withdrawn from Korea within a period of three 
months. 

3. The General Assembly, considering the use of atomic 
weapons, as weapons of aggression and of the mass de- 
struction of people, to be at variance with the conscience 
and honour of peoples and incompatible with membership 
of the United Nations, proclaims the unconditional pro- 
hibition of atomic weapons and the establishment of strict 
international control over the enforcement of this pro- 
hibition, it being understood that the prohibition of atomic 
weapons and the institution of international control shall 
be put into effect simultaneously. 

The General Assembly instructs the Disarmament Com- 
mission to prepare and submit to the Security Council, not 
later than 1 June 1952, for its consideration, a draft con- 
vention providing measures to ensure the implementation 
of the General Assembly decision on the prohibition of 
atomic weapons, the cessation of their production, the use 
of already-manufactured atomic bombs exclusively for 
civilian purposes, and the establishment of strict inter- 
national control over the observance of the above-men- 
tioned convention. 

4. The General Assembly recommends the permanent 
members of the Security Council — the United States of 
America, the United Kingdom, Prance, China and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — to reduce the arma- 
ments and armed forces in their pos.session at the time of 
the adojition of this recommendation by one-third during 
a period of one year from the date of its adoption. 

5. The General Assembly recommends that forthwith, 
and in any case not later than one month after the adop- 
tion by the General Assembly of the decisions on the 
prohibition of atomic weapons and the reduction by one- 
third of the armaments and armed forces of the five 
Powers, all States should submit complete official data 
on the situation of their armaments and armed forces, 
including data on atomic weapons and military bases 
in foreign territories. The.se data shall be submitted with 
reference to the situation obtaining at the time when the 
above-mentioned decisions are adopted by the General 
Assembly. 

6. The General Assembly recommends the est.nblishment 
within the framework of the Security Council of an in- 
ternational control organ, the functions of which shall 
be to supervise the implementation of the decisions on 
the prohibition of atomic weapons and the reduction of 
armaments and armed forces, and to verify the data sub- 
mitted by States regarding the situation of their arma- 
ments and armed forces. 



With a view to the establishment of an appropriate 
system of guarantees for the observance of the General 
Assembly's decisions on the prohibition of atomic weapons 
and the reduction of armaments, the international control 
organ shall have the risht to conduct inspection on a con- 
tinuing basis ; but it shall not be entitled to interfere in 
the domestic affairs of States. 

7. The General Assembly calls upon the Governments 
of all States, both Members of the United Nations and 
those not at present in the Organization, to consider at 
a world conference the question of the substantial reduc- 
tion of armed forces and armaments and also the question 
of practical measures for prohibiting the atomic weapon 
and establishing international control over the observance 
of such prohibition. 

The General Assembly recommends that the above- 
mentioned world conference should be convened at the 
earliest possible date and, in any case, not later than 15 
July 1952. 

8. The General Assembly calls upon the United States 
of America, the United Kingdom, France, China and the 
Soviet Union to conclude a peace pact, and to combine 
their efforts for the achievement of this high and noble 
aim. 

The General Assembly also calls upon all other peace- 
loving States to join in the peace pact. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

Economic and Social Council 

Refugees and Stateless Persons. Report of the United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to the 
General Assembly, Part III (8 November 1951). 
Observations on Problems of Assistance. E/2036/ 
Add.2, NovemlJer 13, 1951. 8 pp. mimeo. 

World Economic Situation. Reports From Governments 
on Action Talsen Concerning Production, Distribu- 
tion and Prices of Commodities and Measures to 
Combat Inflation. E/2034/Ad.6, July 28, 1951. 19 
pp. mimeo. 

United Nations International Children's Emergency 
Fund. Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1952 
and Information Annexes. E/ICEP/R.208, Septem- 
ber 20, 1951. 93 pp. mimeo. 



Security Council 

Letter dated November 3, 1951, from the Chief of Staff 
of the Truce Supervision Organisation to the Secre- 
tary-General transmitting a report on the decisions 
made during the period 17 February 1951 to 31 Octo- 
ber 1951 by the Mixed Armistice Commissions. 
S/2388, November 8, 1951. 12 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi- 
cial Records series for the General Assembl.v, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship 
Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission which in- 
cludes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports 
of the various commissions and committees. Information 
on securing subscriptions to the series may be obtained 
from the International Documents Service. 



January 28, 1952 



127 



U.S. Answers Soviet Demand for Abrogation 
Of Mutual Security Act 



Statement hy Mike J. Mansfield 

U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly ^ 



Mr. President : In explaining our vote against 
the Soviet resolution, I wish to deal briefly with 
the motives of the Soviet Government in present- 
ing this matter to the General Assembly and insist- 
ing on its discussion here. The actual charges 
against the Mutual Security Act as "aggression" 
and "domestic interference" were, of course, with- 
out any foundation whatever. In speech after 
angry speech, the Soviet representative utterly 
failed to substantiate the vicious accusations made 
by the Soviet Government against my country .= 

The question arises as to why the Soviet Union 
wished to take up the valuable time of the General 
Assembly with these baseless accusations. Indeed, 
the question occurred to many of us in the First 
Committee when this matter was under discussion. 
During explanations of vote in the committee, the 
question was put bluntly and forthrightly by the 
very able representative of Liberia, Mr. Cooper. 

The Liberian delegate pointed out that the 
Soviet representative had seemed unconcerned 
about the outcome of the vote. What, Mr. Cooper 
asked, had the Soviet representative hoped to 
achieve? Propaganda? 

Now that this exceedingly bitter debate is behind 
us and we can see the problem in more accurate 
perspective, the answer to the question put by 
Mr. Cooper becomes increasingly clear. It was, 
indeed, propaganda. But not necessarily propa- 
ganda against the Mutual Security Act. It was 
part of a general assault launchecl by the Soviet 
delegation at the beginning of this Assembly 
against the United Nations collective security 



' Made in plenary session on ,Tan. 11 and released to 
the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the same date. 

■ Text of the Soviet resolution, U.N. doc A/2031 of .Jan. 
2, 1952, reads as follows: 

"The General Assembly Condemns the 'Mutual Secu- 
rity Act of lO."")!', adopted in the United States of America 
and providing for the appropriation of funds for subversive 
activities asainst certain States, as an act of aggression 
and as interference in the internal affairs of other States, 
in contravention of the principles of the United Nations 
Charter and of the generally acknowledged rules of inter- 
national law; and Recommends the Government of the 
United States of America to take the necessary measures 
to repeal this Act." 



system and the regional collective security systems 
which strengthen it. 

The specific point at issue in the Mutual Security 
Act was an amendment permitting the expendi- 
ture of funds to organize Iron Curtain refugees 
into "elements of the military forces supporting 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization." 

I made a statement to the First Committee 
giving absolute and unconditional assurances that 
the appropriation would be spent for no other 
purpose than the defense of the North Atlantic 
community.^ Tliat statement was fully concurred 
in by Mr. Vorys, also a member of the United 
States delegation to the General Assembly and a 
member of the Republican Party in Congress. 
Mr. Vorys and I spoke both for Congress and for 
the delegation, which represents the executive 
branch of the American Government. 

And yet the Soviet Government demanded the 
abrogation of the entire law. It was at once 
obvious, when you examined the law, that its 
abrogation would strike a tremendous blow at the 
growing collective-security system of the free 
world and to important programs of economic 
assistance to free countries. 

It would, for example, wipe out American con- 
tributions to the United Nations Relief and Works 
Agency for Palestine Refugees, funds for reset- 
tlement projects in Israel, technical assistance for 
areas in Africa, and funds for the United Nations 
Korean Reconstruction Agency. 

In short, Mr. President, it was clear that the 
Soviet Union was aiming at a very large target. 
It wanted nothing less than the wholesale collapse 
of a vast fi-ee-world program providing both for 
the strengthening of collective security through 
military assistance and for human welfare through 
economic and technical assistance. 

As further "evidence" of alleged American "in- 
terference" in the affairs of countries within the 
Soviet orbit, Mr. President, the Soviet representa- 
tive spoke at length of four American fliers forced 
down in Hungary. He charged that they were 
engaged on a mission of "espionage," although in 



' Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1952, p. 29. 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



fact they were lost in bad weather on a routine 
flight to Belgrade. These men were held incom- 
municado for 2 weeks by Soviet authorities on 
Hungarian territory. At no time during the 
course of their extensive interrogation and their 
solitary confinement by Soviet authorities were 
they accused of espionage, for the reason that no 
evidence of esjjionage could be found. 

These men were finally subjected to a so-called 
"trial" and fined $120,000, not for espionage but 
for a violation of the Hungarian frontier. The 
American Government, knowing that it was pay- 
ing ransom, willingly provided the money so that 
the lives of four American citizens would not re- 
main in jeopardy. 

But in no sense do we consider closed this in- 
cident involving such ojaen contempt and disregard 
for the most elementary rights of foreign na- 
tionals. 

The world knew nothing of the whereabouts of 
the plane, until it was announced by Tass, the 
Soviet state news agency. The world knew noth- 
ing about the so-called "trial" until the Soviet 
representative told the First Committee during 
this very debate tliat the men had received "due 
attention from oiw border authorities" and would 
receive further attention from '■'■our military and 
judicial authorities." 

All of this happened, Mr. President, on the soil 
of the supposedly sovereign state of Hungary. 
And yet the Soviet Government has the right to 



station troops in Hungary only to safeguard its 
communications to the Soviet zone of Austria. 
This violation of human rights, used by the Soviet 
representative to buttress charges of "domestic 
interference" against my Government, demon- 
strated instead the control exercised by the Soviet 
Union over the internal affairs of one of the coun- 
tries it holds captive. 

It was on a level with the other "proof" of al- 
leged domestic interference and aggression drawn 
by the Soviet delegation from the language of the 
Mutual Security Act. 

The chairman of the First Committee, Mr. 
President, rightly stated during the debate that 
heated discussions of this sort complicate rather 
than facilitate the work of the United Nations. 

Mr. Vyshinsky, in submitting this resolution to 
the Assembly, has thrown another monkey wrench 
at the machinery of the United Nations and has 
missed again. We suggest that he put his monkey 
wrench away for good and begin to seek openings 
not for further attacks against us but for construc- 
tive and cooperative efforts within the United 
Nations. 

We have voted down his resolution. But the 
door for real cooperation continvies to remain open 
to him, and to the Soviet delegation. Perhaps it 
is not too much to hope that one day he will lead 
his delegation through the door, shalce hands, and 
get down to working with the rest of us for peace, 
friendship, and international cooperation. 



U.S. Urges Continuation of Palestine Conciliation Efforts 



I 



I 



Statement hy Philip G. Jessup 

U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly ^ 

The United States delegation has given careful 
consideration to the report of the Palestine Con- 
ciliation Commission, as indeed it has followed 
closely the work of the Commission during the 
past year. Our Government, with the other mem- 
bers of the United Nations, is deeply interested in 
seeing the problems remaining after the Palestine 
conflict solved in accordance with the principles 
of the United Nations and the resolutions adopted 
by the General Assembly. The United States, like 
the United Nations, is desirous of seeing peaceful, 
friendly relations between the Arab States and 
Israel established on a sound basis in the common 
interests of those states and in the interest of se- 
curity and well-being in the entire Middle East. 
The United Nations has the right to expect the 
parties to make every endeavor to achieve a settle- 
ment of their differences themselves in harmony 
with the principles of the United Nations Charter. 
At the same time the United Nations must always 

' Made in the AA Hoc Political Committee on .Tan. 6 and 
released to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on 
the same date. 

ianuaty 28, 1952 

984361—52 3 



be ready to assist the parties to do so. Despite 
the present lack of definitive solutions for the 
political problems remaining in Palestine, prog- 
ress has been made. The achievements of the 
United Nations, through the armistice agreements 
and through the continuing surveillance of the 
Truce Supervision Organization; the continued 
concern of the Security Council ; the activities of 
the Unrwa; and the persistent efforts of the 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, have contrib- 
uted vital elements in keeping the way open to 
peaceful, permanent settlement of the Palestine 
problems and the stabilization of the area. 

In our opinion, it would be unjustifiable and 
unwise to conchide from the history of the Pal- 
estine Conciliation Commission's efforts during 
the past 3 years, and in particular of its efforts 
during 1951, that avenues to a final settlement of 
the Palestine problems are blocked. Wliile the 
commission would appear to have tried all the 
approaches and procedures open to it under rel- 
evant resolutions of the General Assembly without 
achieving its objectives, nevertheless it is the very 

129 



U.S., U.K., French, and Turkish Draft 
Resolution 

U.N. doc. A/AC.53/L.22 Dated Jan. 5, 1952 

The Geueral Assembly, 

Recalling its resolutions 194 (III) of 11 De- 
cember 194S and 394 (V) of 14 December 1950, 

Having examined the report of the United 
Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine 
(A/1985), 

Noting that agreement has not been reached 
between the parties on the final settlement of 
outstanding questions, 

Recognizing that in the interests of the peace 
and stability of the Near East effort.s to achieve 
such a final settlement should be continued, 

CoNsiDEKiKG that the governments concerned 
have the primary responsibility for reaching a 
settlement of their outstanding difCerences 

1. Urges the governments concerned to seek 
agreement with a view to an early settlement of 
their outstanding differences in a spirit of justice 
and realism and on the basis of mutual conces- 
sions ; and for this purpose to make full use of 
United Nations facilities; 

2. Expresses its appreciation to the Concilia- 
tion Commission for Palestine for Its efforts to 
assist the parties to reach agreement on their 
outstanding differences ; 

3. Xolcs with regret that, as stated in para- 
graph S7 of the report, the Commission has been 
unable to fulfill its mandate; 

4. Considers nevertheless that. In the light of 
paragraph 86 of the report, the Conciliation Com- 
mission for Palestine should continue to be avail- 
able to the parties to assist them in reaching 
agreement on outstanding questions ; 

5. Authorises the Conciliation Commission for 
Palestine in its discretion to designate a repre- 
sentative or representatives to assist it in carry- 
ing out its functions ; 

(5. Decides that the headquarters of the Con- 
ciliation Commission for Palestine should be 
transferred to the Headquarters of the United 
Nations, a representative of the Commission 
being maintained at Jerusalem; 

7. Requests the Conciliation Commission for 
Palestine to render progress reports periodically 
to the Secretary-General for transmission to the 
Members of the United Nations ; 

8. Requests the Secretary-General to provide 
the necessary staff and facilities for carrying out 
the terms of the present resolution. 



function of the United Nations to continue con- 
ciliation efforts wherever and whenever they can 
effectively be asserted. Tlie United Nations can- 
not afford to "give up" in these efforts to encourage 
the peaceful settlement and normal relations 
which we know the parties themselves need and 
desire. 

The United States, as a member of the Palestine 
Conciliation Commission, supported the compre- 
hensive pattern of proposals which the commis- 
sion submitted to the parties for their considera- 
tion at the recent conference held in Paris. We 
supported these proposals as being fair and real- 
istic and in the hope that the parties would be 
able to adopt them in a spirit of compromise. The 
United States continues to believe that these pro- 
posals contain constructive elements which can 



usefully be drawn upon in the interest of progi-ess 
toward a just settlement of the differences between 
the parties. 

We attach great importance to the fact that each 
of the parties has expressed to the Palestine Con- 
ciliation Commission its desire to continue to co- 
operate with the United Nations for the 
achievement of stability in Palestine. The United 
Nations must continue to hold itself ready to assist 
the parties to realize that desire through construc- 
tive action. 

The Palestine Conciliation Commission has pa- 
tiently endeavored to carry out the mandate which 
it received from this Assembly. It deserves the 
appreciation and respect of all United Nations 
members. Despite discouragement and set-backs, 
its usefulness, in our view, is not ended. After 
careful consideration, the United States believes 
that at this stage of the Palestine Conciliation 
Commission's work, the Commission should be 
continued, but with its seat at United Nations 
Headquarters, holding itself available to assist the 
parties in reaching a final settlement of their prob- 
lems. We fully agi-ee with the idea that the 
Commission should be empowered to appoint one 
or more representatives to assist it on specific 
issues, whenever circumstances indicate that such 
a course might be helpful. The members of the 
Commission would, of course, need to keep fully 
in touch with all aspects and developments of the 
Palestine problem and closely associated with rep- 
resentatives of each of the parties. 

We recognize that the views and feelings of both 
sides remain in sharp contrast on many points and 
that much suffering and bitterness continue to 
exist as a result of the conflict in Palestine. We 
are convinced that the United Nations must and 
can point the way toward eliminating this suf- 
fering and bitterness by continuing its efforts to 
bring about a political settlement, at the same time 
striving to improve the economic and social con- 
dition of the peoples of the area. It is our hope 
that the Arab States and Israel, fully recognizing 
the dangers in the present situation, will see that 
it is within their power to facilitate progress to- 
ward a solution of their differences by making re- 
newed efforts with the help of the United Nations 
machinery that is available to them. 

It is with tliis hope that the United States dele- 
gation had joined in submitting the draft resolu- 
tion which has been received by the members of 
this committee. This resolution is not an attempt 
to solve at this session the complex problems re- 
maining, but is a sincere effort to assist the parties 
to bring about such a solution in due course. It 
is our belief that at this session of the General 
Assembly, the most helpful approach is the rela- 
tively modest one followed in our proposed resolu- 
tion. We suggest to the members of this com- 
mittee that a debate confined to these aspects of 
the whole problem will prove in the long run to 
have best served the interests of all concerned. 



130 



Department of State Bullet'm 



Soviet Resolution on Aggression Called Inconsistent With U.N. Charter 



Statement hy John Maktos 

U.S. Delegate to the General Assembly ' 



The Soviet Union has introduced a resoution to 
define aggression. 

The representative of the Soviet Union tells us 
that the definition of aggression will deter aggres- 
sion. But the view which prevailed in San Fran- 
cisco, when the Charter was drafted, was different. 
In that view, which the United States shared and 
still holds, definition of aggression is not in the 
interest of peace. A great objection to definition 
of aggression is that it will be in the interest of 
aggression. 

The view which prevailed in San Francisco was 
that there should be no definition of aggression in 
the Charter, that a definition would go beyond 
the purpose of the Charter. 

The delegate of Chile stated yesterday that a 
definition was not included in the, Charter be- 
cause of the so-called veto provision. Tliat was 
not the reason. As was stated there, and it is true 
today : 

The progress of the technique of modern warfare ren- 
ders very ditlicult the definition of all cases of aggression. 
It may be noted that the list of such cases being neces- 
sarily incomplete, the Council would have a tendency 
to consider of less importance the acts not mentioned 
therein ; these (imissious vfould encourage the aggressor 
to distort the definition or might delay action by the 
Council. Furthermore, in the other cases listed, auto- 
matic action by the Council might bring about a pre- 
mature application of enforcement measures. 

kin brief, those who drafted the Charter properly 
considered that their task was to prepare a consti- 
tutional document. Accordingly, the Charter 
deals with great purposes and principles and with 
the major organs to carry forward those purposes 
and principles. The statesmen who created the 
Charter believed that states should be held to high 
intent and that their representatives in the Gen- 
eral Assembly and in the Security Council should 
have the discretion to carry forward that high 
intent. 

The task of statesmanship in the United Nations 
is to promote the principles of the Charter. This 
task calls for judgment, courage, devotion, and 

'Made in Committee VI (Legal) on Jan. 10 and re- 
leased to the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on the 
same date. 



imagination. It demands of us more than is re- 
quired of those who formulate municipal I'egula- 
tions for the punishment of petty offenders. It 
demands of us more than is required of the police 
magistrates who apply those regulations. It is 
for these reasons that the terms of the Charter 
are broad and the responsibility of those who rep- 
resent states is great. The good will of states 
cannot be measured with a foot rule. The evil 
purposes of states cannot be controlled by a me- 
chanical device. The actions of states must be 
judged in accordance with the great principles of 
the Charter, applied with wisdom and imagination 
in a dynamic world. 

A Priori Definition as Camouflage for Aggression 

The Charter established the obligation to re- 
frain from aggression. Resolutions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly implement this obligation. An ad- 
ditional resolution defining aggression would not 
be likely to deter a state which sought to violate 
this obligation. As stated yesterday by the repre- 
sentative of the United Kingdom, countries em- 
bark on aggression only if they think it is going 
to be successful. If they think their attack will 
succeed, they will not M'orry very much about the 
consequences. It is the moral force and the will 
of the United Nations to act with courage and de- 
termination under the Charter that deters aggres- 
sion. Indeed, a prio/i definition might make 
aggression easier. It might serve as camouflage 
for aggression. 

The resolution of the Soviet Union provides 
that "in an international conflict that state shall 
be declared the attacker which first commits" cer- 
tain acts. One of these acts is "the carrying out 
of a deliberate attack on the ships or aircraft of" 
another state. Under this provision, would the 
United States have been considered guilty of ag- 
gression if it had learned of the Pearl Harbor 
mission in time to take the offensive and pi-event 
the attack by attacking and destroying the enemy 
force en route? It is a strange definition of ag- 
gression that would make a state an aggressor if 
it defended its shores from invasion and which 



January 28, 1952 



131 



would require a stcite to wait until its defenses had 
been destroyed before defending itself. 

It has been contended during the discussion that 
a definition is possible. As stated by the repre- 
sentative of Greece, we are not engaged in pro- 
viding a philological definition. Of course, it is 
easy for any one of us to make up a definition. 
What the General Assembly should bear in mind 
is the progressive development of inteinational 
law. The lawmaker takes into account not only 
the question whether it is legally possible to make 
a law but whether such a law would serve the ends 
for which it is intended. In determining the de- 
sirability of a proposed law, account is taken of 
various pertinent factors — economic, social, polit- 
ical, and many others. To take account only of 
the question whether a proposed law is legally 
possible is unwise and dangerous. 

It has been ai'gued that legal questions can be 
distinguished from political ones. This is not the 
issue before this committee. The issue is whether 
the proposed progressive development of inter- 
national law so far as the definition of aggression 
is concerned will serve the ends for which it is 
intended. We believe that to provide such a defi- 
nition would be futile and dangerous. 

It has been pointed out during the discussion 
that other principles of law have been defined. 
There is no doubt about this, but we believe that 
the issue before the committee is not whether other 
principles are definable but whether aggression 
should be defined. In all juridical systems there 
are certain concepts which are not defined but are 
left pui'posely elastic because in that status they 
serve better the ends for which they are framed. 
This is particularly true where situations are so 
varied that a definition may fail to anticipate situ- 
ations that should be covered. Even in the field 
of criminal law there are elastic terms, such as at- 
tack, fraud, reasonable doubt. 

It has been the consistent opinion of the United 
States that, because of the very nature of the ques- 
tion, it would not be possible to arrive at a satis- 
factory definition of aggression. Because of the 
dynamic nature of present world events, any enu- 
meration of acts which constitute aggression must 
of necessity be incomplete. 

A definition of aggression could not take all the 
circumstances into account. It could not be made 
adaptable to the myriad combinations of facts or 
to all the schemes and evasions of an aggressor. 

My delegation cannot believe that we can use- 
fully formulate a definition which could give as- 
surance to meet the situations created by the in- 
finitely complex interplay of the factors that are 
involved in aggression. An incomplete definition 
would be worse than no definition at all. The very 
able speeches of the delegates of Greece and of the 
United Kingdom made it unnecessary to expatiate 
on this point. 

The alternative to a definition by enumeration, 
i. e., a definition in general terms, as so ably dem- 



onstrated in the speeches just mentioned, would 
be undesirable. Rather than a general definition, 
it is the opinion of my delegation that it is pref- 
erable to leave the term undefined and to permit 
the requisite organs of the United Nations to pass 
upon the aggressive nature of acts on a case-by- 
case basis. Both kinds of definition are open to 
the overriding objection referred to at the begin- 
ning of this speech. 

Furtliermore, crystallization should take place 
in the maturity of the law, not in its development. 
What constitutes aggression in law is still a prob- 
lem in the developmental stage. With various 
kinds of aggression being alleged in many parts 
of the world, it would not be wise to crystalize the 
law. 



History of Past Attempts To Define Aggression 

In support of his arguments for a definition of 
aggression, the representative of the Soviet Union 
set forth some of the jiast efforts to define aggi-es- 
sion and has referred to some citations. We be- 
lieve that past efforts show that a prion definition 
without regard to the facts of a specific case is 
unwise. 

The history of the past thirty years is strewn 
with the wreckage of misuccessful attempts to 
define aggression. The Covenant of the League of 
Nations used the word "aggression" in Ai-ticle 10, 
but in the Covenant there is no definition of the 
word or any general criteria for ascertaining 
whether aggression had been committed. A special 
committee was formed in 1922 to define the term; 
its conclusion was that the term could not be satis- 
factorily defined and that decisions as to whether 
or not aggression had occurred should be left en- 
tirely to the League Coimcil. 

At the Second Disarmament Conference of the 
League of Nations in 1933 the Soviet Union pre- 
sented a five-point definition, which is often re- 
ferred to as the Litvinov f ormida. It is the basis 
of the Soviet resolution before this Committee. At 
London on July 3 and 4, 1933, during the Mone- 
tai-y and Economic Conference, the Soviet Union 
signed two conventions by which it accepted the 
Litvinov formula. Yesterday, the representative 
of Byelorussia referred to these conventions in 
order to show that the Litvinov formula had been 
accepted in international practice. That definition 
is subject to the general objections to definition. 
In addition, it seems not to have withstood the 
acid test of preserving the political independence 
and territorial integrity of such cosignatories of 
the nonaggression pacts concluded by the Soviet 
Union in 1933 as Estonia and Latvia. 

The representatives of Greece and of the United 
Kingdom have shown the difficulties of the Soviet 
resolution. The resolution is also open to the over- 
riding objection that it does not take account of the 
legality of the use of armed force at the behest of 
the United Nations or, in fact, of the primary 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



I 



responsibilities of the United Nations in the field. 
In effect, a resort of force has become one instru- 
ment of the international community for the res- 
toration of peace and security. When force is em- 
ployed as such an instriunent, the old meanings of 
"self-defense" and "aggression" are not adequate, 
since they are traditionally cast in terms of indi- 
vidual self-help. The needed line between legal 
and illegal resort of force is one which should be 
left for determination by the appropriate United 
Nations organs in each particular case upon its 
merits. 

In the course of repeated and voluminous dis- 
cussions among statesmen and scholars, two chief 
arguments have usually been advanced for defin- 
ing aggression. One is that prior agreement is 
necessary to establish when preventive action by 
one or more states against another can or must be 
taken to keep the peace or to prevent the unreason- 
able use or threat of force. The other is that 
punitive action against a peacebreaker should be 
based on his breaking a ride of law defined and 
known in advance. Neither argument applies 
under the Charter since the machinery for author- 
izing or ordering preventive action is already set 
up, while the matter of punislunent can be taken 
care of by seeing who violates the decisions and 
disregards the recommendations of the organs of 
the United Nations. With these fundamental 
needs met, the drafters of the Charter at San 
Francisco were able to weigh incidental advan- 
tages and disadvantages to definition, and this is 
what they found : 

C. Determination of Acts of Aggression 

A more protracted discussion developed in the Com- 
mittee on ttie possible insertion in paragraph 2, Sec- 
tion B, Chapter VIII, of the determination of acts of 
aggression. 

Various amendments proposed on this subject recalled 
the definitions written into a number of treaties con- 
eluded before this war but did not claim to specify all 
cases of aggression. They proposed a list of eventualities 
in which intervention by the Council would be automatic. 
At the same time they would have left to the Council 
the power to determine the other cases in which it should 
likewise intervene. 

Although this proposition evoked considerable support, 
it nevertheless became clear to a majority of the Com- 
mittee that a preliminary definition of aggression went 
beyond the possibilities of this Conference and the pur- 
pose of the Charter. The progress of the technique of 
modern warfare renders very difficult the definition of 
all cases of aggression. It may be noted that, the list 
of such cases being necessarily incomiJlete, the Council 
would have a tendency to consider of less importance the 
acts not mentioned therein ; these omissions would en- 
courage the aggressor to distort the definition or might 
delay action by the Council. Furthermore, in the other 
cases listed, automatic action by the Council might bring 
about a premature application of the enforcement 
measures. 

The Committee therefore decided to adhere to the text 
drawn np at Dumbarton Oaks and to leave to the Council 
the entire decision as to what constitutes a threat to 
peace, a breach of the peace, or an act of aggression. 
[Report of Committee 3, Third Commission, United Na- 
tions Conference on International Organization, Doc. 881, 
III/3/46, San Francisco, June 10, 1945, reproduced in XII 
UNCIO, Documents 502, 505.] 



It will be noted that the above quotation con- 
tains the method proposed by the representative 
of Colombia, i. e. an enumerative list plus power 
in the Security Council to determine other cases of 
aggression. This plan was considered and re- 
jected. As stated above, the reason for the rejec- 
tion was because the conference felt that such a 
plan would be unwise. It was not rejected be- 
cause of the reason given by the representative of 
Colombia, i.e. the unanimity rule. 

What Is the Intention of the Soviet Resolution? 

Even in the narrower context of defining the 
crime of aggression for the purposes of the 
Niirnberg Charter (which did not in fact define 
aggression) the Soviet representative at the 1945 
London Conference which drafted the Charter 
stated that "when people speak about aggression, 
they know what that means, but when they come 
to define it, they come up against difficulties which 
it has not been possible to overcome up to the 
present time." (Quoted by Mr. Spiropoulos in 
his report to the International Law Commission, 
2d sess., on the Draft Code of Offenses Against 
the Peace and Security of Mankind, A/CN.4/25, 
Apr. 26, 1950, p. 25.) 

The Soviet Union, as has been seen, both at San 
Francisco and at the London Conference of 1945 
indicated full awareness of the limitations of the 
device and clear preference for not defining the 
word. One may well wonder why the Soviet 
Union is so anxious now to have a list of aggres- 
sive acts. 

With respect to the observations of the delegates 
of Chile and Colombia regarding definitions 
adopted in the American system, it may be useful 
to note that the implied similarity between the 
family of American Republics and the United 
Nations cannot be stretched beyond a certain point. 
The American Republics are so closely knit that 
the unit is different from the United Nations. 
Among friends one does not have to guard his 
life or to exercise unusual caution. But where 
the danger of aggression is greater, different 
measures must be taken in the political, military, 
or legal fields. 

The Soviet proposal before us is practically 
identical with that introduced in Committee I at 
the fifth session of the General Assembly. The 
representative of the Soviet Union told us that it 
is intended to deter aggression. Is this the real 
intention of the resolution? Such a statement 
would have been easier to agree with if the record 
of the acts of the Soviet Union had been different 
from what unfortunately it is. We all know the 
facts, and it is unnecessary to repeat them here. 
But I should like to mention that the record shows 
that the Soviet Union is not in favor of resort to 
the International Court of Justice. And as for 
developing international criminal law, the Soviet 
Union did not desire even to participate in the 



January 28, 1952 



133 



United Nations committee which dealt with the 
problem whether there should be an international 
criminal court. 

Tliere is danger that an instrument alleged to 
be intended to deter aggression may be a trap and 
may be turned to purposes not contemplated by 
those willing to agree with its contents m good 
faith. It may be intended for propaganda— and 
in order to harass and embarrass countries rather 
than to prevent international friction. It may be 
invoked in a manner in which its supporters never 
contemplated, although the opportunity was plain 
to see. 

False charges may be brought under it. It may 
be contended that proof of falsity would show that 
the charges were baseless. But such proof may 
be difficult of easy access in some cases, and in any 
case it may take time. In the meantime innocent 
countries may be smeared before the world. Ir- 
reparable damage may well be the result. 

The representative 'of the Soviet Union quoted 
from a treatise on international law a statement 
in favor of defining aggression. 

As stated above, in the course of repeated dis- 
cussions among statesmen and scholars, one could 
find such views. But convincing arguments by 
eminent international lawyers may be cited to 
show that definition of aggression might not be 
adaptable to the actual facts in certain cases. As 
one great international lawyer, John Bassett 
Moore put it, "What may be aggression in one 
instance may by no means be aggression in an- 
other instance. Each case must be tried on its 
merit. . . ." (Amer^ican Journal of Interna- 
tional Law, vol. 27, p. 627.) Another has said, 
"I therefore remain opposed to this attempt to 
define the aggressor, because I believe that it would 
be a trap for the innocent and a signpost for the 
guilty." (Sir Austin Chamberlain, International 
Conciliation Documents, 1930, p. 611.) 

The International Law Commission, consisting 
of eminent international lawyers, endeavored to 
find a suitable definition but none was found by it. 

In the Soviet resolution aggression is given the 
meaning of "first" attack; however, this definition 
is most illusory. It merely shifts the job of defi- 
nition to the word "first" and other terms following 
it. ICnowledge of a state's preparing to execute 
an immediate attack, like that of Pearl Harbor, 
might be considered grounds for immediate re- 
sort to force by the threatened state. Which 
state, under the "first" doctrine is "first," or guilty 
of an attack? A definition of aggression might 
even aid a potential aggressor. To ask a state 
to wait in order not to attack "first" a potential 
aggressor may give the enemy a great tactical 
advantage. 

History and specific formulae apart, there is 
nothing to be gained by making the term "aggi-es- 
sion" more precise, even were this possible and 
desirable, when it is only one of three conditions 
which, under article 39, the Security Council may 



find to require action to preserve the peace. If 
the Council finds a "threat to the peace," a 
"breach of the peace," or an "act of aggression," 
the same consequences in terms of Charter pro- 
cedure may attach. So far, the Soviet Union has 
not suggested a definition of "threat to the peace" 
or "breach of the peace." Absent such definition, 
one of aggression is either an academic exercise 
or motivated by considerations other than the 
pursuit of clarity under article 39. 

Definition of Aggression Seen as Confusing 

History indicates the futility of attempting a 
definition of aggression which will in fact confuse 
or restrict futui'e discussion and decision more 
than it will clarify or guide it. Reason indicates 
the absurdity of straining at the gnat of defining 
what is probably the narrowest of three criteria 
for findings, any one of which can be the basis of 
identical action by the United Nations. 

A definition may hamper the full freedom of the 
United Nations. Until certain facts develop to 
bring a situation within the definition, a United 
Nations organ might be reluctant to interfere. 
Appropriate action might be delayed with conse- 
quent great tactical advantages to the enemy and 
fatal effect for the victim. 

Article 39 of the Charter specifically provides 
that the Security Council shall determine the ex- 
istence of any threat to the peace, breach of the 
peace, or act of aggression and take steps accord- 
ingly. In the light of the manner that the veto 
has been taken advantage of in certain cases, is it 
reasonable to assume that a definition of aggres- 
sion would not add to the difficulties ? A definition 
of aggression all too often would prove a snare 
and a delusion, particularly when national inter- 
ests are at stake. It is unwise to have a juristic 
ideal which not only fails to take account of politi- 
cal realities but may be a guidepost for a male- 
factor. There is a point beyond which the saving 
legal fictions will not work. As stated above, ag- 
gressors will not refrain from an attack because 
of a word or a phrase. Analogies between munic- 
ipal and international law cannot go beyond a 
certain point. The problem of international dis- 
armament, for instance, has nothing in common 
with the problem of individual disarmament, the 
jjrohibition against the carrjing of weapons by 
an individual. 

An attempt at a comprehensive definition of 
aggression would be inconsistent with the system 
of the Charter which contemplated that whether 
there has been aggi'ession sliould be determined 
by the appropriate organ of the United Nations, 
on the facts of a given case. A priori definition 
would disregard article 39 of the Charter which 
provides that the Security Council shall deter- 
mine the existence of any threat to the peace, 
breach of the peace, or act of aggression. A defi- 
nition of aggression adopted by the General As- 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



Text of Soviet Draft Resolution 

U.N. doc. A/C.6/L.208 
Dated Jau. 5, 1952 

The General Assembly, 

Considering it necessary to formulate directives for 
such international organs as may be called upon to 
determine wliich patty is guilty of aggression, 

Drclarcs: 

1. That in an international conflict that State shall 
be declared the attacker which first commits one of the 
following acts : 

( a ) Declaration of war against another State ; 

(b) Invasion by its armed forces, even without a 
declaration of war, of the territory of another State ; 

(e) Bombardment by its land, sea or air forces 
of the territory of another State or the carrying out 
of a deliberate attack on the ships or aircraft of the 
latter ; 

(d) The landing or leading of its land, sea or air 
forces inside the bovindaries of another State without 
the permission of the Government of the latter, or the 
violation of the conditions of such permission, par- 
ticularly as regards the length of tlieir stay or the 
extent of the area in which they may stay ; 

(e) Naval blockade of the coasts or ports of 
another State ; 

(f ) Support of armed bands organized in its own 
territory which invade the territory of another State, 
or refusal, on being requested by the invaded State, 
to take in its own territory any action within its 
power to deny such bands any aid or protection ; 

2. Attacks such as those referred to in paragraph 1 
may not be justified by any arguments of a political, 
strategic or economic nature, or by the desire to ex- 
ploit natural riches in the territory of the State at- 
tacked or to derive any otlier kind of advantages or 
privileges, or by reference to the amount of capital 
invested in the State attacked or to any other particu- 
lar interests in its territory, or by the affirmation that 
the State attacked lacks the distinguishing marks of 
statehood : 

In particular, the following may not be used as 
justifications for attack : 



A. The internal position of any State; as, for ex- 
ample : 

(a) The backwardness of any nation politically, 
economically or culturally ; 

(b) Alleged shortcomings of its administration; 

(c) Any danger which may threaten the life or 
property of aliens ; 

(d) Any revolutionary or counter-revolutionary 
movement, civil war, disorders or strikes ; 

(e) The establishment or maintenance in any 
State of any political, economic or social system ; 

B. Any acts, legislation or orders of any State, as 
for example : 

(a) The violation of international treaties; 

(b) The violation of rights and interests in the 
sphere of trade, concessions or any other kind of eco- 
nomic activity acquired by another State or its citizens ; 

(c) The rupture of diplomatic or economic rela- 
tions ; 

(d) Measures in connexion with an economic or 
financial boycott; 

(e) Repudiation of debts ; 

(f) Prohibition or restriction of immigration or 
modification of the status of foreigners ; 

(g) The violation of privileges granted to the 
official representatives of another State; 

(h) Refusal to allow the passage of armed forces 
proceeding to the territory of a third State ; 

(i) Measures of a religious or anti-religious na- 
ture; 

(j) Frontier incidents. 
3. In the event of the mobilization or concentration 
by another State of considerable armed forces near its 
frontier, the State which is threatened by such action 
shall have the right of recourse to diplomatic or other 
means of securing a peaceful settlement of interna- 
tional disputes. It may also in the meantime adopt 
requisite measures of a military nature similar to 
those described above, without, however, crossing the 
frontier. 



sembly could not control the Security Council; 
presumably, even if the definition proposed by 
the Soviet Union had been adopted, it would still 
seek to allege that there was no aggression against 
the Republic of Korea on June 25, 1950, or would 
even allege that it was the United Nations which 
conimitteed aggression in Korea. 

Let us see what has happened already in the 
Assembly and more particularly in the Commit- 
tee. Let us assume arguendo that the Assembly 
had adopted the Soviet resolution verbatim. 
^Vltat did the Soviet representative say before this 
Committee? That the United States was the ag- 
gressor in Korea. Presumably the Soviet Union 
will continue to consider the action in Korea as 
aggression. Here is then a situation in which 
the United Nations action in Korea is branded as 
aggression notwithstanding a definition of 



aggression 



other words, the Soviet Union, the state that 
introduced the resolution defining it, would dis- 
regard reality entirely, would disregard the defi- 
nition, would apply its own notions of what con- 



stitutes aggression, and would not be deterred 
from resorting to force by the adopted definition. 

Obviously, the Soviet resolution is not intended 
to include the action of Chinese Communists in 
Korea. Concerted action by hundreds of thou- 
sands of organized Chinese Communist troops 
has been given the label of "volunteer" action. 
Had the Soviet definition been adopted before 
this so-called "volunteer" action, the Soviet 
Union would have been the first to deny that 
such action came within the definition of aggi'es- 
sion. What would a general definition of ag- 
gression help with respect to such action in Korea ? 
As stated above, aggressors resort to attack for 
motives of such a nature that any hope that the 
definition of aggression would act as a deterrent 
does not take account of political realities. 

What is needed is a will to make the Charter 
work. It is not a definition of aggi'ession which 
is needed but a sincere desire on the part of all 
nations to live up to the obligations and princi- 
ples of the Charter. 



Jonuory 28, 1952 



135 



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences 



Copyright Experts of the American Republics 

On January 14 the Department of State an- 
nounced that Luther Evans, Librarian of Con- 
gress, would serve as Chairman of the U.S. dele- 
gation to the Meeting of Copyright Experts of the 
American Republics opening on that date at the 
Pan American Union at Washington. The other 
members of the U.S. delegation are as follows : 

Advisers 

Roger C. Dixon, Chief, Business Practices and Technology 
Staff, Department of State 

Arthur Fisher, Register of Copyrights, Library of Con- 
gress 

Sidney Kaye, Attorney, New York, N.Y. 

John Schulman, Attorney, New Yorls, N.Y. 

The first draft of the Universal Copyright Con- 
vention was prepared during the Meeting of the 
Committee of Copyright Specialists of the Sixth 
General Conference of the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(Unesco), held at Paris, June 18-July 11, 1951. 
The purpose of this draft convention is to simplify, 
unify, and codify the copyright laws of all of the 
nations of the world. The Committee was unable 
to agree upon the text of an article for incorpora- 
tion in the convention which would clarify the re- 
lationship between this convention and the exist- 
ing inter- American conventions in the copyright 
field and accordingly recommended that interested 
countries study the problem among themselves 
prior to the intergovernmental conference for ne- 
gotiation of the Universal Copyright Convention, 
scheduled to convene at Geneva later this year. 
As a result of this recommendation, the Council 
of the Organization of American States, by resolu- 
tion of October 17, 1951, convoked the forthcom- 
ing Meeting of Copyright Experts of the Ameri- 
can Republics. 

The agenda for the meeting is limited to one 
topic only, which, according to the report of the 
Copyright Committee of the Organization of 
American States, is, "Consideration and drafting 
of the text of article XVI of the draft of the uni- 
versal convention prepared by the Unesco Com- 
mittee of Copyright Specialists, for the purpose 
of defining the relation of the inter-American sys- 
tem of copyright protection to the proposed world 
system and of determining the legal effect of that 
convention on the Pan American conventions." 



Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 

On January 14 the Department of State an- 
nounced that the President had designated Merrill 
C. Gay, Economic Adviser, Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, as U.S. repre- 
sentative with the personal rank of Minister, and 
Walter M. Kotschnig, Director, Office of United 
Nations Economic and Social Affairs, as U.S. al- 
ternate representative, to the eighth session of the 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(Ecafe) , which will convene at Rangoon, Burma, 
on January 29. 

Mr. Gay and Mr. Kotschnig will also serve as 
chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the 
U.S. delegation to the fourth session of the Com- 
mittee on Industry and Trade of Ecafe, which 
will convene at Rangoon on January 18. 

Other members of the U.S. delegations to the 
two meetings are as follows : 

Eighth session of ECAFE and fourth session of 
the Committee on Industry and Trade 

Principal Adviser 

Robert E. Asher, Special Assistant to the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Economic Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

James H. Bonlware, Agricultural Attach^, American Em- 
bassy, Rangoon 

Rufus Burr Smith, Commercial Attach(5, American Em- 
bassy, Bangljok 

Arthur W. Stuart, Chief, Far Eastern Division, Office of 
International Finance, Department of the Treasury 

Committee on Industry and Trade 

Adviser (in addition to those listed above) 

Wilson E. Sweeney, Attach(5, American Embassy, New 
Delhi 

The Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 
East, one of the three regional economic commis- 
sions of the U.N. Economic and Social Council 
(Ecosoc), was established by an Ecosoc resolu- 
tion adopted on March 28, 1947. The purpose of 
this Commission is to (1) initiate and participate 
in measures for facilitating concerted action for 
the economic reconstruction of Asia and the Far 
East, for raising the level of economic activity in 
the region, and for maintaining and strengthening 
the economic relations of countries within the re- 
gion, both among themselves and with other coun- 



136 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



tries of the world; (2) conduct or sponsor 
investigations and studies of economic and tech- 
nological problems and developments within terri- 
tories of Asia and the Far East; and (3') under- 
take or sponsor the collection, evaluation, and 
dissemination of economic, technological, and sta- 
tistical information. Fourteen member govern- 
ments and eight associate member governments 
comprise the membership of Ecafe. The last 
session of the Commission was held at Lahore, 
Pakistan, February 28-March 7, 1951. 

At its eighth session the Commission will re- 
view the reports of several of its subsidiary bodies, 
including tlae Inland Transport Committee, the 
Committee on Industry and Trade, and the Work- 
ing Party on the Standard International Trade 
Classification. Other agenda items to be con- 
sidered by the Commission include technical as- 
sistance for economic development; activities of 
the Ecafe Secretariat in the field of statistics, 
particularly those activities relating to the pro- 
motion of improved statistical methods and tech- 
niques in the various countries of the region ; the 
report by the International Labor Office on its 
activities in relation to the Ecate region ; the Food 
and Agriculture Organization's report on food 
and agricultural conditions in Asia and the Far 
East; and adoption of the annual report of the 
Commission to the Economic and Social Council. 

The agenda for the fourth session of the Com- 
mittee on Industry and Trade includes considera- 
tion of such matters as activities in the field of 
mineral-resources development; trade between the 
Ecafe region and Europe; activities relating to 
trade promotion and travel ; and the reports of 
various subcommittees and working parties. The 
findings of this Committee will be summarized in 
a report which will be submitted to the eighth ses- 
sion of the Commission. 

The fourth session of the Subcommittee on Iron 
and Steel of Ecafe will convene at Rangoon on 
January 15. The U.S. delegation to this meeting 
is as follows : 

Mem bers 

Riifus Burr Smith (Chairman) 

David A. Andrews, Assistant Chief, Foreign Geology 

Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the 

Interior 
Wilson E. Svpeeney 

The first session of the Subcommittee on Elec- 
tric Power of Ecafe, which convened on January 
11 at Rangoon, was scheduled to adjourn January 
14. The U.S. delegation was as follows : 

Members 

Rufus Burr Smith (Chairman) 

David A. Andrews 

Anthony F. BisKood, Chief, Industry Division, Special 

Technical and Economic Mission, Bangliok 
Stanley Phillippi, Irrigation Specialist, Special Technical 

and Economic Mission, Bangkok 



MSA — Continued from, page 1S5 

for military production. This group also will be 
the primary channel for Msa's relations with the 
Defense Department on defense production policy, 
offshore procurement, and related matters. 

Following is a list of Msa country mission 
chiefs : 

Austria Clarence E. Meyer 

Belgium-Luxembourg .... Huntington Gilchrist 

Denmark Charles A. Marshall 

France Henry R. Labouisse 

Germany (Federal Republic) . Michael S. Harris 

Greece Roger D. Lapham 

Iceland Edward B. Lawson 

Ireland Albert J. Dexter 

Italy M. Leon Dayton 

The Netherlands Clarence E. Hunter 

Norway John E. Gross 

Portugal James Minotto 

Trieste M. Leon Davton 

Turkey Russell H. Dorr 

United Kingdom William L. Batt 

Yugoslavia Richard F. Allen 

Burma Abbot L. Moffat 

China (Formosa) Hubert G. Schenck 

Associated States of Indo- David Williamson 
china. 

Indonesia Samuel P. Hayes 

Philippines Roland R. Renne 

Thailand Austin F. Flegel 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: Jan. 14-19, 1952 

Releases may be obtained from the OflBce of 
the Special Assistant for Press Relations, Depart- 
ment of State, Washington 2.5, D.C. Items 
marked (*) are not printed in the Bulletin; 
items marked (t) will appear in a future issue. 
Wo. Date Subject 

2St 1/14 Miller : Assistance to Latin 
America 
Germany : External debts con- 
ference 
Piersou : External debts confer- 
ence (combined with No. 29) 
Gay and Kotschnig to Ecafe 
Evans : Meeting of copyright 

experts 
Bahamas : Proving ground exten- 

tension 
Iep fellowships. 
Ecuador: Military assistance 
Barnard : Special representative 

(rewrite) 
Japan: I'oshida to Dulles 
Webb : Our Foreign Policy 
Acheson : Soviet atomic control 

plan 
L'Heureux : Di-splaced persons act 
Miller : Hemispheric relations 
Japan : Dulles reply to Yoshida 
International Information Ad- 
ministration 
Pt. 4 appointments (rewite) 
Bowles: Speech at Hartford 
Resignation of Hawkins (re- 
write) 
Chile: Military assistance 



2!>t 


1/14 


30t 


1/14 


.31 
32 


1/14 
1/14 


33t 


1/1.5 


34* 
35t 
36t 


1/1.5 
1/15 
1/15 


37 

38* 
39 


1/ie 

1/15 
1/1() 


40 
41t 
42 
43 


1/10 
1/17 
1/17 
1/17 


44 1 
4.5t 
40t 


1/18 
1/lS 
1/18 



47t 1/19 



January 28, 1952 



137 



The United States in the United Nations 



[January 17-23, 1952] 

General Assembly 

Action on the Soviet Union's eiglit-point "peace" 
program was completed by the Assembly, meeting 
in plenary session January 19. The five para- 
graphs which dealt with disarmament were re- 
ferred to the new Disarmament Commission in 
accordance with a U.S.-U.K.-French proposal, 
adopted 40-6 (Soviet bloc)-3 (India, Saudi Ara- 
bia, Syria). The other three provisions were de- 
cisively rejected for the second time. 

The Assembly also adopted 20 resolutions re- 
ported out by the Trusteeship Committee. These 
included 12 resolutions on trusteeship matters, 6 
dealing with non-self-governing territories, and 
2 on South West Africa. One Committee-ap- 
proved projiosal — calling on the Trusteeship 
Council to associate United Nations members not 
represented on the Council with the activities of 
its subsidiary bodies — failed to receive the neces- 
sary two-thirds majority. 

Committee I {Political and Security) — The 
Committee concluded January 23 a 5-day general 
discussion of the item on admission of new mem- 
bers. Debate centered on two resolutions (1) a 
Peruvian proposal inviting all states which have 
applied or may apply for membership to present 
all appropriate evidence relating to their qualifi- 
cations under article 4 of the Charter and recom- 
mending that the Security Council reconsider all 
pending and future applications in the light of 
such evidence, basing its action exclusively on the 
conditions contained in the Charter; and (2) a 
Soviet move to have the Council reconsider (pre- 
sumably favorably) the applications of 13 states 
previously denied admission, plus that of Libya. 

Of the 13 states mentioned in the Soviet resolu- 
tion, 8 — Finland, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Jordan, 
Austria, Ceylon, and Nepal — failed of acceptance 
because of the Soviet veto, and 5 — Albania, Bul- 
garia, Rumania, Hungary, and Outer Mongolia — 
because their applications did not I'eceive the 
necessary seven votes in the Security Council. 
Applications are also pending from the Republic 
of Korea, the "People's Democratic Republic of 
Korea," Vietnam, and the "Democratic Republic 
of Vietnam." 

The Peruvian formula was widely supported 
during the debate, although a number of changes 



were suggested, most of which were later accepted. 
Very few delegates have taken a clear-cut stand, 
pro or con, on the Soviet proposal. However, 
considerable support has been evidenced for the 
"principle of universality." United States Repre- 
sentative Ernest Gross, in reiterating the United 
States position in support of the admission of 
"all qualified States," flatly rejected the Soviet 
Union's "package deal" as illegal, and warned that 
"blackmail" of this sort "is always sought in in- 
stallments." He generally supported the Peruvian 
plan. 

Earlier, the Committee completed action on the 
Soviet item, "Measures to combat the threat of a 
new world war and to strengthen peace and 
friendship among the nations." The U.S.-U.K.- 
French resolution i-eferring to disarmament pro- 
posals contained in the U.S.S.R.'s omnibus 
resolution to the Disarmament Commission was 
adopted 53-5 (Soviet bloc) -2 (India, Afghanis- 
tan). The remaining provisions were rejected 
as follows: paragraph directed against Atlantic 
Pact and overseas bases, by 46 (U.S.) 5-7; sub- 
paragrajDh calling for end of military operations 
in Korea, conclusion of armistice, and withdrawal 
from 38th Parallel within 10 days, by 42 (U.S.)-5- 
12; subparagraph calling for withdrawal from 
Korea within 3 months of all foreign troops and 
"volunteer units" by 42 (U.S.) -7 (Soviet bloc, 
Egypt, Yemen) -10; and paragraph recommend- 
ing conclusion of Five Power peace pact, by 35 
(U.S.) -11 (Soviet bloc, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, 
Burma, Afghanistan, Yemen) -13. 

Ad Hoc Political G ormnittee — By a vote of 
43-0-7 (Soviet bloc, Argentina, Canada), the 
Committee, January 22, adopted a U.S.-U.K.- 
Turkish-French resolution endorsing the United 
Nations Relief and Works Agency's program for 
the relief and reintegration of some 900,000 Pales- 
tine refugees now scattered over 100,000 square 
miles of territory in five diiferent Arab countries. 
The program envisages the expenditure of 50 mil- 
lion dollars for relief and 200 million dollars for 
reintegration over a 3-year period starting July 1, 
1951. Governments were urged to make voluntary 
contributions to the extent necessary to complete 
the program. 

Speaking in support of the Agency program. 
United States Representative Philip C. Jessup ex- 



138 



Department of State Bulletin 



pressed the conviction that it would be of benefit 
to all concerned. He said : 

It will restore to the refugees . . . the dignity of 
earniug their own livelihood and will enable them to con- 
tribute to the social and economic betterment of the areas 
which have given them asylum. Finally, it points the 
way to the termination of both relief and reintegration 
at the end of the 3-year period envisaged. 

Gonvmittee II [Economic and Financial) — On 
January 19 the Committee, by a vote of 42-0-5 
(Soviet bloc), approved an expanded U.S.-Chil- 
lean resolution urging all governments "coopera- 
tively" to attack the problems of hunger and 
famine on a wide front and calling on the Secre- 
tary-General to devise procedures for prompt and 
concerted action by governments, intergovern- 
mental organizations, and voluntary agencies in 
the event of emergency famines. A Soviet amend- 
ment which attemjjted to link the shortage of food 
and chemicals with the so-called "arms race" was 
rejected, as was the Czech resolutions on the "de- 
terioration of the position of the working popula- 
tion as a result of the armaments races in a number 
of countries." 

Also adopted, 44-0-5 (Soviet bloc) , was a U.K.- 
French resolution requesting the Secretary-Gen- 
eral and the specialized agencies represented on 
the Technical Assistance Board to send additional 
experts to Libya to complete a previous survey 
of the problem of Libyan war damages. They 
were further asked to give sympathetic considera- 
tion to requests for assistance with economic de- 
velopment programs, including the repair and 
reconstruction of damaged property and instal- 
lations. 

Committee III {Social, Humanitarian and Cul- 
tural) — The Committee on January 19 approved 
the U.S.-Indian-Belgian-Lebanese plan to have 
the Human Rights Commission draft two separate 
covenants on human rights — one containing civil 
and political rights, the other containing eco- 
nomic, social, and cvdtural rights — for the simul- 
taneous approval of the next (Seventh) General 
Assembly. The two covenants would be opened 
for signature at the same time, according to the 
approved formula. Adoption of the four-nation 
proposal climaxed a spirited 4-week debate, during 
which a concerted effort was made by the U.S. and 
others to persuade the Committee to reverse the 
1950 Assembly decision in favor of including both 
sets of rights in the same covenant. 



Committee V {Administrative and Budge- 
tai'y) — A slx-i:)ower resolution giving effect to the 
Secretary-Generars jjroposal for a 7.5 percent 
cost-of-living increase for members of the United 
Nations Secretariat was adopted by the Committee 
by a vote of 33-14 (U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R.)-8. The 
United States favored a 5-percent increase. Ap- 
proval 35-5 (Soviet bloc)-l was given to another 
resolution, authorizing the Secretary-General to 
incur additional expenditures not to exceed 3 rail- 
lion dollars for the purpose of completing the 
United Nations' Permanent Headquarters in New 
York City. Of the total, one million dollars is to 
be charged against the 1952 budget, with the re- 
mainder to come out of the Working Capital Fund. 
Efforts to remain within the original headquarters 
budget (65 million dollars) proved unsuccessful 
due to world-wide increases in the cost of ma- 
terials. 

Committee VI {Legal) — Concluding a 2-week 
debate on the question of defining aggression, the 
Legal Committee on January 21 adopted a com- 
posite resolution reflecting what appeared to the 
view of a majority of speakers that it would be 
"desirable" to define aggression. No action was 
taken on the U.S.S.R. and other texts which pur- 
ported to define the term. However, the approved 
resolution provided for further study of the ques- 
tion at the next Assembly session on the basis of a 
"thorough" report to be prepared by the Secre- 
tary-General. The vote was 28-12 (U.S.,U.K.) 
with 7 abstentions. The United States position, 
as set forth by John Maktos, is that 

definition of aggression is not in the interest of 
peace .... The evil purposes of States cannot be con- 
trolled by a mechanical device .... It is the moral force 
and will of the United Nations to act with courage and 
determination under the Charter that deters aggression. 

Additional Measures to be Ejnployed to Meet 
the Aggression in Korea — Haiti and Mexico have 
informed the United Nations Secretariat that they 
have embargoed the shipment of arms, ammuni- 
tion, implements of war, etc., to areas under 
Chinese Communist or North Korean control, as 
recommended by the General Assembly in its May 
18, 1951 resolution. A total of 69 communications 
concerning implementation of this resolution have 
now been received from 62 member and nomnem- 
ber nations. 



January 28, 7952 



139 



Senate Considers Accession of Greece and Turltey 
To North Atlantic Treaty 

Statement ly Secretary Acheson ^ 



It gives me great pleasure to appear before you 
today in support of the protocol to the North At- 
lantic Treaty which the President has submitted 
to the Senate for its advice and consent. This 
protocol provides that upon its entry into force, 
following its approval by all of the Nato Govern- 
ments, Greece and Turkey are to be invited to 
accede to the Treaty. 

It is less than 5 years since this country author- 
ized aid to Greece and Turkey to help them main- 
tain their independence ancl national integrity. 
The strength of these two countries, increased by 
their own efforts and by our aid, will now be in- 
tegrated with that of the other Nato countries, 
thus consolidating the defensive strength of the 
Nato. The executive branch of this Government 
actively sponsored this development during the 
Ottawa meeting of the North Atlantic Council in 
September 1951 which led to the protocol now 
under consideration. 

Greece and Turkey share the attachment of the 
present Nato members to democratic principles 
and to the principle of collective security. They 
will be important elements of strength in the 
Nato not only because of their strategic location 
on the southeast flank of General Eisenhower's 
command but because of their inherent strength 
and their determination to maintain their inde- 
pendence and freedom. In turn they will benefit 
from the collective strength of the Nato, to which 
they contribute. 

Favorable action by the Senate on the protocol 
will be a logical extension, required in view of the 
present world situation, of a most important for- 
eign-policy decision which was initiated on March 
12, 1947. On that day President Truman ap- 
peared before a joint session of Congress in behalf 
of a policy of American support to "free peoples 
who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed 
minorities or by outside pressures." He requested 
authority to provide for assistance to Greece and 
Turkey to help these countries maintain their 
independence and national integrity. At that time 
the very existence of the Greek state was threat- 
ened by the activities of Communist-led guerrillas 

' Made before the Senate Foreisn Relations Committee 
on Jan. 1.5. The Committee on Jan. 1.5, in executive ses- 
sion, favorably reported the protocol to the Senate. 



who were defying the Government's authority. 
Soviet pressures against Turkey were manifested 
by the Soviet proposal for joint Turkish-Soviet 
defense of the Turkish Straits, Soviet claims to 
two large provinces of eastern Turkey, and 
the Soviet announcement in March 1945 that it 
would not renew the Turkish-Kussian Treaty of 
Friendship. 

Recognizing the importance to the free world of 
the survival of Greece ancl Turkey, the Congress 
responded promptly to the President's request and 
authorized assistance in the amount of ^00,000,- 
000 for the period ending June 30, 1948. 

Thus we moved to prevent the piecemeal mur- 
der of independent nations, a decision based, as the 
President said, on a "frank recognition that totali- 
tarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct 
or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations 
of international peace and hence the security of 
the United States." 

With the aid thus authorized, and with subse- 
quent programs of aid, the most recent being incor- 
l^orated in the Mutual Security Act of 1951, Greece 
and Turkey have been and are being strengthenecT 
militaril_y and economically. It is a strength based 
not only on the material assistance which our aid 
programs make possible but on the steadfast de- 
termination of these two countries to maintain 
their independence and to resist external aggres- 
sion, regardless of the source. It is a strength . 
which has helped to deter Communist aggression 
in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East 
areas, areas of great importance to the security of 
Western Europe and the United States. 

Benefits Inherent Under NATO Membership 

A new stage in the cycle has been reached. 
Greece and Turkey seek to integrate their 
strength, which we have helped develop, with that 
of the United States and the other 11 Nato 
countries. By so doing, they will be contributing 
to the greater effectiveness of the collective-defense 
system which has been created under the North 
Atlantic Treaty for the preservation of peace and 
security, thereby enhancing their own security as 
well as that of the other Nato members. 

The desire of Greece and Turkey to participate 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



with the United States in collective-defense ar- 
rangements, either through membership in the 
Nato or througli other regional or bilateral secur- 
ity arrangements, is not new. It had been ex- 
pressed on many occasions, following the initiation 
of programs of aid to these countries in 1947, for 
their own experience had demonstrated to them 
the wisdom of creating "situations of strength" 
as a deterrent to aggression. But this Govern- 
ment, in the early days of Nato, felt that it should 
not undertake such further responsibilities until 
the Nato structure had been firmly established and 
until greater progress had been made in develop- 
ing the collective strength of its members. 

In September 1950, however, a first step was 
taken by Nato to establish closer association with 
Greece and Turkey. They were invited by the 
North Atlantic Council to associate themselves 
with such appropriate phases of the military plan- 
ning work of the Nato as were concerned with the 
defense of the Mediterranean. This invitation was 
accepted by the two countries, but the association 
with Nato which it offered was not considered by 
them as an adequate solution to their security re- 
quirements. This Government continued to ex- 
amine the question of whether developing further 
security arrangements would maximize the contri- 
bution which these countries could make toward 
the common goal of the Free World. 

In the spring of 1951, with the developing 
strength of Nato, the executive branch concluded 
that it was desirable and feasible to conclude 
formal security arrangements with Greece and 
Turkey and that membership of these countries 
in the Nato would be the preferred form of ar- 
rangement. This Government then raised the 
question with the United Kingdom and France 
because of their treaty relationship with Turkey, 
arising out of the British-French-Tui-kish Treaty 
of Mutual Assistance concluded in 1939. It also 
raised it with the other Nato members. 

Each of the Nato members, faced with a pro- 
posal which involved an extension of the sphere of 
mutual interest and responsibility, naturally had 
to examine the problem, as we had done, from the 
viewpoint of its own interests and to reach its own 
decision. Thorough discussion of the problem by 
the Deputies of the North Atlantic Council, with 
the advice of Nato military agencies, led to general 
recognition that the participation of Greece and 
Turkey in a collective-defense system on a recip- 
rocal basis was in the interest of all concerned. 
Whether Nato membership or some other form of 
security arrangement would be most effective was 
then given consideration. As a result, at the meet- 
ing of the North Atlantic Council in Ottawa in 
September 1951, a resolution proposed by this Gov- 
ernment recommending that the Nato governments 
undertake the steps necessary to permit extension 
of an invitation to the two countries to accede to 
the Treaty was unanimously accepted. The entry 
into force of the protocol now before the Senate 



for its advice and consent will result in the invita- 
tion being issued. 

What does accession to the Treaty mean for 
Greece and Turkey? In the event they are at- 
tacked, they will stand, not alone, but as partners 
in a community of nations which is growing ever 
stronger and is pledged to consider an attack on 
any member of the community as an attack on all. 
It is through the development of the collective 
strength of the Treaty members — economic and 
political as well as military strength — that the 
necessary deterrent to aggression can be created. 
The strength which Greece and Turkey are ready 
to contribute to a common cause will increase their 
own ability to maintain their freedom and inde- 
pendence and to insure their peaceful develop- 
ment, free from coercion. It will not lighten the 
burden of keeping themselves strong which they 
have been bearing willingly but it multiplies the 
benefits which they will derive from full and active 
participation in the Nato collective-defense sys- 
tem. In addition, they will be equal members in 
an organization which seeks to develop coopera- 
tive action among its members in the economic and 
cultural fields as well as in the military field. 

But the accession of Greece and Turkey to the 
Nato is also important to us. 

The benefits of Nato membership for Greece 
and Turkey not only add to their security but to 
ours. One need only look at a map to appreciate 
the strategic importance of these two countries to 
the West. They guard the eastern approaches to 
the Mediterranean, including the strategically im- 
portant warm-water route from the Black Sea to 
the Mediterranean. In addition, Turkey flanks 
the land route from Russia to the rich oil fields of 
the Middle East. The known determination of 
Greece and Turkey to maintain their independence 
and national integrity and to develop their 
strength has made them increasingly effective bar- 
riers to Soviet expansion in the eastern Mediter- 
ranean and the Middle East areas. Their con- 
tinued alinement with the free world and the 
integration of their strength with that of the col- 
lective strength of the present Nato members thus 
has great significance in tei'ms of our own security. 

Potential Combat Effectiveness 

Both countries have large military forces in 
being — forces designed to defend, not extend their 
territories — as well as substantial numbers of re- 
serves. These forces offer a formidable deterrent 
to the aggressive aspirations of their neighbors. 
American equipment and training have helped 
these two countries modernize their defense estab- 
lishments and their combat effectiveness is steadily 
increasing. 

The Greek Army has developed into a well 
trained and well equipped fighting force. In 1949 
it succeeded in destroying the Communist-led 
guerrillas and in restoring authority to the Greek 



January 28, 1952 



141 



Government throughout Greek territory. The 
guerrilLa war is now over and Greece has continued 
to keep large forces under arms because of the 
threat from the North. Approximately 40 per- 
cent of its budgetary expenditures continue to be 
devoted to defense. 

Turkey's military forces in being will be among 
the largest of the "Nato countries. The Turkish 
Army has a centuries-old tradition of defending 
its territory. It is an army which has been 
steadily developing its combat capabilities, for the 
cornerstone of Turkish national policy is self- 
defense and, to this end, the maintenance of na- 
tional defense forces at the highest possible stand- 
ard. The equipment and training which the 
United States has been supplying to aid in that 
development are being eagerly and effectively 
utilized. Very substantial progi-ess has already 
been achieved in the modernization which the 
Turks recognized that their army required. In- 
ternational tensions and pressures from without 
have led the Turks to continue to maintain their 
military expenditures at a high level, averaging 
well over one-third of their total budgetary ex- 
penditures in the postwar years. 

This willingness of the two countries to main- 
tain large numbers of men under arms and to bear 
the burden of effective military establishments is 
further convincing evidence of the importance 
which they attach to their independence and free- 
dom. But equally important to the free world is 
their recognition of the advantages of collective 
security, a principle to which they have given ac- 
tive support. They were among the first countries 
to respond to the appeal of the United Nations for 
forces to resist the Communist aggi'ession in 
Korea. Their fighting men have earned for their 
countries the admiration and respect of us all by 
their gallant heroism and the military qualities 
that they demonstrated on the field of battle. 

It is worth some emphasis that Greek and Turk- 
ish efforts have been directed solely to the defense 
of their own freedom and tliat of other free na- 
tions. They have not manifested the slightest in- 
tent to use their power for self-aggrandizement or 
aggression. This is in full accord with the policy 
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and of 
the United Nations. Those who have sought to 
brand the Nato as an aggressor organization will 
have to stretch the truth to read aggressive intent 
into the expanded Nato. Then false accusations 
of aggressive intent are merely a means to try to 
divide and weaken our members. The free peofile 
of the world will not be misled by such ouvious 
propaganda tactics in the light of the peaceful 
record of the 14 countries involved. 

Progress Toward Democracy 

Both Greece and Turkey are democratic coun- 
tries, working as are the present Nato members to 
strengthen their free democratic institutions, one 

142 



of the principal objectives of the North Atlantic 
Treaty. The political stability of the Greek Gov- 
ernment has been considerably enhanced since 
1947 and its authority has been established 
throughout the land. Martial law, made neces- 
sary by guerrilla warfare, has been lifted and the 
Greeks have on several occasions in recent years 
freely expressed their choice for Parliamentary 
representation in free and independent elections. 
The Communist Party is outlawed and its influ- 
ence is limited. The United Democratic Left 
Parties (Eda), which are generally considered in 
Greek circles to be strongly thougli covertly in- 
fluenced by the Communists, hold only 4 percent 
of the Parliamentary seats. 

In Turkey there has been a veiy conspicuous 
development of democratic processes since 1947, 
culminating on May 14, 1950, in the first national 
elections during the lifetime of the young Repub- 
lic in which fully organized opposition parties 
participated. As a result of these elections the 
party which had governed the Republic since it 
was founded in 192.3 turned over the reins of 
government, in an atmosphere of calm, to a party 
founded only 4 years previously. I doubt that 
this event has many parallels in the history of 
democratic development. One party rule has 
frequently led to democratic rule but usually as 
a result of violence or revolution. The Turkish 
elections are an example of an evolutionary de- 
velopment, a development foreseen and planned 
by the founder of the Republic and carried on by 
his successor. That it could occur in a period of 
serious international tensions in an area directly 
exposed to the threat of external aggression is 
testimony to the maturity of the Turkish people 
and their leaders. Certainly, Turkey's internal 
stability and the unity of its people on Turkey's 
foreign policy give strength to, as well as derive 
strength from, Turkey's efforts to help maintain a 
high standard of military defense. Communism 
finds very few supporters in Turkey. The Com- 
munist Party is banned and Communist adherents 
in the country are believed to number less than %o 
of 1 percent of the population. 

Both countries have been following a policy of 
active cooperation with the West. Economically 
as well as politically, their principal ties are with 
the Western nations. Tliey pai'ticipate in the 
Council of Europe and in the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation. They are ad- 
herents to the General Agi-eement on Tariffs and 
Trade. They play an active role in the U.N. and 
are staunch supporters of the principles of the 
U.N. Charter. Turkey, for example, is now a 
member of the Security Council and is one of the 
members of the Palestine Conciliation Commis- 
sion as well as the U.N. Commission for the Uni- 
fication and Rehabilitation of Korea. Gi'eece has 
recently been elected to the Security Council. 

Our own relations with them have been tradi- 
tionally friendly and have been becoming in- 

Department of State Bulletin 



creasingly close since our programs of aid were 
initiated in 1947. Fundamentally we share the 
same aspirations — the creation of conditions in 
which we and other nations can be free from coer- 
cion tyranny. We are finding an ever-growing 
community of interests as we come to know and 
understand each other better. 

To sum up, I believe that the inclusion of 
Greece and Turkey in Nato, while representing 
an extension of our formal security arrangements, 
provides a more than compensating increase in the 
security of this country and of the North Atlantic 
community as a whole. It is a case of mutual 
benefits. Their strategic location, their military 
capabilities and determination, their active sup- 
port of the principle of collective security, their 
increasingly successful efforts in strengthening 
their free institutions, their record of support of 
the principles of the U.N. Charter, and the mutu- 
ally satisfactory and close relationship which we 
have enjoyed in recent years are factors which lead 
inescapably to this conclusion. In the interest 
of maximizing the defensive strength of the free 
world through the integration of their strength 
into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
Greece, the "cradle of Western democracy," and 
Turkey, the "easternmost bastion of Western 
democracy," should be invited to accede to the 
North Atlantic Treaty. 



Report on Trade Agreement 
Escape Clauses 

Message from the President to the Congress 
[Released to the press ly the White House Jamiary llf] 

Pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of 
Section 6 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act 
of 1951 (Public Law 50, 82nd Congress), I hereby 
submit to the Congress a report on trade agi'ee- 
ment escape clauses. 

A review of the existing trade agreements in the 
light of the policy expressed in subsection (a) of 
Section 6 and its legislative history shows that all 
except six are in conformity with this policy. One 
of these six agreements is in the process of being 
terminated and another is under renegotiatioi^ 
which is likely to include the addition of escape 
clause provisions. Subcommittees of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Trade Agreements 
have been directed to I'ecommend to that Commit- 
tee at an early date proposals with regard to the 
remaining four of these agreements. 

There is attached a detailed report on this sub- 
ject prepared for me by the Trade Agreements 
Committee.^ Since this is the first report to the 



' H. Doe. No. 328. 
January 28, 1952 



Congress under Section 6, the attached report con- 
tains an explanation of the development of the 
use of escape clauses and the extent to which they 
have been made applicable to an increasingly large 
number of concessions. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 
January 10, 1952. 



TEXT OF TRADE AGREEMENTS 
COMMITTEE'S REPORT 

(Pursuant to the provisions of sec. 6 (b) of the Trade Agreements 
Extension Act of 1951) 

Section 6 of the Trade Agreements Extension 
Act of 1951 provides as follows : 

(a) No reduction in any rate of duty, or binding of 
any existing customs or excise treatment, or other con- 
cession hereafter proclaimed under section 350 of the 
Tariff Act of 19.30, as amended, shall be permitted to 
continue in effect when the product on which the con- 
cession has been granted is, as a result, in whole or In 
part, of the duty or other customs treatment reflecting 
such concession, being imported into the United States in 
such increased quantities, either actual or relative, as to 
cause or threaten serious injury to the domestic industry 
producing like or directly competitive products. 

(b) The President, as soon as practicable, .shall take 
such action as may be necessary to bring trade agreements 
heretofore entered into under section 350 of the Tariff Act 
of 1930, as amended, into conformity with the policy estab- 
lished in subsection (a) of this section. 

On or before January 10, 19.52, and every six months 
thereafter, the President shall report to the Congress 
on the action taken by him under this subsection.' 

The effect of this new provision of trade-agree- 
ments legislation is a statutory requirement (1) 
that all future trade-agreement concessions shall 
be subject to an escape clause conforming to the 
policy established in subsection (a) of section 6, 
and (2) that, as soon as practicable, the President 
shall take such action as may be necessary to bring 
existing trade agreements which do not contain 
such an escape clause into conformity with the 

' The report of the Senate Committee on Finance, which 
proposed section (5 in its present form, explained that "the 
principle of including an escape clause in existing agree- 
ments is not mandatory unless such action would be 
practicable" (S. Rept. 299, April 27, 1951, 82d Cong., 1st 
sess., p. 5). In opening the debate on this provision in 
the Senate, Senator George, chairman of the committee, 
stated that, "In general, this amendment is designed to 
allow the greatest possible freedom in the operation of 
existing and future trade agreements without resultant 
serious injury to domestic producers" (97 Congressional 
Record (May 21, 1951), 5620). He continued : 

"Recognizing, however, the varying situations which 
exist in our trade relations with different countries at 
different times, the committee places no time limit upon 
the President, and makes the principle of including the 
escape clause in existing agreements mandatory only if 
such action would be practicable. This Is to make sure 
that no important interest in this country will be jeopard- 
ized by action which might be unwise or precipitate under 
the circumstances" (ibid. 5620, 5621). 

143 



policy of subsection (a) of section 6 and to report 
to the Congress periodically on the action taken 
in this respect. 

A review of existing trade agreements in the 
light of the policy expressed in section 6 (a) and 
its legislative history shows that all except six 
are in conformity with this policy. As is indicated 
more fully later in this report, one of these six 
agreements is in the process of being terminated 
and another is under renegotiation which is likely 
to include the addition of escape clause provisions. 
Subcommittees of the Trade Agreements Commit- 
tee have been directed to recommend to that 
committee at an early date proposals with regard 
to the remaining four of these agreements. Since 
this is the first report to the Congress under sec- 
tion 6 (b), the enumeration of the steps taken 
pursuant thereto is preceded by an explanation 
of the development of the use of escape clauses 
and the extent to which they have been made 
applicable to an increasingly larger number of 
concessions. 

Ever since the enactment of the Trade Agree- 
ments Act in 1934 it has been the policy of the 
F'resident to direct the operations of the trade- 
agreements program in such a way as to avoid 
serious injury to domestic industries. Tlie extent 
to which domestic industries are protected against 
serious injury, through procedures followed in 
preparing for the negotiation of trade agree- 
ments, safeguards written into the concessions 
granted on specific products, and avenues of escape 
after the agreements become effective, has been 
called to the attention of the Congress in connec- 
tion with the periodic renewals of the trade- 
agreements authority. A detailed description of 
these procedures and safeguards is contained in 
the report of the Ways and Means Committee 
on the 1951 renewal (H. Kept. No. 14, January 29, 
1951, 82d Cong., 1st sess., pp. 11-14) . This report 
summarizes these procedui'es and safeguards as 
follows : 

Rreasiires to assure that no United States industry will 
suffer serious injury or threat of serious injury through 
a concession in a trade aereement are provided for: (1) 
in the procedures followed before a trade agreement is 
negotiated; (2) in the Individual concessions themselves; 
and (3) in the general provisions of the agreement which 
apply after the agreement becomes effective (ibid., 
p. 11). 

In the early trade agreements negotiated under 
the Trade Agreements Act separate provisions 
were included to safeguard against each of various 
specified contingencies which might arise after 
the agreement laecame effective. For example, 
many of the early agreements contained a provi- 
sion under which individual tariff concessions 
could be modified or withdrawn on short notice 
if it should develop after the agreement entered 
into force that third countries were getting the 
major benefit of the concession and serious injury 
was bein" caused or threatened to the domestic 
industry by increased imports of the product con- 



cerned. Another safeguarding provision found 
in many early trade agreements permitted termi- 
nation or modification of the agreement on short 
notice in the event of wide variations in exchange 
rates threatening serious injury to domestic 
industries. 

Subsequently, broader safeguarding provisions 
were included in later agreements largely because 
of tlie impossibility of foreseeing, at the time of 
making an agreement, all the situations which 
might arise under the agreement to require safe- 
guarding action. Hence, beginning with the 
trade agreement with Argentina (signed October 
14, 1941),^ it has been the policy to rely upon 
provisions broad enough in scope to afford the 
basis for action in the event that situations should 
arise after the conclusion of the agreement of such 
a character as to threaten serious injury to domes- 
tic industries in either of the countries party to 
the agreement. Although all of these provide 
protection against serious injury to domestic pro- 
ducers, the exact text of the broad escape clauses 
included in them has varied somewhat. 

In the trade agreements with Argentina (art. 
XII), Iceland (art. XII), Iran (art. IX), Peru 
(art. XI), and Uruguay (art. XII), which were 
concluded between 1941 and 1943, esca]:)e provi- 
sions, substantially similar to each other were 
inserted, which are broad enough in scope to afford 
the basis for prompt action in the event that cir- 
cumstances should arise of such a kind as to 
threaten serious injury to domestic industries. 
Briefly described, the escape provisions in each of 
these agreements provide for consultation and 
discussion in the event of any situation arising 
wliich has the effect of prejudicing an industry or 
the commerce of one of the parties to the agree- 
ment; such consultation is to take place with a 
view to effecting a mutually satisfactory adjust- 
ment of the matter, but if no agreement can be 
reached, the contracting party desiring to take the 
action may do so by terminating the agreement 
in whole or in part on short notice. 

In the light of the experience gained in the oper- 
ation of the trade-agreements program there was 
developed what has become known as the standard 
escape clause. On February 25, 1947, the Presi- 
dent issued Executive Order No. 9832, in which 
he directed that all trade agreements entered into 
thereafter should include the standard escape 
clause. Later Executive orders (No. 10004 of Oc- 
tober 5, 1948, and No. 10082 of October 5, 1949) 
continued the President's specific instruction re- 
garding the standard escape clause with no sub- 
stantial change. This clause provides in substance 
that trade-agreement concessions may be sus- 
pended, withdrawn, or modified if it should be 
found after the agreement becomes effective that 
as a result in part of the concession a product is 



' The texts of this and later escape-clause provisions 
discussed are reproduced as an appendix to this report. 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



being imported in such increased quantities as to 
cause or threaten serious injury to the domestic 
industry producing like or directly competitive 
products. By virtue of section 6 (a) of the 1951 
Extension Act the Presidential instruction set 
forth in these orders has become a statutory re- 
quirement to be followed in the negotiation of all 
new trade agreements. 

The original negotiations leading to the multi- 
lateral trade agreement, known as the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, were completed 
at Geneva, Switzerland, in October 1947 and, in 
compliance with Executive Order 9832, that agree- 
ment contains the standard escape clause (art. 
XIX). The trade agreement with Paraguay 
(191:6, art. XII) also contains the standard clause 
with only minor variations.^ 

The standard escape clause permits the modifi- 
cation or withdrawal of concessions under condi- 
tions which are stated in terms substantially 
equivalent to those used in section 6 (a) of the 
1951 Extension Act, which sets forth the policy 
of Congi-ess that trade agreement concessions 
should not be continued in effect under specified 
conditions. The clause is also substantially equiv- 
alent to the relevant provisions of section 7 of that 
act prescribing the method for carrying out this 
policy, which is through the withdrawal or mod- 
ification of concessions if the President determines 
such action is warranted after investigation and 
report to the President by the Tariff Commission. 
The earlier escape clauses in the trade agreements 
with Argentina, Iceland, Iran, Peru,* and 
Uruguay,^ while not so specifically worded, are 
sufficiently broad in their language to permit such 
action to be taken by the United States. Conse- 
quently, these five trade agreements and those to 
which the standard escape clause is applicable are 
in conformity with the policy set forth in section 
6(a). 

The Executive has in recent years brought an 
ever-increasing proportion of trade-agreement 
concessions, including those contained in earlier 
trade agreements, within the scope of the standard 
escape clause. This has been the case particularly 
since 1947, in connection with the multilateral 
negotiations with respect to the General Agree- 
ment. The original negotiations for this agree- 
ment at Geneva were carried on among 23 coun- 



' A comparal)le escape clause was also in the trade 
agreement with Mexico (1942, art. XI) , which is no longer 
in force. 

* This agreement has been terminated as a result of 
the accession of Peru to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade in October 1951. 

'^ Uruguay has undertaken negotiations for accession to 
the General Agreement, but has not yet acceded. Steps 
have been initiated for the termination of this bilateral 
agreement if Uruguay becomes a contracting party to the 
General Agreement. 



tries.® Subsequently, as a result of negotiations 
completed at Annecy, France, in October 1949 and 
at Torquay, England, in April 1951, 13 additional 
countries ' have acceded to that agreement. 

In connection with the Geneva, Annecy, and 
Torquay negotiatiotis, it has been the consistent 
policy of the United States, in those cases where 
we had earlier bilateral trade agreements, to ar- 
range with the countries concerned for the sus- 
pension or termination of existing bilateral agree- 
ments as these countries became contracting par- 
ties to the General Agreement. Hence, our earlier 
bilateral trade agreement obligations to countries 
becoming contracting parties to the General 
Agreement have been superseded by trade-agree- 
ment obligations to them under the General Agree- 
ment which are subject to the standard escape 
clause. For example, our earlier bilateral trade 
agreements with such important trading countries 
as Canada (1938), the United Kingdom (1938), 
France (1936), Belgium (1935), and the Nether- 
lands (1935) have all been superseded by the 
General Agreement. This has also been the case 
with our bilateral agreements with Brazil, Cuba, 
Finland, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, and Sweden. 

As of January 1, 1952, the United States had 
trade-agreement obligations with 32 ^ countries 
under the General Agreement. The tariff con- 
cessions of the United States to these 32 countries, 
included in its schedules to the General Agree- 
ment, which are subject to the standard escape 
clause in that agreement, include approximately 
85 percent of the import trade of the United 
States. 

The trade agreement with Switzerland, signed 
in 1936, did not originally contain the standard 
escape clause, but on October 13, 1950, it was 
agreed by the two countries that the standard 
escape clause should thereafter be applicable to 
the 1936 agreement. 

In addition to the trade agreements already 
discussed which are in conformity with the policy 
of section 6 (a), the United States was, at the 
time of the enactment of the 1951 Extension Act, 
a party to bilateral trade agreements with six 
other countries as follows: Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Turkey, and Venezuela. 

"Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, 
Chile, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, India, Leba- 
non, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Pakistan, Southern Rhodesia, Syria, Union of South 
Africa, United Kingdom, and United States. 

' Austria, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Finland, Fed- 
eral Repul)lic of Germany, Greece, Haiti, Italy, Liberia, 
Nicaragua, Peru, Sweden, and Turkey. 

' Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, 
Ceylon, Chile, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fin- 
land, France, Federal Reiniblic of Germany, Greece, Haiti, 
India, Indonesia, Italy, Liberia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, South- 
ern Rhodesia, Sweden, Turkey, Union of South Africa, and 
United Kingdom. 



January 28, 1952 



145 



Steps are now under way for the termination ot 
the agreement with Turkey (signed in 1939) fol- 
lowing the accession of that country to the Gen- 
eral Agreement in October 1951. 

In the case of the trade agreement with Vene- 
zuela, which was signed in November 1939, formal 
public notice of intention of this Government to 
negotiate with the Government of Venezuela to 
supi^lement and amend the agreement was given 
on August 29, 1951 (16 F. K. 8868). In these 
negotiations the United States will seek inclusion 
in that agreement of an escape-clause provision 
in conformity witli the policy set forth in section 
6 (a) of the 1951 Extension Act. 

The Interdepartmental Committee on Trade 
Agreements has set up subcommittees with in- 
structions to formulate proposals witli regard to 
the other four agreements — with Ecuador, El Sal- 
vador, Guatemala, and Honduras — in the light of 
the 1951 Extension Act and to report to it by 
March 1, 1952. The tariff concessions made by 
the United States in these four agreements are 
limited almost entirely to products such as ba- 
nanas, coffee, and other tropical specialties which 
are noncompetitive with domestic production. 

APPENDIX 



Escape Clause Provisions 
I — Pbovisions in Executive Orders 
Executive Order 9832, February 25, 1947 : 
"part 1 

"1. There shall be included in every trade agree- 
nient hereafter entered into under the authority 
of said act of June 12, 1934, as amended, a clause 
providing in effect that if, as a result of unforeseen 
developments and of the concession granted by the 
United States on any article in the trade agree- 
ment, such article is being imported in such in- 
creased quantities and under such conditions as 
to cause, or threaten, serious injury to domestic 
producers of like or similar articles, the United 
States shall be free to withdraw the concession, in 
whole or in part, or to modify it, to the extent and 
for such time as may be necessary to prevent such 
injury." (3 CFK, 1947 Supp., p. 127.) 

Executive Order 10004, October 5, 1948 : 

"10. There shall be applicable to each concession 
with respect to an article imported into the United 
States which is granted by the United States in 
any trade agreement hereafter entered into a 
clause providing in effect that if, as a result of 
unforeseen developments and of such concession, 
such article is being imported in such increased 
quantities and under such conditions as to cause 
or threaten serious injury to the domestic industry 
producing like or similar articles, the United 
States shall be free to withdraw the concession, in 



whole or in part, or to modify it, to the extent and 
for such time as may be necessary to prevent such 
injury." (3 CFR, 1948 Supp., p. 231.) 

Executive Order 10082, October 5, 1949 : 

"10. There shall be applicable to each tariff con- 
cession granted, or other obligations incurred, by 
the United States in any trade agreement hereafter 
entered into a clause providing in effect that if, 
as a result of unforeseen developments and of such 
concession or other obligation, any article is being 
imported in such relatively increased quantities 
and under such conditions as to cause or threaten 
serious injury to the domestic industi'y producing 
like or directly competitive articles, the United 
States shall be free to withdraw or modify the con- 
cession, or suspend the other obligation, in whole 
or in part, to the extent and for such time as may 
be necessary to prevent such injury." (3 CFR, 
1949 Supp., p. 127.) 

II — Provisions in Trade Agreements 

Trade Agreement with Argentina, October 14, 
1941: 



a 



article XII 

"1. If the Government of either country should 
consider that any circumstance, or any measure 
adopted by the other Government, even though it 
does not conflict with the terras of this Agreement, 
has the effect of nullifying or impairing any object 
of the Agreement or of prejudicing an industry 
or the commerce of that country, such other Gov- 
ernment shall give sympathetic consideration to 
such representations or projDOsals as may be made 
with a view to effecting a mutually satisfactory 
adjustment of the matter. If no agreement is 
reached with respect to such representations or 
proposals, the Government making them shall be 
free to suspend or terminate this Agreement in 
whole or in part on thirty days' written notice." 
(56 Stat. (pt. 2) 1696, 1697.) 

Trade Agreement with Uruguay, July 21, 1942 : 



fC 



article xn 

"1. If the Government of either country should 
consider that any circumstance, or any measure 
adopted by the other Government, even though it 
does not conflict with the terms of this Agreement, 
has the effect of nullifying or impairing any object 
of the Agreement or of prejudicing an industry 
or the commerce of that country, such other Gov- 
ernment shall give sympathetic consideration to 
such representations or proposals as may be made 
with a view to effecting a mutually satisfactory 
adjustment of the matter. If no agreement is 
readied with respect to such representations or 
proposals, the Government making them shall be 
free to suspend or tei'minate tliis Agreement in 
whole or in part on thirty days' written notice." 
(56 Stat. (pt. 2) 1635.) 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



Trade Agreement with Iran, Api-il 8, 1943: 



u 



ARTICLE IX 

"1. If the Government of either country should 
consider that any circumstance, or any measure 
adopted by the other Government, even though it 
does not conflict with the terms of this Agreement, 
has the effect of nullifying or impairing any ob- 
ject of the Agreement or of prejudicing an indus- 
try or the commerce of that country, such other 
Government shall give sympathetic consideration 
to such written representations or proposals as 
may be made with a view to effecting a mutually 
satisfactory adjustment of the matter. If agree- 
ment is not reached with respect to the matter 
within thirty days after such representations or 
proposals are received, the Government which 
made them shall be free, within fifteen days after 
the expiration of the aforesaid f)eriod of thirty 
days, to terminate this Agreement in whole or in 
part on thirty days' written notice." (58 Stat, 
(pt. 2) 1327.) 

Trade Agreement with Iceland, August 27, 1943 : 

"aKTICLE XII 

"If the Government of either country should 
consider that any circumstance, or any measure 
adopted by the other Government, even thougli 
it does not conflict with the terms of this Agree- 
ment, has the effect of nullifying or impairing 
any object of the Agreement or of prejudicing an 
industry or the commerce of that country, such 
other Government shall give sympathetic con- 
sideration to such written representations or pro- 
posals as may be made with a view to effecting a 
mutually satisfactory adjustment of the matter. 
If agreement is not reached with respect to the 
matter within tliirty days after such represen- 
tations or proposals are received, the Government 
which made them shall be free, within fifteen days 
after the expiration of the aforesaid period of 
thirty days, to terminate this Agreement in whole 
or in part on thirty days' written notice." (57 
Stat. (pt. 2) 1086.) 

Trade Agreement with Paraguay, September 12, 
1946: 

"article XII 

"1. If, as a result of unforeseen developments 
and of the concession granted on any article 
enumerated and described in the Schedules an- 
nexed to this Agreement, such article is being im- 
ported in such increased quantities and under such 
conditions as to cause or threaten serious injury 
to domestic producers of like or similar articles, 
the Government of either country shall be free to 
withdraw the concession, in whole or in part, or 
to modify it to the extent and for such time as 
may be necessary to prevent such injury. Ac- 
cordingly, if the President of the United States 
of America finds as a fact that imports of any 
article enumerated and described in Schedule II 
are entering the United States of America under 



the ciiTumstances specified in the preceding sen- 
tence, he shall determine whether the withdrawal, 
in whole or in part, of the concessions with regard 
to the article, or any modification of the conces- 
sion, by the imposition of quantitative regulations 
or otherwise, is necessary to prevent such injury, 
and he shall, if he finds that the public interest 
will be served thereby, proclaim such finding and 
determination, and on and after the effective date 
specified in such proclamation, and so long as such 
proclamation remains in effect, imports of the 
article into the United States of America shall lie 
subject to the customs treatment so determined to 
be necessary to prevent such injury. Similarly, 
if the Government of the Republic of Paraguay 
finds as a fact that any article enumerated and 
described in Schedule I is being impoi'ted into the 
Republic of Paraguay under the circumstances 
specified, it may, if it finds that the public interest 
will be served thereby, withdraw in whole or in 
part the concession with regard to the article, or 
modify the concession by the miposition of quanti- 
tative regulations or otherwise, to the extent and 
for such time as may be necessary to prevent such 
injury. 

"2. Before the Government of either country 
shall withdraw or modify a concession pursuant 
to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, 
it shall give notice in writing to the Government 
of the other country as far in advance as may be 
practicable and shall afford such other Govern- 
ment an opportunity to consult with it in respect 
of the proposed action; and if agreement with 
respect thereto is not reached the Government 
which proposes to take such action shall, neverthe- 
less, be free to do so and the other Government 
shall be free within thirty days after such action 
is taken to terminate this Agreement in whole or 
in part on thirty days' written notice." (61 Stat, 
(pt. 3) 2700, 2701.) 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, October 
30, 1947 : 

"article XIX 

"EMERGENCY ACTION ON IMPORTS OF PARTICULAR 
PRODUCTS 

"1. (a) If, as a result of unforeseen develop- 
ments and of the effect of the obligations incurred 
by a contracting party under this Agreement, in- 
cluding tariff concessions, any product is being im- 
ported into the territory of that contracting party 
in such increased quantities and under such con- 
ditions as to cause or threaten serious injury to 
domestic producers in that territory of like or 
directly competitive products, the contracting 
party shall be free, in respect of such product, 
and to the extent and for such time as may be 
necessary to prevent or remedy such injury, to sus- 
pend the obligation in whole or in part or to with- 
draw or modify the concession. 

"(b) If any product, which is the subject of a 
concession with respect to a preference, is being 



January 28, 7952 



147 



imported into the territory of a contracting party 
in the circumstances set forth in sub-paragraph 
(a) of this paragraph, so as to cause or threaten 
serious injury to domestic producers of like or 
directly competitive products in the territory of a 
contracting party which receives or received such 
preference, the importing contracting party shall 
be free, if that other contracting party so requests, 
to suspend the relevant obligation in whole or in 
part or to withdraw or modify the concession in 
respect of the product, to the extent and for such 
time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy 
such injury. 

"2. Before any contracting party shall take 
action pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 1 
of this Article, it shall give notice in writing to 
the Contracting Parties as far in advance as may 
be practicable and shall afford the Contracting 
Parties and those contracting parties having a 
substantial interest as exporters of the product 
concerned an opportunity to consult with it in 
respect of the proposed action. When such notice 
is given in relation to a concession with respect to 
a preference, the notice shall name the contracting 
party which has requested the action. In critical 
circumstances, where delay would cause damage 
which it would be difficult to repair, action under 
paragraph 1 of this Article may be taken pro- 
visionally without prior consultation, on the con- 
dition that consultation shall be effected im- 
mediately after taking such action. 

"3. (a) If agreement among the interested con- 
tracting parties with respect to the action is not 
reached, the contracting party which proposes to 
take or continue the action shall, nevertheless, be 
free to do so, and if such action is taken or con- 
tinued, the affected contracting parties shall then 
be free, not later than ninety days after such action 
is taken, to suspend, upon the exiDiration of thirty 
days from the day on which written notice of 
such suspension is received by the Contracting 
Parties, the application to the trade of the con- 
tracting party taking such action, or, in the case 
envisaged in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article, to 
the trade of the contracting party requesting such 
action, of such substantially equivalent obligations 
or concessions under this Agreement the suspen- 
sion of which the Contracting Parties do not 
disapprove. 

"(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub- 
paragraph (a) of this paragraph, where action is 
taken under paragraph 2 of this Article without 
prior consultation and causes or threatens serious 
injury in the territory of a contracting party to 
the domestic producers of products affected by 
the action, that contracting ]5arty shall, where 
delay would cause damage difficult to repair, be 
free to suspend, upon the taking of the action and 
throughout the period of consultation, such obli- 
gations or concessions as may be necessary to pre- 
vent or remedy the injury." (61 Stat. (pt. 5) A58 
to A60.) 



Agreement with Switzerland, October 13, 1950 : 

"1. If, as a result of unforeseen developments 
and of the effect of the obligations incurred by the 
Government of the United States of America or of 
Switzerland under the Trade Agreement signed in 
Washington January 9, 1936, including tariff con- 
cessions, any product is being imported into the 
territory of either country in such relatively in- 
creased quantities and under such conditions as 
to cause or threaten serious injury to the domestic 
industry in that territory producing like or di- 
rectly competitive products, the Government of 
the United States of America or of Switzerland 
shall be free, in respect of such product, and to the 
extent and for such time as may be necessary to 
prevent or remedy such injury, to suspend the 
obligation in whole or in part or to withdraw or 
modify the concession. 

"2. Before the Government of the United States 
or of Switzerland shall take action pursuant to 
the provisions of Paragraph one above, it shall 
give notice in writing to the other Government as 
far in advance as may be practicable and shall 
afford such other Government an opportunity to 
consult with it in respect of the proposed action 
and with respect to such compensatory modifica- 
tions of the Trade Agreement as may be deemed 
appropriate, to the extent practicable maintaining 
the general level of reciprocal and mutually ad- 
vantageous concessions in the Agreement. If 
agreement between the two Governments is not 
reached as a result of such consultation, the Gov- 
ernment which proposes to take the action under 
Paragraph one shall, nevertheless, be free to do 
so and, if such action is taken, the other Govern- 
ment shall be free, not later than ninety days 
after the action has been taken and on thirty days' 
written notice, to suspend the ajiplication to the 
trade of the Government taking action under Para- 
graph one of substantially equivalent obligations 
or concessions under said Trade Agreement. The 
Government taking action under Paragraph one 
shall then be free, within thirty days after such 
suspension takes effect, to terminate said Trade 
Agreement on thirty days' written notice. In 
critical circumstances, where delay would cause 
damage which it would be difficult to repair, action 
under Paragraph one may be taken provisionally 
without prior consultation, under the condition 
that consultation shall be effected immediately 
after taking such action. Where an action taken 
without prior consultation causes or threatens to 
cause serious injury in the territory of the other 
Government to the domestic producers of products 
affected by the action, that Government shall, 
where delay would cause damage difficult to repair, 
be free to suspend, upon the taking of the action 
and throughout the period of consultation, such 
obligations or concessions as may be necessary to 
prevent or remedy the injury." (16 F. R. 11945, 
11946.) 



148 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Recommendation for Further Extension of 1948 Rubber Act 



Message of the President to the Congress ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House January i^] 

On January 14, 1950, pursuant to the provi- 
sions of the Rubber Act of 1948, I transmitted to 
the Congress my recommendations concerning tlie 
synthetic rubber industry in the United States, to- 
gether with a report on the subject from the As- 
sistant to the President. That report inchided a 
history of the synthetic rubber industry, an analy- 
sis of its current status, and a comprehensive re- 
view of the problems of disposal of the Govern- 
ment-owned plants. This message, therefore, is 
limited to consideration of the character and sig- 
nificance of important changes during the past 2 
years. 

Six months after my previous report on syn- 
thetic rubber was prepared, and one day after I 
signed the bill extending the Rubber Act of 1948 
until June 30, 1952, North Korean Communist 
forces crossed the 38th parallel in Korea. Less 
than 6 months later, when these invaders had been 
hurled back, Chinese Communist forces crossed 
into Korea from Manchuria. 

The Communist aggression in Korea has demon- 
strated to the world beyond any doubt the true in- 
tentions of the Soviet leaders, and their willing- 
ness to use armed attack, if necessary, to accom- 
plish their objectives. The Korean invasion has 
made it eminently plain that the entire free world 
lives in the constant danger of further Commu- 
nist aggression. United Nations successes in 
Korea have been great, but the threat of a third 
world war is still very real and very menacing. 

To meet this threat, this Nation, together with 
the other nations allied with us, has undertaken a 
vast preparedness program. This program in- 
volves raising and equipping promptly sufficient 
armed forces to resist aggression if it should come, 
and expanding our mobilization base so that we 
will be able to shift quickly to a full war footing 
if that should prove necessary. This involves, in 
turn, assuring an adequate and unintei-rupted sup- 
ply of the critical materials needed for defense 
production. 

The problem is particularly acute in the case of 
rubber. Most of the world's natural rubber is pro- 



' H. Doc. No. 326. 
January 28, 1952 



duced in Southeast Asia where Communist sub- 
version and sabotage are now a serious problem. 
Communist invasion of these areas is an ever- 
present possibility. 

A stockpile of natural rubber is a partial pro- 
tection against loss of production in these areas. 
I am happy to report that in the past 2 years, de- 
spite Communist activities in rubber-producing 
areas, natural rubber production has been main- 
tained at high levels, and despite soaring world 
demand for rubber, we have made substantial 
progress in accumulating a natural rubber stock- 
pile. Our minimum objectives will soon be met, 
and if international conditions do not worsen, it 
may be possible to begin soon to taper off our 
stockpile purchasing of rubber. 

Our accelerated rate of stockpiling in the past 2 
years has been made possible largely by the ex- 
istence of our synthetic rubber industry. Gov- 
ernment operation of the synthetic rubber plants 
over the past 2 years has been highly successful. 
Total production in Government-owned plants has 
been increased from an annual rate of 270,000 tons 
in January 1950 to a present annual rate of 850,000 
tons, and we should be able to reach 950,000 tons 
within a few months. This is a remarkable record 
and reflects credit both on the Government offi- 
cials directing the program and the private con- 
cerns reactivating and operating the plants for 
the Government. 

In reviewing the Government's synthetic rubber 
activities, it is important to distinguish between 
GR-S, the general purpose rubber used chiefly in 
tires but also in many other products, and butyl, 
a special purpose rubber used primarily in inner 
tubes. 

GR-S was being produced in Government- 
owned plants in January 1950 at an annual rate 
of 217,000 tons. In the spring of 1950, produc- 
tion was increased to meet rising demand, and 
following the Korean invasion, all stand-by facil- 
ities were reactivated and expansions of capacity 
of existing plants were undertaken. At present, 
Government production of GR-S is at an annual 
rate of 770,000 tons, and is expected to rise to an 

149 



annual rate of 860,000 tons by the third quarter 
of this year. 

During most of the past year and a half, be- 
cause of the time required to reactivate stand-by 
facilities, it was not possible to increase production 
fast enough to meet rising demand. In recent 
months, however, production has kept ahead of 
demand and allocation controls over GR-S have 
recently been terminated. It is anticipated that 
production in 1952 will not only meet all do- 
mestic demands but will also provide a substan- 
tial margin for export, thus facilitating stockpile 
purchases of natural rubber. 

Increased costs, particularly the high costs of 
feedstocks produced from alcohol which have been 
required to achieve the present levels of GR-S pro- 
duction, have necessitated increasing the price of 
GR-S from 18i^ cents a pound to 26 cents in or- 
der to operate the GR-S facilities, as a whole, 
without loss. 

Two technological developments have improved 
the ability of GR-S to compete with natural rub- 
ber. First, "cold rubber," a type of GR-S, which 
was a relatively new product 2 years ago, has 
proved to be superior to natural rubber in most 
tire treads. Second, it has been found that low- 
cost oil can be added, as an extender, in the pro- 
duction of GR-S, thus introducing important cost 
savings with no significant change in quality. 
Research investigations now in process promise 
further advances. 

As a result of these technological developments, 
GR-S is in a better position to compete with natu- 
ral rubber than it was 2 years ago. It is still prob- 
able, however, that GR-S could not compete for 
bulk uses with natural rubber offered at sig- 
nificantly lower prices over a considerable period 
of time. 

Butyl production, in January 1950, was at an 
annual rate of 52,000 tons in the two Government- 
owned butyl i^lants. Present production is about 
80,000 tons and capacity of the plants is being 
expanded to an annual rate of 90,000 tons by the 
middle of this year. Because of increased costs, 
the price was increased in December 1950 from 
181/i cents to 203^ cents a pound in order to per- 
mit continued operation without loss. 

Demand for butyl has far exceeded production 
since Korea. This rising demand was the cumu- 
lative result of the high level of production of 
automotive tubes, the high price of natural rub- 
ber relative to butyl, and restrictions on the use 
of natural rubber. Growing recognition of the 
superiority of butyl over natural rubber for inner 
tubes, and the potential usefulness of butyl in 
nontransportation products, indicate that demand 
for butyl will probably continue to exceed capacity 
output of the two plants. 

Research in butyl rubber has been entirely pri- 
vately financed. A number of new applications 
for tliis rubber, now the lowest priced new rub- 
ber available, have been developed. In particu- 

150 



lar, research on all-butyl passenger tires has yield- 
ed vei-y promising results which could result in 
a many-fold increase in demand for butyl. 

The experience of the last 2 years reinforces 
the conclusions of the 1950 report, to the effect 
that butyl is in a strong position to compete with 
natural rubber. 



Recommendations 

The fact of open conflict and the demonstrated 
threat of further aggression, the fact that our 
stockpile goals have not yet been fully met, and 
the fact that we are fully utilizing the available 
capacity for producing synthetic rubber, require 
that we avoid actions which could interfere with 
continued production of synthetic rubber to meet 
all our needs. My recommendations are prepared 
with tliis objective in mind. 

As I pointed out 2 years ago, difficult disposal 
problems result from the large number of plants 
in the GR-S segment of the Government synthetic 
rubber program. The possibility of a need for 
Government support of GR-S for security pur- 
poses in the event of a sharp decline in the price 
of natural rubber creates further problems. The 
1950 report also pointed out that among the main 
advantages of Government ownership are the effi- 
ciencies and economies of operation of the entire 
GR-S industry as an integrated unit. These could 
probably not be fully maintained if the plants 
were owned by a number of independent com- 
panies. Disposal of the GR-S facilities might 
result in occasional losses of production because 
of the loss of coordinated operation of the GR-S 
and feedstock facilities and the loss of the flexi- 
bility of integrated operations. The possibility 
of such losses must be avoided under present cir- 
cumstances, when maximum production is essen- 
tial. 

This factor is not present in the case of the two 
butyl facilities. Each of these facilities is a highly 
integrated plant, and disposal should involve no 
significant interference with plant operation. 

One reason for disposing of the butyl facilities 
is currently more relevant that it was when the 
1950 report was written. As noted above, the de- 
mand for butyl is considerably above the capacity 
of the existing plants. Additional butyl capacity 
would be highly advantageous. Although there 
is nothing in the present law to prevent private 
firms from constructing a butyl plant, they are re- 
luctant to do so when it means entering into com- 
petition with the Government operating on a "no 
profit-no loss" basis. It would obviouslj' be de- 
sirable to create circumstances which would stim- 
ulate private business interests in building addi- 
tional facilities. 

Two years ago I recommended that the Congress 
authorize transfer of the Government's rubber fa- B 
cilities to private ownership and recommended a 
disposal plan. It is still my belief that it would 

Department of State Bulletin 



be in the national interest to have the authority 
to dispose of the synthetic rubber plants. For the 
reasons I have just given, however, and in consid- 
eration of the action taken by the Congress in June 
1950 in extending the Kubber Act of 1948, it is my 
conclusion that disposal of GR-S facilities should 
be temporarily deferred. I therefore recommend 
that the Rubber Act of 1948, with respect to GR^S, 
be extended for another 2 years. With respect 
to butyl, I should like to suggest that the Congi-ess 
give consideration to authorizing disposal of these 
plants according to the general principles out- 
lined in my previous report, and to the tennina- 
tion of authority to require the consiunption of 
butyl rubber. I believe, however, that under 
either alternative — disposal with security safe- 
guards, or continued Government ownership — the 
national security will be fully protected. I have 
been so advised by the Secretary of Defense. 

I have consulted the Chairman and members 
of the National Security Resources Board in the 
preparation of tliis report. 

Harky S. Truman 

The White House, 
January H, 1952. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



International Information 
Administration Established 

[Released to the press January 18'\ 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
uary 18 the establishment of the International In- 
formation Administration to conduct its consoli- 
dated international information and educational 
exchange activities. Wilson Compton, former in- 
dustry executive and former president of tlie State 
College of Washington, was named as the Admin- 
istrator of the new organization. Under the new 
plan the international information operation will 
be given a higher status reflecting the increased 
importance of its work. Its Administrator will 
report directly to the Secretary of State. 

Mr. Compton will assume the operational re- 
sponsibilities for the international information 
and educational exchange programs formerly car- 
ried by tlie Assistant Secretary of State for Public 
Affairs, along with the responsibilities formerly 
carried by the General Manager of these programs. 
The General Managership has recently been filled 
on an acting basis by Thurman L. Barnard, for- 
mer vice president of a major advertising agency, 
who is now undertaking certain overseas inspec- 
tion and evaluation assignments for the Secretary, 
beginning in the Far East. Both Assistant Sec- 
retary Edward W. Barrett and Mr. Barnard 



helped develop the new plan and both recommend- 
ed it to the Secretary of State. 

The purpose of the reorganization is to give the 
foreign information program added impetus by 
setting up its operational head directly under the 
Secretary of State, giving him undivided respon- 
sibility and a clear line of authority over his pro- 
gram from start to finish, while assuring that the 
information program continues to be o^Derated in 
full support of U.S. foreign policy. The Admin- 
istrator will have the complete job of operating 
the foreign information and educational exchange 
program. 

The Department explained that the new plan is 
designed to provide greater operational flexibility 
wliile maintaining close ties between the foreign 
information and educational exchange program 
abroad and foreign policy as a whole. It is in- 
tended to preserve completely tlie essential con- 
nections between the operating information pro- 
gram and those areas of the Department which 
provide intelligence and foreign-policy guidance. 
For this purpose it is planned to keep tlie necessary 
foreign information staffs in each of the regional 
bureaus and to keep the International Information 
Administration completely tied in with the De- 
partment's communications and intelligence 
services. 

The Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs will 
hereafter concentrate on serving as top policy 
adviser to the Secretary on information and psy- 
chological considerations in the foreign-policy 
field and participating in top policy considera- 
tions in the Department. He will have no direct 
operational responsibilities in the international 
field. 

The Department's foreign-information pro- 
gram is based primarily on the Smith-Mundt Act, 
which was passed by (Jongress in 1948. The pro- 
gram has been rapidly expanded in the last year 
following the appropriation in the fall of 1950 
of more money for what the President called a 
"Campaign of Truth." During the current fiscal 
year the program has available $85,000,000 appro- 
priated under Public Law 402, Public Law 584, 
and certain other subsidiary legislation. The De- 
partment also has additional funds for the con- 
struction of radio transmitters at various locations 
in the United States and abroad. 

In addition to the "Voice of America" radio net- 
work, wliich now carries the message of U.S. 
foreign policy to foreign peoples in 46 languages, 
Mr. Compton will head an organization which 
also uses motion pictures, books, pamphlets, ex- 
hibits, educational exchanges, information cen- 
ters, and other media in the fight for peace with 
freedom and resistance to Communist propaganda 
throughout the world. 

Mr. Compton, who was president of Washington 
State College from 1944 to 1951, has had a career 
as a business administrator, economist, lawyer, and 
Government official. 



January 28, 1952 



151 



January 28, 1952 



American Republics 

Copyright experts, meeting of 136 

Asia 

BURMA: Economic Commission for Asia and the 

Far East (Ecafe) . 8th session 136 

JAPAN: Letter on future policy towards China 

(Yoshlda to Dulles) 120 

Mutual Security Agency, organization and ob- 
jectives in the Far East 124 

PALESTINE: U.S. urges continuation of con- 
ciliation efforts, text of resolution .... 129 

Atomic Energy and Conventional Armaments 

Soviet disarmament proposal discussed (Ache- 
son), text of resolution 126 

Collective Security 

Anglo-American unity, address (Churchill) . . 116 

MSA: Organization and objectives in E^irope 

and the Far East 124 

Congress 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: 

Recommendation for further extension of 

Rubber Act (Truman) 149 

Trade agreement escape clauses, report on . . 143 

Copyright 

Meeting of experts of American Republics . . . 136 

Europe 

Draper appointed special representative con- 
cerning MSA program 123 

GREECE: Accession to North Atlantic treaty 

being considered 140 

MSA: Organization and objectives of ... . 124 

TURKEY: Accession to North Atlantic treaty 

being considered 140 

U.K.: 

Agreement on supply of scarce materials, 

joint communique (Truman, Churchill) . 115 
Temporary agreement with U.S. re Atlantic 
Command, joint communique (Truman, 

Churchill) 115 

Unity of U.S. with Britain (Churchill) . . 116 

U.S.S.R.: 

Disarmament proposal, discussion of, by 

Acheson, text of resolution 126 

Soviet resolution on aggression called incon- 
sistent with U.N. Charter, text of resolu- 
tion 131 

Information and Educational Exchange 

International Information Administration es- 
tablished 151 

International Meetings 

Copyright experts, meeting of (Jan. 14, 1952) . 136 

U.S. Delegations: Economic Comm.ission for 

Asia and the Far East (Ecafe) , 8th session . 136 

Mutual Security Agency 

Draper appointed Special Representative in 

Europe concerning Msa program .... 123 

Organization and objectives in Europe and Far 

East 124 

U.S. vote against Soviet resolution on Mutual 

Security Act explained (Mansfield) . . . 128 



Index Vol. XXVI, No. 657 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

Greek and Turkish accession to North Atlantic 

Treaty considered 140 

U.S.-U.K., temporary agreement re Atlantic 
Command reached. Joint communique 

(Truman, Churchill) 115 

Presidential Documents 
MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: 

Recommendation for further extension of 1948 

Rubber Act 149 

Trade agreement escape clauses, report on . . 143 
Refugees and Displaced Persons 
Administration of Displaced Persons Act . . . 121 
State, Department of 

APPOINTMENT: Draper as Special Representa- 
tive in Europe 123 

REORGANIZATION: International Information 

Administration established 151 

RESIGNATION: Spofford as deputy representa- 
tive to Nac 123 

Strategic Materials: 

U.S.-U.K. agreement on supply of scarce ma- 
terials. Joint communique (Truman, 

Churchill) 115 

Trade 

Presidential message to Congress on trade agree- 
ment escape clauses 143 

United Nations 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY: 

Soviet resolution on aggression: Called in- 
consistent with U.N. Charter, text of reso- 
lution 131 

U.S. urges continuation of conciliation of 
Palestine, statement by Jessup and text of 

draft resolution 129 

U.S. vote against Soviet resolution on Mutual 

Security Act explained (Mansfield) . . . 128 
Soviet disarmament proposal, discussion by 

Secretary Acheson and text of resolution . 126 

U.N. bibliography 127 

U.S. in the U.N. (weekly summary) 138 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary Dean 126, 140 

Churchill, Winston 115, 116 

Compton, Wilson 151 

Draper, William H., Jr 123, 124 

Dulles, John Foster 120 

Evans, Luther 136 

Gay, Merrill C 136 

Harriman, W. Averell 124 

L'Heureux, Herve J 121 

Jessup, Philip C 129 

Kotschnig. Walter M 136 

Maktos. John 131 

Mansfield, Mike J 128 

Porter, Paul R 124 

Smith, Rufus Bur 137 

Spofford, Charles M 123 

Truman, President Harry S 115, 149 

Yoshlda, Shigeru 120 



\ 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRIMING OFFICE: 1952 



tJAe/ uleha/Ft^^eni/ .(w t/taie^ 



^ .i .:> ^ , ! rr "6 




WHAT IS POINT FOUR? • Address by Secretary Acheson . 155 

\ 

EXCERPTS FROM THE PRESIDENT'S ECONOMIC 
REPORT AND BUDGET MESSAGE TO THE CONG- 
RESS 179, 182 

THE PARTNERSHIP WHICH MUST NOT FAIL • Address 
by Chester B. Bowles 161 

EUROPE'S PROBLEM OF EXCESS POPULATION • 

By George L. Warren 169 



For index see back cover 




Vol. XXVI, No. 6 
February 4, 1951 



tAE-NX o^ 




•tTES O 



V'*'"' o» 



•m 



;0 1952 



iy/ie zl^e^ict/yCineTvt ^£^ c/^ate 




bulletin 

Vol. XXVI, No. 658 • Publication 4478 
February 4, 1952 



For sale by thp Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Pbice: 

62 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1962). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source wUl be 
appreciated; 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various piloses of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



What Is Point Four? 



Address hy Secretary Acheson '' 



There could be no tribute more fitting to the 
memory of Franklin Delano Koosevelt than this 
program dedicated to the Point Four idea. 

The whole idea of Point Four is one that looks 
toward the future with boldness and imagination, 
as did Franklin Koosevelt. 

Indeed, there are signs that his own thoughts 
were turning in this direction in the last months 
of his life. 

When Franklin Roosevelt was returning from 
Europe on what turned out to be his last voyage, 
one of the matters that preoccupied him was the 
relation between underdeveloped areas and the 
problem of world peace. 

In the course of a press conference on board the 
Quincy, he spoke prophetically of the need for 
helping the people of Iran and the other countries 
of the Middle East with irrigation, reforestation, 
education, and health — the very things we are now 
carrying forward vigorously under the trade- 
mark of Point Four. 

Both in Europe and in Asia, the war was still 
raging, but his mind was already turning to the 
problems of keeping the peace after the guns had 
been stilled. 

These problems, however, were to be the burden 
of another man. Less than 2 months later, the 
awesome resioonsibilities of the Presidency be- 
came the duty of a man whose resolute courage 
and staunch character have led and inspii'ed peo- 
ple everywhere in the cause of world peace — 
Harry S. Truman. 

It was for President Truman to carry on with 
the task begun by President Roosevelt of building 
the United Nations and repairing the destruction 
of that terrible war. 

And to him also fell the task of leading the 
free nations in the resolute defense of their free- 
dom against the renewal of aggression. 

These have been magniticent achievements. 
But there is another that liistoi-y will credit espe- 
cially to the account of President Truman. His 
was the practical imagination that conceived the 
program known throughout the world simply as 
Point Four. 



■ Made before tlie Americans for Democratic Action 
at New Yorli, N. Y., on Jan. 25 and released to the press on 
tlie same date. 



Three Years of Progress 

Today, 3 yeai-s to the month since President 
Truman annoiuiced this "bold, new progi"am" of 
teclmical cooperation, and ly^ years since it went 
into operation, Point Four has become a settled 
part of American foreign policy. 

And although the program is young, it is 
already apparent that Point Four is a success. 

Figures do not reveal the whole story, but they 
give some indication of progress. 

Under the Point Four Program, we now have 
619 American technicians serving in 34 countries, 
and there are 372 people from other countries 
studying techniques here in the United States. 
All told, there are some 216 Point Four projects 
under way in Latin America, Africa, the Middle 
East, and Asia. And side by side with these are 
many other technical-cooperation projects being 
carried on by tlie United Nations, by private agen- 
cies, and by other agencies of our Government. 

But this is primarily a human enterprise we 
are talking about — an exchange of skills and in- 
f orination — and you cannot get the full story from 
statistics. This story has to be told in tenns of 
people. 

One man comes to mind at once. A man who 
called himself "an old Oklahoma dirt farmer," 
became one of the best ambassadors the American 
people ever had. From Azerbaijan to the 
Ganges, people will remember Heni-y Garland 
Bennett as a man who knew how to make tilings 
grow. 

I have elsewhere paid tribute to Mr. Bennett 
and his three associates, who lost their lives last 
month wliile on a Point Four mission in Iran. 
It was a tragic loss. Even the one year in which 
Mr. Bemiett served as Administrator of the Tech- 
nical Cooperation Administration imprinted in- 
delibly upon the program his sound judgment 
and his sense of dedication. 

More than anywhere else, the success of the 
Point Four Program is to be found in the work 
of hundreds of shirt-sleeve diplomats all over the 
world. They are men from our farming states, 
who ride muleback or walk among the farmere 
of other countries. They sift the soil in their 
gnarled and expert hands, and they know how to 
make it support life. 



February 4, 1952 



155 



I speak of such men as Horace Holmes, County 
Agent fi'om Temiessee, who has been worknig 
miracles in India ; and Frank Pinder, of Florida, 
who has walked through most of Liberia like a 
modern Jolinny Appleseed, leaving a trail of 
growing things where he has been. Women, too, 
play a gallant part in this pioneering efforts- 
women like Elizabeth Clark of Jamestown, R. I., 
who has braved tropical heat and the cold of high 
altitudes to teach health and nutrition to villagers 
in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia. 

Now, I have heard some critics paraphrase Vol- 
taire's famous remark, and say that this Point 
Four Program is neither bold nor new, and isn t 
much of a program. 

Of course, American missionaries have been 
carrying medical and agricultural information to 
the world for many years. And even before the 
Point Four Program came along, this Govern- 
ment was doing some of these things in Latin 
America and elsewhere. 

But these Point Four activities have a new sig- 
nificance, which makes them more than unrelated 
good deeds. Under the Point Four Program, 
these activities are but the first steps in a process 
that can change— and is changing— the whole as- 
pect of life in these areas. This process has pro- 
found social and political effects, and that is what 
makes it an important part of our foreign policy 
today. 

For example, the work of Horace Holmes with 
a group of Indian farmers in one small area in 
northern India— not more than 100 square miles 
in size— has been followed by an agreement with 
the Government of India under which that work 
will be multiplied by .50 times. In the small dem- 
onstration area, wheat production had been 
doubled by means that were simple and at hand. 
It is believed that this enlarged program, based 
on that demonstration, will, within 5 years, elim- 
inate the threat of famine from India, and in 10 
years, will double India's present food production. 

This work will be done under a special Indo- 
American Teclmical Cooperation Fund, to be 
jointly financed by the two Governments. The 
fund will make possible the establishment of 50 
i-ural-urban development areas, around river val- 
ley projects and tube wells. 

Each development area will have modern hous- 
ing, good schools, improved health facilities, and 
many industrial opportunities. 

But that isn't all. The chain reaction of eco- 
nomic development, once started, goes far beyond 
the immediate range of Point Four work. The 
work of the fund is only one part of India's new 
5-year economic development plan. Under it, 
India, using the facilities of the Colombo Plan 
and of seven agencies of the United Nations, is 
making a concerted attack on illiteracy and 
disease, and will build roads, dams, power lines, 
factories, hospitals, and schools. 

Here is a program that illustrates the exciting 



possibilities that open up from the small begin- 
nings of the Point Four project. 

Before I leave this discussion of the Indo- 
American Fund, I would like to say a word about 
the man whose great energy and good will con- 
tributed so much to its realization, a,n alumnus 
of the Americans for Democratic Action (Ada), 
our Ambassador to India, Chester Bowles. 

With that limitless energy of his. Ambassador 
Bowles has in 3 months' time covered most of the 
subcontinent by jeep and plane, and has become a 
friendly and familiar figure all over India. His 
grasp of the complex problems of that part of the 
world is a great asset in developing a closer friend- 
ship between India and the United States. 

Fundamental Concepts of Point Four 

Just before Mr. Bennett left on his trip to the 
Middle East, he dictated a memorandum to his 
staff, in which he expressed some concern about 
the misunderstandings that had grown up about 
the nature of the Point Four Program. He had 
intended, on his return, to devote a major speech 
to that subject. 

Since that, sadly, is not possible, I would like to 
discuss with you this evening some fundamentals 
of the Point Four Program as I see them. 

Most people, I think, agree that Point Four is a 
good idea, even if they may not know much about 
how it works. But the program suffers quite as 
much from its friends who think of it' as a cure 
for all the ills of the world, as from its enemies 
who dismiss it as a sentimental give-away notion. 

I think it will help us to support this program 
intelligently if we are very clear about why we are 
doing this Point Four Program, and just what it is 
we want it to do for us. 

Now, why is it we are carrying on this progi'am ? 

First of all, we can clear away several mistaken 
notions. 

It is not philanthropy that motivates us. I 
don't think we need to be embarrassed to admit to 
disinterested idealism. But there is a hard- 
headed self-interest in this program, and other na- 
tions will cooperate with us with more confidence 
if we say bluntly why we are in it. 

Nor is the Point Four Program primarily some- 
thing to beat down the Soviet menace. The Soviet 
threat is very real and dangerous, and the success- 
ful operation of the Point Four Program does help 
to meet it. But this a byproduct; the Program 
has a much more enduring and fundamental pur- 
pose than that, and we should be carrying it for- 
ward even if there were no Soviet threat. 

Finally, although the Point Four Program does 
have the effect of developing overseas marke 
sources of raw materials, even this is not it, 
mary purpose. 

Our reasons, I think, are more basic than 
of these things. 

Point Four, it seems to me, is a fundamei 



156 



Department of State Bufle 



political and philosophical idea. It grows out of 
our whole apjiroach to the problems presented by 
nature to civilization. 

One hundred and seventy years ago, de Creve- 
coeur wrote, in one of his Letters from an Ameri- 
can Farmer : "Americans are the western pilgrims, 
who are carrying along with them that great mass 
of arts, sciences, vigor and industry which began 
long since in the east; they will finish the great 
circle." 

How prophetic those words ! 

The stream of civilization of which we are a 
part is built upon the confidence of man that he 
can harmonize his purposes with the forces of 
nature. 

Not for us the fatalism which accepts natural 
catastrophes as "the will of God," and shrugs 
helplessly before floods, famines, and droughts. 

Not for us the philosophy of conflict, between 
mankind and a brutish nature, or of man against 
man. 

Instead, our society faces the forces of nature 
with a cheerful — perhaps even a cocky — confi- 
dence, bolstered no doubt by the experience of our 
forefathers in pushing across the great plains and 
mountains and forests of this continent not very 
many years ago. 

The experience of the courageous sea captain a 
few weeks ago captured our imagination, not just 
as an act of individual heroism, but as an expres- 
sion of the liscipline of a captain's duty toward his 
ship. Buc our farmers also know a discipline 
toward the land ; and all of us feel the discipline 
we impose upon ourselves of our duty toward our 
country and each other. 

And just as the drama of the sea captain brought 
into play the organized apparatus of society, so 
also does our society organize itself — although 
sometimes belatedly, it is true — to support men 
confronted with floods and droughts and the 
pestilences and vicissitudes of nature. The Tva 
and the Columbia River Development are symbols 
of this attitude. So, too, are the farm credit sys- 
tems, the agricultural experiment stations, the 
farm extension system — and the Point Four 
Program. 

These are not philosophical abstractions I have 
been talking about. These disciplines of society 
sei've a practical political purpose; they are the 
structure and the fabric of our system of respon- 
sible and representative government. 

Now this brings us close to the heart of our real 
interest in the Point Four Program. 

It is our faith — our deepest conviction — that 
representative and responsible government is more 
deeply in accord with man's nature than any other 
system of government. We also believe that repre- 
sentative and responsible governments by their 
nature contribute toward world peace. 

We have an interest, therefore, in the develop- 
ment of representative and responsible govern- 
ments in the world, since it creates an environment 



in which we can live peacefully and continue to 
develop our own society. This is the central jjur- 
pose of our whole foreign policy. 

But the setting in which we operate is a revolu- 
tionary one. We live in a time when two revolu- 
tionary movements have been crisscrossing the 
face of the earth. 

One of these is the revolution of technology, 
which in the nineteenth century, brought indus- 
trialization to Western Europe and North Ameri- 
ca, and is now beginning to stir the countries 
called "underdeveloped." 

The other revolution is represented by our Dec- 
laration of Independence and our Bill of Rights. 
I am speaking of the contagious ideas of liberty, 
justice, and independence expressed in the French 
and American Revolutions just a century and three 
quarters back. This is the ferment we see at work 
today in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and else- 
where in the world. 

It is the juncture of these revolutionary forces 
in the underdeveloped areas of the world that gives 
meaning to the Point Four Program. For the 
new technology gives us not only the insti'uments 
of a better life, but also the means of mass com- 
munication and education by which to transmit 
this knowledge. And if, in so doing, we can help 
people not only to develop the soil, the water, and 
the resources of their lands, but to develop the cul- 
ture that suits them and fits their needs, and to 
fulfill their aspirations for responsible and more 
representative government — then these revolution- 
ary forces can be constructively channeled, and 
contribute to the peace of the world. If not, the 
world will continue to be swept by the rip tides of 
conflict. 



Influence on Underdeveloped Areas 

Now if we look at the Point Four Program with 
these things in mind, a number of interesting con- 
siderations present themselves to us. 

We see that we cannot be indifferent to the social 
impact of our ideas and our science upon the people 
in these parts of the world. The revolutionary 
concepts I have mentioned, and Western educa- 
tion and science have had a powerful and disquiet- 
ing impact upon some sections of the people in the 
so-called backward areas. 

This has been true particularly of urban groups. 
These people — students, teachers, small merchants, 
professionals — although but a small proportion 
of the population, have been most sensitive to the 
impact of Western modernism, and quickest to re- 
spond with heightened expectations. But in the 
rigid social and political structures which prevail 
in most of these areas, these expectations have not 
been readily fulfilled. 

The clash between modernism and traditional- 
ism has been violent. The result has been bitter 
frustration, which has increased discontent and a 
search for radical solutions. 



February 4, 1952 



157 



In some areas, the rural populations, squeezed 
between absentee landlord and money lender, are 
aroused from centuries of passivity by desperation 
and misery. In these areas, they too join in the 
search for radical solutions. 

These are the flames of discontent that feed the 
fires of nationalism. The force of nationalism, as 
we have seen many times in history, can be either a 
constructive or a destructive force. It is capable 
of energizing a whole people to great bursts of 
creative effort. 

But it can also lead to paths of violence, to jin- 
goism, hatred, and totalitarianism. We see this 
happening in some parts of the world today. And 
when this happens, it is not only self-destructive, 
but it jeopardizes the whole fabric of peace in the 
world. 

This creates a complex problem for us in our 
relations with these areas. Our present security, 
in the face of the grave and immediate threat of 
aggression which hangs over the entire woi'ld, re- 
quires the maximum stability possible in these 
areas. But our long-term interests are best served 
if people's aspirations for representative and re- 
sponsible governments are fulfilled in a peaceful 
and orderly fashion. 

This requires of us the kind of wisdom, as Jus- 
tice Brandeis used to say, that leads a man not 
to stand in front of an approaching locomotive. 
For if we allow ourselves to become identified with 
the obstacles to change, in the face of the oncom- 
ing and irrepressible dynamic forces alive in these 
areas, we shall intensify the conflict and alienate 
the people of these countries from our side. 

But if, in our Point Four Program and all other 
activities that affect the underdeveloped areas, we 
seek to encourage and assist the governments of 
these countries to deal responsibly and effectively 
with the asjiirations of the jieople, and by our 
influence and our aid assist in the develo])ment of 
representative institutions — then we shall be serv- 
ing our own ultimate interests and the interests 
of world jjeace. 

Operating Considerations 

This analysis suggests not only a general em- 
phasis in our technical cooperation programs, but 
a number of specific operating considerations. 

One is that we need to give due attention to the 
opportunities open to the urban populations to 
find useful and satisfying application of their 
newly acquired ideas and education. It often 
happens that many from among this group par- 
ticipate as technicians in the programs for rural 
areas, but this has not always been sufficient. 

A second consideration is that, in relation to 
the rural groups, we must be concerned not only 
with techniques of agriculture, but also with the 
relationship of the farmer to the land he tills. 
To make a decent living out of farming, a farmer 
must either own his land or use it under fair con- 



ditions and terms of tenure, and he must in addi- 
tion have access to credit on reasonable terms. 

A third jjoint is that we must continue to stress 
the self-help character of the Point Four Pro- 
gram. Point Four can accomplish a great deal 
for the amount of money it costs, because its chief 
contribution is in the communication of technical 
skills. Recipient countries have put up three out 
of every four dollars expended, on the average, 
and the prime responsibility for financing eco- 
nomic development, on the foundation laid by 
Point Four, rests with the recipient countries. It 
is a sound principle, which has been part of the 
basic conception of Point Four, that the economic 
development to follow upon the technical coop- 
eration programs should in the main be financed 
by private capital. 

The fourth consideration is best expressed by 
Mr. Bennett in the memoi'andnm to which I re- 
ferred earlier. In that memorandum to his staff, 
Mr. Bennett described the Point Four Program as 
"a simple, down-to-eai'th, self-help program de- 
signed primarily to assist other peoples in increas- 
ing their food production, bettering their health 
conditions, and impi'oving their educational sys- 
tems." 

Eighty percent of the Point Four work falls 
into these three categories, of food, health, and 
education. Of these, the mo.st urgent is food. 
The Food and Agriculture Organization has esti- 
mated that it woidd be necessary for the under- 
developed areas to produce by 1960 approximately 
twice as much food as they have been producing 
in recent years in order to achieve a minimum 
adequate standard of living. This goal has been 
the objective of the administrators of the Point 
Four Program, and a point of principal emphasis. 
Progress toward industrialization in these areas, 
as in the United States, will be most effective if it 
rests upon a sound agricultural base. 

There is one final consideration I would like 
to put forth. It grows, I believe, out of all the 
others I have mentioned. The Point Four Pro- 
gram must be regarded as a long-term proposition. 
It is not an overnight miracle drug. It can pro- 
duce results at every step of the way — and the 
encouragement of seeing one year's crop bigger 
than the last is a necessary spur to continued ef- 
fort — but the fundamental results will only be- 
come apparent over a number of years. 

Although I have not referred directly to the 
valuable technical assistance program carried on 
by the United Nations and its agencies, we con- 
sider our participation in that program an essen- 
tial part of our Point Four activities. Support 
for the United Nations' program is central to .the 
United States approach to technical assistance. 
We are proud to have played a leading part in the 
expansion of the United Nations Technical As- 
sistance Program. Our experience has shown the 
wisdom of our intentions to continue to carry out 
these activities, wheiever practicable, through 



158 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



the United Nations and its specialized agencies. 
This not only gives practical meaning to the 
Charters reference to the United Nations as "a 
center for harmonizing the actions of nations," 
but it makes full use of the United Nations' ca- 
pacities for encouraging and assisting peaceful 
and orderly transitions. 

Those are the thoughts I would like to leave 
with you about the Point Four Program. I have 
not sought to cover all aspects of its work, but 
rather to direct your attention to its fundamental 
character, as I see it, and to some of the chal- 
lenging problems it faces. 

This much I think can be said with assurance, 
that if the program continues to receive the stead- 
fast interest and support of the American people, 
it will continue to become an ever more important 
element in our foreign policy. 

What is more, in these simple actions the world 
will find and understand the true meaning of our 
American heritage. 

West Germans Urged To Resist 
Political Lethargy 

by John J. McOloy 

U.S. High Commissioner for Germany ^ 

Here in the southwest corner of Germany, the 
civilizations of France and Germany have always 
been interwoven. In this city, therefore, it is espe- 
cially appropriate for us to honor such French and 
German statesmen as Schuman and Monnet, Ade- 
nauer and Hallstein, whose vision and courage 
have given the free world gi'eat hope. The ratifi- 
cation of the Schuman Plan can become an his- 
torical event of prime importance. We all know, 
however, that France and Germany have more 
than coal and steel to give to the world. Together 
they can nurture and strengthen the roots of civili- 
zation and peace. The University of Freiburg, 
strategically located at the French-German cross- 
roads, has a challenging opportunity to be a center 
of thought and action in the new community of 
Europe. 

Today I would like to discuss briefly the role of 
the University, that is, the role of the student and 
scholar in Germany. 

In a different way and for different reasons you 
stand today at the beginning of an epoch such as 
faced young Americans a hundred years ago. A 
new world was in the making, and new challenges 
faced the young men of the day. New ideas and 
new concepts had to be developed. 

At this moment great opportunities are open to 
German students and German scholars. The 



' Excerpts from an address made before the University 
of Freiburg. Freiburg, Baden, on Jan. 21 and printed from 
telegraphic text. 



Schuman Plan, the European community, the 
coming together of the free world to defend its 
freedom mean that horizons are widening, chances 
are growing. A continent rather than a country 
is your home. But all these opportunities cannot 
be "realized if people assume that all that is needed 
is the vote of parliaments elsewhere or the Bunde- 
stag in Germany. Work, imagination, sacrifice 
on the part of the people will be needed to give 
spirit and life to these new developments. 

Such is the compelling challenge to the Euro- 
pean student and scholar ; to become proficient in 
his chosen profession or work; to recognize his 
obligation to the society in which he lives; to be a 
democratic leader in thought and action. No vil- 
lage is too small, no city too large in which to make 
a contribution to the new community of free men. 

The importance of the participation of every 
citizen in the life of the community may be seen in 
the following example, which takes me into the 
political arena. 

I need not tell you why the outside world watches 
for any evidence of the rebirth of nazism in this 
country. It is my belief that the German people, 
who have also suffered terribly as a result of Nazi 
rule, ought to be in the forefront of those opposed 
to any recrudescence of nazism. 

My office frequently undertakes studies to deter- 
mine the strength of neo-Nazi movements in the 
Bundesrepublik. Our research, I am glad to say, 
suggests that only 13 percent of the German people 
would today support a Nazi-like party or move- 
ment. Of course it is incomprehensible that even 
13 percent of the German people would again 
support such aberrations. Nevertheless this per- 
centage shows there is no immediate threat. 

The real danger, according to our surveys, lies 
in the apathy of millions of men and women in this 
country, in their failure to recognize that they 
must act in defense of their own liberties. Here, 
for example, are some of the results of our surveys : 

(1) Eighty-seven percent of the people ques- 
tioned stated" they would not support a neo-Nazi 
party. That is encouraging. 

(2) But, in order to get at the deeper problem, 
the following question was asked : "Suppose a new 
party — similar to the Nsdap — would try to come 
to power in the Bundesrepublik, what would be 
your attitude toward it?" 

Here are the results : 

Only 20 percent said "I would do everything I 
could to prevent it." Thirty percent: "I would 
not like to see it happen, but I would not do any- 
thing to prevent it." Twenty-three percent: "I 
would not care."' Ten percent : "I would like to 
see that happen, but I would not do anything for 
it." Three percent : "I would welcome it and do 
everything I could to support it." Fourteen per- 
cent expressed no opinion on the matter. 

It strikes me as rather alarming that such a 
sizable part of the population should be so in- 



february 4, 1952 



159 



different to the political structure of their country. 
This is particularly important in Uennany where 
political lethargy in the recent past induced the 
excesses which wrecked this country. Since 1945 
many Germans have said that the personal risks 
during the Hitler years and fear of punishment 
prevented action on their part. Today there are 
no concentration camps in the Bundesrepublik. 
And there is no fear of punishment. Men are free 
to speak and to take a stand; there will be no 
concentration camps, either Nazi or Communist; 
there will be no punishment, Nazi or Communist, 
if every German citizen, now and in the years 
ahead, is active in the defense of his own liberties. 
Nobody in this country should ever again be pre- 
pared to say. "I couldn't do anything about it; 
I was only an ordinary citizen." 

Public opinion surveys are obviously not con- 
clusive about the state of a people's mind. I 
repeat, nevertheless, that not enough Germans are 
alert to resist extremist movements. Much re- 
mains to be done before all of us can be confident 
that democratic habits and tendencies are secure 
in Germany. 

It is a fact that since 1945 there have been some 
strong democratic developments in this country. 
There are outstanding groups, organizations, men 
and women who are working vigorously to 
strengthen the Bundesrepublik as a progressive, 
liberal force in the European community. Part- 
nership in that community gives reason to believe 
that the German people will be in a better posi- 
tion to develop their democratic institutions and 
beat off any attack of repressive forces. But as 
I have said, every student and scholar carries the 
obligation, whoever he is and wherever he may 
be, to play a leading role in this conflict. 



of the Soviet Government was invited on Decem- 
ber 28, 1951 to attend such a meeting on January 
21, 1952.^ On the eve of the proposed meeting 
the Soviet Government sent a reply making the 
attendance of the Soviet Deputy dependent on an 
assurance by the Western Deputies that they 
would agree to discuss certain issues having no 
relation to the conclusion of the Treaty. For 
nearly two years the Soviet Deputy has delayed 
agreement on the Ti'eaty by his insistence upon 
prior consideration of these issues. The situa- 
tion has now been further aggravated by the Soviet 
Government making acceptance of its conditions 
a prerequisite to a meeting. 

The three Deputies regret that the failure of 
the Soviet Deputy to take part in the proposed 
meeting is continuing to delay the conclusion of 
the Austrian Treaty. Persistence of the Soviet 
Government in its present attitude would inevi- 
tably lead to the conclusion that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment is deliberately seeking to obstruct the 
completion of the Austrian Treaty and the res- 
toration of independence to the Austrian people. 

The three Deputies still hope that a Soviet rep- 
resentative will be able to attend a meeting at an 
early date for the purpose of completing the 
Treaty. The chairman remains ready to call a 
meeting of the Deputies as soon as this can be 
mutually agreed. 



New VOA Transmitter 
For Broadcasts to Far East 



[Released to the press January 2^] 



Soviet Tactics Furtiier Delay 
Austrian Treaty Negotiations 

[Released to the press January 25] 

Following is the text of a note from the Secre- 
tary General of the Austrian Treaty Deputies 
delivered to the Soviet Embassy in London on 
January 24, 1952: 

I have the honor to state that I have been re- 
quested by the Deputies for the Austrian Treaty 
of France, the United Kingdom and the United 
States of America to inform you as follows : 

The three Deputies have taken note that the 
Soviet Government wish to give further study to 
their communication of January 19th,i and that 
in the meanwhile a Soviet representative is un- 
ahle to attend a meeting of the Deputies for the 
Austrian Treaty. 

The three Deputies recall that a representative 

160 



The Department of State on January 24 an- 
nounced the selection of Dungeness in the Port 
Angeles area of Washington as the site for a 
7-million dollar short-wave transmitter plant to 
carry the Voice of America across the Pacific and 
into the Far East. 

The new transmitter, when completed in about 
18 months, will give the Voice the most powerful 
radio signal known to exist in the world today. 

The De|5artment plans to construct a sister 
transmitter on the East Coast for broadcasts to 
Europe and Latin America. Announcement of 
the site selected for the East Coast transmitter is 
expected within a few days. 

The two transmitters and the new floating 
transmitter, which has been installed aboard a 
special Coast Guard ship and is expected to be in 
operation next month, will help carry the Govern- 
ment's Campaign of Truth to the most remote 
areas of the world. 



' Not printed here. 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



The Partnership Which Must Not Fail 



hy Chester B. Bowles 
Ambassador to India ^ 



I believe it was Paul Hoffman who once re- 
marked that it was possible to pick up 50 percent 
of the information about a new country during 
the first 3 months of your stay there, but that it 
would take at least 30 years to learn the remaining 
50 percent. 

I've been in India scarcely 3 months and if I 
have 50 percent of the answers about that vast, 
fascinating, and complex country, I am at least on 
schedule. However, I have had a rather rare op- 
portunity to get around India and talk with the 
people as well as the Government officials in New 
Delhi. I've already traveled some 7,000 miles by 
plane and another 1,800 by auto. I've had half a 
dozen very illuminating interviews with Prime 
Minister Nehru and hundreds of roadside con- 
versations with the farmers in the counti-y and 
with the people in the great cities. I suppose I 
have drunk tea in at least 35 village houses. 

I've talked at many of the great Indian univer- 
sities and submitted to some rather grueling ques- 
tion and answer sessions, with Communist-minded 
students often leading the attack. I've had inter- 
esting conversations with all the chiefs of mis- 
sions of the other countries in New Delhi, as well 
as with our American press correspondents, and 
others who have been in India a long, long time. 
I've been out in the field with our American Point 
Four technical assistants who are doing a mag- 
nificent job working hand-in-hand, with our In- 
dian friends, helping them with the many economic 
development programs which I will discuss in a 
few minutes. 

In short, I am going to give you today not only 
my own impressions of India but what I have 
picked up from a great deal of plain dealing 
wherever I have gone. I feel qualified to tell you 
something about the New India — the free nation 
of India — second largest in the world — born 
scarcely 4 years ago, and now working earnestly 
and intelligently to overcome the staggering prob- 
lems, some of which were inlierited after 200 years 
as a colonial possession. 

Free peoples everywhere have a crucial stake 



" Address made before the Hartford Foreign Policy Asso- 
ciation at Hartford, Conn., on Jan. 18 and released to the 
press on the same date. 



in this great enterprise. If it succeeds — if free 
democratic governments meet the test in India — 
new hope and courage will be brought to all the 
hundreds of millions of peoples of Asia. If it 
fails in India and is succeeded by the police state 
methods of communism, the whole of Asia may 
be irretrievably lost, and democracy's position 
tliroughout the world gravely endangered. 

India wants to do its utmost to meet this chal- 
lenge. I have been deeply impressed with the de- 
termination and courage of the Indian people. 
They are a proud people — proud of their great cul- 
ture, their love of peace, their strong family ties. 
They are an independent people. Many of them 
admire much about the civilization which we have 
built up in the "West. Yet they have their own 
ideas as to the kind of life they want to live. They 
appreciate deeply our cooperation and assistance 
in helping them with their economic problems, 
but only if it is offered as one free and equal part- 
ner to another free and equal partner — and with 
no strings attached. 

Let me emphasize that India has been moving 
ahead remarkably fast with her development pro- 
grams even without our assistance. The Indian 
Government, though it has been operating only 
since 1947 and is beset with staggering problems, 
which few other nations have ever faced, is doing 
everything within its powers to establish itself on 
a firm economic and political basis. 

Food is India's overriding problem. In 1943 an 
estimated 3 million people starved to death in one 
province. And so India has launched a five-year 
plan with great emphasis on increased food pro- 
duction. The plan calls for the annual mininmm 
production of 7 million additional tons of food 
by 1956. 

The situation is now critical. In some areas, 
particularly in the South, the monsoons have 
failed for 3 yeare in succession. When you drive 
through this parched area, you see Indian farm- 
ers working from sunup to sundown, drawing 
water up from almost empty wells, bucket by 
bucket, to dump it into primitive irrigation ditches 
so that it can run down and nourish tiny patches 
of cultivated land. With luck an Indian farmer, 
working with his bullock, can haul up 150 10- 



febtuaty 4, 7952 



161 



gallon buckets of water per day— enough to irri- 
gate approximately one-half acre of land, pro- 
vided the well does not dry up. 

Development of Water Resources 

By contrast, a simple tube well, powered with a 
small diesel engine, can irrigate from two to three 
hundred acres. Under India's five-year plan, five 
thousand such needed tube wells are planned. One 
thousand of them are already under construction. 
All of this is part of the general plan to add 15 
million acres of irrigated land to the 50 million 
acres now in existence. That will make 65 million 
acres out of the total 250 million cultivated acres 
for all of India. 

Of course, wells are only one source of water. 
One hundred and thirty-five river projects to pro- 
vide irrigation and power are already under con- 
struction and an additional 122 are awaiting the 
go-ahead signal. Eight of them are large multi- 
purpose river projects that are patterned after our 
own TVA or Boulder Dam. You may be sur- 
prised to learn that India has the biggest river 
valley development program in the world and 
twice" as much irrigated land as any other country. 

One obstacle standing in the way of further cul- 
tivation of Indian land is the tough, destructive 
kans grass, a weed of the sugar cane family with 
very deep roots, which covers 2 million acres of 
land in Central India. Heavy tractors and cut- 
ting equipment, purchased by the Indian Govern- 
ment with a loan financed by the World Bank, are 
hacking away this weed so the land can be cleared 
to produce badly needed food. 

Land reform is another basic problem which the 
Indian people must overcome. Over the years an 
oppressive land system developed under which the 
zamindars, who are hereditary collectors of land 
taxes for the Government, dominated two-thirds 
of the country. In most of India these zamindars 
had a right to set land rentals and to turn a peasant 
off his land in order to collect a higher tax from 
the next occupant. 

This antiquated system has been declared il- 
legal, and in spite of stiff resistance from the well- 
entrenched zamindars, it is now being gradually 
eliminated. Within the next 2 or 3 yeare, tens of 
millions of Indian peasants will be permitted to 
buy their own land or to deal directly with their 
Government for the first time in hundreds of 
years. 

Laws against money lenders have already been 
passed and interest on loans is officially limited to 
a small fraction of what was formerly charged. 
Enforcement is gradually becoming more effective 
and cooperative credit societies are displacing 
the money lenders in some sections. 

A major part of the annual increase in food pro- 
duction is expected to come through better use of 
land which is already being cultivated. The op- 
portunities here are very gi-eat. 



Indian farmers have always made much poorer 
use of fertilizers than do the Chinese. Their seeds 
are often of low quality. Every day billions of 
gallons of water which could vastly increase food 
production on parched lands are flowing un- 
checked to the sea, while in the rainy seasons floods 
take a heavy toll. In many villages farming meth- 
ods remain much as they have been for centuries. 

The new Indian Government is tackling these 
problems to the very limit of its resources. All 
over India, extension work teams are demonstrat- 
ing the spectacular increase in food production 
which is possible through modern plowing, ade- 
quate fertilizer, improved seeds, and better use of 
water facilities. 

One striking demonstration area is located at 
Etawah in Uttar Pradesh. Ninety-seven villages 
with a population of 79,000 men, women, and chil- 
dren covering a total area of some 90,000 acres are 
included in this development. 

With the assistance of Indian agricultural tech- 
nicians of the Uttar Pradesh State, led by Horace 
Holmes, a practical American agriculturist from 
Tennessee, food production has already been in- 
creased by an average of 46 percent, with many 
farms showing increases three or four times 
greater. 

For 2,000 years or longer there has been little 
change in the plow used by the average Indian 
farmer. Indian and American technicians de- 
veloped small turning plows, took them into the 
fields and gave practical demonstrations. A few 
farmers agreed to try the new plow. They com- 
pared the results with the old native methods and 
found that they could plow moi'e land in less time. 
Other farmers followed their lead. Now hun- 
dreds of plows are sold each year through the local 
cooperative. 

Industrial Problems 

India is the most industrialized nation in Asia, 
except for Japan. Industrially, however, it faces 
a long, hard, uphill climb. In the late eighteenth 
century, India possessed technical skills and a level 
of artisanship which compared favorably with 
those of Western Europe. However, industrial 
development was retarded during India's long 
status as a colony. 

Gradually industrial restrictions were relaxed. 
Although today India is the eighth largest in- 
dustrial country in the world, with its vast popu- 
lation of 350,000,000 it should be much higher up 
the list. It produces 1 million tons of steel, yet 
has a present need of 2 million tons. 

Most Indians believe the Government should 
own the railroads, natural resources, communica- 
tions facilities, and perhaps one or two heavy in- 
dustries when private investment is unavailable. 
Other industries would be developed by private 
capital. Yet, the average Indian has a deep- 
seated fear of capitalist exploitation and so far 



162 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Indian Government has not taken snfficient 
steps to encourage jDrivate investment. The old 
style nineteenth-century capitalism, with its 
sweatshoj) wages, disregard t'oi- the health and 
welfare of the workers, and emphasis on specu- 
lative short-term profits is more familiar to many 
Indians than our dynamic, socially conscious 
American private enterprise system. 

However, there are signs that the Government 
of India is modifying its attitude toward foreign 
investments. Recently it guaranteed a new oil 
refinery against nationalization for a minimum 
of 25 years, and offered other inducements. I un- 
derstand additional guarantees are being consid- 
ered for other refineries. 

India faces staggering problems in other fields 
besides agriculture and industry. Only about 15 
percent of the people can read and write, and in 
India there are 11 major languages and more than 
200 minor languages. A determined effort is be- 
ing made to improve the school system in India. 
In one or two areas the literacy rate is now as high 
as 90 percent. 

The life expectancy of the average Indian is less 
than 30 years of age at birth, compared with 67 
in the United States. Yet here again progress is 
being made in stamping out disease and improv- 
ing the public-health facilities in the cities and 
villages. The death rate is only one-half of what 
it was a generation ago and the infant mortality 
rate has been reduced 25 percent. The birth rate 
has fallen off slightly, but not to any appreciable 
extent. The population of India is still increas- 
ing at the rate of several millions per year. An 
Englishman who left India 10 or 15 years ago and 
returned today would find that the population 
had increased by a figure roughly equal to the pop- 
ulation of Great Britain. 

Political Reforms 

The Indian Government has also made progress 
with its political reforms. WHien the British left 
India in 1947 there were nine provinces and 584 
princely states. Although responsible to British 
officials, many of these autocrats held the power 
of life or death over their subjects. The ruler's 
private jjurse was supplied from public revenues. 

Most of these relics of feudalism have now 
ceased to exist. Virtually all of the former 
princely states, covering an area of 588,000 square 
miles, have been merged with each other or with 
nearby provinces or otherwise integrated into 
workable administrative units. The Maharajahs 
have been pensioned at a small fraction of their 
original income. Democratic institutions have 
been established and the citizens of these former 
principalities now elect their administrators in 
free elections. 

It is true, of course, that one of these princely 
states — Kashmir — endangers the security of not 
only India and Pakistan but the entii'e area of 



South Asia. There is no denying the destructive 
influence which this open sore has on the economies 
and policies of both countries. Yet when we con- 
sider the stupendous governmental surgery which 
was required to establish the new India, it is a 
miracle that there were not a dozen Kashmirs. 

The Indian Constitution, under which the pres- 
ent elections are now being held, was modeled 
closely after the Constitution of the United States, 
and other democratic countries. In spite of the 
high rate of illiteracy in India and no previous 
experience in voting procedure, close to 50 per- 
cent of those eligible to vote are going to the polls. 

The Indian judiciai-y is alert and independent, 
and patterned after the Anglo-Saxon tradition of 
common law. 

The caste system has been outlawed by the Con- 
stitution. Eeligious freedom has been established. 
There are 45 million Moslems living in peace 
among the predominantly Hindu population of 
India. 

It is often forgotten that the refugee problem 
resulting from the division of India and Pakistan 
is substantially greater than that which the West- 
ern Allies faced in Germany. Today 9 million 
refugees are receiving reasonably adequate care 
without a penny of help from the International 
Refugee Organization or other foi'eign govern- 
ments. 

Not far from Delhi at a place called Faridabad, 
some 30,000 refugees have built their own new 
town in less than 2 years. They have built homes 
for their families, a 150-bed hospital, and estab- 
lished small industries which provide employ- 
ment for the head of each family. It is expected 
that by April of this year, 20,000 more refugees 
will join this community. The total cost of this 
development project — under 5 million dollars — 
will l)e repaid to the Central Indian Government 
by the refugees themselves within a 25-year 
period. 

Today law and order prevails throughout most 
of India. Communist terrorism has been effec- 
tively suppressed. India has more Communists 
in jail than any other country. There is very little 
banditry and the crime records of India's large 
cities compare favorably with cities in the United 
States. 

Gratitude for U. S. Aid 

I think all of you will agi-ee from this evidence 
I have cited here — and I could go on giving other 
examples for a long time — that India is tackling 
lier problems with determination and foresight. 
Howevei', she needs help and deeply appreciates 
it — provided it comes without strings and from 
one equal partner to another equal partner. 
Wherever I have been in India, people have come 
up to me and expressed their gratitude for the 
loans for grain foods which the United States 
made last year. 



February 4, J 952 



163 



A few weeks ago Prime Minister Nehru and I 
signed a new agreement in New Delhi under terms 
of which the United States will make available 
50 million dollars to help India speed up her 
economic development program through expan- 
sion of the technical-assistance programs already 
in progress and the giving of grants especially in 
the agricultural field.^ India will put up an 
equivalent amount in her local currency. India 
will do most of the work. 

Let me tell you something about this new pro- 
gram. It will fit in perfectly with the five-year- 
plan of the Government of India and will be ad- 
ministered in close cooperation with the Central 
and State Governments in India. It will concen- 
trate on increasing food production. Some 50 de- 
velopment centers will be established in various 
parts of the country, most of them in the vicinity 
of the new river-valley projects which I have al- 
ready mentioned, or near new tube well-develop- 
ments areas. Upwards of 200,000 persons will 
be brought together in each of these centers. They 
will pool their efforts and talents in raising as 
much food as possible, in building their own 
houses and schools, in constructing more modern 
public-health facilities so they guard against 
malaria and other diseases. They are team 
projects with everyone pitching in to do his share. 

Many of these centers will pay their own way. 
Originally they will be financed by Government 
loans, made possible by grants from the 50 million 
dollar fund. However, as the centers develop and 
their productive capacity increases, they will be- 
gin to make repayments on the loans, and when 
the money used in financing one center has been 
paid back, it will be used again for new projects. 

In addition to establishing these cooperative 
centers, teams of technicians — including agricul- 
tural experts, public-health officers, teachers — 
are going out into the Indian villages and help 
the villagers with their problems. Under this 
program it is hoped that 15,000 villages will be 
aided. 

Yet there are some 500,000 villages in India. So 
this is really just a start in tackling the problems 
which lie ahead. This is the kind of program 
which should gather momentum as it begins to roll 
into high gear. "With our assistance, the Indians 
will be able to speed up work on their irrigation 
projects, on digging of more and more tube wells, 
and greatly expanding the number of urban-de- 
velopment centers and village-improvement proj- 
ects. Personally, I'd like to see 100,000 Indian 
villages benefiting from this type of assistance. 

India cannot grow enough food to be self-sup- 
porting for the next 4 years. Faced with the 
choice of importing food to keep her people alive, 
or importing machinery and equipment, the Gov- 
ernment of India will not ignore starvation. I be- 
lieve that in the next 4 years additional quantities 
of grain an d perhaps some commodities on either 

' Bulletin of Jan. 14, 1952, p. 47. 



a loan or grant basis will have to be obtained by 
India. This will make it possible for India to 
use its available funds for the purchase of des- 
perately needed machinery, tools, and equipment. 

Greater productivity in the land is the key to 
the success of the great democratic experiment 
India is making. Tube wells, river-valley devel- 
opment, better farm equipment, improvement in 
the use of the soil will do the job. I believe it is 
in our interest to help India increase food produc- 
tion. I personally believe we should be prepared 
to assist India substantially during the next 4 
years, on a grant or loan basis to assist them in 
getting the most out of their land. 

Why should we concern ourselves with the prob- 
lems of Indian villagers'^ I can suggest many 
reasons. One, because we have a natural desire 
to help all decent people who believe in freedom 
and the dignity of the individual. Two, because 
our forefathers in the early days of our country, 
learned that they could survive only by the good- 
neighborly give-and-take spirit wliich character- 
izes the American tradition. What was true on 
tlie American frontier 2 centuries ago applies to- 
day on the frontiers of the free world. Three, be- 
cause we have learned from experience that tanks 
and machine guns are not the most effective 
weapons in fighting communism. Communism 
has brought a new degree of urgency to the situa- 
tion. Communism got its hold in China on the 
village level. It must be beaten in India on the 
village level by proving that free men working 
together can obtain more of the really good things 
of life than by bowing to rule by force and decree. 

The next 5 years may determine which system — ■ 
free democratic government or Communist dicta- 
torship — proves the more successful. If the In- 
dian economy stagnates while China with its 
brutal methods succeeds in providing even moder- 
ately improved living standards for its masses — 
and whether we like it or not China has already 
made progress in that direction — the Communist 
appeal throughout Asia will become almost irre- 
sistible. Even though the leaders of free nations 
contend that China's gains were achieved only 
through the ruthless destruction of human life 
and human values, this viewpoint will be thrust 
aside by people impatient to improve their own 
situation. 

On the other hand, a victory for democracy in 
India will enable tens of millions of Asiatic peo- 
ples to develop a robust new faith in themselves, 
in tlieir ancient cultures, and in the ideals of the 
free world. 

Trends in Foreign Policy 

We must not allow the natural differences which 
arise between the United States and Indian Gov- 
ernments to obscure the fact that India is defi- 
nitely alined on the side of the free nations. Prime 
Minister Nehru has stated in clear terms that 
India would defend itself against outside aggres- 



164 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



sion. Indians deplore the word "neutralism" as 
applied to their foreign policy. In recent sessions 
of the United Nations General Assembly, India 
voted as the United States did on 38 occasions, 
and differed from the American stand only twice. 
India, like the United States, believes in freedom 
and equality for all nations, for orderly justice, 
and for a world at peace. In its foreign relations 
with its neighbors and the world, India — like the 
United States — believes in the settlement of dis- 
putes in an orderly way. 

Sometimes I believe we Americans often fall 
into the easy rationalization that other nations 
must be either 100 percent for us or 100 percent 
against us. The Indian people do not accejDt the 
theory that they are sinners because they do not 
always agree with our policies. 

I have often been asked about India's attitude 
toward the U.S.S.R. The people of India and 
the Indian Government generally started out, I 
believe, with a veiy sympathetic attitude toward 
the U.S.S.R., going back before the Second World 
War. That was based on the fact that Russia's 
material gains started more or less from scratch — 
the background of an agricultural country increas- 
ing its productivity. 

The disillusionment with the Soviet Union be- 
gan when the Communist Party in India broke 
with the Congress Party on the issue of support- 
ing the United Kingdom in the last war. The 
Communist Party in India was playing the game, 
of course, that they have always played, that what- 
ever is good enough for the Soviet Union is good 
enough for them and they took the position very 
solidly opposing independence, and this caused a 
split and made the Communists distinctly un- 
popular. 

A second factor was the armed Communist re- 
volts taking place in 1947 and 1948 in Travancore 
and Cochin and other parts of India when a great 
many people were killed and there was a great deal 
of violence, and these were put down with great 
violence. 

Today I find that few of the Indian people over 
35 years are pro-Soviet. Some of the young people 
in the colleges and universities are dangerously 
pro-Soviet, and I should estimate the percentage 
runs as high as 40 or 50 percent in some sections. 
However, among the leaders in government there 
are certainly none. They aren't always clear as 
to what the Soviet is trying to do, and they have 
a sort of disillusioned attitude about it. They 
hoped it would be different. They hoped the 
brutality which they admitted was there was just 
a quirk of the Russian temperament and not part 
of the thing itself. They began to appreciate it 
was part of the thing itself, and today I think the 
Soviet Union has slipped sharply in the estima- 
tion of the Indian people. 

Vyshinsky's speech on disarmament, in which 
he said he laughed all night, was quoted in prac- 
tically every paper in India and it was the cause 
of real shock to the people of India. 

February 4, J 952 



The most effective Soviet propaganda in India 
is paper-covered books. The Comnumists have 
an ingenious way of handling them. The Soviet 
Government presents these books to the local 
Communist parties as a gift. The local Commu- 
nist parties then sell them, and in that way they 
finance their local Communist activities, with no 
apparent direct subsidy. All they get is the gift 
of the books which they in turn sell. The Indian 
Government is getting on to that and beginning 
to realize that the Communist opposition is being 
financed by the Soviet Union. 



Relations With Cliina 

The Indian attitude toward China is a very com- 
plex zone. First of all, the Soviet Union has done 
a successful job of trying to convince people all 
through this area that the American people and 
the Western people will not accept the Asian people 
as equals. 

The second point is that both Asia and India 
have been the victim, as they see it, of Western 
exploitation. 

Third, both India and China face huge economic 
difficulties as countries with quite substantial re- 
sources still in a very low agricultural stage of 
development and they feel some community of 
interest in how those problems can be licked. 

Fourth, the Chinese, contrary to the U.S.S.R., 
have handled themselves in India with great skill. 
The cultural delegation which recently came down 
from China was a big success. Their failure lay 
in the fact that although many spoke English 
fluently, none of them would speak English in 
India. One of the members of the delegation had 
studied in the United States, and he had to have 
his views interpreted to his old friends who had 
known him for years, and this was quoted all 
around. 

A fairly typical conversation, of a Chinese dele- 
gate to an Indian in the Government, would run 
something like this : 

Let us not argue about the U.S.S.R. We are not neces- 
sarily in partnership with them. We feel indebted to 
them because they have taken up our cause but you don't 
like them so let us not argue about them and let us not 
argue about America. We have our views. Tou don't 
share all of them. Let us spend our time talking about 
our mutual problems. We are a great Asian nation like 
yourself — the two most heavily populated countries in the 
world. We are trying to solve our problems through a 
people's democracy. 

This approach tells the Indians what they want 
to hear, that China has no designs on India; it 
tells them things they want to hear and they are 
inclined to go along and believe it. 

However, I believe there is a growing disillu- 
sionment in India with China — a gradual growing 
fear of what China has on its mind as far as ag- 
gression is concerned, starting I believe with Tibet. 
There is a great deal of talk about Tibet and fears 
about Tibet. The Indian people are concerned 

165 



about the fact that there are many troops in Tibet — 
many more tlian are needed to hold down a docile 
people. There is concern about the northern 
boundary of Nepal and a great deal of discussion 
on that also. 



Prospects for Success 

Now, in closing, I'm going out on a limb and say 
a bit about the future of India. As most of you 
know I'm an optimist of deep-seated convictions. 
I believe the great test of democratic government 
in India will succeed. On the other hand, 1 recog- 
nize that there are many, many opportunities for 
mistakes. If success is achieved — if free India 
overcomes its problems — the victory will be a vic- 
tory for the Indian people, not for assistance which 
the United States has given and — I hope — will 
continue to give to India. 

If democratic government fails in India, the 
entire free world will suffer a catastrophic set- 
back all through Asia. This set-back will be even 
greater, in my opinion, than that which the free 
world suffered when China was conquered by 
communism. The lesson of China forewarned us 
of what could happen in India. If we can not 
profit from this lesson, the future is dark indeed. 

What can we Americans do to prevent this 
catastrophe? 

First, we must give the Indian peojile a much 
clearer picture of the United States and the Amer- 
ican people. IMost Indians have an unbalanced 
conception of Americans. They often misunder- 
stand and exaggerate racial discrimination in the 
United States. The Cold War often makes it nec- 
essary for us to talk in military terms, in terms 
of world strategy, and this irritates the Indians. 
Furthermore, many of them still believe that the 
Western nations will revert to the policies of the 
nineteenth century colonial period. 

India must see the best in America. We do not 
make friends by boasting of the material com- 
forts and the high standard of living we enjoy. 
Talk of bath tubs, radios, and television sets does 
not make it easier for people in other lands to 
know and like us. 

We have a great democratic tradition. It em- 
bodies the ideas of Jefferson, of Jackson, and Lin- 
coln, Teddy Eoosevelt and Wilson, Franklin 
Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie. One great idea 
runs through the philosophies of these men : — 
every individual is important; governments exist 
for him. He does not live to serve the state. 

We have tried to live by this powerful idea and 
we believe it has served us well. It is important 
to us that India understand that this concept of 
individual freedom is basic in our society. 

We are carrj'ing a tremendous burden in our 
struggle for a free world. We are often uncer- 
tain, and in spirit, I think, we ai-e humble in the 
face of this responsibility. We have made mis- 
takes. We will probably make more. We must 



get across to India our deep and grave concern 
with these problems, our anxiety to preserve demo- 
cratic freedoms as we search for answers. We 
should welcome their help and search out the con- 
tributions they can make in their own way. 

We are making progress with this informa- 
tion work. Most of the kinks in our i)ifonnation 
sei'vice have been ironed out in the last year and 
the information program is now moving alons in 

1 » o to 

high gear. 

Second, we must face up to the fact that we 
must increase aid to India. This will cost money, 
but it is a small fraction of ^hat we spend in the 
rest of the world. 

Third, we must never lose sight of the fact that 
when we deal with India we are dealing with an 
Asiatic country. By shirking the difficult task 
of recognizing India as a ])art of Asia and thus 
refusing to recognize the realities of 1952, the 
free nations will surely alienate all of Asia and 
perhaps even bring about their own downfall. 

The rest depends largely on India. As I said 
before, I'm an optimist. I believe India will meet 
the challenge. The next 5 years may tell the 
story. Everyone who believes in human freedom 
and ultimate dignity of man will be affected by 
the outcome. 



Agreement for Extension of Bahamas 
Proving Ground 

[Released to flic press January 15] 

The United States and the United Kingdom 
on January 15 concluded an agreement for the 
extension of the Bahamas Long Range Proving 
Ground to include the Turks and Caicos Islands, 
a dependency of the Government of Jamaica. 
The agreement was signed on behalf of the United 
States by Secretary Acheson and on behalf of the 
United Kingdom by Sir Oliver Franks, British 
Ambassador at Washington. 

The agreement will permit the United States, 
jointly with the United Kingdom, to establish and 
operate in the Turks and Caicos Islands technical 
and supporting facilities at selected sites which 
are necessary for acquiring data and maintaining 
continuous control of the guided missiles through- 
out their flight. 

The agreement will continue in force for the 
duration of the 1950 Bahamas Long Range Prov- 
ing Ground Agreement, which was for 25 years, 
and likewise authorizes the United States, jointly 
with the United Kingdom, to launch, fly, and land 
guided missiles in the designated lange area, and 
to operate such vessels and aircraft in the area as 
may be necessary for purposes connected directly 
with the operation of the range. 

The missiles to be flight-tested will be unarmed 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



and will carry instruments for measuring missile 
performance, for control of the missile, and for 
destruction of the missile in flight, if necessary 
for reasons of safety. Radar and visual surveil- 
lance will be maintained along the range to deter- 
mine the presence and location of any air or sur- 
face craft in the area. 



Export- Import Bank Loan 
To Bolivian Tungsten Mine 

The Export-Import Bank on January 18 an- 
nounced approval of a loan of $580,000 to Com- 
pagnie Aramayo de Mines en Bolivie to assist in 
financing the expansion of the production of 
tungsten from the Pacuni mine in Bolivia. 

The Pacuni mine has been a producer of 
tungsten for a number of years and has extensive 
ore reserves. The loan will be used in large part 
for the purchase and transportation to Bolivia of 
U.S. mining and milling equipment, and in some 
part to assist in meeting certain other costs of a 
develojjment program at the mine. The mining 
company also will make a substantial further in- 
vestment from its own funds in order to increase 
the rate at which it will produce tungsten 
concentrates. 

The borrower has agreed to sell to the United 
States Emergency Procurement Service the tung- 
sten it will produce in 1952-54 so as to increase 
the U.S. supply of this strategic cormnodity. 

The terms of the credit require that, if not pre- 
viously liquidated by prepayment resulting from 
shipments to the Emergency Procurement Service, 
repayment of principal will be made in three semi- 
annual installments beginning in December 1953 
with interest at the rate of 5 percent per annum 
on outstanding balances payable semiannually. 



Point Four Agreement: Michigan 
State and Colombian Colleges 

On January 22 the Department of State an- 
nounced that a Point Four agreement had been 
completed by an exchange of notes between the 
Colombia Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the 
United States Embassy at Bogota for a long-term 
cooperation between Michigan State College and 
two agricultural colleges in Colombia — the Fa- 
cultad Nacional de Agronomia at Medellin and the 
Facultad de Agronomia del Valle at Palmira. The 
Department of State and the Department of Agri- 
culture are assisting in the project. 

Paul Herbert, head of the Department of For- 
estry at Michigan State, is already in Medellin on 
a short-term assignment to help the Facultad 



Nacional de Agronomia organize a forestry de- 
partment. Seven other Michigan State staff mem- 
bers left East Lansing last week with their fami- 
lies, to take the long-term assignment. They will 
arrive at the Colombian colleges in time to be ready 
for the opening of the school year there February 
6. They will work with the local staffs to develop 
stronger curricula and strengthen subject-matter 
departments. In addition, they will teach in the 
colleges and will work with nearby experiment 
stations. 

Previous to the development of this agreement. 
President John A. Hannah, Dean Ernest L. An- 
thony of the Michigan State College School of 
Agricultiire, and J. Dennett Guthrie of the Office 
of Foreign Agricultural Relations, visited the 
Colombian colleges in September. Staff and 
equipment needs were agreed upon at that time. 
Dean Carlos Madrid and Dean Guillermo Ramirez 
visited East Lansing and Washington last 
November. 



Latin American Mechanics 
To Receive Training in U. S. 

[Released, to the press January 21'\ 

Training for 60 mechanics from Central and 
South America will be provided in the United 
States through Point Four funds under agree- 
ments between the Technical Cooperation Admin- 
istration and 10 Latin American Republics, the 
Department of State announced on January 21. 

The students will be trained in auto-diesel me- 
chanics and welding at the Nashville Auto-Diesel 
College, of Nashville, Tenn. Ten of the selected 
trainees will come from Mexico, ten from Colom- 
bia and five each from Honduras, Costa Rica, El 
Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Ecuador, Cuba, 
and the Dominican Republic. The cost will be 
$150,000 and will be borne by Point Four as a 
part of its program of education and training. 

Students are expected to begin classes about the 
middle of March. The first class will consist of 
20 mechanics. Two similar classes will begin 
studies 10 days or 2 weeks later. 

Arrangements have been made for the students 
to live in private homes in N'ashville to aid them 
in their study of English and to give them an 
insight into the manner in which an American 
family lives. Plans also include employment 
each Saturday in private garages and machine 
shops to give the students practical experience. 
Side trips will be conducted to industrial centers 
to round out the training. The expenses of these 
trips will be paid either by the student's home 
country or by the student himself out of his earn- 
ings during the 42 weeks which constitute the 
technical and practical training. 



February 4, J 952 



167 



Once they have completed their training, the 
mechanics will return to their homes and will 
assist in the local instruction of other mechanics 
without the necessity of their traveling to the 
United States. The scarcity of skilled mechanics 
is great in many of the Latin American countries, 
and Point Four is helping to supply the need 
through such programs as this. 



Eric Johnston Named Chairman 
Of Development Advisory Board 

Following is the text of the letter of acceptance 
sent hy Eric A. Johnston to President Truman 
in anstoer to the latter''s request for his services 
as Chairman of the International Development 
Advisory Board: ^ 

My dear Mr. President : As your request that 
I accept the chairmanship of the International 
Development Advisory Board comes on tlie heels 
of ten months of government service, I wanted to 
consult with the board of directors of the Motion 
Picture Association of America before making my 
decision. I am pleased to tell you that, with the 
approval of the board, I accept this challenging 
assignment.^ 

I agree with you that the Point Four program 
embodies all those things that we stand for in 
America, and all those things that we seek to 
achieve as a leader in the free world. 

We are strong at home for the reason that we 
have come a long way in narrowing the economic 
gaps in our society. This has come about througli 
constantly expanding production in all lines by 
the closest cooperation among our jjeople. We 
have given reality to the ideal of partnership in 
its truest sense. 

I like to tliink that America's role in world 
leadership lies in extending this partnership ideal. 
This is not to propose that we remake the world in 
our own image. Rather it is to suggest that we 
help other free countries help themselves in be- 
corning strong and self-sustaining members of the 
society of nations. 

It is a tragic fact tliat in the world today two- 
thirds of the people still engage in the ageless 
struggle against poverty and want. The gap be- 
tween well-being and want is still too wide in too 
many lands to give the free world the solid foun- 
dation of economic strength it must have to 
survive. 

The Point Four program is the greatest con- 

' Released to the press by the "White House on Jan. 23. 
For text of Mr. Truman's letter to Mr. Johnston, see 
White House release of the same date. 

''For text of Executive Order 101.59, which called for 
establishment of the International Development Advisory 
Board, see Bulletin of Sept. 25, 1950, p. 499. 



tribution we can make to narrowing these gaps. 
As a businessman I regard it as a far-sightfid and 
prudent investment. It gives a hand to those 
who are willing to use their own. 

It gives a hand in two ways : 

By sharing our tecluiiques, our genius in pro- 
duction and our store of knowledge ; 

By making it possible for private American 
capital to make investments or to enter into work- 
ing partnerships with local capital on an equitable 
basis. 

This concept offers the widest opportunities 
for lasting good at minimum expense to the tax- 
payer. It takes account of the fact that economic 
strength springs from self-reliance and self- 
support. And it recognizes that essentially the 
job of each nation in developing its resources and 
expanding its productivity must be done within 
by its own efforts. 

Tliese are the convictions, Mr. President, that 
prompt me to accept the chairmanslup. I appre- 
ciate the confidence you have shown in me by 
asking me to take this post. 



Military Assistance Negotiations 

The following negotiations are being conducted 
under the terms of the Mutual Security Act of 
19S1, which authorized a program of m,ilitary 
grant aid for Latin America: 

Ecuador 

The Departments of State and Defense an- 
nounced on January 15 that negotiations are being 
initiated on that date at Quito with the Govern- 
ment of Ecuador looking to the conclusion of a 
bilateral military-assistance agreement. The 
American Ambassador at Quito, Paul C. Daniels, 
is being assisted by representatives of the Depart- 
ment of Defense in the negotiations. 

Chile 

The Departments of State and Defense an- 
nounced on January 20 that negotiations were 
being initiated on that date in Santiago with the 
Government of Chile looking to the conclusion of 
a bilateral military-assistance agreement. The 
American Ambassador at Santiago, Claude G. 
Bowers, is being assisted by representatives of the 
DejJartment of Defense in the negotiations. 

Coloinhia 

The Departments of State and Defense have 
announced that negotiations were initiated on 
January 21 at Bogota with the Government of 
Colombia looking to the conclusion of a bilateral 
military-assistance agreement. 

The American Ambassador at Bogota, Capus 
M. Waynick, is being assisted by representatives 
of the DejDartment ot Defense in the negotiations. 



168 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Europe's Problem of Excess Population 



CONFERENCE AT BRUSSELS ON MIGRATION AND COMMITTEE 
FOR MOVEMENT OF MIGRANTS FROM EUROPE 



ty George L. Warren 



Tlie Conference on Migration, convened by the 
Belgian Government at the suggestion of the U.S. 
Government, met in Brussels from November 26 
through December 5, 1951. The Provisional In- 
tergovernmental Committee for the IMovement of 
Migrants from Europe, established by decision of 
the Conference on Migration, held its first session 
for the purposes of organization at Brussels from 
December (J through December 8, 1951. 

The initiative of the U.S. Government in sug- 
gesting the holding of the Conference on Migra- 
tion was based on specific acts of Congress. Sec- 
tion 16 of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as 
amended (P. L. 555, 81st Cong.), authorized the 
U.S. Government to participate in an interna- 
tional conference to develop ways of alleviating 
the problems of excess population in certain coun- 
tries in Europe. At the time of the convening of 
the Conference on Migration it appeared that upon 
the termination of operations by the International 
Eefugee Organization (Iro) on December 31, 
1951, there would remain in Europe some 25,000 
ethnic Germans eligible for admission to the 
United States under section 12 of the Act, with- 
out the means of transport. Section 115 (e) of 
the EcA Act of 1948, as amended (P. L. 535, 81st 
Cong.), directed the Eca Administrator to en- 
courage the emigration of surplus manpower from 
participating countries to areas where such man- 
power could be effectively utilized. The Mutual 
Security Act of 1951 (P. L. 165, 82d Cong.) in 
section 101 (a) (2) authorized the expenditure of 
funds up to $10,000,000 to effectuate the principles 
set forth in section 115 (e) of the Eca Act of 1948, 
as amended. The appropriations legislation 
(P. L. 249, 82d Cong., 1st sess.), under the Mutual 
Security Act of 1951, earmarked $10,000,000 to be 
used specifically for migration purposes. 

In order to implement the foregoing acts of Con- 
February 4, 1952 

985438—52 3 



gress, the Department invited the Belgian Gov- 
ernment, and the Belgian Government accepted, 
to convene a Conference on Migration at Brussels 
on November 26, 1951. Out of a total of 34 gov- 
ernments invited by the Belgian Government to 
attend the Conference, 27 governments listed be- 
low were represented at Brussels — 19 as full par- 
ticipants, and 8 as observers ; 

Oovemments represented as full participants 

Australia Greece 

Austria Italy 

Belgium Luxembourg 

Bolivia Netherlands 

Brazil Switzerland 

Canada Turkey 

Chile United Kingdom 

Colombia United States 

France Venezuela 
German Federal Republic 

Governments represented, l)y observers 

Argentina Norway 

Denmark Paraguay 

Guatemala Peru 

Israel Sweden 

The remaining countries which either declined the 
invitation, did not reply, or reported they were 
unable to send representatives were Ecuador, El 
Salvador, Panama, Portugal, New Zealand, Union 
of South Africa, and Uruguay. 

Observers 
I'^nited Nations 
Holy See 

International Lalior Organization 
International Refugee Organization 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees 
Council of Europe 

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
International Confederation of Christian Trade Unions 
Standing Conference of Voluntary Agencies 
International Social Service 



169 



The Conference was opened by a welcoming ad- 
dress by Joseph Meurice, Minister of Foreign 
Trade in the Belgian Government, replacing Paul 
van Zeeland, Minister for Foreign Affairs, who 
was temporarily absent from Brussels. Franz 
Leemans, counselor of the Belgian Government 
and representative of Belgian at the Conference, 
was unanimously elected chairman and served in 
this capacity throughout the Conference and the 
first session of the Provisional Intergovernmental 
Committee for the Movement of Migi-ants from 
Europe. Count Giusti del Giardino of Italy was 
elected first Vice-Chairman; Ambassador A. de 
Souza Filho of Brazil, second Vice-Chairman ; and 
Dr. von Trutzschler of the German Federal Re- 
public, Rapporteur. Roswell D. McClelland of 
the Office of European Affairs, Department of 
State, served as secretary of the Conference and of 
the Provisional Committee. 

At the opening session on November 26, 1951, 
the U.S. representative presented a plan for the 
establishment of a provisional intergovernmental 
committee on migration to facilitate the move- 
ment of migrants from Europe. This plan pro- 
posed that 12 ships to be relinquished by the Iro 
on December 31, 1951, be taken over to move dur- 
ing one year of operations approximately 115,000 
persons wlio would not otherwise be moved from 
Germany, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, and 
Greece to countries of immigration overseas at an 
overall estimated cost of approximately 
$31,000,000. The United States would contribute 
$10,000,000 of this sum, provided a total budget 
of approximately that proposed was adopted. It 
was suggested that membership in the Committee 
be open to governments committed to the princi- 
ple of the free movement of persons under estab- 
lished emigration and immigration laws and that 
each member as a matter of obligation contribute 
an agreed share to the administrative expenses of 
approximately $3,000,000. Contributions to the 
operating fund would be voluntary. Of the U.S. 
contribution, approximately $1,000,000 would be 
allocated to the administrative expenses and 
$9,000,000 to the operating fund, which was set 
at $14,000,000. 

The general discussion following presentation 
of the U.S. proposal indicated virtually unani- 
mous acceptance of the proposal in principle. 
Some representatives expressed disappointment at 
the limited number of migrants and refugees to 
be moved. There was general agi-eement that the 
proposed organization should be provisional, flex- 
ible in character and temporary, that its admin- 
istrative expenses should be held to a minimum, 
and that the maximum of the resources made avail- 
able should be allocated to operations. There 
was also unanimous agreement that refugees 
should be included among the persons to be moved. 
Questions were raised as to the necessity for utiliz- 
ing the Ieo ships in the proposed movement on the 
ground that commercial shipping might prove ade- 



quate for the purpose. The draft resolution pro- 
posed by the U.S. representative was criticized 
sympathetically by some representatives because 
it failed to reflect in its text proper balance be- 
tween the interests of emigration and immigra- 
tion countries. The basic elements of the plan, 
however, received general acceptance and were 
considered well suited to meet the current require- 
ments of emigration and immigration countries 
with respect to migration. 

Questions were raised as to the working rela- 
tionships between the proposed Committee and 
other internati